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1

Novel thigmomorphogenetic responses in Carica papaya: touch decreases anthocyanin levels and stimulates petiole cork outgrowths  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Because of its rapid growth rate, relative ease of transformation, sequenced genome and low gene number relative to Arabidopsis, the tropical fruit tree, Carica papaya, can serve as a complementary genetic model for complex traits. Here, new phenotypes and touch-regulated gene homologues have been identified that can be used to advance the understanding of thigmomorphogenesis, a multigenic response involving mechanoreception and morphological change. Methods Morphological alterations were quantified, and microscopy of tissue was conducted. Assays for hypocotyl anthocyanins, lignin and chlorophyll were performed, and predicted genes from C. papaya were compared with Arabidopsis touch-inducible (TCH) and Mechanosensitive channel of Small conductance-like genes (MscS-like or MSL). In addition, the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues was characterized. Key Results On the abaxial side of petioles, treated plants were found to have novel, hypertrophic outgrowths associated with periderm and suberin. Touched plants also had higher lignin, dramatically less hypocotyl anthocyanins and chlorophyll, increased hypocotyl diameter, and decreased leaf width, stem length and root fresh weight. Papaya was found to have fewer MSL genes than Arabidopsis, and four touch-regulated genes in Arabidopsis had no counterparts in papaya. Water-spray treatment was found to enhance the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues whereas induction following touch was only slightly correlated. Conclusions The novel petiole outgrowths caused by non-wounding, mechanical perturbation may be the result of hardening mechanisms, including added lignin, providing resistance against petiole movement. Inhibition of anthocyanin accumulation following touch, a new phenotypic association, may be caused by diversion of p-coumaroyl CoA away from chalcone synthase for lignin synthesis. The absence of MSL and touch-gene homologues indicates that papaya may have a smaller set of touch-regulated genes. The genes and novel touch-regulated phenotypes identified here will contribute to a more comprehensive view of thigmomorphogenesis in plants. PMID:19182220

Porter, Brad W.; Zhu, Yun J.; Webb, David T.; Christopher, David A.

2009-01-01

2

Papaya  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya is a tropical crop that is widely grown in household gardens and also commercially in plantations. However, papaya production has been severely limited by papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), the most widespread and damaging virus that affects papaya. In Hawaii, PRSV had been present since the 194...

3

PAPAYA (CARICA PAPAYA L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transgenic papaya plants were initially obtained using particle bombardment, a method having a poor efficiency in producing intact, single copy insertion of transgenes. Subsequently, transformation has been improved using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. With rapid progress being made in genome sequencing...

4

Papaya nutritional analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papayas are sweet, flavorful tropical fruit, rich in vitamin C and carotenoids. Multiple interactions among preharvest environmental conditions, genetics, and physiology determine papaya nutritional composition at harvest. Selecting a cultivar with the genetic potential for high nutrient content and...

5

Touch Affordances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The workshop “Touch Affordances” addresses a concept relevant to human computer interactions based on touch. The main topic is the challenge of applying the notion of affordances to domains related to touch interactions (e.g. (multi)touch screens, RFID & NFC, ubiquitous interfaces). The goals of this workshop are to launch a community of researchers, designers, etc. interested in this topic, to create a common understanding of the field of touch affordances and to generate ideas for new research areas for intuitive touch interactions. The workshop will be highly interactive and will have a creative, generative character.

Slegers, Karin; de Roeck, Dries; Arnall, Timo

6

The Crop of the DayThe Crop of the Day Papaya (Papaya (Carica papayaCarica papaya))  

E-print Network

;2 Papaya, its uses Grown in tropics, Hawaii as food: fresh fruit vegetable: cooked fruit (in Peru, also fibreboard cartons lined with low density polyethylene film, storage period of mature fruits is 3 weeks at 10Carica papaya. papaya. EuphyticaEuphytica 153:215153:215220.220.53 553 5 Mark's Fruit Crops: Papaya: Mark

Gepts, Paul

7

Assaying for pollen drift from transgenic Rainbow to nontransgenic Kapoho papaya under commercial and experimental field conditions in Hawaii  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 1992 papaya ringpsot virus (PRSV) was discovered in Puna district of Hawaii Island where 95% of the state of Hawaii’s papaya was being grown. By 1998 production in Puna had decreased 50% from 1998 levels. A PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya ‘Rainbow’ expressing the coat protein gene of PRSV was ...

8

CONTROL OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS IN PAPAYA: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The papaya crop is severely affected by papaya ringspot virus (PSRV) world- wide. This review focuses on efforts to control the destructiveness of the dis- ease caused by PSRV in Hawaii, starting from the use of cross protection to parasite-derived resistance with transgenic papaya expressing the PSRV coat pro- tein gene. A chronology of the research effort is given and

Dennis Gonsalves

1998-01-01

9

Post-irradiation identification of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impact of radiation processing on the volatile essential oil profile of papaya ( Carica papaya) was investigated. Gamma-radiation processing resulted in the appearance of a new peak in the GLC profile that was identified as phenol. The observed dose dependent increase in phenol content suggested possible use of this compound as a marker for radiation processed papaya.

Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

2012-03-01

10

Functional Genomics Tools for Papaya  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

With the genome of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sequenced, the study of gene function is becoming an increasing priority. Our research is to develop an RNA-induced gene silencing tool for the study of functional genomics in papaya. We employed agrobacterium leaf infiltration to induce PTGS in '-glucuro...

11

Papaya: environment and crop physiology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of how papaya responds to environmental factors provides a scientific basis for the development of management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. A better understanding of genotyp...

12

Carica papaya MicroRNAs Are Responsive to Papaya meleira virus Infection  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs are implicated in the response to biotic stresses. Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of sticky disease, a commercially important pathology in papaya for which there are currently no resistant varieties. PMeV has a number of unusual features, such as residence in the laticifers of infected plants, and the response of the papaya to PMeV infection is not well understood. The protein levels of 20S proteasome subunits increase during PMeV infection, suggesting that proteolysis could be an important aspect of the plant defense response mechanism. To date, 10,598 plant microRNAs have been identified in the Plant miRNAs Database, but only two, miR162 and miR403, are from papaya. In this study, known plant microRNA sequences were used to search for potential microRNAs in the papaya genome. A total of 462 microRNAs, representing 72 microRNA families, were identified. The expression of 11 microRNAs, whose targets are involved in 20S and 26S proteasomal degradation and in other stress response pathways, was compared by real-time PCR in healthy and infected papaya leaf tissue. We found that the expression of miRNAs involved in proteasomal degradation increased in response to very low levels of PMeV titre and decreased as the viral titre increased. In contrast, miRNAs implicated in the plant response to biotic stress decreased their expression at very low level of PMeV and increased at high PMeV levels. Corroborating with this results, analysed target genes for this miRNAs had their expression modulated in a dependent manner. This study represents a comprehensive identification of conserved miRNAs inpapaya. The data presented here might help to complement the available molecular and genomic tools for the study of papaya. The differential expression of some miRNAs and identifying their target genes will be helpful for understanding the regulation and interaction of PMeV and papaya. PMID:25072834

Abreu, Paolla M. V.; Gaspar, Clicia G.; Buss, David S.; Ventura, José A.; Ferreira, Paulo C. G.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

2014-01-01

13

Papaya ringspot virus (Potyviridae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya ringspot virus, a member of the family Potyviridae, is single stranded RNA plant virus with a monocistronic genome of about 10,326 nucleotides that is expressed via a large polyprotein subsequently cleaved into functional proteins. It causes severe damage on cucurbit crops such as squash and...

14

Spiders associated with papaya, Carica papaya L., in Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The main objective of this work was to study the species composition and population dynamics of spiders associated with papaya plantings in three papaya production areas: Corozal, Isabela, and Lajas, Puerto Rico. Nineteen species representing seven families and 15 genera were identified. Members of ...

15

Molecular markers for sex determination in papaya ( Carica papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed molecular markers tightly linked to Sex1, the gene that determines plant sex in papaya (Carica papaya L.). Three RAPD products have been cloned and a portion of their DNA sequenced. Based on these sequences SCAR primers were synthesized. SCAR T12 and SCAR W11 produce products in hermaphrodite and male plants and only rarely in females. SCAR T1

J. C. Deputy; R. Ming; H. Ma; Z. Liu; M. M. M. Fitch; M. Wang; R. Manshardt; J. I. Stiles

2002-01-01

16

DEREGULATION OF TRANSGENIC PAPAYA FOR JAPAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The transgenic SunUp and Rainbow papaya developed for Hawaii was commercialized in 1998 and virtually saved Hawaii’s papaya industry from further damage being caused by papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Since Japan makes up a significant part (about 35% in 1992) in Hawaii’s papaya export market, effort...

17

Touch sense  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous mechanoreceptors are localized in the various layers of the skin where they detect a wide range of mechanical stimuli, including light brush, stretch, vibration and noxious pressure. This variety of stimuli is matched by a diverse array of specialized mechanoreceptors that respond to cutaneous deformation in a specific way and relay these stimuli to higher brain structures. Studies across mechanoreceptors and genetically tractable sensory nerve endings are beginning to uncover touch sensation mechanisms. Work in this field has provided researchers with a more thorough understanding of the circuit organization underlying the perception of touch. Novel ion channels have emerged as candidates for transduction molecules and properties of mechanically gated currents improved our understanding of the mechanisms of adaptation to tactile stimuli. This review highlights the progress made in characterizing functional properties of mechanoreceptors in hairy and glabrous skin and ion channels that detect mechanical inputs and shape mechanoreceptor adaptation. PMID:23146937

Roudaut, Yann; Lonigro, Aurélie; Coste, Bertrand; Hao, Jizhe; Delmas, Patrick; Crest, Marcel

2012-01-01

18

Biogasification of papaya processing wastes  

SciTech Connect

Biogasification of papaya processing wastes for pollution control and energy utilization is feasible. The biogasification process with sludge recycling permits smaller reactor volume without any deterioration of CH4 production rate and CH4 content. Appropriate design and operational criteria for biogasification processing of papaya wastes were developed.

Yang, P.Y.; Weitzenhoff, M.H.; Moy, J.H.

1984-01-01

19

TRANSGENIC PAPAYA: A CASE FOR MANAGING RISKS OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS IN HAWAII  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In May 1992, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV was detected in the Puna district of Hawaii Island, the main papaya growing region of the state of Hawaii. By 1994 Hawaii's papaya industry was facing devastating damage from PRSV. Efforts to develop resistant transgenic papaya were started in the mid 1980s...

20

TRANSGENIC PAPAYA: A CASE FOR WORLDWIDE CONTROL OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was detected in the main papaya growing region of Hawaii in 1992. By 1994 Hawaii's papaya industry was facing devastating damage from PRSV. Efforts to develop resistant transgenic papaya were started in the mid 1980s. By 1991, a resistant line was identified, field tri...

21

_____________ Augmentative releases ofpredatory mites on papaya in Hawaii 167 AUGMENTATIVE RELEASES OF PREDATORY MITES ON PAPAYA  

E-print Network

_____________ Augmentative releases ofpredatory mites on papaya in Hawaii 167 AUGMENTATIVE RELEASES OF PREDATORY MITES ON PAPAYA IN HAWAII: FAILURE AND SUCCESS V. Fournier,1,2 J.A. Rosenheirn," M.W. Iohnson on outdoor crops (Olkin and Shaw, 1995;Walsh et ai., 1998). Native to Central America, papaya (Carica papaya

Rosenheim, Jay A.

22

Pain relief by touch: a quantitative approach.  

PubMed

Pain relief by touch has been studied for decades in pain neuroscience. Human perceptual studies revealed analgesic effects of segmental tactile stimulation, as compared to extrasegmental touch. However, the spatial organisation of touch-pain interactions within a single human dermatome has not been investigated yet. In 2 experiments we tested whether, how, and where within a dermatome touch modulates the perception of laser-evoked pain. We measured pain perception using intensity ratings, qualitative descriptors, and signal detection measures of sensitivity and response bias. Touch concurrent with laser pulses produced a significant analgesia, and reduced the sensitivity in detecting the energy of laser stimulation, implying a functional loss of information within the ascending A? pathway. Touch also produced a bias to judge laser stimuli as less painful. This bias decreased linearly when the distance between the laser and tactile stimuli increased. Thus, our study provides evidence for a spatial organisation of intrasegmental touch-pain interactions. PMID:24361816

Mancini, Flavia; Nash, Thomas; Iannetti, Gian Domenico; Haggard, Patrick

2014-03-01

23

THE EVOLUTION OF SEX CHROMOSOMES IN PAPAYA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of plant species with male, female, and hermaphrodite plants. Sex determination in papaya is controlled by a primitive Y chromosome that contains a male-specific region with severe recombination suppression and DNA sequence degeneration. Our recent results showed tha...

24

CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF TRANSGENIC PAPAYA WORK IN HAWAII  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya ringspot caused severe damage to Hawaii’s papaya industry starting from 1992 when papaya ringspot virus was discovered in Puna, where 95% of the commercial papaya was being grown. The main papaya cultivars grown in Hawaii are the nontransgeic Kapoho, Sunrise, and Sunset, and the transgenic S...

25

Managing papaya ringspot virus: Impact of grass barriers on alate aphid immigration into papaya orchards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya ringspot virus, transmitted by alate aphids, is the most limiting factor of papaya production in the Caribbean region. Although there are transgenic papaya varieties that provide protection from this virus, these varieties are effective only in certain regions against certain strains of the v...

26

Allergenicity assessment of the Papaya ringspot virus coat protein expressed in transgenic Rainbow papaya  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The virus-resistant, transgenic commercial papaya cultivars Rainbow and SunUp (Carica papaya L.) have been consumed locally in Hawaii and elsewhere in the mainland US and Canada since their release to planters in Hawaii in 1998. These cultivars are derived from transgenic papaya line 55-1 and carry ...

27

Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas ( Carica papaya L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Papaya is cultivated in Espírito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature.

Camargo, R. J.; Tadini, C. C.; Sabato, S. F.

2007-11-01

28

COMMERCIALIZATION OF TRANSGENIC PAPAYA: WEIGHING BENEFITS AND POTENTIAL RISKS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya is Hawaii's second most important fruit crop, behind the pineapple. In 1992, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was discovered in Puna Hawaii, where 95% of Hawaii's papaya were being grown. By late 1994, PRSV was widespread in Puna and the papaya industry was facing severe crop loss. In 1998, tr...

29

Haptics: Touch Command  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students experience haptic (the sense of touch) feedback by using LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robots and touch sensors to emulate touch feedback recognition. With four touch sensors connected to LEGO NXTs, they design sensor attachments that feel physically distinguishable from each another. Then students answer questions and communicate their answers to the NXT by pressing the touch sensor that is associated with the right multiple-choice answer letter. Haptics becomes essential when students must use the NXT sensors to answer the next set of questions without the aid of their vision. This challenges them to rely solely on the tactile feeling of each unique touch sensor attachment that they created in order to choose the correct peripheral slot. Students also learn about real-world applications of haptics technology.

AMPS GK-12 Program,

30

Shape Characteristics Analysis for Papaya Size Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior to export, papaya are subjected to inspection for the purpose of quality control and grading. For size grading, the fruit is weighed manually hence the practice is tedious, time consuming and labor intensive. Therefore, this paper will discuss the development of a computer vision system for papaya size grading using shape characteristic analysis. The methodology involves data acquisition to

Slamet Riyadi; A. A. A. Rahni; M. M. Mustafa; A. Hussain

2007-01-01

31

Recent Origin of the Papaya Sex Chromosomes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sex chromosomes in flowering plants, in contrast to those in animals, evolved relatively recently and only a few are heteromorphic. The sex chromosomes of papaya appear at the cytological level to be homomorphic but, at the molecular level, we are finding that the papaya Y chromosome shows features ...

32

Stable transformation of papaya via microprojectile bombardment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable transformation of papaya (Carica papaya L.) has been achieved following DNA delivery via high velocity microprojectiles. Three types of embryogenic tissues, including immature zygotic embryos, freshly explanted hypocotyl sections, and somatic embryos derived from both, were bombarded with tungsten particles carrying chimeric NPTII and GUS genes. All tissue types were cultured prior to and following bombardment on half-strength MS

Maureen M. M. Fitch; Richard M. Manshardt; Dennis Gonsalves; Jerry L. Slightom; John C. Sanford

1990-01-01

33

Music by Touch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students' understanding of how robotic touch sensors work is reinforced through a hands-on design challenge involving LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT intelligent bricks, motors and touch sensors. They learn programming skills and logic design in parallel as they program robot computers to play sounds and rotate a wheel when a touch sensor is pressed, and then produce different responses if a different touch sensor is activated. Students see first-hand how robots can take input from sensors and use it to make decisions to move as programmed, including simultaneously moving a motor and playing music. A PowerPoint® presentation and pre/post quizzes are provided.

GK-12 Program, Computational Neurobiology Center,

34

Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ripening studies of nontreated and treated papaya (papaya L) are accomplished by monitoring the ethylene and CO2 emission rates of that climacteric fruit, to evaluate its shelf life. The treatments simulate the commercial Phitosanitarian process used to avoid the fly infestation. Ethylene emission was measured using a commercial CO2 laser driven photoacoustic setup and CO2, using a commercial gas analysis also based on the photothermal effect. The results show a marked change in ethylene and CO2 emission rate pattern for treated fruits when compared to the ones obtained for nontreated fruits and a displacement of the climacteric pick shown that the treatment causes a decrease of shelf life of fruit.

da Silva, M. G.; Santos, E. O.; Sthel, M. S.; Cardoso, S. L.; Cavalli, A.; Monteiro, A. R.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

2003-01-01

35

Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.).  

PubMed

Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC-MS revealed striking similarity of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51% of total carotenoids). Comparison of the pigment-loaded chromoplast ultrastructures disclosed tubular plastids to be abundant in yellow papaya, whereas larger crystalloid substructures characterized most frequent red papaya chromoplasts. Exclusively existent in red papaya, such crystalloid structures were associated with lycopene accumulation. Non-globular carotenoid deposition was derived from simple solubility calculations based on carotenoid and lipid contents of the differently colored fruit pulps. Since the physical state of carotenoid deposition may be decisive regarding their bioavailability, chromoplasts from lycopene-rich tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were also assessed and compared to red papaya. Besides interesting analogies, various distinctions were ascertained resulting in the prediction of enhanced lycopene bioavailability from red papaya. In addition, the developmental pathway of red papaya chromoplasts was investigated during fruit ripening and carotenogenesis. In the early maturation stage of white-fleshed papaya, undifferentiated proplastids and globular plastids were predominant, corresponding to incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Since intermediate plastids, e.g., amyloplasts or chloroplasts, were absent, chromoplasts are likely to emerge directly from proplastids. PMID:21706336

Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B; Heller, Annerose; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

2011-11-01

36

Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya ( Carica papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC–MS revealed striking similarity\\u000a of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained\\u000a only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51%

Ralf M. Schweiggert; Christof B. Steingass; Annerose Heller; Patricia Esquivel; Reinhold Carle

37

The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3× draft genome sequence of `SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance

Ray Ming; Shaobin Hou; Yun Feng; Qingyi Yu; Alexandre Dionne-Laporte; Jimmy H. Saw; Pavel Senin; Wei Wang; Benjamin V. Ly; Kanako L. T. Lewis; Lu Feng; Meghan R. Jones; Rachel L. Skelton; Jan E. Murray; Cuixia Chen; Wubin Qian; Junguo Shen; Peng Du; Moriah Eustice; Eric Tong; Haibao Tang; Eric Lyons; Robert E. Paull; Todd P. Michael; Kerr Wall; Danny W. Rice; Henrik Albert; Ming-Li Wang; Yun J. Zhu; Michael Schatz; Niranjan Nagarajan; Ricelle A. Acob; Peizhu Guan; Andrea Blas; Ching Man Wai; Christine M. Ackerman; Yan Ren; Chao Liu; Jianmei Wang; Jianping Wang; Jong-Kuk Na; Eugene V. Shakirov; Brian Haas; Jyothi Thimmapuram; David Nelson; Xiyin Wang; John E. Bowers; Andrea R. Gschwend; Arthur L. Delcher; Ratnesh Singh; Jon Y. Suzuki; Savarni Tripathi; Kabi Neupane; Hairong Wei; Beth Irikura; Maya Paidi; Ning Jiang; Wenli Zhang; Gernot Presting; Aaron Windsor; Rafael Navajas-Pérez; Manuel J. Torres; F. Alex Feltus; Brad Porter; Yingjun Li; A. Max Burroughs; Ming-Cheng Luo; Lei Liu; David A. Christopher; Stephen M. Mount; Paul H. Moore; Tak Sugimura; Jiming Jiang; Mary A. Schuler; Vikki Friedman; Thomas Mitchell-Olds; Dorothy E. Shippen; Claude W. Depamphilis; Jeffrey D. Palmer; Michael Freeling; Andrew H. Paterson; Dennis Gonsalves; Lei Wang; Maqsudul Alam

2008-01-01

38

Wound-Healing Effect of Papaya-Based Preparation in Experimental Thermal Trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment with the phytopreparation from papaya accelerated wound healing and reduced the severity of local inflammation in rats with burn wounds. The effect of this phytopreparation can be related to an increase in the effectiveness of intracellular bacterial killing by tissue phagocytes due to the inhibition of bacterial catalase. Antioxidant activity of the preparation decreases the risk of oxidative damage

E. V. Mikhalchik; A. V. Ivanova; M. V. Anurov; S. M. Titkova; L. Yu. Penkov; Z. F. Kharaeva; L. G. Korkina

2004-01-01

39

Active touch sensing  

PubMed Central

Active sensing systems are purposive and information-seeking sensory systems. Active sensing usually entails sensor movement, but more fundamentally, it involves control of the sensor apparatus, in whatever manner best suits the task, so as to maximize information gain. In animals, active sensing is perhaps most evident in the modality of touch. In this theme issue, we look at active touch across a broad range of species from insects, terrestrial and marine mammals, through to humans. In addition to analysing natural touch, we also consider how engineering is beginning to exploit physical analogues of these biological systems so as to endow robots with rich tactile sensing capabilities. The different contributions show not only the varieties of active touch—antennae, whiskers and fingertips—but also their commonalities. They explore how active touch sensing has evolved in different animal lineages, how it serves to provide rapid and reliable cues for controlling ongoing behaviour, and even how it can disintegrate when our brains begin to fail. They demonstrate that research on active touch offers a means both to understand this essential and primary sensory modality, and to investigate how animals, including man, combine movement with sensing so as to make sense of, and act effectively in, the world. PMID:21969680

Prescott, Tony J.; Diamond, Mathew E.; Wing, Alan M.

2011-01-01

40

Carotenogenesis and physico-chemical characteristics during maturation of red fleshed papaya fruit ( Carica papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotenoid development of red fleshed papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.) was investigated in the course of a complete pre- and postharvest period using HPLC-DAD coupled to mass spectrometry. Esterified xanthophylls such as ?-cryptoxanthin laurate and caprate were the most abundant pigments during incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Subsequent fruit maturation led to a gradual accumulation of carotenoids, whereas particularly ?-cryptoxanthin laurate and

Ralf Martin Schweiggert; Christof Björn Steingass; Eric Mora; Patricia Esquivel; Reinhold Carle

2011-01-01

41

Toxicity assessment of transgenic papaya ringspot virus of 823-2210 line papaya fruits.  

PubMed

The transgenic papaya is a valuable strategy for creating plants resistant to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) infection and increasing production. This study was further performed to evaluate the comparative toxicity effects of the newly developed transgenic line of the fruits of two backcross transgenic papaya lines (2210 and 823) and one hybrid line (823-2210) and compare to their parent non-transgenic (TN-2) counterparts. The stability analysis of coat protein (CP) of PRSV was investigated using the digestion stability assays in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), and bile salts to detect the CP fragments. Results revealed that the CP fragments were rapidly hydrolyzed in SGF and were undetectable in organs and gastrointestinal contents in rats. For the genotoxicity, three in vitro assays were conducted and exhibited that non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits were negative. Moreover, a repeated animal feeding study was conducted by feeding 2 g/kg of body weight (bw) of non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits for 28 days in rats. There were no biological or toxicological significances between non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits in rats. The results demonstrated that the backcross transgenic papaya fruit can be recognized as an equivalent substitution for traditional papaya in food safety. PMID:23350793

Lin, Hsin-Tang; Yen, Gow-Chin; Huang, Ting-Tzu; Chan, Lit-Fu; Cheng, Ying-Huey; Wu, Jhaol-Huei; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Liao, Jiunn-Wang

2013-02-20

42

The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We report a draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree crop. The papaya genome has more than two times the DNA but about 28% fewer genes than the genome of the related botanical model Arabidopsis. A lack of genome duplication, atypical of angi...

43

Erwinia mallotivora sp., a New Pathogen of Papaya (Carica papaya) in Peninsular Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414). Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch’s postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya. PMID:21339975

Amin, Noriha Mat; Bunawan, Hamidun; Redzuan, Rohaiza Ahmad; Jaganath, Indu Bala S.

2011-01-01

44

Habitat fragmentation threatens wild populations of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) in a lowland rainforest.  

PubMed

• Premise of the study: Wild populations of domesticated species constitute a genetic reservoir and are fundamental to the evolutionary potential of species. Wild papaya (Carica papaya) is a rare, short-lived, gap-colonizing, dioecious tree that persists in the forest by continuous dispersal. Theoretically, these life-history characteristics render wild papaya highly susceptible to habitat fragmentation, with anticipated negative effects on its gene pool. Further, species dioecy may cause founder effects to generate local biases in sex ratio, decreasing effective population size.• Methods: We contrasted the genetic diversity and structure of C. papaya between wild populations from rainforest fragments and continuous forest at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. We evaluated recent migration rates among populations as well as landscape resistance to gene flow. Finally, we calculated the sex ratio of the populations in both habitats.• Key results: Populations of wild papaya in rainforest fragments showed lower genetic diversity and higher population differentiation than populations in continuous rainforest. Estimates of recent migration rates showed a higher percentage of migrants moving from the continuous forest to the forest fragments than in the opposite direction. Agricultural land and cattle pasture were found to be the most resistant matrices to gene flow. Finally, biased sex ratios were seen to affect the effective population size in both habitats.• Conclusions: The mating system, rarity, and short life cycle of C. papaya are exacerbating the effects of rainforest fragmentation on its genetic diversity, threatening the persistence of its natural populations in the proposed place of origin as well as its genetic reservoir. PMID:25016010

Chávez-Pesqueira, Mariana; Suárez-Montes, Pilar; Castillo, Guillermo; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

2014-07-11

45

Transgenic Papaya: Can We Proceed Beyond the Hawaiian Experience?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The story of the development, deregulation, and commercialization of the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) resistant transgenic SunUp and Rainbow papaya for Hawaii is quite well known at least among plant virologist and knowledgeable people in the field of papaya. Thus, the story will be only briefly r...

46

Rapid divergence and expansion of the X chromosome in papaya  

PubMed Central

X chromosomes have long been thought to conserve the structure and gene content of the ancestral autosome from which the sex chromosomes evolved. We compared the recently evolved papaya sex chromosomes with a homologous autosome of a close relative, the monoecious Vasconcellea monoica, to infer changes since recombination stopped between the papaya sex chromosomes. We sequenced 12 V. monoica bacterial artificial chromosomes, 11 corresponding to the papaya X-specific region, and 1 to a papaya autosomal region. The combined V. monoica X-orthologous sequences are much shorter (1.10 Mb) than the corresponding papaya region (2.56 Mb). Given that the V. monoica genome is 41% larger than that of papaya, this finding suggests considerable expansion of the papaya X; expansion is supported by a higher repetitive sequence content of the X compared with the papaya autosomal sequence. The alignable regions include 27 transcript-encoding sequences, only 6 of which are functional X/V. monoica gene pairs. Sequence divergence from the V. monoica orthologs is almost identical for papaya X and Y alleles; the Carica-Vasconcellea split therefore occurred before the papaya sex chromosomes stopped recombining, making V. monoica a suitable outgroup for inferring changes in papaya sex chromosomes. The papaya X and the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome and V. monoica have all gained and lost genes, including a surprising amount of changes in the X. PMID:22869742

Gschwend, Andrea R.; Yu, Qingyi; Tong, Eric J.; Zeng, Fanchang; Han, Jennifer; VanBuren, Robert; Aryal, Rishi; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H.; Paterson, Andrew H.; Ming, Ray

2012-01-01

47

VITAMIN AND MINERAL CONTENT OF HAWAII’S PAPAYA CULTIVARS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya) cultivars were harvested from different locations throughout Hawaii and analyzed for vitamin C (ascorbic acid), provitamin A ( '-carotene, '-carotene, '-cryptoxanthin), and mineral composition. Papaya mean vitamin C content was 51.2 mg/100g, with no significant differences amo...

48

Touch the Spring (Lightbulb)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, a lightbulb is placed in front of a concave mirror. The actual lightbulb is not visible to the viewer, but the viewer can see the mirror image of the lightbulb formed in space. When the viewer tries to touch the lightbulb, they are attempting to touch an image. Their hand moves right through what seems to be a solid object! Learners will enjoy this illusion, while investigating principles of light and mirrors. In this version of a popular Exploratorium exhibit, a lightbulb is substituted for a spring.

Exploratorium, The

2011-12-07

49

Correlation between ethylene emission and skin colour changes during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The skin colour changes and ethylene emission rates were monitored during papaya (C. papaya L.) fruit ripening. Two groups of papaya (‘Formosa’ and ‘Solo’) were applied in this study. The total colour difference was used as measured parameter and the corresponding half time of its saturation was used as correlation parameter. A high correlation factor between the saturation half time and corresponding climacteric peak time was found. It was concluded that high ethylene emission rate in ‘Solo’ fruit promotes a quick change of the total colour difference.

da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Vitoria, A. P.; Corrêa, S. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Campostrini, E.; Santos, E. O.; Cavalli, A.; Vargas, H.

2005-06-01

50

ThepowerofTouch Howweconnectwith  

E-print Network

in health and sustainability to exploring how touch can shape technology, interaction and emotional is unique about research at UTS is that it's underpinned by technology and creativity. This year, to the exhibition itself ­ impact is apparent. Likewise, this year's exhibition shows how art, design, music (in

University of Technology, Sydney

51

Getting in Touch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the growing demand of using touchscreen interface. Consumers are now seeing touchscreens in a wide variety of electronics, not only in competitors to the iPhone from Sony, Samsung, Motorola, LG and T-Mobile, but also in desktop PCs, printers and copiers, televisions, and MP3 players. Teens, if they don't have a touch-enabled…

Dyrli, Kurt O.

2008-01-01

52

Quantification of the antiplasmodial alkaloid carpaine in papaya (Carica papaya) leaves.  

PubMed

Daily consumption of papaya (Carica papaya) leaves as greens and an herbal infusion is common in some parts of Indonesia as a means for preventing malaria. Antiplasmodial activity of the leaf extracts and of the main alkaloid carpaine were recently confirmed. A quantitative assay for determination of carpaine in papaya leaves was developed and validated. The assay involved pressurized liquid extraction and quantification with the aid of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Extraction conditions were optimized with respect to solvent, temperature, and number of extraction cycles. The ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy assay was validated over a range of 20-5000 ng/mL (R(2) of 0.9908). A total of 29 papaya leaf samples were analyzed, and carpaine concentration in dry leaves was found to range from 0.02 to 0.31%. No obvious dependence on geographic origin and leaf maturity was observed. PMID:25153096

Julianti, Tasqiah; Oufir, Mouhssin; Hamburger, Matthias

2014-08-01

53

A male and hermaphrodite specific RAPD marker for papaya ( Carica papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to determine the sex of a dioecious species, Carica papaya L., with three sex types, male, female and hermaphrodite. A 450 bp marker fragment, named PSDM(Papaya Sex Determination Marker),\\u000a exists in all male and hermaphrodite plants but not in the female plants so far analyzed. The DNA sequence of PSDM exhibited

N. Urasaki; M. Tokumoto; K. Tarora; Y. Ban; T. Kayano; H. Tanaka; H. Oku; I. Chinen; R. Terauchi

2002-01-01

54

Testimony of touch  

E-print Network

terror and adoration. Color and form operate as key components of visual movement in the composition of Testimony of Touch while the voice of the sublime whispers an abundant unbroken beauty. The eye is encouraged to explore while forging, delicate... unexpected yet needed conversations of color. One day, after flipping a panel upside down, the warmth of green suddenly brought life into a cold cluster of abstracted bones. Blue continually flowed into more open spaces expressing surprise, peace...

Swim, Carrie Leigh

2012-05-31

55

Gene technology for papaya ringspot virus disease management.  

PubMed

Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research. PMID:24757435

Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

2014-01-01

56

Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management  

PubMed Central

Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research. PMID:24757435

Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

2014-01-01

57

Update on the development of virus-resistant papaya: Virus-resistant transgenic papaya for people in rural communities of Thailand  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the most important and preferred crops in rural communities in Thailand. Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a serious disease of papaya throughout Thailand. Efforts to control the virus by various methods either have not been successful or have not resulted in sustai...

58

Propagation Experiments with Avocado, Mango, and Papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past year several different investigations relative to the propagation of the avocado, mango and papaya have been conducted in Florida. In this preliminary report, the results of a few of the different experiments will be described. Germination media:—Avocado seeds of Gottfried (Mex.) during the summer season, and Shooter (Mex.) during the fall season; and Apple Mango seeds during

HAMILTON P. TRAUB; E. C. AUCHTER

59

DNA sequence analysis supports the association of phytoplasmas with papaya ( Carica papaya ) dieback, yellow crinkle and mosaic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers that hybridise to regions within and adjacent to the\\u000a 16S rRNA gene have indicated that Australian papaya dieback, papaya mosaic and papaya yellow crinkle are associated with phytoplasmas\\u000a (formerly called mycoplasma-like organisms). In this study, DNA sequence analysis of PCR products obtained from affected plant\\u000a tissue has confirmed that the

D. T. White; S. J. Billington; K. B. Walsh; P. T. Scott

1997-01-01

60

Influence of ripening stages on antioxidant properties of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv Eksotika) is one of the most commonly consumed tropical fruits by humans, especially Malaysians. The objective of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidants activity in different ripening stages of papaya fruit. The fruits were harvested at five different, stages RS1, RS2, RS3, RS4, and RS5 corresponding to 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 weeks after anthesis, respectively. Papayas fruit at five different stage of ripening were obtained from farms at Pusat Flora Cheras, JabatanPertanian and Hulu Langat Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia. The antioxidants activity were analyzed using the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The analyses were conducted in triplicate and the data were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS. The results showed significant differences (P< 0.05) were found at different stages of ripening. The total phenol content TPC, TFC, FRAP and DPPH values increased significantly (P<0.05) with the ripening process. The results showed the important role of the ripening stage in increasing the antioxidant content of papaya fruits.

Addai, Zuhair Radhi; Abdullah, Aminah; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.

2013-11-01

61

The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus)  

PubMed Central

Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3× draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree1 to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far2–5, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica's distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties. PMID:18432245

Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H.; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V.; Lewis, Kanako L. T.; Salzberg, Steven L.; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R.; Skelton, Rachel L.; Murray, Jan E.; Chen, Cuixia; Qian, Wubin; Shen, Junguo; Du, Peng; Eustice, Moriah; Tong, Eric; Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Paull, Robert E.; Michael, Todd P.; Wall, Kerr; Rice, Danny W.; Albert, Henrik; Wang, Ming-Li; Zhu, Yun J.; Schatz, Michael; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Acob, Ricelle A.; Guan, Peizhu; Blas, Andrea; Wai, Ching Man; Ackerman, Christine M.; Ren, Yan; Liu, Chao; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Shakirov, Eugene V.; Haas, Brian; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Nelson, David; Wang, Xiyin; Bowers, John E.; Gschwend, Andrea R.; Delcher, Arthur L.; Singh, Ratnesh; Suzuki, Jon Y.; Tripathi, Savarni; Neupane, Kabi; Wei, Hairong; Irikura, Beth; Paidi, Maya; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Wenli; Presting, Gernot; Windsor, Aaron; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Torres, Manuel J.; Feltus, F. Alex; Porter, Brad; Li, Yingjun; Burroughs, A. Max; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Liu, Lei; Christopher, David A.; Mount, Stephen M.; Moore, Paul H.; Sugimura, Tak; Jiang, Jiming; Schuler, Mary A.; Friedman, Vikki; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Shippen, Dorothy E.; dePamphilis, Claude W.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.; Freeling, Michael; Paterson, Andrew H.; Gonsalves, Dennis; Wang, Lei; Alam, Maqsudul

2010-01-01

62

Whole-photosynthesis and transpiration in field-grown papaya plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of papaya response to environmental factors provides a scientific basis to develop management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. In papaya, the photosynthetic capacity also influ...

63

Virus Resistant Transgenic Papaya: Commercial Development and Regulatory and Environmental Issues  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In Hawaii, transgenic papaya resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was developed starting in the 1980s and released commercially in 1998 to combat the wide spread destruction of Hawaii’s papaya industry. This review describes the proactive development of the transgenic papaya and its impact on ...

64

PLANTINSECT INTERACTIONS Inducible Responses in Papaya: Impact on Population Growth Rates of  

E-print Network

PLANTÐINSECT INTERACTIONS Inducible Responses in Papaya: Impact on Population Growth Rates in their shared host plant, papaya. Three key parasites attack papaya foliage in Hawaii: the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval); the papaya rust mite, Calacarus flagelliseta Fletch- mann

Rosenheim, Jay A.

65

Effect of the potassium permanganate during papaya fruit ripening: Ethylene production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on the ripening process of papaya fruits by monitoring the ethylene emission rates is reported. The ethylene emission was monitored by a photoacoustic spectrometer. Two experimental conditions were applied, being one of them just putting the fruit alone inside the sampling chamber and the second, modifying the atmosphere by the presence of KMnO4. The use of the ethylene absorber reduces the autocatalytic process of ethylene during papaya fruit ripening. For 20 g of KMnO4 the maximal intensity of the ethylene emission decreases by a factor two. Using the same amount of KMnO4, a reduction of about 2.2% in the concentration of ethylene for a mixture of 1ppmv of ethylene in synthetic air was observed.

Corrêa, S. F.; Filho, M. B.; da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Aroucha, E. M. M.; Silva, R. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

2005-06-01

66

Papaya Ringspot Virus: Characteristics, Pathogenicity, Sequence Variability and Control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Taxonomy: Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is an aphid-transmitted plant virus belonging to the genus Potyvirus of the family Potyviridae with a positive sense RNA genome. PRSV isolates belong to either one of two major strains, P-type or W-type. The P-type infects both papaya and cucurbits whereas th...

67

MAPPING PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS IN CARICA PAPAYA USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Different varieties of papaya (Carica papaya L.) vary in the phenotypic expression of agronomically important traits. Genetic loci responsible for these differences can be mapped using DNA markers to genotype a segregating progeny population derived from a controlled cross between parents having dif...

68

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF CARICA PAPAYA AS REVEALED BY AFLP MARKERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic relationships among Carica papaya cultivars, breeding lines, unimproved germplasm, and related species were established using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Seventy-one papaya accessions and related species were analyzed with nine EcoRI-MseI primer combinations. A t...

69

Stance stability with unilateral and bilateral light touch of an external stationary object.  

PubMed

Unilateral light fingertip touch of a stationary object has a significant stabilizing effect on postural sway during stance. The purpose of this study was to find out if this effect is enhanced by bilateral light touch of parallel stationary objects. The postural sway of 54 healthy subjects was tested in four stance conditions: no touch; unilateral left light touch of the left handle of a walker; unilateral right light touch of the right handle of the same walker; and bilateral light touch of the two handles. During testing, subjects stood blindfolded on two foam pads placed on the left and right force plates of the Tetrax balance system. Testing in each condition lasted 45 s and was executed twice in a random order. As expected, postural sway was significantly reduced by unilateral left or right light fingertip touch. It was significantly further decreased by bilateral light touch. In addition, light touch conditions were associated with a reduction in pressure fluctuations between the heel and forefoot of the same foot as well as those of the contralateral foot, with a concomitant increase in weight shift fluctuations between the two feet. The decrease in postural sway with bilateral light touch suggests cortical modulation of the bilateral touch inputs, with enhancement of the stabilizing response. PMID:16503584

Dickstein, Ruth

2005-12-01

70

Antiulcerogenic activity of Carica papaya seed in rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the gastroprotective and healing effects of the methanolic extract of the seed of the papaya Carica papaya L. (MECP) in rats. Models of acute gastric ulcer induction by ethanol and indomethacin and of chronic ulcer by acetic acid were used. The gastric juice and mucus parameters were evaluated using the pylorus ligation model, and the involvement of sulfhydryl compounds (GSH) and nitric oxide in the gastroprotective effect was analyzed using the ethanol model. The toxicity was assessed through toxicity tests. No signs of toxicity were observed when the rats received a single dose of 2000 mg/kg of extract. The MECP in doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the gastric lesion with 56, 76, and 82 % inhibition, respectively, and a dose of 30 mg/kg lansoprazole showed 79 % inhibition in the ethanol model. MECP (125, 250, 500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) reduced the gastric lesion in the indomethacin model, with 62, 67, 81, and 85 % inhibition, respectively. The MECP (500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) treatments showed a reduction in ulcerative symptoms induced by acetic acid by 84 and 73 %, respectively. The antiulcerogenic activity seems to involve GSH because the inhibition dropped from 72 to 13 % in the presence of a GSH inhibitor. Moreover, the MECP showed systemic action, increasing the mucus production and decreasing gastric acidity. Treatments with MECP induce gastroprotection without signs of toxicity. This effect seems to involve sulfhydryl compounds, increased mucus, and reduced gastric acidity. PMID:25418890

Pinto, Lorraine Aparecida; Cordeiro, Kátia Wolff; Carrasco, Viviane; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Cardoso, Cláudia Andréa Lima; Argadoña, Eliana Janet Sanjinez; Freitas, Karine de Cássia

2014-11-25

71

ASCORBIC ACID, PROVITAMIN A, AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF BANANA (MUSA SP.) AND PAPAYA (CARICA PAPAYA) CULTIVARS GROWN IN HAWAII.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Banana (Musa sp.) and papaya (Carica papaya) cultivars were harvested from different locations throughout Hawaii and analyzed for vitamin C (ascorbic acid), provitamin A ( ß-carotene, alpha-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin), and mineral composition. Dwarf Brazilian ('apple') bananas had almost three times ...

72

Minimal processing of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) and the physiology of halved fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stage of papaya fruit ripening suitable for minimal processing and the effect of processing on physiology were determined. Wounding during slicing and deseeding led to an increase in ethylene production and respiration, earlier skin degreening and flesh softening. Fruit at the 10–50% skin yellow ripening stage showed higher wound-induced ethylene production and respiration when sliced and deseeded than riper

Robert E Paull; Wenjun Chen

1997-01-01

73

VIRUS COAT PROTEIN TRANSGENIC PAPAYA PROVIDES PRACTICAL CONTROL OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS IN HAWAII  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two field trials to evaluate transgenic resistance to Papaya ringspot virus were established in Puna, island of Hawaii. One trial included 'SunUp' (a homozygous transformant of 'Sunset'), 'Rainbow' (a hybrid of 'SunUp'), 'Kapoho' (a widely used non-transgenic cultivar) and '63-1' (another segregati...

74

Sex and ploidy of anther culture derived papaya ( Carica papaya L.) plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  To improve the efficiency of papaya anther culture, we investigated (1) hormonal medium conditions for inducing haploids or dihaploids; (2) identified the sex of established plantlets using a sex-specific DNA molecular marker and (3) estimated their ploidy by flow cytometry analysis of DNA content. Anthers with a mixture of uninucleate, mitotic, and binucleate microspores were collected from a male plant,

Fredah K. Rimberia; Shinichi Adaniya; Takeomi Etoh; Yukio Ishimine

2006-01-01

75

Yeast ratio is a critical factor for sequential fermentation of papaya wine by Williopsis saturnus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Summary The growth kinetics and fermentation performance of Williopsis saturnus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at ratios of 10:1, 1:1 and 1:10 (W.:S.) were studied in papaya juice with initial 7-day fermentation by W.?saturnus, followed by S.?cerevisiae. The growth kinetics of W.?saturnus were similar at all ratios, but its maximum cell count decreased as the proportion of S.?cerevisiae was increased. Conversely, there was an early death of S.?cerevisiae at the ratio of 10:1. Williopsis saturnus was the dominant yeast at 10:1 ratio that produced papaya wine with elevated concentrations of acetate esters. On the other hand, 1:1 and 1:10 ratios allowed the coexistence of both yeasts which enabled the flavour-enhancing potential of W.?saturnus as well as the ethyl ester and alcohol-producing abilities of S.?cerevisiae. In particular, 1:1 and 1:10 ratios resulted in production of more ethyl esters, alcohols and 2-phenylethyl acetate. However, the persistence of both yeasts at 1:1 and 1:10 ratios led to formation of high levels of acetic acid. The findings suggest that yeast ratio is a critical factor for sequential fermentation of papaya wine by W.?saturnus and S.?cerevisiae as a strategy to modulate papaya wine flavour. PMID:23171032

Lee, Pin-Rou; Kho, Stephanie Hui Chern; Yu, Bin; Curran, Philip; Liu, Shao-Quan

2013-01-01

76

Effects of nitric oxide treatment on the cell wall softening related enzymes and several hormones of papaya fruit during storage.  

PubMed

Papaya fruits (Carica papaya L. cv 'Sui you 2') harvested with < 5% yellow surface at the blossom end were fumigated with 60 microL/L of nitric oxide for 3 h and then stored at 20 degrees C with 85% relative humility for 20 days. The effects of nitric oxide treatment on ethylene production rate, the activities of cell wall softening related enzymes including polygalacturonase, pectin methyl esterase, pectate lyase and cellulase and the levels of hormones including indole acetic acid, abscisic acid, gibberellin and zeatin riboside were examined. The results showed that papaya fruits treated with nitric oxide had a significantly lower rate of ethylene production and a lesser loss of firmness during storage. A decrease in polygalacturonase, pectin methyl esterase, pectate lyase and cellulase activities was observed in nitric oxide treated fruit. In addition, the contents of indole acetic acid, abscisic acid and zeatin riboside were reduced in nitric oxide treated fruit, but no significant reduction in the level of gibberellin was found. These results indicate that nitric oxide treatment can effectively delay the softening and ripening of papaya fruit, likely via the regulation of cell wall softening related enzymes and certain hormones. PMID:23744122

Guo, Qin; Wu, Bin; Chen, Weixin; Zhang, Yuli; Wang, Jide; Li, Xueping

2014-06-01

77

Light touch and medio-lateral postural stability during short distance gait.  

PubMed

While standing, light fingertip touch on an external stable object attenuates sway and improves balance in healthy adults as well as in individuals with poor postural control. The effect of light touch on balance during gait is, however, not well known. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to study the effects of light fingertip touch on balance during gait. We hypothesized that similar to its effect during stance light touch would increase postural stability. Forty healthy young adults were tested under four gait conditions: (1) eyes open (EO), (2) eyes closed (EC), (3) eyes closed while lightly touching a static object on the right side of the walking lane (ECLTS), (4) eyes closed while lightly touching a dynamic object, namely, a stick that was moved forwards by the subject with the right hand (ECLTD). The main outcome measure was medio-lateral step width variability, a well established indicator of gait balance in the medio-lateral plane. During the EC condition, light touch of an external static object (ECLTS) decreased medio-lateral variability (i.e., balance improved); however, this stabilizing effect was not observed with light touch on the stick. The availability of self positional and spatial cues when touching a static external reference, and their absence when touching a stick that is moved forwards by the subject as he walks, can explain the different effects of light touch in the ECLTS vs the ECLTD gait conditions. PMID:25450148

Kodesh, E; Falash, F; Sprecher, E; Dickstein, R

2015-01-01

78

77 FR 31294 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Papaya...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection; Importation of Papaya From Colombia and Ecuador AGENCY: Animal...importation of commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador into the continental...importation of commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador, contact...

2012-05-25

79

Touch sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was the first organism for which touch insensitive mutants were obtained. The study of the genes defective in these mutants\\u000a has led to the identification of components of a mechanosensory complex needed for specific cells to sense gentle touch to\\u000a the body. Multiple approaches using genetics, cell biology, biochemistry, and electrophysiology have characterized a channel\\u000a complex,

Alexander Bounoutas; Martin Chalfie

2007-01-01

80

Instructor Touch Enhanced College Students' Evaluations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Touch between people is associated with several outcomes, including reduced stress, more positive mood, enhanced feelings of closeness, and positive behavioral change. However, the potential utility of touch rarely has been examined in a college sample, with teachers touching their students. In the present study, we used instrumental touch…

Legg, Angela M.; Wilson, Janie H.

2013-01-01

81

Touch Satiety: Differential Effects of Stroking Velocity on Liking and Wanting Touch Over Repetitions  

PubMed Central

A slow, gentle caress of the skin is a salient hedonic stimulus. Low threshold, unmyelinated C-tactile afferents fire preferentially to this type of touch, where slow (<1 cm/s) and fast (>10 cm/s) stroking velocities produce lower firing frequencies and are rated as less pleasant. The current aim was to investigate how the experience of tactile pleasantness changes with repeated exposure (satiety to touch). A further aim was to determine whether tactile satiety varied with different stroking velocities. The experimental paradigm used a controlled brush stroke to the forearm that was delivered repeatedly for ?50 minutes. In Experiment 1, brush strokes were administered at three different velocities (0.3 cm/s, 3 cm/s and 30 cm/s), which were presented in a pseudo-randomised order. In Experiment 2, brush strokes were applied using only one velocity (either 3 or 30 cm/s). After each stroke, the participants rated both subjective pleasantness (liking) and wanting (the wish to be further exposed to the same stimulus) for each tactile sensation. In Experiment 1, both pleasantness and wanting showed a small, but significant, decrease over repetitions during stroking at 3 cm/s only, where the mean values for pleasantness and wanting were similar. Conversely, slower (0.3 cm/s) and faster (30 cm/s) stroking showed no decrease in ratings over time, however pleasantness was rated higher than wanting. In Experiment 2, both pleasantness and wanting showed a significant decrease over repetitions for both applied velocities, with a larger decrease in ratings for stroking at 3 cm/s. In conclusion, satiety to touch occurred with a slow onset and progression, where pleasantness and wanting ratings to stroking at 3 cm/s were affected more than at the slower or faster velocities. Tactile satiety appears to differ compared to appetitive and olfactory satiety, because the hedonic and rewarding aspects of touch persist for some time. PMID:25405620

Triscoli, Chantal; Ackerley, Rochelle; Sailer, Uta

2014-01-01

82

Isolation and functional characterization of a lycopene beta-cyclase gene that controls fruit colour of papaya (Carica papaya L.).  

PubMed

The colour of papaya fruit flesh is determined largely by the presence of carotenoid pigments. Red-fleshed papaya fruit contain lycopene, whilst this pigment is absent from yellow-fleshed fruit. The conversion of lycopene (red) to beta-carotene (yellow) is catalysed by lycopene beta-cyclase. This present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of two different genes encoding lycopene beta-cyclases (lcy-beta1 and lcy-beta2) from red (Tainung) and yellow (Hybrid 1B) papaya cultivars. A mutation in the lcy-beta2 gene, which inactivates enzyme activity, controls lycopene production in fruit and is responsible for the difference in carotenoid production between red and yellow-fleshed papaya fruit. The expression level of both lcy-beta1 and lcy-beta2 genes is similar and low in leaves, but lcy-beta2 expression increases markedly in ripe fruit. Isolation of the lcy-beta2 gene from papaya, that is preferentially expressed in fruit and is correlated with fruit colour, will facilitate marker-assisted breeding for fruit colour in papaya and should create possibilities for metabolic engineering of carotenoid production in papaya fruit to alter both colour and nutritional properties. PMID:19887502

Devitt, Luke C; Fanning, Kent; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Holton, Timothy A

2010-01-01

83

Semen study of papaya workers exposed to ethylene dibromide  

SciTech Connect

A cross sectional semen and cytogenetic study was performed on male workers exposed to ethylene-dibromide (EDB) in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii. Semen analyses were conducted on 46 men in six fumigation facilities with an average length of employment of 5 years and airborne exposures to EDB ranging from 16 to 213 parts per billion. Statistically significant decreases in sperm count per ejaculate and the percentage of viable and motile sperm and increases in the proportion of specific morphological abnormalities were observed among exposed men when compared with controls. Semen volume and sperm concentration were also lower in the exposed group. No effect of exposure to EDB on sperm velocity, the overall proportion of sperm with normal morphology or YFF bodies was noted. The authors conclude that based on the decreases in sperm count, viability and motility and increases in certain types of morphological abnormalities among workers exposed to EDB, EDB may increase the risk of reproductive impairment in workers at exposure levels near the NIOSH recommended limit of 45 parts per billion and far below the current OSHA standard of 20 parts per million.

Ratcliffe, J.M.; Schrader, S.M.; Steenland, K.; Clapp, D.; Turner, T.

1984-01-01

84

HOMOPTERAN AND MITE PESTS OF PAPAYA AND THEIR CONTROL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Homopteran pests in papaya fields in Florida, include mealybugs, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, soft scales Philephedra tuberculosa Nakahara and Gill, Coccus hesperidum L. and armored scales, Aspidiotus destructor, Acutaspis sp., Hemiberlesia sp., aphids, Myzus persicae (Sul...

85

78 FR 48628 - Importation of Papayas From Peru  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...production locations; field sanitation; hot water treatment; procedures for packing...fruit fly trapping, field sanitation, and hot water treatment to remove pests of concern...papayas. The limitation would ensure that the hot water dip treatment discussed later in...

2013-08-09

86

Lateral bud culture of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) for clonal propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateral buds may be preferred to shoot tips for in vitro propagation of papaya because of its unbranched nature. Proliferating shoot cultures from lateral buds appeared extremely compact with shortened internodes and leaf lamina of the cytokinin level (BAP 2 µM) reported for multiple shoot production from shoot tips. ZEA (4 µM) and 2iP (8 µM) although reduced the proliferation

M. S. Rajeevan; R. M. Pandey

1986-01-01

87

Plant regeneration from shoot tips and callus of papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Two methods of in vitro culture were employed to regenerate papaya plants. One involved regeneration of plants from callus\\u000a and the other, production of multiple plants from single shoot-tip explants. Callus was induced from stem sections of papaya\\u000a seedlings in a medium containing 1 mg per 1 NAA and 0.1 mg per 1 kinetin. The callus regenerated shoots and\\/or embryoids

Shi-Tao Yie; S. I. Liaw

1977-01-01

88

ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K). Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the ?-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

Kikuchi, Masahiro; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

2011-05-01

89

Plant regeneration from encapsulated somatic embryos of Carica papaya L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carica papaya L. (papaya) single somatic embryos (2.0 mm diameter) produced in a high-frequency liquid production system were encapsulated\\u000a in two different synthetic encapsulation compounds. The frequency of regeneration from encapsulated embryos was significantly\\u000a affected by (1) the concentration of sodium alginate, (2) the presence or absence of nutrient salts in the capsule, and (3)\\u000a the duration of exposure to

B. Castillo; M. A. L. Smith; U. L. Yadava

1998-01-01

90

Genetic-molecular characterization of backcross generations for sexual conversion in papaya (Carica papaya L.).  

PubMed

The low number of improved cultivars limits the expansion of the papaya crop, particularly because of the time required for the development of new varieties using classical procedures. Molecular techniques associated with conventional procedures accelerate this process and allow targeted improvements. Thus, we used microsatellite markers to perform genetic-molecular characterization of papaya genotypes obtained from 3 backcross generations to monitor the inbreeding level and parental genome proportion in the evaluated genotypes. Based on the analysis of 20 microsatellite loci, 77 genotypes were evaluated, 25 of each generation of the backcross program as well as the parental genotypes. The markers analyzed were identified in 11 of the 12 linkage groups established for papaya, ranging from 1 to 4 per linkage group. The average values for the inbreeding coefficient were 0.88 (BC1S4), 0.47 (BC2S3), and 0.63 (BC3S2). Genomic analysis revealed average values of the recurrent parent genome of 82.7% in BC3S2, 64.4% in BC1S4, and 63.9% in BC2S3. Neither the inbreeding level nor the genomic proportions completely followed the expected average values. This demonstrates the significance of molecular analysis when examining different genotype values, given the importance of such information for selection processes in breeding programs. PMID:25501249

Ramos, H C C; Pereira, M G; Pereira, T N S; Barros, G B A; Ferreguetti, G A

2014-01-01

91

Touch for Socioemotional and Physical Well-Being: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review briefly summarizes recent empirical research on touch. The research includes the role of touch in early development, touch deprivation, touch aversion, emotions that can be conveyed by touch, the importance of touch for interpersonal relationships and how friendly touch affects compliance in different situations. MRI data are reviewed…

Field, Tiffany

2010-01-01

92

Efficacy of four plant extracts on nematodes associated with papaya in Sindh, Pakistan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This investigation examines the effect of ethanol extracts of four plant species--Azadirachta indica (neem), Withania somnifera (ashwagandha), Tagetes erecta (marigold) and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus)--against nematodes associated with papaya (Carica papaya), and it assesses their influence o...

93

Isolation and functional characterization of a lycopene  -cyclase gene that controls fruit colour of papaya (Carica papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colour of papaya fruit flesh is determined largely by the presence of carotenoid pigments. Red-fleshed papaya fruit contain lycopene, whilst this pigment is absent from yellow-fleshed fruit. The conversion of lycopene (red) to b-carotene (yellow) is catalysed by lycopene b-cyclase. This present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of two different genes encoding lycopene b-cyclases (lcy-b1 and lcy-b2)

Luke C. Devitt; Kent Fanning; Ralf G. Dietzgen; Timothy A. Holton

2010-01-01

94

Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling fruit size and shape in papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a pan-tropical tree that bears fruit exhibiting a wide range of size and shape. Depending on variety and environment,\\u000a papaya fruit may weigh from 0.2 kg up to 10 kg. Papaya fruit shape is a sex-linked trait ranging from spherical to ovate,\\u000a cylindrical or pyriform. An F2 mapping population, produced from a cross between the Thai variety

Andrea L. Blas; Qingyi Yu; Olivia J. Veatch; Robert E. Paull; Paul H. Moore; Ray Ming

95

Heat-Induced Pain Diminishes Vibrotactile Perception: A Touch Gate  

E-print Network

Heat- Induced Pain Diminishes Vibrotactile Perception: A Touch Gate A. Vania Apkarian,*.t-1 Richard Abstract The gate control theory of pain (Melzack and Wall, 1965) suggeststhat tactile stimuli can decrease the perception of pain. We have found the reverse effect: Heat at levels that induce pain can substantially

Apkarian, A. Vania

96

SPACE SHUTTLE MISSION Finishing Touches  

E-print Network

SPACE SHUTTLE MISSION STS-132 Finishing Touches PRESS KIT/May 2010 www.nasa.gov National ....................................... 57 HISTORY OF SPACE SHUTTLE ATLANTIS .................................................................................................. 101 #12;MAY 2010 MISSION OVERVIEW 1 STS-132/ULF4 MISSION OVERVIEW The space shuttle Atlantis' crew

97

EFFECTIVE SELECTION OF TRANSGENIC PAPAYA PLANTS WITH THE PMI/MAN SELECTION SYSTEM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The selectable marker gene phospho-mannose isomerase (pmi), which encodes the enzyme phospho-mannose isomerase (PMI) to enable selection of transformed cell lines on media containing mannose (Man), was evaluated for genetic transformation of papaya (Carica papaya L.). We found that papaya embryogeni...

98

ENGINEERING RESISTANCE AGAINST PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS BY NATIVE, CHIMERIC AND SYNTHETIC TRANSGENES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The transgenic Rainbow papaya is hemizygous for the coat protein gene of a papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate from Hawaii. Rainbow shows excellent resistance to PRSV isolates in Hawaii, but is susceptible to PRSV isolates from many parts of the world. In order to obtain transgenic papaya which m...

99

AFLP analysis of genetic relationships among papaya and its wild relatives (Caricaceae) from Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AFLP technique was used to assess the genetic relationships among the cultivated papaya (Carica papaya L.) and related species native to Ecuador. Genetic distances based on AFLP data were estimated for 95 accessions belonging to three genera including C. papaya, at least eight Vasconcella species and two Jacaratia species. Cluster analysis using different methods and principal co-ordinate analysis (PCO),

B. Van Droogenbroeck; P. Breyne; P. Goetghebeur; E. Romeijn-Peeters; T. Kyndt; G. Gheysen

2002-01-01

100

Optimization of osmotic dehydration of papaya followed by air-drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papayas are a fragile fruit; characteristic that limits large-scale exportation from the producing centers to countries in temperate regions. Loss of fruit ranges from 10% to 40% and could be reduced if papayas were dried. The process of osmotic dehydration followed by air-drying was studied and modeled for papaya preservation, so it could be optimized. The developed model has been

Fabiano A. N. Fernandes; Sueli Rodrigues; Odisséia C. P. Gaspareto; Edson L. Oliveira

2006-01-01

101

110 Plant Protection Quarterly Vol.19(3) 2004 The papaya mealybug (PM), Paracoc-  

E-print Network

110 Plant Protection Quarterly Vol.19(3) 2004 Summary The papaya mealybug (PM), Paracoc- cus 2002 and was causing serious damage to papaya, Plumeria spp., Hibiscus spp. and other plants. The parasitoids Anagyrus loecki, Pseudleptomastix mexicana and Acerophagous papayae totalling 46 200 individuals

Reddy, Gadi VP

102

212 Florida Entomologist 89(2) June 2006 CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF THE PAPAYA MEALYBUG,  

E-print Network

212 Florida Entomologist 89(2) June 2006 CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF THE PAPAYA MEALYBUG The papaya mealybug (PM), Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae and was causing serious damage to papaya, plume- ria, hibiscus, and other plants. The parasitoids Anagyrus loecki

Reddy, Gadi VP

103

Using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA for evaluating genetic relationships among papaya cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have applied the recently developed technique of random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to the analysis of the relationships among ten cultivars of papaya (Carica papaya L.). Eleven ten-base synthetic oligonucleotides were chosen that gave multiple PCR amplification products using papaya DNA as template. These 11 primers amplified a total of 102 distinct fragments. Cultivars were scored for presence

J. I. Stiles; C. Lemme; S. Sondur; M. B. Morshidi; R. Manshardt

1993-01-01

104

Anthelmintic activity of papaya latex against patent Heligmosomoides polygyrus infections in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this experiment was to study the possible anthelmintic activity of papaya latex (Carica papaya) against Heligmosomoides polygyrus in experimentally infected mice. Five groups of BALB\\/C mice were infected with 100 Heligmosomoides polygyrus infective larvae\\/mouse. After patency (day 22), four groups of mice (groups B, C, D and E) were given papaya latex suspended in water at dose

F. Satrija; P. Nansen; S. Murtini; S. He

1995-01-01

105

CHROMOSOMAL LOCATION AND GENE PAUCITY IN THE MALE SPECIFIC REGION ON PAPAYA Y CHROMOSOME  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sex chromosomes in flowering plants evolved recently and many of them remain homomorphic, including those in papaya. We investigated the chromosomal location of papaya’s small male specific region of the hermaphrodite Y (Yh) chromosome (MSY) and its genomic features. We conducted chromosome fluoresc...

106

Development of an optimised papaya pulp nectar using a combination of irradiation and mild heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya does not sufficiently maintain desired fresh fruit quality when shipped long distances due to an easily bruised soft skin and a short shelf life. This leads to both a large supply of pulp from unsightly fruit that is never shipped and low sales due to blemished fruit. Unfortunately, traditional preservation methods (pasteurisation) negatively alter papaya’s fresh flavour. Thus to

Tory L. Parker; Sarah T. Esgro; Samantha A. Miller; Lauren E. Myers; Rustin A. Meister; Stoyan A. Toshkov; Nicki J. Engeseth

2010-01-01

107

Protection and conservation of Caricaceae germplasm with PRSV resistant transgenic papaya  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a devastating disease that has a detrimental impact on both commercial papaya production and Caricaceae germplasm conservation. The PRSV coat protein transgenic line 55-1 and derived progeny are resistant to PRSV and have saved the papaya industry in Hawaii. Here we ...

108

PARACOCCUS MARGINATUS WILLIAMS AND GRANARA DE WILLINK (HOMOPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE) AFFECTING PAPAYA IN PUERTO RICO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus was detected January 10, 2001 infesting papaya plantings in Isabela, Puerto Rico (18°28'23 N; 66°52’18W; 145.4 meters above sea level). This insect is recognized as a pest of papaya, cassava, hibiscus, eggplant, avocado, annona, and sweetpotato. P. margina...

109

TRANSGENIC VIRUS RESISTANT PAPAYA: THE HAWAIIAN 'RAINBOW' WAS RAPIDLY ADOPTED BY FARMERS AND IS OF MAJOR IMPORTANCE IN HAWAII TODAY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 1992, papaya ringspot virus was discovered in Puna, where 95% of Hawaii’s papaya was being grown. By 1995, the virus had devastated large areas of papaya in Puna. The genetically virus resistant transgenic ‘Rainbow’ papaya was released to growers in May 1998. This was the first genetically eng...

110

Application of a qualitative and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method for detecting genetically modified papaya line 55-1 in papaya products.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.) line 55-1 (55-1), which is resistant to papaya ringspot virus infection, has been marketed internationally. Many countries have mandatory labeling regulations for GM foods, and there is a need for specific methods for detecting 55-1. Here, an event- and construct-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed for detecting 55-1 in papaya products. Quantitative detection was possible for fresh papaya fruit up to dilutions of 0.001% and 0.01% (weight per weight [w/w]) for homozygous SunUp and heterozygous Rainbow cultivars, respectively, in non-GM papaya. The limit of detection and quantification was as low as 250 copies of the haploid genome according to a standard reference plasmid. The method was applicable to qualitative detection of 55-1 in eight types of processed products (canned papaya, pickled papaya, dried fruit, papaya-leaf tea, jam, puree, juice, and frozen dessert) containing papaya as a main ingredient. PMID:23122142

Nakamura, Kosuke; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Noguchi, Akio; Ohmori, Kiyomi; Kasahara, Masaki; Kitta, Kazumi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko

2013-01-15

111

Mechanical control of the sense of touch by ?-spectrin.  

PubMed

The ability to sense and respond to mechanical stimuli emanates from sensory neurons and is shared by most, if not all, animals. Exactly how such neurons receive and distribute mechanical signals during touch sensation remains mysterious. Here, we show that sensation of mechanical forces depends on a continuous, pre-stressed spectrin cytoskeleton inside neurons. Mutations in the tetramerization domain of Caenorhabditis elegans ?-spectrin (UNC-70), an actin-membrane crosslinker, cause defects in sensory neuron morphology under compressive stress in moving animals. Through atomic force spectroscopy experiments on isolated neurons, in vivo laser axotomy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging to measure force across single cells and molecules, we show that spectrin is held under constitutive tension in living animals, which contributes to elevated pre-stress in touch receptor neurons. Genetic manipulations that decrease such spectrin-dependent tension also selectively impair touch sensation, suggesting that such pre-tension is essential for efficient responses to external mechanical stimuli. PMID:24561618

Krieg, Michael; Dunn, Alexander R; Goodman, Miriam B

2014-03-01

112

Mechanical Control of the Sense of Touch by ? Spectrin  

PubMed Central

The ability to sense and respond to mechanical stimuli emanates from sensory neurons and is shared by most, if not all animals. Exactly how such neurons receive and distribute mechanical signals during touch sensation remains mysterious. Here, we show that sensation of mechanical forces depends on a continuous, pre-stressed spectrin cytoskeleton inside neurons. Mutations in the tetramerization domain of C. elegans ?-spectrin (UNC-70), an actin-membrane cross-linker, cause defects in sensory neuron morphology under compressive stress in moving animals. Through AFM force spectroscopy experiments on isolated neurons, in vivo laser axotomy and FRET imaging to measure force across single cells and molecules, we show that spectrin is held under constitutive tension in living animals, which contributes to an elevated pre-stress in touch receptor neurons. Genetic manipulations that decrease such spectrin-dependent tension also selectively impair touch sensation, suggesting that such pretension is essential for efficient responses to external mechanical stimuli. PMID:24561618

Krieg, Michael; Dunn, Alexander R.; Goodman, Miriam B.

2014-01-01

113

Touch in Dance Therapy in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors explore the use of touch within the cultural context of Japanese society, psychotherapy and a dance therapy session. The assumption is that touch stimulates a variety of responses, and, that to understand the feelings that it evokes, it is essential to view its meaning within a cultural context. They discuss implications for using touch in a dance therapy

Yukari Sakiyama; Nana Koch

2003-01-01

114

Requesting Pervasive Services by Touching RFID Tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

We suggest a general framework for requesting pervasive services by touching RFID tags. The tags conne ct the physical and digital environments. Visual symbols c ommunicate to users the objects that can be touched and the services that can be activated. When a user touches such a symbol with a mobile phone, the data stored in the tag and other

Jukka Riekki; Timo Salminen; Ismo Alakärppä

2006-01-01

115

Paper-based, capacitive touch pads.  

PubMed

Metallized paper is patterned to create touch pads of arrayed buttons that are sensitive to contact with both bare and gloved fingers. The paper-based keypad detects the change in capacitance associated with the touch of a finger to one of its buttons. Mounted on an alarmed cardboard box, the keypad requires the appropriate sequence of touches to disarm the system. PMID:22539155

Mazzeo, Aaron D; Kalb, William B; Chan, Lawrence; Killian, Matthew G; Bloch, Jean-Francis; Mazzeo, Brian A; Whitesides, George M

2012-06-01

116

Air touch: new feeling touch-panel interface you don't need to touch using audio input  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A touch-panel is display overlays which have the ability to display and receive information on the same screen. The advantage of this touch screen is that it is easy for all users to operate intuitively. In addition, a touch-panel interface is utilizable for multi-users. However a conventional system cannot provide us with direct touching in the air because the touching point differs from the actual displaying space. The reason is that a conventional touch-panel system detects the user's operation on the display screen. In the virtual 3D space, it is important to realize that the user can operate at the same space. The authors developed a prototype virtual air touch interface system for interaction in the virtual 3D space. In this paper, we propose the interface system using a theremin which is a musical instrument having the unusual aspect of being controlled by the performer's hand motions near the antennas.

Sakamoto, Kunio; Morimoto, Hiroyuki

2008-03-01

117

Plant sensing: gravity and touch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roots must integrate many stimuli in order to direct their growth as they explore the soil. Gravitropism leads to downward growth but other stimuli such as gradients in nutrients, water, biotic and abiotic stresses and physical obstacles such as rocks all act on the roots sensory systems to modify this gravitropic response. We have therefore investigated the interaction of gravity signaling and response to other stimuli such as a mechanical obstruction to downward growth. A gravitropically directed primary root of Arabidopsis thaliana (growing vertically) senses an obstacle such as a glass plate placed in its direction of growth and initiates an avoidance growth response upon contacting the barrier. This response appears to be caused by an interaction of gravitropic and thigmotropic sensory systems. The touch stimulation of the root cap leads to alteration in growth, initially in the central and later in the distal elongation zone of the root. These growth responses maintain the root tip at an angle of 136 degrees to the barrier as the root grows across the obstacle's surface. Removal of cells in the root cap by laser ablation indicate that all root cap cells are required for this growth response to the barrier. Once the end of the barrier is reached and the root can grow off the obstruciton, gravitropism appears to occur faster than in roots that did not interact with an obstacle, suggesting that the touch stimulation of the barrier may alter gravitropic signaling or response. Touch stimulation of the root cap inhibited the pH-dependent gravity signaling events that are known to be required for gravitropic response. These results imply a transient suppression of gravisensing or graviresponse by touch. Touch stimulation of root cap cells elicited an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ that appears to propagate from cell to cell throughout the cap, suggesting Ca2+ signaling may underlie the communication between gravity and touch sensing cells. Although the pgm1 -1 starch deficient mutant exhibits reduced gravity sensing due to reduced mass of statoliths in its root cap, this mutant exhibited normal bending upon contact with the barrier. This observation implies the reduced gravisensing in the mutant is sufficient to allow the gravitropic component of obstacle avoidance. However, pgm1 -1 develops a more random orientation to the barrier with time, suggesting that sustained tracking over the barrier requires continued input by the gravisensor. The growth response of roots where the root cap has been removed by laser ablation, also suggest that the root cap may be sensing a range of other, non-mechanical stimuli that are interacting with the gravity sensor to direct root growth. This work was supported by grants from NASA and NSF.

Gilroy, S.; Swanson, S.; Massa, G.

118

Analysis of ripening-related gene expression in papaya using an Arabidopsis-based microarray  

PubMed Central

Background Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a commercially important crop that produces climacteric fruits with a soft and sweet pulp that contain a wide range of health promoting phytochemicals. Despite its importance, little is known about transcriptional modifications during papaya fruit ripening and their control. In this study we report the analysis of ripe papaya transcriptome by using a cross-species (XSpecies) microarray technique based on the phylogenetic proximity between papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Papaya transcriptome analyses resulted in the identification of 414 ripening-related genes with some having their expression validated by qPCR. The transcription profile was compared with that from ripening tomato and grape. There were many similarities between papaya and tomato especially with respect to the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in primary metabolism, regulation of transcription, biotic and abiotic stress and cell wall metabolism. XSpecies microarray data indicated that transcription factors (TFs) of the MADS-box, NAC and AP2/ERF gene families were involved in the control of papaya ripening and revealed that cell wall-related gene expression in papaya had similarities to the expression profiles seen in Arabidopsis during hypocotyl development. Conclusion The cross-species array experiment identified a ripening-related set of genes in papaya allowing the comparison of transcription control between papaya and other fruit bearing taxa during the ripening process. PMID:23256600

2012-01-01

119

Folate levels and polyglutamylation profiles of papaya (Carica papaya cv. Maradol) during fruit development and ripening.  

PubMed

Folates are essential micronutrients for humans, and their deficiency causes several detrimental effects on human health. Papaya fruit is an important natural source of some micronutrients. This paper presents a first complete characterization of folate derivatives accumulated in cv. Maradol papaya during fruit development and ripening processes. During postharvest ripening, the fruit accumulated up to 24.5% of the daily folate recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for an adult in a 1 cup (145 g) portion. Tetrahydrofolate (THF) and 5-methyl-THF were the predominant folate classes observed. Surprisingly, an unusually long polyglutamylation profile of tentatively up to 17 glutamates linked to 5-methyl-THF was detected; to the authors' knowledge, this very long polyglutamyl tail has not been reported for any organism, and it is probably characteristic of this plant species. This polyglutamylation degree changed throughout fruit development and ripening, showing the largest differences at the onset of ripening. This work raises questions about the functional role of folate derivatives in fruit development. PMID:23574547

Ramos-Parra, Perla A; García-Salinas, Carolina; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; de la Garza, Rocío I Díaz

2013-04-24

120

Odour-active compounds in papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol.  

PubMed

Application of solid-phase microextraction and simultaneous distillation-extraction combined with GC-FID, GC-MS, aroma extract dilution analysis, and odour activity value were used to analyse volatile compounds from papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol and to estimate the most odour-active compounds. The analyses led to the identification of 137 compounds; 118 of them were positively identified. Twenty-five odorants were considered as odour-active compounds and contribute to the typical papaya aroma, from which ethyl butanoate, benzyl isothiocyanate, 1-hexen-3-one, (E)-?-ionone, and methyl benzoate were the most odour-active compounds. PMID:24176322

Pino, Jorge A

2014-03-01

121

Sex specific expression and distribution of small RNAs in papaya  

PubMed Central

Background Regulatory function of small non-coding RNAs (sRNA) in response to environmental and developmental cues has been established. Additionally, sRNA, also plays an important role in maintaining the heterochromatin and centromere structures of the chromosome. Papaya, a trioecious species with recently evolved sex chromosomes, has emerged as an excellent model system to study sex determination and sex chromosome evolution in plants. However, role of small RNA in papaya sex determination is yet to be explored. Results We analyzed the high throughput sRNAs reads in the Illumina libraries prepared from male, female, and hermaphrodite flowers of papaya. Using the sRNA reads, we identified 29 miRNAs that were not previously reported from papaya. Including this and two previous studies, a total of 90 miRNAs has been identified in papaya. We analyzed the expression of these miRNAs in each sex types. A total of 65 miRNAs, including 31 conserved and 34 novel mirNA, were detected in at least one library. Fourteen of the 65 miRNAs were differentially expressed among different sex types. Most of the miRNA expressed higher in male flowers were related to the auxin signaling pathways, whereas the miRNAs expressed higher in female flowers were the potential regulators of the apical meristem identity genes. Aligning the sRNA reads identified the sRNA hotspots adjacent to the gaps of the X and Y chromosomes. The X and Y chromosomes sRNA hotspots has a 7.8 and 4.4 folds higher expression of sRNA, respectively, relative to the chromosome wide average. Approximately 75% of the reads aligned to the X chromosome hotspot was identical to that of the Y chromosome hotspot. Conclusion By analyzing the large-scale sRNA sequences from three sex types, we identified the sRNA hotspots flanking the gaps of papaya X, Y, and Yh chromosome. The sRNAs expression patterns in these regions were reminiscent of the pericentromeric region indicating that the only remaining gap in each of these chromosomes is likely the centromere. We also identified 14 differentially expressed miRNAs in male, female and hermaphrodite flowers of papaya. Our results provide valuable information toward understanding the papaya sex determination. PMID:24410969

2014-01-01

122

How Does a Touch Sensor Work?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about how touch sensors work, while reinforcing their similarities to the human sense of touch. They look at human senses and their electronic imitators, with special focus on the nervous system, skin and touch sensors. A PowerPoint® presentation explains stimulus-to-response pathways, how touch sensors are made and work, and then gives students a chance to handle and get familiar with the LEGO touch sensor, including programming LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robots to use touch sensor input to play music. Students take pre/post quizzes and watch a short online video. The mini-activities prepare students for the associated activity. This lesson and its associated activity enables students to appreciate how robots can take input from sensors, and use that to make decisions to move.

GK-12 Program, Computational Neurobiology Center,

123

Papaya Varietal Resistance to Internal Yellowing: Reducing Food Safety Risk  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Internal yellowing (IY) is a bacterial disease of ripening papaya fruit that is caused by the enteric bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae. The disease is characterized by yellow discoloration of flesh, tissue softening and a foul or rotten odor that reduces the quality of fresh fruit and value-added pr...

124

DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF PAPAYA PROTEIN PROFILE USING PROTEOMIC TOOLS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of our project is to evaluate the potential for using proteomic approaches to discover the basis for differential susceptibility of Hawaii papaya cultivars to the root rot pathogen Phytophthora palmivora. Based on previous studies showing that Kapoho was the most resistance cultivar an...

125

Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract  

PubMed Central

Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1?mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

2014-01-01

126

The treatment of paediatric burns using topical papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the limited resources for the management of burns in most regions of Africa there is a significant role for many aspects of traditional African medicine. The active component of many traditional preparations is often of plant origin and more than 25 plants have been described as useful in relations to burns and wound healing. Carica papaya is currently

Ian F. Starley; Paul Mohammed; Geisela Schneider; Stephen W. Bickler

1999-01-01

127

Drying of Guava and Papaya: Impact of Different Drying Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat pump dryers (HPD) are known as high-energy-efficiency devices with low economic cost. As it is usually a closed system, the drying media can be substituted by inert gases. In this study, the effect of nitrogen and carbon dioxide on guava and papaya were investigated. Both drying kinetics and quality of these dried fruits resulting from the two methods were

M. N. A. Hawlader; Conrad O. Perera; Min Tian; K. L. Yeo

2006-01-01

128

75 FR 22207 - Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...include requirements for field sanitation, hot water treatment, and fruit fly trapping...fruit fly trapping, field sanitation, and hot water treatment be employed to remove pests...require the treatment of papayas with a hot water dip. The dip requires that...

2010-04-28

129

Papaya fruit quality management during the postharvest supply chain  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papayas are popular in tropical and subtropical regions and are being exported in large volumes to Europe, the U.S. and Japan. The fruit has excellent taste, exotic flavor and nutritional properties, being rich in vitamins A, C, and antioxidants. However, due to its highly perishable nature it has n...

130

Development of a Gene-Centered SSR Atlas as a Resource for Papaya (Carica papaya) Marker-Assisted Selection and Population Genetic Studies  

PubMed Central

Carica papaya (papaya) is an economically important tropical fruit. Molecular marker-assisted selection is an inexpensive and reliable tool that has been widely used to improve fruit quality traits and resistance against diseases. In the present study we report the development and validation of an atlas of papaya simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We integrated gene predictions and functional annotations to provide a gene-centered perspective for marker-assisted selection studies. Our atlas comprises 160,318 SSRs, from which 21,231 were located in genic regions (i.e. inside exons, exon-intron junctions or introns). A total of 116,453 (72.6%) of all identified repeats were successfully mapped to one of the nine papaya linkage groups. Primer pairs were designed for markers from 9,594 genes (34.5% of the papaya gene complement). Using papaya-tomato orthology assessments, we assembled a list of 300 genes (comprising 785 SSRs) potentially involved in fruit ripening. We validated our atlas by screening 73 SSR markers (including 25 fruit ripening genes), achieving 100% amplification rate and uncovering 26% polymorphism rate between the parental genotypes (Sekati and JS12). The SSR atlas presented here is the first comprehensive gene-centered collection of annotated and genome positioned papaya SSRs. These features combined with thousands of high-quality primer pairs make the atlas an important resource for the papaya research community. PMID:25393538

Vidal, Newton Medeiros; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Ramos, Helaine Christine Cancela; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Venancio, Thiago Motta

2014-01-01

131

TeslaTouch: Electrovibration for Touch Surfacesu Olivier Bau1,2  

E-print Network

TeslaTouch: Electrovibration for Touch Surfacesu Olivier Bau1,2 , Ivan Poupyrev1 , Ali Israr1, PA 15213 chris.harrison@cs.cmu.edu Figure 1: TeslaTouch uses electrovibration to control actuators such as piezoelectric bending motors, voice coils, and solenoids [10, 27]. The actuation can

Poupyrev, Ivan

132

The Sound of Touch: On-body Touch and Gesture Sensing Based on Transdermal Ultrasound Propagation  

E-print Network

The Sound of Touch: On-body Touch and Gesture Sensing Based on Transdermal Ultrasound Propagation an interest- ing interaction platform. We propose a novel sensing tech- nique based on transdermal low an adaptive threshold is Figure 1. We proposed a novel on-body touch sensing method based on transdermal

Rajamani, Sriram K.

133

Purification and characterization of a papaya (Carica papaya L.) pectin methylesterase isolated from a commercial papain preparation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We purified a single stable pectin methylesterase (CpL-PME; EC 3.1.1.11) from a commercial papain preparation, which is isolated from Carica papaya (L.) fruit latex. This CpL-PME was separated from the abundant cysteine endopeptidases activities using sequential hydrophobic interaction and cation-ex...

134

Analysis on virus resistance and fruit quality for T4 generation of transgenic papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular biological characterization, fruit characters, and nutrients were analyzed for T4 generation of transgenic papaya.\\u000a All transgenic papaya plants with the mutated replicase (RP) gene from papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) showed high resistance\\u000a or immunity against PRSV in the field. The RP transgene can be steadily inherited to, and expressed at RNA level, the progenies.\\u000a The growth characteristics of transgenic

Xiangdong Wei; Congyu Lan; Zhijing Lu; Changming Ye

2007-01-01

135

Cloning and expression analysis of phytoene desaturase and ?-carotene desaturase genes in Carica papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruit flesh color of papaya is an important nutritional quality trait and is due to the accumulation of carotenoid. To\\u000a elucidate the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in Carica papaya, the phytoene desaturase (PDS) and the ?-carotene desaturase (ZDS) genes were isolated from papaya (named CpPDS and CpZDS) using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approach, and their expression levels

P. Yan; X. Z. Gao; W. T. Shen; P. Zhou

2011-01-01

136

High-Density Linkage Mapping Revealed Suppression of Recombination at the Sex Determination Locus in Papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-density genetic map of papaya (Carica papaya L.) was constructed using 54 F2 plants derived from cultivars Kapoho and SunUp with 1501 markers, including 1498 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, the papaya ringspot virus coat protein marker, morphological sex type, and fruit flesh color. These markers were mapped into 12 linkage groups at a LOD score of 5.0

Hao Ma; Paul H. Moore; Zhiyong Liu; Minna S. Kim; Qingyi Yu; Maureen M. M. Fitch; Terry Sekioka; Andrew H. Paterson; Ray Ming

2004-01-01

137

Chromosomal location and gene paucity of the male specific region on papaya Y chromosome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex chromosomes in flowering plants evolved recently and many of them remain homomorphic, including those in papaya. We investigated\\u000a the chromosomal location of papaya’s small male specific region of the hermaphrodite Y (Yh) chromosome (MSY) and its genomic features. We conducted chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of Yh-specific bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and placed the MSY near the centromere

Qingyi Yu; Shaobin Hou; Roman Hobza; F. Alex Feltus; Xiue Wang; Weiwei Jin; Rachel L. Skelton; Andrea Blas; Cornelia Lemke; Jimmy H. Saw; Paul H. Moore; Maqsudul Alam; Jiming Jiang; Andrew H. Paterson; Boris Vyskot; Ray Ming

2007-01-01

138

Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

2010-01-01

139

Touching numeral segmentation using water reservoir concept  

E-print Network

Touching numeral segmentation using water reservoir concept U. Pal a,*, A. Belaiid b , Ch. Choisy b is mainly based on features obtained from a concept based on water reservoir. A reservoir is a metaphor to illustrate the region where numerals touch. Reservoir is obtained by considering accumulation of water poured

Belaïd, Abdel

140

Hall position encoder-based touch surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

We can note that in these days touch screen technology began to flourish and it is more widely used both in hardware and in different applications. A touch screen based interface is beginning to be a basic requirement in almost every mobile appliance, and at the same time demand to equip other products with this technology is on the rise.

Norbert Hoz; Jozsef Veres; Gyorgy Cserey

2011-01-01

141

Touch increases autonomic coupling between romantic partners  

PubMed Central

Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration). Fourteen couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy. PMID:24734009

Chatel-Goldman, Jonas; Congedo, Marco; Jutten, Christian; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

2014-01-01

142

The Place of Touch in the Arts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, I argue that although philosophers of art have legitimately examined and emphasized the role of sight and hearing in respect to art appreciation, for the most part they have neglected the role of touch. I develop the idea that while sight and hearing form the melody line of art appreciation, touch is its bass line, one that is…

Perricone, Christopher

2007-01-01

143

Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Papaya ringspot virus.  

PubMed

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), which causes disease symptoms similar to PRSV, threaten commercial production of both non-transgenic-papaya and PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in China. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay to detect PLDMV was developed previously. In this study, the development of another RT-LAMP assay to distinguish among transgenic, PRSV-infected and PLDMV-infected papaya by detection of PRSV is reported. A set of four RT-LAMP primers was designed based on the highly conserved region of the P3 gene of PRSV. The RT-LAMP method was specific and sensitive in detecting PRSV, with a detection limit of 1.15×10(-6)?g of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR. Field application of the RT-LAMP assay demonstrated that samples positive for PRSV were detected only in non-transgenic papaya, whereas samples positive for PLDMV were detected only in commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya. This suggests that PRSV remains the major limiting factor for non-transgenic-papaya production, and the emergence of PLDMV threatens the commercial transgenic cultivar in China. However, this study, combined with the earlier development of an RT-LAMP assay for PLDMV, will provide a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective diagnostic power to distinguish virus infections in papaya. PMID:24769198

Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Yang, Yong; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

2014-08-01

144

Frictional Widgets: Enhancing Touch Interfaces with Programmable Friction  

E-print Network

Frictional Widgets: Enhancing Touch Interfaces with Programmable Friction Abstract Touch the design possibilities offered by augmenting touchscreens with programmable surface friction. Four exemplar of touch interactions can be enhanced when using a touchscreen with dynamically varied surface friction. We

Levesque, Vincent

145

MATH 132 Solutions to Midterm 2 (papaya) 1.10 pts According to the poem by Ogden Nash,  

E-print Network

MATH 132 Solutions to Midterm 2 (papaya) 1.10 pts According to the poem by Ogden Nash, Big fleas to Midterm 2 (papaya) Wednesday, April 10, 2013 #12;Page 3 of 3 (Strictly speaking, to use the integral test

Sutherland, Scott

146

Reduced Pleasant Touch Appraisal in the Presence of a Disgusting Odor  

PubMed Central

Objectives Odors are powerful emotional stimuli influencing mood, attention and behavior. Here we examined if odors change the perception of pleasant touch. In line with the warning function of the olfactory system, we proposed that especially unpleasant odors will reduce touch pleasantness, presumably through a disgust-related mechanism. Methods Forty-five healthy participants (mean age 23.3 +/? 3years SD, 24 females) were presented to slow (3 cm/s) and fast (30 cm/s) brush stroking delivered by a robot to the forearm. Touch pleasantness under the influence of an unpleasant odor (Civette, smelling like feces) and an intensity matched pleasant odor (Rose) was compared to an odorless control condition. In a pilot study with 30 participants (mean age 25.9 +/?6 years, 21 females), the odors were matched according to their intensity, and we studied the influence of disgust sensitivity on the perception of 4 different odor qualities. Results The unpleasant odor decreased touch pleasantness for both stroking velocities compared to the odorless control (p<0.005) whereas the rose odor did not change touch pleasantness significantly. Disgust sensitivity was correlated with the modulation of touch pleasantness. The pilot study revealed a significant correlation between disgust sensitivity and the perception of the unpleasant odor qualities (r?=??0.56; p?=?0.007), but not with any of the other odors. Conclusion Unpleasant odors are powerful in modulating touch pleasantness, and disgust might be a moderating variable. PMID:24664177

Croy, Ilona; Angelo, Silvia D'; Olausson, Håkan

2014-01-01

147

Determining sex and screening for the adventitious presence of transgenic material in Carica papaya L. seed germplasm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) is a devastating disease that has a detrimental impact on both commercial papaya production and Caricaceae germplasm conservation. The PRSV coat protein transgenic line 55-1 and derived progeny are resistant to PRSV and have saved the papaya industry in Hawaii. However,...

148

40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the requirement of...

2010-07-01

149

40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the requirement of...

2012-07-01

150

40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the requirement of...

2013-07-01

151

40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

...false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the requirement of...

2014-07-01

152

40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the requirement of...

2011-07-01

153

ANALYSIS OF PAPAYA BAC END SEQUENCES REVEALS FIRST INSIGHTS INTO THE ORGANIZATION OF A FRUIT TREE GENOME  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a major tree fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions with an estimated genome size of 372 Mbp. We present the analysis of 4.7% of the papaya genome based on BAC end sequences (BESs) representing 17 million high quality bases. Microsatellites discovered in 5,452 BE...

154

Effects of chitosan and plant extracts on growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, anthracnose levels and quality of papaya fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this research were to evaluate the in vitro fungicidal effect of chitosan and aqueous extracts of custard apple leaves, papaya leaves and papaya seeds, and the combination of chitosan and plant extracts on the development of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, which causes anthracnose on papaya. Chitosan at 2.0% and 3.0% had a fungicidal effect on C. gloeosporioides. Extracts alone

S. Bautista-Baños; M. Hernández-López; E. Bosquez-Molina; C. L. Wilson

2003-01-01

155

ANALYSIS OF PAPAYA BAC END SEQUENCES REVEALS FIRST INSIGHTS INTO THE ORGANIZATION OF A TREE-FRUIT GENOME  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a major tree fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions with an estimated genome size of 372 Mbp. Here we present the sequence analysis of 4.7% of the papaya genome based on 50,661 BAC end sequences (BESs) representing 17,483,563 high quality bases generated from 26,...

156

Brain mechanisms for processing affective touch.  

PubMed

Despite the crucial role of touch in social development, there is very little functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research on brain mechanisms underlying social touch processing. The "skin as a social organ" hypothesis is supported by the discovery of C-tactile (CT) nerves that are present in hairy skin and project to the insular cortex. CT-fibers respond specifically well to slow, gentle touch such as that which occurs during close social interactions. Given the social significance of such touch researchers have proposed that the CT-system represents an evolutionarily conserved mechanism important for normative social development. However, it is currently unknown whether brain regions other than the insula are involved in processing CT-targeted touch. In the current fMRI study, we sought to characterize the brain regions involved in the perception of CT-supported affective touch. Twenty-two healthy adults received manual brush strokes to either the arm or palm. A direct contrast of the blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) response to gentle brushing of the arm and palm revealed the involvement of a network of brain regions, in addition to the posterior insula, during CT-targeted affective touch to the arm. This network included areas known to be involved in social perception and social cognition, including the right posterior superior temporal sulcus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)/dorso anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Connectivity analyses with an mPFC/dACC seed revealed coactivation with the left insula and amygdala during arm touch. These findings characterize a network of brain regions beyond the insula involved in coding CT-targeted affective touch. PMID:22125232

Gordon, Ilanit; Voos, Avery C; Bennett, Randi H; Bolling, Danielle Z; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Kaiser, Martha D

2013-04-01

157

Sensitivity of a real-time PCR method for the detection of transgenes in a mixture of transgenic and non-transgenic seeds of papaya (Carica papaya L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Genetically engineered (GE) ringspot virus-resistant papaya cultivars ‘Rainbow’ and ‘SunUp’ have been grown in Hawai’i for over 10 years. In Hawai’i, the introduction of GE papayas into regions where non-GE cultivars are grown and where feral non-GE papayas exist have been accompanied with concerns associated with transgene flow. Of particular concern is the possibility of transgenic seeds being found in non-GE papaya fruits via cross-pollination. Development of high-throughput methods to reliably detect the adventitious presence of such transgenic material would benefit both the scientific and regulatory communities. Results We assessed the accuracy of using conventional qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as well as real-time PCR-based assays to quantify the presence of transgenic DNA from bulk samples of non-GE papaya seeds. In this study, an optimized method of extracting high quality DNA from dry seeds of papaya was standardized. A reliable, sensitive real-time PCR method for detecting and quantifying viral coat protein (cp) transgenes in bulk seed samples utilizing the endogenous papain gene is presented. Quantification range was from 0.01 to 100 ng/?l of GE-papaya DNA template with a detection limit as low as 0.01% (10 pg). To test this system, we simulated transgene flow using known quantities of GE and non-GE DNA and determined that 0.038% (38 pg) GE papaya DNA could be detected using real-time PCR. We also validated this system by extracting DNA from known ratios of GE seeds to non-GE seeds of papaya followed by real-time PCR detection and observed a reliable detection limit of 0.4%. Conclusions This method for the quick and sensitive detection of transgenes in bulked papaya seed lots using conventional as well as real-time PCR-based methods will benefit numerous stakeholders. In particular, this method could be utilized to screen selected fruits from maternal non-GE papaya trees in Hawai’i for the presence of transgenic seed at typical regulatory threshold levels. Incorporation of subtle differences in primers and probes for variations in cp worldwide should allow this method to be utilized elsewhere when and if deregulation of transgenic papaya occurs. PMID:24004548

2013-01-01

158

Assessment of genetic and epigenetic changes following cryopreservation in papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vitrification based cryopreservation technique for storage of in vitro shoot tips of papaya has been tested to ensure applicability\\u000a across a range of genotypes and to assess the stability of both genotype and phenotype of such clonal material following cryopreservation.\\u000a Shoot tips of 12 genotypes were cryopreserved, recovery rates were determined and resultant plants were screened for genetic\\u000a and

A. Kaity; S. E. Ashmore; R. A. Drew; M. E. Dulloo

2008-01-01

159

A bio-hybrid anaerobic treatment of papaya processing wastes  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid anaerobic treatment of papaya processing wastes is technically feasible. At 30/sup 0/C, the optimal organic loading rates for maximizing organic removal efficiency and methane production are 1.3 and 4.8 g TCOD/1/day, respectively. Elimination of post-handling and treatment of digested effluent can also be achieved. The system is more suitable for those processing plants with a waste amount of more than 3,000 metric tons per year.

Yang, P.Y.; Chou, C.Y.

1987-01-01

160

Detection of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus by reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.  

PubMed

Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) can infect transgenic papaya resistant to a related pathogen, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), posing a substantial threat to papaya production in China. Current detection methods, however, are unable to be used for rapid detection in the field. Here, a reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of PLDMV, using a set of four RT-LAMP primers designed based on the conserved sequence of PLDMV CP. The RT-LAMP method detected specifically PLDMV and was highly sensitive, with a detection limit of 1.32×10(-6) ?g of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR, while also requiring significantly less time and equipment. The effectiveness of RT-LAMP and one-step RT-PCR in detecting the virus were compared using 90 field samples of non-transgenic papaya and 90 field samples of commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya from Hainan Island. None of the non-transgenic papaya tested positive for PLDMV using either method. In contrast, 19 of the commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya samples tested positive by RT-LAMP assay, and 6 of those tested negative by RT-PCR. Therefore, the PLDMV-specific RT-LAMP is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective tool in the field diagnosis and control of PLDMV. PMID:24100065

Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

2014-01-01

161

The Adoption of genetically modified papaya in Hawaii and its implications for developing countries 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

As agricultural biotechnology becomes increasingly commercialised, numerous constraints limit adoption by developing-country producers. These include technology access, impacts on farmers' yields and profits, privatisation of research and intellectual property, biosafety regulatory frameworks, and trade-related market restrictions. This essay analyses development of the genetically modified papaya and its commercialisation in Hawaii as a response to a virulent plant disease, papaya ringspot

C. Gonsalves; D. R. Lee; D. Gonsalves

2007-01-01

162

Elicitor-induced Plant Defense and Pathogenesis-Related Gene Expression in Carica papaya L.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The basic elements of a papaya systemic acquired resistance (SAR) pathway have been reported to resemble that described in Arabidopsis thaliana. An NPR1 (nonexpresser of pathogenesis-related genes) homolog (CpNPR1) was isolated from papaya and partially characterized (Zhu et al., 2003). To character...

163

IRRADIATION-DERIVED SEX REVERSAL MUTANTS FOR CLONING SEX DETERMINATION GENES IN PAPAYA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unlike most animals, most flowering plants are hermaphrodites possessing both male and female organs. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the few plant species that produce male, female, and hermaphrodite flowers on separate individuals. These variations have distinctive morphologies and sexual func...

164

Irradiation-derived sex reversal mutants for cloning sex determination genes in papaya  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unlike most animals, most flowering plants are hermaphrodites possessing both male and female organs. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the few plant species that produce male, female, and hermaphrodite flowers on separate individuals. These variations have distinctive morphologies and sexual func...

165

DEVELOPMENT, REPRODUCTION, AND SURVIVAL OF PAPAYA MEALYBUG (HOMOPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE) ON DIFFERENT HOST PLANT SPECIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus @illiams and Granara de Willink (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae)) is a polyghagus insect and a pest of various tropical crops and ornamentals. It was introduced into the United States in 1998 in Florida. Papaya mealybug potentially poses a threat to numerous agricul...

166

A genetic linkage map of papaya based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic linkage map of papaya (Carica papaya L.) was constructed using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and a F2 population derived from a University of Hawaii UH breeding line 356 x ‘Sunrise’ cross. A total of 596 10-mer primers were screened, and 96 polymorphisms were detected. At LOD 4.0, 62 of these markers mapped to 11 linkage groups

S. N. Sondur; R. M. Manshardt; J. I. Stiles

1996-01-01

167

Preharvest factors and the heat sensitivity of field-grown ripening papaya fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesocarp softening during papaya (Carica papaya L.) ripening was impaired by heating so that areas of the flesh failed to soften. Disruption of the softening process varied with harvest date. The sensitivity of fruit to the injurious treatment was greatest during the winter months. During January, exposure to more than 27 min at 49 °C was sufficient to induce areas

Robert E. Paull

1995-01-01

168

Draft Genome Sequence of Erwinia mallotivora BT-MARDI, Causative Agent of Papaya Dieback Disease.  

PubMed

Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya trees infected with dieback disease, which were planted at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Malaysia. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of E. mallotivora BT-MARDI, which offers an important source of information for understanding pathogen and host interaction during papaya dieback development. PMID:24812220

Redzuan, R Ahmad; Abu Bakar, N; Rozano, L; Badrun, R; Mat Amin, N; Mohd Raih, M F

2014-01-01

169

METHYL JASMONATE REDUCES DECAY AND MAINTAINS POSTHARVEST QUALITY OF PAPAYA 'SUNRISE'  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Exposure of papaya (Carica papaya L., cv. Sunrise) fruit to methyl jasmonate (MJ) vapors (ten to the -5 or ten to the -4 M) for 16 h at 20 degrees C inhibited fungal decay and reduced chilling injury development and loss of firmness during storage for 14-32 days at 10 degrees C and shelf life (4 day...

170

Atypical internal yellowing of papaya fruit in Hawaii caused by Enterobacter sakazakii  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Internal yellowing (IY), characterized by yellow discolored tissue around the papaya (Carica papaya) seed cavity, diffuse margins and the presence of a distinctly rotten odor, was first reported in 1987. These symptoms were associated with the causal agent Enterobacter cloacae. Here we report the fo...

171

The Papaya Y Chromosome Evolved Recently and Shows Gene Paucity and DNA Sequence Expansion  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sex chromosomes in flowering plants, in contrast to those in animals, evolved relatively recently and only a few are heteromorphic. At cytological level, the sex chromosomes of papaya appear homomorphic, nevertheless, we are finding the papaya Y chromosome shows features of incipient sex chromosome ...

172

Benzyl isothiocyanate is the chief or sole anthelmintic in papaya seed extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya) seeds were extracted in an aqueous buffer or in organic solvents, fractionated by chromatography on silica and aliquots tested for anthelmintic activity by viability assays using Caenorhabditis elegans. For all preparations and fractions tested, anthelmintic activity and benzyl isothiocyanate content correlated positively. Aqueous extracts prepared from heat-treated seeds had no anthelmintic activity or benzyl isothiocyanate content although

Rohan Kermanshai; Brian E McCarry; Jack Rosenfeld; Peter S Summers; Elizabeth A Weretilnyk; George J Sorger

2001-01-01

173

On the evolution and molecular epidemiology of the potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is found throughout the tropics and subtropics. Its P biotype is a devastating pathogen of papaya crops and its W biotype of cucurbits. PRSV-P is thought to arise by mutation from PRSV-W. However, the relative impact of mutation and movement on the structure of PRSV populations is not well characterized. To investigate this, we

Marion F. Bateson; Rosemarie E. Lines; Peter Revill; Worawan Chaleeprom; Cuong V. Ha; Adrian J. Gibbs; James L. Dale

2002-01-01

174

DEVELOPING TRANSGENIC PAPAYA TO IMPROVE BROAD DISEASE RESISTANCE AGAINST FUNGAL PATHOGENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.), one of the more important fruit crops of the tropics, has limited resistance to a range of fungal pathogens that may kill the plants or, at a minimum, reduce productivity and quality of the fruit. Phytoalexins have been shown to be important natural components in the defe...

175

Effect of papaya trunk angle on infestation by white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two papaya (Carica papaya L.) seedlings growing in one planting hole often results in angular or non-vertical growth of the trees. Data on trunk angularity, or leaning, (deviation from the vertical line of reference) and white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni-Tozzetti (Hemiptera: Dias...

176

Evaluating Hawaii-Grown Papaya for Resistance to Internal Yellowing Disease Caused by Enterobacter cloacae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivars and breeding lines were evaluated for resistance to Enterobacter cloacae (Jordan) Hormaeche & Edwards, the bacterial causal agent of internal yellowing disease (IY), using a range of concentrations of the bacterium. Linear regression analysis was performed and IY ...

177

EFFECT OF NATURAL PRODUCTS ON DECAY AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF FRESH-CUT PAPAYAS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of naturally occurring volatile compounds on decay and antioxidant activities in fresh-cut papayas (Carica papaya L.) was studied. Exposure to methyl jasmonate (MJ), methyl salicylate (MS) or allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) substantially delayed the onset and reduced the severity of decay du...

178

SEQUENCE SIMILARITY BETWEEN THE VIRAL CP GENE AND THE TRANSGENE IN TRANSGENIC PAPAYAS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) coat protein transgene present in ‘Rainbow’ and ‘SunUp’ papayas disclose high sequence similarity (>89%) to the cp gene from PRSV BR and TH. Despite this, both isolates are able to break down the resistance in ‘Rainbow’, while only the latter is able to do so in ‘Sun...

179

TISSUE DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF LYCOPENE BETA-CYCLASE GENE IN PAPAYA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To elucidate the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in papaya, we took a candidate gene approach to clone the lycopene beta-cyclase genes, LCY-B. A papaya LCY-B ortholog, cpLCY-B, was successfully identified from both cDNA and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries and complete genomic sequenc...

180

Feeding on Papaya Flowers Enhances Mating Competitiveness of Male Oriental Fruit Flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), are attracted to and feed on methyl eugenol. The goal of the present study was to determine whether feeding on a methyl eugenol-bearing plant, papaya ( Carica papaya L.) would result in a mating advantage for B. dorsalis males. Mating frequencies of males given access to flowers (treated) and flower-deprived males

Todd E. Shelly

181

Physico-chemical and sensory quality of fresh cut papaya (Carica papaya) packaged in micro-perforated polyvinyl chloride containers.  

PubMed

Papaya cubes at maturity stages, 5-45 % yellow (more green than yellow) and 55-80 % yellow (more yellow than green) were washed with 5 % H2O2, drained and packaged in PVC trays having five, seven and ten micro-perforations and stored for 19 days. PVC trays with 3 mm diameter punch holes were used as the control. Based on physico-chemical properties, optimum maturity for papaya and micro-perforation level of PVC trays were determined. Effectiveness of citric acid in prevention of browning was also tested. Firmness and TSS changed significantly, on day 19. O2, CO2 and C2H4 concentration changed 2.4 to 4.2 %, 23.4 to 5.9 %, and 0 to 0.13 % respectively, from day 3 to 19. pH and titratable acidity did not change significantly throughout the storage. Pretreated papaya cubes, packaged in PVC trays with ten micro-perforations, kept under 4 °C had storage lives of 19 days. PMID:25477661

Jayathunge, K G L R; Gunawardhana, D K S N; Illeperuma, D C K; Chandrajith, U G; Thilakarathne, B M K S; Fernando, M D; Palipane, K B

2014-12-01

182

Genome sequence comparison reveals a candidate gene involved in male-hermaphrodite differentiation in papaya (Carica papaya) trees.  

PubMed

The sex type of papaya (Carica papaya) is determined by the pair of sex chromosomes (XX, female; XY, male; and XY(h), hermaphrodite), in which there is a non-recombining genomic region in the Y and Y(h) chromosomes. This region is presumed to be involved in determination of males and hermaphrodites; it is designated as the male-specific region in the Y chromosome (MSY) and the hermaphrodite-specific region in the Y(h) chromosome (HSY). Here, we identified the genes determining male and hermaphrodite sex types by comparing MSY and HSY genomic sequences. In the MSY and HSY genomic regions, we identified 14,528 nucleotide substitutions and 965 short indels with a large gap and two highly diverged regions. In the predicted genes expressed in flower buds, we found no nucleotide differences leading to amino acid changes between the MSY and HSY. However, we found an HSY-specific transposon insertion in a gene (SVP like) showing a similarity to the Short Vegetative Phase (SVP) gene. Study of SVP-like transcripts revealed that the MSY allele encoded an intact protein, while the HSY allele encoded a truncated protein. Our findings demonstrated that the SVP-like gene is a candidate gene for male-hermaphrodite determination in papaya. PMID:25416421

Ueno, Hiroki; Urasaki, Naoya; Natsume, Satoshi; Yoshida, Kentaro; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Terauchi, Ryohei; Matsumura, Hideo

2014-11-22

183

Lucid touch: a see-through mobile device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch is a compelling input modality for interactive devices; however, touch input on the small screen of a mobile device is problematic because a user's fingers occlude the graphical elements he wishes to work with. In this paper, we present LucidTouch, a mobile device that addresses this limitation by allowing the user to control the application by touching the back

Daniel Wigdor; Clifton Forlines; Patrick Baudisch; John Barnwell; Chia Shen

2007-01-01

184

Investigation of "Thermal Touch" Response of Coated Steel Plates Employing Square-Wave-Excited Photothermal Infrared Radiometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a person is touching an object, which is at a different temperature than the person's body, heat starts to flow from the body to the object (or in the other direction), and as a result, the temperature of the skin starts to decrease (increase), leading to a cold (warm) perception of the object's temperature. It is well accepted that the degree of thermal impact of touching the free surface of a bulk material is determined by the thermal effusivity of that material. In this study, the more complicated situation of touching a coating covering a substrate with different thermal properties is studied. Insight in the involved heat transport effects and their effect on the thermal touch is gained by a photothermal model experiment in which the effect of touching on the measured surface temperature, and from there, the calculated heat flux is mimicked by the effect of illumination by laser light.

Menon, Preethy; Rajesh, Ravindran; Xiong, Jichuan; Glorieux, Christ

2012-11-01

185

Touch Sensitive Apparel TouchSensitive is a haptic apparel that allows massage  

E-print Network

Touch · Sensitive Apparel Abstract Touch·Sensitive is a haptic apparel that allows massage therapy Apparel, Wearable, Haptic, Massage Therapy, Modular Design, Sensory Interface, Fashion Design ACM Tangible Media Group MIT Media Laboratory http://architectradure.blogspot.com cati@media.mit.edu auth4

Ishii, Hiroshi

186

Automatic segmentation of overlapping and touching chromosomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a technique to segment overlapping and touching chromosomes of human metaphase cells. Automated chromosome classification has been an important pattern recognition problem for decades, numerous attempts were made in the past to characterize chromosome band patterns. But successful separation between touching and overlapping chromosomes is vital for correct classification. Since chromosomes are non-rigid objects, common methods for separation between touching chromosomes are not usable. We proposed a method using shape concave and convex information, topology analysis information, and band pale paths for segmentation of touching and overlapping chromosomes. To detect shape concave and convex information, we should first pre-segment the chromosomes and get the edge of overlapping and touching chromosomes. After filtering the original image using edge-preserving filter, we adopt the Otsu's segmentation method and extract the boundary of chromosomes. Hence the boundary can be used for segment the overlapping and touching chromosomes by detecting the concave and convex information based on boundary information. Most of the traditional boundary-based algorithms detect corners based on two steps: the first step is to acquire the smoothed version of curvature at every point along the contour, and the second step is to detect the positions where curvature maximal occur and threshold the curvature as corner points. Recently wavelet transform has been adopted into corner detection algorithms. Since the metaphase overlapping chromosomes has multi-scale corners, we adopt a multi-scale corner detection method based on Hua's method for corner detection. For touching chromosomes, it is convenient to split them using pale paths. Starting from concave corner points, a search algorithm is represented. The searching algorithm traces three pixels into the object in the direction of the normal vector in order to avoid stopping at the initial boundary until it reaches to another boundary or tracing route. For overlapping chromosomes, the searching algorithm fails. We proposed a topology information based method for analyzing overlapping and touching chromosomes. Mihail Popescu adopts Cross Section Sequence Graph (CSSG) method for shape analyzing. Gady Agam proposed Discrete Curvature Function for splitting touching and overlapping chromosomes. But due to the non-rigid property of chromosomes, it is hard to determine the actual topology structure of chromosomes. In this paper we proposed a new method to produce topology information of chromosomes and had got good results in chromosome segmentation.

Yuan, Zhiqiang; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Renli; Yu, Chang

2001-09-01

187

Perception of touch quality in piano tones.  

PubMed

Both timbre and dynamics of isolated piano tones are determined exclusively by the speed with which the hammer hits the strings. This physical view has been challenged by pianists who emphasize the importance of the way the keyboard is touched. This article presents empirical evidence from two perception experiments showing that touch-dependent sound components make sounds with identical hammer velocities but produced with different touch forms clearly distinguishable. The first experiment focused on finger-key sounds: musicians could identify pressed and struck touches. When the finger-key sounds were removed from the sounds, the effect vanished, suggesting that these sounds were the primary identification cue. The second experiment looked at key-keyframe sounds that occur when the key reaches key-bottom. Key-bottom impact was identified from key motion measured by a computer-controlled piano. Musicians were able to discriminate between piano tones that contain a key-bottom sound from those that do not. However, this effect might be attributable to sounds associated with the mechanical components of the piano action. In addition to the demonstrated acoustical effects of different touch forms, visual and tactile modalities may play important roles during piano performance that influence the production and perception of musical expression on the piano. PMID:25373983

Goebl, Werner; Bresin, Roberto; Fujinaga, Ichiro

2014-11-01

188

Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching.  

PubMed

Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this 'information about'. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

Turvey, M T; Carello, Claudia

2011-11-12

189

[Effect of the addition of tropical fruits--pineapple (Ananas comosus) and papaya (Carica papaya)--on the production of biological silage from fish].  

PubMed

Microbial Fish Silage was produced from under-utilized fish mixed with juice and waste fruits (pineapple and papaya) at 35 degrees C. Six different products were elaborated as following: A: fish muscle with pineapple juice; B: fish muscle with fruit wastes; C: gutted fish with pineapple juice; D: gutted fish with fruit wastes; E: whole fish with pineapple juice; F: whole fish with fruit wastes. Process development was evaluated by measuring: pH, acidity, non-protein nitrogen, consistency and exudate liquid. Results indicated a slow decrease in pH value and production of acidity during 20 storage days. The addition of fruits to silage did not have any effect on these values. Silage liquefaction or hydrolysis was related to the following parameters: consistency, non-protein nitrogen and exudate liquid. The addition of fruits was related to silage liquefaction or hydrolysis, and it was measured by the consistency. Exudate liquid and non-protein nitrogen increased during storage time. However silage made from whole fish showed highest values in those parameters than other processing conditions. This results suggested that hydrolysis involve first enzymes from guts and second enzymes from muscle and head. Pineapple juice did not contribute to hydrolysis process. Mainly sensory changes in the silage occurs during first 24 hours and they were related to chemical changes. Proximal analysis did not change during silage process and microbial counts indicated the freshness of raw material used i this study. PMID:8779625

Bello, R; Cardillo, E; Martínez, R

1993-09-01

190

Rickettsial Relative Associated with Papaya Bunchy Top Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The phylogeny of a previously unidentified, obligate laticifer-inhabiting bacterium associated with the papaya bunchy top\\u000a disease was investigated. Portions of genes corresponding to those for 16S rRNA, the flavoprotein subunit of succinate dehydrogenase\\u000a (SdhA), citrate synthase (GltA), and the 17-kDa rickettsial common antigen were isolated and sequenced from the non-cultivable\\u000a bacterium from diseased plants. Comparative sequence analyses consistently indicated

Michael J. Davis; Zhentu Ying; Bryan R. Brunner; Alberto Pantoja; Feiko H. Ferwerda

1998-01-01

191

Touch and Go Surface Sampler (TGSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Touch and Go Surface Sampler (TGSS) is a new class of planetary and small body sample acquisition tool that can be used for the surface exploration of Europa, Titan and comets. TGSS in its basic configuration consists of a high speed sampling head attached to the end of a flexible shaft. The sampling head consists of counter rotating cutters that rotates at speeds of 3000 to 15000 RPM. The attractive feature of this if touch and go type sampler is that there are no requirements for a lander type spacecraft. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Gorevan, S. P.; Rafeek, S.

2001-01-01

192

Cysteine proteinases from papaya (Carica papaya) in the treatment of experimental Trichuris suis infection in pigs: two randomized controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Background Cysteine proteinases (CPs) from papaya (Carica papaya) possess anthelmintic properties against human soil-transmitted helminths (STH, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm), but there is a lack of supportive and up-to-date efficacy data. We therefore conducted two randomized controlled trials in pigs to assess the efficacy of papaya CPs against experimental infections with T. suis. Methods First, we assessed efficacy by means of egg (ERR) and adult worm reduction rate (WRR) of a single-oral dose of 450 ?mol active CPs (CP450) against low (inoculum of 300 eggs) and high (inoculum of 3,000 eggs) intensity T. suis infections and compared the efficacy with those obtained after a single-oral dose of 400 mg albendazole (ALB). In the second trial, we determined and compared the efficacy of a series of CP doses (45 [CP45], 115 [CP115], 225 [CP225], and 450 [CP450] ?mol) against high intensity infections. Results CP450 was highly efficacious against both levels of infection intensity, resulting in ERR and WRR of more than 97%. For both levels of infection intensity, CP450 was significantly more efficacious compared to ALB by means of WRR (low infection intensity: 99.0% vs. 39.0%; high infection intensity; 97.4% vs. 23.2%). When the efficacy was assessed by ERR, a significant difference was only observed for high intensity infections, CP450 being more efficacious than ALB (98.9% vs. 59.0%). For low infection intensities, there was no significant difference in ERR between CP450 (98.3%) and ALB (64.4%). The efficacy of CPs increased as a function of increasing dose. When determined by ERR, the efficacy ranged from 2.1% for CP45 to 99.2% for CP450. For WRR the results varied from -14.0% to 99.0%, respectively. Pairwise comparison revealed a significant difference in ERR and WRR only between CP45 and CP450, the latter being more efficacious. Conclusions A single dose of 450 ?mol CPs provided greater efficacy against T. suis infections in pigs than a single-oral dose of 400 mg ALB. Although these results highlight the possibility of papaya CPs for controlling human STH, further development is needed in order to obtain and validate an oral formulation for human application. PMID:24886388

2014-01-01

193

Mobile Game Recommendation using Touch Gestures  

E-print Network

Mobile Game Recommendation using Touch Gestures Hao-Tsung Yang, De-Yu Chen, Ya-Xuan Hong, and Kuan and download more than one hundred thousands of games on mobile app marketplaces; nevertheless, how to pick the best games out of the large pool without spending much time on tryout is very challenging. The common

Chen, Sheng-Wei

194

Families Talking about Ecology at Touch Tanks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has demonstrated that conversations among museum, aquarium, and zoo visitors can be a clear indication of active learning, engagement, and participation in scientific reasoning. This descriptive study sought to determine the extent of talk about ecology-related topics exhibited by family groups visiting marine touch tanks at four Pacific…

Kopczak, Charles; Kisiel, James F.; Rowe, Shawn

2015-01-01

195

Criss Cross Heel and Toe Touch  

E-print Network

-a-Picture/Perspectives Duct Tape Adventure Egg Drop Electric Fence Escape from the Planet "What" Eyes Voice Body Fire Fighting1 GAMES BOOK Stretches All Over Criss Cross Crow Hop Fried Egg Heel and Toe Touch Heel Clicker Hop Clam Free Clock Dead Ant Tag Dragon Tail Tag Drip Drip Drop Earth Air Water Fire (E) Ecological Values

Royer, Dana

196

Analysis of Papaya Cell Wall-Related Genes during Fruit Ripening Indicates a Central Role of Polygalacturonases during Pulp Softening  

PubMed Central

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a climacteric fleshy fruit that undergoes dramatic changes during ripening, most noticeably a severe pulp softening. However, little is known regarding the genetics of the cell wall metabolism in papayas. The present work describes the identification and characterization of genes related to pulp softening. We used gene expression profiling to analyze the correlations and co-expression networks of cell wall-related genes, and the results suggest that papaya pulp softening is accomplished by the interactions of multiple glycoside hydrolases. The polygalacturonase cpPG1 appeared to play a central role in the network and was further studied. The transient expression of cpPG1 in papaya results in pulp softening and leaf necrosis in the absence of ethylene action and confirms its role in papaya fruit ripening. PMID:25162506

Fabi, João Paulo; Broetto, Sabrina Garcia; da Silva, Sarah Lígia Garcia Leme; Zhong, Silin; Lajolo, Franco Maria; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

2014-01-01

197

Touch and Massage for Medically Fragile Infants  

PubMed Central

Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants’ safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores of the infants receiving massage. Massage in a tertiary urban academic NICU continues to be an area of needed study. Future studies examining infant health outcomes, such as weight gain, decreased length of hospitalization and caregiver–infant bonding, would provide greater insight into the impact of massage for medically fragile infants. PMID:18955228

Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J.; Gallardo, Constance C.; Joseph, Michael H.

2009-01-01

198

Reversible contraception with chloroform extract of Carica papaya linn. seeds in male rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contraceptive efficacy and reversibility of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in adult male rabbits were investigated. Eighteen adult male rabbits were divided into three groups of six animals each; Group I—control, Group II—administered chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya at 20 mg\\/animal\\/d for 150 d by gavage, and Group III—administered the seed extract

Nirmal K Lohiya; N Pathak; Pradyumna K Mishra; B Manivannan

1999-01-01

199

Removal and recovery of heavy metals from aqueous solution using papaya wood as a new biosorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya wood was evaluated as a new biosorbent of heavy metals. On contacting 10mgl?l copper(II), cadmium(II) and zinc(II) solutions with 5gl?1 papaya wood, during shake flask contact time of 60min, the respective metal removal was noted to be 97.8, 94.9 and 66.8%. Sorption was most efficient at pH 5. Metal ion biosorption increased as the ratio of metal solution to

Asma Saeed; M. Waheed Akhter; Muhammed Iqbal

2005-01-01

200

Methyl jasmonate and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) reduce decay and maintain postharvest quality of papaya ‘Sunrise’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of papaya (Carica papaya L., cv. Sunrise) fruit to methyl jasmonate (MJ) vapors (10?5 or 10?4 M) for 16 h at 20°C inhibited fungal decay and reduced chilling injury development and loss of firmness during storage for 14–32 days at 10°C and 4 days shelf life at 20°C. MJ-treated fruit also retained higher organic acids than the control fruit.

G. A. González-Aguilar; J. G. Buta; C. Y. Wang

2003-01-01

201

Microsatellite (GATA)n reveals sex-specific differences in Papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya, an economically important fruit plant, is polygamous in nature. The sex of dioecious papaya plants can be deduced\\u000a only after they attain reproductive maturity (6–8 months). Normally, 50% of the population in a field is composed of unfruitful\\u000a male plants and almost 45% of these have to be uprooted at the flowering stage. This unnecessary cultivation of unwanted males

A. S. Parasnis; W. Ramakrishna; K. V. Chowdari; V. S. Gupta; P. K. Ranjekar

1999-01-01

202

Chromosomal location and gene paucity of the male speciWc region on papaya Y chromosome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex chromosomes in Xowering plants evolved recently and many of them remain homomorphic, including those in papaya. We investigated the chromosomal location of papaya's small male speciWc region of the hermaphrodite Y (Yh) chromosome (MSY) and its genomic features. We conducted chromosome Xuorescence in situ hybridization mapping of Yh-speciWc bacterial artiWcial chromosomes (BACs) and placed the MSY near the centromere

Qingyi Yu; Shaobin Hou; Roman Hobza; F. Alex Feltus; Xiue Wang; Weiwei Jin; Rachel L. Skelton; Andrea Blas; Cornelia Lemke; Jimmy H. Saw; Paul H. Moore; Maqsudul Alam; Jiming Jiang; Andrew H. Paterson; Boris Vyskot; Ray Ming

203

Therapeutic Touch and Healing Meditation: A Threesome with Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly reviews the use of therapeutic touch in early Western culture and Judaic tradition and by modern practitioners. Discusses modern scientific approaches to therapeutic touch, including its use by nurses. Offers suggestions for and examples of the use of meditation, relaxation exercises, and therapeutic touch with adolescents in classroom and…

Greenspan, Marlene

1994-01-01

204

Helping Hands: Designing Video Games with Interpersonal Touch Interaction  

E-print Network

Helping Hands: Designing Video Games with Interpersonal Touch Interaction Cody Watts1, 2 , Ehud and playing video games. This trend is evidenced by the recent development of interpersonal touch-based games of interpersonal touch-based games have recently been designed, the best practices for creating video games based

Boyer, Edmond

205

Comparative effects of dietary administered transgenic and conventional papaya on selected intestinal parameters in rat models.  

PubMed

Transformation of agricultural crops with novel genes has significantly advanced disease-resistance breeding, including virus resistance through the expression of virus sequences. In this study, the effects of long-term, repeated exposure to transgenic papayas carrying the coat protein gene of Papaya ringspot virus and conventional non-transgenic papaya on the histology and selected biochemical parameters of the intestinal tract were compared. For 3 months, male and female Wistar rats received diets containing transgenic or non-transgenic papaya at twice the equivalent of the average daily consumption of fresh papayas. Gross and macroscopic appearance of intestinal tissues, as well as stomach tissues, was comparable (P < 0.05) as were total intestinal bacterial counts and activities of beta-glucuronidase. Activities of disaccharidases were not affected, neither were those of amylase (P < 0.05). Although significant differences were noted in the activity of Ca(2+) and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase brush border enzymes, no morphological alteration in the integrity of the intestinal mucosa was found. Overall, negligible effects on feed intake, body weight, and fecal output were observed (P < 0.05). Taken together, long-term exposure to diets formulated with transgenic papaya did not result in biologically important unintended effects. PMID:19690973

Powell, Melissa; Wheatley, Andrew O; Omoruyi, Felix; Asemota, Helen N; Williams, Nadia P; Tennant, Paula F

2010-06-01

206

Power, progress and prevarication: local knowledge and GE papaya in Thailand.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered (GE) papaya was developed in the 1990s to improve the livelihoods of small scale farmers in Thailand. Yet these farmers have been excluded from the discourse around its deregulation and deployment. While elite stakeholders continue to debate in Bangkok, little is known about small scale farmers' understanding of biotechnology, their perceptions of the technology and whether or not they are likely to be adopters if it became available. In this case study, I report on farmer knowledge of agricultural biotechnology and genetically engineered papaya in northeast Thailand. Forty farmers in four villages were surveyed with regard to their knowledge and perceptions of GE papaya. A qualitative grounded theory approach was employed to understand their responses, from which three themes emerged: progress, power and prevarication. From these themes, the decision-making process of farmers seems to be dominated by their existing local knowledge and their interest in progressing their economic status. The responses of small-scale Isaan farmers provide a new perspective on the debate over GE virus-resistant papaya in Thailand. Based on the results of this study, we can conclude that this small subset of Thai papaya growers perceive GE virus-resistant papaya as a compatible innovation that is likely to be adopted by Thai farmers if it becomes available. PMID:22538228

Davidson, Sarah N

2012-01-01

207

Effect of packaging materials and storage environment on postharvest quality of papaya fruit.  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of packaging materials and storage environments on shelf life of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.). A factorial combination of five packaging materials and two storage environments using randomized complete block design with three replications were used. The papaya fruits were evaluated for weight loss, percentage marketability, firmness, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar and total sugar content. The packaged and cooled fruits remained firmer than unpackaged and evaporatively cooled fruits. Higher chemical compositions were recorded in the control fruits stored under ambient conditions during the earlier times of storage. Packaging and cooling maintained the chemical quality of papaya fruits better than the control sample fruits towards the end of storage periods. The evaporatively cooled storage combined with packaging improved the shelf life of papaya fruits by more than two fold. The polyethylene bag packaging combined with evaporatively cooled storage maintained the superior quality of papaya fruit for a period of 21 days. This integrated agro-technology is recommended for postharvest loss reduction biotechnology in hot regions. PMID:24876636

Azene, Mulualem; Workneh, Tilahun Seyoum; Woldetsadik, Kebede

2014-06-01

208

Inhibition of Ethylene Evolution in Papaya Pulp Tissue by Benzyl Isothiocyanate 1  

PubMed Central

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) pulp tissue disks in an incubation medium composed of 0.4 m sucrose evolve ethylene at an optimum pH of 5.25 at 30 C. Disks of young preclimacteric fruit evolve the gas linearly with fruit age until fruit age reaches 4 months. Disks from 5-month-old postclimacteric fruit produce approximately 5-fold more ethylene than disks from 4-month-old fruit. Ethylene evolution by unaged papaya disks is inhibited potently by benzyl isothiocyanate. The compound inhibits production of ethylene by approximately 60% at a concentration of 0.046 mm. However, in aged papaya disks benzyl isothiocyanate causes no inhibition of ethylene production indicating that the compound inhibits the induction of the ethylene-producing system rather than the evolution of the gas per se. Even at a 2-fold higher concentration benzyl isothiocyanate has no effect on respiration of unaged papaya disks. It is proposed that benzyl isothiocyanate may act as an endogenous regulator of ethylene evolution in papaya fruit. PMID:16658747

Patil, Suresh S.; Tang, Chung-Shih

1974-01-01

209

Direct touches to clear barriers: Developmental sensitivity of a new measure of the production of ineffective responses in infancy  

PubMed Central

Current interpretation of the object retrieval task (Diamond, 1990) as an infant assessment of response inhibition requires evidence that younger infants make more ineffective attempts to retrieve toys through clear barriers. On two 30-second trials, infants (9- or 11-months of age) saw an inaccessible toy in the front or back of a clear box. The location of the infants touches corresponded with the toy's location and, on the second trial, the younger infants touched the box more. In an analogous task, non-human primates with orbital-frontal, but not dorsa-lateral, lesions also made ineffective barrier touches. The current developmental decreases in barrier touches may selectively tap developmental increases in inhibitory control supported by the developing orbital-frontal cortex. PMID:22122383

Noland, Julia S.; Rodrigues, Nikita P.

2012-01-01

210

The mec-7 beta-tubulin gene of Caenorhabditis elegans is expressed primarily in the touch receptor neurons.  

PubMed Central

Mutants of the mec-7 beta-tubulin gene of Caenorhabditis elegans lack the large diameter 15-protofilament microtubules normally found only in the set of six touch receptor neurons. Both a mec-7-lacZ reporter gene and affinity-purified anti-mec-7 antibodies were used to show that mec-7 is expressed primarily in the touch neurons. These data are consistent with a possible instructive role for the mec-7 tubulin in determining microtubule protofilament number. The antibodies and the mec-7-lacZ transgene were also used to examine mec-7 expression in mutants affecting the generation, differentiation or maintenance of the touch neurons. Decreased expression was observed in mutants of unc-86 and mec-3, genes that encode transcription factors essential for touch receptor neuron generation and differentiation, respectively. Images PMID:1639062

Hamelin, M; Scott, I M; Way, J C; Culotti, J G

1992-01-01

211

Touch-Based Services' Catalogs for AAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Elderly people living alone at home need support for daily activities. For this reason, the AAL initiative promotes technological\\u000a adaptabilities but bearing in mind that it is crucial serving users in terms of usability. In this paper, we present a position\\u000a paper for supporting elderly needs by simple touches of services’ catalogs. Further, we propose a generalization of these\\u000a services

José Bravo; Ramón Hervás; Jesús Fontecha

2010-01-01

212

Touch Therapies across the Life Span  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ayur-Veda, the earliest known medical text from India (around 1800 b.c.), lists touch therapy (massage therapy), diet, and exercise as primary healing practices of that time. As Jules Older notes,\\u000a even the English word shampoo comes from the word champna, which is an ancient Indian word meaning to press (Older, 1982). From early times, massage has been effectively used

Tiffany M. Field

213

Helpful Tips for Chemigation of Papaya1 Kati L White, Teresa Olczyk, Jonathan Crane, Rafael Muoz-Carpena, Tina Dispenza, and Harry  

E-print Network

ABE 360 Helpful Tips for Chemigation of Papaya1 Kati L White, Teresa Olczyk, Jonathan Crane, Rafael helpful tips for papaya growers interested in chemigation. Depending on the type of chemical being-off valves. #12;Helpful Tips for Chemigation of Papaya 2 Figure 1. Water source, pump, and check valve

Migliaccio, Kati White

214

MATH 132 Solutions to Midterm 2 (papaya) 1. For each of the following sequences, determine whether it converges or diverges. If the  

E-print Network

MATH 132 Solutions to Midterm 2 (papaya) 1. For each of the following sequences, determine whether to Midterm 2 (papaya) Wednesday November 2, 2011 #12;Page 3 of 5 5.15 pts Find the volume of the solid (papaya) Wednesday November 2, 2011 #12;Page 4 of 5 Solution: (continued) So, for the series to converge

Sutherland, Scott

215

Revisiting the enzymes stored in the laticifers of C arica papaya in the context of their possible participation in the plant defence mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the tropical species Carica papaya, the articulated and anastomosing laticifers form a dense network of vessels displayed in all aerial parts of the plant. Damaging the papaya tree inevitably severs its laticifers, eliciting an abrupt release of latex. Besides the well-known cysteine proteinases, papain, chymopapain, caricain and glycyl endopeptidase, papaya latex is also a rich source of other enzymes.

A. El Moussaoui; M. Nijs; C. Paul; R. Wintjens; J. Vincentelli; M. Azarkan; Yvan Looze

2001-01-01

216

Antihypertensive effect of Carica papaya via a reduction in ACE activity and improved baroreflex.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to evaluate the antihypertensive effects of the standardised methanolic extract of Carica papaya, its angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effects in vivo, its effect on the baroreflex and serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity, and its chemical composition. The chemical composition of the methanolic extract of C. papaya was evaluated by liquid chromatography-mass/mass and mass/mass spectrometry. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effect was evaluated in vivo by Ang I administration. The antihypertensive assay was performed in spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar rats that were treated with enalapril (10 mg/kg), the methanolic extract of C. papaya (100 mg/kg; twice a day), or vehicle for 30 days. The baroreflex was evaluated through the use of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine. Angiotensin converting enzyme activity was measured by ELISA, and cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by morphometric analysis. The methanolic extract of C. papaya was standardised in ferulic acid (203.41 ± 0.02 µg/g), caffeic acid (172.60 ± 0.02 µg/g), gallic acid (145.70 ± 0.02 µg/g), and quercetin (47.11 ± 0.03 µg/g). The flavonoids quercetin, rutin, nicotiflorin, clitorin, and manghaslin were identified in a fraction of the extract. The methanolic extract of C. papaya elicited angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity. The antihypertensive effects elicited by the methanolic extract of C. papaya were similar to those of enalapril, and the baroreflex sensitivity was normalised in treated spontaneously hypertensive rats. Plasma angiotensin converting enzyme activity and cardiac hypertrophy were also reduced to levels comparable to the enalapril-treated group. These results may be associated with the chemical composition of the methanolic extract of C. papaya, and are the first step into the development of a new phytotherapic product which could be used in the treatment of hypertension. PMID:25295669

Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Ronchi, Silas Nascimento; do Nascimento, Andrews Marques; de Lima, Ewelyne Miranda; Romão, Wanderson; da Costa, Helber Barcellos; Scherer, Rodrigo; Ventura, José Aires; Lenz, Dominik; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza; Endringer, Denise Coutinho; de Andrade, Tadeu Uggere

2014-11-01

217

Cognitive influences on the affective representation of touch and the sight of touch in the human brain  

PubMed Central

We show that the affective experience of touch and the sight of touch can be modulated by cognition, and investigate in an fMRI study where top-down cognitive modulations of bottom-up somatosensory and visual processing of touch and its affective value occur in the human brain. The cognitive modulation was produced by word labels, ‘Rich moisturizing cream’ or ‘Basic cream’, while cream was being applied to the forearm, or was seen being applied to a forearm. The subjective pleasantness and richness were modulated by the word labels, as were the fMRI activations to touch in parietal cortex area 7, the insula and ventral striatum. The cognitive labels influenced the activations to the sight of touch and also the correlations with pleasantness in the pregenual cingulate/orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum. Further evidence of how the orbitofrontal cortex is involved in affective aspects of touch was that touch to the forearm [which has C fiber Touch (CT) afferents sensitive to light touch] compared with touch to the glabrous skin of the hand (which does not) revealed activation in the mid-orbitofrontal cortex. This is of interest as previous studies have suggested that the CT system is important in affiliative caress-like touch between individuals. PMID:19015100

McCabe, Ciara; Bilderbeck, Amy; McGlone, Francis

2008-01-01

218

SGI -Feature Story: Papaya Genome Sequencing Project Opens Vast Ar... http://www.sgi.com/company_info/features/2007/papaya.html 1 of 4 3/5/2008 12:31 PM  

E-print Network

the papaya from extinction on the islands. The papaya is now the first fruit ­ and the first transgenic crop ­ to be sequenced, helping to pave the way for international export of genetically modified fruits and vegetables at the University of Hawaii (UH), Dr. Takashi Sugimura, Maui Super Computer Center (MHPCC), Dr. Stan Saiki, Pacific

Alam, Maqsudul

219

INFLUENCE OF COAT PROTEIN TRANSGENE COPY NUMBER ON RESISTANCE IN TRANSGENIC LINE 63-1 AGAINST PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS ISOLATES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Line 63-1 is a ‘Sunset’-derived transgenic papaya expressing the coat protein (CP) gene from a mild mutant of a Hawaiian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Previous work showed that line 63-1 R1 plants exhibited a range of resistance to severe PRSV isolates from Hawaii (HA), Jamaica (JA), Thai...

220

FT-IR spectroscopy as a tool for measuring degree of methyl esterification in pectins isolated from ripening papaya fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

A straightforward method using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy for determination of methyl esterification degree (MED) of pectins is described. The method was used for measuring methylation level of different pectin fractions isolated from papaya (Carica papaya) fruit in three ripening stages as well as of the bulk pectin without isolation from the cell wall. All the samples used were in

Guillermo D. Manrique; Franco M. Lajolo

2002-01-01

221

Production of Internal Yellowing Symptoms on Resistant and Susceptible Papaya Cultivars by Enterobacter cloacae at Varying Inoculum Concentrations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Internal yellowing (IY) is a bacterial disease of ripening papaya flesh caused by Enterobacter cloacae and characterized by yellow softening tissue. IY restricts food safety of value-added products like fresh or frozen papaya cubes. The incidence of E. cloacae presumably differs in resistant (R) a...

222

ESTABLISHMENT OF CELLULAR REDUCING CONDITIONS WITH SAR INDUCTION IN PAPAYA, PLANT, ANIMAL & MICROBE GENOMES X11. ABSTRACT.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

BTH induces elevated hydrolytic enzyme activity, expression of two members of the PR1 gene family, and resistance to Phytophthora palmivora in papaya. Twenty five additional papaya genes showing elevated systematic expression three days after BTH treatment have now been identified by suppression su...

223

NIa-Pro of Papaya ringspot virus interacts with Carica papaya eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit G (CpeIF3G).  

PubMed

The interaction of papaya eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit G (CpeIF3G) with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) NIa-Pro was validated using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in papaya protoplasts based on the previous yeast two-hybrid assay results. The C-terminal (residues 133-239) fragment of PRSV NIa-Pro and the central domain (residues 59-167) of CpeIF3G were required for effective interaction between NIa-Pro and CpeIF3G as shown by a Sos recruitment yeast two-hybrid system with several deletion mutants of NIa-Pro and CpeIF3G. The central domain of CpeIF3G, which contains a C2HC-type zinc finger motif, is required to bind to other eIFs of the translational machinery. In addition, quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR assay confirmed that PRSV infection leads to a 2- to 4.5-fold up-regulation of CpeIF3G mRNA in papaya. Plant eIF3G is involved in various stress response by enhancing the translation of resistance-related proteins. It is proposed that the NIa-Pro-CpeIF3G interaction may impair translation preinitiation complex assembly of defense proteins and interfere with host defense. PMID:25416301

Gao, Le; Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

2014-11-22

224

Sharing social touch in the primary somatosensory cortex.  

PubMed

Touch has an emotional and communicative meaning, and it plays a crucial role in social perception and empathy. The intuitive link between others' somatosensations and our sense of touch becomes ostensible in mirror-touch synesthesia, a condition in which the view of a touch on another person's body elicits conscious tactile sensations on the observer's own body [1]. This peculiar phenomenon may implicate normal social mirror mechanisms [2]. Here, we show that mirror-touch interference effects, synesthesia-like sensations, and even phantom touches can be induced in nonsynesthetes by priming the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) directly or indirectly via the posterior parietal cortex. These results were obtained by means of facilitatory paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) contingent upon the observation of touch. For these vicarious effects, the SI is engaged at 150 ms from the onset of the visual touch. Intriguingly, individual differences in empathic abilities, assessed with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index [3], drive the activity of the SI when nonsynesthetes witness others' tactile sensations. This evidence implies that, under normal conditions, touch observation activates the SI below the threshold for perceptual awareness [4]; through the visual-dependent tuning of SI activity by ppTMS, what is seen becomes felt, namely, mirror-touch synesthesia. On a broader perspective, the visual responsivity of the SI may allow an automatic and unconscious transference of the sensation that another person is experiencing onto oneself, and, in turn, the empathic sharing of somatosensations [2]. PMID:24954046

Bolognini, Nadia; Rossetti, Angela; Fusaro, Martina; Vallar, Giuseppe; Miniussi, Carlo

2014-07-01

225

Mirror-touch synaesthesia in the phantom limbs of amputees.  

PubMed

In mirror-touch synaesthesia merely observing another person being touched will cause the observers to experience a touch sensation on their own body. The current study investigates whether this, normally a developmental condition, might be acquired following amputation. Twenty-eight amputees observed 67 videos of touch events and indicated a) whether the video elicited tactile sensations, b) where on the body this was located, c) the intensity of the sensation, and d) whether it was painful. Almost a third of amputees report a tactile sensation on their amputated phantom limb when watching someone else being touched. In this particular group the sensations tend to be localised on the phantom limb or stump, but are rarely reported elsewhere on the body. This occurs irrespective of the body part seen. The synaesthetic sensations were more intense when real bodies were observed relative to dummies or objects, and when the observed touch is mildly painful relative to non-painful. Although frequency, intensity and cause of phantom limb pain do not appear to determine whether an amputee will report mirror-touch sensations, those who do report it show greater empathic emotional reactivity. These results suggest that acquired synaesthesia may be linked with sensory loss, arising after amputation, and that highly empathic individuals could be predisposed to strengthening existing pathways between observed touch and felt touch. PMID:22981809

Goller, Aviva I; Richards, Kerrie; Novak, Steven; Ward, Jamie

2013-01-01

226

Touch Screen Performance by Individuals With and Without Motor Control Disabilities  

PubMed Central

Touch technology is becoming more prevalent as functionality improves and cost decreases. Therefore, it is important that this technology is accessible to users with diverse abilities. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of button and gap size on performance by individuals with varied motor abilities. Participants with (n=38) and without (n=15) a motor control disability completed a digit entry task. Button size ranged from 10 to 30 mm and gap size was either 1 or 3 mm. Results indicated that as button size increased, there was a decrease in misses, errors, and time to complete tasks. Performance for the non-disabled group plateaued at button size 20mm, with minimal, if any gains observed with larger button sizes. In comparison, the disabled group’s performance continued to improve as button size increased. Gap size did not affect user performance. These results may help to improve accessibility of touch technology. PMID:23021630

Chen, Karen B.; Savage, Anne B.; Chourasia, Amrish O.; Wiegmann, Douglas A.; Sesto, Mary E.

2012-01-01

227

Optimization of process parameters for foam-mat drying of papaya pulp.  

PubMed

Experiments were carried out to optimize the process parameters for production of papaya powder using foam-mat drying. Papaya pulp was foamed by incorporating methyl cellulose (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 %, w/w), glycerol-mono-stearate (1, 2, 3 and 4 %, w/w) and egg white (5, 10, 15 and 20 %, w/w) as foaming agents. The maximum stable foam formation was 72, 90 and 125% at 0.75 % methyl cellulose, 3 % glycerol-mono-stearate and 15 % egg white respectively with 9°Brix pulp and whipping time of 20 min. The foamed pulp was dried at air temperature of 60, 65 and 70 °C with foam thickness of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mm in a batch type cabinet dryer. The drying time required for foamed papaya pulp was lower than non-foamed pulp at all selected temperatures. Biochemical analysis results showed a significant reduction in ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and total sugars in the foamed papaya dried product at higher foam thickness (6, 8 and 10 mm) and temperature (65 and 70 °C due to destruction at higher drying temperature and increasing time. There was no significant change in other biochemical constituents such as pH and acidity. The organoleptic and sensory evaluation of the quality attributes of papaya powder obtained from the pulp of 9°Brix added with 3 % glycerol-mono-stearate, whipped for 20 min and dried with a foam thickness of 4 mm at a temperature of 60 °C was found to be optimum to produce the foam-mat dried papaya powder. PMID:25328192

Kandasamy, Palani; Varadharaju, N; Kalemullah, S; Maladhi, D

2014-10-01

228

Papaya extract to treat dengue: a novel therapeutic option?  

PubMed

Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The search was done independently by the two authors using PubMed, Google and the library database and included relevant articles of the last 10 years. A total of 7 studies were included in this review, which were one animal study, one case report, three case series and two randomized controlled trials. Although many of the studies and case reports published in literature lack adequate information, some of the studies do raise the possibility that this treatment could be an important option in the future. Further large-scale studies could establish the usefulness or ineffectiveness of this natural product in the treatment of dengue. PMID:24971201

Sarala, N; Paknikar, Ss

2014-05-01

229

Papaya epicarp extract protects against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity.  

PubMed

In a previous study, we demonstrated the ability of papaya epicarp extract (PEE) to protect against oxidative stress-induced insult in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells in a mechanism that appeared to be by means of PEE potent antioxidant properties. To further understand this relationship, we examined the effect of PEE intervention on aluminum (Al)-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. The results indicated that PEE was effective in protecting against Al-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. PEE restored the Al-induced inhibition of folate-dependent methionine synthase activity and the antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidases and superoxide dismutase). PEE ameliorated the Al-induced impairment of intracellular glutathione and total antioxidant capacity. Together, these findings indicate that PEE supplementation can play a neuroprotective role in ameliorating the changes in redox status of SH-SY5Y cells exposed to Al, a well-known environmental toxin that is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:22956622

Waly, Mostafa I; Guizani, Nejib; Ali, Amanat; Rahman, Mohammad Shafiur

2012-09-01

230

Papaya Extract to Treat Dengue: A Novel Therapeutic Option?  

PubMed Central

Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The search was done independently by the two authors using PubMed, Google and the library database and included relevant articles of the last 10 years. A total of 7 studies were included in this review, which were one animal study, one case report, three case series and two randomized controlled trials. Although many of the studies and case reports published in literature lack adequate information, some of the studies do raise the possibility that this treatment could be an important option in the future. Further large-scale studies could establish the usefulness or ineffectiveness of this natural product in the treatment of dengue. PMID:24971201

Sarala, N; Paknikar, SS

2014-01-01

231

Mirror-touch synaesthesia changes representations of self-identity.  

PubMed

Individuals with mirror-touch synaesthesia (MTS) experience touch on their own bodies when observing another person being touched. Whilst somatosensory processing in MTS has been extensively investigated, the extent to which the remapping of observed touch on the synaesthete's body can also lead to changes in the mental representation of the self remains unknown. We adapted the experimental paradigm of the 'enfacement illusion' to quantify the changes in self-face recognition as a result of synaesthetic touch. MTS and control participants observed the face of an unfamiliar person being touched or not, without delivering touch on the participant's face. Changes in self-representation were quantified with a self-face recognition task, using 'morphed' images containing varying proportions of the participant's face and the face of the unfamiliar other. This task was administered before and after the exposure to the other face. While self-recognition performance for both groups was similar during pre-test, MTS individuals showed a significant change in self-recognition performance following the observation of touch delivered to the other face. Specifically, the images that participants had initially perceived as containing equal quantities of self and other became more likely to be recognised as the self after viewing the other being touched. These results suggest that observing touch on others not only elicits a conscious experience of touch in MTS, but also elicits a change in the mental representation of the self, blurring self-other boundaries. This is consistent with a multisensory account of the self, whereby integrated multisensory experiences maintain or update self-representations. PMID:23391559

Maister, Lara; Banissy, Michael J; Tsakiris, Manos

2013-04-01

232

Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants  

PubMed Central

Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers’ regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulated proteins in the latex of diseased plants, 9 cysteine proteases (chymopapain) and 1 latex serine proteinase inhibitor. A repression of papaya latex proteolytic activity during PMeV infection was hypothesized. This was further confirmed by enzymatic assays that showed a reduction of cysteine-protease-associated proteolytic activity in the diseased papaya latex. These findings are discussed in the context of plant responses against pathogens and may greatly contribute to understand the roles of laticifers in plant stress responses. PMID:22465191

Rodrigues, Silas P.; Ventura, José A.; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Choi, HyungWon; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Nohara, Lilian L.; Wermelinger, Luciana S.; Almeida, Igor C.; Zingali, Russolina B.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

2012-01-01

233

Carotenoids are more bioavailable from papaya than from tomato and carrot in humans: a randomised cross-over study  

PubMed Central

Carrot, tomato and papaya represent important dietary sources of ?-carotene and lycopene. The main objective of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of carotenoids from these food sources in healthy human subjects. A total of sixteen participants were recruited for a randomised cross-over study. Test meals containing raw carrots, tomatoes and papayas were adjusted to deliver an equal amount of ?-carotene and lycopene. For the evaluation of bioavailability, TAG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions containing newly absorbed carotenoids were analysed over 9.5 h after test meal consumption. The bioavailability of ?-carotene from papayas was approximately three times higher than that from carrots and tomatoes, whereas differences in the bioavailability of ?-carotene from carrots and tomatoes were insignificant. Retinyl esters appeared in the TRL fractions at a significantly higher concentration after the consumption of the papaya test meal. Similarly, lycopene was approximately 2.6 times more bioavailable from papayas than from tomatoes. Furthermore, the bioavailability of ?-cryptoxanthin from papayas was shown to be 2.9 and 2.3 times higher than that of the other papaya carotenoids ?-carotene and lycopene, respectively. The morphology of chromoplasts and the physical deposition form of carotenoids were hypothesised to play a major role in the differences observed in the bioavailability of carotenoids from the foods investigated. Particularly, the liquid-crystalline deposition of ?-carotene and the storage of lycopene in very small crystalloids in papayas were found to be associated with their high bioavailability. In conclusion, papaya was shown to provide highly bioavailable ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin and lycopene and may represent a readily available dietary source of provitamin A for reducing the incidence of vitamin A deficiencies in many subtropical and tropical developing countries. PMID:23931131

Schweiggert, Ralf M.; Kopec, Rachel E.; Villalobos-Gutierrez, Maria G.; Högel, Josef; Quesada, Silvia; Esquivel, Patricia; Schwartz, Steven J.; Carle, Reinhold

2014-01-01

234

Enhancing Physicality in Touch Interaction with Programmable Friction  

E-print Network

Enhancing Physicality in Touch Interaction with Programmable Friction Vincent Lévesque1 , Louise possibilities and outcomes when touch interactions are enhanced with variable surface friction. In a series of four studies, we first confirm that variable friction gives significant performance advantages in low

Levesque, Vincent

235

Company Confidential See it. Touch it. Measure it. Gavin Fisher  

E-print Network

· Tight Impedance control #12;Company Confidential See it. Touch it. Measure it. ® ACP Series Probe Block #12;Company Confidential See it. Touch it. Measure it. ® 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0 1000 2000 3000

Anlage, Steven

236

Multi-Touch Rotation Gestures: Performance and Ergonomics  

E-print Network

Multi-Touch Rotation Gestures: Performance and Ergonomics Eve Hoggan1 , John Williamson2 , Antti multi-touch gestures, yet little is known about the fac- tors affecting performance and ergonomics; gestures; ergonomics. ACM Classification Keywords H.5.2. User Interfaces: Evaluation/Methodology, Input De

237

TapTap: A Haptic Wearable for Asynchronous Distributed Touch  

E-print Network

in video game controllers [7]. Few of these devices take advantage of the emotionally and physically haptic system that allows nurturing human touch to be recorded, broadcast and played back for emotional touch is fundamental to physical and emotional development. Artificial devices can simulate human

Ishii, Hiroshi

238

In touch - the molecular basis of mechanosensory transduction  

PubMed Central

Nearly all species employ mechanosensitive channels to detect mechanical cues, such as touch and sound waves, and convert these mechanical forces into electrochemical signals. Genetic, biochemical and electrophysiological studies of touch-insensitive mutants in model organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster provide insights into the molecular basis of mechanosensory transduction.

Kang, Lijun; Wescott, Seth; Li, Wei; Xu, X.Z. Shawn

2014-01-01

239

Understanding and Creating Accessible Touch Screen Interactions for Blind People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using touch screens presents a number of usability and accessibility challenges for blind people. Most touch screen-based user interfaces are optimized for visual interaction, and are therefore difficult or impossible to use without vision. This dissertation presents an approach to redesigning gesture-based user interfaces to enable blind people…

Kane, Shaun K.

2011-01-01

240

Marine Mammal Stranding Protocol 1-Do NOT Touch!  

E-print Network

Marine Mammal Stranding Protocol 1- Do NOT Touch! 1. Do not touch, pick up, or feed the animal: NMFS Northwest Region Marine Mammal Stranding Network hotline (800) 853-1964 www.nwr.noaa.gov/marine-mammals Marine Mammal Standing Network (800) 562-8832 http://161.58.53.200/programs/mmsn.html Second: NMFS

Acevedo, Alejandro

241

Touch in Therapy: An Effort to Make the Unknown Known  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an exploratory study based on interviews with four psycho-analytically-oriented therapists who touched their patients. It examines how the therapists and their patients conceptualized their experience. The therapists reported that the decision to touch, in the five cases presented here, was guided by the specific needs of their patients and their patient's circumstances rather than by their orientation

Bassya Pinson

2002-01-01

242

Assessment study on the use of Pawpaw; Carica papaya seeds to control Oreochromis niloticus breeding.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to assess the ability of using pawpaw (Carica papaya) seeds as a natural reproduction inhibitor for tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) culture to control its breeding. Biochemical, physiological and histopathological effects ofpawpaw seeds on male tilapia fish were also determined. Mature male tilapia were stocked for 4 weeks and treated with low dose (3 g/kg/day) and high dose (6 g/kg/day) of ground dried pawpaw seeds mixed with their feed. The obtained results showed that the pawpaw seeds induced permanent sterility in the high dose treated fish while the low dose treatment showed reversible results. The results also demonstrated that fish treated with high dose of pawpaw exhibited higher biochemical and physiological effects as: low meat quality, a progressive fall in erythrocyte (RBCs) count, hemoglobin (Hb) content and haematocrit values. Also the high dose revealed a significant increase in the leukocytes (WBCs) count, serum glucose, total protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine and uric acid levels. Moreover, serum total lipids revealed a significant decrease compared to control group. On the other hand, the low dose treatment revealed lower biochemical and physiological changes. Histological sections of testis showed disintegration of sperm cells and focal necrosis of seminefrous tubules in the high dose treated fish, hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney tissues also showed severe changes in high dose treated fish. Milder degenerative changes in some necrotic foci and slight changes in hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney were observed in the low dose treated fish. The study concluded that pawpaw seeds which are cheap and easy to obtain, can be incorporated into fish feeds with adjusted amount and be used to control breeding of tilapia fish in growing ponds instead of unfavorable and expensive hormonal use. PMID:22335051

Abbas, Hossam H; Abbas, Wafaa T

2011-12-15

243

The Use of Healing Touch in Integrative Oncology  

PubMed Central

The use of complementary therapies by cancer patients has become so prevalent that nurses working in oncology are finding it necessary to understand these therapies and the evidence-based support for their use. The integrative use of the biofield therapy Healing Touch (HT) in conjunction with the chemoradiation received by patients with cervical cancer (stages 1B1 to IVA) during a recent research study is described. Findings indicated effects of HT on the immune response and on depression, in contrast to patients receiving relaxation or standard care. Specifically, HT patients demonstrated a minimal decrease in natural killer cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) over the course of treatment whereas NKCC of patients receiving relaxation therapy (RT) and standard care (SC) declined sharply during radiation (p = 0.018). HT patients also showed significant decreases in depressed mood compared to RT and SC (p < 0.05). These findings, as well as the energetic effects of chemoradiation that were observed, and the proposed mechanisms and potential contributions of biofield therapy are addressed. It is suggested that the appropriate integration of complementary modalities into oncology care has the potential to enhance the impact of conventional care by putting the patient in the best condition to use their innate healing resources. PMID:21951738

Hart, Laura K.; Freel, Mildred I.; Haylock, Pam J.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.

2013-01-01

244

Neural coding during active somatosensation revealed using illusory touch  

PubMed Central

Active sensation requires the convergence of external stimuli with representations of body movements. We used mouse behavior, electrophysiology and optogenetics to dissect the temporal interactions between whisker movement, neural activity, and sensation of touch. We photostimulated layer 4 activity in single barrels in closed-loop with whisking. Mimicking touch-related neural activity caused illusory perception of an object at a particular location, but scrambling the timing of spikes over one whisking cycle (tens of milliseconds) did not abolish the illusion, indicating that knowledge of instantaneous whisker position is unnecessary for discriminating object locations. Illusions were induced only during bouts of directed whisking, when mice expected touch, and in the relevant barrel. Reducing activity biased behavior consistent with a spike count code for object detection at a particular location. Our results show that mice integrate coding of touch with movement over timescales of a whisking bout to produce perception of active touch. PMID:23727820

O’Connor, Daniel H.; Hires, S. Andrew; Guo, Zengcai V.; Li, Nuo; Yu, Jianing; Sun, Qian-Quan; Huber, Daniel; Svoboda, Karel

2013-01-01

245

Comparative seed ecophysiology of wild and cultivated Carica papaya trees from a tropical rain forest region in Mexico.  

PubMed

To ascertain the effects of centuries of cultivation practices on seed behavior and dormancy mechanisms, we compared seed size and germination characteristics of wild and cultivated (domesticated) populations of Carica papaya L. Germination experiments were carried out under various conditions of temperature, light, seed soaking and gibberellic acid treatments. Wild papaya seeds showed responses to treatment that are characteristic of seeds of many rain forest pioneer trees. Seeds were small and light sensitive, whereas cultivated papaya seeds were 33% larger and their light responses as well as other physiological traits indicated that cultivation had resulted in a lessening in the importance of specific environmental conditions for dormancy breaking and germination. PMID:12651383

Paz, Leoncio; Vázquez-Yanes, Carlos

1998-04-01

246

Touch to Play -- Exploring Touch-Based Mobile Interaction with Public Displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile interactions with public displays are often indirect and not very convenient for multiple users at the same time. In this paper we use the physical, touch-based interaction with Near Field Communication (NFC) to investigate direct mobile interactions with public displays for multiple users. For that purpose, we adopt the Whack-a-Mole game for dynamic NFC-displays, which combine the physical interaction

Gregor Broll; Roman Graebsch; Maximilian Scherr; Sebastian Boring; Paul Holleis; Matthias Wagner

2011-01-01

247

78 FR 6835 - Certain Mobile Handset Devices and Related Touch Keyboard Software; Institution of Investigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Handset Devices and Related Touch Keyboard Software; Institution of Investigation AGENCY...handset devices and related touch keyboard software by reason of infringement of certain...handset devices and related touch keyboard software that infringe one or more of claims...

2013-01-31

248

‘Kiss, Cuddle, Squeeze’: The Experiences and Meaning of Touch among Parents of Children with Autism Attending a Touch Therapy Programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences and meaning of touch between parents and children with autism before and after attending a Touch Therapy Programme. The sample comprised 12 parents (1 father and 11 mothers) of children (1 female and 11 male) with autism. Parents were interviewed before and immediately after the 8-week programme. Pre-programme results

Lesley Cullen; Julie Barlow

2002-01-01

249

Resistance of non-transgenic papaya plants to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) mediated by intron-containing hairpin dsRNAs expressed in bacteria.  

PubMed

RNA-mediated virus resistance based on natural antiviral RNA silencing has been exploited as a powerful tool for engineering virus resistance in plants. In this study, a conserved 3'-region (positions 9839-10117, 279 nt) of the capsid protein (CP) gene of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), designated CP279, was used to generate an intron-containing hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) construct by one-step, zero-background ligation-independent cloning (OZ-LIC). The RNaseIII-deficient Escherichia coli strain M-JM109lacY was identified as the best choice for producing large quantities of specific ihpRNA-CP279. Resistance analyses and ELISA data verified that most papaya plants mechanically co-inoculated with TRIzol-extracted ihpRNA-CP279 and PRSV were resistant to PRSV, and resistance was maintained throughout the test period (>2 months post-inoculation). In contrast, a 1-2 day interval between sequential inoculation of PRSV and ihpRNA-CP279 did not result in complete protection against PRSV infection, but delayed the appearance of viral symptoms by 3 to 4 days. These findings indicate that direct mechanical inoculation of papaya plants with bacterially-expressed ihpRNA-CP279 targeting the PRSV CP gene can interfere with virus infection. This work lays a foundation for developing a non-transgenic approach to control PRSV by directly spraying plants with ihpRNA or crude bacterial extract preparations. PMID:25283861

Shen, W; Yang, G; Chen, Y; Yan, P; Tuo, D; Li, X; Zhou, P

2014-01-01

250

CLONALY PROPAGATED AND SEED-DERIVED PAPAYA ORCHARDS: 2. COMPARISON OF YIELDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gynodioecious papaya seedlings in commercial cropping systems in Hawaii are typically multiple-planted and thinned upon flowering to a single hermaphrodite because seedlings segregate for sex expression. Use of clonally propagated hermaphrodites would eliminate the over-planting practice and may pro...

251

IMPROVED CARICA PAPAYA TOLERANCE TO THE CARMINE SPIDER MITE BY EXPRESSION OF MANDUCA SEXTA CHITINASE TRANSGENE.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya plants producing the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) chitinase protein were obtained following microprojectile bombardment of embryogenic calli derived from the hypocotyls of the cultivar Kapoho. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization of reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PC...

252

Antiplasmodial Properties and Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Carica papaya Leaves  

PubMed Central

We investigated the antiplasmodial properties of crude extracts from Carica papaya leaves to trace the activity through bioassay-guided fractionation. The greatest antiplasmodial activity was observed in the ethyl acetate crude extract. C. papaya showed a high selectivity for P. falciparum against CHO cells with a selectivity index of 249.25 and 185.37 in the chloroquine-sensitive D10 and chloroquine-resistant DD2 strains, respectively. Carica papaya ethyl acetate extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation to ascertain the most active fraction, which was purified and identified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry) methods. Linoleic and linolenic acids identified from the ethyl acetate fraction showed IC50 of 6.88??g/ml and 3.58??g/ml, respectively. The study demonstrated greater antiplasmodial activity of the crude ethyl acetate extract of Carica papaya leaves with an IC50 of 2.96 ± 0.14??g/ml when compared to the activity of the fractions and isolated compounds. PMID:22174990

Melariri, Paula; Campbell, William; Etusim, Paschal; Smith, Peter

2011-01-01

253

Molecular and Clinical Effects of Green Tea and Fermented Papaya Preparation on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Assess the Effect of Green Tea on Diabetes; Assess the Effect of Fermented Papaya Pretration on Diabetes; Effects of Green Tea and FPP on C-reactive Proteins; Effects of Green Tea and FPP of Lipid Profiles in Diabetes; Effect of Green Tea and FPP on Atheroma Formation

2014-11-14

254

Physical Mapping Of A Sex Reversal Mutation On Papaya Y Chromosome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unlike animal species, most flowering plants are hermaphrodite, producing flowers that contain both male and female organs. Papaya is one of the limited number of plant species that produce male, female, and hermaphrodite flowers on separate individuals, offering us the opportunity of investigating ...

255

Semen quality in papaya workers with long term exposure to ethylene dibromide  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine whether long term occupational exposure to ethylene dibromide (EDB) affects semen quality a cross sectional study of semen quality was conducted among 46 men employed in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii, with an average duration of exposure of five years and a geometric mean breathing zone exposure to airborne EDB of 88 ppb (eight hour time weighted

J M Ratcliffe; S M Schrader; K Steenland; D E Clapp; T Turner; R W Hornung

1987-01-01

256

Fractionation and purification of the enzymes stored in the latex of Carica papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The latex of the tropical species Carica papaya is well known for being a rich source of the four cysteine endopeptidases papain, chymopapain, glycyl endopeptidase and caricain. Altogether, these enzymes are present in the laticifers at a concentration higher than 1 mM. The proteinases are synthesized as inactive precursors that convert into mature enzymes within 2 min after wounding the

Mohamed Azarkan; Anouar El Moussaoui; Delphine van Wuytswinkel; Géraldine Dehon; Yvan Looze

2003-01-01

257

HPLC Quantitation of Major Carotenoids of Fresh and Processed Guava, Mango and Papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major carotenoids in 52 samples of guava, mango, papaya and some of their processed products were quantitated by HPLC, using both external standardisation and standard addition calibration techniques. The results, submitted to theFandttests, demonstrated that the precision and the means obtained by the two calibration procedures were not significantly different. The concentrations of ?-carotene and lycopene in guava, ?-carotene

Viktor C. Wilberg; Delia B. Rodriguez-Amaya

1995-01-01

258

Spontaneous processing of peptides during coagulation of latex from Carica papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latex is actively secreted on wounded unripe fruits from Caricapapaya. We describe the changes in peptide composition by SDS-PAGE analysis of latex from C.papaya collected at various times after incision of the unripe fruit. Non random changes in the relative amount of several peptides occur during latex coagulation. The measurement of amidase activity of coagulating latex shows three peaks of

V. Moutim; L. G. Silva; M. T. P. Lopes; G. Wilson Fernandes; C. E. Salas

1999-01-01

259

Specificity of Carica papaya latex in lipase-catalyzed interesterification reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymatic interesterification of the chiral triacylglycerol, 1-butyroyl-2-stearoyl-3-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol (sn-BSP) with trimyristin indicated that the lipase present in Carica papaya latex exhibits an sn3 stereoselectivity. Other interesterification experiments with homogeneous triacylglycerols of varying chain length with tricaprylin showed that this enzyme also has a typoselectivity for short chain fatty acids.

P. Villeneuve; M. Pina; A. Skarbek; J. Graille; T. A. Foglia

1997-01-01

260

Complete Nucleotide Sequence and Genetic Organization of Papaya Ringspot Virus RNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete nucleotide sequence of the RNA genome of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was determined from four overlapping cDNA clones and by direct sequenc- ing of viral RNA. The genomic RNA is 10326 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(A) tract, and contains one large open reading frame that starts at nucleotide positions 86 to 88 and ends at positions 10118

Shyi-Dong Yeh; Fuh-Jyh Jan; Chu-Hui Chiang; Tzyy-Jye Doong; Ming-Cheng Chen; Pei-Hua Chung; Huey-Jimm Bau

1992-01-01

261

The Nucleotide Sequences of the 3'-terminal Regions of Papaya Ringspot Virus Strains W and P  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequences of cDNA clones encoding most of the NI b protein, the coat protein and the 3' untranslated region of papaya ringspot virus (PRV) strains W and P have been determined. The open reading frame of P strain PRV was confirmed by amino acid analysis. Nucleotide sequence comparisons of these strains show that they share a 98-2% identity in

Hector Quemada; Brigitte L'Hostis; Dennis Gonsalves; Ilene M. Reardon; Robert Heinrikson; Ernest L. Hiebert; Leang C. Sieu; Jerry L. Slightom

1990-01-01

262

CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF APETALA3 AND PISTILLATA ORTHOLOGS IN PAPAYA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the ABCE model of flower development, B function organ-identity genes act in the second and third whorls of the flower to control petal and stamen identity. Papaya has three sex forms, male, female, and hermaphrodite so its flowers might be ideal for testing the function of B class genes in all t...

263

AUTOSOMAL DEGENERATION AS THE PROCESS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF A PRIMITIVE Y CHROMOSOME IN PAPAYA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant sex chromosomes, in contrast to those in animals, evolved recently and only a few are heteromorphic. Genomic analyses of the homomorphic sex chromosomes of papaya show features of the early stages of sex chromosome evolution. Sequence analysis of 20% of the male specific region (MSY) shows tha...

264

Efforts to deregulate Rainbow papaya in Japan: Molecular Characterization of Transgene and Vector Inserts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transformation plasmid-derived insert number and insert site sequence in 55-1 line papaya derivatives Rainbow and SunUp was determined as part of a larger petition to allow its import into Japan (Suzuki, et al., 2007, 2008). Three insertions were detected by Southern analysis and their correspondin...

265

Anthelmintic activity of papaya seeds on Hymenolepis diminuta infections in rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to see the anthelmintic activity potential of papaya seeds against Hymenolepis diminuta in rats. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the effectiveness of papaya seeds on helminths especially H. diminuta in rats and (2) to determine the effective dose level on helminths in rats. Thirty six male rats from strain Sprague-Dawley were chosen as samples in this experiment. Two types of dose level were used for papaya seeds treatments such as 0.6 g kg-1 and 1.2 g kg-1. The geometric mean (GEM) was used to calculate mean for eggs per gram (EPG) before and after the treatment to be included in the reduction percentage calculation. After 21 days post treatment, necropsies were done to get the worm count and the GEM was used to calculate the efficacy percentage for the treatment. Results from this study showed that the reduction percentages in EPG for papaya seeds treatment for both doses level were very high which is 96.8% for 0.6g kg-1 dose level and 96.2% for 1.2 g kg-1 dose level. Whereas the efficacy percentage based on the worm counts for both doses level were also very high that was 90.77% for 0.6 g kg-1 dose level and 93.85% for 1.2 g kg-1. PMID:23202594

Sapaat, A; Satrija, F; Mahsol, H H; Ahmad, A H

2012-12-01

266

Activities of several membrane and cell-wall hydrolases, ethylene biosynthetic enzymes, and cell wall polyuronide degradation during low-temperature storage of intact and fresh-cut papaya ( Carica papaya) fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh-cut fruit tissue deteriorates more rapidly than its intact counterpart. A study was conducted to determine changes in firmness, cell-wall polyuronides, and the activities of cell-wall and membrane hydrolases and ethylene biosynthetic enzymes in intact and fresh-cut papaya fruit during storage at 5°C. Processing of papaya fruit was performed under sanitized conditions at 5°C, and fruit pieces were stored for

Yasar Karakurt; Donald J. Huber

2003-01-01

267

Effect of green and ripe Carica papaya epicarp extracts on wound healing and during pregnancy.  

PubMed

The traditional use of papaya to treat many diseases, especially skin conditions and its prohibition for consumption during pregnancy has prompted us to determine whether papaya extracts both from green and ripe fruits improve wound healing and also produce foetal toxicity. Aqueous extracts of green papaya epicarp (GPE) and ripe papaya epicarp (RPE) were applied on induced wounds on mice. GPE treatment induced complete healing in shorter periods (13 days) than that required while using RPE (17 days), sterile water (18 days) and Solcoseryl ointment (21 days). Extracts were administered orally (1 mg/g body weight/day) to pregnant mice from day 10 and onwards after conception. 3 (n=7) mice and 1 (n=6) mice given RPE and misoprostol, an abortive drug, respectively experienced embryonic resorption while this effect was observed in none of the mice given GPE (n=5) and water (n=5). The average body weight of live pups delivered by mice given GPE (1.12+/-0.04 g) was significantly lower than those delivered by mice given water (1.38+/-0.02 g). In SDS-PAGE, proteins were distributed in three bands (Mr range approximately 8-29 kDa). Band intensity at Mr approximately 28-29 kDa was higher in GPE than in RPE. In contrast, band intensity at low Mr (approximately 8 kDa) was found to be higher in RPE than in GPE. Notably, the band corresponding to Mr approximately 23-25 kDa was absent in RPE. These differences in composition may have contributed to the different wound healing and abortive effects of green and ripe papaya. PMID:18468758

Anuar, Nor Suhada; Zahari, Shafiyyah Solehah; Taib, Ibrahim Adham; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur

2008-07-01

268

Multiple spatial representations determine touch localization on the fingers.  

PubMed

Touch location can be specified in different anatomical and external reference frames. Temporal order judgments (TOJs) in touch are known to be sensitive to conflict between reference frames. To establish which coordinates are involved in localizing touch to a finger, participants performed TOJ on tactile stimuli to 2 out of 4 possible fingers. We induced conflict between hand- and finger-related reference frames, as well as between anatomical and external spatial coding, by selectively crossing 2 fingers. TOJ performance was impaired when both stimuli were applied to crossed fingers, indicating conflict between anatomical and external finger coordinates. In addition, TOJs were impaired when stimuli were mapped to the same hand based on either anatomical or external spatial codes. Accordingly, we observed a benefit rather than impairment with finger crossing when both stimuli were applied to 1 hand. Complementary, participants systematically mislocalized touch to nonstimulated fingers of the targeted hand. The results indicate that touch localization for the fingers involves integration of several sources of spatial information: the anatomical location of the touched finger, its position in external space, the stimulated hand, and the hand to which the touch is (re)mapped in external space. PMID:24364704

Badde, Stephanie; Röder, Brigitte; Heed, Tobias

2014-04-01

269

76 FR 49725 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia into the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...designated phytosanitary measures will be sufficient to mitigate the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh papaya fruit from Malaysia. DATES: Effective Date: August 11, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

2011-08-11

270

Construction and characterization of a papaya BAC library as a foundation for molecular dissection of a tree-fruit genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed from high-molecular-weight DNA isolated from young leaves\\u000a of papaya (Carica papaya L.). This BAC library consists of 39168 clones from two separate ligation reactions. The average insert size of the library\\u000a is 132 kb; 96.5% of the 18700 clones from the first ligation contained inserts that averaged 86 kb in size, 95.7%

R. Ming; P. H. Moore; F. Zee; C. A. Abbey; H. Ma; A. H. Paterson

2001-01-01

271

Neural mechanisms of scanned and stationary touch.  

PubMed

The neural mechanisms subserving the sense of touch set the limits for the acquisition of information regarding the spatial and temporal characteristics of stimuli impinging on the skin surface. The results of three different psychophysical experiments imply that the skin of the finger pad can resolve the elements of a stimulus separated by 0.9 mm when the stimulus is applied to the skin and held stationary. This resolution limit is only slightly improved (to about 0.7 mm) when movement between the stimulus and skin is allowed. Single-unit recordings from three classes of primary mechanoreceptive afferents in anesthetized monkeys shows that only one class, the slowly adapting afferents, resolve spatial detail of stationary stimuli near the resolution limit. In addition, slow adaptors appear to resolve moving stimuli (e.g., Braille-dot patterns) more effectively than do the other two classes. However, these observations do not explain the extraordinary capacity of the finger-pad skin for discriminating between fine textures. Neurophysiological evidence suggests that information about such textures (i.e., surfaces with spatial details below the resolution limit) may be conveyed by a code based on the relative engagement of the three receptor populations. PMID:3919074

Phillips, J R; Johnson, K O

1985-01-01

272

Haptic Holography/Touching the Ethereal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Haptic Holography, was perhaps, first proposed by workers at MIT in the 90s. The Media Lab, headed up by Dr. Stephen Benton, with published papers by Wendy Plesiak and Ravi Pappuh. -1 Recent developments in both the technology of digital holography and haptics have made it practical to conduct further investigations. Haptic holography is auto-stereoscopic and provides co-axial viewing for the user. Haptic holography may find application in medical & surgical training and as a new form of synthetic reality for artists and designers. At OCAD's PHASE Lab (Prototypes for Holographic Art and Science Explorations) workers are exploring hybrid forms of augmented reality, that combine haptics, interactivity and auto-stereoscopic imagery. Conventional Haptic environments, while presenting a 3D physics environment, typically provide a 2D visual work/play space. Orienteering in such an environment creates an uncertain spatial relationship for the user. Our group creates 3d models from which we create holographic constructs. The same model is used to create the physics environment. The two models are super-imposed. The result: Holograms you can touch.

Page, Michael

2013-02-01

273

Healing Touch and Fertility: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Fertility and conception have been a concern through the ages. This case report documents the use of healing touch (HT), a noninvasive energy-field therapy, with the intent to facilitate conception and a healthy pregnancy. After 18 months of being unsuccessful in conceiving, a 40-year-old female sought HT to enhance the possibility of conceiving naturally. She had normal menstrual cycles, and both she and her husband had normal fertility tests. The client conceived after several months of HT therapy, which also included stimulating reflexology points on the ankle designed to affect the uterus and ovaries and encouraging positive affirmations. HT therapy continued throughout a trouble-free pregnancy and during birth. The client gave birth to a healthy baby boy without the use of pain-relieving medications. Perinatal educators and other health-care practitioners who work with women having difficulty conceiving or experiencing difficult pregnancies may wish to consider recommending the use of HT and/or other complementary therapies with the goal of fostering more positive reproductive outcomes.

Kissinger, Jeanette; Kaczmarek, Lori

2006-01-01

274

An Exploration of Multi-touch Interaction Techniques  

E-print Network

. As we attempt to design for more complex operations, the effectiveness of spatial manipulation as a metaphor becomes weak. We introduce two new platforms for multi-touch computing: a gesture recognition system, and a new interaction technique. I...

Damaraju Sriranga, Sashikanth Raju

2013-08-16

275

Touch interface for markless AR based on Kinect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop an augmented reality (AR) environment with hidden-marker via touch interface using Kinect device, and then also set up a touch painting game with the AR environment. This environment is similar to that of the touch screen interface which allows user to paint picture on a tabletop with his fingers, and it is designed with depth image information from Kinect device setting up above a tabletop. We incorporate support vector machine (SVM) to classify painted pictures which correspond to the inner data and call out its AR into the tabletop in color images information from Kinect device. Because users can utilize this similar touch interface to control AR, we achieve a marker-less AR and interactive environment.

Hsieh, Ching-Tang; Kuo, Tai-Ku; Wang, Hui-Chun; Wu, Yeh-Kuang; Chang, Liung-Chun

2014-01-01

276

Touching Sharp Virtual Objects Produces a Haptic Illusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Top down perceptual processing implies that much of what we perceive is based on prior knowledge and expectation. It has been\\u000a argued that such processing is why Virtual Reality works at all - the brain filling in missing information based on expectation.\\u000a We investigated this with respect to touch. Seventeen participants were asked to touch different objects seen in a

Andrea Brogni; Darwin G. Caldwell; Mel Slater

277

Specular vision-touch synaesthesia: two reference frames.  

PubMed

Two subtypes of vision-touch synaesthesia (VTS) have been identified. For anatomical VTS, sight of touch on another person elicits synaesthetic tactile sensation at the same location on the observer's own body (e.g., viewed touch on the left cheek elicits sensation on the observer's left cheek). For specular VTS, sight of touch on another person elicits synaesthetic tactile sensation at the mirror-reflected location (e.g., viewed touch on the left cheek elicits sensation on the observer's right cheek). Here we report two distinctly different patterns of sensation within the specular subtype. Both participants experienced synaesthetic tactile sensation on their right hand when they viewed unidirectional brushstrokes administered to a prosthetic left hand (positioned with fingers pointing toward the participant), but the direction of sensation matched the viewed touch in a hand-centred (spatial) reference frame for RS and in an external (viewer-centred) reference frame for NC. Competing reference frames affect how individuals with specular VTS experience synaesthetic tactile sensation. PMID:23155738

White, Rebekah C; Aimola Davies, Anne M

2012-01-01

278

Effects and after-effects of voluntary intermittent light finger touch on body sway.  

PubMed

Effects of light touch on body sway have usually been investigated with some form of constant contact. Only two studies investigated transient sway dynamics following the addition or withdrawal of light touch. This study adopted a paradigm of intermittent touch and assessed body sway during as well as following short periods of touch of varying durations to investigate whether effects and after-effects of touch differ as a function of touch duration. In a modified heel-to-toe posture, 15 blindfolded participants alternated their index finger position between no-touching and touching on a strain gauge in response to low- and high-pitched auditory cues. Five trials of 46 s duration were segmented into 11 sections: a 6-s no-touching period was followed by five pseudo-randomly ordered touching periods of 0.5-, 1-, 1.5-, 2-, and 5-s duration, each of which was followed by another 6-s no-touching interval. Consistent with previous research, compared to no-touching intervals sway was reduced during touch periods with touch durations greater than 2 s. Progressive reductions in sway were evident after touch onset. After touch withdrawal in the 2-s touch condition, postural sway increased and returned to baseline level nearly immediately. Interestingly, in the 5-s touch condition, reductions in sway persisted even after touch withdrawal in the medio-lateral and antero-posterior plane for around 2.5 s and 5.5 s, respectively. Our intermittent touch paradigm resulted in duration-dependent touch effects and after-effects; the latter is a novel finding and may result from a more persistent postural set involved in proactive sway control. PMID:25088757

Johannsen, Leif; Lou, Shu-Zon; Chen, Hui-Ya

2014-09-01

279

Atmospheric pressure plasma jets interacting with liquid covered tissue: touching and not-touching the liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the use of atmospheric pressure plasma jets in biological applications, the plasma-produced charged and neutral species in the plume of the jet often interact with a thin layer of liquid covering the tissue being treated. The plasma-produced reactivity must then penetrate through the liquid layer to reach the tissue. In this computational investigation, a plasma jet created by a single discharge pulse at three different voltages was directed onto a 200?µm water layer covering tissue followed by a 10?s afterglow. The magnitude of the voltage and its pulse length determined if the ionization wave producing the plasma plume reached the surface of the liquid. When the ionization wave touches the surface, significantly more charged species were created in the water layer with H3O+aq, O3?aq, and O2?aq being the dominant terminal species. More aqueous OHaq, H2O2aq, and O3aq were also formed when the plasma plume touches the surface. The single pulse examined here corresponds to a low repetition rate plasma jet where reactive species would be blown out of the volume between pulses and there is not recirculation of flow or turbulence. For these conditions, NxOy species do not accumulate in the volume. As a result, aqueous nitrites, nitrates, and peroxynitrite, and the HNO3aq and HOONOaq, which trace their origin to solvated NxOy, have low densities.

Norberg, Seth A.; Tian, Wei; Johnsen, Eric; Kushner, Mark J.

2014-11-01

280

Energetic optimization of a piezo-based touch-operated button for man-machine interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the optimization of a touch-operated button for man-machine interfaces based on piezoelectric energy harvesting techniques. In the mechanical button, a common piezoelectric diaphragm, is assembled to harvest the ambient energy from the source, i.e. the operator’s touch. Under touch force load, the integrated diaphragm will have a bending deformation. Then, its mechanical strain is converted into the required electrical energy by means of the piezoelectric effect presented to the diaphragm. Structural design (i) makes the piezoceramic work under static compressive stress instead of static or dynamic tensile stress, (ii) achieves a satisfactory stress level and (iii) provides the diaphragm and the button with a fatigue lifetime in excess of millions of touch operations. To improve the button’s function, the effect of some key properties consisting of dimension, boundary condition and load condition on electrical behavior of the piezoelectric diaphragm are evaluated by electromechanical coupling analysis in ANSYS. The finite element analysis (FEA) results indicate that the modification of these properties could enhance the diaphragm significantly. Based on the key properties’ different contributions to the improvement of the diaphragm’s electrical energy output, they are incorporated into the piezoelectric diaphragm’s redesign or the structural design of the piezo-based button. The comparison of the original structure and the optimal result shows that electrical energy stored in the diaphragm and the voltage output are increased by 1576% and 120%, respectively, and the volume of the piezoceramic is reduced to 33.6%. These results will be adopted to update the design of the self-powered button, thus enabling a large decrease of energy consumption and lifetime cost of the MMI.

Sun, Hao; de Vries, Theo J. A.; de Vries, Rene; van Dalen, Harry

2012-03-01

281

Legal and ethical issues of touch in dance\\/movement therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper includes a description of the use of touch in dance\\/movement therapy followed by a brief discussion of the social and emotional roles played by various forms of touch. The frequency of touch between patient and therapist is cited and the ethical issues, particularly concerning sexuality and the use of touch as power, are explored. Legal concerns include the

Carlotta Willis

1987-01-01

282

First draft of transgenic papaya genome yields many fruits http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-04/uoia-fdo041608.php 1 of 2 4/24/2008 7:01 PM  

E-print Network

of transgenic papaya genome yields many fruits A broad collaboration of research institutions in the UFirst draft of transgenic papaya genome yields many fruits http with the plant's ability to photosynthesize. The transgenic papaya at the center of this field (darker

Alam, Maqsudul

283

RedOrbit NEWS | Researchers Reveal Genetic Code of Papaya http://www.redorbit.com/modules/news/tools.php?tool=print&id=1356702 1 of 1 4/24/2008 6:39 PM  

E-print Network

RedOrbit NEWS | Researchers Reveal Genetic Code of Papaya http://www.redorbit.com/modules/news/tools.php?tool=print&id=1356702 1 of 1 4/24/2008 6:39 PM Researchers Reveal Genetic Code of Papaya Researchers recently published the full DNA sequence of the "SunUp" papaya, discovering genes that cause the tree evolve and also help

Alam, Maqsudul

284

Papaya genome project bears fruit : Nature News http://www.nature.com/news/2008/080423/full/news.2008.772.html 1 of 2 4/24/2008 7:05 PM  

E-print Network

Papaya genome project bears fruit : Nature News http://www.nature.com/news/2008/080423/full/news.2008.772.html 1 of 2 4/24/2008 7:05 PM Punchstock Papaya: Hawaii's 5th largest crop. Published online 23 April 2008 | Nature | doi:10.1038/news.2008.772 News Papaya genome project bears fruit Hawaiian

Alam, Maqsudul

285

Transgenic Papaya Genome Sequenced http://www.genomeweb.com/issues/news/146481-1.html?type=pf 1 of 2 4/27/2008 7:12 PM  

E-print Network

Transgenic Papaya Genome Sequenced http://www.genomeweb.com/issues/news/146481-1.html?type=pf 1 of 2 4/27/2008 7:12 PM Transgenic Papaya Genome Sequenced April 23, 2008 By a GenomeWeb staff reporter, an international team of researchers report sequencing the first papaya genome. The sequence -- generated from

Alam, Maqsudul

286

Science News / Study Decodes Papaya Genome http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/31444/title/Study_decodes... 1 of 1 4/27/2008 7:05 PM  

E-print Network

Science News / Study Decodes Papaya Genome http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/31444/title team of researchers has unveiled a draft of the catalog of genetic information needed to make papaya. It is the first time researchers have compiled the genome of a transgenic fruit crop -- the papaya variety had

Alam, Maqsudul

287

Genome-wide identification of touch- and darkness-regulated Arabidopsis genes: a focus on calmodulin-like and XTH genes.  

PubMed

We sought to gain insight into functions potentially altered by mechanostimulation and investigate the relationship between touch and darkness responses. Microarrays and quantitative RT-PCR were conducted to identify genes and analyze behaviors of calmodulin-like (CML) and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) genes. Strikingly, 589 genes had touch-inducible expression; 171 had reduced expression. Darkness increased expression of 461 genes and decreased expression of 72 genes. Over half of the touch-inducible genes resembled the TCH genes in that they were also up-regulated by darkness; 67% of those darkness-inducible were also touch inducible. Expression of 12 CMLs and four XTHs was elevated by touch; three XTHs had reduced expression. In darkness-treated plants, 10 CMLs and nine XTHs had increased expression and one XTH was repressed. Over 2.5% of total genes were touch-inducible. Many were also darkness up-regulated, consistent with the hypothesis that these stimuli have partially overlapping signal transduction pathways. Regulated gene identities suggest that calcium and kinase signaling, wall modification, disease resistance and downstream transcriptional responses may be altered in response to mechanostimulation or darkness. PMID:15720654

Lee, Dennis; Polisensky, Diana H; Braam, Janet

2005-02-01

288

Beverages of lemon juice and exotic noni and papaya with potential for anticholinergic effects.  

PubMed

Lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.) juice beverages enriched either with noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) (LN) or papaya (Carica papaya L.) (LP), were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n), the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by (DPPH·), superoxide (O2(·-)), hydroxyl radicals (·OH) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) assays, and their potential as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors was also assessed. The fruits are rich in a wide range of bioactive phenolics. Regarding DPPH·, ·OH and HOCl assays, the LP displayed strong activity, and LN was the most active against O2(·-). Concerning cholinesterases, LP was the most active, mainly due to lemon juice contribution. The effect on the cholinesterases was not as strong as in previous reports on purified extracts, but the bioactive-rich beverages offer the possibility of dietary coadjutants for daily consumption of health-promoting substances by adults with aging-related cognitive or physical disorders. PMID:25306312

Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

2015-03-01

289

Development and validation of a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay for simultaneous detection of three papaya viruses.  

PubMed

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce similar symptoms in papaya. Each threatens commercial production of papaya on Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay was developed to detect simultaneously these three viruses by screening combinations of mixed primer pairs and optimizing the multiplex RT-PCR reaction conditions. A mixture of three specific primer pairs was used to amplify three distinct fragments of 613 bp from the P3 gene of PRSV, 355 bp from the CP gene of PLDMV, and 205 bp from the CP gene of PapMV, demonstrating the assay's specificity. The sensitivity of the multiplex RT-PCR was evaluated by showing plasmids containing each of the viral target genes with 1.44 × 103, 1.79 × 103, and 1.91 × 102 copies for the three viruses could be detected successfully. The multiplex RT-PCR was applied successfully for detection of three viruses from 341 field samples collected from 18 counties of Hainan Island, China. Rates of single infections were 186/341 (54.5%), 93/341 (27.3%), and 3/341 (0.9%), for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively; 59/341 (17.3%) of the samples were co-infected with PRSV and PLDMV, which is the first time being reported in Hainan Island. This multiplex RT-PCR assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method for detecting multiple viruses in papaya and can be used for routine molecular diagnosis and epidemiological studies in papaya. PMID:25337891

Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yang, Yong; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

2014-10-01

290

Comparative proteomic analysis of somatic embryo maturation in Carica papaya L.  

PubMed Central

Background Somatic embryogenesis is a complex process regulated by numerous factors. The identification of proteins that are differentially expressed during plant development could result in the development of molecular markers of plant metabolism and provide information contributing to the monitoring and understanding of different biological responses. In addition, the identification of molecular markers could lead to the optimization of protocols allowing the use of biotechnology for papaya propagation and reproduction. This work aimed to investigate the effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on somatic embryo development and the protein expression profile during somatic embryo maturation in papaya (Carica papaya L.). Results The maturation treatment supplemented with 6% PEG (PEG6) resulted in the greatest number of somatic embryos and induced differential protein expression compared with cultures grown under the control treatment. Among 135 spots selected for MS/MS analysis, 76 spots were successfully identified, 38 of which were common to both treatments, while 14 spots were unique to the control treatment, and 24 spots were unique to the PEG6 treatment. The identified proteins were assigned to seven categories or were unclassified. The most representative class of proteins observed in the control treatment was associated with the stress response (25.8%), while those under PEG6 treatment were carbohydrate and energy metabolism (18.4%) and the stress response (18.4%). Conclusions The differential expression of three proteins (enolase, esterase and ADH3) induced by PEG6 treatment could play an important role in maturation, and these proteins could be characterized as candidate biomarkers of somatic embryogenesis in papaya. PMID:25076862

2014-01-01

291

Comparison of the Carotenoids in Yellow-and Red-fleshed Carica papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE colour of ripe Carica papaya flesh is due to caro-tenoid. Cryptoxanthin, violaxanthin, beta-carotene, and zeta-carotene have been identified1,2 in yellow-fleshed fruit. Red-fleshed varieties, which appear to exhibit a single gene difference from yellow-fleshed types3, can also be found. It was of interest to establish the pigment composition of the red-fleshed variety and at the same time to make a

H. Y. Yamamoto

1964-01-01

292

Opportunities and constraints to biotechnological applications in the Caribbean: transgenic papayas in Jamaica and Venezuela.  

PubMed

In this opinion article, we briefly review the status of crop biotechnology research-with emphasis on the development of GM crops-in Jamaica and Venezuela. We focus on the transgenic papayas developed for both countries, and examine the factors hindering not only the development and application of this biotechnological commodity for the improvement of agricultural productivity, but also on the challenges influencing societal acceptance of the technology. PMID:21212960

Fermin, Gustavo; Tennant, Paula

2011-05-01

293

Sorption of Hg(II) onto Carica papaya: Experimental studies and design of batch sorber  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel sorbent, Carica papaya, was evaluated for sorption of Hg(II) from aqueous solution under the varying conditions of contact time, metal ion concentration, sorbent dose and pH. The results indicate that sorption equilibrium was established in about 120min. The Hg(II) sorption was strictly pH dependent, and maximum removal was observed at pH 6.5. The sorption interaction of Hg(II) onto

Shaik Basha; Z. V. P. Murthy; B. Jha

2009-01-01

294

Carica papaya latex is a rich source of a class II chitinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

This enzyme, purified to homogeneity, was classified on the basis of its N-terminal amino acid sequence, activity and free thiol functions content. Some physico-chemical properties were also studied.A class II chitinase is present in the latex of the tropical species Carica papaya. The enzyme may be readily purified by using a combination of hydrophobic interaction- and cation-exchange chromatography. This enzyme

Mohamed Azarkan; Amina Amrani; Michelle Nijs; André Vandermeers; Samira Zerhouni; Nicole Smolders; Yvan Looze

1997-01-01

295

Divergence and conservation of the genomic RNAs of Taiwan and Hawaii strains of papaya ringspot potyvirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of a Taiwan isolate of papaya ringspot potyvirus (PRSV YK) was determined\\u000a from three overlapping cDNA clones and by direct RNA sequencing. Comparison was made with the reported Hawaii isolate of PRSV\\u000a HA. Both genomes are 10?326 nucleotides long, excluding the poly(A)-tail. They encode a polyprotein of 3?344 amino acids with\\u000a a

C.-H. Wang; S.-D. Yeh

1997-01-01

296

Phenol induced by irradiation does not impair sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of radiation processing on the sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya exposed to doses in the range of 2.5-10 kGy and 100 Gy-2.5 kGy respectively was investigated. Despite an increase in the content of phenol in the volatile oil of these food products overall sensory quality of the irradiated and control samples was not significantly affected by radiation processing.

Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

2013-11-01

297

Improved Carica papaya Tolerance to Carmine Spider Mite by the Expression of Manduca sexta chitinase Transgene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya plants producing the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) chitinase protein were obtained following microprojectile bombardment of embryogenic calli derived from the hypocotyls of\\u000a the cultivar Kapoho. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out to confirm the presence of the transgene. RT-PCR and\\u000a a quantitative chitinase assay showed increased levels of chitinase activity in every selected transgenic line. Insect bioassays\\u000a in

Heather R. K. McCafferty; Paul H. Moore; Yun J. Zhu

2006-01-01

298

Mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences in synesthesia  

PubMed Central

A fundamental question in the field of synesthesia is whether it is associated with other cognitive phenomena. The current study examined synesthesia's connections with phenomenal traits of mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences, as well as the representation of the three phenomena in the population, across gender and domain of work/study. Mirror-touch is the automatic, involuntary experience of tactile sensation on one's own body when others are being touched. For example, seeing another person's arm being stroked can evoke physical touch sensation on one's own arm. Ticker tape is the automatic visualization of spoken words or thoughts, such as a teleprompter. For example, when spoken to, a ticker taper might see mentally the spoken words displayed in front of his face or as coming out of the speaker's mouth. To explore synesthesia's associations with these phenomena, a diverse group (n = 3743) was systematically recruited from eight universities and one public museum in France to complete an online screening. Of the 1017 eligible respondents, synesthetes (across all subtypes) reported higher rates of mirror-touch and ticker tape than non-synesthetes, suggesting that synesthesia is associated with these phenomenal traits. However, effect sizes were small and we could not rule out that response bias influenced these associations. Mirror-touch and ticker tape were independent. No differences were found across gender or domain of work and study in prevalence of synesthesia, mirror-touch or ticker tape. The prevalence of ticker tape, unknown so far, was estimated at about 7%, an intermediate rate between estimates of grapheme-color (2–4%) and sequence-space synesthesia (9–14%). Within synesthesia, grapheme-personification, also called ordinal-linguistic personification (OLP) was the most common subtype and was estimated around 12%. Co-occurences of the different types of synesthesia were higher than chance, though at the level of small effect sizes. PMID:24223561

Chun, Charlotte A.; Hupé, Jean-Michel

2013-01-01

299

Mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences in synesthesia.  

PubMed

A fundamental question in the field of synesthesia is whether it is associated with other cognitive phenomena. The current study examined synesthesia's connections with phenomenal traits of mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences, as well as the representation of the three phenomena in the population, across gender and domain of work/study. Mirror-touch is the automatic, involuntary experience of tactile sensation on one's own body when others are being touched. For example, seeing another person's arm being stroked can evoke physical touch sensation on one's own arm. Ticker tape is the automatic visualization of spoken words or thoughts, such as a teleprompter. For example, when spoken to, a ticker taper might see mentally the spoken words displayed in front of his face or as coming out of the speaker's mouth. To explore synesthesia's associations with these phenomena, a diverse group (n = 3743) was systematically recruited from eight universities and one public museum in France to complete an online screening. Of the 1017 eligible respondents, synesthetes (across all subtypes) reported higher rates of mirror-touch and ticker tape than non-synesthetes, suggesting that synesthesia is associated with these phenomenal traits. However, effect sizes were small and we could not rule out that response bias influenced these associations. Mirror-touch and ticker tape were independent. No differences were found across gender or domain of work and study in prevalence of synesthesia, mirror-touch or ticker tape. The prevalence of ticker tape, unknown so far, was estimated at about 7%, an intermediate rate between estimates of grapheme-color (2-4%) and sequence-space synesthesia (9-14%). Within synesthesia, grapheme-personification, also called ordinal-linguistic personification (OLP) was the most common subtype and was estimated around 12%. Co-occurences of the different types of synesthesia were higher than chance, though at the level of small effect sizes. PMID:24223561

Chun, Charlotte A; Hupé, Jean-Michel

2013-01-01

300

Complete genome of Hainan papaya ringspot virus using small RNA deep sequencing.  

PubMed

Small RNA deep sequencing allows for virus identification, virus genome assembly, and strain differentiation. In this study, papaya plants with virus-like symptoms collected in Hainan province were used for deep sequencing and small RNA library construction. After in silicon subtraction of the papaya sRNAs, small RNA reads were used to in the viral genome assembly using a reference-guided, iterative assembly approach. A nearly complete genome was assembled for a Hainan isolate of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-HN-2). The complete PRSV-HN-2 genome (accession no.: KF734962) was obtained after a 15-nucleotide gap was filled by direct sequencing of the amplified genomic region. Direct sequencing of several random genomic regions of the PRSV isolate did not find any sequence discrepancy with the sRNA-assembled genome. The newly sequenced PRSV-HN-2 genome shared a nucleotide identity of 96 and 94 % to that of the PRSV-HN (EF183499) and PRSV-HN-1 (HQ424465) isolates, and together with these two isolates formed a new PRSV clade. These data demonstrate that the small RNA deep sequencing technology provides a viable and rapid mean to assemble complete viral genomes in plants. PMID:24510356

Zhang, Yuliang; Yu, Naitong; Huang, Qixing; Yin, Guohua; Guo, Anping; Wang, Xiangfeng; Xiong, Zhongguo; Liu, Zhixin

2014-06-01

301

Sequencing papaya X and Yh chromosomes reveals molecular basis of incipient sex chromosome evolution  

PubMed Central

Sex determination in papaya is controlled by a recently evolved XY chromosome pair, with two slightly different Y chromosomes controlling the development of males (Y) and hermaphrodites (Yh). To study the events of early sex chromosome evolution, we sequenced the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome (HSY) and its X counterpart, yielding an 8.1-megabase (Mb) HSY pseudomolecule, and a 3.5-Mb sequence for the corresponding X region. The HSY is larger than the X region, mostly due to retrotransposon insertions. The papaya HSY differs from the X region by two large-scale inversions, the first of which likely caused the recombination suppression between the X and Yh chromosomes, followed by numerous additional chromosomal rearrangements. Altogether, including the X and/or HSY regions, 124 transcription units were annotated, including 50 functional pairs present in both the X and HSY. Ten HSY genes had functional homologs elsewhere in the papaya autosomal regions, suggesting movement of genes onto the HSY, whereas the X region had none. Sequence divergence between 70 transcripts shared by the X and HSY revealed two evolutionary strata in the X chromosome, corresponding to the two inversions on the HSY, the older of which evolved about 7.0 million years ago. Gene content differences between the HSY and X are greatest in the older stratum, whereas the gene content and order of the collinear regions are identical. Our findings support theoretical models of early sex chromosome evolution. PMID:22869747

Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Yu, Qingyi; Gschwend, Andrea R.; Han, Jennifer; Zeng, Fanchang; Aryal, Rishi; VanBuren, Robert; Murray, Jan E.; Zhang, Wenli; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Feltus, F. Alex; Lemke, Cornelia; Tong, Eric J.; Chen, Cuixia; Man Wai, Ching; Singh, Ratnesh; Wang, Ming-Li; Min, Xiang Jia; Alam, Maqsudul; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H.; Jiang, Jiming; Paterson, Andrew H.; Ming, Ray

2012-01-01

302

Reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage by Carica papaya leaf extract  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the in vitro antioxidant potential of Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract and its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage assessed by haemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Methods Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, hydrogen ion scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and the ferrous ion reducing ability were assessed as antioxidant indices. In the other experiment, human erythrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide to induce erythrocyte damage. The extract (at various concentrations) was subsequently incubated with the erythrocytes and later analysed for haemolysis and lipid peroxidation as indices for erythrocyte damage. Results Preliminary investigation of the extract showed that the leaf possessed significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities using in vitro models in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). The extract also reduced hydrogen peroxide induced erythrocyte haemolysis and lipid peroxidation significantly when compared with ascorbic acid (P<0.05). The IC50 values were 7.33 mg/mL and 1.58 mg/mL for inhibition of haemolysis and lipid peroxidation, respectively. In all cases, ascorbic acid (the reference antioxidant) possessed higher activity than the extract. Conclusions The findings show that C. papaya leaves possess significant bioactive potential which is attributed to the phytochemicals which act in synergy. Thus, the leaves can be exploited for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes. PMID:23569948

Okoko, Tebekeme; Ere, Diepreye

2012-01-01

303

Investigating Maternal Touch and Infants' Self-Regulatory Behaviours during a Modified Face-to-Face Still-Face with Touch Procedure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maternal touch and infants' self-regulatory behaviours were examined during a modified Still-Face with Touch (SF?+?T) procedure. Mothers and their 5½-month-old infants participated in one period of Normal interaction followed by three SF?+?T periods. Maternal functions of touch, and infants' self-regulatory behaviour, affect, and…

Jean, Amélie D. L.; Stack, Dale M.; Arnold, Sharon

2014-01-01

304

Triple touch sperm immobilization vs. single touch sperm immobilization in ICSI - a randomised trial  

PubMed Central

Background Although different techniques for sperm immobilization have been described, their value has not been assessed in an adequately powered randomized study. The aim of this study was to compare two types of sperm immobilization methods prior to ICSI and to test the hypothesis that triple touch immobilization (TTIm) would lead to a higher (5% -65% up to 70%) fertilization rate (FR) than single touch immobilization (STIm). Methods A total of 3056 metaphase II (MII) oocytes, from 290 patients, were randomly assigned to the STIm group (n?=?1528 oocytes; 145 cycles) or to the TTIm group (n?=?1528 oocytes; 138 cycles). A total of 1478 oocytes (STIm group) and 1476 oocytes (TTIm group) were used in the statistical analysis. The primary outcome variable was FR. Secondary outcome variables included: number of good quality embryos (GQE) on day 2 and day 3, implantation rate (IR) and implantation with foetal heart beat rate (FHB). Statistical analysis was done using the Fisher Exact test with a significance level of 0.05. Results The results showed no differences in FR between both groups. The proportion of good quality embryos on day 3, was significantly higher in the STIm group (37.5%) compared to the TTIm group (31.8%; p?=?0.02). Conclusions In this RCT, the hypothesis that the post-ICSI FR would be higher after TTIm than after STIm was not confirmed and the number of good quality embryos on day 3 was significantly lower in the TTIm group than in the STIm group. These data suggest that more ‘aggressive’ TTIm technique has no advantages compared to the STIm technique. PMID:22929301

2012-01-01

305

Bioefficacy of larvicdial and pupicidal properties of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad, against chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to establish the properties of Carica papaya leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad on larvicidal and pupicidal activity against the chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti. The medicinal plants were collected from the area around Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India. C. papaya leaf was washed with tap water and shade-dried at room temperature. An electrical blender powdered

Kalimuthu Kovendan; Kadarkarai Murugan; Arjunan Naresh Kumar; Savariar Vincent; Jiang-Shiou Hwang

306

Physicochemical, nutritional, and microbial quality of fresh-cut and frozen papaya prepared from cultivars with varying resistance to internal yellowing disease (Enterobacter cloacae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quality, nutritional, and microbial analyses were completed for fresh-cut and frozen papaya cubes prepared from cultivars with varying resistance to internal yellowing disease, caused by the bacterium Enterobacter cloacae. In general, fresh-cut and frozen papaya retained nutritional and microbial qu...

307

Foraging on and consumption of two species of papaya pest mites, Tetranychus kanzawai and Panonychus citri (Acari: tetranychidae) by Mallada basalis (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Panonychus citri (McGregor) are two major acarine pests of the principal papaya variety in Taiwan, and they often co-occur in the same papaya screenhouses. This study measured prey acceptability, foraging schedule, short-term consumption rate, and handling time of la...

308

Modelling and design of a capacitive touch sensor for urinary tract infection detection at the point-of-care.  

PubMed

Due to great use of touchscreens in mobile telephones and other electronic devices, there has been great evolution in this technology. Its wide applicability makes the touch sensor technology suitable for detection of specific components in urine, responsible for urinary tract infection (UTI). Integration of a touch sensor in a disposable probe tip to be used in UTI detection represents a powerful tool to develop new point-of-care testing (POCT) devices. The simplified structure of an electrodes array touch screen was simulated using the software COMSOL Multiphysics to prove that capacitive based touch screens can be used for detection of UTI. Besides we assumed presence of E.coli, one of the major causes of UTI urine. Results show that global capacitance increases if an E.coli sphere is present near the active electrodes, remaining approximately constant when further apart electrodes are excited. The output simulated voltage varies according to the capacitance value, decreasing when the capacitance is increased. PMID:25571114

Barbosa, Catia; Tao Dong

2014-08-01

309

An ergonomics study of thumb movements on smartphone touch screen.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationships between thumb muscle activity and thumb operating tasks on a smartphone touch screen with one-hand posture. Six muscles in the right thumb and forearm were targeted in this study, namely adductor pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis brevis (APB), abductor pollicis longus, first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and extensor digitorum. The performance measures showed that the thumb developed fatigue rapidly when tapping on smaller buttons (diameter: 9 mm compared with 3 mm), and moved more slowly in flexion-extension than in adduction-abduction orientation. Meanwhile, the electromyography and perceived exertion values of FDI significantly increased in small button and flexion-extension tasks, while those of APB were greater in the adduction-abduction task. This study reveals that muscle effort among thumb muscles on a touch screen smartphone varies according to the task, and suggests that the use of small touch buttons should be minimised for better thumb performance. PMID:24707989

Xiong, Jinghong; Muraki, Satoshi

2014-06-01

310

Observing the touched body magnified alters somatosensory homunculus.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate effects of observing the own body being touched on the functional topography of the somatosensory homunculus. We used neuromagnetic source imaging to map the topography in primary somatosensory cortex (SI) while manipulating the visibility of a touched hand. Participants were either able to observe the stimulation in real size or strongly magnified. Results demonstrated a significant shift in SI when participants viewed their stimulated body compared with a rest state or with viewing a neutral object. The magnification of the seen stimulated hand similarly resulted in a shift of the cortical representation zone in SI. We discuss the results as dynamic interactions between vision and touch in SI via back projections from multimodal cortical areas. PMID:18520990

Schaefer, Michael; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Rotte, Michael

2008-06-11

311

A New Approach to Defining Human Touch Temperature Standards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Defining touch temperature limits for skin contact with both hot and cold objects is important to prevent pain and skin damage, which may affect task performance or become a safety concern. Pain and skin damage depend on the skin temperature during contact, which depends on the contact thermal conductance, the object's initial temperature, and its material properties. However, previous spacecraft standards have incorrectly defined touch temperature limits in terms of a single object temperature value for all materials, or have provided limited material-specific values which do not cover the gamut of likely designs. A new approach has been developed for updated NASA standards, which defines touch temperature limits in terms of skin temperature at pain onset for bare skin contact with hot and cold objects. The authors have developed an analytical verification method for safe hot and cold object temperatures for contact times from 1 second to infinity.

Ungar, Eugene; Stroud, Kenneth

2010-01-01

312

Barrel cortex membrane potential dynamics in social touch.  

PubMed

The impact of social stimuli on the membrane potential dynamics of barrel cortex neurons is unknown. We obtained in vivo whole-cell recordings in the barrel cortex of head-restrained rats while they interacted with conspecifics. Social touch was associated with a depolarization and large membrane potential fluctuations locked to the rat's whisking. Both depolarization and membrane potential fluctuations were already observed prior to contact and did not occur during free whisking. This anticipatory pre-contact depolarization was not seen in passive social touch in anesthetized animals. The membrane potential fluctuations locked to the rat's whisking observed in interactions with awake conspecifics were larger than those seen for whisking onto nonconspecific stimuli (stuffed rats, objects, and the experimenter's hand). Responses did not correlate with whisker movement parameters. We conclude that responses to social touch differ from conventional tactile responses in (1) amplitude, (2) locking to whisking, and (3) pre-contact membrane potential changes. PMID:25640075

Lenschow, Constanze; Brecht, Michael

2015-02-18

313

Detection of platypus-type L/D-peptide isomerase activity in aqueous extracts of papaya fruit.  

PubMed

Peptide isomerase catalyses the post-translational isomerisation of the L: - to the D: -form of an amino acid residue around the N/C-termini of substrate peptides. To date, some peptide isomerases have been found in a limited number of animal secretions and cells. We show here that papaya extracts have weak peptide isomerase activity. The activity was detected in each 30-100 kDa fraction of the flesh and the seed extracts of unripe and ripe papaya fruit. The definitive activity was confirmed in the ripe papaya extracts, but even then it was much less active than that of the other peptide isomerases previously reported. The activity was markedly inhibited by methanol, and partly so by amastatin and diethyl pyrocarbonate. This is the first report of peptide isomerase activity in a plant and suggests that perhaps every living organism may have some peptide isomerase activity. PMID:22648682

Arakawa, Kensuke; Koh, Jennifer M S; Crossett, Ben; Torres, Allan M; Kuchel, Philip W

2012-09-01

314

Comparative evaluation of volatiles, phenolics, sugars, organic acids and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papaya varieties.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to determine the phenolic compounds, organic acids, sugars, aroma profiles and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papayas grown in Turkey. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used for the phenolic compounds analysis. Twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in the samples. The total phenolic content of Sel-42 was clearly higher than that of Tainung. Protocatechuic acid-hexoside, gallic acid-deoxyhexoside, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolics in both cultivars. Aroma composition of papaya was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 46 and 42 aroma compounds, including esters, alcohols, terpenes, lactones, acids, carbonyl compounds, and volatile phenols were identified in the Sel-42 and Tainung, respectively. The significant linear correlation was confirmed between the values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of papaya extracts. PMID:25466106

Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan; Gubbuk, Hamide; Gunes, Esma

2015-04-15

315

A novel useful tool of computerized touch panel-type screening test for evaluating cognitive function of chronic ischemic stroke patients.  

PubMed

Cognitive and affective impairments are important non-motor features of ischemic stroke (IS) related to white-matter hyperintensity, including periventricular hyperintensity (PVH). To confirm the usefulness of a novel computerized touch panel-type screening test, we investigated cognitive and affective functioning among 142 IS patients and 105 age-and gender-matched normal control subjects. Assessment using the mini-mental state examination, Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised, and frontal assessment battery revealed reduced cognitive function in IS patients, with the most severe reduction exhibited by cardiogenic embolism patients, followed by lacunar infarction patients, and atherothrombotic infarction patients. Our novel touch panel screening test revealed a similar pattern of results. In addition, PVH grading, classified using Fazekas' magnetic resonance imaging method, was also correlated with cognitive decline and touch panel screening test performance. In contrast, affective function, assessed with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, vitality index, and apathy scale, was not significantly decreased in IS, and did not correlate with touch panel screening test results or PVH, although the number of microbleeds was correlated with apathy scale results. The present findings revealed that IS and PVH grading were significantly correlated with decline in general cognitive status (mini-mental state examination and Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised) and frontal lobe function (frontal assessment battery). Performance on all touch panel screening tests was correlated with IS and PVH grading, but was largely independent of depression or apathy. Touch panel screening tests were easily understood and performed by almost all patients with mild cognitive and motor dysfunction, due to visually clear images and simple methods not involving detailed manual-handling tasks such as writing. Touch panel screening tests may provide a useful tool for the early screening of cognitive function. PMID:23290436

Deguchi, Kentaro; Kono, Syoichiro; Deguchi, Shoko; Morimoto, Nobutoshi; Kurata, Tomoko; Ikeda, Yoshio; Abe, Koji

2013-10-01

316

Meet Mike and Debi Grillo: "A Child's Touch..."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes Mike and Debi Grillo's journey in realizing their dream, of making a lasting difference in young lives.They began a small Christian school in a mobile home park and naming it "A Child's Touch...". Their mission statement says that they seek "to provide a quality education, maximizing the development of their children…

Exchange: The Early Childhood Leaders' Magazine Since 1978, 2007

2007-01-01

317

UNCORRECTED Virtual Fetal Touch Through a Haptic Interface  

E-print Network

increases gradually during gestation and mainly after the first perception of fetal movements.2 A recent of haptic devices. Haptic devices (from Greek Haptesthai, "touch") are small robotic structures that allow Subjects Healthy pregnant women (n 12; age range, 25 to 35 years) were enrolled between 30 and 32 weeks

Siena, Università di

318

Coaching, Caring and the Politics of Touch: A Visual Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper has three principal purposes. The first involves locating the "politics of touch" as related to coaching within Noddings' theory of pedagogical caring. Noddings' framework is presented not so much as a prescription of "good practice", but as a potential way to raise the profile and somewhat problematise the…

Jones, Robyn L.; Bailey, Jake; Santos, Sofia

2013-01-01

319

Losing touch: pedagogies of incorporation and the ability to write  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea of “touch” is often used to point to the exemplary performance of skilful actions. While such a notion seemingly references the sensuous nature of that skill, it tends to mask the embodied acquisition of that capacity, implying intuitive ability rather than technique perfected through practice. Ironically, it also masks the significance of tactility in the process of developing

Megan Watkins; Greg Noble

2011-01-01

320

Touch & Interact: Applied to a Tourist Guide Prototype  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ongoing issue for mobile application developers is the limited output capabilities of mobile phones (1). For this reason, current mobile phones may still fail to fully address the requirements of map, multimedia and information browsing applications. This paper presents Touch & Interact: an NFC (Near Field Communication) interaction technique that utilizes the capabilities of mobile phones and the screen

Robert Hardy; Enrico Rukzio; Matthias Wagner; Massimo Paolucci

321

All-I-Touch as Combination of NFC and Lifestyle  

Microsoft Academic Search

For this paper we developed the concept and implemented a fully working prototype of a snowboarder community platform based on Near Field Communication. All-I-Touch is a service which provides product information at the point of sale and additionally connects the user with his social community in Facebook. Through this combination it is possible to increase incentives for the end user

F. Kneissl; R. Rottger; U. Sandner; J. M. Leimeister; H. Krcmar

2009-01-01

322

Affective Touch Gesture Recognition for a Furry Zoomorphic Machine  

E-print Network

Affective Touch Gesture Recognition for a Furry Zoomorphic Machine Anna Flagg Department in the context of a furry artificial lap-pet, with the ultimate goal of creating ther- apeutic interactions group has developed the Haptic Creature [27], a furry lap-sized social robot that perceives the world

MacLean, Karon

323

High Touch in a High-Tech World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a world of high tech and low touch, it is easy for public relations programs to stray from tried-and-true interpersonal strategies long associated with solid communication planning. New technologies allow communications professionals to quickly send e-mails and telephone calls to selected groups. Social media sites provide users immediate…

Gibson, Cindy L.

2009-01-01

324

An avionics touch screen-based control display concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many cockpits, control display units (CDUs) are vital input and information devices. In order to improve the usability of these devices, Barco, in cooperation with TU-Delft, created a touch screen control unit (TSCU), consisting of a high-quality multi-touch screen. The unit fits in the standard dimensions of a conventional CDU and is thus suitable for both retrofit and new installations. The TSCU offers two major advantages. First, the interface can be reconfigured to enable consecutive execution of several tasks on the same display area, allowing for a more efficient usage of the limited display real-estate as well as a potential reduction of cost. Secondly, advanced graphical interface design, in combination with multi-touch gestures, can improve human-machine interaction. To demonstrate the capabilities of this concept, a graphical software application was developed to perform the same operations as a conventional CDU, but now using a direct manipulation interface (DMI) of the displayed graphics. The TSCU can still be used in a legacy CDU mode, displaying a virtual keyboard operated with the touch interface. In addition, the TSCU could be used for a variety of other cockpit functions. The paper concludes with a report of pilot and non-pilot feedback.

Mertens, Michael; Damveld, Herman J.; Borst, Clark

2012-06-01

325

Courtship compliance: The effect of touch on women's behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown that light tactile contact increases compliance to a wide variety of requests. However, the effect of touch on compliance to a courtship request has never been studied. In this paper, three experiments were conducted in a courtship context. In the first experiment, a young male confederate in a nightclub asked young women to dance with him

Nicolas Guéguen

2007-01-01

326

Trajectory Design Considerations for Small Body Touch-and-Go  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Outline: (1) Trajectory Description (2) Design Drivers: (2a) Dynamics (2b) Environment (2c) Spacecraft and Ground and System Capabilities (2d) Mission Objectives (3) Design Choices (4) Historical Precedents (5) Case Studies. What is Touch-and-Go (TAG)? (1) Descent to the surface (2) Brief contact (3) Ascends to a safe distance

Wallace, Mark; Broschart, Stephen; Bonfiglio, Eugene; Bhaskharan, Shyam; Cangahuala, Alberto

2011-01-01

327

TOPIC REVIEW IN TOUCH WITH ROBOTICS: NEUROSURGERY FOR  

E-print Network

-directed surgery, Neurosurgery, Robot, Robotic technology Neurosurgery 56:421-433, 2005 DOI: 10.1227/01.NEUTOPIC REVIEW IN TOUCH WITH ROBOTICS: NEUROSURGERY FOR THE FUTURE Narendra Nathoo, M.D., Ph.D. Brain for the discipline of neurological surgery. Driven primarily by synergistic developments in science and engineering

Cavusoglu, Cenk

328

Haptic Augmentation of Science Instruction: Does Touch Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the impact of haptic augmentation of a science inquiry program on students' learning about viruses and nanoscale science. The study assessed how the addition of different types of haptic feedback (active touch and kinesthetic feedback) combined with computer visualizations influenced middle and high school students'…

Jones, M. Gail; Minogue, James; Tretter, Thomas R.; Negishi, Atsuko; Taylor, Russell

2006-01-01

329

This is just one of the many touching stories  

E-print Network

This is just one of the many touching stories from Camp Tiger. All money raised at the Camp Tiger Auction will go towards funding Camp Tiger, a week-long summer camp put on by LSUHSC first year medical students for children with special health care needs. Need more information on the Camp Tiger Benefit

330

Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators and Exciting Materials (HS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan, Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators, and Exciting Materials, high school students learn that heating up a material can rearrange its atoms, and change its properties. The change in the material (a nitinol wire shortens due to heat) activates a lever that exerts force.

Wpsu

2010-02-01

331

Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators and Exciting Materials (MS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan, Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators, and Exciting Materials, middle school students learn that heating up a material can rearrange its atoms, and change its properties. The change in the material (a nitinol wire shortens due to heat) activates a lever that exerts force.

Wpsu

2010-02-09

332

The combination of vision and touch depends on spatial proximity  

E-print Network

The combination of vision and touch depends on spatial proximity Vision Science Program, School combines visual and haptic information about object properties such that the combined estimate is more precise than with vision or haptics alone. We examined how the system determines when to combine

Burge, Johannes

333

"That's not a real body": identifying stimulus qualities that modulate synaesthetic experiences of touch.  

PubMed

Mirror-touch synaesthesia is a condition where observing touch to another's body induces a subjective tactile sensation on the synaesthetes body. The present study explores which characteristics of the inducing stimulus modulate the synaesthetic touch experience. Fourteen mirror-touch synaesthetes watched videos depicting a touch event while indicating (i) whether the video induced a tactile sensation, (ii) on which side of their body they felt this sensation and (iii) the intensity of the experienced sensation. Results indicate that the synaesthetes experience stronger tactile sensations when observing touch to real bodies, whereas observing touch to dummy bodies, pictures of bodies and disconnected dummy body parts elicited weaker sensations. These results suggest that mirror-touch synaesthesia is not entirely bottom-up driven, but top-down information, such as knowledge about real and dummy body parts, also modulate the intensity of the experience. PMID:21237676

Holle, Henning; Banissy, Michael; Wright, Thomas; Bowling, Natalie; Ward, Jamie

2011-09-01

334

Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract  

PubMed Central

Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) following lead acetate administration and pre-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) followed by lead acetate administration. The substances were administered for 14 days. The effects were evaluated by measuring protein carbonyl content (PCC) and glutathione content (GC) in the bone marrow. Histological changes in the bone marrow were also observed. The results showed that Carica papaya induced a significant reduction in the PCC activity and significantly increased the GC in the bone marrow. Carica papaya also improved the histology of the bone marrow compared with that of the lead acetate-treated group. In summary, Carica papaya was effective against the oxidative damage caused by lead acetate in the bone marrow and had a stimulatory effect on haemopoiesis. PMID:23403524

THAM, CHING S.; CHAKRAVARTHI, SRIKUMAR; HALEAGRAHARA, NAGARAJA; DE ALWIS, RANJIT

2013-01-01

335

Crossing the Hands Increases Illusory Self-Touch  

PubMed Central

Manipulation of hand posture, such as crossing the hands, has been frequently used to study how the body and its immediately surrounding space are represented in the brain. Abundant data show that crossed arms posture impairs remapping of tactile stimuli from somatotopic to external space reference frame and deteriorates performance on several tactile processing tasks. Here we investigated how impaired tactile remapping affects the illusory self-touch, induced by the non-visual variant of the rubber hand illusion (RHI) paradigm. In this paradigm blindfolded participants (Experiment 1) had their hands either uncrossed or crossed over the body midline. The strength of illusory self-touch was measured with questionnaire ratings and proprioceptive drift. Our results showed that, during synchronous tactile stimulation, the strength of illusory self-touch increased when hands were crossed compared to the uncrossed posture. Follow-up experiments showed that the increase in illusion strength was not related to unfamiliar hand position (Experiment 2) and that it was equally strengthened regardless of where in the peripersonal space the hands were crossed (Experiment 3). However, while the boosting effect of crossing the hands was evident from subjective ratings, the proprioceptive drift was not modulated by crossed posture. Finally, in contrast to the illusion increase in the non-visual RHI, the crossed hand postures did not alter illusory ownership or proprioceptive drift in the classical, visuo-tactile version of RHI (Experiment 4). We argue that the increase in illusory self-touch is related to misalignment of somatotopic and external reference frames and consequently inadequate tactile-proprioceptive integration, leading to re-weighting of the tactile and proprioceptive signals.The present study not only shows that illusory self-touch can be induced by crossing the hands, but importantly, that this posture is associated with a stronger illusion. PMID:24699795

Pozeg, Polona; Rognini, Giulio; Salomon, Roy; Blanke, Olaf

2014-01-01

336

Functional and structural brain differences associated with mirror-touch synaesthesia.  

PubMed

Observing touch is known to activate regions of the somatosensory cortex but the interpretation of this finding is controversial (e.g. does it reflect the simulated action of touching or the simulated reception of touch?). For most people, observing touch is not linked to reported experiences of feeling touch but in some people it is (mirror-touch synaesthetes). We conducted an fMRI study in which participants (mirror-touch synaesthetes, controls) watched movies of stimuli (face, dummy, object) being touched or approached. In addition we examined whether mirror touch synaesthesia is associated with local changes of grey and white matter volume in the brain using VBM (voxel-based morphometry). Both synaesthetes and controls activated the somatosensory system (primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, SI and SII) when viewing touch, and the same regions were activated (by a separate localiser) when feeling touch--i.e. there is a mirror system for touch. However, when comparing the two groups, we found evidence that SII seems to play a particular important role in mirror-touch synaesthesia: in synaesthetes, but not in controls, posterior SII was active for watching touch to a face (in addition to SI and posterior temporal lobe); activity in SII correlated with subjective intensity measures of mirror-touch synaesthesia (taken outside the scanner), and we observed an increase in grey matter volume within the SII of the synaesthetes' brains. In addition, the synaesthetes showed hypo-activity when watching touch to a dummy in posterior SII. We conclude that the secondary somatosensory cortex has a key role in this form of synaesthesia. PMID:23921098

Holle, Henning; Banissy, Michael J; Ward, Jamie

2013-12-01

337

Effect of papaya latex extract on gravid and non-gravid rat uterine preparations in vitro.  

PubMed

In search of uterotonic principles, papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae) latex extract (PLE) was tested on rat uterine preparations in vitro at various stages of the estrous cycle and gestation periods. Rat uterine contractile activity was remarkably increased by different doses of PLE in proestrus and estrus stages compared to metestrus and diestrus stages of the estrous cycles. The maximum contractile activity of the uterus was observed at the later stages of pregnancy which correspond with the peak level of estrogen in the plasma. A direct dose-dependent spasmodic action with increased frequency and amplitude was observed with PLE in all non-gravid uterine preparations. Pretreatment of the tissue with phenoxybenzamine (PB) non-competitively blocked the effect of PLE. Blocking of the 5-HT receptors with methysergide partially blocked the excitatory response to PLE. Pretreating the tissue with Indomethacin, a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, had no effect on the response to PLE. The release of PLE induced mast cell degranulation and subsequent release of heparin, biogenic amines or prostaglandins (PGs) was ruled out by pretreating the tissue with sodium cromoglycate, a mast cell stabilizer. Pure papain induced uterine contractions were not sustained for a longer period and at higher concentrations the receptor proteins were affected by the enzymatic action of papain. From this study it is evident that the crude papaya latex contain a uterotonic principle which might be a combination of enzymes, alkaloids and other substances which can evoke sustained contraction of the uterus acting mainly on the alpha adrenergic receptor population of the uterus at different stages. PMID:10837984

Cherian, T

2000-06-01

338

Finding the Right Touch: Extending the Right-Touch Regulation Approach to the Accreditation of Voluntary Registers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is "right-touch regulation"? In this article we explain why the Professional Standards Authority for Health and Social Care (the Authority) has focussed much of its policy work in recent times on seeking an answer to this question, and why it wants to know. We explain why the Authority's predecessor body, the Council for Healthcare Regulatory…

Bilton, Douglas; Cayton, Harry

2013-01-01

339

iTouch, uTouch, Welcome to Bug Bytes, a bimonthly podcast from Texas A&M University's  

E-print Network

on a recipe on my iPhone and get a taste of the dish before I commit to cooking it? Genius. Alright now let a touch phone whilst wearing gloves) and it's like trying to make a phone call with a rock. It's because

Behmer, Spencer T.

340

Food as Touch/Touching the Food: The Body In-Place and Out-of-Place in Preschool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article explores the need to eat as a biological and social practice among children in a preschool in Norway. The children in this preschool are aged from one to two years of age, and some of them have just started there. Different events from mealtimes relate to Derrida's concept of touch and Grosz's notion of bodies in-place and…

Rossholt, Nina

2012-01-01

341

Surface-micromachined double-sided touch mode capacitive pressure sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double sided touch mode capacitive pressure sensor offered better performance than that of single sided one. Double-sided touch mode capacitive pressure sensor almost has the same character of the single sided one, which can be divided into four regions (normal region, transition region, linear region, saturation region). In the linear region, the diaphragm of the capacitive pressure sensor touches the

Gaopan Xu; Guangwen Chen; Guoqing Hu

2001-01-01

342

Touch & Compose: Physical User Interface for Application Composition in Smart Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we sketch a model for interaction between smart environment and their inhabitants. We also introduce Touch & Compose, a concept for composing applications which utilizes this interaction model. The basic idea of Touch & Compose is to assemble applications from the resources that the user has selected manually by touching them with her mobile terminal. Resources (devices,

Iván Sánchez; Jukka Riekki; Mikko Pyykkönen

2009-01-01

343

The Use of Touch in Counseling: An Ethical Decision-Making Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although some counselors have advocated for the limited use of touch in counseling, others have argued that touch has no place within the counseling relationship. Despite the controversy, the use of touch has been shown to have a number of therapeutic benefits; however, there are few ethical decision-making models that are appropriate for…

Calmes, Stephanie A.; Piazza, Nick J.; Laux, John M.

2013-01-01

344

A Touch Panel using Silicone Rubber with embedded IR-LEDs Yuichiro Sakamoto,  

E-print Network

LED LED FTIR FTIR FTIR FTIR FTIR LED LED A Touch Panel using Silicone Rubber with embedded IR-LEDs Yuichiro Sakamoto, Takuto Yoshikawa, Tatsuhito Oe, Ryuji Hori, Yuichi Murata, Buntarou IR-LEDs We have used the FTIR-based method for multi-touch sensing. Our novel touch panel is made

Tanaka, Jiro

345

Effect of temperature on the development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae, reared on guava diet.  

PubMed

Members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex constitute well-recognized destructive pests of fruits in peninsular Thailand. The development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, were compared at six constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D). The objectives were to determine the effect of temperature on the developmental stages for optimizing rearing and to understand the geographical pattern of occurrence of these fruit fly species. A strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of immature stages of B. carambolae. Similarly, a strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of B. papayae. A temperature summation model was used to estimate the lower threshold temperature and the thermal constant. Bactrocera papayae was significantly faster in development and higher in survival and appeared to be better adapted to low temperatures than B. carambolae, as it exhibited the lowest threshold temperatures at all immature stages. The observed differences in response to various temperatures revealed to some extent the impact of temperature on these species' distribution in peninsular Thailand and other parts of the world. PMID:25368070

Danjuma, Solomon; Thaochan, Narit; Permkam, Surakrai; Satasook, Chutamas

2014-01-01

346

Quantifying the sensory and emotional perception of touch: differences between glabrous and hairy skin  

PubMed Central

The perception of touch is complex and there has been a lack of ways to describe the full tactile experience quantitatively. Guest et al. (2011) developed a Touch Perception Task (TPT) in order to capture such experiences, and here we used the TPT to examine differences in sensory and emotional aspects of touch at different skin sites. We compared touch on three skin sites: the hairy arm and cheek, and the glabrous palm. The hairy skin contains C-tactile (CT) afferents, which play a role in affective touch, whereas glabrous skin does not contain CT afferents and is involved in more discriminative touch. In healthy volunteers, three different materials (soft brush, sandpaper, fur) were stroked across these skin sites during self-touch or experimenter-applied touch. After each stimulus, participants rated the tactile experience using descriptors in the TPT. Sensory and emotional descriptors were analyzed using factor analyses. Five sensory factors were found: Texture, Pile, Moisture, Heat/Sharp and Cold/Slip, and three emotional factors: Positive Affect, Arousal, and Negative Affect. Significant differences were found in the use of descriptors in touch to hairy vs. glabrous skin: this was most evident in touch on forearm skin, which produced higher emotional content. The touch from another was also judged as more emotionally positive then self-touch, and participants readily discriminated between the materials on all factors. The TPT successfully probed sensory and emotional percepts of the touch experience, which aided in identifying skin where emotional touch was more pertinent. It also highlights the potentially important role for CTs in the affective processing of inter-personal touch, in combination with higher-order influences, such as through cultural belonging and previous experiences. PMID:24574985

Ackerley, Rochelle; Saar, Karin; McGlone, Francis; Backlund Wasling, Helena

2014-01-01

347

A sensational illusion: vision-touch synaesthesia and the rubber hand paradigm.  

PubMed

For individuals with vision-touch synaesthesia, the sight of touch on another person elicits synaesthetic tactile sensation on the observer's own body. Here we used the traditional rubber hand paradigm (Botvinick and Cohen, 1998) and a no-touch rubber hand paradigm to investigate and to authenticate synaesthetic tactile sensation. In the traditional rubber hand paradigm, the participant views a prosthetic hand being touched by the Examiner while the participant's hand - hidden from view - is also touched by the Examiner. Synchronous stimulation of the prosthetic hand and the participant's hidden hand elicits the rubber hand illusion. It may seem to the participant that she is feeling touch at the location of the viewed prosthetic hand - visual capture of touch, and that the prosthetic hand is the participant's own hand - illusion of ownership. Thus, for participants who experience the traditional rubber hand illusion, tactile sensation on the participant's hidden hand is referred to the prosthetic hand. In our no-touch rubber hand paradigm, the participant views a prosthetic hand being touched by the Examiner but the participant's hand - hidden from view - is not touched by the Examiner. Questionnaire ratings indicated that only individuals with vision-touch synaesthesia experienced the no-touch rubber hand illusion. Thus, synaesthetic tactile sensation on the (untouched) hidden hand was referred to the prosthetic hand. These individuals also demonstrated proprioceptive drift (a change, from baseline, in proprioceptively perceived position) of the hidden hand towards the location of the prosthetic hand, and a pattern of increased proprioceptive drift with increased trial duration (60 sec, 180 sec, 300 sec). The no-touch rubber hand paradigm was an excellent method to authenticate vision-touch synaesthesia because participants were naïve about the rubber hand illusion, and they could not have known how they were expected to perform on either the traditional or the no-touch rubber hand paradigm. PMID:22445446

Aimola Davies, Anne M; White, Rebekah C

2013-03-01

348

Nontraditional wound care: A review of the evidence for the use of sugar, papaya\\/papain, and fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

With global travel and immigration, WOC nurses may see or be asked questions about wound care practices that are different from those traditionally taught in their educational programs. The purpose of this article is to review the evidence about 3 commonly used wound products, namely, sugar, papaya\\/papain, and essential fatty acids. Although these products are used in numerous countries, their

Barbara Pieper; Maria Helena Larcher Caliri

2003-01-01

349

Managing oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae), with spinosad-based protein bait sprays and sanitation in papaya orchards in Hawaii.  

PubMed

The efficacy of GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait in combination with field sanitation was assessed as a control for female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards in Hawaii. Three different bait spray regimes were evaluated: every row (high use of the bait), every fifth row (moderate use), and every 10th row (low use). Orchard plots in which no bait was applied served as controls. For five of the seven biweekly periods that followed the first bait spray, trapping data revealed significantly fewer female B. dorsalis captured in plots subject to high and moderate bait use than in control plots. Differences in incidence of infestation among treatments were detected only by the third (12 wk after first spray) fruit sampling with significantly fewer infested one-fourth to one-half ripe papaya fruit in plots subject to high and moderate bait use than in control plots. Parasitism rates by Fopius arisanus (Sonan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were not negatively affected by bait application. Results indicate that foliar applications of GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait either to all rows (every other tree), or to every fifth row (every tree) in combination with good sanitation can effectively reduce infestation by B. dorsalis in papaya orchards in Hawaii. PMID:19610428

Piñero, Jaime C; Mau, Ronald F L; Vargas, Roger I

2009-06-01

350

76 FR 13972 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit...public that we have prepared a pest risk analysis for the purpose of evaluating the pest...continental United States. Based on our analysis, we have concluded that the...

2011-03-15

351

The effect of antifungal hot-water treatments on papaya postharvest quality and activity of pectinmethylesterase and polygalacturonase.  

PubMed

The effect of antifungal hot-water treatments (AHWT) at 55 °C for 0, 3, 6 and 9 min on quality attributes and cell-wall enzymatic activity during storage at 25 °C was investigated in papaya fruit. The total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), firmness and fresh weight loss were not affected, whereas color on skin was negatively affected by the treatments of 6- and 9-min. However, the skin color was not different between the 3-min treated fruit and the untreated fruit during the storage. Decay was delayed and reduced by AHWT. We observed that the 3-min treatment of 55 °C did not affect softening and quality of papaya cv Maradol when applied as a pesticide-free treatment at color-break stage of papaya. PME (Pectinmethylesterase) and PG (Polygalacturonase) activities were not significantly affected by AHWT. We concluded that the AHWT did not affect the softening process from papaya pulp since the cell-wall enzyme activity (PME and PG) was not altered by treatments. PMID:24425893

Chávez-Sánchez, Ignacio; Carrillo-López, Armando; Vega-García, Misael; Yahia, Elhadi M

2013-02-01

352

Effect of pre-harvest calcium chloride applications on fruit calcium level and post-harvest anthracnose disease of papaya  

E-print Network

Effect of pre-harvest calcium chloride applications on fruit calcium level and post October 2013 Keywords: Papaya Anthracnose Calcium Disease incidence Disease severity a b s t r a c losses. The goal of this research was to use pre-harvest calcium applications to reduce anthracnose

Biggs, Alan R.

353

Effect of ozone pre-conditioning on quality and antioxidant capacity of papaya fruit during ambient storage.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the physico-chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of ozone-treated papaya fruit and untreated fruit. Freshly harvested papaya fruit were exposed continuously to ozone fumigation (0, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 5ppm) for 96h prior to ambient storage at 25±3°C and 70±5% relative humidity (RH) for up to 14days. The fruit exposed to 2.5ppm ozone had higher levels of total soluble solids (25.0%), ascorbic acid content (12.4%), ?-carotene content (19.6%), lycopene content (52.1%), and antioxidant activity (30.9%), and also reduced weight loss (11.5%) at day 10 compared to the control. The sensory attributes of papaya treated with 2.5ppm ozone was superior in sweetness and overall acceptability. These results support the application of ozone as a non-thermal and safe food preservation technique for papaya which can benefit both the producers and consumers. PMID:24001808

Ali, Asgar; Ong, Mei Kying; Forney, Charles F

2014-01-01

354

Effects of chitosan-based coatings containing peppermint essential oil on the quality of post-harvest papaya fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Edible coatings comprised of antimicrobial polymers based on chitosan are promising technologies to preserve post-harvest fruit quality. In this study, we investigated the potential utility of a coating made from chitosan modified by N-acylation with fatty acid to preserve post-harvest papaya qualit...

355

Genetic differentiation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum associated with Anthracnose disease of papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsium annuum L.) based on ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting.  

PubMed

Members of the genus Colletotrichum include some of the most economically important fungal pathogens in the world. Accurate diagnosis is critical to devising disease management strategies. Two species, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum, are responsible for anthracnose disease in papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Trinidad. The ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of 48 Colletotrichum isolates was sequenced, and the ITS PCR products were analyzed by PCR-RFLP analysis. Restriction site polymorphisms generated from 11 restriction enzymes enabled the identification of specific enzymes that were successful in distinguishing between C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates. Species-specific restriction fragment length polymorphisms generated by the enzymes AluI, HaeIII, PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were used to consistently resolve C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates from papaya. AluI, ApaI, PvuII, RsaI, and SmaI reliably separated isolates of C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum from bell pepper. PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were also capable of distinguishing among the C. gloeosporioides isolates from papaya based on the different restriction patterns that were obtained as a result of intra-specific variation in restriction enzyme recognition sites in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region. Of all the isolates tested, C. gloeosporioides from papaya also had the highest number of PCR-RFLP haplotypes. Cluster analysis of sequence and PCR-RFLP data demonstrated that all C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates clustered separately into species-specific clades regardless of host species. Phylograms also revealed consistent topologies which suggested that the genetic distances for PCR-RFLP-generated data were comparable to that of ITS sequence data. ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting is a rapid and reliable method to identify and differentiate between Colletotrichum species. PMID:21720933

Maharaj, Ariana; Rampersad, Sephra N

2012-03-01

356

Problem 1. Eleven cogwheels are linked in a circular order (so that the first touches the second, the second touches the third, etc., the eleventh touches the first). Can  

E-print Network

the second, the second touches the third, etc., the eleventh touches the first). Can the cogwheels rotate? Problem 2. Can a line not containing vertices of a (non-convex) 11-gon intersect all its edges? Problem 3. Can one draw a curve on the surface of a dodecaherdon that intersects each edge once? (A dodecahedron

Timorin, Vladlen

357

Molecular characterization and infectivity of Papaya leaf curl China virus infecting tomato in China*  

PubMed Central

Papaya leaf curl China virus (PaLCuCNV) was previously reported as a distinct begomovirus infecting papaya in southern China. Based on molecular diagnostic survey, 13 PaLCuCNV isolates were obtained from tomato plants showing leaf curl symptoms in Henan and Guangxi Provinces of China. Complete nucleotide sequences of 5 representative isolates (AJ558116, AJ558117, AJ704604, FN256260, and FN297834) were determined to be 2738–2751 nucleotides, which share 91.7%–97.9% sequence identities with PaLCuCNV isolate G2 (AJ558123). DNA-? was not found to be associated with PaLCuCNV isolates. To investigate the infectivity of PaLCuCNV, an infectious clone of PaLCuCNV-[CN:HeNZM1] was constructed and agro-inoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum Samsun, N. glutinosa, Solanum lycopersicum and Petunia hybrida plants, which induced severe leaf curling and crinkling symptoms in these plants. Southern blot analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated a systemic infection of test plants by the agro-infectious clone. PMID:20104645

Zhang, Hui; Ma, Xin-ying; Qian, Ya-juan; Zhou, Xue-ping

2010-01-01

358

Production of fatty acid butyl esters using the low cost naturally immobilized Carica papaya lipase.  

PubMed

In this work, the low cost naturally immobilized Carica papaya lipase (CPL) was investigated for production of fatty acid butyl esters (FABE) to fulfill the aim of reducing the lipase cost in the enzymatic butyl-biodiesel process. The CPL showed specificities to different alcohol acyl acceptors. Alcohols with more than three carbon atoms did not have negative effects on the CPL activity. The CPL catalyzed butanolysis for FABE production was systematically investigated. The reaction solvent, alcohol/oil molar ratio, enzyme amount, reaction temperature, and water activity all affected the butanolysis process. Under the optimized conditions, the highest conversion of 96% could be attained in 24 h. These optimal conditions were further applied to CPL catalyzed butanolysis of other vegetable oils. All of them showed very high conversion. The CPL packed-bed reactor was further developed, and could be operated continuously for more than 150 h. All of these results showed that the low cost Carica papaya lipase can be used as a promising lipase for biodiesel production. PMID:24954104

Su, Erzheng; Wei, Dongzhi

2014-07-01

359

Infant Imitation from Television Using Novel Touch Screen Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants learn less from a televised demonstration than from a live demonstration, the "video deficit effect." The present study employs a novel approach, using touch screen technology to examine 15-month olds' transfer of learning. Infants were randomly assigned either to within-dimension (2D/2D or 3D/3D) or cross-dimension (3D/2D or 2D/3D)…

Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel; Gerhardstein, Peter; Dickerson, Kelly; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

2009-01-01

360

Cocaine impairs acquisition of an autoshaped lever-touch response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of daily peripheral (IP) post-session injection of cocaine on the development of an autoshaped lever-touch response\\u000a in rats were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received ten daily pairings of a retractable lever (conditioned stimulus;\\u000a CS) and food delivery (unconditioned stimulus; UCS). Food delivery occurred if the subjects contacted the extended lever within\\u000a 10 s, or, if the subjects failed

P. H. Janak; Ward A. Rodriguez; Joe L. Martinez Jr

1997-01-01

361

The meaning of the virtual Midas touch: An ERP study in economic decision making.  

PubMed

The Midas touch refers to the altruistic effects of a brief touch. Though these effects have often been replicated, they remain poorly understood. We investigate the psychophysiology of the effect using remotely transmitted, precisely timed, tactile messages in an economic decision-making game called Ultimatum. Participants were more likely to accept offers after receiving a remotely transmitted touch. Furthermore, we found distinct effects of touch on event-related potentials evoked by (a) feedback regarding accepted and rejected offers, (b) decision cues related to proposals, and (c) the haptic and auditory cues themselves. In each case, a late positive effect of touch was observed and related to the P3. Given the role of the P3 in memory-related functions, the results indicate an indirect relationship between touch and generosity that relies on memory. This hypothesis was further tested and confirmed in the positive effects of touch on later proposals. PMID:25265874

Spapé, Michiel M; Hoggan, Eve E; Jacucci, Giulio; Ravaja, Niklas

2014-09-30

362

Lateral Facilitation between Primary Mechanosensory Neurons Controls Nose Touch Perception in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

Summary The nematode C. elegans senses head and nose touch using multiple classes of mechanoreceptor neurons that are electrically coupled through a network of gap junctions. Using in vivo neuroimaging, we have found that multidendritic nociceptors in the head respond to harsh touch throughout their receptive field but respond to gentle touch only at the tip of the nose. Whereas the harsh touch response depends solely on cell-autonomous mechanosensory channels, gentle nose touch responses require facilitation by additional nose touch mechanoreceptors, which couple electrically to the nociceptors in a hub-and-spoke gap junction network. Conversely, nociceptor activity indirectly facilitates activation of the nose touch neurons, demonstrating that information flow across the network is bidirectional. Thus, a simple gap-junction circuit acts as a coincidence detector that allows primary sensory neurons to integrate information from neighboring mechanoreceptors and generate somatosensory perception. PMID:21521615

Chatzigeorgiou, Marios; Schafer, William R.

2011-01-01

363

Touch the Universe : A NASA Braille Book of Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Touch the Universe is a unique and innovative astronomy book that will help visually impaired people see the wonders of our universe. Using a combination of Braille and large-print captions that face 14 pages of brilliant Hubble Space Telescope photos, it is embossed with shapes that represent various astronomical objects such as stars, gas clouds, and jets of matter streaming into space. Universally designed for both the sighted and visually impaired reader, Touch the Universe takes readers on a voyage of discovery, starting at Earth, proceeding through the solar system, and ending with the most distant image taken by Hubble, the mind-boggling Hubble Deep Field photo -- the first telescope image ever to bring home to human consciousness in a deeply fundamental way the literally infinite reaches of our universe of galaxies. As the author puts it, A visually impaired person can still touch and smell a flower, or a tree, or an animal, but he or she could only imagine what an astronomical object is like ... until now.

2002-01-01

364

A closed-loop neurobotic system for fine touch sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. Fine touch sensing relies on peripheral-to-central neurotransmission of somesthetic percepts, as well as on active motion policies shaping tactile exploration. This paper presents a novel neuroengineering framework for robotic applications based on the multistage processing of fine tactile information in the closed action-perception loop. Approach. The integrated system modules focus on (i) neural coding principles of spatiotemporal spiking patterns at the periphery of the somatosensory pathway, (ii) probabilistic decoding mechanisms mediating cortical-like tactile recognition and (iii) decision-making and low-level motor adaptation underlying active touch sensing. We probed the resulting neural architecture through a Braille reading task. Main results. Our results on the peripheral encoding of primary contact features are consistent with experimental data on human slow-adapting type I mechanoreceptors. They also suggest second-order processing by cuneate neurons may resolve perceptual ambiguities, contributing to a fast and highly performing online discrimination of Braille inputs by a downstream probabilistic decoder. The implemented multilevel adaptive control provides robustness to motion inaccuracy, while making the number of finger accelerations covariate with Braille character complexity. The resulting modulation of fingertip kinematics is coherent with that observed in human Braille readers. Significance. This work provides a basis for the design and implementation of modular neuromimetic systems for fine touch discrimination in robotics.

Bologna, L. L.; Pinoteau, J.; Passot, J.-B.; Garrido, J. A.; Vogel, J.; Ros Vidal, E.; Arleo, A.

2013-08-01

365

Processing load impairs coordinate integration for the localization of touch.  

PubMed

To perform an action toward a touch, the tactile spatial representation must be transformed from a skin-based, anatomical reference frame into an external reference frame. Evidence suggests that, after transformation, both anatomical and external coordinates are integrated for the location estimate. The present study investigated whether the calculation and integration of external coordinates are automatic processes. Participants made temporal order judgments (TOJs) of two tactile stimuli, one applied to each hand, in crossed and uncrossed postures. The influence of the external coordinates of touch was indicated by the performance difference between crossed and uncrossed postures, referred to as the crossing effect. To assess automaticity, the TOJ task was combined with a working memory task that varied in difficulty (size of the working memory set) and quality (verbal vs. spatial). In two studies, the crossing effect was consistently reduced under processing load. When the load level was adaptively adjusted to individual performance (Study 2), the crossing effect additionally varied as a function of the difficulty of the secondary task. These modulatory effects of processing load on the crossing effect were independent of the type of working memory. The sensitivity of the crossing effect to processing load suggests that coordinate integration for touch localization is not fully automatic. To reconcile the present results with previous findings, we suggest that the genuine remapping process-that is, the transformation of anatomical into external coordinates-proceeds automatically, whereas their integration in service of a combined location estimate is subject to top-down control. PMID:24550040

Badde, Stephanie; Heed, Tobias; Röder, Brigitte

2014-05-01

366

Huggy Pajama: A Remote Interactive Touch and Hugging System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Huggy Pajama is a novel wearable system aimed at promoting physical interaction in remote communication between parent and child. This system enables parents and children to hug one another through a hugging interface device and a wearable, hug reproducing pajama connected through the Internet. The hug input device is a small, mobile doll with an embedded pressure sensing circuit that is able to accurately sense varying levels of pressure along the range of human touch produced from natural touch. This device sends hug signals to a haptic jacket that simulates the feeling of being hugged to the wearer. It features air pocket actuators that reproduce hug sensations, heating elements to produce warmth that accompanies hugs, and a color changing pattern and accessory to indicate distance of separation and communicate expressions. In this chapter, we present the system design of Huggy Pajama. We also show results from quantitative and qualitative user studies which show the effectiveness of the system simulating an actual human touch. Results also indicate an increased sense of presence between parents and children when used as an added component to instant messaging and video chat communication.

Cheok, Adrian David

367

Calmodulin Gene Family in Potato: Developmental and Touch-Induced Expression of the mRNA Encoding a Novel Isoform  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eight genomic clones of potato calmodulin (PCM1 to 8) were isolated and characterized. Sequence comparisons of different genes revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of PCM1 had several unique substitutions, especially in the fourth Ca(2+)-binding area. The expression patterns of different genes were studied by northern analysis using the 3'-untranslated regions as probes. The expression of PCM1, 5, and 8 was highest in the stolon tip and it decreased during tuber development. The expression of PCM6 did not vary much in the tissues tested, except in the leaves, where the expression was lower; whereas, the expression of PCM4 was very low in all the tissues. The expression of PCM2 and PCM3 was not detected in any of the tissues tested. Among these genes, only PCM1 showed increased expression following touch stimulation. To study the regulation of PCM1, transgenic potato plants carrying the PCM1 promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene were produced. GUS expression was found to be developmentally regulated and touch-responsive, indicating a positive correlation between the expression of PCM1 and GUS mRNAs. These results suggest that the 5'-flanking region of PCM1 controls developmental and touch-induced expression. X-Gluc staining patterns revealed that GUS localization is high in meristematic tissues such as the stem apex, stolon tip, and vascular regions.

Takezawa, D.; Liu, Z. H.; An, G.; Poovaiah, B. W.

1995-01-01

368

Characterization of wound-regulated cDNAs and their expression in fresh-cut and intact papaya fruit during low-temperature storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh-cut papaya fruit undergo rapid tissue deterioration during storage. A comparative gene expression study was conducted to isolate genes differentially expressed upon fresh-cut processing by means of mRNA differential display RT-PCR. Differential display analysis was performed on intact and fresh-cut papaya fruit stored in parallel for 12h at 5°C with three different one-base-anchored oligo dT and eight arbitrary primers. Confirmation

Yasar Karakurt; Donald J. Huber

2007-01-01

369

Behavioral responses of female oriental fruit flies to the odor of papayas at three ripeness stages in a laboratory flight tunnel (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral responses of adult female oriental fruit flies, Dacus dorsalisHendel, to the odor of papayas from three ripeness classes were studied using a threechoice flight tunnel bioassay. Laboratoryreared flies were allowed to respond freely to any of three papaya odors (mature green, colorbreak to one-fourth ripe, and one-half to full ripe) emanating from identical (spherical) fruit models. Five behaviors were

Eric B. Jang; Douglas M. Light

1991-01-01

370

Schur monotone decreasing sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we introduce Schur monotone decreasing sequences in an n-dimensional space by considering a majorization pre-order. By means of down arrow mappings, we study omega limiting points of bounded Schur monotone decreasing sequences. We provide convergence criteria for such kinds of sequences. We prove that a Cesaro mean (or an arithmetic mean) of any bounded Schur monotone decreasing sequences converges to a unique limiting point.

Ganikhodjaev, Rasul; Saburov, Mansoor; Saburov, Khikmat

2013-09-01

371

A transition from nurse to touch therapist--a study of preparation before giving tactile touch in an intensive care unit.  

PubMed

Tactile touch is a complementary therapy that is rarely undertaken in intensive care units (ICUs) in Sweden. This study was a part of a larger project that examines whether tactile touch can relieve the suffering of patients in the ICU. The aim of this study was to describe nurses' lived experience of preparation before giving tactile touch in an ICU. Four assistant nurses and one registered nurse, each with diplomas in tactile touch working at three different ICUs in Sweden, participated in the study. A phenomenological approach was chosen to achieve experience-based and person-centred descriptions. Data were collected through interviews and analysed following Giorgi's method. The main finding was that before providing tactile touch, the nurses needed to add the new role as touch therapists, to their professional one. The essential aspect being the transition from nurse to touch therapist. Findings included a general structure, with four constituents; a sense of inner balance, an unconditional respect for the patients' integrity, a relationship with the patient characterised by reciprocal trust, and a supportive environment. Furthermore, the study underlines the difficulties to integrate a complementary caring act, such as tactile touch, in a highly technological environment. PMID:16542838

Henricson, Maria; Berglund, Anna-Lena; Määttä, Sylvia; Segesten, Kerstin

2006-08-01

372

Reach out to one and you reach out to many: Social touch affects third-party observers.  

PubMed

Casual social touch influences emotional perceptions, attitudes, and behaviours of interaction partners. We asked whether these influences extend to third-party observers. To this end, we developed the Social Touch Picture Set comprising line drawings of dyadic interactions, half of which entailed publicly acceptable casual touch and half of which served as no-touch controls. In Experiment 1, participants provided basic image norms by rating how frequently they observed a displayed touch gesture in everyday life and how comfortable they were observing it. Results implied that some touch gestures were observed more frequently and with greater comfort than others (e.g., handshake vs. hug). All gestures, however, obtained rating scores suitable for inclusion in Experiments 2 and 3. In Experiment 2, participants rated perceived valence, arousal, and likeability of randomly presented touch and no-touch images without being explicitly informed about touch. Image characters seemed more positive, aroused, and likeable when they touched as compared to when they did not touch. Image characters seemed more negative and aroused, but were equally likeable, when they received touch as compared to when there was no physical contact. In Experiment 3, participants passively viewed touch and no-touch images while their eye movements were recorded. Differential gazing at touch as compared to no-touch images emerged within the first 500 ms following image exposure and was largely restricted to the characters' upper body. Gazing at the touching body parts (e.g., hands) was minimal and largely unaffected by touch, suggesting that touch processing occurred outside the focus of visual attention. Together, these findings establish touch as an important visual cue and provide novel insights into how this cue modulates socio-emotional processing in third-party observers. PMID:24628391

Schirmer, Annett; Reece, Christy; Zhao, Claris; Ng, Erik; Wu, Esther; Yen, Shih-Cheng

2015-02-01

373

RNA interference of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2) genes expression prolongs the shelf life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L.) papaya fruit.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6). Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants. PMID:24950439

Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom; Yeong, Wee Chien; Pillai, Vilasini

2014-01-01

374

Ionic signaling in plant gravity and touch responses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plant roots are optimized to exploit resources from the soil and as each root explores this environment it will encounter a range of biotic and abiotic stimuli to which it must respond. Therefore, each root must possess a sensory array capable of monitoring and integrating these diverse stimuli to direct the appropriate growth response. Touch and gravity represent two of the biophysical stimuli that plants must integrate. As sensing both of these signals requires mechano-transduction of biophysical forces to biochemical signaling events, it is likely that they share signal transduction elements. These common signaling components may allow for cross-talk and so integration of thigmotropic and gravitropic responses. Indeed, signal transduction events in both plant touch and gravity sensing are thought to include Ca(2+)- and pH-dependent events. Additionally, it seems clear that the systems responsible for root touch and gravity response interact to generate an integrated growth response. Thus, primary and lateral roots of Arabidopsis respond to mechanical stimuli by eliciting tropic growth that is likely part of a growth strategy employed by the root to circumvent obstacles in the soil. Also, the mechano-signaling induced by encountering an obstacle apparently down-regulates the graviperception machinery to allow this kind of avoidance response. The challenge for future research will be to define how the cellular signaling events in the root cap facilitate this signal integration and growth regulation. In addition, whether other stimuli are likewise integrated with the graviresponse via signal transduction system cross-talk is an important question that remains to be answered.

Massa, Gioia D.; Fasano, Jeremiah M.; Gilroy, Simon

2003-01-01

375

A menu-driven, touch panel microcomputer for clinical recordkeeping.  

PubMed

Quikchart is a menu-driven, touch-panel input microcomputer system designed for computer-naive physicians active in clinical environments. It enables them to generate patient encounter records, and to store and access them using electronic memory. It also permits printing hard-copy records. The system is designed so that the physician can do all this without resorting to a standard typewriter or computer keyboard. It circumvents the disadvantages of both handwritten records and dictated records. Upward expansion of Quikchart will allow individual systems to be networked into a clinic-wide medical record system. PMID:7231224

Schenker, W J

1980-01-01

376

Touching Text Character Localization in Graphical Documents Using SIFT  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Interpretation of graphical document images is a challenging task as it requires proper understanding of text\\/graphics symbols\\u000a present in such documents. Difficulties arise in graphical document recognition when text and symbol overlapped\\/touched. Intersection\\u000a of text and symbols with graphical lines and curves occur frequently in graphical documents and hence separation of such symbols\\u000a is very difficult.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Several pattern recognition and

Partha Pratim Roy; Umapada Pal; Josep Lladós

2009-01-01

377

Discovery touches down after successful mission STS-95  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbiter Discovery smokes its tires as it touches down on runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Discovery returns to Earth with its crew of seven after a successful mission STS-95 lasting nearly nine days and 3.6 million miles. The mission included research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

1998-01-01

378

Discovery touches down after successful mission STS-95  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbiter Discovery startles a great white egret next to runway 33 as it touches down at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Discovery returns to Earth with its crew of seven after a successful mission STS-95 lasting nearly nine days and 3.6 million miles. The mission included research payloads such as the Spartan solar- observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

1998-01-01

379

Phytochemical and antifungal profiles of the seeds of carica papaya L.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extracts of the seeds of Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) led to the isolation of 2,3,4-trihydroxytoluene (caricaphenyl triol) and glyceryl-1-(2',3',4'-trihydroxybenzoyl)-2,3-dioleate (papayaglyceride) as the new phytoconstituents along with the known components glyceryl-1-oleiyl-2,3-dilinoleiate, glyceryl-1-oleiyl-2,3-diarachidate, glyceryl-1-linoleiyl-2,3-distearate, carpaine, glyceryl-1,2-dipalmitate, glyceryl trimyristate, glyceryl tristearate, glyceryl-1,2-dipalmityl-3-myristate, glyceryl-1-oleiyl-2,3-dimyristate, ?-sitosterol glucoside, glyceryl-1-oleiyl-3-phosphate, glyceryl-1-oleiyl-2-lauryl-3-phosphate and glyceryl-1,2-distearyl-3-phosphate. The structures of all these compounds have been elucidated by spectral data analysis and chemical reactions. The methanolic extract of the seeds and 2,3,4-trihydroxytoluene (200 ?g/ml) showed antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans and Penicillium citrinium. PMID:22707832

Singh, Onkar; Ali, M

2011-07-01

380

Process variables influence on microwave assisted extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L. peel.  

PubMed

The objectives of the present study were to evaluate and optimize the influence of process variables such as microwave power, pH, time and solid-liquid ratio on the extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L peel. The experiments were carried out based on a four factors three level Box-Behnken response surface design. A quadratic model was developed from the experimental data in order to predict the pectin yield. The optimal condition was found to be: microwave power of 512w, pH of 1.8, time of 140s and solid-liquid ratio of 1:15g/ml with maximum pectin yield (25.41%). PMID:25445679

Maran, J Prakash; Prakash, K Arun

2015-02-01

381

Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. III. Tropical fruits: bananas, mangoes, and papayas.  

PubMed

The current status of research on the use of ionizing radiation for shelf life improvement and disinfestation of fresh tropical fruits like bananas, mangoes, and papayas are reviewed. The aspects covered are influence of maturity and physiological state of the fruits on delayed ripening and tolerance to radiation; varietal responses; changes in chemical constituents, volatiles, respiration, and ethylene evolution; biochemical mechanisms of delayed ripening and browning of irradiated fruits; and organoleptic quality. The efficacy of the combination of hot water dip and radiation treatments for control of postharvest fungal diseases are considered. The immediate potential of radiation as a quarantine treatment, in place of the currently used chemical fumigants, for disinfestation of fruit flies and mango seed weevil are discussed. Future prospects for irradiation of tropical fruits are discussed in the light of experience gained from studies conducted in different countries. PMID:3082598

Thomas, P

1986-01-01

382

Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. III. Tropical fruits: bananas, mangoes, and papayas  

SciTech Connect

The current status of research on the use of ionizing radiation for shelf life improvement and disinfestation of fresh tropical fruits like bananas, mangoes, and papayas are reviewed. The aspects covered are influence of maturity and physiological state of the fruits on delayed ripening and tolerance to radiation; varietal responses; changes in chemical constituents, volatiles, respiration, and ethylene evolution; biochemical mechanisms of delayed ripening and browning of irradiated fruits; and organoleptic quality. The efficacy of the combination of hot water dip and radiation treatments for control of postharvest fungal diseases are considered. The immediate potential of radiation as a quarantine treatment, in place of the currently used chemical fumigants, for disinfestation of fruit flies and mango seed weevil are discussed. Future prospects for irradiation of tropical fruits are discussed in the light of experience gained from studies conducted in different countries.146 references.

Thomas, P.

1986-01-01

383

Binary Combination of Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans with Piperonyl Butoxide / MGK-264 against Freshwater Snail Lymnaea acuminata  

PubMed Central

Piperonyl butoxide (PB) and MGK-264 were used to enhance the toxicity of the active components papain, arecoline and myristicin from the plants Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans, respectively, against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. A time- and dose-dependent relationship was observed for the toxicity of these combinations. The toxic effects of these plant-derived molluscicides in combination with the synergists PB and MGK-264 were several times higher than the effect of the individual treatments. The highest degree of synergism was observed when MGK-264 was used in combination with C. papaya latex (10.47-fold increase) and PB was used with papain (8.35-fold increase). PMID:24575245

Hanif, Farhat; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

2013-01-01

384

Industrial-hygiene report, walk-through survey, papaya packing/shipping facilities, Hilo, Hawaii, July 1983. [Ethylene dibromide exposure  

SciTech Connect

Worker exposure to ethylene dibromide (EDB) was investigated at three papaya packing and shipping facilities in Hilo, Hawaii. Breathing-zone samples were collected in the three facilities over a three day period. Blind spikes were submitted as a control on time and temperature effects. Blank samples were also prepared. Spike results reflected the effects of time and temperature in shipment from Hawaii to Massachusetts. All spikes were roughly comparable and showed a recovery of about 68%. Overnight laboratory results were adjusted upward by 72% and NIOSH laboratory results by 68%. Six out of 38 samples exceeded the NIOSH recommended amount of 130 ppb. The author concludes that there is a chronic, low-concentration exposure to EDB for all workers in the papaya industry in Hilo. An epidemiological study of reproductive and cytogenetic effects of EDB exposure on these workers is recommended.

Clapp, D.

1983-07-01

385

Effect of irradiation on the biochemical and organoleptic changes during the ripening of papaya and mango fruits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Papaya and mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation treatment was used to determine its effect on the quality of papayas and mangoes irradiated at 0,5 to 0,95 kGy. The level of respiration, soluble solids, texture, vitamin C and the sensorial evaluation were effectuated. The results indicate that irradiation treatment reduces significantly (p ? 0,001) the level of respiration and significantly (p ? 0,001) weakens the texture of mangoes. The content of soluble solids and vitamin C are not significantly affected by the irradiation. The sensory evaluation indicates that up to 0,95 kGy the sensorial quality is not changed.

Lacroix, Monique; Bernard, Linda; Jobin, Michele; Milot, Sylvain; Gagnon, Marcel

386

Detection and segmentation of multiple touching product inspection items  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray images of pistachio nuts on conveyor trays for product inspection are considered. The first step in such a processor is to locate each individual item and place it in a separate file for input to a classifier to determine the quality of each nut. This paper considers new techniques to: detect each item (each nut can be in any orientation, we employ new rotation-invariant filters to locate each item independent of its orientation), produce separate image files for each item [a new blob coloring algorithm provides this for isolated (non-touching) input items], segmentation to provide separate image files for touching or overlapping input items (we use a morphological watershed transform to achieve this), and morphological processing to remove the shell and produce an image of only the nutmeat. Each of these operations and algorithms are detailed and quantitative data for each are presented for the x-ray image nut inspection problem noted. These techniques are of general use in many different product inspection problems in agriculture and other areas.

Casasent, David P.; Talukder, Ashit; Cox, Westley; Chang, Hsuan-Ting; Weber, David

1996-12-01

387

Development of brain mechanisms for processing affective touch  

PubMed Central

Affective tactile stimulation plays a key role in the maturation of neural circuits, but the development of brain mechanisms processing touch is poorly understood. We therefore used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study brain responses to soft brush stroking of both glabrous (palm) and hairy (forearm) skin in healthy children (5–13 years), adolescents (14–17 years), and adults (25–35 years). Adult-defined regions-of-interests in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), insular cortex and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) were significantly and similarly activated in all age groups. Whole-brain analyses revealed that responses in the ipsilateral SII were positively correlated with age in both genders, and that responses in bilateral regions near the pSTS correlated significantly and strongly with age in females but not in males. These results suggest that brain mechanisms associated with both sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational aspects of touch are largely established in school-aged children, and that there is a general continuing maturation of SII and a female-specific increase in pSTS sensitivity with age. Our work establishes a groundwork for future comparative studies of tactile processing in developmental disorders characterized by disrupted social perception such as autism. PMID:24550800

Björnsdotter, Malin; Gordon, Ilanit; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Olausson, Håkan; Kaiser, Martha D.

2014-01-01

388

Our Sense of Touch: Two-Point Discrimination  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners investigate the touch sensory system and discover how to plan and carry out their own experiments. In "CLASS EXPERIMENT," learners find that the ability to tell that two points rather than just one are pressing on the skin depends on two things: the density of skin sensory receptors and the connections that the sensory nerve cells make in the brain. They learn basic facts about sensory receptors and nerve connections, and use their estimates of receptor density to predict the size of the brain areas devoted to input from different skin regions. In "TRY YOUR OWN EXPERIMENT," learners design their own experiments, investigating, for example, how touch information is important in motor tasks, or whether additional sensory input can interfere with two-point discrimination. This lesson plan includes background information and guides for educators and learners. Note: total learning time may be reduced if the number of skin areas tested are limited and you restrict the materials in the second part of the activity.

Marjorie A. Murray Ph.D.

2009-01-01

389

Touch Mode Capacitive Pressure Sensor for Passive Tire Monitoring System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive Tire Monitoring System (PTMS) enables to detect pressure, temperature and ID number of each tire. And it also can warn drivers about low pressure or flat tires. In our proposal, the sensors to detect tire pressure are implanted in each tire. Therefore, they must have a robust structure enough to withstand against an overload pressure that is applied during curing process of tires, as well as a high sensitivity and its good linearity in their operating range. Touch Mode Capacitive Pressure Sensor(1) seems to be suitable for this system, because it has some advantages such as near linear output, strong endurance against overload pressure and a robust structure compared with other conventional pressure sensors. The purpose of this study is to improve the minimum burst pressure of the Touch Mode Capacitive Pressure Sensors in the high volume production. As a result of observation with AFM and TEM, we found that some etch-pits, which are produced in etching process of the diaphragm of the sensors, make the diaphragm weak. Consequently, we could optimize the etching conditions, and obtain the sensors of which the minimum burst pressure is 3.5MPa and more at a high yield rate.

Yamamoto, Satoshi; Takizawa, Takashi; Nishimura, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Hironari; Nakao, Osamu

390

Evidence of weak genetic structure and recent gene flow between Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. and B. papayae, across Southern Thailand and West Malaysia, supporting a single target pest for SIT applications  

PubMed Central

Background Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. (Hendel) and B. papayae Drew & Hancock, are invasive pests belonging to the B. dorsalis complex. Their species status, based on morphology, is sometimes arguable. Consequently, the existence of cryptic species and/or population isolation may decrease the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT) due to an unknown degree of sexual isolation between released sterile flies and wild counterparts. To evaluate the genetic relationship and current demography in wild populations for guiding the application of area-wide integrated pest management using SIT, seven microsatellite-derived markers from B. dorsalis s.s. and another five from B. papayae were used for surveying intra- and inter-specific variation, population structure, and recent migration among sympatric and allopatric populations of the two morphological forms across Southern Thailand and West Malaysia. Results Basic genetic variations were not significantly different among forms, populations, and geographical areas (P > 0.05). Nonetheless, two sets of microsatellite markers showed significantly different levels of polymorphisms. Genetic differentiation between intra- and inter-specific differences was significant, but low. Seventeen populations revealed three hypothetical genetic clusters (K = 3) regardless of forms and geographical areas. The genetic structure of sympatric populations slightly changed during the different years of collection. Recent gene flow (m ? 0.10) was frequently detected whether samples were sympatric or allopatric. Ninety-five of 379 individuals distributed across the given area were designated as recent migrants or of admixed ancestry. As a consequence of substantial migration, no significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances was detected (R2 = 0.056, P = 0.650). Conclusions According to the 12 microsatellite variations, weak population structure and recent gene flow suggest that there is no status for cryptic species between B. dorsalis s.s. and B. papayae forms in Southern Thailand and West Malaysia. Both forms can be treated as a single target pest for the SIT program in an area-wide sense. Additionally, the result of species identification based on molecular data and morphological character are not congruent. The use of independent, multiple approaches in the characterization of the target population may ensure the effectiveness and feasibility of SIT-based control in the target area. PMID:24929425

2014-01-01

391

High avidity binding of engineered papaya mosaic virus virus-like particles to resting spores of Plasmodiophora Brassicae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) like particles (VLPs) were used as a platform for fusion of affinity peptides binding to resting spores of Plasmodiophora brassicae—a major pathogen of crucifers. Three peptides with specific affinity to the target were isolated and cloned at the C-terminus of the PapMV coat protein (CP), generating three different high avidity VLPs. The peptides were exposed at

Hélène Morin; Marie-Hélène Tremblay; Édith Plante; Christine Paré; Nathalie Majeau; Richard Hogue; Denis Leclerc

2007-01-01

392

Staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying Staphylococcus aureus isolated from foods and its control by crude alkaloid from papaya leaves.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus is a known pathogen causing intoxication by producing enterotoxins in food. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A is one of the enterotoxins commonly implicated in staphylococcal food poisoning. The ability of crude alkaloid extract from papaya leaves to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxin A synthesis was investigated. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying S. aureus was isolated from raw milk and ready-to-eat foods. Crude alkaloid was extracted from ground, dried papaya leaves using ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and a MIC of the alkaloid was determined by the broth macrodilution method. Furthermore, S. aureus isolate was exposed to the crude alkaloid extract at one- and twofold MIC, and the expression of sea was subsequently analyzed using a quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR. Ten isolates of S. aureus were obtained, and nine of those isolates were sea carriers. The yield of crude alkaloid extract was 0.48 to 1.82% per dry weight of papaya leaves. A MIC of crude alkaloid to S. aureus was 0.25 mg/ml. After exposure to the alkaloid at 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ml for 2 h, a significant increase in cycle threshold values of sea was observed. The sea was expressed 29 and 41 times less when S. aureus was exposed to crude alkaloid at one- and twofold MIC, respectively. This study revealed that crude alkaloid of papaya leaves could control staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying S. aureus by suppressing the expression of sea, in addition to the ability to inhibit the growth of S. aureus. The expression of sea was successfully quantified. PMID:25364936

Handayani, Lita; Faridah, Didah Nur; Kusumaningrum, Harsi D

2014-11-01

393

Nucleotide Sequence of the Capsid Protein Gene and 3' Non-coding Region of Papaya Mosaic Virus RNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The nucleotide sequences of eDNA clones corresponding to the 3' OH end of papaya mosaic virus RNA have been determined. The 3'-terminal sequence obtained was 900 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(A) tail, and contained an open reading frame capable of giving rise to a protein of 214 amino acid residues with an Mr of 22930. This protein was

M. G. Abouhaidar

1988-01-01

394

Design and analysis of a piezoelectric material based touch screen with additional pressure and its acceleration measurement functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Touch screens are becoming more and more prevalent in everyday environments due to their convenience and humanized operation. In this paper, a piezoelectric material based touch screen is developed and investigated. Piezoelectric ceramics arrayed under the touch panel at the edges or corners are used as tactile sensors to measure the touch positioning point similarly to conventional touch screens. However, additional touch pressure and its acceleration performance can also be obtained to obtain a higher-level human-machine interface. The piezoelectric ceramics can also be added to a traditional touch screen structure, or they can be used independently to construct a novel touch screen with a high light transmittance approach to a transparent glass. The piezoelectric ceramics were processed from PZT piezoelectric ceramic powder into a round or rectangular shape. According to the varied touch position and physical press strength of a finger, or even a gloved hand or fingernail, the piezoelectric tactile sensors will have different output voltage responses. By calculating the ratio of different piezoelectric tactile sensors’ responses and summing up all piezoelectric tactile sensors’ output voltages, the touch point position, touch pressure and touch force acceleration can be detected. A prototype of such a touch screen is manufactured and its position accuracy, touch pressure and response speed are measured in detail. The experimental results show that the prototype has many advantages such as high light transmittance, low energy cost and high durability.

Chu, Xiang-Cheng; Liu, Jia-Yi; Gao, Ren-Long; Chang, Jie; Li, Long-Tu

2013-12-01

395

Explaining Away the Body: Experiences of Supernaturally Caused Touch and Touch on Non-Hand Objects within the Rubber Hand Illusion  

PubMed Central

Background In rubber hand illusions and full body illusions, touch sensations are projected to non-body objects such as rubber hands, dolls or virtual bodies. The robustness, limits and further perceptual consequences of such illusions are not yet fully explored or understood. A number of experiments are reported that test the limits of a variant of the rubber hand illusion. Methodology/Principal Findings A variant of the rubber hand illusion is explored, in which the real and foreign hands are aligned in personal space. The presence of the illusion is ascertained with participants' scores and temperature changes of the real arm. This generates a basic illusion of touch projected to a foreign arm. Participants are presented with further, unusual visuotactile stimuli subsequent to onset of the basic illusion. Such further visuotactile stimulation is found to generate very unusual experiences of supernatural touch and touch on a non-hand object. The finding of touch on a non-hand object conflicts with prior findings, and to resolve this conflict a further hypothesis is successfully tested: that without prior onset of the basic illusion this unusual experience does not occur. Conclusions/Significance A rubber hand illusion is found that can arise when the real and the foreign arm are aligned in personal space. This illusion persists through periods of no tactile stimulation and is strong enough to allow very unusual experiences of touch felt on a cardboard box and experiences of touch produced at a distance, as if by supernatural causation. These findings suggest that one's visual body image is explained away during experience of the illusion and they may be of further importance to understanding the role of experience in delusion formation. The findings of touch on non-hand objects may help reconcile conflicting results in this area of research. In addition, new evidence is provided that relates to the recently discovered psychologically induced temperature changes that occur during the illusion. PMID:20195378

2010-01-01

396

Does Carica papaya leaf-extract increase the platelet count? An experimental study in a murine model  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the potential role of fresh Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract on haematological and biochemical parameters and toxicological changes in a murine model. Methods In total 36 mice were used for the trial. Fresh C. papaya leaf extract [0.2 mL (2 g)/mouse] was given only to the test group (18 mice). General behavior, clinical signs and feeding patterns were recorded. Blood and tissue samples were collected at intervals. Haematological parameters including platelet, red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), packed cell volume (PCV), serum biochemistry including serum creatinine, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) were determined. Organs for possible histopathological changes were examined. Results Neither group exhibited alteration of behavior or reduction in food and water intake. Similarly, no significant changes in SGOT, SGPT and serum creatinine levels were detected in the test group. Histopathological organ changes were not observed in either group of mice except in three liver samples of the test group which had a mild focal necrosis. The platelet count (11.33±0.35)×105/µL (P=0.000?04) and the RBC count (7.97±0.61)×106/µL (P=0.000?03) were significantly increased in the test group compared to that of the controls. However, WBC count and PCV (%) values were not changed significantly in the test group. The platelet count in the test group started to increase significantly from Day 3 (3.4±0.18×105/µL), reaching almost a fourfold higher at Day 21 (11.3×105/µL), while it was 3.8×105/µL and 5.5×105/µL at Day 3 and Day 21 respectively in the control. Likewise, the RBC count in the test group increased from 6×106/µL to 9×106/ µL at Day 21 while it remained near constant in the control group (6×106/µL). Conclusions Fresh C. papaya leaf extract significantly increased the platelet and RBC counts in the test group as compared to controls. Therefore, it is very important to identify those chemicals of C. papaya leaves as it can be recommended to be used as a medication to boost thrombopoiesis and erythropoiesis in humans and in animals in which these cell lineages have been compromised. PMID:23998013

Dharmarathna, Sinhalagoda Lekamlage Chandi Asoka; Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Waduge, Roshitha Nilmini; Rajapakse, Rajapakse Peramune Veddikkarage Jayanthe; Kularatne, Senanayake Abeysinghe Mudiyanselage

2013-01-01

397

EFFECTIVE ENCODING/DECODING OF SPIKING SIGNALS FROM AN ARTIFICIAL TOUCH SENSOR  

E-print Network

EFFECTIVE ENCODING/DECODING OF SPIKING SIGNALS FROM AN ARTIFICIAL TOUCH SENSOR Luca Leonardo touch sensor is presented. Following a neuromimetic approach, we encode the signals from a 24-capacitive sensor fingertip into spik- ing activity through a network of leaky integrate-and- fire neurons

Arleo, Angelo

398

Research Paper Segmentation of touching insects based on optical flow and  

E-print Network

Research Paper Segmentation of touching insects based on optical flow and NCuts Qing Yao a in paddy fields. This paper focuses on developing a segmentation method for separating the touching insects in the rice light-trap insect image from our imaging system to automatically identify and count rice pests

399

Implications of Sexual Identity and Sexually Identified Situations on Nonverbal Touch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine whether individuals with different sexual identities exhibit different amounts of touching behavior, 199 undergraduates completed the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and a modification of the Touch Avoidance Measure (TAM). The BSRI produced scores indicating an individual's degree of association with both masculine and feminine traits.…

Eman, Virginia Ann; And Others

400

CLSI On-Line Public Catalog Touch Terminal Manual: Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual developed by the Public Access Subcommittee of the Reference Department of Meriam Library (California State University, Chico) provides instructions for using the library's online public catalog by means of a touch terminal which accepts commands in the form of a touch on a particular part of the terminal screen. Author and…

California State Univ., Chico.

401

19 CFR 4.82 - Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. 4.82 Section 4.82 Customs Duties...TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Coastwise Procedure § 4.82 Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. (a) A United States...

2012-04-01

402

19 CFR 4.82 - Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. 4.82 Section 4.82 Customs Duties...TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Coastwise Procedure § 4.82 Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. (a) A United States...

2011-04-01

403

19 CFR 4.82 - Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade.  

...Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. 4.82 Section 4.82 Customs Duties...TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Coastwise Procedure § 4.82 Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. (a) A United States...

2014-04-01

404

19 CFR 4.82 - Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. 4.82 Section 4.82 Customs Duties...TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Coastwise Procedure § 4.82 Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. (a) A United States...

2010-04-01

405

Promoting caring-healing relationships: bringing healing touch to the bedside in a multihospital health system.  

PubMed

New legislative mandates, evaluation metrics, and patient demand have led acute care organizations to expand their patient-centered care model to include the use of complementary therapies. One multihospital health system is offering Healing Touch training to nurses who will provide Healing Touch to self, colleagues, and patients, promoting a caring-healing consciousness. PMID:25314110

Swengros, Diane; Herbst, Anna M; Friesen, Mary Ann; Mangione, Lucrezia; Anderson, Joel G

2014-01-01

406

Desiring to be in touch in a changing communications landscape: attitudes of older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers an exploration of the attitudes of older adults to keeping in touch with people who are important to them. We present findings from three focus groups with people from 55 to 81 years of age. Themes emerging from the findings suggest that older adults view the act of keeping in touch as being worthy of time and

Siân E. Lindley; Richard H. R. Harper; Abigail Sellen

2009-01-01

407

Dyadic Power Theory, Touch, and Counseling Psychology: A Response to Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards (2011)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards' (2011) recent article tested dyadic power theory (DPT) by examining the use of touch as a compliance-gaining tactic in the conflicts of married couples. In this response, we raise a methodological issue about the touch behaviors examined by Smith et al. and also pose a theoretical critique that their test of DPT…

Dunbar, Norah E.; Abra, Gordon

2012-01-01

408

Water Reservoir Based Approach for Touching Numeral Segmentation , A. Belad1  

E-print Network

Water Reservoir Based Approach for Touching Numeral Segmentation U. Pal1,2 , A. Belaïd1 and C based on features obtained from a new concept based on water reservoir. A reservoir is a metaphor to illustrate the region where numerals touch. Reservoir is obtained by considering accumulation of water poured

Belaïd, Abdel

409

Towards Designing User Interfaces on Mobile Touch-screen Devices for People with Visual Impairment  

E-print Network

Towards Designing User Interfaces on Mobile Touch- screen Devices for People with Visual Impairment with visual impairment. One of the issues with touch screens is the lack of clear tactile feedback, which is critical for visually-impaired people. We developed SemFeel, a tactile feedback technology that can express

Toronto, University of

410

Reactions to music, touch and object presentation in the final stage of dementia: an exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two patients in the final stage of dementia of Alzheimer type were stimulated with music, touch and object presentation during 12 consecutive days (16 trials per patient). Evaluations were made by direct observations, analysis of video-taped recordings and registrations of pulse and rate of respiration. Both patients reacted differently to music than to touch and object presentation.

Astrid Norberg; Else Melin; Kenneth Asplund

2003-01-01

411

Impact of healing touch with healing harp on inpatient acute care pain: a retrospective analysis.  

PubMed

This study examined the concomitant use of 2 complementary and alternative medicine modalities, Healing Harp and Healing Touch, to reduce pain, anxiety, and nausea in the postoperative patient population. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of using concomitant Healing Touch and Healing Harp to significantly reduce moderate to severe pain and anxiety in this patient population. Further research is warranted. PMID:24722611

Lincoln, Valerie; Nowak, Emily Witrak; Schommer, Barb; Briggs, Tami; Fehrer, Amy; Wax, Gary

2014-01-01

412

Virtual interpersonal touch: Haptic interaction and copresence in collaborative virtual environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

As digital communication becomes more commonplace and sensory rich, understanding the manner in which people interact with one another is crucial. In the current study, we examined the manners in which people touch digital representations of people, and compared those behaviors to the manner in which they touch digital representations of nonhuman objects. Results demonstrated that people used less force

Jeremy N. Bailenson; Nick Yee

2008-01-01

413

Laterality of foetal self-touch in relation to maternal stress.  

PubMed

This longitudinal observational study investigated whether foetuses change their hand preference with gestational age, and also examined the effects of maternal stress on lateralized foetal self-touch. Following ethical approval, fifteen healthy foetuses (eight girls and seven boys) were scanned four times from 24 to 36 weeks gestation. Self-touch behaviours which resulted in a touch of the foetal face/head were coded in 60 scans for 10 min and analysed in terms of frequency of the foetuses using left and right hands to touch their face. The joint effects of foetal age, stress and sex on laterality were assessed. We modelled the proportion of right self-touches for each foetal scan using a generalized linear mixed model, taking account of the repeated measures design. There was substantial variability in hand preference between foetuses. However, there was no significant increase in the proportion of right-handed touches with foetal age. No sex differences in handedness were identified. However, maternally reported stress level was significantly positively related to foetal left-handed self-touches (odds ratio 0.915; p < .0001). This longitudinal study provides important new insights into the effect of recent maternal stress on foetal predominant hand use during self-touch. PMID:24889397

Reissland, Nadja; Aydin, Ezra; Francis, Brian; Exley, Kendra

2015-01-01

414

Human touch effectively and safely reduces pain in the newborn intensive care unit.  

PubMed

This was a feasibility pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of the nonpharmacologic pain management technique of gentle human touch (GHT) in reducing pain response to heel stick in premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Eleven premature infants ranging from 27 to 34 weeks' gestational age, in a level III NICU in a teaching hospital, were recruited and randomized to order of treatment in this repeated-measures crossover-design experiment. Containment with GHT during heel stick was compared with traditional nursery care (side lying and "nested" in an incubator). Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, and cry were measured continuously beginning at baseline and continuing through heel warming, heel stick, and recovery following the heel stick. Infants who did not receive GHT had decreased respiration, increased heart rate, and increased cry time during the heel stick. In contrast, infants who received GHT did not have decreased respirations, elevated heart rates, or increased cry time during the heel stick. No significant differences were noted in oxygen saturation in either group. GHT is a simple nonpharmacologic therapy that can be used by nurses and families to reduce pain of heel stick in premature infants in the NICU. PMID:24602430

Herrington, Carolyn J; Chiodo, Lisa M

2014-03-01

415

Redirected Touching: Training and Adaptation in Warped Virtual Spaces  

PubMed Central

Redirected Touching is a technique in which virtual space is warped to map many virtual objects onto one real object that serves as a passive haptic prop. Recent work suggests that this mapping can often be predictably unnoticeable and have little effect on task performance. We investigated training and adaptation on a rapid aiming task in a real environment, an unwarped virtual environment, and a warped virtual environment. Participants who experienced a warped virtual space reported an initial strange sensation, but adapted to the warped space after short repeated exposure. Our data indicate that all the virtual training was less effective than real-world training, but after adaptation, participants trained as well in a warped virtual space as in an unwarped one.

Kohli, Luv; Whitton, Mary C.; Brooks, Frederick P.

2014-01-01

416

Obama address touches on research, energy, and environmental issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

President Barack Obama's State of the Union message, delivered on 24 January, touched on the need for basic research, energy production, support for clean energy, and environmental protection, but it included just one passing reference to climate change. In addition, the speech made no note of the Administration's recent denial of a controversial application for the Keystone XL pipeline to transport crude oil from Canada to the United States and made just an elliptical reference regarding the bankrupt Solyndra Corporation, which the administration had touted as a clean energy company. Innovation “demands basic research,” Obama said, adding that Congress should not “gut these investments in our budget.” Noting that one promise for innovation is American-made energy, Obama said he is directing the administration to “open more than 75% of our potential offshore oil and gas resources.”

Showstack, Randy

2012-02-01

417

Embodied reflection in practice--'touching the core of caring'.  

PubMed

A study was performed with the aim of clarifying the integration of the caring act of touch with reflection on caring theory. Seven participant nurses in elderly care volunteered as 'coresearchers' and performed a caring act called Rhythmical Embrocation, together with reflective dialogues on caring theory. The project lasted for 6 months and at the end qualitative interviews with participants were used to evaluate the study. The findings showed an opening of awareness, embodied moments of presence and an extended ability to act creatively in caring. In this study, the movement between theory and practice was the integration of the caring act with reflection on basic caring concepts. Implications for praxis development are that implementation and reflection by teams over certain caring acts might open the door to an expanded view of one's own caring ability that in the long run will benefit the patient. PMID:20618533

Ranheim, Albertine; Kärner, Anita; Arman, Maria; Rehnsfeldt, Arne Wilhelm; Berterö, Carina

2010-06-01

418

Discovery touches down after successful mission STS-95  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbiter Discovery touches down in a cloud of smoke on runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Discovery returns to Earth with its crew of seven after successfully completing mission STS-95, lasting nearly nine days and 3.6 million miles. The crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA), and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). The mission included research payloads such as the Spartan solar- observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

1998-01-01

419

Discovery touches down after successful mission STS-95  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbiter Discovery lowers its nose wheel after touching down on runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Discovery returns to Earth with its crew of seven after successfully completing mission STS-95, lasting nearly nine days and 3.6 million miles. The STS-95 crew is composed of Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA), and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). The mission included research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

1998-01-01

420

Discovery touches down after successful mission STS-95  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbiter Discovery touches down on runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility after a successful mission of nearly nine days and 3.6 million miles. Main gear touchdown was at 12:04 p.m. EST, landing on orbit 135. The STS-95 crew consists of Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr.; Pilot Steven W. Lindsey; Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski; Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson; Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., a senator from Ohio; Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA); and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, M.D., with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). The mission included research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

1998-01-01

421

Physical Factors Influencing Pleasant Touch during Tactile Exploration  

PubMed Central

Background When scanning surfaces, humans perceive some of their physical attributes. These percepts are frequently accompanied by a sensation of (un)pleasantness. We therefore hypothesized that aspects of the mechanical activity induced by scanning surfaces with fingertips could be objectively associated with a pleasantness sensation. Previously, we developed a unidimensional measure of pleasantness, the Pleasant Touch Scale, quantifying the pleasantness level of 37 different materials. Findings of this study suggested that the sensation of pleasantness was influenced by the average magnitude of the frictional forces brought about by sliding the finger on the surface, and by the surface topography. In the present study, we correlated (i) characteristics of the fluctuations of frictional forces resulting from the interaction between the finger and the surface asperities as well as (ii) the average friction with the sensation of pleasantness. Results Eight blindfolded participants tactually explored twelve materials of the Pleasant Touch Scale through lateral sliding movements of their index fingertip. During exploration, the normal and tangential interaction force components, fN and fT, as well as the fingertip trajectory were measured. The effect of the frictional force on pleasantness sensation was investigated through the analysis of the ratio fT to fN, i.e. the net coefficient of kinetic friction, ?. The influence of the surface topographies was investigated through analysis of rapid fT fluctuations in the spatial frequency domain. Results showed that high values of ? were anticorrelated with pleasantness. Furthermore, surfaces associated with fluctuations of fT having higher amplitudes in the low frequency range than in the high one were judged to be less pleasant than the surfaces yielding evenly distributed amplitudes throughout the whole spatial frequency domain. Conclusion Characteristics of the frictional force fluctuations and of the net friction taking place during scanning can reliably be correlated with the pleasantness sensation of surfaces. PMID:24244425

Klöcker, Anne; Wiertlewski, Michael; Théate, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

2013-01-01

422

Integrated Modeling of Spacecraft Touch-and-Go Sampling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated modeling tool has been developed to include multi-body dynamics, orbital dynamics, and touch-and-go dynamics for spacecraft covering three types of end-effectors: a sticky pad, a brush-wheel sampler, and a pellet gun. Several multi-body models of a free-flying spacecraft with a multi-link manipulator driving these end-effectors have been tested with typical contact conditions arising when the manipulator arm is to sample the surface of an asteroidal body. The test data have been infused directly into the dynamics formulation including such information as the mass collected as a function of end-effector longitudinal speed for the brush-wheel and sticky-pad samplers, and the mass collected as a function of projectile speed for the pellet gun sampler. These data represent the realistic behavior of the end effector while in contact with a surface, and represent a low-order model of more complex contact conditions that otherwise would have to be simulated. Numerical results demonstrate the adequacy of these multibody models for spacecraft and manipulator- arm control design. The work contributes to the development of a touch-and-go testbed for small body exploration, denoted as the GREX Testbed (GN&C for Rendezvous-based EXploration). The GREX testbed addresses the key issues involved in landing on an asteroidal body or comet; namely, a complex, low-gravity field; partially known terrain properties; possible comet outgassing; dust ejection; and navigating to a safe and scientifically desirable zone.

Quadrelli, Marco

2009-01-01

423

Physiological and Behavioral Responses Reveal 9-Month-Old Infants’ Sensitivity to Pleasant Touch  

PubMed Central

Caregiving touch has been shown to be essential for the growth and development of human infants. However, the physiological and behavioral mechanisms that underpin infants’ sensitivity to pleasant touch are still poorly understood. In human adults, a subclass of unmyelinated peripheral nerve fibers has been shown to respond preferentially to medium-velocity soft brushing. It has been theorized that this privileged pathway for pleasant touch is used for close affiliative interactions with conspecific individuals, especially between caregivers and infants. To test whether human infants are sensitive to pleasant touch, we examined arousal (heart rate) and attentional engagement (gaze shifts and duration of looks) to varying velocities of brushing (slow, medium, and fast) in 9-month-old infants. Our results provide physiological and behavioral evidence that sensitivity to pleasant touch emerges early in development and therefore plays an important role in regulating human social interactions. PMID:24681587

Fairhurst, Merle T.; Löken, Line; Grossmann, Tobias

2014-01-01

424

Modulation of C. elegans Touch Sensitivity Is Integrated at Multiple Levels  

PubMed Central

Sensory systems can adapt to different environmental signals. Here we identify four conditions that modulate anterior touch sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans after several hours and demonstrate that such sensory modulation is integrated at multiple levels to produce a single output. Prolonged vibration involving integrin signaling directly sensitizes the touch receptor neurons (TRNs). In contrast, hypoxia, the dauer state, and high salt reduce touch sensitivity by preventing the release of long-range neuroregulators, including two insulin-like proteins. Integration of these latter inputs occurs at upstream neurohormonal cells and at the insulin signaling cascade within the TRNs. These signals and those from integrin signaling converge to modulate touch sensitivity by regulating AKT kinases and DAF-16/FOXO. Thus, activation of either the integrin or insulin pathways can compensate for defects in the other pathway. This modulatory system integrates conflicting signals from different modalities, and adapts touch sensitivity to both mechanical and non-mechanical conditions. PMID:24806678

Chen, Xiaoyin

2014-01-01

425

Construction of physical maps for the sex-specific regions of papaya sex chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Background Papaya is a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. It is trioecious with three sex forms: male, female, and hermaphrodite. Sex determination is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes with two slightly different Y chromosomes, Y for male and Yh for hermaphrodite. The sex chromosome genotypes are XY (male), XYh (hermaphrodite), and XX (female). The papaya hermaphrodite-specific Yh chromosome region (HSY) is pericentromeric and heterochromatic. Physical mapping of HSY and its X counterpart is essential for sequencing these regions and uncovering the early events of sex chromosome evolution and to identify the sex determination genes for crop improvement. Results A reiterate chromosome walking strategy was applied to construct the two physical maps with three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. The HSY physical map consists of 68 overlapped BACs on the minimum tiling path, and covers all four HSY-specific Knobs. One gap remained in the region of Knob 1, the only knob structure shared between HSY and X, due to the lack of HSY-specific sequences. This gap was filled on the physical map of the HSY corresponding region in the X chromosome. The X physical map consists of 44 BACs on the minimum tiling path with one gap remaining in the middle, due to the nature of highly repetitive sequences. This gap was filled on the HSY physical map. The borders of the non-recombining HSY were defined genetically by fine mapping using 1460?F2 individuals. The genetically defined HSY spanned approximately 8.5?Mb, whereas its X counterpart extended about 5.4?Mb including a 900 Kb region containing the Knob 1 shared by the HSY and X. The 8.5?Mb HSY corresponds to 4.5?Mb of its X counterpart, showing 4?Mb (89%) DNA sequence expansion. Conclusion The 89% increase of DNA sequence in HSY indicates rapid expansion of the Yh chromosome after genetic recombination was suppressed 2–3 million years ago. The genetically defined borders coincide with the common BACs on the minimum tiling paths of HSY and X. The minimum tiling paths of HSY and its X counterpart are being used for sequencing these X and Yh-specific regions. PMID:22568889

2012-01-01

426

An architecture for sensate robots : real time social-gesture recognition using a full body array of touch sensors  

E-print Network

Touch plays a central role in social expression but, so far, research into social touch behaviors for robots has been almost. non-existent. Embodied machines have the unique capability to sense human body language, which ...

Knight, Heather-Marie Callanan

2008-01-01

427

Effects of ozone exposure on 'Golden' papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening  

SciTech Connect

This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of 'Golden' papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring on the fruit during ripening when exposed to ozone. In addition, one has performed real time studies of fluorescence parameters and the emission rates of carbon dioxide and ethylene. Finally, the amount of pigments and the changes in waxy cuticle have been monitored. Results indicate that a fruit deliberately subjected to ozone at a level of 6 ppmv underwent ripening sooner (at least 24-48 h) than a fruit stored at ambient conditions. Moreover, ozone caused a reduction in the maximum quantum yield of photosynthetic apparatus located within the skin of papaya fruit.

Correa, Savio Figueira; Brito Paiva, Luisa; Mota do Couto, Flavio; Gomes da Silva, Marcelo; Silva Sthel, Marcelo; Vargas, Helion [Laboratorio de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque California 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Mota, Leonardo [Laboratorio de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque California 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Fraunhofer Institut fuer Bauphysik, Nobelstrasse 12, Vaihingen 70569, Stuttgart, Baden Wuerttemberg (Germany); Goncalves de Oliveira, Jurandi [Laboratorio de Melhoramento Genetico Vegetal, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque California 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Miklos, Andras [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Bauphysik, Nobelstrasse 12, Vaihingen 70569, Stuttgart, Baden Wuerttemberg (Germany)

2011-06-01

428

Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from papaya seed by response surface methodology: Oil recovery, radical scavenging antioxidant activity, and oxidation stability.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) condition on the yield, antioxidant activity and stability of the oil from papaya seed. The studied ultrasound variables were time, temperature, ultrasound power and solvent to sample ratio. The main goal was to optimise UAE condition providing the highest recovery of papaya seed oil with the most desirable antioxidant activity and stability. The interaction of ultrasound variables had the most and least significant effects on the antioxidant activity and stability, respectively. Ultrasound-assisted extraction provided a relatively high oil recovery (?73%) from papaya seed. The strongest antioxidant activity was achieved by the extraction at the elevated temperature using low solvent to sample ratio. The optimum ultrasound extraction was set at the elevated temperature (62.5°C) for 38.5min at high ultrasound power (700W) using medium solvent to sample ratio (?7:1 v/w). The optimum point was practically validated. PMID:25442517

Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd; Bordbar, Sara; Serjouie, Alireza

2015-04-01

429

A ripening associated peroxidase from papaya having a role in defense and lignification: Heterologous expression and in-silico and in-vitro experimental validation.  

PubMed

Fruit ripening associated full length cDNA of a peroxidase from papaya was cloned and heterologously expressed. The expressed peroxidase was activated by in-vitro re-folding in the presence of hemin and calcium. The purified recombinant peroxidase exhibited broad substrate affinity in the order of o-dianisidine>pyrogallol>guaiacol and was found to be a homotetramer of 155kDa with each subunit having a size of 38kDa. The basis of the distinctive preferences for various substrates was investigated through in-silico molecular modeling approaches. Thus, when the modeled papaya peroxidase-heme complex was docked with these substrates, the in-silico binding efficiency was found to be in agreement with those of wet lab results with the involvement of Arg37, Phe40, His41, Pro137, Asn138, His139, His167, and Phe239 as the common interacting residues in all the cases. However, the binding of the different substrates were found to be associated with conformational changes in the peroxidase. Thus, in the case of o-dianisidine (the most efficient substrate), the protein was folded in the most compact fashion when compared to guaiacol (the least efficient substrate). Protein function annotation analyses revealed that the papaya peroxidase may have biological roles in oxidation-reduction processes, stresses, defense responses etc. In order to further validate its role in lignifications, the papaya peroxidase was compared with a lignin biosynthetic peroxidase from Leucaena leucocephala, a tree legume. Thus, based on 3D structure superimposition and docking, both peroxidases exhibited a great extent of similarity suggesting the papaya peroxidase having a role in lignification (defense response) too. The predicted functions of papaya peroxidase in defense response and lignification were further validated experimentally using qRT-PCR analyses and measurement of oxidation of coniferyl alcohol. PMID:25447898

Pandey, Veda P; Dwivedi, Upendra N

2015-01-25

430

Photoacoustic study of the influence of the cooling temperature on the CO2 emission rate by Carica papaya L. in modified atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monitoring of trace gas emitted by papaya fruits and assessments of its mass loss can contribute to improve the conditions for their storage and transport. The C02 emission rate by the papaya fruits, monitored by a commercial infrared-based gas analyzer, was influenced by the temperature and storage time. The fruits stored at temperature of 13 °C accumulated more CO2 inside the PEBD bags than those fruits stored at 6 °C. The loss of mass of the fruits progressively increased with storage time for both temperatures until the saturation of the moisture inside the PEBD bag, been more pronounced at 13 ºC.

Schramm, D. U.; Sthel, M. S.; da Silva, M. G.; Carneiro, L. O.; Silva, H. R. F.; Martins, M. L. L.; Resende, E. D.; Vitorazi, L.; Vargas, H.

2005-06-01

431

In situ Carica papaya stem matrix and Fusarium oxysporum (NCBT-156) mediated bioremediation of chromium.  

PubMed

Removal of heavy metal chromium was carried out using the fungus Fusarium oxysporum NCBT-156 strain isolated from soil of leather tanning effluent in in situ condition using potassium dichromate solution with 10 per cent Czapek-dox liquid medium. Biosorbent matrix was developed using Carica papaya plant dry stem to colonize the fungal strain to facilitate bioabsorption process. Bioabsorption of chromium was by metabolically mediated intracellular accumulation process. Maximum efficiency of chromium removal by biosorption upto 90 per cent was achieved at the end of 5th day of incubation (120 h of contact time) for 100 and 200 ppm concentration, upto 80 per cent for 300 and 400 ppm, and upto 65 per cent for 500 ppm to 1000 ppm concentrations with pH ranging from 5.8, 5.6, 5.5, 5.4 and 5.2, respectively for 100, 200, 300, 400, 500-1000 ppm concentration. SDS-PAGE protein profile showed significant difference in 34 kDa protein band after chromium absorption by the fungus. FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed that the main functional groups involved in the uptake of chromium by F. oxysporium strain were carbonyl, carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl groups. PMID:22403866

Amatussalam, A; Abubacker, M N; Rajendran, R Babu

2011-12-01

432

Glycyl endopeptidase from papaya latex: partial purification and use for production of fish gelatin hydrolysate.  

PubMed

An aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in combination with ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) precipitation was applied to fractionate glycyl endopeptidase from the papaya latex of Red Lady and Khack Dum cultivars. ATPS containing polyethylene glycol (PEG 2000 and 6000) and salts ((NH4)2SO4 and MgSO4) at different concentrations were used. Glycyl endopeptidase with high purification fold (PF) and yield was found in the salt-rich bottom phase of ATPS with 10%PEG 6000-10% (NH4)2SO4. When ATPS fraction from Red Lady cultivar was further precipitated with 40-60% saturation of (NH4)2SO4, PF of 2.1-fold with 80.23% yield was obtained. Almost all offensive odorous compounds, particularly benzyl isothiocyanate, were removed from partially purified glycyl endopeptidase (PPGE). The fish gelatin hydrolysates prepared using PPGE showed higher ABTS radical scavenging activity and less odour, compared with those of crude extract (CE). Thus antioxidative gelatin hydrolysate with negligible undesirable odour could be prepared with the aid of PPGE. PMID:25038693

Karnjanapratum, Supatra; Benjakul, Soottawat

2014-12-15

433

Effect of wine inhibitors on the proteolytic activity of papain from Carica papaya L. latex.  

PubMed

The influence of potential inhibitors naturally present in wine on the proteolytic activity of papain from Carica papaya latex was investigated to evaluate its applicability in white wine protein haze stabilization. Enzymatic activity was tested against a synthetic tripeptide chromogenic substrate in wine-like acidic medium that consisted of tartaric buffer (pH 3.2) supplemented with ethanol, free sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), grape skin and seed tannins within the average ranges of concentrations that are typical in wine. The diagnosis of inhibition type, performed with the graphical method, demonstrated that all of tested wine constituents were reversible inhibitors of papain. The strongest inhibition was exerted by free SO2 , which acted as a mixed-type inhibitor, similar to grape skin and seed tannins. Finally, when tested in table white wines, the catalytic activity of papain, even when if it was ascribable to the hyperbolic behavior of Michaelis-Menten equation, was determined to be strongly affected by free SO2 and total phenol level. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2014. PMID:25376439

Benucci, Ilaria; Esti, Marco; Liburdi, Katia

2014-11-01

434

Clinical holistic medicine: classic art of healing or the therapeutic touch.  

PubMed

Touching is often a forgotten part of medicine. The manual medicine or therapeutic touch (TT) is much more powerful than many modern, biomedically oriented physicians think. Pain and discomfort can be alleviated just by touching the sick area and in this way help the patient to be in better contact with the tissue and organs of their body. Lack of presence in the body seems to be connected with many symptoms that can be readily reversed simply by sensitive touch. When touch is combined with therapeutic work on mind and feelings, holistic healing seems to be facilitated and many problems can be solved in a direct and easy way in the clinic without drugs. This paper gives examples of the strength of manual medicine or therapeutic touch in its most simple form, and points to the power of physical contact between physician and his patient in the context of the theory and practice of holistic healing. Intimacy seems highly beneficial for the process of healing and it is very important to distinguish clearly between intimacy and sexuality for the physician and his patent to be able to give and receive touch without fear and without holding back emotionally. PMID:15010568

Ventegodt, Søren; Morad, Mohammed; Merrick, Joav

2004-03-01

435

Direct writing on paper of foldable capacitive touch pads with silver nanowire inks.  

PubMed

Paper-based capacitive touch pads can be fabricated utilizing high-concentration silver nanowire inks needle-printed directly onto paper substrates through a 2D programmable platform. Post deposition, silver nanowire tracks can be photonically sintered using a camera flash to reduce sheet resistance similar to thermal sintering approaches. Touch pad sensors on a variety of paper substrates can be achieved with optimized silver nanowire tracks. Rolling and folding trials, which yielded only modest changes in capacitance and no loss of function, coupled with touch pad functionality on curved surfaces, suggest sufficient flexibility and durability for paper substrate touch pads to be used in diverse applications. A simplified model to predict touch pad capacitance variation ranges with differing touch conditions was developed, with good agreement against experimental results. Such paper-based touch pads have the advantage of simple structure, easy fabrication, and fast sintering, which holds promise for numerous commercial applications including low-cost portable devices where ultrathin and lightweight features, coupled with reliable bending stability are desirable. PMID:25365734

Li, Ruo-Zhou; Hu, Anming; Zhang, Tong; Oakes, Ken D

2014-12-10

436

Touch sensors based on planar liquid crystal-gated-organic field-effect transistors  

SciTech Connect

We report a tactile touch sensor based on a planar liquid crystal-gated-organic field-effect transistor (LC-g-OFET) structure. The LC-g-OFET touch sensors were fabricated by forming the 10 ?m thick LC layer (4-cyano-4{sup ?}-pentylbiphenyl - 5CB) on top of the 50 nm thick channel layer (poly(3-hexylthiophene) - P3HT) that is coated on the in-plane aligned drain/source/gate electrodes (indium-tin oxide - ITO). As an external physical stimulation to examine the tactile touch performance, a weak nitrogen flow (83.3 ?l/s) was employed to stimulate the LC layer of the touch device. The LC-g-OFET device exhibited p-type transistor characteristics with a hole mobility of 1.5 cm{sup 2}/Vs, but no sensing current by the nitrogen flow touch was measured at sufficiently high drain (V{sub D}) and gate (V{sub G}) voltages. However, a clear sensing current signal was detected at lower voltages, which was quite sensitive to the combination of V{sub D} and V{sub G}. The best voltage combination was V{sub D} = ?0.2 V and V{sub G} = ?1 V for the highest ratio of signal currents to base currents (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio). The change in the LC alignment upon the nitrogen flow touch was assigned as the mechanism for the present LC-g-OFET touch sensors.

Seo, Jooyeok; Lee, Chulyeon; Han, Hyemi; Lee, Sooyong; Nam, Sungho; Kim, Youngkyoo, E-mail: ykimm@knu.ac.kr [Organic Nanoelectronics Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering and Graduate School of Applied Chemical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwajeong [Organic Nanoelectronics Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering and Graduate School of Applied Chemical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Priority Research Center, Research Institute of Advanced Energy Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon-Hyung [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo-Young; Kang, Inn-Kyu [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering and Graduate School of Applied Chemical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-09-15

437

Active Touch Sensing in the Rat: Anticipatory and Regulatory Control of Whisker Movements During Surface Exploration  

PubMed Central

Animals actively regulate the position and movement of their sensory systems to boost the quality and quantity of the sensory information they obtain. The rat vibrissal system is recognized to be an important model system in which to investigate such “active sensing” capabilities. The current study used high-speed video analysis to investigate whisker movements in untrained, freely moving rats encountering unexpected, vertical surfaces. A prominent feature of rat vibrissal movement is the repeated posterior–anterior sweep of the whiskers in which the macrovibrissae are seen to move largely in synchrony. Here we show that a second significant component of whisking behavior is the size of the arc, or “spread,” between the whiskers. Observed spread is shown to vary over the whisk cycle and to substantially decrease during exploration of an unexpected surface. We further show that the timing of whisker movements is affected by surface contact such that 1) the whiskers rapidly cease forward protraction following an initial, unexpected contact, and may do so even more rapidly following contact with the same surface in the subsequent whisk cycle, and 2) retraction velocity is reduced following this latter contact, leading to longer second-contact durations. This evidence is taken to support two hypotheses: 1) that the relative velocities of different whiskers may be actively controlled by the rat and 2) that control of whisker velocity and timing may serve to increase the number and duration of whisker–surface contacts while ensuring that such contacts are made with a light touch. PMID:19036871

Grant, Robyn A.; Mitchinson, Ben; Fox, Charles W.; Prescott, Tony J.

2009-01-01

438

Electrode patterning on PEDOT:PSS thin films by pulsed ultraviolet laser for touch panel screens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser dry etching by a laser driven direct writing apparatus has been extensively used for the micro- and nano-patterning on the solid surface. The purpose of this study is to pattern the PEDOT:PSS thin film coated on the soda-lime glass substrates by a nano-second pulsed ultraviolet laser processing system. The patterned PEDOT:PSS film structure provides the electrical isolation and prevents the electrical contact from each region for capacitive touch screens. The surface morphology, geometric dimension, and edge quality of ablated area after the variety of laser patternings were measured by a 3D confocal laser scanning microscope. After the single pulse laser irradiation, the ablation threshold of the PEDOT:PSS film conducted by the nano-second pulsed UV laser was determined to be 0.135±0.003 J/cm2. The single pulse laser interacted region and the ablated line depth increased with increasing the laser fluence. Moreover, the inner line width of ablated PEDOT:PSS films along the patterned line path increased with increasing the laser fluence but the shoulder width increased with decreasing fluence, respectively. The clean, smooth, and straight ablated edges were accomplished after the electrode patterning with the laser fluence of 1.7 J/cm2 and 90 % overlapping rate.

Tseng, Shih-Feng; Hsiao, Wen-Tse; Huang, Kuo-Cheng; Chiang, Donyau

2013-07-01

439

Discriminating speech rhythms in audition, vision, and touch.  

PubMed

We investigated the extent to which people can discriminate between languages on the basis of their characteristic temporal, rhythmic information, and the extent to which this ability generalizes across sensory modalities. We used rhythmical patterns derived from the alternation of vowels and consonants in English and Japanese, presented in audition, vision, both audition and vision at the same time, or touch. Experiment 1 confirmed that discrimination is possible on the basis of auditory rhythmic patterns, and extended it to the case of vision, using 'aperture-close' mouth movements of a schematic face. In Experiment 2, language discrimination was demonstrated using visual and auditory materials that did not resemble spoken articulation. In a combined analysis including data from Experiments 1 and 2, a beneficial effect was also found when the auditory rhythmic information was available to participants. Despite the fact that discrimination could be achieved using vision alone, auditory performance was nevertheless better. In a final experiment, we demonstrate that the rhythm of speech can also be discriminated successfully by means of vibrotactile patterns delivered to the fingertip. The results of the present study therefore demonstrate that discrimination between language's syllabic rhythmic patterns is possible on the basis of visual and tactile displays. PMID:25046133

Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Spence, Charles

2014-09-01

440

[Exploration styles modulate length perception through dynamic touch].  

PubMed

One of the most surprising capacities of the haptic system is the ability to estimate different properties of objects, like weight or length, through invariants of rotational mechanics that are accessible via the proprioceptive system. This field of research is called Dynamic Touch. In its classical experimental paradigm, the participant firmly grasps a rod that can be wielded but not seen, and he or she tries to match the hand-held rod's length using another rod that can be seen but not wielded. In the experiment reported here, we focus on the role of the exploratory behavior, restricting the wielding in six conditions that vary both the amplitude and the frequency of movements. Increments in the speed of the movement are shown to increase the accuracy in the haptic estimation. It is argued that these results support the moment of inertia as the best informational candidate, given that it is an invariant property that only emerges when rotational torques are applied. Alternative candidates such as static moment or mass are discarded because they do not depend on differential movements. PMID:22269364

Lobo, Lorena; Travieso, David

2012-02-01

441

STS-99 Endeavour touches down at SLF after successful mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the waning light after sundown, Space Shuttle Endeavour touches down on KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility Runway 33 to complete the 11-day, 5-hour, 38-minute-long STS-99 mission. At the controls are Commander Kevin Kregel and Pilot Dominic Gorie. Also onboard the orbiter are Mission Specialists Janet Kavandi, Janice Voss, Mamoru Mohri of Japan and Gerhard Thiele of Germany. Mohri is with the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) and Thiele is with the European Space Agency. The crew is returning from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission after mapping more than 47 million square miles of the Earth's surface. Main gear touchdown was at 6:22:23 p.m. EST Feb. 22 , landing on orbit 181 of the mission. Nose gear touchdown was at 6:22:35 p.m.. EST, and wheel stop at 6:23:25 p.m. EST. This was the 97th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 14th for Endeavour, also marking the 50th landing at KSC, the 21st consecutive landing at KSC, and the 28th in the last 29 Shuttle flights.

2000-01-01

442

STS-99 Endeavour touches down at SLF after successful mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the waning light after sundown, Space Shuttle Endeavour touches down on KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility Runway 33 to complete the 11-day, 5-hour, 38-minute-long STS-99 mission. At the controls are Commander Kevin Kregel and Pilot Dominic Gorie. Also onboard the orbiter are Mission Specialists Janet Kavandi, Janice Voss, Mamoru Mohri of Japan and Gerhard Thiele of Germany. Mohri is with the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) and Thiele is with the European Space Agency. The crew are returning from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission after mapping more than 47 million square miles of the Earth's surface. Main gear touchdown was at 6:22:23 p.m. EST Feb. 22 , landing on orbit 181 of the mission. Nose gear touchdown was at 6:22:35 p.m.. EST, and wheel stop at 6:23:25 p.m. EST. This was the 97th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 14th for Endeavour, also marking the 50th landing at KSC, the 21st consecutive landing at KSC, and the 28th in the last 29 Shuttle flights.

2000-01-01

443

STS-99 Endeavour touches down at SLF after successful mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Shuttle Endeavour stirs up dust as its wheels touch down on KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility Runway 33 to complete the 11-day, 5-hour, 38-minute-long STS-99 mission. At the controls are Commander Kevin Kregel and Pilot Dominic Gorie. Also onboard the orbiter are Mission Specialists Janet Kavandi, Janice Voss, Mamoru Mohri of Japan and Gerhard Thiele of Germany. Mohri is with the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) and Thiele is with the European Space Agency. The crew is returning from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission after mapping more than 47 million square miles of the Earth's surface. Main gear touchdown was at 6:22:23 p.m. EST Feb. 22 , landing on orbit 181 of the mission. Nose gear touchdown was at 6:22:35 p.m.. EST, and wheel stop at 6:23:25 p.m. EST. This was the 97th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 14th for Endeavour, also marking the 50th landing at KSC, the 21st consecutive landing at KSC, and the 28th in the last 29 Shuttle flights.

2000-01-01

444

The Relationship between the Expression of Ethylene-Related Genes and Papaya Fruit Ripening Disorder Caused by Chilling Injury  

PubMed Central

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is sensitive to low temperature and easy to be subjected to chilling injury, which causes fruit ripening disorder. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the expression of genes related to ethylene and fruit ripening disorder caused by chilling injury. Papaya fruits were firstly stored at 7°C and 12°C for 25 and 30 days, respectively, then treated with exogenous ethylene and followed by ripening at 25°C for 5 days. Chilling injury symptoms such as pulp water soaking were observed in fruit stored at 7°C on 20 days, whereas the coloration and softening were completely blocked after 25 days, Large differences in the changes in the expression levels of twenty two genes involved in ethylene were seen during 7°C-storage with chilling injury. Those genes with altered expression could be divided into three groups: the group of genes that were up-regulated, including ACS1/2/3, EIN2, EIN3s/EIL1, CTR1/2/3, and ERF1/3/4; the group of genes that were down-regulated, including ACO3, ETR1, CTR4, EBF2, and ERF2; and the group of genes that were un-regulated, including ACO1/2, ERS, and EBF1. The results also showed that pulp firmness had a significantly positive correlation with the expression of ACS2, ACO1, CTR1/4, EIN3a/b, and EBF1/2 in fruit without chilling injury. This positive correlation was changed to negative one in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. The coloring index displayed significantly negative correlations with the expression levels of ACS2, ACO1/2, CTR4, EIN3a/b, ERF3 in fruit without chilling injury, but these correlations were changed into the positive ones in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. All together, these results indicate that these genes may play important roles in the abnormal softening and coloration with chilling injury in papaya. PMID:25542021

Zou, Yuan; Zhang, Lin; Rao, Shen; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Ye, Lanlan; Chen, Weixin; Li, Xueping

2014-01-01

445

SRFS `MUST DO' List Access Penn InTouch www.upenn.edu/pennintouch  

E-print Network

academic or financial records with a third party, including your parents. To authorize Penn to share `invite' them as an `other payer'. From Penn InTouch, select Student Billing Account, then Paying Your

Plotkin, Joshua B.

446

Support for both touch sensing and fingerprint scan with in-cell capacitive LCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for touch based authentication is growing rapidly in smartphones and tablets. Historically, fingerprint has served at its fullest capacity in establishing the uniqueness of an individual's identity. In this paper we present a novel design of capacitive in-cell TFT-LCDs that supports both fingerprint scan and touch sensing by extending the in-cell capacitive sensing scheme. We discuss a novel readout circuit design that drives the capacitive sensors for touch interactions in low resolution and for fingerprint scan at higher resolution. Furthermore, we propose to enhance the low resolution fingerprint data with image super resolution. Evaluation results show that with super resolution, the proposed touch-fingerprint in-cell TFT-LCD design can support fingerprint verification with sensor pitch of 0.15mm.

Koundinya, Pranav; Zhao, Xi; Feng, Tao; Shi, Weidong

2014-05-01

447

When machines touch back : simulating-- and stimulating-- the most intimate of senses  

E-print Network

Thomas Massie invented the Phantom, a computer peripheral for simulating the sense of touch, that became the de facto device for haptics research. The thesis recounts the story of Massie, his invention, and present and ...

Bullis, Kevin (Kevin James)

2005-01-01

448

Development of air touch interface for floating 3D image in the air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a prototype virtual air touch interface system for interaction in the virtual 3D space. The spatial imaging display system provides the observer virtual 3D objects. These 3D images are floating in the air and one can directly touch objects or virtual images. To take mutual action we need to prepare the interface system which can recognize that the user moves his hand near the virtual objects. Because a conventional touch-panel system detects the user's operation on the display screen but the touching point differs from the actual displaying space, it is important to realize that the user can operate at the same space. A typical method is to use the computer vision. In this paper, the authors propose the interface system using a theremin which is a musical instrument having the unusual aspect of being controlled by the performer's hand motions near the antennas.

Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Sakamoto, Kunio

2007-09-01

449

Scratching with all your fingers : exploring multi-touch programming in Scratch  

E-print Network

Since the introduction of the iPhone in 2007, many millions of people have used a multi-touch interface; but, due to the inaccessibility of most tablet software development kits, very few of these people have ever developed ...

Graves, Christopher Marten-Ellis

2014-01-01

450

PIEZO2 is required for mechanotransduction in human stem cell-derived touch receptors.  

PubMed

Human sensory neurons are inaccessible for functional examination, and thus little is known about the mechanisms mediating touch sensation in humans. Here we demonstrate that the mechanosensitivity of human embryonic stem (hES) cell-derived touch receptors depends on PIEZO2. To recapitulate sensory neuron development in vitro, we established a multistep differentiation protocol and generated sensory neurons via the intermediate production of neural crest cells derived from hES cells or human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells. The generated neurons express a distinct set of touch receptor-specific genes and convert mechanical stimuli into electrical signals, their most salient characteristic in vivo. Strikingly, mechanosensitivity is lost after CRISPR/Cas9-mediated PIEZO2 gene deletion. Our work establishes a model system that resembles human touch receptors, which may facilitate mechanistic analysis of other sensory subtypes and provide insight into developmental programs underlying sensory neuron diversity. PMID:25469543

Schrenk-Siemens, Katrin; Wende, Hagen; Prato, Vincenzo; Song, Kun; Rostock, Charlotte; Loewer, Alexander; Utikal, Jochen; Lewin, Gary R; Lechner, Stefan G; Siemens, Jan

2015-01-01

451

On Multi-Touch Interfaces for Music Improvisation: The Blues Machine Project  

E-print Network

, musically important effects, like bends, are allowed. By presenting only the scale how this idea can be extended to other musical scales and styles. #12On Multi-Touch Interfaces for Music Improvisation: The Blues Machine Project Marcelo Cicconet

452

Electrokinetic behavior of two touching inhomogeneous biological cells and colloidal particles: Effects of multipolar interactions  

E-print Network

Electrokinetic behavior of two touching inhomogeneous biological cells and colloidal particles inhomogeneous colloidal particles and biological cells. These inhomogeneous particles are treated as graded ones Identification and analysis of cell populations and (micro) biological particles are essential in many practical

Huang, Ji-Ping

453

For Immediate Release --Tuesday, April 22, 2014 Touch therapy helps brains recover following stroke,  

E-print Network

. However, after receiving a type of massage therapy -- having their backs strokedFor Immediate Release -- Tuesday, April 22, 2014 Touch therapy helps in the womb, but massage-like treatment can improve the odds. New research out

Seldin, Jonathan P.

454

Actress Debra Winger: “Everyone Is Touched By Addiction.” | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Preventing Drug Abuse and Addiction Actress Debra Winger: “Everyone Is Touched ... Nora Volkow, Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), discuss the actress’s participation in the NIDA- ...

455

Pressure sensors based on MEMS, operating in harsh environments (touch-mode)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, Poly-crystalline silicon carbide (poly-sic) Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) capacitive pressure sensor operating in harsh environment in touch mode is proposed, The principle of the paper is to design, obtain analytical solution and compare the results with the simulation for a circular diaphragm deflection before and after touch point. The sensor demonstrated a high temperature sensing capability up to

M. N. Hamidon; A. R. Bahadorimehr

2008-01-01

456

Collaborative Searching for Video Using the Físchlár System and a Diamond Touch Table  

Microsoft Academic Search

F´ ischl´ ar-DT is one of a family of systems which support interactive searching and browsing through an archive of digital video information. Previous F´ ischl´ ar systems have used a conventional screen, keyboard and mouse interface, but F´ ischlar-DT operates with using an horizontal, multi- user, touch sensitive tabletop known as a DiamondTouch. We present the F´ ischl´ ar-DT

Alan F. Smeaton; Colum Foley; Cathal Gurrin; Hyowon Lee; Sinéad Mcgivney

2006-01-01

457

Mechanotransduction: Touch and Feel at the Molecular Level as Modeled in Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival of an organism depends on its ability to respond to its environment through its senses. The sense of touch is\\u000a one of the most vital; still, it is the least understood. In the process of touch sensation, a mechanical stimulus is converted\\u000a into electrical signals. Groundbreaking electrophysiological experiments in organisms ranging from bacteria to mammals have\\u000a suggested that

Laura Bianchi

2007-01-01

458

Highly conductive, flexible, and compressible all-graphene passive electronic skin for sensing human touch.  

PubMed

A facile and passive multiply flexible thin-film sensor is demonstrated based on thermoelectric effects in graphene. The sensor is highly conductive, free-standing, flexible, and elastic. It senses heat and cold, and measures heated/cooled areas; it also discerns human touch from other pressures, locates human touch, and measures pressure levels. All of these sensing abilities are demonstrated without any internal/external power supply. PMID:24890343

Hou, Chengyi; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang; Zhu, Meifang

2014-08-01

459

Illusory Sense of Human Touch from a Warm and Soft Artificial Hand.  

PubMed

To touch and be touched are vital to human development, well-being, and relationships. However, to those who have lost their arms and hands due to accident or war, touching becomes a serious concern that often leads to psychosocial issues and social stigma. In this paper, we demonstrate that the touch from a warm and soft rubber hand can be perceived by another person as if the touch were coming from a human hand. We describe a three-step process toward this goal. First, we made participants select artificial skin samples according to their preferred warmth and softness characteristics. At room temperature, the preferred warmth was found to be 28.4°C at the skin surface of a soft silicone rubber material that has a Shore durometer value of 30 at the OO scale. Second, we developed a process to create a rubber hand replica of a human hand. To compare the skin softness of a human hand and artificial hands, a robotic indenter was employed to produce a softness map by recording the displacement data when constant indentation force of 1 N was applied to 780 data points on the palmar side of the hand. Results showed that an artificial hand with skeletal structure is as soft as a human hand. Lastly, the participants' arms were touched with human and artificial hands, but they were prevented to see the hand that touched them. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis suggests that a warm and soft artificial hand can create an illusion that the touch is from a human hand. These findings open the possibilities for prosthetic and robotic hands that are lifelike and are more socially acceptable. PMID:25291795

Cabibihan, John-John; Joshi, Deepak; Srinivasa, Yeshwin; Chan, Mark Aaron; Muruganantham, Arrchana

2014-09-29

460

THE EXPRESSION OF THE GENE FOR LYCOPENE ¿-CYCLASE IS ELEVATED IN LEAVES AND FLOWERS AND DOWN-REGULATED IN BOTH YELLOW- AND RED- FLESHED PAPAYA FRUITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carotene pigments in flowers and fruits are distinct features related to fitness advantages such as attracting insects for pollination and birds for seeds disposal. In papaya, the flesh color of fruit is considered a quality trait that varies in nutritional values and is linked to shelf life of the ...

461

Effect of UV-C irradiation and low temperature storage on bioactive compounds, antioxidant enzymes and radical scavenging activity of papaya fruit.  

PubMed

Mature green 'Maradol' papaya fruits were exposed to ultraviolet (UV)-C irradiation (1.48 kJ·m(-2)) and stored at 5 or 14 °C. Changes in total phenols, total flavonoids, enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD), as well as the scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals were investigated in peel and flesh tissues at 0, 5, 10 and 15 days of storage. UV-C irradiation increased significantly (P < 0.05) the flavonoid content (2.5 and 26 %) and ABTS radical scavenging activity (5.7 and 6 %) in flesh and peel at 14 °C respectively; and CAT activity (16.7 %) in flesh at 5 °C. Flavonoid contents, CAT and SOD activities were positively affected under low storage temperature (5 °C). DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities increased in both control and UV-C treated papaya peel during storage at 5 °C. UV-C irradiation effect on radical scavenging of papaya peel could be attributed to increased flavonoid content. Papaya antioxidant system was activated by UV-C and cold storage by increasing phenolic content and antioxidant enzymatic activities as a defense response against oxidative-stress. PMID:25477649

Rivera-Pastrana, Dulce M; Gardea, Alfonso A; Yahia, Elhadi M; Martínez-Téllez, Miguel A; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

2014-12-01

462

Proteasome-Independent Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Cross-Presentation Mediated by Papaya Mosaic Virus-Like Particles Leads to Expansion of Specific Human T Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of versatile vaccine platforms is a priority that is recognized by health authorities worldwide; such platforms should induce both arms of the immune system, the humoral and cytotoxic-T- lymphocyte responses. In this study, we have established that a vaccine platform based on the coat protein of papaya mosaic virus (PapMV CP), previously shown to induce a humoral response,

Denis Leclerc; Diane Beauseigle; Jerome Denis; Helene Morin; Christine Pare; Alain Lamarre; Rejean Lapointe

2007-01-01

463

Enrichment of a papaya high-density genetic map with AFLP markers.  

PubMed

A high-density genetic linkage map of papaya, previously developed using an F2 mapping population derived from the intraspecific cross AU9 x SunUp, was enriched with AFLP markers. The comprehensive genetic map presented here spans 945.2 cM and covers 9 major and 5 minor linkage groups containing 712 SSR, 277 AFLP, and 1 morphological markers. The average marker density for the 9 major linkage groups is 0.9 cM between adjacent markers, and the total number of gaps >5 cM was reduced from 48 to 27 in the current map. AFLPs generated by EcoRI/MseI primer combinations were distributed throughout the 14 linkage groups and resulted in several large locus order rearrangements within the 9 major linkage groups. Integration of AFLP markers provided tighter linkage association between loci, leading to a reduction in map distance on LGs 1, 2, and 4, which were inflated in the previous map, and correction of the marker order on LG8. Suppression of recombination in the male-specific Y region (MSY) of LG1 is further validated by the addition of 27 sex co-segregating AFLP markers. A large region of distorted segregation surrounding the MSY spans 54.4 cM and represents approximately 71% of the linkage group. This comprehensive high-density genetic map provides a framework for mapping quantitative trait loci and for fine mapping as well as for comparative genomic studies of crop plant development and evolution. PMID:19767901

Blas, Andrea L; Yu, Qingyi; Chen, Cuixia; Veatch, Olivia; Moore, Paul H; Paull, Robert E; Ming, Ray

2009-08-01

464

Arabidopsis touch-induced morphogenesis is jasmonate mediated and protects against pests.  

PubMed

Plants cannot change location to escape stressful environments. Therefore, plants evolved to respond and acclimate to diverse stimuli, including the seemingly innocuous touch stimulus [1-4]. Although some species, such as Venus flytrap, have fast touch responses, most plants display more gradual touch-induced morphological alterations, called thigmomorphogenesis [2, 3, 5, 6]. Thigmomorphogenesis may be adaptive; trees subjected to winds develop less elongated and thicker trunks and thus are less likely damaged by powerful wind gusts [7]. Despite the widespread relevance of thigmomorphogenesis, the regulation that underlies plant mechanostimulus-induced morphological responses remains largely unknown. Furthermore, whether thigmomorphogenesis confers additional advantage is not fully understood. Although aspects of thigmomorphogenesis resemble ethylene effects [8], and touch can induce ethylene synthesis [9, 10], Arabidopsis ethylene response mutants show touch-induced thigmomorphogenesis [11]; thus, ethylene response is nonessential for thigmomorphogenesis. Here we show that jasmonate (JA) phytohormone both is required for and promotes the salient characteristics of thigmomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis, including a touch-induced delay in flowering and rosette diameter reduction. Furthermore, we find that repetitive mechanostimulation enhances Arabidopsis pest resistance in a JA-dependent manner. These results highlight an important role for JA in mediating mechanostimulus-induced plant developmental responses and resultant cross-protection against biotic stress. PMID:22483939

Chehab, E Wassim; Yao, Chen; Henderson, Zachary; Kim, Se; Braam, Janet

2012-04-24

465

Inhibition of touch cell fate by egl-44 and egl-46 in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

In wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans, six cells develop as receptors for gentle touch. In egl-44 and egl-46 mutants, two other neurons, the FLP cells, express touch receptor-like features. egl-44 and egl-46 also affect the differentiation of other neurons including the HSN neurons, two cells needed for egg laying. egl-44 encodes a member of the transcription enhancer factor family. The product of the egl-46 gene, two Drosophila proteins, and two proteins in human and mice define a new family of zinc finger proteins. Both egl-44 and egl-46 are expressed in FLP and HSN neurons (and other cells); expression of egl-46 is dependent on egl-44 in the FLP cells but not in the HSN cells. Wild-type touch cells express egl-46 but not egl-44. Moreover, ectopic expression of egl-44 in the touch cells prevents touch cell differentiation in an egl-46-dependent manner. The sequences of these genes and their nuclear location as seen with GFP fusions indicate that they repress transcription of touch cell characteristics in the FLP cells. PMID:11274062

Wu, Ji; Duggan, Anne; Chalfie, Martin

2001-01-01

466

Physical Factors Influencing Pleasant Touch during Passive Fingertip Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Objective Tactile explorations with the fingertips provide information regarding the physical properties of surfaces and their relative pleasantness. Previously, we performed an investigation in the active touch domain and linked several surface properties (i.e. frictional force fluctuations and net friction) with their pleasantness levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate physical factors being important for pleasantness perception during passive fingertip stimulation. Specifically we were interested to see whether factors, such as surfaces' topographies or their frictional characteristics could influence pleasantness. Furthermore, we ascertained how the stimulus pleasantness level was impacted by (i) the normal force of stimulus application (FN) and (ii) the stimulus temperature (TS). Methods and Results The right index fingertips of 22 blindfolded participants were stimulated using 27 different stimuli, which varied in average roughness (Ra) and TS. A 4-axis robot moved the stimuli horizontally under participants' fingertips with three levels of FN. The robot was equipped with force sensors, which recorded the FN and friction force (FT) during stimulation. Participants rated each stimulus according to a three-level pleasantness scale, as very pleasant (scored 0), pleasant (scored 1), or unpleasant (scored 2). These ordinal pleasantness ratings were logarithmically transformed into linear and unidimensional pleasantness measures with the Rasch model. Statistical analyses were conducted to investigate a possible link between the stimulus properties (i.e. Ra, FN, FT, and TS) and their respective pleasantness levels. Only the mean Ra and FT values were negatively correlated with pleasantness. No significant correlation was detected between FN or TS and pleasantness. Conclusion Pleasantness perception, resulting from passive fingertip stimulation, seems to be influenced by the surfaces' average roughness levels and average FT occurring during fingertip stimulation. PMID:25000561

Klöcker, Anne; Oddo, Calogero Maria; Camboni, Domenico; Penta, Massimo; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

2014-01-01

467

Losing One's Hand: Visual-Proprioceptive Conflict Affects Touch Perception  

PubMed Central

Background While the sense of bodily ownership has now been widely investigated through the rubber hand illusion (RHI), very little is known about the sense of disownership. It has been hypothesized that the RHI also affects the ownership feelings towards the participant's own hand, as if the rubber hand replaced the participant's actual hand. Somatosensory changes observed in the participants' hand while experiencing the RHI have been taken as evidence for disownership of their real hand. Here we propose a theoretical framework to disambiguate whether such somatosensory changes are to be ascribed to the disownership of the real hand or rather to the anomalous visuo-proprioceptive conflict experienced by the participant during the RHI. Methodology/Principal Findings In experiment 1, reaction times (RTs) to tactile stimuli delivered to the participants' hand slowed down following the establishment of the RHI. In experiment 2, the misalignment of visual and proprioceptive inputs was obtained via prismatic displacement, a situation in which ownership of the seen hand was doubtless. This condition slowed down the participants' tactile RTs. Thus, similar effects on touch perception emerged following RHI and prismatic displacement. Both manipulations also induced a proprioceptive drift, toward the fake hand in the first experiment and toward the visual position of the participants' hand in the second experiment. Conclusions/Significance These findings reveal that somatosensory alterations in the experimental hand resulting from the RHI result from cross-modal mismatch between the seen and felt position of the hand. As such, they are not necessarily a signature of disownership. PMID:19738900

Folegatti, Alessia; de Vignemont, Frédérique; Pavani, Francesco; Rossetti, Yves; Farnè, Alessandro

2009-01-01

468

Zucchini tigré mosaic virus is a distinct potyvirus in the papaya ringspot virus cluster: molecular and biological insights.  

PubMed

In recent years, three new potyviruses have been described in the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) cluster. In addition, two types of PRSV are recognized, type W, infecting cucurbit plants, and type P, infecting papaya and also cucurbits. A third type, PRSV-T, was also partially described in Guadeloupe. Complete genome sequencing of four PRSV-T isolates showed that this virus is a related virus that is distinct from PRSV, and the name zucchini tigré mosaic virus (ZTMV) is proposed, in reference to the typical symptoms observed in zucchini squash. Eleven other viral isolates from different geographic origins were confirmed as ZTMV isolates using the complete sequence of the cylindrical inclusion (CI) coding region, whereas pairwise sequence similarities in the coat protein (CP) coding region did not unambiguously distinguish ZTMV isolates from PRSV isolates. The use of the CI coding region for species demarcation appears more suitable than the CP coding region for closely related viruses. Principal coordinates analysis based on the biological behavior of the viral isolates studied clustered PRSV-P, PRSV-W and ZTMV isolates into three different groups. Therefore, ZTMV is different from PRSV in its molecular and biological properties. PMID:23979176

Romay, G; Lecoq, H; Desbiez, C

2014-02-01

469

Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats  

PubMed Central

The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group) at 0 (control), 0.01, 0.14, and 2?g/kg body weight (BW) for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect.

Ismail, Zakiah; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Abdul Rashid, Badrul Amini; Jantan, Ibrahim

2014-01-01

470

Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels  

PubMed Central

Interpersonal touch is a fundamental component of social interactions because it can mitigate physical and psychological distress. To reproduce the psychological and physiological effects associated with interpersonal touch, interest is growing in introducing tactile sensations to communication devices. However, it remains unknown whether physical contact with such devices can produce objectively measurable endocrine effects like real interpersonal touching can. We directly tested this possibility by examining changes in stress hormone cortisol before and after a conversation with a huggable communication device. Participants had 15-minute conversations with a remote partner that was carried out either with a huggable human-shaped device or with a mobile phone. Our experiment revealed significant reduction in the cortisol levels for those who had conversations with the huggable device. Our approach to evaluate communication media with biological markers suggests new design directions for interpersonal communication media to improve social support systems in modern highly networked societies. PMID:24150186

Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nakae, Aya; Kanai, Ryota; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

471

Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels.  

PubMed

Interpersonal touch is a fundamental component of social interactions because it can mitigate physical and psychological distress. To reproduce the psychological and physiological effects associated with interpersonal touch, interest is growing in introducing tactile sensations to communication devices. However, it remains unknown whether physical contact with such devices can produce objectively measurable endocrine effects like real interpersonal touching can. We directly tested this possibility by examining changes in stress hormone cortisol before and after a conversation with a huggable communication device. Participants had 15-minute conversations with a remote partner that was carried out either with a huggable human-shaped device or with a mobile phone. Our experiment revealed significant reduction in the cortisol levels for those who had conversations with the huggable device. Our approach to evaluate communication media with biological markers suggests new design directions for interpersonal communication media to improve social support systems in modern highly networked societies. PMID:24150186

Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nakae, Aya; Kanai, Ryota; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

472

Cloning of the Papaya Chromoplast-Specific Lycopene ?-Cyclase, CpCYC-b, Controlling Fruit Flesh Color Reveals Conserved Microsynteny and a Recombination Hot Spot1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Carotenoid pigments in fruits are indicative of the ripening process and potential nutritional value. Papaya (Carica papaya) fruit flesh color is caused by the accumulation of lycopene or ?-carotenoids in chromoplasts. It is a distinct feature affecting nutritional composition, fruit quality, shelf life, and consumer preference. To uncover the molecular basis of papaya flesh color, we took map-based cloning and candidate gene approaches using integrated genetic and physical maps. A DNA marker tightly linked to flesh color colocalized on a contig of the physical map with a cDNA probe of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) chromoplast-specific lycopene ?-cyclase, CYC-b. Candidate gene sequences were obtained from amplified fragments and verified by sequencing two bacterial artificial chromosomes containing the two alleles. Sequence comparison revealed a 2-bp insertion in the coding region of the recessive red flesh allele resulting in a frame-shift mutation and a premature stop codon. A color complementation test in bacteria confirmed that the papaya CpCYC-b is the gene controlling fruit flesh color. Sequence analysis of wild and cultivated papaya accessions showed the presence of this frame-shift mutation in all red flesh accessions examined. Evaluation of DNA markers near CpCYC-b revealed a recombination hot spot, showing that CpCYC-b is located in a gene-rich region with a recombination rate at 3.7 kb per centimorgan, more than 100-fold higher than the genome average at 400 kb per centimorgan. Conserved microsynteny of the CpCYC-b region is indicated by colinearity of two to four genes between papaya, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), grape (Vitis vinifera), and tomato. Our results enhanced our understanding of papaya flesh color inheritance and generated new tools for papaya improvement. PMID:20181753

Blas, Andrea L.; Ming, Ray; Liu, Zhiyong; Veatch, Olivia J.; Paull, Robert E.; Moore, Paul H.; Yu, Qingyi

2010-01-01

473

Three dimensional touch and vision for the micro-world  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis describes advances in the holographic technology used to control multiple optical traps (and hence many trapped particles), and improved methods for monitoring the positions and forces involved. The speed with which multiple holographic optical traps can be moved has traditionally been limited by the time taken to calculate holograms, but by using consumer graphics cards and high speed Spatial Light Modulators (SLMs) I have implemented holographic systems fast enough to react to the Brownian motion of trapped particles. Brownian motion can, to some extent, be suppressed by this approach, and it also allows the trap's stiffness to be engineered to balance sensitivity against tight constraint of position. Feedback control using an SLM, rather than the other beam steering technologies that have been employed, is able to react to motion in three dimensions. This requires 3D position measurement, which is provided by the stereo microscopy technique described in Chapter 2. By illuminating and viewing the sample from two different angles it is possible to reconstruct the depth of objects. This is accomplished through a single high numerical aperture microscope objective, the same lens used to focus the trapping laser. In conjunction with a fast CMOS camera, it is possible to track particles with an accuracy of 2-3nm at several thousand frames per second. This allows measurement of forces and displacements within the control loop, that can be fed back to influence the position of the optical traps. This force information can also be relayed to the operator using a force-feedback joystick as detailed in Chapter 7. Interface design is an important part of making technology accessible to scientists from other disciplines; to this end I have also developed a multi-touch tablet application to control optical tweezers. By creating simple, reliable systems and coupling them to an intuitive interface, I have endeavoured to produce developments which are of use to the non-specialist as well as to experts in optical tweezers-a number of which are now available commercially (Section 8.7). These technologies form the basis of a toolkit for working with multi-part probes in optical tweezers, and they should bear fruit in the coming years as a new form of scanning-probe microscopy emerges.

Bowman, Richard W.

474

Piezo2 is the major transducer of mechanical forces for touch sensation in mice.  

PubMed

The sense of touch provides critical information about our physical environment by transforming mechanical energy into electrical signals. It is postulated that mechanically activated cation channels initiate touch sensation, but the identity of these molecules in mammals has been elusive. Piezo2 is a rapidly adapting, mechanically activated ion channel expressed in a subset of sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion and in cutaneous mechanoreceptors known as Merkel-cell-neurite complexes. It has been demonstrated that Merkel cells have a role in vertebrate mechanosensation using Piezo2, particularly in shaping the type of current sent by the innervating sensory neuron; however, major aspects of touch sensation remain intact without Merkel cell activity. Here we show that mice lacking Piezo2 in both adult sensory neurons and Merkel cells exhibit a profound loss of touch sensation. We precisely localize Piezo2 to the peripheral endings of a broad range of low-threshold mechanoreceptors that innervate both hairy and glabrous skin. Most rapidly adapting, mechanically activated currents in dorsal root ganglion neuronal cultures are absent in Piezo2 conditional knockout mice, and ex vivo skin nerve preparation studies show that the mechanosensitivity of low-threshold mechanoreceptors strongly depends on Piezo2. This cellular phenotype correlates with an unprecedented behavioural phenotype: an almost complete deficit in light-touch sensation in multiple behavioural assays, without affecting other somatosensory functions. Our results highlight that a single ion channel that displays rapidly adapting, mechanically activated currents in vitro is responsible for the mechanosensitivity of most low-threshold mechanoreceptor subtypes involved in innocuous touch sensation. Notably, we find that touch and pain sensation are separable, suggesting that as-yet-unknown mechanically activated ion channel(s) must account for noxious (painful) mechanosensation. PMID:25471886

Ranade, Sanjeev S; Woo, Seung-Hyun; Dubin, Adrienne E; Moshourab, Rabih A; Wetzel, Christiane; Petrus, Matt; Mathur, Jayanti; Bégay, Valérie; Coste, Bertrand; Mainquist, James; Wilson, A J; Francisco, Allain G; Reddy, Kritika; Qiu, Zhaozhu; Wood, John N; Lewin, Gary R; Patapoutian, Ardem

2014-12-01

475

Surface plasmon resonance-based highly sensitive optical touch sensor with a hybrid noise rejection scheme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based optical touch sensor structure is proposed that provides high switch sensitivity and requires a weak activating force. Our proposed SPR-based optical touch sensor is arranged in a compact Kretschmann-Raether configuration in which the prism acting as our sensor head is coated with a metal nanofilm. Our optical-based noise rejection scheme relies on wavelength filtering, spatial filtering, and high reflectivity of the metal nanofilm, whereas our electrical-based noise reduction is obtained by means of an electrical signal filtering process. In our experimental proof of concept, a visible laser diode at a 655 nm centered wavelength and a prism made from BK7 with a 50 nm thick gold layer on the touching surface are used, showing a 7.85 dB optical contrast ratio for the first touch. An estimated weak mechanical force of <0.1 N is also observed that sufficiently activates the desired electrical load. It is tested for 51 operations without sensor malfunction under typical and very high illumination of 342 and 3000 lx, respectively. In this case, a measured average optical contrast of 0.80 dB is obtained with a +/-0.47 dB fluctuation, implying that the refractive index change in a small 3.2% of the overall active area is enough for our SPR-based optical touch sensor to function properly. Increasing optical contrast in our SPR-based optical touch sensor can be accomplished by using a higher polarization-extinction ratio and a narrower-bandwidth optical beam. A controlled environment and gold-coated surface using the thin-film sputtering technique can help improve the reliability and the durability of our SPR-based optical touch sensor. Other key features include ease of implementation, prevention of a light beam becoming incident on the user, and the ability to accept both strong and weak activating forces.

Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Chaitavon, Kosom

2006-01-01

476

Evaluation of penile erection rigidity in healthy men using virtual touch tissue quantification  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the study was to describe the shear wave velocity (SWV) values of the penis by virtual touch tissue quantification (VTTQ) and to examine the clinical usefulness of this procedure in evaluation of the rigidity changes in penile erection. Patients and methods. VTTQ was performed in 37 healthy volunteers. In the course of erection, SWV values of glans penis, corpus penis and radix penis were quantified and grades of erection were documented. The SWV values at different grades of erection were compared. Results The axial and radial SWV values of glans penis, corpus penis and radix penis all significantly decreased from Grade 0 to Grade 4 of erection. At Grade 4, they were less than one-third of that at Grade 0 (axial direction: 0.79 ± 0.13 vs. 2.79 ± 0.32 for glans penis, P<0.001; 0.77 ± 0.19 vs. 2.84 ± 0.30 for corpus penis, P<0.001 and 0.76 ± 0.15 vs. 2.81 ± 0.34 for radix penis, P<0.001; radial direction: 0.82 ± 0.15 vs. 2.83 ± 0.31 for glans penis, P<0.001; 0.79 ± 0.18 vs. 2.81 ± 0.27 for corpus penis, P<0.001 and 0.81 ± 0.16 vs. 2.82 ± 0.33 for radix penis, P<0.001). Conclusions VTTQ can provide numerical measurements of penile rigidity and can effectively and sensitively indicate the axial and radial rigidity changes in penile erection, which provide a new approach to assessing the erectile function. PMID:23077447

Zheng, Xiaozhi; Ji, Ping; Mao, Hongwei; Wu, Jing

2012-01-01

477

Control of multi-joint arm movements for the manipulation of touch in keystroke by expert pianists  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Production of a variety of finger-key touches in the piano is essential for expressive musical performance. However, it remains unknown how expert pianists control multi-joint finger and arm movements for manipulating the touch. The present study investigated differences in kinematics and kinetics of the upper-limb movements while expert pianists were depressing a key with two different touches: pressed and

Shinichi Furuya; Eckart Altenmüller; Haruhiro Katayose; Hiroshi Kinoshita

2010-01-01

478

Crystal structure of papaya glutaminyl cyclase, an archetype for plant and bacterial glutaminyl cyclases.  

PubMed

Glutaminyl cyclases (QCs) (EC 2.3.2.5) catalyze the intramolecular cyclization of protein N-terminal glutamine residues into pyroglutamic acid with the concomitant liberation of ammonia. QCs may be classified in two groups containing, respectively, the mammalian enzymes, and the enzymes from plants, bacteria, and parasites. The crystal structure of the QC from the latex of Carica papaya (PQC) has been determined at 1.7A resolution. The structure was solved by the single wavelength anomalous diffraction technique using sulfur and zinc as anomalous scatterers. The enzyme folds into a five-bladed beta-propeller, with two additional alpha-helices and one beta hairpin. The propeller closure is achieved via an original molecular velcro, which links the last two blades into a large eight stranded beta-sheet. The zinc ion present in the PQC is bound via an octahedral coordination into an elongated cavity located along the pseudo 5-fold axis of the beta-propeller fold. This zinc ion presumably plays a structural role and may contribute to the exceptional stability of PQC, along with an extended hydrophobic packing, the absence of long loops, the three-joint molecular velcro and the overall folding itself. Multiple sequence alignments combined with structural analyses have allowed us to tentatively locate the active site, which is filled in the crystal structure either by a Tris molecule or an acetate ion. These analyses are further supported by the experimental evidence that Tris is a competitive inhibitor of PQC. The active site is located at the C-terminal entrance of the PQC central tunnel. W83, W110, W169, Q24, E69, N155, K225, F22 and F67 are highly conserved residues in the C-terminal entrance, and their putative role in catalysis is discussed. The PQC structure is representative of the plants, bacterial and parasite enzymes and contrasts with that of mammalian enzymes, that may possibly share a conserved scaffold of the bacterial aminopeptidase. PMID:16438985

Wintjens, René; Belrhali, Hassan; Clantin, Bernard; Azarkan, Mohamed; Bompard, Coralie; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle; Looze, Yvan; Villeret, Vincent

2006-03-24

479

Line-touching character recognition based on dynamic reference feature synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recognizing characters written on forms, it often happens that characters overlap with pre-printed form lines. In order to recognize overlapped characters, removal of the line and restoration of the broken character strokes caused by line removal are generally conducted. But it is not easy to restore the broken character strokes accurately especially when the direction of the line and the character stroke are almost same. In this paper, a novel recognition method of line-touching characters without line removal is proposed in order to avoid the difficulty of the stroke restoration problem. A line-touching character is recognized as a whole by matching with reference character features which include a line feature. And the reference features are synthesized dynamically from a character feature and a line feature based on the touching condition of an input line-touching character string. We compared the performance of the proposed method with a conventional method in which a touching line is removed leaving the overlapped character stroke by mathematical morphology. Experimental results show that proposed method can achieves 96.26% character recognition rate whereas the conventional method achieves 92.77%.

Hotta, Yoshinobu; Fujimoto, Katsuhito

2008-01-01

480

A neural interface provides long-term stable natural touch perception.  

PubMed

Touch perception on the fingers and hand is essential for fine motor control, contributes to our sense of self, allows for effective communication, and aids in our fundamental perception of the world. Despite increasingly sophisticated mechatronics, prosthetic devices still do not directly convey sensation back to their wearers. We show that implanted peripheral nerve interfaces in two human subjects with upper limb amputation provided stable, natural touch sensation in their hands for more than 1 year. Electrical stimulation using implanted peripheral nerve cuff electrodes that did not penetrate the nerve produced touch perceptions at many locations on the phantom hand with repeatable, stable responses in the two subjects for 16 and 24 months. Patterned stimulation intensity produced a sensation that the subjects described as natural and without "tingling," or paresthesia. Different patterns produced different types of sensory perception at the same location on the phantom hand. The two subjects reported tactile perceptions they described as natural tapping, constant pressure, light moving touch, and vibration. Changing average stimulation intensity controlled the size of the percept area; changing stimulation frequency controlled sensation strength. Artificial touch sensation improved the subjects' ability to control grasping strength of the prosthesis and enabled them to better manipulate delicate objects. Thus, electrical stimulation through peripheral nerve electrodes produced long-term sensory restoration after limb loss. PMID:25298320

Tan, Daniel W; Schiefer, Matthew A; Keith, Michael W; Anderson, James Robert; Tyler, Joyce; Tyler, Dustin J

2014-10-01

481

Seeing is not feeling: posterior parietal but not somatosensory cortex engagement during touch observation.  

PubMed

Observing touch has been reported to elicit activation in human primary and secondary somatosensory cortices and is suggested to underlie our ability to interpret other's behavior and potentially empathy. However, despite these reports, there are a large number of inconsistencies in terms of the precise topography of activation, the extent of hemispheric lateralization, and what aspects of the stimulus are necessary to drive responses. To address these issues, we investigated the localization and functional properties of regions responsive to observed touch in a large group of participants (n = 40). Surprisingly, even with a lenient contrast of hand brushing versus brushing alone, we did not find any selective activation for observed touch in the hand regions of somatosensory cortex but rather in superior and inferior portions of neighboring posterior parietal cortex, predominantly in the left hemisphere. These regions in the posterior parietal cortex required the presence of both brush and hand to elicit strong responses and showed some selectivity for the form of the object or agent of touch. Furthermore, the inferior parietal region showed nonspecific tactile and motor responses, suggesting some similarity to area PFG in the monkey. Collectively, our findings challenge the automatic engagement of somatosensory cortex when observing touch, suggest mislocalization in previous studies, and instead highlight the role of posterior parietal cortex. PMID:25632124

Chan, Annie W-Y; Baker, Chris I

2015-01-28