Sample records for papaya touch decreases

  1. Papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya is a tropical crop that is widely grown in household gardens and also commercially in plantations. However, papaya production has been severely limited by papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), the most widespread and damaging virus that affects papaya. In Hawaii, PRSV had been present since the 194...

  2. Papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lili Zhou; Robert E. Paull; Nancy Jung Chen

    Scientific Name and Introduction: Papaya, papaw or paw paw (Carica papaya L.) is cultivated throughout the tropics for its fruit (Nakasone, 1986). Fruit are eaten green or ripe, in salads or fresh. The related Ecuadorian babaco (C. pentagonia) is also eaten fresh. Fruit are pyriform (pear-shaped), spherical or cylindrical. The pyriform, hermaphroditic fruit is the most common in commerce. These

  3. Touch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-06-30

    Humans are able to feel things touching them because of the nerve endings and different receptors embedded in their skin. Skin covers and protects the body, but it can also detect touch, pressure, heat, cold, and pain.

  4. The Crop of the DayThe Crop of the Day Papaya (Papaya (Carica papayaCarica papaya))

    E-print Network

    Gepts, Paul

    1 The Crop of the DayThe Crop of the Day Papaya (Papaya (Carica papayaCarica papaya)) © Paul Gepts 2011 SourcesSources Storey WB (1976) Papaya Storey WB (1976) Papaya CaricaCarica papaya (papaya and reproductive structure of papaya Fisher JB (1980) The vegetative and reproductive structure of papaya ((Carica

  5. Micropropagation of Papaya (Carica Papaya L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mishra; N. Shukla; R. Chandra

    Micropropagation of papaya began three decade ago. Papaya is a polygamous fruit crop and both dioceous as well as gynodioceous\\u000a varieties of papaya are being cultivated. Cloning of female papaya plants through in vitro shoot bud culture is an ideal approach. In vitro regeneration with shoot tip, excised from mature papaya plant, has been attempted (Ali & Hogan, 1976; Litz

  6. Papaya Ringspot Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The term papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was coined by Jensen in 1949, to describe a papaya disease in Hawaii. Later work showed that diseases such as papaya mosaic and watermelon mosaic virus-1 were caused by PRSV. The primary host range of PRSV is papaya and cucurbits, with Chenopium amaranticolor ...

  7. Bumpiness problem and its remedy in Papaya (Carica Papaya)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anand P Tyagi; Bijendra Datt

    Papaya (pawpaw) Carica papaya L. belongs to family Caricaceae. Papaya is a very good source of fruit sugar, vitamin A, B and C. This fruit is rich in minerals and salts and makes very good food. Fiji's climate is very suitable to grow papaya and Fijian grown papaya has a big export market. Main importing countries so far are New

  8. Gas diffusion in ‘Golden’ papaya fruit at different maturity stages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Talita Pereira; Paulo Sergio Gomes de Almeida; Inga Gonçalves de Azevedo; Maura da Cunha; Jurandi Gonçalves de Oliveira; Marcelo Gomes da Silva; Helion Vargas

    2009-01-01

    In this work the gas diffusion of ‘Golden’ papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.) was evaluated as a function of different maturity stages, by using a photoacoustic spectrometer. The maturity stages were characterized by the anatomical changes, membrane integrity, pulp firmness, and skin color. Microstructural analysis was performed by means of light and scanning electron microscopy. A significant decrease in the

  9. Anther culture of papaya ( Carica papaya L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. S. Tsay; C. Y. Su

    1985-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) anther containing microspores in tetrad to early-binucleate stages were successfully cultured on 1\\/2 strength MS salts and vitamins with full strength Na-Fe-EDTA supplemented with 2 mg\\/l NAA, 1 mg\\/l BA and 6% sucrose for callus initiation and formation. Highest frequencies of callus induction were obtained when anthers at the uninucleate stage were cultured in the dark.

  10. Touch Affordances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slegers, Karin; de Roeck, Dries; Arnall, Timo

    The workshop “Touch Affordances” addresses a concept relevant to human computer interactions based on touch. The main topic is the challenge of applying the notion of affordances to domains related to touch interactions (e.g. (multi)touch screens, RFID & NFC, ubiquitous interfaces). The goals of this workshop are to launch a community of researchers, designers, etc. interested in this topic, to create a common understanding of the field of touch affordances and to generate ideas for new research areas for intuitive touch interactions. The workshop will be highly interactive and will have a creative, generative character.

  11. Touch Screens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael McRoberts

    \\u000a You are now going to take a look at a cool gadget that you can use easily with an Arduino—a touch screen. Since the advent\\u000a of smart phones and handheld game consoles, touch screens are now inexpensive and readily available. A touch screen allows\\u000a you to make an easy touch interface for a device or it can be overlaid onto

  12. Assaying for pollen drift from transgenic Rainbow to nontransgenic Kapoho papaya under commercial and experimental field conditions in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1992 papaya ringpsot virus (PRSV) was discovered in Puna district of Hawaii Island where 95% of the state of Hawaii’s papaya was being grown. By 1998 production in Puna had decreased 50% from 1998 levels. A PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya ‘Rainbow’ expressing the coat protein gene of PRSV was ...

  13. Post-irradiation identification of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2012-03-01

    Impact of radiation processing on the volatile essential oil profile of papaya ( Carica papaya) was investigated. Gamma-radiation processing resulted in the appearance of a new peak in the GLC profile that was identified as phenol. The observed dose dependent increase in phenol content suggested possible use of this compound as a marker for radiation processed papaya.

  14. CONTROL OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS IN PAPAYA: A Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis Gonsalves

    1998-01-01

    The papaya crop is severely affected by papaya ringspot virus (PSRV) world- wide. This review focuses on efforts to control the destructiveness of the dis- ease caused by PSRV in Hawaii, starting from the use of cross protection to parasite-derived resistance with transgenic papaya expressing the PSRV coat pro- tein gene. A chronology of the research effort is given and

  15. Ecophysiology of papaya Carica papaya L.: a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of how papaya responds to environmental factors provides a scientific basis to develop management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. A better understanding of genotypic responses t...

  16. Functional Genomics Tools for Papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the genome of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sequenced, the study of gene function is becoming an increasing priority. Our research is to develop an RNA-induced gene silencing tool for the study of functional genomics in papaya. We employed agrobacterium leaf infiltration to induce PTGS in '-glucuro...

  17. Papaya: environment and crop physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of how papaya responds to environmental factors provides a scientific basis for the development of management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. A better understanding of genotyp...

  18. Anther culture of papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Tsay, H S; Su, C Y

    1985-02-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) anther containing microspores in tetrad to early-binucleate stages were successfully cultured on 1/2 strength MS salts and vitamins with full strength Na-Fe-EDTA supplemented with 2 mg/l NAA, 1 mg/l BA and 6% sucrose for callus initiation and formation. Highest frequencies of callus induction were obtained when anthers at the uninucleate stage were cultured in the dark. Haploid plantlets and pollen-derived embryoids were obtained from anthers cultured at the uninucleate stage on solidified MS medium containing 3% sucrose without any growth regulators under a low light intensity (1,500 lux). Large quantities of embryoids were obtained when the original embryoids were transferred to MS medium with 3% sucrose and no growth regulators. Cytology of root tips of embryoid-derived plants confirmed the haploid chromosome number of 9 indicating that the embryoids originated from pollen. PMID:24253639

  19. Papaya ringspot virus (Potyviridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus, a member of the family Potyviridae, is single stranded RNA plant virus with a monocistronic genome of about 10,326 nucleotides that is expressed via a large polyprotein subsequently cleaved into functional proteins. It causes severe damage on cucurbit crops such as squash and...

  20. Spiders associated with papaya, Carica papaya L., in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The main objective of this work was to study the species composition and population dynamics of spiders associated with papaya plantings in three papaya production areas: Corozal, Isabela, and Lajas, Puerto Rico. Nineteen species representing seven families and 15 genera were identified. Members of ...

  1. Molecular markers for sex determination in papaya ( Carica papaya L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Deputy; R. Ming; H. Ma; Z. Liu; M. M. M. Fitch; M. Wang; R. Manshardt; J. I. Stiles

    2002-01-01

    We have developed molecular markers tightly linked to Sex1, the gene that determines plant sex in papaya (Carica papaya L.). Three RAPD products have been cloned and a portion of their DNA sequenced. Based on these sequences SCAR primers were synthesized. SCAR T12 and SCAR W11 produce products in hermaphrodite and male plants and only rarely in females. SCAR T1

  2. DEREGULATION OF TRANSGENIC PAPAYA FOR JAPAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transgenic SunUp and Rainbow papaya developed for Hawaii was commercialized in 1998 and virtually saved Hawaii’s papaya industry from further damage being caused by papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Since Japan makes up a significant part (about 35% in 1992) in Hawaii’s papaya export market, effort...

  3. P-type H +-ATPases activity, membrane integrity, and apoplastic pH during papaya fruit ripening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inga G. Azevedo; Jurandi G. Oliveira; Marcelo G. da Silva; Talita Pereira; Savio F. Corrêa; Helion Vargas; Arnoldo R. Façanha

    2008-01-01

    The P-type H+-ATPase activity and related apoplastic pH were analysed in papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. cv. Golden) at different stages of maturation. Postharvest ripening of papaya was characterized by ethylene emission, skin colouration, firmness, and titratable acidity (TA). The climacteric peak of ethylene production occurred on the 2nd day after harvest, along with a sharp decrease in ATP hydrolysis

  4. Biogasification of papaya processing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, P.Y.; Weitzenhoff, M.H.; Moy, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Biogasification of papaya processing wastes for pollution control and energy utilization is feasible. The biogasification process with sludge recycling permits smaller reactor volume without any deterioration of CH4 production rate and CH4 content. Appropriate design and operational criteria for biogasification processing of papaya wastes were developed.

  5. TouchOver TouchOver TouchOver Android

    E-print Network

    Tanaka, Jiro

    TouchOver 8b 5 1-3 YouTube Wikipedia 3 Ninja Cursors [9] 1 / 2 TouchOver Shift TouchOver #12;WISS 2014 6. 1399­1408. 2008. [9] M. Kobayashi and T. Igarashi. Ninja Cursors: Using Multiple Cursors to Assist

  6. _____________ Augmentative releases ofpredatory mites on papaya in Hawaii 167 AUGMENTATIVE RELEASES OF PREDATORY MITES ON PAPAYA

    E-print Network

    Rosenheim, Jay A.

    _____________ Augmentative releases ofpredatory mites on papaya in Hawaii 167 AUGMENTATIVE RELEASES OF PREDATORY MITES ON PAPAYA IN HAWAII: FAILURE AND SUCCESS V. Fournier,1,2 J.A. Rosenheirn," M.W. Iohnson on outdoor crops (Olkin and Shaw, 1995;Walsh et ai., 1998). Native to Central America, papaya (Carica papaya

  7. TRANSGENIC PAPAYA: A CASE FOR WORLDWIDE CONTROL OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was detected in the main papaya growing region of Hawaii in 1992. By 1994 Hawaii's papaya industry was facing devastating damage from PRSV. Efforts to develop resistant transgenic papaya were started in the mid 1980s. By 1991, a resistant line was identified, field tri...

  8. TRANSGENIC PAPAYA: A CASE FOR MANAGING RISKS OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS IN HAWAII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In May 1992, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV was detected in the Puna district of Hawaii Island, the main papaya growing region of the state of Hawaii. By 1994 Hawaii's papaya industry was facing devastating damage from PRSV. Efforts to develop resistant transgenic papaya were started in the mid 1980s...

  9. Study on the compositional differences between transgenic and non-transgenic papaya ( Carica papaya L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhe Jiao; Jianchao Deng; Gongke Li; Zhuomin Zhang; Zongwei Cai

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic papaya (Carica papaya L.) was produced with the introduction of replicase (rep) gene for resistance to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). In order to investigate the potential unintended compositional changes in transgenic papaya, profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), sugar\\/polyals, organic acids, carotenoids and alkaloids in transgenic and non-transgenic papaya were obtained respectively by HPLC, GC–MS and LC–MS, and compared

  10. Wound-healing potential of an ethanol extract of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) seeds.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramdeen, Ria; Adogwa, Andrew; Ramsubhag, Adash; Marshall, Julien Rhodney

    2012-12-01

    Carica papaya L. (Linn) (Caricaceae) is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment for various wounds, particularly burns. This study evaluated the wound-healing and antimicrobial activity of C. papaya seed extract. Ethanol extract of C. papaya seed (50 mg/kg/day) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity in Sprague-Dawley rats using excision wound model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each (group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with papaya seed extract, group 3 treated with a standard drug mupirocin and papaya seed extract (1:1 ratio) and group 4 treated with a mupirocin ointment. Rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content were determined to assess the wound-healing activity of the seed extract. The group 2 animals showed a significant decrease in wound area of 89% over 13 days when compared with groups 1 (82%), 3 (86%) and 4 (84%) respectively. The hydroxyproline content was significantly higher with the granulation tissue obtained from group 2 animals which were treated with C. papaya seed extract. Histological analysis of granulation tissue of the group 2 animals showed the deposition of well-organized collagen. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that C. papaya promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation for this activity in humans is suggested. PMID:22296524

  11. Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional plant treatment for diabetes has shown a surging interest in the last few decades. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves in diabetic rats. Several studies have reported that some parts of the C. papaya plant exert hypoglycemic effects in both animals and humans. Methods Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ). The aqueous extract of C. papaya was administered in three different doses (0.75, 1.5 and 3 g/100 mL) as drinking water to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals during 4 weeks. Results The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (0.75 g and 1.5 g/100 mL) significantly decreased blood glucose levels (p<0.05) in diabetic rats. It also decreased cholesterol, triacylglycerol and amino-transferases blood levels. Low plasma insulin levels did not change after treatment in diabetic rats, but they significantly increased in non-diabetic animals. Pancreatic islet cells were normal in non-diabetic treated animals, whereas in diabetic treated rats, C. papaya could help islet regeneration manifested as preservation of cell size. In the liver of diabetic treated rats, C. papaya prevented hepatocyte disruption, as well as accumulation of glycogen and lipids. Finally, an antioxidant effect of C. papaya extract was also detected in diabetic rats. Conclusions This study showed that the aqueous extract of C. papaya exerted a hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect; it also improved the lipid profile in diabetic rats. In addition, the leaf extract positively affected integrity and function of both liver and pancreas. PMID:23190471

  12. Chemical composition of papaya seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Calvino Passera; Paolo Spettoli

    1981-01-01

    Seeds of papaya cultivated in Somalia, which accounted for about 16% of the fresh fruit weight, were divided into sarcotesta and endosperm. Sarcotesta showed higher percentages of ash, crude protein, and crude fiber than did endosperm, but was lacking in fat. In contrast, endosperm contained 60% fat. Oil extract showed very high levels of oleic and palmitic acids. The essential

  13. Allergenicity assessment of the Papaya ringspot virus coat protein expressed in transgenic Rainbow papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The virus-resistant, transgenic commercial papaya cultivars Rainbow and SunUp (Carica papaya L.) have been consumed locally in Hawaii and elsewhere in the mainland US and Canada since their release to planters in Hawaii in 1998. These cultivars are derived from transgenic papaya line 55-1 and carry ...

  14. Correlation between ethylene emission and skin colour changes during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. da Silva; J. G. Oliveira; A. P. Vitoria; S. F. Corrêa; M. G. Pereira; E. Campostrini; E. O. Santos; A. Cavalli; H. Vargas

    2005-01-01

    The skin colour changes and ethylene emission rates were monitored during papaya (C. papaya L.) fruit ripening. Two groups of papaya (`Formosa' and `Solo') were applied in this study. The total colour difference was used as measured parameter and the corresponding half time of its saturation was used as correlation parameter. A high correlation factor between the saturation half time

  15. Changes in papaya cell walls during fruit ripening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E Paull; Ken Gross; Yunxia Qiu

    1999-01-01

    The apparent molecular mass range of different extractable fractions of papaya fruit pectin and hemicellulose during fruit ripening was determined. The pectin molecular mass declined and the solubility of pectin in cyclohexane-diaminotetraacetic acid and Na2CO3 solutions increased during ripening. The molecular mass decreased and the solubility of hemicellulose in KOH increased during ripening. Water soluble uronic acid increased 6-fold during

  16. Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas ( Carica papaya L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo, R. J.; Tadini, C. C.; Sabato, S. F.

    2007-11-01

    Papaya is cultivated in Espírito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature.

  17. Physical–chemical analyses of irradiated papayas ( Carica papaya L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Camargo; C. C. Tadini; S. F. Sabato

    2007-01-01

    Papaya is cultivated in Espírito Santo State\\/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00kGy)

  18. COMMERCIALIZATION OF TRANSGENIC PAPAYA: WEIGHING BENEFITS AND POTENTIAL RISKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya is Hawaii's second most important fruit crop, behind the pineapple. In 1992, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was discovered in Puna Hawaii, where 95% of Hawaii's papaya were being grown. By late 1994, PRSV was widespread in Puna and the papaya industry was facing severe crop loss. In 1998, tr...

  19. Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, M. G.; Santos, E. O.; Sthel, M. S.; Cardoso, S. L.; Cavalli, A.; Monteiro, A. R.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2003-01-01

    Ripening studies of nontreated and treated papaya (papaya L) are accomplished by monitoring the ethylene and CO2 emission rates of that climacteric fruit, to evaluate its shelf life. The treatments simulate the commercial Phitosanitarian process used to avoid the fly infestation. Ethylene emission was measured using a commercial CO2 laser driven photoacoustic setup and CO2, using a commercial gas analysis also based on the photothermal effect. The results show a marked change in ethylene and CO2 emission rate pattern for treated fruits when compared to the ones obtained for nontreated fruits and a displacement of the climacteric pick shown that the treatment causes a decrease of shelf life of fruit.

  20. Stable transformation of papaya via microprojectile bombardment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maureen M. M. Fitch; Richard M. Manshardt; Dennis Gonsalves; Jerry L. Slightom; John C. Sanford

    1990-01-01

    Stable transformation of papaya (Carica papaya L.) has been achieved following DNA delivery via high velocity microprojectiles. Three types of embryogenic tissues, including immature zygotic embryos, freshly explanted hypocotyl sections, and somatic embryos derived from both, were bombarded with tungsten particles carrying chimeric NPTII and GUS genes. All tissue types were cultured prior to and following bombardment on half-strength MS

  1. Antioxidant potentials of Iranian Carica papaya juice in vitro and in vivo are comparable to alpha-tocopherol.

    PubMed

    Mehdipour, Sanaz; Yasa, Narges; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Khorasani, Reza; Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Rahimi, Roja; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2006-07-01

    Carica papaya is widely cultivated throughout the world and is used as a food and also as a traditional medicine, particularly as an antiseptic and contraceptive. The present study was designed to explore the toxicological and antioxidant potential of dried C. papaya juice in vitro and in vivo. The oral LD(50) of the juice of C. papaya was determined, and the antioxidant potentials determined by DPPH and FRAP tests. In vivo examination was performed after oral administration of dried papaya juice to rats for 2 weeks at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg. Blood TBARS and FRAP assays were used to determine the potential of the juice to act against oxidative stress. The acute toxicity test (LD(50)) demonstrated that papaya juice is not lethal up to a dose of 1500 mg/kg after oral administration and thus is considered nontoxic. In treated groups, no sign of toxicity was observed. In vitro evaluation of the antioxidant effects of papaya showed that the highest antioxidant activity (80%) was observed with a concentration of 17.6 mg/mL. Blood lipid peroxidation levels decreased significantly after administration of all doses of papaya juice (100, 200, 400 mg/kg/day) to 35.5%, 39.5% and 40.86% of the control, respectively, compared with a value of 28.8% for vitamin E. The blood total antioxidant power was increased significantly by all doses of papaya juice (100, 200, 400 mg/kg/day) to 11.11%, 23.58% and 23.14% of the control, respectively. The value for vitamin E was 18.44%. This preliminary study indicates the safety and antioxidative stress potential of the juice of C. papaya, which was found to be comparable to the standard antioxidant compound alpha-tocopherol. PMID:16691628

  2. PLANTINSECT INTERACTIONS Inducible Responses in Papaya: Impact on Population Growth Rates of

    E-print Network

    Rosenheim, Jay A.

    PLANTÐINSECT INTERACTIONS Inducible Responses in Papaya: Impact on Population Growth Rates in their shared host plant, papaya. Three key parasites attack papaya foliage in Hawaii: the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval); the papaya rust mite, Calacarus flagelliseta Fletch- mann

  3. Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B; Heller, Annerose; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

    2011-11-01

    Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC-MS revealed striking similarity of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51% of total carotenoids). Comparison of the pigment-loaded chromoplast ultrastructures disclosed tubular plastids to be abundant in yellow papaya, whereas larger crystalloid substructures characterized most frequent red papaya chromoplasts. Exclusively existent in red papaya, such crystalloid structures were associated with lycopene accumulation. Non-globular carotenoid deposition was derived from simple solubility calculations based on carotenoid and lipid contents of the differently colored fruit pulps. Since the physical state of carotenoid deposition may be decisive regarding their bioavailability, chromoplasts from lycopene-rich tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were also assessed and compared to red papaya. Besides interesting analogies, various distinctions were ascertained resulting in the prediction of enhanced lycopene bioavailability from red papaya. In addition, the developmental pathway of red papaya chromoplasts was investigated during fruit ripening and carotenogenesis. In the early maturation stage of white-fleshed papaya, undifferentiated proplastids and globular plastids were predominant, corresponding to incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Since intermediate plastids, e.g., amyloplasts or chloroplasts, were absent, chromoplasts are likely to emerge directly from proplastids. PMID:21706336

  4. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×103/µL, 8.10×103/µL, 84.0% to 55×103/µL, 3.7×103/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×103/µL to 168×103/µL, WBC from 3.7×103/µL to 7.7×103/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases. PMID:23569787

  5. Touch Sensor for Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primus, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    Touch sensor for robot hands provides information about shape of grasped object and force exerted by gripper on object. Pins projecting from sensor create electrical signals when pressed. When grasped object depresses pin, it contacts electrode under it, connecting electrode to common electrode. Sensor indicates where, and how firmly, gripper has touched object.

  6. Stay in touch.

    PubMed

    Barker, Phil; Buchanan-Barker, Poppy

    Touch is used in many cultures as a means of relating directly with another person. In this seventh article in our Heart of Nursing series, we look at how touch, used judiciously, can be a priceless form of doing. PMID:17016982

  7. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray Ming; Shaobin Hou; Yun Feng; Qingyi Yu; Alexandre Dionne-Laporte; Jimmy H. Saw; Pavel Senin; Wei Wang; Benjamin V. Ly; Kanako L. T. Lewis; Lu Feng; Meghan R. Jones; Rachel L. Skelton; Jan E. Murray; Cuixia Chen; Wubin Qian; Junguo Shen; Peng Du; Moriah Eustice; Eric Tong; Haibao Tang; Eric Lyons; Robert E. Paull; Todd P. Michael; Kerr Wall; Danny W. Rice; Henrik Albert; Ming-Li Wang; Yun J. Zhu; Michael Schatz; Niranjan Nagarajan; Ricelle A. Acob; Peizhu Guan; Andrea Blas; Ching Man Wai; Christine M. Ackerman; Yan Ren; Chao Liu; Jianmei Wang; Jianping Wang; Jong-Kuk Na; Eugene V. Shakirov; Brian Haas; Jyothi Thimmapuram; David Nelson; Xiyin Wang; John E. Bowers; Andrea R. Gschwend; Arthur L. Delcher; Ratnesh Singh; Jon Y. Suzuki; Savarni Tripathi; Kabi Neupane; Hairong Wei; Beth Irikura; Maya Paidi; Ning Jiang; Wenli Zhang; Gernot Presting; Aaron Windsor; Rafael Navajas-Pérez; Manuel J. Torres; F. Alex Feltus; Brad Porter; Yingjun Li; A. Max Burroughs; Ming-Cheng Luo; Lei Liu; David A. Christopher; Stephen M. Mount; Paul H. Moore; Tak Sugimura; Jiming Jiang; Mary A. Schuler; Vikki Friedman; Thomas Mitchell-Olds; Dorothy E. Shippen; Claude W. Depamphilis; Jeffrey D. Palmer; Michael Freeling; Andrew H. Paterson; Dennis Gonsalves; Lei Wang; Maqsudul Alam

    2008-01-01

    Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3× draft genome sequence of `SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance

  8. Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya ( Carica papaya L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf M. Schweiggert; Christof B. Steingass; Annerose Heller; Patricia Esquivel; Reinhold Carle

    Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC–MS revealed striking similarity\\u000a of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained\\u000a only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51%

  9. Papaya Fruit Softening: Role of Hydrolases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siwaporn Thumdee; Ashariya Manenoi; Nancy J. Chen; Robert E. Paull

    2010-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivars show a wide variation in fruit softening rates, a character that determines fruit quality and shelf life, and\\u000a thought to be the result of cell wall degradation. The activity of pectin methylesterase, ?-galactosidase, endoglucanase,\\u000a endoxylanase and xylosidase were correlated with normal softening, though no relationship was found between polygalacturonase\\u000a activity and softening. When softening was

  10. LYOPHILIZATION OF BARBADOS CHERRY AND PAPAYA PULPS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. G. Marques; J. T. Freire

    In this work an investigation was carried out to analyze the freeze-drying kinetics of barbados cherry and papaya after freezing by three different techniques: directly in a freezer, by contact with liquid nitrogen N2(l) or by contact with nitrogen vapor, N2(v). To predict the lyophilization curves of barbados cherry and papaya, six empirical equations commonly applied for convective drying of

  11. Striking Panel Touch Location Detect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chin-Yu Wang; Hon-Ta Liu; Shih-Yu Shen

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there are more touch panels that have been extensively used throughout the world. Due to customer input regarding improvements, we have examined the use of technology of touch products. In the market, most of touch monitors used by finger or touch pen get the electricity, capacity effect, or stop sensor signal. From the signal orientates the controller, lots of

  12. Carotenogenesis and physico-chemical characteristics during maturation of red fleshed papaya fruit ( Carica papaya L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Martin Schweiggert; Christof Björn Steingass; Eric Mora; Patricia Esquivel; Reinhold Carle

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoid development of red fleshed papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.) was investigated in the course of a complete pre- and postharvest period using HPLC-DAD coupled to mass spectrometry. Esterified xanthophylls such as ?-cryptoxanthin laurate and caprate were the most abundant pigments during incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Subsequent fruit maturation led to a gradual accumulation of carotenoids, whereas particularly ?-cryptoxanthin laurate and

  13. Cell-wall polysaccharide modifications during postharvest ripening of papaya fruit ( Carica papaya)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillermo D Manrique; Franco M Lajolo

    2004-01-01

    Modifications of cell-wall polysaccharides and flesh firmness, as a measure of texture, were evaluated during postharvest ripening of papaya fruit (Carica papaya). Cell-wall material (CWM) was isolated from pericarp at different ripening stages. Three pectic and one hemicellulosic fractions, as well as a cellulosic residue, were obtained from CWM. A water soluble fraction contained pectins presumably not cell wall associated.

  14. VITAMIN AND MINERAL CONTENT OF HAWAII’S PAPAYA CULTIVARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya) cultivars were harvested from different locations throughout Hawaii and analyzed for vitamin C (ascorbic acid), provitamin A ( '-carotene, '-carotene, '-cryptoxanthin), and mineral composition. Papaya mean vitamin C content was 51.2 mg/100g, with no significant differences amo...

  15. Transgenic Papaya: Can We Proceed Beyond the Hawaiian Experience?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The story of the development, deregulation, and commercialization of the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) resistant transgenic SunUp and Rainbow papaya for Hawaii is quite well known at least among plant virologist and knowledgeable people in the field of papaya. Thus, the story will be only briefly r...

  16. Allergenicity assessment of the papaya ringspot virus coat protein expressed in transgenic rainbow papaya.

    PubMed

    Fermín, Gustavo; Keith, Ronald C; Suzuki, Jon Y; Ferreira, Stephen A; Gaskill, Douglas A; Pitz, Karen Y; Manshardt, Richard M; Gonsalves, Dennis; Tripathi, Savarni

    2011-09-28

    The virus-resistant, transgenic commercial papaya Rainbow and SunUp (Carica papaya L.) have been consumed locally in Hawaii and elsewhere in the mainland United States and Canada since their release to planters in Hawaii in 1998. These papaya are derived from transgenic papaya line 55-1 and carry the coat protein (CP) gene of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). The PRSV CP was evaluated for potential allergenicity, an important component in assessing the safety of food derived from transgenic plants. The transgene PRSV CP sequence of Rainbow papaya did not exhibit greater than 35% amino acid sequence homology to known allergens, nor did it have a stretch of eight amino acids found in known allergens which are known common bioinformatic methods used for assessing similarity to allergen proteins. PRSV CP was also tested for stability in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid and under various heat treatments. The results showed that PRSV CP was degraded under conditions for which allergenic proteins relative to nonallergens are purported to be stable. The potential human intake of transgene-derived PRSV CP was assessed by measuring CP levels in Rainbow and SunUp along with estimating the fruit consumption rates and was compared to potential intake estimates of PRSV CP from naturally infected nontransgenic papaya. Following accepted allergenicity assessment criteria, our results show that the transgene-derived PRSV CP does not pose a risk of food allergy. PMID:21819140

  17. Nutritional composition of Rainbow papaya, the first commercialized transgenic fruit crop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Savarni Tripathi; Jon Y. Suzuki; James B. Carr; Grant T. McQuate; Stephen A. Ferreira; Richard M. Manshardt; Karen Y. Pitz; Marisa M. Wall; Dennis Gonsalves

    2011-01-01

    Rainbow papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a genetically engineered (GE) cultivar with resistance to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This cultivar currently accounts for about 70% of Hawaii's papaya acreage. The nutritional composition of Rainbow papaya and a non-transgenic control were analyzed to address GE food safety concerns regarding the potential for altered nutritional composition and altered expression of inherent allergens

  18. Touch and Discover

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Center for Engineering Educational Outreach,

    Student teams identify and categorize various objects using their senses of touch and sight. One student chooses five objects for his/her blindfolded partner to describe and identify based solely on touch. Then they switch. Both students record their observations, describing the objects as: human-made or natural, living or non-living, as well as any other physical/sensory characteristics. Students become familiar with different classification systems and sharpen their vocabulary to describe the physical characteristics of different objects. They learn why engineers have a need to categorize materials.

  19. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of unripe papaya.

    PubMed

    Osato, J A; Santiago, L A; Remo, G M; Cuadra, M S; Mori, A

    1993-01-01

    The meat, seed and pulp of Carica papaya Linn., a popular traditional medicinal herb grown in the tropics, was shown by the agar-cup method to be bacteriostatic against several enteropathogens such as Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The same parts of papaya were unequivocably demonstrated by electron spin resonance spectrometry to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (5.8 x 10(14) spins/ml), hydroxyl (5.1 x 10(14) spins/ml) and superoxide (1.2 x 10(14) spins/ml) radicals with the seed giving the highest activity at concentrations (IC50) of 2.1, 10.0 and 8.7 mg/ml, respectively. The superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity in the meat, seed and pulp amounts to about 32, 98 and 33 units/ml; comparable to those of soybean paste miso, rice bran and baker's yeast. Vitamin C, malic acid, citric acid and glucose are some of the possible antioxidative components in papaya. Our study correlates the bacteriostatic activity of papaya with its scavenging action on superoxide and hydroxyl radicals which could be part of the cellular metabolism of such enteropathogens. This is indicative of the pathophysiological role of these reactive oxygen species in gastrointestinal diseases and papaya's ability to counteract the oxidative stress. PMID:8412504

  20. Correlation between ethylene emission and skin colour changes during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Vitoria, A. P.; Corrêa, S. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Campostrini, E.; Santos, E. O.; Cavalli, A.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The skin colour changes and ethylene emission rates were monitored during papaya (C. papaya L.) fruit ripening. Two groups of papaya (‘Formosa’ and ‘Solo’) were applied in this study. The total colour difference was used as measured parameter and the corresponding half time of its saturation was used as correlation parameter. A high correlation factor between the saturation half time and corresponding climacteric peak time was found. It was concluded that high ethylene emission rate in ‘Solo’ fruit promotes a quick change of the total colour difference.

  1. DiamondTouch: a multi-user touch technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul H. Dietz; Darren Leigh

    2001-01-01

    A technique for creating a touch-sensitive input device is proposed which allows multiple, simultaneous users to interact in an intuitive fashion. Touch location information is determined independently for each user, allowing each touch on a common surface to be associated with a particular user. The surface generates location dependent, modulated electric fields which are capacitively coupled through the users to

  2. Getting in Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the growing demand of using touchscreen interface. Consumers are now seeing touchscreens in a wide variety of electronics, not only in competitors to the iPhone from Sony, Samsung, Motorola, LG and T-Mobile, but also in desktop PCs, printers and copiers, televisions, and MP3 players. Teens, if they don't have a touch-enabled…

  3. A male and hermaphrodite specific RAPD marker for papaya ( Carica papaya L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Urasaki; M. Tokumoto; K. Tarora; Y. Ban; T. Kayano; H. Tanaka; H. Oku; I. Chinen; R. Terauchi

    2002-01-01

    The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to determine the sex of a dioecious species, Carica papaya L., with three sex types, male, female and hermaphrodite. A 450 bp marker fragment, named PSDM(Papaya Sex Determination Marker),\\u000a exists in all male and hermaphrodite plants but not in the female plants so far analyzed. The DNA sequence of PSDM exhibited

  4. Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research. PMID:24757435

  5. Update on the development of virus-resistant papaya: Virus-resistant transgenic papaya for people in rural communities of Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the most important and preferred crops in rural communities in Thailand. Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a serious disease of papaya throughout Thailand. Efforts to control the virus by various methods either have not been successful or have not resulted in sustai...

  6. Touch sensors and control.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. W.; Sword, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the equipment employed and results obtained in experiments with tactile feedback and different levels of automatic control. In the experiments described tactile feedback was investigated by incorporating a touch sensing and touch display system into a teleoperator, while the levels of automatic control were investigated by incorporating supervisory control features in the teleoperator control system. In particular, a hand contact system which senses and reproduces to the operator the contact between the end-effector and the object being touched or manipulated is described, as well as a jaw contact system which senses and reproduces to the operator the shape and location of the object held in the remote jaws, and an arm control system consisting of a control station where the operator controls the motion of the arm by transmitting commands, a remote station that accepts the commands and uses them, and a communications link that limits information flow. In addition, an algorithmic language for remote manipulation is described, and the desired features that an automatic arm controller should possess are reviewed.

  7. Propagation Experiments with Avocado, Mango, and Papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HAMILTON P. TRAUB; E. C. AUCHTER

    During the past year several different investigations relative to the propagation of the avocado, mango and papaya have been conducted in Florida. In this preliminary report, the results of a few of the different experiments will be described. Germination media:—Avocado seeds of Gottfried (Mex.) during the summer season, and Shooter (Mex.) during the fall season; and Apple Mango seeds during

  8. Extraction and Physicochemical Characteristics of Extraction and Physicochemical Characteristics of Extraction and Physicochemical Characteristics of Extraction and Physicochemical Characteristics of Extraction and Physicochemical Characteristics of Acid-Soluble Pectin from Raw Papaya Acid-Soluble Pectin from Raw Papaya Acid-Soluble Pectin from Raw Papaya Acid-Soluble Pectin from Raw Papaya Acid-Soluble Pectin from Raw Papaya (Carica (Carica (Carica (Carica (Carica papaya) papaya) papaya) papaya) papaya) Peel Peel Peel Peel Peel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennapa Boonrod; Hataichanoke Niamsup

    Extraction of pectin from raw papaya peel, a waste from restaurants and food processing industries, was carried out using ethanol and aluminium chloride precipitations. The optimized procedures yielding 2.23% and 5.84% on the papaya fr esh weight basis, respectively, were presented. Even though aluminium precipitated pectin had higher ash and moisture contents (22.19 and 14.86% compared to 5.22 and 9.72%

  9. Efficient rooting for establishment of papaya plantlets by micropropagation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsong-Ann Yu; Shyi-Dong Yeh; Ying-Huey Cheng; Jiu-Sherng Yang

    2000-01-01

    A low cost micropropagation protocol to produce high quality root systems which are easy and economical to acclimatize is\\u000a essential for large-scale micropropagation of papaya (Carica papaya L.). In this study, individual shoots (>0.5 cm) with 2?3 leaves from in vitro papaya multiple shoots were cultured on MS agar medium containing 2.5 ?M IBA under dark conditions for 1 week

  10. Effect of gamma-irradiation on ripening papaya pectin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Zhao; James Moy; Robert E. Paull

    1996-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya, L., var. Sunset) at three initial ripeness stages were irradiated with 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, or 1.5 kGy gamma-irradiation and pectin changes during ripening determined. A significant linear relationship was found between irradiation dose and firmness immediately after irradiation. Irradiation had no effect on fruit skin or flesh color of papaya fruit irradiated at the 5 to

  11. DNA sequence analysis supports the association of phytoplasmas with papaya ( Carica papaya ) dieback, yellow crinkle and mosaic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. T. White; S. J. Billington; K. B. Walsh; P. T. Scott

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers that hybridise to regions within and adjacent to the\\u000a 16S rRNA gene have indicated that Australian papaya dieback, papaya mosaic and papaya yellow crinkle are associated with phytoplasmas\\u000a (formerly called mycoplasma-like organisms). In this study, DNA sequence analysis of PCR products obtained from affected plant\\u000a tissue has confirmed that the

  12. Supplementing lactating women with puréed papaya and grated carrots improved vitamin A status in a placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ncube, T N; Greiner, T; Malaba, L C; Gebre-Medhin, M

    2001-05-01

    Doubts have been raised about the effectiveness of carotene-containing foods in improving the vitamin A status of populations at risk. We investigated the effect of papaya and carrots on the vitamin A status of lactating women with 2- to 12-mo-old infants in ZIMBABWE: The women were randomly assigned to three supplementation groups and a placebo group, and received 6 mg of beta-carotene capsules, 650 g puréed papaya, 100 g grated carrots or a placebo, daily for 60 d. All groups were given a meal containing 10 g of vegetable oil daily. Serum retinol, relative dose response, serum ferritin, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein were measured before and after the supplementation period. Mean serum retinol increased significantly after supplementation in the beta-carotene group (P < 0.001), the papaya group (P < 0.001) and the carrot group (P < 0.001), but not in the placebo group (P > 0.05). The relative dose response decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the beta-carotene and papaya groups, but not in the carrot or placebo groups (P > 0.05). There was an increase in mean serum ferritin in all groups but the increase did not differ among groups. The hemoglobin increases in the beta-carotene and papaya groups were greater than that in the placebo group. We conclude that puréed papaya and grated carrots can improve the vitamin A and iron nutriture of lactating women. These findings reinforce the importance of plant food-based approaches in the control of vitamin A deficiency in low income countries. PMID:11340106

  13. Influence of ripening stages on antioxidant properties of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addai, Zuhair Radhi; Abdullah, Aminah; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.

    2013-11-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv Eksotika) is one of the most commonly consumed tropical fruits by humans, especially Malaysians. The objective of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidants activity in different ripening stages of papaya fruit. The fruits were harvested at five different, stages RS1, RS2, RS3, RS4, and RS5 corresponding to 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 weeks after anthesis, respectively. Papayas fruit at five different stage of ripening were obtained from farms at Pusat Flora Cheras, JabatanPertanian and Hulu Langat Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia. The antioxidants activity were analyzed using the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The analyses were conducted in triplicate and the data were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS. The results showed significant differences (P< 0.05) were found at different stages of ripening. The total phenol content TPC, TFC, FRAP and DPPH values increased significantly (P<0.05) with the ripening process. The results showed the important role of the ripening stage in increasing the antioxidant content of papaya fruits.

  14. The Ipswich Touch Test

    PubMed Central

    Rayman, Gerry; Vas, Prashanth R.; Baker, Neil; Taylor,, Charles G.; Gooday, Catherine; Alder, Amanda I.; Donohoe, Mollie

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To promote foot screening of inpatients with diabetes, we simplified sensory testing to lightly touching the tips of the first, third, and fifth toes (the Ipswich Touch Test [IpTT]). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Respective performances of the IpTT and 10-g monofilament (MF) were compared with a vibration perception threshold of ?25 V indicating at-risk feet in 265 individuals. The IpTT and MF were also directly compared. RESULTS With ?2 of 6 insensate areas signifying at-risk feet, sensitivities and specificities, respectively, were IpTT (77 and 90%), MF (81 and 91%); positive predictive values were IpTT (89%), MF (91%); and negative predictive values were IpTT (77%), MF (81%). Directly compared, agreement between the IpTT and MF was almost perfect (? = 0.88, P < 0.0001). Interrater agreement for the IpTT was substantial (? = 0.68). CONCLUSIONS The IpTT performs well against a recognized standard for ulcer prediction. Simple to teach, reliable, without expense, and always at hand, it should encourage uptake of screening and detection of high-risk inpatients requiring foot protection. PMID:21593300

  15. Please Touch the Children: Appropriate Touch in the Primary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Pamela M.; Gillentine, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes to shift the current theoretical framework in which teachers practise a guarded approach regarding the touching of children in early childhood settings, towards a practice of acceptance. A brief historical context of touching is presented and supplemented with a survey of 63 currently practising K-3rd grade teachers. The survey…

  16. Effect of the potassium permanganate during papaya fruit ripening: Ethylene production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, S. F.; Filho, M. B.; da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Aroucha, E. M. M.; Silva, R. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The effect of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on the ripening process of papaya fruits by monitoring the ethylene emission rates is reported. The ethylene emission was monitored by a photoacoustic spectrometer. Two experimental conditions were applied, being one of them just putting the fruit alone inside the sampling chamber and the second, modifying the atmosphere by the presence of KMnO4. The use of the ethylene absorber reduces the autocatalytic process of ethylene during papaya fruit ripening. For 20 g of KMnO4 the maximal intensity of the ethylene emission decreases by a factor two. Using the same amount of KMnO4, a reduction of about 2.2% in the concentration of ethylene for a mixture of 1ppmv of ethylene in synthetic air was observed.

  17. Whole-photosynthesis and transpiration in field-grown papaya plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of papaya response to environmental factors provides a scientific basis to develop management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. In papaya, the photosynthetic capacity also influ...

  18. A physical map of the papaya genome with integrated genetic map and genome sequence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingyi Yu; Eric Tong; Rachel L Skelton; John E Bowers; Meghan R Jones; Jan E Murray; Shaobin Hou; Peizhu Guan; Ricelle A Acob; Ming-Cheng Luo; Paul H Moore; Maqsudul Alam; Andrew H Paterson; Ray Ming

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Papaya is a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide and has primitive sex chromosomes controlling sex determination in this trioecious species. The papaya genome was recently sequenced because of its agricultural importance, unique biological features, and successful application of transgenic papaya for resistance to papaya ringspot virus. As a part of the genome sequencing project, we

  19. Papaya Fruit Quality Management during the Postharvest Supply Chain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dharini Sivakumar; Marisa M. Wall

    2012-01-01

    Papayas are popular in tropical and subtropical regions and are being exported in large volumes to Europe, the U.S. and Japan. The fruit has a sweet, exotic flavor and is rich in vitamins A, C, and antioxidants. However, due to its highly perishable nature it has not emerged as a major traded fruit. Papayas are highly susceptible to qualitative and

  20. Characterization of the lipase from Carica papaya residues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernanda Wiermann PAQUES; Tatiana Fontes PIO; Patrícia de Oliveira CARVALHO; Gabriela Alves MACEDO

    Summary Lipases from vegetable sources have been the focus of intense and growing research. The use of enzymes from plants has the advantage of employing industrial waste products. Brazil is the world's largest papaya producer and the market for products derived from papaya is growing year after year. In this study, the authors carried out the characterization and partial purification

  1. Dried papaya skin as a dietary ingredient for broiler chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kamaruzzaman; S. D. Chowdhury; C. K. Podder; M. A. H. Pramanik

    2005-01-01

    1. The chemical composition of dried papaya (Carica papaya) skin (DPS) was determined and its potential as a dietary ingredient for broiler chickens was investigated at dietary concentrations of 0, 40, 80 and 120?g\\/kg.2. DPS was found to give similar food consumption, food conversion efficiency, survivability and meat yields (except male liver weight) to a control diet when used up

  2. MAPPING PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS IN CARICA PAPAYA USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different varieties of papaya (Carica papaya L.) vary in the phenotypic expression of agronomically important traits. Genetic loci responsible for these differences can be mapped using DNA markers to genotype a segregating progeny population derived from a controlled cross between parents having dif...

  3. Biosynthesis of benzylglucosinolate, cyanogenic glucosides and phenylpropanoids in Carica papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard N. Bennett; Guy Kiddle; Roger M. Wallsgrove

    1997-01-01

    Benzylglucosinolate was detected in all of the tissues of Carica papaya (pawpaw). No other glucosinolates were detected in any tissue of C. papaya. Previous suggestions that indolyl-3-methylglucosinolate might be present could not be confirmed. The highest concentrations of benzylglucosinolate were found in the youngest leaves, but the compound was also detected in leaf stalks, stem internodes and roots. The presence

  4. Antiulcerogenic activity of Carica papaya seed in rats.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Lorraine Aparecida; Cordeiro, Kátia Wolff; Carrasco, Viviane; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Cardoso, Cláudia Andréa Lima; Argadoña, Eliana Janet Sanjinez; Freitas, Karine de Cássia

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the gastroprotective and healing effects of the methanolic extract of the seed of the papaya Carica papaya L. (MECP) in rats. Models of acute gastric ulcer induction by ethanol and indomethacin and of chronic ulcer by acetic acid were used. The gastric juice and mucus parameters were evaluated using the pylorus ligation model, and the involvement of sulfhydryl compounds (GSH) and nitric oxide in the gastroprotective effect was analyzed using the ethanol model. The toxicity was assessed through toxicity tests. No signs of toxicity were observed when the rats received a single dose of 2000 mg/kg of extract. The MECP in doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the gastric lesion with 56, 76, and 82 % inhibition, respectively, and a dose of 30 mg/kg lansoprazole showed 79 % inhibition in the ethanol model. MECP (125, 250, 500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) reduced the gastric lesion in the indomethacin model, with 62, 67, 81, and 85 % inhibition, respectively. The MECP (500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) treatments showed a reduction in ulcerative symptoms induced by acetic acid by 84 and 73 %, respectively. The antiulcerogenic activity seems to involve GSH because the inhibition dropped from 72 to 13 % in the presence of a GSH inhibitor. Moreover, the MECP showed systemic action, increasing the mucus production and decreasing gastric acidity. Treatments with MECP induce gastroprotection without signs of toxicity. This effect seems to involve sulfhydryl compounds, increased mucus, and reduced gastric acidity. PMID:25418890

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF VIRUS RESISTANT TRANSGENIC PAPAYAS EXPRESSING THE COAT PROTEIN FROM A BRAZILIAN ISOLATE OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS (PRSV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Translatable and untranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the State of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of Carica papaya L. The biolistic system was used to transform secondary soma...

  6. Minimal processing of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) and the physiology of halved fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E Paull; Wenjun Chen

    1997-01-01

    The stage of papaya fruit ripening suitable for minimal processing and the effect of processing on physiology were determined. Wounding during slicing and deseeding led to an increase in ethylene production and respiration, earlier skin degreening and flesh softening. Fruit at the 10–50% skin yellow ripening stage showed higher wound-induced ethylene production and respiration when sliced and deseeded than riper

  7. Ripening behavior of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) exposed to gamma irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Paull

    1996-01-01

    Papaya fruit treated with 250 Gy of ?-irradiation frequently softened more uniformly than non-irradiated fruit. Fruit with less than 25% of their surface colored yellow placed immediately into storage at 10 °C after irradiation developed skin scald. This was prevented by delaying storage by 12 h. Fruit that were irradiated when 30% of the skin was yellowed softened at a

  8. Light touch and medio-lateral postural stability during short distance gait.

    PubMed

    Kodesh, E; Falash, F; Sprecher, E; Dickstein, R

    2015-01-01

    While standing, light fingertip touch on an external stable object attenuates sway and improves balance in healthy adults as well as in individuals with poor postural control. The effect of light touch on balance during gait is, however, not well known. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to study the effects of light fingertip touch on balance during gait. We hypothesized that similar to its effect during stance light touch would increase postural stability. Forty healthy young adults were tested under four gait conditions: (1) eyes open (EO), (2) eyes closed (EC), (3) eyes closed while lightly touching a static object on the right side of the walking lane (ECLTS), (4) eyes closed while lightly touching a dynamic object, namely, a stick that was moved forwards by the subject with the right hand (ECLTD). The main outcome measure was medio-lateral step width variability, a well established indicator of gait balance in the medio-lateral plane. During the EC condition, light touch of an external static object (ECLTS) decreased medio-lateral variability (i.e., balance improved); however, this stabilizing effect was not observed with light touch on the stick. The availability of self positional and spatial cues when touching a static external reference, and their absence when touching a stick that is moved forwards by the subject as he walks, can explain the different effects of light touch in the ECLTS vs the ECLTD gait conditions. PMID:25450148

  9. KURSUS SINGKAT DAN PELATIHAN PEMANFAATAN PEPAYA (Carisa papaya L.) MENJADI MANISAN KERING BUAH PEPAYA DI DESA TIMUHUN, KECAMATAN BANJARANGKAN, KABUPATEN KLUNGKUNG I Made Nada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ni Nyoman Sulastri; I Putu Gede Budisanjaya; Gede Ard

    In Desa Timuhun, eventhough papaya is not primary fruit product, but usually papaya is planted among the other plants and easily to grow. Papaya has good potency to be processed to become food product. Matured papaya fruit is usually fresh served for desk fruit. On the other hand, for papaya which is not mature yet, usually used for vegetable. Papaya

  10. Transparent and conformal 'piezoionic' touch sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    us Sarwar, Mirza S.; Dobashi, Yuta; Scabeni Glitz, Ettore F.; Farajollahi, Meisam; Mirabbasi, Shahriar; Naficy, Sina; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Madden, John D. W.

    2015-04-01

    A polyurethane hydrogel based touch sensor with high transparency and conformability is demonstrated. Polyurethane hydrogels swollen with various electrolytes were compressed at a pressure of 30 kPa, simulating a fingertap on a conventional touch screen device. Unlike ionic polymer metal composite and conducting polymer trilayer sensors, where electrodes render the sensors opaque and relatively rigid, the electrodes used in this work are metal wires or strips, separated from each other by regions of transparent film, enabling transparency and compliance. The voltages and currents observed when the perturbation is above one electrode are on the order of 10-2 V and 10-7 A, relative to a second electrode that is approximately 1 cm away. The sign of voltage and current signals detected from perturbations made between electrodes is determined by relative proximity to each electrode, and the magnitude appears to decrease with increasing distance from the electrodes. These observations suggest that it may be possible to discriminate the location of touch based on signals transmitted to the edges of an ionically conductive film. A model to describe the inhomogeneous ionic distribution and predict the resultant voltage and current is presented to qualitatively explain the sensing, based on the Donnan potential.

  11. Words that touch.

    PubMed

    Quinodoz, Danielle

    2003-12-01

    In this paper the author examines her own use of language as a psychoanalyst and asks: what is the best way to help analyse and to find the words to express not only what they are thinking but also what they are feeling and experiencing? In common with other psychoanalysts, the author has observed that each of us simultaneously utilises both advanced psychic mechanisms that are accessible to symbolism and more archaic ones, which are less so. However, she draws a distinction between people who are able to tolerate the perception of their own heterogeneity, even if it is sometimes a source of suffering, and those whom she terms 'heterogeneous patients'. Patients in the latter category, whose lack of internal cohesion causes them anxiety, are afraid of losing their sense of identity. The author asks how we can understand their language and how we should speak to them. She uses several clinical examples to demonstrate that 'heterogeneous patients' need to be touched with a language that does not confine itself to imparting thoughts verbally but also conveys feelings and the sensations that accompany those feelings. It is also an 'incarnated' language because the words pronounced by the analyst can awaken, or reawaken, bodily fantasies in the patient. These words may enable him to find an emotional meaning in forgotten sensory or bodily experiences, which may then become a starting point for his work of thinking and of symbolisation. PMID:14754477

  12. 77 FR 31294 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Papaya...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ...Collection; Importation of Papaya From Colombia and Ecuador AGENCY: Animal and Plant...commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador into the continental United...commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador, contact Ms. Dorothy...

  13. Touch sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Bounoutas; Martin Chalfie

    2007-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was the first organism for which touch insensitive mutants were obtained. The study of the genes defective in these mutants\\u000a has led to the identification of components of a mechanosensory complex needed for specific cells to sense gentle touch to\\u000a the body. Multiple approaches using genetics, cell biology, biochemistry, and electrophysiology have characterized a channel\\u000a complex,

  14. Semen study of papaya workers exposed to ethylene dibromide

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, J.M.; Schrader, S.M.; Steenland, K.; Clapp, D.; Turner, T.

    1984-01-01

    A cross sectional semen and cytogenetic study was performed on male workers exposed to ethylene-dibromide (EDB) in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii. Semen analyses were conducted on 46 men in six fumigation facilities with an average length of employment of 5 years and airborne exposures to EDB ranging from 16 to 213 parts per billion. Statistically significant decreases in sperm count per ejaculate and the percentage of viable and motile sperm and increases in the proportion of specific morphological abnormalities were observed among exposed men when compared with controls. Semen volume and sperm concentration were also lower in the exposed group. No effect of exposure to EDB on sperm velocity, the overall proportion of sperm with normal morphology or YFF bodies was noted. The authors conclude that based on the decreases in sperm count, viability and motility and increases in certain types of morphological abnormalities among workers exposed to EDB, EDB may increase the risk of reproductive impairment in workers at exposure levels near the NIOSH recommended limit of 45 parts per billion and far below the current OSHA standard of 20 parts per million.

  15. HOMOPTERAN AND MITE PESTS OF PAPAYA AND THEIR CONTROL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homopteran pests in papaya fields in Florida, include mealybugs, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, soft scales Philephedra tuberculosa Nakahara and Gill, Coccus hesperidum L. and armored scales, Aspidiotus destructor, Acutaspis sp., Hemiberlesia sp., aphids, Myzus persicae (Sul...

  16. 78 FR 48628 - Importation of Papayas From Peru

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ...production locations; field sanitation; hot water treatment; procedures for packing...fruit fly trapping, field sanitation, and hot water treatment to remove pests of concern...papayas. The limitation would ensure that the hot water dip treatment discussed later in...

  17. Lateral bud culture of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) for clonal propagation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Rajeevan; R. M. Pandey

    1986-01-01

    Lateral buds may be preferred to shoot tips for in vitro propagation of papaya because of its unbranched nature. Proliferating shoot cultures from lateral buds appeared extremely compact with shortened internodes and leaf lamina of the cytokinin level (BAP 2 µM) reported for multiple shoot production from shoot tips. ZEA (4 µM) and 2iP (8 µM) although reduced the proliferation

  18. Proximate composition and selected functional properties of defatted papaya ( Carica papaya L.) kernel flour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arubi P. Alobo

    2003-01-01

    Defatted papaya kernel flour was analyzed for proximate composition and functional properties. The flour was high in protein (32.4%) but moderate in available carbohydrates. The mineral (ash) and fiber contents were 5.3% and 4.2%, respectively. The protein of the flour was soluble at both acidic and alkaline pH; maximum solubility was at pH 9.0. Oil and water absorption capacities of

  19. Utility of 1-methylcyclopropene as a papaya postharvest treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashariya Manenoi; Emma Ruth V. Bayogan; Siwaporn Thumdee; Robert E. Paull

    2007-01-01

    The postharvest utility of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for papaya, Carica papaya L. (cvs. Gold and Rainbow) was determined. The effect of fruit maturity, storage, 1-MCP concentration (50–1000nLL?1), 1-MCP treatment duration (4 and 24h) and ethephon treatment before and after 1-MCP were evaluated. Fruit treated with various concentrations of 1-MCP for 24h were firmer and the time to reach the edible ripe

  20. ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2011-05-01

    ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K). Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the ?-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  1. Plant regeneration from encapsulated somatic embryos of Carica papaya L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Castillo; M. A. L. Smith; U. L. Yadava

    1998-01-01

    Carica papaya L. (papaya) single somatic embryos (2.0 mm diameter) produced in a high-frequency liquid production system were encapsulated\\u000a in two different synthetic encapsulation compounds. The frequency of regeneration from encapsulated embryos was significantly\\u000a affected by (1) the concentration of sodium alginate, (2) the presence or absence of nutrient salts in the capsule, and (3)\\u000a the duration of exposure to

  2. Plant regeneration from shoot tips and callus of papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shi-Tao Yie; S. I. Liaw

    1977-01-01

    Summary  Two methods of in vitro culture were employed to regenerate papaya plants. One involved regeneration of plants from callus\\u000a and the other, production of multiple plants from single shoot-tip explants. Callus was induced from stem sections of papaya\\u000a seedlings in a medium containing 1 mg per 1 NAA and 0.1 mg per 1 kinetin. The callus regenerated shoots and\\/or embryoids

  3. Influence of Boron on Somatic Embryogenesis in Papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Renukdas; M. L. Mohan; S. S. Khuspe; S. K. Rawal

    2003-01-01

    Influence of boron on somatic embryogenesis in papaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. Honey Dew was investigated. Immature zygotic embryos were grown in the induction medium containing Murashige and\\u000a Skoog basal salts, with B5 vitamins, picloram (1 mg dm?3) or 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2 mg dm?3) and different concentrations of boric acid (30 to 500 mg dm?3). Maximum somatic embryo initiation

  4. Touch for Socioemotional and Physical Well-Being: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    This review briefly summarizes recent empirical research on touch. The research includes the role of touch in early development, touch deprivation, touch aversion, emotions that can be conveyed by touch, the importance of touch for interpersonal relationships and how friendly touch affects compliance in different situations. MRI data are reviewed…

  5. Genetic-molecular characterization of backcross generations for sexual conversion in papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Ramos, H C C; Pereira, M G; Pereira, T N S; Barros, G B A; Ferreguetti, G A

    2014-01-01

    The low number of improved cultivars limits the expansion of the papaya crop, particularly because of the time required for the development of new varieties using classical procedures. Molecular techniques associated with conventional procedures accelerate this process and allow targeted improvements. Thus, we used microsatellite markers to perform genetic-molecular characterization of papaya genotypes obtained from 3 backcross generations to monitor the inbreeding level and parental genome proportion in the evaluated genotypes. Based on the analysis of 20 microsatellite loci, 77 genotypes were evaluated, 25 of each generation of the backcross program as well as the parental genotypes. The markers analyzed were identified in 11 of the 12 linkage groups established for papaya, ranging from 1 to 4 per linkage group. The average values for the inbreeding coefficient were 0.88 (BC1S4), 0.47 (BC2S3), and 0.63 (BC3S2). Genomic analysis revealed average values of the recurrent parent genome of 82.7% in BC3S2, 64.4% in BC1S4, and 63.9% in BC2S3. Neither the inbreeding level nor the genomic proportions completely followed the expected average values. This demonstrates the significance of molecular analysis when examining different genotype values, given the importance of such information for selection processes in breeding programs. PMID:25501249

  6. Sex determination in flowering plants: papaya as a model system.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Rishi; Ming, Ray

    2014-03-01

    Unisexuality in flowering plants evolved from a hermaphrodite ancestor. Transition from hermaphrodite to unisexual flowers has occurred multiple times across the different lineages of the angiosperms. Sexuality in plants is regulated by genetic, epigenetic and physiological mechanisms. The most specialized mechanism of sex determination is sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes ensure the stable segregation of sexual phenotypes by preventing the recombination of sex determining genes. Despite continuous efforts, sex determining genes of dioecious plants have not yet been cloned. Concerted efforts with various model systems are necessary to understand the complex mechanism of sex determination in plants. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a tropical fruit tree with three sex forms, male, hermaphrodite, and female. Sexuality in papaya is determined by an XY chromosome system that is in an early evolutionary stage. The male and hermaphrodite of papaya are controlled by two different types of Y chromosomes: Y and Y(h). Large amounts of information in the area of genetics, genomics, and epigenetics of papaya have been accumulated over the last few decades. Relatively short lifecycle, small genome size, and readily available genetic and genomic resources render papaya an excellent model system to study sex determination and sex chromosomes in flowering plants. PMID:24467896

  7. Ascorbic acid, vitamin A, and mineral composition of banana ( Musa sp.) and papaya ( Carica papaya) cultivars grown in Hawaii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marisa M. Wall

    2006-01-01

    Banana (Musa sp.) and papaya (Carica papaya) cultivars were harvested from different locations throughout Hawaii and analyzed for vitamin C (ascorbic acid), provitamin A (?-carotene, ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin), and mineral composition. Dwarf Brazilian (“apple”) bananas had almost three times more vitamin C (12.7mg\\/100g fresh weight) than Williams fruit (4.5mg\\/100g). Also, Dwarf Brazilian bananas had 96.9?g?-carotene and 104.9?g?-carotene\\/100g, whereas Williams fruit averaged

  8. To Touch or Not to Touch: That Is the Question!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene Allen

    2011-01-01

    People attend museums to see artifacts and learn from them! Ideally, they want to see them, touch them, and learn the story about them. Artifacts have an uncanny ability to mute the passage of time, and unite young and old on common ground. During its sixty-plus-years in existence, the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History has displayed…

  9. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling fruit size and shape in papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea L. Blas; Qingyi Yu; Olivia J. Veatch; Robert E. Paull; Paul H. Moore; Ray Ming

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a pan-tropical tree that bears fruit exhibiting a wide range of size and shape. Depending on variety and environment,\\u000a papaya fruit may weigh from 0.2 kg up to 10 kg. Papaya fruit shape is a sex-linked trait ranging from spherical to ovate,\\u000a cylindrical or pyriform. An F2 mapping population, produced from a cross between the Thai variety

  10. Mechanical Control of the Sense of Touch by ? Spectrin

    PubMed Central

    Krieg, Michael; Dunn, Alexander R.; Goodman, Miriam B.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to sense and respond to mechanical stimuli emanates from sensory neurons and is shared by most, if not all animals. Exactly how such neurons receive and distribute mechanical signals during touch sensation remains mysterious. Here, we show that sensation of mechanical forces depends on a continuous, pre-stressed spectrin cytoskeleton inside neurons. Mutations in the tetramerization domain of C. elegans ?-spectrin (UNC-70), an actin-membrane cross-linker, cause defects in sensory neuron morphology under compressive stress in moving animals. Through AFM force spectroscopy experiments on isolated neurons, in vivo laser axotomy and FRET imaging to measure force across single cells and molecules, we show that spectrin is held under constitutive tension in living animals, which contributes to an elevated pre-stress in touch receptor neurons. Genetic manipulations that decrease such spectrin-dependent tension also selectively impair touch sensation, suggesting that such pretension is essential for efficient responses to external mechanical stimuli. PMID:24561618

  11. AFLP analysis of genetic relationships among papaya and its wild relatives (Caricaceae) from Ecuador

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Van Droogenbroeck; P. Breyne; P. Goetghebeur; E. Romeijn-Peeters; T. Kyndt; G. Gheysen

    2002-01-01

    The AFLP technique was used to assess the genetic relationships among the cultivated papaya (Carica papaya L.) and related species native to Ecuador. Genetic distances based on AFLP data were estimated for 95 accessions belonging to three genera including C. papaya, at least eight Vasconcella species and two Jacaratia species. Cluster analysis using different methods and principal co-ordinate analysis (PCO),

  12. 110 Plant Protection Quarterly Vol.19(3) 2004 The papaya mealybug (PM), Paracoc-

    E-print Network

    Reddy, Gadi VP

    110 Plant Protection Quarterly Vol.19(3) 2004 Summary The papaya mealybug (PM), Paracoc- cus 2002 and was causing serious damage to papaya, Plumeria spp., Hibiscus spp. and other plants. The parasitoids Anagyrus loecki, Pseudleptomastix mexicana and Acerophagous papayae totalling 46 200 individuals

  13. Anthelmintic activity of papaya latex against patent Heligmosomoides polygyrus infections in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Satrija; P. Nansen; S. Murtini; S. He

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to study the possible anthelmintic activity of papaya latex (Carica papaya) against Heligmosomoides polygyrus in experimentally infected mice. Five groups of BALB\\/C mice were infected with 100 Heligmosomoides polygyrus infective larvae\\/mouse. After patency (day 22), four groups of mice (groups B, C, D and E) were given papaya latex suspended in water at dose

  14. 212 Florida Entomologist 89(2) June 2006 CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF THE PAPAYA MEALYBUG,

    E-print Network

    Reddy, Gadi VP

    212 Florida Entomologist 89(2) June 2006 CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF THE PAPAYA MEALYBUG The papaya mealybug (PM), Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae and was causing serious damage to papaya, plume- ria, hibiscus, and other plants. The parasitoids Anagyrus loecki

  15. Optimization of osmotic dehydration of papaya followed by air-drying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabiano A. N. Fernandes; Sueli Rodrigues; Odisséia C. P. Gaspareto; Edson L. Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Papayas are a fragile fruit; characteristic that limits large-scale exportation from the producing centers to countries in temperate regions. Loss of fruit ranges from 10% to 40% and could be reduced if papayas were dried. The process of osmotic dehydration followed by air-drying was studied and modeled for papaya preservation, so it could be optimized. The developed model has been

  16. Using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA for evaluating genetic relationships among papaya cultivars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. I. Stiles; C. Lemme; S. Sondur; M. B. Morshidi; R. Manshardt

    1993-01-01

    We have applied the recently developed technique of random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to the analysis of the relationships among ten cultivars of papaya (Carica papaya L.). Eleven ten-base synthetic oligonucleotides were chosen that gave multiple PCR amplification products using papaya DNA as template. These 11 primers amplified a total of 102 distinct fragments. Cultivars were scored for presence

  17. PARACOCCUS MARGINATUS WILLIAMS AND GRANARA DE WILLINK (HOMOPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE) AFFECTING PAPAYA IN PUERTO RICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus was detected January 10, 2001 infesting papaya plantings in Isabela, Puerto Rico (18°28'23 N; 66°52’18W; 145.4 meters above sea level). This insect is recognized as a pest of papaya, cassava, hibiscus, eggplant, avocado, annona, and sweetpotato. P. margina...

  18. Development of an optimised papaya pulp nectar using a combination of irradiation and mild heat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tory L. Parker; Sarah T. Esgro; Samantha A. Miller; Lauren E. Myers; Rustin A. Meister; Stoyan A. Toshkov; Nicki J. Engeseth

    2010-01-01

    Papaya does not sufficiently maintain desired fresh fruit quality when shipped long distances due to an easily bruised soft skin and a short shelf life. This leads to both a large supply of pulp from unsightly fruit that is never shipped and low sales due to blemished fruit. Unfortunately, traditional preservation methods (pasteurisation) negatively alter papaya’s fresh flavour. Thus to

  19. Protection and conservation of Caricaceae germplasm with PRSV resistant transgenic papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a devastating disease that has a detrimental impact on both commercial papaya production and Caricaceae germplasm conservation. The PRSV coat protein transgenic line 55-1 and derived progeny are resistant to PRSV and have saved the papaya industry in Hawaii. Here we ...

  20. ENGINEERING RESISTANCE AGAINST PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS BY NATIVE, CHIMERIC AND SYNTHETIC TRANSGENES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transgenic Rainbow papaya is hemizygous for the coat protein gene of a papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate from Hawaii. Rainbow shows excellent resistance to PRSV isolates in Hawaii, but is susceptible to PRSV isolates from many parts of the world. In order to obtain transgenic papaya which m...

  1. CHROMOSOMAL LOCATION AND GENE PAUCITY IN THE MALE SPECIFIC REGION ON PAPAYA Y CHROMOSOME

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex chromosomes in flowering plants evolved recently and many of them remain homomorphic, including those in papaya. We investigated the chromosomal location of papaya’s small male specific region of the hermaphrodite Y (Yh) chromosome (MSY) and its genomic features. We conducted chromosome fluoresc...

  2. Direct Learning in Dynamic Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Claire F.; Arzamarski, Ryan; Isenhower, Robert W.; Jacobs, David M.

    2008-01-01

    A dynamic touch paradigm in which participants judged the lengths of rods and pipes was used to test the D. M. Jacobs and C. F. Michaels (2007) theory of perceptual learning. The theory portrays perception as the exploitation of a locus on an information manifold and learning as continuous movement across that manifold to a new locus, as guided by…

  3. POTENCIAL BIOCIDA DE EXTRACTOS DE Gliricidia sepium CONTRA PATOGENOS DEL CULTIVO DE LA PAPAYA (Caricapapaya)l

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Eduardo Loaiza; German River

    2000-01-01

    Se realizaron aislarnientos de Colletotri- Biocidal potencial of Gliricidia sepium chum gloeosporioides a partir de frutos de papaya extracts against papaya (Carica papaya) criolla, y de Pseudomonas sp. a partir de hojas, pathogens. Pure isolates of Colletotrichum obtenidas en una plantacion comercial en Gama- gloeosporioides obtained from creole papaya lotillo de Puriscal. En cultivos puros de ambos or- fruits, and

  4. FEASIBILITY OF USING PAPAYA SKIN EXTRACT FOR DIGESTION OF SWAMP EEL VISCERA FOR HARVESTING INFECTIVE STAGE LARVA OF GNATHOSTOMA SPP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suphan Soogarun; Thamaporn Lertlum; Jamsai Suwansaksri; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    In this study, we reported the feasibility of using papaya skin extract (Carica papaya L.) as an alternative to enzyme pepsin in harvesting Gnathostoma spinigerum third-stage larvae. From experimental digestion, we found that the different numbers of recovered larvae between papaya skin extract and pepsin were not statistically significant (p >0.05). When the derived larvae from pepsin and papaya skin

  5. ANTIOXIDANT AND IMMUNOSTIMULANT EFFECT OF CARICA PAPAYA LINN. AQUEOUS EXTRACT IN ACRYLAMIDE INTOXICATED RATS

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed Sadek, Kadry

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and immunostimulant effects of The Carica papaya fruit aqueous extract (CPF, Caricaceae) against acrylamide induced oxidative stress and improvement of Immune functions which affected by free radicals liberating acrylamide in rats. Material and methods: Sixty male wistar albino rats (195-230g) were assigned to four groups, (fifteen/group). The first group used as control group and received normal physiological saline orally daily. The second group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water. The third group was gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The fourth group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water and gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The chosen dose of papaya fruit extract was based on the active pharmacological dose range obtained from the orientation study earlier conducted. The experimental period was extended to forty day. At the expiration of the experimental period and night fasting, blood samples were collected from the orbital venous sinus. The sera were separated and used for determining of IgG and IgM and the stomach, liver and kidney homogenates for estimation of MDA, GSH level, SOD and CAT activity as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidative stress. Results and discussion: The obtained results revealed that, acrylamide caused significant increases in MDA and decrease of GSH level, SOD and CAT activity due to the oxidative stress induced by acrylamide on membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat’s stomach, liver and kidney while administration of CPF aqueous extract, was significantly ameliorated the increased levels of MDA and decline of GSH, SOD and CAT activity in the stomach, liver and kidney tissues caused by acrylamide toxicity. Meanwhile, CPF aqueous extract significantly increased immune functions (IgG and IgM) while acrylamide significantly decrease it specially IgG. Thus, this study suggests that acrylamide-induced oxidative stress in rats can be ameliorated by administration of CPF aqueous extract. PMID:23322975

  6. Oxidative stress in patients with Alzheimer's disease: effect of extracts of fermented papaya powder.

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, Mario; Marotta, Francesco; Dominguez, Ligia J

    2015-01-01

    Brain tissue is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress (OS). Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced antioxidant systems, and decreased efficiency in repairing mechanisms have been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Postmortem studies in AD patients' brains have shown oxidative damage markers (i.e., lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative damage, and glycoxidation). Fermented papaya (FPP, a product of Carica papaya Linn fermentation with yeast) is a nutraceutical supplement with favorable effects on immunological, hematological, inflammatory, and OS parameters in chronic/degenerative diseases. We studied 40 patients (age 78.2 ± 1.1 years), 28 AD patients, and 12 controls. Urinary 8-OHdG was measured to assess OS. Twenty AD patients were supplemented with FPP (Immunage, 4.5 grams/day) for 6 months, while controls did not receive any treatment. At baseline, 8-OHdG was significantly higher in patients with AD versus controls (13.7 ± 1.61?ng/mL versus 1.6 ± 0.12?ng/mL, P < 0.01). In AD patients FPP significantly decreased 8-OHdG (14.1 ± 1.7?ng/mL to 8.45 ± 1.1?ng/mL, P < 0.01), with no significant changes in controls. AD is associated with increased OS, and FPP may be helpful to counteract excessive ROS in AD patients. PMID:25944987

  7. Oxidative Stress in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: Effect of Extracts of Fermented Papaya Powder

    PubMed Central

    Barbagallo, Mario; Marotta, Francesco; Dominguez, Ligia J.

    2015-01-01

    Brain tissue is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress (OS). Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced antioxidant systems, and decreased efficiency in repairing mechanisms have been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Postmortem studies in AD patients' brains have shown oxidative damage markers (i.e., lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative damage, and glycoxidation). Fermented papaya (FPP, a product of Carica papaya Linn fermentation with yeast) is a nutraceutical supplement with favorable effects on immunological, hematological, inflammatory, and OS parameters in chronic/degenerative diseases. We studied 40 patients (age 78.2 ± 1.1 years), 28 AD patients, and 12 controls. Urinary 8-OHdG was measured to assess OS. Twenty AD patients were supplemented with FPP (Immunage, 4.5 grams/day) for 6 months, while controls did not receive any treatment. At baseline, 8-OHdG was significantly higher in patients with AD versus controls (13.7 ± 1.61?ng/mL versus 1.6 ± 0.12?ng/mL, P < 0.01). In AD patients FPP significantly decreased 8-OHdG (14.1 ± 1.7?ng/mL to 8.45 ± 1.1?ng/mL, P < 0.01), with no significant changes in controls. AD is associated with increased OS, and FPP may be helpful to counteract excessive ROS in AD patients. PMID:25944987

  8. Plant sensing: gravity and touch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilroy, S.; Swanson, S.; Massa, G.

    Roots must integrate many stimuli in order to direct their growth as they explore the soil. Gravitropism leads to downward growth but other stimuli such as gradients in nutrients, water, biotic and abiotic stresses and physical obstacles such as rocks all act on the roots sensory systems to modify this gravitropic response. We have therefore investigated the interaction of gravity signaling and response to other stimuli such as a mechanical obstruction to downward growth. A gravitropically directed primary root of Arabidopsis thaliana (growing vertically) senses an obstacle such as a glass plate placed in its direction of growth and initiates an avoidance growth response upon contacting the barrier. This response appears to be caused by an interaction of gravitropic and thigmotropic sensory systems. The touch stimulation of the root cap leads to alteration in growth, initially in the central and later in the distal elongation zone of the root. These growth responses maintain the root tip at an angle of 136 degrees to the barrier as the root grows across the obstacle's surface. Removal of cells in the root cap by laser ablation indicate that all root cap cells are required for this growth response to the barrier. Once the end of the barrier is reached and the root can grow off the obstruciton, gravitropism appears to occur faster than in roots that did not interact with an obstacle, suggesting that the touch stimulation of the barrier may alter gravitropic signaling or response. Touch stimulation of the root cap inhibited the pH-dependent gravity signaling events that are known to be required for gravitropic response. These results imply a transient suppression of gravisensing or graviresponse by touch. Touch stimulation of root cap cells elicited an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ that appears to propagate from cell to cell throughout the cap, suggesting Ca2+ signaling may underlie the communication between gravity and touch sensing cells. Although the pgm1 -1 starch deficient mutant exhibits reduced gravity sensing due to reduced mass of statoliths in its root cap, this mutant exhibited normal bending upon contact with the barrier. This observation implies the reduced gravisensing in the mutant is sufficient to allow the gravitropic component of obstacle avoidance. However, pgm1 -1 develops a more random orientation to the barrier with time, suggesting that sustained tracking over the barrier requires continued input by the gravisensor. The growth response of roots where the root cap has been removed by laser ablation, also suggest that the root cap may be sensing a range of other, non-mechanical stimuli that are interacting with the gravity sensor to direct root growth. This work was supported by grants from NASA and NSF.

  9. Physico-chemical characteristics of papaya (Carica papaya L.) seed oil of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety.

    PubMed

    Yanty, Noorzianna Abdul Manaf; Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohammed Nazrim; Nusantoro, Bangun Prajanto; Long, Kamariah; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the oil derived from papaya seeds of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety. Proximate analysis showed that seeds of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety contained considerable amount of oil (27.0%). The iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acid contents of freshly extracted papaya seed oil were 76.9 g I2/100g oil, 193.5 mg KOH/g oil, 1.52% and 0.91%, respectively. The oil had a Lovibond color index of 15.2Y + 5.2B. Papaya seed oil contained ten detectable fatty acids, of which 78.33% were unsaturated. Oleic (73.5%) acid was the dominant fatty acids followed by palmitic acid (15.8%). Based on the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, seven species of triacylglycerols (TAGs) were detected. The predominant TAGs of papaya seed oil were OOO (40.4%), POO (29.1%) and SOO (9.9%) where O, P, and S denote oleic, palmitic and stearic acids, respectively. Thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that papaya seed oil had its major melting and crystallization transitions at 12.4°C and -48.2°C, respectively. Analysis of the sample by Z-nose (electronic nose) instrument showed that the sample had a high level of volatile compounds. PMID:25174674

  10. Papaya fruit softening, endoxylanase gene expression, protein and activity.

    PubMed

    Manenoi, Ashariya; Paull, Robert E

    2007-11-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) cell wall matrix polysaccharides are modified as the fruit starts to soften during ripening and an endoxylanase is expressed that may play a role in the softening process. Endoxylanase gene expression, protein amount and activity were determined in papaya cultivars that differ in softening pattern and in one cultivar where softening was modified by the ethylene receptor inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Antibodies to the endoxylanase catalytic domain were used to determine protein accumulation. The three papaya varieties used in the study, 'Line 8', 'Sunset', and 'Line 4-16', differed in softening pattern, respiration rate, ethylene production and showed similar parallel relationships during ripening and softening in endoxylanase expression, protein level and activity. When fruit of the three papaya varieties showed the respiratory climacteric and started to soften, the level of endoxylanase gene expression increased and this increase was related to the amount of endoxylanase protein at 32 kDa and its activity. Fruit when treated at less than 10% skin yellow stage with 1-MCP showed a significant delay in the respiratory climacteric and softening, and reduced ethylene production, and when ripe was firmer and had a 'rubbery' texture. The 1-MCP-treated fruit that had the 'rubbery' texture showed suppressed endoxylanase gene expression, protein and enzymatic activity. Little or no delay occurred between endoxylanase gene expression and the appearance of activity during posttranslational processing from 65 to 32 kDa. The close relationship between endoxylanase gene expression, protein accumulation and activity in different varieties and the failure of the 1-MCP-treated fruit to fully soften, supported de novo synthesis of endoxylanase, rapid posttranslation processing and a role in papaya fruit softening. PMID:18251885

  11. Purification of a thermostable alkaline laccase from papaya (Carica papaya) using affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Nivedita; Pandey, Veda P; Dwivedi, Upendra N

    2015-01-01

    A laccase from papaya leaves was purified to homogeneity by a two step procedure namely, heat treatment (at 70 °C) and Con-A affinity chromatography. The procedure resulted in 1386.7-fold purification of laccase with a specific activity of 41.3 units mg(-1) and an overall yield of 61.5%. The native purified laccase was found to be a hexameric protein of ? 260 kDa. The purified enzyme exhibited acidic and alkaline pH optima of 6.0 and 8.0 with the non-phenolic substrate (ABTS) and phenolic substrate (catechol), respectively. The purified laccase was found to be thermostable up to 70 °C such that it retained ? 80% activity upon 30 min incubation at 70 °C. The Arrhenius energy of activation for purified laccase was found to be 7.7 kJ mol(-1). The enzyme oxidized various phenolic and non-phenolic substrates having catalytic efficiency (K(cat)/K(m)) in the order of 7.25>0.67>0.27 mM(-1) min(-1) for ABTS, catechol and hydroquinone, respectively. The purified laccase was found to be activated by Mn(2+), Cd(2+), Ca(2+), Na(+), Fe(2+), Co(2+) and Cu(2+) while weakly inhibited by Hg(2+). The properties such as thermostability, alkaline pH optima and metal tolerance exhibited by the papaya laccase make it a promising candidate enzyme for industrial exploitation. PMID:25192855

  12. Folate levels and polyglutamylation profiles of papaya (Carica papaya cv. Maradol) during fruit development and ripening.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Parra, Perla A; García-Salinas, Carolina; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; de la Garza, Rocío I Díaz

    2013-04-24

    Folates are essential micronutrients for humans, and their deficiency causes several detrimental effects on human health. Papaya fruit is an important natural source of some micronutrients. This paper presents a first complete characterization of folate derivatives accumulated in cv. Maradol papaya during fruit development and ripening processes. During postharvest ripening, the fruit accumulated up to 24.5% of the daily folate recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for an adult in a 1 cup (145 g) portion. Tetrahydrofolate (THF) and 5-methyl-THF were the predominant folate classes observed. Surprisingly, an unusually long polyglutamylation profile of tentatively up to 17 glutamates linked to 5-methyl-THF was detected; to the authors' knowledge, this very long polyglutamyl tail has not been reported for any organism, and it is probably characteristic of this plant species. This polyglutamylation degree changed throughout fruit development and ripening, showing the largest differences at the onset of ripening. This work raises questions about the functional role of folate derivatives in fruit development. PMID:23574547

  13. Postharvest Variation in Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymes of Papaya (Carica papaya L.) during Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed

    Paull, R E; Chen, N J

    1983-06-01

    Pectin methylesterase (PME), polygalacturonase (PG), xylanase, cellulase, and proteinase activity were determined and related to respiration, ethylene evolution, and changes in skin color of papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit from harvest through to the start of fruit breakdown. PME gradually increased from the start of the climacteric rise reaching a peak 2 days after the respiratory peak. PG and xylanase were not detectable in the preclimacteric stage but increased during the climacteric: during the post climacteric stage, the PG declined to a level one-quarter of peak activity with xylanase activity returning to zero. Cellulase activity gradually increased 3-fold after harvest to peak at the same time as PME, 2 days after the edible stage. Proteinase declined throughout the climacteric and postclimacteric phases. A close relationship exists between PG and xylanase and the rise in respiration, ethylene evolution, and softening. Cultivar differences in postclimacteric levels of enzymic activity were not detected.An inhibitor of cellulase activity was detected in preclimacteric fruit. The inhibitor was not benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC). BITC did inhibit PG activity, though no inhibitor of PG activity was detected in preclimacteric homogenates when BITC was highest. The results indicate that inhibitors did not play a direct role in controlling wall softening. PMID:16663010

  14. Dried papaya skin as a dietary ingredient for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kamaruzzaman, M; Chowdhury, S D; Podder, C K; Pramanik, M A H

    2005-06-01

    The chemical composition of dried papaya (Carica papaya) skin (DPS) was determined and its potential as a dietary ingredient for broiler chickens was investigated at dietary concentrations of 0, 40, 80 and 120g/kg. DPS was found to give similar food consumption, food conversion efficiency, survivability and meat yields (except male liver weight) to a control diet when used up to 120 g/kg of diet. Weight gain tended to increase with dietary concentration of DPS up to 80 g/kg. It was concluded that DPS could safely be used up to 120 g/kg in the diet of broiler chickens. PMID:16050195

  15. Fetal Behavioural Responses to Maternal Voice and Touch

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Viola; Nagy, Emese

    2015-01-01

    Background Although there is data on the spontaneous behavioural repertoire of the fetus, studies on their behavioural responses to external stimulation are scarce. Aim, Methods The aim of the current study was to measure fetal behavioural responses in reaction to maternal voice; to maternal touch of the abdomen compared to a control condition, utilizing 3D real-time (4D) sonography. Behavioural responses of 23 fetuses (21st to 33rd week of gestation; N = 10 in the 2nd and N = 13 in the 3rd trimester) were frame-by-frame coded and analyzed in the three conditions. Results Results showed that fetuses displayed more arm, head, and mouth movements when the mother touched her abdomen and decreased their arm and head movements to maternal voice. Fetuses in the 3rd trimester showed increased regulatory (yawning), resting (arms crossed) and self-touch (hands touching the body) responses to the stimuli when compared to fetuses in the 2nd trimester. Conclusion In summary, the results from this study suggest that fetuses selectively respond to external stimulation earlier than previously reported, fetuses actively regulated their behaviours as a response to the external stimulation, and that fetal maturation affected the emergence of these differential responses to the environment. PMID:26053388

  16. How Does a Touch Sensor Work?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    GK-12 Program, Computational Neurobiology Center,

    Students learn about how touch sensors work, while reinforcing their similarities to the human sense of touch. They look at human senses and their electronic imitators, with special focus on the nervous system, skin and touch sensors. A PowerPoint® presentation explains stimulus-to-response pathways, how touch sensors are made and work, and then gives students a chance to handle and get familiar with the LEGO touch sensor, including programming LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robots to use touch sensor input to play music. Students take pre/post quizzes and watch a short online video. The mini-activities prepare students for the associated activity. This lesson and its associated activity enables students to appreciate how robots can take input from sensors, and use that to make decisions to move.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT LASER TOUCH AND TECHNOLOGIES, LLC LASER TOUCH MODEL LT-B512

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of Laser Touch model LT-B512 targeting device manufactured by Laser Touch and Technologies, LLC, for manual spray painting operations. The relative transfer efficiency (TE) improved an avera...

  18. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract

    PubMed Central

    Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1?mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

  19. The treatment of paediatric burns using topical papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian F. Starley; Paul Mohammed; Geisela Schneider; Stephen W. Bickler

    1999-01-01

    Due to the limited resources for the management of burns in most regions of Africa there is a significant role for many aspects of traditional African medicine. The active component of many traditional preparations is often of plant origin and more than 25 plants have been described as useful in relations to burns and wound healing. Carica papaya is currently

  20. Drying of Guava and Papaya: Impact of Different Drying Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. A. Hawlader; Conrad O. Perera; Min Tian; K. L. Yeo

    2006-01-01

    Heat pump dryers (HPD) are known as high-energy-efficiency devices with low economic cost. As it is usually a closed system, the drying media can be substituted by inert gases. In this study, the effect of nitrogen and carbon dioxide on guava and papaya were investigated. Both drying kinetics and quality of these dried fruits resulting from the two methods were

  1. Papaya Varietal Resistance to Internal Yellowing: Reducing Food Safety Risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal yellowing (IY) is a bacterial disease of ripening papaya fruit that is caused by the enteric bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae. The disease is characterized by yellow discoloration of flesh, tissue softening and a foul or rotten odor that reduces the quality of fresh fruit and value-added pr...

  2. Genetic diversity of papaya ring spot virus in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that 20-40% of crop yield is lost due to pests and diseases. Viruses are agents that cause diseases which contribute greatly to the global yield loss. Because of this, food production is negatively affected, especially in the tropics. Carica papaya, co...

  3. Antibacterial effects of Carica papaya fruit on common wound organisms.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, G; Hewitt, H; Wint, Y; Obiefuna, P C; Wint, B

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate antibacterial activity of ripe and unripe Carica papaya on selected micro-organisms. Cultures of micro-organisms were routinely maintained in nutrient agar slants at 4 degrees C. Extracts of immature, mature and ripe Carica papaya fruit were obtained by separately grinding factions of the epicarp, endocarp and seeds and filtering them through gauze. Sensitivity tests were conducted by adding 0.06 ml of extract to agar wells (6 mm diameter) prepared from 20 ml agar seeded with 10(6) cells/ml suspension of one of the eight organisms per plate. The inoculated plates were allowed to equilibrate at 4 degrees C for 1 hour, incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 hours, and zones of inhibition measured in millimetres. Anti-bacterial activity was expressed in terms of the radius of zone of inhibition. Seed extracts from the fruit showed inhibition in the following order: B cereus > E coli > S faecalis > S aureus > P vulgaris > S flexneri. No significant difference was found in bacterial sensitivity between immature, mature and ripe fruits. No inhibition zone was produced by epicarp and endocarp extracts. Carica papaya seeds contain anti-bacterial activity that inhibits growth of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Observed activity was independent of stage of fruit maturity. Carica papaya has antibacterial effects that could be useful in treating chronic skin ulcers to promote healing. PMID:15040064

  4. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract.

    PubMed

    Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1?mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (?? m ) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

  5. An ultrasonic system for determining papaya physiological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Sallehuddin; Ramli, Azlin; Yunus, Mohd Amri Md

    2015-05-01

    There is an increasing need for high quality fruit. As such it is important to have a fast, accurate and reliable method for measuring and monitoring the quality of fruit from the field to the consumer. This paper presents an investigation on the use of a non-destructive ultrasonic system which can be used to measure the quality of papaya.

  6. DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF PAPAYA PROTEIN PROFILE USING PROTEOMIC TOOLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of our project is to evaluate the potential for using proteomic approaches to discover the basis for differential susceptibility of Hawaii papaya cultivars to the root rot pathogen Phytophthora palmivora. Based on previous studies showing that Kapoho was the most resistance cultivar an...

  7. 75 FR 22207 - Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ...include requirements for field sanitation, hot water treatment, and fruit fly trapping...fruit fly trapping, field sanitation, and hot water treatment be employed to remove pests...require the treatment of papayas with a hot water dip. The dip requires that...

  8. Molecular evidence for association of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus with leaf curl disease of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. RajA; S. K. SnehiA; M. S. KhanA; R. SinghA; A. A. KhanB

    2008-01-01

    Association ofTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus with leaf curl disease of papaya (Carica papaya L.) was detected by polymerase chain reaction using begomovirus-specific primers and confirmed by highest sequence similarities\\u000a and close phylogenetic relationships.

  9. Development of a Gene-Centered SSR Atlas as a Resource for Papaya (Carica papaya) Marker-Assisted Selection and Population Genetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Newton Medeiros; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Ramos, Helaine Christine Cancela; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Venancio, Thiago Motta

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) is an economically important tropical fruit. Molecular marker-assisted selection is an inexpensive and reliable tool that has been widely used to improve fruit quality traits and resistance against diseases. In the present study we report the development and validation of an atlas of papaya simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We integrated gene predictions and functional annotations to provide a gene-centered perspective for marker-assisted selection studies. Our atlas comprises 160,318 SSRs, from which 21,231 were located in genic regions (i.e. inside exons, exon-intron junctions or introns). A total of 116,453 (72.6%) of all identified repeats were successfully mapped to one of the nine papaya linkage groups. Primer pairs were designed for markers from 9,594 genes (34.5% of the papaya gene complement). Using papaya-tomato orthology assessments, we assembled a list of 300 genes (comprising 785 SSRs) potentially involved in fruit ripening. We validated our atlas by screening 73 SSR markers (including 25 fruit ripening genes), achieving 100% amplification rate and uncovering 26% polymorphism rate between the parental genotypes (Sekati and JS12). The SSR atlas presented here is the first comprehensive gene-centered collection of annotated and genome positioned papaya SSRs. These features combined with thousands of high-quality primer pairs make the atlas an important resource for the papaya research community. PMID:25393538

  10. Identification and quantification of phenols, carotenoids, and vitamin C from papaya ( Carica papaya L., cv. Maradol) fruit determined by HPLC-DAD-MS\\/MS-ESI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura E. Gayosso-García Sancho; Elhadi M. Yahia; Gustavo Adolfo González-Aguilar

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that vitamin C, phenols, and carotenoids are bioactive compounds that protect the body from oxidative stress, reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major phytochemicals found in papaya fruit flesh and skin (Carica papaya L., cv Maradol) was conducted in four stages of ripeness, using high-performance

  11. TeslaTouch: Electrovibration for Touch Surfacesu Olivier Bau1,2

    E-print Network

    Poupyrev, Ivan

    electrostatic friction between a touch surface and the user!s finger. ABSTRACT We present a new technology of tactile touch screens using two comparable setups, one based on electrovibration and another on mechanical, Human Factors. Keywords: Tactile feedback, touch screens, multitouch. Permission to make digital or hard

  12. ""Test Before TouchTest Before Touch"" Easier Said Than DoneEasier Said Than Done

    E-print Network

    ""Test Before TouchTest Before Touch"" Easier Said Than DoneEasier Said Than Done Ken Crawford, DuPontKen Crawford, DuPont Kent Haggerty, DupontKent Haggerty, Dupont #12;OverviewOverview · Test Before Touch (TBT Voltage Testing · Summary & Conclusions #12;#12;How Would You Verify Power is Off?How Would You Verify

  13. The Use of Touch in Therapy: Can We Talk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Melanie A.

    The empirical literature regarding the use of nonerotic touch in psychotherapy is reviewed. Theoretical and ethical concerns are discussed, including the taboo against touching clients, situations in which touch may be appropriate, and whether or not nonerotic touch leads to erotic touch. It is difficult to design controlled studies for ongoing…

  14. Portable chlorophyll meter (PCM-502) values are related to total chlorophyll concentration and photosynthetic capacity in papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was carried out to verify the practical use of the portable chlorophyll meter-PCM502 (PCM) in two papaya cultivars with contrasting green coloring of the leaf blade (‘Golden’: yellowish-green; ‘Solo’: dark green). The relationship was studied between the photosynthetic process and leaf n...

  15. Some chemical characteristics and availability of vitamin A and vitamin C from Kenyan varieties of papayas (Carica papaya L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jasper K. Imungi; Mary N. Wabule

    1990-01-01

    Papayas from 14 Kenyan varieties were analysed for dry matter, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, total sugar, vitamin C, total carotenoids and ??carotene. There were significant varietal differences (p < 0.05) among the levels of dry matter, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, total sugar, vitamin C, total carotenoids and ??carotene, but no significant differences among pH values.

  16. High-Density Linkage Mapping Revealed Suppression of Recombination at the Sex Determination Locus in Papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Ma; Paul H. Moore; Zhiyong Liu; Minna S. Kim; Qingyi Yu; Maureen M. M. Fitch; Terry Sekioka; Andrew H. Paterson; Ray Ming

    2004-01-01

    A high-density genetic map of papaya (Carica papaya L.) was constructed using 54 F2 plants derived from cultivars Kapoho and SunUp with 1501 markers, including 1498 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, the papaya ringspot virus coat protein marker, morphological sex type, and fruit flesh color. These markers were mapped into 12 linkage groups at a LOD score of 5.0

  17. Thrombocyte counts in mice after the administration of papaya leaf suspension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathiresan Sathasivam; Surash Ramanathan; Sharif M. Mansor; Mas Rosemal M. H. Haris; Walther H. Wernsdorfer

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a Zusammenfassung  Angeregt von dem volksmedizinischen Gebrauch von Papaya carica Blattmaterial zur Behandlung von Dengueinfektionen wurde eine Suspension von pulversisierten Carica papaya Blättern in Palmöl auf die Beeinflussung der Thrombozytenzahlen bei Mäusen untersucht. Jeweils 5 Mäuse erhielten peroral\\u000a 15 mg der Carica papaya Blattsuspension, gleiche Volumina physiologischer Kochsalzlösung oder Palmöl. Die Thrombozytenzahl wurde unmittelbar vor\\u000a sowie 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 12,

  18. Chemical evaluation and storage stability of a beverage formulated from soybean and papaya pulp flour blends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. U. Ukwuru; A. Adama

    2003-01-01

    Flour blends [soyflour (SF): papaya pulp flour (PF) 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70, 0:100] were prepared from soybean and papaya pulp flours. The blends were fortified with vitamin C. The chemical compositions and sensory characteristics of the soybean flour (SF), papaya pulp flour (PF) and their blends were determined. Storage stabilities of the most accepted blends were determined. The SF contained

  19. Analysis on virus resistance and fruit quality for T4 generation of transgenic papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangdong Wei; Congyu Lan; Zhijing Lu; Changming Ye

    2007-01-01

    Molecular biological characterization, fruit characters, and nutrients were analyzed for T4 generation of transgenic papaya.\\u000a All transgenic papaya plants with the mutated replicase (RP) gene from papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) showed high resistance\\u000a or immunity against PRSV in the field. The RP transgene can be steadily inherited to, and expressed at RNA level, the progenies.\\u000a The growth characteristics of transgenic

  20. Reduced Pleasant Touch Appraisal in the Presence of a Disgusting Odor

    PubMed Central

    Croy, Ilona; Angelo, Silvia D'; Olausson, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Odors are powerful emotional stimuli influencing mood, attention and behavior. Here we examined if odors change the perception of pleasant touch. In line with the warning function of the olfactory system, we proposed that especially unpleasant odors will reduce touch pleasantness, presumably through a disgust-related mechanism. Methods Forty-five healthy participants (mean age 23.3 +/? 3years SD, 24 females) were presented to slow (3 cm/s) and fast (30 cm/s) brush stroking delivered by a robot to the forearm. Touch pleasantness under the influence of an unpleasant odor (Civette, smelling like feces) and an intensity matched pleasant odor (Rose) was compared to an odorless control condition. In a pilot study with 30 participants (mean age 25.9 +/?6 years, 21 females), the odors were matched according to their intensity, and we studied the influence of disgust sensitivity on the perception of 4 different odor qualities. Results The unpleasant odor decreased touch pleasantness for both stroking velocities compared to the odorless control (p<0.005) whereas the rose odor did not change touch pleasantness significantly. Disgust sensitivity was correlated with the modulation of touch pleasantness. The pilot study revealed a significant correlation between disgust sensitivity and the perception of the unpleasant odor qualities (r?=??0.56; p?=?0.007), but not with any of the other odors. Conclusion Unpleasant odors are powerful in modulating touch pleasantness, and disgust might be a moderating variable. PMID:24664177

  1. Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

  2. The Place of Touch in the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perricone, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, I argue that although philosophers of art have legitimately examined and emphasized the role of sight and hearing in respect to art appreciation, for the most part they have neglected the role of touch. I develop the idea that while sight and hearing form the melody line of art appreciation, touch is its bass line, one that is…

  3. Alertness - decreased

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of alertness; Decreased consciousness; Changes in consciousness; Obtundation; Coma; Unresponsiveness ... chap 52. Huff JS. Altered mental status and coma. In: Tintinalli JE, Kelen GD, Stapczynski JS, Ma ...

  4. The Sensory Neurons of Touch

    PubMed Central

    Abraira, Victoria E.; Ginty, David D.

    2013-01-01

    The somatosensory system decodes a wide range of tactile stimuli and thus endows us with a remarkable capacity for object recognition, texture discrimination, sensory-motor feedback and social exchange. The first step leading to perception of innocuous touch is activation of cutaneous sensory neurons called low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs). Here, we review the properties and functions of LTMRs, emphasizing the unique tuning properties of LTMR subtypes and the organizational logic of their peripheral and central axonal projections. We discuss the spinal cord neurophysiological representation of complex mechanical forces acting upon the skin and current views of how tactile information is processed and conveyed from the spinal cord to the brain. An integrative model in which ensembles of impulses arising from physiologically distinct LTMRs are integrated and processed in somatotopically aligned mechanosensory columns of the spinal cord dorsal horn underlies the nervous system’s enormous capacity for perceiving the richness of the tactile world. PMID:23972592

  5. MATH 132 Solutions to Midterm 2 (papaya) 1.10 pts According to the poem by Ogden Nash,

    E-print Network

    Sutherland, Scott

    MATH 132 Solutions to Midterm 2 (papaya) 1.10 pts According to the poem by Ogden Nash, Big fleas to Midterm 2 (papaya) Wednesday, April 10, 2013 #12;Page 3 of 3 (Strictly speaking, to use the integral test

  6. SGI -Feature Story: Papaya Genome Sequencing Project Opens Vast Ar... http://www.sgi.com/company_info/features/2007/papaya.html 1 of 4 3/5/2008 12:31 PM

    E-print Network

    Alam, Maqsudul

    SGI - Feature Story: Papaya Genome Sequencing Project Opens Vast Ar... http://www.sgi.com/company_info/features/2007/papaya.html 1 of 4 3/5/2008 12:31 PM Features Feature Archive Related Sites SGI Altix SGI InfiniteStorage Papaya Genome Sequencing Project Opens Vast Array of Agricultural, Scientific and Culinary Opportunities

  7. RECUPERATION OF THE HIGH GERMINABILITY CONDITION OF PAPAYA SEED THROUGH PRIMING TECHNOLOGY AND BIOREGULATORS RECUPERACIÓN DE LA ALTA CAPACIDAD DE GERMINACIÓN DE LA SEMILLA DE PAPAYA MEDIANTE LA TECNOLOGÍA DE PREACONDICIONAMIENTO y BIORREGULADORES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco Bautista-Calles; Guillermo Carrillo-Castañeda; Ángel Villegas-Monter

    Rapid loss of seed viability of Carica papaya L. (papaya) and its high commercial price impairs the availability of high quality seed to growers. Certified papaya seed cv. Maradol was utilized to define practical methodologies to restore the seed germination performance. Seed was submitted to: 1) hydropriming: 4 d of hydropriming rose seed germination up to 84%, 250% more than

  8. Applicability of the chymopapain gene used as endogenous reference gene for transgenic huanong no. 1 papaya detection.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinchao; Yang, Litao; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Haibo; Qian, Bingjun; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-08-12

    The virus-resistant papaya (Carica papaya L.), Huanong no. 1, was the genetically modified (GM) fruit approved for growing in China in 2006. To implement the labeling regulation of GM papaya and its derivates, the development of papaya endogenous reference gene is very necessary for GM papaya detection. Herein, we reported one papaya specific gene, Chymopapain (CHY), as one suitable endogenous reference gene, used for GM papaya identification. Thereafter, we established the conventional and real-time quantitative PCR assays of the CHY gene. In the CHY conventional PCR assay, the limit of detection (LOD) was 25 copies of haploid papaya genome. In the CHY real-time quantitative PCR assay, both the LOD and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were as low as 12.5 copies of haploid papaya genome. Furthermore, we revealed the construct-specific sequence of Chinese GM papaya Huanong no. 1 and developed its conventional and quantitative PCR systems employing the CHY gene as endogenous reference gene. This work is useful for papaya specific identification and GM papaya detection. PMID:19722561

  9. Effects of chitosan and plant extracts on growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, anthracnose levels and quality of papaya fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bautista-Baños; M. Hernández-López; E. Bosquez-Molina; C. L. Wilson

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate the in vitro fungicidal effect of chitosan and aqueous extracts of custard apple leaves, papaya leaves and papaya seeds, and the combination of chitosan and plant extracts on the development of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, which causes anthracnose on papaya. Chitosan at 2.0% and 3.0% had a fungicidal effect on C. gloeosporioides. Extracts alone

  10. Effect of pre-harvest calcium chloride applications on fruit calcium level and post-harvest anthracnose disease of papaya

    E-print Network

    Biggs, Alan R.

    -harvest anthracnose disease of papaya Babak Madani a,*, Mahmud Tengku Muda Mohamed a,**, Alan R. Biggs c , Jugah Kadir October 2013 Keywords: Papaya Anthracnose Calcium Disease incidence Disease severity a b s t r a c t Anthracnose disease of papaya, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz, can cause extensive postharvest

  11. A bio-hybrid anaerobic treatment of papaya processing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, P.Y.; Chou, C.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Hybrid anaerobic treatment of papaya processing wastes is technically feasible. At 30/sup 0/C, the optimal organic loading rates for maximizing organic removal efficiency and methane production are 1.3 and 4.8 g TCOD/1/day, respectively. Elimination of post-handling and treatment of digested effluent can also be achieved. The system is more suitable for those processing plants with a waste amount of more than 3,000 metric tons per year.

  12. Increasing the shelf- life of papaya through vacuum packing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geetha Padmanaban; Kanchana Singaravelu; Susheela Thirumaran Annavi

    The main objective of this study was to increase the shelf life of fruits through vacuum packing. Papaya fruits were pretreated\\u000a with waxing, oil application, purafil packets, tissue paper wrapping given along with control and were packed in 150 gauge\\u000a thickness polyethylene film bags under vacuum and another set of these samples under without vacuum. The fruits were then\\u000a stored

  13. Genome-Wide Comparative Analyses of Microsatellites in Papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianping Wang; Cuixia Chen; Jong-Kuk Na; Qingyi Yu; Shaobin Hou; Robert E. Paull; Paul H. Moore; Maqsudul Alam; Ray Ming

    2008-01-01

    Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), are highly polymorphic and universally distributed in eukaryotes. SSRs\\u000a have been used extensively as sequence tagged markers in genetic studies. Recently, the functional and evolutionary importance\\u000a of SSRs has received considerable attention. Here we report the mining and characterization of the SSRs in papaya genome.\\u000a We analyzed SSRs from 277.4 Mb of whole genome shotgun

  14. SEQUENCE SIMILARITY BETWEEN THE VIRAL CP GENE AND THE TRANSGENE IN TRANSGENIC PAPAYAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) coat protein transgene present in ‘Rainbow’ and ‘SunUp’ papayas disclose high sequence similarity (>89%) to the cp gene from PRSV BR and TH. Despite this, both isolates are able to break down the resistance in ‘Rainbow’, while only the latter is able to do so in ‘Sun...

  15. Atypical internal yellowing of papaya fruit in Hawaii caused by Enterobacter sakazakii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal yellowing (IY), characterized by yellow discolored tissue around the papaya (Carica papaya) seed cavity, diffuse margins and the presence of a distinctly rotten odor, was first reported in 1987. These symptoms were associated with the causal agent Enterobacter cloacae. Here we report the fo...

  16. Papaya is not a host for Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The economic value of tomato production is threatened by tomato yellow leaf-curl virus TYLCV and its vector, the silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Use of papaya Carica papaya L. as a banker plant for a whitefly parasitoid shows promise as a whitefly m...

  17. Evaluating Hawaii-Grown Papaya for Resistance to Internal Yellowing Disease Caused by Enterobacter cloacae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivars and breeding lines were evaluated for resistance to Enterobacter cloacae (Jordan) Hormaeche & Edwards, the bacterial causal agent of internal yellowing disease (IY), using a range of concentrations of the bacterium. Linear regression analysis was performed and IY ...

  18. DEVELOPING TRANSGENIC PAPAYA TO IMPROVE BROAD DISEASE RESISTANCE AGAINST FUNGAL PATHOGENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.), one of the more important fruit crops of the tropics, has limited resistance to a range of fungal pathogens that may kill the plants or, at a minimum, reduce productivity and quality of the fruit. Phytoalexins have been shown to be important natural components in the defe...

  19. Benzyl isothiocyanate is the chief or sole anthelmintic in papaya seed extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohan Kermanshai; Brian E McCarry; Jack Rosenfeld; Peter S Summers; Elizabeth A Weretilnyk; George J Sorger

    2001-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) seeds were extracted in an aqueous buffer or in organic solvents, fractionated by chromatography on silica and aliquots tested for anthelmintic activity by viability assays using Caenorhabditis elegans. For all preparations and fractions tested, anthelmintic activity and benzyl isothiocyanate content correlated positively. Aqueous extracts prepared from heat-treated seeds had no anthelmintic activity or benzyl isothiocyanate content although

  20. A current overview of the Papaya meleira virus, an unusual plant virus.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Paolla M V; Antunes, Tathiana F S; Magaña-Álvarez, Anuar; Pérez-Brito, Daisy; Tapia-Tussell, Raúl; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Antonio A R; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2015-04-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease, which is characterized by a spontaneous exudation of fluid and aqueous latex from the papaya fruit and leaves. The latex oxidizes after atmospheric exposure, resulting in a sticky feature on the fruit from which the name of the disease originates. PMeV is an isometric virus particle with a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome of approximately 12 Kb. Unusual for a plant virus, PMeV particles are localized on and linked to the polymers present in the latex. The ability of the PMeV to inhabit such a hostile environment demonstrates an intriguing interaction of the virus with the papaya. A hypersensitivity response is triggered against PMeV infection, and there is a reduction in the proteolytic activity of papaya latex during sticky disease. In papaya leaf tissues, stress responsive proteins, mostly calreticulin and proteasome-related proteins, are up regulated and proteins related to metabolism are down-regulated. Additionally, PMeV modifies the transcription of several miRNAs involved in the modulation of genes related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Until now, no PMeV resistant papaya genotype has been identified and roguing is the only viral control strategy available. However, a single inoculation of papaya plants with PMeV dsRNA delayed the progress of viral infection. PMID:25856636

  1. A genetic linkage map of papaya based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Sondur; R. M. Manshardt; J. I. Stiles

    1996-01-01

    A genetic linkage map of papaya (Carica papaya L.) was constructed using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and a F2 population derived from a University of Hawaii UH breeding line 356 x ‘Sunrise’ cross. A total of 596 10-mer primers were screened, and 96 polymorphisms were detected. At LOD 4.0, 62 of these markers mapped to 11 linkage groups

  2. On the evolution and molecular epidemiology of the potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marion F. Bateson; Rosemarie E. Lines; Peter Revill; Worawan Chaleeprom; Cuong V. Ha; Adrian J. Gibbs; James L. Dale

    2002-01-01

    The potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is found throughout the tropics and subtropics. Its P biotype is a devastating pathogen of papaya crops and its W biotype of cucurbits. PRSV-P is thought to arise by mutation from PRSV-W. However, the relative impact of mutation and movement on the structure of PRSV populations is not well characterized. To investigate this, we

  3. Chlorophyll fluorescence as a tool to evaluate the ripening of ‘Golden’ papaya fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilana Urbano Bron; Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro; Marisa Azzolini; Angelo Pedro Jacomino; Eduardo Caruso Machado

    2004-01-01

    Fruit classification based on one or more physical or physiological attributes is important to improve quality during storage and marketing. Our objectives were to evaluate changes in chlorophyll fluorescence of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. cv. Golden) at different ripeness stages and during the ripening to determine if this non-destructive technique might assist the evaluation of fruit ripeness. Maximal (Fm),

  4. The phytopathology of Australian papaya dieback: a proposed role for the phytoplasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N. Guthrie; K. B. Walsh; P. T. Scott; T. S. Rasmussen

    2001-01-01

    Australian papaya dieback is a severe phytoplasma related disease of papaya in which plant apical death can be observed within 2 weeks of first visible external symptom expression, and 3 weeks of first detection of phytoplasma in host tissue. The pathological mechanisms involved in this disease, and indeed in phytoplasma diseases in general, are unclear. We have attempted to contribute

  5. Elicitor-induced Plant Defense and Pathogenesis-Related Gene Expression in Carica papaya L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The basic elements of a papaya systemic acquired resistance (SAR) pathway have been reported to resemble that described in Arabidopsis thaliana. An NPR1 (nonexpresser of pathogenesis-related genes) homolog (CpNPR1) was isolated from papaya and partially characterized (Zhu et al., 2003). To character...

  6. Preharvest factors and the heat sensitivity of field-grown ripening papaya fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Paull

    1995-01-01

    Mesocarp softening during papaya (Carica papaya L.) ripening was impaired by heating so that areas of the flesh failed to soften. Disruption of the softening process varied with harvest date. The sensitivity of fruit to the injurious treatment was greatest during the winter months. During January, exposure to more than 27 min at 49 °C was sufficient to induce areas

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Erwinia mallotivora BT-MARDI, Causative Agent of Papaya Dieback Disease.

    PubMed

    Redzuan, R Ahmad; Abu Bakar, N; Rozano, L; Badrun, R; Mat Amin, N; Mohd Raih, M F

    2014-01-01

    Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya trees infected with dieback disease, which were planted at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Malaysia. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of E. mallotivora BT-MARDI, which offers an important source of information for understanding pathogen and host interaction during papaya dieback development. PMID:24812220

  8. Comparative Study of Quality Changes in Shea Butter Coated Pawpaw Carica papaya Fruit During Storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. O. Adetuyi; T. A. Ayileye; I. B. O. Dada

    2008-01-01

    2 Abstract: The storage of shea butter coated pawpaw carica papaya fruit at different storage temperature was investigated as regard the nutrients, sugars and minerals. Freshly harvested just ripe fruit of pawpaw carica papaya was coated with shea butter and stored at room temperature (27 C±1 C), refrigeration temperature o o galactose) and minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn) were

  9. Investigation of "Thermal Touch" Response of Coated Steel Plates Employing Square-Wave-Excited Photothermal Infrared Radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Preethy; Rajesh, Ravindran; Xiong, Jichuan; Glorieux, Christ

    2012-11-01

    When a person is touching an object, which is at a different temperature than the person's body, heat starts to flow from the body to the object (or in the other direction), and as a result, the temperature of the skin starts to decrease (increase), leading to a cold (warm) perception of the object's temperature. It is well accepted that the degree of thermal impact of touching the free surface of a bulk material is determined by the thermal effusivity of that material. In this study, the more complicated situation of touching a coating covering a substrate with different thermal properties is studied. Insight in the involved heat transport effects and their effect on the thermal touch is gained by a photothermal model experiment in which the effect of touching on the measured surface temperature, and from there, the calculated heat flux is mimicked by the effect of illumination by laser light.

  10. Stay in Touch in Crisis Situations

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and activated to summon help. Consider also location-tracking devices such as the On-Star system in automobiles or other wireless technology integrated into watches and cell phones. O utline your STAY IN TOUCH plan in ...

  11. A cuttable multi-touch sensor

    E-print Network

    Olberding, Simon

    We propose cutting as a novel paradigm for ad-hoc customization of printed electronic components. As a first instantiation, we contribute a printed capacitive multi-touch sensor, which can be cut by the end-user to modify ...

  12. Bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus plantarum ST16Pa isolated from papaya ( Carica papaya) — From isolation to application: Characterization of a bacteriocin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svetoslav D. Todorov; Hervé Prévost; Martine Lebois; Xavier Dousset; Jean Guy LeBlanc; Bernadette D. G. M. Franco

    2011-01-01

    Strain ST16PA, isolated from papaya was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum based on biochemical tests, PCR with species-specific primers and 16S rDNA sequencing. L. plantarum ST16PA produces a 6.5kDa bacteriocin, active against different species from genera Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus and different serotypes of Listeria spp. The peptide is inactivated by proteolytic enzymes, but not when treated with

  13. Feasibility of using papaya skin extract for digestion of swamp eel viscera for harvesting infective stage larva of Gnathostoma spp.

    PubMed

    Soogarun, Suphan; Lertlum, Thamaporn; Suwansaksri, Jamsai; Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we reported the feasibility of using papaya skin extract (Carica papaya L.) as an alternative to enzyme pepsin in harvesting Gnathostoma spinigerum third-stage larvae. From experimental digestion, we found that the different numbers of recovered larvae between papaya skin extract and pepsin were not statistically significant (p >0.05). When the derived larvae from pepsin and papaya skin extract digestion were cultivated in BME medium for 7 days, the survival rates were not significantly different either (p >0.05). Thus, papaya skin extract might be another choice for recovering Gnathostoma spinigerum third-stage larvae. PMID:16438187

  14. Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya

    PubMed Central

    Oduola, Taofeeq; Bello, Ibrahim; Idowu, Thomas; Avwioro, Godwin; Adeosun, Ganiyu; Olatubosun, Luqman

    2010-01-01

    Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results: Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion: No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. PMID:22574295

  15. Touch-less Fingerprint Recognition System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Y. Hiew; A. B. J. Teoh; Y. H. Pang

    2007-01-01

    Touch-less fingerprint recognition is regarded as a viable alternative to contact-based fingerprint recognition technology. It provides a near ideal solution to the problems in terms of hygienic, maintenance and latent fingerprints. In this paper, we present a touch-less fingerprint recognition system by using a digital camera. Specifically, we address the constraints of the fingerprint images that were acquired with digital

  16. Genome sequence comparison reveals a candidate gene involved in male-hermaphrodite differentiation in papaya (Carica papaya) trees.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Hiroki; Urasaki, Naoya; Natsume, Satoshi; Yoshida, Kentaro; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Terauchi, Ryohei; Matsumura, Hideo

    2015-04-01

    The sex type of papaya (Carica papaya) is determined by the pair of sex chromosomes (XX, female; XY, male; and XY(h), hermaphrodite), in which there is a non-recombining genomic region in the Y and Y(h) chromosomes. This region is presumed to be involved in determination of males and hermaphrodites; it is designated as the male-specific region in the Y chromosome (MSY) and the hermaphrodite-specific region in the Y(h) chromosome (HSY). Here, we identified the genes determining male and hermaphrodite sex types by comparing MSY and HSY genomic sequences. In the MSY and HSY genomic regions, we identified 14,528 nucleotide substitutions and 965 short indels with a large gap and two highly diverged regions. In the predicted genes expressed in flower buds, we found no nucleotide differences leading to amino acid changes between the MSY and HSY. However, we found an HSY-specific transposon insertion in a gene (SVP like) showing a similarity to the Short Vegetative Phase (SVP) gene. Study of SVP-like transcripts revealed that the MSY allele encoded an intact protein, while the HSY allele encoded a truncated protein. Our findings demonstrated that the SVP-like gene is a candidate gene for male-hermaphrodite determination in papaya. PMID:25416421

  17. Physico-chemical and sensory quality of fresh cut papaya (Carica papaya) packaged in micro-perforated polyvinyl chloride containers.

    PubMed

    Jayathunge, K G L R; Gunawardhana, D K S N; Illeperuma, D C K; Chandrajith, U G; Thilakarathne, B M K S; Fernando, M D; Palipane, K B

    2014-12-01

    Papaya cubes at maturity stages, 5-45 % yellow (more green than yellow) and 55-80 % yellow (more yellow than green) were washed with 5 % H2O2, drained and packaged in PVC trays having five, seven and ten micro-perforations and stored for 19 days. PVC trays with 3 mm diameter punch holes were used as the control. Based on physico-chemical properties, optimum maturity for papaya and micro-perforation level of PVC trays were determined. Effectiveness of citric acid in prevention of browning was also tested. Firmness and TSS changed significantly, on day 19. O2, CO2 and C2H4 concentration changed 2.4 to 4.2 %, 23.4 to 5.9 %, and 0 to 0.13 % respectively, from day 3 to 19. pH and titratable acidity did not change significantly throughout the storage. Pretreated papaya cubes, packaged in PVC trays with ten micro-perforations, kept under 4 °C had storage lives of 19 days. PMID:25477661

  18. Essential Touch: Meeting the Needs of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Frances M.

    2006-01-01

    Learn how to safely incorporate touch in the early childhood setting and how to prepare children to confront troubling touch-related situations that may arise outside your setting. Following Acknowledgments, the book includes the following six chapters: (1) Taking a Look at Touch; (2) The Importance of Touch in Development and Learning; (3)…

  19. Plasma response to a single dose of dietary ?-cryptoxanthin esters from papaya (Carica papaya L.) or non-esterified ?-cryptoxanthin in adult human subjects: a comparative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dietmar E. Breithaupt; Philipp Weller; Maike Wolters; Andreas Hahn

    2003-01-01

    Many orange-coloured fruits contain b-cryptoxanthin in its non-esterified as well as its esterified form. Information concerning the absorp- tion of b-cryptoxanthin, especially with regard to the metabolism of its fatty acid esters, is rather scarce. The present study assessed the plasma concentration reached after consumption of a single dose of native b-cryptoxanthin esters from papaya (Carica papaya L.) or non-

  20. Touch. The beneficial effects for the surgical patient.

    PubMed

    Tovar, M K; Cassmeyer, V L

    1989-05-01

    Touch can cause positive or negative neurophysiological responses. In the OR, nurses do a great deal of touching, and they need to be aware of the appropriateness of their touch. Touch can be an alternative mode of conveying empathy and caring for certain patients when it is difficult for the nurse to communicate verbal empathy. Touch assessments and interventions need to be included in perioperative nursing care plans to promote the patient's comfort and avoid unwanted physiological responses from the patient. PMID:2729967

  1. Definition Of Touch-Sensitive Zones For Graphical Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Burt L., III; Jones, Denise R.

    1988-01-01

    Touch zones defined simply by touching, while editing done automatically. Development of touch-screen interactive computing system, tedious task. Interactive Editor for Definition of Touch-Sensitive Zones computer program increases efficiency of human/machine communications by enabling user to define each zone interactively, minimizing redundancy in programming and eliminating need for manual computation of boundaries of touch areas. Information produced during editing process written to data file, to which access gained when needed by application program.

  2. [Effect of the addition of tropical fruits--pineapple (Ananas comosus) and papaya (Carica papaya)--on the production of biological silage from fish].

    PubMed

    Bello, R; Cardillo, E; Martínez, R

    1993-09-01

    Microbial Fish Silage was produced from under-utilized fish mixed with juice and waste fruits (pineapple and papaya) at 35 degrees C. Six different products were elaborated as following: A: fish muscle with pineapple juice; B: fish muscle with fruit wastes; C: gutted fish with pineapple juice; D: gutted fish with fruit wastes; E: whole fish with pineapple juice; F: whole fish with fruit wastes. Process development was evaluated by measuring: pH, acidity, non-protein nitrogen, consistency and exudate liquid. Results indicated a slow decrease in pH value and production of acidity during 20 storage days. The addition of fruits to silage did not have any effect on these values. Silage liquefaction or hydrolysis was related to the following parameters: consistency, non-protein nitrogen and exudate liquid. The addition of fruits was related to silage liquefaction or hydrolysis, and it was measured by the consistency. Exudate liquid and non-protein nitrogen increased during storage time. However silage made from whole fish showed highest values in those parameters than other processing conditions. This results suggested that hydrolysis involve first enzymes from guts and second enzymes from muscle and head. Pineapple juice did not contribute to hydrolysis process. Mainly sensory changes in the silage occurs during first 24 hours and they were related to chemical changes. Proximal analysis did not change during silage process and microbial counts indicated the freshness of raw material used i this study. PMID:8779625

  3. Automatic segmentation of overlapping and touching chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhiqiang; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Renli; Yu, Chang

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes a technique to segment overlapping and touching chromosomes of human metaphase cells. Automated chromosome classification has been an important pattern recognition problem for decades, numerous attempts were made in the past to characterize chromosome band patterns. But successful separation between touching and overlapping chromosomes is vital for correct classification. Since chromosomes are non-rigid objects, common methods for separation between touching chromosomes are not usable. We proposed a method using shape concave and convex information, topology analysis information, and band pale paths for segmentation of touching and overlapping chromosomes. To detect shape concave and convex information, we should first pre-segment the chromosomes and get the edge of overlapping and touching chromosomes. After filtering the original image using edge-preserving filter, we adopt the Otsu's segmentation method and extract the boundary of chromosomes. Hence the boundary can be used for segment the overlapping and touching chromosomes by detecting the concave and convex information based on boundary information. Most of the traditional boundary-based algorithms detect corners based on two steps: the first step is to acquire the smoothed version of curvature at every point along the contour, and the second step is to detect the positions where curvature maximal occur and threshold the curvature as corner points. Recently wavelet transform has been adopted into corner detection algorithms. Since the metaphase overlapping chromosomes has multi-scale corners, we adopt a multi-scale corner detection method based on Hua's method for corner detection. For touching chromosomes, it is convenient to split them using pale paths. Starting from concave corner points, a search algorithm is represented. The searching algorithm traces three pixels into the object in the direction of the normal vector in order to avoid stopping at the initial boundary until it reaches to another boundary or tracing route. For overlapping chromosomes, the searching algorithm fails. We proposed a topology information based method for analyzing overlapping and touching chromosomes. Mihail Popescu adopts Cross Section Sequence Graph (CSSG) method for shape analyzing. Gady Agam proposed Discrete Curvature Function for splitting touching and overlapping chromosomes. But due to the non-rigid property of chromosomes, it is hard to determine the actual topology structure of chromosomes. In this paper we proposed a new method to produce topology information of chromosomes and had got good results in chromosome segmentation.

  4. A New NASA Book: Touch the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grice, N. A.

    2005-05-01

    People who are blind or visually impaired rely partly on their sense of touch to help paint pictures of objects and places in their mind's eye; however, astronomy and space science are, by nature, generally inaccessible to the touch. The universe, as seen by the Hubble Space Telescope, was made hands-on in 2002 with the publication of Touch the Universe: A NASA Braille Book of Astronomy. This year, the Sun becomes an accessible object in a new universally designed publication called Touch the Sun. Touch the Sun contains text pages with both print and Braille. It features colorful embossed images from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) spacecraft. There is also a close-up picture of a sunspot from the National Solar Observatory at Sacramento Peak. Textures of swirling gas currents, dark sunspots, curving magnetic fields and explosive eruptions emphasize the dynamic nature of the Sun. The prototype images were tested with students from the Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind; the images were revised, based upon their evaluations. Drs. Joe Gurman and Steele Hill from the Goddard Space Flight Center served as scientific consultants. Learn more about this special resource and try out some of the tactile images yourself!

  5. The Evolutionary Tempo of Sex Chromosome Degradation in Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng; Moore, Richard C

    2015-06-01

    Genes on non-recombining heterogametic sex chromosomes may degrade over time through the irreversible accumulation of deleterious mutations. In papaya, the non-recombining male-specific region of the Y (MSY) consists of two evolutionary strata corresponding to chromosomal inversions occurring approximately 7.0 and 1.9 MYA. The step-wise recombination suppression between the papaya X and Y allows for a temporal examination of the degeneration progress of the young Y chromosome. Comparative evolutionary analyses of 55 X/Y gene pairs showed that Y-linked genes have more unfavorable substitutions than X-linked genes. However, this asymmetric evolutionary pattern is confined to the oldest stratum, and is only observed when recently evolved pseudogenes are included in the analysis, indicating a slow degeneration tempo of the papaya Y chromosome. Population genetic analyses of coding sequence variation of six Y-linked focal loci in the oldest evolutionary stratum detected an excess of nonsynonymous polymorphism and reduced codon bias relative to autosomal loci. However, this pattern was also observed for corresponding X-linked loci. Both the MSY and its corresponding X-specific region are pericentromeric where recombination has been shown to be greatly reduced. Like the MSY region, overall selective efficacy on the X-specific region may be reduced due to the interference of selective forces between highly linked loci, or the Hill-Robertson effect, that is accentuated in regions of low or suppressed recombination. Thus, a pattern of gene decay on the X-specific region may be explained by relaxed purifying selection and widespread genetic hitchhiking due to its pericentromeric location. PMID:25987354

  6. Cyanogenic allosides and glucosides from Passiflora edulis and Carica papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Seigler; Guido F. Pauli; Adolf Nahrstedt; Rosemary Leen

    2002-01-01

    Leaf and stem material of Passiflora edulis (Passifloraceae) contains the new cyanogenic glycosides (2R)–?-d-allopyranosyloxy-2-phenylacetonitrile (1a) and (2S)–?-d-allopyranosyloxy-2-phenylacetonitrile (1b), along with smaller amounts of (2R)–prunasin (2a), sambunigrin (2b), and the alloside of benzyl alcohol (4); the major cyanogens of the fruits are (2R)–prunasin (2a) and (2S)–sambunigrin (2b). The major cyanogenic glycoside of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) is 2a; only small amounts of

  7. Rickettsial Relative Associated with Papaya Bunchy Top Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Davis; Zhentu Ying; Bryan R. Brunner; Alberto Pantoja; Feiko H. Ferwerda

    1998-01-01

    .   The phylogeny of a previously unidentified, obligate laticifer-inhabiting bacterium associated with the papaya bunchy top\\u000a disease was investigated. Portions of genes corresponding to those for 16S rRNA, the flavoprotein subunit of succinate dehydrogenase\\u000a (SdhA), citrate synthase (GltA), and the 17-kDa rickettsial common antigen were isolated and sequenced from the non-cultivable\\u000a bacterium from diseased plants. Comparative sequence analyses consistently indicated

  8. Efficient capacitive touch sensing using structured matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, Humza; Kakarala, Ramakrishna

    2015-03-01

    Compressive sensing is a technique used in signal processing applications to reduce sampling time. This paper talks about an efficient sampling framework based on compressive sensing for capacitive touch technology. We aim to minimize the number of measurements required during capacitance touch sensing process and in order to achieve this, we use structured matrices which can be used as a driving sensing framework for a touch controller. The novel contribution of this research is that we have modelled our recovery algorithm according to the structure of our sampling matrix, thus making it extremely efficient and simple to implement in a practical application. In this paper, we exploit the structure of the sensing matrix and conduct experiments to test the robustness of our proposed algorithm. Calculations of the floating point multiplication operations for the reconstruction algorithm and sensing matrix have also been looked into detail.

  9. The gentle touch receptors of mammalian skin

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Amanda; Bai, Ling; Ginty, David D.

    2015-01-01

    The skin is our largest sensory organ, transmitting pain, temperature, itch, and touch information to the central nervous system. Touch sensations are conveyed by distinct combinations of mechanosensory end organs and the low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) that innervate them. Here we explore the various structures underlying the diverse functions of cutaneous LTMR end organs. Beyond anchoring of LTMRs to the surrounding dermis and epidermis, recent evidence suggests that the non-neuronal components of end organs play an active role in signaling to LTMRs and may physically gate force-sensitive channels in these receptors. Combined with LTMR intrinsic properties, the balance of these factors comprises the response properties of mechanosensory neurons and, thus, the neural encoding of touch. PMID:25414303

  10. Merkel cells and neurons keep in touch.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seung-Hyun; Lumpkin, Ellen A; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-02-01

    The Merkel cell-neurite complex is a unique vertebrate touch receptor comprising two distinct cell types in the skin. Its presence in touch-sensitive skin areas was recognized more than a century ago, but the functions of each cell type in sensory transduction have been unclear. Three recent studies demonstrate that Merkel cells are mechanosensitive cells that function in touch transduction via Piezo2. One study concludes that Merkel cells, rather than sensory neurons, are principal sites of mechanotransduction, whereas two other studies report that both Merkel cells and neurons encode mechanical inputs. Together, these studies settle a long-standing debate on whether or not Merkel cells are mechanosensory cells, and enable future investigations of how these skin cells communicate with neurons. PMID:25480024

  11. The gentle touch receptors of mammalian skin.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Amanda; Bai, Ling; Ginty, David D

    2014-11-21

    The skin is our largest sensory organ, transmitting pain, temperature, itch, and touch information to the central nervous system. Touch sensations are conveyed by distinct combinations of mechanosensory end organs and the low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) that innervate them. Here we explore the various structures underlying the diverse functions of cutaneous LTMR end organs. Beyond anchoring of LTMRs to the surrounding dermis and epidermis, recent evidence suggests that the non-neuronal components of end organs play an active role in signaling to LTMRs and may physically gate force-sensitive channels in these receptors. Combined with LTMR intrinsic properties, the balance of these factors comprises the response properties of mechanosensory neurons and, thus, the neural encoding of touch. PMID:25414303

  12. Touch and Go Surface Sampler (TGSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorevan, S. P.; Rafeek, S.

    2001-01-01

    The Touch and Go Surface Sampler (TGSS) is a new class of planetary and small body sample acquisition tool that can be used for the surface exploration of Europa, Titan and comets. TGSS in its basic configuration consists of a high speed sampling head attached to the end of a flexible shaft. The sampling head consists of counter rotating cutters that rotates at speeds of 3000 to 15000 RPM. The attractive feature of this if touch and go type sampler is that there are no requirements for a lander type spacecraft. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Cysteine proteinases from papaya (Carica papaya) in the treatment of experimental Trichuris suis infection in pigs: two randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cysteine proteinases (CPs) from papaya (Carica papaya) possess anthelmintic properties against human soil-transmitted helminths (STH, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm), but there is a lack of supportive and up-to-date efficacy data. We therefore conducted two randomized controlled trials in pigs to assess the efficacy of papaya CPs against experimental infections with T. suis. Methods First, we assessed efficacy by means of egg (ERR) and adult worm reduction rate (WRR) of a single-oral dose of 450 ?mol active CPs (CP450) against low (inoculum of 300 eggs) and high (inoculum of 3,000 eggs) intensity T. suis infections and compared the efficacy with those obtained after a single-oral dose of 400 mg albendazole (ALB). In the second trial, we determined and compared the efficacy of a series of CP doses (45 [CP45], 115 [CP115], 225 [CP225], and 450 [CP450] ?mol) against high intensity infections. Results CP450 was highly efficacious against both levels of infection intensity, resulting in ERR and WRR of more than 97%. For both levels of infection intensity, CP450 was significantly more efficacious compared to ALB by means of WRR (low infection intensity: 99.0% vs. 39.0%; high infection intensity; 97.4% vs. 23.2%). When the efficacy was assessed by ERR, a significant difference was only observed for high intensity infections, CP450 being more efficacious than ALB (98.9% vs. 59.0%). For low infection intensities, there was no significant difference in ERR between CP450 (98.3%) and ALB (64.4%). The efficacy of CPs increased as a function of increasing dose. When determined by ERR, the efficacy ranged from 2.1% for CP45 to 99.2% for CP450. For WRR the results varied from -14.0% to 99.0%, respectively. Pairwise comparison revealed a significant difference in ERR and WRR only between CP45 and CP450, the latter being more efficacious. Conclusions A single dose of 450 ?mol CPs provided greater efficacy against T. suis infections in pigs than a single-oral dose of 400 mg ALB. Although these results highlight the possibility of papaya CPs for controlling human STH, further development is needed in order to obtain and validate an oral formulation for human application. PMID:24886388

  14. Dissociating the Neural Correlates of Experiencing and Imagining Affective Touch.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Molly V; Anderson, Laura C; Bolling, Danielle Z; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Kaiser, Martha D

    2014-04-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examined experiencing and imagining gentle arm and palm touch to determine whether these processes activate overlapping or distinct brain regions. Although past research shows brain responses to experiencing and viewing touch, this study investigates neural processing of touch absent of visual stimulation. C-tactile (CT) nerves, present in hairy skin, respond specifically to caress-like touch. CT-targeted touch activates "social brain" regions including insula, right posterior superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, temporal poles, and orbitofrontal cortex ( McGlone et al. 2012). We addressed whether activations reflect sensory input-driven mechanisms, cognitive-based mechanisms, or both. We identified a functional dissociation between insula regions. Posterior insula responded during experienced touch. Anterior insula responded during both experienced and imagined touch. To isolate stimulus-independent mechanisms recruited during physical experience of CT-targeted touch, we identified regions active to experiencing and imagining such touch. These included amygdala and temporal pole. We posit that the dissociation of insula function suggests posterior and anterior insula involvement in distinct yet interacting processes: coding physical stimulation and affective interpretation of touch. Regions active during experiencing and imagining CT-targeted touch are associated with social processes indicating that imagining touch conjures affective aspects of experiencing such touch. PMID:24700583

  15. Cyanogenic allosides and glucosides from Passiflora edulis and Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Seigler, David S; Pauli, Guido F; Nahrstedt, Adolf; Leen, Rosemary

    2002-08-01

    Leaf and stem material of Passiflora edulis (Passifloraceae) contains the new cyanogenic glycosides (2R)-beta-D-allopyranosyloxy-2-phenylacetonitrile (1a) and (2S)-beta-D-allopyranosyloxy-2-phenylacetonitrile (1b), along with smaller amounts of (2R)-prunasin (2a), sambunigrin (2b), and the alloside of benzyl alcohol (4); the major cyanogens of the fruits are (2R)-prunasin (2a) and (2S)-sambunigrin (2b). The major cyanogenic glycoside of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) is 2a; only small amounts of 2b also are present. We were not able to confirm the presence of a cyclopentenoid cyanogenic glycoside, tetraphyllin B, in Carica papaya leaf and stem materials. In detailed 1H NMR studies of 1a/b and 2a/b, differences in higher order effects in glucosides and allosides proved to be valuable for assignment of structures in this series. The diagnostic chemical shifts of cyanogenic methine and anomeric protons in 1a/b are sensitive to anisotropic environmental effects. The assignment of C-2 stereochemistry of 1a/b was made in analogy to previous assignments in the glucoside series and was supported by GLC analysis of the TMS ethers. PMID:12150815

  16. The treatment of paediatric burns using topical papaya.

    PubMed

    Starley, I F; Mohammed, P; Schneider, G; Bickler, S W

    1999-11-01

    Due to the limited resources for the management of burns in most regions of Africa there is a significant role for many aspects of traditional African medicine. The active component of many traditional preparations is often of plant origin and more than 25 plants have been described as useful in relations to burns and wound healing. Carica papaya is currently used in The Gambia at the Royal Victoria Hospital, Banjul in the Paediatric Unit as the major component of burns dressings, where it is well tolerated by the children. Cheap and widely available, the pulp of the papaya fruit is mashed and applied daily to full thickness and infected burns. It appears to be effective in desloughing necrotic tissue, preventing burn wound infection, and providing a granulating wound suitable for the application of a split thickness skin graft. Possible mechanisms of action include the activity of proteolytic enzymes chymopapain and papain, as well as an antimicrobial activity, although further studies are required. PMID:10563690

  17. The ability of Papaya ringspot virus strains overcoming the transgenic resistance of papaya conferred by the coat protein gene is not correlated with higher degrees of sequence divergence from the transgene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Savarni Tripathi; Huey-jiunn Bau; Li-fang Chen; Shyi-dong Yeh

    2004-01-01

    The coat protein (CP) gene mediated transgenic resistance is found to be the best approach for protecting papaya plants against the destructive disease caused by Papaya ringspot viruses(PRSV). In order to study the variability of PRSV and the potential threat to the CP-transgenic resistance, five virus isolates were collected from transgenic plants of papaya line 16-0-1, which carry the CP

  18. Analysis of papaya cell wall-related genes during fruit ripening indicates a central role of polygalacturonases during pulp softening.

    PubMed

    Fabi, João Paulo; Broetto, Sabrina Garcia; da Silva, Sarah Lígia Garcia Leme; Zhong, Silin; Lajolo, Franco Maria; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a climacteric fleshy fruit that undergoes dramatic changes during ripening, most noticeably a severe pulp softening. However, little is known regarding the genetics of the cell wall metabolism in papayas. The present work describes the identification and characterization of genes related to pulp softening. We used gene expression profiling to analyze the correlations and co-expression networks of cell wall-related genes, and the results suggest that papaya pulp softening is accomplished by the interactions of multiple glycoside hydrolases. The polygalacturonase cpPG1 appeared to play a central role in the network and was further studied. The transient expression of cpPG1 in papaya results in pulp softening and leaf necrosis in the absence of ethylene action and confirms its role in papaya fruit ripening. PMID:25162506

  19. Wound healing properties of Carica papaya latex: In vivo evaluation in mice burn model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shila Gurung; Nataša Škalko-Basnet

    2009-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevanceCarica papaya is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment of various wounds, particularly burns.

  20. 63 FR 12383 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables; Papayas From Brazil and Costa Rica

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-03-13

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...96-046-5] Importation of Fruits and Vegetables; Papayas From Brazil...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...the importation of fruits and vegetables into the United...

  1. Electrical Stimulation of Pain and Touch Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert H. Gibson

    1963-01-01

    To take best advantage of cutaneous channels for communication, information must be translated into a form compatible with perceptual properties of the touch sense. To find whether such channels are effective other than as providing mere warning information or slow transliteration of speech, one needs systematically to vary cutaneous stimuli along temporal and spatial dimensions to determine the resolving power

  2. A High-Resolution Imaging Touch Sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Daniel Hillis

    1982-01-01

    A dexterous robot manipulator must be able to feel what it is doing. The mechanical hand of the future will be able to roll a screw between its fingers and sense, by touch, which end is which. This paper describes a step toward ssuch a manipulator, an imaging tactile sensor with hundreds of pressure .sensors in a space tlze size

  3. The Role of Touch in Facilitated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezuka, Emiko

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the role of touch in the use of facilitated communication with Japanese individuals with autism. Five experiments were conducted involving a "telepathy game" using a rod with an attached strain gauge. Results found the facilitator's contact controlled the motor responses of the subjects. (Author/CR)

  4. Touch sensitive electrorheological fluid based tactile display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanju; Davidson, Rob; Taylor, Paul

    2005-12-01

    A tactile display is programmable device whose controlled surface is intended to be investigated by human touch. It has a great number of potential applications in the field of virtual reality and elsewhere. In this research, a 5 × 5 tactile display array including electrorheological (ER) fluid has been developed and investigated. Force responses of the tactile display array have been measured while a probe was moved across the upper surface. The purpose of this was to simulate the action of touch performed by human finger. Experimental results show that the sensed surface information could be controlled effectively by adjusting the voltage activation pattern imposed on the tactels. The performance of the tactile display is durable and repeatable. The touch sensitivity of this ER fluid based tactile display array has also been investigated in this research. The results show that it is possible to sense the touching force normal to the display's surface by monitoring the change of current passing through the ER fluid. These encouraging results are helpful for constructing a new type of tactile display based on ER fluid which can act as both sensor and actuator at the same time.

  5. Mechanosensitive channels: in touch with Piezo.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Rui; Xu, X Z Shawn

    2010-11-01

    Mechanosensory transduction underlies touch, hearing and proprioception and requires mechanosensitive channels that are directly gated by forces; however, the molecular identities of these channels remain largely elusive. A new study has identified Piezo1 and Piezo2 as a novel class of mechanosensitive channels. PMID:21056836

  6. Mobile Game Recommendation using Touch Gestures

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng-Wei

    Mobile Game Recommendation using Touch Gestures Hao-Tsung Yang, De-Yu Chen, Ya-Xuan Hong, and Kuan and download more than one hundred thousands of games on mobile app marketplaces; nevertheless, how to pick the best games out of the large pool without spending much time on tryout is very challenging. The common

  7. Multi-Touch Tables and Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Steve; Mercier, Emma; Burd, Liz; Joyce-Gibbons, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The development of multi-touch tables, an emerging technology for classroom learning, offers valuable opportunities to explore how its features can be designed to support effective collaboration in schools. In this study, small groups of 10- to 11-year-old children undertook a history task where they had to connect various pieces of information…

  8. Mechanosensitive Channels: In Touch with Piezo

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Rui; Xu, X.Z. Shawn

    2010-01-01

    Mechanosensory transduction underlies touch, hearing and proprioception and requires mechanosensitive channels that are directly gated by forces; however, the molecular identities of these channels remain largely elusive. A new study has identified Piezo1 and Piezo2 as a novel class of mechanosensitive channels. PMID:21056836

  9. inTouch: A Medium for Haptic Interpersonal Communication

    E-print Network

    Ishii, Hiroshi

    inTouch: A Medium for Haptic Interpersonal Communication Scott Brave and Andrew Dahley MIT Media users separated by distance. Keywords Haptics, interpersonal communication, force feedback, telepresence INTRODUCTION Touch is a fundamental aspect of interpersonal communication. Whether a greeting handshake

  10. Real-time social touch gesture recognition for sensate robots

    E-print Network

    Breazeal, Cynthia Lynn

    This paper describes the hardware and algorithms for a realtime social touch gesture recognition system. Early experiments involve a sensate bear test-rig with full body touch sensing, sensor visualization and gesture ...

  11. Nurses' comfort with touch and workplace well-being.

    PubMed

    Pedrazza, Monica; Minuzzo, Stefania; Berlanda, Sabrina; Trifiletti, Elena

    2015-06-01

    Touch is an essential part of caregiving and has been proved to be useful to reduce pain. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to nurses' perceptions of touch. The aim of this article was to examine the relationship between nurses' feelings of comfort with touch and their well-being at work. A sample of 241 nurses attending a pain management training course completed a questionnaire, including the following measures: Comfort with Touch (CT) scale (task-oriented contact, touch promoting physical comfort, touch providing emotional containment), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI; emotional exhaustion, cynicism), and Job Satisfaction. Results of structural equation models showed that touch providing emotional containment was the main predictor of emotional exhaustion. Emotional exhaustion, in turn, was positively related to cynicism and negatively related to job satisfaction. In addition, the direct path from touch providing emotional containment to cynicism was significant. Practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24658288

  12. Touch and Massage for Medically Fragile Infants

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J.; Gallardo, Constance C.; Joseph, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants’ safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores of the infants receiving massage. Massage in a tertiary urban academic NICU continues to be an area of needed study. Future studies examining infant health outcomes, such as weight gain, decreased length of hospitalization and caregiver–infant bonding, would provide greater insight into the impact of massage for medically fragile infants. PMID:18955228

  13. Touch and massage for medically fragile infants.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J; Gallardo, Constance C; Joseph, Michael H; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2009-12-01

    Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants' safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores of the infants receiving massage. Massage in a tertiary urban academic NICU continues to be an area of needed study. Future studies examining infant health outcomes, such as weight gain, decreased length of hospitalization and caregiver-infant bonding, would provide greater insight into the impact of massage for medically fragile infants. PMID:18955228

  14. Influence of Exogenous Glycine Betaine and Abscisic Acid on Papaya in Responses to Water-deficit Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jalel Mahouachi; Rosa Argamasilla; Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas

    The effects of exogenous foliar glycine betaine (GB) and abscisic acid (ABA) on papaya responses to water stress were investigated\\u000a under distinct water regimes. Papaya seedlings (Carica papaya L. cultivar “BH-65”) were pretreated with GB or ABA and subsequently subjected to consecutive periods of drought, rehydration,\\u000a and a second period of drought conditions. Results indicated that water stress induced ABA,

  15. Microsatellite (GATA)n reveals sex-specific differences in Papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Parasnis; W. Ramakrishna; K. V. Chowdari; V. S. Gupta; P. K. Ranjekar

    1999-01-01

    Papaya, an economically important fruit plant, is polygamous in nature. The sex of dioecious papaya plants can be deduced\\u000a only after they attain reproductive maturity (6–8 months). Normally, 50% of the population in a field is composed of unfruitful\\u000a male plants and almost 45% of these have to be uprooted at the flowering stage. This unnecessary cultivation of unwanted males

  16. Removal and recovery of heavy metals from aqueous solution using papaya wood as a new biosorbent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asma Saeed; M. Waheed Akhter; Muhammed Iqbal

    2005-01-01

    Papaya wood was evaluated as a new biosorbent of heavy metals. On contacting 10mgl?l copper(II), cadmium(II) and zinc(II) solutions with 5gl?1 papaya wood, during shake flask contact time of 60min, the respective metal removal was noted to be 97.8, 94.9 and 66.8%. Sorption was most efficient at pH 5. Metal ion biosorption increased as the ratio of metal solution to

  17. Reversible contraception with chloroform extract of Carica papaya linn. seeds in male rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nirmal K Lohiya; N Pathak; Pradyumna K Mishra; B Manivannan

    1999-01-01

    The contraceptive efficacy and reversibility of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in adult male rabbits were investigated. Eighteen adult male rabbits were divided into three groups of six animals each; Group I—control, Group II—administered chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya at 20 mg\\/animal\\/d for 150 d by gavage, and Group III—administered the seed extract

  18. Methyl jasmonate and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) reduce decay and maintain postharvest quality of papaya ‘Sunrise’

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. González-Aguilar; J. G. Buta; C. Y. Wang

    2003-01-01

    Exposure of papaya (Carica papaya L., cv. Sunrise) fruit to methyl jasmonate (MJ) vapors (10?5 or 10?4 M) for 16 h at 20°C inhibited fungal decay and reduced chilling injury development and loss of firmness during storage for 14–32 days at 10°C and 4 days shelf life at 20°C. MJ-treated fruit also retained higher organic acids than the control fruit.

  19. BIOCONVERSION 'OF PROVITAMIN A CAROTENOIDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTMTY OF CARICA PAPAYA FRUITS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. G. CHANDRIKA; E. R. JANST; N. WICKRAMASINGHE

    Previous studies have shown that the red-fleshed Caricapapaya has significantly higher p-carotene and lycopene than the yellow-fleshed variety. This study with Wistar rats h as shown that irrespective of the colour of the flesh, a significant increase of serum vitamin A is shown only if papaya is fed along with a standard diet (ppapaya

  20. Genomics of Papaya a Common Source of Vitamins in the Tropics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray Ming; Qingyi Yu; Andrea Blas; Cuixia Chen; Jong-Kuk Na; Paul H. Moore

    Papaya is amajor fruit crop of the tropics and is grown to a lesser extent in the subtropics. The genome is small (372 Mbp)\\u000a and has evolutionarily primitive sex chromosomes. These characters justify papaya genomics programs. In addition to whole\\u000a genome sequencing, a second major goal is to completely sequence the male specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) and

  1. Callus culture and plantlet production in Carica papaya (Var. Honey Dew)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mousumi Mondal; Sukumar Gupta; Barid Baran Mukherjee

    1994-01-01

    Summary  In order to develop techniques for efficient callus production and regeneration in Carica papaya (Var. Honey Dew), lamina, petiole, stem and root explants from in vitro plantlets were cultured in media supplemented with 2.0 mg\\/1 IBA and 0.5 mg\\/1 BAP. Use of in vitro-grown plantlets as an explant source helped to avoid contamination common in papaya tissue culture. Callusing was

  2. High frequency somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from papaya hypocotyl callus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maureen M. M. Fitch

    1993-01-01

    High frequency somatic embryogenesis in papaya (Carica papaya L.) tissue cultures was achieved by culturing hypocotyl sections from ten-day-old seedlings on half-strength Murashige and Skoog salts (MS) medium containing modified MS vitamins, 2.3 to 112.5 µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d), 400 mg l-1 glutamine, and 6% sucrose. Four hermaphroditic Hawaiian cultivars produced embryogenic calluses after ten to 14 weeks of culture

  3. Development and application of microsatellite markers for genomic analysis of papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moriah Eustice; Qingyi Yu; Chun Wan Lai; Shaobin Hou; Jyothi Thimmapuram; Lei Liu; Maqsudul Alam; Paul H. Moore; Gernot G. Presting; Ray Ming

    2008-01-01

    Papaya has a relatively small genome, displays high levels of phenotypic diversity, and is amenable to transformation, making\\u000a it attractive as a fruit tree model system. The high level of phenotypic diversity seen among papaya cultivars in the field\\u000a does not correlate with the low levels of genotypic polymorphism thus far elucidated. The highly mutable nature of microsatellites\\u000a or simple

  4. Transcript profiling of papaya fruit reveals differentially expressed genes associated with fruit ripening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    João Paulo Fabi; Luana Regina Baratelli Carelli Mendes; Franco Maria Lajolo; João Roberto Oliveira do Nascimento

    2010-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit has a short shelf life due to fast ripening induced by ethylene, but little is known about the genetic control of ripening and attributes of fruit quality. Therefore, we identified ripening-related genes affected by ethylene using cDNA-AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism of cDNA). Transcript profiling of non-induced and ethylene-induced fruit samples was performed, and 71

  5. Regeneration of transgenic papaya plants via somatic embryogenesis induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Luis Cabrera-Ponce; Ariadne Vegas-Garcia; Luis Herrera-Estrella

    1996-01-01

    AnAgrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated procedure for transformation of papaya (Carica papaya) was developed. Transgenic plants were obtained from somatic embryos that spontaneously formed at the base of transformed\\u000a roots, induced from leaf discs infected withA. rhizogenes. Transformation was monitored by autonomous growth of roots and somatic embryos, resistance to kanamycin, ?-glucuronidase\\u000a activity (GUS), and Southern hybridization analysis. Over one-third of the infected

  6. A SCAR marker for the sex types determination in Colombian genotypes of Carica papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni Chaves-Bedoya; Víctor Nuñez

    2007-01-01

    Sex type determination in papaya (Carica papaya L.) is very important for crop improvement processes because it accelerates the identification of the fruitful plants. The\\u000a use of molecular technology provides a quick and reliable identification of sex types in plantlets growing in seedbeds. Random\\u000a amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to determine the sex types of Colombian cultivars of

  7. Topical use of papaya in chronic skin ulcer therapy in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, H; Whittle, S; Lopez, S; Bailey, E; Weaver, S

    2000-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of the use of the fruit (papaya) of Carica papaya as topical ulcer dressings by registered nurses in the Spanish Town Hospital (STH), Kingston Public Hospital (KPH) and the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI), Jamaica. A ten-item pretested self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 285 randomly selected registered nurses at the UHWI, KPH and STH. There was a 72% response rate. The prevalence of topical papaya use among the respondents was 75%. Comments from the users of papaya suggested that topical application of the unripe fruit promoted desloughing, granulation and healing and reduced odour in chronic skin ulcers. It was cost effective. Papaya was considered to be more effective than other topical applications in the treatment of chronic ulcers. There was some difficulty in preparation of the fruit and occasionally a sensation of burning was reported by the patients. There was concern about the use of a non-sterile, non-standardised procedure but there were no reports of wound infection from its use. Papaya is widely used by nurses as a form of dressing for chronic ulcers and there is need for standardisation of its preparation and application. PMID:10786448

  8. Effect of packaging materials and storage environment on postharvest quality of papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Azene, Mulualem; Workneh, Tilahun Seyoum; Woldetsadik, Kebede

    2014-06-01

    This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of packaging materials and storage environments on shelf life of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.). A factorial combination of five packaging materials and two storage environments using randomized complete block design with three replications were used. The papaya fruits were evaluated for weight loss, percentage marketability, firmness, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar and total sugar content. The packaged and cooled fruits remained firmer than unpackaged and evaporatively cooled fruits. Higher chemical compositions were recorded in the control fruits stored under ambient conditions during the earlier times of storage. Packaging and cooling maintained the chemical quality of papaya fruits better than the control sample fruits towards the end of storage periods. The evaporatively cooled storage combined with packaging improved the shelf life of papaya fruits by more than two fold. The polyethylene bag packaging combined with evaporatively cooled storage maintained the superior quality of papaya fruit for a period of 21 days. This integrated agro-technology is recommended for postharvest loss reduction biotechnology in hot regions. PMID:24876636

  9. Virtual Interpersonal Touch: Expressing and Recognizing Emotions Through Haptic Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy N. Bailenson; Nick Yee; Scott Brave; Dan Merget; David Koslow

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the phenomenon of Virtual Interpersonal Touch (VIT), people touching one another via force-feedback haptic devices. As collaborative virtual environments become utilized more effectively, it is only natural that interactants will have the ability to touch one another. In the work presented here, we used relatively basic devices to begin to explore the expression of emotion through VIT.

  10. Friendly touch increases gratitude by inducing communal feelings

    PubMed Central

    Simão, Cláudia; Seibt, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Communion among people is easily identifiable. Close friends or relatives frequently touch each other and this physical contact helps identifying the type of relationship they have. We tested whether a friendly touch and benefits elicit the emotion of gratitude given the close link between gratitude and communal relations. In Study 1, we induced a communal mindset and manipulated friendly touch (vs. non-touch) and benefit to female participants by a female confederate. We measured pre- and post-benefit gratitude, communal feelings, and liking toward the toucher, as well as general affect. In Study 2, we manipulated mindset, friendly touch and benefit, and measured the same variables in female pairs (confederate and participants). In both studies the results showed a main effect of touch on pre-benefit gratitude: participants who were touched by the confederate indicated more gratitude than those not touched. Moreover, benefit increased gratitude toward a confederate in the absence of touch, but not in the presence of touch. Additionally, perceiving the relationship as communal, and not merely liking the confederate, or a positive mood mediated the link between touch and gratitude. The results further support a causal model where touch increases communal feelings, which in turn increase gratitude at the end of the interaction, after having received a benefit from the interaction partner. These results support a broader definition of gratitude as an emotion embodied in communal relationship cues. PMID:26124737

  11. Helping Hands: Designing Video Games with Interpersonal Touch Interaction

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Helping Hands: Designing Video Games with Interpersonal Touch Interaction Cody Watts1, 2 , Ehud and playing video games. This trend is evidenced by the recent development of interpersonal touch-based games of interpersonal touch-based games have recently been designed, the best practices for creating video games based

  12. Identification of genes expressed in C. elegans touch receptor neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun Zhang; Charles Ma; Thomas Delohery; Brian Nasipak; Barrett C. Foat; Alexander Bounoutas; Harmen J. Bussemaker; Stuart K. Kim; Martin Chalfie

    2002-01-01

    The extent of gene regulation in cell differentiation is poorly understood. We previously used saturation mutagenesis to identify 18 genes that are needed for the development and function of a single type of sensory neuron-the touch receptor neuron for gentle touch in Caenorhabditis elegans. One of these genes, mec-3, encodes a transcription factor that controls touch receptor differentiation. By culturing

  13. Genes Regulating Touch Cell Development in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongping Du; Martin Chalfie

    2001-01-01

    To identify genes regulating the development of the six touch receptor neurons, we screened the F2 progeny of mutated animals expressing an integrated mec-2::gfp transgene that is expressed mainly in these touch cells. From 2638 mutated haploid genomes, we obtained 11 mutations representing 11 genes that affected the production, migration, or outgrowth of the touch cells. Eight of these mutations

  14. Fingerprint Attack against Touch-enabled Devices Southeast University

    E-print Network

    Liu, Benyuan

    Fingerprint Attack against Touch-enabled Devices Yang Zhang Southeast University Nanjing 211189, P screen may breach user privacy. In this paper, we introduce the fin- gerprint attack against touch-enabled devices. We dust the touch screen surface to reveal fingerprints, and use an iPhone camera to carefully

  15. Company Confidential See it. Touch it. Measure it. Gavin Fisher

    E-print Network

    Anlage, Steven

    Company Confidential See it. Touch it. Measure it. Gavin Fisher Cascade Microtech Europe Ltd A guide to Successful on Wafer Rf characterisation #12;Company Confidential See it. Touch it. Measure it Station Essentials Probe Tip Calibration How to Calibrate #12;Company Confidential See it. Touch it

  16. The Power of Touch: Nonverbal Communication within Married Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joann C. Seeman; Vogel, David L.; Madon, Stephanie; Edwards, Sarah R.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that one function of touch in mixed-sex interactions is to exert influence over another person. Yet theories offer different explanations as to when women and men will use touch as an influence strategy. The gender politics hypothesis proposes that men touch more as a way to maintain inequalities present in society. In…

  17. Handling Pressures: Analysing Touch in American Films about Youth Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chare, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how films produced in the USA in the past 10 years and featuring the coaching of youth sport, represent the issue of touch during instruction and training. Touch in such films is figured in diverse ways ranging from pats of reassurance and hugs of congratulation to cuffs of disapprobation. Touch is also occasionally depicted…

  18. Revisiting the enzymes stored in the laticifers of C arica papaya in the context of their possible participation in the plant defence mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. El Moussaoui; M. Nijs; C. Paul; R. Wintjens; J. Vincentelli; M. Azarkan; Yvan Looze

    2001-01-01

    In the tropical species Carica papaya, the articulated and anastomosing laticifers form a dense network of vessels displayed in all aerial parts of the plant. Damaging the papaya tree inevitably severs its laticifers, eliciting an abrupt release of latex. Besides the well-known cysteine proteinases, papain, chymopapain, caricain and glycyl endopeptidase, papaya latex is also a rich source of other enzymes.

  19. Helpful Tips for Chemigation of Papaya1 Kati L White, Teresa Olczyk, Jonathan Crane, Rafael Muoz-Carpena, Tina Dispenza, and Harry

    E-print Network

    Migliaccio, Kati White

    ABE 360 Helpful Tips for Chemigation of Papaya1 Kati L White, Teresa Olczyk, Jonathan Crane, Rafael helpful tips for papaya growers interested in chemigation. Depending on the type of chemical being-off valves. #12;Helpful Tips for Chemigation of Papaya 2 Figure 1. Water source, pump, and check valve

  20. MATH 132 Solutions to Midterm 2 (papaya) 1. For each of the following sequences, determine whether it converges or diverges. If the

    E-print Network

    Sutherland, Scott

    MATH 132 Solutions to Midterm 2 (papaya) 1. For each of the following sequences, determine whether to Midterm 2 (papaya) Wednesday November 2, 2011 #12;Page 3 of 5 5.15 pts Find the volume of the solid (papaya) Wednesday November 2, 2011 #12;Page 4 of 5 Solution: (continued) So, for the series to converge

  1. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  2. Perceptual conflict between vision and touch.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, T

    1976-06-01

    Although most of the studies support the conclusion that a perceptual conflict may be resolved in the visual dominance, a few suggest its prematurity and methodological problems. In the present study, the conflict was made by the instruction and the trick in order to keep the S's naivety, and the degree of conflict was varied. wthe visual comparison (vision), the haptic comparison (touch), the visual-haptic comparison (drawing by a pencil), and the haptic-visual comparison (production by the plasticine) were used as the comparison procedures. The result was that the perceptual conflict was resolved in a compromise between vision and touch. However, as the degree of conflict became greater, the judgements in the conflict tended to depend upon the comparison procedures. And in such a conflict taht the visual size was smaller than the tactual, the vision dominance tended to occur, and vice versa. PMID:988361

  3. Emotional modulation of touch in alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Scarpazza, Cristina; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Làdavas, Elisabetta

    2014-06-01

    Alexithymia refers to difficulties in recognizing one's own emotions, but difficulties have also been found in the recognition of others' emotions, particularly when the task is not easy. Previous research has demonstrated that, in order to understand other peoples' feelings, observers remap the observed emotion onto their own sensory systems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of high and low alexithymic subjects to remap the emotional expressions of others onto their own somatosensory systems using an indirect task. We used the emotional Visual Remapping of Touch (eVRT) paradigm, in which seeing a face being touched improves detection of near-threshold tactile stimulation concurrently delivered to one's own face. In eVRT, subjects performance is influenced by the emotional content of the stimuli, while they were required to distinguish between unilateral or bilateral tactile stimulation on their own cheeks. The results show that tactile perception was enhanced when viewing touch on a fearful face compared with viewing touch on other expressions in low but not in high alexithymic participants. A negative correlation between TAS-20 alexithymia subscale ("difficulty in identify feelings") and the magnitude of the eVRT effect was also found. Conversely, arousal and valence ratings of emotional faces did not vary as a function of the degree of alexithymia. The results provide evidence that alexithymia is associated with difficulties in remapping seen emotions, particularly fear, onto one's own sensory system. This impairment could be due to an inability to modulate somatosensory system activity according to the observed emotional expression. PMID:24708501

  4. Reliability of perception of fever by touch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepti Chaturvedi; K. Y. Vilhekar; Pushpa Chaturvedi; M. S. Bharambe

    2003-01-01

    Objective : To assess the reliability of touch to predict fever in children.Methods : 200 children who reported with fever formed the study material. Group I consisted of 100 children between 0–1 year of age\\u000a and Group II consisted of 100 children between 6–12 years of age. Preterm, neonates under warming device, tachypnoeic and\\u000a hypothermic were excluded from the study.

  5. “Dry-to-the-touch” thermal grease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Khatri; J. Ziemski

    2001-01-01

    Most thermal engineers believe that thermal greases (or heat sink compounds) provide the lowest thermal resistance of all thermal interface materials. Micro-faze(R) is a proprietary design, dry-to-the-touch thermal grease product that offers the lowest thermal resistance at low closure force, thus eliminating the need to sacrifice thermal performance for convenience. This dry grease is totally adaptable to die-cut and possesses

  6. The neurobiology of Etruscan shrew active touch

    PubMed Central

    Brecht, Michael; Naumann, Robert; Anjum, Farzana; Wolfe, Jason; Munz, Martin; Mende, Carolin; Roth-Alpermann, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus, is not only the smallest terrestrial mammal, but also one of the fastest and most tactile hunters described to date. The shrew's skeletal muscle consists entirely of fast-twitch types and lacks slow fibres. Etruscan shrews detect, overwhelm, and kill insect prey in large numbers in darkness. The cricket prey is exquisitely mechanosensitive and fast-moving, and is as big as the shrew itself. Experiments with prey replica show that shape cues are both necessary and sufficient for evoking attacks. Shrew attacks are whisker guided by motion- and size-invariant Gestalt-like prey representations. Shrews often attack their prey prior to any signs of evasive manoeuvres. Shrews whisk at frequencies of approximately 14 Hz and can react with latencies as short as 25–30 ms to prey movement. The speed of attacks suggests that shrews identify and classify prey with a single touch. Large parts of the shrew's brain respond to vibrissal touch, which is represented in at least four cortical areas comprising collectively about a third of the cortical volume. Etruscan shrews can enter a torpid state and reduce their body temperature; we observed that cortical response latencies become two to three times longer when body temperature drops from 36°C to 24°C, suggesting that endothermy contributes to the animal's high-speed sensorimotor performance. We argue that small size, high-speed behaviour and extreme dependence on touch are not coincidental, but reflect an evolutionary strategy, in which the metabolic costs of small body size are outweighed by the advantages of being a short-range high-speed touch and kill predator. PMID:21969684

  7. Human perception of shape from touch

    PubMed Central

    Kappers, Astrid M. L.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I focus on the role of active touch in three aspects of shape perception and discrimination studies. First an overview is given of curvature discrimination experiments. The most prominent result is that first-order stimulus information (that is, the difference in attitude or slope over the stimulus) is the dominant factor determining the curvature threshold. Secondly, I compare touch under bimanual and two-finger performance with unimanual and one-finger performance. Consistently, bimanual or two-finger performance turned out to be worse. The most likely explanation for the former finding is that a loss of accuracy during intermanual comparisons is owing to interhemispheric relay. Thirdly, I address the presence of strong after-effects after just briefly touching a shape. These after-effects have been measured and studied in various conditions (such as, static, dynamic, transfer to other hand or finger). Combination of the results of these studies leads to the insight that there are possibly different classes of after-effect: a strong after-effect, caused by immediate contact with the stimulus, that does only partially transfer to the other hand, and one much less strong after-effect, caused by moving over the stimulus for a certain period, which shows a full transfer to other fingers. PMID:21969692

  8. Antihypertensive effect of Carica papaya via a reduction in ACE activity and improved baroreflex.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Ronchi, Silas Nascimento; do Nascimento, Andrews Marques; de Lima, Ewelyne Miranda; Romão, Wanderson; da Costa, Helber Barcellos; Scherer, Rodrigo; Ventura, José Aires; Lenz, Dominik; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza; Endringer, Denise Coutinho; de Andrade, Tadeu Uggere

    2014-11-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the antihypertensive effects of the standardised methanolic extract of Carica papaya, its angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effects in vivo, its effect on the baroreflex and serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity, and its chemical composition. The chemical composition of the methanolic extract of C. papaya was evaluated by liquid chromatography-mass/mass and mass/mass spectrometry. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effect was evaluated in vivo by Ang I administration. The antihypertensive assay was performed in spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar rats that were treated with enalapril (10 mg/kg), the methanolic extract of C. papaya (100 mg/kg; twice a day), or vehicle for 30 days. The baroreflex was evaluated through the use of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine. Angiotensin converting enzyme activity was measured by ELISA, and cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by morphometric analysis. The methanolic extract of C. papaya was standardised in ferulic acid (203.41 ± 0.02 µg/g), caffeic acid (172.60 ± 0.02 µg/g), gallic acid (145.70 ± 0.02 µg/g), and quercetin (47.11 ± 0.03 µg/g). The flavonoids quercetin, rutin, nicotiflorin, clitorin, and manghaslin were identified in a fraction of the extract. The methanolic extract of C. papaya elicited angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity. The antihypertensive effects elicited by the methanolic extract of C. papaya were similar to those of enalapril, and the baroreflex sensitivity was normalised in treated spontaneously hypertensive rats. Plasma angiotensin converting enzyme activity and cardiac hypertrophy were also reduced to levels comparable to the enalapril-treated group. These results may be associated with the chemical composition of the methanolic extract of C. papaya, and are the first step into the development of a new phytotherapic product which could be used in the treatment of hypertension. PMID:25295669

  9. Fabrication of a flexible and transparent touch sensor using single-walled carbon nanotube thin-films.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunsuk; Kim, Jinoh; Chun, Sungwoo; Kim, Ahsung; Lee, Kunhak; Jeong, Minho; Lim, Chaehyun; Isoshima, Takashi; Hara, Masahiko; Lee, Seung-Beck

    2011-07-01

    Reported herein are the fabrication and demonstration of a flexible and transparent touch sensor using carbon nanotube thin films (CNTFs). The CNTF was fabricated by vacuum filtration and was transferred CNTF to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) by water-assisted stamping method. The sheet resistance of the CNTF decreased by approximately 74% after HNO3 treatment. The CNTF touch sensor was fabricated similarly to the conventional four-wire touch screen structures. PDMS was used for the upper plate to absorb the tensile and compressive strain and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) for the lower plate to provide device stability during bending action. The CNTF touch sensor showed high optical transmittance (over 80%) and high sensitivity with the measured touch activation pressure of 23 kPa. Cyclic pressure (38 kPa) was applied at 0.5 Hz and good repeatability was found for several hundred cycles. The results show that the CNTF flexible touch sensor can be applied to future flexible electronic interfaces such as, e-paper and flexible displays. PMID:22121618

  10. Plant regeneration of Carica papaya L. through somatic embryogenesis in response to light quality, gelling agent and phloridzin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azucena Ascencio-Cabral; Humberto Gutiérrez-Pulido; Benjamín Rodríguez-Garay; Antonia Gutiérrez-Mora

    2008-01-01

    Difficulties to develop an easy and reproducible protocol to get healthy and well formed plants from somatic embryos of papaya (Carica papaya L.) had included low germination, callus production at the base of the embryo radicle and the occurrence of hyperhydric plantlets among others, and by consequence unsuccessful transfer to the field. With the aim of improving a propagation method,

  11. FT-IR spectroscopy as a tool for measuring degree of methyl esterification in pectins isolated from ripening papaya fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillermo D. Manrique; Franco M. Lajolo

    2002-01-01

    A straightforward method using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy for determination of methyl esterification degree (MED) of pectins is described. The method was used for measuring methylation level of different pectin fractions isolated from papaya (Carica papaya) fruit in three ripening stages as well as of the bulk pectin without isolation from the cell wall. All the samples used were in

  12. INFLUENCE OF COAT PROTEIN TRANSGENE COPY NUMBER ON RESISTANCE IN TRANSGENIC LINE 63-1 AGAINST PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS ISOLATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Line 63-1 is a ‘Sunset’-derived transgenic papaya expressing the coat protein (CP) gene from a mild mutant of a Hawaiian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Previous work showed that line 63-1 R1 plants exhibited a range of resistance to severe PRSV isolates from Hawaii (HA), Jamaica (JA), Thai...

  13. Production of Internal Yellowing Symptoms on Resistant and Susceptible Papaya Cultivars by Enterobacter cloacae at Varying Inoculum Concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal yellowing (IY) is a bacterial disease of ripening papaya flesh caused by Enterobacter cloacae and characterized by yellow softening tissue. IY restricts food safety of value-added products like fresh or frozen papaya cubes. The incidence of E. cloacae presumably differs in resistant (R) a...

  14. NIa-Pro of Papaya ringspot virus interacts with Carica papaya eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit G (CpeIF3G).

    PubMed

    Gao, Le; Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2015-02-01

    The interaction of papaya eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit G (CpeIF3G) with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) NIa-Pro was validated using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in papaya protoplasts based on the previous yeast two-hybrid assay results. The C-terminal (residues 133-239) fragment of PRSV NIa-Pro and the central domain (residues 59-167) of CpeIF3G were required for effective interaction between NIa-Pro and CpeIF3G as shown by a Sos recruitment yeast two-hybrid system with several deletion mutants of NIa-Pro and CpeIF3G. The central domain of CpeIF3G, which contains a C2HC-type zinc finger motif, is required to bind to other eIFs of the translational machinery. In addition, quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR assay confirmed that PRSV infection leads to a 2- to 4.5-fold up-regulation of CpeIF3G mRNA in papaya. Plant eIF3G is involved in various stress response by enhancing the translation of resistance-related proteins. It is proposed that the NIa-Pro-CpeIF3G interaction may impair translation preinitiation complex assembly of defense proteins and interfere with host defense. PMID:25416301

  15. The design of light pipe with microstructures for touch screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bo; Lu, Kan; Liu, Pengfei; Wei, Xiaona

    2010-11-01

    Touch screen has a very wide range of applications. Most of them are used in public information inquiries, for instance, service inquiries in telecommunication bureau, tax bureau, bank system, electric department, etc...Touch screen can also be used for entertainment and virtual reality applications too. Traditionally, touch screen was composed of pairs of infrared LED and correspondent receivers which were all installed in the screen frame. Arrays of LED were set in the adjacent sides of the frame of an infrared touch screen while arrays of the infrared receivers were fixed in each opposite side, so that the infrared detecting network was formed. While the infrared touch screen has some technical limitations nowadays such as the low resolution, limitations of touching methods and fault response due to environmental disturbances. The plastic material has a relatively high absorption rate for infrared light, which greatly limits the size of the touch screen. Our design uses laser diode as source and change the traditional inner structure of touch screen by using a light pipe with microstructures. The geometric parameters of the light pipe and the microstructures were obtained through equation solving. Simulation results prove that the design method for touch screen proposed in this paper could achieve high resolution and large size of touch screen.

  16. Carbon disulfide formation in papaya under conditions of dithiocarbamate residue analysis.

    PubMed

    Abakerli, R B; Sparrapan, R; Sawaya, A C H F; Eberlin, M N; Jara, J L P; Rodrigues, N R; Fay, E F; Luiz, A J B; Galvão, T D L; Martins, D Dos S; Yamanishi, O K; Toledo, H H B

    2015-12-01

    Golden, Sunrise Solo and Tainung cultivars of papaya were found to release CS2 when submitted to experimental conditions of dithiocarbamate residue analysis. Three common analytical methods were used to quantitate CS2; one spectrophotometric method and two chromatographic methods. All three methods gave positive CS2 results for all three papaya varieties. Other endogenous compounds present in isooctane extracts of papaya fractions detected via gas chromatography (GC/ITD) using electron ionization (EI) were: carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, 2-methylthiophene, 3-methylthiophene, 2-ethylthiophene, 3-ethylthiophene, benzylisothiocyanate, benzylthiocyanate and benzonitrile. Control samples were obtained from papaya plantations cultivated in experimental areas, in which no treatment with fungicides of the dithiocarbamate group was applied. Endogenous CS2 levels were compared with true dithiocarbamate residues measured in papaya samples from the field trials following applications of the mancozeb fungicide. Three days after application, true dithiocarbamate residues, measured by the procedure with isooctane partitioning and GC-ITD, were at the average level of 2mgkg(-1). PMID:26041166

  17. Touch Screen Performance by Individuals With and Without Motor Control Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Karen B.; Savage, Anne B.; Chourasia, Amrish O.; Wiegmann, Douglas A.; Sesto, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    Touch technology is becoming more prevalent as functionality improves and cost decreases. Therefore, it is important that this technology is accessible to users with diverse abilities. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of button and gap size on performance by individuals with varied motor abilities. Participants with (n=38) and without (n=15) a motor control disability completed a digit entry task. Button size ranged from 10 to 30 mm and gap size was either 1 or 3 mm. Results indicated that as button size increased, there was a decrease in misses, errors, and time to complete tasks. Performance for the non-disabled group plateaued at button size 20mm, with minimal, if any gains observed with larger button sizes. In comparison, the disabled group’s performance continued to improve as button size increased. Gap size did not affect user performance. These results may help to improve accessibility of touch technology. PMID:23021630

  18. The role of touch in facilitated communication.

    PubMed

    Kezuka, E

    1997-10-01

    Imagine that one day a nonverbal autistic child suddenly starts to type messages, such as "I am not retarded," using a computer keyboard while being touched by an assistant. Facilitated communication (FC) appears to create this miracle around the world. To understand how this works, experiments were conducted involving a "telepathy game" using a rod with an attached strain gauge. A force from the assistant, which controlled what was spelled through physical support, was measured. It was thus completely possible for any message to appear to be typed with FC regardless of the autistic child's actual knowledge or language ability. PMID:9403373

  19. Losing touch in the era of superbugs?

    PubMed

    Hass, Leif

    2010-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are increasingly multidrug resistant and at times more virulent. As such, they pose real threats to patients and clinicians. In this essay the author discusses his own methacillin-resistant staphylococcus infection and how it has affected his work in the hospital. In so doing, he reflects on the value of touch in the doctor-patient relationship. In particular, he discusses how gloves serve as a barrier to infection but also create a small distance between the doctors and their patients. The implications of contact precautions must be considered as we reflect on balancing patient-centered care with infection control. PMID:20843889

  20. HUMAN TOUCH nanotechnology information technology biomedical technology and

    E-print Network

    Vellekoop, Michel

    HIGH TECH, HUMAN TOUCH FACTS AND FIGURES 2014 #12;nanotechnology information technology biomedical technology and technical medicine behavioural sciences and governance geo-information science and earth

  1. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye.

    PubMed

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-01

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450°C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8g/100mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it. PMID:25875031

  2. Movement preparation improves touch perception without awareness.

    PubMed

    van Ede, Freek; van Doren, Thomas I; Damhuis, Jochem; de Lange, Floris P; Maris, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Movements are often directed at external objects, such as when reaching out for a glass to drink from. Surprisingly, however, it is largely unknown how movement plans influence the identification of such external somatosensory stimuli. To address this, we cued participants to prepare for a speeded button press with their left/right thumb and presented a spatially-patterned somatosensory stimulus at either the same or the opposite thumb with equal probability. In contrast to many previous investigations that focused on self-produced somatosensory input and reported attenuated perception, we show that the identification of external stimuli (touch perception) is facilitated by movement preparation. In line with analogous studies in vision, this suggests that movement preparation automatically allocates processing resources (attention) to the location and/or body part of the planned movement. We further show that, in contrast to deliberate somatosensory preparation, participants do not become more confident in their touch perception following movement preparation. These data suggest that the perceptual improvement during movement preparation occurs outside of awareness. Such an unconscious facilitatory process will ensure that relevant parts of the environment are processed with high fidelity, while sparing conscious resources for monitoring other processes in the course of action. PMID:25682493

  3. Cognitive influences on the affective representation of touch and the sight of touch in the human brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ciara McCabe; Edmund T. Rolls; Amy Bilderbeck; Francis McGlone

    2008-01-01

    We show that the affective experience of touch and the sight of touch can be modulated by cognition, and investigate in an fMRI study where top-down cognitive modulations of bottom-up somatosensory and visual processing of touch and its affective value occur in the human brain. The cognitive modulation was produced by word labels, 'Rich moisturizing cream' or 'Basic cream', while

  4. Molecular characterization and infectivity of Papaya leaf curl China virus infecting tomato in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Zhang; Xin-ying Ma; Ya-juan Qian; Xue-ping Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Papaya leaf curl China virus (PaLCuCNV) was previously reported as a distinct begomovirus infecting papaya in southern China.\\u000a Based on molecular diagnostic survey, 13 PaLCuCNV isolates were obtained from tomato plants showing leaf curl symptoms in\\u000a Henan and Guangxi Provinces of China. Complete nucleotide sequences of 5 representative isolates (AJ558116, AJ558117, AJ704604,\\u000a FN256260, and FN297834) were determined to be 2738–2751

  5. Possible immunomodulatory actions of Carica papaya seed extract.

    PubMed

    Mojica-Henshaw, Mariluz P; Francisco, Angelica D; De Guzman, Florecita; Tigno, Xenia T

    2003-01-01

    Carica papaya seed extract is currently being marketed as a nutritional supplement with purported ability "to rejuvenate the body condition and to increase energy". The product claims to improve immunity against common infection and body functioning. The present study was initiated to analyze the chemical constituents of the Carica Seed Extract and determine the potential immunomodulatory properties of the different bioactive fractions. These immunomodulatory activities of crude Carica Seed Extract and its bioactive fractions were examined in vitro using lymphocyte proliferation assays and complement-mediated hemolytic assay. Three major observations were made in this study: (1) the crude Carica Seed Extract and two other bioactive fractions significantly enhanced the phytohemagglutinin responsiveness of lymphocytes; (2) none of the Carica Seed Extract (at the concentrations used in this study) was able to protect the lymphocytes from the toxic effects of chromium; and (3) some of the bioactive fractions of Carica Seed Extract were able to significantly inhibit the classical complement-mediated hemolytic pathway. These findings provide evidence for immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory actions of Carica Seed Extract. No single compound is likely responsible for these activities. Further purification, isolation and characterization of the active components are needed. PMID:14724345

  6. The Use of Healing Touch in Integrative Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Laura K.; Freel, Mildred I.; Haylock, Pam J.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    The use of complementary therapies by cancer patients has become so prevalent that nurses working in oncology are finding it necessary to understand these therapies and the evidence-based support for their use. The integrative use of the biofield therapy Healing Touch (HT) in conjunction with the chemoradiation received by patients with cervical cancer (stages 1B1 to IVA) during a recent research study is described. Findings indicated effects of HT on the immune response and on depression, in contrast to patients receiving relaxation or standard care. Specifically, HT patients demonstrated a minimal decrease in natural killer cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) over the course of treatment whereas NKCC of patients receiving relaxation therapy (RT) and standard care (SC) declined sharply during radiation (p = 0.018). HT patients also showed significant decreases in depressed mood compared to RT and SC (p < 0.05). These findings, as well as the energetic effects of chemoradiation that were observed, and the proposed mechanisms and potential contributions of biofield therapy are addressed. It is suggested that the appropriate integration of complementary modalities into oncology care has the potential to enhance the impact of conventional care by putting the patient in the best condition to use their innate healing resources. PMID:21951738

  7. Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Silas P.; Ventura, José A.; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Choi, HyungWon; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Nohara, Lilian L.; Wermelinger, Luciana S.; Almeida, Igor C.; Zingali, Russolina B.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

    2012-01-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers’ regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulated proteins in the latex of diseased plants, 9 cysteine proteases (chymopapain) and 1 latex serine proteinase inhibitor. A repression of papaya latex proteolytic activity during PMeV infection was hypothesized. This was further confirmed by enzymatic assays that showed a reduction of cysteine-protease-associated proteolytic activity in the diseased papaya latex. These findings are discussed in the context of plant responses against pathogens and may greatly contribute to understand the roles of laticifers in plant stress responses. PMID:22465191

  8. Carotenoids are more bioavailable from papaya than from tomato and carrot in humans: a randomised cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Kopec, Rachel E; Villalobos-Gutierrez, Maria G; Högel, Josef; Quesada, Silvia; Esquivel, Patricia; Schwartz, Steven J; Carle, Reinhold

    2014-02-01

    Carrot, tomato and papaya represent important dietary sources of ?-carotene and lycopene. The main objective of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of carotenoids from these food sources in healthy human subjects. A total of sixteen participants were recruited for a randomised cross-over study. Test meals containing raw carrots, tomatoes and papayas were adjusted to deliver an equal amount of ?-carotene and lycopene. For the evaluation of bioavailability, TAG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions containing newly absorbed carotenoids were analysed over 9·5 h after test meal consumption. The bioavailability of ?-carotene from papayas was approximately three times higher than that from carrots and tomatoes, whereas differences in the bioavailability of ?-carotene from carrots and tomatoes were insignificant. Retinyl esters appeared in the TRL fractions at a significantly higher concentration after the consumption of the papaya test meal. Similarly, lycopene was approximately 2·6 times more bioavailable from papayas than from tomatoes. Furthermore, the bioavailability of ?-cryptoxanthin from papayas was shown to be 2·9 and 2·3 times higher than that of the other papaya carotenoids ?-carotene and lycopene, respectively. The morphology of chromoplasts and the physical deposition form of carotenoids were hypothesised to play a major role in the differences observed in the bioavailability of carotenoids from the foods investigated. Particularly, the liquid-crystalline deposition of ?-carotene and the storage of lycopene in very small crystalloids in papayas were found to be associated with their high bioavailability. In conclusion, papaya was shown to provide highly bioavailable ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin and lycopene and may represent a readily available dietary source of provitamin A for reducing the incidence of vitamin A deficiencies in many subtropical and tropical developing countries. PMID:23931131

  9. Meanings of Touch and Forgiveness: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferch, Shann R.

    2000-01-01

    Examines personal meanings ascribed to the experience of touch in the context of forgiveness. Data from in-depth interviews with six self-reported Christians were analyzed to determine themes in the meanings participants assigned to a forgiving touch. (Contains 54 references.) (Author)

  10. Households Touched by Crime, 1987. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Michael R.; And Others

    For the year 1987, 24.4 % of American households were touched by crime. A household is considered touched by crime if during the year it was affected by a burglarly, auto theft, or household theft or if a household member was raped, robbed, or assaulted or was a victim of personal theft, no matter where the crime occurred. These offenses, which…

  11. New wind turbine grounding system to reduce step & touch voltage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kazemi Karegar; M. Arabi

    2010-01-01

    Step and touch voltage are two main parameters of a grounding system. Common way to reduce these two factors is using distributed mesh network under ground of substation, but wind turbines grounding system are different and limited area. In this paper, the wind turbine grounding system will be analyzed and step and touch voltage will be obtained. For this purpose,

  12. HapticArmrest: Remote Tactile Feedback on Touch Surfaces

    E-print Network

    HapticArmrest: Remote Tactile Feedback on Touch Surfaces Using Combined Actuators Hendrik Richter manual touch input and active tactile output allows for the combination of various types of tactile, actuators 1 Introduction Due to advances in display technology and sensing devices, surfaces responsive

  13. Marine Mammal Stranding Protocol 1-Do NOT Touch!

    E-print Network

    Acevedo, Alejandro

    Marine Mammal Stranding Protocol 1- Do NOT Touch! 1. Do not touch, pick up, or feed the animal. They are wild animals, and can bite. They also are easily stressed by humans. Do not return the animal immediately. 2- Observe Observe the animal from a distance of at least 50 feet. Keep people and dogs away. 3

  14. Haptic Interfaces: Getting in Touch with Web-based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussell, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Explains haptic computer interfaces for Web sites that relay touch-sensory feedback to the user. Discusses the importance of touch to cognition and learning; whether haptics can improve performance and learning; haptic interfaces for accessibility for blind and physically impaired users; comparisons of haptic devices; barriers to implementation;…

  15. Multi-Touch Rotation Gestures: Performance and Ergonomics

    E-print Network

    Multi-Touch Rotation Gestures: Performance and Ergonomics Eve Hoggan1 , John Williamson2 , Antti multi-touch gestures, yet little is known about the fac- tors affecting performance and ergonomics; gestures; ergonomics. ACM Classification Keywords H.5.2. User Interfaces: Evaluation/Methodology, Input De

  16. Scattering of light by bispheres with touching and separated components

    E-print Network

    Fridlind, Ann

    Scattering of light by bispheres with touching and separated components Michael I. Mishchenko with touching components in a fixed orientation, electromagnetic interactions between the constituent spheres for single spheres with size equal to the size of the bisphere components. Unlike other nonspherical

  17. Understanding and Creating Accessible Touch Screen Interactions for Blind People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Shaun K.

    2011-01-01

    Using touch screens presents a number of usability and accessibility challenges for blind people. Most touch screen-based user interfaces are optimized for visual interaction, and are therefore difficult or impossible to use without vision. This dissertation presents an approach to redesigning gesture-based user interfaces to enable blind people…

  18. Effectiveness of Iphone's Touch ID: KSA Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad A. Al-Daraiseh; Diana Al Omari; Hadeel Al Hamid; Nada Hamad; Rawan Althemali

    2015-01-01

    A new trend of incorporating Touch ID sensors in mobile devices is appearing. Last year, Apple released a new model of its famous iPhone (5s). One of the most anticipated and hailed features of the new device was its Touch ID. Apple advertised that the new technology will increase the security of its device, and it will also be used

  19. Touch + Space: Active Learning for Visually Impaired Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Gottlieb

    The manipulation of objects is an essential part of learning. Children with visual impairment have a paradoxical relationship with touch; many are hesitant, even fearful to reach out and explore their surrounding; yet they have much to gain by engaging their sense of touch. The lack of one sense increases the importance of the remaining ones. This project has involved

  20. Software engineering abstractions for the multi-touch revolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lode Hoste

    2010-01-01

    Multi-touch interfaces allow users to use multiple fingers to provide input to a graphical user interface. The idea of allowing users to touch and manipulate digital information with their hands has been subject of research for more than 25 years [5, 4]. Recently several of these research artifacts have found their way to industry, with examples like the iPhone and

  1. fNIRS detects temporal lobe response to affective touch.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Randi H; Bolling, Danielle Z; Anderson, Laura C; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Kaiser, Martha D

    2014-04-01

    Touch plays a crucial role in social-emotional development. Slow, gentle touch applied to hairy skin is processed by C-tactile (CT) nerve fibers. Furthermore, 'social brain' regions, such as the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) have been shown to process CT-targeted touch. Research on the development of these neural mechanisms is scant, yet such knowledge may inform our understanding of the critical role of touch in development and its dysfunction in disorders involving sensory issues, such as autism. The aim of this study was to validate the ability of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), an imaging technique well-suited for use with infants, to measure temporal lobe responses to CT-targeted touch. Healthy adults received brushing to the right forearm (CT) and palm (non-CT) separately, in a block design procedure. We found significant activation in right pSTS and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to arm > palm touch. In addition, individual differences in autistic traits were related to the magnitude of peak activation within pSTS. These findings demonstrate that fNIRS can detect brain responses to CT-targeted touch and lay the foundation for future work with infant populations that will characterize the development of brain mechanisms for processing CT-targeted touch in typical and atypical populations. PMID:23327935

  2. The Neural Circuit for Touch Sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARTIN CHALFIE; JOHN E. SULSTON; JOHN G. WHITE; EILEEN SOUTHGATE; J. NICHOL THOMSON

    The neural pathways for touch-induced movement in Cae- norhabditis ekgans contain six touch receptors, five pairs of interneurons, and 69 motor neurons. The synaptic relation- ships among these cells have been deduced from recon- structions from serial section electron micrographs, and the roles of the cells were assessed by examining the behavior of animals after selective killing of precursors of

  3. Sports Coaching in Risk Society: No Touch! No Trust!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Heather; Taylor, Bill; Garratt, Dean

    2012-01-01

    This paper is informed by a UK based Economic and Social Research Council funded research project which developed and deployed a case-study approach to issues of touch between children and professionals in schools and childcare. Outcomes from these settings are referred to, but the focus here is shifted to touch in sports coaching and its…

  4. A Comparison of Injuries between Flag and Touch Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stephen L.

    This study was designed to determine whether fewer and less serious injuries result from participation in touch football as compared with flag football. A survey was taken of 30 flag football games and 30 touch football games and the incidence of injuries was recorded on a checklist. Results of the survey suggest the following: (a) intramural or…

  5. Touch sensing analysis using multi-modal acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jeffrey S.; Pikula, Dragan; Baharav, Zachi

    2013-03-01

    Touch sensing is ubiquitous in many consumer electronic products. Users are expecting to be able to touch with their finger the surface of a display and interact with it. Yet, the actual mechanics and physics of the touch process are little known, as these are dependent on many independent variables. Ranging from the physics of the fingertip structure, composed of ridges, valleys, and pores, and beyond a few layers of skin and flesh the bone itself. Moreover, sweat glands and wetting are critical as well as we will see. As for the mechanics, the pressure at which one touches the screen, and the manner by which the surfaces responds to this pressure, have major impact on the touch sensing. In addition, different touch sensing methods, like capacitive or optical, will have different dependencies. For example, the color of the finger might impact the latter, whereas the former is insensitive to it. In this paper we describe a system that captures multiple modalities of the touch event, and by post-processing synchronizing all these. This enables us to look for correlation between various effects, and uncover their influence on the performance of the touch sensing algorithms. Moreover, investigating these relations allows us to improve various sensing algorithms, as well as find areas where they complement each other. We conclude by pointing to possible future extensions and applications of this system.

  6. Systematic Touch Exploration as a Screening Procedure for Child Abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra K Hewitt; Alice A Arrowood

    1994-01-01

    Few child abuse interview formats have been assessed for validity. This paper presents a systematic touch exploration format for screening child abuse. The technique involves simple drawings with child participation that review both positive and negative forms of touching in a child's life. Screening for physical and emotional abuse as well as sexual abuse is incorporated in the format. Comparisons

  7. The importance of touch in development.

    PubMed

    Ardiel, Evan L; Rankin, Catharine H

    2010-03-01

    Developmental delay is common in children deprived of normal sensory stimulation - for example, in premature neonates and some institutionalized children. Touch has emerged as an important modality for the facilitation of growth and development; positive effects of supplemental mechanosensory stimulation have been demonstrated in a wide range of organisms, from worm larvae to rat pups to human infants. Animal models are being used to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. In rats, the amount of maternal licking received as a pup has a profound impact on the behaviour and physiology of the adult; in the microscopic roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, physical interactions with other worms promote growth and increase adult responsiveness to mechanosensory stimuli. By understanding the underlying mechanisms, as well as the timing and degree of stimulation required to fully reverse the effects of early childhood deprivation, strategies can be developed to best help those in need. PMID:21358895

  8. Object apprehension using vision and touch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajcsy, R.; Stansfield, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    Researchers define object apprehension as the determination of the properties of an object and the relationships among these properties. They contrast this with recognition, which goes a step further to attach a label to the object as a whole. Apprehension is fundamental to manipulation. This is true whether the manipulation is being carried out by an autonomous robot or is the result of teleoperation involving sensory feedback. Researchers present an apprehension paradigm using both vision and touch. In this model, they define a representation for object apprehension in terms of a set of primitives and features, along with their relationships. This representation is the mechanism by which the data from the two modalities are combined. It is also the mechanism which drives the apprehension process.

  9. Genetic interactions affecting touch sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Gu, G; Caldwell, G A; Chalfie, M

    1996-01-01

    At least 13 genes (mec-1, mec-2, mec-4-10, mec-12, mec-14, mec-15, and mec-18) are needed for the response to gentle touch by 6 touch receptor neurons in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Several, otherwise recessive alleles of some of these genes act as dominant enhancer mutations of temperature-sensitive alleles of mec-4, mec-5, mec-6, mec-12, and mec-15. Screens for additional dominant enhancers of mec-4 and mec-5 yielded mutations in previously known genes. In addition, some mec-7 alleles showed allele-specific, dominant suppression of the mec-15 touch-insensitive (Mec) phenotype. The dominant enhancement and suppression exhibited by these mutations suggest that the products of several touch genes interact. These results are consistent with a model, supported by the known sequences of these genes, that almost all of the touch function genes contribute to the mechanosensory apparatus. PMID:8692859

  10. Design of an infrared multi-touch surface for use as a computer keyboard

    E-print Network

    Torgerson, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    A multi-touch surface was designed and constructed to detect a person's finger when pressed against the touch surface, with the objective of developing a prototype touch surface computer keyboard. The prototype developed ...

  11. Development and comparison of multivariate respiration models for fresh papaya ( Carica papaya L.) based on regression method and artificial neural network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-Wei Wang; Hua-Wei Duan; Chang-Ying Hu; Yu-Mei Wu

    2010-01-01

    Respiration modelling is the fundamental of the packaging and storage of fresh fruit and vegetables. Previous model of respiration\\u000a rate accounted for external forcing from temperature and modified atmosphere but did not attempt to predict internally generated\\u000a natural variability such as maturity. We present two types of respiration models here that predict the respiration rate of\\u000a fresh papaya in response

  12. The Effects of Initial Touch Keyboarding Speed Achievement of Fifth Graders and Touch Keyboarding Skill Retention in Seventh Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertl, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of initial touch speed achievement of fifth grade keyboarding students on their touch keyboarding skill retention in seventh grade. This was a longitudinal study generating quantitative data. The subjects for this study were 132 seventh grade students from a suburban middle school in…

  13. Touching Hearts, Touching Minds: Using Emotion-Based Messaging to Promote Healthful Behavior in the Massachusetts WIC Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colchamiro, Rachel; Ghiringhelli, Kara; Hause, Judith

    2010-01-01

    The "Touching Hearts, Touching Minds" initiative was funded through a 2003 United States Department of Agriculture Special Projects grant to revitalize nutrition education and services in the Massachusetts Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program. The 30 nutrition education materials and facilitated…

  14. iTouch, uTouch, Welcome to Bug Bytes, a bimonthly podcast from Texas A&M University's

    E-print Network

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    Bug Bytes iTouch, uTouch, **Music Up Welcome to Bug Bytes, a bimonthly podcast from Texas A don't! Join us on this excursion as we learn from the bugs that share in every aspect of our lives's a touchtastic world out there. Which got us thinking here at Bug Bytes about the tactile world of insects

  15. Perception of 3-D location based on vision, touch, and extended touch

    PubMed Central

    Giudice, Nicholas A.; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Bennett, Christopher R.; Loomis, Jack M.

    2012-01-01

    Perception of the near environment gives rise to spatial images in working memory that continue to represent the spatial layout even after cessation of sensory input. As the observer moves, these spatial images are continuously updated.This research is concerned with (1) whether spatial images of targets are formed when they are sensed using extended touch (i.e., using a probe to extend the reach of the arm) and (2) the accuracy with which such targets are perceived. In Experiment 1, participants perceived the 3-D locations of individual targets from a fixed origin and were then tested with an updating task involving blindfolded walking followed by placement of the hand at the remembered target location. Twenty-four target locations, representing all combinations of two distances, two heights, and six azimuths, were perceived by vision or by blindfolded exploration with the bare hand, a 1-m probe, or a 2-m probe. Systematic errors in azimuth were observed for all targets, reflecting errors in representing the target locations and updating. Overall, updating after visual perception was best, but the quantitative differences between conditions were small. Experiment 2 demonstrated that auditory information signifying contact with the target was not a factor. Overall, the results indicate that 3-D spatial images can be formed of targets sensed by extended touch and that perception by extended touch, even out to 1.75 m, is surprisingly accurate. PMID:23070234

  16. Resistance of non-transgenic papaya plants to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) mediated by intron-containing hairpin dsRNAs expressed in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shen, W; Yang, G; Chen, Y; Yan, P; Tuo, D; Li, X; Zhou, P

    2014-01-01

    RNA-mediated virus resistance based on natural antiviral RNA silencing has been exploited as a powerful tool for engineering virus resistance in plants. In this study, a conserved 3'-region (positions 9839-10117, 279 nt) of the capsid protein (CP) gene of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), designated CP279, was used to generate an intron-containing hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) construct by one-step, zero-background ligation-independent cloning (OZ-LIC). The RNaseIII-deficient Escherichia coli strain M-JM109lacY was identified as the best choice for producing large quantities of specific ihpRNA-CP279. Resistance analyses and ELISA data verified that most papaya plants mechanically co-inoculated with TRIzol-extracted ihpRNA-CP279 and PRSV were resistant to PRSV, and resistance was maintained throughout the test period (>2 months post-inoculation). In contrast, a 1-2 day interval between sequential inoculation of PRSV and ihpRNA-CP279 did not result in complete protection against PRSV infection, but delayed the appearance of viral symptoms by 3 to 4 days. These findings indicate that direct mechanical inoculation of papaya plants with bacterially-expressed ihpRNA-CP279 targeting the PRSV CP gene can interfere with virus infection. This work lays a foundation for developing a non-transgenic approach to control PRSV by directly spraying plants with ihpRNA or crude bacterial extract preparations. PMID:25283861

  17. Efforts to deregulate Rainbow papaya in Japan: Molecular Characterization of Transgene and Vector Inserts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transformation plasmid-derived insert number and insert site sequence in 55-1 line papaya derivatives Rainbow and SunUp was determined as part of a larger petition to allow its import into Japan (Suzuki, et al., 2007, 2008). Three insertions were detected by Southern analysis and their correspondin...

  18. Factors affecting the anthelmintic efficacy of papaya latex in vivo: host sex and intensity of infection.

    PubMed

    Luoga, Wenceslaus; Mansur, Fadlul; Lowe, Ann; Duce, Ian R; Buttle, David J; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2015-07-01

    The development of plant-derived cysteine proteinases, such as those in papaya latex, as novel anthelmintics requires that the variables affecting efficacy be fully evaluated. Here, we conducted two experiments, the first to test for any effect of host sex and the second to determine whether the intensity of the worm burden carried by mice would influence efficacy. In both experiments, we used the standard C3H mouse reference strain in which papaya latex supernatant (PLS) consistently shows >80 % reduction in Heligmosomoides bakeri worm burdens, but to broaden the perspective, we also included for comparison mice of other strains that are known to respond more poorly to treatment with papaya latex. Our results confirmed that there is a strong genetic influence affecting efficacy of PLS in removing adult worm burdens. However, there was no effect of host sex on efficacy (C3H and NIH) and no effect of infection intensity (C3H and BALB/c). These results offer optimism that plant-derived cysteine proteinases (CPs), such as these from papaya latex, can function as effective anthelmintics, with neither host sex nor infection intensity presenting further hurdles to impede their development for future medicinal and veterinary usage. PMID:25855350

  19. The Nucleotide Sequences of the 3'-terminal Regions of Papaya Ringspot Virus Strains W and P

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hector Quemada; Brigitte L'Hostis; Dennis Gonsalves; Ilene M. Reardon; Robert Heinrikson; Ernest L. Hiebert; Leang C. Sieu; Jerry L. Slightom

    1990-01-01

    The sequences of cDNA clones encoding most of the NI b protein, the coat protein and the 3' untranslated region of papaya ringspot virus (PRV) strains W and P have been determined. The open reading frame of P strain PRV was confirmed by amino acid analysis. Nucleotide sequence comparisons of these strains show that they share a 98-2% identity in

  20. HPLC Quantitation of Major Carotenoids of Fresh and Processed Guava, Mango and Papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viktor C. Wilberg; Delia B. Rodriguez-Amaya

    1995-01-01

    The major carotenoids in 52 samples of guava, mango, papaya and some of their processed products were quantitated by HPLC, using both external standardisation and standard addition calibration techniques. The results, submitted to theFandttests, demonstrated that the precision and the means obtained by the two calibration procedures were not significantly different. The concentrations of ?-carotene and lycopene in guava, ?-carotene

  1. Specificity of Carica papaya latex in lipase-catalyzed interesterification reactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Villeneuve; M. Pina; A. Skarbek; J. Graille; T. A. Foglia

    1997-01-01

    Enzymatic interesterification of the chiral triacylglycerol, 1-butyroyl-2-stearoyl-3-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol (sn-BSP) with trimyristin indicated that the lipase present in Carica papaya latex exhibits an sn3 stereoselectivity. Other interesterification experiments with homogeneous triacylglycerols of varying chain length with tricaprylin showed that this enzyme also has a typoselectivity for short chain fatty acids.

  2. Spontaneous processing of peptides during coagulation of latex from Carica papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Moutim; L. G. Silva; M. T. P. Lopes; G. Wilson Fernandes; C. E. Salas

    1999-01-01

    Latex is actively secreted on wounded unripe fruits from Caricapapaya. We describe the changes in peptide composition by SDS-PAGE analysis of latex from C.papaya collected at various times after incision of the unripe fruit. Non random changes in the relative amount of several peptides occur during latex coagulation. The measurement of amidase activity of coagulating latex shows three peaks of

  3. Complete Nucleotide Sequence and Genetic Organization of Papaya Ringspot Virus RNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shyi-Dong Yeh; Fuh-Jyh Jan; Chu-Hui Chiang; Tzyy-Jye Doong; Ming-Cheng Chen; Pei-Hua Chung; Huey-Jimm Bau

    1992-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the RNA genome of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was determined from four overlapping cDNA clones and by direct sequenc- ing of viral RNA. The genomic RNA is 10326 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(A) tract, and contains one large open reading frame that starts at nucleotide positions 86 to 88 and ends at positions 10118

  4. Semen quality in papaya workers with long term exposure to ethylene dibromide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J M Ratcliffe; S M Schrader; K Steenland; D E Clapp; T Turner; R W Hornung

    1987-01-01

    To examine whether long term occupational exposure to ethylene dibromide (EDB) affects semen quality a cross sectional study of semen quality was conducted among 46 men employed in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii, with an average duration of exposure of five years and a geometric mean breathing zone exposure to airborne EDB of 88 ppb (eight hour time weighted

  5. Fractionation and purification of the enzymes stored in the latex of Carica papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Azarkan; Anouar El Moussaoui; Delphine van Wuytswinkel; Géraldine Dehon; Yvan Looze

    2003-01-01

    The latex of the tropical species Carica papaya is well known for being a rich source of the four cysteine endopeptidases papain, chymopapain, glycyl endopeptidase and caricain. Altogether, these enzymes are present in the laticifers at a concentration higher than 1 mM. The proteinases are synthesized as inactive precursors that convert into mature enzymes within 2 min after wounding the

  6. Identification and biochemical characterization of a GDSL-motif carboxylester hydrolase from Carica papaya latex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Slim Abdelkafi; Hiroyuki Ogata; Nathalie Barouh; Benjamin Fouquet; Régine Lebrun; Michel Pina; Frantz Scheirlinckx; Pierre Villeneuve; Frédéric Carrière

    2009-01-01

    An esterase (CpEst) showing high specific activities on tributyrin and short chain vinyl esters was obtained from Carica papaya latex after an extraction step with zwitterionic detergent and sonication, followed by gel filtration chromatography. Although the protein could not be purified to complete homogeneity due to its presence in high molecular mass aggregates, a major protein band with an apparent

  7. Molecular and Clinical Effects of Green Tea and Fermented Papaya Preparation on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-14

    Assess the Effect of Green Tea on Diabetes; Assess the Effect of Fermented Papaya Pretration on Diabetes; Effects of Green Tea and FPP on C-reactive Proteins; Effects of Green Tea and FPP of Lipid Profiles in Diabetes; Effect of Green Tea and FPP on Atheroma Formation

  8. Complete nucleotide sequence of a monopartite Begomovirus and associated satellites infecting Carica papaya in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shahid, M S; Yoshida, S; Khatri-Chhetri, G B; Briddon, R W; Natsuaki, K T

    2013-06-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) is a fruit crop that is cultivated mostly in kitchen gardens throughout Nepal. Leaf samples of C. papaya plants with leaf curling, vein darkening, vein thickening, and a reduction in leaf size were collected from a garden in Darai village, Rampur, Nepal in 2010. Full-length clones of a monopartite Begomovirus, a betasatellite and an alphasatellite were isolated. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Begomovirus showed the arrangement of genes typical of Old World begomoviruses with the highest nucleotide sequence identity (>99 %) to an isolate of Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV), confirming it as an isolate of AYVV. The complete nucleotide sequence of betasatellite showed greater than 89 % nucleotide sequence identity to an isolate of Tomato leaf curl Java betasatellite originating from Indonesian. The sequence of the alphasatellite displayed 92 % nucleotide sequence identity to Sida yellow vein China alphasatellite. This is the first identification of these components in Nepal and the first time they have been identified in papaya. PMID:23397078

  9. A highly reliable sex diagnostic PCR assay for mass screening of papaya seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Parasnis; V. S. Gupta; S. A. Tamhankar; P. K. Ranjekar

    2000-01-01

    Female plants of several dioecious angiosperms are commercially valued for production of fruits or seeds, viz. papaya, nutmeg, pistachio, kiwi fruit and jojoba. To make the cultivation profitable it is necessary to grow more female than male plants. To discriminate between male and female plants, sex-specific molecular markers have been identified in a few dioecious species such as Silene and

  10. 62 FR 50260 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables; Papayas From Brazil and Costa Rica

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-09-25

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR...96-046-2] Importation of Fruits and Vegetables; Papayas From Brazil and...AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA...certain previously prohibited fruits and vegetables to be imported into...

  11. Autosomal Degeneration as the Process for the Evolution of a Primitive Y Chromosome in Papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant sex chromosomes, in contrast to those in animals, evolved recently and only a few are heteromorphic. Genomic analyses of the homomorphic sex chromosomes of papaya show features of the early stages of sex chromosome evolution. Sequence analysis of 20% of the male specific region (MSY) shows tha...

  12. Engineered Antibody Fragments for Immunodiagnosis of Papaya ringspot virus.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Yogita; Verma, H N; Jain, R K; Mandal, Bikash

    2015-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to clone and express the genes encoding antibody to the recombinant coat protein (rCP) of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and to assess the engineered antibody for the detection of PRSV. A 33-kDa rCP of PRSV, which was produced in Escherichia coli, generated PRSV specific antibody in immunized mouse. The heavy and light chain variable domain genes (VH and VL) of 351 and 360 nucleotides, respectively, were cloned from the mRNA isolated from the spleen of the immunized mouse with rCP of PRSV. The VH and VL belong to the family IgG1 and kappa chain, respectively, and contained the framework regions and complementarity determining regions. The VH and VL genes were individually used to develop the expression constructs in pET28a (+) vector and 14-kDa proteins were obtained in E. coli. The amount of purified VH and VL proteins was 3-4 mg/l of bacterial culture. Both the antibody fragments recognized PRSV in the crude sap; however, the VL antibody fragment showed higher affinity to PRSV. The mixture of VH and VL detected PRSV as effectively as polyclonal antibody. The recombinant antibody fragments mixture detected PRSV in the field samples with 100 % accuracy in dot immunobinding assay (DIBA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitivity of the detection of PRSV using antibody fragments was 1.0 and 10.0 ng in DIBA and ELISA, respectively. The results showed successful isolation of functional single-domain antibody encoding genes to PRSV directly from the immunized spleen cells of mouse. This study for the first time demonstrates application of bacterial expressed recombinant antibody fragments in immunodiagnosis of PRSV. PMID:25854961

  13. Activities of several membrane and cell-wall hydrolases, ethylene biosynthetic enzymes, and cell wall polyuronide degradation during low-temperature storage of intact and fresh-cut papaya ( Carica papaya) fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasar Karakurt; Donald J. Huber

    2003-01-01

    Fresh-cut fruit tissue deteriorates more rapidly than its intact counterpart. A study was conducted to determine changes in firmness, cell-wall polyuronides, and the activities of cell-wall and membrane hydrolases and ethylene biosynthetic enzymes in intact and fresh-cut papaya fruit during storage at 5°C. Processing of papaya fruit was performed under sanitized conditions at 5°C, and fruit pieces were stored for

  14. Detection of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting the cucurbit weed Cucumis melo var. dudaim in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting Cucumis melo var. dudaim, a cucurbit weed, in Florida. It provides an overview of this virus reservoir for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

  15. 76 FR 49725 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia into the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ...designated phytosanitary measures will be sufficient to mitigate the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh papaya fruit from Malaysia. DATES: Effective Date: August 11, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

  16. Construction and characterization of a papaya BAC library as a foundation for molecular dissection of a tree-fruit genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ming; P. H. Moore; F. Zee; C. A. Abbey; H. Ma; A. H. Paterson

    2001-01-01

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed from high-molecular-weight DNA isolated from young leaves\\u000a of papaya (Carica papaya L.). This BAC library consists of 39168 clones from two separate ligation reactions. The average insert size of the library\\u000a is 132 kb; 96.5% of the 18700 clones from the first ligation contained inserts that averaged 86 kb in size, 95.7%

  17. ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense’ is the phytoplasma associated with Australian grapevine yellows, papaya dieback and Phormium yellow leaf diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lia W. Liefting; Anna C. Padovan; Karen S. Gibb; Ross E. Beever; Mark T. Andersen; Richard D. Newcomb; David L. Beck; Richard L. S. Forster

    1998-01-01

    Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA genes and the 16S\\/23S spacer regions of the phytoplasmas associated with Australian grapevine yellows, papaya dieback and Phormium yellow leaf diseases revealed minimal nucleotide differences between them resulting in the formation of a monophyletic group. Therefore, along with Australian grapevine yellows, the phytoplasmas associated with Phormium yellow leaf and papaya dieback

  18. Effects of light finger touch to the upper legs on postural sway and muscle activity during quiet standing.

    PubMed

    Oshita, Kazushige; Yano, Sumio

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of light finger touch (LT) to one's own body on postural sway and ankle muscle activity during quiet standing. In the first part of the present study, 24 healthy men (19 ± 1 years) stood upright with their eyes closed on a pneumatic balance disk under 3 different conditions. In the first condition, the participants kept their hands in loose fists, and contact between the fingers/palms and the legs was avoided. In the second condition, the participants touched the lateral sides of upper legs lightly (without applying force for mechanical support) with all fingers. In the third condition, the participants again held their hands in loose fists. Postural sway was significantly decreased during second condition compared to first condition. Further, it also tended to decrease in third condition (P = 0.08). The second part of the present study was designed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the association between postural sway and LT by analyzing electromyographic data. Data were obtained from 12 healthy men (20 ± 1 years). During quiet stance on the stable surface, soleus activity did not significantly change by LT. However, tibialis-anterior activity significantly decreased with LT. These results suggest that LT to the upper part of one's own legs decreases postural sway (during and after touching) during a still stance by decreasing co-activation of the ankle muscles. PMID:24111470

  19. A transparent flexible z-axis sensitive multi-touch panel based on colloidal ITO nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Sangeetha, N M; Gauvin, M; Decorde, N; Delpech, F; Fazzini, P F; Viallet, B; Viau, G; Grisolia, J; Ressier, L

    2015-08-01

    Bottom-up fabrication of a flexible multi-touch panel prototype based on transparent colloidal indium tin oxide (ITO) nanocrystal (NC) films is presented. A series of 7% Sn(4+) doped ITO NCs protected by oleate, octanoate and butanoate ligands are synthesized and characterized by a battery of techniques including, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, (1)H, (13)C and (119)Sn nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and the related diffusion ordered spectroscopy. Electrical resistivities of transparent films of these NCs assembled on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates by convective self-assembly from their suspension in toluene decrease with the ligand length, from 220 × 10(3) for oleate ITO to 13 × 10(3)? cm for butanoate ITO NC films. A highly transparent, flexible touch panel based on a matrix of strain gauges derived from the least resistive film of 17 nm butanoate ITO NCs sensitively detects the lateral position (x, y) of the touch as well as its intensity over the z-axis. Being compatible with a stylus or bare/gloved finger, a larger version of this module may be readily implemented in upcoming flexible screens, enabling navigation capabilities over all three axes, a feature highly desired by the display industry. PMID:26150112

  20. Haptic Holography/Touching the Ethereal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Haptic Holography, was perhaps, first proposed by workers at MIT in the 90s. The Media Lab, headed up by Dr. Stephen Benton, with published papers by Wendy Plesiak and Ravi Pappuh. -1 Recent developments in both the technology of digital holography and haptics have made it practical to conduct further investigations. Haptic holography is auto-stereoscopic and provides co-axial viewing for the user. Haptic holography may find application in medical & surgical training and as a new form of synthetic reality for artists and designers. At OCAD's PHASE Lab (Prototypes for Holographic Art and Science Explorations) workers are exploring hybrid forms of augmented reality, that combine haptics, interactivity and auto-stereoscopic imagery. Conventional Haptic environments, while presenting a 3D physics environment, typically provide a 2D visual work/play space. Orienteering in such an environment creates an uncertain spatial relationship for the user. Our group creates 3d models from which we create holographic constructs. The same model is used to create the physics environment. The two models are super-imposed. The result: Holograms you can touch.

  1. Healing Touch and Fertility: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kissinger, Jeanette; Kaczmarek, Lori

    2006-01-01

    Fertility and conception have been a concern through the ages. This case report documents the use of healing touch (HT), a noninvasive energy-field therapy, with the intent to facilitate conception and a healthy pregnancy. After 18 months of being unsuccessful in conceiving, a 40-year-old female sought HT to enhance the possibility of conceiving naturally. She had normal menstrual cycles, and both she and her husband had normal fertility tests. The client conceived after several months of HT therapy, which also included stimulating reflexology points on the ankle designed to affect the uterus and ovaries and encouraging positive affirmations. HT therapy continued throughout a trouble-free pregnancy and during birth. The client gave birth to a healthy baby boy without the use of pain-relieving medications. Perinatal educators and other health-care practitioners who work with women having difficulty conceiving or experiencing difficult pregnancies may wish to consider recommending the use of HT and/or other complementary therapies with the goal of fostering more positive reproductive outcomes.

  2. Finger pad friction and its role in grip and touch

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Michael J.; Johnson, Simon A.; Lefèvre, Philippe; Lévesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; André, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick–slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function. PMID:23256185

  3. Touch perceptions across skin sites: differences between sensitivity, direction discrimination and pleasantness

    PubMed Central

    Ackerley, Rochelle; Carlsson, Ida; Wester, Henric; Olausson, Håkan; Backlund Wasling, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Human skin is innervated with different tactile afferents, which are found at varying densities over the body. We investigate how the relationships between tactile pleasantness, sensitivity and discrimination differ across the skin. Tactile pleasantness was assessed by stroking a soft brush over the skin, using five velocities (0.3, 1, 3, 10, 30 cm s?1), known to differentiate hedonic touch, and pleasantness ratings were gained. The ratings velocity-profile is known to correlate with firing in unmyelinated C-tactile (CT) afferents. Tactile sensitivity thresholds were determined using monofilament force detection and the tactile discrimination level was obtained in the direction discrimination of a moving probe; both tasks readily activate myelinated touch receptors. Perceptions were measured over five skin sites: forehead, arm, palm, thigh and shin. The assessment of tactile pleasantness over the skin resulted in a preference for the middle velocities (1–10 cm s?1), where higher ratings were gained compared to the slowest and fastest velocities. This preference in tactile pleasantness was found across all the skin sites, apart from at the palm, where no decrease in pleasantness for the faster stroking velocities was seen. We find that tactile sensitivity and discrimination vary across the skin, where the forehead and palm show increased acuity. Tactile sensitivity and discrimination levels also correlated significantly, although the tactile acuity did not relate to the perceived pleasantness of touch. Tactile pleasantness varied in a subtle way across skin sites, where the middle velocities were always rated as the most pleasant, but the ratings at hairy skin sites were more receptive to changes in stroking velocity. We postulate that although the mechanoreceptive afferent physiology may be different over the skin, the perception of pleasant touch can be interpreted using all of the available incoming somatosensory information in combination with central processing. PMID:24600368

  4. An Exploration of Multi-touch Interaction Techniques

    E-print Network

    Damaraju Sriranga, Sashikanth Raju

    2013-08-16

    in the HSV color space. Hue is represented on a ring. Saturation and value are the two axes for the square gradient in the middle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 3.4 An illustration of the multi-touch techniques for selecting parameters...

  5. An Exploration of Multi-touch Interaction Techniques 

    E-print Network

    Damaraju Sriranga, Sashikanth Raju

    2013-08-16

    Research in multi-touch interaction has typically been focused on direct spatial manipulation; techniques have been created to result in the most intuitive mapping between the movement of the hand and the resultant change in the virtual object...

  6. inTouch: A Medium for Haptic Interpersonal Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Brave; Andrew Dahley

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new approach for applying haptic feedback technology to interpersonal communication. We present the design of our prototype inTouch system which provides a physical link between users separated by distance.

  7. Annual Report GreenTouch 20102011 Annual Report

    E-print Network

    Lefèvre, Laurent

    2010­2011 Annual Report #12;1 GreenTouch 2010­2011 Annual Report Contents Chairman's Letter........................................................................................................................ 4 Infrastructure and Logistics............................................................................................ 43 Beyond Cellular Green Generation (BCG2

  8. Improve ESD protection on mobile phone with capacitive touch screen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jui-Ming Tsai; Ying-Jui Chuang; Shry-Sann Liao; Shih-Yi Yuan

    2011-01-01

    with the new technological products become to more and more friendly man-machine interface, the intuition type interface of touch screen make the user very easily use, therefore its need continuously grows up. After Apple releases iPhone, it leads a great deal of usage of touch screen. The electrostatic discharge (ESD) is categorized for the following four kinds: Human-Body Model, Machine

  9. Bimanual Interaction with Interscopic Multi-Touch Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöning, Johannes; Steinicke, Frank; Krüger, Antonio; Hinrichs, Klaus; Valkov, Dimitar

    Multi-touch interaction has received considerable attention in the last few years, in particular for natural two-dimensional (2D) interaction. However, many application areas deal with three-dimensional (3D) data and require intuitive 3D interaction techniques therefore. Indeed, virtual reality (VR) systems provide sophisticated 3D user interface, but then lack efficient 2D interaction, and are therefore rarely adopted by ordinary users or even by experts. Since multi-touch interfaces represent a good trade-off between intuitive, constrained interaction on a touch surface providing tangible feedback, and unrestricted natural interaction without any instrumentation, they have the potential to form the foundation of the next generation user interface for 2D as well as 3D interaction. In particular, stereoscopic display of 3D data provides an additional depth cue, but until now the challenges and limitations for multi-touch interaction in this context have not been considered. In this paper we present new multi-touch paradigms and interactions that combine both traditional 2D interaction and novel 3D interaction on a touch surface to form a new class of multi-touch systems, which we refer to as interscopic multi-touch surfaces (iMUTS). We discuss iMUTS-based user interfaces that support interaction with 2D content displayed in monoscopic mode and 3D content usually displayed stereoscopically. In order to underline the potential of the proposed iMUTS setup, we have developed and evaluated two example interaction metaphors for different domains. First, we present intuitive navigation techniques for virtual 3D city models, and then we describe a natural metaphor for deforming volumetric datasets in a medical context.

  10. Assisting Gesture Interaction on Multi-Touch Screens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Writser Cleveringa; Maarten van Veen; Arnout de Vries; Arnoud de Jong; Tobias Isenberg

    In this paper we present our ongoing work on multi-user touch interfaces with specific attention to assisting gesture interaction by using gesture previews. INTRODUCTION—MULTI-TOUCH RESEARCH AT TNO TNO is the national research organization in the Netherlands that applies scientific knowledge with the aim of strengthen- ing the innovative power of industry and government. In this paper we briefly introduce two

  11. Haptic pen: a tactile feedback stylus for touch screens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johnny C. Lee; Paul H. Dietz; Darren Leigh; William S. Yerazunis; Scott E. Hudson

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present a system for providing tactile feedback for stylus-based touch-screen displays. The Haptic Pen is a simple low-cost device that provides individualized tactile feedback for multiple simultaneous users and can operate on large touch screens as well as ordinary surfaces. A pressure-sensitive stylus is combined with a small solenoid to generate a wide range of tactile

  12. Evaluating touch gestures for scrolling on notebook computers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Wayne Arthur; Nada Matic; Paul Ausbeck

    2008-01-01

    We describe a new circular touch gesture for scrolling called ChiralMotionTM and report on work to measure its performance. In a study using a document scrolling task, ChiralMotion outperformed linear Virtual Scrolling on a notebook computer TouchPad. Participants also indicated a preference for ChiralMotion in a follow-up questionnaire. We discuss the results and our plans for follow-up studies incorporating other

  13. Piezoelectric touch-sensitive flexible hybrid energy harvesting nanoarchitectures.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dukhyun; Lee, Keun Young; Lee, Kang Hyuck; Kim, Eok Su; Kim, Tae Sang; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Sang-Woo; Choi, Jae-Young; Kim, Jong Min

    2010-10-01

    In this work, we report a flexible hybrid nanoarchitecture that can be utilized as both an energy harvester and a touch sensor on a single platform without any cross-talk problems. Based on the electron transport and piezoelectric properties of a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured thin film, a hybrid cell was designed and the total thickness was below 500 nm on a plastic substrate. Piezoelectric touch signals were demonstrated under independent and simultaneous operations with respect to photo-induced charges. Different levels of piezoelectric output signals from different magnitudes of touching pressures suggest new user-interface functions from our hybrid cell. From a signal controller, the decoupled performance of a hybrid cell as an energy harvester and a touch sensor was confirmed. Our hybrid approach does not require additional assembly processes for such multiplex systems of an energy harvester and a touch sensor since we utilize the coupled material properties of ZnO and output signal processing. Furthermore, the hybrid cell can provide a multi-type energy harvester by both solar and mechanical touching energies. PMID:20829570

  14. Cooling the thermal grill illusion through self-touch.

    PubMed

    Kammers, Marjolein P M; de Vignemont, Frédérique; Haggard, Patrick

    2010-10-26

    Acute peripheral pain is reduced by multisensory interactions at the spinal level [1]. Central pain is reduced by reorganization of cortical body representations [2, 3]. We show here that acute pain can also be reduced by multisensory integration through self-touch, which provides proprioceptive, thermal, and tactile input forming a coherent body representation [4, 5]. We combined self-touch with the thermal grill illusion (TGI) [6]. In the traditional TGI, participants press their fingers on two warm objects surrounding one cool object. The warm surround unmasks pain pathways, which paradoxically causes the cool object to feel painfully hot. Here, we warmed the index and ring fingers of each hand while cooling the middle fingers. Immediately after, these three fingers of the right hand were touched against the same three fingers on the left hand. This self-touch caused a dramatic 64% reduction in perceived heat. We show that this paradoxical release from paradoxical heat cannot be explained by low-level touch-temperature interactions alone. To reduce pain, we often clutch a painful hand with the other hand. We show here that self-touch not only gates pain signals reaching the brain [7-9] but also, via multisensory integration, increases coherence of cognitive body representations to which pain afferents project [10]. PMID:20869246

  15. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. on fresh and frozen cut mangoes and papayas.

    PubMed

    Strawn, Laura K; Danyluk, Michelle D

    2010-03-31

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella infections have been associated with consumption of a number of fruits and vegetables. Although the fate of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on many of these products is well studied, little is known about their behavior on cut mango and papaya. Mangoes and papayas have been associated with four and two documented outbreaks of salmonellosis, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fate of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on fresh (4 degrees C, 12 degrees C and 23 degrees C) and frozen (-20 degrees C) cut mangoes and papayas. Cut mangoes and papayas were spot inoculated with either a four-strain or five-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella, respectively. Inoculated samples were air dried, placed in containers and stored at 4+/-2, 12+/-2, 23+/-2 and -20+/-2 degrees C. Samples were enumerated following stomaching on nonselective and selective media at days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 (4+/-2 and 12+/-2 degrees C); 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 (23+/-2 degrees C); and 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 (-20+/-2 degrees C). Population levels (log CFU/g) of fruit were calculated. E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella have the potential to grow on temperature-abused fresh cut mangoes and papayas held at 23 degrees C. At 12 degrees C, Salmonella populations can grow on cut mangoes and papayas, however E. coli O157:H7 populations only grew on papayas. E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella survived for 28 days, at 4 degrees C, on refrigerated mangoes and papayas. E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella can survive on frozen cut mangoes and papayas for at least 180 days. Fresh and frozen cut mangoes and papayas are potential vectors for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella transmission. PMID:20022397

  16. Atmospheric pressure plasma jets interacting with liquid covered tissue: touching and not-touching the liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberg, Seth A.; Tian, Wei; Johnsen, Eric; Kushner, Mark J.

    2014-11-01

    In the use of atmospheric pressure plasma jets in biological applications, the plasma-produced charged and neutral species in the plume of the jet often interact with a thin layer of liquid covering the tissue being treated. The plasma-produced reactivity must then penetrate through the liquid layer to reach the tissue. In this computational investigation, a plasma jet created by a single discharge pulse at three different voltages was directed onto a 200?µm water layer covering tissue followed by a 10?s afterglow. The magnitude of the voltage and its pulse length determined if the ionization wave producing the plasma plume reached the surface of the liquid. When the ionization wave touches the surface, significantly more charged species were created in the water layer with H3O+aq, O3?aq, and O2?aq being the dominant terminal species. More aqueous OHaq, H2O2aq, and O3aq were also formed when the plasma plume touches the surface. The single pulse examined here corresponds to a low repetition rate plasma jet where reactive species would be blown out of the volume between pulses and there is not recirculation of flow or turbulence. For these conditions, NxOy species do not accumulate in the volume. As a result, aqueous nitrites, nitrates, and peroxynitrite, and the HNO3aq and HOONOaq, which trace their origin to solvated NxOy, have low densities.

  17. Soybean growth rate response to touch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Adam Santone / research data

    2012-03-23

    A time-lapse video showing differential growth rates for touch-treated seedlings and control seedlings. This would be appropriate for lessons about plant growth responses to environmental stress and graphing growth rate. Plants were grown in a vermiculite soilless medium with calcium-enhanced water. No other minerals or nutrients were used. Plants were grown in a dark room with specially-filtered green light. The plants did not grow by cellular reproduction but only by expansion of existing cells in the hypocotyl region below the 'hook'. Video contains three plants in total. The first two plants to emerge from the vermiculite medium are the control (right) and treatment (left) plants. A third plant emerges in front of these two but is removed at the time of treatment and is not relevant except to help indicate when treatment was applied (watch for when it disappears). When that plant disappears, the slowed growth rate of the treatment plant is apparent. Treatment included a gentle flexing of the hypocotyl region of the treatment seedling for approximately 5 seconds. A rubber glove was used at this time to avoid an contamination of the plant tissue. Some video players allow users to 'scrub' the playback back and forth. This would help teachers or students isolate particular times (as indicated by the watch) and particular measurements (as indicated by the cm scale). A graph could be constructed by first creating a data table and then plotting the data points from the table. Multiple measurements from the video could be taken to create an accurate graph of the plants' growth rates (treatment vs control). Instructions for graphing usage: The scale in the video is in centimeters (one cm increments). Students could observe the initial time on the watch in the video and use that observation to represent time (t) = 0. For that value, a mark could be made to indicate the height of the seedlings. As they advance and pause the video repeatedly, the students would mark the time (+2.5 hours for example) and mark the related seedling heights. It is not necessary to advance the video at any regular interval but is necessary to mark the time and related heights as accurately as possible. Students may use different time values and would thus have different data sets but should find that their graphs are very similar. (Good opportunity to collect data from real research and create their own data sets) It is advised that the students collect multiple data points around the time where the seedling growth slows in response to touch to more accurately collect information around that growth rate slowing event. The resulting graph should have an initial growth rate slope, a flatter slope after stress treatment, and a return to approximately the same slope as seen pre-treatment. More data points should yield a more thorough view of this. This would be a good point to discuss. Students can use some of their data points to calculate approximate pre-treatment, immediate post-treatment, and late post-treatment slopes for both the control and treatment seedlings. This video was created by the submitter and is original content. Full screen playback should be an option for most video players. Video quality may appear degraded with a larger image but this may aid viewing the watch and scale for data collection.

  18. Science News / Study Decodes Papaya Genome http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/31444/title/Study_decodes... 1 of 1 4/27/2008 7:05 PM

    E-print Network

    Alam, Maqsudul

    Science News / Study Decodes Papaya Genome http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/31444/title team of researchers has unveiled a draft of the catalog of genetic information needed to make papaya. It is the first time researchers have compiled the genome of a transgenic fruit crop -- the papaya variety had

  19. First draft of transgenic papaya genome yields many fruits http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-04/uoia-fdo041608.php 1 of 2 4/24/2008 7:01 PM

    E-print Network

    Alam, Maqsudul

    First draft of transgenic papaya genome yields many fruits http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-04/uoia-fdo041608.php 1 of 2 4/24/2008 7:01 PM The papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) interferes with the plant's ability to photosynthesize. The transgenic papaya at the center of this field (darker

  20. RedOrbit NEWS | Researchers Reveal Genetic Code of Papaya http://www.redorbit.com/modules/news/tools.php?tool=print&id=1356702 1 of 1 4/24/2008 6:39 PM

    E-print Network

    Alam, Maqsudul

    RedOrbit NEWS | Researchers Reveal Genetic Code of Papaya http://www.redorbit.com/modules/news/tools.php?tool=print&id=1356702 1 of 1 4/24/2008 6:39 PM Researchers Reveal Genetic Code of Papaya Researchers recently published the full DNA sequence of the "SunUp" papaya, discovering genes that cause the tree evolve and also help

  1. Transgenic Papaya Genome Sequenced http://www.genomeweb.com/issues/news/146481-1.html?type=pf 1 of 2 4/27/2008 7:12 PM

    E-print Network

    Alam, Maqsudul

    Transgenic Papaya Genome Sequenced http://www.genomeweb.com/issues/news/146481-1.html?type=pf 1 of 2 4/27/2008 7:12 PM Transgenic Papaya Genome Sequenced April 23, 2008 By a GenomeWeb staff reporter, an international team of researchers report sequencing the first papaya genome. The sequence -- generated from

  2. Papaya genome project bears fruit : Nature News http://www.nature.com/news/2008/080423/full/news.2008.772.html 1 of 2 4/24/2008 7:05 PM

    E-print Network

    Alam, Maqsudul

    Papaya genome project bears fruit : Nature News http://www.nature.com/news/2008/080423/full/news.2008.772.html 1 of 2 4/24/2008 7:05 PM Punchstock Papaya: Hawaii's 5th largest crop. Published online 23 April 2008 | Nature | doi:10.1038/news.2008.772 News Papaya genome project bears fruit Hawaiian

  3. Characterization of the exogenous insert and development of event-specific PCR detection methods for genetically modified Huanong No. 1 papaya.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinchao; Yang, Litao; Liu, Xin; Guan, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Lingxi; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-08-26

    Genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.), Huanong No. 1, was approved for commercialization in Guangdong province, China in 2006, and the development of the Huanong No. 1 papaya detection method is necessary for implementing genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling regulations. In this study, we reported the characterization of the exogenous integration of GM Huanong No. 1 papaya by means of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR strategies. The results suggested that one intact copy of the initial construction was integrated in the papaya genome and which probably resulted in one deletion (38 bp in size) of the host genomic DNA. Also, one unintended insertion of a 92 bp truncated NptII fragment was observed at the 5' end of the exogenous insert. Furthermore, we revealed its 5' and 3' flanking sequences between the insert DNA and the papaya genomic DNA, and developed the event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR assays for GM Huanong No. 1 papaya based on the 5' integration flanking sequence. The relative limit of detection (LOD) of the qualitative PCR assay was about 0.01% in 100 ng of total papaya genomic DNA, corresponding to about 25 copies of papaya haploid genome. In the quantitative PCR, the limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) were as low as 12.5 and 25 copies of papaya haploid genome, respectively. In practical sample quantification, the quantified biases between the test and true values of three samples ranged from 0.44% to 4.41%. Collectively, we proposed that all of these results are useful for the identification and quantification of Huanong No. 1 papaya and its derivates. PMID:19645503

  4. iPhone\\/iPod Touch as Input Devices for Navigation in Immersive Virtual Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji-sun Kim; Denis Gracanin; Kresimir Matkovic; Francis K. H. Quek

    2009-01-01

    iPhone and iPod Touch are multi-touch handheld devices that pro- vide new possibilities for interaction techniques. We describe iPhone\\/iPod Touch implementation of a navigation interaction tech- nique originally developed for a larger multi-touch device (i.e. Lemur). The interaction technique implemented on an iPhone\\/iPod Touch was used for navigation tasks in a CAVE virtual environ- ment. We performed a pilot study

  5. Beverages of lemon juice and exotic noni and papaya with potential for anticholinergic effects.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    Lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.) juice beverages enriched either with noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) (LN) or papaya (Carica papaya L.) (LP), were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n), the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by (DPPH·), superoxide (O2(·-)), hydroxyl radicals (·OH) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) assays, and their potential as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors was also assessed. The fruits are rich in a wide range of bioactive phenolics. Regarding DPPH·, ·OH and HOCl assays, the LP displayed strong activity, and LN was the most active against O2(·-). Concerning cholinesterases, LP was the most active, mainly due to lemon juice contribution. The effect on the cholinesterases was not as strong as in previous reports on purified extracts, but the bioactive-rich beverages offer the possibility of dietary coadjutants for daily consumption of health-promoting substances by adults with aging-related cognitive or physical disorders. PMID:25306312

  6. Use of dried papaya skin in the diet of growing pullets.

    PubMed

    Fouzder, S K; Chowdhury, S D; Howlider, M A; Podder, C K

    1999-03-01

    1. The chemical composition of dried papaya (Carica papaya) skin (DPS) was determined and the effect of diets containing different concentrations of this ingredient (0, 30, 60 and 90 g/kg) was studied using growing pullets as experimental animals. 2. Crude protein concentration was determined to be 229 g/kg and metabolisable energy content was estimated to be 6.4 MJ/kg. 3. Use of DPS in the diet up to 90 g/kg did not produce any significant difference in weight gain, food intake, food conversion and protein efficiency when compared with birds that received the control diet. 4. Survivability of growing pullets fed on DPS was 100%, as in the control group. 5. It was concluded that DPS can safely be used up to 90 g/kg in the diet of growing pullets. PMID:10405041

  7. First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee

    PubMed Central

    Culik, Mark P.; dos Santos Martins, David; Gullan, Penny J.

    2006-01-01

    Five mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) plant pest species: Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi), Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus tucumanus Granara de Willink, and Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius are recorded for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These are the first records of D. grassii in Brazil, from papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), and from coffee (Coffea canephora, Rubiaceae). Ferrisia malvastra is also newly recorded in Brazil, where it was found on Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae). Ferrisia virgata was collected from an unidentified weed and Phenacoccus tucumanus from Citrus sp. (Rutaceae). Plotococcus capixaba Kondo was found on pitanga (Eugenia cf. pitanga, Myrtaceae) and Pseudococcus elisae on Coffea canephora, which are new host records for these mealybugs. PMID:19537975

  8. Genomics of helper component proteinase reveals effective strategy for papaya ringspot virus resistance.

    PubMed

    Mangrauthia, Satendra K; Singh, Priyanka; Praveen, Shelly

    2010-01-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) causes severe economic losses in both cucurbits and papaya throughout the tropics and subtropics. Development of PRSV-resistant transgenic plants faces a major hurdle in achieving resistance against geographically distinct isolates. One of the major reasons of failing to achieve the broad-spectrum PRSV resistance is the involvement of silencing suppressor proteins of viral origin. Here, based on sequence profile of silencing suppressor protein, HcPro, we show that PRSV-HcPro, acts as a suppressor of RNA silencing through micro RNA binding in a dose- dependent manner. In planta expression of PRSV-HcPro affects developmental biology of plants, suggesting the interference of suppressor protein in micro RNA-directed regulatory pathways of plants. Besides facilitating the establishment of PRSV, it showed strong positive synergism with other heterologous viruses as well. This study provides a strategy to develop effective and stable PRSV-resistant transgenic plants. PMID:19672730

  9. Development and Validation of a Multiplex Reverse Transcription PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Three Papaya Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yang, Yong; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce similar symptoms in papaya. Each threatens commercial production of papaya on Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay was developed to detect simultaneously these three viruses by screening combinations of mixed primer pairs and optimizing the multiplex RT-PCR reaction conditions. A mixture of three specific primer pairs was used to amplify three distinct fragments of 613 bp from the P3 gene of PRSV, 355 bp from the CP gene of PLDMV, and 205 bp from the CP gene of PapMV, demonstrating the assay’s specificity. The sensitivity of the multiplex RT-PCR was evaluated by showing plasmids containing each of the viral target genes with 1.44 × 103, 1.79 × 103, and 1.91 × 102 copies for the three viruses could be detected successfully. The multiplex RT-PCR was applied successfully for detection of three viruses from 341 field samples collected from 18 counties of Hainan Island, China. Rates of single infections were 186/341 (54.5%), 93/341 (27.3%), and 3/341 (0.9%), for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively; 59/341 (17.3%) of the samples were co-infected with PRSV and PLDMV, which is the first time being reported in Hainan Island. This multiplex RT-PCR assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method for detecting multiple viruses in papaya and can be used for routine molecular diagnosis and epidemiological studies in papaya. PMID:25337891

  10. Development and validation of a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay for simultaneous detection of three papaya viruses.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yang, Yong; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2014-10-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce similar symptoms in papaya. Each threatens commercial production of papaya on Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay was developed to detect simultaneously these three viruses by screening combinations of mixed primer pairs and optimizing the multiplex RT-PCR reaction conditions. A mixture of three specific primer pairs was used to amplify three distinct fragments of 613 bp from the P3 gene of PRSV, 355 bp from the CP gene of PLDMV, and 205 bp from the CP gene of PapMV, demonstrating the assay's specificity. The sensitivity of the multiplex RT-PCR was evaluated by showing plasmids containing each of the viral target genes with 1.44 × 103, 1.79 × 103, and 1.91 × 102 copies for the three viruses could be detected successfully. The multiplex RT-PCR was applied successfully for detection of three viruses from 341 field samples collected from 18 counties of Hainan Island, China. Rates of single infections were 186/341 (54.5%), 93/341 (27.3%), and 3/341 (0.9%), for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively; 59/341 (17.3%) of the samples were co-infected with PRSV and PLDMV, which is the first time being reported in Hainan Island. This multiplex RT-PCR assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method for detecting multiple viruses in papaya and can be used for routine molecular diagnosis and epidemiological studies in papaya. PMID:25337891

  11. Divergence and conservation of the genomic RNAs of Taiwan and Hawaii strains of papaya ringspot potyvirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-H. Wang; S.-D. Yeh

    1997-01-01

    Summary.   The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of a Taiwan isolate of papaya ringspot potyvirus (PRSV YK) was determined\\u000a from three overlapping cDNA clones and by direct RNA sequencing. Comparison was made with the reported Hawaii isolate of PRSV\\u000a HA. Both genomes are 10?326 nucleotides long, excluding the poly(A)-tail. They encode a polyprotein of 3?344 amino acids with\\u000a a

  12. Carica papaya latex is a rich source of a class II chitinase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Azarkan; Amina Amrani; Michelle Nijs; André Vandermeers; Samira Zerhouni; Nicole Smolders; Yvan Looze

    1997-01-01

    This enzyme, purified to homogeneity, was classified on the basis of its N-terminal amino acid sequence, activity and free thiol functions content. Some physico-chemical properties were also studied.A class II chitinase is present in the latex of the tropical species Carica papaya. The enzyme may be readily purified by using a combination of hydrophobic interaction- and cation-exchange chromatography. This enzyme

  13. Carica papaya Lipase: A Naturally Immobilized Enzyme with Interesting Biochemical Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Slim Abdelkafi; Nathalie Barouh; Benjamin Fouquet; Imen Fendri; Michel Pina; Frantz Scheirlinckx; Pierre Villeneuve; Frédéric Carrière

    2011-01-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) lipases have been thoroughly characterized in mammals and microorganisms, whereas very little is known\\u000a about plant TAG lipases. The lipolytic activity occurring in all the laticies is known to be associated with sedimentable\\u000a particles, and all attempts to solubilize the lipolytic activity of Carica papaya latex have been unsuccessful so far. However, some of the biochemical properties of

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal status and root phosphatase activities in vegetative Carica papaya L. varieties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharda W. KhadeBernard; Bernard F. Rodrigues; Prabhat K. Sharma

    2010-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) status and root phosphatase activities were studied in four vegetative Carica papaya L. varieties viz., CO-1, CO-2, Honey Dew and Washington. Standard techniques were used to ascertain information on spore\\u000a density and species diversity of AM fungi. Although in case of estimation of root colonization and root phosphatase activities,\\u000a the existing methods were slightly modified. Root

  15. Oxidation of thiols and ascorbic acid in the latex of papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. V. Ganapathy; B. N. Sastri

    1939-01-01

    Conclusions and Summary  The presence in the latex, and more especially in the pulp of the papaya fruit, of a system responsible for maintaining the\\u000a thiol compounds in the reduced condition is clearly established. Its thermolabile character is indicated by the observation\\u000a that a preliminary heating of the latex dispersed in buffer or the press-juice from the pulp to a temperature

  16. Recovering polyploid papaya in vitro regenerants as screened by flow cytometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wellington Ronildo Clarindo; Carlos Roberto de Carvalho; Fernanda Santos Araújo; Isabella Santiago de Abreu; Wagner Campos Otoni

    2008-01-01

    Several protocols have been proposed for in vitro propagation of papaya, either based on somatic embryogenesis or shoot organogenesis.\\u000a It is well-known that tissue culture-based approaches are frequently associated with somaclonal variation. Whether on the\\u000a one hand this phenomenon can preclude further stages of in vitro culture, on the other hand it can generate useful genetic\\u000a variability for crop improvement. However, somaclonal

  17. Quality Attributes of Fruit Bar Made from Papaya and Tomato by Incorporating Hydrocolloids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ahmad; A. K. Vashney; P. K. Srivasta

    2005-01-01

    Fruit bar was prepared from blend of ripe papaya and tomato pulps (variety, Red Lady and C.V. Naveen, respectively) in the ratio 75:25 on weight basis. Effects of hydrocolloids viz. pectin (P), starch (S), and ethyl cellulose (EC) and its three different levels on physico-chemical, sensory, and textural characteristics were investigated. It was found that seven different samples of fruit

  18. Effect of Osmotic Pretreatment on Hot Air Drying Kinetics and Quality of Chilean Papaya (Carica pubescens)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Lemus-Mondaca; M. Miranda; A. Andres Grau; V. Briones; R. Villalobos; A. Vega-Gálvez

    2009-01-01

    The effect of osmotic pretreatment on the mass transfer kinetics and quality of dried rehydrated Chilean papaya was researched. Osmotic treatments were sucrose solutions of 40, 50, and 60% w\\/w and dried at 60°C; non-pretreated samples were dried at different temperatures (40, 60, and 80°C). Quality parameters were analyzed: proximal composition, rehydration ratio, water-holding capacity, color, vitamin C content, firmness,

  19. Morphological, molecular and cytological analyses of Carica papaya×C. cauliflora interspecific hybrids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Magdalita; R. A. Drew; S. W. Adkins; I. D. Godwin

    1997-01-01

    Morphological, molecular and cytological analyses were performed to assess the hybridity of 120 putative interspecific hybrids\\u000a of Carica papaya L.?C. cauliflora Jacq. In the putative interspecific hybrids the number of main leaf veins was intermediate between the two parents while\\u000a the hermaphrodite flower sex form and the low vigour were distinctive features of these hybrids. Petiole length, stem diameter,\\u000a leaf

  20. Different arbuscular mycorrhizal interactions in male and female plants of wild Carica papaya L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rocío Vega-Frutis; Roger Guevara

    2009-01-01

    The different resource demands on male and female plants of dioecious species can lead to secondary sexual dimorphisms. Male\\u000a and female plants might also interact differently with antagonists and mutualists. We used a repeated measures natural experiment\\u000a in five subpopulations to investigate secondary sexual dimorphism in Carica papaya including interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Male and female plants did not

  1. Pythium aphanidermatum root rot of pawpaw ( Carica papaya L.) in Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. O. A. Oluma; A. O. Oladiran

    1993-01-01

    Root rot of pawpaw (Carica papaya L.) reported in Nigeria is caused byPythium aphanidermatum which was consistently isolated from diseased plant parts and highly pothogenic. Out of 16 different media tested, it grew best on corn-meal-agar (CMA) and CMA supplemented with cellulose and sucrose. The highest number of oospores\\/ml was on CMA with average diameter of 19.9±0.1 µm. The symptom

  2. Mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences in synesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Charlotte A.; Hupé, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental question in the field of synesthesia is whether it is associated with other cognitive phenomena. The current study examined synesthesia's connections with phenomenal traits of mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences, as well as the representation of the three phenomena in the population, across gender and domain of work/study. Mirror-touch is the automatic, involuntary experience of tactile sensation on one's own body when others are being touched. For example, seeing another person's arm being stroked can evoke physical touch sensation on one's own arm. Ticker tape is the automatic visualization of spoken words or thoughts, such as a teleprompter. For example, when spoken to, a ticker taper might see mentally the spoken words displayed in front of his face or as coming out of the speaker's mouth. To explore synesthesia's associations with these phenomena, a diverse group (n = 3743) was systematically recruited from eight universities and one public museum in France to complete an online screening. Of the 1017 eligible respondents, synesthetes (across all subtypes) reported higher rates of mirror-touch and ticker tape than non-synesthetes, suggesting that synesthesia is associated with these phenomenal traits. However, effect sizes were small and we could not rule out that response bias influenced these associations. Mirror-touch and ticker tape were independent. No differences were found across gender or domain of work and study in prevalence of synesthesia, mirror-touch or ticker tape. The prevalence of ticker tape, unknown so far, was estimated at about 7%, an intermediate rate between estimates of grapheme-color (2–4%) and sequence-space synesthesia (9–14%). Within synesthesia, grapheme-personification, also called ordinal-linguistic personification (OLP) was the most common subtype and was estimated around 12%. Co-occurences of the different types of synesthesia were higher than chance, though at the level of small effect sizes. PMID:24223561

  3. Effects of a light touch on fixed or mobile supports on gait parameters in visually restricted young adults.

    PubMed

    Bingenheimer, Katja; Temprado, Jean Jacques; Harnagea, Marta; Bricot, Nicolas; Villani, Patrick; Berton, Eric

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the effects of lightly touching fixed and mobile supports on gait parameters and center of mass oscillations in visually restricted young adults. Fourteen healthy male and female adults of mean=23.6 years (SD=1.6 years). Twelve walking conditions were completed on the GAITRite measurement system, resulting from crossing 3 conditions of visual restriction (no restriction, partial restriction, blindfolded) and 4 conditions of haptic supplementation (no supplementation, with a cane used as "light touch", with a cane sliding on the ground, while touching a soft elastic handrail). Gait speed, stance time, step length and the basis of support were measured. Accelerations of center of mass were also recorded through an accelerometer and the displacements of center of mass were analyzed. Results showed that visual restriction decreased in gait speed, reduced step length, while it increased the base of support and the amplitude of CoM displacements. In the full restriction condition, haptic supplementation provided by the use of the classic cane improved normalized stance time (%). In addition, in the no vision condition, both the classic cane and the soft handrail increased step length and reduced medio-lateral oscillations of the CoM. These results suggest that in visually restricted healthy adults, lightly touching a fixed (soft handrail) or a mobile (classic cane) support contributes to adaptation of gait parameters and postural control during locomotion. PMID:25623038

  4. Host genetic influences on the anthelmintic efficacy of papaya-derived cysteine proteinases in mice.

    PubMed

    Luoga, Wenceslaus; Mansur, Fadlul; Stepek, Gillian; Lowe, Ann; Duce, Ian R; Buttle, David J; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2015-06-01

    Eight strains of mice, of contrasting genotypes, infected with Heligmosomoides bakeri were studied to determine whether the anthelmintic efficacy of papaya latex varied between inbred mouse strains and therefore whether there is an underlying genetic influence on the effectiveness of removing the intestinal nematode. Infected mice were treated with 330 nmol of crude papaya latex or with 240 nmol of papaya latex supernatant (PLS). Wide variation of response between different mouse strains was detected. Treatment was most effective in C3H (90·5-99·3% reduction in worm counts) and least effective in CD1 and BALB/c strains (36·0 and 40·5%, respectively). Cimetidine treatment did not improve anthelmintic efficacy of PLS in a poor drug responder mouse strain. Trypsin activity, pH and PLS activity did not differ significantly along the length of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract between poor (BALB/c) and high (C3H) drug responder mouse strains. Our data indicate that there is a genetic component explaining between-mouse variation in the efficacy of a standard dose of PLS in removing worms, and therefore warrant some caution in developing this therapy for wider scale use in the livestock industry, and even in human medicine. PMID:25736575

  5. Supercritical fluid chromatography with photodiode array detection for pesticide analysis in papaya and avocado samples.

    PubMed

    Pano-Farias, Norma S; Ceballos-Magaña, Silvia G; Gonzalez, Jorge; Jurado, José M; Muñiz-Valencia, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    To improve the analysis of pesticides in complex food matrices with economic importance, alternative chromatographic techniques, such as supercritical fluid chromatography, can be used. Supercritical fluid chromatography has barely been applied for pesticide analysis in food matrices. In this paper, an analytical method using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to a photodiode array detection has been established for the first time for the quantification of pesticides in papaya and avocado. The extraction of methyl parathion, atrazine, ametryn, carbofuran, and carbaryl was performed through the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe methodology. The method was validated using papaya and avocado samples. For papaya, the correlation coefficient values were higher than 0.99; limits of detection and quantification ranged from 130-380 and 220-640 ?g/kg, respectively; recovery values ranged from 72.8-94.6%; precision was lower than 3%. For avocado, limit of detection values were ?450 ?g/kg; precision was lower than 11%; recoveries ranged from 50.0-94.2%. Method feasibility was tested for lime, banana, mango, and melon samples. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method is applicable to methyl parathion, atrazine, ametryn, and carbaryl, toxics pesticides used worldwide. The methodology presented in this work could be applicable to other fruits. PMID:25641906

  6. Reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage by Carica papaya leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Okoko, Tebekeme; Ere, Diepreye

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the in vitro antioxidant potential of Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract and its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage assessed by haemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Methods Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, hydrogen ion scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and the ferrous ion reducing ability were assessed as antioxidant indices. In the other experiment, human erythrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide to induce erythrocyte damage. The extract (at various concentrations) was subsequently incubated with the erythrocytes and later analysed for haemolysis and lipid peroxidation as indices for erythrocyte damage. Results Preliminary investigation of the extract showed that the leaf possessed significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities using in vitro models in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). The extract also reduced hydrogen peroxide induced erythrocyte haemolysis and lipid peroxidation significantly when compared with ascorbic acid (P<0.05). The IC50 values were 7.33 mg/mL and 1.58 mg/mL for inhibition of haemolysis and lipid peroxidation, respectively. In all cases, ascorbic acid (the reference antioxidant) possessed higher activity than the extract. Conclusions The findings show that C. papaya leaves possess significant bioactive potential which is attributed to the phytochemicals which act in synergy. Thus, the leaves can be exploited for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes. PMID:23569948

  7. Investigating Maternal Touch and Infants' Self-Regulatory Behaviours during a Modified Face-to-Face Still-Face with Touch Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean, Amélie D. L.; Stack, Dale M.; Arnold, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Maternal touch and infants' self-regulatory behaviours were examined during a modified Still-Face with Touch (SF?+?T) procedure. Mothers and their 5½-month-old infants participated in one period of Normal interaction followed by three SF?+?T periods. Maternal functions of touch, and infants' self-regulatory behaviour, affect, and…

  8. Physicochemical, nutritional, and microbial quality of fresh-cut and frozen papaya prepared from cultivars with varying resistance to internal yellowing disease (Enterobacter cloacae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quality, nutritional, and microbial analyses were completed for fresh-cut and frozen papaya cubes prepared from cultivars with varying resistance to internal yellowing disease, caused by the bacterium Enterobacter cloacae. In general, fresh-cut and frozen papaya retained nutritional and microbial qu...

  9. Decreasing-Liability Contracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Cooter; Ariel Porat

    2004-01-01

    Like constructing a building, performance on many contracts occurs in phases. As time passes, the promisor sinks more costs into performance and less expenditure remains. For phased performance, we show that optimal liability for the breaching party decreases as the remaining costs of completing performance decrease. In brief, efficiency requires a decreasing-liability contract. To implement such a contract, we recommend

  10. [On compulsive hand-washing--psychopathology of "touching"].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, M

    1993-01-01

    Compulsive hand-washing has been well known to the psychiatrists, since Legrand du Saulle described this disorder by the name of "délire du toucher" (1866), which refers to mysophobia or contact-phobia. But its clinical significance seems to have been not fully examined, except from the psychoanalytical point of view, that has observed the repression of sexuality in its pathology. This report presents four cases of compulsive hand-washing, and explores why they exclusively wash their hands. In order to elucidate the reason for their hand-washing and its significance, this report aims to study the relation of following three elements; "Sexuality", "hand" and "touching". As the idioms using "hand" often represent the various modes of sexual life in Japanese language as well as in English, so the "touching by hand" is reasonably considered to evoke the sexual impulsions, which the hand-washers fear and wish to avoid. On the other hand, "touching" is, necessarily in nature, to be touched by the touched object. For example, one who touches the lover's hand is inevitably to be touched by hers. That is; one is forced to be an object of one's object, which becomes to be a subject. In this sense, the act of "touching" means to lose one's "being subject" and to melt oneself into the situation where the structural distinction of subject and object can disappear. So one's act of "touching" or vivid contact with the other can cause anxiety by means of losing one's ego, which may be also a critical point to introduce to create something new. A compulsive hand-washer fears and avoids this critical moment that can make him lose his "being subject", so he "washes his hands of (cuts off relation with)" the situation that can undermine his ego. This avoidance of having contact can be compared to "the lose of vivid contact with the reality (la perte du contact avec la réalité (Minkowski)" observed in schizophrenia. In their ways of life, many hand-washers are not less autistic than the schizophrenics.om PMID:8356169

  11. Parental Reports on Touch Screen Use in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Cristia, Alejandrina; Seidl, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Touch screens are increasingly prevalent, and anecdotal evidence suggests that young children are very drawn towards them. Yet there is little data regarding how young children use them. A brief online questionnaire queried over 450 French parents of infants between the ages of 5 and 40 months on their young child’s use of touch-screen technology. Parents estimated frequency of use, and further completed several checklists. Results suggest that, among respondent families, the use of touch screens is widespread in early childhood, meaning that most children have some exposure to touch screens. Among child users, certain activities are more frequently reported to be liked than others, findings that we discuss in light of current concern for children’s employment of time and the cognitive effects of passive media exposure. Additionally, these parental reports point to clear developmental trends for certain types of interactive gestures. These results contribute to the investigation of touch screen use on early development and suggest a number of considerations that should help improve the design of applications geared towards toddlers, particularly for scientific purposes. PMID:26083848

  12. An ergonomics study of thumb movements on smartphone touch screen.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jinghong; Muraki, Satoshi

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the relationships between thumb muscle activity and thumb operating tasks on a smartphone touch screen with one-hand posture. Six muscles in the right thumb and forearm were targeted in this study, namely adductor pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis brevis (APB), abductor pollicis longus, first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and extensor digitorum. The performance measures showed that the thumb developed fatigue rapidly when tapping on smaller buttons (diameter: 9 mm compared with 3 mm), and moved more slowly in flexion-extension than in adduction-abduction orientation. Meanwhile, the electromyography and perceived exertion values of FDI significantly increased in small button and flexion-extension tasks, while those of APB were greater in the adduction-abduction task. This study reveals that muscle effort among thumb muscles on a touch screen smartphone varies according to the task, and suggests that the use of small touch buttons should be minimised for better thumb performance. PMID:24707989

  13. A New Approach to Defining Human Touch Temperature Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene; Stroud, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Defining touch temperature limits for skin contact with both hot and cold objects is important to prevent pain and skin damage, which may affect task performance or become a safety concern. Pain and skin damage depend on the resulting skin temperature during contact, which depends on the object s initial temperature, its material properties and its ability to transfer heat. However, previous spacecraft standards have incorrectly defined touch temperature limits in terms of a single object temperature value for all materials, or have provided limited material-specific values which do not cover the gamut of most designs. A new approach is being used in new NASA standards, which defines touch temperature limits in terms of skin temperature at pain onset for bare skin contact with hot and cold objects. The authors have developed an analytical verification method for safe hot and cold object temperatures for contact times from 1 second to infinity.

  14. Barrel cortex membrane potential dynamics in social touch.

    PubMed

    Lenschow, Constanze; Brecht, Michael

    2015-02-18

    The impact of social stimuli on the membrane potential dynamics of barrel cortex neurons is unknown. We obtained in vivo whole-cell recordings in the barrel cortex of head-restrained rats while they interacted with conspecifics. Social touch was associated with a depolarization and large membrane potential fluctuations locked to the rat's whisking. Both depolarization and membrane potential fluctuations were already observed prior to contact and did not occur during free whisking. This anticipatory pre-contact depolarization was not seen in passive social touch in anesthetized animals. The membrane potential fluctuations locked to the rat's whisking observed in interactions with awake conspecifics were larger than those seen for whisking onto nonconspecific stimuli (stuffed rats, objects, and the experimenter's hand). Responses did not correlate with whisker movement parameters. We conclude that responses to social touch differ from conventional tactile responses in (1) amplitude, (2) locking to whisking, and (3) pre-contact membrane potential changes. PMID:25640075

  15. Babies Touch, Taste, and Learn: A Guide for Parents. 

    E-print Network

    Anonymous,

    1979-01-01

    TOoe . ZTA245 07 8873 , ~O.I2."~ ) B - 1269 -~abies Touch, .. Taste, and Learn 0') A Gu ide for Parents TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE Daniel C. Pfannstiel, Director, College Station, Texas A baby learns from... touching you Hold him close to your body. Stroke his cheek Rub his body when you : bathe him. ~dby needs things he can grasp Things he can hold Things he can drop Babies learn by tasting Give babies toys that are safe They will put them...

  16. Babies Touch, Taste, and Learn: A Guide for Parents.

    E-print Network

    Anonymous,

    1979-01-01

    TOoe . ZTA245 07 8873 , ~O.I2."~ ) B - 1269 -~abies Touch, .. Taste, and Learn 0') A Gu ide for Parents TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE Daniel C. Pfannstiel, Director, College Station, Texas A baby learns from... in their mouths Keep things away from baby that he might swallow -that could make him sick 8aDIes learn wnen you hold and cuddle them 1 .. 6abies learn when you give them things to touch and to taste Educational programs conducted by the Texas...

  17. Comparative evaluation of volatiles, phenolics, sugars, organic acids and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papaya varieties.

    PubMed

    Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan; Gubbuk, Hamide; Gunes, Esma

    2015-04-15

    The present study was designed to determine the phenolic compounds, organic acids, sugars, aroma profiles and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papayas grown in Turkey. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used for the phenolic compounds analysis. Twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in the samples. The total phenolic content of Sel-42 was clearly higher than that of Tainung. Protocatechuic acid-hexoside, gallic acid-deoxyhexoside, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolics in both cultivars. Aroma composition of papaya was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 46 and 42 aroma compounds, including esters, alcohols, terpenes, lactones, acids, carbonyl compounds, and volatile phenols were identified in the Sel-42 and Tainung, respectively. The significant linear correlation was confirmed between the values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of papaya extracts. PMID:25466106

  18. The Effects of Sleep and Touch Therapy on Symptoms of Fibromyalgia and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Demirba?, BC; Erci, B

    2012-01-01

    Background Many alternative interventions are practiced in an effort to reduce symptoms of fibromiyalgia. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of sleep and touch therapy accompanied by music and aromatherapy on the symptoms of fibromyalgia and depression. Methods: The study was carried out between September 2009 and March 2011 in the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Polyclinic in Trabzon, Turkey. The sample consisted of 162 female patients and had been diagnosed with fibromyalgia at least 6 months prior to the study. Since the sample contains two intervention groups and one control group, each group was assigned 54 patients. Data were collected through a Personal Information Form, a Fibromyalgia Symptom Form and the Beck Depression Index. The study employed a pre-test/post-test control group design. A paired sample t-test was used in the comparisons of the in-group scale points; the chi-square in the intergroup comparisons, and the McNamer test in the in-group comparisons. Results: After the interventions, it was observed that the depression levels in the touch-music-aroma therapy group showed a larger decrease (before: 22.01±5.3; after: 14.52±3.7) than in the sleep-music-aroma therapy group (before: 24.81±5.1; after: 20.16±4.9) and control groups (before: 23.73±4.4; after: 21.05±2.6). Symptoms such as restless sleep, headache, morning fatigue, exhaustion, feeling like crying and bowel complaints were also significantly reduced (P<0.05). Conclusion: It is suggested that nurses providing healthcare to FMS patients should also offer these patients aromatherapy, sleep, music and touch therapies. PMID:23304675

  19. 75 FR 22625 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Multi-Touch Enabled Touchpads and Touchscreens...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ...Certain Electronic Devices With Multi-Touch Enabled Touchpads and Touchscreens; Notice...certain electronic devices with multi-touch enabled touchpads and touchscreens by reason...certain electronic devices with multi-touch enabled touchpads or touchscreens...

  20. TOPIC REVIEW IN TOUCH WITH ROBOTICS: NEUROSURGERY FOR

    E-print Network

    Cavusoglu, Cenk

    TOPIC REVIEW IN TOUCH WITH ROBOTICS: NEUROSURGERY FOR THE FUTURE Narendra Nathoo, M.D., Ph.D. Brain Tumor Institute and Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio M. Cenk of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio Gene H. Barnett, M.D. Brain Tumor Institute

  1. Robot Skin Based on Touch-Area-Sensitive Tactile Element

    E-print Network

    Shinoda, Hiroyuki

    propose a new tactile sensor skin ("Skin by Touch Area Receptor" or STAR). The skin consists of two robot skin including no long wires. Index Terms - Tactile sensor, Robot skin, Haptic interface, Contact such a robot skin, various arrays of pressure-sensitive tactile sensor elements [6]-[11] have been tried. One

  2. Youtopia: A Collaborative, Tangible, Multi-touch, Sustainability Learning Activity

    E-print Network

    Pedersen, Tom

    tabletop application developed to explore research questions focused on the design of games for learningYoutopia: A Collaborative, Tangible, Multi-touch, Sustainability Learning Activity Alissa N. Antle1. It was implemented on a Microsoft Pixelsense digital tabletop. The main method of interaction is through physical

  3. All-I-Touch as Combination of NFC and Lifestyle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Kneissl; R. Rottger; U. Sandner; J. M. Leimeister; H. Krcmar

    2009-01-01

    For this paper we developed the concept and implemented a fully working prototype of a snowboarder community platform based on Near Field Communication. All-I-Touch is a service which provides product information at the point of sale and additionally connects the user with his social community in Facebook. Through this combination it is possible to increase incentives for the end user

  4. *Chapter 6. Touch Roberta L. Klatzky Susan J. Lederman

    E-print Network

    Klatzky, Roberta

    of Object Properties VI. Haptic Space Perception VII. Haptic Perception of 2- and 3- Dimensional Patterns A provides a map of space within reach of the body that provides the basis for recognition of two on touch, including aids for the blind and deaf and virtual environments that provide haptic feedback

  5. Haptic Overlay Device for Flat Panel Touch Displays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Wang; Kevin Tuer; Mauro Rossi; Joseph Shu

    2004-01-01

    Summary form only given. In an effort to present users with an increasing amount of information, many industries including automotive and aerospace are adopting flat panel touch displays as a user interface. These interfaces are becoming popular due to their reconfigurability so that control and display functions can be embedded in multiple layers or menus. However, one of the disadvantages

  6. Active touch in orthopteroid insects: behaviours, multisensory substrates and evolution‡

    PubMed Central

    Comer, Christopher; Baba, Yoshichika

    2011-01-01

    Orthopteroid insects (cockroaches, crickets, locusts and related species) allow examination of active sensory processing in a comparative framework. Some orthopteroids possess long, mobile antennae endowed with many chemo- and mechanoreceptors. When the antennae are touched, an animal's response depends upon the identity of the stimulus. For example, contact with a predator may lead to escape, but contact with a conspecific may usually not. Active touch of an approaching object influences the likelihood that a discrimination of identity will be made. Using cockroaches, we have identified specific descending mechanosensory interneurons that trigger antennal-mediated escape. Crucial sensory input to these cells comes from chordotonal organs within the antennal base. However, information from other receptors on the base or the long antennal flagellum allows active touch to modulate escape probability based on stimulus identity. This is conveyed, at least to some extent, by textural information. Guidance of the antennae in active exploration depends on visual information. Some of the visual interneurons and the motor neurons necessary for visuomotor control have been identified. Comparisons across Orthoptera suggest an evolutionary model where subtle changes in the architecture of interneurons, and of sensorimotor control loops, may explain differing levels of vision–touch interaction in the active guidance of behaviour. PMID:21969682

  7. Towards Simulating Push Button Behavior on Touch Surfaces

    E-print Network

    various multimodal stimuli before, during and after manual activation. This makes them fast, discriminable characteristics to touch based digital interfaces entails complex and costly technology for force sensing using a remote tactile interface. Finally, we briefly discuss the results gained from 24 user interviews

  8. Electromechanical hand incorporates touch sensors and trigger function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dane, D. H.

    1970-01-01

    Electromechanical hand incorporates touch sensors, concealed fingers, and a structure that allows the hand to hold a tool on a flat surface. The hands can be mounted on most types of existing manipulators either directly or by means of modified mounting brackets.

  9. Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators and Exciting Materials (HS)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-22

    In this lesson plan, Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators, and Exciting Materials, high school students learn that heating up a material can rearrange its atoms, and change its properties. The change in the material (a nitinol wire shortens due to heat) activates a lever that exerts force.

  10. Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators and Exciting Materials (MS)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WPSU

    2010-02-09

    In this lesson plan, Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators, and Exciting Materials, middle school students learn that heating up a material can rearrange its atoms, and change its properties. The change in the material (a nitinol wire shortens due to heat) activates a lever that exerts force.

  11. Losing touch: pedagogies of incorporation and the ability to write

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan Watkins; Greg Noble

    2011-01-01

    The idea of “touch” is often used to point to the exemplary performance of skilful actions. While such a notion seemingly references the sensuous nature of that skill, it tends to mask the embodied acquisition of that capacity, implying intuitive ability rather than technique perfected through practice. Ironically, it also masks the significance of tactility in the process of developing

  12. Multi-Touch Rotation Gestures: Performance and Ergonomics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eve Hoggan; John Williamson; Antti Oulasvirta; Miguel Nacenta; Per Ola Kristensson; Anu Lehtiö

    2013-01-01

    Rotations performed with the index finger and thumb in- volve some of the most complex motor action among com- mon multi-touch gestures, yet little is known about the fac- tors affecting performance and ergonomics. This note pre- sents results from a study where the angle, direction, diame- ter, and position of rotations were systematically manipu- lated. Subjects were asked to

  13. Human Figure Drawings and Children’s Recall of Touching

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    In 2 studies, children ages 3 to 7 years were asked to recall a series of touches that occurred during a previous staged event. The recall interview took place 1 week after the event in Study 1 and immediately after the event in Study 2. Each recall interview had 2 sections: In 1 section, children were given human figure drawings (HFDs) and were asked to show where the touching took place; in the other section, the same questions were asked without the HFDs (verbal condition). Children were randomly assigned to 2 different conditions: HFD 1st/verbal 2nd or verbal 1st/HFD 2nd. There were 2 major findings. First, HFDs elicited more errors than the verbal condition when used to probe for information that the child had already been asked. Second, regardless of interview method, children had poor recall of the touches even when these occurred minutes before the interview. It is suggested that cognitive mechanisms involving memory and semantics underlie children’s poor recall of touching in both verbal and HFD conditions. PMID:20025421

  14. A Touch Screen Interface Design with Tactile Feedback

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroaki Nishino; Ryotaro Goto; Tsuneo Kagawa; Kazuyuki Yoshida; Kouichi Utsumiya; Junji Hirooka; Toshihiko Osada; Nobuhiro Nagatomo; Eiji Aoki

    2011-01-01

    Various information displays are becoming available for implementing new kinds of human computer interaction (HCI) methods. Touch screen devices become the most popular choice among many types and models. They have been used in wide range of applications and are proven to be a useful infrastructure for creating intuitive HCI. In spite of their popularity, there are some weak points.

  15. Paper Generators: Harvesting Energy from Touching, Rubbing and Sliding

    E-print Network

    Poupyrev, Ivan

    Paper Generators: Harvesting Energy from Touching, Rubbing and Sliding Mustafa Emre Karagozler1, PA 15213 USA ABSTRACT We present a new energy harvesting technology that generates electrical energy from a user's interactions with paper-like materials. The energy harvesters are flexible, light

  16. Information seeking with Wikipedia on the iPod Touch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim Hahn

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a usability study which inquired into undergraduate student information seeking with Wikipedia on the iPod touch. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data are drawn from iPod search logs and student survey responses. Search log data are coded with FRBR subject entities (group 3 entity sets) for analysis. Findings – Students

  17. Infants & Toddlers: Development--The Power of Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2005-01-01

    When a baby is born, parents check for fingers and toes, and over the next few weeks remain alert to whether the baby can see and hear. When babies nurse well, parents are assured that the sense of taste and smell are fine. But what about touch? This crucial sense for babies is often overlooked. In this article, the author discusses how to ensure…

  18. Double-side Multi-touch Input for Mobile Devices

    E-print Network

    Chu, Hao-hua

    from both the front and the back of the device. This new double-sided multi-touch mobile interaction, USA ACM 978-1-60558-246-7/09/04. Erh-li (Early) Shen National Taiwan University 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan b94502024@ntu.edu.tw Sung-sheng (Daniel) Tsai National Taiwan University 1

  19. Coaching, Caring and the Politics of Touch: A Visual Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robyn L.; Bailey, Jake; Santos, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    This paper has three principal purposes. The first involves locating the "politics of touch" as related to coaching within Noddings' theory of pedagogical caring. Noddings' framework is presented not so much as a prescription of "good practice", but as a potential way to raise the profile and somewhat problematise the…

  20. Keeping in Touch with Families All Year Long

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Carol; Yang, Alice

    2009-01-01

    For many parents, a phone call home from a teacher means trouble. The result? When a teacher gets in touch, parents' anxiety levels and defensive barriers may automatically go up, reducing their potential to participate as partners in their children's education. But it does not have to be that way. Teachers can regularly contact students' families…

  1. Finishing Touches for Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Technicians put final touches on NASA's Space Infrared Telescope Facility at Lockheed Martin Aeronautics in Sunnyvale, Calif. It will soon be shipped to Cape Canaveral, Florida, where it is scheduled to launch on April 15. The mission will observe the coldest, oldest and most dust-obscured objects in the universe.

  2. Trajectory Design Considerations for Small Body Touch-and-Go

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Mark; Broschart, Stephen; Bonfiglio, Eugene; Bhaskharan, Shyam; Cangahuala, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Outline: (1) Trajectory Description (2) Design Drivers: (2a) Dynamics (2b) Environment (2c) Spacecraft and Ground and System Capabilities (2d) Mission Objectives (3) Design Choices (4) Historical Precedents (5) Case Studies. What is Touch-and-Go (TAG)? (1) Descent to the surface (2) Brief contact (3) Ascends to a safe distance

  3. MULTI-TOUCH FOR GENERAL-PURPOSE COMPUTING

    E-print Network

    Pattanaik, Sumanta N.

    , in part, by: IARPA, under US Air Force Research Lab award FA87500820202; SAIC, under Science Applications- computer interaction. Multi-touch provides features such as gestural interaction, tangible interfaces, pen-based Hughes, Joseph LaViola, Stacey Scott, Brian Goldiez, and Michael Moshell. These efforts have been funded

  4. Neural Hedgehog signaling maintains stem cell renewal in the sensory touch dome epithelium.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ying; Thoresen, Daniel T; Williams, Jonathan S; Wang, Chaochen; Perna, James; Petrova, Ralitsa; Brownell, Isaac

    2015-06-01

    The touch dome is a highly patterned mechanosensory structure in the epidermis composed of specialized keratinocytes in juxtaposition with innervated Merkel cells. The touch dome epithelium is maintained by tissue-specific stem cells, but the signals that regulate the touch dome are not known. We identify touch dome stem cells that are unique among epidermal cells in their activated Hedgehog signaling and ability to maintain the touch dome as a distinct lineage compartment. Skin denervation reveals that renewal of touch dome stem cells requires a perineural microenvironment, and deleting Sonic hedgehog (Shh) in neurons or Smoothened in the epidermis demonstrates that Shh is an essential niche factor that maintains touch dome stem cells. Up-regulation of Hedgehog signaling results in neoplastic expansion of touch dome keratinocytes but no Merkel cell neoplasia. These findings demonstrate that nerve-derived Shh is a critical regulator of lineage-specific stem cells that maintain specialized sensory compartments in the epidermis. PMID:26015562

  5. Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract

    PubMed Central

    THAM, CHING S.; CHAKRAVARTHI, SRIKUMAR; HALEAGRAHARA, NAGARAJA; DE ALWIS, RANJIT

    2013-01-01

    Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) following lead acetate administration and pre-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) followed by lead acetate administration. The substances were administered for 14 days. The effects were evaluated by measuring protein carbonyl content (PCC) and glutathione content (GC) in the bone marrow. Histological changes in the bone marrow were also observed. The results showed that Carica papaya induced a significant reduction in the PCC activity and significantly increased the GC in the bone marrow. Carica papaya also improved the histology of the bone marrow compared with that of the lead acetate-treated group. In summary, Carica papaya was effective against the oxidative damage caused by lead acetate in the bone marrow and had a stimulatory effect on haemopoiesis. PMID:23403524

  6. Dual Innervation of Neonatal Merkel Cells in Mouse Touch Domes

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wenqin

    2014-01-01

    Merkel cell-neurite complexes are specialized mechanosensory end organs that mediate discriminative touch sensation. It is well established that type I slowly adapting (SAI) mechanoreceptors, which express neural filament heavy chain (NFH), innervate Merkel cells. It was previously shown that neurotrophic factor NT3 and its receptor TrkC play crucial roles in controlling touch dome Merkel cell innervation of NFH+ fibers. In addition, nerve fibers expressing another neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK), Ret, innervate touch dome Merkel cells as well. However, the relationship between afferents responsive to NT3/TrkC signaling and those expressing Ret is unclear. It is also controversial if these Ret+ fibers belong to the early or late Ret+ DRG neurons, which are defined based on the co-expression and developmental dependence of TrkA. To address these questions, we genetically traced Ret+ and TrkC+ fibers and analyzed their developmental dependence on TrkA. We found that Merkel cells in neonatal mouse touch domes receive innervation of two types of fibers: one group is Ret+, while the other subset expresses TrkC and NFH. In addition, Ret+ fibers depend on TrkA for their survival and normal innervation whereas NFH+ Merkel cell innervating fibers are almost unaltered in TrkA mutant mice, supporting that Ret+ and NFH+/TrkC+ afferents are two distinct groups. Ret signaling, on the other hand, plays a minor role for the innervation of neonatal touch domes. In contrast, Merkel cells in the glabrous skin are mainly contacted by NFH+/TrkC+ afferents. Taken together, our results suggest that neonatal Merkel cells around hair follicles receive dual innervation while Merkel cells in the glabrous skin are mainly innervated by only SAI mechanoreceptors. In addition, our results suggest that neonatal Ret+ Merkel cell innervating fibers most likely belong to the late but not early Ret+ DRG neurons. PMID:24637732

  7. Applications and bioefficacy of the functional food supplement fermented papaya preparation.

    PubMed

    Aruoma, Okezie I; Hayashi, Yuki; Marotta, Francesco; Mantello, Pierre; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer; Montagnier, Luc

    2010-11-28

    Fermented papaya preparation (FPP) (a product of yeast fermentation of Carica papaya Linn) is a food supplement. Studies in chronic and degenerative disease conditions (such as thalassemia, cirrhosis, diabetes and aging) and performance sports show that FPP favorably modulates immunological, hematological, inflammatory, vascular and oxidative stress damage parameters. Neuroprotective potential evaluated in an Alzheimer's disease cell model showed that the toxicity of the ?-amyloid can be significantly modulated by FPP. Oxidative stress trigger apoptotic pathways such as the c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) are preferentially activated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress resulting in cell differentiation and apoptosis. FPP modulated the H?O?-induced ERK, Akt and p38 activation with the reduction of p38 phosphorylation induced by H?O?. FPP reduces the extent of the H?O?-induced DNA damage, an outcome corroborated by similar effects obtained in the benzo[a]pyrene treated cells. No genotoxic effect was observed in experiments with FPP exposed to HepG2 cells nor was FPP toxic to the PC12 cells. Oxidative stress-induced cell damage and inflammation are implicated in a variety of cancers, diabetes, arthritis, cardiovascular dysfunctions, neurodegenerative disorders (such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease), exercise physiology (including performance sports) and aging. These conditions could potentially benefit from functional nutraceutical/food supplements (as illustrated here with fermented papaya preparation) exhibiting anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunostimulatory (at the level of the mucus membrane) and induction of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:20870007

  8. Food as Touch/Touching the Food: The Body In-Place and Out-of-Place in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossholt, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The article explores the need to eat as a biological and social practice among children in a preschool in Norway. The children in this preschool are aged from one to two years of age, and some of them have just started there. Different events from mealtimes relate to Derrida's concept of touch and Grosz's notion of bodies in-place and…

  9. Computer-aided video analysis of vertebrofemoral motion during toe touching in healthy subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Tully; Barry C. Stillman

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Despite widespread use of the toe touch test, the relative contribution from vertebral and hip movements has not been clearly established, largely because of unsatisfactory measurement techniques. This study aimed to reinvestigate the kinematics of toe touching by combining computerized videotape analysis with a new model of reference marker placement.Method: Twenty-two subjects were videotaped during active toe touching from

  10. The Use of Touch in Counseling: An Ethical Decision-Making Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calmes, Stephanie A.; Piazza, Nick J.; Laux, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Although some counselors have advocated for the limited use of touch in counseling, others have argued that touch has no place within the counseling relationship. Despite the controversy, the use of touch has been shown to have a number of therapeutic benefits; however, there are few ethical decision-making models that are appropriate for…

  11. Adding Haptic Feedback to Touch Screens at the Right , Yuru Zhang1

    E-print Network

    Adding Haptic Feedback to Touch Screens at the Right Time Yi Yang1,2 , Yuru Zhang1 , Zhu Hou1 Villeneuve d'Ascq, France betty.semail@polytech-lille.fr ABSTRACT The lack of haptics on touch screens often causes errors and user frustration. However, adding haptic feedback to touch screens in order to address

  12. Presence and Quality of Touch Influence Coregulation in Mother-Infant Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Amanda J.; Posada, German E.; Goldyn, Danielle T.

    2006-01-01

    The first major goal of this study was to determine whether touch would enhance mother-infant coregulation in ordinary, nonstressful face-to-face interactions. In an experimental manipulation of presence versus absence of touch in face-to-face interactions between 79 mothers and their 3.5-month-old infants, results indicated that when touch is…

  13. Touch Cues: Teaching Pre-Language Skills to Infants with Multiple Handicaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeirnan, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the use of touch as a strategy to teach children with multiple handicaps. Touch cues help children to anticipate events and to interpret information from the environment. Caregivers should first observe the child's existing repertoire of movements, and then create touch cues that build upon the child's preferred…

  14. Managing Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), Using Spinosad-Based Protein Bait Sprays in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait was evaluated as a control of female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in papaya orchards in Hawaii. Two important components of this study were field sanitation and mass trapping using the male-specific lure methyl eugenol. Three different spray ...

  15. Long-term spatial memory and morphological changes in hippocampus of Wistar rats exposed to smoke from Carica papaya leaves

    PubMed Central

    Oyewole, Aboyeji Lukuman; Owoyele, Bamidele Victor

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of smoking of dried leaves of Carica papaya (pawpaw) based on ethnopharmacological information which indicated that smoking of papaya leaves could influence motor performance and learning. Methods Twenty-four rats were used for the study, and were grouped into four groups. Groups 1 served as the control (not exposed to papaya leaves smoke), while Groups 2, 3 and 4 were exposed to smoke from 6.25 g, 12.50 g and 18.75 g of dry pawpaw leaves respectively in a smoking chamber twice daily for 21 d with each exposure lasting for 3 min. Lastly, hippocampus was harvested in each group for histological study. Results The results showed that there were significant (P<0.05) increases in mean of recall latencies of long-term spatial memory in the animal administered the high dose while the other groups had significantly (P<0.05) lower frequencies. Histological investigation showed signs of mild neural degeneration in high dose group and hypochromic appearance of the Nissl substance in all treated groups. Conclusions In conclusion, the findings from this study has demonstrated that smoking of papaya leaves has the ability to maintain an intact long-term spatial memory at all doses but retrieving such memory is faster with the low and medium dosages. PMID:25182440

  16. Purification of papain from Carica papaya latex: Aqueous two-phase extraction versus two-step salt precipitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarote Nitsawang; Rajni Hatti-Kaul; Pawinee Kanasawud

    2006-01-01

    Purification of papain from wet Carica papaya latex by extraction in aqueous two-phase system was studied and compared with the traditional procedure involving a two-step salt precipitation. The papain obtained by the latter method was usually contaminated with other proteins, and its purity was dependent on the initial protein concentration in the material used for processing. Highly pure papain was

  17. Effects of chitosan-based coatings containing peppermint essential oil on the quality of post-harvest papaya fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible coatings comprised of antimicrobial polymers based on chitosan are promising technologies to preserve post-harvest fruit quality. In this study, we investigated the potential utility of a coating made from chitosan modified by N-acylation with fatty acid to preserve post-harvest papaya qualit...

  18. Effect of ozone pre-conditioning on quality and antioxidant capacity of papaya fruit during ambient storage.

    PubMed

    Ali, Asgar; Ong, Mei Kying; Forney, Charles F

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physico-chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of ozone-treated papaya fruit and untreated fruit. Freshly harvested papaya fruit were exposed continuously to ozone fumigation (0, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 5ppm) for 96h prior to ambient storage at 25±3°C and 70±5% relative humidity (RH) for up to 14days. The fruit exposed to 2.5ppm ozone had higher levels of total soluble solids (25.0%), ascorbic acid content (12.4%), ?-carotene content (19.6%), lycopene content (52.1%), and antioxidant activity (30.9%), and also reduced weight loss (11.5%) at day 10 compared to the control. The sensory attributes of papaya treated with 2.5ppm ozone was superior in sweetness and overall acceptability. These results support the application of ozone as a non-thermal and safe food preservation technique for papaya which can benefit both the producers and consumers. PMID:24001808

  19. VARYING GENETIC DIVERSITY OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS ISOLATES FROM TWO TIME-SEPARATED OUTBREAKS IN JAMAICA AND VENEZUELA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coat protein (CP) genes of eleven Jamaican Papaya ringspot virus type-p (PRSV) isolates that were collected in 1999 were cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of these isolates were compared to each other, with a sequence of another Jamaican isolate collected after the f...

  20. Effects of Ozone in Combination with Hydrothermal Treatment and Wax on Physical and Chemical Properties of Papayas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolina Pereira Kechinski; Cândida Raquel Sherrer Montero; Caciano Pelajo Zapata Noreña; Isabel Cristina Tessaro; Lígia Damasceno Ferreira Marczak; Renar João Bender

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of ozone in combination with hydrothermal treatment and wax on physical and chemical properties of papayas. The ozone concentrations used in this study were 2 and 4 mg\\/L. Heat treatments were applied with a hot water brushing system at temperatures of 45, 55 and 65 °C. No mold was observed under the wax film of

  1. Effects of crude extracts of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) and Carica papaya (Caricaceae) against the protozoan fish parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Ekanem; A. Obiekezie; W. Kloas; K. Knopf

    2004-01-01

    The ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is among the most pathogenic parasites of fish maintained in captivity. In the present study, the effects of the crude methanolic extract of leaves of Mucuna pruriens and the petroleum-ether extract of seeds of Carica papaya against I. multifiliis were investigated under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Goldfish ( Carassius auratus auratus) infected with the

  2. The effect of antifungal hot-water treatments on papaya postharvest quality and activity of pectinmethylesterase and polygalacturonase.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Sánchez, Ignacio; Carrillo-López, Armando; Vega-García, Misael; Yahia, Elhadi M

    2013-02-01

    The effect of antifungal hot-water treatments (AHWT) at 55 °C for 0, 3, 6 and 9 min on quality attributes and cell-wall enzymatic activity during storage at 25 °C was investigated in papaya fruit. The total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), firmness and fresh weight loss were not affected, whereas color on skin was negatively affected by the treatments of 6- and 9-min. However, the skin color was not different between the 3-min treated fruit and the untreated fruit during the storage. Decay was delayed and reduced by AHWT. We observed that the 3-min treatment of 55 °C did not affect softening and quality of papaya cv Maradol when applied as a pesticide-free treatment at color-break stage of papaya. PME (Pectinmethylesterase) and PG (Polygalacturonase) activities were not significantly affected by AHWT. We concluded that the AHWT did not affect the softening process from papaya pulp since the cell-wall enzyme activity (PME and PG) was not altered by treatments. PMID:24425893

  3. Acute and chronic toxicity of pawpaw (Carica papaya) seed powder to adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linne 1757)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ezekiel O. Ayotunde; Benedict O. Ofem

    2008-01-01

    This experiment determined the toxicity of pawpaw seed powder to adult tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, the most cultivable fish species in Africa. The 96 h static bioassay experiment was conducted to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50) for adult Nile tilapia, to pawpaw seed, Carica papaya. Two hundred live, and apparently healthy O. niloticus measuring 11.5 - 14.6 cm total length

  4. A matrix solid-phase dispersion method for the extraction of seven pesticides from mango and papaya.

    PubMed

    Navickiene, Sandro; Aquino, Adriano; Bezerra, Débora Santos Silva

    2010-10-01

    A simple and effective extraction method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion was developed to determine trichlorfon, pyrimethanil, methyl parathion, tetraconazole, thiabendazole, imazalil, and tebuconazole in papaya and mango using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring. Different parameters of the method were evaluated, such as type of solid-phase (silica-gel, neutral alumina, and Florisil), the amount of solid-phase, and eluent [dichloromethane, ethyl acetate-dichloromethane (4:1, 1:4, 1:1, 2:3, v/v)]. The best results were obtained using 2.0 g of mango or papaya, 3.0 g of silica as dispersant sorbent, and ethyl acetate-dichloromethane (1:1, v/v) as eluting solvent. The method was validated using mango and papaya samples fortified with pesticides at different concentration levels (0.05, 0.10, and 1.0 mg/kg). Average recoveries (4 replicates) ranged from 80% to 146%, with relative standard deviations between 1.0% and 28%. Detection and quantification limits for mango and papaya ranged from 0.01 to 0.03 mg/kg and 0.05 to 0.10 mg/kg, respectively. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of these compounds in commercial fruit samples from a local market (Aracaju/SE, Brazil), and residues of the pesticides were not detected on the samples. PMID:20875237

  5. Genetic differentiation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum associated with Anthracnose disease of papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsium annuum L.) based on ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Ariana; Rampersad, Sephra N

    2012-03-01

    Members of the genus Colletotrichum include some of the most economically important fungal pathogens in the world. Accurate diagnosis is critical to devising disease management strategies. Two species, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum, are responsible for anthracnose disease in papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Trinidad. The ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of 48 Colletotrichum isolates was sequenced, and the ITS PCR products were analyzed by PCR-RFLP analysis. Restriction site polymorphisms generated from 11 restriction enzymes enabled the identification of specific enzymes that were successful in distinguishing between C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates. Species-specific restriction fragment length polymorphisms generated by the enzymes AluI, HaeIII, PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were used to consistently resolve C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates from papaya. AluI, ApaI, PvuII, RsaI, and SmaI reliably separated isolates of C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum from bell pepper. PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were also capable of distinguishing among the C. gloeosporioides isolates from papaya based on the different restriction patterns that were obtained as a result of intra-specific variation in restriction enzyme recognition sites in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region. Of all the isolates tested, C. gloeosporioides from papaya also had the highest number of PCR-RFLP haplotypes. Cluster analysis of sequence and PCR-RFLP data demonstrated that all C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates clustered separately into species-specific clades regardless of host species. Phylograms also revealed consistent topologies which suggested that the genetic distances for PCR-RFLP-generated data were comparable to that of ITS sequence data. ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting is a rapid and reliable method to identify and differentiate between Colletotrichum species. PMID:21720933

  6. Active Touch During Shrew Prey Capture

    PubMed Central

    Munz, Martin; Brecht, Michael; Wolfe, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Although somatosensation in multiple whisker systems has been studied in considerable detail, relatively little information is available regarding whisker usage and movement patterns during natural behaviors. The Etruscan shrew, one of the smallest mammals, relies heavily on its whisker system to detect and kill its highly mobile insect prey. Here, we tracked whisker and body motion during prey capture. We found that shrews made periodic whisker movements (whisking) with frequencies ranging from 12 to 17?Hz. We compared shrew and rat whisking and found that shrew whisking was smaller amplitude and higher frequency than rat whisking, but that the shrew and rat whisking cycle were similar in that the velocity was higher during retraction than protraction. We were able to identify four phases during the shrew hunting behavior: (i) an immobile phase often preceding hunting, (ii) a search phase upon the initiation of hunting, (iii) a contact phase defined by whisker-to-cricket contact, and (iv) an attack phase, characterized by a rapid head movement directed toward the cricket. During the searching phase, whisking was generally rhythmic and whiskers were protracted forward. After prey contact, whisking amplitude decreased and became more variable. The final strike was associated with an abrupt head movement toward the prey with high head acceleration. Prey capture proceeded extremely fast and we obtained evidence that shrews can initiate corrective maneuvers with a minimal latency <30?ms. While the shrew's rostrum is straight and elongated during most behaviors, we show for the first time that shrews bend their rostrum during the final strike and grip their prey with a parrot beak shaped snout. PMID:21283557

  7. Active touch during shrew prey capture.

    PubMed

    Munz, Martin; Brecht, Michael; Wolfe, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Although somatosensation in multiple whisker systems has been studied in considerable detail, relatively little information is available regarding whisker usage and movement patterns during natural behaviors. The Etruscan shrew, one of the smallest mammals, relies heavily on its whisker system to detect and kill its highly mobile insect prey. Here, we tracked whisker and body motion during prey capture. We found that shrews made periodic whisker movements (whisking) with frequencies ranging from 12 to 17?Hz. We compared shrew and rat whisking and found that shrew whisking was smaller amplitude and higher frequency than rat whisking, but that the shrew and rat whisking cycle were similar in that the velocity was higher during retraction than protraction. We were able to identify four phases during the shrew hunting behavior: (i) an immobile phase often preceding hunting, (ii) a search phase upon the initiation of hunting, (iii) a contact phase defined by whisker-to-cricket contact, and (iv) an attack phase, characterized by a rapid head movement directed toward the cricket. During the searching phase, whisking was generally rhythmic and whiskers were protracted forward. After prey contact, whisking amplitude decreased and became more variable. The final strike was associated with an abrupt head movement toward the prey with high head acceleration. Prey capture proceeded extremely fast and we obtained evidence that shrews can initiate corrective maneuvers with a minimal latency <30?ms. While the shrew's rostrum is straight and elongated during most behaviors, we show for the first time that shrews bend their rostrum during the final strike and grip their prey with a parrot beak shaped snout. PMID:21283557

  8. Cancer chemopreventive effects of the flavonoid-rich fraction isolated from papaya seeds.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Neelam; Khan, Saba; Bhargava, Arpit; Raghuram, Gorantla V; Jain, Deepika; Panwar, Hariom; Samarth, Ravindra M; Jain, Subodh K; Maudar, Kewal K; Mishra, Dinesh K; Mishra, Pradyumna K

    2014-01-01

    Intervention to decelerate, arrest, or reverse the process of carcinogenesis by the use of either natural or synthetic agents individually or in combination has emerged as a promising and pragmatic medical approach to reduce cancer risk. In the present study, we examined the cancer chemopreventive potential of a flavonoid-rich fraction isolated from the seeds of Carica papaya, a plant traditionally referred to as papaw. The flavonoid-enriched benzene fraction of the aqueous extract exerted its anticancer properties in vitro through cytoprotection, antioxidative and antiinflammatory mechanisms and genoprotection in response to isocyanate-induced carcinogenicity. Medium-term anticarcinogenicity and 2-stage skin papillomagenesis studies conducted in benzopyrene-induced lung carcinogenesis and 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene-mediated skin papillomagenesis mouse models further validated our in vitro observations. This is the first demonstration of chemopreventive activities of papaya seed products, however, further studies to understand the subtle targets of intracellular signaling pathways, pharmacological profile and toxicological safety of this bioactive fraction are essential to pave the way for successful clinical translation. Our study supports the inverse association between dietary flavonoid intake and cancer risk. PMID:24820939

  9. Physics Learning Strategies with Multi-touch Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Mark; Ilie, C.; Schofield, D.

    2011-03-01

    Advancements in technology have opened doorways to build new teaching and learning methods. Through conjunctive use of these technologies and methods, a classroom can be enriched to stimulate and improve student learning. The purpose of our research is to ascertain whether or not multi-touch technology enhances students' abilities to better comprehend and retain the knowledge taught in physics. At their basis, students learn via visual, aural, reading/writing, and kinesthetic styles. Labs provide for all but the aural style, while lectures lack kinesthetic learning. Pedagogical research indicates that kinesthetic learning is a fundamental, powerful, and ubiquitous learning style. By using multi-touch technology in lecture, not only can we accommodate kinesthetic learners, but we can also enrich the experiences of visual learners. Ushering to this wider array of students will hopefully lead to an increase in meaningful learning.

  10. The second touch hypothesis: T cell activation, homing and polarization

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The second touch hypothesis states that T cell activation, proliferation, induction of homing receptors and polarization are distinguishable and, at least in part, sequential. The second touch hypothesis maintains that full T cell polarization requires T cell interaction with antigen-presenting cells (DCs, macrophages, B cells and certain activated stromal cells) in the non-lymphoid tissue where the antigen resides. Upon initial antigen encounter in peripheral lymph nodes (PLN), T cells become activated, proliferate and express homing receptors that enable them to recirculate to the (inflamed) tissue that contains the antigen. Differentiation into the T helper lineages Th1, Th2, Th17 and induced regulatory T cells (iTreg) requires additional antigen presentation by tissue macrophages and other antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the inflamed tissue. Here, I present a conceptual framework for the importance of peripheral (non-lymphoid) antigen presentation to antigen-experienced T cells. PMID:25580220

  11. The meaning of the virtual Midas touch: an ERP study in economic decision making.

    PubMed

    Spapé, Michiel M; Hoggan, Eve E; Jacucci, Giulio; Ravaja, Niklas

    2015-03-01

    The Midas touch refers to the altruistic effects of a brief touch. Though these effects have often been replicated, they remain poorly understood. We investigate the psychophysiology of the effect using remotely transmitted, precisely timed, tactile messages in an economic decision-making game called Ultimatum. Participants were more likely to accept offers after receiving a remotely transmitted touch. Furthermore, we found distinct effects of touch on event-related potentials evoked by (a) feedback regarding accepted and rejected offers, (b) decision cues related to proposals, and (c) the haptic and auditory cues themselves. In each case, a late positive effect of touch was observed and related to the P3. Given the role of the P3 in memory-related functions, the results indicate an indirect relationship between touch and generosity that relies on memory. This hypothesis was further tested and confirmed in the positive effects of touch on later proposals. PMID:25265874

  12. Infant Imitation from Television Using Novel Touch Screen Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel; Gerhardstein, Peter; Dickerson, Kelly; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2009-01-01

    Infants learn less from a televised demonstration than from a live demonstration, the "video deficit effect." The present study employs a novel approach, using touch screen technology to examine 15-month olds' transfer of learning. Infants were randomly assigned either to within-dimension (2D/2D or 3D/3D) or cross-dimension (3D/2D or 2D/3D)…

  13. Distributed Representation of Single Touches in Somatosensory and Visual Cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S LaConte; NE Yasar

    2009-01-01

    Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) was used to analyze blood-oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) data, which were acquired as human subjects received brief vibrotactile stimulation of their hands and feet. Support vector machines trained and tested on the whole brain fMRI data were able to accurately decode the body site of single touches, with mean performance of

  14. Interface Design for Graphics Editor on Multi Touch Point Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srujitha Mullapudi

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the project is to use the touch sensitive device capability of the iPad to give a better user experience and functionalities for the artists. In this project, I have explored different interactions that can give a better experience for artist when compared to traditional computer-mouse interaction. In the traditional Computer-mouse interaction it is very difficult for

  15. Ionic signaling in plant responses to gravity and touch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasano, Jeremiah M.; Massa, Gioia D.; Gilroy, Simon

    2002-01-01

    Touch and gravity are two of the many stimuli that plants must integrate to generate an appropriate growth response. Due to the mechanical nature of both of these signals, shared signal transduction elements could well form the basis of the cross-talk between these two sensory systems. However, touch stimulation must elicit signaling events across the plasma membrane whereas gravity sensing is thought to represent transformation of an internal force, amyloplast sedimentation, to signal transduction events. In addition, factors such as turgor pressure and presence of the cell wall may also place unique constraints on these plant mechanosensory systems. Even so, the candidate signal transduction elements in both plant touch and gravity sensing, changes in Ca2+, pH and membrane potential, do mirror the known ionic basis of signaling in animal mechanosensory cells. Distinct spatial and temporal signatures of Ca2+ ions may encode information about the different mechanosignaling stimuli. Signals such as Ca2+ waves or action potentials may also rapidly transfer information perceived in one cell throughout a tissue or organ leading to the systemic reactions characteristic of plant touch and gravity responses. Longer-term growth responses are likely sustained via changes in gene expression and asymmetries in compounds such as inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and calmodulin. Thus, it seems likely that plant mechanoperception involves both spatial and temporal encoding of information at all levels, from the cell to the whole plant. Defining this patterning will be a critical step towards understanding how plants integrate information from multiple mechanical stimuli to an appropriate growth response.

  16. A closed-loop neurobotic system for fine touch sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bologna, L. L.; Pinoteau, J.; Passot, J.-B.; Garrido, J. A.; Vogel, J.; Ros Vidal, E.; Arleo, A.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Fine touch sensing relies on peripheral-to-central neurotransmission of somesthetic percepts, as well as on active motion policies shaping tactile exploration. This paper presents a novel neuroengineering framework for robotic applications based on the multistage processing of fine tactile information in the closed action-perception loop. Approach. The integrated system modules focus on (i) neural coding principles of spatiotemporal spiking patterns at the periphery of the somatosensory pathway, (ii) probabilistic decoding mechanisms mediating cortical-like tactile recognition and (iii) decision-making and low-level motor adaptation underlying active touch sensing. We probed the resulting neural architecture through a Braille reading task. Main results. Our results on the peripheral encoding of primary contact features are consistent with experimental data on human slow-adapting type I mechanoreceptors. They also suggest second-order processing by cuneate neurons may resolve perceptual ambiguities, contributing to a fast and highly performing online discrimination of Braille inputs by a downstream probabilistic decoder. The implemented multilevel adaptive control provides robustness to motion inaccuracy, while making the number of finger accelerations covariate with Braille character complexity. The resulting modulation of fingertip kinematics is coherent with that observed in human Braille readers. Significance. This work provides a basis for the design and implementation of modular neuromimetic systems for fine touch discrimination in robotics.

  17. Instrumented fingernails: a haptically unobstructive method for touch force input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascaro, Stephen A.; Asada, H. Harry; Chang, Kuo Wei

    1998-12-01

    A new type of touch sensor for detecting contact pressure at human fingertips is presented. Fingernails are instrumented with miniature LEDs and photodetectors in order to measure changes in the nail color when the fingers are pressed against a surface, this new sensor allows the fingers to directly contact the environment without obstructing the human's natural haptic rather than the finger pad. Photo- reflective plethysmorgraphy is used for measuring the nail color. A prototype fingernail sensor and is constructed and used to create a fingertip-free electronic glove. Using these new touch senors, a novel human-machine interface, termed 'virtual switch', is developed and applied to robot programming. The virtual switch detects human intention of pressing a switch by measuring the finger touch signal and the hand location. Instead of embedding a physical switch in a wall or panel, the virtual switch requires merely an image of a switch posted on the surface, and hence can be placed on any surface where one wants to place switches.

  18. Hierarchical multi-touch selection techniques for collaborative geospatial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkiewicz, Thomas; Jeong, Dong Hyun; Wartell, Zachary; Ribarsky, William; Chang, Remco

    2009-05-01

    In time critical visual analytic environments collaboration between multiple expert users allows for rapid knowledge discovery and facilitates the sharing of insight. New collaborative display technologies, such as multi-touch tables, have shown great promise as the medium for such collaborations to take place. However, under such new technologies, traditional selection techniques, having been developed for mouse and keyboard interfaces, become inconvenient, inefficient, and in some cases, obsolete. We present selection techniques for multi-touch environments that allow for the natural and efficient selection of complex regions-of-interest within a hierarchical geospatial environment, as well as methods for refining and organizing these selections. The intuitive nature of the touch-based interaction permits new users to quickly grasp complex controls, while the consideration for collaboration coordinates the actions of multiple users simultaneously within the same environment. As an example, we apply our simple gestures and actions mimicking real-world tactile behaviors to increase the usefulness and efficacy of an existing urban growth simulation in a traditional GIS-like environment. However, our techniques are general enough to be applied across a wide range of geospatial analytical applications for both domestic security and military use.

  19. Behavioral responses of female oriental fruit flies to the odor of papayas at three ripeness stages in a laboratory flight tunnel (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric B. Jang; Douglas M. Light

    1991-01-01

    Behavioral responses of adult female oriental fruit flies, Dacus dorsalisHendel, to the odor of papayas from three ripeness classes were studied using a threechoice flight tunnel bioassay. Laboratoryreared flies were allowed to respond freely to any of three papaya odors (mature green, colorbreak to one-fourth ripe, and one-half to full ripe) emanating from identical (spherical) fruit models. Five behaviors were

  20. Cloning of the papaya chromoplast-specific lycopene beta-cyclase, CpCYC-b, controlling fruit flesh color reveals conserved microsynteny and a recombination hot spot.

    PubMed

    Blas, Andrea L; Ming, Ray; Liu, Zhiyong; Veatch, Olivia J; Paull, Robert E; Moore, Paul H; Yu, Qingyi

    2010-04-01

    Carotenoid pigments in fruits are indicative of the ripening process and potential nutritional value. Papaya (Carica papaya) fruit flesh color is caused by the accumulation of lycopene or beta-carotenoids in chromoplasts. It is a distinct feature affecting nutritional composition, fruit quality, shelf life, and consumer preference. To uncover the molecular basis of papaya flesh color, we took map-based cloning and candidate gene approaches using integrated genetic and physical maps. A DNA marker tightly linked to flesh color colocalized on a contig of the physical map with a cDNA probe of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) chromoplast-specific lycopene beta-cyclase, CYC-b. Candidate gene sequences were obtained from amplified fragments and verified by sequencing two bacterial artificial chromosomes containing the two alleles. Sequence comparison revealed a 2-bp insertion in the coding region of the recessive red flesh allele resulting in a frame-shift mutation and a premature stop codon. A color complementation test in bacteria confirmed that the papaya CpCYC-b is the gene controlling fruit flesh color. Sequence analysis of wild and cultivated papaya accessions showed the presence of this frame-shift mutation in all red flesh accessions examined. Evaluation of DNA markers near CpCYC-b revealed a recombination hot spot, showing that CpCYC-b is located in a gene-rich region with a recombination rate at 3.7 kb per centimorgan, more than 100-fold higher than the genome average at 400 kb per centimorgan. Conserved microsynteny of the CpCYC-b region is indicated by colinearity of two to four genes between papaya, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), grape (Vitis vinifera), and tomato. Our results enhanced our understanding of papaya flesh color inheritance and generated new tools for papaya improvement. PMID:20181753

  1. Your Phone or Mine? Fusing Body, Touch and Device Sensing for Multi-User Device-Display Interaction

    E-print Network

    Dumais, Susan

    [12] uses 138 proximity sensors to map touch points to specific users. On mobile phones, PhoneTouch [4 to a mobile device held by the user. It exploits the combination of the phone's on-board sensors and touchYour Phone or Mine? Fusing Body, Touch and Device Sensing for Multi-User Device-Display Interaction

  2. Reach out to one and you reach out to many: social touch affects third-party observers.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Annett; Reece, Christy; Zhao, Claris; Ng, Erik; Wu, Esther; Yen, Shih-Cheng

    2015-02-01

    Casual social touch influences emotional perceptions, attitudes, and behaviours of interaction partners. We asked whether these influences extend to third-party observers. To this end, we developed the Social Touch Picture Set comprising line drawings of dyadic interactions, half of which entailed publicly acceptable casual touch and half of which served as no-touch controls. In Experiment 1, participants provided basic image norms by rating how frequently they observed a displayed touch gesture in everyday life and how comfortable they were observing it. Results implied that some touch gestures were observed more frequently and with greater comfort than others (e.g., handshake vs. hug). All gestures, however, obtained rating scores suitable for inclusion in Experiments 2 and 3. In Experiment 2, participants rated perceived valence, arousal, and likeability of randomly presented touch and no-touch images without being explicitly informed about touch. Image characters seemed more positive, aroused, and likeable when they touched as compared to when they did not touch. Image characters seemed more negative and aroused, but were equally likeable, when they received touch as compared to when there was no physical contact. In Experiment 3, participants passively viewed touch and no-touch images while their eye movements were recorded. Differential gazing at touch as compared to no-touch images emerged within the first 500 ms following image exposure and was largely restricted to the characters' upper body. Gazing at the touching body parts (e.g., hands) was minimal and largely unaffected by touch, suggesting that touch processing occurred outside the focus of visual attention. Together, these findings establish touch as an important visual cue and provide novel insights into how this cue modulates socio-emotional processing in third-party observers. PMID:24628391

  3. RNA interference of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2) genes expression prolongs the shelf life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L.) papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom; Yeong, Wee Chien; Pillai, Vilasini

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6). Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants. PMID:24950439

  4. Repeated Questions, Deception, and Children’s True and False Reports of Body Touch

    PubMed Central

    Quas, Jodi A.; Davis, Elizabeth L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Myers, John E. B.

    2010-01-01

    Four- to 7-year-olds’ ability to answer repeated questions about body touch either honestly or dishonestly was examined. Children experienced a play event, during which one third of the children were touched innocuously. Two weeks later, they returned for a memory interview. Some children who had not been touched were instructed to lie during the interview and say that they had been touched. Children so instructed were consistent in maintaining the lie but performed poorly when answering repeated questions unrelated to the lie. Children who were not touched and told the truth were accurate when answering repeated questions. Of note, children who had been touched and told the truth were the most inconsistent. Results call into question the common assumption that consistency is a useful indicator of veracity in children’s eyewitness accounts. PMID:17218648

  5. Ionic signaling in plant gravity and touch responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Fasano, Jeremiah M.; Gilroy, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Plant roots are optimized to exploit resources from the soil and as each root explores this environment it will encounter a range of biotic and abiotic stimuli to which it must respond. Therefore, each root must possess a sensory array capable of monitoring and integrating these diverse stimuli to direct the appropriate growth response. Touch and gravity represent two of the biophysical stimuli that plants must integrate. As sensing both of these signals requires mechano-transduction of biophysical forces to biochemical signaling events, it is likely that they share signal transduction elements. These common signaling components may allow for cross-talk and so integration of thigmotropic and gravitropic responses. Indeed, signal transduction events in both plant touch and gravity sensing are thought to include Ca(2+)- and pH-dependent events. Additionally, it seems clear that the systems responsible for root touch and gravity response interact to generate an integrated growth response. Thus, primary and lateral roots of Arabidopsis respond to mechanical stimuli by eliciting tropic growth that is likely part of a growth strategy employed by the root to circumvent obstacles in the soil. Also, the mechano-signaling induced by encountering an obstacle apparently down-regulates the graviperception machinery to allow this kind of avoidance response. The challenge for future research will be to define how the cellular signaling events in the root cap facilitate this signal integration and growth regulation. In addition, whether other stimuli are likewise integrated with the graviresponse via signal transduction system cross-talk is an important question that remains to be answered.

  6. Process variables influence on microwave assisted extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L. peel.

    PubMed

    Maran, J Prakash; Prakash, K Arun

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate and optimize the influence of process variables such as microwave power, pH, time and solid-liquid ratio on the extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L peel. The experiments were carried out based on a four factors three level Box-Behnken response surface design. A quadratic model was developed from the experimental data in order to predict the pectin yield. The optimal condition was found to be: microwave power of 512 w, pH of 1.8, time of 140 s and solid-liquid ratio of 1:15 g/ml with maximum pectin yield (25.41%). PMID:25445679

  7. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. III. Tropical fruits: bananas, mangoes, and papayas.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P

    1986-01-01

    The current status of research on the use of ionizing radiation for shelf life improvement and disinfestation of fresh tropical fruits like bananas, mangoes, and papayas are reviewed. The aspects covered are influence of maturity and physiological state of the fruits on delayed ripening and tolerance to radiation; varietal responses; changes in chemical constituents, volatiles, respiration, and ethylene evolution; biochemical mechanisms of delayed ripening and browning of irradiated fruits; and organoleptic quality. The efficacy of the combination of hot water dip and radiation treatments for control of postharvest fungal diseases are considered. The immediate potential of radiation as a quarantine treatment, in place of the currently used chemical fumigants, for disinfestation of fruit flies and mango seed weevil are discussed. Future prospects for irradiation of tropical fruits are discussed in the light of experience gained from studies conducted in different countries. PMID:3082598

  8. Improved Immunoassay Sensitivity in Serum as a Result of Polymer-Entrapped Quantum Dots: 'Papaya Particles'.

    PubMed

    Ranzoni, Andrea; den Hamer, Anniek; Karoli, Tomislav; Buechler, Joseph; Cooper, Matthew A

    2015-06-16

    Fluorescent labels are widely employed in biomarker quantification and diagnostics, however they possess narrow Stokes shifts and can photobleach, limiting multiplexed detection applications and compromising sensitivity. In contrast, quantum dots do not photobleach and have much wider Stokes shifts, but a paucity of robust surface attachment chemistries for bioconjugation has limited their uptake in biomedical diagnostics. We report a novel class of biofunctional fluorescent labels based on trapping of ?10(4) quantum dots within a core nanoparticle. The doped particles act as scaffolds for generation of a multilayered shell consisting of a functionalized hydrophilic polymer with covalently attached receptors for analyte capture. These constructs, which conceptually resemble a papaya fruit, are chemically stable, remain monodispersed for >6 months in buffer, and show utility in immunoassay applications. Using monoclonal antibody fragments against nonstructural protein dengue NS1, an early biomarker for dengue fever, antibody immobilization capacity was 75-fold higher compared with traditional carbodiimide protein coupling. In the model dengue immunoassay, we observed a 15-fold lower limit of detection and 4-fold higher fluorescence intensity with the "papaya particles" compared to current "best-in-class" commercial reagents. Direct deployment in human serum allowed sensitive detection of different NS1 serotypes with lower limits of detection within the clinically relevant range (1-10 ng/mL), and sufficient specificity for identification of the dengue serotype was achieved for concentrations >10 ng/mL (DV1-3) and >50 ng/mL (DV4). The combination of chemical and physical stability and high binding capacity combined with the intrinsic advantages of quantum dots may enable more simple, robust diagnostic assays in the future. PMID:25971296

  9. Supplementary data for: Specific roles for DEG/ENaC and TRP channels in touch and

    E-print Network

    Schafer, William R.

    . Effects of mec-10 and TRP channel genes on PVD-dependent harsh body touch avoidance. Animals were touched-type and mutant animals. a. PVD harsh touch response and mec-10 phenotypes do not depend on the FLP neurons. Shown of FLP in wild-type, mec-10(tm1552) and mec-10(tm1552); ljEx220 [pegl-46::mec-10(+)] does not affect PVD

  10. Evidence of weak genetic structure and recent gene flow between Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. and B. papayae, across Southern Thailand and West Malaysia, supporting a single target pest for SIT applications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. (Hendel) and B. papayae Drew & Hancock, are invasive pests belonging to the B. dorsalis complex. Their species status, based on morphology, is sometimes arguable. Consequently, the existence of cryptic species and/or population isolation may decrease the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT) due to an unknown degree of sexual isolation between released sterile flies and wild counterparts. To evaluate the genetic relationship and current demography in wild populations for guiding the application of area-wide integrated pest management using SIT, seven microsatellite-derived markers from B. dorsalis s.s. and another five from B. papayae were used for surveying intra- and inter-specific variation, population structure, and recent migration among sympatric and allopatric populations of the two morphological forms across Southern Thailand and West Malaysia. Results Basic genetic variations were not significantly different among forms, populations, and geographical areas (P > 0.05). Nonetheless, two sets of microsatellite markers showed significantly different levels of polymorphisms. Genetic differentiation between intra- and inter-specific differences was significant, but low. Seventeen populations revealed three hypothetical genetic clusters (K = 3) regardless of forms and geographical areas. The genetic structure of sympatric populations slightly changed during the different years of collection. Recent gene flow (m ? 0.10) was frequently detected whether samples were sympatric or allopatric. Ninety-five of 379 individuals distributed across the given area were designated as recent migrants or of admixed ancestry. As a consequence of substantial migration, no significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances was detected (R2 = 0.056, P = 0.650). Conclusions According to the 12 microsatellite variations, weak population structure and recent gene flow suggest that there is no status for cryptic species between B. dorsalis s.s. and B. papayae forms in Southern Thailand and West Malaysia. Both forms can be treated as a single target pest for the SIT program in an area-wide sense. Additionally, the result of species identification based on molecular data and morphological character are not congruent. The use of independent, multiple approaches in the characterization of the target population may ensure the effectiveness and feasibility of SIT-based control in the target area. PMID:24929425

  11. Effect of irradiation on the biochemical and organoleptic changes during the ripening of papaya and mango fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, Monique; Bernard, Linda; Jobin, Michele; Milot, Sylvain; Gagnon, Marcel

    Papaya and mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation treatment was used to determine its effect on the quality of papayas and mangoes irradiated at 0,5 to 0,95 kGy. The level of respiration, soluble solids, texture, vitamin C and the sensorial evaluation were effectuated. The results indicate that irradiation treatment reduces significantly (p ? 0,001) the level of respiration and significantly (p ? 0,001) weakens the texture of mangoes. The content of soluble solids and vitamin C are not significantly affected by the irradiation. The sensory evaluation indicates that up to 0,95 kGy the sensorial quality is not changed.

  12. Industrial-hygiene report, walk-through survey, papaya packing/shipping facilities, Hilo, Hawaii, July 1983. [Ethylene dibromide exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Clapp, D.

    1983-07-01

    Worker exposure to ethylene dibromide (EDB) was investigated at three papaya packing and shipping facilities in Hilo, Hawaii. Breathing-zone samples were collected in the three facilities over a three day period. Blind spikes were submitted as a control on time and temperature effects. Blank samples were also prepared. Spike results reflected the effects of time and temperature in shipment from Hawaii to Massachusetts. All spikes were roughly comparable and showed a recovery of about 68%. Overnight laboratory results were adjusted upward by 72% and NIOSH laboratory results by 68%. Six out of 38 samples exceeded the NIOSH recommended amount of 130 ppb. The author concludes that there is a chronic, low-concentration exposure to EDB for all workers in the papaya industry in Hilo. An epidemiological study of reproductive and cytogenetic effects of EDB exposure on these workers is recommended.

  13. Nontraditional wound care: A review of the evidence for the use of sugar, papaya/papain, and fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Barbara; Caliri, Maria Helena Larcher

    2003-07-01

    With global travel and immigration, WOC nurses may see or be asked questions about wound care practices that are different from those traditionally taught in their educational programs. The purpose of this article is to review the evidence about 3 commonly used wound products, namely, sugar, papaya/papain, and essential fatty acids. Although these products are used in numerous countries, their application in Brazil will provide the examples of use in this article. Nontraditional wound care is still frequently practiced even in countries where access to evidence-based products is fairly good. Research studies about sugar, papain/papaya, and essential fatty acids generally are case reports/studies and descriptive. Protocols in the use of the products varied. Use of these products is often based on tradition and economics. WOC nurses need to be knowledgeable regarding nonstandard wound care products and procedures so they can respond appropriately in situations where these products are used. PMID:12851592

  14. Touch imprint cytology: a rapid diagnostic tool for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Geetha, L; Astekar, M; Ashok, K N; Sowmya, G V

    2015-07-01

    Techniques for intraoperative pathologic examination of oral squamous cell carcinoma are rare in the literature. We evaluated the advantages and limitations of touch imprint cytology for intraoperative diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. We used 30 incisional biopsies of clinically diagnosed oral squamous cell carcinoma and compared touch imprint cytology to histopathological sections. Touch imprint cytology showed 24 specimens positive for malignancy, two suspicious for malignancy and four inadequate specimens. The accuracy of the test was 93.2%. Touch imprint cytology is an accurate, simple, rapid and cost-effective method that aids diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma during operation, but it does not replace incisional biopsy. PMID:25801179

  15. A computer touch-screen apparatus for training visual discriminations in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Markham, M R; Butt, A E; Dougher, M J

    1996-01-01

    We describe an operant conditioning apparatus that uses computerized touch-screen technology and is designed for the versatile and highly controlled testing of rats in a potentially wide variety of behavioral paradigms. Although computer-controlled touch-screen systems have been developed for use with pigeons, monkeys, and humans, analogous technologies and methods have not yet been developed for rats. The development of a touch-screen system for rats could enhance the efficiency of behavioral research with rats, and may offer a unique tool for studying animal learning. In the first test of the utility of the apparatus, 3 Sprague-Dawley rats learned to activate the touch screen only after the touch-screen panel was made slightly movable. These animals then learned to discriminate visual stimuli presented on the computer monitor, but only after the food magazine and pellet dispenser were moved to the rear of the chamber opposite the stimulus display and response window. In a test of the utility of the modified apparatus, 6 Long-Evans rats learned to activate the touch screen and learned one of three different simple discriminations using computer-generated, visually presented stimuli. A basic method for training rats to activate the computer touch screen and for visual discrimination training is described. Results show that rats learned to activate the touch screen and discriminate visual stimuli presented on a computer monitor. Potential applications and advantages of the touch-screen-equipped rat operant conditioning chamber are discussed. PMID:8583196

  16. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying Staphylococcus aureus isolated from foods and its control by crude alkaloid from papaya leaves.

    PubMed

    Handayani, Lita; Faridah, Didah Nur; Kusumaningrum, Harsi D

    2014-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a known pathogen causing intoxication by producing enterotoxins in food. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A is one of the enterotoxins commonly implicated in staphylococcal food poisoning. The ability of crude alkaloid extract from papaya leaves to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxin A synthesis was investigated. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying S. aureus was isolated from raw milk and ready-to-eat foods. Crude alkaloid was extracted from ground, dried papaya leaves using ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and a MIC of the alkaloid was determined by the broth macrodilution method. Furthermore, S. aureus isolate was exposed to the crude alkaloid extract at one- and twofold MIC, and the expression of sea was subsequently analyzed using a quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR. Ten isolates of S. aureus were obtained, and nine of those isolates were sea carriers. The yield of crude alkaloid extract was 0.48 to 1.82% per dry weight of papaya leaves. A MIC of crude alkaloid to S. aureus was 0.25 mg/ml. After exposure to the alkaloid at 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ml for 2 h, a significant increase in cycle threshold values of sea was observed. The sea was expressed 29 and 41 times less when S. aureus was exposed to crude alkaloid at one- and twofold MIC, respectively. This study revealed that crude alkaloid of papaya leaves could control staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying S. aureus by suppressing the expression of sea, in addition to the ability to inhibit the growth of S. aureus. The expression of sea was successfully quantified. PMID:25364936

  17. Nucleotide Sequence of the Capsid Protein Gene and 3' Non-coding Region of Papaya Mosaic Virus RNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Abouhaidar

    1988-01-01

    SUMMARY The nucleotide sequences of eDNA clones corresponding to the 3' OH end of papaya mosaic virus RNA have been determined. The 3'-terminal sequence obtained was 900 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(A) tail, and contained an open reading frame capable of giving rise to a protein of 214 amino acid residues with an Mr of 22930. This protein was

  18. Identification and expression of the WRKY transcription factors of Carica papaya in response to abiotic and biotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lin-Jie; Jiang, Ling

    2014-03-01

    The WRKY transcription factor (TF) plays a very important role in the response of plants to various abiotic and biotic stresses. A local papaya database was built according to the GenBank expressed sequence tag database using the BioEdit software. Fifty-two coding sequences of Carica papaya WRKY TFs were predicted using the tBLASTn tool. The phylogenetic tree of the WRKY proteins was classified. The expression profiles of 13 selected C. papaya WRKY TF genes under stress induction were constructed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of these WRKY genes in response to 3 abiotic and 2 biotic stresses were evaluated. TF807.3 and TF72.14 are upregulated by low temperature; TF807.3, TF43.76, TF12.199 and TF12.62 are involved in the response to drought stress; TF9.35, TF18.51, TF72.14 and TF12.199 is involved in response to wound; TF12.199, TF807.3, TF21.156 and TF18.51 was induced by PRSV pathogen; TF72.14 and TF43.76 are upregulated by SA. The regulated expression levels of above eight genes normalized against housekeeping gene actin were significant at probability of 0.01 levels. These WRKY TFs could be related to corresponding stress resistance and selected as the candidate genes, especially, the two genes TF807.3 and TF12.199, which were regulated notably by four stresses respectively. This study may provide useful information and candidate genes for the development of transgenic stress tolerant papaya varieties. PMID:24390238

  19. Postharvest application of gum arabic and essential oils for controlling anthracnose and quality of banana and papaya during cold storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehdi Maqbool; Asgar Ali; Peter G. Alderson; Mahmud Tengku Muda Mohamed; Yasmeen Siddiqui; Noosheen Zahid

    2011-01-01

    Management of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp. is the most important issue for the tropical fruit industry because of resulting financial losses. Antifungal effects of gum arabic (GA) (10%), lemongrass oil (LG) (0.05%), cinnamon oil (CM) (0.4%), and their combinations were investigated in vitro and in vivo for controlling postharvest anthracnose of banana and papaya. LG at 0.05% and 0.4%

  20. Systemic levels of carotenoids from mangoes and papaya consumed in three forms (juice, fresh and dry slice)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Gouado; F J Schweigert; R A Ejeh; M F Tchouanguep; J V Camp

    2007-01-01

    Background:Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in Cameroon. Data on the bioavailability of carotenoid in fruits currently consumed in Cameroon are scarce.Objective:To assess the systemic levels of carotenoids from mangoes and papaya consumed as juice, fresh or dried slices.Methods:Two groups of seven healthy volunteers (24 and 25 years of age; body mass index: 21 and 22 kg\\/m2 respectively

  1. Supplementing Lactating Women with Pureed Papaya and Grated Carrots Improved Vitamin A Status in a Placebo-Controlled Trial1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thokozile N. Ncube; Ted Greiner; Lucie C. Malaba; Mehari Gebre-Medhin

    Doubts have been raised about the effectiveness of carotene-containing foods in improving the vitamin A status of populations at risk. We investigated the effect of papaya and carrots on the vitamin A status of lactating women with 2- to 12-mo-old infants in Zimbabwe. The women were randomly assigned to three supplementation groups and a placebo group, and received 6 mg

  2. Design and analysis of a piezoelectric material based touch screen with additional pressure and its acceleration measurement functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Xiang-Cheng; Liu, Jia-Yi; Gao, Ren-Long; Chang, Jie; Li, Long-Tu

    2013-12-01

    Touch screens are becoming more and more prevalent in everyday environments due to their convenience and humanized operation. In this paper, a piezoelectric material based touch screen is developed and investigated. Piezoelectric ceramics arrayed under the touch panel at the edges or corners are used as tactile sensors to measure the touch positioning point similarly to conventional touch screens. However, additional touch pressure and its acceleration performance can also be obtained to obtain a higher-level human-machine interface. The piezoelectric ceramics can also be added to a traditional touch screen structure, or they can be used independently to construct a novel touch screen with a high light transmittance approach to a transparent glass. The piezoelectric ceramics were processed from PZT piezoelectric ceramic powder into a round or rectangular shape. According to the varied touch position and physical press strength of a finger, or even a gloved hand or fingernail, the piezoelectric tactile sensors will have different output voltage responses. By calculating the ratio of different piezoelectric tactile sensors’ responses and summing up all piezoelectric tactile sensors’ output voltages, the touch point position, touch pressure and touch force acceleration can be detected. A prototype of such a touch screen is manufactured and its position accuracy, touch pressure and response speed are measured in detail. The experimental results show that the prototype has many advantages such as high light transmittance, low energy cost and high durability.

  3. Our Sense of Touch: Two-Point Discrimination

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marjorie A. Murray Ph.D.

    2009-01-01

    In this activity, learners investigate the touch sensory system and discover how to plan and carry out their own experiments. In "CLASS EXPERIMENT," learners find that the ability to tell that two points rather than just one are pressing on the skin depends on two things: the density of skin sensory receptors and the connections that the sensory nerve cells make in the brain. They learn basic facts about sensory receptors and nerve connections, and use their estimates of receptor density to predict the size of the brain areas devoted to input from different skin regions. In "TRY YOUR OWN EXPERIMENT," learners design their own experiments, investigating, for example, how touch information is important in motor tasks, or whether additional sensory input can interfere with two-point discrimination. This lesson plan includes background information and guides for educators and learners. Note: total learning time may be reduced if the number of skin areas tested are limited and you restrict the materials in the second part of the activity.

  4. Integrating optical finger motion tracking with surface touch events

    PubMed Central

    MacRitchie, Jennifer; McPherson, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method of integrating two contrasting sensor systems for studying human interaction with a mechanical system, using piano performance as the case study. Piano technique requires both precise small-scale motion of fingers on the key surfaces and planned large-scale movement of the hands and arms. Where studies of performance often focus on one of these scales in isolation, this paper investigates the relationship between them. Two sensor systems were installed on an acoustic grand piano: a monocular high-speed camera tracking the position of painted markers on the hands, and capacitive touch sensors attach to the key surfaces which measure the location of finger-key contacts. This paper highlights a method of fusing the data from these systems, including temporal and spatial alignment, segmentation into notes and automatic fingering annotation. Three case studies demonstrate the utility of the multi-sensor data: analysis of finger flexion or extension based on touch and camera marker location, timing analysis of finger-key contact preceding and following key presses, and characterization of individual finger movements in the transitions between successive key presses. Piano performance is the focus of this paper, but the sensor method could equally apply to other fine motor control scenarios, with applications to human-computer interaction. PMID:26082732

  5. Generic Properties of Curvature Sensing through Vision and Touch

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Generic properties of curvature representations formed on the basis of vision and touch were examined as a function of mathematical properties of curved objects. Virtual representations of the curves were shown on a computer screen for visual scaling by sighted observers (experiment 1). Their physical counterparts were placed in the two hands of blindfolded and congenitally blind observers for tactile scaling. The psychophysical data show that curvature representations in congenitally blind individuals, who never had any visual experience, and in sighted observers, who rely on vision most of the time, are statistically linked to the same mathematical properties of the curves. The perceived magnitude of object curvature, sensed through either vision or touch, is related by a mathematical power law, with similar exponents for the two sensory modalities, to the aspect ratio of the curves, a scale invariant geometric property. This finding supports biologically motivated models of sensory integration suggesting a universal power law for the adaptive brain control and balance of motor responses to environmental stimuli from any sensory modality. PMID:24454538

  6. Comparing Web and Touch Screen Transaction Log Files

    PubMed Central

    Huntington, Paul; Williams, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Background Digital health information is available on a wide variety of platforms including PC-access of the Internet, Wireless Application Protocol phones, CD-ROMs, and touch screen public kiosks. All these platforms record details of user sessions in transaction log files, and there is a growing body of research into the evaluation of this data. However, there is very little research that has examined the problems of comparing the transaction log files of kiosks and the Internet. Objectives To provide a first step towards examining the problems of comparing the transaction log files of kiosks and the Internet. Methods We studied two platforms: touch screen kiosks and a comparable Web site. For both of these platforms, we examined the menu structure (which affects transaction log file data), the log-file structure, and the metrics derived from log-file records. Results We found substantial differences between the generated metrics. Conclusions None of the metrics discussed can be regarded as an effective way of comparing the use of kiosks and Web sites. Two metrics stand out as potentially comparable and valuable: the number of user sessions per hour and user penetration of pages. PMID:11720960

  7. Infant Imitation from Television Using Novel Touch-screen Technology

    PubMed Central

    Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel; Gerhardstein, Peter; Dickerson, Kelly; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2010-01-01

    Infants learn less from a televised demonstration than from a live demonstration, the video deficit effect. The present study employs a novel approach, using touch-screen technology to examine 15-month-olds’ transfer of learning. Infants were randomly assigned either to within-dimension (2D/2D or 3D/3D) or cross-dimension (3D/2D or 2D/3D) conditions. For the within-dimension conditions, an experimenter demonstrated an action by pushing a virtual button on a 2D screen or a real button on a 3D object. Infants were then given the opportunity to imitate using the same screen or object. For the 3D/2D condition, an experimenter demonstrated the action on the 3D object, and infants were given the opportunity to reproduce the action on a 2D touch-screen (and vice versa for the 2D/3D condition). Infants produced significantly fewer target actions in the cross-dimension conditions than in the within-dimension conditions. These findings have important implications for infants understanding and learning from 2D images and for their using 2D media as the basis of actions in the real world. PMID:19972660

  8. The component of Carica papaya seed toxic to A. aegypti and the identification of tegupain, the enzyme that generates it.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Natalia N dos S; Santana, Lucimeire A; Sampaio, Misako U; Lemos, Francisco J A; Oliva, Maria Luiza

    2013-07-01

    As Aedes aegypti transmits the etiologic agents of both yellow and dengue fever; vector control is considered essential to minimise their incidence. The aim of this work was to identify the component of Carica papaya seed toxic to A. aegypti, and the identification of tegupain, the enzyme that generates it. Aqueous extracts (1%, w/v) of the seed tegument and cotyledon of C. papaya are not larvicidal isolately. However, a mixture of 17?gmL(-1) tegument extract and 27?gmL(-1) cotyledon extract caused 100% larval mortality in a bioassay. The mixture was no longer larvicidal after the tegument extract was pre-treated at 100°C for 10min. The enzyme tegupain efficiently hydrolysed the substrate Z-Phe-Arg-pNan (Km 58.8?M, Kcat 28020s(-1), Kcat/Km 5×10(8)M(-1) s(-1)), and its activity increased with 2mM dithiothreitol (DTT), at 37°C, pH 5.0. The chelating agent EDTA did not modify the enzyme activity. Inhibition of tegupain by cystatin (Kiapp 2.43nM), E64 (3.64nM, 83% inhibition), and the propeptide N-terminal sequence indicate that the toxic activity is due to a novel cysteine proteinase-like enzyme, rendered active upon the hydrolysis of a cotyledon component of C. papaya seeds. PMID:23402920

  9. Evaluation of tapelifting as a collection method for touch DNA.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Timothy J; Mitchell, R John; van Oorschot, Roland A H

    2014-01-01

    The use of tapelifting for collection of touch DNA from fabrics is routine in many jurisdictions. However, there is a paucity of data relating to the effectiveness of different types of tapes for tapelifting, the amount of tapelifting required to generate a useful profile, and whether or not tapelifting is more effective than swabbing from various substrates. This research investigates these questions by comparing two tapes of different adhesive strength currently used in forensic casework (Scotch Magic tape and Scenesafe FAST minitapes), for sampling from touch deposits on four different fabrics-cotton flannelette, cotton drill woven fabric, polyester/cotton plain woven fabric and polyester strapping. Touch DNA was deposited on four replicates of each substrate. Separate areas of each substrate replicate were sampled, either by taping with one of the two tapes or by wet/dry swabbing with cotton swabs. Tape was applied over the defined sampling area once or repeatedly for various numbers of applications. DNA was extracted, quantified and profiled from all tape and swab samples as well as the corresponding sampled substrates. Significantly more DNA was extracted, and a higher proportion of alleles detected, from Scenesafe FAST tape than from Scotch Magic tape. The amount of DNA and number of donor alleles detected generally increased as the tape was reapplied to the surface, although a threshold of collection was seen for both types of tape. For two out of four substrates, taping with Scenesafe FAST collected more DNA than swabbing and, for three substrates, generated a greater median number of donor alleles. There was no significant difference in numbers of alleles between swabbing and taping from flannelette. Based on these findings, it is recommended that a tape with stronger adhesion (such as Scenesafe FAST tapelifters) is generally preferable; that more than one application of tape is suggested (however, increasing the amount of times the area is sampled can diminish collection efficiency); and that there is an advantage using tapelifting rather than swabbing for fabrics unless, such as with flannelette, there are many loose fibres easily removed during the sampling process. PMID:24315606

  10. Neuromimetic encoding/decoding of spatiotemporal spiking signals from an artificial touch sensor

    E-print Network

    Arleo, Angelo

    to discriminate tactile stimuli deliv- ered to an artificial touch sensor is presented. Following a neuromimeticNeuromimetic encoding/decoding of spatiotemporal spiking signals from an artificial touch sensor approach, we encode the signals from a 24-capacitive sensor fingertip into spiking activity through

  11. Real-time Estimation of Touch Feeling Factors Using Human Finger Mimetic Tactile Sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shogo Okamoto; Masashi Konyo; Yuka Mukaibo; Takashi Maeno; Satoshi Tadokoro

    2006-01-01

    To realize a telepresence system with tactile feedback and force feedback, real-time estimation of various tactile sensation must be conducted. Because several types of tactile sensation consist in touch and human tactile feeling has high time resolution. A man feels active touch extraordinary with time delayed transmission of tactile information. Our proposing human finger mimetic sensor covers three tactile factors,

  12. Extracellular Proteins Organize the Mechanosensory Channel Complex in C. elegans Touch Receptor Neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lesley Emtage; Guoqiang Gu; Erika Hartwieg; Martin Chalfie

    2004-01-01

    Specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) is associated with virtually every mechanosensory system studied. C. elegans touch receptor neurons have specialized ECM and attach to the surrounding epidermis. The mec-1 gene encodes an ECM protein with multiple EGF and Kunitz domains. MEC-1 is needed for the accumulation of the collagen MEC-5 and other ECM components, attachment, and, separately, for touch sensitivity. MEC-1

  13. Illinois Institute of Technology/TouchNet Direct Deposit Refund Procedures

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    Illinois Institute of Technology/TouchNet Direct Deposit Refund Procedures Page 1 Creating a Refund on the Create a Refund Profile tab. #12;Illinois Institute of Technology/TouchNet Direct Deposit Refund box authorizing refunds to be deposited into this account. Press the Save button. #12;Illinois

  14. A Tool to Study Affective Touch: Goals & Design of the Haptic Creature

    E-print Network

    MacLean, Karon

    current physical and software implementation. Background and High-Level Design Criteria The HapticA Tool to Study Affective Touch: Goals & Design of the Haptic Creature Abstract Touch and auditory expressions of affect. We are developing the Haptic Creature to investigate fundamentals

  15. Dyadic Power Theory, Touch, and Counseling Psychology: A Response to Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Norah E.; Abra, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards' (2011) recent article tested dyadic power theory (DPT) by examining the use of touch as a compliance-gaining tactic in the conflicts of married couples. In this response, we raise a methodological issue about the touch behaviors examined by Smith et al. and also pose a theoretical critique that their test of DPT…

  16. The Importance of the Sense of Touch in Virtual and Real Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel Robles-de-la-torre

    2006-01-01

    What would be worse, losing your sight or your sense of touch? Although touch (more generally, somesthesis) is commonly underrated, major somesthetic loss can't be adequately compensated for by sight. It results in catastrophic impairments of hand dexterity, haptic capabilities, walking, perception of limb position, and so on. Providing users with inadequate somesthetic feedback in virtual environments might impair their

  17. Direct and Indirect Multi-Touch Interaction on a Wall Display

    E-print Network

    Casiez, Géry

    Direct and Indirect Multi-Touch Interaction on a Wall Display Jérémie Gilliot1, Géry Casiez2.roussel}@inria.fr, gery.casiez@lifl.fr ABSTRACT Multi-touch wall displays allow to take advantage of co- located using a pointer can alleviate these problems but intro- duces legibility issues and loses the benefits

  18. Do Gestural Interfaces Promote Thinking? Embodied Interaction: Congruent Gestures and Direct Touch Promote Performance in Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Ayelet

    2011-01-01

    Can action support cognition? Can direct touch support performance? Embodied interaction involving digital devices is based on the theory of grounded cognition. Embodied interaction with gestural interfaces involves more of our senses than traditional (mouse-based) interfaces, and in particular includes direct touch and physical movement, which…

  19. Examining the Effectiveness of TouchMath with Students with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avant, Mary Jane Thompson; Heller, Kathryn Wolff

    2011-01-01

    One of the most fundamental math skills for students to learn is basic computational skills. Students who have difficulty learning math skills may benefit from representational approaches, such as TouchMath. A multiprobe, multiple baseline, across-participants design was used in this study to investigate the use of TouchMath with students with…

  20. Distinguishing Multiple Smart-Phone Interactions on a Multi-touch Wall Display using Tilt Correlation

    E-print Network

    Goh, Wooi Boon

    2011 ACM 978-1-4503-0267-8/11/05...$5.00. · Interactive Music Shop Display. A large multi-touch wall display in a music shop features user browsable song albums. Users can simultaneously interactDistinguishing Multiple Smart-Phone Interactions on a Multi-touch Wall Display using Tilt