Sample records for papaya touch decreases

  1. Novel thigmomorphogenetic responses in Carica papaya: touch decreases anthocyanin levels and stimulates petiole cork outgrowths

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Brad W.; Zhu, Yun J.; Webb, David T.; Christopher, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Because of its rapid growth rate, relative ease of transformation, sequenced genome and low gene number relative to Arabidopsis, the tropical fruit tree, Carica papaya, can serve as a complementary genetic model for complex traits. Here, new phenotypes and touch-regulated gene homologues have been identified that can be used to advance the understanding of thigmomorphogenesis, a multigenic response involving mechanoreception and morphological change. Methods Morphological alterations were quantified, and microscopy of tissue was conducted. Assays for hypocotyl anthocyanins, lignin and chlorophyll were performed, and predicted genes from C. papaya were compared with Arabidopsis touch-inducible (TCH) and Mechanosensitive channel of Small conductance-like genes (MscS-like or MSL). In addition, the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues was characterized. Key Results On the abaxial side of petioles, treated plants were found to have novel, hypertrophic outgrowths associated with periderm and suberin. Touched plants also had higher lignin, dramatically less hypocotyl anthocyanins and chlorophyll, increased hypocotyl diameter, and decreased leaf width, stem length and root fresh weight. Papaya was found to have fewer MSL genes than Arabidopsis, and four touch-regulated genes in Arabidopsis had no counterparts in papaya. Water-spray treatment was found to enhance the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues whereas induction following touch was only slightly correlated. Conclusions The novel petiole outgrowths caused by non-wounding, mechanical perturbation may be the result of hardening mechanisms, including added lignin, providing resistance against petiole movement. Inhibition of anthocyanin accumulation following touch, a new phenotypic association, may be caused by diversion of p-coumaroyl CoA away from chalcone synthase for lignin synthesis. The absence of MSL and touch-gene homologues indicates that papaya may have a smaller set of touch-regulated genes. The genes and novel touch-regulated phenotypes identified here will contribute to a more comprehensive view of thigmomorphogenesis in plants. PMID:19182220

  2. PAPAYA (CARICA PAPAYA L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic papaya plants were initially obtained using particle bombardment, a method having a poor efficiency in producing intact, single copy insertion of transgenes. Subsequently, transformation has been improved using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. With rapid progress being made in genome sequencing...

  3. Papaya Ringspot Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The term papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was coined by Jensen in 1949, to describe a papaya disease in Hawaii. Later work showed that diseases such as papaya mosaic and watermelon mosaic virus-1 were caused by PRSV. The primary host range of PRSV is papaya and cucurbits, with Chenopium amaranticolor ...

  4. Post-irradiation identification of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2012-03-01

    Impact of radiation processing on the volatile essential oil profile of papaya ( Carica papaya) was investigated. Gamma-radiation processing resulted in the appearance of a new peak in the GLC profile that was identified as phenol. The observed dose dependent increase in phenol content suggested possible use of this compound as a marker for radiation processed papaya.

  5. Ecophysiology of papaya Carica papaya L.: a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of how papaya responds to environmental factors provides a scientific basis to develop management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. A better understanding of genotypic responses t...

  6. Functional Genomics Tools for Papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the genome of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sequenced, the study of gene function is becoming an increasing priority. Our research is to develop an RNA-induced gene silencing tool for the study of functional genomics in papaya. We employed agrobacterium leaf infiltration to induce PTGS in '-glucuro...

  7. Carica papaya MicroRNAs Are Responsive to Papaya meleira virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Paolla M. V.; Gaspar, Clicia G.; Buss, David S.; Ventura, José A.; Ferreira, Paulo C. G.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are implicated in the response to biotic stresses. Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of sticky disease, a commercially important pathology in papaya for which there are currently no resistant varieties. PMeV has a number of unusual features, such as residence in the laticifers of infected plants, and the response of the papaya to PMeV infection is not well understood. The protein levels of 20S proteasome subunits increase during PMeV infection, suggesting that proteolysis could be an important aspect of the plant defense response mechanism. To date, 10,598 plant microRNAs have been identified in the Plant miRNAs Database, but only two, miR162 and miR403, are from papaya. In this study, known plant microRNA sequences were used to search for potential microRNAs in the papaya genome. A total of 462 microRNAs, representing 72 microRNA families, were identified. The expression of 11 microRNAs, whose targets are involved in 20S and 26S proteasomal degradation and in other stress response pathways, was compared by real-time PCR in healthy and infected papaya leaf tissue. We found that the expression of miRNAs involved in proteasomal degradation increased in response to very low levels of PMeV titre and decreased as the viral titre increased. In contrast, miRNAs implicated in the plant response to biotic stress decreased their expression at very low level of PMeV and increased at high PMeV levels. Corroborating with this results, analysed target genes for this miRNAs had their expression modulated in a dependent manner. This study represents a comprehensive identification of conserved miRNAs inpapaya. The data presented here might help to complement the available molecular and genomic tools for the study of papaya. The differential expression of some miRNAs and identifying their target genes will be helpful for understanding the regulation and interaction of PMeV and papaya. PMID:25072834

  8. Spiders associated with papaya, Carica papaya L., in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The main objective of this work was to study the species composition and population dynamics of spiders associated with papaya plantings in three papaya production areas: Corozal, Isabela, and Lajas, Puerto Rico. Nineteen species representing seven families and 15 genera were identified. Members of ...

  9. DEREGULATION OF TRANSGENIC PAPAYA FOR JAPAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transgenic SunUp and Rainbow papaya developed for Hawaii was commercialized in 1998 and virtually saved Hawaii’s papaya industry from further damage being caused by papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Since Japan makes up a significant part (about 35% in 1992) in Hawaii’s papaya export market, effort...

  10. Touch sense

    PubMed Central

    Roudaut, Yann; Lonigro, Aurélie; Coste, Bertrand; Hao, Jizhe; Delmas, Patrick; Crest, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous mechanoreceptors are localized in the various layers of the skin where they detect a wide range of mechanical stimuli, including light brush, stretch, vibration and noxious pressure. This variety of stimuli is matched by a diverse array of specialized mechanoreceptors that respond to cutaneous deformation in a specific way and relay these stimuli to higher brain structures. Studies across mechanoreceptors and genetically tractable sensory nerve endings are beginning to uncover touch sensation mechanisms. Work in this field has provided researchers with a more thorough understanding of the circuit organization underlying the perception of touch. Novel ion channels have emerged as candidates for transduction molecules and properties of mechanically gated currents improved our understanding of the mechanisms of adaptation to tactile stimuli. This review highlights the progress made in characterizing functional properties of mechanoreceptors in hairy and glabrous skin and ion channels that detect mechanical inputs and shape mechanoreceptor adaptation. PMID:23146937

  11. TRANSGENIC PAPAYA: A CASE FOR WORLDWIDE CONTROL OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was detected in the main papaya growing region of Hawaii in 1992. By 1994 Hawaii's papaya industry was facing devastating damage from PRSV. Efforts to develop resistant transgenic papaya were started in the mid 1980s. By 1991, a resistant line was identified, field tri...

  12. TRANSGENIC PAPAYA: A CASE FOR MANAGING RISKS OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS IN HAWAII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In May 1992, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV was detected in the Puna district of Hawaii Island, the main papaya growing region of the state of Hawaii. By 1994 Hawaii's papaya industry was facing devastating damage from PRSV. Efforts to develop resistant transgenic papaya were started in the mid 1980s...

  13. THE EVOLUTION OF SEX CHROMOSOMES IN PAPAYA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of plant species with male, female, and hermaphrodite plants. Sex determination in papaya is controlled by a primitive Y chromosome that contains a male-specific region with severe recombination suppression and DNA sequence degeneration. Our recent results showed tha...

  14. Wound-healing potential of an ethanol extract of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) seeds.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramdeen, Ria; Adogwa, Andrew; Ramsubhag, Adash; Marshall, Julien Rhodney

    2012-12-01

    Carica papaya L. (Linn) (Caricaceae) is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment for various wounds, particularly burns. This study evaluated the wound-healing and antimicrobial activity of C. papaya seed extract. Ethanol extract of C. papaya seed (50 mg/kg/day) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity in Sprague-Dawley rats using excision wound model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each (group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with papaya seed extract, group 3 treated with a standard drug mupirocin and papaya seed extract (1:1 ratio) and group 4 treated with a mupirocin ointment. Rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content were determined to assess the wound-healing activity of the seed extract. The group 2 animals showed a significant decrease in wound area of 89% over 13 days when compared with groups 1 (82%), 3 (86%) and 4 (84%) respectively. The hydroxyproline content was significantly higher with the granulation tissue obtained from group 2 animals which were treated with C. papaya seed extract. Histological analysis of granulation tissue of the group 2 animals showed the deposition of well-organized collagen. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that C. papaya promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation for this activity in humans is suggested. PMID:22296524

  15. CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF TRANSGENIC PAPAYA WORK IN HAWAII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot caused severe damage to Hawaii’s papaya industry starting from 1992 when papaya ringspot virus was discovered in Puna, where 95% of the commercial papaya was being grown. The main papaya cultivars grown in Hawaii are the nontransgeic Kapoho, Sunrise, and Sunset, and the transgenic S...

  16. TO TOUCH OR NOT TO TOUCH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morris Goodman; Arthur Teicher

    1988-01-01

    Physical touch as part of psychodynamic psychotherapy is appropriate and useful under very limited circumstances. The decision is to be based on a careful evaluation of the state of the patient. The patient who is regressed is most likely to experience the touch as an encouragement toward continued regression and dependency. The nondeveloped patient, who has not matured to the

  17. Touch screen have become

    E-print Network

    Wobbrock, Jacob O.

    Typing { l ABSTRACT Touch screen have become screens pales examine typing physical keybo o inform future Author Keywo Touch-typing, m ACM Classific H.5.2. [Inform nterfaces--inp General Terms Human factors, NTRODUCTIO Touch surfaces he form of m ablets and in Microsoft Surfa ablets and tabl finger text inpu hese

  18. Allergenicity assessment of the Papaya ringspot virus coat protein expressed in transgenic Rainbow papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The virus-resistant, transgenic commercial papaya cultivars Rainbow and SunUp (Carica papaya L.) have been consumed locally in Hawaii and elsewhere in the mainland US and Canada since their release to planters in Hawaii in 1998. These cultivars are derived from transgenic papaya line 55-1 and carry ...

  19. Managing papaya ringspot virus: Impact of grass barriers on alate aphid immigration into papaya orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus, transmitted by alate aphids, is the most limiting factor of papaya production in the Caribbean region. Although there are transgenic papaya varieties that provide protection from this virus, these varieties are effective only in certain regions against certain strains of the v...

  20. Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas ( Carica papaya L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo, R. J.; Tadini, C. C.; Sabato, S. F.

    2007-11-01

    Papaya is cultivated in Espírito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature.

  1. COMMERCIALIZATION OF TRANSGENIC PAPAYA: WEIGHING BENEFITS AND POTENTIAL RISKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya is Hawaii's second most important fruit crop, behind the pineapple. In 1992, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was discovered in Puna Hawaii, where 95% of Hawaii's papaya were being grown. By late 1994, PRSV was widespread in Puna and the papaya industry was facing severe crop loss. In 1998, tr...

  2. Haptics: Touch Command

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students experience haptic (the sense of touch) feedback by using LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robots and touch sensors to emulate touch feedback recognition. With four touch sensors connected to LEGO NXTs, they design sensor attachments that feel physically distinguishable from each another. Then students answer questions and communicate their answers to the NXT by pressing the touch sensor that is associated with the right multiple-choice answer letter. Haptics becomes essential when students must use the NXT sensors to answer the next set of questions without the aid of their vision. This challenges them to rely solely on the tactile feeling of each unique touch sensor attachment that they created in order to choose the correct peripheral slot. Students also learn about real-world applications of haptics technology.

  3. Physical touch in psychotherapy: Why are we not touching more?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gill Westland

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the issue of using touch in psychotherapy and addresses the difficulties encountered in discussing the topic. These difficulties include confusion about the purpose of touch, lack of experience among psychotherapists in the use of touch, and misunderstandings about who actually uses touch in psychotherapy. The article then addresses the anxiety psychotherapists feel about using touch such as

  4. Recent Origin of the Papaya Sex Chromosomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex chromosomes in flowering plants, in contrast to those in animals, evolved relatively recently and only a few are heteromorphic. The sex chromosomes of papaya appear at the cytological level to be homomorphic but, at the molecular level, we are finding that the papaya Y chromosome shows features ...

  5. Music by Touch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    GK-12 Program, Computational Neurobiology Center,

    Students' understanding of how robotic touch sensors work is reinforced through a hands-on design challenge involving LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT intelligent bricks, motors and touch sensors. They learn programming skills and logic design in parallel as they program robot computers to play sounds and rotate a wheel when a touch sensor is pressed, and then produce different responses if a different touch sensor is activated. Students see first-hand how robots can take input from sensors and use it to make decisions to move as programmed, including simultaneously moving a motor and playing music. A PowerPoint® presentation and pre/post quizzes are provided.

  6. Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, M. G.; Santos, E. O.; Sthel, M. S.; Cardoso, S. L.; Cavalli, A.; Monteiro, A. R.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2003-01-01

    Ripening studies of nontreated and treated papaya (papaya L) are accomplished by monitoring the ethylene and CO2 emission rates of that climacteric fruit, to evaluate its shelf life. The treatments simulate the commercial Phitosanitarian process used to avoid the fly infestation. Ethylene emission was measured using a commercial CO2 laser driven photoacoustic setup and CO2, using a commercial gas analysis also based on the photothermal effect. The results show a marked change in ethylene and CO2 emission rate pattern for treated fruits when compared to the ones obtained for nontreated fruits and a displacement of the climacteric pick shown that the treatment causes a decrease of shelf life of fruit.

  7. Anticancer activity of Carica papaya: a review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao T T; Shaw, Paul N; Parat, Marie-Odile; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2013-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries and is used as food as well as traditional medicine to treat a range of diseases. Increasing anecdotal reports of its effects in cancer treatment and prevention, with many successful cases, have warranted that these pharmacological properties be scientifically validated. A bibliographic search was conducted using the key words "papaya", "anticancer", and "antitumor" along with cross-referencing. No clinical or animal cancer studies were identified and only seven in vitro cell-culture-based studies were reported; these indicate that C. papaya extracts may alter the growth of several types of cancer cell lines. However, many studies focused on specific compounds in papaya and reported bioactivity including anticancer effects. This review summarizes the results of extract-based or specific compound-based investigations and emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to explore the bioactives in C. papaya for their anticancer activities. PMID:23212988

  8. Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B; Heller, Annerose; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

    2011-11-01

    Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC-MS revealed striking similarity of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51% of total carotenoids). Comparison of the pigment-loaded chromoplast ultrastructures disclosed tubular plastids to be abundant in yellow papaya, whereas larger crystalloid substructures characterized most frequent red papaya chromoplasts. Exclusively existent in red papaya, such crystalloid structures were associated with lycopene accumulation. Non-globular carotenoid deposition was derived from simple solubility calculations based on carotenoid and lipid contents of the differently colored fruit pulps. Since the physical state of carotenoid deposition may be decisive regarding their bioavailability, chromoplasts from lycopene-rich tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were also assessed and compared to red papaya. Besides interesting analogies, various distinctions were ascertained resulting in the prediction of enhanced lycopene bioavailability from red papaya. In addition, the developmental pathway of red papaya chromoplasts was investigated during fruit ripening and carotenogenesis. In the early maturation stage of white-fleshed papaya, undifferentiated proplastids and globular plastids were predominant, corresponding to incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Since intermediate plastids, e.g., amyloplasts or chloroplasts, were absent, chromoplasts are likely to emerge directly from proplastids. PMID:21706336

  9. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×103/µL, 8.10×103/µL, 84.0% to 55×103/µL, 3.7×103/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×103/µL to 168×103/µL, WBC from 3.7×103/µL to 7.7×103/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases. PMID:23569787

  10. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-08-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×10(3)/µL, 8.10×10(3)/µL, 84.0% to 55×10(3)/µL, 3.7×10(3)/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×10(3)/µL to 168×10(3)/µL, WBC from 3.7×10(3)/µL to 7.7×10(3)/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases. PMID:23569787

  11. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray Ming; Shaobin Hou; Yun Feng; Qingyi Yu; Alexandre Dionne-Laporte; Jimmy H. Saw; Pavel Senin; Wei Wang; Benjamin V. Ly; Kanako L. T. Lewis; Lu Feng; Meghan R. Jones; Rachel L. Skelton; Jan E. Murray; Cuixia Chen; Wubin Qian; Junguo Shen; Peng Du; Moriah Eustice; Eric Tong; Haibao Tang; Eric Lyons; Robert E. Paull; Todd P. Michael; Kerr Wall; Danny W. Rice; Henrik Albert; Ming-Li Wang; Yun J. Zhu; Michael Schatz; Niranjan Nagarajan; Ricelle A. Acob; Peizhu Guan; Andrea Blas; Ching Man Wai; Christine M. Ackerman; Yan Ren; Chao Liu; Jianmei Wang; Jianping Wang; Jong-Kuk Na; Eugene V. Shakirov; Brian Haas; Jyothi Thimmapuram; David Nelson; Xiyin Wang; John E. Bowers; Andrea R. Gschwend; Arthur L. Delcher; Ratnesh Singh; Jon Y. Suzuki; Savarni Tripathi; Kabi Neupane; Hairong Wei; Beth Irikura; Maya Paidi; Ning Jiang; Wenli Zhang; Gernot Presting; Aaron Windsor; Rafael Navajas-Pérez; Manuel J. Torres; F. Alex Feltus; Brad Porter; Yingjun Li; A. Max Burroughs; Ming-Cheng Luo; Lei Liu; David A. Christopher; Stephen M. Mount; Paul H. Moore; Tak Sugimura; Jiming Jiang; Mary A. Schuler; Vikki Friedman; Thomas Mitchell-Olds; Dorothy E. Shippen; Claude W. Depamphilis; Jeffrey D. Palmer; Michael Freeling; Andrew H. Paterson; Dennis Gonsalves; Lei Wang; Maqsudul Alam

    2008-01-01

    Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3× draft genome sequence of `SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance

  12. Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya ( Carica papaya L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf M. Schweiggert; Christof B. Steingass; Annerose Heller; Patricia Esquivel; Reinhold Carle

    Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC–MS revealed striking similarity\\u000a of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained\\u000a only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51%

  13. Touch & talk: contextualizing remote touch for affective interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rongrong Wang; Francis K. H. Quek

    2010-01-01

    Touch is a unique channel in affect conveyance. A significant aspect of this uniqueness is that the relation of touch to affect is immediate, without the need for symbolic encoding and decoding. However, most pioneering research work in developing remote touch technologies, result in the use of touch as a symbolic channel either by design or user decision. We present

  14. Active touch sensing

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Tony J.; Diamond, Mathew E.; Wing, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Active sensing systems are purposive and information-seeking sensory systems. Active sensing usually entails sensor movement, but more fundamentally, it involves control of the sensor apparatus, in whatever manner best suits the task, so as to maximize information gain. In animals, active sensing is perhaps most evident in the modality of touch. In this theme issue, we look at active touch across a broad range of species from insects, terrestrial and marine mammals, through to humans. In addition to analysing natural touch, we also consider how engineering is beginning to exploit physical analogues of these biological systems so as to endow robots with rich tactile sensing capabilities. The different contributions show not only the varieties of active touch—antennae, whiskers and fingertips—but also their commonalities. They explore how active touch sensing has evolved in different animal lineages, how it serves to provide rapid and reliable cues for controlling ongoing behaviour, and even how it can disintegrate when our brains begin to fail. They demonstrate that research on active touch offers a means both to understand this essential and primary sensory modality, and to investigate how animals, including man, combine movement with sensing so as to make sense of, and act effectively in, the world. PMID:21969680

  15. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report a draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree crop. The papaya genome has more than two times the DNA but about 28% fewer genes than the genome of the related botanical model Arabidopsis. A lack of genome duplication, atypical of angi...

  16. Carotenogenesis and physico-chemical characteristics during maturation of red fleshed papaya fruit ( Carica papaya L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Martin Schweiggert; Christof Björn Steingass; Eric Mora; Patricia Esquivel; Reinhold Carle

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoid development of red fleshed papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.) was investigated in the course of a complete pre- and postharvest period using HPLC-DAD coupled to mass spectrometry. Esterified xanthophylls such as ?-cryptoxanthin laurate and caprate were the most abundant pigments during incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Subsequent fruit maturation led to a gradual accumulation of carotenoids, whereas particularly ?-cryptoxanthin laurate and

  17. Toxicity assessment of transgenic papaya ringspot virus of 823-2210 line papaya fruits.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Tang; Yen, Gow-Chin; Huang, Ting-Tzu; Chan, Lit-Fu; Cheng, Ying-Huey; Wu, Jhaol-Huei; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Liao, Jiunn-Wang

    2013-02-20

    The transgenic papaya is a valuable strategy for creating plants resistant to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) infection and increasing production. This study was further performed to evaluate the comparative toxicity effects of the newly developed transgenic line of the fruits of two backcross transgenic papaya lines (2210 and 823) and one hybrid line (823-2210) and compare to their parent non-transgenic (TN-2) counterparts. The stability analysis of coat protein (CP) of PRSV was investigated using the digestion stability assays in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), and bile salts to detect the CP fragments. Results revealed that the CP fragments were rapidly hydrolyzed in SGF and were undetectable in organs and gastrointestinal contents in rats. For the genotoxicity, three in vitro assays were conducted and exhibited that non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits were negative. Moreover, a repeated animal feeding study was conducted by feeding 2 g/kg of body weight (bw) of non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits for 28 days in rats. There were no biological or toxicological significances between non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits in rats. The results demonstrated that the backcross transgenic papaya fruit can be recognized as an equivalent substitution for traditional papaya in food safety. PMID:23350793

  18. Touch & connect and touch & select: interacting with a computer by touching it with a mobile phone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khoovirajsingh Seewoonauth; Enrico Rukzio; Robert Hardy; Paul Holleis

    2009-01-01

    Exchanging data between a mobile phone and a computer such as a laptop is still a very cumbersome process. This paper presents two different techniques, touch & connect and touch & select, designed help to overcome this problem and facilitate and speed up spontaneous interactions between such devices. Using touch & connect, the user can physically touch a computer in

  19. Erwinia mallotivora sp., a New Pathogen of Papaya (Carica papaya) in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Noriha Mat; Bunawan, Hamidun; Redzuan, Rohaiza Ahmad; Jaganath, Indu Bala S.

    2011-01-01

    Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414). Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch’s postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya. PMID:21339975

  20. Erwinia mallotivora sp., a new pathogen of papaya (Carica papaya) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Amin, Noriha Mat; Bunawan, Hamidun; Redzuan, Rohaiza Ahmad; Jaganath, Indu Bala S

    2010-01-01

    Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414). Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch's postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya. PMID:21339975

  1. Habitat fragmentation threatens wild populations of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) in a lowland rainforest.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Pesqueira, Mariana; Suárez-Montes, Pilar; Castillo, Guillermo; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2014-07-11

    • Premise of the study: Wild populations of domesticated species constitute a genetic reservoir and are fundamental to the evolutionary potential of species. Wild papaya (Carica papaya) is a rare, short-lived, gap-colonizing, dioecious tree that persists in the forest by continuous dispersal. Theoretically, these life-history characteristics render wild papaya highly susceptible to habitat fragmentation, with anticipated negative effects on its gene pool. Further, species dioecy may cause founder effects to generate local biases in sex ratio, decreasing effective population size.• Methods: We contrasted the genetic diversity and structure of C. papaya between wild populations from rainforest fragments and continuous forest at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. We evaluated recent migration rates among populations as well as landscape resistance to gene flow. Finally, we calculated the sex ratio of the populations in both habitats.• Key results: Populations of wild papaya in rainforest fragments showed lower genetic diversity and higher population differentiation than populations in continuous rainforest. Estimates of recent migration rates showed a higher percentage of migrants moving from the continuous forest to the forest fragments than in the opposite direction. Agricultural land and cattle pasture were found to be the most resistant matrices to gene flow. Finally, biased sex ratios were seen to affect the effective population size in both habitats.• Conclusions: The mating system, rarity, and short life cycle of C. papaya are exacerbating the effects of rainforest fragmentation on its genetic diversity, threatening the persistence of its natural populations in the proposed place of origin as well as its genetic reservoir. PMID:25016010

  2. VITAMIN AND MINERAL CONTENT OF HAWAII’S PAPAYA CULTIVARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya) cultivars were harvested from different locations throughout Hawaii and analyzed for vitamin C (ascorbic acid), provitamin A ( '-carotene, '-carotene, '-cryptoxanthin), and mineral composition. Papaya mean vitamin C content was 51.2 mg/100g, with no significant differences amo...

  3. Transgenic Papaya: Can We Proceed Beyond the Hawaiian Experience?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The story of the development, deregulation, and commercialization of the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) resistant transgenic SunUp and Rainbow papaya for Hawaii is quite well known at least among plant virologist and knowledgeable people in the field of papaya. Thus, the story will be only briefly r...

  4. Rapid divergence and expansion of the X chromosome in papaya

    PubMed Central

    Gschwend, Andrea R.; Yu, Qingyi; Tong, Eric J.; Zeng, Fanchang; Han, Jennifer; VanBuren, Robert; Aryal, Rishi; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H.; Paterson, Andrew H.; Ming, Ray

    2012-01-01

    X chromosomes have long been thought to conserve the structure and gene content of the ancestral autosome from which the sex chromosomes evolved. We compared the recently evolved papaya sex chromosomes with a homologous autosome of a close relative, the monoecious Vasconcellea monoica, to infer changes since recombination stopped between the papaya sex chromosomes. We sequenced 12 V. monoica bacterial artificial chromosomes, 11 corresponding to the papaya X-specific region, and 1 to a papaya autosomal region. The combined V. monoica X-orthologous sequences are much shorter (1.10 Mb) than the corresponding papaya region (2.56 Mb). Given that the V. monoica genome is 41% larger than that of papaya, this finding suggests considerable expansion of the papaya X; expansion is supported by a higher repetitive sequence content of the X compared with the papaya autosomal sequence. The alignable regions include 27 transcript-encoding sequences, only 6 of which are functional X/V. monoica gene pairs. Sequence divergence from the V. monoica orthologs is almost identical for papaya X and Y alleles; the Carica-Vasconcellea split therefore occurred before the papaya sex chromosomes stopped recombining, making V. monoica a suitable outgroup for inferring changes in papaya sex chromosomes. The papaya X and the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome and V. monoica have all gained and lost genes, including a surprising amount of changes in the X. PMID:22869742

  5. Touch and Discover

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Center for Engineering Educational Outreach,

    Student teams identify and categorize various objects using their senses of touch and sight. One student chooses five objects for his/her blindfolded partner to describe and identify based solely on touch. Then they switch. Both students record their observations, describing the objects as: human-made or natural, living or non-living, as well as any other physical/sensory characteristics. Students become familiar with different classification systems and sharpen their vocabulary to describe the physical characteristics of different objects. They learn why engineers have a need to categorize materials.

  6. Touch the Spring (Lightbulb)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Exploratorium

    2011-12-07

    In this activity, a lightbulb is placed in front of a concave mirror. The actual lightbulb is not visible to the viewer, but the viewer can see the mirror image of the lightbulb formed in space. When the viewer tries to touch the lightbulb, they are attempting to touch an image. Their hand moves right through what seems to be a solid object! Learners will enjoy this illusion, while investigating principles of light and mirrors. In this version of a popular Exploratorium exhibit, a lightbulb is substituted for a spring.

  7. DiamondTouch: a multi-user touch technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul H. Dietz; Darren Leigh

    2001-01-01

    A technique for creating a touch-sensitive input device is proposed which allows multiple, simultaneous users to interact in an intuitive fashion. Touch location information is determined independently for each user, allowing each touch on a common surface to be associated with a particular user. The surface generates location dependent, modulated electric fields which are capacitively coupled through the users to

  8. Correlation between ethylene emission and skin colour changes during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Vitoria, A. P.; Corrêa, S. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Campostrini, E.; Santos, E. O.; Cavalli, A.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The skin colour changes and ethylene emission rates were monitored during papaya (C. papaya L.) fruit ripening. Two groups of papaya (‘Formosa’ and ‘Solo’) were applied in this study. The total colour difference was used as measured parameter and the corresponding half time of its saturation was used as correlation parameter. A high correlation factor between the saturation half time and corresponding climacteric peak time was found. It was concluded that high ethylene emission rate in ‘Solo’ fruit promotes a quick change of the total colour difference.

  9. Militarized infrared touch panels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stewart E. Hough; Pamela S. Stanley

    1991-01-01

    As the sophistication and power of computer systems continues to increase, the need for simplicity of human interface increases. The requirement to make systems 'accessible' and 'friendly' to the user is fundamental for the success of the system. While the development of touch input devices has opened the door to the possibility of incorporating the simplest user actions (i.e., looking

  10. Controversies in therapeutic touch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Leskowitz

    2003-01-01

    One of the most puzzling areas covered under the umbrella of integrative medicine is the field of energy healing. Based on the notion of a subtle vital force which is presumed to be the source of health, many ancient healing techniques have been evolved within this paradigm, including the modern American variant called Therapeutic Touch (TT). This article reviews the

  11. A Touching Story

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Hassenpflug

    2001-01-01

    In the course of her lunchtime hall duty assistant principal Laura Whittier approaches a group of girls who are late for class. When they do not immediately depart, she touches one of them on the shoulder to encourage their prompt exit. A little while later the principal curtly informs Laura that the girl’s mother has come to school demanding that

  12. Getting in Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the growing demand of using touchscreen interface. Consumers are now seeing touchscreens in a wide variety of electronics, not only in competitors to the iPhone from Sony, Samsung, Motorola, LG and T-Mobile, but also in desktop PCs, printers and copiers, televisions, and MP3 players. Teens, if they don't have a touch-enabled…

  13. Touch massage, a rewarding experience.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Lenita; Jacobsson, Maritha; Lämås, Kristina

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to describe and analyze healthy individuals' expressed experiences of touch massage (TM). Fifteen healthy participants received whole body touch massage during 60 minutes for two separate occasions. Interviews were analyzed by narrative analysis. Four identifiable storyline was found, Touch massage as an essential need, in this storyline the participants talked about a desire and need for human touch and TM. Another storyline was about, Touch massage as a pleasurable experience and the participants talked about the pleasure of having had TM. In the third storyline Touch massage as a dynamic experience, the informants talked about things that could modulate the experience of receiving TM. In the last storyline, Touch massage influences self-awareness, the participants described how TM affected some of their psychological and physical experiences. Experiences of touch massage was in general described as pleasant sensations and the different storylines could be seen in the light of rewarding experiences. PMID:24771663

  14. Enhancing Interaction through Positive Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardew, E. Michelle; Bunse, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Positive touch is an application of the ancient practice of infant massage. Positive touch provides families and caregivers with simple and positive ways to touch their child that contribute to the overall goal of providing a nurturing environment that supports the child's growth and development. This article describes infant massage techniques in…

  15. Quantification of the antiplasmodial alkaloid carpaine in papaya (Carica papaya) leaves.

    PubMed

    Julianti, Tasqiah; Oufir, Mouhssin; Hamburger, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    Daily consumption of papaya (Carica papaya) leaves as greens and an herbal infusion is common in some parts of Indonesia as a means for preventing malaria. Antiplasmodial activity of the leaf extracts and of the main alkaloid carpaine were recently confirmed. A quantitative assay for determination of carpaine in papaya leaves was developed and validated. The assay involved pressurized liquid extraction and quantification with the aid of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Extraction conditions were optimized with respect to solvent, temperature, and number of extraction cycles. The ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy assay was validated over a range of 20-5000 ng/mL (R(2) of 0.9908). A total of 29 papaya leaf samples were analyzed, and carpaine concentration in dry leaves was found to range from 0.02 to 0.31%. No obvious dependence on geographic origin and leaf maturity was observed. PMID:25153096

  16. A male and hermaphrodite specific RAPD marker for papaya ( Carica papaya L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Urasaki; M. Tokumoto; K. Tarora; Y. Ban; T. Kayano; H. Tanaka; H. Oku; I. Chinen; R. Terauchi

    2002-01-01

    The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to determine the sex of a dioecious species, Carica papaya L., with three sex types, male, female and hermaphrodite. A 450 bp marker fragment, named PSDM(Papaya Sex Determination Marker),\\u000a exists in all male and hermaphrodite plants but not in the female plants so far analyzed. The DNA sequence of PSDM exhibited

  17. Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research. PMID:24757435

  18. Update on the development of virus-resistant papaya: Virus-resistant transgenic papaya for people in rural communities of Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the most important and preferred crops in rural communities in Thailand. Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a serious disease of papaya throughout Thailand. Efforts to control the virus by various methods either have not been successful or have not resulted in sustai...

  19. Effect of gamma-irradiation on ripening papaya pectin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Zhao; James Moy; Robert E. Paull

    1996-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya, L., var. Sunset) at three initial ripeness stages were irradiated with 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, or 1.5 kGy gamma-irradiation and pectin changes during ripening determined. A significant linear relationship was found between irradiation dose and firmness immediately after irradiation. Irradiation had no effect on fruit skin or flesh color of papaya fruit irradiated at the 5 to

  20. Influence of ripening stages on antioxidant properties of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addai, Zuhair Radhi; Abdullah, Aminah; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.

    2013-11-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv Eksotika) is one of the most commonly consumed tropical fruits by humans, especially Malaysians. The objective of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidants activity in different ripening stages of papaya fruit. The fruits were harvested at five different, stages RS1, RS2, RS3, RS4, and RS5 corresponding to 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 weeks after anthesis, respectively. Papayas fruit at five different stage of ripening were obtained from farms at Pusat Flora Cheras, JabatanPertanian and Hulu Langat Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia. The antioxidants activity were analyzed using the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The analyses were conducted in triplicate and the data were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS. The results showed significant differences (P< 0.05) were found at different stages of ripening. The total phenol content TPC, TFC, FRAP and DPPH values increased significantly (P<0.05) with the ripening process. The results showed the important role of the ripening stage in increasing the antioxidant content of papaya fruits.

  1. Proteomic analysis of papaya (Carica papaya L.) displaying typical sticky disease symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Silas P; Ventura, José A; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Almeida, Igor C; Fernandes, Patricia M B; Zingali, Russolina B

    2011-07-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) hosts the only described laticifer-infecting virus (Papaya meleira virus, PMeV), which is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease. To understand the systemic effects of PMeV in papaya, we conducted a comprehensive proteomic analysis of leaf samples from healthy and diseased plants grown under field conditions. First, a reference 2-DE map was established for proteins from healthy samples. A total of 486 reproducible spots were identified, and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS data identified 275 proteins accounting for 159 distinct proteins from 231 spots that were annotated. Second, the differential expression of proteins from healthy and diseased leaves was determined through parallel experiments, using 2-DE and DIGE followed by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and LC-IonTrap-MS/MS, respectively. Conventional 2-DE analysis revealed 75 differentially expressed proteins. Of those, 48 proteins were identified, with 26 being upregulated (U) and 22 downregulated (D). In general, metabolism-related proteins were downregulated, and stress-responsive proteins were upregulated. This expression pattern was corroborated by the results of the DIGE analysis, which identified 79 differentially expressed proteins, with 23 identified (17 U and 6 D). Calreticulin and the proteasome subunits 20S and RPT5a were shown to be upregulated during infection by both 2-DE and DIGE analyses. These data may help shed light on plant responses against stresses and viral infections. PMID:21630455

  2. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V; Lewis, Kanako L T; Salzberg, Steven L; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R; Skelton, Rachel L; Murray, Jan E; Chen, Cuixia; Qian, Wubin; Shen, Junguo; Du, Peng; Eustice, Moriah; Tong, Eric; Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Paull, Robert E; Michael, Todd P; Wall, Kerr; Rice, Danny W; Albert, Henrik; Wang, Ming-Li; Zhu, Yun J; Schatz, Michael; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Acob, Ricelle A; Guan, Peizhu; Blas, Andrea; Wai, Ching Man; Ackerman, Christine M; Ren, Yan; Liu, Chao; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Shakirov, Eugene V; Haas, Brian; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Nelson, David; Wang, Xiyin; Bowers, John E; Gschwend, Andrea R; Delcher, Arthur L; Singh, Ratnesh; Suzuki, Jon Y; Tripathi, Savarni; Neupane, Kabi; Wei, Hairong; Irikura, Beth; Paidi, Maya; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Wenli; Presting, Gernot; Windsor, Aaron; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Torres, Manuel J; Feltus, F Alex; Porter, Brad; Li, Yingjun; Burroughs, A Max; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Liu, Lei; Christopher, David A; Mount, Stephen M; Moore, Paul H; Sugimura, Tak; Jiang, Jiming; Schuler, Mary A; Friedman, Vikki; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Shippen, Dorothy E; dePamphilis, Claude W; Palmer, Jeffrey D; Freeling, Michael; Paterson, Andrew H; Gonsalves, Dennis; Wang, Lei; Alam, Maqsudul

    2008-04-24

    Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3x draft genome sequence of 'SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica's distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties. PMID:18432245

  3. A multi-touch three dimensional touch-sensitive tablet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sk Lee; William Buxton; K. C. Smith

    1985-01-01

    A prototype touch-sensitive tablet Is presented. The tablet's main innovation is that It Is capable of sensing mare than one point of contact at a time. In addition to being able to provide position coor- dinates, the tablet also gives a measure of degree of contact, independently for each point of contact. In order to enable mutU- touch sensing, the

  4. Family interactions in public: Parent-child distance and touching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol K. Sigelman; Robert M. Adams

    1990-01-01

    In an effort to extend the study of parent-child interaction to naturalistic settings, 207 families were observed in parks by observers who used scaled maps to record parent-child distances and touching behavior. Generally, parent-child distance increased and touching decreased as child age increased. The interactional behaviors of boys and girls and mothers and fathers were far more similar than different.

  5. [Aroma of the papaya fruit (Carica papaya, L.): indication of volatile precursors of terpene compounds].

    PubMed

    Schreier, P; Lehr, M; Heidlas, J; Idstein, H

    1985-04-01

    In fruit pulp of papaya (Carica papaya, L.) the enzymes were inhibited by Hg2+. These sample were compared with others, in which the enzymes had not been inhibited. After separation and prefractionation of volatiles by means of high vacuum distillation/solvent extraction and subsequent adsorption chromatography on silicagel, capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that in the experiment with Hg2+ the formation of terpene alcohols and hydrocarbons as well as benzylisothiocyanate was totally inhibited. The formation of linalooloxides and related compounds was inhibited to about 60%. From these results the occurrence of bound terpene precursors in papaya fruit may be postulated, from which the free volatile terpenes are enzymatically liberated after decompartmentalization of tissue during fruit pulp preparation. PMID:4002865

  6. Whole-photosynthesis and transpiration in field-grown papaya plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of papaya response to environmental factors provides a scientific basis to develop management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. In papaya, the photosynthetic capacity also influ...

  7. A physical map of the papaya genome with integrated genetic map and genome sequence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingyi Yu; Eric Tong; Rachel L Skelton; John E Bowers; Meghan R Jones; Jan E Murray; Shaobin Hou; Peizhu Guan; Ricelle A Acob; Ming-Cheng Luo; Paul H Moore; Maqsudul Alam; Andrew H Paterson; Ray Ming

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Papaya is a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide and has primitive sex chromosomes controlling sex determination in this trioecious species. The papaya genome was recently sequenced because of its agricultural importance, unique biological features, and successful application of transgenic papaya for resistance to papaya ringspot virus. As a part of the genome sequencing project, we

  8. Empathic Touch by Relational Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy W. Bickmore; Rukmal Fernando; Lazlo Ring; Daniel Schulman

    2010-01-01

    We describe a series of experiments with an agent designed to model human conversational touch-capable of physically touching users in synchrony with speech and other nonverbal communicative behavior-and its use in expressing empathy to users in distress. The agent is composed of an animated human face that is displayed on a monitor affixed to the top of a human mannequin,

  9. ENGINEERED RESISTANCE AGAINST PRSV IN VENEZUELAN TRANSGENIC PAPAYAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Local varieties of papaya grown in the Andean foothills of Mérida, Venezuela were transformed independently with the coat protein (CP) gene from two different geographical Papaya Ringspot virus (PRSV) isolates, designated VE and LA, via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The CP genes of both PRSV isolates s...

  10. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF CARICA PAPAYA AS REVEALED BY AFLP MARKERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic relationships among Carica papaya cultivars, breeding lines, unimproved germplasm, and related species were established using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Seventy-one papaya accessions and related species were analyzed with nine EcoRI-MseI primer combinations. A t...

  11. FREQUENCY AND VARIATION OF MICROSATELLITE MARKERS IN THE PAPAYA GENOME

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are single locus markers that display co-dominant inheritance and are widely used in genetic mapping, gene tagging, and genetic diversity studies. Genomic research on papaya (Carica papaya L.) is rapidly advancing and has recently yielded signif...

  12. MAPPING PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS IN CARICA PAPAYA USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different varieties of papaya (Carica papaya L.) vary in the phenotypic expression of agronomically important traits. Genetic loci responsible for these differences can be mapped using DNA markers to genotype a segregating progeny population derived from a controlled cross between parents having dif...

  13. Antiulcerogenic activity of Carica papaya seed in rats.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Lorraine Aparecida; Cordeiro, Kátia Wolff; Carrasco, Viviane; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Cardoso, Cláudia Andréa Lima; Argadoña, Eliana Janet Sanjinez; Freitas, Karine de Cássia

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the gastroprotective and healing effects of the methanolic extract of the seed of the papaya Carica papaya L. (MECP) in rats. Models of acute gastric ulcer induction by ethanol and indomethacin and of chronic ulcer by acetic acid were used. The gastric juice and mucus parameters were evaluated using the pylorus ligation model, and the involvement of sulfhydryl compounds (GSH) and nitric oxide in the gastroprotective effect was analyzed using the ethanol model. The toxicity was assessed through toxicity tests. No signs of toxicity were observed when the rats received a single dose of 2000 mg/kg of extract. The MECP in doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the gastric lesion with 56, 76, and 82 % inhibition, respectively, and a dose of 30 mg/kg lansoprazole showed 79 % inhibition in the ethanol model. MECP (125, 250, 500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) reduced the gastric lesion in the indomethacin model, with 62, 67, 81, and 85 % inhibition, respectively. The MECP (500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) treatments showed a reduction in ulcerative symptoms induced by acetic acid by 84 and 73 %, respectively. The antiulcerogenic activity seems to involve GSH because the inhibition dropped from 72 to 13 % in the presence of a GSH inhibitor. Moreover, the MECP showed systemic action, increasing the mucus production and decreasing gastric acidity. Treatments with MECP induce gastroprotection without signs of toxicity. This effect seems to involve sulfhydryl compounds, increased mucus, and reduced gastric acidity. PMID:25418890

  14. Light touch and medio-lateral postural stability during short distance gait.

    PubMed

    Kodesh, E; Falash, F; Sprecher, E; Dickstein, R

    2015-01-01

    While standing, light fingertip touch on an external stable object attenuates sway and improves balance in healthy adults as well as in individuals with poor postural control. The effect of light touch on balance during gait is, however, not well known. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to study the effects of light fingertip touch on balance during gait. We hypothesized that similar to its effect during stance light touch would increase postural stability. Forty healthy young adults were tested under four gait conditions: (1) eyes open (EO), (2) eyes closed (EC), (3) eyes closed while lightly touching a static object on the right side of the walking lane (ECLTS), (4) eyes closed while lightly touching a dynamic object, namely, a stick that was moved forwards by the subject with the right hand (ECLTD). The main outcome measure was medio-lateral step width variability, a well established indicator of gait balance in the medio-lateral plane. During the EC condition, light touch of an external static object (ECLTS) decreased medio-lateral variability (i.e., balance improved); however, this stabilizing effect was not observed with light touch on the stick. The availability of self positional and spatial cues when touching a static external reference, and their absence when touching a stick that is moved forwards by the subject as he walks, can explain the different effects of light touch in the ECLTS vs the ECLTD gait conditions. PMID:25450148

  15. Influence of light touch using the fingertips on postural stability of poststroke patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Se-Han; Lee, DongGeon; Lee, YunBok; Jee, YoungJu; Lee, GyuChang; Park, Dong-Sik

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of fingertip light touch on the postural control in poststroke patients. [Subjects] In the study, the subjects were recruited through a rehabilitation hospital, and 21 patients were screened from among 30 volunteers. [Methods] The subjects participated in an experiment that measured postural sway during the static standing posture without light touch and postural sway during the static standing posture with light touch as follows: visual information not blocked without light touch, visual information blocked without light touch, visual information blocked with light touch using fingertips, and visual information not blocked with light touch using fingertips. The measurements were performed using a force platform. The variables measured by the force platform included sway velocities of the COP in the anterior and posterior directions and, medial and lateral directions and sway velocity moments. [Results] In the results of the study, there were significant differences between the state without light touch and state with light touch in terms of the postural sway velocity and velocity moment under all conditions. The rate of decease of the sway velocity and moment velocity under the eyes closed condition were higher compared with those under the eyes open condition. [Conclusion] Through this study, we confirmed the influence of fingertip light touch on the decrease in postural sway. The results show that active light touch may be supplemental means of improving postural sway in stroke patients. PMID:25729193

  16. Influence of light touch using the fingertips on postural stability of poststroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Se-Han; Lee, DongGeon; Lee, YunBok; Jee, YoungJu; Lee, GyuChang; Park, Dong-sik

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of fingertip light touch on the postural control in poststroke patients. [Subjects] In the study, the subjects were recruited through a rehabilitation hospital, and 21 patients were screened from among 30 volunteers. [Methods] The subjects participated in an experiment that measured postural sway during the static standing posture without light touch and postural sway during the static standing posture with light touch as follows: visual information not blocked without light touch, visual information blocked without light touch, visual information blocked with light touch using fingertips, and visual information not blocked with light touch using fingertips. The measurements were performed using a force platform. The variables measured by the force platform included sway velocities of the COP in the anterior and posterior directions and, medial and lateral directions and sway velocity moments. [Results] In the results of the study, there were significant differences between the state without light touch and state with light touch in terms of the postural sway velocity and velocity moment under all conditions. The rate of decease of the sway velocity and moment velocity under the eyes closed condition were higher compared with those under the eyes open condition. [Conclusion] Through this study, we confirmed the influence of fingertip light touch on the decrease in postural sway. The results show that active light touch may be supplemental means of improving postural sway in stroke patients. PMID:25729193

  17. Effects of nitric oxide treatment on the cell wall softening related enzymes and several hormones of papaya fruit during storage.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qin; Wu, Bin; Chen, Weixin; Zhang, Yuli; Wang, Jide; Li, Xueping

    2014-06-01

    Papaya fruits (Carica papaya L. cv 'Sui you 2') harvested with < 5% yellow surface at the blossom end were fumigated with 60 microL/L of nitric oxide for 3 h and then stored at 20 degrees C with 85% relative humility for 20 days. The effects of nitric oxide treatment on ethylene production rate, the activities of cell wall softening related enzymes including polygalacturonase, pectin methyl esterase, pectate lyase and cellulase and the levels of hormones including indole acetic acid, abscisic acid, gibberellin and zeatin riboside were examined. The results showed that papaya fruits treated with nitric oxide had a significantly lower rate of ethylene production and a lesser loss of firmness during storage. A decrease in polygalacturonase, pectin methyl esterase, pectate lyase and cellulase activities was observed in nitric oxide treated fruit. In addition, the contents of indole acetic acid, abscisic acid and zeatin riboside were reduced in nitric oxide treated fruit, but no significant reduction in the level of gibberellin was found. These results indicate that nitric oxide treatment can effectively delay the softening and ripening of papaya fruit, likely via the regulation of cell wall softening related enzymes and certain hormones. PMID:23744122

  18. Touch sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Bounoutas; Martin Chalfie

    2007-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was the first organism for which touch insensitive mutants were obtained. The study of the genes defective in these mutants\\u000a has led to the identification of components of a mechanosensory complex needed for specific cells to sense gentle touch to\\u000a the body. Multiple approaches using genetics, cell biology, biochemistry, and electrophysiology have characterized a channel\\u000a complex,

  19. 77 FR 31294 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Papaya...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ...Collection; Importation of Papaya From Colombia and Ecuador AGENCY: Animal and Plant...commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador into the continental United...commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador, contact Ms. Dorothy...

  20. Development of Transgenic Papaya through Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation.

    PubMed

    Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md Golam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic papaya plants were regenerated from hypocotyls and immature zygotic embryo after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as the selectable marker and ?-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene. The explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens on regeneration medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime for one week. The cocultivated explants were transferred into the final selection medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime?+?50?mg/L kanamycin for callus induction as well as plant regeneration. The callus derived from the hypocotyls of Carica papaya cv. Shahi showed the highest positive GUS activities compared to Carica papaya cv. Ranchi. The transformed callus grew vigorously and formed embryos followed by transgenic plantlets successfully. The result of this study showed that the hypocotyls of C. papaya cv. Shahi and C. papaya cv. Ranchi are better explants for genetic transformation compared to immature embryos. The transformed C. papaya cv. Shahi also showed the maximum number of plant regeneration compared to that of C. papaya cv. Ranchi. PMID:24066284

  1. Development of Transgenic Papaya through Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md. Golam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic papaya plants were regenerated from hypocotyls and immature zygotic embryo after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as the selectable marker and ?-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene. The explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens on regeneration medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime for one week. The cocultivated explants were transferred into the final selection medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime?+?50?mg/L kanamycin for callus induction as well as plant regeneration. The callus derived from the hypocotyls of Carica papaya cv. Shahi showed the highest positive GUS activities compared to Carica papaya cv. Ranchi. The transformed callus grew vigorously and formed embryos followed by transgenic plantlets successfully. The result of this study showed that the hypocotyls of C. papaya cv. Shahi and C. papaya cv. Ranchi are better explants for genetic transformation compared to immature embryos. The transformed C. papaya cv. Shahi also showed the maximum number of plant regeneration compared to that of C. papaya cv. Ranchi. PMID:24066284

  2. Transfections of animal touch, techniques of biosecurity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Shukin

    2011-01-01

    Animal touch – in the broadest sense, biological touch across species lines – emerges as a biosecurity threat within contemporary contexts of pandemic alert. At the same time, animal touch is increasingly invested with therapeutic, healing value within neoliberal economies of affect. This article develops two genealogies of animal touch toward historicizing the way it has come to mean and

  3. Significance of Touch in Young Children's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Frances M.

    2005-01-01

    Touch matters. Humans need nurturing touch for optimum emotional, physical, and cognitive development and health--especially in infancy. Positive touch lowers levels of the stress hormone cortisol in the brain. Drawing on research and anecdotal evidence to support the importance of touch to children's well-being, the author makes a case for…

  4. A Sensitive, Reliable Inexpensive Touch Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anger, Douglas; Schachtman, Todd R.

    2007-01-01

    Research in a laboratory required a sensitive, reliable, inexpensive touch detector for use with rats to test the reinforcement of inhibition. A small touch detector was also desirable so that the detector could be mounted on the rat's cage close to the object being touched by the rat, whose touches in turn were being detected by current passing…

  5. Plant lipases: partial purification of Carica papaya lipase.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Ivanna; Mateos-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Sandoval, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    Lipases from plants have very interesting features for application in different fields. This chapter provides an overview on some of the most important aspects of plant lipases, such as sources, applications, physiological functions, and specificities. Lipases from laticifers and particularly Carica papaya lipase (CPL) have emerged as a versatile autoimmobilized biocatalyst. However, to get a better understanding of CPL biocatalytic properties, the isolation and purification of individual C. papaya lipolytic enzymes become necessary. In this chapter, a practical protocol for partial purification of the latex-associated lipolytic activity from C. papaya is given. PMID:22426715

  6. Isolation and functional characterization of a lycopene beta-cyclase gene that controls fruit colour of papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Devitt, Luke C; Fanning, Kent; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Holton, Timothy A

    2010-01-01

    The colour of papaya fruit flesh is determined largely by the presence of carotenoid pigments. Red-fleshed papaya fruit contain lycopene, whilst this pigment is absent from yellow-fleshed fruit. The conversion of lycopene (red) to beta-carotene (yellow) is catalysed by lycopene beta-cyclase. This present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of two different genes encoding lycopene beta-cyclases (lcy-beta1 and lcy-beta2) from red (Tainung) and yellow (Hybrid 1B) papaya cultivars. A mutation in the lcy-beta2 gene, which inactivates enzyme activity, controls lycopene production in fruit and is responsible for the difference in carotenoid production between red and yellow-fleshed papaya fruit. The expression level of both lcy-beta1 and lcy-beta2 genes is similar and low in leaves, but lcy-beta2 expression increases markedly in ripe fruit. Isolation of the lcy-beta2 gene from papaya, that is preferentially expressed in fruit and is correlated with fruit colour, will facilitate marker-assisted breeding for fruit colour in papaya and should create possibilities for metabolic engineering of carotenoid production in papaya fruit to alter both colour and nutritional properties. PMID:19887502

  7. Semen study of papaya workers exposed to ethylene dibromide

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, J.M.; Schrader, S.M.; Steenland, K.; Clapp, D.; Turner, T.

    1984-01-01

    A cross sectional semen and cytogenetic study was performed on male workers exposed to ethylene-dibromide (EDB) in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii. Semen analyses were conducted on 46 men in six fumigation facilities with an average length of employment of 5 years and airborne exposures to EDB ranging from 16 to 213 parts per billion. Statistically significant decreases in sperm count per ejaculate and the percentage of viable and motile sperm and increases in the proportion of specific morphological abnormalities were observed among exposed men when compared with controls. Semen volume and sperm concentration were also lower in the exposed group. No effect of exposure to EDB on sperm velocity, the overall proportion of sperm with normal morphology or YFF bodies was noted. The authors conclude that based on the decreases in sperm count, viability and motility and increases in certain types of morphological abnormalities among workers exposed to EDB, EDB may increase the risk of reproductive impairment in workers at exposure levels near the NIOSH recommended limit of 45 parts per billion and far below the current OSHA standard of 20 parts per million.

  8. HOMOPTERAN AND MITE PESTS OF PAPAYA AND THEIR CONTROL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homopteran pests in papaya fields in Florida, include mealybugs, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, soft scales Philephedra tuberculosa Nakahara and Gill, Coccus hesperidum L. and armored scales, Aspidiotus destructor, Acutaspis sp., Hemiberlesia sp., aphids, Myzus persicae (Sul...

  9. 78 FR 48628 - Importation of Papayas From Peru

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ...production locations; field sanitation; hot water treatment; procedures for packing...fruit fly trapping, field sanitation, and hot water treatment to remove pests of concern...papayas. The limitation would ensure that the hot water dip treatment discussed later in...

  10. Touch for Socioemotional and Physical Well-Being: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    This review briefly summarizes recent empirical research on touch. The research includes the role of touch in early development, touch deprivation, touch aversion, emotions that can be conveyed by touch, the importance of touch for interpersonal relationships and how friendly touch affects compliance in different situations. MRI data are reviewed…

  11. Genetic-molecular characterization of backcross generations for sexual conversion in papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Ramos, H C C; Pereira, M G; Pereira, T N S; Barros, G B A; Ferreguetti, G A

    2014-01-01

    The low number of improved cultivars limits the expansion of the papaya crop, particularly because of the time required for the development of new varieties using classical procedures. Molecular techniques associated with conventional procedures accelerate this process and allow targeted improvements. Thus, we used microsatellite markers to perform genetic-molecular characterization of papaya genotypes obtained from 3 backcross generations to monitor the inbreeding level and parental genome proportion in the evaluated genotypes. Based on the analysis of 20 microsatellite loci, 77 genotypes were evaluated, 25 of each generation of the backcross program as well as the parental genotypes. The markers analyzed were identified in 11 of the 12 linkage groups established for papaya, ranging from 1 to 4 per linkage group. The average values for the inbreeding coefficient were 0.88 (BC1S4), 0.47 (BC2S3), and 0.63 (BC3S2). Genomic analysis revealed average values of the recurrent parent genome of 82.7% in BC3S2, 64.4% in BC1S4, and 63.9% in BC2S3. Neither the inbreeding level nor the genomic proportions completely followed the expected average values. This demonstrates the significance of molecular analysis when examining different genotype values, given the importance of such information for selection processes in breeding programs. PMID:25501249

  12. Sex determination in flowering plants: papaya as a model system.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Rishi; Ming, Ray

    2014-03-01

    Unisexuality in flowering plants evolved from a hermaphrodite ancestor. Transition from hermaphrodite to unisexual flowers has occurred multiple times across the different lineages of the angiosperms. Sexuality in plants is regulated by genetic, epigenetic and physiological mechanisms. The most specialized mechanism of sex determination is sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes ensure the stable segregation of sexual phenotypes by preventing the recombination of sex determining genes. Despite continuous efforts, sex determining genes of dioecious plants have not yet been cloned. Concerted efforts with various model systems are necessary to understand the complex mechanism of sex determination in plants. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a tropical fruit tree with three sex forms, male, hermaphrodite, and female. Sexuality in papaya is determined by an XY chromosome system that is in an early evolutionary stage. The male and hermaphrodite of papaya are controlled by two different types of Y chromosomes: Y and Y(h). Large amounts of information in the area of genetics, genomics, and epigenetics of papaya have been accumulated over the last few decades. Relatively short lifecycle, small genome size, and readily available genetic and genomic resources render papaya an excellent model system to study sex determination and sex chromosomes in flowering plants. PMID:24467896

  13. To Touch or Not to Touch: That Is the Question!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene Allen

    2011-01-01

    People attend museums to see artifacts and learn from them! Ideally, they want to see them, touch them, and learn the story about them. Artifacts have an uncanny ability to mute the passage of time, and unite young and old on common ground. During its sixty-plus-years in existence, the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History has displayed…

  14. 212 Florida Entomologist 89(2) June 2006 CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF THE PAPAYA MEALYBUG,

    E-print Network

    Reddy, Gadi VP

    and was causing serious damage to papaya, plume- ria, hibiscus, and other plants. The parasitoids Anagyrus loecki en papaya, hibiscus y otras plan- tas. Un total de 24,586 de los parasitoides,Anagyrus loecki Noyes

  15. Efficacy of four plant extracts on nematodes associated with papaya in Sindh, Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This investigation examines the effect of ethanol extracts of four plant species--Azadirachta indica (neem), Withania somnifera (ashwagandha), Tagetes erecta (marigold) and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus)--against nematodes associated with papaya (Carica papaya), and it assesses their influence o...

  16. Isolation and functional characterization of a lycopene  -cyclase gene that controls fruit colour of papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luke C. Devitt; Kent Fanning; Ralf G. Dietzgen; Timothy A. Holton

    2010-01-01

    The colour of papaya fruit flesh is determined largely by the presence of carotenoid pigments. Red-fleshed papaya fruit contain lycopene, whilst this pigment is absent from yellow-fleshed fruit. The conversion of lycopene (red) to b-carotene (yellow) is catalysed by lycopene b-cyclase. This present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of two different genes encoding lycopene b-cyclases (lcy-b1 and lcy-b2)

  17. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling fruit size and shape in papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea L. Blas; Qingyi Yu; Olivia J. Veatch; Robert E. Paull; Paul H. Moore; Ray Ming

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a pan-tropical tree that bears fruit exhibiting a wide range of size and shape. Depending on variety and environment,\\u000a papaya fruit may weigh from 0.2 kg up to 10 kg. Papaya fruit shape is a sex-linked trait ranging from spherical to ovate,\\u000a cylindrical or pyriform. An F2 mapping population, produced from a cross between the Thai variety

  18. While touch accepted as a

    E-print Network

    Reiterer, Harald

    or phy an airplane w they used ges urface tableto that touching hat the comp nflicts may re e arou ers compensa nteractivity cr using a multi-t ked participan ysical mechan wing (fig. 2) stures to unintentio or part of this wo provided that copi dvantage and that age. To copy othe to lists, requires any

  19. Origin and domestication of papaya Yh chromosome.

    PubMed

    VanBuren, Robert; Zeng, Fanchang; Chen, Cuixia; Zhang, Jisen; Wai, Ching Man; Han, Jennifer; Aryal, Rishi; Gschwend, Andrea R; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Gou, Jiqing; Arro, Jie; Guyot, Romain; Moore, Richard C; Wang, Ming-Li; Zee, Francis; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H; Yu, Qingyi; Ming, Ray

    2015-04-01

    Sex in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes. Females are XX, and two slightly different Y chromosomes distinguish males (XY) and hermaphrodites (XY(h)). The hermaphrodite-specific region of the Y(h) chromosome (HSY) and its X chromosome counterpart were sequenced and analyzed previously. We now report the sequence of the entire male-specific region of the Y (MSY). We used a BAC-by-BAC approach to sequence the MSY and resequence the Y regions of 24 wild males and the Y(h) regions of 12 cultivated hermaphrodites. The MSY and HSY regions have highly similar gene content and structure, and only 0.4% sequence divergence. The MSY sequences from wild males include three distinct haplotypes, associated with the populations' geographic locations, but gene flow is detected for other genomic regions. The Y(h) sequence is highly similar to one Y haplotype (MSY3) found only in wild dioecious populations from the north Pacific region of Costa Rica. The low MSY3-Y(h) divergence supports the hypothesis that hermaphrodite papaya is a product of human domestication. We estimate that Y(h) arose only ?4000 yr ago, well after crop plant domestication in Mesoamerica >6200 yr ago but coinciding with the rise of the Maya civilization. The Y(h) chromosome has lower nucleotide diversity than the Y, or the genome regions that are not fully sex-linked, consistent with a domestication bottleneck. The identification of the ancestral MSY3 haplotype will expedite investigation of the mutation leading to the domestication of the hermaphrodite Y(h) chromosome. In turn, this mutation should identify the gene that was affected by the carpel-suppressing mutation that was involved in the evolution of males. PMID:25762551

  20. CHROMOSOMAL LOCATION AND GENE PAUCITY IN THE MALE SPECIFIC REGION ON PAPAYA Y CHROMOSOME

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex chromosomes in flowering plants evolved recently and many of them remain homomorphic, including those in papaya. We investigated the chromosomal location of papaya’s small male specific region of the hermaphrodite Y (Yh) chromosome (MSY) and its genomic features. We conducted chromosome fluoresc...

  1. EFFECTIVE SELECTION OF TRANSGENIC PAPAYA PLANTS WITH THE PMI/MAN SELECTION SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The selectable marker gene phospho-mannose isomerase (pmi), which encodes the enzyme phospho-mannose isomerase (PMI) to enable selection of transformed cell lines on media containing mannose (Man), was evaluated for genetic transformation of papaya (Carica papaya L.). We found that papaya embryogeni...

  2. Analysis Of Papaya BAC End Sequences: Insights Into The Organization Of A Tree Fruit Genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a major tree fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions with an estimated genome size of 372 Mbp. We present the analysis of 4.7% of the papaya genome based on BAC end sequences (BESs) representing 17 million high-quality bases. Microsatellites discovered in 5,452 BE...

  3. Protection and conservation of Caricaceae germplasm with PRSV resistant transgenic papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a devastating disease that has a detrimental impact on both commercial papaya production and Caricaceae germplasm conservation. The PRSV coat protein transgenic line 55-1 and derived progeny are resistant to PRSV and have saved the papaya industry in Hawaii. Here we ...

  4. ENGINEERING RESISTANCE AGAINST PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS BY NATIVE, CHIMERIC AND SYNTHETIC TRANSGENES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transgenic Rainbow papaya is hemizygous for the coat protein gene of a papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate from Hawaii. Rainbow shows excellent resistance to PRSV isolates in Hawaii, but is susceptible to PRSV isolates from many parts of the world. In order to obtain transgenic papaya which m...

  5. PARACOCCUS MARGINATUS WILLIAMS AND GRANARA DE WILLINK (HOMOPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE) AFFECTING PAPAYA IN PUERTO RICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus was detected January 10, 2001 infesting papaya plantings in Isabela, Puerto Rico (18°28'23 N; 66°52’18W; 145.4 meters above sea level). This insect is recognized as a pest of papaya, cassava, hibiscus, eggplant, avocado, annona, and sweetpotato. P. margina...

  6. Mechanical Control of the Sense of Touch by ? Spectrin

    PubMed Central

    Krieg, Michael; Dunn, Alexander R.; Goodman, Miriam B.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to sense and respond to mechanical stimuli emanates from sensory neurons and is shared by most, if not all animals. Exactly how such neurons receive and distribute mechanical signals during touch sensation remains mysterious. Here, we show that sensation of mechanical forces depends on a continuous, pre-stressed spectrin cytoskeleton inside neurons. Mutations in the tetramerization domain of C. elegans ?-spectrin (UNC-70), an actin-membrane cross-linker, cause defects in sensory neuron morphology under compressive stress in moving animals. Through AFM force spectroscopy experiments on isolated neurons, in vivo laser axotomy and FRET imaging to measure force across single cells and molecules, we show that spectrin is held under constitutive tension in living animals, which contributes to an elevated pre-stress in touch receptor neurons. Genetic manipulations that decrease such spectrin-dependent tension also selectively impair touch sensation, suggesting that such pretension is essential for efficient responses to external mechanical stimuli. PMID:24561618

  7. TRANSGENIC VIRUS RESISTANT PAPAYA: THE HAWAIIAN 'RAINBOW' WAS RAPIDLY ADOPTED BY FARMERS AND IS OF MAJOR IMPORTANCE IN HAWAII TODAY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1992, papaya ringspot virus was discovered in Puna, where 95% of Hawaii’s papaya was being grown. By 1995, the virus had devastated large areas of papaya in Puna. The genetically virus resistant transgenic ‘Rainbow’ papaya was released to growers in May 1998. This was the first genetically eng...

  8. Application of a qualitative and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method for detecting genetically modified papaya line 55-1 in papaya products.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kosuke; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Noguchi, Akio; Ohmori, Kiyomi; Kasahara, Masaki; Kitta, Kazumi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko

    2013-01-15

    Genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.) line 55-1 (55-1), which is resistant to papaya ringspot virus infection, has been marketed internationally. Many countries have mandatory labeling regulations for GM foods, and there is a need for specific methods for detecting 55-1. Here, an event- and construct-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed for detecting 55-1 in papaya products. Quantitative detection was possible for fresh papaya fruit up to dilutions of 0.001% and 0.01% (weight per weight [w/w]) for homozygous SunUp and heterozygous Rainbow cultivars, respectively, in non-GM papaya. The limit of detection and quantification was as low as 250 copies of the haploid genome according to a standard reference plasmid. The method was applicable to qualitative detection of 55-1 in eight types of processed products (canned papaya, pickled papaya, dried fruit, papaya-leaf tea, jam, puree, juice, and frozen dessert) containing papaya as a main ingredient. PMID:23122142

  9. A Vision-Based Dual Touch Panel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cun-Xian Nian; Ching-Han Chen

    User interface and size are one of the main concerns in the design of consumer electronics. The conventional user interfaces provide limited interactions to user. In this paper, we introduce a new method to implement the dual touch panel. The dual touch panel makes users operate the devices with their two fingers. It provides more touched interactions for personal devices.

  10. Requesting Pervasive Services by Touching RFID Tags

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jukka Riekki; Timo Salminen; Ismo Alakärppä

    2006-01-01

    We suggest a general framework for requesting pervasive services by touching RFID tags. The tags conne ct the physical and digital environments. Visual symbols c ommunicate to users the objects that can be touched and the services that can be activated. When a user touches such a symbol with a mobile phone, the data stored in the tag and other

  11. Slide rule: making mobile touch screens accessible to blind people using multi-touch interaction techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaun K. Kane; Jeffrey P. Bigham; Jacob O. Wobbrock

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in touch screen technology have increased the prevalence of touch screens and have prompted a wave of new touch screen-based devices. However, touch screens are still largely inaccessible to blind users, who must adopt error-prone compensatory strategies to use them or find accessible alternatives. This inaccessibility is due to interaction techniques that require the user to visually locate

  12. SmartTouch: Electric Skin to Touch the Untouchable Hiroyuki Kajimoto(1)

    E-print Network

    Tachi, Susumu

    stimulation. Thus, the wearer not only makes physical contact with an object, but also can "touch" surface by a tactile display. Thus, a person not only makes physical contact with an object, but also "touches" surfaceSmartTouch: Electric Skin to Touch the Untouchable Hiroyuki Kajimoto(1) Masahiko Inami(2) Naoki

  13. Patterns of matching and initiation: Touch behavior and touch avoidance across romantic relationship stages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura K. Guerrero; Peter A. Andersen

    1994-01-01

    This study explores the similarity of touch behavior and touch attitudes among dating and married couples. Touch behavior showed a strong matching effect for seriously dating and married couples. Z-tests revealed that correlations between relational partners were significantly stronger for marrieds than for serious or casual daters. Results for attitudes concerning touch showed a statistically significant but weak relationship between

  14. ANTIOXIDANT AND IMMUNOSTIMULANT EFFECT OF CARICA PAPAYA LINN. AQUEOUS EXTRACT IN ACRYLAMIDE INTOXICATED RATS

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed Sadek, Kadry

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and immunostimulant effects of The Carica papaya fruit aqueous extract (CPF, Caricaceae) against acrylamide induced oxidative stress and improvement of Immune functions which affected by free radicals liberating acrylamide in rats. Material and methods: Sixty male wistar albino rats (195-230g) were assigned to four groups, (fifteen/group). The first group used as control group and received normal physiological saline orally daily. The second group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water. The third group was gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The fourth group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water and gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The chosen dose of papaya fruit extract was based on the active pharmacological dose range obtained from the orientation study earlier conducted. The experimental period was extended to forty day. At the expiration of the experimental period and night fasting, blood samples were collected from the orbital venous sinus. The sera were separated and used for determining of IgG and IgM and the stomach, liver and kidney homogenates for estimation of MDA, GSH level, SOD and CAT activity as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidative stress. Results and discussion: The obtained results revealed that, acrylamide caused significant increases in MDA and decrease of GSH level, SOD and CAT activity due to the oxidative stress induced by acrylamide on membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat’s stomach, liver and kidney while administration of CPF aqueous extract, was significantly ameliorated the increased levels of MDA and decline of GSH, SOD and CAT activity in the stomach, liver and kidney tissues caused by acrylamide toxicity. Meanwhile, CPF aqueous extract significantly increased immune functions (IgG and IgM) while acrylamide significantly decrease it specially IgG. Thus, this study suggests that acrylamide-induced oxidative stress in rats can be ameliorated by administration of CPF aqueous extract. PMID:23322975

  15. Air touch: new feeling touch-panel interface you don't need to touch using audio input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Morimoto, Hiroyuki

    2008-03-01

    A touch-panel is display overlays which have the ability to display and receive information on the same screen. The advantage of this touch screen is that it is easy for all users to operate intuitively. In addition, a touch-panel interface is utilizable for multi-users. However a conventional system cannot provide us with direct touching in the air because the touching point differs from the actual displaying space. The reason is that a conventional touch-panel system detects the user's operation on the display screen. In the virtual 3D space, it is important to realize that the user can operate at the same space. The authors developed a prototype virtual air touch interface system for interaction in the virtual 3D space. In this paper, we propose the interface system using a theremin which is a musical instrument having the unusual aspect of being controlled by the performer's hand motions near the antennas.

  16. A multi-touch interface circuit for a large-sized capacitive touch panel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan-Yao Ruan; Paul C.-P. Chao; Wei-Par Chen

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a multi-touch sensing circuit for large-sized (more than 12 inches) capacitive touch panel. A new AC sensing technique is developed to enable the touch sensing in a large-sized capacitive touch panel. This novel designs of multi-touch sensing circuit lies in the operation principles through a 4X4 ITO film sensor array, a low-disturbance array circuit, a capacitance to

  17. Touch-panel interface system which can recognize who touched the screen and where was pointed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Fukuda; K. Sakamoto

    2008-01-01

    A touch-panel is useful for a computer interface. The touch-panel is display overlays which have the ability to display and receive information on the same screen. The advantage of this touch screen is that it is easy for all users to operate intuitively. In addition, a touch-panel interface is utilizable for multi-users. However a conventional system cannot recognize who touch

  18. An evaluation of street-vended sliced papaya ( Carica papaya) for bacteria and indicator micro-organisms of public health significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Mukhopadhyay; A. Mitra; R. Roy; A. K. Guha

    2002-01-01

    Thirty samples of ripe papaya (Carica papaya) slices, collected in Calcutta from the itinerant roadside vendors were collected over a 3-month period. The papaya were tested for total aerobic plate count (TPC), coliform and fecal coliform counts, and various foodborne pathogens. TPCs ranged from 3·3 to 6·52 log cfu g?1 (average=5·96 log cfu g?1). Eleven samples had counts >6 log

  19. Antihyperglycaemic effects of ethanol extracts of Carica papaya and Pandanus amaryfollius leaf in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Sumathi, Vello; Jegathambigai, Naidu Rameshwar; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga

    2011-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a global disease that is increasing in an alarming rate. The present study was undertaken to study the antidiabetic effect of the ethanol extracts of Carica papaya and Pandanus amaryfollius on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. The results of the present study indicated that there was no significant difference in the body weight of the treated groups when compared to diabetic control. Whereas, there was significant (P?decrease in the blood glucose level of the plant-treated groups compared to the diabetic control. Histologically the pancreas of the treated groups indicated significant regeneration of the ?-cells when compared to the diabetic control. The liver tissues of the treated group indicated a reduction in fatty changes and pyknotic nucleus. The kidney tissues of the treated groups indicated significant recovery in the cuboidal tissue. The results from the phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponin and tannin in C. papaya and P. amaryfollius. The antidiabetic effect of C. papaya and P. amaryfollius observed in the present study may be due to the presence of these phytochemicals. PMID:21707251

  20. Purification of a thermostable alkaline laccase from papaya (Carica papaya) using affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Nivedita; Pandey, Veda P; Dwivedi, Upendra N

    2015-01-01

    A laccase from papaya leaves was purified to homogeneity by a two step procedure namely, heat treatment (at 70 °C) and Con-A affinity chromatography. The procedure resulted in 1386.7-fold purification of laccase with a specific activity of 41.3 units mg(-1) and an overall yield of 61.5%. The native purified laccase was found to be a hexameric protein of ? 260 kDa. The purified enzyme exhibited acidic and alkaline pH optima of 6.0 and 8.0 with the non-phenolic substrate (ABTS) and phenolic substrate (catechol), respectively. The purified laccase was found to be thermostable up to 70 °C such that it retained ? 80% activity upon 30 min incubation at 70 °C. The Arrhenius energy of activation for purified laccase was found to be 7.7 kJ mol(-1). The enzyme oxidized various phenolic and non-phenolic substrates having catalytic efficiency (K(cat)/K(m)) in the order of 7.25>0.67>0.27 mM(-1) min(-1) for ABTS, catechol and hydroquinone, respectively. The purified laccase was found to be activated by Mn(2+), Cd(2+), Ca(2+), Na(+), Fe(2+), Co(2+) and Cu(2+) while weakly inhibited by Hg(2+). The properties such as thermostability, alkaline pH optima and metal tolerance exhibited by the papaya laccase make it a promising candidate enzyme for industrial exploitation. PMID:25192855

  1. Odour-active compounds in papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol.

    PubMed

    Pino, Jorge A

    2014-03-01

    Application of solid-phase microextraction and simultaneous distillation-extraction combined with GC-FID, GC-MS, aroma extract dilution analysis, and odour activity value were used to analyse volatile compounds from papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol and to estimate the most odour-active compounds. The analyses led to the identification of 137 compounds; 118 of them were positively identified. Twenty-five odorants were considered as odour-active compounds and contribute to the typical papaya aroma, from which ethyl butanoate, benzyl isothiocyanate, 1-hexen-3-one, (E)-?-ionone, and methyl benzoate were the most odour-active compounds. PMID:24176322

  2. How Does a Touch Sensor Work?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students learn about how touch sensors work, while reinforcing their similarities to the human sense of touch. They look at human senses and their electronic imitators, with special focus on the nervous system, skin and touch sensors. A PowerPoint® presentation explains stimulus-to-response pathways, how touch sensors are made and work, and then gives students a chance to handle and get familiar with the LEGO touch sensor, including programming LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robots to use touch sensor input to play music. Students take pre/post quizzes and watch a short online video. The mini-activities prepare students for the associated activity. This lesson and its associated activity enables students to appreciate how robots can take input from sensors, and use that to make decisions to move.

  3. Enabling tangible interaction on capacitive touch panels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neng-Hao Yu; Li-Wei Chan; Lung-Pan Cheng; Mike Y. Chen; Yi-Ping Hung

    2010-01-01

    We propose two approaches to sense tangible objects on capacitive touch screens, which are used in off-the-shelf multi-touch devices such as Apple iPad, iPhone, and 3M's multi-touch displays. We seek for the approaches that do not require modifications to the panels: spatial tag and frequency tag. Spatial tag is similar to fiducial tag used by tangible tabletop surface interaction, and

  4. The effect of expressive physical touch on patients with dementia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J Kim; M. T Buschmann

    1999-01-01

    This study explored the effect of expressive physical touch with verbalization (EPT\\/V) on anxiety and dysfunctional behavior in patients with dementia using a one group repeated measures design. The study findings are that (1) anxiety is lower immediately following EPT\\/V and (2) EPT\\/V causes decreasing episodes of dysfunctional behavior. Therefore, it behooves caregivers and family members to use expressive physical

  5. Papaya fruit quality management during the postharvest supply chain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papayas are popular in tropical and subtropical regions and are being exported in large volumes to Europe, the U.S. and Japan. The fruit has excellent taste, exotic flavor and nutritional properties, being rich in vitamins A, C, and antioxidants. However, due to its highly perishable nature it has n...

  6. 75 FR 22207 - Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ...include requirements for field sanitation, hot water treatment, and fruit fly trapping...fruit fly trapping, field sanitation, and hot water treatment be employed to remove pests...require the treatment of papayas with a hot water dip. The dip requires that...

  7. Papaya Varietal Resistance to Internal Yellowing: Reducing Food Safety Risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal yellowing (IY) is a bacterial disease of ripening papaya fruit that is caused by the enteric bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae. The disease is characterized by yellow discoloration of flesh, tissue softening and a foul or rotten odor that reduces the quality of fresh fruit and value-added pr...

  8. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract

    PubMed Central

    Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1?mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

  9. DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF PAPAYA PROTEIN PROFILE USING PROTEOMIC TOOLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of our project is to evaluate the potential for using proteomic approaches to discover the basis for differential susceptibility of Hawaii papaya cultivars to the root rot pathogen Phytophthora palmivora. Based on previous studies showing that Kapoho was the most resistance cultivar an...

  10. Genetic diversity of papaya ring spot virus in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that 20-40% of crop yield is lost due to pests and diseases. Viruses are agents that cause diseases which contribute greatly to the global yield loss. Because of this, food production is negatively affected, especially in the tropics. Carica papaya, co...

  11. Development of a Gene-Centered SSR Atlas as a Resource for Papaya (Carica papaya) Marker-Assisted Selection and Population Genetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Newton Medeiros; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Ramos, Helaine Christine Cancela; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Venancio, Thiago Motta

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) is an economically important tropical fruit. Molecular marker-assisted selection is an inexpensive and reliable tool that has been widely used to improve fruit quality traits and resistance against diseases. In the present study we report the development and validation of an atlas of papaya simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We integrated gene predictions and functional annotations to provide a gene-centered perspective for marker-assisted selection studies. Our atlas comprises 160,318 SSRs, from which 21,231 were located in genic regions (i.e. inside exons, exon-intron junctions or introns). A total of 116,453 (72.6%) of all identified repeats were successfully mapped to one of the nine papaya linkage groups. Primer pairs were designed for markers from 9,594 genes (34.5% of the papaya gene complement). Using papaya-tomato orthology assessments, we assembled a list of 300 genes (comprising 785 SSRs) potentially involved in fruit ripening. We validated our atlas by screening 73 SSR markers (including 25 fruit ripening genes), achieving 100% amplification rate and uncovering 26% polymorphism rate between the parental genotypes (Sekati and JS12). The SSR atlas presented here is the first comprehensive gene-centered collection of annotated and genome positioned papaya SSRs. These features combined with thousands of high-quality primer pairs make the atlas an important resource for the papaya research community. PMID:25393538

  12. Light touch modulates balance recovery following perturbation: from fast response to stance restabilization.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Alessandra Rezende; Coelho, Daniel Boari; Magalhães, Fernando Henrique; Kohn, André Fabio; Teixeira, Luis Augusto

    2015-05-01

    Light fingertip touch of a static bar generates extra somatosensory information used by the postural control system to reduce body sway. While the effect of light touch has been studied in quiet stance, less attention has been given to its potential benefit for reactive postural responses. In the present study, we tested the effect of light fingertip touch of a stable surface on recovery of postural stability from a mechanical perturbation. Participants stood upright on a force plate touching a static rigid bar while being pulled backward by a load. Unpredictable release of the load induced fast anterior body sway, requiring a reactive response to recover balance. Effect of light touch on postural responses was assessed as a function of vision and malleability of the support surface, analyzing different epochs ranging from the pre-perturbation period to recovery of a relatively stable quiet stance. Results showed that light touch induced lower magnitude of muscular activation in all epochs. Center of pressure (CoP) displacement/sway was affected by interaction of light touch with manipulation of the other sensory information. For the periods associated with quiet stance, light touch led to decreased CoP sway in the malleable surface in the pre-perturbation epoch, and in the condition combining no vision and malleable surface in the balance restabilization and follow-up quiet stance epochs. For the fast reactive response epoch, light touch induced smaller amplitude of CoP displacement across conditions, and lower CoP maximum velocity in the condition combining no vision and rigid surface. These results showed that light touch modulates postural responses in all epochs associated with an unanticipated mechanical perturbation, with a more noticeable effect in conditions manipulating sensory information relevant for balance control. PMID:25644655

  13. TouchLogger: Inferring Keystrokes On Touch Screen From Smartphone Motion

    E-print Network

    Chen, Hao

    to be installed on the victim smartphone. Given the increasing number of malware applications on the smartphoneTouchLogger: Inferring Keystrokes On Touch Screen From Smartphone Motion Abstract Attacks that use are ineffective on smartphones without physi- cal keyboards. We describe a new side channel, motion, on touch

  14. ""Test Before TouchTest Before Touch"" Easier Said Than DoneEasier Said Than Done

    E-print Network

    ""Test Before TouchTest Before Touch"" Easier Said Than DoneEasier Said Than Done Ken Crawford, DuPontKen Crawford, DuPont Kent Haggerty, DupontKent Haggerty, Dupont #12;OverviewOverview · Test Before Touch (TBT Voltage Testing · Summary & Conclusions #12;#12;How Would You Verify Power is Off?How Would You Verify

  15. Towards Simulating Push Button Behavior on Touch Surfaces

    E-print Network

    with physical objects, do not exist on touch-based surfaces. On common touch screens, touching is equivalentTowards Simulating Push Button Behavior on Touch Surfaces Abstract Mechanical push buttons provide characteristics to touch based digital interfaces entails complex and costly technology for force sensing

  16. Structural characterization of two papaya chitinases, a family GH19 of glycosyl hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Huet, J; Wyckmans, J; Wintjens, R; Boussard, P; Raussens, V; Vandenbussche, G; Ruysschaert, J M; Azarkan, M; Looze, Y

    2006-12-01

    Two chitinases, able to use tetra-N-acetylglucosamine, chitin and chitosan as substrates, were characterized after purification from Carica papaya latex. The complete amino acid sequence of the major form and about 40% of the minor one were determined through proteolytic digestions and mass spectroscopy analysis. Sequencing demonstrated that both papaya chitinases are members of the family 19 of glycosyl hydrolases (GH19). Based on the known 3-D structures of other members of family GH19, it was expected that papaya chitinases would adopt all-alpha structures. However, circular dichroism and infrared spectroscopy indicated, for the papaya chitinases, a content of 15-20% of extended structures besides the expected 40% of alpha helices. Since the fully sequenced papaya chitinase contains a large number of proline residues the possibility that papaya chitinase contains polyproline II stretches was examined in the context of their resistance against proteolytic degradation. PMID:17115118

  17. Purification and characterization of a papaya (Carica papaya L.) pectin methylesterase isolated from a commercial papain preparation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We purified a single stable pectin methylesterase (CpL-PME; EC 3.1.1.11) from a commercial papain preparation, which is isolated from Carica papaya (L.) fruit latex. This CpL-PME was separated from the abundant cysteine endopeptidases activities using sequential hydrophobic interaction and cation-ex...

  18. An Economical Touch Panel Using SAW Absorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Adler; Peter J. Desmares

    1987-01-01

    the waveform corresponding to a specific vertical path across the panel. A finger touch causes an amplitude dip whose timing and depth indicate location and finger pressure. To obtain constant signal amplitude in the absence of touch, the arrays require weighting, with reflectivity increasing strongly from the transducer ends to the far ends. Weighting equations are derived for the cases

  19. Quick Use Guide Workcentre 5655 Touch Screen

    E-print Network

    Petriu, Emil M.

    Panel (Touch Screen/User Interface) Document Feeder Door Tray 2 Bypass Tray Tray 4 Offset Catch TrayQuick Use Guide Workcentre 5655 Touch Screen Displays and selects all of the available programming right). 2. Access the Basic Copy Screen ­ If necessary select the [Features] button on the control panel

  20. Touch panel system for control applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Crook; R. Johnson

    1976-01-01

    The use of finger-sensitive touch panels in association with computer-generated displays for control and monitoring of the Stanford linear accelerator is discussed. This control concept has proven to be very effective. The hardware and software aspects of the Touch Panel portion of the control system are described.

  1. The electroquasistatics of the capacitive touch panel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. T. Krein; R. D. Meadows

    1990-01-01

    The capacitive touch panel, a high-resolution position sensor intended for computer displays, must be safe and inexpensive and must sense position accurately in spite of electrical noise, dirt, or direct electrostatic discharge. The implementation discussed uses a quasi-static electric field, applied to a semiconducting coating on the panel surface. A touch draws current from the surface. This current can be

  2. SLAC Touch Panel Model 4 (Engineering Materials)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Construction information is provided for the SLAC touch panel Model 4. This device, when properly connected to a computer with a program can be used to control various devices remotely. The panel only requires a touch at the proper spot to operate a given control or device as indicated by the figures or outlines. (GHT)

  3. Touch increases autonomic coupling between romantic partners.

    PubMed

    Chatel-Goldman, Jonas; Congedo, Marco; Jutten, Christian; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration). Fourteen couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy. PMID:24734009

  4. Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

  5. The Place of Touch in the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perricone, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, I argue that although philosophers of art have legitimately examined and emphasized the role of sight and hearing in respect to art appreciation, for the most part they have neglected the role of touch. I develop the idea that while sight and hearing form the melody line of art appreciation, touch is its bass line, one that is…

  6. WHEN WORDS ARE USED TO TOUCH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilany Kogan

    2003-01-01

    This article deals with the topic of physical contact versus affect in the analytic situation. In the 1st section, the topic of touch is examined from the historical, as well as contemporary, perspective. The author raises the hypothesis that direct emotional contact made through the use of a verbal interaction can be experienced as physical touch in the analytic situation.

  7. Analysis on virus resistance and fruit quality for T4 generation of transgenic papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangdong Wei; Congyu Lan; Zhijing Lu; Changming Ye

    2007-01-01

    Molecular biological characterization, fruit characters, and nutrients were analyzed for T4 generation of transgenic papaya.\\u000a All transgenic papaya plants with the mutated replicase (RP) gene from papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) showed high resistance\\u000a or immunity against PRSV in the field. The RP transgene can be steadily inherited to, and expressed at RNA level, the progenies.\\u000a The growth characteristics of transgenic

  8. Cloning and expression analysis of phytoene desaturase and ?-carotene desaturase genes in Carica papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Yan; X. Z. Gao; W. T. Shen; P. Zhou

    2011-01-01

    The fruit flesh color of papaya is an important nutritional quality trait and is due to the accumulation of carotenoid. To\\u000a elucidate the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in Carica papaya, the phytoene desaturase (PDS) and the ?-carotene desaturase (ZDS) genes were isolated from papaya (named CpPDS and CpZDS) using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approach, and their expression levels

  9. The Sensory Neurons of Touch

    PubMed Central

    Abraira, Victoria E.; Ginty, David D.

    2013-01-01

    The somatosensory system decodes a wide range of tactile stimuli and thus endows us with a remarkable capacity for object recognition, texture discrimination, sensory-motor feedback and social exchange. The first step leading to perception of innocuous touch is activation of cutaneous sensory neurons called low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs). Here, we review the properties and functions of LTMRs, emphasizing the unique tuning properties of LTMR subtypes and the organizational logic of their peripheral and central axonal projections. We discuss the spinal cord neurophysiological representation of complex mechanical forces acting upon the skin and current views of how tactile information is processed and conveyed from the spinal cord to the brain. An integrative model in which ensembles of impulses arising from physiologically distinct LTMRs are integrated and processed in somatotopically aligned mechanosensory columns of the spinal cord dorsal horn underlies the nervous system’s enormous capacity for perceiving the richness of the tactile world. PMID:23972592

  10. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Papaya ringspot virus.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Yang, Yong; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2014-08-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), which causes disease symptoms similar to PRSV, threaten commercial production of both non-transgenic-papaya and PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in China. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay to detect PLDMV was developed previously. In this study, the development of another RT-LAMP assay to distinguish among transgenic, PRSV-infected and PLDMV-infected papaya by detection of PRSV is reported. A set of four RT-LAMP primers was designed based on the highly conserved region of the P3 gene of PRSV. The RT-LAMP method was specific and sensitive in detecting PRSV, with a detection limit of 1.15×10(-6)?g of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR. Field application of the RT-LAMP assay demonstrated that samples positive for PRSV were detected only in non-transgenic papaya, whereas samples positive for PLDMV were detected only in commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya. This suggests that PRSV remains the major limiting factor for non-transgenic-papaya production, and the emergence of PLDMV threatens the commercial transgenic cultivar in China. However, this study, combined with the earlier development of an RT-LAMP assay for PLDMV, will provide a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective diagnostic power to distinguish virus infections in papaya. PMID:24769198

  11. Frictional Widgets: Enhancing Touch Interfaces with Programmable Friction

    E-print Network

    Levesque, Vincent

    Frictional Widgets: Enhancing Touch Interfaces with Programmable Friction Abstract Touch the design possibilities offered by augmenting touchscreens with programmable surface friction. Four exemplar of touch interactions can be enhanced when using a touchscreen with dynamically varied surface friction. We

  12. Reduced Pleasant Touch Appraisal in the Presence of a Disgusting Odor

    PubMed Central

    Croy, Ilona; Angelo, Silvia D'; Olausson, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Odors are powerful emotional stimuli influencing mood, attention and behavior. Here we examined if odors change the perception of pleasant touch. In line with the warning function of the olfactory system, we proposed that especially unpleasant odors will reduce touch pleasantness, presumably through a disgust-related mechanism. Methods Forty-five healthy participants (mean age 23.3 +/? 3years SD, 24 females) were presented to slow (3 cm/s) and fast (30 cm/s) brush stroking delivered by a robot to the forearm. Touch pleasantness under the influence of an unpleasant odor (Civette, smelling like feces) and an intensity matched pleasant odor (Rose) was compared to an odorless control condition. In a pilot study with 30 participants (mean age 25.9 +/?6 years, 21 females), the odors were matched according to their intensity, and we studied the influence of disgust sensitivity on the perception of 4 different odor qualities. Results The unpleasant odor decreased touch pleasantness for both stroking velocities compared to the odorless control (p<0.005) whereas the rose odor did not change touch pleasantness significantly. Disgust sensitivity was correlated with the modulation of touch pleasantness. The pilot study revealed a significant correlation between disgust sensitivity and the perception of the unpleasant odor qualities (r?=??0.56; p?=?0.007), but not with any of the other odors. Conclusion Unpleasant odors are powerful in modulating touch pleasantness, and disgust might be a moderating variable. PMID:24664177

  13. The development of maternal touch across the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Ferber, Sari Goldstein; Feldman, Ruth; Makhoul, Imad R

    2008-06-01

    The developmental trajectories of specific forms of maternal touch during natural caregiving were examined across the first year in relation to the development of mother-infant reciprocal communication. One hundred and thirty-one mothers and infants in four groups aged 3, 6, 9, and 12 months were observed in a cross-sectional design at home during natural caregiving and mother-child play sessions. Microanalytic coding of the caregiving sessions considered nine forms of maternal touch, which were aggregated into three global touch categories: affectionate, stimulating, and instrumental. Play sessions were coded for maternal sensitivity and dyadic reciprocity. Maternal affectionate and stimulating touch decreased significantly during the second 6 months of life. In parallel, dyadic reciprocity increased in the second half year. Dyadic reciprocity was predicted by the frequency of affectionate touch but not by any other form of touch. Results contribute to specifying the role of touch as it evolves across the first year of life within the global mother-infant communication system. PMID:17988808

  14. Plastic optical touch panels for large-scale flexible display.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Beom-Jun; Kim, Jun-Whee; Oh, Min-Cheol

    2013-02-25

    A plastic optical touch panel applicable for large-scale flexible display is demonstrated based on a vertical directional coupling between arrayed channel waveguides and a flexible planar waveguide. When a contact force is applied to the surface, the flexible planar waveguide is bent toward the channel waveguide, and then, the guided mode in the channel waveguide is coupled into the flexible planar waveguide, causing an output power drop. An index-matching liquid is used to fill the gap between the channel and the flexible planar waveguide in order to enhance the transparency of the waveguide touch panel. By applying a force of 1.0 N, the output intensity is decreased by 17 dB, which is sufficiently large for producing a contact signal. PMID:23482006

  15. Enantioselective esterification of (R,S)-2-methylalkanoic acid with Carica papaya lipase in organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Sheng; Ho, Ssu-Ching

    2011-11-01

    Isooctane was the best reaction medium for the enantioselective esterification of (R,S)-2-methylalkanoic acid with n-butanol using Carica papaya lipase as catalyst. Increasing linear alkyl-chain length of racemic 2-methylalkanoic acids from ethyl to hexyl increased the enantioselectivity (E) from 2.1 to 98.2 for the esterification of racemic 2-methylalkanoic acids with n-butanol at 35°C. Decreasing reaction temperature from 40 to 20°C increased the enantioselectivity (E) from 14 to 33 for the esterification of racemic 2-methylhexanoic acids with n-butanol. We obtained a maximum enantioselectivity, of E = 24.3, for the enantioselective esterification of racemic 2-methylhexanoic acids with n-butanol in isooctane at water activity 0.33, and at 35°C. PMID:21744274

  16. Brain mechanisms for processing affective touch.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Ilanit; Voos, Avery C; Bennett, Randi H; Bolling, Danielle Z; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Kaiser, Martha D

    2013-04-01

    Despite the crucial role of touch in social development, there is very little functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research on brain mechanisms underlying social touch processing. The "skin as a social organ" hypothesis is supported by the discovery of C-tactile (CT) nerves that are present in hairy skin and project to the insular cortex. CT-fibers respond specifically well to slow, gentle touch such as that which occurs during close social interactions. Given the social significance of such touch researchers have proposed that the CT-system represents an evolutionarily conserved mechanism important for normative social development. However, it is currently unknown whether brain regions other than the insula are involved in processing CT-targeted touch. In the current fMRI study, we sought to characterize the brain regions involved in the perception of CT-supported affective touch. Twenty-two healthy adults received manual brush strokes to either the arm or palm. A direct contrast of the blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) response to gentle brushing of the arm and palm revealed the involvement of a network of brain regions, in addition to the posterior insula, during CT-targeted affective touch to the arm. This network included areas known to be involved in social perception and social cognition, including the right posterior superior temporal sulcus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)/dorso anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Connectivity analyses with an mPFC/dACC seed revealed coactivation with the left insula and amygdala during arm touch. These findings characterize a network of brain regions beyond the insula involved in coding CT-targeted affective touch. PMID:22125232

  17. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the requirement of...

  18. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the requirement of...

  19. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the requirement of...

  20. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the requirement of...

  1. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the requirement of...

  2. Effects of chitosan and plant extracts on growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, anthracnose levels and quality of papaya fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bautista-Baños; M. Hernández-López; E. Bosquez-Molina; C. L. Wilson

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate the in vitro fungicidal effect of chitosan and aqueous extracts of custard apple leaves, papaya leaves and papaya seeds, and the combination of chitosan and plant extracts on the development of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, which causes anthracnose on papaya. Chitosan at 2.0% and 3.0% had a fungicidal effect on C. gloeosporioides. Extracts alone

  3. 76 FR 49725 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia into the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ...Authorize the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia into the Continental United...continental United States of fresh papaya fruit from Malaysia. Based on the findings of...weeds via the importation of fresh papaya fruit from Malaysia. DATES: Effective...

  4. ANALYSIS OF PAPAYA BAC END SEQUENCES REVEALS FIRST INSIGHTS INTO THE ORGANIZATION OF A TREE-FRUIT GENOME

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a major tree fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions with an estimated genome size of 372 Mbp. Here we present the sequence analysis of 4.7% of the papaya genome based on 50,661 BAC end sequences (BESs) representing 17,483,563 high quality bases generated from 26,...

  5. Determining sex and screening for the adventitious presence of transgenic material in Carica papaya L. seed germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) is a devastating disease that has a detrimental impact on both commercial papaya production and Caricaceae germplasm conservation. The PRSV coat protein transgenic line 55-1 and derived progeny are resistant to PRSV and have saved the papaya industry in Hawaii. However,...

  6. ANALYSIS OF PAPAYA BAC END SEQUENCES REVEALS FIRST INSIGHTS INTO THE ORGANIZATION OF A FRUIT TREE GENOME

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a major tree fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions with an estimated genome size of 372 Mbp. We present the analysis of 4.7% of the papaya genome based on BAC end sequences (BESs) representing 17 million high quality bases. Microsatellites discovered in 5,452 BE...

  7. Touch activates human auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Schürmann, Martin; Caetano, Gina; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Jousmäki, Veikko; Hari, Riitta

    2006-05-01

    Vibrotactile stimuli can facilitate hearing, both in hearing-impaired and in normally hearing people. Accordingly, the sounds of hands exploring a surface contribute to the explorer's haptic percepts. As a possible brain basis of such phenomena, functional brain imaging has identified activations specific to audiotactile interaction in secondary somatosensory cortex, auditory belt area, and posterior parietal cortex, depending on the quality and relative salience of the stimuli. We studied 13 subjects with non-invasive functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to search for auditory brain areas that would be activated by touch. Vibration bursts of 200 Hz were delivered to the subjects' fingers and palm and tactile pressure pulses to their fingertips. Noise bursts served to identify auditory cortex. Vibrotactile-auditory co-activation, addressed with minimal smoothing to obtain a conservative estimate, was found in an 85-mm3 region in the posterior auditory belt area. This co-activation could be related to facilitated hearing at the behavioral level, reflecting the analysis of sound-like temporal patterns in vibration. However, even tactile pulses (without any vibration) activated parts of the posterior auditory belt area, which therefore might subserve processing of audiotactile events that arise during dynamic contact between hands and environment. PMID:16488157

  8. Sensitivity of a real-time PCR method for the detection of transgenes in a mixture of transgenic and non-transgenic seeds of papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetically engineered (GE) ringspot virus-resistant papaya cultivars ‘Rainbow’ and ‘SunUp’ have been grown in Hawai’i for over 10 years. In Hawai’i, the introduction of GE papayas into regions where non-GE cultivars are grown and where feral non-GE papayas exist have been accompanied with concerns associated with transgene flow. Of particular concern is the possibility of transgenic seeds being found in non-GE papaya fruits via cross-pollination. Development of high-throughput methods to reliably detect the adventitious presence of such transgenic material would benefit both the scientific and regulatory communities. Results We assessed the accuracy of using conventional qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as well as real-time PCR-based assays to quantify the presence of transgenic DNA from bulk samples of non-GE papaya seeds. In this study, an optimized method of extracting high quality DNA from dry seeds of papaya was standardized. A reliable, sensitive real-time PCR method for detecting and quantifying viral coat protein (cp) transgenes in bulk seed samples utilizing the endogenous papain gene is presented. Quantification range was from 0.01 to 100 ng/?l of GE-papaya DNA template with a detection limit as low as 0.01% (10 pg). To test this system, we simulated transgene flow using known quantities of GE and non-GE DNA and determined that 0.038% (38 pg) GE papaya DNA could be detected using real-time PCR. We also validated this system by extracting DNA from known ratios of GE seeds to non-GE seeds of papaya followed by real-time PCR detection and observed a reliable detection limit of 0.4%. Conclusions This method for the quick and sensitive detection of transgenes in bulked papaya seed lots using conventional as well as real-time PCR-based methods will benefit numerous stakeholders. In particular, this method could be utilized to screen selected fruits from maternal non-GE papaya trees in Hawai’i for the presence of transgenic seed at typical regulatory threshold levels. Incorporation of subtle differences in primers and probes for variations in cp worldwide should allow this method to be utilized elsewhere when and if deregulation of transgenic papaya occurs. PMID:24004548

  9. Carica papaya lipase-catalyzed synthesis of terpene esters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pengyong You; Erzheng Su; Xuepeng Yang; Duobin Mao; Dongzhi Wei

    2011-01-01

    An efficient approach to synthesize terpene esters using plant lipase-Carica papaya lipase (CPL) as the biocatalyst was developed in this work. The effects of chain length of acyl donor and solvent type on the CPL-catalyzed transesterification reaction were investigated firstly. It was found that CPL showed the highest activity in n-hexane with vinyl octanoate as the best acyl donor. To

  10. A cuttable multi-touch sensor

    E-print Network

    Olberding, Simon

    We propose cutting as a novel paradigm for ad-hoc customization of printed electronic components. As a first instantiation, we contribute a printed capacitive multi-touch sensor, which can be cut by the end-user to modify ...

  11. 110 Plant Protection Quarterly Vol.19(3) 2004 The papaya mealybug (PM), Paracoc-

    E-print Network

    Reddy, Gadi VP

    2002 and was causing serious damage to papaya, Plumeria spp., Hibiscus spp. and other plants such as Annona squamosa, Carica papaya, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Ipomoea spp., Manihot esculenta and Solanum in Plumeria spp. (Apocynaceae) plants. On Hibiscus spp. (Malvaceae) the tender shoots covered by mealybugs

  12. DEVELOPMENT, REPRODUCTION, AND SURVIVAL OF PAPAYA MEALYBUG (HOMOPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE) ON DIFFERENT HOST PLANT SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus @illiams and Granara de Willink (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae)) is a polyghagus insect and a pest of various tropical crops and ornamentals. It was introduced into the United States in 1998 in Florida. Papaya mealybug potentially poses a threat to numerous agricul...

  13. TISSUE DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF LYCOPENE BETA-CYCLASE GENE IN PAPAYA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To elucidate the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in papaya, we took a candidate gene approach to clone the lycopene beta-cyclase genes, LCY-B. A papaya LCY-B ortholog, cpLCY-B, was successfully identified from both cDNA and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries and complete genomic sequenc...

  14. Effect of papaya trunk angle on infestation by white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two papaya (Carica papaya L.) seedlings growing in one planting hole often results in angular or non-vertical growth of the trees. Data on trunk angularity, or leaning, (deviation from the vertical line of reference) and white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni-Tozzetti (Hemiptera: Dias...

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Erwinia mallotivora BT-MARDI, Causative Agent of Papaya Dieback Disease

    PubMed Central

    Abu Bakar, N.; Rozano, L.; Badrun, R.; Mat Amin, N.; Mohd Raih, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya trees infected with dieback disease, which were planted at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Malaysia. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of E. mallotivora BT-MARDI, which offers an important source of information for understanding pathogen and host interaction during papaya dieback development. PMID:24812220

  16. The Papaya Y Chromosome Evolved Recently and Shows Gene Paucity and DNA Sequence Expansion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex chromosomes in flowering plants, in contrast to those in animals, evolved relatively recently and only a few are heteromorphic. At cytological level, the sex chromosomes of papaya appear homomorphic, nevertheless, we are finding the papaya Y chromosome shows features of incipient sex chromosome ...

  17. Atypical internal yellowing of papaya fruit in Hawaii caused by Enterobacter sakazakii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal yellowing (IY), characterized by yellow discolored tissue around the papaya (Carica papaya) seed cavity, diffuse margins and the presence of a distinctly rotten odor, was first reported in 1987. These symptoms were associated with the causal agent Enterobacter cloacae. Here we report the fo...

  18. DEVELOPING TRANSGENIC PAPAYA TO IMPROVE BROAD DISEASE RESISTANCE AGAINST FUNGAL PATHOGENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.), one of the more important fruit crops of the tropics, has limited resistance to a range of fungal pathogens that may kill the plants or, at a minimum, reduce productivity and quality of the fruit. Phytoalexins have been shown to be important natural components in the defe...

  19. IRRADIATION-DERIVED SEX REVERSAL MUTANTS FOR CLONING SEX DETERMINATION GENES IN PAPAYA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unlike most animals, most flowering plants are hermaphrodites possessing both male and female organs. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the few plant species that produce male, female, and hermaphrodite flowers on separate individuals. These variations have distinctive morphologies and sexual func...

  20. Cloning Of Organ-Specific Genes from Papaya Using cDNA-AFLP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya is a fast growing and productive fruit crop in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Papaya industry has benefited from application of molecular biology and biotechnology for crop improvement, particularly for viral disease resistance using transgenic varieties. The goal of this researc...

  1. METHYL JASMONATE REDUCES DECAY AND MAINTAINS POSTHARVEST QUALITY OF PAPAYA 'SUNRISE'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure of papaya (Carica papaya L., cv. Sunrise) fruit to methyl jasmonate (MJ) vapors (ten to the -5 or ten to the -4 M) for 16 h at 20 degrees C inhibited fungal decay and reduced chilling injury development and loss of firmness during storage for 14-32 days at 10 degrees C and shelf life (4 day...

  2. Bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus plantarum ST16Pa isolated from papaya ( Carica papaya) — From isolation to application: Characterization of a bacteriocin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svetoslav D. Todorov; Hervé Prévost; Martine Lebois; Xavier Dousset; Jean Guy LeBlanc; Bernadette D. G. M. Franco

    2011-01-01

    Strain ST16PA, isolated from papaya was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum based on biochemical tests, PCR with species-specific primers and 16S rDNA sequencing. L. plantarum ST16PA produces a 6.5kDa bacteriocin, active against different species from genera Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus and different serotypes of Listeria spp. The peptide is inactivated by proteolytic enzymes, but not when treated with

  3. Finger identification for touch panel operation using tapping fluctuation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yusuke Numabe; Hidetoshi Nonaka; Takeshi Yoshikawa

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, user interface for touch input on mobile devices with touch panels has spread. In general, each target on a touch panel is designed to be finger size or larger to avoid selection mistake, however, such design slows down complex tasks. This paper presents a finger identification method for touch panel operations. When a user taps with a

  4. AudioVisual Classroom Consoles(LARGE) AMX Touch panel

    E-print Network

    Peak, Derek

    AudioVisual Classroom Consoles(LARGE) AMX Touch panel Chapter 1: Start up console using console PC) 2. Touch AMX Panel to reveal access keypad. Touch number (please contact eMAP for code) then DONE of your computer screen. Make sure it is not muted and adjust the level with your mouse. 2. AMX TouchPanel

  5. Exploring Interpersonal Touch in Computer Games University of Calgary

    E-print Network

    Sharlin, Ehud

    Computer games, interpersonal touch. 1. INTRODUCTION Interpersonal touch ­ an act of physical contactExploring Interpersonal Touch in Computer Games Cody Watts University of Calgary 2500 University Edmonton, AB, Canada woytiuk@bioware.com ABSTRACT Acts of interpersonal touch are used by couples

  6. TUIC: Enabling Tangible Interaction on Capacitive Multi-touch Display

    E-print Network

    Huang, Polly

    with digital information by directly interacting with physical objects [11,12]. Multi-touch interface, anotherTUIC: Enabling Tangible Interaction on Capacitive Multi-touch Display Neng-Hao Yu3 , Li-Wei Chan3 tangible interaction on capacitive multi-touch devices, such as iPad, iPhone, and 3M's multi-touch displays

  7. Double-side Multi-touch Input for Mobile Devices

    E-print Network

    Chu, Hao-hua

    Touch Diamond phones, have replaced physical keyboards or keypads with an input by stylus or directDouble-side Multi-touch Input for Mobile Devices Abstract We present a new mobile interaction model, called double-side multi-touch, based on a mobile device that receives simultaneous multi-touch input

  8. Using critical points in contours for segmentation of touching characters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ventzislav Alexandrov

    2004-01-01

    In this paper is presented a new method for segmentation of touching characters using critical points in their contours. The touching regions are determined based on distribution of the critical points along the contours. Critical points which are candidates for touching places are selected based on geometrical and structural information. Segmentation is completed by cutting the touching character objects at

  9. "Touch Me, Like Me": Testing an Encounter Group Assumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boderman, Alvin; And Others

    1972-01-01

    An experiment to test an encounter group assumption that touching increases interpersonal attraction was conducted. College women were randomly assigned to a touch or no-touch condition. A comparison of total evaluation scores verified the hypothesis: subjects who touched the accomplice perceived her as a more attractive person than those who did…

  10. Physico-chemical and sensory quality of fresh cut papaya (Carica papaya) packaged in micro-perforated polyvinyl chloride containers.

    PubMed

    Jayathunge, K G L R; Gunawardhana, D K S N; Illeperuma, D C K; Chandrajith, U G; Thilakarathne, B M K S; Fernando, M D; Palipane, K B

    2014-12-01

    Papaya cubes at maturity stages, 5-45 % yellow (more green than yellow) and 55-80 % yellow (more yellow than green) were washed with 5 % H2O2, drained and packaged in PVC trays having five, seven and ten micro-perforations and stored for 19 days. PVC trays with 3 mm diameter punch holes were used as the control. Based on physico-chemical properties, optimum maturity for papaya and micro-perforation level of PVC trays were determined. Effectiveness of citric acid in prevention of browning was also tested. Firmness and TSS changed significantly, on day 19. O2, CO2 and C2H4 concentration changed 2.4 to 4.2 %, 23.4 to 5.9 %, and 0 to 0.13 % respectively, from day 3 to 19. pH and titratable acidity did not change significantly throughout the storage. Pretreated papaya cubes, packaged in PVC trays with ten micro-perforations, kept under 4 °C had storage lives of 19 days. PMID:25477661

  11. Genome sequence comparison reveals a candidate gene involved in male-hermaphrodite differentiation in papaya (Carica papaya) trees.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Hiroki; Urasaki, Naoya; Natsume, Satoshi; Yoshida, Kentaro; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Terauchi, Ryohei; Matsumura, Hideo

    2015-04-01

    The sex type of papaya (Carica papaya) is determined by the pair of sex chromosomes (XX, female; XY, male; and XY(h), hermaphrodite), in which there is a non-recombining genomic region in the Y and Y(h) chromosomes. This region is presumed to be involved in determination of males and hermaphrodites; it is designated as the male-specific region in the Y chromosome (MSY) and the hermaphrodite-specific region in the Y(h) chromosome (HSY). Here, we identified the genes determining male and hermaphrodite sex types by comparing MSY and HSY genomic sequences. In the MSY and HSY genomic regions, we identified 14,528 nucleotide substitutions and 965 short indels with a large gap and two highly diverged regions. In the predicted genes expressed in flower buds, we found no nucleotide differences leading to amino acid changes between the MSY and HSY. However, we found an HSY-specific transposon insertion in a gene (SVP like) showing a similarity to the Short Vegetative Phase (SVP) gene. Study of SVP-like transcripts revealed that the MSY allele encoded an intact protein, while the HSY allele encoded a truncated protein. Our findings demonstrated that the SVP-like gene is a candidate gene for male-hermaphrodite determination in papaya. PMID:25416421

  12. Investigation of "Thermal Touch" Response of Coated Steel Plates Employing Square-Wave-Excited Photothermal Infrared Radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Preethy; Rajesh, Ravindran; Xiong, Jichuan; Glorieux, Christ

    2012-11-01

    When a person is touching an object, which is at a different temperature than the person's body, heat starts to flow from the body to the object (or in the other direction), and as a result, the temperature of the skin starts to decrease (increase), leading to a cold (warm) perception of the object's temperature. It is well accepted that the degree of thermal impact of touching the free surface of a bulk material is determined by the thermal effusivity of that material. In this study, the more complicated situation of touching a coating covering a substrate with different thermal properties is studied. Insight in the involved heat transport effects and their effect on the thermal touch is gained by a photothermal model experiment in which the effect of touching on the measured surface temperature, and from there, the calculated heat flux is mimicked by the effect of illumination by laser light.

  13. Comparative reactions of recombinant papaya ringspot viruses with chimeric coat protein (CP) genes and wild-type viruses on CP-transgenic papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chu-Hui Chiang; Ju-Jung Wang; Fuh-Jyh Jan; Shyi-Dong Yeh; Dennis Gonsalves

    2001-01-01

    Transgenic papaya cultivars SunUp and Rainbow express the coat protein (CP) gene of the mild mutant of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) HA. Both cultivars are resistant to PRSV HA and other Hawaii isolates through homology-dependent resistance via post-transcriptional gene silencing. However, Rainbow, which is hemizygous for the CP gene, is susceptible to PRSV isolates from outside Hawaii, while the CP-homozygous

  14. Origami Simulator: a Multi-Touch We present a 3D origami simulator with multi-touch

    E-print Network

    Sun, Jing

    for the physical equivalent, for example shaping clay or folding paper. We investigate the use of a multi-touchOrigami Simulator: a Multi-Touch Experience Abstract We present a 3D origami simulator with multi-touch interaction. This is a preliminary exploration of manipulating 3D models with multi-touch. Following a user

  15. Automatic segmentation of overlapping and touching chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhiqiang; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Renli; Yu, Chang

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes a technique to segment overlapping and touching chromosomes of human metaphase cells. Automated chromosome classification has been an important pattern recognition problem for decades, numerous attempts were made in the past to characterize chromosome band patterns. But successful separation between touching and overlapping chromosomes is vital for correct classification. Since chromosomes are non-rigid objects, common methods for separation between touching chromosomes are not usable. We proposed a method using shape concave and convex information, topology analysis information, and band pale paths for segmentation of touching and overlapping chromosomes. To detect shape concave and convex information, we should first pre-segment the chromosomes and get the edge of overlapping and touching chromosomes. After filtering the original image using edge-preserving filter, we adopt the Otsu's segmentation method and extract the boundary of chromosomes. Hence the boundary can be used for segment the overlapping and touching chromosomes by detecting the concave and convex information based on boundary information. Most of the traditional boundary-based algorithms detect corners based on two steps: the first step is to acquire the smoothed version of curvature at every point along the contour, and the second step is to detect the positions where curvature maximal occur and threshold the curvature as corner points. Recently wavelet transform has been adopted into corner detection algorithms. Since the metaphase overlapping chromosomes has multi-scale corners, we adopt a multi-scale corner detection method based on Hua's method for corner detection. For touching chromosomes, it is convenient to split them using pale paths. Starting from concave corner points, a search algorithm is represented. The searching algorithm traces three pixels into the object in the direction of the normal vector in order to avoid stopping at the initial boundary until it reaches to another boundary or tracing route. For overlapping chromosomes, the searching algorithm fails. We proposed a topology information based method for analyzing overlapping and touching chromosomes. Mihail Popescu adopts Cross Section Sequence Graph (CSSG) method for shape analyzing. Gady Agam proposed Discrete Curvature Function for splitting touching and overlapping chromosomes. But due to the non-rigid property of chromosomes, it is hard to determine the actual topology structure of chromosomes. In this paper we proposed a new method to produce topology information of chromosomes and had got good results in chromosome segmentation.

  16. Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, M. T.; Carello, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this ‘information about’. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

  17. Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching.

    PubMed

    Turvey, M T; Carello, Claudia

    2011-11-12

    Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this 'information about'. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

  18. Multidimensional reaction to therapeutic touch in a hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Whitcher, S J; Fisher, J D

    1979-01-01

    A field experiment focused on some implication of interpersonal touch not explored in earlier research. Conceptually, the research included measuring the effects of touch over a relatively long time frame, for a broad range of response dimensions, and in a nonreactive setting characterized by dependency. On an applied level, the research studied the value of touch as a concomitant of nurse-patient interactions. Specifically, a 2 (touch vs. no touch) X 2 (male vs. female) between-subjects design assessed the effects of nurses touching patients, during preoperative teaching, on patient affective, evaluative, behavioral, and physiological responses. Results indicated that female subjects in the touch condition experienced more favorable affective, behavioral, and physiological reactions than a no-touch control group. In contrast, males in the touch condition reacted more negatively than control subjects on these dimensions. PMID:458550

  19. The gentle touch receptors of mammalian skin.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Amanda; Bai, Ling; Ginty, David D

    2014-11-21

    The skin is our largest sensory organ, transmitting pain, temperature, itch, and touch information to the central nervous system. Touch sensations are conveyed by distinct combinations of mechanosensory end organs and the low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) that innervate them. Here we explore the various structures underlying the diverse functions of cutaneous LTMR end organs. Beyond anchoring of LTMRs to the surrounding dermis and epidermis, recent evidence suggests that the non-neuronal components of end organs play an active role in signaling to LTMRs and may physically gate force-sensitive channels in these receptors. Combined with LTMR intrinsic properties, the balance of these factors comprises the response properties of mechanosensory neurons and, thus, the neural encoding of touch. PMID:25414303

  20. Touch and Go Surface Sampler (TGSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorevan, S. P.; Rafeek, S.

    2001-01-01

    The Touch and Go Surface Sampler (TGSS) is a new class of planetary and small body sample acquisition tool that can be used for the surface exploration of Europa, Titan and comets. TGSS in its basic configuration consists of a high speed sampling head attached to the end of a flexible shaft. The sampling head consists of counter rotating cutters that rotates at speeds of 3000 to 15000 RPM. The attractive feature of this if touch and go type sampler is that there are no requirements for a lander type spacecraft. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Bringing Home the iPod Touch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Grothaus; Erica Sadun

    \\u000a In this chapter, you’ve seen how to select and purchase your iPod touch. You’ve discovered what’s involved in setting up an\\u000a iTunes account, activating your iPod, and performing your first sync. To wind things up, here is a quick overview of some\\u000a key points from this chapter:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a  \\u000a \\u000a There are several models of the iPod touch, but whichever unit you

  2. Reach out and touch someone: anticipatory sensorimotor processes of active interpersonal touch.

    PubMed

    Ebisch, Sjoerd J H; Ferri, Francesca; Romani, Gian Luca; Gallese, Vittorio

    2014-09-01

    Anticipating the sensorimotor consequences of an action for both self and other is fundamental for action coordination when individuals socially interact. Somatosensation constitutes an elementary component of social cognition and sensorimotor prediction, but its functions in active social behavior remain unclear. We hypothesized that the somatosensory system contributes to social haptic behavior as evidenced by specific anticipatory activation patterns when touching an animate target (human hand) compared with an inanimate target (fake hand). fMRI scanning was performed during a paradigm that allowed us to isolate the anticipatory representations of active interpersonal touch while controlling for nonsocial sensorimotor processes and possible confounds because of interpersonal relationships or socioemotional valence. Active interpersonal touch was studied both as skin-to-skin contact and as object-mediated touch. The results showed weaker deactivation in primary somatosensory cortex and medial pFC and stronger activation in cerebellum for the animate target, compared with the inanimate target, when intending to touch it with one's own hand. Differently, in anticipation of touching the human hand with an object, anterior inferior parietal lobule and lateral occipital-temporal cortex showed stronger activity. When actually touching a human hand with one's own hand, activation was stronger in medial pFC but weaker in primary somatosensory cortex. The findings provide new insight on the contribution of simulation and sensory prediction mechanisms to active social behavior. They also suggest that literally getting in touch with someone and touching someone by using an object might be approached by an agent as functionally distinct conditions. PMID:24666131

  3. Cysteine proteinases from papaya (Carica papaya) in the treatment of experimental Trichuris suis infection in pigs: two randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cysteine proteinases (CPs) from papaya (Carica papaya) possess anthelmintic properties against human soil-transmitted helminths (STH, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm), but there is a lack of supportive and up-to-date efficacy data. We therefore conducted two randomized controlled trials in pigs to assess the efficacy of papaya CPs against experimental infections with T. suis. Methods First, we assessed efficacy by means of egg (ERR) and adult worm reduction rate (WRR) of a single-oral dose of 450 ?mol active CPs (CP450) against low (inoculum of 300 eggs) and high (inoculum of 3,000 eggs) intensity T. suis infections and compared the efficacy with those obtained after a single-oral dose of 400 mg albendazole (ALB). In the second trial, we determined and compared the efficacy of a series of CP doses (45 [CP45], 115 [CP115], 225 [CP225], and 450 [CP450] ?mol) against high intensity infections. Results CP450 was highly efficacious against both levels of infection intensity, resulting in ERR and WRR of more than 97%. For both levels of infection intensity, CP450 was significantly more efficacious compared to ALB by means of WRR (low infection intensity: 99.0% vs. 39.0%; high infection intensity; 97.4% vs. 23.2%). When the efficacy was assessed by ERR, a significant difference was only observed for high intensity infections, CP450 being more efficacious than ALB (98.9% vs. 59.0%). For low infection intensities, there was no significant difference in ERR between CP450 (98.3%) and ALB (64.4%). The efficacy of CPs increased as a function of increasing dose. When determined by ERR, the efficacy ranged from 2.1% for CP45 to 99.2% for CP450. For WRR the results varied from -14.0% to 99.0%, respectively. Pairwise comparison revealed a significant difference in ERR and WRR only between CP45 and CP450, the latter being more efficacious. Conclusions A single dose of 450 ?mol CPs provided greater efficacy against T. suis infections in pigs than a single-oral dose of 400 mg ALB. Although these results highlight the possibility of papaya CPs for controlling human STH, further development is needed in order to obtain and validate an oral formulation for human application. PMID:24886388

  4. Papaya latex enzymes capable of detoxification of gliadin.

    PubMed

    Cornell, H J; Doherty, W; Stelmasiak, T

    2010-01-01

    Assay of fractions obtained from ion exchange chromatography of papaya latex on CM Sephadex-C50, size exclusion chromatography on Sephacryl S-300 and size exclusion HPLC have provided an insight into the relative contributions of the gluten-detoxifying enzymes present. This outcome has been achieved by the use of the above chromatographic techniques, coupled with assays of lysosomal activity, protease activity using benzylarginine ethyl ester (BAEE) as substrate, prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) using glycylprolylnitroanilide and a prolidase assay using acetylprolylglycine. These procedures have shown that the activity in papaya latex is due largely to caricain and to a lesser extent, chymopapain and glutamine cyclotransferase. The presence of caricain and these other enzymes was confirmed by mass spectrometry of trypsin digests of the most active fraction obtained by CM Sephadex-C50 chromatography and size exclusion HPLC. Fractions rich in caricain would be suitable for enzyme therapy in gluten intolerance and appear to have synergistic action with porcine intestinal extracts. PMID:19156482

  5. Carica papaya lipase (CPL): an emerging and versatile biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Domínguez de María, Pablo; Sinisterra, José V; Tsai, Shau-Wei; Alcántara, Andrés R

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the Carica papaya lipase (CPL) is attracting more and more interest. This hydrolase, being tightly bonded to the water-insoluble fraction of crude papain, is thus considered as a "naturally immobilized" biocatalyst. To date, several CPL applications have already been described: (i) fats and oils modification, derived from the sn-3 selectivity of CPL as well as from its preference for short-chain fatty acids; (ii) esterification and inter-esterification reactions in organic media, accepting a wide range of acids and alcohols as substrates; (iii) more recently, the asymmetric resolution of different non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), 2-(chlorophenoxy)propionic acids, and non-natural amino acids. Taking into account the novelty and the current interest of the topic, this review aims to highlight the origin, features, and applications of the C. papaya lipase, with the objective to prompt research groups to further investigate the spectra of applications that this emerging and versatile CPL could have in the future. PMID:16716557

  6. The treatment of paediatric burns using topical papaya.

    PubMed

    Starley, I F; Mohammed, P; Schneider, G; Bickler, S W

    1999-11-01

    Due to the limited resources for the management of burns in most regions of Africa there is a significant role for many aspects of traditional African medicine. The active component of many traditional preparations is often of plant origin and more than 25 plants have been described as useful in relations to burns and wound healing. Carica papaya is currently used in The Gambia at the Royal Victoria Hospital, Banjul in the Paediatric Unit as the major component of burns dressings, where it is well tolerated by the children. Cheap and widely available, the pulp of the papaya fruit is mashed and applied daily to full thickness and infected burns. It appears to be effective in desloughing necrotic tissue, preventing burn wound infection, and providing a granulating wound suitable for the application of a split thickness skin graft. Possible mechanisms of action include the activity of proteolytic enzymes chymopapain and papain, as well as an antimicrobial activity, although further studies are required. PMID:10563690

  7. The Role of Touch in Facilitated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezuka, Emiko

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the role of touch in the use of facilitated communication with Japanese individuals with autism. Five experiments were conducted involving a "telepathy game" using a rod with an attached strain gauge. Results found the facilitator's contact controlled the motor responses of the subjects. (Author/CR)

  8. Touch Screen Tablets and Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of touch screen tablets by young children is increasing in the home and in early childhood settings. The simple tactile interface and finger-based operating features of tablets may facilitate preschoolers' use of tablet application software and support their educational development in domains such as literacy. This article reviews…

  9. Mobile Game Recommendation using Touch Gestures

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng-Wei

    Mobile Game Recommendation using Touch Gestures Hao-Tsung Yang, De-Yu Chen, Ya-Xuan Hong, and Kuan and download more than one hundred thousands of games on mobile app marketplaces; nevertheless, how to pick the best games out of the large pool without spending much time on tryout is very challenging. The common

  10. Tapping into Touch Eduardo Torres-Jara

    E-print Network

    Torres-Jara, Eduardo

    on a broader perspective. 2. Background Experimental results suggest that from a very ear- ly age, arm of exploratory procedures to examine object properties through grasp- ing and touch. Our goal is to exploit, Metta and Fitzpatrick, 2003). We now turn our at- tention to audition: developing perception of contact

  11. Families Talking about Ecology at Touch Tanks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopczak, Charles; Kisiel, James F.; Rowe, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that conversations among museum, aquarium, and zoo visitors can be a clear indication of active learning, engagement, and participation in scientific reasoning. This descriptive study sought to determine the extent of talk about ecology-related topics exhibited by family groups visiting marine touch tanks at four Pacific…

  12. The electroquasistatics of the capacitive touch panel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. T. Krein; R. D. Meadows

    1988-01-01

    A practical panel must be safe and inexpensive and must sense position accurately in spite of electrical noise, dirt, or direct electrostatic discharge. The implementation discussed uses a quasistatic electric field, applied to a semiconducting coating on the panel surface. A touch draws current from the surface. This current can be used to compute position. If the computation is performed

  13. Ultrasonic attenuation in acoustic touch panels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masao Takeuchi; Tomoyuki Gotsu; Noriko Fujita; P. Gomes; J. Kent; R. Adler

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative investigation of the sensitivity of Rayleigh waves (RW) and Love waves (LW) to water and finger touches as well as oil. Both theoretical and experimental results are presented. In the theoretical analysis, the influence of water on RW is analyzed using the leaky wave model. Damping of LW by water is modeled by a perturbation

  14. The Power of Touch: Massage for Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Elaine Fogel

    1996-01-01

    The potential benefits of massage for infants are discussed, including the role of touch on attachment and bonding and implications of massage for special needs infants. Research results on the benefits of massage for the infant and caregiver are covered, including increased bonding and enhanced growth and development. Historical information on…

  15. The Role of Touch in Facilitated Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emiko Kezuka

    1997-01-01

    Imagine that one day a nonverbal autistic child suddenly starts to type messages, such as “I am not retarded,” using a computer keyboard while being touched by an assistant. Facilitated communication (FC) appears to create this miracle around the world. To understand how this works, experiments were conducted involving a “telepathy game” using a rod with an attached strain gauge.

  16. Physical Touch-Up of Human Motions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyun Joon Shin; Lucas Kovar; Michael Gleicher

    2003-01-01

    Many popular motion editing methods do not take phys- ical principles into account potentially producing implau si- ble motions. This paper introduces an efficient method for touching up edited motions to improve physical plausibil- ity. We start by estimating a mass distribution consistent with reference motions known to be physically correct. The edited motion is then divided into ground and

  17. Teaching Touch Rugby in Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Steven F.; Alford, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Physical educators are always looking for new ideas that introduce moderate-to-vigorous activity, involve skill, encourage teamwork, and increase student interest. Touch rugby has the potential to contribute to these outcomes. Though the sport is not new, it is not a mainstream sport. Therefore, students see it as something new. Their motivation…

  18. Nurses' Comfort with Touch and Workplace Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Pedrazza, Monica; Minuzzo, Stefania; Berlanda, Sabrina; Trifiletti, Elena

    2014-03-20

    Touch is an essential part of caregiving and has been proved to be useful to reduce pain. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to nurses' perceptions of touch. The aim of this article was to examine the relationship between nurses' feelings of comfort with touch and their well-being at work. A sample of 241 nurses attending a pain management training course completed a questionnaire, including the following measures: Comfort with Touch (CT) scale (task-oriented contact, touch promoting physical comfort, touch providing emotional containment), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI; emotional exhaustion, cynicism), and Job Satisfaction. Results of structural equation models showed that touch providing emotional containment was the main predictor of emotional exhaustion. Emotional exhaustion, in turn, was positively related to cynicism and negatively related to job satisfaction. In addition, the direct path from touch providing emotional containment to cynicism was significant. Practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24658288

  19. Analysis of Papaya Cell Wall-Related Genes during Fruit Ripening Indicates a Central Role of Polygalacturonases during Pulp Softening

    PubMed Central

    Fabi, João Paulo; Broetto, Sabrina Garcia; da Silva, Sarah Lígia Garcia Leme; Zhong, Silin; Lajolo, Franco Maria; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a climacteric fleshy fruit that undergoes dramatic changes during ripening, most noticeably a severe pulp softening. However, little is known regarding the genetics of the cell wall metabolism in papayas. The present work describes the identification and characterization of genes related to pulp softening. We used gene expression profiling to analyze the correlations and co-expression networks of cell wall-related genes, and the results suggest that papaya pulp softening is accomplished by the interactions of multiple glycoside hydrolases. The polygalacturonase cpPG1 appeared to play a central role in the network and was further studied. The transient expression of cpPG1 in papaya results in pulp softening and leaf necrosis in the absence of ethylene action and confirms its role in papaya fruit ripening. PMID:25162506

  20. Touch and massage for medically fragile infants.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J; Gallardo, Constance C; Joseph, Michael H; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2009-12-01

    Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants' safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores of the infants receiving massage. Massage in a tertiary urban academic NICU continues to be an area of needed study. Future studies examining infant health outcomes, such as weight gain, decreased length of hospitalization and caregiver-infant bonding, would provide greater insight into the impact of massage for medically fragile infants. PMID:18955228

  1. Touch and Massage for Medically Fragile Infants

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J.; Gallardo, Constance C.; Joseph, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants’ safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores of the infants receiving massage. Massage in a tertiary urban academic NICU continues to be an area of needed study. Future studies examining infant health outcomes, such as weight gain, decreased length of hospitalization and caregiver–infant bonding, would provide greater insight into the impact of massage for medically fragile infants. PMID:18955228

  2. [Assessment strategies of the impact of healing touch in nursing care].

    PubMed

    Hentz, F; Mulliez, A; Belgacem, B; Noirfalise, C; Barrier, H; Gorrand, J; Paniagua, C c; Mathé, B; Gerbaud, L

    2009-06-01

    New care methods have emerged in the last few years. Healing Touch is relaxing and as such, helps prepare the patient for the medical act, the pain of which he may often feel anxious about As they foster confidence between the patient and the medical practitioner, such practices create better conditions for the medical care act to be performed. Even if there is no doubt about its impact on the patient, the effect of Healing Touch has never been scientifically assessed, and the only available references are rather scarce. This is the reason why we wished to assess the impact of this care in a number of clinical situations through a randomised clinical experiment. The object of this paper is to assert the efficacy of such care on the patient, especially on pain relief and the decrease of anxiety. To this end, authenticated assessment scales were used, such as the visual analog pain scale or Spielberg's test anxiety inventory. A prospective multicentre randomised study was carried out to create a control group to be compared to the group treated with Healing Touch. Only willing patients who were prescribed healing touch were included in the experiment. Patients with cognitive problems - be they temporary (linked to a temporary clinical conditions) or not - or those suffering from some disabilities preventing them from using assessment scales and questionnaires are excluded. The recruitment of a 784-patient panel was needed to set out the 8 situations in which a Healing Touch indication may be effective. PMID:19642480

  3. A touch controller using differential sensing method for on-cell capacitive touch screen panel systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ik-seok Yang; Oh-kyong Kwon

    2011-01-01

    A touch controller is proposed for on-cell capacitive touch screen panel systems. The proposed IC adopts the differential sensing method to enhance the dynamic range of sensing voltage and to be robust to display noise. The measurement results show that the maximum reporting rate, jitter tolerance, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are 140 Hz, ±0.3 mm, and 12 dB, respectively, when

  4. Removal and recovery of heavy metals from aqueous solution using papaya wood as a new biosorbent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asma Saeed; M. Waheed Akhter; Muhammed Iqbal

    2005-01-01

    Papaya wood was evaluated as a new biosorbent of heavy metals. On contacting 10mgl?l copper(II), cadmium(II) and zinc(II) solutions with 5gl?1 papaya wood, during shake flask contact time of 60min, the respective metal removal was noted to be 97.8, 94.9 and 66.8%. Sorption was most efficient at pH 5. Metal ion biosorption increased as the ratio of metal solution to

  5. Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Chávez-Quintal; Tania González-Flores; Ingrid Rodríguez-Buenfil; Santiago Gallegos-Tintoré

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain\\u000a bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic\\u000a solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest

  6. Postharvest Variation in Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymes of Papaya (Carica papaya L.) during Fruit Ripening 1

    PubMed Central

    Paull, Robert E.; Chen, Nancy Jung

    1983-01-01

    Pectin methylesterase (PME), polygalacturonase (PG), xylanase, cellulase, and proteinase activity were determined and related to respiration, ethylene evolution, and changes in skin color of papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit from harvest through to the start of fruit breakdown. PME gradually increased from the start of the climacteric rise reaching a peak 2 days after the respiratory peak. PG and xylanase were not detectable in the preclimacteric stage but increased during the climacteric: during the post climacteric stage, the PG declined to a level one-quarter of peak activity with xylanase activity returning to zero. Cellulase activity gradually increased 3-fold after harvest to peak at the same time as PME, 2 days after the edible stage. Proteinase declined throughout the climacteric and postclimacteric phases. A close relationship exists between PG and xylanase and the rise in respiration, ethylene evolution, and softening. Cultivar differences in postclimacteric levels of enzymic activity were not detected. An inhibitor of cellulase activity was detected in preclimacteric fruit. The inhibitor was not benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC). BITC did inhibit PG activity, though no inhibitor of PG activity was detected in preclimacteric homogenates when BITC was highest. The results indicate that inhibitors did not play a direct role in controlling wall softening. PMID:16663010

  7. Issues and techniques in touch-sensitive tablet input

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Buxton; Ralph Hill; Peter Rowley

    1985-01-01

    Touch-sensitive tablets and their use in human-computer interaction are discussed. It is shown that such devices have some important properties that differentiate them from other input devices (such as mice and joysticks). The analysis serves two purposes: (1) it sheds light on touch tablets, and (2) it demonstrates how other devices might be approached. Three specific distinctions between touch tablets

  8. Manual Deskterity: An Exploration of Simultaneous Pen + Touch Direct Input

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Manual Deskterity: An Exploration of Simultaneous Pen + Touch Direct Input Abstract Manual Deskterity is a prototype digital drafting table that supports both pen and touch input. We explore a division of labor between pen and touch that flows from natural human skill and differentiation of roles

  9. Manual Deskterity : An Exploration of Simultaneous Pen + Touch Direct Input

    E-print Network

    Dumais, Susan

    Manual Deskterity : An Exploration of Simultaneous Pen + Touch Direct Input Abstract Manual Deskterity is a prototype digital drafting table that supports both pen and touch input. We explore a division of labor between pen and touch that flows from natural human skill and differentiation of roles

  10. Touch therapy combined with talk therapy: The Rubenfeld Synergy Method®

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luna L. Medina; Marilyn J. Montgomery

    2012-01-01

    Touch therapy has been researched for many years and is accepted as a successful therapeutic method for healing. Ironically, touch has gone from being a part of mainstream medicine to becoming associated with alternative medicine. The Rubenfeld Synergy Method (RSM), one modality emphasising touch, was created almost four decades ago and has been recently rediscovered due to the growth and

  11. Touch therapy combined with talk therapy: The Rubenfeld Synergy Method®

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luna L. Medina; Marilyn J. Montgomery

    2011-01-01

    Touch therapy has been researched for many years and is accepted as a successful therapeutic method for healing. Ironically, touch has gone from being a part of mainstream medicine to becoming associated with alternative medicine. The Rubenfeld Synergy Method (RSM), one modality emphasising touch, was created almost four decades ago and has been recently rediscovered due to the growth and

  12. Neural calibration and Kalman filter position estimation for touch panels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Chang Lai; Ching-Chih Tsai

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops methodologies and techniques for calibration and dynamic touching position estimation of touch panels using adaptive linear neural networks (ALNN) and Kalman filter. A neural-based calibration method is proposed to determine nonlinear mapping relationships of measured and known touch points, thereby calibrating their positions in a real-time manner. In order to obtain position estimation of fast moving points

  13. Fingerprint Attack against Touch-enabled Devices Southeast University

    E-print Network

    Liu, Benyuan

    touch-screen panel market size will grow to $9.65 billion and 1.35 billion units, and 800 millionFingerprint Attack against Touch-enabled Devices Yang Zhang Southeast University Nanjing 211189, P Lowell, MA 01854, USA xinwenfu@cs.uml.edu ABSTRACT Oily residues left by tapping fingers on a touch

  14. Parameter Optimization Design for Touch Panel Laser Cutting Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao-Ton Su; Yu-Hsiang Hsiao; Chia-Chin Chang

    2012-01-01

    Cutting is an essential process in touch panel manufacturing, which concerns the effectiveness of whole touch panel manufacturing process and reliability of final application products. An alternative is laser cutting technology, which is expected to eclipse conventional cutting method in terms of cost and quality. The laser cutting quality of touch panel is determined by the appropriation of value settings

  15. Therapeutic Touch and Healing Meditation: A Threesome with Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenspan, Marlene

    1994-01-01

    Briefly reviews the use of therapeutic touch in early Western culture and Judaic tradition and by modern practitioners. Discusses modern scientific approaches to therapeutic touch, including its use by nurses. Offers suggestions for and examples of the use of meditation, relaxation exercises, and therapeutic touch with adolescents in classroom and…

  16. Company Confidential See it. Touch it. Measure it. Gavin Fisher

    E-print Network

    Anlage, Steven

    Company Confidential See it. Touch it. Measure it. Gavin Fisher Cascade Microtech Europe Ltd A guide to Successful on Wafer Rf characterisation #12;Company Confidential See it. Touch it. Measure it Station Essentials Probe Tip Calibration How to Calibrate #12;Company Confidential See it. Touch it

  17. Helping Hands: Designing Video Games with Interpersonal Touch Interaction

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Helping Hands: Designing Video Games with Interpersonal Touch Interaction Cody Watts1, 2 , Ehud and playing video games. This trend is evidenced by the recent development of interpersonal touch-based games of interpersonal touch-based games have recently been designed, the best practices for creating video games based

  18. 78 FR 37998 - Electronic One Touch Bingo System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ...of server based electronic bingo system games that can be played utilizing only one touch...touch bingo is a Class II or Class III game. DATES: The agency must receive comments...touch bingo as a Class II or a Class III game pursuant to the Indian Gaming...

  19. Dispatch 541 Mechanosensation: Touch at the molecular level

    E-print Network

    Corey, David P.

    of stereocilia. In the case of C. elegans touch-cell processes, the physical association of the mechanosensitiveDispatch 541 Mechanosensation: Touch at the molecular level Jaime García-Añoveros and David P. Corey The cloning of genes needed for gentle-touch sensitivity in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

  20. Enhancing physicality in touch interaction with programmable friction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent Lévesque; Louise Oram; Karon E. MacLean; Andy Cockburn; Nicholas D. Marchuk; Dan Johnson; J. Edward Colgate; Michael A. Peshkin

    2011-01-01

    Touch interactions have refreshed some of the 'glowing enthusiasm' of thirty years ago for direct manipulation interfaces. However, today's touch technologies, whose interactions are supported by graphics, sounds or crude clicks, have a tactile sameness and gaps in usability. We use a Large Area Tactile Pattern Display (LATPaD) to examine design possibilities and outcomes when touch interactions are enhanced with

  1. The Role of Touch in Therapy: An Adjunct to Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willison, Beverly G.; Masson, Robert L.

    1986-01-01

    Examines the role of physical touch between counselors and clients, reviewing both research and clinical data. Although published findings are not conclusive, there is some indication that touch, when appropriately used, can have a positive impact on clients. Concludes by proposing guidelines for the use of touch in counseling. (Author/BL)

  2. Feel the presence: technologies of touch and distance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Paterson

    2006-01-01

    Haptic devices for computers and video-game consoles aim to reproduce touch and to engage the user with 'force feedback'. Although physical touch is often associated with proximity and intimacy, technologies of touch can reproduce such sensations over a distance, allowing intricate and detailed operations to be conducted through a network such as the Internet. The 'virtual handshake' between Boston and

  3. Affective Touch Gesture Recognition for a Furry Zoomorphic Machine

    E-print Network

    MacLean, Karon

    is that creating touch experiences involves building physical hardware and feedback, a more complicated designAffective Touch Gesture Recognition for a Furry Zoomorphic Machine Anna Flagg Department of touch, one route to such power is through haptic emotional interaction, which requires sophisticated

  4. The Effect of Counselor Touch in an Initial Counseling Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubble, Mark A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the effect of counselor touch on female clients (N=32) and the moderating effect of clients' field dependence-independence on their response to a counselor's touch. Results indicated that counselors were perceived as significantly more expert when they touched than when they did not. Suggests implications for counseling. (Author)

  5. Handling Pressures: Analysing Touch in American Films about Youth Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chare, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how films produced in the USA in the past 10 years and featuring the coaching of youth sport, represent the issue of touch during instruction and training. Touch in such films is figured in diverse ways ranging from pats of reassurance and hugs of congratulation to cuffs of disapprobation. Touch is also occasionally depicted…

  6. Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The cysteine proteinases in papaya latex have been shown to have potent anthelmintic properties in monogastric hosts such as rodents, pigs and humans, but this has not been demonstrated in ruminants. Methods In two experiments, sheep were infected concurrently with 5,000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 10,000 infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and were then treated with the supernatant from a suspension of papaya latex from day 28 to day 32 post-infection. Faecal egg counts were monitored from a week before treatment until the end of the experiment and worm burdens were assessed on day 35 post-infection. Results We found that the soluble fraction of papaya latex had a potent in vivo effect on the abomasal nematode H. contortus, but not on the small intestinal nematode T. colubriformis. This effect was dose-dependent and at tolerated levels of gavage with papaya latex (117 ?mol of active papaya latex supernatant for 4 days), the H. contortus worm burdens were reduced by 98%. Repeated treatment, daily for 4 days, was more effective than a single dose, but efficacy was not enhanced by concurrent treatment with the antacid cimetidine. Conclusions Our results provide support for the idea that cysteine proteinases derived from papaya latex may be developed into novel anthelmintics for the treatment of lumenal stages of gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep, particularly those parasitizing the abomasum. PMID:21406090

  7. Effect of packaging materials and storage environment on postharvest quality of papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Azene, Mulualem; Workneh, Tilahun Seyoum; Woldetsadik, Kebede

    2014-06-01

    This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of packaging materials and storage environments on shelf life of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.). A factorial combination of five packaging materials and two storage environments using randomized complete block design with three replications were used. The papaya fruits were evaluated for weight loss, percentage marketability, firmness, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar and total sugar content. The packaged and cooled fruits remained firmer than unpackaged and evaporatively cooled fruits. Higher chemical compositions were recorded in the control fruits stored under ambient conditions during the earlier times of storage. Packaging and cooling maintained the chemical quality of papaya fruits better than the control sample fruits towards the end of storage periods. The evaporatively cooled storage combined with packaging improved the shelf life of papaya fruits by more than two fold. The polyethylene bag packaging combined with evaporatively cooled storage maintained the superior quality of papaya fruit for a period of 21 days. This integrated agro-technology is recommended for postharvest loss reduction biotechnology in hot regions. PMID:24876636

  8. The neurobiology of Etruscan shrew active touch

    PubMed Central

    Brecht, Michael; Naumann, Robert; Anjum, Farzana; Wolfe, Jason; Munz, Martin; Mende, Carolin; Roth-Alpermann, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus, is not only the smallest terrestrial mammal, but also one of the fastest and most tactile hunters described to date. The shrew's skeletal muscle consists entirely of fast-twitch types and lacks slow fibres. Etruscan shrews detect, overwhelm, and kill insect prey in large numbers in darkness. The cricket prey is exquisitely mechanosensitive and fast-moving, and is as big as the shrew itself. Experiments with prey replica show that shape cues are both necessary and sufficient for evoking attacks. Shrew attacks are whisker guided by motion- and size-invariant Gestalt-like prey representations. Shrews often attack their prey prior to any signs of evasive manoeuvres. Shrews whisk at frequencies of approximately 14 Hz and can react with latencies as short as 25–30 ms to prey movement. The speed of attacks suggests that shrews identify and classify prey with a single touch. Large parts of the shrew's brain respond to vibrissal touch, which is represented in at least four cortical areas comprising collectively about a third of the cortical volume. Etruscan shrews can enter a torpid state and reduce their body temperature; we observed that cortical response latencies become two to three times longer when body temperature drops from 36°C to 24°C, suggesting that endothermy contributes to the animal's high-speed sensorimotor performance. We argue that small size, high-speed behaviour and extreme dependence on touch are not coincidental, but reflect an evolutionary strategy, in which the metabolic costs of small body size are outweighed by the advantages of being a short-range high-speed touch and kill predator. PMID:21969684

  9. “Dry-to-the-touch” thermal grease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Khatri; J. Ziemski

    2001-01-01

    Most thermal engineers believe that thermal greases (or heat sink compounds) provide the lowest thermal resistance of all thermal interface materials. Micro-faze(R) is a proprietary design, dry-to-the-touch thermal grease product that offers the lowest thermal resistance at low closure force, thus eliminating the need to sacrifice thermal performance for convenience. This dry grease is totally adaptable to die-cut and possesses

  10. Emotional modulation of touch in alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Scarpazza, Cristina; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Làdavas, Elisabetta

    2014-06-01

    Alexithymia refers to difficulties in recognizing one's own emotions, but difficulties have also been found in the recognition of others' emotions, particularly when the task is not easy. Previous research has demonstrated that, in order to understand other peoples' feelings, observers remap the observed emotion onto their own sensory systems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of high and low alexithymic subjects to remap the emotional expressions of others onto their own somatosensory systems using an indirect task. We used the emotional Visual Remapping of Touch (eVRT) paradigm, in which seeing a face being touched improves detection of near-threshold tactile stimulation concurrently delivered to one's own face. In eVRT, subjects performance is influenced by the emotional content of the stimuli, while they were required to distinguish between unilateral or bilateral tactile stimulation on their own cheeks. The results show that tactile perception was enhanced when viewing touch on a fearful face compared with viewing touch on other expressions in low but not in high alexithymic participants. A negative correlation between TAS-20 alexithymia subscale ("difficulty in identify feelings") and the magnitude of the eVRT effect was also found. Conversely, arousal and valence ratings of emotional faces did not vary as a function of the degree of alexithymia. The results provide evidence that alexithymia is associated with difficulties in remapping seen emotions, particularly fear, onto one's own sensory system. This impairment could be due to an inability to modulate somatosensory system activity according to the observed emotional expression. PMID:24708501

  11. Antihypertensive effect of Carica papaya via a reduction in ACE activity and improved baroreflex.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Ronchi, Silas Nascimento; do Nascimento, Andrews Marques; de Lima, Ewelyne Miranda; Romão, Wanderson; da Costa, Helber Barcellos; Scherer, Rodrigo; Ventura, José Aires; Lenz, Dominik; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza; Endringer, Denise Coutinho; de Andrade, Tadeu Uggere

    2014-11-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the antihypertensive effects of the standardised methanolic extract of Carica papaya, its angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effects in vivo, its effect on the baroreflex and serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity, and its chemical composition. The chemical composition of the methanolic extract of C. papaya was evaluated by liquid chromatography-mass/mass and mass/mass spectrometry. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effect was evaluated in vivo by Ang I administration. The antihypertensive assay was performed in spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar rats that were treated with enalapril (10 mg/kg), the methanolic extract of C. papaya (100 mg/kg; twice a day), or vehicle for 30 days. The baroreflex was evaluated through the use of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine. Angiotensin converting enzyme activity was measured by ELISA, and cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by morphometric analysis. The methanolic extract of C. papaya was standardised in ferulic acid (203.41 ± 0.02 µg/g), caffeic acid (172.60 ± 0.02 µg/g), gallic acid (145.70 ± 0.02 µg/g), and quercetin (47.11 ± 0.03 µg/g). The flavonoids quercetin, rutin, nicotiflorin, clitorin, and manghaslin were identified in a fraction of the extract. The methanolic extract of C. papaya elicited angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity. The antihypertensive effects elicited by the methanolic extract of C. papaya were similar to those of enalapril, and the baroreflex sensitivity was normalised in treated spontaneously hypertensive rats. Plasma angiotensin converting enzyme activity and cardiac hypertrophy were also reduced to levels comparable to the enalapril-treated group. These results may be associated with the chemical composition of the methanolic extract of C. papaya, and are the first step into the development of a new phytotherapic product which could be used in the treatment of hypertension. PMID:25295669

  12. The design of light pipe with microstructures for touch screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bo; Lu, Kan; Liu, Pengfei; Wei, Xiaona

    2010-11-01

    Touch screen has a very wide range of applications. Most of them are used in public information inquiries, for instance, service inquiries in telecommunication bureau, tax bureau, bank system, electric department, etc...Touch screen can also be used for entertainment and virtual reality applications too. Traditionally, touch screen was composed of pairs of infrared LED and correspondent receivers which were all installed in the screen frame. Arrays of LED were set in the adjacent sides of the frame of an infrared touch screen while arrays of the infrared receivers were fixed in each opposite side, so that the infrared detecting network was formed. While the infrared touch screen has some technical limitations nowadays such as the low resolution, limitations of touching methods and fault response due to environmental disturbances. The plastic material has a relatively high absorption rate for infrared light, which greatly limits the size of the touch screen. Our design uses laser diode as source and change the traditional inner structure of touch screen by using a light pipe with microstructures. The geometric parameters of the light pipe and the microstructures were obtained through equation solving. Simulation results prove that the design method for touch screen proposed in this paper could achieve high resolution and large size of touch screen.

  13. Production of Internal Yellowing Symptoms on Resistant and Susceptible Papaya Cultivars by Enterobacter cloacae at Varying Inoculum Concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal yellowing (IY) is a bacterial disease of ripening papaya flesh caused by Enterobacter cloacae and characterized by yellow softening tissue. IY restricts food safety of value-added products like fresh or frozen papaya cubes. The incidence of E. cloacae presumably differs in resistant (R) a...

  14. INFLUENCE OF COAT PROTEIN TRANSGENE COPY NUMBER ON RESISTANCE IN TRANSGENIC LINE 63-1 AGAINST PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS ISOLATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Line 63-1 is a ‘Sunset’-derived transgenic papaya expressing the coat protein (CP) gene from a mild mutant of a Hawaiian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Previous work showed that line 63-1 R1 plants exhibited a range of resistance to severe PRSV isolates from Hawaii (HA), Jamaica (JA), Thai...

  15. Molecular diagnosis of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) from leaf samples of Carica papaya L. using conventional and real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Paolla M V; Piccin, João G; Rodrigues, Silas P; Buss, David S; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2012-03-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease. This study describes two methods for molecular diagnosis of PMeV using conventional and real-time PCR. These methods were shown to be more efficient than current methods of viral detection using extraction of PMeV dsRNA and observation of symptoms in the field. The methods described here were used to evaluate the effect of inoculation of papaya plants with purified PMeV dsRNA on the progress of PMeV infection. A single inoculation with PMeV dsRNA was observed to delay the progress of the virus infection by several weeks. The possibility of vertical transmission of PMeV was also investigated. No evidence was found for PMeV transmission through seeds collected from diseased fruit. The implications of these results for the epidemiology of PMeV and the management of papaya sticky disease are discussed. PMID:22193169

  16. Ambient touch: designing tactile interfaces for handheld devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Poupyrev; Shigeaki Maruyama; Jun Rekimoto

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the sense of touch as a channel for communicating with miniature handheld devices. We embedded a PDA with a TouchEngineTM --- a thin, miniature lower-power tactile actuator that we have designed specifically to use in mobile interfaces (Figure 1). Unlike previous tactile actuators, the TouchEngine is a universal tactile display that can produce a wide variety of

  17. AirTouch: Interacting with computer systems at a distance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel R. Schlegel; Albert Y. C. Chen; Caiming Xiong; Jeffrey A. Delmerico; Jason J. Corso

    2011-01-01

    We present AirTouch, a new vision-based interaction system. AirTouch uses computer vision techniques to extend commonly used interaction metaphors, such as multitouch screens, yet removes any need to physically touch the display. The user interacts with a virtual plane that rests in between the user and the display. On this plane, hands and fingers are tracked and gestures are recognized

  18. Helping Hands: Designing Video Games with Interpersonal Touch Interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cody Watts; Ehud Sharlin; Peter Woytiuk

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Increasingly, the movements of players’ physical bodies are being used as a method of controlling and playing video games.\\u000a This trend is evidenced by the recent development of interpersonal touch-based games; multiplayer games which players control\\u000a by physically touching their partners. Although a small number of interpersonal touch-based games have recently been designed,\\u000a the best practices for creating video games

  19. The Human Touch: An Exploration of the Role and Meaning of Physical Touch in Psychoanalysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen L. K. Toronto

    2001-01-01

    This article addressed the meaning and significance of minor physical contact (e.g., a hug or handshake) within the psychoanalytic dyad. Although undoubtedly a controversial topic, the plain fact that it is occurring makes touch an important and necessary subject of discourse. Furthermore, as psychoanalysts come to define the role of the more human analyst within the 2-person field and come

  20. Movement preparation improves touch perception without awareness.

    PubMed

    van Ede, Freek; van Doren, Thomas I; Damhuis, Jochem; de Lange, Floris P; Maris, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Movements are often directed at external objects, such as when reaching out for a glass to drink from. Surprisingly, however, it is largely unknown how movement plans influence the identification of such external somatosensory stimuli. To address this, we cued participants to prepare for a speeded button press with their left/right thumb and presented a spatially-patterned somatosensory stimulus at either the same or the opposite thumb with equal probability. In contrast to many previous investigations that focused on self-produced somatosensory input and reported attenuated perception, we show that the identification of external stimuli (touch perception) is facilitated by movement preparation. In line with analogous studies in vision, this suggests that movement preparation automatically allocates processing resources (attention) to the location and/or body part of the planned movement. We further show that, in contrast to deliberate somatosensory preparation, participants do not become more confident in their touch perception following movement preparation. These data suggest that the perceptual improvement during movement preparation occurs outside of awareness. Such an unconscious facilitatory process will ensure that relevant parts of the environment are processed with high fidelity, while sparing conscious resources for monitoring other processes in the course of action. PMID:25682493

  1. The effects of gender and type of romantic touch on perceptions of relational commitment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Lee Johnson; Renee Edwards

    1991-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between intimate touching behaviors and corresponding cognitions of relational commitment as a function of gender. One hundred fifty-two subjects were surveyed regarding perceptions of commitment for seven intimate touches. The 2-way ANOVA revealed significant effects for gender, type of touch, and the touch by gender interaction. Progressively intimate touches were associated with greater commitment. Females

  2. Representations of Pleasant and Painful Touch in the Human Orbitofrontal and Cingulate Cortices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. T. Rolls; J. O'Doherty; M. L. Kringelbach; S. Francis; R. Bowtell; F. McGlone

    2003-01-01

    The cortical areas that represent affectively positive and negative aspects of touch were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) by comparing activations produced by pleasant touch, painful touch produced by a stylus, and neutral touch, to the left hand. It was found that regions of the orbitofrontal cortex were activated more by pleasant touch and by painful stimuli than

  3. Papaya epicarp extract protects against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Waly, Mostafa I; Guizani, Nejib; Ali, Amanat; Rahman, Mohammad Shafiur

    2012-09-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated the ability of papaya epicarp extract (PEE) to protect against oxidative stress-induced insult in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells in a mechanism that appeared to be by means of PEE potent antioxidant properties. To further understand this relationship, we examined the effect of PEE intervention on aluminum (Al)-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. The results indicated that PEE was effective in protecting against Al-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. PEE restored the Al-induced inhibition of folate-dependent methionine synthase activity and the antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidases and superoxide dismutase). PEE ameliorated the Al-induced impairment of intracellular glutathione and total antioxidant capacity. Together, these findings indicate that PEE supplementation can play a neuroprotective role in ameliorating the changes in redox status of SH-SY5Y cells exposed to Al, a well-known environmental toxin that is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:22956622

  4. Papaya Extract to Treat Dengue: A Novel Therapeutic Option?

    PubMed Central

    Sarala, N; Paknikar, SS

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The search was done independently by the two authors using PubMed, Google and the library database and included relevant articles of the last 10 years. A total of 7 studies were included in this review, which were one animal study, one case report, three case series and two randomized controlled trials. Although many of the studies and case reports published in literature lack adequate information, some of the studies do raise the possibility that this treatment could be an important option in the future. Further large-scale studies could establish the usefulness or ineffectiveness of this natural product in the treatment of dengue. PMID:24971201

  5. Papaya extract to treat dengue: a novel therapeutic option?

    PubMed

    Sarala, N; Paknikar, Ss

    2014-05-01

    Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The search was done independently by the two authors using PubMed, Google and the library database and included relevant articles of the last 10 years. A total of 7 studies were included in this review, which were one animal study, one case report, three case series and two randomized controlled trials. Although many of the studies and case reports published in literature lack adequate information, some of the studies do raise the possibility that this treatment could be an important option in the future. Further large-scale studies could establish the usefulness or ineffectiveness of this natural product in the treatment of dengue. PMID:24971201

  6. Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Silas P; Ventura, José A; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Choi, HyungWon; Sobreira, Tiago J P; Nohara, Lilian L; Wermelinger, Luciana S; Almeida, Igor C; Zingali, Russolina B; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2012-06-18

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers' regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulated proteins in the latex of diseased plants, 9 cysteine proteases (chymopapain) and 1 latex serine proteinase inhibitor. A repression of papaya latex proteolytic activity during PMeV infection was hypothesized. This was further confirmed by enzymatic assays that showed a reduction of cysteine-protease-associated proteolytic activity in the diseased papaya latex. These findings are discussed in the context of plant responses against pathogens and may greatly contribute to understand the roles of laticifers in plant stress responses. PMID:22465191

  7. Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Silas P.; Ventura, José A.; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Choi, HyungWon; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Nohara, Lilian L.; Wermelinger, Luciana S.; Almeida, Igor C.; Zingali, Russolina B.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

    2012-01-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers’ regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulated proteins in the latex of diseased plants, 9 cysteine proteases (chymopapain) and 1 latex serine proteinase inhibitor. A repression of papaya latex proteolytic activity during PMeV infection was hypothesized. This was further confirmed by enzymatic assays that showed a reduction of cysteine-protease-associated proteolytic activity in the diseased papaya latex. These findings are discussed in the context of plant responses against pathogens and may greatly contribute to understand the roles of laticifers in plant stress responses. PMID:22465191

  8. Households Touched by Crime, 1987. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Michael R.; And Others

    For the year 1987, 24.4 % of American households were touched by crime. A household is considered touched by crime if during the year it was affected by a burglarly, auto theft, or household theft or if a household member was raped, robbed, or assaulted or was a victim of personal theft, no matter where the crime occurred. These offenses, which…

  9. Marine Mammal Stranding Protocol 1-Do NOT Touch!

    E-print Network

    Acevedo, Alejandro

    . They are wild animals, and can bite. They also are easily stressed by humans. Do not return the animalMarine Mammal Stranding Protocol 1- Do NOT Touch! 1. Do not touch, pick up, or feed the animal immediately. 2- Observe Observe the animal from a distance of at least 50 feet. Keep people and dogs away. 3

  10. Sports coaching in risk society: No touch! No trust!

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather Piper; Bill Taylor; Dean Garratt

    2011-01-01

    This paper is informed by a UK based Economic and Social Research Council funded research project which developed and deployed a case-study approach to issues of touch between children and professionals in schools and childcare. Outcomes from these settings are referred to, but the focus here is shifted to touch in sports coaching and its distinctive contextual and institutional characteristics.

  11. Sports coaching in risk society: No touch! No trust!

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather Piper; Bill Taylor; Dean Garratt

    2012-01-01

    This paper is informed by a UK based Economic and Social Research Council funded research project which developed and deployed a case-study approach to issues of touch between children and professionals in schools and childcare. Outcomes from these settings are referred to, but the focus here is shifted to touch in sports coaching and its distinctive contextual and institutional characteristics.

  12. Analysis on the relations between piano touch and tone

    E-print Network

    Lai-Mei Nie

    2010-11-20

    In piano playing, different ways of touch lead to different tones. The effects of changing forces on keys are presented by changing interaction between hammer and string. The thesis focuses on several important variables in hammer-string system and draws conclusions to the question about piano touch and tone.

  13. Understanding and Creating Accessible Touch Screen Interactions for Blind People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Shaun K.

    2011-01-01

    Using touch screens presents a number of usability and accessibility challenges for blind people. Most touch screen-based user interfaces are optimized for visual interaction, and are therefore difficult or impossible to use without vision. This dissertation presents an approach to redesigning gesture-based user interfaces to enable blind people…

  14. A Comparison of Injuries between Flag and Touch Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stephen L.

    This study was designed to determine whether fewer and less serious injuries result from participation in touch football as compared with flag football. A survey was taken of 30 flag football games and 30 touch football games and the incidence of injuries was recorded on a checklist. Results of the survey suggest the following: (a) intramural or…

  15. A Simple 2-Transistor Touch or Lick Detector Circuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slotnick, Burton

    2009-01-01

    Contact or touch detectors in which a subject acts as a switch between two metal surfaces have proven more popular and arguably more useful for recording responses than capacitance switches, photocell detectors, and force detectors. Components for touch detectors circuits are inexpensive and, except for some special purpose designs, can be easily…

  16. Transparent touch panel with conductive liquid channel structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koji Asano; Gakuto Kita; Mitsuhiro Shikida; Kazuo Sato

    2011-01-01

    We applied microelectromechanical systems technology for producing a new type of transparent touch panel with conductive liquid channels. We used a molding process for fabricating the touch panel and transparent silicone rubber material for producing the channel structures. The height, width, and length of the flow channels were 0.1, 1.0, and 40 mm, respectively, and the pitch of the channels

  17. Usability of Touch-Panel Interfaces for Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsuo Murata; Hirokazu Iwase

    2005-01-01

    The usability of a touch-panel interface was compared among young, middle-aged, and older adults. In addition, a performance model of a touch panel was developed so that pointing time could be predicted with higher accuracy. Moreover, the target location to which a participant could point most quickly was determined. The pointing time with a PC mouse was longer for the

  18. Therapeutic Touch and Healing Meditation: A Threesome with Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marlene Greenspan; Stanley Schneider

    1994-01-01

    The ancient art of laying on of hands has been used throughout the history of humankind. Almost every known culture of the present world, as well as a great many of the unearthed cultures of generations past, have practiced some form of healing through touch, magnetism, or visualization with meditation and\\/or substance stimulant. Modern medical therapeutic touch represents a meeting

  19. PC-ATOMIC Final Report 1 Joseph D. Touch1

    E-print Network

    Touch, Joe

    PC-ATOMIC Final Report 1 PC-ATOMIC Joseph D. Touch1 USC / Information Sciences Institute touch of the board are available as government-furnished equipment for research pur- poses. FIGURE 1. PC-ATOMIC board to PC-ATOMIC. 1. This research was sponsored by the Advanced Research Projects Agency through Ft

  20. Touch sensing analysis using multi-modal acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jeffrey S.; Pikula, Dragan; Baharav, Zachi

    2013-03-01

    Touch sensing is ubiquitous in many consumer electronic products. Users are expecting to be able to touch with their finger the surface of a display and interact with it. Yet, the actual mechanics and physics of the touch process are little known, as these are dependent on many independent variables. Ranging from the physics of the fingertip structure, composed of ridges, valleys, and pores, and beyond a few layers of skin and flesh the bone itself. Moreover, sweat glands and wetting are critical as well as we will see. As for the mechanics, the pressure at which one touches the screen, and the manner by which the surfaces responds to this pressure, have major impact on the touch sensing. In addition, different touch sensing methods, like capacitive or optical, will have different dependencies. For example, the color of the finger might impact the latter, whereas the former is insensitive to it. In this paper we describe a system that captures multiple modalities of the touch event, and by post-processing synchronizing all these. This enables us to look for correlation between various effects, and uncover their influence on the performance of the touch sensing algorithms. Moreover, investigating these relations allows us to improve various sensing algorithms, as well as find areas where they complement each other. We conclude by pointing to possible future extensions and applications of this system.

  1. Effectiveness of Iphone's Touch ID: KSA Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad A. Al-Daraiseh; Diana Al Omari; Hadeel Al Hamid; Nada Hamad; Rawan Althemali

    2015-01-01

    A new trend of incorporating Touch ID sensors in mobile devices is appearing. Last year, Apple released a new model of its famous iPhone (5s). One of the most anticipated and hailed features of the new device was its Touch ID. Apple advertised that the new technology will increase the security of its device, and it will also be used

  2. Robot Skin Based on Touch-Area-Sensitive Tactile Element

    E-print Network

    Shinoda, Hiroyuki

    Robot Skin Based on Touch-Area-Sensitive Tactile Element Takayuki Hoshi and Hiroyuki Shinoda propose a new tactile sensor skin ("Skin by Touch Area Receptor" or STAR). The skin consists of two robot skin including no long wires. Index Terms - Tactile sensor, Robot skin, Haptic interface, Contact

  3. The design of infrared touch screen based on MCU

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zheng Wei; Wei Liu; Qing He; Ning Wei; Chenxi Wang; Tingfang Yan; Chao Hu; Max Q.-H. Meng

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a touch screen technology based on infrared optical. This technology has apparent advantages in the large-size applications, which is simple, low cost, high feasibility. In the system, the detection of ambient light and the adaptive control of IR LED can effectively enhance the adaptability of the touch screen in complex light environment via the MCU. In image

  4. Multi-Touch Rotation Gestures: Performance and Ergonomics

    E-print Network

    Multi-Touch Rotation Gestures: Performance and Ergonomics Eve Hoggan1 , John Williamson2 , Antti multi-touch gestures, yet little is known about the fac- tors affecting performance and ergonomics; gestures; ergonomics. ACM Classification Keywords H.5.2. User Interfaces: Evaluation/Methodology, Input De

  5. Cortical Dynamics As A Therapeutic Mechanism for Touch Healing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine E. Kerr; Rachel H. Wasserman; Christopher I. Moore

    2007-01-01

    Touch Healing (TH) therapies, defined here as treatments whose primary route of administration is tactile contact and\\/or active guiding of somatic attention, are ubiquitous across cultures. Despite increasing integra- tion of TH into mainstream medicine through therapies such as Reiki, Therapeutic Touch,™ and somatically focused meditation practices such as Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, relatively little is known about po- tential underlying

  6. Physical Factors Influencing Pleasant Touch during Tactile Exploration

    E-print Network

    Hayward, Vincent

    Physical Factors Influencing Pleasant Touch during Tactile Exploration Anne Klo¨ cker1 , Michael-L (2013) Physical Factors Influencing Pleasant Touch during Tactile Exploration. PLoS ONE 8(11): e79085 of their physical attributes. These percepts are frequently accompanied by a sensation of (un)pleasantness. We

  7. Sports Coaching in Risk Society: No Touch! No Trust!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Heather; Taylor, Bill; Garratt, Dean

    2012-01-01

    This paper is informed by a UK based Economic and Social Research Council funded research project which developed and deployed a case-study approach to issues of touch between children and professionals in schools and childcare. Outcomes from these settings are referred to, but the focus here is shifted to touch in sports coaching and its…

  8. Enhancing Physicality in Touch Interaction with Programmable Friction

    E-print Network

    Levesque, Vincent

    Enhancing Physicality in Touch Interaction with Programmable Friction Vincent Lévesque1 , Louise possibilities and outcomes when touch interactions are enhanced with variable surface friction. In a series of four studies, we first confirm that variable friction gives significant performance advantages in low

  9. Carotenoids are more bioavailable from papaya than from tomato and carrot in humans: a randomised cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Schweiggert, Ralf M.; Kopec, Rachel E.; Villalobos-Gutierrez, Maria G.; Högel, Josef; Quesada, Silvia; Esquivel, Patricia; Schwartz, Steven J.; Carle, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Carrot, tomato and papaya represent important dietary sources of ?-carotene and lycopene. The main objective of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of carotenoids from these food sources in healthy human subjects. A total of sixteen participants were recruited for a randomised cross-over study. Test meals containing raw carrots, tomatoes and papayas were adjusted to deliver an equal amount of ?-carotene and lycopene. For the evaluation of bioavailability, TAG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions containing newly absorbed carotenoids were analysed over 9.5 h after test meal consumption. The bioavailability of ?-carotene from papayas was approximately three times higher than that from carrots and tomatoes, whereas differences in the bioavailability of ?-carotene from carrots and tomatoes were insignificant. Retinyl esters appeared in the TRL fractions at a significantly higher concentration after the consumption of the papaya test meal. Similarly, lycopene was approximately 2.6 times more bioavailable from papayas than from tomatoes. Furthermore, the bioavailability of ?-cryptoxanthin from papayas was shown to be 2.9 and 2.3 times higher than that of the other papaya carotenoids ?-carotene and lycopene, respectively. The morphology of chromoplasts and the physical deposition form of carotenoids were hypothesised to play a major role in the differences observed in the bioavailability of carotenoids from the foods investigated. Particularly, the liquid-crystalline deposition of ?-carotene and the storage of lycopene in very small crystalloids in papayas were found to be associated with their high bioavailability. In conclusion, papaya was shown to provide highly bioavailable ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin and lycopene and may represent a readily available dietary source of provitamin A for reducing the incidence of vitamin A deficiencies in many subtropical and tropical developing countries. PMID:23931131

  10. Carotenoids are more bioavailable from papaya than from tomato and carrot in humans: a randomised cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Kopec, Rachel E; Villalobos-Gutierrez, Maria G; Högel, Josef; Quesada, Silvia; Esquivel, Patricia; Schwartz, Steven J; Carle, Reinhold

    2014-02-01

    Carrot, tomato and papaya represent important dietary sources of ?-carotene and lycopene. The main objective of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of carotenoids from these food sources in healthy human subjects. A total of sixteen participants were recruited for a randomised cross-over study. Test meals containing raw carrots, tomatoes and papayas were adjusted to deliver an equal amount of ?-carotene and lycopene. For the evaluation of bioavailability, TAG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions containing newly absorbed carotenoids were analysed over 9·5 h after test meal consumption. The bioavailability of ?-carotene from papayas was approximately three times higher than that from carrots and tomatoes, whereas differences in the bioavailability of ?-carotene from carrots and tomatoes were insignificant. Retinyl esters appeared in the TRL fractions at a significantly higher concentration after the consumption of the papaya test meal. Similarly, lycopene was approximately 2·6 times more bioavailable from papayas than from tomatoes. Furthermore, the bioavailability of ?-cryptoxanthin from papayas was shown to be 2·9 and 2·3 times higher than that of the other papaya carotenoids ?-carotene and lycopene, respectively. The morphology of chromoplasts and the physical deposition form of carotenoids were hypothesised to play a major role in the differences observed in the bioavailability of carotenoids from the foods investigated. Particularly, the liquid-crystalline deposition of ?-carotene and the storage of lycopene in very small crystalloids in papayas were found to be associated with their high bioavailability. In conclusion, papaya was shown to provide highly bioavailable ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin and lycopene and may represent a readily available dietary source of provitamin A for reducing the incidence of vitamin A deficiencies in many subtropical and tropical developing countries. PMID:23931131

  11. SmartTouch: A new skin layer to touch the non-touchable Hiroyuki Kajimoto Masahiko Inami Naoki Kawakami Susumu Tachi

    E-print Network

    Tachi, Susumu

    not only can make physical contact with the object, but also "touch" surface information of any modalitySmartTouch: A new skin layer to touch the non-touchable Hiroyuki Kajimoto Masahiko Inami Naoki of haptic AR system [Nojima et al. 2002; Ando et al. 2002], and SmartTouch is a natural extension

  12. Object apprehension using vision and touch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajcsy, R.; Stansfield, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    Researchers define object apprehension as the determination of the properties of an object and the relationships among these properties. They contrast this with recognition, which goes a step further to attach a label to the object as a whole. Apprehension is fundamental to manipulation. This is true whether the manipulation is being carried out by an autonomous robot or is the result of teleoperation involving sensory feedback. Researchers present an apprehension paradigm using both vision and touch. In this model, they define a representation for object apprehension in terms of a set of primitives and features, along with their relationships. This representation is the mechanism by which the data from the two modalities are combined. It is also the mechanism which drives the apprehension process.

  13. Early Results Show Reduced Infection Rate Using No-touch Technique for Expander/ADM Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Infection is a common complication of immediate breast reconstruction that often leads to device removal, a result emotionally devastating to the patient and frustrating for her surgeon. “No-touch” techniques have been used in other surgical disciplines and plastic surgery, but they have not been reported for breast reconstruction with tissue expanders or implants and acellular dermis. We report a novel technique of tissue expander and acellular dermis placement using no-touch principles with a self-retaining retractor system that holds promise to decrease infectious complications of breast reconstruction. PMID:25878928

  14. Neural coding during active somatosensation revealed using illusory touch

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Daniel H.; Hires, S. Andrew; Guo, Zengcai V.; Li, Nuo; Yu, Jianing; Sun, Qian-Quan; Huber, Daniel; Svoboda, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Active sensation requires the convergence of external stimuli with representations of body movements. We used mouse behavior, electrophysiology and optogenetics to dissect the temporal interactions between whisker movement, neural activity, and sensation of touch. We photostimulated layer 4 activity in single barrels in closed-loop with whisking. Mimicking touch-related neural activity caused illusory perception of an object at a particular location, but scrambling the timing of spikes over one whisking cycle (tens of milliseconds) did not abolish the illusion, indicating that knowledge of instantaneous whisker position is unnecessary for discriminating object locations. Illusions were induced only during bouts of directed whisking, when mice expected touch, and in the relevant barrel. Reducing activity biased behavior consistent with a spike count code for object detection at a particular location. Our results show that mice integrate coding of touch with movement over timescales of a whisking bout to produce perception of active touch. PMID:23727820

  15. You can't touch this: touch-free navigation through radiological images.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Lars C; Hatch, Gary; Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Thali, Michael J; Ross, Steffen

    2012-09-01

    Keyboards, mice, and touch screens are a potential source of infection or contamination in operating rooms, intensive care units, and autopsy suites. The authors present a low-cost prototype of a system, which allows for touch-free control of a medical image viewer. This touch-free navigation system consists of a computer system (IMac, OS X 10.6 Apple, USA) with a medical image viewer (OsiriX, OsiriX foundation, Switzerland) and a depth camera (Kinect, Microsoft, USA). They implemented software that translates the data delivered by the camera and a voice recognition software into keyboard and mouse commands, which are then passed to OsiriX. In this feasibility study, the authors introduced 10 medical professionals to the system and asked them to re-create 12 images from a CT data set. They evaluated response times and usability of the system compared with standard mouse/keyboard control. Users felt comfortable with the system after approximately 10 minutes. Response time was 120 ms. Users required 1.4 times more time to re-create an image with gesture control. Users with OsiriX experience were significantly faster using the mouse/keyboard and faster than users without prior experience. They rated the system 3.4 out of 5 for ease of use in comparison to the mouse/keyboard. The touch-free, gesture-controlled system performs favorably and removes a potential vector for infection, protecting both patients and staff. Because the camera can be quickly and easily integrated into existing systems, requires no calibration, and is low cost, the barriers to using this technology are low. PMID:22064490

  16. Touch to Play -- Exploring Touch-Based Mobile Interaction with Public Displays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregor Broll; Roman Graebsch; Maximilian Scherr; Sebastian Boring; Paul Holleis; Matthias Wagner

    2011-01-01

    Mobile interactions with public displays are often indirect and not very convenient for multiple users at the same time. In this paper we use the physical, touch-based interaction with Near Field Communication (NFC) to investigate direct mobile interactions with public displays for multiple users. For that purpose, we adopt the Whack-a-Mole game for dynamic NFC-displays, which combine the physical interaction

  17. 78 FR 6835 - Certain Mobile Handset Devices and Related Touch Keyboard Software; Institution of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ...Handset Devices and Related Touch Keyboard Software; Institution of Investigation AGENCY...handset devices and related touch keyboard software by reason of infringement of certain...handset devices and related touch keyboard software that infringe one or more of claims...

  18. Modular and Deformable Touch-Sensitive Surfaces Based on Time Domain Reflectometry

    E-print Network

    Weske, Mathias

    -pin connector system that allows users to daisy chain touch-sensitive segments. We illustrate these enhancements to sketch touch-sensitive interfaces. (d) By daisy chaining wires, we create modular touch

  19. Touching Hearts, Touching Minds: Using Emotion-Based Messaging to Promote Healthful Behavior in the Massachusetts WIC Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colchamiro, Rachel; Ghiringhelli, Kara; Hause, Judith

    2010-01-01

    The "Touching Hearts, Touching Minds" initiative was funded through a 2003 United States Department of Agriculture Special Projects grant to revitalize nutrition education and services in the Massachusetts Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program. The 30 nutrition education materials and facilitated…

  20. The Effects of Initial Touch Keyboarding Speed Achievement of Fifth Graders and Touch Keyboarding Skill Retention in Seventh Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertl, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of initial touch speed achievement of fifth grade keyboarding students on their touch keyboarding skill retention in seventh grade. This was a longitudinal study generating quantitative data. The subjects for this study were 132 seventh grade students from a suburban middle school in…

  1. Is there touch in the game of Twister? The effects of innocuous touch and suggestive questions on children's eyewitness memory.

    PubMed

    Krackow, Elisa; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2003-12-01

    Preschool children (ages 48-70 months, N = 48) experienced 2 to-be-remembered events (i.e., the games Twister and Shapes) that included either innocuous bodily touch or no touch. Participants were interviewed 7 days later and asked direct ("Did Amy kiss you?") or suggestive "tag" questions ("Amy kissed you, didn't she?") equated for content. Results indicated that children who were innocuously touched were no more likely to falsely assent to "abuse-related" touch questions (e.g., "Amy touched your bottom, didn't she?") than were children who were not touched. However, children who were asked tag questions responded at chance levels, thereby making high errors of commission in response to abuse-touch questions relative to their no-tag counterparts who responded to "abuse questions" accurately 93% of the time. Children who were asked tag questions assented at a higher rate to general forensic questions ("Amy took your picture, didn't she?") than did children asked direct questions, and children assented at higher rates to "abuse-touch" questions than to general forensic questions. Results are discussed in terms of prior research on interviewing techniques and adult influence on children's testimony. PMID:14724958

  2. Fabrication of transparent double-walled carbon nanotubes flexible matrix touch panel by laser ablation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang-Jian, Shiang-Kuo; Ho, Jeng-Rong; John Cheng, J.-W.

    2011-11-01

    This study reports on the fabrication of transparent double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) flexible matrix touch panel using the method of laser ablation. We employed an Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) to pattern transparent DWNT thin film pre-coated on a PET substrate and successfully fabricated a flexible matrix touch panel. By increasing the laser energy, the ablation depth of transparent DWNT flexible thin film is increased but the sheet resistance (?/sq) is decreased. When the laser energy intensity reaches 117 mJ/cm 2, the DWNTs can be completely ablated from transparent DWNT flexible thin film. This method is rapid, simple, applicable to large-area processing and thus is potential for mass production.

  3. Resistance of non-transgenic papaya plants to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) mediated by intron-containing hairpin dsRNAs expressed in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shen, W; Yang, G; Chen, Y; Yan, P; Tuo, D; Li, X; Zhou, P

    2014-01-01

    RNA-mediated virus resistance based on natural antiviral RNA silencing has been exploited as a powerful tool for engineering virus resistance in plants. In this study, a conserved 3'-region (positions 9839-10117, 279 nt) of the capsid protein (CP) gene of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), designated CP279, was used to generate an intron-containing hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) construct by one-step, zero-background ligation-independent cloning (OZ-LIC). The RNaseIII-deficient Escherichia coli strain M-JM109lacY was identified as the best choice for producing large quantities of specific ihpRNA-CP279. Resistance analyses and ELISA data verified that most papaya plants mechanically co-inoculated with TRIzol-extracted ihpRNA-CP279 and PRSV were resistant to PRSV, and resistance was maintained throughout the test period (>2 months post-inoculation). In contrast, a 1-2 day interval between sequential inoculation of PRSV and ihpRNA-CP279 did not result in complete protection against PRSV infection, but delayed the appearance of viral symptoms by 3 to 4 days. These findings indicate that direct mechanical inoculation of papaya plants with bacterially-expressed ihpRNA-CP279 targeting the PRSV CP gene can interfere with virus infection. This work lays a foundation for developing a non-transgenic approach to control PRSV by directly spraying plants with ihpRNA or crude bacterial extract preparations. PMID:25283861

  4. IMPROVED CARICA PAPAYA TOLERANCE TO THE CARMINE SPIDER MITE BY EXPRESSION OF MANDUCA SEXTA CHITINASE TRANSGENE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya plants producing the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) chitinase protein were obtained following microprojectile bombardment of embryogenic calli derived from the hypocotyls of the cultivar Kapoho. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization of reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PC...

  5. Identification and biochemical characterization of a GDSL-motif carboxylester hydrolase from Carica papaya latex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Slim Abdelkafi; Hiroyuki Ogata; Nathalie Barouh; Benjamin Fouquet; Régine Lebrun; Michel Pina; Frantz Scheirlinckx; Pierre Villeneuve; Frédéric Carrière

    2009-01-01

    An esterase (CpEst) showing high specific activities on tributyrin and short chain vinyl esters was obtained from Carica papaya latex after an extraction step with zwitterionic detergent and sonication, followed by gel filtration chromatography. Although the protein could not be purified to complete homogeneity due to its presence in high molecular mass aggregates, a major protein band with an apparent

  6. Complete nucleotide sequence of a monopartite Begomovirus and associated satellites infecting Carica papaya in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shahid, M S; Yoshida, S; Khatri-Chhetri, G B; Briddon, R W; Natsuaki, K T

    2013-06-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) is a fruit crop that is cultivated mostly in kitchen gardens throughout Nepal. Leaf samples of C. papaya plants with leaf curling, vein darkening, vein thickening, and a reduction in leaf size were collected from a garden in Darai village, Rampur, Nepal in 2010. Full-length clones of a monopartite Begomovirus, a betasatellite and an alphasatellite were isolated. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Begomovirus showed the arrangement of genes typical of Old World begomoviruses with the highest nucleotide sequence identity (>99 %) to an isolate of Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV), confirming it as an isolate of AYVV. The complete nucleotide sequence of betasatellite showed greater than 89 % nucleotide sequence identity to an isolate of Tomato leaf curl Java betasatellite originating from Indonesian. The sequence of the alphasatellite displayed 92 % nucleotide sequence identity to Sida yellow vein China alphasatellite. This is the first identification of these components in Nepal and the first time they have been identified in papaya. PMID:23397078

  7. Antiplasmodial Properties and Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Carica papaya Leaves.

    PubMed

    Melariri, Paula; Campbell, William; Etusim, Paschal; Smith, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the antiplasmodial properties of crude extracts from Carica papaya leaves to trace the activity through bioassay-guided fractionation. The greatest antiplasmodial activity was observed in the ethyl acetate crude extract. C. papaya showed a high selectivity for P. falciparum against CHO cells with a selectivity index of 249.25 and 185.37 in the chloroquine-sensitive D10 and chloroquine-resistant DD2 strains, respectively. Carica papaya ethyl acetate extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation to ascertain the most active fraction, which was purified and identified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry) methods. Linoleic and linolenic acids identified from the ethyl acetate fraction showed IC(50) of 6.88??g/ml and 3.58??g/ml, respectively. The study demonstrated greater antiplasmodial activity of the crude ethyl acetate extract of Carica papaya leaves with an IC(50) of 2.96 ± 0.14??g/ml when compared to the activity of the fractions and isolated compounds. PMID:22174990

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...America and Brazil. 319.56-25 Section 319.56-25 Agriculture Regulations of the...Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and...Santo and all areas in the State of Rio Grande del Norte that contain...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and South America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...America and South America. 319.56-25 Section 319.56-25 Agriculture Regulations of the...Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and...Santo and all areas in the State of Rio Grande del Norte that contain...

  10. AUTOSOMAL DEGENERATION AS THE PROCESS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF A PRIMITIVE Y CHROMOSOME IN PAPAYA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant sex chromosomes, in contrast to those in animals, evolved recently and only a few are heteromorphic. Genomic analyses of the homomorphic sex chromosomes of papaya show features of the early stages of sex chromosome evolution. Sequence analysis of 20% of the male specific region (MSY) shows tha...

  11. Efforts to deregulate Rainbow papaya in Japan: Molecular Characterization of Transgene and Vector Inserts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transformation plasmid-derived insert number and insert site sequence in 55-1 line papaya derivatives Rainbow and SunUp was determined as part of a larger petition to allow its import into Japan (Suzuki, et al., 2007, 2008). Three insertions were detected by Southern analysis and their correspondin...

  12. Anthelmintic activity of papaya seeds on Hymenolepis diminuta infections in rats.

    PubMed

    Sapaat, A; Satrija, F; Mahsol, H H; Ahmad, A H

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to see the anthelmintic activity potential of papaya seeds against Hymenolepis diminuta in rats. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the effectiveness of papaya seeds on helminths especially H. diminuta in rats and (2) to determine the effective dose level on helminths in rats. Thirty six male rats from strain Sprague-Dawley were chosen as samples in this experiment. Two types of dose level were used for papaya seeds treatments such as 0.6 g kg-1 and 1.2 g kg-1. The geometric mean (GEM) was used to calculate mean for eggs per gram (EPG) before and after the treatment to be included in the reduction percentage calculation. After 21 days post treatment, necropsies were done to get the worm count and the GEM was used to calculate the efficacy percentage for the treatment. Results from this study showed that the reduction percentages in EPG for papaya seeds treatment for both doses level were very high which is 96.8% for 0.6g kg-1 dose level and 96.2% for 1.2 g kg-1 dose level. Whereas the efficacy percentage based on the worm counts for both doses level were also very high that was 90.77% for 0.6 g kg-1 dose level and 93.85% for 1.2 g kg-1. PMID:23202594

  13. Molecular and Clinical Effects of Green Tea and Fermented Papaya Preparation on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-14

    Assess the Effect of Green Tea on Diabetes; Assess the Effect of Fermented Papaya Pretration on Diabetes; Effects of Green Tea and FPP on C-reactive Proteins; Effects of Green Tea and FPP of Lipid Profiles in Diabetes; Effect of Green Tea and FPP on Atheroma Formation

  14. Autosomal Degeneration as the Process for the Evolution of a Primitive Y Chromosome in Papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant sex chromosomes, in contrast to those in animals, evolved recently and only a few are heteromorphic. Genomic analyses of the homomorphic sex chromosomes of papaya show features of the early stages of sex chromosome evolution. Sequence analysis of 20% of the male specific region (MSY) shows tha...

  15. Thrombocyte counts in mice after the administration of papaya leaf suspension.

    PubMed

    Sathasivam, Kathiresan; Ramanathan, Surash; Mansor, Sharif M; Haris, Mas Rosemal M H; Wernsdorfer, Walther H

    2009-10-01

    Following up a popular use of crude leaf preparations from Carica papaya for the treatment of dengue infections, a suspension of powdered Carica papaya leaves in palm oil has been investigated for its effect on thrombocyte counts in mice, administering by gavage 15 mg of powdered leaves per kg body weight to 5 mice. Equal numbers of animals received corresponding volumes of either palm oil alone or physiological saline solution. Thrombocyte counts before and at 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after dosing revealed significantly higher mean counts at 1, 2, 4, 8, 10 and 12 after dosing with the C. papaya leaf formulation as compared to the mean count at hour 0. There was only a non-significant rise of thrombocyte counts in the group having received saline solution, possibly the expression of a normal circadian rhythm in mice. The group having received palm oil only showed a protracted increase of platelet counts that was significant at hours 8 and 48 and obviously the result of a hitherto unknown stimulation of thrombocyte release. The results call for a dose-response investigation and for extending the studies to the isolation and identification of the C. papaya substances responsible for the release and/or production of thrombocytes. PMID:19915811

  16. Detection of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting the cucurbit weed Cucumis melo var. dudaim in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting Cucumis melo var. dudaim, a cucurbit weed, in Florida. It provides an overview of this virus reservoir for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

  17. Effects of sex and sex roles on avoidance of same- and opposite-sex touch.

    PubMed

    Crawford, C B

    1994-08-01

    Touch and touch avoidance are important facets of interpersonal relations. Touch avoidance has been related to sex, but the relationship between touch and sex roles has not been widely substantiated. 259 undergraduate students participated in a procedure designed to test the relationship between sex, sex roles, and same-sex and opposite-sex touch avoidance. Significant differences were reported between men and women on same-sex touch avoidance but not on opposite-sex touch avoidance. Participants high on androgyny reported less same-sex and opposite-sex touch avoidance than did subjects low on androgyny. No interactive effect between sex and androgyny was found for either same-sex or opposite-sex touch avoidance. Regression procedures indicated predictive models for sex and androgyny in relation to same-sex and opposite-sex touch avoidance. Specific conclusions regarding the relationships among sex, androgyny, and touch avoidance were stated. PMID:7991300

  18. Cell wall modification in 1-methylcyclopropene-treated post-climacteric fresh-cut and intact papaya fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muharrem Ergun; Yasar Karakurt; Donald J. Huber

    Papaya is a climacteric fruit in which ripening is greatly regulated by ethylene often associated with stress responses such\\u000a as wounding. The changes in cell wall compositions in papaya fruit at an advanced stage of ripening under stress conditions\\u000a including chilling temperature of 5°C and wounding employed as fresh-cut and how these changes were affected by an ethylene\\u000a action inhibitor

  19. Quantifying touch feel perception: tribological aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Yue, Z.; Cai, Z.; Chetwynd, D. G.; Smith, S. T.

    2008-08-01

    We report a new investigation into how surface topography and friction affect human touch-feel perception. In contrast with previous work based on micro-scale mapping of surface mechanical and tribological properties, this investigation focuses on the direct measurement of the friction generated when a fingertip is stroked on a test specimen. A special friction apparatus was built for the in situ testing, based on a linear flexure mechanism with both contact force and frictional force measured simultaneously. Ten specimens, already independently assessed in a 'perception clinic', with materials including natural wood, leather, engineered plastics and metal were tested and the results compared with the perceived rankings. Because surface geometrical features are suspected to play a significant role in perception, a second set of samples, all of one material, were prepared and tested in order to minimize the influence of properties such as hardness and thermal conductivity. To minimize subjective effects, all specimens were also tested in a roller-on-block configuration based upon the same friction apparatus, with the roller materials being steel, brass and rubber. This paper reports the detailed design and instrumentation of the friction apparatus, the experimental set-up and the friction test results. Attempts have been made to correlate the measured properties and the perceived feelings for both roughness and friction. The results show that the measured roughness and friction coefficient both have a strong correlation with the rough-smooth and grippy-slippery feelings.

  20. An Exploration of Multi-touch Interaction Techniques

    E-print Network

    Damaraju Sriranga, Sashikanth Raju

    2013-08-16

    Research in multi-touch interaction has typically been focused on direct spatial manipulation; techniques have been created to result in the most intuitive mapping between the movement of the hand and the resultant change in the virtual object...

  1. Mechanical systems biology of C. elegans touch sensation.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Michael; Dunn, Alexander R; Goodman, Miriam B

    2015-03-01

    The sense of touch informs us of the physical properties of our surroundings and is a critical aspect of communication. Before touches are perceived, mechanical signals are transmitted quickly and reliably from the skin's surface to mechano-electrical transduction channels embedded within specialized sensory neurons. We are just beginning to understand how soft tissues participate in force transmission and how they are deformed. Here, we review empirical and theoretical studies of single molecules and molecular ensembles thought to be involved in mechanotransmission and apply the concepts emerging from this work to the sense of touch. We focus on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a well-studied model for touch sensation in which mechanics can be studied on the molecular, cellular, and systems level. Finally, we conclude that force transmission is an emergent property of macromolecular cellular structures that mutually stabilize one another. PMID:25597279

  2. October 11, 2011 Keeping In Touch . . . Impacting Lives

    E-print Network

    October 11, 2011 Keeping In Touch . . . Impacting Lives SCHOOL OF ALLIED HEALTH PROFESSIONS LSUHSC, Cardiovascular Sonography, Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Occupational Therapy, Physical Thera- py, Physician Master Physical Therapy 36 months Doctor Physician Assistant 29 months Master Rehabilitation Counseling

  3. Touch interface for markless AR based on Kinect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Ching-Tang; Kuo, Tai-Ku; Wang, Hui-Chun; Wu, Yeh-Kuang; Chang, Liung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    We develop an augmented reality (AR) environment with hidden-marker via touch interface using Kinect device, and then also set up a touch painting game with the AR environment. This environment is similar to that of the touch screen interface which allows user to paint picture on a tabletop with his fingers, and it is designed with depth image information from Kinect device setting up above a tabletop. We incorporate support vector machine (SVM) to classify painted pictures which correspond to the inner data and call out its AR into the tabletop in color images information from Kinect device. Because users can utilize this similar touch interface to control AR, we achieve a marker-less AR and interactive environment.

  4. A Generalized Carpenter's Rule Theorem for Self-Touching Linkages

    E-print Network

    but not properly cross. At the heart of our proof is a new definition of self-touching configurations of planar, the geometry alone is insufficient to distinguish which portion is on top of which. The approach taken so far

  5. Finger pad friction and its role in grip and touch

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Michael J.; Johnson, Simon A.; Lefèvre, Philippe; Lévesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; André, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick–slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function. PMID:23256185

  6. Relation between impressions of a touch panels’ coloration and operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makiba Sakamoto; Hidetsugu Suto; Masahiro Sawai

    2010-01-01

    The relationships between the colors used in the design of touch panels and the operation of electronic devices are discussed,\\u000a and experiments that investigated the effects of color in the designs of touch panel interfaces on their operation and on\\u000a the impressions of users have been conducted. Subjects tried mental arithmetic tests on 12 types of screen which had different

  7. Automated quality inspection of surface defects on touch panels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong-Dar Lin; Huan-Hua Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Capacitive touch panels (CTPs) with advantages of water-proof, stain-proof, scratch-proof, and fast response are widely used in various electronic products built in touch technology functions. It is a difficult inspection task when defects imbedded on surfaces of CTPs with structural textures. This research proposes a Fourier transform-based approach to inspect surface defects of CTPs. When a CTP image with four

  8. Flexible transparent touch panel mounted on round surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koji Asano; Mitsuhiro Shikida; Kazuo Sato

    2012-01-01

    A flexible transparent touch panel based on conductive liquid channels was developed by a molding process. Transparent silicone rubber was used for producing the channel structures. The height, width, and length of the flow channel were 0.1, 1.0, and 40 mm, respectively. The pitch of the channels was 10 mm. Fabricated two-lined touch panels were stacked at an angle of

  9. Touch and temporal behavior of grand piano actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebl, Werner; Bresin, Roberto; Galembo, Alexander

    2005-08-01

    This study investigated the temporal behavior of grand piano actions from different manufacturers under different touch conditions and dynamic levels. An experimental setup consisting of accelerometers and a calibrated microphone was used to capture key and hammer movements, as well as the sound signal. Five selected keys were played by pianists with two types of touch (``pressed touch'' versus ``struck touch'') over the entire dynamic range. Discrete measurements were extracted from the accelerometer data for each of the over 2300 recorded tones (e.g., finger-key, hammer-string, and key bottom contact times, maximum hammer velocity). Travel times of the hammer (from finger-key to hammer-string) as a function of maximum hammer velocity varied clearly between the two types of touch, but only slightly between pianos. A travel time approximation used in earlier work [Goebl W., (2001). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 563-572] derived from a computer-controlled piano was verified. Constant temporal behavior over type of touch and low compression properties of the parts of the action (reflected in key bottom contact times) were hypothesized to be indicators for instrumental quality.

  10. Effects and after-effects of voluntary intermittent light finger touch on body sway.

    PubMed

    Johannsen, Leif; Lou, Shu-Zon; Chen, Hui-Ya

    2014-09-01

    Effects of light touch on body sway have usually been investigated with some form of constant contact. Only two studies investigated transient sway dynamics following the addition or withdrawal of light touch. This study adopted a paradigm of intermittent touch and assessed body sway during as well as following short periods of touch of varying durations to investigate whether effects and after-effects of touch differ as a function of touch duration. In a modified heel-to-toe posture, 15 blindfolded participants alternated their index finger position between no-touching and touching on a strain gauge in response to low- and high-pitched auditory cues. Five trials of 46 s duration were segmented into 11 sections: a 6-s no-touching period was followed by five pseudo-randomly ordered touching periods of 0.5-, 1-, 1.5-, 2-, and 5-s duration, each of which was followed by another 6-s no-touching interval. Consistent with previous research, compared to no-touching intervals sway was reduced during touch periods with touch durations greater than 2 s. Progressive reductions in sway were evident after touch onset. After touch withdrawal in the 2-s touch condition, postural sway increased and returned to baseline level nearly immediately. Interestingly, in the 5-s touch condition, reductions in sway persisted even after touch withdrawal in the medio-lateral and antero-posterior plane for around 2.5 s and 5.5 s, respectively. Our intermittent touch paradigm resulted in duration-dependent touch effects and after-effects; the latter is a novel finding and may result from a more persistent postural set involved in proactive sway control. PMID:25088757

  11. Soybean growth rate response to touch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Adam Santone / research data

    2012-03-23

    A time-lapse video showing differential growth rates for touch-treated seedlings and control seedlings. This would be appropriate for lessons about plant growth responses to environmental stress and graphing growth rate. Plants were grown in a vermiculite soilless medium with calcium-enhanced water. No other minerals or nutrients were used. Plants were grown in a dark room with specially-filtered green light. The plants did not grow by cellular reproduction but only by expansion of existing cells in the hypocotyl region below the 'hook'. Video contains three plants in total. The first two plants to emerge from the vermiculite medium are the control (right) and treatment (left) plants. A third plant emerges in front of these two but is removed at the time of treatment and is not relevant except to help indicate when treatment was applied (watch for when it disappears). When that plant disappears, the slowed growth rate of the treatment plant is apparent. Treatment included a gentle flexing of the hypocotyl region of the treatment seedling for approximately 5 seconds. A rubber glove was used at this time to avoid an contamination of the plant tissue. Some video players allow users to 'scrub' the playback back and forth. This would help teachers or students isolate particular times (as indicated by the watch) and particular measurements (as indicated by the cm scale). A graph could be constructed by first creating a data table and then plotting the data points from the table. Multiple measurements from the video could be taken to create an accurate graph of the plants' growth rates (treatment vs control). Instructions for graphing usage: The scale in the video is in centimeters (one cm increments). Students could observe the initial time on the watch in the video and use that observation to represent time (t) = 0. For that value, a mark could be made to indicate the height of the seedlings. As they advance and pause the video repeatedly, the students would mark the time (+2.5 hours for example) and mark the related seedling heights. It is not necessary to advance the video at any regular interval but is necessary to mark the time and related heights as accurately as possible. Students may use different time values and would thus have different data sets but should find that their graphs are very similar. (Good opportunity to collect data from real research and create their own data sets) It is advised that the students collect multiple data points around the time where the seedling growth slows in response to touch to more accurately collect information around that growth rate slowing event. The resulting graph should have an initial growth rate slope, a flatter slope after stress treatment, and a return to approximately the same slope as seen pre-treatment. More data points should yield a more thorough view of this. This would be a good point to discuss. Students can use some of their data points to calculate approximate pre-treatment, immediate post-treatment, and late post-treatment slopes for both the control and treatment seedlings. This video was created by the submitter and is original content. Full screen playback should be an option for most video players. Video quality may appear degraded with a larger image but this may aid viewing the watch and scale for data collection.

  12. The Prediction of Ink Thickness of Touch Panel by Neural Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Chien Huang; Chih-Kang Kung; Shang-Jen Chuang; Huang-Chu Hunag; Rey-Chue. Hwang

    2007-01-01

    The thickness of printing ink on touch panel is an important work, which is related with the quality of panel in real use. Therefore, how to make a well control in the film printing of touch panel is very important work in the manufacturing process of touch panel. In this paper, the prediction of ink thickness of touch panel based

  13. Phytochemistry and heamatological potential of ethanol seed leaf and pulp extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Ikpeme, E V; Ekaluo, U B; Kooffreh, M E; Udensi, O

    2011-03-15

    This study was aimed at qualitative evaluation of the ethanol seed, leaf and pulp extracts of C. papaya for bioactive compounds and also to investigate their effect on the haematology in male albino rats. A 3 x 4 factorial experimental layout using randomized complete design was adopted. Results show that the phytochemicals found in seed, leaf and pulp were almost the same but however, in varying proportions. Present result also revealed that there were significant effects (p < 0.05) of the extracts on the heamatology of the treated rats, which was blamed on the varying and different variants ofbioactive compounds found in the extracts they were administered with. Suggestively, C. papaya extracts could be used to enhance the production of selected blood parameters, taking issue of dosage into consideration. PMID:21902066

  14. Beverages of lemon juice and exotic noni and papaya with potential for anticholinergic effects.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    Lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.) juice beverages enriched either with noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) (LN) or papaya (Carica papaya L.) (LP), were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n), the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by (DPPH·), superoxide (O2(·-)), hydroxyl radicals (·OH) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) assays, and their potential as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors was also assessed. The fruits are rich in a wide range of bioactive phenolics. Regarding DPPH·, ·OH and HOCl assays, the LP displayed strong activity, and LN was the most active against O2(·-). Concerning cholinesterases, LP was the most active, mainly due to lemon juice contribution. The effect on the cholinesterases was not as strong as in previous reports on purified extracts, but the bioactive-rich beverages offer the possibility of dietary coadjutants for daily consumption of health-promoting substances by adults with aging-related cognitive or physical disorders. PMID:25306312

  15. Development and Validation of a Multiplex Reverse Transcription PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Three Papaya Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yang, Yong; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce similar symptoms in papaya. Each threatens commercial production of papaya on Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay was developed to detect simultaneously these three viruses by screening combinations of mixed primer pairs and optimizing the multiplex RT-PCR reaction conditions. A mixture of three specific primer pairs was used to amplify three distinct fragments of 613 bp from the P3 gene of PRSV, 355 bp from the CP gene of PLDMV, and 205 bp from the CP gene of PapMV, demonstrating the assay’s specificity. The sensitivity of the multiplex RT-PCR was evaluated by showing plasmids containing each of the viral target genes with 1.44 × 103, 1.79 × 103, and 1.91 × 102 copies for the three viruses could be detected successfully. The multiplex RT-PCR was applied successfully for detection of three viruses from 341 field samples collected from 18 counties of Hainan Island, China. Rates of single infections were 186/341 (54.5%), 93/341 (27.3%), and 3/341 (0.9%), for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively; 59/341 (17.3%) of the samples were co-infected with PRSV and PLDMV, which is the first time being reported in Hainan Island. This multiplex RT-PCR assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method for detecting multiple viruses in papaya and can be used for routine molecular diagnosis and epidemiological studies in papaya. PMID:25337891

  16. SODIUM TETRATHIONATE EFFECT ON PAPAIN PURIFICATION FROM DIFFERENT Carica papaya LATEX CRUDE EXTRACTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos R. Llerena-Suster; Nora S. Priolo; Susana R. Morcelle

    2011-01-01

    Papain from latex of Carica papaya was purified up to matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry homogeneity by salt precipitation from two different crude extract sources: a refined preparation obtained in our laboratory and a commercial one. Sodium tetrathionate was tested in the purification process to preserve the enzymatic activity of the peptidase. Purification was checked by sodium

  17. Field performance evaluation and genetic integrity assessment of cryopreserved papaya clones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Kaity; S. E. Ashmore; R. A. Drew

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the first report of field performance and evaluation of morphological traits following cryopreservation in four\\u000a genotypes of Carica papaya (Z6, 97, TS2 and 35). It also describes the successful establishment of in vitro plantlets following vitrification-based\\u000a cryopreservation of shoot tips and their acclimatisation through to field establishment. Cloned plants resulting from untreated\\u000a controls, as well as controls

  18. Comparative proteomic analysis of somatic embryo maturation in Carica papaya L.

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Somatic embryogenesis is a complex process regulated by numerous factors. The identification of proteins that are differentially expressed during plant development could result in the development of molecular markers of plant metabolism and provide information contributing to the monitoring and understanding of different biological responses. In addition, the identification of molecular markers could lead to the optimization of protocols allowing the use of biotechnology for papaya propagation and reproduction. This work aimed to investigate the effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on somatic embryo development and the protein expression profile during somatic embryo maturation in papaya (Carica papaya L.). Results The maturation treatment supplemented with 6% PEG (PEG6) resulted in the greatest number of somatic embryos and induced differential protein expression compared with cultures grown under the control treatment. Among 135 spots selected for MS/MS analysis, 76 spots were successfully identified, 38 of which were common to both treatments, while 14 spots were unique to the control treatment, and 24 spots were unique to the PEG6 treatment. The identified proteins were assigned to seven categories or were unclassified. The most representative class of proteins observed in the control treatment was associated with the stress response (25.8%), while those under PEG6 treatment were carbohydrate and energy metabolism (18.4%) and the stress response (18.4%). Conclusions The differential expression of three proteins (enolase, esterase and ADH3) induced by PEG6 treatment could play an important role in maturation, and these proteins could be characterized as candidate biomarkers of somatic embryogenesis in papaya. PMID:25076862

  19. Comparison of the Carotenoids in Yellow-and Red-fleshed Carica papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Y. Yamamoto

    1964-01-01

    THE colour of ripe Carica papaya flesh is due to caro-tenoid. Cryptoxanthin, violaxanthin, beta-carotene, and zeta-carotene have been identified1,2 in yellow-fleshed fruit. Red-fleshed varieties, which appear to exhibit a single gene difference from yellow-fleshed types3, can also be found. It was of interest to establish the pigment composition of the red-fleshed variety and at the same time to make a

  20. Investigating Maternal Touch and Infants' Self-Regulatory Behaviours during a Modified Face-to-Face Still-Face with Touch Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean, Amélie D. L.; Stack, Dale M.; Arnold, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Maternal touch and infants' self-regulatory behaviours were examined during a modified Still-Face with Touch (SF?+?T) procedure. Mothers and their 5½-month-old infants participated in one period of Normal interaction followed by three SF?+?T periods. Maternal functions of touch, and infants' self-regulatory behaviour, affect, and…

  1. Bioseparation of papain from Carica papaya latex by precipitation of papain-poly (vinyl sulfonate) complexes.

    PubMed

    Braia, Mauricio; Ferrero, Maximiliano; Rocha, María Victoria; Loureiro, Dana; Tubio, Gisela; Romanini, Diana

    2013-09-01

    The formation of insoluble complexes between enzymes and polyelectrolytes is a suitable technique for isolating these biomolecules from natural sources, because it is a simple and rapid technique that allows the concentration of the protein. This technique can be used in most purification protocols at the beginning of the downstream process. The aim of this investigation is to isolate papain from Carica papaya latex by precipitation of insoluble complexes between this enzyme and poly (vinyl sulfonate). The papain-poly (vinyl sulfonate) complex was insoluble at pH lower than 6, with a PVS/PAP stoichiometric ratio of 1:279. Ionic strength affected the complex formation. The presence of the polymer increased the enzymatic activity and protected the enzyme from autodegradation. The optimal conditions for the formation of insoluble papain-polyelectrolyte complex formation were applied to C. papaya latex and a high recovery was obtained (around 86%) and a purification factor around 2. This method can be applied as an isolation method of papain from C. papaya latex or as a first step in a larger purification strategy. PMID:23891572

  2. Reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage by Carica papaya leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Okoko, Tebekeme; Ere, Diepreye

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the in vitro antioxidant potential of Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract and its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage assessed by haemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Methods Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, hydrogen ion scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and the ferrous ion reducing ability were assessed as antioxidant indices. In the other experiment, human erythrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide to induce erythrocyte damage. The extract (at various concentrations) was subsequently incubated with the erythrocytes and later analysed for haemolysis and lipid peroxidation as indices for erythrocyte damage. Results Preliminary investigation of the extract showed that the leaf possessed significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities using in vitro models in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). The extract also reduced hydrogen peroxide induced erythrocyte haemolysis and lipid peroxidation significantly when compared with ascorbic acid (P<0.05). The IC50 values were 7.33 mg/mL and 1.58 mg/mL for inhibition of haemolysis and lipid peroxidation, respectively. In all cases, ascorbic acid (the reference antioxidant) possessed higher activity than the extract. Conclusions The findings show that C. papaya leaves possess significant bioactive potential which is attributed to the phytochemicals which act in synergy. Thus, the leaves can be exploited for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes. PMID:23569948

  3. Complete genome of Hainan papaya ringspot virus using small RNA deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuliang; Yu, Naitong; Huang, Qixing; Yin, Guohua; Guo, Anping; Wang, Xiangfeng; Xiong, Zhongguo; Liu, Zhixin

    2014-06-01

    Small RNA deep sequencing allows for virus identification, virus genome assembly, and strain differentiation. In this study, papaya plants with virus-like symptoms collected in Hainan province were used for deep sequencing and small RNA library construction. After in silicon subtraction of the papaya sRNAs, small RNA reads were used to in the viral genome assembly using a reference-guided, iterative assembly approach. A nearly complete genome was assembled for a Hainan isolate of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-HN-2). The complete PRSV-HN-2 genome (accession no.: KF734962) was obtained after a 15-nucleotide gap was filled by direct sequencing of the amplified genomic region. Direct sequencing of several random genomic regions of the PRSV isolate did not find any sequence discrepancy with the sRNA-assembled genome. The newly sequenced PRSV-HN-2 genome shared a nucleotide identity of 96 and 94 % to that of the PRSV-HN (EF183499) and PRSV-HN-1 (HQ424465) isolates, and together with these two isolates formed a new PRSV clade. These data demonstrate that the small RNA deep sequencing technology provides a viable and rapid mean to assemble complete viral genomes in plants. PMID:24510356

  4. Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Quintal, Pedro; González-Flores, Tania; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintoré, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC(50) for the leaf extract was 0.625 mg ml(-1) for Fusarium spp. and >10 mg ml(-1) for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties. PMID:22282629

  5. Sequencing papaya X and Yh chromosomes reveals molecular basis of incipient sex chromosome evolution

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Yu, Qingyi; Gschwend, Andrea R.; Han, Jennifer; Zeng, Fanchang; Aryal, Rishi; VanBuren, Robert; Murray, Jan E.; Zhang, Wenli; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Feltus, F. Alex; Lemke, Cornelia; Tong, Eric J.; Chen, Cuixia; Man Wai, Ching; Singh, Ratnesh; Wang, Ming-Li; Min, Xiang Jia; Alam, Maqsudul; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H.; Jiang, Jiming; Paterson, Andrew H.; Ming, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Sex determination in papaya is controlled by a recently evolved XY chromosome pair, with two slightly different Y chromosomes controlling the development of males (Y) and hermaphrodites (Yh). To study the events of early sex chromosome evolution, we sequenced the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome (HSY) and its X counterpart, yielding an 8.1-megabase (Mb) HSY pseudomolecule, and a 3.5-Mb sequence for the corresponding X region. The HSY is larger than the X region, mostly due to retrotransposon insertions. The papaya HSY differs from the X region by two large-scale inversions, the first of which likely caused the recombination suppression between the X and Yh chromosomes, followed by numerous additional chromosomal rearrangements. Altogether, including the X and/or HSY regions, 124 transcription units were annotated, including 50 functional pairs present in both the X and HSY. Ten HSY genes had functional homologs elsewhere in the papaya autosomal regions, suggesting movement of genes onto the HSY, whereas the X region had none. Sequence divergence between 70 transcripts shared by the X and HSY revealed two evolutionary strata in the X chromosome, corresponding to the two inversions on the HSY, the older of which evolved about 7.0 million years ago. Gene content differences between the HSY and X are greatest in the older stratum, whereas the gene content and order of the collinear regions are identical. Our findings support theoretical models of early sex chromosome evolution. PMID:22869747

  6. Modelling and design of a capacitive touch sensor for urinary tract infection detection at the point-of-care.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Catia; Tao Dong

    2014-08-01

    Due to great use of touchscreens in mobile telephones and other electronic devices, there has been great evolution in this technology. Its wide applicability makes the touch sensor technology suitable for detection of specific components in urine, responsible for urinary tract infection (UTI). Integration of a touch sensor in a disposable probe tip to be used in UTI detection represents a powerful tool to develop new point-of-care testing (POCT) devices. The simplified structure of an electrodes array touch screen was simulated using the software COMSOL Multiphysics to prove that capacitive based touch screens can be used for detection of UTI. Besides we assumed presence of E.coli, one of the major causes of UTI urine. Results show that global capacitance increases if an E.coli sphere is present near the active electrodes, remaining approximately constant when further apart electrodes are excited. The output simulated voltage varies according to the capacitance value, decreasing when the capacitance is increased. PMID:25571114

  7. Effects of a light touch on fixed or mobile supports on gait parameters in visually restricted young adults.

    PubMed

    Bingenheimer, Katja; Temprado, Jean Jacques; Harnagea, Marta; Bricot, Nicolas; Villani, Patrick; Berton, Eric

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the effects of lightly touching fixed and mobile supports on gait parameters and center of mass oscillations in visually restricted young adults. Fourteen healthy male and female adults of mean=23.6 years (SD=1.6 years). Twelve walking conditions were completed on the GAITRite measurement system, resulting from crossing 3 conditions of visual restriction (no restriction, partial restriction, blindfolded) and 4 conditions of haptic supplementation (no supplementation, with a cane used as "light touch", with a cane sliding on the ground, while touching a soft elastic handrail). Gait speed, stance time, step length and the basis of support were measured. Accelerations of center of mass were also recorded through an accelerometer and the displacements of center of mass were analyzed. Results showed that visual restriction decreased in gait speed, reduced step length, while it increased the base of support and the amplitude of CoM displacements. In the full restriction condition, haptic supplementation provided by the use of the classic cane improved normalized stance time (%). In addition, in the no vision condition, both the classic cane and the soft handrail increased step length and reduced medio-lateral oscillations of the CoM. These results suggest that in visually restricted healthy adults, lightly touching a fixed (soft handrail) or a mobile (classic cane) support contributes to adaptation of gait parameters and postural control during locomotion. PMID:25623038

  8. Physicochemical, nutritional, and microbial quality of fresh-cut and frozen papaya prepared from cultivars with varying resistance to internal yellowing disease (Enterobacter cloacae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quality, nutritional, and microbial analyses were completed for fresh-cut and frozen papaya cubes prepared from cultivars with varying resistance to internal yellowing disease, caused by the bacterium Enterobacter cloacae. In general, fresh-cut and frozen papaya retained nutritional and microbial qu...

  9. Bioefficacy of larvicdial and pupicidal properties of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad, against chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kalimuthu Kovendan; Kadarkarai Murugan; Arjunan Naresh Kumar; Savariar Vincent; Jiang-Shiou Hwang

    The present study was carried out to establish the properties of Carica papaya leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad on larvicidal and pupicidal activity against the chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti. The medicinal plants were collected from the area around Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India. C. papaya leaf was washed with tap water and shade-dried at room temperature. An electrical blender powdered

  10. Usability of touch-panel interfaces for older adults.

    PubMed

    Murata, Atsuo; Iwase, Hirokazu

    2005-01-01

    The usability of a touch-panel interface was compared among young, middle-aged, and older adults. In addition, a performance model of a touch panel was developed so that pointing time could be predicted with higher accuracy. Moreover, the target location to which a participant could point most quickly was determined. The pointing time with a PC mouse was longer for the older adults than for the other age groups, whereas there were no significant differences in pointing time among the three age groups when a touch-panel interface was used. Pointing to the center of a square target led to the fastest pointing time among nine target locations. Based on these results, we offer some guidelines for the design of touch-panel interfaces and show implications for users of different age groups. Actual or potential applications of this research include designing touch-panel interfaces to make them accessible for older adults and predicting movement times when users operate such devices. PMID:16553065

  11. The perception of touch and the ventral somatosensory pathway.

    PubMed

    Preusser, Sven; Thiel, Sabrina D; Rook, Carolin; Roggenhofer, Elisabeth; Kosatschek, Anna; Draganski, Bogdan; Blankenburg, Felix; Driver, Jon; Villringer, Arno; Pleger, Burkhard

    2015-03-01

    In humans, touching the skin is known to activate, among others, the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex on the postcentral gyrus together with the bilateral parietal operculum (i.e. the anatomical site of the secondary somatosensory cortex). But which brain regions beyond the postcentral gyrus specifically contribute to the perception of touch remains speculative. In this study we collected structural magnetic resonance imaging scans and neurological examination reports of patients with brain injuries or stroke in the left or right hemisphere, but not in the postcentral gyrus as the entry site of cortical somatosensory processing. Using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping, we compared patients with impaired touch perception (i.e. hypoaesthesia) to patients without such touch impairments. Patients with hypoaesthesia as compared to control patients differed in one single brain cluster comprising the contralateral parietal operculum together with the anterior and posterior insular cortex, the putamen, as well as subcortical white matter connections reaching ventrally towards prefrontal structures. This finding confirms previous speculations on the 'ventral pathway of somatosensory perception' and causally links these brain structures to the perception of touch. PMID:25541190

  12. Repeated dose 28-days oral toxicity study of Carica papaya L. leaf extract in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Afzan, Adlin; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Halim, Siti Zaleha; Rashid, Badrul Amini; Semail, Raja Hazlini Raja; Abdullah, Noordini; Jantan, Ibrahim; Muhammad, Hussin; Ismail, Zakiah

    2012-01-01

    Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from 'Sekaki' C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and histopathology changes. A total of twelve compounds consisting of one piperidine alkaloid, two organic acids, six malic acid derivatives, and four flavonol glycosides were characterized or tentatively identified in the C. papaya leaf extract. In the sub-acute study, the C. papaya extract did not cause mortality nor were treatment-related changes in body weight, food intake, water level, and hematological parameters observed between treatment and control groups. Some biochemical parameters such as the total protein, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP were elevated in a non-dose dependent manner. Histopathological examination of all organs including liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Other parameters showed non-significant differences between treatment and control groups. The present results suggest that C. papaya leaf extract at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine in Malaysia could be considered safe as a medicinal agent. PMID:22491681

  13. A New Approach to Defining Human Touch Temperature Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene; Stroud, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Defining touch temperature limits for skin contact with both hot and cold objects is important to prevent pain and skin damage, which may affect task performance or become a safety concern. Pain and skin damage depend on the skin temperature during contact, which depends on the contact thermal conductance, the object's initial temperature, and its material properties. However, previous spacecraft standards have incorrectly defined touch temperature limits in terms of a single object temperature value for all materials, or have provided limited material-specific values which do not cover the gamut of likely designs. A new approach has been developed for updated NASA standards, which defines touch temperature limits in terms of skin temperature at pain onset for bare skin contact with hot and cold objects. The authors have developed an analytical verification method for safe hot and cold object temperatures for contact times from 1 second to infinity.

  14. An ergonomics study of thumb movements on smartphone touch screen.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jinghong; Muraki, Satoshi

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the relationships between thumb muscle activity and thumb operating tasks on a smartphone touch screen with one-hand posture. Six muscles in the right thumb and forearm were targeted in this study, namely adductor pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis brevis (APB), abductor pollicis longus, first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and extensor digitorum. The performance measures showed that the thumb developed fatigue rapidly when tapping on smaller buttons (diameter: 9 mm compared with 3 mm), and moved more slowly in flexion-extension than in adduction-abduction orientation. Meanwhile, the electromyography and perceived exertion values of FDI significantly increased in small button and flexion-extension tasks, while those of APB were greater in the adduction-abduction task. This study reveals that muscle effort among thumb muscles on a touch screen smartphone varies according to the task, and suggests that the use of small touch buttons should be minimised for better thumb performance. PMID:24707989

  15. Adapting deployed touch screen displays for NVG compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudette, Claude

    2008-04-01

    As the battlefield becomes "digitized", all arms of the military are deploying COTS displays in the form of Portable Notebooks, Kneeboards, GPS and PDA's in ever greater numbers. Many of these COTS equipments and associated displays use full color LCD's and resistive touch panels as the operator-interface. These displays are a challenge to those who must modify the COTS equipment for NVG compatibility. Traditional NVG filter options have relatively poor color rendering and are too thick or rigid to interface with touch panels. In addition, many of these displays do not have sufficient dimming capabilities to allow covert night-time operations and do not have sufficient luminance for daytime operations. Polymeric materials recently developed by Wamco have been specifically designed for applications where traditional NVG filters have failed. These applications will be discussed and quantified in terms of NVG Compatibility, Color Rendering, Luminance Contrast and Daytime Readability, Touch Screen Sensitivity and Environmental Performance.

  16. Evidence for a protein tether involved in somatic touch

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jing; Chiang, Li-Yang; Koch, Manuel; Lewin, Gary R

    2010-01-01

    The gating of ion channels by mechanical force underlies the sense of touch and pain. The mode of gating of mechanosensitive ion channels in vertebrate touch receptors is unknown. Here we show that the presence of a protein link is necessary for the gating of mechanosensitive currents in all low-threshold mechanoreceptors and some nociceptors of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Using TEM, we demonstrate that a protein filament with of length ?100 nm is synthesized by sensory neurons and may link mechanosensitive ion channels in sensory neurons to the extracellular matrix. Brief treatment of sensory neurons with non-specific and site-specific endopeptidases destroys the protein tether and abolishes mechanosensitive currents in sensory neurons without affecting electrical excitability. Protease-sensitive tethers are also required for touch-receptor function in vivo. Thus, unlike the majority of nociceptors, cutaneous mechanoreceptors require a distinct protein tether to transduce mechanical stimuli. PMID:20075867

  17. Barrel cortex membrane potential dynamics in social touch.

    PubMed

    Lenschow, Constanze; Brecht, Michael

    2015-02-18

    The impact of social stimuli on the membrane potential dynamics of barrel cortex neurons is unknown. We obtained in vivo whole-cell recordings in the barrel cortex of head-restrained rats while they interacted with conspecifics. Social touch was associated with a depolarization and large membrane potential fluctuations locked to the rat's whisking. Both depolarization and membrane potential fluctuations were already observed prior to contact and did not occur during free whisking. This anticipatory pre-contact depolarization was not seen in passive social touch in anesthetized animals. The membrane potential fluctuations locked to the rat's whisking observed in interactions with awake conspecifics were larger than those seen for whisking onto nonconspecific stimuli (stuffed rats, objects, and the experimenter's hand). Responses did not correlate with whisker movement parameters. We conclude that responses to social touch differ from conventional tactile responses in (1) amplitude, (2) locking to whisking, and (3) pre-contact membrane potential changes. PMID:25640075

  18. 32.3 / T.-K. Ho 32.3: Simple Single-Layer Multi-Touch Projected Capacitive

    E-print Network

    32.3 / T.-K. Ho 32.3: Simple Single-Layer Multi-Touch Projected Capacitive Touch Panel Tsz-Kin Ho A simple projected capacitive touch panel is developed. This touch panel is capable of detecting multi. This approach provides a simple and low cost alternative to current capacitive multi-touch panel design. 1

  19. Gender and the Communication of Emotion Via Touch

    PubMed Central

    Keltner, Dacher

    2010-01-01

    We reanalyzed a data set consisting of a U.S. undergraduate sample (N?=?212) from a previous study (Hertenstein et al. 2006a) that showed that touch communicates distinct emotions between humans. In the current reanalysis, we found that anger was communicated at greater-than-chance levels only when a male comprised at least one member of a communicating dyad. Sympathy was communicated at greater-than-chance levels only when a female comprised at least one member of the dyad. Finally, happiness was communicated only if females comprised the entire dyad. The current analysis demonstrates gender asymmetries in the accuracy of communicating distinct emotions via touch between humans. PMID:21297854

  20. Detection of platypus-type L/D-peptide isomerase activity in aqueous extracts of papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Kensuke; Koh, Jennifer M S; Crossett, Ben; Torres, Allan M; Kuchel, Philip W

    2012-09-01

    Peptide isomerase catalyses the post-translational isomerisation of the L: - to the D: -form of an amino acid residue around the N/C-termini of substrate peptides. To date, some peptide isomerases have been found in a limited number of animal secretions and cells. We show here that papaya extracts have weak peptide isomerase activity. The activity was detected in each 30-100 kDa fraction of the flesh and the seed extracts of unripe and ripe papaya fruit. The definitive activity was confirmed in the ripe papaya extracts, but even then it was much less active than that of the other peptide isomerases previously reported. The activity was markedly inhibited by methanol, and partly so by amastatin and diethyl pyrocarbonate. This is the first report of peptide isomerase activity in a plant and suggests that perhaps every living organism may have some peptide isomerase activity. PMID:22648682

  1. Comparative evaluation of volatiles, phenolics, sugars, organic acids and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papaya varieties.

    PubMed

    Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan; Gubbuk, Hamide; Gunes, Esma

    2015-04-15

    The present study was designed to determine the phenolic compounds, organic acids, sugars, aroma profiles and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papayas grown in Turkey. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used for the phenolic compounds analysis. Twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in the samples. The total phenolic content of Sel-42 was clearly higher than that of Tainung. Protocatechuic acid-hexoside, gallic acid-deoxyhexoside, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolics in both cultivars. Aroma composition of papaya was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 46 and 42 aroma compounds, including esters, alcohols, terpenes, lactones, acids, carbonyl compounds, and volatile phenols were identified in the Sel-42 and Tainung, respectively. The significant linear correlation was confirmed between the values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of papaya extracts. PMID:25466106

  2. A novel useful tool of computerized touch panel-type screening test for evaluating cognitive function of chronic ischemic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Kentaro; Kono, Syoichiro; Deguchi, Shoko; Morimoto, Nobutoshi; Kurata, Tomoko; Ikeda, Yoshio; Abe, Koji

    2013-10-01

    Cognitive and affective impairments are important non-motor features of ischemic stroke (IS) related to white-matter hyperintensity, including periventricular hyperintensity (PVH). To confirm the usefulness of a novel computerized touch panel-type screening test, we investigated cognitive and affective functioning among 142 IS patients and 105 age-and gender-matched normal control subjects. Assessment using the mini-mental state examination, Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised, and frontal assessment battery revealed reduced cognitive function in IS patients, with the most severe reduction exhibited by cardiogenic embolism patients, followed by lacunar infarction patients, and atherothrombotic infarction patients. Our novel touch panel screening test revealed a similar pattern of results. In addition, PVH grading, classified using Fazekas' magnetic resonance imaging method, was also correlated with cognitive decline and touch panel screening test performance. In contrast, affective function, assessed with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, vitality index, and apathy scale, was not significantly decreased in IS, and did not correlate with touch panel screening test results or PVH, although the number of microbleeds was correlated with apathy scale results. The present findings revealed that IS and PVH grading were significantly correlated with decline in general cognitive status (mini-mental state examination and Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised) and frontal lobe function (frontal assessment battery). Performance on all touch panel screening tests was correlated with IS and PVH grading, but was largely independent of depression or apathy. Touch panel screening tests were easily understood and performed by almost all patients with mild cognitive and motor dysfunction, due to visually clear images and simple methods not involving detailed manual-handling tasks such as writing. Touch panel screening tests may provide a useful tool for the early screening of cognitive function. PMID:23290436

  3. Babies Touch, Taste, and Learn: A Guide for Parents.

    E-print Network

    Anonymous,

    1979-01-01

    touching you Hold him close to your body. Stroke his cheek Rub his body when you : bathe him. ~dby needs things he can grasp Things he can hold Things he can drop Babies learn by tasting Give babies toys that are safe They will put them...

  4. Cognitive Neuroscience: Scene Layout from Vision and Touch

    E-print Network

    Epstein, Russell A.

    strongly to `scenes' made out of Lego blocks than to `objects' constructed from the same materials [6' from Lego blocks. On each haptic trial, subjects explored four scenes or objects by touch for 12 and visual runs, the PPA and RSC responded more strongly to Lego scenes than to Lego objects. This suggests

  5. Collaborative Learning with Multi-Touch Technology: Developing Adaptive Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Emma M.; Higgins, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Developing fluency and flexibility in mathematics is a key goal of upper primary schooling, however, while fluency can be developed with practice, designing activities that support the development of flexibility is more difficult. Drawing on concepts of adaptive expertise, we developed a task for a multi-touch classroom, NumberNet, that aimed to…

  6. Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators and Exciting Materials (HS)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-22

    In this lesson plan, Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators, and Exciting Materials, high school students learn that heating up a material can rearrange its atoms, and change its properties. The change in the material (a nitinol wire shortens due to heat) activates a lever that exerts force.

  7. Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators and Exciting Materials (MS)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-02-01

    In this lesson plan, Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators, and Exciting Materials, middle school students learn that heating up a material can rearrange its atoms, and change its properties. The change in the material (a nitinol wire shortens due to heat) activates a lever that exerts force.

  8. Infants & Toddlers: Development--The Power of Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2005-01-01

    When a baby is born, parents check for fingers and toes, and over the next few weeks remain alert to whether the baby can see and hear. When babies nurse well, parents are assured that the sense of taste and smell are fine. But what about touch? This crucial sense for babies is often overlooked. In this article, the author discusses how to ensure…

  9. This is just one of the many touching stories

    E-print Network

    This is just one of the many touching stories from Camp Tiger. All money raised at the Camp Tiger Auction will go towards funding Camp Tiger, a week-long summer camp put on by LSUHSC first year medical students for children with special health care needs. Need more information on the Camp Tiger Benefit

  10. Wave Touch: Educational Game on Interactive Tabletop with Water Simulation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Wave Touch: Educational Game on Interactive Tabletop with Water Simulation JoongHo Lee1 , Won Moon1 the powerful potential of interactive tabletops for the entertainment domain, we developed an educational game}@kist.re.kr 2 Game Research Center, College of Information and Communication, Korea University { sadiles, jhan

  11. Touch. Talking About Non-Verbal Communication: A Corpus Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Xiaotian

    1999-01-01

    Presents the third and final report of an analysis of nonverbal communication. In this report, the phrase "touch wood" is investigated using the Bank of English Corpus. The first two phrases examined were "shrug" and "hold one's gaze." Each of these phrases relates to an aspect of communication that may hold particular difficulties for someone…

  12. An avionics touch screen-based control display concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Michael; Damveld, Herman J.; Borst, Clark

    2012-06-01

    In many cockpits, control display units (CDUs) are vital input and information devices. In order to improve the usability of these devices, Barco, in cooperation with TU-Delft, created a touch screen control unit (TSCU), consisting of a high-quality multi-touch screen. The unit fits in the standard dimensions of a conventional CDU and is thus suitable for both retrofit and new installations. The TSCU offers two major advantages. First, the interface can be reconfigured to enable consecutive execution of several tasks on the same display area, allowing for a more efficient usage of the limited display real-estate as well as a potential reduction of cost. Secondly, advanced graphical interface design, in combination with multi-touch gestures, can improve human-machine interaction. To demonstrate the capabilities of this concept, a graphical software application was developed to perform the same operations as a conventional CDU, but now using a direct manipulation interface (DMI) of the displayed graphics. The TSCU can still be used in a legacy CDU mode, displaying a virtual keyboard operated with the touch interface. In addition, the TSCU could be used for a variety of other cockpit functions. The paper concludes with a report of pilot and non-pilot feedback.

  13. Haptic Augmentation of Science Instruction: Does Touch Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail; Minogue, James; Tretter, Thomas R.; Negishi, Atsuko; Taylor, Russell

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of haptic augmentation of a science inquiry program on students' learning about viruses and nanoscale science. The study assessed how the addition of different types of haptic feedback (active touch and kinesthetic feedback) combined with computer visualizations influenced middle and high school students'…

  14. 15.1-inch touch tactical avionics display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufnagel, Bruce D.; Barnidge, T. J.; Tchon, Joe L.

    2008-04-01

    A new avionics prototype has been developed combining a very large high-resolution display area with a touch panel designed for warfighter and civil-aviation use. This paper describes the design challenges as well as the prototype's capability and concept for application in airborne environments.

  15. Designing industrial batching system based on touch panel and PLC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huang Qian; QingHai Heng; Jian Sun

    2009-01-01

    This paper make simatic touch panel and PLC for centre to design industrial batching system, using Wincc flexible as HMI configuration software. The designed system presents good functions such as dynamic real-time monitoring, auto-alarm, recipe supervise, print outcome and so on. It has advantages of stabilization, security, easy to operate and more faster, finally realize the system's batched and mixed

  16. A paperless fax machine with a single-touch panel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng Wen; Chih-Hung Huang

    2008-01-01

    To eliminate the drawbacks of the conventional fax machines, this paper proposes a new paperless fax machine equipped with a single-touch panel, replacing the scanning and the printing units which not only take up most space but also are the most costly and vulnerable parts. In the proposed paperless fax machine, a received fax can be displayed and, if necessary,

  17. Touching: Communication During a Quiet Activity. Occasional Paper No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mary Lou S.

    This paper reports an exploratory study in nonverbal communication, which had two objectives: (1) to look closely at touching as a communicative behavior and to describe the categories of behaviors; and (2) to evaluate the "Form for Observation of Physical Contact," developed in a previous study. A total of 47 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds, grouped in…

  18. EXPLORING COMPUTER-GENERATED LINE GRAPHS THROUGH VIRTUAL TOUCH

    E-print Network

    Brewster, Stephen

    of this work is to provide blind people with access to graphs and tables by using virtual reality technologies and mathematical functions to blind people using haptic feedback [3, 6, 9]. However, the development of the haptic or visually impaired people. Computer-generated line graphs can be felt by users through the sense of touch

  19. Sociality, Physicality and Spatiality: touching private and public displays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Dix; Corina Sas; Devina Ramduny-Ellis; Steve Gill; Joanna Hare

    This paper considers two strands of research that each contributes to an understanding of touch-based interaction with private and public displays. The first is based on general frameworks for private device-public display interaction, which is driven by the growing body of work in the area, but focuses on the level of integration of public and private devices and the importance

  20. Implementation of Expressive Physical Touch in Depressed Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MaryBeth Tank Buschmann; Linda M. Hollinger-Smith; Sharon E. Peterson-Kokkas

    1999-01-01

    Depression is a serious problem among older adults and there is limited research on the most effective way to implement and evaluate the effects of expressive touch, either alone or in combination with verbalization, on levels of depression. A convenience sample of 24 institutionalized depressed older adult subjects (15 females and 9 males), ages 67 to 91 years was used

  1. Girls' Touch Football, Physical Education: 5551.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kathy

    This course outline is a guide for teaching basic understanding of fundamental skills and rules of girls' touch football in grades 7-12. The course format includes lectures, demonstrations, practice of basic skills, visual aids, lead-up games, presentation and practice of officiating techniques, tournaments, and written and skills tests. Course…

  2. Touch and Discover. Grades PreK-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    Students work in pairs or small groups to identify and categorize various objects. One student is blindfolded and the other student chooses five objects for his/her partner to identify. The blindfolded student has to describe and try to identify the object based solely on touch. Both students then record their data, describing the objects first as…

  3. Interaction Design Patterns For Multi-touch Tabletop Collaborative Games

    E-print Network

    Goh, Wooi Boon

    , many cooperative design patterns such as those investigated for board games and console-based videoInteraction Design Patterns For Multi- touch Tabletop Collaborative Games Abstract Characteristics be exploited in the design of interactions that facilitate positive social interaction among children during

  4. High Touch in a High-Tech World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Cindy L.

    2009-01-01

    In a world of high tech and low touch, it is easy for public relations programs to stray from tried-and-true interpersonal strategies long associated with solid communication planning. New technologies allow communications professionals to quickly send e-mails and telephone calls to selected groups. Social media sites provide users immediate…

  5. Electromechanical hand incorporates touch sensors and trigger function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dane, D. H.

    1970-01-01

    Electromechanical hand incorporates touch sensors, concealed fingers, and a structure that allows the hand to hold a tool on a flat surface. The hands can be mounted on most types of existing manipulators either directly or by means of modified mounting brackets.

  6. Affective TouchCasting Leonardo Bonanni and Cati Vaucelle

    E-print Network

    Ishii, Hiroshi

    Casting.' We have prototyped such a device in the form of an apparently normal scarf that contains modular showing flexible haptic I/O modules (left) in a discrete fashionable scarf (right). Pilot studies on first-generation prototypes informed the design of actuators and patterns of touch that connote social contact. The second

  7. TapTap: A Haptic Wearable for Asynchronous Distributed Touch

    E-print Network

    Ishii, Hiroshi

    therapy. Haptic input/output modules in a convenient modular scarf provide affectionate touch that can Therapy, Fashion Design. ACM Classification Keywords H5.2. User Interfaces: Haptic I/O. Introduction Human 02139 USA amerigo@media.mit.edu Cati Vaucelle Harvard University Graduate School of Design 48 Quincy

  8. Interviewing Young Children about Body Touch and Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Margaret S.; Steward, David S.

    1996-01-01

    Children ages 3-6 years were interviewed following a scheduled pediatric clinic visit to assess their ability to remember and report incidents of body touch. Follow-up interviews were conducted after one and six months. Results suggest that children actively and accurately process their experiences and that the quality and quantity of their…

  9. Comparing Physical, Overlay, and Touch Screen Parameter Controls

    E-print Network

    Tory, Melanie

    and movement tasks with dial and slider controls on horizontal touch screens. Results showed that physical. With physical electronics (stereos, sound mixers, oscilloscopes, etc.), people are accustomed to manipulating they are not very portable. Props must often be supported by a horizontal surface, making them impractical for use

  10. Design of a therapeutic robotic companion for relational, affective touch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Dan Stiehl; Jeff Lieberman; Cynthia Breazeal; Louis Basel; Levi Lalla; Michael Wolf

    2005-01-01

    Much research has shown the positive health benefits of companion animals. Unfortunately these animals are not always available to patients due to allergies, risk of disease, or other reasons. Recently, this application domain has attracted attention of robotics researchers. The Huggable is a new type of robotic companion capable of active relational and affective touch-based interactions with a person. It

  11. The effect of relationship status on communicating emotions through touch.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Erin H; Hampton, James A

    2011-02-01

    Research into emotional communication to date has largely focused on facial and vocal expressions. In contrast, recent studies by Hertenstein, Keltner, App, Bulleit, and Jaskolka (2006) and Hertenstein, Holmes, McCullough, and Keltner (2009) exploring nonverbal communication of emotion discovered that people could identify anger, disgust, fear, gratitude, happiness, love, sadness and sympathy from the experience of being touched on either the arm or body by a stranger, without seeing the touch. The study showed that strangers were unable to communicate the self-focused emotions embarrassment, envy and pride, or the universal emotion surprise. Literature relating to touch indicates that the interpretation of a tactile experience is significantly influenced by the relationship between the touchers (Coan, Schaefer, & Davidson, 2006). The present study compared the ability of romantic couples and strangers to communicate emotions solely via touch. Results showed that both strangers and romantic couples were able to communicate universal and prosocial emotions, whereas only romantic couples were able to communicate the self-focused emotions envy and pride. PMID:21432672

  12. 23.2: Selecting Resistive Touch Panels to Match the LCD and User Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce C. DeVisser

    A presentation and discussion of relevant criteria to be used by engineers, designers, product developers and end users in selecting resistive touch panels for use with flat panel displays for creation of touch- enabled Human Machine Interfaces (HMIs).

  13. SilentSense: Silent User Identification Via Touch and Movement Behavioral Biometrics

    E-print Network

    Li, Xiang-Yang

    . By tracking the fine-detailed touch ac- tions of the user, we build a "touch-based biometrics" model], it would be god for devices to silently know exactly who is using it, so as to provide necessary privacy

  14. 19 CFR 4.82 - Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. 4.82 Section...TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Coastwise Procedure § 4.82 Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. (a) A...

  15. Dual innervation of neonatal Merkel cells in mouse touch domes.

    PubMed

    Niu, Jingwen; Vysochan, Anna; Luo, Wenqin

    2014-01-01

    Merkel cell-neurite complexes are specialized mechanosensory end organs that mediate discriminative touch sensation. It is well established that type I slowly adapting (SAI) mechanoreceptors, which express neural filament heavy chain (NFH), innervate Merkel cells. It was previously shown that neurotrophic factor NT3 and its receptor TrkC play crucial roles in controlling touch dome Merkel cell innervation of NFH+ fibers. In addition, nerve fibers expressing another neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK), Ret, innervate touch dome Merkel cells as well. However, the relationship between afferents responsive to NT3/TrkC signaling and those expressing Ret is unclear. It is also controversial if these Ret+ fibers belong to the early or late Ret+ DRG neurons, which are defined based on the co-expression and developmental dependence of TrkA. To address these questions, we genetically traced Ret+ and TrkC+ fibers and analyzed their developmental dependence on TrkA. We found that Merkel cells in neonatal mouse touch domes receive innervation of two types of fibers: one group is Ret+, while the other subset expresses TrkC and NFH. In addition, Ret+ fibers depend on TrkA for their survival and normal innervation whereas NFH+ Merkel cell innervating fibers are almost unaltered in TrkA mutant mice, supporting that Ret+ and NFH+/TrkC+ afferents are two distinct groups. Ret signaling, on the other hand, plays a minor role for the innervation of neonatal touch domes. In contrast, Merkel cells in the glabrous skin are mainly contacted by NFH+/TrkC+ afferents. Taken together, our results suggest that neonatal Merkel cells around hair follicles receive dual innervation while Merkel cells in the glabrous skin are mainly innervated by only SAI mechanoreceptors. In addition, our results suggest that neonatal Ret+ Merkel cell innervating fibers most likely belong to the late but not early Ret+ DRG neurons. PMID:24637732

  16. Crossing the hands increases illusory self-touch.

    PubMed

    Pozeg, Polona; Rognini, Giulio; Salomon, Roy; Blanke, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Manipulation of hand posture, such as crossing the hands, has been frequently used to study how the body and its immediately surrounding space are represented in the brain. Abundant data show that crossed arms posture impairs remapping of tactile stimuli from somatotopic to external space reference frame and deteriorates performance on several tactile processing tasks. Here we investigated how impaired tactile remapping affects the illusory self-touch, induced by the non-visual variant of the rubber hand illusion (RHI) paradigm. In this paradigm blindfolded participants (Experiment 1) had their hands either uncrossed or crossed over the body midline. The strength of illusory self-touch was measured with questionnaire ratings and proprioceptive drift. Our results showed that, during synchronous tactile stimulation, the strength of illusory self-touch increased when hands were crossed compared to the uncrossed posture. Follow-up experiments showed that the increase in illusion strength was not related to unfamiliar hand position (Experiment 2) and that it was equally strengthened regardless of where in the peripersonal space the hands were crossed (Experiment 3). However, while the boosting effect of crossing the hands was evident from subjective ratings, the proprioceptive drift was not modulated by crossed posture. Finally, in contrast to the illusion increase in the non-visual RHI, the crossed hand postures did not alter illusory ownership or proprioceptive drift in the classical, visuo-tactile version of RHI (Experiment 4). We argue that the increase in illusory self-touch is related to misalignment of somatotopic and external reference frames and consequently inadequate tactile-proprioceptive integration, leading to re-weighting of the tactile and proprioceptive signals.The present study not only shows that illusory self-touch can be induced by crossing the hands, but importantly, that this posture is associated with a stronger illusion. PMID:24699795

  17. Crossing the Hands Increases Illusory Self-Touch

    PubMed Central

    Pozeg, Polona; Rognini, Giulio; Salomon, Roy; Blanke, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Manipulation of hand posture, such as crossing the hands, has been frequently used to study how the body and its immediately surrounding space are represented in the brain. Abundant data show that crossed arms posture impairs remapping of tactile stimuli from somatotopic to external space reference frame and deteriorates performance on several tactile processing tasks. Here we investigated how impaired tactile remapping affects the illusory self-touch, induced by the non-visual variant of the rubber hand illusion (RHI) paradigm. In this paradigm blindfolded participants (Experiment 1) had their hands either uncrossed or crossed over the body midline. The strength of illusory self-touch was measured with questionnaire ratings and proprioceptive drift. Our results showed that, during synchronous tactile stimulation, the strength of illusory self-touch increased when hands were crossed compared to the uncrossed posture. Follow-up experiments showed that the increase in illusion strength was not related to unfamiliar hand position (Experiment 2) and that it was equally strengthened regardless of where in the peripersonal space the hands were crossed (Experiment 3). However, while the boosting effect of crossing the hands was evident from subjective ratings, the proprioceptive drift was not modulated by crossed posture. Finally, in contrast to the illusion increase in the non-visual RHI, the crossed hand postures did not alter illusory ownership or proprioceptive drift in the classical, visuo-tactile version of RHI (Experiment 4). We argue that the increase in illusory self-touch is related to misalignment of somatotopic and external reference frames and consequently inadequate tactile-proprioceptive integration, leading to re-weighting of the tactile and proprioceptive signals.The present study not only shows that illusory self-touch can be induced by crossing the hands, but importantly, that this posture is associated with a stronger illusion. PMID:24699795

  18. Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract.

    PubMed

    Tham, Ching S; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Haleagrahara, Nagaraja; DE Alwis, Ranjit

    2013-02-01

    Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) following lead acetate administration and pre-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) followed by lead acetate administration. The substances were administered for 14 days. The effects were evaluated by measuring protein carbonyl content (PCC) and glutathione content (GC) in the bone marrow. Histological changes in the bone marrow were also observed. The results showed that Carica papaya induced a significant reduction in the PCC activity and significantly increased the GC in the bone marrow. Carica papaya also improved the histology of the bone marrow compared with that of the lead acetate-treated group. In summary, Carica papaya was effective against the oxidative damage caused by lead acetate in the bone marrow and had a stimulatory effect on haemopoiesis. PMID:23403524

  19. Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract

    PubMed Central

    THAM, CHING S.; CHAKRAVARTHI, SRIKUMAR; HALEAGRAHARA, NAGARAJA; DE ALWIS, RANJIT

    2013-01-01

    Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) following lead acetate administration and pre-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) followed by lead acetate administration. The substances were administered for 14 days. The effects were evaluated by measuring protein carbonyl content (PCC) and glutathione content (GC) in the bone marrow. Histological changes in the bone marrow were also observed. The results showed that Carica papaya induced a significant reduction in the PCC activity and significantly increased the GC in the bone marrow. Carica papaya also improved the histology of the bone marrow compared with that of the lead acetate-treated group. In summary, Carica papaya was effective against the oxidative damage caused by lead acetate in the bone marrow and had a stimulatory effect on haemopoiesis. PMID:23403524

  20. Effects of sex and sex roles on same-sex touch.

    PubMed

    Crawford, C B

    1994-04-01

    Touch is an important aspect of nonverbal behavior. Important aspects of the relationship of gender and sex roles with same-sex touch were highlighted. 259 subjects participated in the procedure, yielding a significant difference between men and women on same-sex touch. Further, androgyny was significantly correlated with ratings on the Same-sex Touching Scale. Specific conclusions regarding these findings were discussed. PMID:8022666

  1. Amelioration of oxidative stress in red blood cells from patients with beta-thalassemia major and intermedia and E-beta-thalassemia following administration of a fermented papaya preparation.

    PubMed

    Fibach, Eitan; Tan, Ee-Shien; Jamuar, Saumya; Ng, Ivy; Amer, Johnny; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer A

    2010-09-01

    In beta-hemoglobinopathies, such as beta-thalassemia (thal) and sickle cell anemia, the primary defects are mutations in the beta-globin gene. However, many aspects of the pathophysiology are mediated by oxidative stress. Fermented papaya preparation (FPP), a natural health food product obtained by biofermentation of carica papaya, has been shown to limit oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. We studied the effect of FPP on two groups of beta-thal patients: beta-thal, major and intermedia, (in Israel) and E-beta-thal (in Singapore). The results indicated that in both groups FPP treatment increased the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) in red blood cells (RBC), and decreased their reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, membrane lipid peroxidation, and externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS), indicating amelioration of their oxidative status, without a significant change in the hematological parameters. Since the turnover of the erythron is relatively slow, it is possible that longer duration of treatment, probably with the addition of an iron chelator, is required in order to achieve the latter goals. PMID:20127662

  2. It's Mine, Don't Touch!: interactions at a large multi-touch display in a city centre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Peltonen; Esko Kurvinen; Antti Salovaara; Giulio Jacucci; Tommi Ilmonen; John Evans; Antti Oulasvirta; Petri Saarikko

    2008-01-01

    We present data from detailed observations of CityWall, a large multi-touch display installed in a central location in Helsinki, Finland. During eight days of installation, 1199 persons interacted with the system in various social con- figurations. Videos of these encounters were examined qualitatively as well as quantitatively based on human cod- ing of events. The data convey phenomena that arise

  3. Identification and biochemical characterization of a GDSL-motif carboxylester hydrolase from Carica papaya latex.

    PubMed

    Abdelkafi, Slim; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Barouh, Nathalie; Fouquet, Benjamin; Lebrun, Régine; Pina, Michel; Scheirlinckx, Frantz; Villeneuve, Pierre; Carrière, Frédéric

    2009-11-01

    An esterase (CpEst) showing high specific activities on tributyrin and short chain vinyl esters was obtained from Carica papaya latex after an extraction step with zwitterionic detergent and sonication, followed by gel filtration chromatography. Although the protein could not be purified to complete homogeneity due to its presence in high molecular mass aggregates, a major protein band with an apparent molecular mass of 41 kDa was obtained by SDS-PAGE. This material was digested with trypsin and the amino acid sequences of the tryptic peptides were determined by LC/ESI/MS/MS. These sequences were used to identify a partial cDNA (679 bp) from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of C. papaya. Based upon EST sequences, a full-length gene was identified in the genome of C. papaya, with an open reading frame of 1029 bp encoding a protein of 343 amino acid residues, with a theoretical molecular mass of 38 kDa. From sequence analysis, CpEst was identified as a GDSL-motif carboxylester hydrolase belonging to the SGNH protein family and four potential N-glycosylation sites were identified. The putative catalytic triad was localised (Ser(35)-Asp(307)-His(310)) with the nucleophile serine being part of the GDSL-motif. A 3D-model of CpEst was built from known X-ray structures and sequence alignments and the catalytic triad was found to be exposed at the surface of the molecule, thus confirming the results of CpEst inhibition by tetrahydrolipstatin suggesting a direct accessibility of the inhibitor to the active site. PMID:19555778

  4. Computer-aided video analysis of vertebrofemoral motion during toe touching in healthy subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Tully; Barry C. Stillman

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Despite widespread use of the toe touch test, the relative contribution from vertebral and hip movements has not been clearly established, largely because of unsatisfactory measurement techniques. This study aimed to reinvestigate the kinematics of toe touching by combining computerized videotape analysis with a new model of reference marker placement.Method: Twenty-two subjects were videotaped during active toe touching from

  5. Enhancing the Entertainment Experience of Blind and Low-Vision Theatregoers through Touch Tours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udo, J. P.; Fels, D. I.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate how universal design theory and the research available on museum-based touch tours can be used to develop a touch tour for blind and low-vision theatregoers. We discuss these theoretical and practical approaches with reference to data collected and experience gained from the creation and execution of a touch tour for…

  6. Grips and Gestures on a Multi-Touch Pen Hyunyoung Song1,3,4

    E-print Network

    Hunt, Galen

    Grips and Gestures on a Multi-Touch Pen Hyunyoung Song1,3,4 , Hrvoje Benko1 , François Guimbretière enabled when the barrel of a digital pen is augmented with a multi- touch sensor. We present a novel multi-touch pen (MTPen) prototype and discuss its alternate uses beyond those of a standard stylus

  7. Grips and Gestures on a Multi-Touch Pen Hyunyoung Song1,3,4

    E-print Network

    Hunt, Galen

    1 Grips and Gestures on a Multi-Touch Pen Hyunyoung Song1,3,4 , Hrvoje Benko1 , Francois enabled when the barrel of a digital pen is augmented with a multi- touch sensor. We present a novel multi-touch pen (MTPen) prototype and discuss its alternate uses beyond those of a standard stylus

  8. Understanding Pen and Touch Interaction for Data Exploration on Interactive Whiteboards

    E-print Network

    Rajamani, Sriram K.

    Understanding Pen and Touch Interaction for Data Exploration on Interactive Whiteboards Jagoda. Recent advances in interface capabilities such as the availability of pen and touch interaction challenge they portray. We conducted a Wizard of Oz study to explore applying pen and touch interaction to the creation

  9. Error backpropagation neural calibration and Kalman filter position estimation for touch panels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Chang Lai; Ching-Chih Tsai; Han-Chang Lin

    2004-01-01

    This work develops a methodology and technique for calibration and dynamic touching position estimation of touch panels using error backpropagation neural networks (EBPNN) and Kalman filter. A neural-based calibration method is presented to determine the nonlinear mapping relationships of the measured and known touch points, and then calibrate their positions in a real-time manner. In order to obtain position estimation

  10. Paper Control Panel: Making Paper-based Touch Interface Kaneko Masahiro1

    E-print Network

    Tanaka, Jiro

    1 2 Paper Control Panel: Making Paper-based Touch Interface Kaneko Masahiro1 Tanaka Jiro2 Abstract: We present the Paper Control Panel, which is a paper-based touch interface for operating a com- puter examples. This interface is based on drawn closed shapes. When the user touches one of these shapes

  11. Mediated social touch: a review of current research and future directions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antal Haans; Wijnand Ijsselsteijn

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we review research and applications in the area of mediated or remote social touch. Whereas current communication media rely predominately on vision and hearing, mediated social touch allows people to touch each other over a distance by means of haptic feedback technology. Overall, the reviewed applications have interesting potential, such as the communication of simple ideas (e.g.,

  12. A Tool to Study Affective Touch: Goals & Design of the Haptic Creature

    E-print Network

    MacLean, Karon

    A Tool to Study Affective Touch: Goals & Design of the Haptic Creature Abstract Touch and auditory expressions of affect. We are developing the Haptic Creature to investigate fundamentals Creature project is to investigate the use of affective touch in the social interaction between human

  13. 19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Form 1379 to touch and trade. When a fishing vessel departs from the United...

  14. 19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Form 1379 to touch and trade. When a fishing vessel departs from the United...

  15. 19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Form 1379 to touch and trade. When a fishing vessel departs from the United...

  16. 19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Form 1379 to touch and trade. When a fishing vessel departs from the United...

  17. 19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Form 1379 to touch and trade. When a fishing vessel departs from the United...

  18. Gesture Registration, Relaxation, and Reuse for Multi-Point Direct-Touch Surfaces , Chia Shen1

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    touches on a wall or tabletop surface, much like they might interact with physical artifacts in the realGesture Registration, Relaxation, and Reuse for Multi-Point Direct-Touch Surfaces Mike Wu1,2 , Chia interaction with direct-touch computation surfaces has been the focus of significant research activity

  19. Physically touching and tasting virtual objects enhances the realism of virtual experiences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. G. Hoffman; A. Hollander; K. Schroder; S. Rousseau; T. Furness

    1998-01-01

    Experiment 1 explored the impact of physically touching a virtual object on how realistic the virtual environment (VE) seemed to the user. Subjects in a ‘no touch’ group picked up a 3D virtual image of a kitchen plate in a VE, using a traditional 3D wand. ‘See and touch’ subjects physically picked up a virtual plate possessing solidity and weight,

  20. How To Make Large Touch Screens Usable While Driving Sonja Rmelin

    E-print Network

    physical handles to ease orientation on a large flat surface. In the third approach, directional touch, proprioception, haptics, physical objects, touch gestures, in-vehicle information systems, automotive userHow To Make Large Touch Screens Usable While Driving Sonja Rümelin 1,2 , Andreas Butz 2 1 BMW Group

  1. The Sensory Neurons of Touch Victoria E. Abraira1 and David D. Ginty1,*

    E-print Network

    Alford, Simon

    the richness of the physical world? Aris- totle classified touch, along with vision, hearing, smell, and taste perceive and react to the physical world is rooted in our understanding of the sensory neurons of touchNeuron Review The Sensory Neurons of Touch Victoria E. Abraira1 and David D. Ginty1,* 1The Solomon

  2. Gesture Coder: A Tool for Programming Multi-Touch Gestures by Demonstration

    E-print Network

    Pregibon, Daryl

    to the physical action of stretching a real world object using two fingers. Clearly, multi-touch gesturesGesture Coder: A Tool for Programming Multi-Touch Gestures by Demonstration Hao Lü* Computer Li Google Research 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway Mountain View, CA 94043 yangli@acm.org ABSTRACT Multi-touch

  3. Barrier Pointing: Using Physical Edges to Assist Target Acquisition on Mobile Device Touch Screens

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Richard

    Barrier Pointing: Using Physical Edges to Assist Target Acquisition on Mobile Device Touch Screens screens. The iPhone features only one physical button, relying instead almost exclusively on touch screen popular pervasive technologies. Many of these devices contain touch screens, which can present problems

  4. Separability of Spatial Manipulations in Multi-touch Interfaces Miguel A. Nacenta1

    E-print Network

    Hunt, Galen

    " because it resembles how we manipulate objects in the physical world. Unfortunately, multi-touch gesturesSeparability of Spatial Manipulations in Multi-touch Interfaces Miguel A. Nacenta1 , Patrick Multi-touch interfaces allow users to translate, rotate, and scale digital objects in a single

  5. A Robust and Fast Monocular-Vision-Based Hand Tracking Method for Virtual Touch Screen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhao Yong-jia; Dai Shu-ling

    2009-01-01

    An articulated hand tracking method which can be used in virtual touch screen system (VTSS) using monocular camera is proposed. The VTSS is a novel vision-based interactive surface without the need for physical touch screen. The articulated hand model provides more information than fingertips to be in touch with the interactive surface. Using a simplified kinematic model of the hand,

  6. Touchplates: Low-Cost Tactile Overlays for Visually Impaired Touch Screen Users

    E-print Network

    Kane, Shaun K.

    designed tactile guides that provide tactile feedback for touch screens in the form of physical guidesTouchplates: Low-Cost Tactile Overlays for Visually Impaired Touch Screen Users Shaun K. Kane UMBC feedback to touch screens can improve their accessibility to blind users, but prior approaches

  7. A Rapid Shape Acquisition Method by Integrating User Touching Input , Jinho Jung, Yongqiang Li

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yong

    physical objects is #12;2/17 presented. Motivated by the popularity of touch-based systems such as IPhone digital models from physical objects that are used in their daily lives. Figure 2: Data flow of Touch1/17 A Rapid Shape Acquisition Method by Integrating User Touching Input Yong Chen* , Jinho Jung

  8. A Personal Journey in Understanding Physical Touch as a Nursing Intervention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer J. Rombalski

    2003-01-01

    Physical touch is a critical concept in the nursing profession and an essential component in patient healing. Literature sources reviewed in this article support the presence of both positive and negative patient responses to nurses’ touch. Comprehensive steps to ensure positive responses to touch are proposed. This article reports a registered nurse’s transitional journey through nursing school and related experiences

  9. Towards User-Defined Multi-Touch Gestures for 3D Objects Sarah Buchanan

    E-print Network

    LaViola Jr., Joseph J.

    physical gestures. Author Keywords Multi-touch; gestures; gesture recognition; referents. ACM that afford physical actions (e.g., a knob affords turning) on a multi-touch device. Wobbrock et al. defines is a necessary precursor for future work on exploring how physical versus metaphorical multi-touch interactions

  10. Touch Cues: Teaching Pre-Language Skills to Infants with Multiple Handicaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeirnan, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the use of touch as a strategy to teach children with multiple handicaps. Touch cues help children to anticipate events and to interpret information from the environment. Caregivers should first observe the child's existing repertoire of movements, and then create touch cues that build upon the child's preferred…

  11. Evaluating Controls for a Point and Shoot Mobile Game: Augmented Reality, Touch and Tilt.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Evaluating Controls for a Point and Shoot Mobile Game: Augmented Reality, Touch and Tilt. Asier Bordeaux, Talence, France ABSTRACT Controls based on Augmented Reality (AR), Tilt and Touch have been experience, videogames, controller, augmented reality, tilt, touch. Index Terms: H.5.1 [Information

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of the highland papayas ( Vasconcellea ) and allied genera (Caricaceae) using PCR-RFLP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Van Droogenbroeck; T. Kyndt; I. Maertens; E. Romeijn-Peeters; X. Scheldeman; J. P. Romero-Motochi; P. Van Damme; P. Goetghebeur; G. Gheysen

    2004-01-01

    The chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA diversity of 61 genotypes belonging to 18 Vasconcellea species, the so-called highland papayas, was studied by PCR-RFLP analysis of two non-coding cpDNA regions ( trnM- rbcL and trnK1- trnK2) and one non-coding mtDNA region ( nad4\\/1- nad4\\/2). This sample set was supplemented with six genotypes belonging to three other Caricaceae genera: the monotypic genus Carica,

  13. Effect of Temperature on the Development and Survival of Immature Stages of the Carambola Fruit Fly, Bactrocera carambolae, and the Asian Papaya Fruit Fly, Bactrocera papayae, Reared On Guava Diet

    PubMed Central

    Danjuma, Solomon; Thaochan, Narit; Permkam, Surakrai; Satasook, Chutamas

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex constitute wellrecognized destructive pests of fruits in peninsular Thailand. The development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, were compared at six constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D). The objectives were to determine the effect of temperature on the developmental stages for optimizing rearing and to understand the geographical pattern of occurrence of these fruit fly species. A strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of immature stages of B. carambolae. Similarly, a strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of B. papayae. A temperature summation model was used to estimate the lower threshold temperature and the thermal constant. Bactrocera papayae was significantly faster in development and higher in survival and appeared to be better adapted to low temperatures than B. carambolae, as it exhibited the lowest threshold temperatures at all immature stages. The observed differences in response to various temperatures revealed to some extent the impact of temperature on these species' distribution in peninsular Thailand and other parts of the world. PMID:25368070

  14. Quantifying the sensory and emotional perception of touch: differences between glabrous and hairy skin

    PubMed Central

    Ackerley, Rochelle; Saar, Karin; McGlone, Francis; Backlund Wasling, Helena

    2014-01-01

    The perception of touch is complex and there has been a lack of ways to describe the full tactile experience quantitatively. Guest et al. (2011) developed a Touch Perception Task (TPT) in order to capture such experiences, and here we used the TPT to examine differences in sensory and emotional aspects of touch at different skin sites. We compared touch on three skin sites: the hairy arm and cheek, and the glabrous palm. The hairy skin contains C-tactile (CT) afferents, which play a role in affective touch, whereas glabrous skin does not contain CT afferents and is involved in more discriminative touch. In healthy volunteers, three different materials (soft brush, sandpaper, fur) were stroked across these skin sites during self-touch or experimenter-applied touch. After each stimulus, participants rated the tactile experience using descriptors in the TPT. Sensory and emotional descriptors were analyzed using factor analyses. Five sensory factors were found: Texture, Pile, Moisture, Heat/Sharp and Cold/Slip, and three emotional factors: Positive Affect, Arousal, and Negative Affect. Significant differences were found in the use of descriptors in touch to hairy vs. glabrous skin: this was most evident in touch on forearm skin, which produced higher emotional content. The touch from another was also judged as more emotionally positive then self-touch, and participants readily discriminated between the materials on all factors. The TPT successfully probed sensory and emotional percepts of the touch experience, which aided in identifying skin where emotional touch was more pertinent. It also highlights the potentially important role for CTs in the affective processing of inter-personal touch, in combination with higher-order influences, such as through cultural belonging and previous experiences. PMID:24574985

  15. Active Touch During Shrew Prey Capture

    PubMed Central

    Munz, Martin; Brecht, Michael; Wolfe, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Although somatosensation in multiple whisker systems has been studied in considerable detail, relatively little information is available regarding whisker usage and movement patterns during natural behaviors. The Etruscan shrew, one of the smallest mammals, relies heavily on its whisker system to detect and kill its highly mobile insect prey. Here, we tracked whisker and body motion during prey capture. We found that shrews made periodic whisker movements (whisking) with frequencies ranging from 12 to 17?Hz. We compared shrew and rat whisking and found that shrew whisking was smaller amplitude and higher frequency than rat whisking, but that the shrew and rat whisking cycle were similar in that the velocity was higher during retraction than protraction. We were able to identify four phases during the shrew hunting behavior: (i) an immobile phase often preceding hunting, (ii) a search phase upon the initiation of hunting, (iii) a contact phase defined by whisker-to-cricket contact, and (iv) an attack phase, characterized by a rapid head movement directed toward the cricket. During the searching phase, whisking was generally rhythmic and whiskers were protracted forward. After prey contact, whisking amplitude decreased and became more variable. The final strike was associated with an abrupt head movement toward the prey with high head acceleration. Prey capture proceeded extremely fast and we obtained evidence that shrews can initiate corrective maneuvers with a minimal latency <30?ms. While the shrew's rostrum is straight and elongated during most behaviors, we show for the first time that shrews bend their rostrum during the final strike and grip their prey with a parrot beak shaped snout. PMID:21283557

  16. Schur monotone decreasing sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganikhodjaev, Rasul; Saburov, Mansoor; Saburov, Khikmat

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce Schur monotone decreasing sequences in an n-dimensional space by considering a majorization pre-order. By means of down arrow mappings, we study omega limiting points of bounded Schur monotone decreasing sequences. We provide convergence criteria for such kinds of sequences. We prove that a Cesaro mean (or an arithmetic mean) of any bounded Schur monotone decreasing sequences converges to a unique limiting point.

  17. Effects of chitosan-based coatings containing peppermint essential oil on the quality of post-harvest papaya fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible coatings comprised of antimicrobial polymers based on chitosan are promising technologies to preserve post-harvest fruit quality. In this study, we investigated the potential utility of a coating made from chitosan modified by N-acylation with fatty acid to preserve post-harvest papaya qualit...

  18. Plant response to evapotranspiration and soil water sensor irrigation scheduling methods for papaya production in south Florida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kati W. Migliaccio; Bruce Schaffer; Jonathan H. Crane; Frederick S. Davies

    2010-01-01

    An irrigation study was conducted to determine the effects of implementing different irrigation practices on growth and yields of papaya plants in south Florida. Treatments included using automated switching tensiometers based on soil water status, irrigation based on ET calculated from historic weather data and a set schedule irrigation regime. The study consisted of two trials (2006–2007 and 2008–2009). Water

  19. 76 FR 13972 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ...Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Papaya...public that we have prepared a pest risk analysis for the purpose of evaluating...risk. We are making the pest risk analysis available to the public for...

  20. Effect of pre-harvest calcium chloride applications on fruit calcium level and post-harvest anthracnose disease of papaya

    E-print Network

    Biggs, Alan R.

    Effect of pre-harvest calcium chloride applications on fruit calcium level and post October 2013 Keywords: Papaya Anthracnose Calcium Disease incidence Disease severity a b s t r a c losses. The goal of this research was to use pre-harvest calcium applications to reduce anthracnose

  1. Long-term spatial memory and morphological changes in hippocampus of Wistar rats exposed to smoke from Carica papaya leaves

    PubMed Central

    Oyewole, Aboyeji Lukuman; Owoyele, Bamidele Victor

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of smoking of dried leaves of Carica papaya (pawpaw) based on ethnopharmacological information which indicated that smoking of papaya leaves could influence motor performance and learning. Methods Twenty-four rats were used for the study, and were grouped into four groups. Groups 1 served as the control (not exposed to papaya leaves smoke), while Groups 2, 3 and 4 were exposed to smoke from 6.25 g, 12.50 g and 18.75 g of dry pawpaw leaves respectively in a smoking chamber twice daily for 21 d with each exposure lasting for 3 min. Lastly, hippocampus was harvested in each group for histological study. Results The results showed that there were significant (P<0.05) increases in mean of recall latencies of long-term spatial memory in the animal administered the high dose while the other groups had significantly (P<0.05) lower frequencies. Histological investigation showed signs of mild neural degeneration in high dose group and hypochromic appearance of the Nissl substance in all treated groups. Conclusions In conclusion, the findings from this study has demonstrated that smoking of papaya leaves has the ability to maintain an intact long-term spatial memory at all doses but retrieving such memory is faster with the low and medium dosages. PMID:25182440

  2. Effect of ozone pre-conditioning on quality and antioxidant capacity of papaya fruit during ambient storage.

    PubMed

    Ali, Asgar; Ong, Mei Kying; Forney, Charles F

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physico-chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of ozone-treated papaya fruit and untreated fruit. Freshly harvested papaya fruit were exposed continuously to ozone fumigation (0, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 5ppm) for 96h prior to ambient storage at 25±3°C and 70±5% relative humidity (RH) for up to 14days. The fruit exposed to 2.5ppm ozone had higher levels of total soluble solids (25.0%), ascorbic acid content (12.4%), ?-carotene content (19.6%), lycopene content (52.1%), and antioxidant activity (30.9%), and also reduced weight loss (11.5%) at day 10 compared to the control. The sensory attributes of papaya treated with 2.5ppm ozone was superior in sweetness and overall acceptability. These results support the application of ozone as a non-thermal and safe food preservation technique for papaya which can benefit both the producers and consumers. PMID:24001808

  3. Antihyperglycaemic effects of ethanol extracts of Carica papaya and Pandanus amaryfollius leaf in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sreenivasan Sasidharan; Vello Sumathi; Naidu Rameshwar Jegathambigai; Lachimanan Yoga Latha

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a global disease that is increasing in an alarming rate. The present study was undertaken to study the antidiabetic effect of the ethanol extracts of Carica papaya and Pandanus amaryfollius on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. The results of the present study indicated that there was no significant difference in the body weight of the treated groups when compared

  4. Managing Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), Using Spinosad-Based Protein Bait Sprays in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait was evaluated as a control of female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in papaya orchards in Hawaii. Two important components of this study were field sanitation and mass trapping using the male-specific lure methyl eugenol. Three different spray ...

  5. Flavonoid from Carica papaya inhibits NS2B-NS3 protease and prevents Dengue 2 viral assembly

    PubMed Central

    Senthilvel, Padmanaban; Lavanya, Pandian; Kumar, Kalavathi Murugan; Swetha, Rayapadi; Anitha, Parimelzaghan; Bag, Susmita; Sarveswari, Sundaramoorthy; Vijayakumar, Vijayaparthasarathi; Ramaiah, Sudha; Anbarasu, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus belongs to the virus family Flaviviridae. Dengue hemorrhagic disease caused by dengue virus is a public health problem worldwide. The viral non structural 2B and 3 (NS2B-NS3) protease complex is crucial for virus replication and hence, it is considered to be a good anti-viral target. Leaf extracts from Carica papaya is generally prescribed for patients with dengue fever, but there are no scientific evidences for its anti-dengue activity; hence we intended to investigate the anti-viral activity of compounds present in the leaves of Carica papaya against dengue 2 virus (DENV-2). We analysed the anti-dengue activities of the extracts from Carica papaya by using bioinformatics tools. Interestingly, we find the flavonoid quercetin with highest binding energy against NS2B-NS3 protease which is evident by the formation of six hydrogen bonds with the amino acid residues at the binding site of the receptor. Our results suggest that the flavonoids from Carica papaya have significant anti-dengue activities. Abbreviations ADME - Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, BBB - Blood brain barrier, CYP - Cytochrome P450, DENV - – Dengue virus, DHF - Dengue hemorrhagic fever, DSS - Dengue shock syndrome, GCMS - – Gas chromatography- Mass spectrometry, MOLCAD - Molecular Computer Aided Design, NS - Non structural, PDB - Protein data bank, PMF - Potential Mean Force. PMID:24307765

  6. Genetic differentiation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum associated with Anthracnose disease of papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsium annuum L.) based on ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Ariana; Rampersad, Sephra N

    2012-03-01

    Members of the genus Colletotrichum include some of the most economically important fungal pathogens in the world. Accurate diagnosis is critical to devising disease management strategies. Two species, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum, are responsible for anthracnose disease in papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Trinidad. The ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of 48 Colletotrichum isolates was sequenced, and the ITS PCR products were analyzed by PCR-RFLP analysis. Restriction site polymorphisms generated from 11 restriction enzymes enabled the identification of specific enzymes that were successful in distinguishing between C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates. Species-specific restriction fragment length polymorphisms generated by the enzymes AluI, HaeIII, PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were used to consistently resolve C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates from papaya. AluI, ApaI, PvuII, RsaI, and SmaI reliably separated isolates of C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum from bell pepper. PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were also capable of distinguishing among the C. gloeosporioides isolates from papaya based on the different restriction patterns that were obtained as a result of intra-specific variation in restriction enzyme recognition sites in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region. Of all the isolates tested, C. gloeosporioides from papaya also had the highest number of PCR-RFLP haplotypes. Cluster analysis of sequence and PCR-RFLP data demonstrated that all C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates clustered separately into species-specific clades regardless of host species. Phylograms also revealed consistent topologies which suggested that the genetic distances for PCR-RFLP-generated data were comparable to that of ITS sequence data. ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting is a rapid and reliable method to identify and differentiate between Colletotrichum species. PMID:21720933

  7. The second touch hypothesis: T cell activation, homing and polarization

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The second touch hypothesis states that T cell activation, proliferation, induction of homing receptors and polarization are distinguishable and, at least in part, sequential. The second touch hypothesis maintains that full T cell polarization requires T cell interaction with antigen-presenting cells (DCs, macrophages, B cells and certain activated stromal cells) in the non-lymphoid tissue where the antigen resides. Upon initial antigen encounter in peripheral lymph nodes (PLN), T cells become activated, proliferate and express homing receptors that enable them to recirculate to the (inflamed) tissue that contains the antigen. Differentiation into the T helper lineages Th1, Th2, Th17 and induced regulatory T cells (iTreg) requires additional antigen presentation by tissue macrophages and other antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the inflamed tissue. Here, I present a conceptual framework for the importance of peripheral (non-lymphoid) antigen presentation to antigen-experienced T cells. PMID:25580220

  8. Production of fatty acid butyl esters using the low cost naturally immobilized Carica papaya lipase.

    PubMed

    Su, Erzheng; Wei, Dongzhi

    2014-07-01

    In this work, the low cost naturally immobilized Carica papaya lipase (CPL) was investigated for production of fatty acid butyl esters (FABE) to fulfill the aim of reducing the lipase cost in the enzymatic butyl-biodiesel process. The CPL showed specificities to different alcohol acyl acceptors. Alcohols with more than three carbon atoms did not have negative effects on the CPL activity. The CPL catalyzed butanolysis for FABE production was systematically investigated. The reaction solvent, alcohol/oil molar ratio, enzyme amount, reaction temperature, and water activity all affected the butanolysis process. Under the optimized conditions, the highest conversion of 96% could be attained in 24 h. These optimal conditions were further applied to CPL catalyzed butanolysis of other vegetable oils. All of them showed very high conversion. The CPL packed-bed reactor was further developed, and could be operated continuously for more than 150 h. All of these results showed that the low cost Carica papaya lipase can be used as a promising lipase for biodiesel production. PMID:24954104

  9. Carica papaya lipase: a naturally immobilized enzyme with interesting biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Abdelkafi, Slim; Barouh, Nathalie; Fouquet, Benjamin; Fendri, Imen; Pina, Michel; Scheirlinckx, Frantz; Villeneuve, Pierre; Carrière, Frédéric

    2011-03-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) lipases have been thoroughly characterized in mammals and microorganisms, whereas very little is known about plant TAG lipases. The lipolytic activity occurring in all the laticies is known to be associated with sedimentable particles, and all attempts to solubilize the lipolytic activity of Carica papaya latex have been unsuccessful so far. However, some of the biochemical properties of the lipase from Carica papaya latex (CPL) were determined from the insoluble fraction of the latex. The activity was optimum at a temperature of 37°C and a pH of 9.0, and the specific activities of CPL were found to be 2,000?±?185 and 256?±?8 U/g when tributyrin and olive oil were used as substrates, respectively. CPL was found to be active in the absence of any detergent, whereas many lipases require detergent to prevent the occurrence of interfacial denaturation. CPL was inactive in the presence of micellar concentrations of Triton X-100, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and tetradecyl trimethylammonium bromide (TTAB), and still showed high levels of activity in the presence of sodium taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC) and the zwitterionic Chaps detergent. The effects of various proteases on the lipolytic activity of CPL were studied, and CPL was found to be resistant to treatment with various enzymes, except in the presence of trypsin. All these properties suggest that CPL may be a good candidate for various biotechnological applications. PMID:21267783

  10. Molecular characterization and infectivity of Papaya leaf curl China virus infecting tomato in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Ma, Xin-ying; Qian, Ya-juan; Zhou, Xue-ping

    2010-02-01

    Papaya leaf curl China virus (PaLCuCNV) was previously reported as a distinct begomovirus infecting papaya in southern China. Based on molecular diagnostic survey, 13 PaLCuCNV isolates were obtained from tomato plants showing leaf curl symptoms in Henan and Guangxi Provinces of China. Complete nucleotide sequences of 5 representative isolates (AJ558116, AJ558117, AJ704604, FN256260, and FN297834) were determined to be 2738-2751 nucleotides, which share 91.7%-97.9% sequence identities with PaLCuCNV isolate G2 (AJ558123). DNA-beta was not found to be associated with PaLCuCNV isolates. To investigate the infectivity of PaLCuCNV, an infectious clone of PaLCuCNV-[CN:HeNZM1] was constructed and agro-inoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum Samsun, N. glutinosa, Solanum lycopersicum and Petunia hybrida plants, which induced severe leaf curling and crinkling symptoms in these plants. Southern blot analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated a systemic infection of test plants by the agro-infectious clone. PMID:20104645

  11. An interactive, multi-touch videowall for scientific data exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blower, Jon; Griffiths, Guy; van Meersbergen, Maarten; Lusher, Scott; Styles, Jon

    2014-05-01

    The use of videowalls for scientific data exploration is rising as hardware becomes cheaper and the availability of software and multimedia content grows. Most videowalls are used primarily for outreach and communication purposes, but there is increasing interest in using large display screens to support exploratory visualization as an integral part of scientific research. In this PICO presentation we will present a brief overview of a new videowall system at the University of Reading, which is designed specifically to support interactive, exploratory visualization activities in climate science and Earth Observation. The videowall consists of eight 42-inch full-HD screens (in 4x2 formation), giving a total resolution of about 16 megapixels. The display is managed by a videowall controller, which can direct video to the screen from up to four external laptops, a purpose-built graphics workstation, or any combination thereof. A multi-touch overlay provides the capability for the user to interact directly with the data. There are many ways to use the videowall, and a key technical challenge is to make the most of the touch capabilities - touch has the potential to greatly reduce the learning curve in interactive data exploration, but most software is not yet designed for this purpose. In the PICO we will present an overview of some ways in which the wall can be employed in science, seeking feedback and discussion from the community. The system was inspired by an existing and highly-successful system (known as the "Collaboratorium") at the Netherlands e-Science Center (NLeSC). We will demonstrate how we have adapted NLeSC's visualization software to our system for touch-enabled multi-screen climate data exploration.

  12. Infant Imitation from Television Using Novel Touch Screen Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel; Gerhardstein, Peter; Dickerson, Kelly; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2009-01-01

    Infants learn less from a televised demonstration than from a live demonstration, the "video deficit effect." The present study employs a novel approach, using touch screen technology to examine 15-month olds' transfer of learning. Infants were randomly assigned either to within-dimension (2D/2D or 3D/3D) or cross-dimension (3D/2D or 2D/3D)…

  13. Gender and situational differences in children's smiles, touch, and proxemics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phyllis W. Berman; Vicki L. Smith

    1984-01-01

    It was hypothesized that gender differences in nonverbal behaviors which are often considered to be affiliative may represent systematic differences between males and females in self-presentation. Smiling, touching, and interpersonal distance were studied with 256 White adolescents and preadolescents, who were randomly assigned to same-sex grade-level pairs. Self-presentation was made more salient by asking each subject pair to pose for

  14. Development of multi-touch panel backlight system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chomiczewski, J.; D?ugosz, M.; Godlewski, G.; Kochanowicz, M.

    2013-10-01

    The paper presents design, simulation analysis, and measurements of parameters of optical multi touch panel backlight system. Comparison of optical technology with commercially available solutions was also performed. The numerical simulation of laser based backlight system was made. The influence of the laser power, beam divergence, and placing reflective surfaces on the uniformity of illumination were examined. Optimal illumination system was used for further studies.

  15. Add Touch Screen Support for QT\\/Embedded

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Xibo; Yang Jianan

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid development of embedded technology, embedded devices have been widely integrated into people's work and life. In order to improve the efficiency of interaction with embedded devices, research on embedded GUI for exchanging information with users has become a focus of study. This paper introduces the Linux 2.4 kernel based driver of s3c2410 touch-screen and the working mechanism

  16. Ionic signaling in plant responses to gravity and touch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasano, Jeremiah M.; Massa, Gioia D.; Gilroy, Simon

    2002-01-01

    Touch and gravity are two of the many stimuli that plants must integrate to generate an appropriate growth response. Due to the mechanical nature of both of these signals, shared signal transduction elements could well form the basis of the cross-talk between these two sensory systems. However, touch stimulation must elicit signaling events across the plasma membrane whereas gravity sensing is thought to represent transformation of an internal force, amyloplast sedimentation, to signal transduction events. In addition, factors such as turgor pressure and presence of the cell wall may also place unique constraints on these plant mechanosensory systems. Even so, the candidate signal transduction elements in both plant touch and gravity sensing, changes in Ca2+, pH and membrane potential, do mirror the known ionic basis of signaling in animal mechanosensory cells. Distinct spatial and temporal signatures of Ca2+ ions may encode information about the different mechanosignaling stimuli. Signals such as Ca2+ waves or action potentials may also rapidly transfer information perceived in one cell throughout a tissue or organ leading to the systemic reactions characteristic of plant touch and gravity responses. Longer-term growth responses are likely sustained via changes in gene expression and asymmetries in compounds such as inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and calmodulin. Thus, it seems likely that plant mechanoperception involves both spatial and temporal encoding of information at all levels, from the cell to the whole plant. Defining this patterning will be a critical step towards understanding how plants integrate information from multiple mechanical stimuli to an appropriate growth response.

  17. The meaning of the virtual Midas touch: an ERP study in economic decision making.

    PubMed

    Spapé, Michiel M; Hoggan, Eve E; Jacucci, Giulio; Ravaja, Niklas

    2015-03-01

    The Midas touch refers to the altruistic effects of a brief touch. Though these effects have often been replicated, they remain poorly understood. We investigate the psychophysiology of the effect using remotely transmitted, precisely timed, tactile messages in an economic decision-making game called Ultimatum. Participants were more likely to accept offers after receiving a remotely transmitted touch. Furthermore, we found distinct effects of touch on event-related potentials evoked by (a) feedback regarding accepted and rejected offers, (b) decision cues related to proposals, and (c) the haptic and auditory cues themselves. In each case, a late positive effect of touch was observed and related to the P3. Given the role of the P3 in memory-related functions, the results indicate an indirect relationship between touch and generosity that relies on memory. This hypothesis was further tested and confirmed in the positive effects of touch on later proposals. PMID:25265874

  18. Processing load impairs coordinate integration for the localization of touch.

    PubMed

    Badde, Stephanie; Heed, Tobias; Röder, Brigitte

    2014-05-01

    To perform an action toward a touch, the tactile spatial representation must be transformed from a skin-based, anatomical reference frame into an external reference frame. Evidence suggests that, after transformation, both anatomical and external coordinates are integrated for the location estimate. The present study investigated whether the calculation and integration of external coordinates are automatic processes. Participants made temporal order judgments (TOJs) of two tactile stimuli, one applied to each hand, in crossed and uncrossed postures. The influence of the external coordinates of touch was indicated by the performance difference between crossed and uncrossed postures, referred to as the crossing effect. To assess automaticity, the TOJ task was combined with a working memory task that varied in difficulty (size of the working memory set) and quality (verbal vs. spatial). In two studies, the crossing effect was consistently reduced under processing load. When the load level was adaptively adjusted to individual performance (Study 2), the crossing effect additionally varied as a function of the difficulty of the secondary task. These modulatory effects of processing load on the crossing effect were independent of the type of working memory. The sensitivity of the crossing effect to processing load suggests that coordinate integration for touch localization is not fully automatic. To reconcile the present results with previous findings, we suggest that the genuine remapping process-that is, the transformation of anatomical into external coordinates-proceeds automatically, whereas their integration in service of a combined location estimate is subject to top-down control. PMID:24550040

  19. A closed-loop neurobotic system for fine touch sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bologna, L. L.; Pinoteau, J.; Passot, J.-B.; Garrido, J. A.; Vogel, J.; Ros Vidal, E.; Arleo, A.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Fine touch sensing relies on peripheral-to-central neurotransmission of somesthetic percepts, as well as on active motion policies shaping tactile exploration. This paper presents a novel neuroengineering framework for robotic applications based on the multistage processing of fine tactile information in the closed action-perception loop. Approach. The integrated system modules focus on (i) neural coding principles of spatiotemporal spiking patterns at the periphery of the somatosensory pathway, (ii) probabilistic decoding mechanisms mediating cortical-like tactile recognition and (iii) decision-making and low-level motor adaptation underlying active touch sensing. We probed the resulting neural architecture through a Braille reading task. Main results. Our results on the peripheral encoding of primary contact features are consistent with experimental data on human slow-adapting type I mechanoreceptors. They also suggest second-order processing by cuneate neurons may resolve perceptual ambiguities, contributing to a fast and highly performing online discrimination of Braille inputs by a downstream probabilistic decoder. The implemented multilevel adaptive control provides robustness to motion inaccuracy, while making the number of finger accelerations covariate with Braille character complexity. The resulting modulation of fingertip kinematics is coherent with that observed in human Braille readers. Significance. This work provides a basis for the design and implementation of modular neuromimetic systems for fine touch discrimination in robotics.

  20. Touch the Universe : A NASA Braille Book of Astronomy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    Touch the Universe is a unique and innovative astronomy book that will help visually impaired people see the wonders of our universe. Using a combination of Braille and large-print captions that face 14 pages of brilliant Hubble Space Telescope photos, it is embossed with shapes that represent various astronomical objects such as stars, gas clouds, and jets of matter streaming into space. Universally designed for both the sighted and visually impaired reader, Touch the Universe takes readers on a voyage of discovery, starting at Earth, proceeding through the solar system, and ending with the most distant image taken by Hubble, the mind-boggling Hubble Deep Field photo -- the first telescope image ever to bring home to human consciousness in a deeply fundamental way the literally infinite reaches of our universe of galaxies. As the author puts it, A visually impaired person can still touch and smell a flower, or a tree, or an animal, but he or she could only imagine what an astronomical object is like ... until now.

  1. Empirical study on improvement of usability -for touch-panel for elderly - comparison of usability between touch-panel and mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirokazu IWASE; Atsuo MURATA

    2002-01-01

    In this study. we clarified the differ- ences in the pointing time required when using a touch panel and a PC mouse for three age group: young, middleaged. and elderly. Furthermore, we constructed a performance model for a touch-panel operation (Experiment 1). The model is based on an equation that estimates the time required for the pointing task. Moreover. we

  2. Reach out to one and you reach out to many: Social touch affects third-party observers.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Annett; Reece, Christy; Zhao, Claris; Ng, Erik; Wu, Esther; Yen, Shih-Cheng

    2015-02-01

    Casual social touch influences emotional perceptions, attitudes, and behaviours of interaction partners. We asked whether these influences extend to third-party observers. To this end, we developed the Social Touch Picture Set comprising line drawings of dyadic interactions, half of which entailed publicly acceptable casual touch and half of which served as no-touch controls. In Experiment 1, participants provided basic image norms by rating how frequently they observed a displayed touch gesture in everyday life and how comfortable they were observing it. Results implied that some touch gestures were observed more frequently and with greater comfort than others (e.g., handshake vs. hug). All gestures, however, obtained rating scores suitable for inclusion in Experiments 2 and 3. In Experiment 2, participants rated perceived valence, arousal, and likeability of randomly presented touch and no-touch images without being explicitly informed about touch. Image characters seemed more positive, aroused, and likeable when they touched as compared to when they did not touch. Image characters seemed more negative and aroused, but were equally likeable, when they received touch as compared to when there was no physical contact. In Experiment 3, participants passively viewed touch and no-touch images while their eye movements were recorded. Differential gazing at touch as compared to no-touch images emerged within the first 500 ms following image exposure and was largely restricted to the characters' upper body. Gazing at the touching body parts (e.g., hands) was minimal and largely unaffected by touch, suggesting that touch processing occurred outside the focus of visual attention. Together, these findings establish touch as an important visual cue and provide novel insights into how this cue modulates socio-emotional processing in third-party observers. PMID:24628391

  3. RNA interference of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2) genes expression prolongs the shelf life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L.) papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom; Yeong, Wee Chien; Pillai, Vilasini

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6). Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants. PMID:24950439

  4. Ionic signaling in plant gravity and touch responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Fasano, Jeremiah M.; Gilroy, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Plant roots are optimized to exploit resources from the soil and as each root explores this environment it will encounter a range of biotic and abiotic stimuli to which it must respond. Therefore, each root must possess a sensory array capable of monitoring and integrating these diverse stimuli to direct the appropriate growth response. Touch and gravity represent two of the biophysical stimuli that plants must integrate. As sensing both of these signals requires mechano-transduction of biophysical forces to biochemical signaling events, it is likely that they share signal transduction elements. These common signaling components may allow for cross-talk and so integration of thigmotropic and gravitropic responses. Indeed, signal transduction events in both plant touch and gravity sensing are thought to include Ca(2+)- and pH-dependent events. Additionally, it seems clear that the systems responsible for root touch and gravity response interact to generate an integrated growth response. Thus, primary and lateral roots of Arabidopsis respond to mechanical stimuli by eliciting tropic growth that is likely part of a growth strategy employed by the root to circumvent obstacles in the soil. Also, the mechano-signaling induced by encountering an obstacle apparently down-regulates the graviperception machinery to allow this kind of avoidance response. The challenge for future research will be to define how the cellular signaling events in the root cap facilitate this signal integration and growth regulation. In addition, whether other stimuli are likewise integrated with the graviresponse via signal transduction system cross-talk is an important question that remains to be answered.

  5. Membrane transistor with giant lipid vesicle touching a silicon chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromherz, P.; Kiessling, V.; Kottig, K.; Zeck, G.

    Lipid bilayers on silicon may become the matrix of future bioelectronic devices if the junction is sufficiently insulating. We touched the open gate of a field-effect transistor with a preformed giant lipid vesicle and bound the membrane by means of polyelectrolyte interaction. The sheet resistance along the junction was 100 G? and the membrane resistance was above 100 G? at a contact area of 1000 ?m2. The bilayer was fluid and smoothly followed the surface profile of the chip. The compound lipid-silicon structure is suitable to couple semiconductor and electroactive proteins.

  6. Identification of Nonviable Genes Affecting Touch Sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans Using Neuronally Enhanced Feeding RNA Interference

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoyin; Cuadros, Margarete Diaz; Chalfie, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans senses gentle touch along the body via six touch receptor neurons. Although genetic screens and microarray analyses have identified several genes needed for touch sensitivity, these methods miss pleiotropic genes that are essential for the viability, movement, or fertility of the animals. We used neuronally enhanced feeding RNA interference to screen genes that cause lethality or paralysis when mutated, and we identified 61 such genes affecting touch sensitivity, including five positive controls. We confirmed 18 genes by using available alleles, and further studied one of them, tag-170, now renamed txdc-9. txdc-9 preferentially affects anterior touch response but is needed for tubulin acetylation and microtubule formation in both the anterior and posterior touch receptor neurons. Our results indicate that neuronally enhanced feeding RNA interference screens complement traditional mutageneses by identifying additional nonviable genes needed for specific neuronal functions. PMID:25575561

  7. Sodium tetrathionate effect on papain purification from different Carica papaya latex crude extracts.

    PubMed

    Llerena-Suster, Carlos R; Priolo, Nora S; Morcelle, Susana R

    2011-01-01

    Papain from latex of Carica papaya was purified up to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry homogeneity by salt precipitation from two different crude extract sources: a refined preparation obtained in our laboratory and a commercial one. Sodium tetrathionate was tested in the purification process to preserve the enzymatic activity of the peptidase. Purification was checked by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and cation exchange chromatography, using commercial pure papain as standard for a rapid comparison. The best purification yields (3.4%) were obtained in presence of 30 mM sodium tetrathionate for the crude extract prepared in our laboratory. The described purification method proved to be robust and reliable to obtain pure papain on a preparative scale. PMID:21442548

  8. Preparation and characterization of inclusion complex of benzyl isothiocyanate extracted from papaya seed with ?-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenzhao; Liu, Xiaoyu; Yang, Qingfeng; Zhang, Ning; Du, Yideng; Zhu, Huaping

    2015-10-01

    The inclusion complex of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), extracted from papaya seed with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD), was prepared. Different analytical techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, X-ray diffractometry, particle size distribution analysis and (1)H Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, were used to investigate the characterization of the inclusion complex (BITC-?-CD). All these approaches indicated that the inclusion complex was capable of being formed. The inclusion complex exhibited different spectroscopic and thermodynamic features and properties from BITC, and we deduced the possible inclusion modes for BITC-?-CD. The calculated apparent stability constant of the BITC-?-CD was 600.8l/mol, and the aqueous solubility of BITC was indistinctively improved by phase solubility studies. The results illustrated that ?-CD was a proper excipient for increasing the stability and controlled release of BITC. Thus, ?-CD complexation technology would be a promising approach, in expanding the application of BITC as a food antibacterial agent. PMID:25872431

  9. Effects of papaya leaves on thrombocyte counts in dengue--a case report.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Osama; Sundus, Ayesha; Ibrahim, Mohammad Faisal

    2014-03-01

    Dengue fever is on the rise in developing nations like India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. There is no antiviral chemotherapy or vaccine for dengue virus and management of the disease is done on supportive measures. The decline in the thrombocyte count leads to dengue haemorrhagic fever accounting for complications and mortality. Oral administration of Carica papaya leaves extract is said to have a positive impact on thrombocyte count. A 23-year-old man was administered a calculated dose for five days. Blood samples were tested for complete blood count before and after the administration of the juice. Thrombocyte count had increased from 28000/micro liter to 138000/micro liter at the end of five days. We present our experience here. PMID:24864622

  10. Covalent chromatography. Preparation of fully active papain from dried papaya latex

    PubMed Central

    Brocklehurst, Keith; Carlsson, Jan; Kierstan, Marek P. J.; Crook, Eric M.

    1973-01-01

    1. A Sepharose–(glutathione–2-pyridyl disulphide) conjugate has been prepared. 2. Its use in a new type of chromatography, covalent chromatography by thiol–disulphide interchange, is described. 3. With this technique, papain containing 1 intact catalytic site [thiol with high reactivity towards 2,2?-dipyridyl disulphide (2-Py-S-S-2-Py) at pH4] per mol of protein is readily prepared both from dried papaya latex and from commercial 2×crystallized partially active papain. 4. The catalysis of the hydrolysis of ?-N-benzoyl-l-arginine ethyl ester at pH6.0, 25.0°C, I=0.3 by fully active papain thus prepared is characterized by Km=18.2±<0.1mm and kcat.=16.4±0.5s?1. PMID:4733241

  11. Prevalence, characteristics and a neurocognitive model of mirror-touch synaesthesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Banissy; Roi Cohen Kadosh; Gerrit W. Maus; Vincent Walsh; Jamie Ward

    2009-01-01

    In so-called ‘mirror-touch synaesthesia’, observing touch to another person induces a subjective tactile sensation on the\\u000a synaesthete’s own body. It has been suggested that this type of synaesthesia depends on increased activity in neural systems\\u000a activated when observing touch to others. Here we report the first study on the prevalence of this variant of synaesthesia.\\u000a Our findings indicate that this

  12. Realization of Direct Manipulation for Visually Impaired on Touch Panel Interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatuso Nishizawa; Daisuke Nagasaka; Hiroshi Kodama; Masami Hashimoto; Kazunori Itoh; Seiji Miyaoka

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Touch panel interface is expanding its application rapidly, with the great flexibility and GUI that allows direct manipulation,\\u000a and allows easy interaction for sighted people. Various approaches have been tried to achieve accessible touch panel for the\\u000a visually impaired by combination of tactile sense and audio feedback. In this paper, we report the real benefit of direct\\u000a manipulation of touch

  13. Evaluation of a 15-inch widescreen OLED with sunlight-readable resistive touch panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufnagel, Bruce D.; Tchon, Joseph L.; Bahadur, Birendra

    2012-06-01

    A commercially available 15-inch active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) television was modified to include a sunlight-readable resistive touch panel for technical evaluation with regard to a variety of rugged military and aerospace applications. By removing the circular polarizer (CP) from the AMOLED and relying on the touch panel's CP, the authors were able to minimize change in display luminance while adding touch capability and reducing reflectance.

  14. A novel readout IC with high noise immunity for charge-based touch screen panels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Yang; S. C. Jung; Y. J. Woo; J. Y. Jeon; S. W. Lee; C. B. Park; H. S. Kim; S. T. Ryu; G. H. Cho

    2010-01-01

    The critical issues in charge-based touch screen panels for large size display are noise and speed. To solve these, this paper introduces a two-point relative sensing based `Delta-Integration' scheme. It eliminates local noise and increases a readout difference between the touched and non-touched area. As a result, it can replace a high-resolution ADC with a comparator and counter. In addition,

  15. Using Serial Resistors to Reduce the Power Consumption of Resistive Touch Panels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying-Wen Bai; Chang-Yu Chen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the characteristics of the resistive touch panel to find a simple way to reduce power consumption. A touch panel's current consumption is less than 1 muA while waiting, with the different of kinds of touch panels there is a 50 mA to 100 mA difference in the current consumption while operating. This difference has a

  16. 3D stylus and pressure sensing system for capacitive touch panel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Lung Lin; Chia-Sheng Li; Yi-Ming Chang; YChia-Che Hung; Alvin Lin

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a new simple passive 3D stylus for capacitive touch panels that detects the x,y-directional position and z-directional strength using a peak calibration algorithm. The proposed algorithm can successfully detect the touch information while eliminating noise, ultimately leading smoother and faster tracking. Analysis results of an experiment on a touch panel demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed stylus

  17. A study of same sex touching attitudes: Scale development and personality predictors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Knud S. Larsen; Jeff LeRoux

    1984-01-01

    Attitudes toward same sex touching is an area of considerable importance to understanding sex?role rigidity and heterosexual intimacy, and are thought to be significant to sexual adjustment and well?being. A reliable and valid scale is needed for research on same sex touching. In this article, seven phases in the development of a Likert?type scale measuring attitudes toward same sex touching

  18. The development and validation of sensory and emotional scales of touch perception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Guest; Jean Marc Dessirier; Anahit Mehrabyan; Francis McGlone; Greg Essick; George Gescheider; Anne Fontana; Rui Xiong; Rochelle Ackerley; Kevin Blot

    2011-01-01

    No comprehensive language exists that describes the experience of touch. Three experiments were conducted to take steps toward\\u000a establishing a touch lexicon. In Experiment I, 49 participants rated how well 262 adjectives described sensory, emotional and evaluative aspects of touch. In Experiment II, participants rated pairwise dissimilarities of the most descriptive words of the set. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) solutions\\u000a representing

  19. No-Look Notes: Accessible Eyes-Free Multi-touch Text Entry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew N. Bonner; Jeremy T. Brudvik; Gregory D. Abowd; W. Keith Edwards

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Mobile devices with multi-touch capabilities are becoming increasingly common, largely due to the success of the Apple iPhone\\u000a and iPod Touch. While there have been some advances in touchscreen accessibility for blind people, touchscreens remain inaccessible\\u000a in many ways. Recent research has demonstrated that there is great potential in leveraging multi-touch capabilities to increase\\u000a the accessibility of touchscreen applications for

  20. Touch-screen technology for children: giving the right instructions and getting the right responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorna McKnight; Daniel Fitton

    2010-01-01

    While devices such as iPhones, iPads and Surface tables enable a wide range of interaction possibilities, we do not yet have a set of widely understood terminology that conveys the new and unfamiliar touch-screen gestures required for interaction. In this paper we explore terminology for touch-screen gestures and in particular the implications for child users. An initial study exploring touch-screen

  1. On the existence of touch points for first-order state inequality constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seywald, Hans; Cliff, Eugene M.

    1993-01-01

    The appearance of touch points in state constrained optimal control problems with general vector-valued control is studied. Under the assumption that the Hamiltonian is regular, touch points for first-order state inequalities are shown to exist only under very special conditions. In many cases of practical importance these conditions can be used to exclude touch points a priori without solving an optimal control problem. The results are demonstrated on a simple example.

  2. Development of a two-step touch method for website navigation on smartphones.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kihyo; Jang, Jinah

    2015-05-01

    The touch method for hyperlink selection in smartphones can often create usability problems because a hyperlink is universally smaller than a finger contact area as well as visually occluded by a finger while pressing. In this study, we developed a two-step touch method (called Press and Flick method) and comprehensively examined its effectiveness using the goals, operators, methods, and selection rules (GOMS) model and user testing. The two-step touch method consisted of finger press and flick motions; a target hyperlink was selected by a finger press motion, and a finger flick method was subsequently conducted for error correction if the initial interaction (press) failed. We compared the two-step touch method with the current touch method through the GOMS model and user testing. As a result, the two-step touch method was significantly superior to the current touch method in terms of error rate and subjective satisfaction score; however, its superiority in terms of number of interactions and touch time was vulnerably affected by error rate. The two-step touch method developed in this study can improve the usability and user experience of website navigation using smartphones. PMID:25683542

  3. Autistic traits are associated with diminished neural response to affective touch.

    PubMed

    Voos, Avery C; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Kaiser, Martha D

    2013-04-01

    'Social brain' circuitry has recently been implicated in processing slow, gentle touch targeting a class of slow-conducting, unmyelinated nerves, CT afferents, which are present only in the hairy skin of mammals. Given the importance of such 'affective touch' in social relationships, the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study aimed to replicate the finding of 'social brain' involvement in processing CT-targeted touch and to examine the relationship between the neural response and individuals' social abilities. During an fMRI scan, 19 healthy adults received alternating blocks of slow (CT-optimal) and fast (non-optimal) brushing to the forearm. Relative to fast touch, the slow touch activated contralateral insula, superior temporal sulcus (STS), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and amygdala. Connectivity analyses revealed co-activation of the mPFC, insula and amygdala during slow touch. Additionally, participants' autistic traits negatively correlated with the response to slow touch in the OFC and STS. The current study replicates and extends findings of the involvement of a network of 'social brain' regions in processing CT-targeted affective touch, emphasizing the multimodal nature of this system. Variability in the brain response to such touch illustrates a tight coupling of social behavior and social brain function in typical adults. PMID:22267520

  4. Analysis of touch used by occupational therapy practitioners in skilled nursing facilities.

    PubMed

    Morris, Douglas; Henegar, J; Khanin, S; Oberle, G; Thacker, S

    2014-09-01

    Instrumental touch is identified as having purposeful physical contact in order to complete a task. Expressive touch is identified as warm, friendly physical contact and is not solely for performing a task. Expressive touch has been associated with improved client status, increased rapport and greater gains made during therapy. The purpose of the study was to observe the frequency of expressive and instrumental touch utilized by an occupational therapist during an occupational therapy session. Thirty-three occupational therapy professionals, including occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants, employed at skilled nursing facilities in southwest Florida were observed. Data were collected on the Occupational Therapy Interaction Assessment. The results of the data analysis showed a positive relationship between the gender of the therapist and the frequency of expressive touch. The data also showed that a large majority of touches were instrumental touch and pertained to functional mobility. The results of the study can contribute to a better understanding of the holistic aspects of occupational therapy. By the use of more expressive touch, occupational therapy practitioners may have a positive, beneficial effect on both the client and the therapy process as a whole. Further research is needed to determine the effect an occupational therapy setting has on the frequency of instrumental and expressive touch. A larger sample size and a distinction between evaluation and treatment sessions would benefit future studies. PMID:24947935

  5. Does clozapine decrease smoking?

    PubMed

    de Leon, Jose; Diaz, Francisco J; Josiassen, Richard C; Cooper, Thomas B; Simpson, George M

    2005-06-01

    McEvoy et al.'s study in 1999, which used cotinine levels but had limited power, suggested that clozapine treatment may be associated with a mild smoking decrease (particularly when plasma clozapine levels are > 150 ng/ml). Some naturalistic studies also suggest that clozapine treatment may be associated with a mild smoking decrease. The present study included 38 schizophrenic daily smokers from a double-blind clozapine trial. Five analyses were tested for significant decreases in plasma cotinine levels from a haloperidol baseline to: (1) the end of clozapine trials regarding clozapine doses (100, 300 or 600 mg/day), (2) the end of the clozapine trial where the highest plasma clozapine level was achieved, (3) the end of the clozapine trial where a clozapine level in the 150-450 ng/ml range was achieved, (4) the end of the first clozapine trial regardless of clozapine dose, and (5) the end of the last clozapine trial in the study. The first and straightforward analysis by dose showed no clozapine effects on smoking. The second and the third analyses (an attempt to mimic the design by McEvoy et al. [McEvoy, J.P., Freudenreich, O., Wilson, W.H., 1999. Smoking and therapeutic response to clozapine in patients with schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiat. 46, 125-129.]) also indicated that there was not a significant effect of clozapine on smoking. The fourth and five analyses were also negative. None of the five analyses in our clozapine trial demonstrated that clozapine had major effects on smoking. This study cannot rule out that in some subjects, clozapine treatment may be associated with a small decrease in smoking. New prospective longitudinal studies using repeated cotinine and clozapine levels are needed to explore whether clozapine may reduce smoking in some patients. PMID:15951089

  6. The anthelmintic efficacy of papaya latex in a rodent-nematode model is not dependent on fasting before treatment.

    PubMed

    Luoga, W; Mansur, F; Buttle, D J; Duce, I R; Garnett, M C; Behnke, J M

    2012-09-01

    In earlier studies of the anthelmintic activity of plant cysteine proteinases (CPs), a period of food deprivation was routinely employed before administration of CPs, but there has been no systematic evaluation as to whether this does actually benefit the anthelmintic efficacy. Therefore, we assessed the effect of fasting on the efficacy of CPs from papaya latex (PL) against Heligmosomoides bakeri in C3H mice. We used a refined, supernatant extract of papaya latex (PLS) with known active enzyme content. The animals were divided into three groups (fasted prior to treatment with PLS, not fasted but treated with PLS and fasted but given only water). The study demonstrated clearly that although food deprivation had been routinely employed in much of the earlier work on CPs in mice infected with nematodes, fasting has no beneficial effect on the efficacy of PLS against H. bakeri infections. Administration of CPs to fed animals will also reduce the stress associated with fasting. PMID:21794201

  7. Flexible Electronics Sensors for Tactile Multi-Touching

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Yang; Fang, Te-Hua; Yeh, Shao-Hsing; Lin, Yu-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Flexible electronics sensors for tactile applications in multi-touch sensing and large scale manufacturing were designed and fabricated. The sensors are based on polyimide substrates, with thixotropy materials used to print organic resistances and a bump on the top polyimide layer. The gap between the bottom electrode layer and the resistance layer provides a buffer distance to reduce erroneous contact during large bending. Experimental results show that the top membrane with a bump protrusion and a resistance layer had a large deflection and a quick sensitive response. The bump and resistance layer provided a concentrated von Mises stress force and inertial force on the top membrane center. When the top membrane had no bump, it had a transient response delay time and took longer to reach steady-state. For printing thick structures of flexible electronics sensors, diffusion effects and dimensional shrinkages can be improved by using a paste material with a high viscosity. Linear algorithm matrixes with Gaussian elimination and control system scanning were used for multi-touch detection. Flexible electronics sensors were printed with a resistance thickness of about 32 ?m and a bump thickness of about 0.2 mm. Feasibility studies show that printing technology is appropriate for large scale manufacturing, producing sensors at a low cost. PMID:22399962

  8. Generic Properties of Curvature Sensing through Vision and Touch

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Generic properties of curvature representations formed on the basis of vision and touch were examined as a function of mathematical properties of curved objects. Virtual representations of the curves were shown on a computer screen for visual scaling by sighted observers (experiment 1). Their physical counterparts were placed in the two hands of blindfolded and congenitally blind observers for tactile scaling. The psychophysical data show that curvature representations in congenitally blind individuals, who never had any visual experience, and in sighted observers, who rely on vision most of the time, are statistically linked to the same mathematical properties of the curves. The perceived magnitude of object curvature, sensed through either vision or touch, is related by a mathematical power law, with similar exponents for the two sensory modalities, to the aspect ratio of the curves, a scale invariant geometric property. This finding supports biologically motivated models of sensory integration suggesting a universal power law for the adaptive brain control and balance of motor responses to environmental stimuli from any sensory modality. PMID:24454538

  9. Our Sense of Touch: Two-Point Discrimination

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marjorie A. Murray Ph.D.

    2009-01-01

    In this activity, learners investigate the touch sensory system and discover how to plan and carry out their own experiments. In "CLASS EXPERIMENT," learners find that the ability to tell that two points rather than just one are pressing on the skin depends on two things: the density of skin sensory receptors and the connections that the sensory nerve cells make in the brain. They learn basic facts about sensory receptors and nerve connections, and use their estimates of receptor density to predict the size of the brain areas devoted to input from different skin regions. In "TRY YOUR OWN EXPERIMENT," learners design their own experiments, investigating, for example, how touch information is important in motor tasks, or whether additional sensory input can interfere with two-point discrimination. This lesson plan includes background information and guides for educators and learners. Note: total learning time may be reduced if the number of skin areas tested are limited and you restrict the materials in the second part of the activity.

  10. A necessary modification to the preparation of papain from any high-quality latex of Carica papaya and evidence for the structural integrity of the enzyme produced by traditional methods

    PubMed Central

    Baines, Baldev S.; Brocklehurst†, Keith

    1979-01-01

    A method of preparation of papain (EC 3.4.22.2) from relatively soluble types of latex of Carica papaya, including spray-dried latex produced by a controlled and relatively mild process, was devised. Spray-dried latex dissolves easily in water up to 350mg/ml at 22°C, which corresponds to approx. 230mg of protein/ml. When the usual method of preparation of crystalline papain contaminated only by its oxidation products, developed by Kimmel & Smith [J. Biol. Chem. (1954) 207, 515–531], is applied to spray-dried latex, the result is a preparation of papain heavily contaminated by chymopapains A and B (EC 3.4.22.6), and to a lesser extent by papaya peptidase A. This applies also to other types of papaya-latex currently commercially available, which, though less soluble than spray-dried latex, are more soluble than the types of latex available when the method of Kimmel & Smith (1954) was developed. This contamination is avoided by adjusting the concentration of the initial latex extract to 65mg of protein/ml (or less) before salt fractionation. For spray-dried latex this corresponds to 100mg of latex/ml. Papain isolated from spray-dried latex was characterized by using 2,2?-dipyridyl disulphide and 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan as thiol-specific reactivity probes and ?-N-benzoyl-l-arginine ethyl ester as substrate. Papain isolated from this source appears to have the same catalytic-centre characteristics as papain isolated previously from latex produced by harsher methods. The catalysis of the hydrolysis of ?-N-benzoyl-l-arginine ethyl ester by the mixture of thiol proteinases extracted from spray-dried latex by application of the method of Kimmel & Smith (1954) appears to obey Michaelis–Menten kinetics. The presence of the other enzymes results in an increase in the value of Km and a decrease in the catalytic-centre activity (kcat.) relative to the values for the catalysis by papain. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3. PMID:435250

  11. Evidence of weak genetic structure and recent gene flow between Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. and B. papayae, across Southern Thailand and West Malaysia, supporting a single target pest for SIT applications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. (Hendel) and B. papayae Drew & Hancock, are invasive pests belonging to the B. dorsalis complex. Their species status, based on morphology, is sometimes arguable. Consequently, the existence of cryptic species and/or population isolation may decrease the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT) due to an unknown degree of sexual isolation between released sterile flies and wild counterparts. To evaluate the genetic relationship and current demography in wild populations for guiding the application of area-wide integrated pest management using SIT, seven microsatellite-derived markers from B. dorsalis s.s. and another five from B. papayae were used for surveying intra- and inter-specific variation, population structure, and recent migration among sympatric and allopatric populations of the two morphological forms across Southern Thailand and West Malaysia. Results Basic genetic variations were not significantly different among forms, populations, and geographical areas (P > 0.05). Nonetheless, two sets of microsatellite markers showed significantly different levels of polymorphisms. Genetic differentiation between intra- and inter-specific differences was significant, but low. Seventeen populations revealed three hypothetical genetic clusters (K = 3) regardless of forms and geographical areas. The genetic structure of sympatric populations slightly changed during the different years of collection. Recent gene flow (m ? 0.10) was frequently detected whether samples were sympatric or allopatric. Ninety-five of 379 individuals distributed across the given area were designated as recent migrants or of admixed ancestry. As a consequence of substantial migration, no significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances was detected (R2 = 0.056, P = 0.650). Conclusions According to the 12 microsatellite variations, weak population structure and recent gene flow suggest that there is no status for cryptic species between B. dorsalis s.s. and B. papayae forms in Southern Thailand and West Malaysia. Both forms can be treated as a single target pest for the SIT program in an area-wide sense. Additionally, the result of species identification based on molecular data and morphological character are not congruent. The use of independent, multiple approaches in the characterization of the target population may ensure the effectiveness and feasibility of SIT-based control in the target area. PMID:24929425

  12. Design and analysis of a piezoelectric material based touch screen with additional pressure and its acceleration measurement functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Xiang-Cheng; Liu, Jia-Yi; Gao, Ren-Long; Chang, Jie; Li, Long-Tu

    2013-12-01

    Touch screens are becoming more and more prevalent in everyday environments due to their convenience and humanized operation. In this paper, a piezoelectric material based touch screen is developed and investigated. Piezoelectric ceramics arrayed under the touch panel at the edges or corners are used as tactile sensors to measure the touch positioning point similarly to conventional touch screens. However, additional touch pressure and its acceleration performance can also be obtained to obtain a higher-level human-machine interface. The piezoelectric ceramics can also be added to a traditional touch screen structure, or they can be used independently to construct a novel touch screen with a high light transmittance approach to a transparent glass. The piezoelectric ceramics were processed from PZT piezoelectric ceramic powder into a round or rectangular shape. According to the varied touch position and physical press strength of a finger, or even a gloved hand or fingernail, the piezoelectric tactile sensors will have different output voltage responses. By calculating the ratio of different piezoelectric tactile sensors’ responses and summing up all piezoelectric tactile sensors’ output voltages, the touch point position, touch pressure and touch force acceleration can be detected. A prototype of such a touch screen is manufactured and its position accuracy, touch pressure and response speed are measured in detail. The experimental results show that the prototype has many advantages such as high light transmittance, low energy cost and high durability.

  13. The effect of praziquantel and Carica papaya seeds on Hymenolepis nana infection in mice using scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Abou Shady, Omayma M; Basyoni, Maha M A; Mahdy, Olfat A; Bocktor, Nardden Zakka

    2014-08-01

    Hymenolepis nana (H. nana) is the most common tapeworm infection worldwide. It is more prevalent in warm climates where sanitation is poor, particularly among children. The effect and mechanism of action of praziquantel (PZQ), given at a dose of 25-mg/kg BW, and Carica papaya dried seed crude aqueous extract (CAE), given at a dose of 1.2-g/kg BW, were assessed on H. nana worms in experimentally infected mice. Tegumental changes were studied using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and different parasitological parameters were observed. Each group of infected mice was divided into two subgroups. The first subgroup received either treatment before the 4th day after infection to investigate their effects on the cysticercoid stage. The other subgroup received treatments after the development of the adult stage, confirmed by eggs detection in stool. Both PZQ and C. papaya dried seed CAE resulted in a significant reduction of worm burden, total egg output and viable egg count. Marked tegumental changes were evident in adult worms treated with either treatment including shrinkage of the scolex and neck region with rostellar edema and complete loss of its hooks. However, all previous effects were exerted more rapidly in the case of PZQ treatment. They both significantly reduced cysticercoid stage size. Nevertheless, C. papaya outstand PZQ in having a deforming effect on adults arising from treated cysticercoids. It was concluded that C. papaya has significant anti-cestodal properties that enable its seed extract to be a very effective alternative to PZQ against H. nana. PMID:24849866

  14. Identification and expression of the WRKY transcription factors of Carica papaya in response to abiotic and biotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lin-Jie; Jiang, Ling

    2014-03-01

    The WRKY transcription factor (TF) plays a very important role in the response of plants to various abiotic and biotic stresses. A local papaya database was built according to the GenBank expressed sequence tag database using the BioEdit software. Fifty-two coding sequences of Carica papaya WRKY TFs were predicted using the tBLASTn tool. The phylogenetic tree of the WRKY proteins was classified. The expression profiles of 13 selected C. papaya WRKY TF genes under stress induction were constructed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of these WRKY genes in response to 3 abiotic and 2 biotic stresses were evaluated. TF807.3 and TF72.14 are upregulated by low temperature; TF807.3, TF43.76, TF12.199 and TF12.62 are involved in the response to drought stress; TF9.35, TF18.51, TF72.14 and TF12.199 is involved in response to wound; TF12.199, TF807.3, TF21.156 and TF18.51 was induced by PRSV pathogen; TF72.14 and TF43.76 are upregulated by SA. The regulated expression levels of above eight genes normalized against housekeeping gene actin were significant at probability of 0.01 levels. These WRKY TFs could be related to corresponding stress resistance and selected as the candidate genes, especially, the two genes TF807.3 and TF12.199, which were regulated notably by four stresses respectively. This study may provide useful information and candidate genes for the development of transgenic stress tolerant papaya varieties. PMID:24390238

  15. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying Staphylococcus aureus isolated from foods and its control by crude alkaloid from papaya leaves.

    PubMed

    Handayani, Lita; Faridah, Didah Nur; Kusumaningrum, Harsi D

    2014-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a known pathogen causing intoxication by producing enterotoxins in food. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A is one of the enterotoxins commonly implicated in staphylococcal food poisoning. The ability of crude alkaloid extract from papaya leaves to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxin A synthesis was investigated. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying S. aureus was isolated from raw milk and ready-to-eat foods. Crude alkaloid was extracted from ground, dried papaya leaves using ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and a MIC of the alkaloid was determined by the broth macrodilution method. Furthermore, S. aureus isolate was exposed to the crude alkaloid extract at one- and twofold MIC, and the expression of sea was subsequently analyzed using a quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR. Ten isolates of S. aureus were obtained, and nine of those isolates were sea carriers. The yield of crude alkaloid extract was 0.48 to 1.82% per dry weight of papaya leaves. A MIC of crude alkaloid to S. aureus was 0.25 mg/ml. After exposure to the alkaloid at 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ml for 2 h, a significant increase in cycle threshold values of sea was observed. The sea was expressed 29 and 41 times less when S. aureus was exposed to crude alkaloid at one- and twofold MIC, respectively. This study revealed that crude alkaloid of papaya leaves could control staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying S. aureus by suppressing the expression of sea, in addition to the ability to inhibit the growth of S. aureus. The expression of sea was successfully quantified. PMID:25364936

  16. Simple Projected Capacitive Multi-touch Panel Tsz-Kin Ho, Chung-Yung Lee, Man-Chun Tseng and Hoi-Sing Kwok

    E-print Network

    185 Simple Projected Capacitive Multi-touch Panel Tsz-Kin Ho, Chung-Yung Lee, Man-Chun Tseng capacitive touch panel is developed. Such touch panel is capable of detecting multi- point touch event. This design provides a simple and low cost alternative to capacitive multi- touch panel design. Our proposed

  17. Evaluation of tapelifting as a collection method for touch DNA.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Timothy J; Mitchell, R John; van Oorschot, Roland A H

    2014-01-01

    The use of tapelifting for collection of touch DNA from fabrics is routine in many jurisdictions. However, there is a paucity of data relating to the effectiveness of different types of tapes for tapelifting, the amount of tapelifting required to generate a useful profile, and whether or not tapelifting is more effective than swabbing from various substrates. This research investigates these questions by comparing two tapes of different adhesive strength currently used in forensic casework (Scotch Magic tape and Scenesafe FAST minitapes), for sampling from touch deposits on four different fabrics-cotton flannelette, cotton drill woven fabric, polyester/cotton plain woven fabric and polyester strapping. Touch DNA was deposited on four replicates of each substrate. Separate areas of each substrate replicate were sampled, either by taping with one of the two tapes or by wet/dry swabbing with cotton swabs. Tape was applied over the defined sampling area once or repeatedly for various numbers of applications. DNA was extracted, quantified and profiled from all tape and swab samples as well as the corresponding sampled substrates. Significantly more DNA was extracted, and a higher proportion of alleles detected, from Scenesafe FAST tape than from Scotch Magic tape. The amount of DNA and number of donor alleles detected generally increased as the tape was reapplied to the surface, although a threshold of collection was seen for both types of tape. For two out of four substrates, taping with Scenesafe FAST collected more DNA than swabbing and, for three substrates, generated a greater median number of donor alleles. There was no significant difference in numbers of alleles between swabbing and taping from flannelette. Based on these findings, it is recommended that a tape with stronger adhesion (such as Scenesafe FAST tapelifters) is generally preferable; that more than one application of tape is suggested (however, increasing the amount of times the area is sampled can diminish collection efficiency); and that there is an advantage using tapelifting rather than swabbing for fabrics unless, such as with flannelette, there are many loose fibres easily removed during the sampling process. PMID:24315606

  18. Explaining Away the Body: Experiences of Supernaturally Caused Touch and Touch on Non-Hand Objects within the Rubber Hand Illusion

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In rubber hand illusions and full body illusions, touch sensations are projected to non-body objects such as rubber hands, dolls or virtual bodies. The robustness, limits and further perceptual consequences of such illusions are not yet fully explored or understood. A number of experiments are reported that test the limits of a variant of the rubber hand illusion. Methodology/Principal Findings A variant of the rubber hand illusion is explored, in which the real and foreign hands are aligned in personal space. The presence of the illusion is ascertained with participants' scores and temperature changes of the real arm. This generates a basic illusion of touch projected to a foreign arm. Participants are presented with further, unusual visuotactile stimuli subsequent to onset of the basic illusion. Such further visuotactile stimulation is found to generate very unusual experiences of supernatural touch and touch on a non-hand object. The finding of touch on a non-hand object conflicts with prior findings, and to resolve this conflict a further hypothesis is successfully tested: that without prior onset of the basic illusion this unusual experience does not occur. Conclusions/Significance A rubber hand illusion is found that can arise when the real and the foreign arm are aligned in personal space. This illusion persists through periods of no tactile stimulation and is strong enough to allow very unusual experiences of touch felt on a cardboard box and experiences of touch produced at a distance, as if by supernatural causation. These findings suggest that one's visual body image is explained away during experience of the illusion and they may be of further importance to understanding the role of experience in delusion formation. The findings of touch on non-hand objects may help reconcile conflicting results in this area of research. In addition, new evidence is provided that relates to the recently discovered psychologically induced temperature changes that occur during the illusion. PMID:20195378

  19. Does Carica papaya leaf-extract increase the platelet count? An experimental study in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    Dharmarathna, Sinhalagoda Lekamlage Chandi Asoka; Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Waduge, Roshitha Nilmini; Rajapakse, Rajapakse Peramune Veddikkarage Jayanthe; Kularatne, Senanayake Abeysinghe Mudiyanselage

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential role of fresh Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract on haematological and biochemical parameters and toxicological changes in a murine model. Methods In total 36 mice were used for the trial. Fresh C. papaya leaf extract [0.2 mL (2 g)/mouse] was given only to the test group (18 mice). General behavior, clinical signs and feeding patterns were recorded. Blood and tissue samples were collected at intervals. Haematological parameters including platelet, red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), packed cell volume (PCV), serum biochemistry including serum creatinine, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) were determined. Organs for possible histopathological changes were examined. Results Neither group exhibited alteration of behavior or reduction in food and water intake. Similarly, no significant changes in SGOT, SGPT and serum creatinine levels were detected in the test group. Histopathological organ changes were not observed in either group of mice except in three liver samples of the test group which had a mild focal necrosis. The platelet count (11.33±0.35)×105/µL (P=0.000?04) and the RBC count (7.97±0.61)×106/µL (P=0.000?03) were significantly increased in the test group compared to that of the controls. However, WBC count and PCV (%) values were not changed significantly in the test group. The platelet count in the test group started to increase significantly from Day 3 (3.4±0.18×105/µL), reaching almost a fourfold higher at Day 21 (11.3×105/µL), while it was 3.8×105/µL and 5.5×105/µL at Day 3 and Day 21 respectively in the control. Likewise, the RBC count in the test group increased from 6×106/µL to 9×106/ µL at Day 21 while it remained near constant in the control group (6×106/µL). Conclusions Fresh C. papaya leaf extract significantly increased the platelet and RBC counts in the test group as compared to controls. Therefore, it is very important to identify those chemicals of C. papaya leaves as it can be recommended to be used as a medication to boost thrombopoiesis and erythropoiesis in humans and in animals in which these cell lineages have been compromised. PMID:23998013

  20. Identification and expression of C2H2 transcription factor genes in Carica papaya under abiotic and biotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ling; Pan, Lin-jie

    2012-06-01

    C2H2 proteins belong to a group of transcription factors (TFs) existing as a superfamily that plays important roles in defense responses and various other physiological processes in plants. The present study aimed to screen for and identify C2H2 proteins associated with defense responses to abiotic and biotic stresses in Carica papaya L. Data were collected for 47,483 papaya-expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The full-length cDNA nucleotide sequences of 87 C2H2 proteins were predicated by BioEdit. All 91 C2H2 proteins were aligned, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed using DNAman. The expression levels of 42 C2H2 were analyzed under conditions of salt stress by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Methyl jasmonate treatment rapidly upregulated ZF(23.4) and ZF(30,912.1) by 18.6- and 21.7-fold, respectively. ZF(1.3), ZF(138.44), ZF(94.49), ZF(29.160), and ZF(20.206) were found to be downregulated after low temperature treatment at very significant levels (p < 0.01). ZF(23.4), ZF(161.1), and ZF(30,912.1) were upregulated while ZF1.3, ZF(158.1), ZF(249.5), ZF(138.44), ZF(94.49), ZF(29.160), and ZF(20.206) were significantly downregulated by Spermine treatment. ZF(23.4) was upregulated while ZF(1.3), ZF(249.5), ZF(94.94), ZF(29.160), ZF(138.44), and ZF(20.206) were significantly repressed after SA treatment. ZF(23.4) and ZF(30,912.1) were significantly upregulated after sap inoculation with papaya ringspot virus pathogen. ZF(30,912.1) was subcellularly localized in the nucleus by a transgenic fusion of pBS-ZF(30,912.1)-GFP into the protoplast of papaya. The results of the present study showed that ZF(30,912.1) could be an important TF that mediates responses to abiotic and biotic stresses in papaya. PMID:22484790