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1

Novel thigmomorphogenetic responses in Carica papaya: touch decreases anthocyanin levels and stimulates petiole cork outgrowths  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Because of its rapid growth rate, relative ease of transformation, sequenced genome and low gene number relative to Arabidopsis, the tropical fruit tree, Carica papaya, can serve as a complementary genetic model for complex traits. Here, new phenotypes and touch-regulated gene homologues have been identified that can be used to advance the understanding of thigmomorphogenesis, a multigenic response involving mechanoreception and morphological change. Methods Morphological alterations were quantified, and microscopy of tissue was conducted. Assays for hypocotyl anthocyanins, lignin and chlorophyll were performed, and predicted genes from C. papaya were compared with Arabidopsis touch-inducible (TCH) and Mechanosensitive channel of Small conductance-like genes (MscS-like or MSL). In addition, the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues was characterized. Key Results On the abaxial side of petioles, treated plants were found to have novel, hypertrophic outgrowths associated with periderm and suberin. Touched plants also had higher lignin, dramatically less hypocotyl anthocyanins and chlorophyll, increased hypocotyl diameter, and decreased leaf width, stem length and root fresh weight. Papaya was found to have fewer MSL genes than Arabidopsis, and four touch-regulated genes in Arabidopsis had no counterparts in papaya. Water-spray treatment was found to enhance the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues whereas induction following touch was only slightly correlated. Conclusions The novel petiole outgrowths caused by non-wounding, mechanical perturbation may be the result of hardening mechanisms, including added lignin, providing resistance against petiole movement. Inhibition of anthocyanin accumulation following touch, a new phenotypic association, may be caused by diversion of p-coumaroyl CoA away from chalcone synthase for lignin synthesis. The absence of MSL and touch-gene homologues indicates that papaya may have a smaller set of touch-regulated genes. The genes and novel touch-regulated phenotypes identified here will contribute to a more comprehensive view of thigmomorphogenesis in plants. PMID:19182220

Porter, Brad W.; Zhu, Yun J.; Webb, David T.; Christopher, David A.

2009-01-01

2

Touch Affordances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The workshop “Touch Affordances” addresses a concept relevant to human computer interactions based on touch. The main topic is the challenge of applying the notion of affordances to domains related to touch interactions (e.g. (multi)touch screens, RFID & NFC, ubiquitous interfaces). The goals of this workshop are to launch a community of researchers, designers, etc. interested in this topic, to create a common understanding of the field of touch affordances and to generate ideas for new research areas for intuitive touch interactions. The workshop will be highly interactive and will have a creative, generative character.

Slegers, Karin; de Roeck, Dries; Arnall, Timo

3

Pain relief by touch: A quantitative approach  

PubMed Central

Pain relief by touch has been studied for decades in pain neuroscience. Human perceptual studies revealed analgesic effects of segmental tactile stimulation, as compared to extrasegmental touch. However, the spatial organisation of touch–pain interactions within a single human dermatome has not been investigated yet. In 2 experiments we tested whether, how, and where within a dermatome touch modulates the perception of laser-evoked pain. We measured pain perception using intensity ratings, qualitative descriptors, and signal detection measures of sensitivity and response bias. Touch concurrent with laser pulses produced a significant analgesia, and reduced the sensitivity in detecting the energy of laser stimulation, implying a functional loss of information within the ascending A? pathway. Touch also produced a bias to judge laser stimuli as less painful. This bias decreased linearly when the distance between the laser and tactile stimuli increased. Thus, our study provides evidence for a spatial organisation of intrasegmental touch–pain interactions. PMID:24361816

Mancini, Flavia; Nash, Thomas; Iannetti, Gian Domenico; Haggard, Patrick

2014-01-01

4

P-type H +-ATPases activity, membrane integrity, and apoplastic pH during papaya fruit ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The P-type H+-ATPase activity and related apoplastic pH were analysed in papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. cv. Golden) at different stages of maturation. Postharvest ripening of papaya was characterized by ethylene emission, skin colouration, firmness, and titratable acidity (TA). The climacteric peak of ethylene production occurred on the 2nd day after harvest, along with a sharp decrease in ATP hydrolysis

Inga G. Azevedo; Jurandi G. Oliveira; Marcelo G. da Silva; Talita Pereira; Savio F. Corrêa; Helion Vargas; Arnoldo R. Façanha

2008-01-01

5

Stability studies of papaya pectinesterase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stability studies were carried out on the purified papaya (Carica papaya L. var. exotica) pectinesterase (EC 3.1.1.11). The enzyme preparation was stable at 4°C in 0·02m sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7·5) solution containing 0·2m NaCl and 0·02% sodium azide and the loss in activity was less than 5% after storage for 1 year. The thermostability studies showed that enzyme was

A Fayyaz; B. A Asbi; H. M Ghazali; Y. B Che Man; S Jinap

1995-01-01

6

Herbicide options for weed control in papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the literature on weeds and weed control in papaya. There is limited research on this topic, and nearly all of the research focuses on herbicides. Effective use of paraquat and glyphosate in papaya is dependent on avoidance of spray contact to green bark and foliage. Pre-emergence herbicide tolerance is dependent on papaya age, size and maturity, and

R. K. NISHIMOTO

1997-01-01

7

Brief Report: Autistic Children's Attentiveness and Responsivity Improve after Touch Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 22 preschool children with autism investigated touch therapy effects on problems commonly associated with autism including inattentiveness, touch aversion, and withdrawal. Orienting to irrelevant sounds and stereotypic behaviors decreased in both the touch therapy and the touch control group; however, orienting decreased more in the…

Field, Tiffany; Lasko, David; Mundy, Peter; Henteleff, Tanja; Kabat, Susan; Talpins, Susan; Dowling, Monica

1997-01-01

8

Music by Touch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students' understanding of how robotic touch sensors work is reinforced through a hands-on design challenge involving LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT intelligent bricks, motors and touch sensors. They learn programming skills and logic design in parallel as they program robot computers to play sounds and rotate a wheel when a touch sensor is pressed, and then produce different responses if a different touch sensor is activated. Students see first-hand how robots can take input from sensors and use it to make decisions to move as programmed, including simultaneously moving a motor and playing music. A PowerPoint® presentation and pre/post quizzes are provided.

GK-12 Program, Computational Neurobiology Center,

9

A Personal Touch -Recognizing Users Based on Touch Screen Behavior  

E-print Network

with a precision of about 80%, based on just a few touch events. Keywords behavioral biometrics, touch input, largeA Personal Touch - Recognizing Users Based on Touch Screen Behavior Sarah Martina Kolly Computer a large scale study to research the users' touch screen behavior on standard UI elements. To do so we

10

Physical touch in psychotherapy: Why are we not touching more?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the issue of using touch in psychotherapy and addresses the difficulties encountered in discussing the topic. These difficulties include confusion about the purpose of touch, lack of experience among psychotherapists in the use of touch, and misunderstandings about who actually uses touch in psychotherapy. The article then addresses the anxiety psychotherapists feel about using touch such as

Gill Westland

2011-01-01

11

Headphones with touch control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Touch Headphones are meant for portable music players and aim to present an improvement to the conventional remote control in the headphone wire, and a solution for controls on wireless in-ear type headphones. Two capacitive touch sensors per earpiece sense when earpieces are being tapped on, and being put in or out.

Vincent Buil; Gerard Hollemans; Sander van de Wijdeven

2005-01-01

12

Thermophysical Properties of Papaya Puree  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of soluble solids content and temperature on thermal properties of papaya puree were studied. Density and specific heat were measured using pycnometer and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), respectively while thermal conductivity was measured using line heat source probe. Thermal diffusivity was then calculated from the experimental results of the specific heat, thermal conductivity and density. Thermal properties of

Ampawan Tansakul; Hataichanok Kantrong; Rattapon Saengrayup; Panthila Sura

2011-01-01

13

Thermophysical Properties of Papaya Puree  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of soluble solids content and temperature on thermal properties of papaya puree were studied. Density and specific heat were measured using a pycnometer and differential scanning calorimeter, respectively, while thermal conductivity was measured using a line heat source probe. Thermal diffusivity was then calculated from the experimental results of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and density. Thermal properties

Ampawan Tansakul; Hataichanok Kantrong; Rattapon Saengrayup; Panthila Sura

2012-01-01

14

Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas ( Carica papaya L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Papaya is cultivated in Espírito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature.

Camargo, R. J.; Tadini, C. C.; Sabato, S. F.

2007-11-01

15

Striking Panel Touch Location Detect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there are more touch panels that have been extensively used throughout the world. Due to customer input regarding improvements, we have examined the use of technology of touch products. In the market, most of touch monitors used by finger or touch pen get the electricity, capacity effect, or stop sensor signal. From the signal orientates the controller, lots of

Chin-Yu Wang; Hon-Ta Liu; Shih-Yu Shen

2012-01-01

16

Crystal Growing The "Touch"  

E-print Network

Crystal Growing The "Touch" I was taught that crystal growing is a knack (a special ready capacity about crystal growing. We all know some people who can grow crystals quite by accident and some that could not grow a crystal if their science depended on it. With that said, there are techniques

Meagher, Mary

17

Getting in Touch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the growing demand of using touchscreen interface. Consumers are now seeing touchscreens in a wide variety of electronics, not only in competitors to the iPhone from Sony, Samsung, Motorola, LG and T-Mobile, but also in desktop PCs, printers and copiers, televisions, and MP3 players. Teens, if they don't have a touch-enabled…

Dyrli, Kurt O.

2008-01-01

18

Touch massage, a rewarding experience.  

PubMed

This study aims to describe and analyze healthy individuals' expressed experiences of touch massage (TM). Fifteen healthy participants received whole body touch massage during 60 minutes for two separate occasions. Interviews were analyzed by narrative analysis. Four identifiable storyline was found, Touch massage as an essential need, in this storyline the participants talked about a desire and need for human touch and TM. Another storyline was about, Touch massage as a pleasurable experience and the participants talked about the pleasure of having had TM. In the third storyline Touch massage as a dynamic experience, the informants talked about things that could modulate the experience of receiving TM. In the last storyline, Touch massage influences self-awareness, the participants described how TM affected some of their psychological and physical experiences. Experiences of touch massage was in general described as pleasant sensations and the different storylines could be seen in the light of rewarding experiences. PMID:24771663

Lindgren, Lenita; Jacobsson, Maritha; Lämås, Kristina

2014-12-01

19

The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3× draft genome sequence of `SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance

Ray Ming; Shaobin Hou; Yun Feng; Qingyi Yu; Alexandre Dionne-Laporte; Jimmy H. Saw; Pavel Senin; Wei Wang; Benjamin V. Ly; Kanako L. T. Lewis; Lu Feng; Meghan R. Jones; Rachel L. Skelton; Jan E. Murray; Cuixia Chen; Wubin Qian; Junguo Shen; Peng Du; Moriah Eustice; Eric Tong; Haibao Tang; Eric Lyons; Robert E. Paull; Todd P. Michael; Kerr Wall; Danny W. Rice; Henrik Albert; Ming-Li Wang; Yun J. Zhu; Michael Schatz; Niranjan Nagarajan; Ricelle A. Acob; Peizhu Guan; Andrea Blas; Ching Man Wai; Christine M. Ackerman; Yan Ren; Chao Liu; Jianmei Wang; Jianping Wang; Jong-Kuk Na; Eugene V. Shakirov; Brian Haas; Jyothi Thimmapuram; David Nelson; Xiyin Wang; John E. Bowers; Andrea R. Gschwend; Arthur L. Delcher; Ratnesh Singh; Jon Y. Suzuki; Savarni Tripathi; Kabi Neupane; Hairong Wei; Beth Irikura; Maya Paidi; Ning Jiang; Wenli Zhang; Gernot Presting; Aaron Windsor; Rafael Navajas-Pérez; Manuel J. Torres; F. Alex Feltus; Brad Porter; Yingjun Li; A. Max Burroughs; Ming-Cheng Luo; Lei Liu; David A. Christopher; Stephen M. Mount; Paul H. Moore; Tak Sugimura; Jiming Jiang; Mary A. Schuler; Vikki Friedman; Thomas Mitchell-Olds; Dorothy E. Shippen; Claude W. Depamphilis; Jeffrey D. Palmer; Michael Freeling; Andrew H. Paterson; Dennis Gonsalves; Lei Wang; Maqsudul Alam

2008-01-01

20

Effects of the Papaya meleira virus on papaya latex structure and composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous latex exudation is the main symptom of papaya sticky (meleira) disease caused by the Papaya meleira virus (PMeV), a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus. This paper describes different effects of PMeV on papaya latex. Latex samples\\u000a were subjected to different histochemical tests to evaluate their chemical composition. Additionally, the integrity of the\\u000a latex particles was assessed by transmission and scanning

Silas P. Rodrigues; Maura Da Cunha; José A. Ventura; Patricia Machado Bueno Fernandes

2009-01-01

21

Evaluation of volatiles from ripening papaya ( Carica papaya L., var. Maradol roja)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ripening on the chemical composition of papaya (Carica papaya L., var. Maradol roja), especially regarding volatile components, was investigated in four ripening stages. Ripening was characterized sensorily, as well as through physical and chemical analyses. Volatile compounds were isolated by a simultaneous distillation\\/solvent extraction method. Butanol, 3-methylbutanol, benzyl alcohol and ?-terpineol showed maximum concentrations in the third

Karina Almora; Jorge A. Pino; Mercedes Hernández; Cira Duarte; Juan González; Elda Roncal

2004-01-01

22

Erwinia mallotivora sp., a New Pathogen of Papaya (Carica papaya) in Peninsular Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414). Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch’s postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya. PMID:21339975

Amin, Noriha Mat; Bunawan, Hamidun; Redzuan, Rohaiza Ahmad; Jaganath, Indu Bala S.

2011-01-01

23

Ripening in papaya fruit is altered by ACC oxidase cosuppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya) is a very important crop in many tropical countries but it is highly susceptible to parasitic diseases, physiological disorders,\\u000a mechanical damage and fruit overripening. Here we report a study on ACC oxidase cosuppression and its effects on papaya fruit\\u000a ripening. Papaya ACC oxidase was isolated using PCR and embriogenic cells transformed by biolistic using the CaMV 35S

Rodolfo López-Gómez; Jose Luis Cabrera-Ponce; Luis Jorge Saucedo-Arias; Lorena Carreto-Montoya; Ramon Villanueva-Arce; Juan Carlos Díaz-Perez; Miguel Angel Gómez-Lim; Luis Herrera-Estrella

2009-01-01

24

Phospholipids of palash ( Butea monosperma ), papaya ( Carica papaya ), jangli badam ( Sterculia foetida ), coriander ( Coriandrum sativum ) and carrot ( Daucus carota ) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of the phospholipids of palash(Butea monosperma), papaya(Carica papaya), jangli badam(Sterculia foetida), coriander(Coriandrum sativum) and carrot(Daucus carota) seeds are reported in the present study. Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol were identified\\u000a as major components in all the seeds. Small amounts of lysophosphatidylcholine in palash and papaya, and cardiolipin in palash,\\u000a papaya and carrot also were detected. The predominant fatty acids present

R. B. N. Prasad; Y. Nagender Rao; S. Venkob Rao

1987-01-01

25

Nutritional composition of Rainbow papaya, the first commercialized transgenic fruit crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainbow papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a genetically engineered (GE) cultivar with resistance to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This cultivar currently accounts for about 70% of Hawaii's papaya acreage. The nutritional composition of Rainbow papaya and a non-transgenic control were analyzed to address GE food safety concerns regarding the potential for altered nutritional composition and altered expression of inherent allergens

Savarni Tripathi; Jon Y. Suzuki; James B. Carr; Grant T. McQuate; Stephen A. Ferreira; Richard M. Manshardt; Karen Y. Pitz; Marisa M. Wall; Dennis Gonsalves

2011-01-01

26

Relationship and touch in public settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in touch in U.S. populations have been well demonstrated. The age of participants and the setting in which touch occurs have been shown to affect the gender differences. Some investigators have concluded that a gender asymmetry exists with men touching women more than women touch men. A number of studies have shown that men and women interpret touch

Frank N. Willis Jr; Leon F. Briggs

1992-01-01

27

A male and hermaphrodite specific RAPD marker for papaya ( Carica papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to determine the sex of a dioecious species, Carica papaya L., with three sex types, male, female and hermaphrodite. A 450 bp marker fragment, named PSDM(Papaya Sex Determination Marker),\\u000a exists in all male and hermaphrodite plants but not in the female plants so far analyzed. The DNA sequence of PSDM exhibited

N. Urasaki; M. Tokumoto; K. Tarora; Y. Ban; T. Kayano; H. Tanaka; H. Oku; I. Chinen; R. Terauchi

2002-01-01

28

Stance stability with unilateral and bilateral light touch of an external stationary object.  

PubMed

Unilateral light fingertip touch of a stationary object has a significant stabilizing effect on postural sway during stance. The purpose of this study was to find out if this effect is enhanced by bilateral light touch of parallel stationary objects. The postural sway of 54 healthy subjects was tested in four stance conditions: no touch; unilateral left light touch of the left handle of a walker; unilateral right light touch of the right handle of the same walker; and bilateral light touch of the two handles. During testing, subjects stood blindfolded on two foam pads placed on the left and right force plates of the Tetrax balance system. Testing in each condition lasted 45 s and was executed twice in a random order. As expected, postural sway was significantly reduced by unilateral left or right light fingertip touch. It was significantly further decreased by bilateral light touch. In addition, light touch conditions were associated with a reduction in pressure fluctuations between the heel and forefoot of the same foot as well as those of the contralateral foot, with a concomitant increase in weight shift fluctuations between the two feet. The decrease in postural sway with bilateral light touch suggests cortical modulation of the bilateral touch inputs, with enhancement of the stabilizing response. PMID:16503584

Dickstein, Ruth

2005-12-01

29

Propagation Experiments with Avocado, Mango, and Papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past year several different investigations relative to the propagation of the avocado, mango and papaya have been conducted in Florida. In this preliminary report, the results of a few of the different experiments will be described. Germination media:—Avocado seeds of Gottfried (Mex.) during the summer season, and Shooter (Mex.) during the fall season; and Apple Mango seeds during

HAMILTON P. TRAUB; E. C. AUCHTER

30

Transfections of animal touch, techniques of biosecurity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal touch – in the broadest sense, biological touch across species lines – emerges as a biosecurity threat within contemporary contexts of pandemic alert. At the same time, animal touch is increasingly invested with therapeutic, healing value within neoliberal economies of affect. This article develops two genealogies of animal touch toward historicizing the way it has come to mean and

Nicole Shukin

2011-01-01

31

A Sensitive, Reliable Inexpensive Touch Detector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in a laboratory required a sensitive, reliable, inexpensive touch detector for use with rats to test the reinforcement of inhibition. A small touch detector was also desirable so that the detector could be mounted on the rat's cage close to the object being touched by the rat, whose touches in turn were being detected by current passing…

Anger, Douglas; Schachtman, Todd R.

2007-01-01

32

Helping through touch: The embodiment of caring.  

PubMed

There is a power to touch, and a magic. Some call it mystery. The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the various meanings and uses of touch, particularly within the context of relationship and helping. There will be no attempt to formulate a protocol for touch or to lay claim to a definitive meaning for touch. Reflection about touch may instead clarify some of its meanings and dynamics while encouraging care providers to embrace the experience of helping-through-touch. This paper supports a considered use of empathie touch because of its power and its ability to embody care. PMID:24276964

Peloquin, S M

1989-12-01

33

Touch attitudes and behaviors, recollections of early childhood touch, and social self-confidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjects filled out three touch attitude scales, a measure of recollections of early childhood touch, and a social competence inventory, and then proceeded to record their touches in a log for one week. The touch questionnaires, although correlated with one another, did not predict day-to-day touching as recorded in logs. However, the results also suggest that questionnaire responses (for the

Stanley E. Jones; Brandi C. Brown

1996-01-01

34

[Detection of recombinant DNA from genetically modified papaya].  

PubMed

A method using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to detect the genetically modified (GM) papaya (55-1 line), of which the mandatory safety assessment has not been finished in Japan because of insufficient data. The papaya intrinsic papain gene was used as an internal control. The results of PCR amplification of the papain gene segment indicated that a commercial silica membrane type kit (QIAGEN DNeasy plant mini) was useful for extraction of DNA from papaya fruit, but not for extraction from canned papaya fruit. On the other hand, a commercial ion-exchange type kit (QIAGEN Genomic-tip) provided enough purified DNA for PCR from canned papaya fruit. Compared with the parental line and other commercial non-GM papayas, the DNA from GM papaya fruit provided specific amplification bands in PCR with five primer pairs (Nos. 2-6) including beta-glucuronidase and neomycin phosphotransferase II gene-specific ones. On the other hand, the primer pairs recognizing these genes showed false-positive results when we used DNAs from canned papaya. Therefore, we recommend that the primer pairs (Nos. 5 and 6) recognizing the sequences derived from two different species of organism should be used in order to detect specifically the GM papaya in canned fruits. PMID:11817137

Goda, Y; Asano, T; Shibuya, M; Hino, A; Toyoda, M

2001-08-01

35

Touch Satiety: Differential Effects of Stroking Velocity on Liking and Wanting Touch Over Repetitions  

PubMed Central

A slow, gentle caress of the skin is a salient hedonic stimulus. Low threshold, unmyelinated C-tactile afferents fire preferentially to this type of touch, where slow (<1 cm/s) and fast (>10 cm/s) stroking velocities produce lower firing frequencies and are rated as less pleasant. The current aim was to investigate how the experience of tactile pleasantness changes with repeated exposure (satiety to touch). A further aim was to determine whether tactile satiety varied with different stroking velocities. The experimental paradigm used a controlled brush stroke to the forearm that was delivered repeatedly for ?50 minutes. In Experiment 1, brush strokes were administered at three different velocities (0.3 cm/s, 3 cm/s and 30 cm/s), which were presented in a pseudo-randomised order. In Experiment 2, brush strokes were applied using only one velocity (either 3 or 30 cm/s). After each stroke, the participants rated both subjective pleasantness (liking) and wanting (the wish to be further exposed to the same stimulus) for each tactile sensation. In Experiment 1, both pleasantness and wanting showed a small, but significant, decrease over repetitions during stroking at 3 cm/s only, where the mean values for pleasantness and wanting were similar. Conversely, slower (0.3 cm/s) and faster (30 cm/s) stroking showed no decrease in ratings over time, however pleasantness was rated higher than wanting. In Experiment 2, both pleasantness and wanting showed a significant decrease over repetitions for both applied velocities, with a larger decrease in ratings for stroking at 3 cm/s. In conclusion, satiety to touch occurred with a slow onset and progression, where pleasantness and wanting ratings to stroking at 3 cm/s were affected more than at the slower or faster velocities. Tactile satiety appears to differ compared to appetitive and olfactory satiety, because the hedonic and rewarding aspects of touch persist for some time. PMID:25405620

Triscoli, Chantal; Ackerley, Rochelle; Sailer, Uta

2014-01-01

36

In touch with your emotions: oxytocin and touch change social impressions while others' facial expressions can alter touch.  

PubMed

Interpersonal touch is frequently used for communicating emotions, strengthen social bonds and to give others pleasure. The neuropeptide oxytocin increases social interest, improves recognition of others' emotions, and it is released during touch. Here, we investigated how oxytocin and gentle human touch affect social impressions of others, and vice versa, how others' facial expressions and oxytocin affect touch experience. In a placebo-controlled crossover study using intranasal oxytocin, 40 healthy volunteers viewed faces with different facial expressions along with concomitant gentle human touch or control machine touch, while pupil diameter was monitored. After each stimulus pair, participants rated the perceived friendliness and attractiveness of the faces, perceived facial expression, or pleasantness and intensity of the touch. After intranasal oxytocin treatment, gentle human touch had a sharpening effect on social evaluations of others relative to machine touch, such that frowning faces were rated as less friendly and attractive, whereas smiling faces were rated as more friendly and attractive. Conversely, smiling faces increased, whereas frowning faces reduced, pleasantness of concomitant touch - the latter effect being stronger for human touch. Oxytocin did not alter touch pleasantness. Pupillary responses, a measure of attentional allocation, were larger to human touch than to equally intense machine touch, especially when paired with a smiling face. Overall, our results point to mechanisms important for human affiliation and social bond formation. PMID:24275000

Ellingsen, Dan-Mikael; Wessberg, Johan; Chelnokova, Olga; Olausson, Håkan; Laeng, Bruno; Leknes, Siri

2014-01-01

37

Touching Your Photos and Videos  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter introduced you to the iPod touch’s Photos app and showed you how to navigate your photo collections in a variety\\u000a of ways. We also showed you how your iPod’s wide-screen video features and interactive touchscreen are in a class of their\\u000a own. They offer clear, easy-to-watch video on a (relatively) large screen. In this chapter, you’ve seen how

Michael Grothaus; Erica Sadun

38

To Touch or Not to Touch: That Is the Question!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People attend museums to see artifacts and learn from them! Ideally, they want to see them, touch them, and learn the story about them. Artifacts have an uncanny ability to mute the passage of time, and unite young and old on common ground. During its sixty-plus-years in existence, the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History has displayed…

Smith, Gene Allen

2011-01-01

39

Sex and ploidy of anther culture derived papaya ( Carica papaya L.) plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  To improve the efficiency of papaya anther culture, we investigated (1) hormonal medium conditions for inducing haploids or dihaploids; (2) identified the sex of established plantlets using a sex-specific DNA molecular marker and (3) estimated their ploidy by flow cytometry analysis of DNA content. Anthers with a mixture of uninucleate, mitotic, and binucleate microspores were collected from a male plant,

Fredah K. Rimberia; Shinichi Adaniya; Takeomi Etoh; Yukio Ishimine

2006-01-01

40

Mobile Music Touch: Vibration stimulus in hand rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hand rehabilitation often consists of repetitive exercises, which may result in reduced patient compliance and decreased results. The Mobile Music Touch (MMT) is proposed as an engaging form of hand rehabilitation. MMT is a lightweight, wireless haptic music instruction system consisting of gloves and a mobile Bluetooth-enabled computing device, such as a mobile phone. Musical passages to be learned via

T. Markow; N. Ramakrishnan; K. Huang; T. Starner; M. Eicholtz; S. Garrett; H. Profita; A. Scarlata; C. Schooler; A. Tarun; D. Backus

2010-01-01

41

Dynamic (Kinesthetic) Touch Perception in Preschool Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preschool years are an important time during which children gain proficiency using the hands for both performatory and perceptual functions that involve dynamic (kinesthetic) touch. We evaluated dynamic touch perception of object extent and found that preschool children are able to discriminate length by dynamic touch early, but perception is not very fine-tuned and perceptual attunement to inertial characteristics

Paula Fitzpatrick; Nicole Flynn

2010-01-01

42

Slide rule: making mobile touch screens accessible to blind people using multi-touch interaction techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in touch screen technology have increased the prevalence of touch screens and have prompted a wave of new touch screen-based devices. However, touch screens are still largely inaccessible to blind users, who must adopt error-prone compensatory strategies to use them or find accessible alternatives. This inaccessibility is due to interaction techniques that require the user to visually locate

Shaun K. Kane; Jeffrey P. Bigham; Jacob O. Wobbrock

2008-01-01

43

Air touch: new feeling touch-panel interface you don't need to touch using audio input  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A touch-panel is display overlays which have the ability to display and receive information on the same screen. The advantage of this touch screen is that it is easy for all users to operate intuitively. In addition, a touch-panel interface is utilizable for multi-users. However a conventional system cannot provide us with direct touching in the air because the touching point differs from the actual displaying space. The reason is that a conventional touch-panel system detects the user's operation on the display screen. In the virtual 3D space, it is important to realize that the user can operate at the same space. The authors developed a prototype virtual air touch interface system for interaction in the virtual 3D space. In this paper, we propose the interface system using a theremin which is a musical instrument having the unusual aspect of being controlled by the performer's hand motions near the antennas.

Sakamoto, Kunio; Morimoto, Hiroyuki

2008-03-01

44

Effects of nitric oxide treatment on the cell wall softening related enzymes and several hormones of papaya fruit during storage.  

PubMed

Papaya fruits (Carica papaya L. cv 'Sui you 2') harvested with < 5% yellow surface at the blossom end were fumigated with 60 microL/L of nitric oxide for 3 h and then stored at 20 degrees C with 85% relative humility for 20 days. The effects of nitric oxide treatment on ethylene production rate, the activities of cell wall softening related enzymes including polygalacturonase, pectin methyl esterase, pectate lyase and cellulase and the levels of hormones including indole acetic acid, abscisic acid, gibberellin and zeatin riboside were examined. The results showed that papaya fruits treated with nitric oxide had a significantly lower rate of ethylene production and a lesser loss of firmness during storage. A decrease in polygalacturonase, pectin methyl esterase, pectate lyase and cellulase activities was observed in nitric oxide treated fruit. In addition, the contents of indole acetic acid, abscisic acid and zeatin riboside were reduced in nitric oxide treated fruit, but no significant reduction in the level of gibberellin was found. These results indicate that nitric oxide treatment can effectively delay the softening and ripening of papaya fruit, likely via the regulation of cell wall softening related enzymes and certain hormones. PMID:23744122

Guo, Qin; Wu, Bin; Chen, Weixin; Zhang, Yuli; Wang, Jide; Li, Xueping

2014-06-01

45

Yeast ratio is a critical factor for sequential fermentation of papaya wine by Williopsis saturnus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Summary The growth kinetics and fermentation performance of Williopsis saturnus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at ratios of 10:1, 1:1 and 1:10 (W.:S.) were studied in papaya juice with initial 7-day fermentation by W.?saturnus, followed by S.?cerevisiae. The growth kinetics of W.?saturnus were similar at all ratios, but its maximum cell count decreased as the proportion of S.?cerevisiae was increased. Conversely, there was an early death of S.?cerevisiae at the ratio of 10:1. Williopsis saturnus was the dominant yeast at 10:1 ratio that produced papaya wine with elevated concentrations of acetate esters. On the other hand, 1:1 and 1:10 ratios allowed the coexistence of both yeasts which enabled the flavour-enhancing potential of W.?saturnus as well as the ethyl ester and alcohol-producing abilities of S.?cerevisiae. In particular, 1:1 and 1:10 ratios resulted in production of more ethyl esters, alcohols and 2-phenylethyl acetate. However, the persistence of both yeasts at 1:1 and 1:10 ratios led to formation of high levels of acetic acid. The findings suggest that yeast ratio is a critical factor for sequential fermentation of papaya wine by W.?saturnus and S.?cerevisiae as a strategy to modulate papaya wine flavour. PMID:23171032

Lee, Pin-Rou; Kho, Stephanie Hui Chern; Yu, Bin; Curran, Philip; Liu, Shao-Quan

2013-01-01

46

77 FR 31294 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Papaya...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Importation of Papaya From Colombia and Ecuador AGENCY: Animal and Plant...commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador into the continental United...commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador, contact Ms. Dorothy...

2012-05-25

47

Development of Transgenic Papaya through Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation.  

PubMed

Transgenic papaya plants were regenerated from hypocotyls and immature zygotic embryo after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as the selectable marker and ?-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene. The explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens on regeneration medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime for one week. The cocultivated explants were transferred into the final selection medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime?+?50?mg/L kanamycin for callus induction as well as plant regeneration. The callus derived from the hypocotyls of Carica papaya cv. Shahi showed the highest positive GUS activities compared to Carica papaya cv. Ranchi. The transformed callus grew vigorously and formed embryos followed by transgenic plantlets successfully. The result of this study showed that the hypocotyls of C. papaya cv. Shahi and C. papaya cv. Ranchi are better explants for genetic transformation compared to immature embryos. The transformed C. papaya cv. Shahi also showed the maximum number of plant regeneration compared to that of C. papaya cv. Ranchi. PMID:24066284

Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md Golam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

2013-01-01

48

Development of Transgenic Papaya through Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation  

PubMed Central

Transgenic papaya plants were regenerated from hypocotyls and immature zygotic embryo after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as the selectable marker and ?-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene. The explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens on regeneration medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime for one week. The cocultivated explants were transferred into the final selection medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime?+?50?mg/L kanamycin for callus induction as well as plant regeneration. The callus derived from the hypocotyls of Carica papaya cv. Shahi showed the highest positive GUS activities compared to Carica papaya cv. Ranchi. The transformed callus grew vigorously and formed embryos followed by transgenic plantlets successfully. The result of this study showed that the hypocotyls of C. papaya cv. Shahi and C. papaya cv. Ranchi are better explants for genetic transformation compared to immature embryos. The transformed C. papaya cv. Shahi also showed the maximum number of plant regeneration compared to that of C. papaya cv. Ranchi. PMID:24066284

Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md. Golam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

2013-01-01

49

New approach for papaya latex storage without virus degradation  

PubMed Central

Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease, which has been detected through analysis of its double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome from plant latex. In this work we demonstrate that PMeV dsRNA is protected during 25 days when latex is diluted in citrate buffer pH 5.0 (1:1 v/v) and maintained at -20ºC. At the same temperature, some protection was observed for pure latex or latex diluted in ultra-pure water. Conversely, the dsRNA was almost completely degraded after 25 days when maintained at 25ºC, indicating the need for freezing. The proper procedures to collect and store papaya latex described here will contribute to efficient and large scale use of molecular diagnosis of PMeV. PMID:24031329

Rodrigues, Silas P.; Andrade, Josemar S.; Ventura, Jose A.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

2009-01-01

50

Semen study of papaya workers exposed to ethylene dibromide  

SciTech Connect

A cross sectional semen and cytogenetic study was performed on male workers exposed to ethylene-dibromide (EDB) in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii. Semen analyses were conducted on 46 men in six fumigation facilities with an average length of employment of 5 years and airborne exposures to EDB ranging from 16 to 213 parts per billion. Statistically significant decreases in sperm count per ejaculate and the percentage of viable and motile sperm and increases in the proportion of specific morphological abnormalities were observed among exposed men when compared with controls. Semen volume and sperm concentration were also lower in the exposed group. No effect of exposure to EDB on sperm velocity, the overall proportion of sperm with normal morphology or YFF bodies was noted. The authors conclude that based on the decreases in sperm count, viability and motility and increases in certain types of morphological abnormalities among workers exposed to EDB, EDB may increase the risk of reproductive impairment in workers at exposure levels near the NIOSH recommended limit of 45 parts per billion and far below the current OSHA standard of 20 parts per million.

Ratcliffe, J.M.; Schrader, S.M.; Steenland, K.; Clapp, D.; Turner, T.

1984-01-01

51

Building Interactive Multi-Touch Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Multi-touch interaction with computationally enhanced surfaces has received considerable attention in recent years. Hardware\\u000a implementations of multi-touch interaction such as Frustrated Total Internal Reflection (FTIR) and Diffuse Illumination (DI)\\u000a have allowed for the low cost development of surfaces. Although many of these technologies and associated applications have\\u000a been presented in academic settings, the practicalities of building a high quality multi-touch

Johannes Schöning; Jonathan Hook; Nima Motamedi; Patrick Olivier; Florian Echtler; Peter Brandl; Laurence Muller; Florian Daiber; Otmar Hilliges; Markus Löchtefeld; Tim Roth; Dominik Schmidt; Ulrich von Zadow

2009-01-01

52

Generating STR profile from "Touch DNA".  

PubMed

As forensic DNA technology has become a common tool in criminal investigations, scientists have attempted to obtain DNA evidence from what were once considered unlikely sources. "Touch DNA" refers to the DNA that is left behind from skin cells when a person touches or comes into contact with an item. This present study shows, DNA profiling of touched evidence materials is reported employing a combination of LCN typing and miniSTRs. The technology is highly valuable for increasing the scope of DNA profiling to large number touched evidence materials. PMID:21907930

Aditya, Sangeeta; Sharma, A K; Bhattacharyya, C N; Chaudhuri, Keya

2011-10-01

53

TouchLogger: Inferring Keystrokes On Touch Screen From Smartphone Motion  

E-print Network

TouchLogger: Inferring Keystrokes On Touch Screen From Smartphone Motion Abstract Attacks that use are ineffective on smartphones without physi- cal keyboards. We describe a new side channel, motion, on touch screen smartphones with only soft keyboards. Since typing on different locations on the screen causes

Chen, Hao

54

""Test Before TouchTest Before Touch"" Easier Said Than DoneEasier Said Than Done  

E-print Network

""Test Before TouchTest Before Touch"" Easier Said Than DoneEasier Said Than Done Ken Crawford, DuPontKen Crawford, DuPont Kent Haggerty, DupontKent Haggerty, Dupont #12;OverviewOverview · Test Before Touch (TBT Voltage Testing · Summary & Conclusions #12;#12;How Would You Verify Power is Off?How Would You Verify

55

TouchLight: An Imaging Touch Screen and Display for Gesture-Based Interaction  

E-print Network

projection screen material (DNP HoloScreen) which permits projection onto a transparent sheet of acrylicTouchLight: An Imaging Touch Screen and Display for Gesture-Based Interaction Andrew D. Wilson Microsoft Research One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA awilson@microsoft.com ABSTRACT A novel touch screen

Dumais, Susan

56

7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319.56-25 Section 319.56-25...56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may be...one of the following locations: (1) Brazil: State of Espirito...

2010-01-01

57

The Sensory Neurons of Touch  

PubMed Central

The somatosensory system decodes a wide range of tactile stimuli and thus endows us with a remarkable capacity for object recognition, texture discrimination, sensory-motor feedback and social exchange. The first step leading to perception of innocuous touch is activation of cutaneous sensory neurons called low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs). Here, we review the properties and functions of LTMRs, emphasizing the unique tuning properties of LTMR subtypes and the organizational logic of their peripheral and central axonal projections. We discuss the spinal cord neurophysiological representation of complex mechanical forces acting upon the skin and current views of how tactile information is processed and conveyed from the spinal cord to the brain. An integrative model in which ensembles of impulses arising from physiologically distinct LTMRs are integrated and processed in somatotopically aligned mechanosensory columns of the spinal cord dorsal horn underlies the nervous system’s enormous capacity for perceiving the richness of the tactile world. PMID:23972592

Abraira, Victoria E.; Ginty, David D.

2013-01-01

58

The performance of touch screen soft buttons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of a new generation of attractive touch screen-based devices raises many basic usability questions whose answers may influence future design and market direction. With a set of current mobile devices, we conducted three experiments focusing on one of the most basic interaction actions on touch screens: the operation of soft buttons. Issues investigated in this set of experiments

Seungyon Lee; Shumin Zhai

2009-01-01

59

Touch increases autonomic coupling between romantic partners  

PubMed Central

Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration). Fourteen couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy. PMID:24734009

Chatel-Goldman, Jonas; Congedo, Marco; Jutten, Christian; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

2014-01-01

60

Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

2010-01-01

61

Tactile interfaces for small touch screens  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design, implementation, and informal evaluation of tactile interfaces for small touch screens used in mobile devices. We embedded a tactile apparatus in a Sony PDA touch screen and enhanced its basic GUI elements with tactile feedback. Instead of observing the response of interface controls, users can feel it with their fingers as they press the screen. In

Ivan Poupyrev; Shigeaki Maruyama

2003-01-01

62

Touching numeral segmentation using water reservoir concept  

E-print Network

Touching numeral segmentation using water reservoir concept U. Pal a,*, A. Belaiid b , Ch. Choisy b is mainly based on features obtained from a concept based on water reservoir. A reservoir is a metaphor to illustrate the region where numerals touch. Reservoir is obtained by considering accumulation of water poured

Belaïd, Abdel

63

Attention to touch weakens audiovisual speech integration.  

PubMed

One of the classic examples of multisensory integration in humans occurs when speech sounds are combined with the sight of corresponding articulatory gestures. Despite the longstanding assumption that this kind of audiovisual binding operates in an attention-free mode, recent findings (Alsius et al. in Curr Biol, 15(9):839-843, 2005) suggest that audiovisual speech integration decreases when visual or auditory attentional resources are depleted. The present study addressed the generalization of this attention constraint by testing whether a similar decrease in multisensory integration is observed when attention demands are imposed on a sensory domain that is not involved in speech perception, such as touch. We measured the McGurk illusion in a dual task paradigm involving a difficult tactile task. The results showed that the percentage of visually influenced responses to audiovisual stimuli was reduced when attention was diverted to a tactile task. This finding is attributed to a modulatory effect on audiovisual integration of speech mediated by supramodal attention limitations. We suggest that the interactions between the attentional system and crossmodal binding mechanisms may be much more extensive and dynamic than it was advanced in previous studies. PMID:17899043

Alsius, Agnès; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

2007-11-01

64

ANTIOXIDANT AND IMMUNOSTIMULANT EFFECT OF CARICA PAPAYA LINN. AQUEOUS EXTRACT IN ACRYLAMIDE INTOXICATED RATS  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and immunostimulant effects of The Carica papaya fruit aqueous extract (CPF, Caricaceae) against acrylamide induced oxidative stress and improvement of Immune functions which affected by free radicals liberating acrylamide in rats. Material and methods: Sixty male wistar albino rats (195-230g) were assigned to four groups, (fifteen/group). The first group used as control group and received normal physiological saline orally daily. The second group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water. The third group was gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The fourth group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water and gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The chosen dose of papaya fruit extract was based on the active pharmacological dose range obtained from the orientation study earlier conducted. The experimental period was extended to forty day. At the expiration of the experimental period and night fasting, blood samples were collected from the orbital venous sinus. The sera were separated and used for determining of IgG and IgM and the stomach, liver and kidney homogenates for estimation of MDA, GSH level, SOD and CAT activity as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidative stress. Results and discussion: The obtained results revealed that, acrylamide caused significant increases in MDA and decrease of GSH level, SOD and CAT activity due to the oxidative stress induced by acrylamide on membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat’s stomach, liver and kidney while administration of CPF aqueous extract, was significantly ameliorated the increased levels of MDA and decline of GSH, SOD and CAT activity in the stomach, liver and kidney tissues caused by acrylamide toxicity. Meanwhile, CPF aqueous extract significantly increased immune functions (IgG and IgM) while acrylamide significantly decrease it specially IgG. Thus, this study suggests that acrylamide-induced oxidative stress in rats can be ameliorated by administration of CPF aqueous extract. PMID:23322975

Mohamed Sadek, Kadry

2012-01-01

65

Frictional Widgets: Enhancing Touch Interfaces with Programmable Friction  

E-print Network

Frictional Widgets: Enhancing Touch Interfaces with Programmable Friction Abstract Touch the design possibilities offered by augmenting touchscreens with programmable surface friction. Four exemplar of touch interactions can be enhanced when using a touchscreen with dynamically varied surface friction. We

Levesque, Vincent

66

Removal of hazardous pharmaceutical dyes by adsorption onto papaya seeds.  

PubMed

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds were used as adsorbent to remove toxic pharmaceutical dyes (tartrazine and amaranth) from aqueous solutions, in order to extend application range. The effects of pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature were investigated. The kinetic data were evaluated by the pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and Elovich models. The equilibrium was evaluated by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. It was found that adsorption favored a pH of 2.5, temperature of 298 K and equilibrium was attained at 180-200 min. The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo second-order model, and the equilibrium was well represented by the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacities were 51.0 and 37.4 mg g(-1) for tartrazine and amaranth, respectively. These results revealed that papaya seeds can be used as an alternative adsorbent to remove pharmaceutical dyes from aqueous solutions. PMID:25026586

Weber, Caroline Trevisan; Collazzo, Gabriela Carvalho; Mazutti, Marcio Antonio; Foletto, Edson Luiz; Dotto, Guilherme Luiz

2014-01-01

67

Odour-active compounds in papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol.  

PubMed

Application of solid-phase microextraction and simultaneous distillation-extraction combined with GC-FID, GC-MS, aroma extract dilution analysis, and odour activity value were used to analyse volatile compounds from papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol and to estimate the most odour-active compounds. The analyses led to the identification of 137 compounds; 118 of them were positively identified. Twenty-five odorants were considered as odour-active compounds and contribute to the typical papaya aroma, from which ethyl butanoate, benzyl isothiocyanate, 1-hexen-3-one, (E)-?-ionone, and methyl benzoate were the most odour-active compounds. PMID:24176322

Pino, Jorge A

2014-03-01

68

Evaluating the effects of intimate touch instruction: facilitating professional and respectful touch by male nursing students.  

PubMed

Nurses are expected to touch areas of patients' bodies that are considered private and emotionally sensitive (intimate), yet little is known about how nursing students learn, rehearse, and incorporate appropriate touch strategies. Although touch education is important to all nurses, male students face additional challenges due to gender roles and negative stereotypes. The purpose of this quasi-experimental pilot study was to evaluate whether a 3-hour intimate touch instructional laboratory with subsequent clinical experience (intervention group) facilitated male students' development of intimate touch knowledge, skills, and attitudes, compared with having only clinical experience and no laboratory (control group). Findings revealed that intervention group participants were significantly more comfortable with cleansing genitalia, less apprehensive about touch being misperceived as sexual, reported less gender requirement rigidity, and scored significantly higher on measures associated with client dignity, comfort, and respect than control group participants in a simulated perineal hygiene demonstration. PMID:24512337

O'Lynn, Chad; Krautscheid, Lorretta

2014-03-01

69

Evaluation of an Automated Touch Typing System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines an alternative method for teaching typewriting skills--the Automated Instruction Touch Typing System, an individualized self-paced instructional method using the principles of response conditioning. (Author/RK)

Diercks, Caroll J.

1977-01-01

70

Experiences with Interactive Multi-touch Tables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactive multi-touch tables can be a powerful means of communication for collaborative work as well as an engaging environment for competition. Through enticing gameplay we have evaluated user experience on competitive gameplay, collaborative work and musical expression. In addition, we report on our extensive experiences with two types of interactive multi-touch tables and we introduce a software framework that abstracts from their technical differences.

Fikkert, Wim; Hakvoort, Michiel; van der Vet, Paul; Nijholt, Anton

71

Developing Robot Motions by Simulated Touch Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch is a very powerful but not much studied communication mean in human-robot interaction. Nonetheless many robots are not\\u000a equipped with touch sensors, because it is often difficult to place such sensors over the robot surface or simply because\\u000a the main task of the robot does not require them. We propose an approach that allows developing motions for a real

Fabio Dalla Libera; Takashi Minato; Hiroshi Ishiguro; Enrico Pagello; Emanuele Menegatti

2008-01-01

72

Update on the development of virus-resistant papaya: virus-resistant transgenic papaya for people in rural communities of Thailand.  

PubMed

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the most important and preferred crops in rural communities in Thailand. Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a serious disease of papaya throughout Thailand. Efforts to control the virus by various methods either have not been successful or have not resulted in sustainable control. In 1995, collaborative research by the Department of Agriculture of Thailand and Cornell University to develop transgenic papaya resistant to PRSV was initiated. Two local Thai cultivars were transformed by microprojectile bombardment with the use of a nontranslatable coat protein gene of PRSV from Khon Kaen. Numerous kanamycin-resistantplants were regenerated and were inoculated with the PRSV Khon Kaen isolate for selection of resistant lines. Since 1997, promising RO transgenic lines have been transferred to the research station at Thapra for subsequent screenhouse tests and selection of the most PRSV-resistant lines. In selection set 1, three R3 lines initially derived from Khaknuan papaya showed excellent resistance to PRSV (97% to 100%) and had a yield of fruit 70 times higher than nontransgenic Khaknuan papaya. In selection set 2, one R3 line initially derived from Khakdam papaya showed 100% resistance. Safety assessments of these transgenic papayas have so far found no impact on the surrounding ecology. No natural crossing between transgenic and nonmodified papaya was observed beyond a distance of 10 m from the test plots. Analysis of the nutritional composition found no differences in nutrient levels in comparison with the nonmodified counterparts. Molecular characterization by Southern blotting revealed three copies of the transgene presented; however, no coat protein product was expressed. Data on additional topics, such as the effects offeeding the transgenic papaya to rats and the stability of the gene inserts, are currently being gathered. PMID:16465990

Sakuanrungsirikul, S; Sarindu, N; Prasartsee, V; Chaikiatiyos, S; Siriyan, R; Sriwatanakul, M; Lekananon, P; Kitprasert, C; Boonsong, P; Kosiyachinda, P; Fermin, G; Gonsalves, D

2005-12-01

73

The Development and Nature of the Construct Touch Avoidance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Touch avoidance is a nonverbal communication predisposition that consists of same sex touch avoidance and opposite sex touch avoidance. It is related to communication apprehension, self-disclosure, self-esteem, and a series of cultural role variables. These seem to have the greatest relationship with the measures of touch avoidance. (Author)

Andersen, Peter A.; Leibowitz, Kenneth

1978-01-01

74

Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract  

PubMed Central

Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1?mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

2014-01-01

75

Definition Of Touch-Sensitive Zones For Graphical Displays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Touch zones defined simply by touching, while editing done automatically. Development of touch-screen interactive computing system, tedious task. Interactive Editor for Definition of Touch-Sensitive Zones computer program increases efficiency of human/machine communications by enabling user to define each zone interactively, minimizing redundancy in programming and eliminating need for manual computation of boundaries of touch areas. Information produced during editing process written to data file, to which access gained when needed by application program.

Monroe, Burt L., III; Jones, Denise R.

1988-01-01

76

Control Biológico de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ((Penz.) Penz. y Sacc.) en Papaya Maradol Roja (Carica papaya L.) y Fisiología Postcosecha de Frutos Infectados  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three and four isolates of the antagonistic bacteria Bacillus firmus and Pseudomonas fluorescens, respectively, as well as plant extracts with fungitoxic properties were evaluated for the biological control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). Also, the effects of the disease on some physical, chemical, and physiological characteristics of papaya fruits Maradol Roja (Carica papaya) were evaluated. In vitro, only two strains of

Emma Zavaleta-Mejía; Isaac Luna-Romero; Casco de Santo Tomás; Juan Gabriel Gutiérrez-Alonso

2004-01-01

77

Development of a Gene-Centered SSR Atlas as a Resource for Papaya (Carica papaya) Marker-Assisted Selection and Population Genetic Studies  

PubMed Central

Carica papaya (papaya) is an economically important tropical fruit. Molecular marker-assisted selection is an inexpensive and reliable tool that has been widely used to improve fruit quality traits and resistance against diseases. In the present study we report the development and validation of an atlas of papaya simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We integrated gene predictions and functional annotations to provide a gene-centered perspective for marker-assisted selection studies. Our atlas comprises 160,318 SSRs, from which 21,231 were located in genic regions (i.e. inside exons, exon-intron junctions or introns). A total of 116,453 (72.6%) of all identified repeats were successfully mapped to one of the nine papaya linkage groups. Primer pairs were designed for markers from 9,594 genes (34.5% of the papaya gene complement). Using papaya-tomato orthology assessments, we assembled a list of 300 genes (comprising 785 SSRs) potentially involved in fruit ripening. We validated our atlas by screening 73 SSR markers (including 25 fruit ripening genes), achieving 100% amplification rate and uncovering 26% polymorphism rate between the parental genotypes (Sekati and JS12). The SSR atlas presented here is the first comprehensive gene-centered collection of annotated and genome positioned papaya SSRs. These features combined with thousands of high-quality primer pairs make the atlas an important resource for the papaya research community. PMID:25393538

Vidal, Newton Medeiros; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Ramos, Helaine Christine Cancela; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Venancio, Thiago Motta

2014-01-01

78

Touch: Enhancing Touch Interaction on Humans, Screens, Liquids, and Everyday Objects  

E-print Network

is equally effective for a pencil, a door- knob, a mobile phone or a table. Gesture recognition also scales with Touché is trivial: a single electrode embedded into an object and attached to our sensor controller electrode ­ no additional instrumentation is nec- essary. Finally, Touché is inexpensive, safe, low power

Poupyrev, Ivan

79

Structural characterization of two papaya chitinases, a family GH19 of glycosyl hydrolases.  

PubMed

Two chitinases, able to use tetra-N-acetylglucosamine, chitin and chitosan as substrates, were characterized after purification from Carica papaya latex. The complete amino acid sequence of the major form and about 40% of the minor one were determined through proteolytic digestions and mass spectroscopy analysis. Sequencing demonstrated that both papaya chitinases are members of the family 19 of glycosyl hydrolases (GH19). Based on the known 3-D structures of other members of family GH19, it was expected that papaya chitinases would adopt all-alpha structures. However, circular dichroism and infrared spectroscopy indicated, for the papaya chitinases, a content of 15-20% of extended structures besides the expected 40% of alpha helices. Since the fully sequenced papaya chitinase contains a large number of proline residues the possibility that papaya chitinase contains polyproline II stretches was examined in the context of their resistance against proteolytic degradation. PMID:17115118

Huet, J; Wyckmans, J; Wintjens, R; Boussard, P; Raussens, V; Vandenbussche, G; Ruysschaert, J M; Azarkan, M; Looze, Y

2006-12-01

80

Perception of touch quality in piano tones.  

PubMed

Both timbre and dynamics of isolated piano tones are determined exclusively by the speed with which the hammer hits the strings. This physical view has been challenged by pianists who emphasize the importance of the way the keyboard is touched. This article presents empirical evidence from two perception experiments showing that touch-dependent sound components make sounds with identical hammer velocities but produced with different touch forms clearly distinguishable. The first experiment focused on finger-key sounds: musicians could identify pressed and struck touches. When the finger-key sounds were removed from the sounds, the effect vanished, suggesting that these sounds were the primary identification cue. The second experiment looked at key-keyframe sounds that occur when the key reaches key-bottom. Key-bottom impact was identified from key motion measured by a computer-controlled piano. Musicians were able to discriminate between piano tones that contain a key-bottom sound from those that do not. However, this effect might be attributable to sounds associated with the mechanical components of the piano action. In addition to the demonstrated acoustical effects of different touch forms, visual and tactile modalities may play important roles during piano performance that influence the production and perception of musical expression on the piano. PMID:25373983

Goebl, Werner; Bresin, Roberto; Fujinaga, Ichiro

2014-11-01

81

Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching  

PubMed Central

Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this ‘information about’. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

Turvey, M. T.; Carello, Claudia

2011-01-01

82

The gentle touch receptors of mammalian skin.  

PubMed

The skin is our largest sensory organ, transmitting pain, temperature, itch, and touch information to the central nervous system. Touch sensations are conveyed by distinct combinations of mechanosensory end organs and the low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) that innervate them. Here we explore the various structures underlying the diverse functions of cutaneous LTMR end organs. Beyond anchoring of LTMRs to the surrounding dermis and epidermis, recent evidence suggests that the non-neuronal components of end organs play an active role in signaling to LTMRs and may physically gate force-sensitive channels in these receptors. Combined with LTMR intrinsic properties, the balance of these factors comprises the response properties of mechanosensory neurons and, thus, the neural encoding of touch. PMID:25414303

Zimmerman, Amanda; Bai, Ling; Ginty, David D

2014-11-21

83

Applicability of the chymopapain gene used as endogenous reference gene for transgenic huanong no. 1 papaya detection.  

PubMed

The virus-resistant papaya (Carica papaya L.), Huanong no. 1, was the genetically modified (GM) fruit approved for growing in China in 2006. To implement the labeling regulation of GM papaya and its derivates, the development of papaya endogenous reference gene is very necessary for GM papaya detection. Herein, we reported one papaya specific gene, Chymopapain (CHY), as one suitable endogenous reference gene, used for GM papaya identification. Thereafter, we established the conventional and real-time quantitative PCR assays of the CHY gene. In the CHY conventional PCR assay, the limit of detection (LOD) was 25 copies of haploid papaya genome. In the CHY real-time quantitative PCR assay, both the LOD and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were as low as 12.5 copies of haploid papaya genome. Furthermore, we revealed the construct-specific sequence of Chinese GM papaya Huanong no. 1 and developed its conventional and quantitative PCR systems employing the CHY gene as endogenous reference gene. This work is useful for papaya specific identification and GM papaya detection. PMID:19722561

Guo, Jinchao; Yang, Litao; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Haibo; Qian, Bingjun; Zhang, Dabing

2009-08-12

84

When Principals Lose Touch with the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many teachers believe that their administrators have lost touch with life in the classroom, and the resulting gap is a serious concern. Closing a perception gap between principals and teachers is critical if they are to work together for their mutual benefit and that of the children they serve. The authors of this article asked a group of veteran,…

Jorgenson, Olaf; Peal, Christopher

2008-01-01

85

The Power of Touch: Massage for Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The potential benefits of massage for infants are discussed, including the role of touch on attachment and bonding and implications of massage for special needs infants. Research results on the benefits of massage for the infant and caregiver are covered, including increased bonding and enhanced growth and development. Historical information on…

Schneider, Elaine Fogel

1996-01-01

86

Touch-Enabled Interfaces Ming C. Lin  

E-print Network

, and pediatric IV; PICC; phlebotomy; and skills assessment #12;Virtual Endoscopic Surgery Training VEST System · Endovascular simulator - Percutaneous coronary and peripheral interventions and cardiac rhythm management/follow path #12;Laparoscopic Surgery · MIT Touch Lab #12;Molecular Dynamics · VMD: Visual Molecular Dynamics

North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

87

Patients' Perceptions of Touch during Labor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory study using interviews of 150 postpartum patients was conducted to determine their perceptions of the touching they received during labor. Answers to the interview questions were analyzed in terms of overall perceptions, positive experiences, and negative experiences, and selected demographic variables were examined for differences…

Penny, Karen M. Stolte; Friedman, Paul G.

88

Evaluation of an Automated Touch Typing System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Automated Instruction Touch Typing System, an individualized self-paced instructional method of teaching typewriting skills using the principles of response conditioning, was evaluated. The system is divided into four phases. Phase 1 presents keyboard instruction in four to six hours. These lessons are response conditioning sessions during…

Dierks, Caroll J.

89

Touch Screen Tablets and Emergent Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of touch screen tablets by young children is increasing in the home and in early childhood settings. The simple tactile interface and finger-based operating features of tablets may facilitate preschoolers' use of tablet application software and support their educational development in domains such as literacy. This article reviews…

Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.

2014-01-01

90

Mobile Game Recommendation using Touch Gestures  

E-print Network

Mobile Game Recommendation using Touch Gestures Hao-Tsung Yang, De-Yu Chen, Ya-Xuan Hong, and Kuan and download more than one hundred thousands of games on mobile app marketplaces; nevertheless, how to pick the best games out of the large pool without spending much time on tryout is very challenging. The common

Chen, Sheng-Wei

91

Increasing the shelf- life of papaya through vacuum packing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study was to increase the shelf life of fruits through vacuum packing. Papaya fruits were pretreated\\u000a with waxing, oil application, purafil packets, tissue paper wrapping given along with control and were packed in 150 gauge\\u000a thickness polyethylene film bags under vacuum and another set of these samples under without vacuum. The fruits were then\\u000a stored

Geetha Padmanaban; Kanchana Singaravelu; Susheela Thirumaran Annavi

92

Papaya latex enzymes capable of detoxification of gliadin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assay of fractions obtained from ion exchange chromatography of papaya latex on CM Sephadex-C50, size exclusion chromatography\\u000a on Sephacryl S-300 and size exclusion HPLC have provided an insight into the relative contributions of the gluten-detoxifying\\u000a enzymes present. This outcome has been achieved by the use of the above chromatographic techniques, coupled with assays of\\u000a lysosomal activity, protease activity using benzylarginine

H. J. Cornell; W. Doherty; T. Stelmasiak

2010-01-01

93

TapTap: A Haptic Wearable for Asynchronous Distributed Touch  

E-print Network

emotion, in part because even an abstract representation of touch can convey presence. Psychologist Harry Harlow demonstrated that maternal touch was critical to the development of infant rhesus monkeys

Ishii, Hiroshi

94

Allodynia: When Touch Hurts But Shouldn't  

MedlinePLUS

... Print Email Allodynia: When Touch Hurts But Shouldn't ACHE Newsletter Sign up for our newsletter by ... address below. Allodynia: When Touch Hurts But Shouldn't Gretchen E. Tietjen, MD Key Points: Allodynia is ...

95

Touched by a robot: an investigation of subjective responses to robot-initiated touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

By initiating physical contact with people, robots can be more useful. For example, a robotic caregiver might make contact to provide physical assistance or facilitate communication. So as to better understand how people respond to robot-initiated touch, we conducted a 2x2 between-subjects experiment with 56 people in which a robotic nurse autonomously touched and wiped the subject's forearm. Our independent

Tiffany L. Chen; Chih-Hung King; Andrea Lockerd Thomaz; Charles C. Kemp

2011-01-01

96

Pichia cecembensis sp. nov. isolated from a papaya fruit (Carica papaya L., Caricaceae).  

PubMed

The ascogenous yeast YS16T was isolated from a decaying papaya fruit. Phenotypic traits such as multilateral budding, spheroidal or elongate shape, pseudohyphae formation, asci with one or more ascospores, ability to ferment d-glucose, inability to assimilate nitrate and the presence of Q7 ubiquinone suggest its affiliation to the genus Pichia. The nearest phylogenetic neighbor, based on D1/D2 domain sequence of the 26S rRNA gene and ITS region sequence, was identified as Issatchenkia orientalis (NRRL Y-5396T, a synonym of Pichia kudriavzevii) with similarities of 98.2% and 97% respectively. In addition to the difference in the D1/D2 and ITS region sequence, YS16T differs from I. orientalis with respect to a number of phenotypic traits. However, in the phylogenetic analysis, YS16T showed close relatedness to the P. membranifaciens clade. Thus, it is proposed to assign the status of a new species to YS16T, for which the name P. cecembensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of P. cecembensis sp. nov. is YS16T (=NRRL Y-27985T=JCM 13873T=CBS 10445T). PMID:17316366

Bhadra, Bhaskar; Sreenivas Rao, R; Naveen Kumar, N; Chaturvedi, Preeti; Sarkar, Partha K; Shivaji, S

2007-06-01

97

Imprecision, Inaccuracy, and Frustration: The Tale of Touch Input  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Touch and multi-touch technologies have generated a great deal of excitement. In this chapter we focus on addressing the fundamental\\u000a limitations associated with the use of touch as the primary input mechanism. We discuss seven problems facing the users of\\u000a touch-based interfaces and offer a set of possible solutions from the available research so far. In particular, we address\\u000a issues

Hrvoje Benko; Daniel Wigdor

98

Chlorophyll fluorescence as a tool to evaluate the ripening of ‘Golden’ papaya fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit classification based on one or more physical or physiological attributes is important to improve quality during storage and marketing. Our objectives were to evaluate changes in chlorophyll fluorescence of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. cv. Golden) at different ripeness stages and during the ripening to determine if this non-destructive technique might assist the evaluation of fruit ripeness. Maximal (Fm),

Ilana Urbano Bron; Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro; Marisa Azzolini; Angelo Pedro Jacomino; Eduardo Caruso Machado

2004-01-01

99

The Adoption of genetically modified papaya in Hawaii and its implications for developing countries 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

As agricultural biotechnology becomes increasingly commercialised, numerous constraints limit adoption by developing-country producers. These include technology access, impacts on farmers' yields and profits, privatisation of research and intellectual property, biosafety regulatory frameworks, and trade-related market restrictions. This essay analyses development of the genetically modified papaya and its commercialisation in Hawaii as a response to a virulent plant disease, papaya ringspot

C. Gonsalves; D. R. Lee; D. Gonsalves

2007-01-01

100

Draft Genome Sequence of Erwinia mallotivora BT-MARDI, Causative Agent of Papaya Dieback Disease  

PubMed Central

Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya trees infected with dieback disease, which were planted at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Malaysia. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of E. mallotivora BT-MARDI, which offers an important source of information for understanding pathogen and host interaction during papaya dieback development. PMID:24812220

Abu Bakar, N.; Rozano, L.; Badrun, R.; Mat Amin, N.; Mohd Raih, M. F.

2014-01-01

101

Feel the presence: technologies of touch and distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haptic devices for computers and video-game consoles aim to reproduce touch and to engage the user with 'force feedback'. Although physical touch is often associated with proximity and intimacy, technologies of touch can reproduce such sensations over a distance, allowing intricate and detailed operations to be conducted through a network such as the Internet. The 'virtual handshake' between Boston and

Mark Paterson

2006-01-01

102

Effect of Touch-Screen Size on Game Matt Thompson  

E-print Network

Effect of Touch-Screen Size on Game Immersion Matt Thompson Department of Computer Science York YO the influence on players' game immersion level by changing the size of the touch screen device used. We use two of touch screen could be an important factor to influence immersion in videogames. game, immersion, screen

Cairns, Paul

103

The Power of Touch: Nonverbal Communication within Married Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have suggested that one function of touch in mixed-sex interactions is to exert influence over another person. Yet theories offer different explanations as to when women and men will use touch as an influence strategy. The gender politics hypothesis proposes that men touch more as a way to maintain inequalities present in society. In…

Smith, Joann C. Seeman; Vogel, David L.; Madon, Stephanie; Edwards, Sarah R.

2011-01-01

104

Helping Hands: Designing Video Games with Interpersonal Touch Interaction  

E-print Network

Helping Hands: Designing Video Games with Interpersonal Touch Interaction Cody Watts1, 2 , Ehud and playing video games. This trend is evidenced by the recent development of interpersonal touch-based games of interpersonal touch-based games have recently been designed, the best practices for creating video games based

Boyer, Edmond

105

Clinical Holistic Medicine: Classic Art of Healingor the Therapeutic Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touching is often a forgotten part of medicine. The manual medicine or therapeutic touch (TT) is much more powerful than many modern, biomedically oriented physicians think. Pain and discomfort can be alleviated just by touching the sick area and in this way help the patient to be in better contact with the tissue and organs of their body. Lack of

Soren Ventegodt; Mohammed Morad; Joav Merrick

2004-01-01

106

Fruit-specific expression of papaya subtilase gene.  

PubMed

Subtilisin-like serine proteases (EC 3.4.21) consist of a widespread family of enzymes that is involved in various processes including in plants. The full-length cDNA (CpSUB1) and the corresponding genomic DNA for papaya subtilase have been obtained using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACEs) and PCR primer walking techniques, respectively. The cDNA clone contains an open reading frame of 2316bp encoding 772 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 82.6kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.97. The CpSUB1 gene is composed of nine exons and eight introns. The amino acid sequence encoded by CpSUB1 shared high identity (>60%) with the amino acid sequence of other plant subtilisin-like proteases. Sequence analysis of CpSUB1 revealed the presence of a possible signal peptide (25 amino acid residues) and an NH(2)-terminal prosequence (88 amino acid residues). In addition, papaya subtilase possesses the characteristic subtilisin catalytic triad amino acids namely Asp, His and Ser, together with the substrate-binding site, Asn. DNA hybridization analysis showed that subtilase gene exists as a single copy in the papaya genome. RNA hybridization analyses showed that expression of the subtilase transcripts was only detected in mesocarp but not in non-fruit tissues. Gene expression in fruit tissues reached the highest level during the ripening stage at which the fruits undergo dramatic softening process. Subsequently, pro-subtilase ( approximately 80kDa) was expressed as recombinant pro-enzyme ( approximately 97kDa), which was used to generate antiserum against papaya subtilase, anti-sub. Protein gel blot analysis using anti-sub towards total protein extracted from all ripening stages revealed that a protein with a molecular mass of approximately 70kDa reacted with the antiserum. Hence both RNA hybridization and protein gel blot analyses confirmed the presence of subtilase during papaya fruit ripening, pointing to its possible involvement in this important process. PMID:19729222

Othman, Roohaida; Nuraziyan, Azimi

2010-01-15

107

Effects of healing touch in clinical practice: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.  

PubMed

Hands-on healing and energy-based interventions have been found in cultures throughout history around the world. These complementary therapies, rooted in ancient Eastern healing practices, are becoming mainstream. Healing Touch, a biofield therapy that arose in the nursing field in the late 1980s, is used in a variety of settings (i.e., pain centers, surgical settings, and private practices) with reported benefits (i.e., decreased anxiety, pain, and depressive behaviors; increased relaxation and a sense of well-being). However, clinical trial data concerning the effectiveness of Healing Touch have not been evaluated using a systematic, evidence-based approach. Thus, this systematic review is aimed at critically evaluating the data from randomized clinical trials examining the clinical efficacy of Healing Touch as a supportive care modality for any medical condition. PMID:21228402

Anderson, Joel G; Taylor, Ann Gill

2011-09-01

108

Evidence that thermodynamic stability of papaya glutamine cyclase is only marginal.  

PubMed

Papaya glutamine cyclase (PQC), a glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 32,980 Da, is a minor constituent of the papaya latex protein fraction. In neutral aqueous solutions, PQC adopts an all-beta conformation and exhibits high resistance to both proteolysis and denaturation. Complete unfolding of PQC requires a combination of an acidic medium and chemical denaturant such as urea or guanidine hydrochloride. The unfolding process takes place through formation of an intermediate A state that accumulates in the absence of chemical denaturants and displays all the features of a molten globule state. The different conformational states-N (native), A (acid-inactivated), and U (unfolded)-have been characterized by means of circular dichroism measurements, fluorescence spectroscopies, Stokes radii determinations, and 8-anilino-1-naphtalenesulfonic acid (ANS) binding characteristics. The unfolding pathways of the enzyme was further studied to estimate thermodynamic parameters characterizing both transitions N if A and A if U. In its A state, PQC is catalytically inefficient and highly susceptible to proteolysis. Also, its thermodynamic stability is decreased by some 3-5 kcal/mol. Conversion of the native to the A state involves digging up of five amino functions together with protonation of four to five acidic groups with pK(a)s, in the native state, around 2.7. It proceeds both cooperatively and reversibly although, in vitro, the refolding process is slow. Unfolding of the A state, on the other hand, occurs with a low degree of cooperativity. The intermediate A state thus seems to be only marginally more stable than the unfolded state. The role of suspected internal ion pairs in the stabilization of the native state of this enzyme is discussed. PMID:12389212

Azarkan, Mohamed; Amrani, Amina; Zerhouni, Samira; Oberg, Keith A; Ruysschaert, Jean-Marie; Wintjens, René; Looze, Yvan

2002-12-01

109

Perceptual equivalence between vision and touch is complexity dependent.  

PubMed

We experience the shape of objects in our world largely by way of our vision and touch but the availability and integration of information between the senses remains an open question. The research presented in this article examines the effect of stimulus complexity on visual, haptic and crossmodal discrimination. Using sculpted three-dimensional objects whose features vary systematically, we perform a series of three experiments to determine perceptual equivalence as a function of complexity. Two unimodal experiments--vision and touch-only, and one crossmodal experiment investigating the availability of information across the senses, were performed. We find that, for the class of stimuli used, subjects were able to visually discriminate them reliably across the entire range of complexity, while the experiments involving haptic information show a marked decrease in performance as the objects become more complex. Performance in the crossmodal condition appears to be constrained by the limits of the subjects' haptic representation, but the combination of the two sources of information is of some benefit over vision alone when comparing the simpler, low-frequency stimuli. This result shows that there is crossmodal transfer, and therefore perceptual equivalency, but that this transfer is limited by the object's complexity. PMID:19691944

Phillips, F; Egan, E J L; Perry, B N

2009-11-01

110

Reconciling “human touch” with “high tech”?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a With the increasing proliferation of technology in education, especially in the higher education sector, educators face the\\u000a dilemma of reconciling “human touch” services, such as academic and personal advising, with the “high tech” environment. Extensive\\u000a research has indicated that advising and other support services form a critical part of a student’s success. This is particularly\\u000a applicable to the sub-degree student

Madeleine Tsoi; Reggie Kwan; Kat Leung; Sandy Tse

111

Can you hear shapes you touch?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shape is an inherent property of objects existing in both vision and touch but not audition. Can shape then be represented\\u000a by sound artificially? It has previously been shown that sound can convey visual information by means of image-to-sound coding,\\u000a but whether sound can code tactile information is not clear. Blindfolded sighted individuals were trained to recognize tactile\\u000a spatial information

Jung-Kyong Kim; Robert J. Zatorre

2010-01-01

112

Touch Therapies across the Life Span  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ayur-Veda, the earliest known medical text from India (around 1800 b.c.), lists touch therapy (massage therapy), diet, and exercise as primary healing practices of that time. As Jules Older notes,\\u000a even the English word shampoo comes from the word champna, which is an ancient Indian word meaning to press (Older, 1982). From early times, massage has been effectively used

Tiffany M. Field

113

The neurobiology of Etruscan shrew active touch  

PubMed Central

The Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus, is not only the smallest terrestrial mammal, but also one of the fastest and most tactile hunters described to date. The shrew's skeletal muscle consists entirely of fast-twitch types and lacks slow fibres. Etruscan shrews detect, overwhelm, and kill insect prey in large numbers in darkness. The cricket prey is exquisitely mechanosensitive and fast-moving, and is as big as the shrew itself. Experiments with prey replica show that shape cues are both necessary and sufficient for evoking attacks. Shrew attacks are whisker guided by motion- and size-invariant Gestalt-like prey representations. Shrews often attack their prey prior to any signs of evasive manoeuvres. Shrews whisk at frequencies of approximately 14 Hz and can react with latencies as short as 25–30 ms to prey movement. The speed of attacks suggests that shrews identify and classify prey with a single touch. Large parts of the shrew's brain respond to vibrissal touch, which is represented in at least four cortical areas comprising collectively about a third of the cortical volume. Etruscan shrews can enter a torpid state and reduce their body temperature; we observed that cortical response latencies become two to three times longer when body temperature drops from 36°C to 24°C, suggesting that endothermy contributes to the animal's high-speed sensorimotor performance. We argue that small size, high-speed behaviour and extreme dependence on touch are not coincidental, but reflect an evolutionary strategy, in which the metabolic costs of small body size are outweighed by the advantages of being a short-range high-speed touch and kill predator. PMID:21969684

Brecht, Michael; Naumann, Robert; Anjum, Farzana; Wolfe, Jason; Munz, Martin; Mende, Carolin; Roth-Alpermann, Claudia

2011-01-01

114

The mec-7 beta-tubulin gene of Caenorhabditis elegans is expressed primarily in the touch receptor neurons.  

PubMed Central

Mutants of the mec-7 beta-tubulin gene of Caenorhabditis elegans lack the large diameter 15-protofilament microtubules normally found only in the set of six touch receptor neurons. Both a mec-7-lacZ reporter gene and affinity-purified anti-mec-7 antibodies were used to show that mec-7 is expressed primarily in the touch neurons. These data are consistent with a possible instructive role for the mec-7 tubulin in determining microtubule protofilament number. The antibodies and the mec-7-lacZ transgene were also used to examine mec-7 expression in mutants affecting the generation, differentiation or maintenance of the touch neurons. Decreased expression was observed in mutants of unc-86 and mec-3, genes that encode transcription factors essential for touch receptor neuron generation and differentiation, respectively. Images PMID:1639062

Hamelin, M; Scott, I M; Way, J C; Culotti, J G

1992-01-01

115

Sharing social touch in the primary somatosensory cortex.  

PubMed

Touch has an emotional and communicative meaning, and it plays a crucial role in social perception and empathy. The intuitive link between others' somatosensations and our sense of touch becomes ostensible in mirror-touch synesthesia, a condition in which the view of a touch on another person's body elicits conscious tactile sensations on the observer's own body [1]. This peculiar phenomenon may implicate normal social mirror mechanisms [2]. Here, we show that mirror-touch interference effects, synesthesia-like sensations, and even phantom touches can be induced in nonsynesthetes by priming the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) directly or indirectly via the posterior parietal cortex. These results were obtained by means of facilitatory paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) contingent upon the observation of touch. For these vicarious effects, the SI is engaged at 150 ms from the onset of the visual touch. Intriguingly, individual differences in empathic abilities, assessed with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index [3], drive the activity of the SI when nonsynesthetes witness others' tactile sensations. This evidence implies that, under normal conditions, touch observation activates the SI below the threshold for perceptual awareness [4]; through the visual-dependent tuning of SI activity by ppTMS, what is seen becomes felt, namely, mirror-touch synesthesia. On a broader perspective, the visual responsivity of the SI may allow an automatic and unconscious transference of the sensation that another person is experiencing onto oneself, and, in turn, the empathic sharing of somatosensations [2]. PMID:24954046

Bolognini, Nadia; Rossetti, Angela; Fusaro, Martina; Vallar, Giuseppe; Miniussi, Carlo

2014-07-01

116

The design of light pipe with microstructures for touch screen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Touch screen has a very wide range of applications. Most of them are used in public information inquiries, for instance, service inquiries in telecommunication bureau, tax bureau, bank system, electric department, etc...Touch screen can also be used for entertainment and virtual reality applications too. Traditionally, touch screen was composed of pairs of infrared LED and correspondent receivers which were all installed in the screen frame. Arrays of LED were set in the adjacent sides of the frame of an infrared touch screen while arrays of the infrared receivers were fixed in each opposite side, so that the infrared detecting network was formed. While the infrared touch screen has some technical limitations nowadays such as the low resolution, limitations of touching methods and fault response due to environmental disturbances. The plastic material has a relatively high absorption rate for infrared light, which greatly limits the size of the touch screen. Our design uses laser diode as source and change the traditional inner structure of touch screen by using a light pipe with microstructures. The geometric parameters of the light pipe and the microstructures were obtained through equation solving. Simulation results prove that the design method for touch screen proposed in this paper could achieve high resolution and large size of touch screen.

Yang, Bo; Lu, Kan; Liu, Pengfei; Wei, Xiaona

2010-11-01

117

Cysteine proteinases from papaya (Carica papaya) in the treatment of experimental Trichuris suis infection in pigs: two randomized controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Background Cysteine proteinases (CPs) from papaya (Carica papaya) possess anthelmintic properties against human soil-transmitted helminths (STH, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm), but there is a lack of supportive and up-to-date efficacy data. We therefore conducted two randomized controlled trials in pigs to assess the efficacy of papaya CPs against experimental infections with T. suis. Methods First, we assessed efficacy by means of egg (ERR) and adult worm reduction rate (WRR) of a single-oral dose of 450 ?mol active CPs (CP450) against low (inoculum of 300 eggs) and high (inoculum of 3,000 eggs) intensity T. suis infections and compared the efficacy with those obtained after a single-oral dose of 400 mg albendazole (ALB). In the second trial, we determined and compared the efficacy of a series of CP doses (45 [CP45], 115 [CP115], 225 [CP225], and 450 [CP450] ?mol) against high intensity infections. Results CP450 was highly efficacious against both levels of infection intensity, resulting in ERR and WRR of more than 97%. For both levels of infection intensity, CP450 was significantly more efficacious compared to ALB by means of WRR (low infection intensity: 99.0% vs. 39.0%; high infection intensity; 97.4% vs. 23.2%). When the efficacy was assessed by ERR, a significant difference was only observed for high intensity infections, CP450 being more efficacious than ALB (98.9% vs. 59.0%). For low infection intensities, there was no significant difference in ERR between CP450 (98.3%) and ALB (64.4%). The efficacy of CPs increased as a function of increasing dose. When determined by ERR, the efficacy ranged from 2.1% for CP45 to 99.2% for CP450. For WRR the results varied from -14.0% to 99.0%, respectively. Pairwise comparison revealed a significant difference in ERR and WRR only between CP45 and CP450, the latter being more efficacious. Conclusions A single dose of 450 ?mol CPs provided greater efficacy against T. suis infections in pigs than a single-oral dose of 400 mg ALB. Although these results highlight the possibility of papaya CPs for controlling human STH, further development is needed in order to obtain and validate an oral formulation for human application. PMID:24886388

2014-01-01

118

Fabrication of a flexible and transparent touch sensor using single-walled carbon nanotube thin-films.  

PubMed

Reported herein are the fabrication and demonstration of a flexible and transparent touch sensor using carbon nanotube thin films (CNTFs). The CNTF was fabricated by vacuum filtration and was transferred CNTF to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) by water-assisted stamping method. The sheet resistance of the CNTF decreased by approximately 74% after HNO3 treatment. The CNTF touch sensor was fabricated similarly to the conventional four-wire touch screen structures. PDMS was used for the upper plate to absorb the tensile and compressive strain and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) for the lower plate to provide device stability during bending action. The CNTF touch sensor showed high optical transmittance (over 80%) and high sensitivity with the measured touch activation pressure of 23 kPa. Cyclic pressure (38 kPa) was applied at 0.5 Hz and good repeatability was found for several hundred cycles. The results show that the CNTF flexible touch sensor can be applied to future flexible electronic interfaces such as, e-paper and flexible displays. PMID:22121618

Choi, Eunsuk; Kim, Jinoh; Chun, Sungwoo; Kim, Ahsung; Lee, Kunhak; Jeong, Minho; Lim, Chaehyun; Isoshima, Takashi; Hara, Masahiko; Lee, Seung-Beck

2011-07-01

119

I feel what you feel if I like you: the effect of attractiveness on visual remapping of touch.  

PubMed

Observing touch being applied to another human's face enhances tactile perception for touch being applied to one's own face. This effect, termed the Visual Remapping of Touch (VRT), is maximal the greater the physical or conceptual similarity between observer and observed. An interesting possibility, however, is that even though the basic nature of the VRT is multisensory, a high cognitive level affinity from the observer toward the observed could modulate the VRT even in the face of decreased physical similarity. In the present study we manipulate the level of attractiveness of the avatars that participants observed being touched. By doing so, we either increased (attractive) or decreased (unattractive) the interpersonal judgment value toward the avatar, while always decreasing the physical semblance between the avatar shown and the original image. Results revealed that both for an avatar depicting oneself or a stranger, the VRT is present when touch is applied to an attractive, but not to an unattractive avatar. These findings suggest that basic multisensory effects, such as visuo-tactile interaction, are modulated by higher-level cognitive representations of the self and of others. PMID:25102665

Noel, Jean-Paul; Giovagnoli, Giulia; Costa, Marco; Serino, Andrea

2014-01-01

120

Detection of three wound-induced proteins in papaya latex.  

PubMed

The effects of routine mechanical wounding for latex collection from unripe fruits of the tropical Carica papaya tree were investigated. For that purpose, the protein composition of three different latexes was analyzed. The first one, commercially available, was provided in the form of a spray-dried powder, the second one was harvested from fully grown but unripe papaya fruits that are regularly tapped for latex production and the last one, was obtained from similar fruits wounded for the first time. Repeated mechanical wounding was found to profoundly affect the protein content of the latex inducing, among others, activation of papain. Regularly tapped latexes also accumulated several low molecular weight proteins not yet identified, as well as three proteins identified as a trypsin inhibitor, a class-II chitinase and a glutaminyl cyclase on the basis of their enzymatic or inhibitory activities and chromatographic elution profiles. This latter was found here, for the first time, to be a wound-induced protein. The roles of these proteins in the plant defense mechanism are discussed. PMID:15003415

Azarkan, Mohamed; Wintjens, René; Looze, Yvan; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle

2004-03-01

121

Mirror-touch synaesthesia in the phantom limbs of amputees.  

PubMed

In mirror-touch synaesthesia merely observing another person being touched will cause the observers to experience a touch sensation on their own body. The current study investigates whether this, normally a developmental condition, might be acquired following amputation. Twenty-eight amputees observed 67 videos of touch events and indicated a) whether the video elicited tactile sensations, b) where on the body this was located, c) the intensity of the sensation, and d) whether it was painful. Almost a third of amputees report a tactile sensation on their amputated phantom limb when watching someone else being touched. In this particular group the sensations tend to be localised on the phantom limb or stump, but are rarely reported elsewhere on the body. This occurs irrespective of the body part seen. The synaesthetic sensations were more intense when real bodies were observed relative to dummies or objects, and when the observed touch is mildly painful relative to non-painful. Although frequency, intensity and cause of phantom limb pain do not appear to determine whether an amputee will report mirror-touch sensations, those who do report it show greater empathic emotional reactivity. These results suggest that acquired synaesthesia may be linked with sensory loss, arising after amputation, and that highly empathic individuals could be predisposed to strengthening existing pathways between observed touch and felt touch. PMID:22981809

Goller, Aviva I; Richards, Kerrie; Novak, Steven; Ward, Jamie

2013-01-01

122

Analysis of Papaya Cell Wall-Related Genes during Fruit Ripening Indicates a Central Role of Polygalacturonases during Pulp Softening  

PubMed Central

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a climacteric fleshy fruit that undergoes dramatic changes during ripening, most noticeably a severe pulp softening. However, little is known regarding the genetics of the cell wall metabolism in papayas. The present work describes the identification and characterization of genes related to pulp softening. We used gene expression profiling to analyze the correlations and co-expression networks of cell wall-related genes, and the results suggest that papaya pulp softening is accomplished by the interactions of multiple glycoside hydrolases. The polygalacturonase cpPG1 appeared to play a central role in the network and was further studied. The transient expression of cpPG1 in papaya results in pulp softening and leaf necrosis in the absence of ethylene action and confirms its role in papaya fruit ripening. PMID:25162506

Fabi, Joao Paulo; Broetto, Sabrina Garcia; da Silva, Sarah Ligia Garcia Leme; Zhong, Silin; Lajolo, Franco Maria; do Nascimento, Joao Roberto Oliveira

2014-01-01

123

Fast Feedback in Active Sensing: Touch-Induced Changes to Whisker-Object Interaction  

PubMed Central

Whisking mediated touch is an active sense whereby whisker movements are modulated by sensory input and behavioral context. Here we studied the effects of touching an object on whisking in head-fixed rats. Simultaneous movements of whiskers C1, C2, and D1 were tracked bilaterally and their movements compared. During free-air whisking, whisker protractions were typically characterized by a single acceleration-deceleration event, whisking amplitude and velocity were correlated, and whisk duration correlated with neither amplitude nor velocity. Upon contact with an object, a second acceleration-deceleration event occurred in about 25% of whisk cycles, involving both contacting (C2) and non-contacting (C1, D1) whiskers ipsilateral to the object. In these cases, the rostral whisker (C2) remained in contact with the object throughout the double-peak phase, which effectively prolonged the duration of C2 contact. These “touch-induced pumps” (TIPs) were detected, on average, 17.9 ms after contact. On a slower time scale, starting at the cycle following first touch, contralateral amplitude increased while ipsilateral amplitude decreased. Our results demonstrate that sensory-induced motor modulations occur at various timescales, and directly affect object palpation. PMID:23028512

Deutsch, Dudi; Knutsen, Per Magne; Ahissar, Ehud; Schneidman, Elad

2012-01-01

124

Removal and recovery of heavy metals from aqueous solution using papaya wood as a new biosorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya wood was evaluated as a new biosorbent of heavy metals. On contacting 10mgl?l copper(II), cadmium(II) and zinc(II) solutions with 5gl?1 papaya wood, during shake flask contact time of 60min, the respective metal removal was noted to be 97.8, 94.9 and 66.8%. Sorption was most efficient at pH 5. Metal ion biosorption increased as the ratio of metal solution to

Asma Saeed; M. Waheed Akhter; Muhammed Iqbal

2005-01-01

125

Mirror-touch synaesthesia changes representations of self-identity  

PubMed Central

Individuals with Mirror-Touch Synaesthesia (MTS) experience touch on their own bodies when observing another person being touched. Whilst somatosensory processing in MTS has been extensively investigated, the extent to which the remapping of observed touch on the synaesthete’s body can also lead to changes in the mental representation of the self remains unknown. We adapted the experimental paradigm of the ‘Enfacement Illusion’ to quantify the changes in self-face recognition as a result of synaesthetic touch. MTS and control participants observed the face of an unfamiliar person being touched or not, without delivering touch on the participant’s face. Changes in self-representation were quantified with a self-face recognition task, using ‘morphed’ images containing varying proportions of the participant’s face and the face of the unfamiliar other. This task was administered before and after the exposure to the other face. While self-recognition performance for both groups was similar during pre-test, MTS individuals showed a significant change in self-recognition performance following the observation of touch delivered to the other face. Specifically, the images that participants had initially perceived as containing equal quantities of self and other became more likely to be recognised as the self after viewing the other being touched. These results suggest that observing touch on others not only elicits a conscious experience of touch in MTS, but also elicits a change in the mental representation of the self, blurring self-other boundaries. This is consistent with a multisensory account of the self, whereby integrated multisensory experiences maintain or update self-representations. PMID:23391559

Maister, Lara; Banissy, Michael J; Tsakiris, Manos

2013-01-01

126

Comparative effects of dietary administered transgenic and conventional papaya on selected intestinal parameters in rat models.  

PubMed

Transformation of agricultural crops with novel genes has significantly advanced disease-resistance breeding, including virus resistance through the expression of virus sequences. In this study, the effects of long-term, repeated exposure to transgenic papayas carrying the coat protein gene of Papaya ringspot virus and conventional non-transgenic papaya on the histology and selected biochemical parameters of the intestinal tract were compared. For 3 months, male and female Wistar rats received diets containing transgenic or non-transgenic papaya at twice the equivalent of the average daily consumption of fresh papayas. Gross and macroscopic appearance of intestinal tissues, as well as stomach tissues, was comparable (P < 0.05) as were total intestinal bacterial counts and activities of beta-glucuronidase. Activities of disaccharidases were not affected, neither were those of amylase (P < 0.05). Although significant differences were noted in the activity of Ca(2+) and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase brush border enzymes, no morphological alteration in the integrity of the intestinal mucosa was found. Overall, negligible effects on feed intake, body weight, and fecal output were observed (P < 0.05). Taken together, long-term exposure to diets formulated with transgenic papaya did not result in biologically important unintended effects. PMID:19690973

Powell, Melissa; Wheatley, Andrew O; Omoruyi, Felix; Asemota, Helen N; Williams, Nadia P; Tennant, Paula F

2010-06-01

127

Effect of packaging materials and storage environment on postharvest quality of papaya fruit.  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of packaging materials and storage environments on shelf life of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.). A factorial combination of five packaging materials and two storage environments using randomized complete block design with three replications were used. The papaya fruits were evaluated for weight loss, percentage marketability, firmness, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar and total sugar content. The packaged and cooled fruits remained firmer than unpackaged and evaporatively cooled fruits. Higher chemical compositions were recorded in the control fruits stored under ambient conditions during the earlier times of storage. Packaging and cooling maintained the chemical quality of papaya fruits better than the control sample fruits towards the end of storage periods. The evaporatively cooled storage combined with packaging improved the shelf life of papaya fruits by more than two fold. The polyethylene bag packaging combined with evaporatively cooled storage maintained the superior quality of papaya fruit for a period of 21 days. This integrated agro-technology is recommended for postharvest loss reduction biotechnology in hot regions. PMID:24876636

Azene, Mulualem; Workneh, Tilahun Seyoum; Woldetsadik, Kebede

2014-06-01

128

Object apprehension using vision and touch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers define object apprehension as the determination of the properties of an object and the relationships among these properties. They contrast this with recognition, which goes a step further to attach a label to the object as a whole. Apprehension is fundamental to manipulation. This is true whether the manipulation is being carried out by an autonomous robot or is the result of teleoperation involving sensory feedback. Researchers present an apprehension paradigm using both vision and touch. In this model, they define a representation for object apprehension in terms of a set of primitives and features, along with their relationships. This representation is the mechanism by which the data from the two modalities are combined. It is also the mechanism which drives the apprehension process.

Bajcsy, R.; Stansfield, S. A.

1987-01-01

129

The importance of touch in development  

PubMed Central

Developmental delay is common in children deprived of normal sensory stimulation – for example, in premature neonates and some institutionalized children. Touch has emerged as an important modality for the facilitation of growth and development; positive effects of supplemental mechanosensory stimulation have been demonstrated in a wide range of organisms, from worm larvae to rat pups to human infants. Animal models are being used to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. In rats, the amount of maternal licking received as a pup has a profound impact on the behaviour and physiology of the adult; in the microscopic roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, physical interactions with other worms promote growth and increase adult responsiveness to mechanosensory stimuli. By understanding the underlying mechanisms, as well as the timing and degree of stimulation required to fully reverse the effects of early childhood deprivation, strategies can be developed to best help those in need. PMID:21358895

Ardiel, Evan L; Rankin, Catharine H

2010-01-01

130

Visually guided touching and manual tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Animate vision depends on an ability to choose a region of the visual environment for task-specific processing. This processing may involve extraction of image features for object classification or identification, or it may involve extraction of viewpoint parameters, such as position, scale, and orientation, for guiding movement. It is the role of selective attention to choose the region to be processed in a task-dependent way. This paper describes a real-time implementation of a vision-robotics system that uses the location information provided by the attention mechanism to guide eye movements and arm movements in touching and manual tracking behaviors. The approach makes use of a 3-D retinocentric coordinate frame for representing position information, and differential kinematics for relating the eye and arm motor systems to this retinocentric sensory frame.

Sandon, Peter A.

1993-03-01

131

TUIC: Enabling Tangible Interaction on Capacitive Multi-touch Display  

E-print Network

tangible interaction on capacitive multi-touch devices, such as iPad, iPhone, and 3M's multi-touch displays passive materials and active modulation circuits embedded inside tangible objects, and can be used tag, physical interaction, interactive surface ACM Classification Keywords H5.2 [Information

Huang, Polly

132

fNIRS detects temporal lobe response to affective touch.  

PubMed

Touch plays a crucial role in social-emotional development. Slow, gentle touch applied to hairy skin is processed by C-tactile (CT) nerve fibers. Furthermore, 'social brain' regions, such as the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) have been shown to process CT-targeted touch. Research on the development of these neural mechanisms is scant, yet such knowledge may inform our understanding of the critical role of touch in development and its dysfunction in disorders involving sensory issues, such as autism. The aim of this study was to validate the ability of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), an imaging technique well-suited for use with infants, to measure temporal lobe responses to CT-targeted touch. Healthy adults received brushing to the right forearm (CT) and palm (non-CT) separately, in a block design procedure. We found significant activation in right pSTS and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to arm > palm touch. In addition, individual differences in autistic traits were related to the magnitude of peak activation within pSTS. These findings demonstrate that fNIRS can detect brain responses to CT-targeted touch and lay the foundation for future work with infant populations that will characterize the development of brain mechanisms for processing CT-targeted touch in typical and atypical populations. PMID:23327935

Bennett, Randi H; Bolling, Danielle Z; Anderson, Laura C; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Kaiser, Martha D

2014-04-01

133

From dance to touch: movement qualities for interaction design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we address the question of extending user experience in large scale tactile displays. Our contribution is a non task-oriented interaction technique based on modern dance for the creation of aesthetically pleasant large scale tactile interfaces. This approach is based on dance movement qualities applied to touch interaction allowing for natural gestures in large touch displays. We used

Sarah Fdili Alaoui; Baptiste Caramiaux; Marcos Serrano

2011-01-01

134

A Comparison of Injuries between Flag and Touch Football.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to determine whether fewer and less serious injuries result from participation in touch football as compared with flag football. A survey was taken of 30 flag football games and 30 touch football games and the incidence of injuries was recorded on a checklist. Results of the survey suggest the following: (a) intramural or…

Martin, Stephen L.

135

Touch in Therapy: An Effort to Make the Unknown Known  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an exploratory study based on interviews with four psycho-analytically-oriented therapists who touched their patients. It examines how the therapists and their patients conceptualized their experience. The therapists reported that the decision to touch, in the five cases presented here, was guided by the specific needs of their patients and their patient's circumstances rather than by their orientation

Bassya Pinson

2002-01-01

136

Precise selection techniques for multi-touch screens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size of human fingers and the lack of sensing precision can make precise touch screen interactions difficult. We present a set of five techniques, called Dual Finger Selections, which leverage the recent development of multi- touch sensitive displays to help users select very small targets. These techniques facilitate pixel-accurate targeting by adjusting the control-display ratio with a secondary finger

Hrvoje Benko; Andrew D. Wilson; Patrick Baudisch

2006-01-01

137

AudioVisual Classroom Consoles(LARGE) AMX Touch panel  

E-print Network

from shining on the screen. Note: The light buttons have 2 Led colors. Red = On, Green = Off. 1. Turn 1. Type in code into keypad (please contact eMAP for code) and open hatch to reveal AMX touch screen to go to the timer screen. 3. Touch on the up button to increase the time of the class duration (this

Peak, Derek

138

A Genetic Algorithm for the Segmentation of Known Touching Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Segmentation is the first and fundamental step in the process of computer vision and object classification. However, complicate or similar colour pattern add complexity to the segmentation of touching objects. The objective of this study was to develop a robust technique for the automatic segmentation and classification of touching plastic bottles, whose features were previously stored in a

Edgar Scavino; Dzuraidah Abdul Wahab; Hassan Basri; Mohd Marzuki Mustafa; Aini Hussain

2009-01-01

139

PC-ATOMIC Final Report 1 Joseph D. Touch1  

E-print Network

PC-ATOMIC Final Report 1 PC-ATOMIC Joseph D. Touch1 USC / Information Sciences Institute touch@isi.edu ABSTRACT: PC-ATOMIC is a PC interface for the ATOMIC LAN. PC- ATOMIC is implemented as a VL-Bus (VESA. This document describes the PC-ATOMIC interface, its design, capabilities, and performance. The board design

Touch, Joe

140

Teaching by touching: Interpretation of tactile instructions for motion development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch is an important means for communication among humans. Sport instructors or dance teachers often use touch to adjust students' postures in a very intuitive way. Using tactile instructions appears thus to be a very appealing modality for developing humanoid robot motions as well. Spontaneous interpretation of tactile instructions given by users reveals itself to be a complex task for

Fabio DallaLibera; Fransiska Basoeki; Takashi Minato; Hiroshi Ishiguro; Emanuele Menegatti

2011-01-01

141

Demo: User Identification and Authentication with Capacitive Touch Communication  

E-print Network

Mobile devices provide us ubiquitous access to a vast array of media content and digital services and temporarily share them with others [2]. We may let our children play games on our smartphones or share. This signal spoofs the effect of human touch on the screen and thus results in touch events being registered

Gruteser, Marco

142

Ionic Signaling in Plant Responses to Gravity and Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch and gravity are two of the many stimuli that plants must integrate to generate an appropriate growth response. Due to the mechanical nature of both of these signals, shared signal transduction elements could well form the basis of the cross-talk between these two sensory systems. However, touch stimulation must elicit signaling events across the plasma membrane whereas gravity sensing

Jeremiah M. Fasano; Gioia D. Massa; Simon Gilroy

2002-01-01

143

Effect of robot's active touch on people's motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the effect of a robot's active touch for improving people's motivation. For services in the education and healthcare fields, a robot might be useful for improving the motivation of performing such repetitive and monotonous tasks as exercising or taking medicine. Previous research demonstrated with a robot the effect of user touch on improving its impressions, but they

Kayako Nakagawa; Masahiro Shiomi; Kazuhiko Shinozawa; Reo Matsumura; Hiroshi Ishiguro; Norihiro Hagita

2011-01-01

144

Meanings of Touch and Forgiveness: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Inquiry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines personal meanings ascribed to the experience of touch in the context of forgiveness. Data from in-depth interviews with six self-reported Christians were analyzed to determine themes in the meanings participants assigned to a forgiving touch. (Contains 54 references.) (Author)

Ferch, Shann R.

2000-01-01

145

The Neural Circuit for Touch Sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neural pathways for touch-induced movement in Cae- norhabditis ekgans contain six touch receptors, five pairs of interneurons, and 69 motor neurons. The synaptic relation- ships among these cells have been deduced from recon- structions from serial section electron micrographs, and the roles of the cells were assessed by examining the behavior of animals after selective killing of precursors of

MARTIN CHALFIE; JOHN E. SULSTON; JOHN G. WHITE; EILEEN SOUTHGATE; J. NICHOL THOMSON

146

Neural coding during active somatosensation revealed using illusory touch  

PubMed Central

Active sensation requires the convergence of external stimuli with representations of body movements. We used mouse behavior, electrophysiology and optogenetics to dissect the temporal interactions between whisker movement, neural activity, and sensation of touch. We photostimulated layer 4 activity in single barrels in closed-loop with whisking. Mimicking touch-related neural activity caused illusory perception of an object at a particular location, but scrambling the timing of spikes over one whisking cycle (tens of milliseconds) did not abolish the illusion, indicating that knowledge of instantaneous whisker position is unnecessary for discriminating object locations. Illusions were induced only during bouts of directed whisking, when mice expected touch, and in the relevant barrel. Reducing activity biased behavior consistent with a spike count code for object detection at a particular location. Our results show that mice integrate coding of touch with movement over timescales of a whisking bout to produce perception of active touch. PMID:23727820

O'Connor, Daniel H.; Hires, S. Andrew; Guo, Zengcai V.; Li, Nuo; Yu, Jianing; Sun, Qian-Quan; Huber, Daniel; Svoboda, Karel

2013-01-01

147

Perception of 3-D location based on vision, touch, and extended touch  

PubMed Central

Perception of the near environment gives rise to spatial images in working memory that continue to represent the spatial layout even after cessation of sensory input. As the observer moves, these spatial images are continuously updated.This research is concerned with (1) whether spatial images of targets are formed when they are sensed using extended touch (i.e., using a probe to extend the reach of the arm) and (2) the accuracy with which such targets are perceived. In Experiment 1, participants perceived the 3-D locations of individual targets from a fixed origin and were then tested with an updating task involving blindfolded walking followed by placement of the hand at the remembered target location. Twenty-four target locations, representing all combinations of two distances, two heights, and six azimuths, were perceived by vision or by blindfolded exploration with the bare hand, a 1-m probe, or a 2-m probe. Systematic errors in azimuth were observed for all targets, reflecting errors in representing the target locations and updating. Overall, updating after visual perception was best, but the quantitative differences between conditions were small. Experiment 2 demonstrated that auditory information signifying contact with the target was not a factor. Overall, the results indicate that 3-D spatial images can be formed of targets sensed by extended touch and that perception by extended touch, even out to 1.75 m, is surprisingly accurate. PMID:23070234

Giudice, Nicholas A.; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Bennett, Christopher R.; Loomis, Jack M.

2012-01-01

148

Touching Hearts, Touching Minds: Using Emotion-Based Messaging to Promote Healthful Behavior in the Massachusetts WIC Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Touching Hearts, Touching Minds" initiative was funded through a 2003 United States Department of Agriculture Special Projects grant to revitalize nutrition education and services in the Massachusetts Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program. The 30 nutrition education materials and facilitated…

Colchamiro, Rachel; Ghiringhelli, Kara; Hause, Judith

2010-01-01

149

Revisiting the enzymes stored in the laticifers of C arica papaya in the context of their possible participation in the plant defence mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the tropical species Carica papaya, the articulated and anastomosing laticifers form a dense network of vessels displayed in all aerial parts of the plant. Damaging the papaya tree inevitably severs its laticifers, eliciting an abrupt release of latex. Besides the well-known cysteine proteinases, papain, chymopapain, caricain and glycyl endopeptidase, papaya latex is also a rich source of other enzymes.

A. El Moussaoui; M. Nijs; C. Paul; R. Wintjens; J. Vincentelli; M. Azarkan; Yvan Looze

2001-01-01

150

78 FR 6835 - Certain Mobile Handset Devices and Related Touch Keyboard Software; Institution of Investigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Handset Devices and Related Touch Keyboard Software; Institution of Investigation AGENCY...handset devices and related touch keyboard software by reason of infringement of certain...handset devices and related touch keyboard software that infringe one or more of claims...

2013-01-31

151

Prevention of cardiotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 via dietary supplementation of papaya fruit extracts in rats.  

PubMed

The aim of the current study was to evaluate the cardioprotective ability of water (WE) and ethanolic (EE) papaya fruits extracts against cardiotoxicity induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in rats. Forty two female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six treatment groups and treated orally for 2 weeks as follow: control group, the group treated with WE (250 mg/kg b.w), the group treated with EE (250 mg/kg b.w), the group treated orally with AFB1 (17 ?g/kg b.w) and the groups treated orally with AFB1 plus WE or EE. The results indicated that treatment with AFB1 resulted in oxidative stress in the heart manifested by the marked increase in cardiac malondialdehyde and calcium levels accompanied with a significant decrease in cardiac total antioxidant capacity. Serum nitric oxide and sodium levels, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase isoenzyme activities were significantly increased, whereas, cardiac Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and serum potassium were insignificantly affected. Supplementation with WE or EE effectively ameliorated most of the changes induced by AFB1. It could be concluded that both extracts attenuated the oxidative stress induced in heart tissue by AFB1 and WE was more pronounced due to the higher total phenolic contents than in the EE. PMID:23712331

Mannaa, Fathia A; Abdel-Wahhab, Khaled G; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A

2014-03-01

152

SGI -Feature Story: Papaya Genome Sequencing Project Opens Vast Ar... http://www.sgi.com/company_info/features/2007/papaya.html 1 of 4 3/5/2008 12:31 PM  

E-print Network

. Genetically modifying the papaya to create a ringspot-resistant transgenic or "hermaphrodite" variety saved ­ to be sequenced, helping to pave the way for international export of genetically modified fruits and vegetables to study sex chromosome evolution and sex determination in a variety of organisms. Papaya offers several

Alam, Maqsudul

153

Influence of chromoplast morphology on carotenoid bioaccessibility of carrot, mango, papaya, and tomato.  

PubMed

Based on the observation of outstanding dissimilarities of the morphology of pigment-containing chromoplasts in nutritionally important carotenoid sources, the bioaccessibility (BA) of carotenoids from edible portions of carrot, mango, papaya, and tomato was compared using an in vitro digestion model. While carrot and tomato contained large carotenoid crystals clearly visible by light microscopy, mango and papaya contained different types of carotenoid-bearing structures. Particularly, ?-carotene is deposited in globular and tubular elements in papaya and mango chromoplasts, where carotenoids accumulate in a lipid-dissolved and liquid-crystalline form, respectively. The highest BA of ?-carotene was found for mango (10.1%), followed by papaya (5.3%), tomato (3.1%), and carrot (0.5%). In our digestion model, differences between total lycopene BA from papaya and tomato were insignificant, possibly since both pigments occur in a solid crystalline deposition form in both fruits. Furthermore, the BA of lutein, ?-cryptoxanthin, and ?-cryptoxanthin esters was shown to be superior to that of the carotenes from the respective food sources. The effect of lipid addition to the different food sources was studied. Although BA was enhanced for most carotenoids, the above-mentioned ranking of BAs of ?-carotene remained unchanged after lipid addition. Consequently, the physical form of carotenoid deposition in plant chromoplasts is suggested to have major impact on their liberation efficiency from the food matrices. PMID:22980866

Schweiggert, Ralf M; Mezger, Dominik; Schimpf, Franziska; Steingass, Christof B; Carle, Reinhold

2012-12-15

154

The importance of touch in the development of attachment.  

PubMed

Until recently the role of human touch in the social world of the developing infant has not been given special attention. Instead the focus, in part due to John Bowlby's Attachment Theory, has centered on the critical need for a child to develop a secure attachment to his caregiver. To be sure, this has provided a valuable contribution to understanding and promoting a child's well-being in his early years and beyond. Yet Bowlby's theory is limited in its discussion of the meaning of human touch and its role in development of attachment. As such, it now becomes more critical to delve into the factors that significantly foster development of attachment, specifically the concept of human touch. With recognition of the importance for a child to develop secure attachment to his caregiver, the essential function that human nurturing touch provides in facilitating that connection is explored. PMID:21102171

Duhn, Lenora

2010-12-01

155

An Exploration of Multi-touch Interaction Techniques  

E-print Network

Research in multi-touch interaction has typically been focused on direct spatial manipulation; techniques have been created to result in the most intuitive mapping between the movement of the hand and the resultant change in the virtual object...

Damaraju Sriranga, Sashikanth Raju

2013-08-16

156

Touching Triangle Representation for 3-Connected Planar Graphs  

E-print Network

Mondal , and Rahnuma Islam Nishat § Department of Computer Science, University of Arizona Department corresponding to two objects touching in some specified fashion. Early results, such as Koebe's 1936 theorem [11

Kobourov, Stephen G.

157

Tactile Interfaces for Small Touch Screens Ivan Poupyrev Shigeaki Maruyama  

E-print Network

Tactile Interfaces for Small Touch Screens Ivan Poupyrev Shigeaki Maruyama Interaction Lab, Sony-0022, Japan Tokyo 108-6201, Japan poup@csl.sony.co.jp shigeaki.maruyama@jp.sony.com ABSTRACT We present

Poupyrev, Ivan

158

Cutaneous Grooves: Composing for the Sense of Touch  

E-print Network

This paper presents a novel coupling of haptics technology and music, introducing the notion of tactile composition or aesthetic composition for the sense of touch. A system that facilitates the composition and perception of intricate, musically structured spatio-temporal patterns of vibration on the surface of the body is described. An initial test of the system in a performance context is discussed. The fundamental building blocks of a compositional language for touch are considered.

Eric Gunther; Glorianna Davenport

2002-01-01

159

Opposite sex touch avoidance: A national replication and extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtually all previous research on touch avoidance was conducted in the Northeast region of the United States (U.S.). The present study replicated and extended Andersen and Leibowitz' (1978) research on touch avoidance by testing hypotheses for nearly 4,000 subjects at 40 universities from all socio-cultural regions of the United States. Results confirmed previous research, with the pattern of results at

Janis F. Andersen; Peter A. Andersen; Myron W. Lustig

1987-01-01

160

Merkel cells and touch domes: more than mechanosensory functions?  

PubMed

The touch dome (TD) is an innervated structure in the epidermis of mammalian skin. Composed of specialized keratinocytes and neuroendocrine Merkel cells, the TD has distinct molecular characteristics compared to the surrounding epidermal keratinocytes. Much of the research on Merkel cell function has focused on their role in mechanosensation, specifically light touch. Recently, more has been discovered about Merkel cell molecular characteristics and their cells of origin. Here we review Merkel cell and TD biology, and discuss potential functions beyond mechanosensation. PMID:24862916

Xiao, Ying; Williams, Jonathan S; Brownell, Isaac

2014-10-01

161

Piezoelectric touch-sensitive flexible hybrid energy harvesting nanoarchitectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we report a flexible hybrid nanoarchitecture that can be utilized as both an energy harvester and a touch sensor on a single platform without any cross-talk problems. Based on the electron transport and piezoelectric properties of a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured thin film, a hybrid cell was designed and the total thickness was below 500 nm on a plastic substrate. Piezoelectric touch signals were demonstrated under independent and simultaneous operations with respect to photo-induced charges. Different levels of piezoelectric output signals from different magnitudes of touching pressures suggest new user-interface functions from our hybrid cell. From a signal controller, the decoupled performance of a hybrid cell as an energy harvester and a touch sensor was confirmed. Our hybrid approach does not require additional assembly processes for such multiplex systems of an energy harvester and a touch sensor since we utilize the coupled material properties of ZnO and output signal processing. Furthermore, the hybrid cell can provide a multi-type energy harvester by both solar and mechanical touching energies.

Choi, Dukhyun; Lee, Keun Young; Hyuck Lee, Kang; Kim, Eok Su; Kim, Tae Sang; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Sang-Woo; Choi, Jae-Young; Kim, Jong Min

2010-10-01

162

Identification of genes expressed in C. elegans touch receptor neurons.  

PubMed

The extent of gene regulation in cell differentiation is poorly understood. We previously used saturation mutagenesis to identify 18 genes that are needed for the development and function of a single type of sensory neuron--the touch receptor neuron for gentle touch in Caenorhabditis elegans. One of these genes, mec-3, encodes a transcription factor that controls touch receptor differentiation. By culturing and isolating wild-type and mec-3 mutant cells from embryos and applying their amplified RNA to DNA microarrays, here we have identified genes that are known to be expressed in touch receptors, a previously uncloned gene (mec-17) that is needed for maintaining touch receptor differentiation, and more than 50 previously unknown mec-3-dependent genes. These genes are randomly distributed in the genome and under-represented both for genes that are co-expressed in operons and for multiple members of gene families. Using regions 5' of the start codon of the first 20 genes, we have also identified an over-represented heptanucleotide, AATGCAT, that is needed for the expression of touch receptor genes. PMID:12124626

Zhang, Yun; Ma, Charles; Delohery, Thomas; Nasipak, Brian; Foat, Barrett C; Bounoutas, Alexander; Bussemaker, Harmen J; Kim, Stuart K; Chalfie, Martin

2002-07-18

163

Cooling the thermal grill illusion through self-touch.  

PubMed

Acute peripheral pain is reduced by multisensory interactions at the spinal level [1]. Central pain is reduced by reorganization of cortical body representations [2, 3]. We show here that acute pain can also be reduced by multisensory integration through self-touch, which provides proprioceptive, thermal, and tactile input forming a coherent body representation [4, 5]. We combined self-touch with the thermal grill illusion (TGI) [6]. In the traditional TGI, participants press their fingers on two warm objects surrounding one cool object. The warm surround unmasks pain pathways, which paradoxically causes the cool object to feel painfully hot. Here, we warmed the index and ring fingers of each hand while cooling the middle fingers. Immediately after, these three fingers of the right hand were touched against the same three fingers on the left hand. This self-touch caused a dramatic 64% reduction in perceived heat. We show that this paradoxical release from paradoxical heat cannot be explained by low-level touch-temperature interactions alone. To reduce pain, we often clutch a painful hand with the other hand. We show here that self-touch not only gates pain signals reaching the brain [7-9] but also, via multisensory integration, increases coherence of cognitive body representations to which pain afferents project [10]. PMID:20869246

Kammers, Marjolein P M; de Vignemont, Frédérique; Haggard, Patrick

2010-10-26

164

Finger pad friction and its role in grip and touch  

PubMed Central

Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick–slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function. PMID:23256185

Adams, Michael J.; Johnson, Simon A.; Lefevre, Philippe; Levesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; Andre, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

2013-01-01

165

Finger pad friction and its role in grip and touch.  

PubMed

Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick-slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function. PMID:23256185

Adams, Michael J; Johnson, Simon A; Lefèvre, Philippe; Lévesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; André, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

2013-03-01

166

Local Seebeck coefficient near the boundary in touching Cu/Bi-Te/Cu composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermo-emf ?V and temperature difference ?T across the boundary were measured as a function of r for the touching p- and n-type Cu/Bi-Te/Cu composites composed of a combination of tBi-Te=2.0 mm and tCu=0.3 mm, where ?T is produced by imposing a constant voltage of 1.7 V on two Peltier modules connected in series and r is the distance from the boundary that corresponds to the interval s between two thermocouples. The resultant Seebeck coefficient ? across the boundary was obtained from the relation ?=?V/?T. As a result, the resultant ? of the touching p- and n-type composites have surprisingly great local maximum values of 1330 and -1140 ?V/K at r?0.03 mm, respectively, and decreased rapidly with an increase of r to approach the Seebeck coefficients of the intrinsic Bi-Te compounds. The resultant maximum ? of the touching p- and n-type Cu/Bi-Te/Cu composites are approximately 5.4 and 5.5 times higher in absolute value than those of the intrinsic Bi-Te compounds, respectively. It was thus clarified for the first time that the local Seebeck coefficient is enhanced most strongly in the Bi-Te region where there is an approximately 30-?m distance from the boundary, not at the boundary between Bi-Te compounds and copper.

Yamashita, O.; Odahara, H.

2007-06-01

167

Optimization of process parameters for foam-mat drying of papaya pulp.  

PubMed

Experiments were carried out to optimize the process parameters for production of papaya powder using foam-mat drying. Papaya pulp was foamed by incorporating methyl cellulose (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 %, w/w), glycerol-mono-stearate (1, 2, 3 and 4 %, w/w) and egg white (5, 10, 15 and 20 %, w/w) as foaming agents. The maximum stable foam formation was 72, 90 and 125% at 0.75 % methyl cellulose, 3 % glycerol-mono-stearate and 15 % egg white respectively with 9°Brix pulp and whipping time of 20 min. The foamed pulp was dried at air temperature of 60, 65 and 70 °C with foam thickness of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mm in a batch type cabinet dryer. The drying time required for foamed papaya pulp was lower than non-foamed pulp at all selected temperatures. Biochemical analysis results showed a significant reduction in ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and total sugars in the foamed papaya dried product at higher foam thickness (6, 8 and 10 mm) and temperature (65 and 70 °C due to destruction at higher drying temperature and increasing time. There was no significant change in other biochemical constituents such as pH and acidity. The organoleptic and sensory evaluation of the quality attributes of papaya powder obtained from the pulp of 9°Brix added with 3 % glycerol-mono-stearate, whipped for 20 min and dried with a foam thickness of 4 mm at a temperature of 60 °C was found to be optimum to produce the foam-mat dried papaya powder. PMID:25328192

Kandasamy, Palani; Varadharaju, N; Kalemullah, S; Maladhi, D

2014-10-01

168

Effects of papaya seed extract and benzyl isothiocyanate on vascular contraction.  

PubMed

To investigate their potentially toxic effects on mammalian vascular smooth muscle, pentane extracts of papaya seeds and the chief active ingredient in the extracts, benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), were tested for their effects on the contraction of strips of dog carotid artery. BITC and the papaya seed extract caused relaxation when added to tissue strips that had been pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE). Incubation of the tissue with papaya seed extract or BITC caused inhibition of contraction when the strips were subsequently contracted with KCl or PE. This relaxation and inhibition of contraction did not appear to be endothelium-dependent, as endothelium-denuded rings showed the same degree of relaxation or inhibition of contraction in response to the preparations/drugs as those with the endothelium intact. The effects of both BITC and the extract were irreversible, i.e., the tissue did not recover to normal contractile ability after extensive washing. Exposure of the tissue to the papaya seed extract caused slower relaxation of the tissue, compared to controls, both after contraction with PE and subsequent addition of carbachol (CCh), and after contraction with KCl and then washing. Calcium imaging studies using cultured endothelial cells showed strong influxes of Ca2+ into the cells in response to addition of the papaya seed extract. We conclude that these extracts, when present in high concentration, are cytotoxic by increasing the membrane permeability to Ca2+, and that the vascular effects of papaya seed extracts are consistent with the notion that BITC is the chief bio-active ingredient. PMID:12052434

Wilson, Ruth K; Kwan, Tony K; Kwan, Chiu-Yin; Sorger, George J

2002-06-21

169

CONSTRUCTING AN ELASTIC TOUCH PANEL WITH EMBEDDED IR-LEDS USING SILICONE RUBBER  

E-print Network

CONSTRUCTING AN ELASTIC TOUCH PANEL WITH EMBEDDED IR-LEDS USING SILICONE RUBBER Yuichiro Sakamoto a technique for the construction of an elastic touch panel using silicone rubber. The technique is similar to that of the frustrated total internal reflection-based method for multi-touch sensing, but the surface of the touch panel

Tanaka, Jiro

170

Touch perceptions across skin sites: differences between sensitivity, direction discrimination and pleasantness  

PubMed Central

Human skin is innervated with different tactile afferents, which are found at varying densities over the body. We investigate how the relationships between tactile pleasantness, sensitivity and discrimination differ across the skin. Tactile pleasantness was assessed by stroking a soft brush over the skin, using five velocities (0.3, 1, 3, 10, 30 cm s?1), known to differentiate hedonic touch, and pleasantness ratings were gained. The ratings velocity-profile is known to correlate with firing in unmyelinated C-tactile (CT) afferents. Tactile sensitivity thresholds were determined using monofilament force detection and the tactile discrimination level was obtained in the direction discrimination of a moving probe; both tasks readily activate myelinated touch receptors. Perceptions were measured over five skin sites: forehead, arm, palm, thigh and shin. The assessment of tactile pleasantness over the skin resulted in a preference for the middle velocities (1–10 cm s?1), where higher ratings were gained compared to the slowest and fastest velocities. This preference in tactile pleasantness was found across all the skin sites, apart from at the palm, where no decrease in pleasantness for the faster stroking velocities was seen. We find that tactile sensitivity and discrimination vary across the skin, where the forehead and palm show increased acuity. Tactile sensitivity and discrimination levels also correlated significantly, although the tactile acuity did not relate to the perceived pleasantness of touch. Tactile pleasantness varied in a subtle way across skin sites, where the middle velocities were always rated as the most pleasant, but the ratings at hairy skin sites were more receptive to changes in stroking velocity. We postulate that although the mechanoreceptive afferent physiology may be different over the skin, the perception of pleasant touch can be interpreted using all of the available incoming somatosensory information in combination with central processing. PMID:24600368

Ackerley, Rochelle; Carlsson, Ida; Wester, Henric; Olausson, Hakan; Backlund Wasling, Helena

2014-01-01

171

Energetic optimization of a piezo-based touch-operated button for man-machine interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the optimization of a touch-operated button for man-machine interfaces based on piezoelectric energy harvesting techniques. In the mechanical button, a common piezoelectric diaphragm, is assembled to harvest the ambient energy from the source, i.e. the operator’s touch. Under touch force load, the integrated diaphragm will have a bending deformation. Then, its mechanical strain is converted into the required electrical energy by means of the piezoelectric effect presented to the diaphragm. Structural design (i) makes the piezoceramic work under static compressive stress instead of static or dynamic tensile stress, (ii) achieves a satisfactory stress level and (iii) provides the diaphragm and the button with a fatigue lifetime in excess of millions of touch operations. To improve the button’s function, the effect of some key properties consisting of dimension, boundary condition and load condition on electrical behavior of the piezoelectric diaphragm are evaluated by electromechanical coupling analysis in ANSYS. The finite element analysis (FEA) results indicate that the modification of these properties could enhance the diaphragm significantly. Based on the key properties’ different contributions to the improvement of the diaphragm’s electrical energy output, they are incorporated into the piezoelectric diaphragm’s redesign or the structural design of the piezo-based button. The comparison of the original structure and the optimal result shows that electrical energy stored in the diaphragm and the voltage output are increased by 1576% and 120%, respectively, and the volume of the piezoceramic is reduced to 33.6%. These results will be adopted to update the design of the self-powered button, thus enabling a large decrease of energy consumption and lifetime cost of the MMI.

Sun, Hao; de Vries, Theo J. A.; de Vries, Rene; van Dalen, Harry

2012-03-01

172

Papaya extract to treat dengue: a novel therapeutic option?  

PubMed

Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The search was done independently by the two authors using PubMed, Google and the library database and included relevant articles of the last 10 years. A total of 7 studies were included in this review, which were one animal study, one case report, three case series and two randomized controlled trials. Although many of the studies and case reports published in literature lack adequate information, some of the studies do raise the possibility that this treatment could be an important option in the future. Further large-scale studies could establish the usefulness or ineffectiveness of this natural product in the treatment of dengue. PMID:24971201

Sarala, N; Paknikar, Ss

2014-05-01

173

Mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences in synesthesia.  

PubMed

A fundamental question in the field of synesthesia is whether it is associated with other cognitive phenomena. The current study examined synesthesia's connections with phenomenal traits of mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences, as well as the representation of the three phenomena in the population, across gender and domain of work/study. Mirror-touch is the automatic, involuntary experience of tactile sensation on one's own body when others are being touched. For example, seeing another person's arm being stroked can evoke physical touch sensation on one's own arm. Ticker tape is the automatic visualization of spoken words or thoughts, such as a teleprompter. For example, when spoken to, a ticker taper might see mentally the spoken words displayed in front of his face or as coming out of the speaker's mouth. To explore synesthesia's associations with these phenomena, a diverse group (n = 3743) was systematically recruited from eight universities and one public museum in France to complete an online screening. Of the 1017 eligible respondents, synesthetes (across all subtypes) reported higher rates of mirror-touch and ticker tape than non-synesthetes, suggesting that synesthesia is associated with these phenomenal traits. However, effect sizes were small and we could not rule out that response bias influenced these associations. Mirror-touch and ticker tape were independent. No differences were found across gender or domain of work and study in prevalence of synesthesia, mirror-touch or ticker tape. The prevalence of ticker tape, unknown so far, was estimated at about 7%, an intermediate rate between estimates of grapheme-color (2-4%) and sequence-space synesthesia (9-14%). Within synesthesia, grapheme-personification, also called ordinal-linguistic personification (OLP) was the most common subtype and was estimated around 12%. Co-occurences of the different types of synesthesia were higher than chance, though at the level of small effect sizes. PMID:24223561

Chun, Charlotte A; Hupé, Jean-Michel

2013-01-01

174

iPhone\\/iPod Touch as Input Devices for Navigation in Immersive Virtual Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

iPhone and iPod Touch are multi-touch handheld devices that pro- vide new possibilities for interaction techniques. We describe iPhone\\/iPod Touch implementation of a navigation interaction tech- nique originally developed for a larger multi-touch device (i.e. Lemur). The interaction technique implemented on an iPhone\\/iPod Touch was used for navigation tasks in a CAVE virtual environ- ment. We performed a pilot study

Ji-sun Kim; Denis Gracanin; Kresimir Matkovic; Francis K. H. Quek

2009-01-01

175

Carotenoids are more bioavailable from papaya than from tomato and carrot in humans: a randomised cross-over study  

PubMed Central

Carrot, tomato and papaya represent important dietary sources of ?-carotene and lycopene. The main objective of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of carotenoids from these food sources in healthy human subjects. A total of sixteen participants were recruited for a randomised cross-over study. Test meals containing raw carrots, tomatoes and papayas were adjusted to deliver an equal amount of ?-carotene and lycopene. For the evaluation of bioavailability, TAG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions containing newly absorbed carotenoids were analysed over 9.5 h after test meal consumption. The bioavailability of ?-carotene from papayas was approximately three times higher than that from carrots and tomatoes, whereas differences in the bioavailability of ?-carotene from carrots and tomatoes were insignificant. Retinyl esters appeared in the TRL fractions at a significantly higher concentration after the consumption of the papaya test meal. Similarly, lycopene was approximately 2.6 times more bioavailable from papayas than from tomatoes. Furthermore, the bioavailability of ?-cryptoxanthin from papayas was shown to be 2.9 and 2.3 times higher than that of the other papaya carotenoids ?-carotene and lycopene, respectively. The morphology of chromoplasts and the physical deposition form of carotenoids were hypothesised to play a major role in the differences observed in the bioavailability of carotenoids from the foods investigated. Particularly, the liquid-crystalline deposition of ?-carotene and the storage of lycopene in very small crystalloids in papayas were found to be associated with their high bioavailability. In conclusion, papaya was shown to provide highly bioavailable ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin and lycopene and may represent a readily available dietary source of provitamin A for reducing the incidence of vitamin A deficiencies in many subtropical and tropical developing countries. PMID:23931131

Schweiggert, Ralf M.; Kopec, Rachel E.; Villalobos-Gutierrez, Maria G.; Hogel, Josef; Quesada, Silvia; Esquivel, Patricia; Schwartz, Steven J.; Carle, Reinhold

2014-01-01

176

Separation of single- and double-touching handwritten numeral strings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve overall separation and classification performance for touching handwritten numeral strings, we have to deal with double- touching problems, which occur particularly for some combinations of digits. We propose a strategy to separate single- and double-touching numerical strings. The proposed technique includes: using two-cut links to deal with double-touching problems; using weighted geometric-property measures to rank both one- and two-cut links; and using a rejection scheme to reject poor links at both ranking and recognition stages. Two- cut link pairs that join the high-curvature points in inner contour(s) to those in the external contour are considered when all one-cut links that join the upper and the lower external contours fail to separate them. All combinations of one- and two-cut links are ranked according to weighted geometric-property measures, and the top links are chosen and tested by the recognition system. Experimental results on the National Institute of Standards and Technology database show that our system for solving both single- and double-touching problems compares favorably with the other techniques tested.

Chi, Zheru; Suters, Mark; Yan, Hong

1995-04-01

177

Optical touch sensing: practical bounds for design and performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Touch sensitive screens are used in many applications ranging in size from smartphones and tablets to display walls and collaborative surfaces. In this study, we consider optical touch sensing, a technology best suited for large-scale touch surfaces. Optical touch sensing utilizes cameras and light sources placed along the edge of the display. Within this framework, we first find a sufficient number of cameras necessary for identifying a convex polygon touching the screen, using a continuous light source on the boundary of a circular domain. We then find the number of cameras necessary to distinguish between two circular objects in a circular or rectangular domain. Finally, we use Matlab to simulate the polygonal mesh formed from distributing cameras and light sources on a circular domain. Using this, we compute the number of polygons in the mesh and the maximum polygon area to give us information about the accuracy of the configuration. We close with summary and conclusions, and pointers to possible future research directions.

Bläßle, Alexander; Janbek, Bebart; Liu, Lifeng; Nakamura, Kanna; Nolan, Kimberly; Paraschiv, Victor

2013-02-01

178

Complete nucleotide sequence of a monopartite Begomovirus and associated satellites infecting Carica papaya in Nepal.  

PubMed

Carica papaya (papaya) is a fruit crop that is cultivated mostly in kitchen gardens throughout Nepal. Leaf samples of C. papaya plants with leaf curling, vein darkening, vein thickening, and a reduction in leaf size were collected from a garden in Darai village, Rampur, Nepal in 2010. Full-length clones of a monopartite Begomovirus, a betasatellite and an alphasatellite were isolated. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Begomovirus showed the arrangement of genes typical of Old World begomoviruses with the highest nucleotide sequence identity (>99 %) to an isolate of Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV), confirming it as an isolate of AYVV. The complete nucleotide sequence of betasatellite showed greater than 89 % nucleotide sequence identity to an isolate of Tomato leaf curl Java betasatellite originating from Indonesian. The sequence of the alphasatellite displayed 92 % nucleotide sequence identity to Sida yellow vein China alphasatellite. This is the first identification of these components in Nepal and the first time they have been identified in papaya. PMID:23397078

Shahid, M S; Yoshida, S; Khatri-Chhetri, G B; Briddon, R W; Natsuaki, K T

2013-06-01

179

A New Approach to Defining Human Touch Temperature Standards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Defining touch temperature limits for skin contact with both hot and cold objects is important to prevent pain and skin damage, which may affect task performance or become a safety concern. Pain and skin damage depend on the skin temperature during contact, which depends on the contact thermal conductance, the object's initial temperature, and its material properties. However, previous spacecraft standards have incorrectly defined touch temperature limits in terms of a single object temperature value for all materials, or have provided limited material-specific values which do not cover the gamut of likely designs. A new approach has been developed for updated NASA standards, which defines touch temperature limits in terms of skin temperature at pain onset for bare skin contact with hot and cold objects. The authors have developed an analytical verification method for safe hot and cold object temperatures for contact times from 1 second to infinity.

Ungar, Eugene; Stroud, Kenneth

2010-01-01

180

The effect of friendly touch on delay-of-gratification in preschool children.  

PubMed

Physical touch has many documented benefits, but past research has paid little attention to the effects of touch on children's development. Here, we tested the effect of touch on children's compliance behaviour in a modified delay-of-gratification task. Forty children (M?=?59 months) were randomly assigned to a touch or no touch group. Children in the intervention condition received a friendly touch on the back while being told that they should wait for permission to eat a candy. Results showed that children in the touch condition waited an average of two minutes longer to eat the candy than children in the no touch condition. This finding has implications for the potential of using touch to promote positive behaviours in children. PMID:24666195

Leonard, Julia A; Berkowitz, Talia; Shusterman, Anna

2014-11-01

181

Gender and the Communication of Emotion Via Touch  

PubMed Central

We reanalyzed a data set consisting of a U.S. undergraduate sample (N?=?212) from a previous study (Hertenstein et al. 2006a) that showed that touch communicates distinct emotions between humans. In the current reanalysis, we found that anger was communicated at greater-than-chance levels only when a male comprised at least one member of a communicating dyad. Sympathy was communicated at greater-than-chance levels only when a female comprised at least one member of the dyad. Finally, happiness was communicated only if females comprised the entire dyad. The current analysis demonstrates gender asymmetries in the accuracy of communicating distinct emotions via touch between humans. PMID:21297854

Keltner, Dacher

2010-01-01

182

Babies Touch, Taste, and Learn: A Guide for Parents.  

E-print Network

TOoe . ZTA245 07 8873 , ~O.I2."~ ) B - 1269 -~abies Touch, .. Taste, and Learn 0') A Gu ide for Parents TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE Daniel C. Pfannstiel, Director, College Station, Texas A baby learns from... touching you Hold him close to your body. Stroke his cheek Rub his body when you : bathe him. ~dby needs things he can grasp Things he can hold Things he can drop Babies learn by tasting Give babies toys that are safe They will put them...

Anonymous,

1979-01-01

183

Touch and technology: Two paradigms of patient care.  

PubMed

Technology violates human dignity only to the extent that its use reduces persons to the moral status of objects. The prevalence of technology in health care is an extension of the scientific paradigm, in which the body is reduced to an object void of subjectivity. The empathie paradigm, in contrast, is based upon the moral primacy of subjectivity. Empathic touch-as distinct from instrumental and philanthropic touch-establishes a clinical relation of intersubjectivity, affirming in patients the dignity and worth that morally distinguish persons from objects. PMID:24306940

Gadow, S

1984-03-01

184

A touch of cooling may help  

PubMed Central

Expanded abstract Citation Schortgen F, Clabault K, Katsahian S, Devaquet J, Mercat A, Deye N, Dellamonica J, Bouadma L, Cook F, Beji O, Brun-Buisson C, Lemaire F, Brochard L: Multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial of fever control by external cooling to diminish vasopressor requirements in septic shock. Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, France. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2012, 185:1088-1095. Background Fever control may improve vascular tone and decrease oxygen consumption; however, fever may help combat infection. Methods Objective To determine whether fever control by external cooling diminishes vasopressor requirements in septic shock. Design A multicenter randomized controlled trial. Setting Seven ICUs in France. Subjects Febrile patients with septic shock requiring vasopressors, mechanical ventilation, and sedation. Intervention Patients were randomly allocated to external cooling to achieve normothermia (36.5 to 37.8°C) for 48 hours. Outcomes The primary outcome was the number of patients with a 50% decrease in baseline vasopressor dose after 48 hours. Secondary outcomes were the numbers of patients with a 50% baseline vasopressor dose decrease after 2, 12, 24, and 36 hours, the percentage of patients requiring a vasopressor dose increase within 48 hours of baseline, the percentage of patients with shock reversal in the ICU, the change in Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (?SOFA) versus baseline, and all-cause mortality on day 14 and at ICU and hospital discharge. Results There were 200 patients randomized, 101 to the cooling group and 99 to the no-cooling group. The percentage of patients with a 50% vasopressor dose decrease versus baseline was not significantly different at 48 hours of treatment (72% vs. 61%; absolute difference, 11%; 95% confidence interval (CI), -23 to 2; P = 0.4), although it was at 12 hours (54% vs. 20%; absolute difference, 34%; 95% CI, -46 to -21; P < 0.001). External cooling significantly reduced the number of patients needing a vasopressor dose increase (34% vs. 52%; absolute difference, -18%; 95% CI, -4 to -31%; P = 0.011) and significantly increased the shock reversal during the study period (86% vs. 73%; absolute difference, 13%; 95% CI, 2 to 25%; P = 0.021). Day 14 mortality was significantly lower in the cooling group (19% vs. 34%; absolute difference, -16%; 95% CI, -28 to -4; P = 0.013), but mortality was not different at ICU and hospital discharge. Conclusions Fever control using external cooling was safe, and decreased vasopressor requirements and early mortality in septic shock. PMID:23470248

2013-01-01

185

Cell wall modification in 1-methylcyclopropene-treated post-climacteric fresh-cut and intact papaya fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya is a climacteric fruit in which ripening is greatly regulated by ethylene often associated with stress responses such\\u000a as wounding. The changes in cell wall compositions in papaya fruit at an advanced stage of ripening under stress conditions\\u000a including chilling temperature of 5°C and wounding employed as fresh-cut and how these changes were affected by an ethylene\\u000a action inhibitor

Muharrem Ergun; Yasar Karakurt; Donald J. Huber

186

Inhibitive action of Carica papaya extracts on the corrosion of mild steel in acidic media and their adsorption characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To evaluate the effect of different parts of Carica papaya (leaves (LV), seeds (SD), heart wood (HW) and bark (BK)) as eco-friendly and non-toxic mild-steel corrosion inhibitors in H2SO4 at 30 to 60 oC. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Acid extracts of the different parts of Carica papaya were used as inhibitors in various corrosion tests. Gravimetric and gasometric techniques were

P. C. Okafor; E. E. Ebenso

2007-01-01

187

Enhancing Physicality in Touch Interaction with Programmable Friction  

E-print Network

Enhancing Physicality in Touch Interaction with Programmable Friction Vincent Lévesque1 , Louise-level targeting activities. We then explore the design space of variable friction interface controls and assess graphical user interfaces that allowed users to directly manipulate objects. The iPhone's success suggests

Levesque, Vincent

188

Collaborative Learning with Multi-Touch Technology: Developing Adaptive Expertise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing fluency and flexibility in mathematics is a key goal of upper primary schooling, however, while fluency can be developed with practice, designing activities that support the development of flexibility is more difficult. Drawing on concepts of adaptive expertise, we developed a task for a multi-touch classroom, NumberNet, that aimed to…

Mercier, Emma M.; Higgins, Steven E.

2013-01-01

189

High Touch in a High-Tech World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a world of high tech and low touch, it is easy for public relations programs to stray from tried-and-true interpersonal strategies long associated with solid communication planning. New technologies allow communications professionals to quickly send e-mails and telephone calls to selected groups. Social media sites provide users immediate…

Gibson, Cindy L.

2009-01-01

190

Affective TouchCasting Leonardo Bonanni and Cati Vaucelle  

E-print Network

and affective nature of touch. Haptic devices are often hand-held, like video game controllers; and abstract, so-intuitive, as in a system that maps the position of the ball in a televised sports game to a vibrotactile array, vibration and deep pressure have been effective at reducing anxiety and improving morale in a number

Ishii, Hiroshi

191

Affective Touch Gesture Recognition for a Furry Zoomorphic Machine  

E-print Network

in the context of a furry artificial lap-pet, with the ultimate goal of creating ther- apeutic interactions of touch therapy, such as in- teraction with trained animals, are often unavailable in hos- pitals, homes lead to a whole new range of potential uses in therapy, rehabilitation, edu- cation, treatment

MacLean, Karon

192

Scattering of light by bispheres with touching and separated components  

E-print Network

Scattering of light by bispheres with touching and separated components Michael I. Mishchenko and Mackowski 3Opt. Lett. 19, 1604 1199424 to compute light scattering by bispheres in fixed and random extensive studies of light scattering by spheroids and Chebyshev particles. For monodisperse bispheres

Fridlind, Ann

193

RESEARCH ARTICLE Perceived timing of vestibular stimulation relative to touch,  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Perceived timing of vestibular stimulation relative to touch, light and sound. Here we measured the perceived timing of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) relative to tactile for differences in processing times. Keywords Audition Á Galvanic vestibular stimulation Á Multisensory Á

Harris, Laurence R.

194

Improving Telerobotic Touch Via High-Frequency Acceleration Matching  

E-print Network

interactions, a high-bandwidth sensor measures accelerations at the slave's end effector, and the realImproving Telerobotic Touch Via High-Frequency Acceleration Matching Katherine J. Kuchenbecker-laden high-frequency accelerations in addition to quasi-static forces when interacting with objects via

Kuchenbecker, Katherine J.

195

TOUCH: A Robotic Vision System for Underwater Object Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

TOUCH is a real-time computer vision system that has been developed in order to aid the operation of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). The algorithm is based on a modified 4-connectivity approach that scans the incoming frames for a target hue range and based upon the largest connected blobs of hue, tracks an object and provides

Anuj Sehgal; Jason Kadarusman; Leslie D. Fife

2004-01-01

196

A reconfigurable multi-touch framework for teleoperation tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide variety of remotely controlled mobile robots have been developed in the past. Despite the evolution in robotics functionalities, not much effort has been made to customize control interfaces to meet user preferences and needs. General users can find difficulties in controlling mobile robots by standard interfaces. On the other hand, recent advances in multi-touch devices now allow researchers

Gianluca Paravati; Andrea Sanna; Fabrizio Lamberti; Cesare Celozzi

2011-01-01

197

Physics Learning Strategies with Multi-touch Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advancements in technology have opened doorways to build new teaching and learning methods. Through conjunctive use of these technologies and methods, a classroom can be enriched to stimulate and improve student learning. The purpose of our research is to ascertain whether or not multi-touch technology enhances students' abilities to better comprehend and retain the knowledge taught in physics. At their

Mark Potter; C. Ilie; D. Schofield

2011-01-01

198

Collaboration and interference: Awareness with mice or touch input  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-touch surfaces are becoming increasingly popular. An assumed benefit is that they can facilitate collaborative interactions in co-located groups. In particular, being able to see another's physical actions can enhance awareness, which in turn can support fluid interaction and coordination. However, there is a paucity of empirical evidence or measures to support these claims. We present an analysis of different

Eva Hornecker; Paul Marshall; Nick Sheep Dalton; Yvonne Rogers

2008-01-01

199

Hapticat: Exploration of Affective Touch Steve Yohanan1  

E-print Network

for the approach we have taken in this pa- per stems from animals and the symbiotic relationship hu- mans have- action styles General Terms Human Factors, Design, Experimentation Permission to make digital or hard qualities of touch and the variety of responses they evoke. One field that addresses the relationship

MacLean, Karon

200

inTouch: A Medium for Haptic Interpersonal Communication  

E-print Network

In this paper, we introduce a new approach for applying haptic feedback technology to interpersonal, an encouraging pat on the back, or a comforting hug, physical contact is a basic means through which people, such as family and friends, touch is particularly important as a communicator of affection. Current interpersonal

Ishii, Hiroshi

201

Design of a therapeutic robotic companion for relational, affective touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research has shown the positive health benefits of companion animals. Unfortunately these animals are not always available to patients due to allergies, risk of disease, or other reasons. Recently, this application domain has attracted attention of robotics researchers. The Huggable is a new type of robotic companion capable of active relational and affective touch-based interactions with a person. It

Walter Dan Stiehl; Jeff Lieberman; Cynthia Breazeal; Louis Basel; Levi Lalla; Michael Wolf

2005-01-01

202

Courtship compliance: The effect of touch on women's behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown that light tactile contact increases compliance to a wide variety of requests. However, the effect of touch on compliance to a courtship request has never been studied. In this paper, three experiments were conducted in a courtship context. In the first experiment, a young male confederate in a nightclub asked young women to dance with him

Nicolas Guéguen

2007-01-01

203

Inconspicuous Personal Computer Protection with Touch-Mouse  

E-print Network

from a touch-mouse and user behavior patterns categorized by common mouse action primitives and security are categorized into three types. Biometrics is a commonly used solution for user identity recognition [7]. Biometrics-based identification methods are reliable and unique for individual users. However

He, Lei

204

Simulation of Touch by Means of Surface Ultrasound Waves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The method of simulating touch is based on the use of surface ultrasonic waves of the megacycle range radiated in the form of impulses and passing around the surface of an 'artificial finger.' The transmitting capacity of the 'artificial finger' was discu...

L. L. Myasnikov

1964-01-01

205

Sex, Touch, and HIV Risk Among Ecstasy Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined HIV risk among heavy and nonheavy ecstasy users, focusing specifically on touch and sexual behavior as part of the ecstasy experience. Structured interviews were conducted with 268 young adult (age 18–25) ecstasy users in Atlanta, Georgia. Heavy ecstasy users were more likely to have been tested for HIV than nonheavy users (79 vs. 68%). However, they also were

Katherine P. Theall; Kirk W. Elifson; Claire E. Sterk

2006-01-01

206

Career and Technical Education with a Delicate Touch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are some professions in which tradition holds strong, in which one generation schools the next in the techniques of the trade. These services help us maintain some of our dearest possessions--such as an antique watch or a prized violin--with their specialized skill and delicate touch. But not all of these technicians enter the field through…

Predmore, Sarah R.

2005-01-01

207

Web-Based Spatial Training Using Handheld Touch Screen Devices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to harness the opportunities for mobility and the new user interfaces that handheld touch screen devices offer, in a non-formal learning context, with a view to developing spatial ability. This research has addressed two objectives: first, analyzing the effects that training can have on spatial visualisation using the…

Martin-Dorta, Norena; Saorin, Jose Luis; Contero, Manuel

2011-01-01

208

Active touch in orthopteroid insects: behaviours, multisensory substrates and evolution.  

PubMed

Orthopteroid insects (cockroaches, crickets, locusts and related species) allow examination of active sensory processing in a comparative framework. Some orthopteroids possess long, mobile antennae endowed with many chemo- and mechanoreceptors. When the antennae are touched, an animal's response depends upon the identity of the stimulus. For example, contact with a predator may lead to escape, but contact with a conspecific may usually not. Active touch of an approaching object influences the likelihood that a discrimination of identity will be made. Using cockroaches, we have identified specific descending mechanosensory interneurons that trigger antennal-mediated escape. Crucial sensory input to these cells comes from chordotonal organs within the antennal base. However, information from other receptors on the base or the long antennal flagellum allows active touch to modulate escape probability based on stimulus identity. This is conveyed, at least to some extent, by textural information. Guidance of the antennae in active exploration depends on visual information. Some of the visual interneurons and the motor neurons necessary for visuomotor control have been identified. Comparisons across Orthoptera suggest an evolutionary model where subtle changes in the architecture of interneurons, and of sensorimotor control loops, may explain differing levels of vision-touch interaction in the active guidance of behaviour. PMID:21969682

Comer, Christopher; Baba, Yoshichika

2011-11-12

209

Separability of spatial manipulations in multi-touch interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-touch interfaces allow users to translate, rotate, and scale digital objects in a single interaction. However, this freedom represents a problem when users intend to perform only a subset of manipulations. A user trying to scale an object in a print layout program, for example, might find that the object was also slightly translated and rotated, interfering with what was

Miguel A. Nacenta; Patrick Baudisch; Hrvoje Benko; Andy Wilson

2009-01-01

210

Capacitive Touch Communication: A Technique to Input Data Through Devices'  

E-print Network

may want to limit access to age- appropriate games and media for our children or prevent them from that needs to be touched to the screen. Experiments with our prototype transmitter and tablet receiver show for differentiating users in multiplayer tablet games or parental control applications. Controlled experiments

Gruteser, Marco

211

Infants & Toddlers: Development--The Power of Touch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When a baby is born, parents check for fingers and toes, and over the next few weeks remain alert to whether the baby can see and hear. When babies nurse well, parents are assured that the sense of taste and smell are fine. But what about touch? This crucial sense for babies is often overlooked. In this article, the author discusses how to ensure…

Honig, Alice Sterling

2005-01-01

212

Girls' Touch Football, Physical Education: 5551.03.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course outline is a guide for teaching basic understanding of fundamental skills and rules of girls' touch football in grades 7-12. The course format includes lectures, demonstrations, practice of basic skills, visual aids, lead-up games, presentation and practice of officiating techniques, tournaments, and written and skills tests. Course…

King, Kathy

213

Dual Innervation of Neonatal Merkel Cells in Mouse Touch Domes  

PubMed Central

Merkel cell-neurite complexes are specialized mechanosensory end organs that mediate discriminative touch sensation. It is well established that type I slowly adapting (SAI) mechanoreceptors, which express neural filament heavy chain (NFH), innervate Merkel cells. It was previously shown that neurotrophic factor NT3 and its receptor TrkC play crucial roles in controlling touch dome Merkel cell innervation of NFH+ fibers. In addition, nerve fibers expressing another neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK), Ret, innervate touch dome Merkel cells as well. However, the relationship between afferents responsive to NT3/TrkC signaling and those expressing Ret is unclear. It is also controversial if these Ret+ fibers belong to the early or late Ret+ DRG neurons, which are defined based on the co-expression and developmental dependence of TrkA. To address these questions, we genetically traced Ret+ and TrkC+ fibers and analyzed their developmental dependence on TrkA. We found that Merkel cells in neonatal mouse touch domes receive innervation of two types of fibers: one group is Ret+, while the other subset expresses TrkC and NFH. In addition, Ret+ fibers depend on TrkA for their survival and normal innervation whereas NFH+ Merkel cell innervating fibers are almost unaltered in TrkA mutant mice, supporting that Ret+ and NFH+/TrkC+ afferents are two distinct groups. Ret signaling, on the other hand, plays a minor role for the innervation of neonatal touch domes. In contrast, Merkel cells in the glabrous skin are mainly contacted by NFH+/TrkC+ afferents. Taken together, our results suggest that neonatal Merkel cells around hair follicles receive dual innervation while Merkel cells in the glabrous skin are mainly innervated by only SAI mechanoreceptors. In addition, our results suggest that neonatal Ret+ Merkel cell innervating fibers most likely belong to the late but not early Ret+ DRG neurons. PMID:24637732

Luo, Wenqin

2014-01-01

214

A Touch Panel using Silicone Rubber with embedded IR-LEDs Yuichiro Sakamoto,  

E-print Network

-dependent Measurement of Physical Quantities (1979). 6) Matsushita, N. and Rekimoto, J.: HoloWall: designing a finger.D.: TouchLight: an imaging touch screen and display for gesture-based interac- tion, ICMI '04, ACM, pp.69

Tanaka, Jiro

215

Finding the Right Touch: Extending the Right-Touch Regulation Approach to the Accreditation of Voluntary Registers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is "right-touch regulation"? In this article we explain why the Professional Standards Authority for Health and Social Care (the Authority) has focussed much of its policy work in recent times on seeking an answer to this question, and why it wants to know. We explain why the Authority's predecessor body, the Council for Healthcare Regulatory…

Bilton, Douglas; Cayton, Harry

2013-01-01

216

The Effects of Sleep and Touch Therapy on Symptoms of Fibromyalgia and Depression  

PubMed Central

Background Many alternative interventions are practiced in an effort to reduce symptoms of fibromiyalgia. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of sleep and touch therapy accompanied by music and aromatherapy on the symptoms of fibromyalgia and depression. Methods: The study was carried out between September 2009 and March 2011 in the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Polyclinic in Trabzon, Turkey. The sample consisted of 162 female patients and had been diagnosed with fibromyalgia at least 6 months prior to the study. Since the sample contains two intervention groups and one control group, each group was assigned 54 patients. Data were collected through a Personal Information Form, a Fibromyalgia Symptom Form and the Beck Depression Index. The study employed a pre-test/post-test control group design. A paired sample t-test was used in the comparisons of the in-group scale points; the chi-square in the intergroup comparisons, and the McNamer test in the in-group comparisons. Results: After the interventions, it was observed that the depression levels in the touch-music-aroma therapy group showed a larger decrease (before: 22.01±5.3; after: 14.52±3.7) than in the sleep-music-aroma therapy group (before: 24.81±5.1; after: 20.16±4.9) and control groups (before: 23.73±4.4; after: 21.05±2.6). Symptoms such as restless sleep, headache, morning fatigue, exhaustion, feeling like crying and bowel complaints were also significantly reduced (P<0.05). Conclusion: It is suggested that nurses providing healthcare to FMS patients should also offer these patients aromatherapy, sleep, music and touch therapies. PMID:23304675

Demirbag, BC; Erci, B

2012-01-01

217

Grooming and touching behaviour in captive ring-tailed lemurs ( Lemur catta L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of grooming and touching behaviours was recorded in a group of captive ring-tailed lemurs. Grooming was found\\u000a to be performed chiefly by older, higher ranking animals; touching (i.e., “reach out and touch” behaviour) was directed primarily\\u000a by younger, low ranking animals to older, high ranking individuals. It is suggested that such touching is a submissive gesture\\u000a in this

Geoffrey R. Hosey; Robin J. Thompson

1985-01-01

218

Functional and structural brain differences associated with mirror-touch synaesthesia.  

PubMed

Observing touch is known to activate regions of the somatosensory cortex but the interpretation of this finding is controversial (e.g. does it reflect the simulated action of touching or the simulated reception of touch?). For most people, observing touch is not linked to reported experiences of feeling touch but in some people it is (mirror-touch synaesthetes). We conducted an fMRI study in which participants (mirror-touch synaesthetes, controls) watched movies of stimuli (face, dummy, object) being touched or approached. In addition we examined whether mirror touch synaesthesia is associated with local changes of grey and white matter volume in the brain using VBM (voxel-based morphometry). Both synaesthetes and controls activated the somatosensory system (primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, SI and SII) when viewing touch, and the same regions were activated (by a separate localiser) when feeling touch--i.e. there is a mirror system for touch. However, when comparing the two groups, we found evidence that SII seems to play a particular important role in mirror-touch synaesthesia: in synaesthetes, but not in controls, posterior SII was active for watching touch to a face (in addition to SI and posterior temporal lobe); activity in SII correlated with subjective intensity measures of mirror-touch synaesthesia (taken outside the scanner), and we observed an increase in grey matter volume within the SII of the synaesthetes' brains. In addition, the synaesthetes showed hypo-activity when watching touch to a dummy in posterior SII. We conclude that the secondary somatosensory cortex has a key role in this form of synaesthesia. PMID:23921098

Holle, Henning; Banissy, Michael J; Ward, Jamie

2013-12-01

219

The Use of Touch in Counseling: An Ethical Decision-Making Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although some counselors have advocated for the limited use of touch in counseling, others have argued that touch has no place within the counseling relationship. Despite the controversy, the use of touch has been shown to have a number of therapeutic benefits; however, there are few ethical decision-making models that are appropriate for…

Calmes, Stephanie A.; Piazza, Nick J.; Laux, John M.

2013-01-01

220

Interactive Content System based on Spatial Augmented Reality and Multi Touch Screen  

E-print Network

touch screen, use 8mm acrylic board and 880nm Infra-Red LED (IR LED). Figure 1. Movement of IR rays IR acrylic rear screen and detect touched point through IR LED and IR camera. In addition, we built SARInteractive Content System based on Spatial Augmented Reality and Multi Touch Screen Kim Jung-hoon1

Romano, Daniela

221

What Caused that Touch? Expressive Interaction with a Surface through Fiduciary-Tagged Gloves  

E-print Network

returned from it [16], Benko's EMG muscle sensing ap- proach that identifies fingers touching a surface [1What Caused that Touch? Expressive Interaction with a Surface through Fiduciary-Tagged Gloves terms: Design, Human Factors Keywords: Surfaces, touch, gestures, postures, gloves, fiduciary tags

Greenberg, Saul

222

Genetic Control of Differentiation of the Caenorhabditis elegans Touch Receptor Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic control of neuronal differentiation has been studied by examining mutations that affect the development and function of the six touch receptor neurons of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. By screening for touch-insensitive mutants, it has been possible to identify 18 genes (represented by 417 mutations) that are required at various stages in the developmental program for touch cell differentiation.

Martin Chalfie; Macy Au

1989-01-01

223

IMPROVING THE ACCURACY OF TOUCH SCREENS: AN EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF THREE STRATEGIES  

E-print Network

controllers or medical equipment operators, probably because of the annoyance of high error @I988 ACM-O-89791 was confirmed had fewer errors than other touch strategies. The implications of the results for touch screens, parallax between the touch screen surface and the display surface can cause users to misinterpret where

Shneiderman, Ben

224

Touching Behavior in Sport: Functional Components, Analysis of Sex Differences, and Ethological Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little research exists regarding sex differences in touching behavior in sport or recreational settings. This study investigates sex differences in amounts, types, and factors influencing same-sex touching in a sport context. Subjects were 119 members of four men's college varsity baseball teams and 52 members of three women's college varsity softball teams. All touches performed on-field between team members were

Linda M. Kneidinger; Terry L. Maple; Stuart A. Tross

2001-01-01

225

Evaluating Controls for a Point and Shoot Mobile Game: Augmented Reality, Touch and Tilt.  

E-print Network

Evaluating Controls for a Point and Shoot Mobile Game: Augmented Reality, Touch and Tilt. Asier Bordeaux, Talence, France ABSTRACT Controls based on Augmented Reality (AR), Tilt and Touch have been experience, videogames, controller, augmented reality, tilt, touch. Index Terms: H.5.1 [Information

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

226

Mediated social touch: a review of current research and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we review research and applications in the area of mediated or remote social touch. Whereas current communication media rely predominately on vision and hearing, mediated social touch allows people to touch each other over a distance by means of haptic feedback technology. Overall, the reviewed applications have interesting potential, such as the communication of simple ideas (e.g.,

Antal Haans; Wijnand Ijsselsteijn

2006-01-01

227

19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Form 1379 to touch and trade. When a fishing vessel departs from the United...

2011-04-01

228

19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Form 1379 to touch and trade. When a fishing vessel departs from the United...

2010-04-01

229

19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Form 1379 to touch and trade. When a fishing vessel departs from the United...

2012-04-01

230

Characterization of the exogenous insert and development of event-specific PCR detection methods for genetically modified Huanong No. 1 papaya.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.), Huanong No. 1, was approved for commercialization in Guangdong province, China in 2006, and the development of the Huanong No. 1 papaya detection method is necessary for implementing genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling regulations. In this study, we reported the characterization of the exogenous integration of GM Huanong No. 1 papaya by means of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR strategies. The results suggested that one intact copy of the initial construction was integrated in the papaya genome and which probably resulted in one deletion (38 bp in size) of the host genomic DNA. Also, one unintended insertion of a 92 bp truncated NptII fragment was observed at the 5' end of the exogenous insert. Furthermore, we revealed its 5' and 3' flanking sequences between the insert DNA and the papaya genomic DNA, and developed the event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR assays for GM Huanong No. 1 papaya based on the 5' integration flanking sequence. The relative limit of detection (LOD) of the qualitative PCR assay was about 0.01% in 100 ng of total papaya genomic DNA, corresponding to about 25 copies of papaya haploid genome. In the quantitative PCR, the limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) were as low as 12.5 and 25 copies of papaya haploid genome, respectively. In practical sample quantification, the quantified biases between the test and true values of three samples ranged from 0.44% to 4.41%. Collectively, we proposed that all of these results are useful for the identification and quantification of Huanong No. 1 papaya and its derivates. PMID:19645503

Guo, Jinchao; Yang, Litao; Liu, Xin; Guan, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Lingxi; Zhang, Dabing

2009-08-26

231

Active Touch During Shrew Prey Capture  

PubMed Central

Although somatosensation in multiple whisker systems has been studied in considerable detail, relatively little information is available regarding whisker usage and movement patterns during natural behaviors. The Etruscan shrew, one of the smallest mammals, relies heavily on its whisker system to detect and kill its highly mobile insect prey. Here, we tracked whisker and body motion during prey capture. We found that shrews made periodic whisker movements (whisking) with frequencies ranging from 12 to 17?Hz. We compared shrew and rat whisking and found that shrew whisking was smaller amplitude and higher frequency than rat whisking, but that the shrew and rat whisking cycle were similar in that the velocity was higher during retraction than protraction. We were able to identify four phases during the shrew hunting behavior: (i) an immobile phase often preceding hunting, (ii) a search phase upon the initiation of hunting, (iii) a contact phase defined by whisker-to-cricket contact, and (iv) an attack phase, characterized by a rapid head movement directed toward the cricket. During the searching phase, whisking was generally rhythmic and whiskers were protracted forward. After prey contact, whisking amplitude decreased and became more variable. The final strike was associated with an abrupt head movement toward the prey with high head acceleration. Prey capture proceeded extremely fast and we obtained evidence that shrews can initiate corrective maneuvers with a minimal latency <30?ms. While the shrew's rostrum is straight and elongated during most behaviors, we show for the first time that shrews bend their rostrum during the final strike and grip their prey with a parrot beak shaped snout. PMID:21283557

Munz, Martin; Brecht, Michael; Wolfe, Jason

2010-01-01

232

Structural characterization of the papaya cysteine proteinases at low pH.  

PubMed

Current control of gastrointestinal nematodes relies primarily on the use of synthetic drugs and encounters serious problems of resistance. Oral administration of plant cysteine proteinases, known to be capable of damaging nematode cuticles, has recently been recommended to overcome these problems. This prompted us to examine if plant cysteine proteinases like the four papaya proteinases papain, caricain, chymopapain, and glycine endopeptidase that have been investigated here can survive acidic pH conditions and pepsin degradation. The four papaya proteinases have been found to undergo, at low pH, a conformational transition that instantaneously converts their native forms into molten globules that are quite unstable and rapidly degraded by pepsin. As shown by activity measurements, the denatured state of these proteinases which finally results from acid treatment is completely irreversible. It is concluded that cysteine proteinases from plant origin may require to be protected against both acid denaturation and proteolysis to be effective in the gut after oral administration. PMID:16434027

Huet, Joëlle; Looze, Yvan; Bartik, Kristin; Raussens, Vincent; Wintjens, René; Boussard, Paule

2006-03-10

233

Papaya glutamine cyclase, a plant enzyme highly resistant to proteolysis, adopts an all-beta conformation.  

PubMed

Glutamine cyclases catalyse the conversion of L-glutaminyl-peptides into 5-oxoprolyl-peptides with the concomitant liberation of ammonia. We report here biophysical characterisation of the glutamine cyclase present in the laticiferous cells of the plant Carica papaya. After purification to near homogeneity, this enzyme was subjected to limited proteolysis and found to exhibit a high resistance to degradation and nicking. The structural reasons for this property were examined using circular dichroism and infrared spectroscopies. By combining the analyses of the infrared and CD spectra of papaya glutamine cyclase, its susceptibility to proteolysis, and its hydrogen-deuterium exchange characteristics, we conclude that this protein contains extensive beta-sheet structure and is likely to have only short immobile loops connecting its beta-strands. PMID:9851712

Oberg, K A; Ruysschaert, J M; Azarkan, M; Smolders, N; Zerhouni, S; Wintjens, R; Amrani, A; Looze, Y

1998-11-15

234

Beverages of lemon juice and exotic noni and papaya with potential for anticholinergic effects.  

PubMed

Lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.) juice beverages enriched either with noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) (LN) or papaya (Carica papaya L.) (LP), were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n), the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by (DPPH), superoxide (O2(-)), hydroxyl radicals (OH) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) assays, and their potential as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors was also assessed. The fruits are rich in a wide range of bioactive phenolics. Regarding DPPH, OH and HOCl assays, the LP displayed strong activity, and LN was the most active against O2(-). Concerning cholinesterases, LP was the most active, mainly due to lemon juice contribution. The effect on the cholinesterases was not as strong as in previous reports on purified extracts, but the bioactive-rich beverages offer the possibility of dietary coadjutants for daily consumption of health-promoting substances by adults with aging-related cognitive or physical disorders. PMID:25306312

Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

2015-03-01

235

Use of papaya seeds as a biosorbent of methylene blue from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

In this study papaya seeds were used to remove methylene blue dye from aqueous solution. Papaya seeds were characterized as possessing a macro/mesoporous texture and large pore size. Studies were carried out in batches to evaluate the effect of contact time and pH (2-12) on the removal of dye. It was observed that the adsorption of dye was better in the basic region (pH 12). The equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Raduschkevich, Tempkin, Jovanovich, Redlich-Peterson, Sips, Toth and Radke-Prausnitz isotherms. The equilibrium data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm with a maximum adsorption capacity of 637.29 mg g(-1). Adsorption kinetic data were fitted using the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption kinetic is very fast and was best described by the pseudo-second-order model. PMID:23863440

Paz, Diego S; Baiotto, Alexandre; Schwaab, Marcio; Mazutti, Marcio A; Bassaco, Mariana M; Bertuol, Daniel A; Foletto, Edson L; Meili, Lucas

2013-01-01

236

Development and Validation of a Multiplex Reverse Transcription PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Three Papaya Viruses  

PubMed Central

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce similar symptoms in papaya. Each threatens commercial production of papaya on Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay was developed to detect simultaneously these three viruses by screening combinations of mixed primer pairs and optimizing the multiplex RT-PCR reaction conditions. A mixture of three specific primer pairs was used to amplify three distinct fragments of 613 bp from the P3 gene of PRSV, 355 bp from the CP gene of PLDMV, and 205 bp from the CP gene of PapMV, demonstrating the assay’s specificity. The sensitivity of the multiplex RT-PCR was evaluated by showing plasmids containing each of the viral target genes with 1.44 × 103, 1.79 × 103, and 1.91 × 102 copies for the three viruses could be detected successfully. The multiplex RT-PCR was applied successfully for detection of three viruses from 341 field samples collected from 18 counties of Hainan Island, China. Rates of single infections were 186/341 (54.5%), 93/341 (27.3%), and 3/341 (0.9%), for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively; 59/341 (17.3%) of the samples were co-infected with PRSV and PLDMV, which is the first time being reported in Hainan Island. This multiplex RT-PCR assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method for detecting multiple viruses in papaya and can be used for routine molecular diagnosis and epidemiological studies in papaya. PMID:25337891

Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yang, Yong; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

2014-01-01

237

Development and validation of a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay for simultaneous detection of three papaya viruses.  

PubMed

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce similar symptoms in papaya. Each threatens commercial production of papaya on Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay was developed to detect simultaneously these three viruses by screening combinations of mixed primer pairs and optimizing the multiplex RT-PCR reaction conditions. A mixture of three specific primer pairs was used to amplify three distinct fragments of 613 bp from the P3 gene of PRSV, 355 bp from the CP gene of PLDMV, and 205 bp from the CP gene of PapMV, demonstrating the assay's specificity. The sensitivity of the multiplex RT-PCR was evaluated by showing plasmids containing each of the viral target genes with 1.44 × 103, 1.79 × 103, and 1.91 × 102 copies for the three viruses could be detected successfully. The multiplex RT-PCR was applied successfully for detection of three viruses from 341 field samples collected from 18 counties of Hainan Island, China. Rates of single infections were 186/341 (54.5%), 93/341 (27.3%), and 3/341 (0.9%), for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively; 59/341 (17.3%) of the samples were co-infected with PRSV and PLDMV, which is the first time being reported in Hainan Island. This multiplex RT-PCR assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method for detecting multiple viruses in papaya and can be used for routine molecular diagnosis and epidemiological studies in papaya. PMID:25337891

Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yang, Yong; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

2014-01-01

238

A sensational illusion: vision-touch synaesthesia and the rubber hand paradigm.  

PubMed

For individuals with vision-touch synaesthesia, the sight of touch on another person elicits synaesthetic tactile sensation on the observer's own body. Here we used the traditional rubber hand paradigm (Botvinick and Cohen, 1998) and a no-touch rubber hand paradigm to investigate and to authenticate synaesthetic tactile sensation. In the traditional rubber hand paradigm, the participant views a prosthetic hand being touched by the Examiner while the participant's hand - hidden from view - is also touched by the Examiner. Synchronous stimulation of the prosthetic hand and the participant's hidden hand elicits the rubber hand illusion. It may seem to the participant that she is feeling touch at the location of the viewed prosthetic hand - visual capture of touch, and that the prosthetic hand is the participant's own hand - illusion of ownership. Thus, for participants who experience the traditional rubber hand illusion, tactile sensation on the participant's hidden hand is referred to the prosthetic hand. In our no-touch rubber hand paradigm, the participant views a prosthetic hand being touched by the Examiner but the participant's hand - hidden from view - is not touched by the Examiner. Questionnaire ratings indicated that only individuals with vision-touch synaesthesia experienced the no-touch rubber hand illusion. Thus, synaesthetic tactile sensation on the (untouched) hidden hand was referred to the prosthetic hand. These individuals also demonstrated proprioceptive drift (a change, from baseline, in proprioceptively perceived position) of the hidden hand towards the location of the prosthetic hand, and a pattern of increased proprioceptive drift with increased trial duration (60 sec, 180 sec, 300 sec). The no-touch rubber hand paradigm was an excellent method to authenticate vision-touch synaesthesia because participants were naïve about the rubber hand illusion, and they could not have known how they were expected to perform on either the traditional or the no-touch rubber hand paradigm. PMID:22445446

Aimola Davies, Anne M; White, Rebekah C

2013-03-01

239

Quantifying the sensory and emotional perception of touch: differences between glabrous and hairy skin  

PubMed Central

The perception of touch is complex and there has been a lack of ways to describe the full tactile experience quantitatively. Guest et al. (2011) developed a Touch Perception Task (TPT) in order to capture such experiences, and here we used the TPT to examine differences in sensory and emotional aspects of touch at different skin sites. We compared touch on three skin sites: the hairy arm and cheek, and the glabrous palm. The hairy skin contains C-tactile (CT) afferents, which play a role in affective touch, whereas glabrous skin does not contain CT afferents and is involved in more discriminative touch. In healthy volunteers, three different materials (soft brush, sandpaper, fur) were stroked across these skin sites during self-touch or experimenter-applied touch. After each stimulus, participants rated the tactile experience using descriptors in the TPT. Sensory and emotional descriptors were analyzed using factor analyses. Five sensory factors were found: Texture, Pile, Moisture, Heat/Sharp and Cold/Slip, and three emotional factors: Positive Affect, Arousal, and Negative Affect. Significant differences were found in the use of descriptors in touch to hairy vs. glabrous skin: this was most evident in touch on forearm skin, which produced higher emotional content. The touch from another was also judged as more emotionally positive then self-touch, and participants readily discriminated between the materials on all factors. The TPT successfully probed sensory and emotional percepts of the touch experience, which aided in identifying skin where emotional touch was more pertinent. It also highlights the potentially important role for CTs in the affective processing of inter-personal touch, in combination with higher-order influences, such as through cultural belonging and previous experiences. PMID:24574985

Ackerley, Rochelle; Saar, Karin; McGlone, Francis; Backlund Wasling, Helena

2014-01-01

240

Phenol induced by irradiation does not impair sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of radiation processing on the sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya exposed to doses in the range of 2.5-10 kGy and 100 Gy-2.5 kGy respectively was investigated. Despite an increase in the content of phenol in the volatile oil of these food products overall sensory quality of the irradiated and control samples was not significantly affected by radiation processing.

Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

2013-11-01

241

Sequencing papaya X and Yh chromosomes reveals molecular basis of incipient sex chromosome evolution  

PubMed Central

Sex determination in papaya is controlled by a recently evolved XY chromosome pair, with two slightly different Y chromosomes controlling the development of males (Y) and hermaphrodites (Yh). To study the events of early sex chromosome evolution, we sequenced the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome (HSY) and its X counterpart, yielding an 8.1-megabase (Mb) HSY pseudomolecule, and a 3.5-Mb sequence for the corresponding X region. The HSY is larger than the X region, mostly due to retrotransposon insertions. The papaya HSY differs from the X region by two large-scale inversions, the first of which likely caused the recombination suppression between the X and Yh chromosomes, followed by numerous additional chromosomal rearrangements. Altogether, including the X and/or HSY regions, 124 transcription units were annotated, including 50 functional pairs present in both the X and HSY. Ten HSY genes had functional homologs elsewhere in the papaya autosomal regions, suggesting movement of genes onto the HSY, whereas the X region had none. Sequence divergence between 70 transcripts shared by the X and HSY revealed two evolutionary strata in the X chromosome, corresponding to the two inversions on the HSY, the older of which evolved about 7.0 million years ago. Gene content differences between the HSY and X are greatest in the older stratum, whereas the gene content and order of the collinear regions are identical. Our findings support theoretical models of early sex chromosome evolution. PMID:22869747

Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Yu, Qingyi; Gschwend, Andrea R.; Han, Jennifer; Zeng, Fanchang; Aryal, Rishi; VanBuren, Robert; Murray, Jan E.; Zhang, Wenli; Navajas-Perez, Rafael; Feltus, F. Alex; Lemke, Cornelia; Tong, Eric J.; Chen, Cuixia; Man Wai, Ching; Singh, Ratnesh; Wang, Ming-Li; Min, Xiang Jia; Alam, Maqsudul; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H.; Jiang, Jiming; Paterson, Andrew H.; Ming, Ray

2012-01-01

242

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the glutaminyl cyclase from Carica papaya latex.  

PubMed

In living systems, the intramolecular cyclization of N-terminal glutamine residues is accomplished by glutaminyl cyclase enzymes (EC 2.3.2.5). While in mammals these enzymes are involved in the synthesis of hormonal and neurotransmitter peptides, the physiological role played by the corresponding plant enzymes still remains to be unravelled. Papaya glutaminyl cyclase (PQC), a 33 kDa enzyme found in the latex of the tropical tree Carica papaya, displays an exceptional resistance to chemical and thermal denaturation as well as to proteolysis. In order to elucidate its enzymatic mechanism and to gain insights into the structural determinants underlying its remarkable stability, PQC was isolated from papaya latex, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 62.82, b = 81.23, c = 108.17 A and two molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data have been collected at ESRF beamline BM14 and processed to a resolution of 1.7 A. PMID:16508091

Azarkan, Mohamed; Clantin, Bernard; Bompard, Coralie; Belrhali, Hassan; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle; Looze, Yvan; Villeret, Vincent; Wintjens, René

2005-01-01

243

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the glutaminyl cyclase from Carica papaya latex  

PubMed Central

In living systems, the intramolecular cyclization of N-terminal glutamine residues is accomplished by glutaminyl cyclase enzymes (EC 2.3.2.5). While in mammals these enzymes are involved in the synthesis of hormonal and neurotransmitter peptides, the physiological role played by the corresponding plant enzymes still remains to be unravelled. Papaya glutaminyl cyclase (PQC), a 33?kDa enzyme found in the latex of the tropical tree Carica papaya, displays an exceptional resistance to chemical and thermal denaturation as well as to proteolysis. In order to elucidate its enzymatic mechanism and to gain insights into the structural determinants underlying its remarkable stability, PQC was isolated from papaya latex, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 62.82, b = 81.23, c = 108.17?Å and two molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data have been collected at ESRF beamline BM14 and processed to a resolution of 1.7?Å. PMID:16508091

Azarkan, Mohamed; Clantin, Bernard; Bompard, Coralie; Belrhali, Hassan; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle; Looze, Yvan; Villeret, Vincent; Wintjens, Rene

2005-01-01

244

Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds.  

PubMed

Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC(50) for the leaf extract was 0.625 mg ml(-1) for Fusarium spp. and >10 mg ml(-1) for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties. PMID:22282629

Chávez-Quintal, Pedro; González-Flores, Tania; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintoré, Santiago

2011-01-01

245

Bioseparation of papain from Carica papaya latex by precipitation of papain-poly (vinyl sulfonate) complexes.  

PubMed

The formation of insoluble complexes between enzymes and polyelectrolytes is a suitable technique for isolating these biomolecules from natural sources, because it is a simple and rapid technique that allows the concentration of the protein. This technique can be used in most purification protocols at the beginning of the downstream process. The aim of this investigation is to isolate papain from Carica papaya latex by precipitation of insoluble complexes between this enzyme and poly (vinyl sulfonate). The papain-poly (vinyl sulfonate) complex was insoluble at pH lower than 6, with a PVS/PAP stoichiometric ratio of 1:279. Ionic strength affected the complex formation. The presence of the polymer increased the enzymatic activity and protected the enzyme from autodegradation. The optimal conditions for the formation of insoluble papain-polyelectrolyte complex formation were applied to C. papaya latex and a high recovery was obtained (around 86%) and a purification factor around 2. This method can be applied as an isolation method of papain from C. papaya latex or as a first step in a larger purification strategy. PMID:23891572

Braia, Mauricio; Ferrero, Maximiliano; Rocha, María Victoria; Loureiro, Dana; Tubio, Gisela; Romanini, Diana

2013-09-01

246

An interactive, multi-touch videowall for scientific data exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of videowalls for scientific data exploration is rising as hardware becomes cheaper and the availability of software and multimedia content grows. Most videowalls are used primarily for outreach and communication purposes, but there is increasing interest in using large display screens to support exploratory visualization as an integral part of scientific research. In this PICO presentation we will present a brief overview of a new videowall system at the University of Reading, which is designed specifically to support interactive, exploratory visualization activities in climate science and Earth Observation. The videowall consists of eight 42-inch full-HD screens (in 4x2 formation), giving a total resolution of about 16 megapixels. The display is managed by a videowall controller, which can direct video to the screen from up to four external laptops, a purpose-built graphics workstation, or any combination thereof. A multi-touch overlay provides the capability for the user to interact directly with the data. There are many ways to use the videowall, and a key technical challenge is to make the most of the touch capabilities - touch has the potential to greatly reduce the learning curve in interactive data exploration, but most software is not yet designed for this purpose. In the PICO we will present an overview of some ways in which the wall can be employed in science, seeking feedback and discussion from the community. The system was inspired by an existing and highly-successful system (known as the "Collaboratorium") at the Netherlands e-Science Center (NLeSC). We will demonstrate how we have adapted NLeSC's visualization software to our system for touch-enabled multi-screen climate data exploration.

Blower, Jon; Griffiths, Guy; van Meersbergen, Maarten; Lusher, Scott; Styles, Jon

2014-05-01

247

Wave Touch: Educational Game on Interactive Tabletop with Water Simulation  

E-print Network

, Kiwon Yeom1 , DongWook Yoon1 , Dong-young Kim2 , JungHyun Han2 and Ji-Hyung Park1 1 Intelligence-touch tabletop interface, which supports cooperative and competitive gaming. These days, a few researchers have are a generalized version of the N-S equations. These equations reduce the problem of a 3D fluid motion to a 2D

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

248

Infant Imitation from Television Using Novel Touch Screen Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants learn less from a televised demonstration than from a live demonstration, the "video deficit effect." The present study employs a novel approach, using touch screen technology to examine 15-month olds' transfer of learning. Infants were randomly assigned either to within-dimension (2D/2D or 3D/3D) or cross-dimension (3D/2D or 2D/3D)…

Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel; Gerhardstein, Peter; Dickerson, Kelly; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

2009-01-01

249

Interface Design for Graphics Editor on Multi Touch Point Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the project is to use the touch sensitive device capability of the iPad to give a better user experience and functionalities for the artists. In this project, I have explored different interactions that can give a better experience for artist when compared to traditional computer-mouse interaction. In the traditional Computer-mouse interaction it is very difficult for

Srujitha Mullapudi

2011-01-01

250

Distributed representation of single touches in somatosensory and visual cortex.  

PubMed

Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) was used to analyze blood-oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) data, which were acquired as human subjects received brief vibrotactile stimulation of their hands and feet. Support vector machines trained and tested on the whole brain fMRI data were able to accurately decode the body site of single touches, with mean performance of 92% in a two-way discrimination task (chance performance 50%) and 70% in a four-way discrimination task (chance performance 25%). Primary and secondary somatosensory areas (S1 and S2) alone decoded the touched body site with high accuracy. S1 was more accurate at decoding touches closely spaced on the body surface (different fingers of the same hand) whereas S2 and S1 were equally accurate at decoding widely spaced touches (hand vs. foot). The hand and foot regions of S1 (S1hand and S1foot) were separately examined in a two-way classification task. S1hand was better able to decode the hand of stimulation (left vs. right), and S1foot was better able to decode the foot of stimulation. In addition to S1 and S2, vibrotactile responses were observed in a region of visual cortex, areas MST and STP (MST/STP) in lateral occipito-temporal lobe. MST/STP was able to accurately decode the hand but not the foot of stimulation, supporting the idea of a role for MST/STP in eye-hand coordination. PMID:19224618

Beauchamp, Michael S; Laconte, Stephen; Yasar, Nafi

2009-10-01

251

“No-Touch” submuscular saline breast augmentation technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article represents a retrospective view of the author's 17-year experience with 2863 saline implants in 1327 patients and details his “no-touch” technique. The experience included almost an equal number of submammary and subpectoral procedures. The submammary procedures were done early on and were replaced with subpectoral procedures, done exclusively at the present time. There were significantly less complications-capsules, wrinkling

Richard A. Mladick

1993-01-01

252

Huggy Pajama: A Remote Interactive Touch and Hugging System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Huggy Pajama is a novel wearable system aimed at promoting physical interaction in remote communication between parent and child. This system enables parents and children to hug one another through a hugging interface device and a wearable, hug reproducing pajama connected through the Internet. The hug input device is a small, mobile doll with an embedded pressure sensing circuit that is able to accurately sense varying levels of pressure along the range of human touch produced from natural touch. This device sends hug signals to a haptic jacket that simulates the feeling of being hugged to the wearer. It features air pocket actuators that reproduce hug sensations, heating elements to produce warmth that accompanies hugs, and a color changing pattern and accessory to indicate distance of separation and communicate expressions. In this chapter, we present the system design of Huggy Pajama. We also show results from quantitative and qualitative user studies which show the effectiveness of the system simulating an actual human touch. Results also indicate an increased sense of presence between parents and children when used as an added component to instant messaging and video chat communication.

Cheok, Adrian David

253

Mechanosensitive unpaired innexin channels in C. elegans touch neurons.  

PubMed

Invertebrate innexin proteins share sequence homology with vertebrate pannexins and general membrane topology with both pannexins and connexins. While connexins form gap junctions that mediate intercellular communication, pannexins are thought to function exclusively as plasma membrane channels permeable to both ions and small molecules. Undoubtedly, certain innexins function as gap junction proteins. However, due to sequence similarity to pannexins, it was postulated that innexins also function as plasma membrane channels. Indeed, some of the leech innexins were found to mediate ATP release as unpaired membrane channels with shared pharmacology to pannexin channels. We show here that Caenorhabditis elegans touch-sensing neurons express a mechanically gated innexin channel with a conductance of ?1 nS and voltage-dependent and K(+)-selective subconductance state. We also show that C. elegans touch neurons take up ethidium bromide through a mechanism that is activated and blocked by innexin activating stimuli and inhibitors, respectively. Finally, we present evidence that touch neurons' innexins are required for cell death induced by chemical ischemia. Our work demonstrates that innexins function as plasma membrane channels in native C. elegans neurons, where they may play a role in pathological cell death. PMID:25252948

Sangaletti, Rachele; Dahl, Gerhard; Bianchi, Laura

2014-11-15

254

Touch the Universe : A NASA Braille Book of Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Touch the Universe is a unique and innovative astronomy book that will help visually impaired people see the wonders of our universe. Using a combination of Braille and large-print captions that face 14 pages of brilliant Hubble Space Telescope photos, it is embossed with shapes that represent various astronomical objects such as stars, gas clouds, and jets of matter streaming into space. Universally designed for both the sighted and visually impaired reader, Touch the Universe takes readers on a voyage of discovery, starting at Earth, proceeding through the solar system, and ending with the most distant image taken by Hubble, the mind-boggling Hubble Deep Field photo -- the first telescope image ever to bring home to human consciousness in a deeply fundamental way the literally infinite reaches of our universe of galaxies. As the author puts it, A visually impaired person can still touch and smell a flower, or a tree, or an animal, but he or she could only imagine what an astronomical object is like ... until now.

2002-01-01

255

A closed-loop neurobotic system for fine touch sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. Fine touch sensing relies on peripheral-to-central neurotransmission of somesthetic percepts, as well as on active motion policies shaping tactile exploration. This paper presents a novel neuroengineering framework for robotic applications based on the multistage processing of fine tactile information in the closed action-perception loop. Approach. The integrated system modules focus on (i) neural coding principles of spatiotemporal spiking patterns at the periphery of the somatosensory pathway, (ii) probabilistic decoding mechanisms mediating cortical-like tactile recognition and (iii) decision-making and low-level motor adaptation underlying active touch sensing. We probed the resulting neural architecture through a Braille reading task. Main results. Our results on the peripheral encoding of primary contact features are consistent with experimental data on human slow-adapting type I mechanoreceptors. They also suggest second-order processing by cuneate neurons may resolve perceptual ambiguities, contributing to a fast and highly performing online discrimination of Braille inputs by a downstream probabilistic decoder. The implemented multilevel adaptive control provides robustness to motion inaccuracy, while making the number of finger accelerations covariate with Braille character complexity. The resulting modulation of fingertip kinematics is coherent with that observed in human Braille readers. Significance. This work provides a basis for the design and implementation of modular neuromimetic systems for fine touch discrimination in robotics.

Bologna, L. L.; Pinoteau, J.; Passot, J.-B.; Garrido, J. A.; Vogel, J.; Ros Vidal, E.; Arleo, A.

2013-08-01

256

Separation of single- and double-touching handwritten numeral strings based on structural analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a new method to separate touching handwritten numeral pairs using structural analysis. The string is preprocessed with an efficient algorithm for smoothing, linearization, and detection of structural points of image contours. The structural region of the string is determined. Some left- or right-side numerals of the string are recognized. The property of each hole contour in a string is detected. The touching model of a string is determined, whether single- or double-touching. For double-touching, the touching hole contour is determined. For the two touching models, the touching point is preselected, its position is corrected, and the corresponding match touching point is found. The string is separated based on all touching points. All processing procedures are based on morphological structural analyses. We have tested our method on image samples taken from the U.S. National Institute of Science and Technology database. We used 500 sample images to design the required models. For 3287 test samples the correct-separation rate was 97.2% for single- touching strings, and 97% for double-touching strings.

Yu, Donggang; Hu, Jianming; Yan, Hong

1999-03-01

257

Eliciting accounts of alleged child sexual abuse: how do children report touch?  

PubMed

Investigative interviewers frequently question alleged victims of child sexual abuse about any touching or bodily contact that might have occurred. In the present study of forensic interviews with 192 alleged sexual abuse victims, between 4 and 13 years of age, we examined the frequency with which alleged victims reported bodily contact as "touch" and the types of prompts associated with "touch" reports. Even young alleged victims of sexual abuse reported bodily contact as "touch," and they used the word "touch" more frequently in response to recall than recognition prompts. Regardless of age, children typically referred to "touch" before interviewers used this term, suggesting that even young children are able to report "touch" without being cued by interviewers. PMID:25101533

Teoh, Yee-San; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen; Johnson, Zephyr H; Lamb, Michael E

2014-10-01

258

DNA extraction method using a silica-base resin type kit for the detection of genetically modified papaya.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) papaya has not yet been approved for importation into, or cultivation in the European Union (EU) and Japan. A DNA extraction method using the Qiagen DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (PM method) and a method using a buffer containing cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB method) have been adopted as the official Japanese methods for detecting GM foods. However, the amounts of DNA extracted from papaya by these methods are very low. Therefore, we investigated an extraction method to obtain a high yield of DNA from raw or freeze-dried fresh papaya using the Promega Wizard DNA Clean-Up Resin System (WCR). The incubation for the extraction was carried out at 58 degrees C without proteinase K for 15 min. The extract was applied to a mini-column, then the column was washed with 80% isopropyl alcohol, and genomic DNA adsorbed on the column was eluted with TE buffer. The WCR method gave a higher yield of genomic DNA, and was simpler and faster than the PM method or CTAB method. In addition, it could be used to extract genomic DNA from fresh papaya at various stages of ripeness. Based on these results, we propose that the present method using WCR is the most practical and useful way to extract genomic DNA for the purpose of detecting GM papaya. PMID:18503240

Ohmori, Kiyomi; Tsuchiya, Hisayo; Watanabe, Takahiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio; Yamada, Toshiharu; Hirayama, Kuni; Satoh, Shuji

2008-04-01

259

Purification and characterization of a wound-inducible thaumatin-like protein from the latex of Carica papaya.  

PubMed

A 22.137 kDa protein constituent of fresh latex was isolated both from the latex of regularly damaged papaya trees and from a commercially available papain preparation. The protein was purified up to apparent homogeneity and was shown to be absent in the latex of papaya trees that had never been previously mechanically injured. This suggests that the protein belongs to pathogenesis-related protein family, as expected for several other protein constituents of papaya latex. The protein was identified as a thaumatin-like protein (class 5 of the pathogenesis-related proteins) on the basis of its partial amino acid sequence. By sequence analysis of the Carica genome, three different forms of thaumatin-like protein were identified, where the latex constituent belongs to a well-known form, allowing the molecular modeling of its spatial structure. The papaya latex thaumatin-like protein was further characterized. The protein appears to be stable in the pH interval from 2 to 10 and resistant to chemical denaturation by guanidium chloride, with a DeltaG(water)(0) of 15.2 kcal/mol and to proteolysis by the four papaya cysteine proteinases. The physiological role of this protein is discussed. PMID:19527911

Looze, Yvan; Boussard, Paule; Huet, Joëlle; Vandenbusche, Guy; Vandenbussche, Guy; Azarkan, Mohamed; Raussens, Vincent; Wintjens, René

2009-05-01

260

Detection of platypus-type L/D-peptide isomerase activity in aqueous extracts of papaya fruit.  

PubMed

Peptide isomerase catalyses the post-translational isomerisation of the L: - to the D: -form of an amino acid residue around the N/C-termini of substrate peptides. To date, some peptide isomerases have been found in a limited number of animal secretions and cells. We show here that papaya extracts have weak peptide isomerase activity. The activity was detected in each 30-100 kDa fraction of the flesh and the seed extracts of unripe and ripe papaya fruit. The definitive activity was confirmed in the ripe papaya extracts, but even then it was much less active than that of the other peptide isomerases previously reported. The activity was markedly inhibited by methanol, and partly so by amastatin and diethyl pyrocarbonate. This is the first report of peptide isomerase activity in a plant and suggests that perhaps every living organism may have some peptide isomerase activity. PMID:22648682

Arakawa, Kensuke; Koh, Jennifer M S; Crossett, Ben; Torres, Allan M; Kuchel, Philip W

2012-09-01

261

Touch in primary care consultations: qualitative investigation of doctors' and patients' perceptions  

PubMed Central

Background Good communication skills are integral to successful doctor–patient relationships. Communication may be verbal or non-verbal, and touch is a significant component, which has received little attention in the primary care literature. Touch may be procedural (part of a clinical task) or expressive (contact unrelated to a procedure/examination). Aim To explore GPs’ and patients’ experiences of using touch in consultations. Design and setting Qualitative study in urban and semi-rural areas of north-west England. Method Participating GPs recruited registered patients with whom they felt they had an ongoing relationship. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews and subjected to constant comparative qualitative analysis. Results All participants described the importance of verbal and non-verbal communication in developing relationships. Expressive touch was suggested to improve communication quality by most GPs and all patients. GPs reported a lower threshold for using touch with older patients or those who were bereaved, and with patients of the same sex as themselves. All patient responders felt touch on the hand or forearm was appropriate. GPs described limits to using touch, with some responders rarely using anything other than procedural touch. In contrast, most patient responders believed expressive touch was acceptable, especially in situations of distress. All GP responders feared misinterpretation in their use of touch, but patients were keen that these concerns should not prevent doctors using expressive touch in consultations. Conclusion Expressive touch improves interactions between GPs and patients. Increased educational emphasis on the conscious use of expressive touch would enhance clinical communication and, hence, perhaps patient wellbeing and care. PMID:23540485

Cocksedge, Simon; George, Bethan; Renwick, Sophie; Chew-Graham, Carolyn A

2013-01-01

262

Plasmonic color filters to decrease ambient light errors on active type dual band infrared image sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we proposed the plasmonic color filters to decrease ambient light errors on active type dual band infrared image sensors for a large-area multi-touch display system. Although the strong point of the touch display system in the area of education and exhibition there are some limits of the ambient light. When an unexpected ambient light incidents into the display the touch recognition system can make errors classifying the touch point in the unexpected ambient light area. We proposed a new touch recognition image sensor system to decrease the ambient light error and investigated the optical transmission properties of plasmonic color filters for IR image sensor. To find a proper structure of the plasmonic color filters we used a commercial computer simulation tool utilizing finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method as several thicknesses and whit the cover passivation layer or not. Gold (Au) applied for the metal film and the dispersion information associated with was derived from the Lorentz-Drude model. We also described the mechanism applied the double band filter on the IR image sensors.

Lyu, Hong-Kun; Park, Young-Jin; Cho, Hui-Sup; Jo, Sung-Hyun; Lee, Hee-Ho; Shin, Jang-Kyoo

2014-09-01

263

Touch DNA collection versus firearm fingerprinting: comparing evidence production and identification outcomes.  

PubMed

A project by a metropolitan police agency in 2008-2009 had police use touch DNA kits to collect cell samples from seized firearms. To assess outcomes, results of touch DNA swabbing of firearms were compared to fingerprinting firearm evidence. The rationale was that fingerprinting, as the older technology, was the baseline against which to compare touch DNA. But little is known about ways to measure touch DNA productivity compared to fingerprinting. To examine differences between the two requires comparable measurements. Two measures were used: quantity of probative or investigative evidence produced and identification outcomes. When applied to firearms seized within an Indianapolis, IN police district, touch DNA produced a larger volume of evidence than fingerprinting, but identification outcomes for the two methods were equal. Because touch DNA was deployed by police patrol officers, there are implications for firearm forensics and the choice of forensic approaches used by police. PMID:23458456

Nunn, Samuel

2013-05-01

264

Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract  

PubMed Central

Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) following lead acetate administration and pre-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) followed by lead acetate administration. The substances were administered for 14 days. The effects were evaluated by measuring protein carbonyl content (PCC) and glutathione content (GC) in the bone marrow. Histological changes in the bone marrow were also observed. The results showed that Carica papaya induced a significant reduction in the PCC activity and significantly increased the GC in the bone marrow. Carica papaya also improved the histology of the bone marrow compared with that of the lead acetate-treated group. In summary, Carica papaya was effective against the oxidative damage caused by lead acetate in the bone marrow and had a stimulatory effect on haemopoiesis. PMID:23403524

THAM, CHING S.; CHAKRAVARTHI, SRIKUMAR; HALEAGRAHARA, NAGARAJA; DE ALWIS, RANJIT

2013-01-01

265

iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch UNSG Wireless Improvements  

E-print Network

iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch Page 1 UNSG Wireless Improvements On August 15, 2011, UNSG Help Desk at 617.495.7777 or ithelp@harvard.edu. #12;iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch Page 2 1 Now #12;iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch Page 3 7. Enter your passcode if set 8. Enter your HUID

Wolfe, Patrick J.

266

Discriminative and affective touch in human experimental tactile allodynia.  

PubMed

Recently, several studies have suggested a role for unmyelinated (C-tactile, CT) low-threshold mechanoreceptive afferents in the allodynic condition. In this psychophysical study we explored the integrity of both A? and CT afferent processing following application of the heat capsaicin model of tactile allodynia on the left forearm in healthy subjects (n=40). We measured tactile direction discrimination (TDD) to target the integrity of A? processing (n=20). The TDD accuracy was significantly lower in the allodynic compared to a control zone. In addition, we measured the perceived pleasantness and pain of brush stroking at CT targeted (slow) and CT sub-optimal (fast) stroking velocities to investigate the integrity of CT processing (n=20). When comparing touch pleasantness in the allodynic and control zone, there was a significantly larger difference in ratings for CT targeted compared to CT suboptimal stimulation. The results suggest a disturbance in both A?-mediated discriminative and CT-mediated affective touch processing in human experimental tactile allodynia. Our findings support the canonical view that tactile allodynia is signaled by A? afferents but that CTs seem to contribute by the loss of a pain inhibiting role. PMID:24486839

Liljencrantz, Jaquette; Marshall, Andrew; Ackerley, Rochelle; Olausson, Håkan

2014-03-20

267

Development of brain mechanisms for processing affective touch  

PubMed Central

Affective tactile stimulation plays a key role in the maturation of neural circuits, but the development of brain mechanisms processing touch is poorly understood. We therefore used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study brain responses to soft brush stroking of both glabrous (palm) and hairy (forearm) skin in healthy children (5–13 years), adolescents (14–17 years), and adults (25–35 years). Adult-defined regions-of-interests in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), insular cortex and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) were significantly and similarly activated in all age groups. Whole-brain analyses revealed that responses in the ipsilateral SII were positively correlated with age in both genders, and that responses in bilateral regions near the pSTS correlated significantly and strongly with age in females but not in males. These results suggest that brain mechanisms associated with both sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational aspects of touch are largely established in school-aged children, and that there is a general continuing maturation of SII and a female-specific increase in pSTS sensitivity with age. Our work establishes a groundwork for future comparative studies of tactile processing in developmental disorders characterized by disrupted social perception such as autism. PMID:24550800

Bjornsdotter, Malin; Gordon, Ilanit; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Olausson, Hakan; Kaiser, Martha D.

2014-01-01

268

Flexible Electronics Sensors for Tactile Multi-Touching  

PubMed Central

Flexible electronics sensors for tactile applications in multi-touch sensing and large scale manufacturing were designed and fabricated. The sensors are based on polyimide substrates, with thixotropy materials used to print organic resistances and a bump on the top polyimide layer. The gap between the bottom electrode layer and the resistance layer provides a buffer distance to reduce erroneous contact during large bending. Experimental results show that the top membrane with a bump protrusion and a resistance layer had a large deflection and a quick sensitive response. The bump and resistance layer provided a concentrated von Mises stress force and inertial force on the top membrane center. When the top membrane had no bump, it had a transient response delay time and took longer to reach steady-state. For printing thick structures of flexible electronics sensors, diffusion effects and dimensional shrinkages can be improved by using a paste material with a high viscosity. Linear algorithm matrixes with Gaussian elimination and control system scanning were used for multi-touch detection. Flexible electronics sensors were printed with a resistance thickness of about 32 ?m and a bump thickness of about 0.2 mm. Feasibility studies show that printing technology is appropriate for large scale manufacturing, producing sensors at a low cost. PMID:22399962

Chang, Wen-Yang; Fang, Te-Hua; Yeh, Shao-Hsing; Lin, Yu-Cheng

2009-01-01

269

Infant Imitation from Television Using Novel Touch-screen Technology  

PubMed Central

Infants learn less from a televised demonstration than from a live demonstration, the video deficit effect. The present study employs a novel approach, using touch-screen technology to examine 15-month-olds’ transfer of learning. Infants were randomly assigned either to within-dimension (2D/2D or 3D/3D) or cross-dimension (3D/2D or 2D/3D) conditions. For the within-dimension conditions, an experimenter demonstrated an action by pushing a virtual button on a 2D screen or a real button on a 3D object. Infants were then given the opportunity to imitate using the same screen or object. For the 3D/2D condition, an experimenter demonstrated the action on the 3D object, and infants were given the opportunity to reproduce the action on a 2D touch-screen (and vice versa for the 2D/3D condition). Infants produced significantly fewer target actions in the cross-dimension conditions than in the within-dimension conditions. These findings have important implications for infants understanding and learning from 2D images and for their using 2D media as the basis of actions in the real world. PMID:19972660

Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel; Gerhardstein, Peter; Dickerson, Kelly; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

2010-01-01

270

A computer touch-screen apparatus for training visual discriminations in rats.  

PubMed Central

We describe an operant conditioning apparatus that uses computerized touch-screen technology and is designed for the versatile and highly controlled testing of rats in a potentially wide variety of behavioral paradigms. Although computer-controlled touch-screen systems have been developed for use with pigeons, monkeys, and humans, analogous technologies and methods have not yet been developed for rats. The development of a touch-screen system for rats could enhance the efficiency of behavioral research with rats, and may offer a unique tool for studying animal learning. In the first test of the utility of the apparatus, 3 Sprague-Dawley rats learned to activate the touch screen only after the touch-screen panel was made slightly movable. These animals then learned to discriminate visual stimuli presented on the computer monitor, but only after the food magazine and pellet dispenser were moved to the rear of the chamber opposite the stimulus display and response window. In a test of the utility of the modified apparatus, 6 Long-Evans rats learned to activate the touch screen and learned one of three different simple discriminations using computer-generated, visually presented stimuli. A basic method for training rats to activate the computer touch screen and for visual discrimination training is described. Results show that rats learned to activate the touch screen and discriminate visual stimuli presented on a computer monitor. Potential applications and advantages of the touch-screen-equipped rat operant conditioning chamber are discussed. PMID:8583196

Markham, M R; Butt, A E; Dougher, M J

1996-01-01

271

Autistic traits are associated with diminished neural response to affective touch  

PubMed Central

‘Social brain’ circuitry has recently been implicated in processing slow, gentle touch targeting a class of slow-conducting, unmyelinated nerves, CT afferents, which are present only in the hairy skin of mammals. Given the importance of such ‘affective touch’ in social relationships, the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study aimed to replicate the finding of ‘social brain’ involvement in processing CT-targeted touch and to examine the relationship between the neural response and individuals’ social abilities. During an fMRI scan, 19 healthy adults received alternating blocks of slow (CT-optimal) and fast (non-optimal) brushing to the forearm. Relative to fast touch, the slow touch activated contralateral insula, superior temporal sulcus (STS), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and amygdala. Connectivity analyses revealed co-activation of the mPFC, insula and amygdala during slow touch. Additionally, participants’ autistic traits negatively correlated with the response to slow touch in the OFC and STS. The current study replicates and extends findings of the involvement of a network of ‘social brain’ regions in processing CT-targeted affective touch, emphasizing the multimodal nature of this system. Variability in the brain response to such touch illustrates a tight coupling of social behavior and social brain function in typical adults. PMID:22267520

Voos, Avery C.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

2013-01-01

272

Improving segmentation of 3D touching cell nuclei using flow tracking on surface meshes.  

PubMed

Automatic segmentation of touching cell nuclei in 3D microscopy images is of great importance in bioimage informatics and computational biology. This paper presents a novel method for improving 3D touching cell nuclei segmentation. Given binary touching nuclei by the method in Li et al. (2007), our method herein consists of several steps: surface mesh reconstruction and curvature information estimation; direction field diffusion on surface meshes; flow tracking on surface meshes; and projection of surface mesh segmentation to volumetric images. The method is validated on both synthesised and real 3D touching cell nuclei images, demonstrating its validity and effectiveness. PMID:22436299

Li, Gang; Guo, Lei

2012-01-01

273

Revisiting the enzymes stored in the laticifers of Carica papaya in the context of their possible participation in the plant defence mechanism.  

PubMed

In the tropical species Carica papaya, the articulated and anastomosing laticifers form a dense network of vessels displayed in all aerial parts of the plant. Damaging the papaya tree inevitably severs its laticifers, eliciting an abrupt release of latex. Besides the well-known cysteine proteinases, papain, chymopapain, caricain and glycyl endopeptidase, papaya latex is also a rich source of other enzymes. Together, these enzymes could provide an important contribution to plant defence mechanisms by sanitising and sealing the wounded areas on the tree. PMID:11361091

El Moussaoui, A; Nijs, M; Paul, C; Wintjens, R; Vincentelli, J; Azarkan, M; Looze, Y

2001-04-01

274

Effect of Temperature on the Development and Survival of Immature Stages of the Carambola Fruit Fly, Bactrocera carambolae, and the Asian Papaya Fruit Fly, Bactrocera papayae, Reared On Guava Diet  

PubMed Central

Members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex constitute wellrecognized destructive pests of fruits in peninsular Thailand. The development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, were compared at six constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D). The objectives were to determine the effect of temperature on the developmental stages for optimizing rearing and to understand the geographical pattern of occurrence of these fruit fly species. A strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of immature stages of B. carambolae. Similarly, a strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of B. papayae. A temperature summation model was used to estimate the lower threshold temperature and the thermal constant. Bactrocera papayae was significantly faster in development and higher in survival and appeared to be better adapted to low temperatures than B. carambolae, as it exhibited the lowest threshold temperatures at all immature stages. The observed differences in response to various temperatures revealed to some extent the impact of temperature on these species' distribution in peninsular Thailand and other parts of the world. PMID:25368070

Danjuma, Solomon; Thaochan, Narit; Permkam, Surakrai; Satasook, Chutamas

2014-01-01

275

Effect of pre-harvest calcium chloride applications on fruit calcium level and post-harvest anthracnose disease of papaya  

E-print Network

deficiency could be reduced by calcium spraying (Kader, 2002). However, there are few re- ports about effectsEffect of pre-harvest calcium chloride applications on fruit calcium level and post October 2013 Keywords: Papaya Anthracnose Calcium Disease incidence Disease severity a b s t r a c

Biggs, Alan R.

276

'Candidatus Phytoplasma graminis' and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma caricae', two novel phytoplasmas associated with diseases of sugarcane, weeds and papaya in Cuba.  

PubMed

During 2003, surveys of sugarcane yellow leaf disease and papaya bunchy top-like disease were carried out on plantations in Havana province, Cuba, to determine the roles of weeds and Auchenorrhyncha insects in the epidemiology of these diseases. More than 250 plant and insect samples were collected and indexed by using a nested PCR for phytoplasma 16S rDNA with the generic primer pairs P1/P7 and R16F2n/R16R2. The PCR products were further characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism using HaeIII, AluI, Sau3AI, Tru9I, HhaI, HpaII and TaqI endonucleases, giving patterns that distinguished them from those of the other reference phytoplasmas analysed. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences identified the phytoplasmas present in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.), Cynodon dactylon L., Conyza canadensis L. Cronq., Sorghum halepense L. Pers., Macroptilium lathyroides L. Urb., Saccharosydne saccharivora (Westwood) and Cedusa spp., and those in papaya (Carica papaya L.) and Empoasca papayae, as two novel provisional phytoplasma species. We propose that these phytoplasmas should be given Candidatus status, as 'Candidatus Phytoplasma graminis' and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma caricae', respectively. PMID:16280510

Arocha, Yaima; López, Mercedes; Piñol, Berta; Fernández, Miriam; Picornell, Buenaventura; Almeida, Roberto; Palenzuela, Iris; Wilson, Michael R; Jones, Phil

2005-11-01

277

HapTouch and the 2+1 state model: potentials of haptic feedback on touch based in-vehicle information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haptic feedback on touch-sensitive displays provides significant benefits in terms of reducing error rates, increasing interaction speed and minimizing visual distraction. This particularly holds true for multitasking situations such as the interaction with mobile devices or touch-based in-vehicle systems. In this paper, we explore how the interaction with tactile touchscreens can be modeled and enriched using a 2+1 state transition

Hendrik Richter; Ronald Ecker; Christopher Deisler; Andreas Butz

2010-01-01

278

Production of fatty acid butyl esters using the low cost naturally immobilized Carica papaya lipase.  

PubMed

In this work, the low cost naturally immobilized Carica papaya lipase (CPL) was investigated for production of fatty acid butyl esters (FABE) to fulfill the aim of reducing the lipase cost in the enzymatic butyl-biodiesel process. The CPL showed specificities to different alcohol acyl acceptors. Alcohols with more than three carbon atoms did not have negative effects on the CPL activity. The CPL catalyzed butanolysis for FABE production was systematically investigated. The reaction solvent, alcohol/oil molar ratio, enzyme amount, reaction temperature, and water activity all affected the butanolysis process. Under the optimized conditions, the highest conversion of 96% could be attained in 24 h. These optimal conditions were further applied to CPL catalyzed butanolysis of other vegetable oils. All of them showed very high conversion. The CPL packed-bed reactor was further developed, and could be operated continuously for more than 150 h. All of these results showed that the low cost Carica papaya lipase can be used as a promising lipase for biodiesel production. PMID:24954104

Su, Erzheng; Wei, Dongzhi

2014-07-01

279

High-yield production of a low-temperature-active polygalacturonase for papaya juice clarification.  

PubMed

A novel endo-polygalacturonase (endo-PG I) from Achaetomium sp. Xz8 was identified, overexpressed in Pichia pastoris, and characterized in this report. Recombinant endo-PG I is distinguished from other enzyme counterparts by its high activity towards polygalacturonic acid (49,934 U/ml) and high yield in the 15-l fermentor (2.13 g/l). It exhibits optimal activity at 45 °C and remained active over a broad temperature range of 0-80 °C. Distinct from most fungal polygalacturonases that have acidic pH optima, endo-PG I is optimally active at pH 6, similar to the pH of fresh papaya juice (5.7). Endo-PG I alone reduced the viscosity of papaya juice by 17.6%, and increased its transmittance by 59.1%. When combined with a commercial pectin methylesterase, it showed much higher efficiency with a synergy degree of more than 1.25. All these favourable enzymatic properties make endo-PG I attractive for potential applications in the juice industry. PMID:23871048

Tu, Tao; Meng, Kun; Bai, Yingguo; Shi, Pengjun; Luo, Huiying; Wang, Yaru; Yang, Peilong; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhang, Wei; Yao, Bin

2013-12-01

280

Cancer chemopreventive effects of the flavonoid-rich fraction isolated from papaya seeds.  

PubMed

Intervention to decelerate, arrest, or reverse the process of carcinogenesis by the use of either natural or synthetic agents individually or in combination has emerged as a promising and pragmatic medical approach to reduce cancer risk. In the present study, we examined the cancer chemopreventive potential of a flavonoid-rich fraction isolated from the seeds of Carica papaya, a plant traditionally referred to as papaw. The flavonoid-enriched benzene fraction of the aqueous extract exerted its anticancer properties in vitro through cytoprotection, antioxidative and antiinflammatory mechanisms and genoprotection in response to isocyanate-induced carcinogenicity. Medium-term anticarcinogenicity and 2-stage skin papillomagenesis studies conducted in benzopyrene-induced lung carcinogenesis and 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene-mediated skin papillomagenesis mouse models further validated our in vitro observations. This is the first demonstration of chemopreventive activities of papaya seed products, however, further studies to understand the subtle targets of intracellular signaling pathways, pharmacological profile and toxicological safety of this bioactive fraction are essential to pave the way for successful clinical translation. Our study supports the inverse association between dietary flavonoid intake and cancer risk. PMID:24820939

Pathak, Neelam; Khan, Saba; Bhargava, Arpit; Raghuram, Gorantla V; Jain, Deepika; Panwar, Hariom; Samarth, Ravindra M; Jain, Subodh K; Maudar, Kewal K; Mishra, Dinesh K; Mishra, Pradyumna K

2014-01-01

281

Distant touch hydrodynamic imaging with an artificial lateral line  

PubMed Central

Nearly all underwater vehicles and surface ships today use sonar and vision for imaging and navigation. However, sonar and vision systems face various limitations, e.g., sonar blind zones, dark or murky environments, etc. Evolved over millions of years, fish use the lateral line, a distributed linear array of flow sensing organs, for underwater hydrodynamic imaging and information extraction. We demonstrate here a proof-of-concept artificial lateral line system. It enables a distant touch hydrodynamic imaging capability to critically augment sonar and vision systems. We show that the artificial lateral line can successfully perform dipole source localization and hydrodynamic wake detection. The development of the artificial lateral line is aimed at fundamentally enhancing human ability to detect, navigate, and survive in the underwater environment. PMID:17132735

Yang, Yingchen; Chen, Jack; Engel, Jonathan; Pandya, Saunvit; Chen, Nannan; Tucker, Craig; Coombs, Sheryl; Jones, Douglas L.; Liu, Chang

2006-01-01

282

Touching polymer chains by organic field-effect transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are used to directly ``touch'' the movement and dynamics of polymer chains, and then determine Tg. As a molecular-level probe, the conducting channel of OFETs exhibits several unique advantages: 1) it directly detects the motion and dynamics of polymer chain at Tg; 2) it allows the measurement of size effects in ultrathin polymer films (even down to 6 nm), which bridges the gap in understanding effects between surface and interface. This facile and reliable determination of Tg of polymer films and the understanding of polymer chain dynamics guide a new prospect for OFETs besides their applications in organic electronics and casting new light on the fundamental understanding of the nature of polymer chain dynamics.

Shao, Wei; Dong, Huanli; Wang, Zhigang; Hu, Wenping

2014-09-01

283

Grasping and fingering (active or haptic touch) in healthy newborns.  

PubMed

The traditional view that the activity of the baby's hands are triggered by a stimulus in an automatic, compulsory, stereotyped way and persisting view that fingering does not occur prior to 4 months of age, have led perception researchers to the assumption that the processing, encoding, and retainment of sensory information could not take place through the manual mode. This study aims to investigate whether fingering and different types of grasping occur before 3 months of age and can be modulated by surface texture of three objects. Using naturalistic observations, this small sample developmental study applied the AB experimental design to achieve aims above. Babies were video taped every week for 12 weeks. Three special manual stimuli were developed for this study. Focal sampling method with either zero-sampling or instantaneous sampling recording rules were used to analyse data with the Observer Video Pro. Each session comprising baseline and 3 experimental conditions lasted for four minutes. Fingering or 'proto fingering' as it is suggested in this article emerges as early as the first week of postnatal life; texture of a handled object modulates both 'proto-palm' and hand-grasp behaviour of healthy newborns. Results suggest that texture also modulates 'proto-fingering' and challenge persisting current assumption that fingering does not occur before four months of age, and further validates the phrase 'neo-haptic' touch to describe hands-on exploration of the newborn. The author suggests that some 'mental representation' of the stimulus is present during 'neo-haptic' recognition of the objects which is in accordance to a constructivist approach to (touch) perception. PMID:15735600

Adamson-Macedo, Elvidina Nabuco; Barnes, Christopher R

2004-12-01

284

Physical Factors Influencing Pleasant Touch during Tactile Exploration  

PubMed Central

Background When scanning surfaces, humans perceive some of their physical attributes. These percepts are frequently accompanied by a sensation of (un)pleasantness. We therefore hypothesized that aspects of the mechanical activity induced by scanning surfaces with fingertips could be objectively associated with a pleasantness sensation. Previously, we developed a unidimensional measure of pleasantness, the Pleasant Touch Scale, quantifying the pleasantness level of 37 different materials. Findings of this study suggested that the sensation of pleasantness was influenced by the average magnitude of the frictional forces brought about by sliding the finger on the surface, and by the surface topography. In the present study, we correlated (i) characteristics of the fluctuations of frictional forces resulting from the interaction between the finger and the surface asperities as well as (ii) the average friction with the sensation of pleasantness. Results Eight blindfolded participants tactually explored twelve materials of the Pleasant Touch Scale through lateral sliding movements of their index fingertip. During exploration, the normal and tangential interaction force components, fN and fT, as well as the fingertip trajectory were measured. The effect of the frictional force on pleasantness sensation was investigated through the analysis of the ratio fT to fN, i.e. the net coefficient of kinetic friction, ?. The influence of the surface topographies was investigated through analysis of rapid fT fluctuations in the spatial frequency domain. Results showed that high values of ? were anticorrelated with pleasantness. Furthermore, surfaces associated with fluctuations of fT having higher amplitudes in the low frequency range than in the high one were judged to be less pleasant than the surfaces yielding evenly distributed amplitudes throughout the whole spatial frequency domain. Conclusion Characteristics of the frictional force fluctuations and of the net friction taking place during scanning can reliably be correlated with the pleasantness sensation of surfaces. PMID:24244425

Klocker, Anne; Wiertlewski, Michael; Theate, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

2013-01-01

285

Integrated Modeling of Spacecraft Touch-and-Go Sampling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated modeling tool has been developed to include multi-body dynamics, orbital dynamics, and touch-and-go dynamics for spacecraft covering three types of end-effectors: a sticky pad, a brush-wheel sampler, and a pellet gun. Several multi-body models of a free-flying spacecraft with a multi-link manipulator driving these end-effectors have been tested with typical contact conditions arising when the manipulator arm is to sample the surface of an asteroidal body. The test data have been infused directly into the dynamics formulation including such information as the mass collected as a function of end-effector longitudinal speed for the brush-wheel and sticky-pad samplers, and the mass collected as a function of projectile speed for the pellet gun sampler. These data represent the realistic behavior of the end effector while in contact with a surface, and represent a low-order model of more complex contact conditions that otherwise would have to be simulated. Numerical results demonstrate the adequacy of these multibody models for spacecraft and manipulator- arm control design. The work contributes to the development of a touch-and-go testbed for small body exploration, denoted as the GREX Testbed (GN&C for Rendezvous-based EXploration). The GREX testbed addresses the key issues involved in landing on an asteroidal body or comet; namely, a complex, low-gravity field; partially known terrain properties; possible comet outgassing; dust ejection; and navigating to a safe and scientifically desirable zone.

Quadrelli, Marco

2009-01-01

286

HearTouch: Android Hearing Aid for Tactile Communication Mingduo Dun, Matthew Morea, Ron Ocampo  

E-print Network

HearTouch: Android Hearing Aid for Tactile Communication Mingduo Dun, Matthew Morea, Ron Ocampo University of California at Santa Barbara HearTouch: Android Hearing Aid for Tactile Communication Mingduo to the end device, we have developed an Android application that converts incoming speech to Morse code

Liebling, Michael

287

When Right Feels Left: Referral of Touch and Ownership between the Hands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeling touch on a body part is paradigmatically considered to require stimulation of tactile afferents from the body part in question, at least in healthy non-synaesthetic individuals. In contrast to this view, we report a perceptual illusion where people experience “phantom touches” on a right rubber hand when they see it brushed simultaneously with brushes applied to their left hand.

Valeria I. Petkova; H. Henrik Ehrsson; Paul L. Gribble

2009-01-01

288

When Right Feels Left: Referral of Touch and Ownership between the Hands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeling touch on a body part is paradigmatically considered to require stimulation of tactile afferents from the body part in question, at least in healthy non-synaesthetic individuals. In contrast to this view, we report a perceptual illusion where people experience ''phantom touches'' on a right rubber hand when they see it brushed simultaneously with brushes applied to their left hand.

Valeria I. Petkova; H. Henrik Ehrsson

2009-01-01

289

Access Overlays: Improving Non-Visual Access to Large Touch Screens for Blind Users  

E-print Network

screen map. Despite this significant problem, touch screens are increasingly found in consumer to feelings of embarrassment [17]. Blind consumers have responded to the spread of inaccessible technologies through press events [7], and have organized lawsuits and boycotts [23]. Furthermore, inaccessible touch

Narasayya, Vivek

290

Multi-touch Display System for AR Card Game Sang Heon Han1  

E-print Network

interface by applying the multi-touch screen system which can input the pattern of the various forms) display. Figure 1. System Flow Firstly, we present FTIR[1] based on the multi-touch screen that is made reflection within an interactive surface. After the light of the infrared LED causes a reflection

Romano, Daniela

291

EFFECTIVE ENCODING/DECODING OF SPIKING SIGNALS FROM AN ARTIFICIAL TOUCH SENSOR  

E-print Network

EFFECTIVE ENCODING/DECODING OF SPIKING SIGNALS FROM AN ARTIFICIAL TOUCH SENSOR Luca Leonardo touch sensor is presented. Following a neuromimetic approach, we encode the signals from a 24-capacitive sensor fingertip into spik- ing activity through a network of leaky integrate-and- fire neurons

Arleo, Angelo

292

Impact of healing touch with healing harp on inpatient acute care pain: a retrospective analysis.  

PubMed

This study examined the concomitant use of 2 complementary and alternative medicine modalities, Healing Harp and Healing Touch, to reduce pain, anxiety, and nausea in the postoperative patient population. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of using concomitant Healing Touch and Healing Harp to significantly reduce moderate to severe pain and anxiety in this patient population. Further research is warranted. PMID:24722611

Lincoln, Valerie; Nowak, Emily Witrak; Schommer, Barb; Briggs, Tami; Fehrer, Amy; Wax, Gary

2014-01-01

293

Dyadic Power Theory, Touch, and Counseling Psychology: A Response to Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards (2011)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards' (2011) recent article tested dyadic power theory (DPT) by examining the use of touch as a compliance-gaining tactic in the conflicts of married couples. In this response, we raise a methodological issue about the touch behaviors examined by Smith et al. and also pose a theoretical critique that their test of DPT…

Dunbar, Norah E.; Abra, Gordon

2012-01-01

294

Illinois Institute of Technology/TouchNet Payment Plan User Guide  

E-print Network

are posted to your account. You are responsible for your payment plan balance until financial aid postIllinois Institute of Technology/TouchNet Payment Plan User Guide Page 1 Students desiring to enroll in IIT's convenient payment plan can follow the step below utilizing TouchNet's Bill & Payment

Heller, Barbara

295

An overview of Therapeutic Touch and its application to patients with Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therapeutic Touch, a modern application of the ancient technique of “Laying on of Hands, “ has proven to be a successful adjunct to current medical treatments, ranging from post-operative pain control and tension headaches2 to anxiety reduction in hospitalized cardiovascular patients.3 While Therapeutic Touch has gained acceptance and has been integrated into many major medical centers, it has not been

Randy L. Griffin; Evelyn Vitro

1998-01-01

296

Haptics of the heart: The sense of touch in American religion and culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay undertakes a tactile exploration of the sense of touch in contemporary American culture and religion. After briefly recalling the denigration of tactility in Western thought, I consider the usefulness of the work of two theorists, Emmanuel Levinas and Walter Benjamin, in recovering the sense of touch—the intimate caress, the violent shock—as deep background for tracking basic modes of

David Chidester

2000-01-01

297

When to wash your hands: Touching your hand to your mouth including  

E-print Network

When to wash your hands: Before: · Touching your hand to your mouth including: o Eating, · Changing diapers, · Touching high-hand contact surfaces, such as: o Door knobs, o Elevator buttons, o hands: 1. Wet your hands with warm water. 2. Apply a generous amount of soap. 3. Rub hands together

298

Research Paper Segmentation of touching insects based on optical flow and  

E-print Network

Research Paper Segmentation of touching insects based on optical flow and NCuts Qing Yao a in paddy fields. This paper focuses on developing a segmentation method for separating the touching insects in the rice light-trap insect image from our imaging system to automatically identify and count rice pests

299

Do Gestural Interfaces Promote Thinking? Embodied Interaction: Congruent Gestures and Direct Touch Promote Performance in Math  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Can action support cognition? Can direct touch support performance? Embodied interaction involving digital devices is based on the theory of grounded cognition. Embodied interaction with gestural interfaces involves more of our senses than traditional (mouse-based) interfaces, and in particular includes direct touch and physical movement, which…

Segal, Ayelet

2011-01-01

300

Promoting caring-healing relationships: bringing healing touch to the bedside in a multihospital health system.  

PubMed

New legislative mandates, evaluation metrics, and patient demand have led acute care organizations to expand their patient-centered care model to include the use of complementary therapies. One multihospital health system is offering Healing Touch training to nurses who will provide Healing Touch to self, colleagues, and patients, promoting a caring-healing consciousness. PMID:25314110

Swengros, Diane; Herbst, Anna M; Friesen, Mary Ann; Mangione, Lucrezia; Anderson, Joel G

2014-01-01

301

What Can We Say about 112,000 Taps on a Ndjebbana Touch Screen?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a remote Aboriginal Australian (Kunibidji) community, three touch-screen computers containing 96 Ndjebbana-language talking books were made available to children in informal settings. The computers' popularity is explained by the touch screens' form and the talking books' intertextual and hybrid nature. The Kunibidji are transforming their…

Auld, Glenn

2002-01-01

302

19 CFR 4.82 - Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade.  

...Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. 4.82 Section 4.82 Customs Duties...TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Coastwise Procedure § 4.82 Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. (a) A United States...

2014-04-01

303

19 CFR 4.82 - Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. 4.82 Section 4.82 Customs Duties...TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Coastwise Procedure § 4.82 Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. (a) A United States...

2012-04-01

304

19 CFR 4.82 - Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. 4.82 Section 4.82 Customs Duties...TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Coastwise Procedure § 4.82 Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. (a) A United States...

2010-04-01

305

19 CFR 4.82 - Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. 4.82 Section 4.82 Customs Duties...TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Coastwise Procedure § 4.82 Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. (a) A United States...

2011-04-01

306

Multi-Touch Surfaces: A Technical Guide Technical Report TUM-I0833  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-touch interaction with computationally enhanced sur- faces has received considerable recent attention. Approaches to the implementation of multi-touch interaction such as Frustrated Total Internal Reection (FTIR) and Diused Illumination (DI) have allowed for the low cost development of such surfaces, leading to a number of technology and ap- plication innovations. Although many of these techniques have been presented in an

Johannes Schöning; Peter Brandl; Florian Daiber; Florian Echtler; Otmar Hilliges; Jonathan Hook; Markus Löchtefeld; Nima Motamedi; Laurence Muller; Patrick Olivier; Tim Roth; Ulrich von Zadow

307

Laterality of foetal self-touch in relation to maternal stress.  

PubMed

This longitudinal observational study investigated whether foetuses change their hand preference with gestational age, and also examined the effects of maternal stress on lateralized foetal self-touch. Following ethical approval, fifteen healthy foetuses (eight girls and seven boys) were scanned four times from 24 to 36 weeks gestation. Self-touch behaviours which resulted in a touch of the foetal face/head were coded in 60 scans for 10 min and analysed in terms of frequency of the foetuses using left and right hands to touch their face. The joint effects of foetal age, stress and sex on laterality were assessed. We modelled the proportion of right self-touches for each foetal scan using a generalized linear mixed model, taking account of the repeated measures design. There was substantial variability in hand preference between foetuses. However, there was no significant increase in the proportion of right-handed touches with foetal age. No sex differences in handedness were identified. However, maternally reported stress level was significantly positively related to foetal left-handed self-touches (odds ratio 0.915; p < .0001). This longitudinal study provides important new insights into the effect of recent maternal stress on foetal predominant hand use during self-touch. PMID:24889397

Reissland, Nadja; Aydin, Ezra; Francis, Brian; Exley, Kendra

2015-01-01

308

Helpful Tips for Chemigation of Papaya1 Kati L White, Teresa Olczyk, Jonathan Crane, Rafael Muoz-Carpena, Tina Dispenza, and Harry  

E-print Network

ABE 360 Helpful Tips for Chemigation of Papaya1 Kati L White, Teresa Olczyk, Jonathan Crane, Rafael/Vegetables, Miami-Dade County Extension, Homestead, FL; Jonathan Crane is Professor, TREC, Homestead, FL; Rafael

Migliaccio, Kati White

309

Modulation of C. elegans Touch Sensitivity Is Integrated at Multiple Levels  

PubMed Central

Sensory systems can adapt to different environmental signals. Here we identify four conditions that modulate anterior touch sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans after several hours and demonstrate that such sensory modulation is integrated at multiple levels to produce a single output. Prolonged vibration involving integrin signaling directly sensitizes the touch receptor neurons (TRNs). In contrast, hypoxia, the dauer state, and high salt reduce touch sensitivity by preventing the release of long-range neuroregulators, including two insulin-like proteins. Integration of these latter inputs occurs at upstream neurohormonal cells and at the insulin signaling cascade within the TRNs. These signals and those from integrin signaling converge to modulate touch sensitivity by regulating AKT kinases and DAF-16/FOXO. Thus, activation of either the integrin or insulin pathways can compensate for defects in the other pathway. This modulatory system integrates conflicting signals from different modalities, and adapts touch sensitivity to both mechanical and non-mechanical conditions. PMID:24806678

Chen, Xiaoyin

2014-01-01

310

Touching points in the energy band structure of bilayer graphene superlattices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy band structure of the bilayer graphene superlattices with zero-averaged periodic δ-function potentials are studied within the four-band continuum model. Using the transfer matrix method, the study is mainly focused on examining the touching points between adjacent minibands. For the zero-energy touching points the dispersion relation derived shows a Dirac-like double-cone shape with the group velocity which is periodic in the potential strength P with the period of π and becomes anisotropic at relatively large P. From the finite-energy touching points we have identified those located at zero wave-number. It was shown that for these finite-energy touching points the dispersion is direction-dependent in the sense that it is linear or parabolic in the direction parallel or perpendicular to the superlattice direction, respectively. We have also calculated the density of states and the conductivity which demonstrates a manifestation of the touching points examined.

Pham, C. Huy; Nguyen, V. Lien

2014-10-01

311

Development of high-performance low-reflection rugged resistive touch screens for military displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Just as iPhones with sophisticated touch interfaces have revolutionised the human interface for the ubiquitous cell phone, the Military is rapidly adopting touch-screens as a primary interface to their computers and vehicle systems. This paper describes the development of a true military touch interface solution from an existing industrial design. We will report on successful development of 10.4" and 15.4" high performance rugged resistive touch panels using IAD sputter coating. Low reflectance (specular < 1% and diffuse < 0.07%) was achieved with high impact, dust, and chemical resistant surface finishes. These touch panels were qualified over a wide operational temperature range, -51°C to +80°C specifically for military and rugged industrial applications.

Wang, Raymond; Wang, Minshine; Thomas, John; Wang, Lawrence; Chang, Victor

2010-04-01

312

Cloning of the papaya chromoplast-specific lycopene beta-cyclase, CpCYC-b, controlling fruit flesh color reveals conserved microsynteny and a recombination hot spot.  

PubMed

Carotenoid pigments in fruits are indicative of the ripening process and potential nutritional value. Papaya (Carica papaya) fruit flesh color is caused by the accumulation of lycopene or beta-carotenoids in chromoplasts. It is a distinct feature affecting nutritional composition, fruit quality, shelf life, and consumer preference. To uncover the molecular basis of papaya flesh color, we took map-based cloning and candidate gene approaches using integrated genetic and physical maps. A DNA marker tightly linked to flesh color colocalized on a contig of the physical map with a cDNA probe of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) chromoplast-specific lycopene beta-cyclase, CYC-b. Candidate gene sequences were obtained from amplified fragments and verified by sequencing two bacterial artificial chromosomes containing the two alleles. Sequence comparison revealed a 2-bp insertion in the coding region of the recessive red flesh allele resulting in a frame-shift mutation and a premature stop codon. A color complementation test in bacteria confirmed that the papaya CpCYC-b is the gene controlling fruit flesh color. Sequence analysis of wild and cultivated papaya accessions showed the presence of this frame-shift mutation in all red flesh accessions examined. Evaluation of DNA markers near CpCYC-b revealed a recombination hot spot, showing that CpCYC-b is located in a gene-rich region with a recombination rate at 3.7 kb per centimorgan, more than 100-fold higher than the genome average at 400 kb per centimorgan. Conserved microsynteny of the CpCYC-b region is indicated by colinearity of two to four genes between papaya, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), grape (Vitis vinifera), and tomato. Our results enhanced our understanding of papaya flesh color inheritance and generated new tools for papaya improvement. PMID:20181753

Blas, Andrea L; Ming, Ray; Liu, Zhiyong; Veatch, Olivia J; Paull, Robert E; Moore, Paul H; Yu, Qingyi

2010-04-01

313

Drosophila NOMPC is a mechanotransduction channel subunit for gentle-touch sensation  

PubMed Central

Touch sensation is essential for behaviours ranging from environmental exploration to social interaction; however, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown1. In Drosophila larvae, two types of sensory neurons, class III and class IV dendritic arborization neurons, tile the body wall. The mechanotransduction channel PIEZO in class IV neurons is essential for sensing noxious mechanical stimuli but is not involved in gentle touch2. On the basis of electrophysiological-recording, calcium-imaging and behavioural studies, here we report that class III dendritic arborization neurons are touch sensitive and contribute to gentle-touch sensation. We further identify NOMPC (No mechanoreceptor potential C), a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ion channels, as a mechanotransduction channel for gentle touch. NOMPC is highly expressed in class III neurons and is required for their mechanotransduction. Moreover, ectopic NOMPC expression confers touch sensitivity to the normally touch-insensitive class IV neurons. In addition to the critical role of NOMPC in eliciting gentle-touch-mediated behavioural responses, expression of this protein in the Drosophila S2 cell line also gives rise to mechanosensitive channels in which ion selectivity can be altered by NOMPC mutation, indicating that NOMPC is a pore-forming subunit of a mechanotransduction channel. Our study establishes NOMPC as a bona fide mechanotransduction channel that satisfies all four criteria proposed for a channel to qualify as a transducer of mechanical stimuli3 and mediates gentle-touch sensation. Our study also suggests that different mechanosensitive channels may be used to sense gentle touch versus noxious mechanical stimuli. PMID:23222543

Yan, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; He, Ye; Gorczyca, David; Xiang, Yang; Cheng, Li E.; Meltzer, Shan; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

2014-01-01

314

Dendritic Filopodia, Ripped Pocket, NOMPC, and NMDARs Contribute to the Sense of Touch in Drosophila larvae  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Among the Aristotelian senses, the subcellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the sense of touch are the most poorly understood. Results We demonstrate that specialized sensory neurons, the class II and class III multidendritic (md) neurons, are gentle touch sensors of Drosophila larvae. Genetic silencing of these cells significantly impairs gentle touch responses, optogenetic activation of these cells triggers behavioral touch-like responses, and optical recordings from these neurons show that they respond to force. The class III neurons possess highly dynamic dendritic protrusions rich in F-actin. Genetic manipulations that alter actin dynamics indicate that the actin-rich protrusions (termed sensory filopodia) on the class III neurons are required for behavioral sensitivity to gentle touch. Through a genome-wide RNAi screen of ion channels, we identified Ripped Pocket (rpk), No Mechanoreceptor Potential C (nompC), and NMDA Receptors 1 and 2 (Nmdars) as playing critical roles in both behavioral responses to touch and in the formation of the actin-rich sensory filopodia. Consistent with this requirement, reporters for rpk and nompC show expression in the class III neurons. A genetic null allele of rpk confirms its critical role in touch responses. Conclusions Output from class II and III md neurons of the Drosophila larvae is necessary and sufficient for eliciting behavioral touch responses. These cells show physiological responses to force. Actin-rich organelles in the Class III neurons are required for gentle touch detection. Ion channels in several force-sensing gene families are required in these cells, both for behavioral sensitivity to touch, and for the formation of the actin-rich sensory filopodia. PMID:23103192

Tsubouchi, Asako; Caldwell, Jason C.; Tracey, W. Daniel

2012-01-01

315

An architecture for sensate robots : real time social-gesture recognition using a full body array of touch sensors  

E-print Network

Touch plays a central role in social expression but, so far, research into social touch behaviors for robots has been almost. non-existent. Embodied machines have the unique capability to sense human body language, which ...

Knight, Heather-Marie Callanan

2008-01-01

316

http://www.tutis.ca/NeuroMD/index.htm 26 March 2013 Touch, Pain, Taste and Smell  

E-print Network

0 http://www.tutis.ca/NeuroMD/index.htm 26 March 2013 Chapter 9 Touch, Pain, Taste and Smell #12................................................................................................................................ 0 Touch, Pain, Taste and Smell................................................................................................................................. 12 Smell

Vilis, Tutis

317

Effect of Yakson and Gentle Human Touch versus usual care on urine stress hormones and behaviors in preterm infants: A quasi-experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTouching, one of the most developed senses, is proven to relax preterm infants. Yakson is a Korean touching method for healing and relaxation similar to Gentle Human Touch (GHT), which is used in the United States.

Hyesang Im; Eunjung Kim

2009-01-01

318

Touch sensors based on planar liquid crystal-gated-organic field-effect transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a tactile touch sensor based on a planar liquid crystal-gated-organic field-effect transistor (LC-g-OFET) structure. The LC-g-OFET touch sensors were fabricated by forming the 10 ?m thick LC layer (4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl - 5CB) on top of the 50 nm thick channel layer (poly(3-hexylthiophene) - P3HT) that is coated on the in-plane aligned drain/source/gate electrodes (indium-tin oxide - ITO). As an external physical stimulation to examine the tactile touch performance, a weak nitrogen flow (83.3 ?l/s) was employed to stimulate the LC layer of the touch device. The LC-g-OFET device exhibited p-type transistor characteristics with a hole mobility of 1.5 cm2/Vs, but no sensing current by the nitrogen flow touch was measured at sufficiently high drain (VD) and gate (VG) voltages. However, a clear sensing current signal was detected at lower voltages, which was quite sensitive to the combination of VD and VG. The best voltage combination was VD = -0.2 V and VG = -1 V for the highest ratio of signal currents to base currents (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio). The change in the LC alignment upon the nitrogen flow touch was assigned as the mechanism for the present LC-g-OFET touch sensors.

Seo, Jooyeok; Lee, Chulyeon; Han, Hyemi; Lee, Sooyong; Nam, Sungho; Kim, Hwajeong; Lee, Joon-Hyung; Park, Soo-Young; Kang, Inn-Kyu; Kim, Youngkyoo

2014-09-01

319

Cell free DNA as a component of forensic evidence recovered from touched surfaces.  

PubMed

In the course of a criminal investigation, DNA is often recovered from items that have been handled by an individual. Whilst there have been studies investigating the propensity of different individuals to deposit DNA, little is known about the factors involved in the transference of DNA through touch. This investigation seeks to clarify some of the underlying processes involved in DNA transfer, as to better understand the significance of so-called "touch DNA" evidence (tDNA). It was shown that an average yield of 11.5 ng of DNA could be recovered from 1 mL cell-free sweat samples leading to the hypothesis that cell-free nucleic acids (CNAs) of a suitable length for standard DNA profiling are transferred during handling/touching items. A method of standardization of tDNA deposition was developed to overcome the significant sample to sample variability in DNA levels characteristic of tDNA samples. The glass bead method allowed the creation of identical tDNA sample sets, thus permitting direct comparisons to be made in the efficiency of various extraction methods. Extraction methods designed to optimize CNA recovery from touched articles resulted in comparable yields in a general population study, however the methods resulted in a twofold increase in DNA yields from touched items touched by individuals with sweaty hands. These results suggest that the CNA component of touched surfaces should be included to maximize profiling success of tDNA. PMID:21292581

Quinones, Ignacio; Daniel, Barbara

2012-01-01

320

Genetically similar transduction mechanisms for touch and hearing in Drosophila.  

PubMed

To test the effects of mechanosensory mutations on hearing in Drosophila, we have recorded sound-evoked potentials originating from ciliated sensory neurons in Johnston's organ, the chordotonal organ that is the sensory element of the fly's antennal ear. Electrodes inserted close to the antennal nerve were used to record extracellular compound potentials evoked by near-field sound stimuli. Sound-evoked potentials are absent in atonal mutant flies, which lack Johnston's organ. Mutations in many genes involved in mechanotransduction by tactile bristles also eliminate or reduce the Johnston's organ response, indicating that related transduction mechanisms operate in each type of mechanosensory organ. In addition, the sound-evoked response is affected by two mutations that do not affect bristle mechanotransduction, beethoven (btv) and touch-insensitive-larvaB (tilB). btv shows defects in the ciliary dilation, an elaboration of the axoneme that is characteristic of chordotonal cilia. tilB, which also causes male sterility, shows structural defects in sperm flagellar axonemes. This suggests that in addition to the shared transduction mechanism, axonemal integrity and possibly ciliary motility are required for signal amplification or transduction by chordotonal sensory neurons. PMID:10934246

Eberl, D F; Hardy, R W; Kernan, M J

2000-08-15

321

Haptic augmentation of science instruction: Does touch matter?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the impact of haptic augmentation of a science inquiry program on students' learning about viruses and nanoscale science. The study assessed how the addition of different types of haptic feedback (active touch and kinesthetic feedback) combined with computer visualizations influenced middle and high school students' experiences. The influences of a PHANToM (a sophisticated haptic desktop device), a Sidewinder (a haptic gaming joystick), and a mouse (no haptic feedback) interface were compared. The levels of engagement in the instruction and students' attitudes about the instructional program were assessed using a combination of constructed response and Likert scale items. Potential cognitive differences were examined through an analysis of spontaneously generated analogies that appeared during student discourse. Results showed that the addition of haptic feedback from the haptic-gaming joystick and the PHANToM provided a more immersive learning environment that not only made the instruction more engaging but may also influence the way in which the students construct their understandings about abstract science concepts.

Jones, M. Gail; Minogue, James; Tretter, Thomas R.; Negishi, Atsuko; Taylor, Russell

2006-01-01

322

Touch Influences Visual Perception with a Tight Orientation-Tuning  

PubMed Central

Stimuli from different sensory modalities are thought to be processed initially in distinct unisensory brain areas prior to convergence in multisensory areas. However, signals in one modality can influence the processing of signals from other modalities and recent studies suggest this cross-modal influence may occur early on, even in ‘unisensory’ areas. Some recent psychophysical studies have shown specific cross-modal effects between touch and vision during binocular rivalry, but these cannot completely rule out a response bias. To test for genuine cross-modal integration of haptic and visual signals, we investigated whether congruent haptic input could influence visual contrast sensitivity compared to incongruent haptic input in three psychophysical experiments using a two-interval, two-alternative forced-choice method to eliminate response bias. The initial experiment demonstrated that contrast thresholds for a visual grating were lower when exploring a haptic grating that shared the same orientation compared to an orthogonal orientation. Two subsequent experiments mapped the orientation and spatial frequency tunings for the congruent haptic facilitation of vision, finding a clear orientation tuning effect but not a spatial frequency tuning. In addition to an increased contrast sensitivity for iso-oriented visual-haptic gratings, we found a significant loss of sensitivity for orthogonally oriented visual-haptic gratings. We conclude that the tactile influence on vision is a result of a tactile input to orientation-tuned visual areas. PMID:24244523

van der Groen, Onno; van der Burg, Erik; Lunghi, Claudia; Alais, David

2013-01-01

323

An interactive editor for definition of touch-sensitive zones for a graphic display  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the continuing effort to develop more efficient man-machine communications methods, touch displays have shown potential as straightforward input systems. The development of software necessary to handle such systems, however, can become tedious. In order to reduce the need for redundant programming, a touch editor has been developed which allows a programmer to interactively define touch-sensitive areas for a graphic display. The information produced during the editing process is written to a data file, which can be accessed easily when needed by an application program. This paper outlines the structure, logic, and use of the editor, as well as the hardware with which it is presently compatible.

Monroe, Burt L., III; Jones, Denise R.

1987-01-01

324

Putting Your Data and Media on the iPod Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, you explored the options you have for syncing your media and data with your iPod touch. You discovered where\\u000a to get your media and how to make sure your iPod touch\\/iTunes sync preferences stick. To wind things up, here is a quick overview\\u000a of some key points from this chapter:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a  \\u000a \\u000a The way your iPod touch connects

Michael Grothaus; Erica Sadun

325

Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. III. Tropical fruits: bananas, mangoes, and papayas  

SciTech Connect

The current status of research on the use of ionizing radiation for shelf life improvement and disinfestation of fresh tropical fruits like bananas, mangoes, and papayas are reviewed. The aspects covered are influence of maturity and physiological state of the fruits on delayed ripening and tolerance to radiation; varietal responses; changes in chemical constituents, volatiles, respiration, and ethylene evolution; biochemical mechanisms of delayed ripening and browning of irradiated fruits; and organoleptic quality. The efficacy of the combination of hot water dip and radiation treatments for control of postharvest fungal diseases are considered. The immediate potential of radiation as a quarantine treatment, in place of the currently used chemical fumigants, for disinfestation of fruit flies and mango seed weevil are discussed. Future prospects for irradiation of tropical fruits are discussed in the light of experience gained from studies conducted in different countries.146 references.

Thomas, P.

1986-01-01

326

Tocolytic and toxic activity of papaya seed extract on isolated rat uterus.  

PubMed

Carica papaya L. seeds extracted with 80% ethanol (EEPS) caused concentration-dependent tocolysis of uterine strips isolated from gravid and non-gravid rats. Prostaglandin F2alpha and oxytocin-induced contractions of the isolated rat uterus were also inhibited in a concentration-dependent fashion by EEPS. Recoveries of the uterine activity after EEPS-induced uterine quiescence were very weak. Higher concentration of EEPS caused prompt uterine quiescence, which was also significantly irreversible. Pre-incubation of the rat uterus in Ringer Locke solution containing 10 mg/ml of EEPS for 1 hour prior to suspension in tissue baths led to significant depression of the spontaneous and KCl (60 mM)-induced uterine contractions relative to the solvent control (P<0.05). Cross sections of EEPS-pretreated non-gravid rat uterus (stained with hematoxyline and eosin) examined under light microscope revealed degeneration of the endometrium and myometrium with obvious cytoplasmic vacuolation indicating that EEPS could have direct toxic effect on the uterine tissues. Previous workers have reported benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) as the main bioactive and anthelmintic compound in different extracts of papaya seeds. Using electron impact ionization methods, the presence of BITC in EEPS was also shown in this study. Mass spectra of both EEPS and standard BITC showed a base peak of benzyl/tropylium ion at m/z 91 (indicative of an aromatic compound) and the molecular ion peak of BITC (m/z 149). Our earlier studies have demonstrated BITC-induced functional and morphological derangement of isolated uterus. We thus conclude that at high concentration, EEPS is capable of causing irreversible uterine tocolysis probably due to the damaging effect of BITC (its chief phytochemical) on the myometrium. PMID:14623029

Adebiyi, Adebowale; Ganesan Adaikan, P; Prasad, R N V

2003-12-19

327

Binary Combination of Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans with Piperonyl Butoxide / MGK-264 against Freshwater Snail Lymnaea acuminata.  

PubMed

Piperonyl butoxide (PB) and MGK-264 were used to enhance the toxicity of the active components papain, arecoline and myristicin from the plants Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans, respectively, against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. A time- and dose-dependent relationship was observed for the toxicity of these combinations. The toxic effects of these plant-derived molluscicides in combination with the synergists PB and MGK-264 were several times higher than the effect of the individual treatments. The highest degree of synergism was observed when MGK-264 was used in combination with C. papaya latex (10.47-fold increase) and PB was used with papain (8.35-fold increase). PMID:24575245

Hanif, Farhat; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

2013-12-01

328

Binary Combination of Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans with Piperonyl Butoxide / MGK-264 against Freshwater Snail Lymnaea acuminata  

PubMed Central

Piperonyl butoxide (PB) and MGK-264 were used to enhance the toxicity of the active components papain, arecoline and myristicin from the plants Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans, respectively, against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. A time- and dose-dependent relationship was observed for the toxicity of these combinations. The toxic effects of these plant-derived molluscicides in combination with the synergists PB and MGK-264 were several times higher than the effect of the individual treatments. The highest degree of synergism was observed when MGK-264 was used in combination with C. papaya latex (10.47-fold increase) and PB was used with papain (8.35-fold increase). PMID:24575245

Hanif, Farhat; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

2013-01-01

329

Touch as an interpersonal emotion regulation process in couples' daily lives: the mediating role of psychological intimacy.  

PubMed

Interpersonal touch seems to promote physical health through its effects on stress-sensitive parameters. However, less is known about the psychological effects of touch. The present study investigates associations between touch and romantic partners' affective state in daily life. We hypothesized that this association is established by promoting the recipient's experience of intimacy. Both partners of 102 dating couples completed an electronic diary 4 times a day during 1 week. Multilevel analyses revealed that touch was associated with enhanced affect in the partner. This association was mediated by the partner's psychological intimacy. Touch was also associated with intimacy and positive affect in the actor. Finally, participants who were touched more often during the diary study week reported better psychological well-being 6 months later. This study provides evidence that intimate partners benefit from touch on a psychological level, conveying a sense of strengthened bonds between them that enhances affect and well-being. PMID:23885034

Debrot, Anik; Schoebi, Dominik; Perrez, Meinrad; Horn, Andrea B

2013-10-01

330

Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A Gene-Carrying Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Foods and Its Control by Crude Alkaloid from Papaya Leaves.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus is a known pathogen causing intoxication by producing enterotoxins in food. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A is one of the enterotoxins commonly implicated in staphylococcal food poisoning. The ability of crude alkaloid extract from papaya leaves to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxin A synthesis was investigated. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying S. aureus was isolated from raw milk and ready-to-eat foods. Crude alkaloid was extracted from ground, dried papaya leaves using ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and a MIC of the alkaloid was determined by the broth macrodilution method. Furthermore, S. aureus isolate was exposed to the crude alkaloid extract at one- and twofold MIC, and the expression of sea was subsequently analyzed using a quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR. Ten isolates of S. aureus were obtained, and nine of those isolates were sea carriers. The yield of crude alkaloid extract was 0.48 to 1.82% per dry weight of papaya leaves. A MIC of crude alkaloid to S. aureus was 0.25 mg/ml. After exposure to the alkaloid at 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ml for 2 h, a significant increase in cycle threshold values of sea was observed. The sea was expressed 29 and 41 times less when S. aureus was exposed to crude alkaloid at one- and twofold MIC, respectively. This study revealed that crude alkaloid of papaya leaves could control staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying S. aureus by suppressing the expression of sea, in addition to the ability to inhibit the growth of S. aureus. The expression of sea was successfully quantified. PMID:25364936

Handayani, Lita; Faridah, Didah Nur; Kusumaningrum, Harsi D

2014-11-01

331

Actress Debra Winger: “Everyone Is Touched By Addiction.” | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Preventing Drug Abuse and Addiction Actress Debra Winger: “Everyone Is Touched ... Nora Volkow, Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), discuss the actress’s participation in the NIDA- ...

332

On Creating a Native Real-Time-Strategy Game User Interface for Multi-Touch Devices  

E-print Network

|sorzech|wwong3}@ucsc.edu, {fire}@soe.ucsc.edu ABSTRACT Historically, real-time strategy video games, such as Star, interaction, video games, touch-screen, iPad 1. INTRODUCTION On many mobile platforms, multiple compelling

California at Santa Cruz, University of

333

Support for both touch sensing and fingerprint scan with in-cell capacitive LCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for touch based authentication is growing rapidly in smartphones and tablets. Historically, fingerprint has served at its fullest capacity in establishing the uniqueness of an individual's identity. In this paper we present a novel design of capacitive in-cell TFT-LCDs that supports both fingerprint scan and touch sensing by extending the in-cell capacitive sensing scheme. We discuss a novel readout circuit design that drives the capacitive sensors for touch interactions in low resolution and for fingerprint scan at higher resolution. Furthermore, we propose to enhance the low resolution fingerprint data with image super resolution. Evaluation results show that with super resolution, the proposed touch-fingerprint in-cell TFT-LCD design can support fingerprint verification with sensor pitch of 0.15mm.

Koundinya, Pranav; Zhao, Xi; Feng, Tao; Shi, Weidong

2014-05-01

334

The touch dome defines an epidermal niche specialized for mechanosensory signaling  

PubMed Central

Summary In mammalian skin, Merkel cells are mechanoreceptor cells that are required for the perception of gentle touch. Recent evidence indicates that mature Merkel cells descend from the proliferative layer of skin epidermis; however, the stem cell niche for Merkel cell homeostasis has not been reported. Here, we provide the first genetic evidence for maintenance of mature Merkel cells during homeostasis by Krt17+ stem cells located in epidermal touch domes of hairy skin and in the tips of the rete ridges of glabrous skin. Lineage tracing analysis indicated that the entire pool of mature Merkel cells is turned over every 7–8 weeks in adult epidermis and that Krt17+ stem cells also maintain squamous differentiation in the touch dome and in glabrous skin. Finally, selective genetic ablation of Krt17+ touch dome keratinocytes indicates that these cells, and not mature Merkel cells, are primarily responsible for maintaining innervation of the Merkel cell-neurite complex. PMID:23727240

Doucet, Yanne S.; Woo, Seung-Hyun; Ruiz, Marlon E.; Owens, David M.

2013-01-01

335

For Immediate Release --Tuesday, April 22, 2014 Touch therapy helps brains recover following stroke,  

E-print Network

For Immediate Release -- Tuesday, April 22, 2014 Touch therapy helps therapies for strokes is an area that has been very unsuccessful an object. At a physiological level, these animals' brain tissues showed a negative

Seldin, Jonathan P.

336

Touchplates: Low-Cost Tactile Overlays for Visually Impaired Touch Screen Users  

E-print Network

be customized to suit individual users and applications, and may be produced on a laser cutter, 3D printer-cost, adaptable, and accessible method of adding tactile feedback to touch screen interfaces. Categories

Wobbrock, Jacob O.

337

Touchplates: Low-Cost Tactile Overlays for Visually Impaired Touch Screen Users  

E-print Network

individual users and applications, and may be produced on a laser cutter, 3D printer, or made by hand. We, and accessible method of adding tactile feedback to touch screen interfaces. Categories and Subject Descriptors H

Kane, Shaun K.

338

Design and analysis of fingernail sensors for measurement of fingertip touch fouce and finger posture  

E-print Network

A new type of wearable sensor for detecting fingertip touch force and finger posture is presented. Unlike traditional electronic gloves, in which sensors are embedded along the finger and on the fingerpads, this new device ...

Mascaro, Stephen A. (Stephen Austin)

2002-01-01

339

Scratching with all your fingers : exploring multi-touch programming in Scratch  

E-print Network

Since the introduction of the iPhone in 2007, many millions of people have used a multi-touch interface; but, due to the inaccessibility of most tablet software development kits, very few of these people have ever developed ...

Graves, Christopher Marten-Ellis

2014-01-01

340

When machines touch back : simulating-- and stimulating-- the most intimate of senses  

E-print Network

Thomas Massie invented the Phantom, a computer peripheral for simulating the sense of touch, that became the de facto device for haptics research. The thesis recounts the story of Massie, his invention, and present and ...

Bullis, Kevin (Kevin James)

2005-01-01

341

"Infusion Management in Paediatric Patients": a New Course in Touch with Paediatric Life Support Courses  

E-print Network

"Infusion Management in Paediatric Patients": a New Course in Touch with Paediatric Life Support Courses JACK,Thomas; WERMTER, Burkhard; L UIGS, Petra; BOEHNE, Martin; GEISLER, Ina; HEMPRICH School Hannover - Paediatric Cardiology & Intensive Care 1.Introduction: infusion management become more

Manstein, Dietmar J.

342

Smooth Contact Capacitive Pressure Sensors in Touch and Peeling-Mode Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capacitive (C) pressure sensors typically sense quadratic changes in C as a pressure difference (P) deflects a flexible conducting diaphragm near a rigid ground plane. Touch-mode capacitive pressure (C-P) sensors, where the conducting diaphragm touches a dielectric coated ground plane, often show a more linear response, but with less sensitivity, particularly at low-P. Initial contact of the diaphragm often occurs

Jeahyeong Han; Mark A. Shannon

2009-01-01

343

Game design for ad-hoc multi-touch gameplay on large tabletop displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines game design for multi-touch enabled systems, focusing on tabletop computers that are exposed to the public. We first elaborate on the requirements for ad-hoc collaborative multi-touch gameplay. As our main contribution, we identified particular gameplay aspects and formalized them in reference to formal elements of gameplay: The game mechanics should support different scopes of involvement and make

Jonas Schild; Maic Masuch

2010-01-01

344

Integration of force and position cues for shape perception through active touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article systematically explores cue integration within active touch. Our research builds upon a recently made distinction between position and force cues for haptic shape perception [Robles-de-la-Torre, G., Hayward, V., 2001. Force can overcome object geometry in the perception of shape through active touch, Nature 412, 445–448]: when sliding a finger across a bumpy surface, the finger follows the surface

Knut Drewing; Marc O. Ernst

2006-01-01

345

The Importance of Non-Data Touching Processing Overheads in TCP\\/IP  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present detailed measurements of various processing overheads of the TCP\\/IP and UDP\\/IP protocol stacks on a DECstation 5000\\/200 running the Ultrix 4.2a operating system. These overheads include data-touching operations, such as the checksum computation and data movement, which are well known to be major time consumers. In this study, we also considered overheads due to non-data touching operations, such

Jonathan Kay; Joseph Pasquale

1993-01-01

346

Pressure sensors based on MEMS, operating in harsh environments (touch-mode)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, Poly-crystalline silicon carbide (poly-sic) Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) capacitive pressure sensor operating in harsh environment in touch mode is proposed, The principle of the paper is to design, obtain analytical solution and compare the results with the simulation for a circular diaphragm deflection before and after touch point. The sensor demonstrated a high temperature sensing capability up to

M. N. Hamidon; A. R. Bahadorimehr

2008-01-01

347

Highly conductive, flexible, and compressible all-graphene passive electronic skin for sensing human touch.  

PubMed

A facile and passive multiply flexible thin-film sensor is demonstrated based on thermoelectric effects in graphene. The sensor is highly conductive, free-standing, flexible, and elastic. It senses heat and cold, and measures heated/cooled areas; it also discerns human touch from other pressures, locates human touch, and measures pressure levels. All of these sensing abilities are demonstrated without any internal/external power supply. PMID:24890343

Hou, Chengyi; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang; Zhu, Meifang

2014-08-01

348

Expanding the primate body schema in sensorimotor cortex by virtual touches of an avatar.  

PubMed

The brain representation of the body, called the body schema, is susceptible to plasticity. For instance, subjects experiencing a rubber hand illusion develop a sense of ownership of a mannequin hand when they view it being touched while tactile stimuli are simultaneously applied to their own hand. Here, the cortical basis of such an embodiment was investigated through concurrent recordings from primary somatosensory (i.e., S1) and motor (i.e., M1) cortical neuronal ensembles while two monkeys observed an avatar arm being touched by a virtual ball. Following a period when virtual touches occurred synchronously with physical brushes of the monkeys' arms, neurons in S1 and M1 started to respond to virtual touches applied alone. Responses to virtual touch occurred 50 to 70 ms later than to physical touch, consistent with the involvement of polysynaptic pathways linking the visual cortex to S1 and M1. We propose that S1 and M1 contribute to the rubber hand illusion and that, by taking advantage of plasticity in these areas, patients may assimilate neuroprosthetic limbs as parts of their body schema. PMID:23980141

Shokur, Solaiman; O'Doherty, Joseph E; Winans, Jesse A; Bleuler, Hannes; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

2013-09-10

349

Embodied terror management: interpersonal touch alleviates existential concerns among individuals with low self-esteem.  

PubMed

Individuals with low (rather than high) self-esteem often struggle with existential concerns. In the present research, we examined whether these existential concerns may be alleviated by seemingly trivial experiences of both real and simulated interpersonal touch. A brief touch on the shoulder by a female experimenter led individuals with low self-esteem to experience less death anxiety (Study 1) and more social connectedness after a death reminder (Study 2). Reminding individuals with low self-esteem of death increased their desire for touch, as indicated by higher value estimates of a teddy bear, a toy animal that simulates interpersonal touch (Study 3). Finally, holding a teddy bear (vs. a cardboard box) led individuals with low self-esteem to respond to a death reminder with less defensive ethnocentrism (Study 4). Individuals with high self-esteem were unaffected by touch (Studies 1-4). These findings highlight the existential significance of embodied touch experiences, particularly for individuals with low self-esteem. PMID:24190907

Koole, Sander L; Tjew A Sin, Mandy; Schneider, Iris K

2014-01-01

350

Does Carica papaya leaf-extract increase the platelet count? An experimental study in a murine model  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the potential role of fresh Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract on haematological and biochemical parameters and toxicological changes in a murine model. Methods In total 36 mice were used for the trial. Fresh C. papaya leaf extract [0.2 mL (2 g)/mouse] was given only to the test group (18 mice). General behavior, clinical signs and feeding patterns were recorded. Blood and tissue samples were collected at intervals. Haematological parameters including platelet, red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), packed cell volume (PCV), serum biochemistry including serum creatinine, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) were determined. Organs for possible histopathological changes were examined. Results Neither group exhibited alteration of behavior or reduction in food and water intake. Similarly, no significant changes in SGOT, SGPT and serum creatinine levels were detected in the test group. Histopathological organ changes were not observed in either group of mice except in three liver samples of the test group which had a mild focal necrosis. The platelet count (11.33±0.35)×105/µL (P=0.000?04) and the RBC count (7.97±0.61)×106/µL (P=0.000?03) were significantly increased in the test group compared to that of the controls. However, WBC count and PCV (%) values were not changed significantly in the test group. The platelet count in the test group started to increase significantly from Day 3 (3.4±0.18×105/µL), reaching almost a fourfold higher at Day 21 (11.3×105/µL), while it was 3.8×105/µL and 5.5×105/µL at Day 3 and Day 21 respectively in the control. Likewise, the RBC count in the test group increased from 6×106/µL to 9×106/ µL at Day 21 while it remained near constant in the control group (6×106/µL). Conclusions Fresh C. papaya leaf extract significantly increased the platelet and RBC counts in the test group as compared to controls. Therefore, it is very important to identify those chemicals of C. papaya leaves as it can be recommended to be used as a medication to boost thrombopoiesis and erythropoiesis in humans and in animals in which these cell lineages have been compromised. PMID:23998013

Dharmarathna, Sinhalagoda Lekamlage Chandi Asoka; Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Waduge, Roshitha Nilmini; Rajapakse, Rajapakse Peramune Veddikkarage Jayanthe; Kularatne, Senanayake Abeysinghe Mudiyanselage

2013-01-01

351

Touch modulates gravity sensing to regulate the growth of primary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plants must sense and respond to diverse stimuli to optimize the architecture of their root system for water and nutrient scavenging and anchorage. We have therefore analyzed how information from two of these stimuli, touch and gravity, are integrated to direct root growth. In Arabidopsis thaliana, touch stimulation provided by a glass barrier placed across the direction of growth caused the root to form a step-like growth habit with bends forming in the central and later the distal elongation zones. This response led to the main root axis growing parallel to, but not touching the obstacle, whilst the root cap maintained contact with the barrier. Removal of the graviperceptive columella cells of the root cap using laser ablation reduced the bending response of the distal elongation zone. Similarly, although the roots of the gravisensing impaired pgm1-1 mutant grew along the barrier at the same average angle as wild-type, this angle became more variable with time. These observations imply a constant gravitropic re-setting of the root tip response to touch stimulation from the barrier. In wild-type plants, transient touch stimulation of root cap cells, but not other regions of the root, inhibited both subsequent gravitropic growth and amyloplast sedimentation in the columella. Taken together, these results suggest that the cells of the root cap sense touch stimuli and their subsequent signaling acts on the columella cells to modulate their graviresponse. This interaction of touch and gravity signaling would then direct root growth to avoid obstacles in the soil while generally maintaining downward growth.

Massa, Gioia D.; Gilroy, Simon

2003-01-01

352

Generation of hermaphrodite transgenic papaya lines with virus resistance via transformation of somatic embryos derived from adventitious roots of in vitro shoots.  

PubMed

Papaya production is seriously limited by Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) worldwide and Papaya leaf-distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) in Eastern Asia. An efficient transformation method for developing papaya lines with transgenic resistance to these viruses and commercially desirable traits, such as hermaphroditism, is crucial to shorten the breeding program for this fruit crop. In this investigation, an untranslatable chimeric construct pYP08 containing truncated PRSV coat protein (CP) and PLDMV CP genes coupled with the 3' untranslational region of PLDMV, was generated. Root segments from different portions of adventitious roots of in vitro multiple shoots of hermaphroditic plants of papaya cultivars 'Tainung No. 2', 'Sunrise', and 'Thailand' were cultured on induction medium for regeneration into somatic embryos. The highest frequency of somatic embryogenesis was from the root-tip segments of adventitious roots developed 2-4 weeks after rooting in perlite medium. After proliferation, embryogenic tissues derived from somatic embryos were wounded in liquid-phase by carborundum and transformed by Agrobacterium carrying pYP08. Similarly, another construct pBG-PLDMVstop containing untranslatable CP gene of PLDMV was also transferred to 'Sunrise' and 'Thailand', the parental cultivars of 'Tainung No. 2'. Among 107 transgenic lines regenerated from 349 root-tip segments, nine lines of Tainung No. 2 carrying YP08 were highly resistant to PRSV and PLDMV, and 9 lines (8 'Sunrise' and 1 'Thailand') carrying PLDMV CP highly resistant to PLDMV, by a mechanism of post-transcriptional gene silencing. The hermaphroditic characteristics of the transgenic lines were confirmed by PCR with sex-linked primers and phenotypes of flower and fruit. Our approach has generated transgenic resistance to both PRSV and PLDMV with commercially desirable characters and can significantly shorten the time-consuming breeding programs for the generation of elite cultivars of papaya hybrids. PMID:19943109

Kung, Yi-Jung; Yu, Tsong-Ann; Huang, Chiung-Huei; Wang, Hui-Chin; Wang, Shin-Lan; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

2010-08-01

353

A neural interface provides long-term stable natural touch perception.  

PubMed

Touch perception on the fingers and hand is essential for fine motor control, contributes to our sense of self, allows for effective communication, and aids in our fundamental perception of the world. Despite increasingly sophisticated mechatronics, prosthetic devices still do not directly convey sensation back to their wearers. We show that implanted peripheral nerve interfaces in two human subjects with upper limb amputation provided stable, natural touch sensation in their hands for more than 1 year. Electrical stimulation using implanted peripheral nerve cuff electrodes that did not penetrate the nerve produced touch perceptions at many locations on the phantom hand with repeatable, stable responses in the two subjects for 16 and 24 months. Patterned stimulation intensity produced a sensation that the subjects described as natural and without "tingling," or paresthesia. Different patterns produced different types of sensory perception at the same location on the phantom hand. The two subjects reported tactile perceptions they described as natural tapping, constant pressure, light moving touch, and vibration. Changing average stimulation intensity controlled the size of the percept area; changing stimulation frequency controlled sensation strength. Artificial touch sensation improved the subjects' ability to control grasping strength of the prosthesis and enabled them to better manipulate delicate objects. Thus, electrical stimulation through peripheral nerve electrodes produced long-term sensory restoration after limb loss. PMID:25298320

Tan, Daniel W; Schiefer, Matthew A; Keith, Michael W; Anderson, James Robert; Tyler, Joyce; Tyler, Dustin J

2014-10-01

354

Evaluation of penile erection rigidity in healthy men using virtual touch tissue quantification  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the study was to describe the shear wave velocity (SWV) values of the penis by virtual touch tissue quantification (VTTQ) and to examine the clinical usefulness of this procedure in evaluation of the rigidity changes in penile erection. Patients and methods. VTTQ was performed in 37 healthy volunteers. In the course of erection, SWV values of glans penis, corpus penis and radix penis were quantified and grades of erection were documented. The SWV values at different grades of erection were compared. Results The axial and radial SWV values of glans penis, corpus penis and radix penis all significantly decreased from Grade 0 to Grade 4 of erection. At Grade 4, they were less than one-third of that at Grade 0 (axial direction: 0.79 ± 0.13 vs. 2.79 ± 0.32 for glans penis, P<0.001; 0.77 ± 0.19 vs. 2.84 ± 0.30 for corpus penis, P<0.001 and 0.76 ± 0.15 vs. 2.81 ± 0.34 for radix penis, P<0.001; radial direction: 0.82 ± 0.15 vs. 2.83 ± 0.31 for glans penis, P<0.001; 0.79 ± 0.18 vs. 2.81 ± 0.27 for corpus penis, P<0.001 and 0.81 ± 0.16 vs. 2.82 ± 0.33 for radix penis, P<0.001). Conclusions VTTQ can provide numerical measurements of penile rigidity and can effectively and sensitively indicate the axial and radial rigidity changes in penile erection, which provide a new approach to assessing the erectile function. PMID:23077447

Zheng, Xiaozhi; Ji, Ping; Mao, Hongwei; Wu, Jing

2012-01-01

355

Manipulation based on sensor-directed control: An integrated end effector and touch sensing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hand/touch sensing system is described that, when mounted on a position-controlled manipulator, greatly expands the kinds of automated manipulation tasks that can be undertaken. Because of the variety of coordinate conversions, control equations, and completion criteria, control is necessarily dependent upon a small digital computer. The sensing system is designed both to be rugged and to sense the necessary touch and force information required to execute a wide range of manipulation tasks. The system consists of a six-axis wrist sensor, external touch sensors, and a pair of matrix jaw sensors. Details of the construction of the particular sensors, the integration of the end effector into the sensor system, and the control algorithms for using the sensor outputs to perform manipulation tasks automatically are discussed.

Hill, J. W.; Sword, A. J.

1973-01-01

356

First impressions and beyond: marketing your practice in touch points--Part II.  

PubMed

When calling in a marketing expert to boost a practice's numbers, administrators and providers are usually looking for external marketing strategies--ways to attract new patients to the practice. However, one of the most important, yet often overlooked, elements to successfully marketing a practice is the very important work of retaining current patients and turning them into enthusiastic referrers. When new patients are simply filling the place of previous patients that have moved on, you are not building solid practice growth. You can create an atmosphere of loyal referring patients by providing positive touch points that fulfill the needs of your patients. This article will cover touch points that occur before a patient has chosen your practice. Laying the groundwork for positive touch points will give your marketing efforts a snowball effect, build growth, and deliver the most bang for your marketing bucks. PMID:22594057

Bisera, Cheryl

2012-01-01

357

Non-touch fittings in hospitals: a possible source of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella spp.  

PubMed

Non-touch fittings are gradually becoming very common in the bathrooms and toilets of public facilities and restaurants. Hospitals and other healthcare facilities have recently started to install these types of water taps to lower water consumption, thus saving costs, and to prevent healthcare workers from touching the tap, thus promoting hygiene. This study analysed the bacteriological water quality of 38 non-touch water taps in different settings in a 450-bed secondary-care hospital in Upper Austria. Two different tap types were installed: 23 taps were without temperature selection and 15 were with temperature selection (cold and warm). A membrane filtration method was used, and the authors screened for both indicator organisms and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 100 ml water samples. In 10 non-touch taps without temperature selection, the authors also screened for Legionella spp. in 500 ml water samples. Seventy four percent of the taps without temperature selection and 7% of the taps with temperature selection showed contamination with P. aeruginosa (P<0.001). None of the taps showed contamination with indicator organisms. Detailed analysis of the source of contamination revealed that the magnetic valve and the outlet itself were heavily contaminated, whereas the junction from the central pipe system was free of contamination. All 10 analysed taps showed contamination with Legionella spp. It was concluded that the local contamination of non-touch fittings is a result of the low amount of water that flows through the outlet, the low water pressure and the column of water, which is 'still-standing' and has a temperature of about 35 degrees C, thus providing nearly ideal growth conditions for P. aeruginosa. Additionally, the presence of materials such as rubber, PVC, etc. in the fittings enhances the adhesion of P. aeruginosa and thus the production of biofilms. In conclusion, the authors wish to encourage infection control teams to evaluate the use of non-touch fittings in hospitals, especially when they are installed in risk areas. PMID:11567556

Halabi, M; Wiesholzer-Pittl, M; Schöberl, J; Mittermayer, H

2001-10-01

358

Mutual touch during mother-infant face-to-face still-face interactions: influences of interaction period and infant birth status.  

PubMed

Contact behaviours such as touch, have been shown to be influential channels of nonverbal communication between mothers and infants. While existing research has examined the communicative roles of maternal or infant touch in isolation, mutual touch, whereby touching behaviours occur simultaneously between mothers and their infants, has yet to be examined. The present study was designed to investigate mutual touch during face-to-face interactions between mothers and their 5½-month-old fullterm (n=40), very low birth weight/preterm (VLBW/preterm; n=40) infants, and infants at psychosocial risk (n=41). Objectives were to examine: (1) how the quantitative and qualitative aspects of touch employed by mothers and their infants varied across the normal periods of the still-face (SF) procedure, and (2) how these were associated with risk status. Mutual touch was systematically coded using the mother-infant touch scale. Interactions were found to largely consist of mutual touch and one-sided touch plus movement, highlighting that active touching is pervasive during mother-infant interactions. Consistent with the literature, while the SF period did not negatively affect the amount of mutual touch engaged in for mothers and their fullterm infants and mothers and their infants at psychosocial risk, it did for mothers and their VLBW/preterm infants. Together, results illuminate how both mothers and infants participate in shaping and co-regulating their interactions through the use of touch and underscore the contribution of examining the influence of birth status on mutual touch. PMID:24793734

Mantis, Irene; Stack, Dale M; Ng, Laura; Serbin, Lisa A; Schwartzman, Alex E

2014-08-01

359

Explaining Away the Body: Experiences of Supernaturally Caused Touch and Touch on Non-Hand Objects within the Rubber Hand Illusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn rubber hand illusions and full body illusions, touch sensations are projected to non-body objects such as rubber hands, dolls or virtual bodies. The robustness, limits and further perceptual consequences of such illusions are not yet fully explored or understood. A number of experiments are reported that test the limits of a variant of the rubber hand illusion.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsA variant

Jakob Hohwy; Bryan Paton; Antoni Rodriguez-Fornells

2010-01-01

360

Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels  

PubMed Central

Interpersonal touch is a fundamental component of social interactions because it can mitigate physical and psychological distress. To reproduce the psychological and physiological effects associated with interpersonal touch, interest is growing in introducing tactile sensations to communication devices. However, it remains unknown whether physical contact with such devices can produce objectively measurable endocrine effects like real interpersonal touching can. We directly tested this possibility by examining changes in stress hormone cortisol before and after a conversation with a huggable communication device. Participants had 15-minute conversations with a remote partner that was carried out either with a huggable human-shaped device or with a mobile phone. Our experiment revealed significant reduction in the cortisol levels for those who had conversations with the huggable device. Our approach to evaluate communication media with biological markers suggests new design directions for interpersonal communication media to improve social support systems in modern highly networked societies. PMID:24150186

Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nakae, Aya; Kanai, Ryota; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

361

Effect of a Brief Seated Massage on Nursing Student Attitudes Toward Touch for Comfort Care  

PubMed Central

Background: While massage has been removed from nursing curricula, studies have reported massage as safe and effective for stress reduction, relaxation, pain relief, fatigue, and quality of life. Objective: To compare the efficacy of two intensities of touch administered during two seated massages on the attitudes of nursing students toward touch for their self-care and patient care. Participants: Nursing students who volunteered gave institutional review board–approved written informed consent to undergo massage by a licensed massage therapist. Settings/location: A private room adjacent to the nursing lab in a school of nursing. Intervention: Brief seated massages of differing intensities. Each participant received low-intensity and high-intensity touch in a two-block, randomized order, within-subjects design. Linear mixed models nested within subject and random intercept analyses were used to test hypotheses in this two-treatment, two-sequence, two-period crossover design. Outcome measures: Health questionnaires/visual analogue scales pertaining to physical/affective/and attitudinal status were completed before and after each massage. Results: Twenty-nine participants (93% female, 83% single) completed the study. Before massage, the optimal intensity of touch anticipated for self-comfort was 6.6 (0=no pressure;10=most intense pressure imaginable). The mean touch intensities were 6.7 for high-intensity massage and 0.5 for low-intensity (p<0.001). The overall percentage differences (feeling better or worse) following massage were as follows: low intensity, 37.5% better; high intensity, 62.7% better (p<0.001). Significantly more improvement was reported for energy, pain, stress, and feeling physically uptight after high-intensity compared with low-intensity (p<0.03). Participants were more likely to both receive touch for self-care and provide touch for patient care after experiencing high- versus low-intensity massage (p<0.01). Conclusions: High-intensity seated massage was more efficacious than low-intensity massage and positively influenced nursing student attitudes toward the inclusion of massage in self-care/patient care. The role of touch for self-care/patient care in the nursing curricula merits reconsideration. PMID:25140587

Yearwood, Edilma L.; Friedmann, Erika

2014-01-01

362

Relative advantage of touch over vision in the exploration of texture  

E-print Network

RELATIVE ADVANTAGE OF TOUCH OVER VISION IN THE EXPLORATION OF TEXTURE A Thesis by YOON H. BAI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 2008 Major Subject: Computer Engineering RELATIVE ADVANTAGE OF TOUCH OVER VISION IN THE EXPLORATION OF TEXTURE A Thesis by YOON HO BAI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

Bai, Yoon Ho

2008-10-10

363

Flexible three-axial force sensor for soft and highly sensitive artificial touch.  

PubMed

A soft tactile sensor able to detect both normal and tangential forces is fabricated with a simple method using conductive textile. Owing to the multi-layered architecture, the capacitive-based tactile sensor is highly sensitive (less than 10 mg and 8 ?m, for minimal detectable weight and displacement, respectively) within a wide normal force range (potentially up to 27 N (400 kPa)) and natural touch-like tangential force ranges (from about 0.5 N to 1.8 N). Being flexible, soft, and low cost, this sensor represents an original approach in the emulation of natural touch. PMID:24677245

Viry, Lucie; Levi, Alessandro; Totaro, Massimo; Mondini, Alessio; Mattoli, Virgilio; Mazzolai, Barbara; Beccai, Lucia

2014-05-01

364

Gordon and Mike's ICT Podcast: iPod touch Overview and Impressions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gordon and Mike's ICT Podcast offers perspectives on the information and communication technologies (ICT) industries from Gordon Snyder and Mike Qaissaunee. In this podcast, Mike and Gordon discuss the iPod touch, which Gordon describes as "basically an iPhone without the phone." They delve into the iPod touch's wireless connectivity, browsing capabilities, and user interface. The running time for the show is 26:50.This podcast is available for direct download in mp3 format from the Libsyn site, or click here to subscribe to the whole series in iTunes.

Qaissaunee, Michael; Snyder, Gordon F.

2008-02-05

365

Effect of Number of Touches and Exercise Duration on the Kinematic Profile and Heart Rate Response During Small-Sided Games in Soccer  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to examine the effect of exercise duration and the number of touches allowed during possession on time-motion characteristics and the physiological responses of soccer players in 6 vs. 6 small-sided games (SSGs) lasting 12 minutes. The analysis divided each game into two 6-min periods and we compared two formats: free play (SSGFP) vs. a maximum of two touches per individual possession (SSG2T). Participants were 12 semi-professional players (age: 22.7±4.3 years; body height: 177.5±4.9 cm; body mass: 74.9±6.3 kg) and the following variables were measured by means of heart rate monitors and GPS devices: mean heart rate (HRmean), time spent in each exercise intensity zone, total distance covered, total distance covered in different speed zones, number of accelerations at different intensities, maximum speed reached, player load, and the work-to-rest ratio. The results showed that in SSGFP there was a decrease in the intensity of physical parameters during the second 6-min period (6–12 min), whereas this decrease was not observed when a maximum of two touches per individual possession was allowed. During the second period (6–12 min) of SSG2T there was an increase in HRmean and in the time spent in high exercise intensity zones, but these differences were not observed in SSGFP. The value of these findings for soccer coaches is that they illustrate how different technical, tactical or conditioning objectives could be addressed by altering the length and format of the SSG used in training. PMID:25114738

Casamichana, David; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Castellano, Julen; Roman-Quintana, Jaime San

2014-01-01

366

Recovery of DNA and fingerprints from touched documents.  

PubMed

This study investigated the various factors affecting DNA profiling from DNA recovered from fingerprints deposited on paper before and after fingerprint enhancement treatments. The DNeasy plant mini kit (QIAGEN) was found to improve DNA recovery from paper by over 150% compared with the QIAamp mini kit. A significant decrease in the amount of DNA recovered was observed following treatment with DFO and/or Ninhydrin. This decrease in yield did not have a comparably significant effect on the quality of the SGM Plus profiles. Furthermore, this study found that whilst certain paper types, such as newspaper, magazine and filter paper allowed for the good recovery of DNA, common office paper and white card, strongly interfered with the recovery of DNA resulting in poor quality profiles. PMID:19083837

Sewell, Jonathan; Quinones, Ignacio; Ames, Carole; Multaney, Bryan; Curtis, Stuart; Seeboruth, Haj; Moore, Stephen; Daniel, Barbara

2008-09-01

367

The Effect of Interpersonal Touch during Childhood on Adult Attachment and Depression: A Neglected Area of Family and Developmental Psychology?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interpersonal touch has been little studied empirically as an indicator of parent- and peer-child intimacy. Undergraduate students (n = 390) were studied using a questionnaire survey regarding the frequencies of interpersonal touch by father, mother, same-sex peers, and opposite-sex peers during preschool ages, grades 1-3, grades 4-6, and grades…

Takeuchi, Mika S.; Miyaoka, Hitoshi; Tomoda, Atsuko; Suzuki, Masao; Liu, Qingbo; Kitamura, Toshinori

2010-01-01

368

Teaching Students with Developmental Disabilities to Operate an iPod Touch[R] to Listen to Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluated an intervention procedure for teaching three students with developmental disabilities to independently operate a portable multimedia device (i.e., an iPod Touch[R]) to listen to music. The intervention procedure included the use of video modeling, which was presented on the same iPod Touch[R] that the students were taught to operate…

Kagohara, Debora M.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Achmadi, Donna; van der Meer, Larah; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.

2011-01-01

369

Touch induces ATP release in Arabidopsis roots that is modulated by the heterotrimeric G-protein complex  

E-print Network

, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA d Department of Plant Microbiology and Pathology: Arabidopsis ATP Heterotrimeric G-protein Touch desensitization a b s t r a c t Amongst the many stimuli orienting the growth of plant roots, of critical importance are the touch signals generated as roots explore

Jones, Alan M.

370

Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water right after touching live poultry or anything in the  

E-print Network

where birds live and roam. After you touch ducklings or chicks, wash your hands so you don't get sick. · Salmonella germs can cause a diarrheal illness in people that can be mild, severe, or even life threatening persons, or people with weak immune systems handle or touch chicks, ducklings, or other live poultry

New Hampshire, University of

371

Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Rhizopus stolonifer in stored papaya fruit and their possible application in coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the fungicidal effect of the thyme and Mexican lime essential oils studies against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Rhizopus stolonifer, and to determine the possibility of incorporating them in edible coatings to control postharvest diseases of papaya fruits.For in vitro studies, both essential oils were tested to evaluate their effect on mycelial growth of

E. Bosquez-Molina; E. Ronquillo-de Jesús; S. Bautista-Baños; J. R. Verde-Calvo; J. Morales-López

2010-01-01

372

Proteasome-Independent Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Cross-Presentation Mediated by Papaya Mosaic Virus-Like Particles Leads to Expansion of Specific Human T Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of versatile vaccine platforms is a priority that is recognized by health authorities worldwide; such platforms should induce both arms of the immune system, the humoral and cytotoxic-T- lymphocyte responses. In this study, we have established that a vaccine platform based on the coat protein of papaya mosaic virus (PapMV CP), previously shown to induce a humoral response,

Denis Leclerc; Diane Beauseigle; Jerome Denis; Helene Morin; Christine Pare; Alain Lamarre; Rejean Lapointe

2007-01-01

373

STS-33 Discovery, OV-103, MLG touches down on concrete runway 04 at EAFB  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-33 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, main landing gear (MLG) touches down on concrete runway 04 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California, at 16:31:02 pm Pacific Standard Time (PST). This view captures OV-103's profile (port side) as it glides down the runway.

1989-01-01

374

Identifying touching and overlapping chromosomes using the watershed transform and gradient paths  

E-print Network

Identifying touching and overlapping chromosomes using the watershed transform and gradient paths Communicated by T. Vasilakos Keywords: Chromosome classification Watershed transform Karyotyping Multiplex Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization a b s t r a c t Automation of chromosome analysis has long been considered

Likas, Aristidis

375

Cell free DNA as a component of forensic evidence recovered from touched surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of a criminal investigation, DNA is often recovered from items that have been handled by an individual. Whilst there have been studies investigating the propensity of different individuals to deposit DNA, little is known about the factors involved in the transference of DNA through touch. This investigation seeks to clarify some of the underlying processes involved in

Ignacio Quinones; Barbara Daniel

376

Implementation of a One-to-One iPod Touch Program in a Middle School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to investigate the implementation of a whole school one-to-one iPod Touch project in a middle school in the southeastern United States. While some focused studies have been undertaken in this new field of learning, there has been little research to date that documents activity within a whole school implementation…

Crompton, Helen; Keane, Julie

2012-01-01

377

The Effectiveness of the Touch Math Program with Fourth and Fifth Grade Special Education Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The math achievement of third and fourth grade special education students has been identified as an area of concern within a public school located in a small rural town located on the east coast. The purpose of this action research study was to investigate whether or not the Touch Math strategy increased the math ability of third and fourth grade…

Green, Nora D.

2009-01-01

378

Touch to Play -Mobile Gaming with Dynamic, NFC-based Physical User Interfaces  

E-print Network

on mobile devices. Gaming with mobile devices on the other hand is a popular means for the playfulTouch to Play - Mobile Gaming with Dynamic, NFC-based Physical User Interfaces Gregor Broll, Roman}@docomolab-euro.com ABSTRACT Mobile devices can take advantage of physical interaction with their environment and its objects

379

Igniting the OWL 1.1 Touch Paper: The OWL API  

E-print Network

Igniting the OWL 1.1 Touch Paper: The OWL API Matthew Horridge1 , Sean Bechhofer1 , and Olaf and implementation of an OWL 1.1 API, herein referred to as the OWL API . The API is designed to facilitate. The API is based on the OWL 1.1 specification and influenced by the experience of designing and using

Biundo, Susanne

380

A Touch-Dim Network for the Dimming Control of Lighting System  

Microsoft Academic Search

DALI is a popular interface of lighting network system with an excellent dimming facility, but it is too complicated when it is applied in family house. Touch-Dim installation of DALI ballast is then developed. The installation and operation are much simplified but the network function is no more valid. This paper proposed an alternative network structure, which is named as

Jyh-Ching Juang; Hung-Chi Wang; Chun-Lin Lu; Wen-Ming Chen; Ching-Wen Hsu

2010-01-01

381

Web-based touch-screen computer assessment of chronic low back pain: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of a Web-based touch-screen computer questionnaire as a data collection method for patients experiencing chronic low back pain in a tertiary spine clinic. Participants completed the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index, SF-36, and Beck Depression Inventory using a touch-screen computer. The time taken to complete the questionnaire was recorded electronically (M = 27.4 minutes; SD = 13.8). Prior computer experience and perceptions of computer use were also assessed. Low back pain was evaluated before and after completing the touch-screen computer questionnaire. Observations of sitting and standing tolerances were made. Participants completed a nine-item paper-and-pencil satisfaction survey after completing the computer questionnaire. Overall satisfaction level with this mode of data collection was high, supporting a larger study using touch-screen technology in patients with chronic low back pain. Important factors influencing satisfaction were the computer environment, ease of use, security, and the ability to interrupt the questionnaire process to allow for changes in sitting or standing posture. PMID:16166830

Koestler, Mary E; Libby, Erin; Schofferman, Jerome; Redmond, Timothy

2005-01-01

382

Access Overlays: Improving Non-Visual Access to Large Touch Screens for Blind Users  

E-print Network

screens are increasingly found in consumer technologies such as mobile devices, home electronics routine tasks without help, which can lead to feelings of embarrassment [17]. Blind consumers have and boycotts [23]. Furthermore, inaccessible touch screens not only impact millions of blind people (more than

Kane, Shaun K.

383

Touching Your Students: The Impact of a Handshake on the First Day of Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Can a simple handshake on the first day of class change student impressions of the instructor and the course? We compared students who received a handshake to those who did not at the first class meeting and evaluated teaching skills, instructor's ability to motivate student interest, and instructor's support of students as a function of touch…

Wilson, Janie H.; Stadler, Jonathan R.; Schwartz, Beth M.; Goff, Dennis M.

2009-01-01

384

Integrating the iPod Touch in K-12 Education: Visions and Vices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates of ubiquitous computing have long been documenting classroom benefits of one-to-one ratios of students to handheld or laptop computers. The recent sophisticated capabilities of the iPod Touch, iPhone, and iPad have encouraged further speculation on exactly how K-12 teaching and learning might be energized by such devices. This paper…

Banister, Savilla

2010-01-01

385

Analyzing the Impact of Gender on Depictions of Touch in Early Childhood Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early childhood contexts often enact "common-sense identities" that create and sustain the notion that teachers of young children are expressly female and heterosexual. It has also been argued that touch is a key difference between men and women in early childhood classrooms. This exploratory study examined 10 early childhood textbooks to…

Gilbert, Andrew; Williams, Shane

2008-01-01

386

in response to touch, oscillations in plants, and long-distance signal transmission in trees.  

E-print Network

in response to touch, oscillations in plants, and long- distance signal transmission in trees. Some- robiology paradigm to understanding plant physi- ology and plant biology in general? The editors and many of the authors clearly believe that this paradigm will allow us to look at plants in a new manner and, in some

387

A Touch of the Universe: Give the Universe to a Blind Kid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In developing countries there are very few and sparse astronomical resources for people with visual impairments. Often the teachers with special need students lack teaching materials specially adapted to their needs. To address these needs, a collaborative project, "A Touch of the Universe" was implemented with an aim to create a resources kit with tactile astronomy materials.

Heenatigala, T.; Ortiz-Gil, A.; Canas, L.

2013-09-01

388

Exploring Teaching and Learning Using an iTouch Mobile Device  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appropriate use of instructional technology can be an elusive quest for many faculty members. The iTouch is one of the latest technologies available to us, yet there is little literature on its use and effectiveness to support learners in their learning. Six new faculty members from various disciplines elected to integrate the device in their own…

Mayberry, John; Hargis, Jace; Boles, Larry; Dugas, Alex; O'Neill, Daniel; Rivera, Ajna; Meler, Monika

2012-01-01

389

Game Authoring Tool for iPhone / iPod touch Navid Ahmadi  

E-print Network

iGame Game Authoring Tool for iPhone / iPod touch Navid Ahmadi Problem: Handheld devices, e.g., iPhone of unified programming platform for handheld devices. Figure 1 depicts an iPhone running a game called Sokoban in the iPhone's Safari using RistrettoMobile . Sokoban was developed using AgentSheets, an end

Krause, Rolf

390

Bezel Swipe: Conflict-Free Scrolling and Multiple Selection on Mobile Touch Screen Devices  

E-print Network

. A popular device that suffers from this limitation is Apple's iPhone. In this paper, we present Bezel Swipe. INTRODUCTION Mobile touch screen devices are gaining popularity. Ap- ple's iPhone [2] is a prominent example. Even though it targets a premium price segment, iPhone sales are increas- ing in lower-income levels [6

Roth, Volker

391

The Touch "Taboo" and the Art of Contact: An Exploration of Contact Improvisation for Prisoners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines the experience of participating in Contact Improvisation by male prisoners. It specifically focuses on issues of touch for this participant group and how inmates can learn different ways of acting from acquiring Contact skills, contributing to their rehabilitation. The paper looks at the culture in prisons that propagates a…

Houston, Sara

2009-01-01

392

Children's Memories of a Physical Examination Involving Genital Touch: Implications for Reports of Child Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of child sexual abuse often necessitates interviewing children about genital touch, yet little scientific research exists on how best to obtain children's reports of genital contact. To examine this issue, 72 five- and seven-year-old girls experienced a standardized medical checkup. For half of the children, the checkup included a vaginal and anal examination (genital condition); for the other half,

Karen J. Saywitz; Gail S. Goodman; Elisa Nicholas; Susan F. Moan

1991-01-01

393

How To Make Large Touch Screens Usable While Driving Sonja Rmelin  

E-print Network

performance, visual distraction and subjective impression, we compared them in a driving simulator againstHow To Make Large Touch Screens Usable While Driving Sonja Rümelin 1,2 , Andreas Butz 2 1 BMW Group appearing in the automotive market, yet their usability while driving is still controversial. Flat screens

394

NetLogo Tango: Supporting Student Programming with Tangible Objects and Multi-Touch Displays  

E-print Network

NetLogo Tango: Supporting Student Programming with Tangible Objects and Multi-Touch Displays Izabel@northwestern.edu Abstract: NetLogo Tango is a tool that we designed to introduce elementary school children to the NetLogo, initial prototype, and future research. Introduction NetLogo is a powerful agent-based modeling language

Wilensky, Uri

395

Phase-to-rate transformations encode touch in cortical neurons of a scanning sensorimotor system  

E-print Network

it an ideal nervous system for studying the interaction of ex-afference and reafference. First, behavioralPhase-to-rate transformations encode touch in cortical neurons of a scanning sensorimotor system-receptors by the motor impulses which initiate a muscular movement.'' von Holst factored the signals required

Kleinfeld, David

396

Touching Textures in Different Tasks by a Woman with Congenital Deaf-Blindness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about how persons with congenital deaf-blindness use hand movements efficiently for exploring different objects with different textures in different tasks. More knowledge in this area would contribute to the adaptations of educational strategies for encouraging touch and tactile exploration. The study presented in this article…

Janssen, Marleen J.; Huisman, Mark; Van Dijk, Jan P. M.; Ruijssenaars, Wied A. J. J. M.

2012-01-01

397

adding a humanistic touch to the mind-brain sciences. Feelings of love and loneli-  

E-print Network

239 adding a humanistic touch to the mind- brain sciences. Feelings of love and loneli- ness on her tombstone. The last stanza is particularly pertinent to the question of whether love can reduce (Memorial Foundation for Lost Children, Bowling Green, OH, 1995). 22. J. Panksepp, Psychol. Rev. 110, 376

Heller, Eric

398

Water Reservoir Based Approach for Touching Numeral Segmentation , A. Belad1  

E-print Network

of this large space (see Fig.1). Using a simple concept based on water reservoir this space is encountered for segmentation. If water is poured from top (bottom) of Large space created by touching (Water reservoir) Base of the reservoir #12;a connected numeral then water will be stored in this large space. This water stored area

Belaïd, Abdel

399

Mechanical Behavior of the Fingertip In The Range of Frequencies and Displacements Relevant to Touch  

E-print Network

the entire frequency range relevant to touch. To test this hypothesis, we developed a mechanical probe could be rep- resented by a mass-spring-damper system through impul- sive testing delivered by a pneumatic piston acting against a finger that underwent significant rigid-body displace- ment. Since

Hartmann, Mitra J. Z.

400

Touching Practice and Physical Education: Deconstruction of a Contemporary Moral Panic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the insecurities and discursive moral panics elicited by the discussion of intergenerational touch in education, and their subsequent manifestation in "classroom panopticism". In a number of contexts, public hysteria has grown around the interaction between adult and child, and whether this interaction stays within…

Fletcher, Simon

2013-01-01

401

The Haptic Creature Project: Social Human-Robot Interaction through Affective Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The communication of emotion plays an important role in social interaction. Research in affective display both in the so- cial sciences and in social human-robot interaction has focused al- most exclusively on the modalities of vision and audition; however, touch has received disproportionate attention. This paper presents an overview of the Haptic Creature project, where we seek to develop a

Steve Yohanan; Karon E. MacLean

402

DNA extraction and quantification from touch and scrape preparations obtained from autopsy liver cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to develop a simplified low cost method for the collection and fixation of pediatric autopsy cells and to determine the quantitative and qualitative adequacy of extracted DNA. Touch and scrape preparations of pediatric liver cells were obtained from 15 cadavers at autopsy and fixed in 95% ethanol or 3:1 methanol:acetic acid. Material prepared

C. N. M. Ribeiro; L. C. Peres; J. M. Pina-Neto

2004-01-01

403

Remembering Camp Dreamcatcher: Art Therapy with Children Whose Lives Have Been Touched by HIV/AIDS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Society calls upon art therapists to meet the needs of troubled community members. This article describes one art therapist?s experience of "giving back" to the community by volunteering to provide art therapy at a therapeutic camp for children whose lives have been touched by HIV/AIDS. Some of the medical, social, and psychological issues…

Hrenko, Kathy D.

2005-01-01

404

Rasch-Built Measure of Pleasant Touch through Active Fingertip Exploration  

PubMed Central

Background: Evidence suggests that somatic sensation has a modality for pleasant touch. Objective: To investigate pleasant touch at the fingertip level (i.e., glabrous skin site) through the elaboration of a linear unidimensional scale that measures (i) various materials according to the level of pleasantness they elicit through active fingertip explorations and (ii) subjects according to their pleasantness leniency levels. Subjects: We enrolled 198 healthy subjects without any neurological disease. Methods: Blindfolded subjects actively explored 48 materials with their index fingertips and reported the perceived pleasantness of each on a 4-level scale. The fingertip moisture levels on each subject were measured before the experimental session. Data were analyzed using the Rasch model. Results: We elaborated unidimensional linear scale that included 37 materials according to their pleasantness of touch. The pleasantness level of 21 materials was perceived differently, depending on the fingertip moisture levels of the subjects. Conclusion: Based on our findings, we formulated a Pleasant Touch Scale. Fingertip moisture levels appeared to be a major factor for (un)pleasant feelings during active exploration. PMID:22737122

Klocker, Anne; Arnould, Carlyne; Penta, Massimo; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

2012-01-01

405

A Tool to Study Affective Touch: Goals & Design of the Haptic Creature  

E-print Network

is an important part of many forms of emotional communication, but has been studied far less than visual the world solely by being touched, and communicates its internal state via vibrotactile purring, stiffening its ears, and modulating its breathing. This paper outlines the motivation for its creation and design

MacLean, Karon

406

Seeing and Feeling for Self and Other: Proprioceptive Spatial Location Determines Multisensory Enhancement of Touch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have investigated the relation between visuo-tactile interactions and the self-other distinction. In the Visual Enhancement of Touch (VET) effect, non-informative vision of one's own hand improves tactile spatial perception. Previous studies suggested that looking at "another"person's hand could also enhance tactile perception, but did not…

Cardini, Flavia; Haggard, Patrick; Ladavas, Elisabetta

2013-01-01

407

No-Look Notes: Accessible Eyes-Free Multi-Touch Text Entry  

E-print Network

screen is physically hazardous, such as sending a text message while driving. On a system like the iNo-Look Notes: Accessible Eyes-Free Multi-Touch Text Entry Matthew Bonner, Jeremy Brudvik, Gregory applications for blind people. We have created No-Look Notes, an eyes-free text entry system that uses multi

Edwards, Keith

408

Physiologic andpsychodynamic responses to the administration of therapeutic touch in critical care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent publications have questioned the efficacy of therapeutic touch (TT). The focus ofattention has been on substantiating the existence of the recipient's energy field rather than on the physiologic and psychodynamic responses to TT. In this article the physiologic and psychodynamic responses during and following the administration of TT are described. The project involved the implementation of a time series

Carol Cox; Julie Hayes

1999-01-01

409

A character segmentation method for Japanese printed documents coping with touching character problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposes a character segmentation method for Japanese printed documents. Since character segmentation is a kind of a search problem, avoiding `combinatorial explosion' is essential in realizing practical systems. Segmentation is very complicated especially when characters touch each other. The method described gives a multi-stage algorithm, where the earlier stages treat more reliable segmentation than the later stages which utilize information

Shunji Ariyoshi; Komukai Toshiba-cho

1992-01-01

410

An Activity-Theoretic Approach to Multi-Touch Tools in Early Mathematics Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we present an activity theory based framework that can capture the complex situations that arise when modern technology like multi-touch devices are introduced in classroom situations. As these devices are able to cover more activities than traditional technologies, even computerbased, media, we have to accept that they now take a…

Ladel, Silke; Kortenkamp, Ulrich

2013-01-01

411

Computation identifies structural features that govern neuronal firing properties in slowly adapting touch receptors  

PubMed Central

Touch is encoded by cutaneous sensory neurons with diverse morphologies and physiological outputs. How neuronal architecture influences response properties is unknown. To elucidate the origin of firing patterns in branched mechanoreceptors, we combined neuroanatomy, electrophysiology and computation to analyze mouse slowly adapting type I (SAI) afferents. These vertebrate touch receptors, which innervate Merkel cells, encode shape and texture. SAI afferents displayed a high degree of variability in touch-evoked firing and peripheral anatomy. The functional consequence of differences in anatomical architecture was tested by constructing network models representing sequential steps of mechanosensory encoding: skin displacement at touch receptors, mechanotransduction and action-potential initiation. A systematic survey of arbor configurations predicted that the arrangement of mechanotransduction sites at heminodes is a key structural feature that accounts in part for an afferent’s firing properties. These findings identify an anatomical correlate and plausible mechanism to explain the driver effect first described by Adrian and Zotterman. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01488.001 PMID:24448409

Lesniak, Daine R; Marshall, Kara L; Wellnitz, Scott A; Jenkins, Blair A; Baba, Yoshichika; Rasband, Matthew N; Gerling, Gregory J; Lumpkin, Ellen A

2014-01-01

412

Adjunctive deep touch pressure for comorbid anxiety in bipolar disorder: mediated by control of sensory input?  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorders and attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience sensory over-responsivity (SOR) in which a heightened response is evoked by stimuli in the environment. These individuals also display symptoms of anxiety such as irritability, avoidance, and sweating. Deep touch pressure, a technique in which firm touch is applied to the body either by the self or by a machine, has been shown to improve functioning and reduce symptoms of anxiety in these populations. A patient presenting with bipolar I disorder and comorbid anxiety, ADHD, and dyslexia was taught deep touch pressure strategies to alleviate severe symptoms of sensory over-responsivity and anxiety. The patient reported that the techniques were helpful as they allowed her to cope with potentially overwhelming situations in her environment. Clinician-rated functioning also improved over the course of treatment. This case study suggests that deep touch pressure may be useful in patients with bipolar disorder who have SOR and anxiety as comorbid conditions. PMID:24419314

Sylvia, Louisa Grandin; Shesler, Leah W; Peckham, Andrew D; Grandin, Temple; Kahn, David A

2014-01-01

413

Towards Humanlike Social Touch for Sociable Robotics and Prosthetics: Comparisons on  

E-print Network

1 Towards Humanlike Social Touch for Sociable Robotics and Prosthetics: Comparisons2009 #12;2 Abstract The artificial hands for sociable robotics and prosthetics are expected of typical robotic and prosthetic skin materials, such as silicone and polyurethane, with the published

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

414

Touch-plate and statolith formation in graviceptors of ephyrae which developed while weightless in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrastructural studies of the statocysts and touch-plates of graviceptors (rhopalia) of Aurelia ephyrae revealed that (1) touch-plate hair cells are present; and (2) cytoplasmic strands from the hair cell bases extend from the neurite plexus to touch similar strands from the lithocytes. This close association of hair cell neurites and statocysts may have important implications regarding the transmitting and processing of positional information with respect to the gravity vector. Graviceptors of ephyrae which developed while weightless in microgravity were compared with controls at the ultrastructural level. We found that hair cells of ephyrae which developed in microgravity had fewer lipid droplets in the large spaces near their bases as compared with 1 g controls. In the ephyrae from the first microgravity experiment, hair cells had more large apical vacuoles with filamentous content than were found in hair cells of ephyrae from the second experiment and controls. The neurite plexus and the network of cytoplasmic strands extending to the statocysts were not different in microgravity-developed ephyrae from controls. Behavioral differences in swimming and orienting in ephyrae in microgravity and controls (reported earlier) were not explained by morphological differences in the hair cells of the touch-plates or the statocysts, although functional differences apparently occurred.

Spangenberg, D. B.; Coccaro, E.; Schwarte, R.; Lowe, B.

1996-01-01

415

Modal spaces: spatial multiplexing to mediate direct-touch input on large displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new interaction technique for large direct-touch displays called Modal Spaces. Modal interfaces require the user to keep track of the state of the system. The Modal Spaces technique adds screen location as an additional parameter of the interaction. Each modal region on the display supports a particular set of input actions and the visual background indicates the

Katherine Everitt; Chia Shen; Kathy Ryall; Clifton Forlines

2005-01-01

416

FlowBlocks: A Multi-Touch UI for Crowd Interaction Florian Block1  

E-print Network

-horn@northwestern.edu ABSTRACT Multi-touch technology lends itself to collaborative crowd interaction (CI). However, common tap inconsequential; and b) introduces design parameters for mutual awareness, concurrent input, and conflict management. FlowBlocks was successfully used on the floor of a busy natural history museum. We present

417

Modular and Deformable Touch-Sensitive Surfaces Based on Time Domain Reflectometry  

E-print Network

travels down the wire, any de- fect along the cable causes a partial echo, a pulse of re- duced amplitude, a technique originally used in diagnosing cable faults, can also locate where a cable is being touched reflectometry in three ways: (1) Thin: We demonstrate how to run time domain reflectometry on a single wire

Weske, Mathias

418

Using an iTouch to Teach Core Curriculum Words and Definitions: Efficacy and Social Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Media scholars have long recognized the interaction between the medium that conveys the information and the information that is conveyed. This study examined the relative impact of different low- and high-tech instructional mediums (e.g., flashcards and the iTouch) on the acquisition of general education content-referenced sight words and…

Jameson, J. Matt; Thompson, Victoria; Manuele, Greg; Smith, Diane; Egan, Hannah; Moore, Tiffany

2012-01-01

419

A new perceptual paradigm to investigate the visual remapping of others' tactile sensations onto one's own body shows "mirror touch" for the hands  

PubMed Central

The last two decades have seen a multitude of publications showing the activation of an observer’s somatosensory cortical system during the observation of touch on another person. Behavioral demonstrations of “mirror touch,” however, have been slow in coming forward, and have so far primarily been shown as “visual remapping of touch” on the face. The present study uses a new paradigm to investigate the mirroring of others’ tactile sensations: a 2-AFC task of intensity judgment for touch on the observer’s left and right index finger pads. Observers viewed a left and right hand in an egocentric position, which were either touched passively (pencil moving to touch index finger pad) or actively sought touch (index finger moving to touch pencil). Touch and no-touch events for the two viewed hands were designed to eliminate confounding effects of spatial attention. Felt touches were either concurrent with viewed touch or no-touch events, or were delayed in time to assess potential response bias. The findings demonstrate visual remapping of touch for touch on the hands. If touch was shown on one of the hands only (e.g., left), observers were more likely to perceive touch on the same hand (i.e., their own left hand) as more intense than touch on the other hand even if tactile intensities did not differ, compared to touch shown on both or neither hand. These remapping effects occurred only when viewed and felt touches were concurrent, they were strongly modulated by the way in which viewed touch was incurred, and they were more reliable for touch on the left hand. A second, control experiment, in which touch observation was replaced by bright dots shown on or next to the finger pads, confirmed that these effects were largely due to genuine tactile mirroring rather than to somatotopic cueing. This 2-AFC tactile intensity judgment task may be a useful paradigm to investigate the remapping of others’ tactile sensations onto an observer’s own body. PMID:24575070

Gillmeister, Helge

2014-01-01

420

Preliminary in vitro antisickilng properties of crude juice extracts of Persia Americana, Citrus sinensis, Carica papaya and Ciklavit®.  

PubMed

The antisickling properties of crude juice extracts of the edible portions of three commonly consumed tropical fruits namely Persia americana, Citrus sinensis, and Carica papaya were investigated in vitro alongside a new drug preparation called Ciklavit® that has antisickling activity. Four different solvent extracts of the crude juice of each fruit including aqueous, acidic, alkaline and alcoholic extracts were prepared and their antisickling effects on sickle cell trait (HbAS) and sickle cell disease (HbSS) blood samples checked alongside Ciklavit®. Blood samples were stabilized using normal saline and the antisickling effects were checked by counting the number of sickle cells remaining after incubation of the blood samples with the crude fruit extracts and Ciklavit® for twenty-four hours. The results showed that Ciklavit® produced a sustained reduction in the number of sickle cells in both HbAS and HbSS blood samples. Also the alkaline and alcoholic extracts of P. americana and C. papaya produced significant reduction in the number of sickle cells. PMID:21304622

Iweala, E E J; Uhegbu, F O; Ogu, G N

2010-01-01

421

Sexual Touching and Difficulties with Sexual Arousal and Orgasm Among U.S. Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the non-genitally-focused sexual behavior of those experiencing sexual difficulties. The objective of this study was to review the theory supporting a link between sexual touching and difficulties with sexual arousal and orgasm, and to examine associations between these constructs among older adults in the United States. The data were from the 2005–2006 National Social Life Health and Aging Project, which surveyed 3,005 community-dwelling men and women ages 57–85 years. The 1,352 participants who had had sex in the past year reported on their frequency of sexual touching and whether there had been a period of several months or more in the past year when they were unable to climax, had trouble getting or maintaining an erection (men) or had trouble lubricating (women). Women also reported how of ten they felt sexually aroused during partner sex in the last 12 months. The odds of being unable to climax were greater by 2.4 times (95% CI 1.2–4.8) among men and 2.8 times (95% CI 1.4–5.5) among women who sometimes, rarely or never engaged in sexual touching, compared to those who always engaged in sexual touching, controlling for demographic factors and physical health. These results were attenuated but persisted after controlling for emotional relationship satisfaction and psychological factors. Similar results were obtained for erectile difficulties among men and subjective arousal difficulties among women, but not lubrication difficulties among women. Infrequent sexual touching is associated with arousal and orgasm difficulties among older adults in the United States. PMID:22160881

2013-01-01

422

Cloning of the Papaya Chromoplast-Specific Lycopene ?-Cyclase, CpCYC-b, Controlling Fruit Flesh Color Reveals Conserved Microsynteny and a Recombination Hot Spot1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Carotenoid pigments in fruits are indicative of the ripening process and potential nutritional value. Papaya (Carica papaya) fruit flesh color is caused by the accumulation of lycopene or ?-carotenoids in chromoplasts. It is a distinct feature affecting nutritional composition, fruit quality, shelf life, and consumer preference. To uncover the molecular basis of papaya flesh color, we took map-based cloning and candidate gene approaches using integrated genetic and physical maps. A DNA marker tightly linked to flesh color colocalized on a contig of the physical map with a cDNA probe of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) chromoplast-specific lycopene ?-cyclase, CYC-b. Candidate gene sequences were obtained from amplified fragments and verified by sequencing two bacterial artificial chromosomes containing the two alleles. Sequence comparison revealed a 2-bp insertion in the coding region of the recessive red flesh allele resulting in a frame-shift mutation and a premature stop codon. A color complementation test in bacteria confirmed that the papaya CpCYC-b is the gene controlling fruit flesh color. Sequence analysis of wild and cultivated papaya accessions showed the presence of this frame-shift mutation in all red flesh accessions examined. Evaluation of DNA markers near CpCYC-b revealed a recombination hot spot, showing that CpCYC-b is located in a gene-rich region with a recombination rate at 3.7 kb per centimorgan, more than 100-fold higher than the genome average at 400 kb per centimorgan. Conserved microsynteny of the CpCYC-b region is indicated by colinearity of two to four genes between papaya, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), grape (Vitis vinifera), and tomato. Our results enhanced our understanding of papaya flesh color inheritance and generated new tools for papaya improvement. PMID:20181753

Blas, Andrea L.; Ming, Ray; Liu, Zhiyong; Veatch, Olivia J.; Paull, Robert E.; Moore, Paul H.; Yu, Qingyi

2010-01-01

423

Crystal structure of papaya glutaminyl cyclase, an archetype for plant and bacterial glutaminyl cyclases.  

PubMed

Glutaminyl cyclases (QCs) (EC 2.3.2.5) catalyze the intramolecular cyclization of protein N-terminal glutamine residues into pyroglutamic acid with the concomitant liberation of ammonia. QCs may be classified in two groups containing, respectively, the mammalian enzymes, and the enzymes from plants, bacteria, and parasites. The crystal structure of the QC from the latex of Carica papaya (PQC) has been determined at 1.7A resolution. The structure was solved by the single wavelength anomalous diffraction technique using sulfur and zinc as anomalous scatterers. The enzyme folds into a five-bladed beta-propeller, with two additional alpha-helices and one beta hairpin. The propeller closure is achieved via an original molecular velcro, which links the last two blades into a large eight stranded beta-sheet. The zinc ion present in the PQC is bound via an octahedral coordination into an elongated cavity located along the pseudo 5-fold axis of the beta-propeller fold. This zinc ion presumably plays a structural role and may contribute to the exceptional stability of PQC, along with an extended hydrophobic packing, the absence of long loops, the three-joint molecular velcro and the overall folding itself. Multiple sequence alignments combined with structural analyses have allowed us to tentatively locate the active site, which is filled in the crystal structure either by a Tris molecule or an acetate ion. These analyses are further supported by the experimental evidence that Tris is a competitive inhibitor of PQC. The active site is located at the C-terminal entrance of the PQC central tunnel. W83, W110, W169, Q24, E69, N155, K225, F22 and F67 are highly conserved residues in the C-terminal entrance, and their putative role in catalysis is discussed. The PQC structure is representative of the plants, bacterial and parasite enzymes and contrasts with that of mammalian enzymes, that may possibly share a conserved scaffold of the bacterial aminopeptidase. PMID:16438985

Wintjens, René; Belrhali, Hassan; Clantin, Bernard; Azarkan, Mohamed; Bompard, Coralie; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle; Looze, Yvan; Villeret, Vincent

2006-03-24

424

A New Approach for Segmentation and Recognition of Arabic Handwritten Touching Numeral Pairs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a new approach on segmentation and recognition of off-line unconstrained Arabic handwritten numerals, which failed to be segmented with connected component analysis. In our approach, the touching numerals are automatically segmented when a set of parameters is chosen. Models with different sets of parameters for each numeral pair are designed for recognition. Each image in each model is recognized as an isolated numeral. After normalizing and binarizing the images, gradient features are extracted and recognized using SVMs. Finally, a post-processing is proposed by based on the optimal combinations of the recognition probabilities for each model. Experiments were conducted on the CENPARMI Arabic, Dari, and Urdu touching numeral pair databases [1,12].

Alamri, Huda; He, Chun Lei; Suen, Ching Y.

425

Prosthetic finger phalanges with lifelike skin compliance for low-force social touching interactions  

E-print Network

Prosthetic arms and hands that can be controlled by the user's electromyography (EMG) signals are emerging. Eventually, these advanced prosthetic devices will be expected to touch and be touched by other people. As realistic as they may look, the currently available prosthetic hands have physical properties that are still far from the characteristics of human skins because they are much stiffer. In this paper, different configurations of synthetic finger phalanges have been investigated for their skin compliance behaviour and have been compared with the phalanges of the human fingers and a phalanx from a commercially available prosthetic hand. Handshake tests were performed to identify which areas on the human hand experience high contact forces. After these areas were determined, experiments were done on selected areas using an indenting probe to obtain the force-displacement curves. Finite element simulations were used to compare the force-displacement results of the synthetic finger phalanx designs with th...

Cabibihan, John-John; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; 10.1186/1743-0003-8-16

2011-01-01

426

Hard Coat Layers by PE-CVD Process for the Top Surface of Touch Panel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to protect surface from damages, the high pencil hardness and the high abrasion resistance are required for the hard coat layers on polyethylene telephthalate (PET) films for the application of touch panel surface. We have already found that the UV-curing-hard-coat-polymer (UHP) coated PET films show the poor abrasion resistance, while they have the high pencil hardness. It reveals that the abrasion resistance of hard coat layers of the UHP is not simply dependent on the pencil hardness. In this work, we have studied to improve the abrasion resistance of SiOC films as hard coat layers, which were formed by PE-CVD process on UHP coated PET. The abrasion resistance was evaluated by Taber abrasion test. PE-CVD hard coat layers which formed on UHP coater PET films have showed the better abrasion resistance and have the possibility of substitution to the thin glass sheets for touch panel application.

Okunishi, T.; Sato, N.; Yazawa, K.

2013-06-01

427

12 Mobile Learning Science Applications for the iPod Touch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Teaching Science and Math website is the brainchild of David R. Wetzel; dedicated to "encouraging and supporting K-12 science and math teachers.â There are links to high-quality blogs, teaching materials, and online courses. This section of the site brings together 12 mobile learning science applications for the iPod Touch. Visitors can read about the applications of the iPod touch in the classroom and how these specific applications fare in this digital innovation. The applications here include "Particle Zoo," "Science House," "Distant Suns," "Mitosis," and "Molecules." Wetzel offers short and thoughtful comments on the practical applications of each one in a way that is informative and interesting.

2012-10-26

428

Heightened motor and sensory (mirror-touch) referral induced by nerve block or topical anesthetic.  

PubMed

Mirror neurons allow us to covertly simulate the sensation and movement of others. If mirror neurons are sensory and motor neurons, why do we not actually feel this simulation- like "mirror-touch synesthetes"? Might afferent sensation normally inhibit mirror representations from reaching consciousness? We and others have reported heightened sensory referral to phantom limbs and temporarily anesthetized arms. These patients, however, had experienced illness or injury of the deafferented limb. In the current study we observe heightened sensory and motor referral to the face after unilateral nerve block for routine dental procedures. We also obtain double-blind, quantitative evidence of heightened sensory referral in healthy participants completing a mirror-touch confusion task after topical anesthetic cream is applied. We suggest that sensory and motor feedback exist in dynamic equilibrium with mirror representations; as feedback is reduced, the brain draws more upon visual information to determine- perhaps in a Bayesian manner- what to feel. PMID:23791606

Case, Laura K; Gosavi, Radhika; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

2013-08-01

429

Active matrix touch sensor detecting time-constant change implemented by dual-gate IGZO TFTs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dual-gate IGZO TFT is proposed to be used in an active matrix touch sensing circuit. The circuit contains only one TFT with a RC low-pass filter, since the dual-gate IGZO TFT can be controlled by both its top and bottom gates. The simplest structure maximizes the sensing pad area in the pixel. A touch event on the sensing pad forms a capacitance and thus increases the RC time-constant of the scan pulse fed to the gate of TFT. Thus, a significant transient ON current is generated to be the sensing signal. The current is so large that it can be easily read out and thus the power and cost of peripheral ICs can be reduced. In this paper, the robustness of the circuit to environment in operations is discussed.

Tai, Ya-Hsiang; Chiu, Hao-Lin; Chou, Lu-Sheng

2012-06-01

430

12 Mobile Learning Science Applications for the iPod Touch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Teaching Science and Math website features a range of online resources for educators of K-12 students and those in introductory college courses. This particular section of the website features programs that can be used in conjunction with the iPod Touch. All of these programs are completely free, and they are designed for use in biology, astronomy, natural history, and geography courses. The applications here include "BrainPop" (daily trivia), "Mitosis" (a guide to cell division) and "Molecules." The "Molecules" application gives students the ability to view three-dimensional renderings of molecules. Moving on, "The Chemical Touch" consists of a simplified version of the periodic table display, and it gives interested parties easy access to the masses, densities, and boiling points of the elements.

Wetzel, David R.

2012-04-06

431

The effect of age on neural processing of pleasant soft touch stimuli  

PubMed Central

Tactile interactions with our environment stimulate afferent fibers within the skin, which deliver information about sensations of pain, texture, itch and other feelings to the brain as a comprehensive sense of self. These tactile interactions can stimulate brain regions involved in interoception and reward processing. This study examined subjective, behavioral, and neural processing as a function of age during stimulation of A-beta (A?) and C tactile (CT) afferents using a soft brush stroke task. 16 adolescents (ages 15–17), 22 young adults (ages 20–28), and 20 mature adults (ages 29–55) underwent a simple continuous performance task while periodically anticipating and experiencing a soft touch to the palm or forearm, during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). fMRI results showed that adolescents displayed greater bilateral posterior insula activation than young and mature adults across all conditions and stimulus types. Adolescents also demonstrated greater bilateral posterior insula activation than young and mature adults specifically in response to the soft touch condition. Adolescents also exhibited greater activation than mature adults in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and striatum during the soft touch condition. However, mature adults showed greater striatum activation than adolescents and young adults during anticipation. In the left anterior cingulate cortex, mature adults exhibited greater activation than adolescents and young adults when anticipating the upcoming touch. These results support the hypothesis that adolescents show an exaggerated neural response to pleasant stimulation of afferents, which may have profound effects on how they approach or avoid social and risky situations. In particular, heightened interoceptive reactivity to pleasant stimuli might cause adolescents to seek experiences that are associated with pleasant stimulation. PMID:24600366

May, April C.; Stewart, Jennifer L.; Tapert, Susan F.; Paulus, Martin P.

2014-01-01

432

Input Finger Detection for Nonvisual Touch Screen Text Entry in Perkinput  

E-print Network

-handed Perkinput was significantly faster and more accurate than iPhone's VoiceOver. Furthermore, in a case study-installed on their devices, but Apple's iPhone seems to be the most popular touch screen phone among blind people. The iPhone. Bonner et al. [3] found that the mean text entry rate on an iPhone with VoiceOver was only 0.66 words per

Wobbrock, Jacob O.

433

Effects of Healing Touch in Clinical Practice: A Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hands-on healing and energy-based interventions have been found in cultures throughout history around the world. These complementary therapies, rooted in ancient Eastern healing practices, are becoming mainstream. Healing Touch, a biofield therapy that arose in the nursing field in the late 1980s, is used in a variety of settings (i.e., pain centers, surgical settings, and private practices) with reported benefits

Joel G. Anderson; Ann Gill Taylor

2011-01-01

434

Eyewitness Memory for a Touching Experience: Accuracy Differences Between Child and Adult Witnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children, ages 5–6 and 9–10 years, and adults spent 6 min with a man (toucher) who administered a test that required interpersonal touch. The test was briefly interrupted by a woman (intruder). Afterward, the participant-witnesses provided a memory report that included free recall, answers to objective-memory questions, and two lineup identifications. Relative to the adults and older children, the 5-

Michael R. Leippe; Ann Romanczyk; Andrew P. Manion

1991-01-01

435

The impact of light fingertip touch on haptic cortical processing during a standing balance task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Availability of fingertip touch onto a stable surface reduces body sway for subjects standing with eyes closed. This is largely\\u000a associated with sensory feedback from the fingertip when mechanical load is limited. Here, it is possible that the central\\u000a nervous system facilitates cortical sensory processing to augment feedback to control upright stance. To test this, we compared\\u000a cortical sensory excitability

David A. E. Bolton; William E. McIlroy; W. Richard Staines

2011-01-01

436

Self-touch affects motor imagery: a study on posture interference effect.  

PubMed

Several studies showed that mental rotation of body parts is interfered with by manipulation of the subjects' posture. However, the experimental manipulations in such studies, e.g., to hold one arm flexed on one's own chest, activated not only proprioceptive but also self-tactile information. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the combination of self-touch and proprioception is more effective than proprioception alone in interfering with motor imagery. In Experiment 1 right- and left-handers were required to perform the hand laterality task, while holding one arm (right or left) flexed with the hand in direct contact with their chest (self-touch condition, STC) or with the hand placed on a wooden smooth surface in correspondence with their chest (no self-touch condition, NoSTC); in a third neutral condition, subjects kept both arms extended (neutral posture condition, NPC). Right-handers were slower when judging hand laterality in STC with respect to NoSTC and NPC, particularly when the sensory manipulation involved their dominant arm. No posture-related effect was observed in left-handers. In Experiment 2, by applying the same sensory manipulations as above to both arms, we verified that previous results were not due to a conflict between perceived position of the two hands. These data highlighted a complex interaction between body schema and motor imagery, and underlined the role of hand dominance in shaping such interaction. PMID:21947174

Conson, Massimiliano; Mazzarella, Elisabetta; Trojano, Luigi

2011-11-01

437

Assessment of light touch sensation in the hands of systemic sclerosis patients  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: Systemic sclerosis is a relatively rare connective tissue disorder characterized by severe and progressive fibrosis of the skin. Due to the current lack of available information on this subject, the aim of the present study was to assess light touch sensations in the hands of patients with systemic sclerosis. METHODS: We completed a cross-sectional comparative study. Light touch sensations were evaluated in 30 individuals, including 15 patients with systemic sclerosis who exhibited changes in the dermis of their hands without loss of the distal phalanx and 15 subjects who did not exhibit changes in the upper limbs (control group). The groups were age- and sex-matched. Tactile sensory evaluations were performed using the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test and the two-point discrimination test. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found between groups in the monofilament test. The study group had lower scores across all points of the hand when compared with the control group. Differences were also found when dominant and non-dominant hands were compared (p<0.05). Statistically significant differences were found between groups for a subset of the assessed points in the two-point discrimination test. CONCLUSIONS: The results of a monofilament test showed that tactile sensation, specifically light touch and deep pressure sensations, is altered in the hands of systemic sclerosis patients.

Silva, Paula Gabriel; Jones, Anamaria; Araujo, Pola Maria Poli; Natour, Jamil

2014-01-01

438

Address entry while driving: speech recognition versus a touch-screen keyboard.  

PubMed

A driving simulator experiment was conducted to determine the effects of entering addresses into a navigation system during driving. Participants drove on roads of varying visual demand while entering addresses. Three address entry methods were explored: word-based speech recognition, character-based speech recognition, and typing on a touch-screen keyboard. For each method, vehicle control and task measures, glance timing, and subjective ratings were examined. During driving, word-based speech recognition yielded the shortest total task time (15.3 s), followed by character-based speech recognition (41.0 s) and touch-screen keyboard (86.0 s). The standard deviation of lateral position when performing keyboard entry (0.21 m) was 60% higher than that for all other address entry methods (0.13 m). Degradation of vehicle control associated with address entry using a touch screen suggests that the use of speech recognition is favorable. Speech recognition systems with visual feedback, however, even with excellent accuracy, are not without performance consequences. Applications of this research include the design of in-vehicle navigation systems as well as other systems requiring significant driver input, such as E-mail, the Internet, and text messaging. PMID:15709323

Tsimhoni, Omer; Smith, Daniel; Green, Paul

2004-01-01

439

First impressions and beyond: marketing your practice in touch points--Part I.  

PubMed

Often medical administrators or providers call in a marketing expert when they feel the practice is lacking the growth they want. What's on their mind is usually how to bring in more patients, and they automatically look to external marketing strategies. However, one of the most important elements to successfully marketing a practice is making sure you haven't created a turnstile, where new patients are coming often but not returning or being converted into loyal, referring patients. When new patients are going as quickly as they are coming, you aren't building solid growth. Loyal, referring patients are powerful marketing assets-they are in the community speaking good of you and your practice from first-hand experience. You can create this atmosphere of loyal, referring patients by providing positive touch points that fulfill the needs of your patients. Touch points are the groundwork supporting other types of marketing. This article covers three important touch points that are crucial to a positive patient experience. PMID:22413594

Bisera, Cheryl

2012-01-01

440

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a family 19 glycosyl hydrolase from Carica papaya latex.  

PubMed

A chitinase isolated from the latex of the tropical species Carica papaya has been purified to homogeneity and crystallized. This enzyme belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 19 and exhibits exceptional resistance to proteolysis. The initially observed crystals, which diffracted to a resolution of 2.0 A, were improved through modification of the crystallization protocol. Well ordered crystals were subsequently obtained using N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, the monomer resulting from the hydrolysis of chitin, as an additive to the crystallization solution. Here, the characterization of a chitinase crystal that belongs to the monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 69.08, b = 44.79, c = 76.73 A, beta = 95.33 degrees and two molecules per asymmetric unit, is reported. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.8 A. Structure refinement is currently in progress. PMID:18453704

Huet, Joëlle; Azarkan, Mohamed; Looze, Yvan; Villeret, Vincent; Wintjens, René

2008-05-01

441

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a family 19 glycosyl hydrolase from Carica papaya latex  

PubMed Central

A chitinase isolated from the latex of the tropical species Carica papaya has been purified to homogeneity and crystallized. This enzyme belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 19 and exhibits exceptional resistance to proteolysis. The initially observed crystals, which diffracted to a resolution of 2.0?Å, were improved through modification of the crystallization protocol. Well ordered crystals were subsequently obtained using N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, the mono­mer resulting from the hydrolysis of chitin, as an additive to the crystallization solution. Here, the characterization of a chitinase crystal that belongs to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 69.08, b = 44.79, c = 76.73?Å, ? = 95.33° and two molecules per asymmetric unit, is reported. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.8?Å. Structure refinement is currently in progress. PMID:18453704

Huet, Joelle; Azarkan, Mohamed; Looze, Yvan; Villeret, Vincent; Wintjens, Rene

2008-01-01

442

Green synthesis of colloidal copper oxide nanoparticles using Carica papaya and its application in photocatalytic dye degradation.  

PubMed

Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were synthesized by treating 5 mM cupric sulphate with Carica papaya leaves extract. The kinetics of the reaction was studied using UV-visible spectrophotometry. An intense surface Plasmon resonance between 250-300 nm in the UV-vis spectrum clearly reveals the formation of copper oxide nanoparticles. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) exhibited that the green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles are rod in shape and having a mean particle size of 140 nm, further negative zeta potential disclose its stability at -28.9 mV. The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results examined the occurrence of bioactive functional groups required for the reduction of copper ions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra confirmed the copper oxide nanoparticles crystalline nature. Furthermore, colloidal copper oxide nanoparticles effectively degrade the Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 dye beneath the sunlight. PMID:24388701

Sankar, Renu; Manikandan, Perumal; Malarvizhi, Viswanathan; Fathima, Tajudeennasrin; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

2014-01-01

443

Massage Therapy vs. Simple Touch to Improve Pain and Mood in Patients with Advanced Cancer: A Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Small studies of variable quality suggest that massage therapy may relieve pain and other symptoms. OBJECTIVE Evaluate efficacy of massage for decreasing pain and symptom distress and improving quality of life among persons with advanced cancer. DESIGN Multi-site randomized clinical trial. SETTING Population-based Palliative Care Research Network (PoPCRN). PATIENTS 380 adults with advanced cancer experiencing moderate-severe pain; 90% were enrolled in hospice. INTERVENTION Six 30-minute massage or simple touch sessions over two weeks. MEASUREMENTS Primary outcomes were immediate (Memorial Pain Assessment Card, MPAC, 0 – 10 scale) and sustained (Brief Pain Inventory, BPI, 0 – 10 scales) change in pain. Secondary outcomes were immediate change in mood (MPAC 0 – 10 scale) and 60-second heart and respiratory rates and sustained change in quality of life (McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire, MQOL, 0 – 10 scale), symptom distress (Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, MSAS, 0 – 4 scale), and analgesic medication use (parenteral morphine equivalents (milligrams/24 hours). Immediate outcomes were obtained just prior to and following each treatment session. Sustained outcomes were obtained at baseline and weekly for 3 weeks. RESULTS 298 were included in the immediate outcome analysis and 348 in the sustained outcome analysis. 82 did not receive any allocated study treatments (37 massage, 45 control). Both groups demonstrated immediate improvement in pain (massage -1.87 points (CI, -2.07, -1.67), control -0.97 points (CI, -1.18, -0.76)) and mood (massage 1.58 points (CI, 1.40, 1.76), control 0.97 points (CI, 0.78, 1.16)). Massage was superior for both pain and mood (mean difference 0.90 and 0.61 points, respectively, P<0.001). There were no between group mean differences over time in pain (BPI Mean 0.07 (CI, -0.23, 0.37), BPI Worst -0.14 (CI, -0.59, 0.31)), quality of life (MQOL Overall 0.08 (CI, -0.37, 0.53)), symptom distress (MSAS Global Distress Index -0.002 (CI, -0.12, 0.12)), or analgesic medication use (parenteral morphine equivalents -0.10 (CI, -0.25, 0.05). LIMITATIONS The immediate outcome measures were obtained by unblinded study therapists, possibly leading to reporting bias and the overestimation of beneficial effect. The generalizability to all advanced cancer patients is uncertain. The differential beneficial effect of massage therapy over simple touch is not conclusive in the absence of a “usual care” control arm. CONCLUSIONS Massage may have immediately beneficial effects on pain and mood among patients with advanced cancer. Given the lack of sustained effects and the observed improvements in both study arms, the potential benefits of attention and simple touch should also be considered in this population. PMID:18794556

Kutner, Jean S.; Smith, Marlaine C.; Corbin, Lisa; Hemphill, Linnea; Benton, Kathryn; Mellis, B. Karen; Beaty, Brenda; Felton, Sue; Yamashita, Traci E.; Bryant, Lucinda L.; Fairclough, Diane L.

2008-01-01

444

Give Me a Hug: The Effects of Touch and Autonomy on People's Responses to Embodied Social Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Embodied social agents are programmed to display human-like social behaviour to increase intuitiveness of interacting with these agents. It is not yet clear to what extent people respond to agents' social behaviours. One example is touch. Despite robots' ...

A. Amin, B. Wielinga, H. Cramer, N. Kemper, V. Evers

2009-01-01

445

deForm: An interactive malleable surface for capturing 2.5D arbitrary objects, tools and touch  

E-print Network

We introduce a novel input device, deForm, that supports 2.5D touch gestures, tangible tools, and arbitrary objects through real-time structured light scanning of a malleable surface of interaction. DeForm captures ...

Ishii, Hiroshi

446

19 CFR 4.89 - Vessels in foreign trade proceeding via domestic ports and touching at intermediate foreign ports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Vessels in foreign trade proceeding via domestic ports and touching...TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Coastwise Procedure § 4.89 Vessels in foreign trade proceeding via domestic ports and...

2010-04-01

447

19 CFR 4.89 - Vessels in foreign trade proceeding via domestic ports and touching at intermediate foreign ports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Vessels in foreign trade proceeding via domestic ports and touching...TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Coastwise Procedure § 4.89 Vessels in foreign trade proceeding via domestic ports and...

2011-04-01

448

19 CFR 4.89 - Vessels in foreign trade proceeding via domestic ports and touching at intermediate foreign ports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Vessels in foreign trade proceeding via domestic ports and touching...TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Coastwise Procedure § 4.89 Vessels in foreign trade proceeding via domestic ports and...

2013-04-01

449

19 CFR 4.89 - Vessels in foreign trade proceeding via domestic ports and touching at intermediate foreign ports.  

...2014-04-01 false Vessels in foreign trade proceeding via domestic ports and touching...TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Coastwise Procedure § 4.89 Vessels in foreign trade proceeding via domestic ports and...

2014-04-01

450

Clothed and unclothed human figure drawings lead to more correct and incorrect reports of touch in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of clothed and unclothed human figure drawings (HFDs) on children's reports of touch. Eighty 4\\/5-year-olds and 80 9\\/10-year-olds participated in a staged event in which measurements of their body parts (e.g. waistline) were taken. Specifically, they were touched on 10 different locations. Immediately or three weeks after the event,

Henry Otgaar; Robert Horselenberg; Ris van Kampen; Karina Lalleman

2011-01-01

451

Clothed and unclothed human figure drawings lead to more correct and incorrect reports of touch in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of clothed and unclothed human figure drawings (HFDs) on children's reports of touch. Eighty 4\\/5-year-olds and 80 9\\/10-year-olds participated in a staged event in which measurements of their body parts (e.g. waistline) were taken. Specifically, they were touched on 10 different locations. Immediately or three weeks after the event,

Henry Otgaar; Robert Horselenberg; Ris van Kampen; Karina Lalleman

2012-01-01

452

Correct names for some of the closest relatives of Carica papaya: A review of the Mexican/Guatemalan genera Jarilla and Horovitzia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Using molecular data, we recently showed that Carica papaya L. is sister to a Mexican/Guatemalan clade of two genera, Jarilla Rusby with three species and Horovitzia V.M. Badillo with one. These species are herbs or thin-stemmed trees and may be of interest for future genomics-enabled papaya breeding. Here we clarify the correct names of Jarilla heterophylla (Cerv. ex La Llave) Rusby and Jarilla caudata (Brandegee) Standl., which were confused in a recent systematic treatment of Jarilla (McVaugh 2001). We designate epitypes for both, provide weblinks to type specimens, a key to the species of Jarilla and Horovitzia, and notes on their habitats and distribution. PMID:24399895

Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; Renner, Susanne S.

2013-01-01

453

MEMS-based Force-clamp Analysis of the Role of Body Stiffness in C. elegans Touch Sensation  

PubMed Central

Touch is enabled by mechanoreceptor neurons in the skin and plays an essential role in our everyday lives, but is among the least understood of our five basic senses. Force applied to the skin deforms these neurons and activates ion channels within them. Despite the importance of the mechanics of the skin in determining mechanoreceptor neuron deformation and ultimately touch sensation, the role of mechanics in touch sensitivity is poorly understood. Here, we use the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to directly test the hypothesis that body mechanics modulate touch sensitivity. We demonstrate a microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based force clamp that can apply calibrated forces to freely crawling C. elegans worms and measure touch-evoked avoidance responses. This approach reveals that wild-type animals sense forces < 1 ?N and indentation depths < 1 ?m. We use both genetic manipulation of the skin and optogenetic modulation of body wall muscles to alter body mechanics. We find that small changes in body stiffness dramatically affect force sensitivity, while having only modest effects on indentation sensitivity. We investigate the theoretical body deformation predicted under applied force and conclude that local mechanical loads induce inward bending deformation of the skin to drive touch sensation in C. elegans. PMID:23598612

Petzold, Bryan C.; Park, Sung-Jin; Mazzochette, Eileen A.; Goodman, Miriam B.; Pruitt, Beth L.

2013-01-01

454

Nephroprotective activities of the aqueous seed extract of Carica papaya Linn. in carbon tetrachloride induced renal injured Wistar rats: a dose- and time-dependent study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the dose related effect of the aqueous seed extract of Carica papaya Linn. extract (CPE) was evaluated by pre-treating three groups of rats (made up of six male rats per group) with 100 - 400 mg\\/kg body weight per oral of the extract for 7 days before challenging with 1.5 ml\\/kg body weight of 20% carbon

JA Olagunju; AA Adeneye; AG Adeleke

455

High-resolution structure of a papaya plant-defense barwin-like protein solved by in-house sulfur-SAD phasing.  

PubMed

The first crystal structure of a barwin-like protein, named carwin, has been determined at high resolution by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) phasing using the six intrinsic S atoms present in the protein. The barwin-like protein was purified from Carica papaya latex and crystallized in the orthorhombic space group P212121. Using in-house Cu?K? X-ray radiation, 16 cumulative diffraction data sets were acquired to increase the signal-to-noise level and thereby the anomalous scattering signal. A sequence-database search on the papaya genome identified two carwin isoforms of 122 residues in length, both containing six S atoms that yield an estimated Bijvoet ratio of 0.93% at 1.54?Å wavelength. A systematic analysis of data quality and redundancy was performed to assess the capacity to locate the S atoms and to phase the data. It was observed that the crystal decay was low during data collection and that successful S-SAD phasing could be obtained with a relatively low data multiplicity of about 7. Using a synchrotron source, high-resolution data (1?Å) were collected from two different crystal forms of the papaya latex carwin. The refined structures showed a central ?-barrel of six strands surrounded by several ?-helices and loops. The ?-barrel of carwin appears to be a common structural module that is shared within several other unrelated proteins. Finally, the possible biological function of the protein is discussed. PMID:24100320

Huet, Joëlle; Teinkela Mbosso, Emmanuel Jean; Soror, Sameh; Meyer, Franck; Looze, Yvan; Wintjens, René; Wohlkönig, Alexandre

2013-10-01

456

Evaluation of Coronary Artery-Saphenous Vein Composite Grafts: The Aortic No-Touch Technique  

PubMed Central

We retrospectively compared the results of conventional coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) performed on patients who showed no preoperative evidence of serious atherosclerosis of the ascending aorta with the results of the aortic no-touch technique (using coronary artery–saphenous vein composite grafts) on CABG patients who did show such evidence. From 2003 through 2012, 3,152 consecutive patients underwent isolated primary CABG at our hospital. We chose 360 for the current study. The study group (n=120) comprised patients who had undergone operation via the aortic no-touch technique. Propensity-score-matching (1:2) was used to select the control group of 240 patients who had undergone conventional CABG. Early and late survival rates, reintervention-free survival rates, and freedom from cardiac death were compared. Early and late mortality rates were similar in the study and control groups (P=0.19 vs P=0.29, respectively), as were cardiac-related death (2.5% vs 2.1%, respectively; P=0.53) and overall death (8.3% vs 7.9%, respectively; P=0.51). Overall survival rates were 91.7% vs 92.1% and freedom-from-cardiac-death rates were 97.4% vs 97.5% (P=0.71 vs P=0.78, respectively; mean follow-up period, 5.27 ± 2.51 yr). Reintervention-free survival rates were also similar (96.7% vs 98.8%, respectively; P=0.2). As a result of the similar rates of early and late survival, reintervention-free survival, and freedom from cardiac death, we conclude that the aortic no-touch technique with composite grafts might be a reasonable option in patients who have atherosclerotic ascending aorta that cannot be clamped. PMID:24512396

Colkesen, Yucel; Demirturk, Orhan Saim; Tunel, Huseyin Ali; Turkoz, Riza; Gulcan, Oner

2014-01-01

457

Pleasant touch moderates the subjective but not objective aspects of body perception  

PubMed Central

Un-myelinated C tactile afferents (CT afferents) are a key finding in affective touch. These fibers, which activate in response to a caress-like touch to hairy skin (CT afferents are not found in palm skin), may have more in common with interoceptive systems encoding body ownership, than afferent systems processing other tactile stimuli. We tested whether subjective embodiment of a rubber hand (measured through questionnaire items) was increased when tactile stimulation was applied to the back of the hand at a rate optimal for CT afferents (3 cm/s) vs. stimulation of glabrous skin (on the palm of the hand) or at a non-optimal rate (30 cm/s), which should not activate these fibers. We also collected ratings of tactile pleasantness and a measure of perceived limb position, proprioceptive drift, which is mediated by different mechanisms of multisensory integration than those responsible for feelings of ownership. The results of a multiple regression analysis revealed that proprioceptive drift was a significant predictor of subjective strength of the illusion when tactile stimuli were applied to the back of the hand, regardless of stroking speed. This relationship was modified by pleasantness, with higher ratings when stimulation was applied to the back of the hand at the slower vs. faster stroking speed. Pleasantness was also a unique predictor of illusion strength when fast stroking was applied to the palm of the hand. However, there were no conditions under which pleasantness was a significant predictor of drift. Since the illusion was demonstrated at a non-optimal stroking speed an integrative role for CT afferents within the illusion cannot be fully supported. Pleasant touch, however, does moderate the subjective aspects of the rubber hand illusion, which under certain tactile conditions may interact with proprioceptive information about the body or have a unique influence on subjective body perception. PMID:24391563

Lloyd, Donna M.; Gillis, Victoria; Lewis, Elizabeth; Farrell, Martin J.; Morrison, India

2013-01-01

458

Calbindins decreased after space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca2+ metabolism, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. Calbindins, vitamin D-dependent Ca2+ binding proteins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. In this study, we used biochemical and immunocytochemical approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D28k and calbindin-D9k in kidneys, small intestine, and pancreas of rats flown for 9 d aboard the space shuttle. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats from space were compared with synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls, modeled weightlessness animals (tail suspension), and their controls. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant and sustained decrease in calbindin-D28k content in the kidney and calbindin-D9k in the small intestine of flight animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Modeled weightlessness animals exhibited a similar decrease in calbindins by ELISA. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in the kidney and the small intestine, and the expression of insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease of immunoreactivity in renal distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D28k and in intestinal absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D9k of space flight and modeled weightlessness animals compared with matched controls. No consistent difference in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space flight, modeled weightlessness, and controls was observed. Regression analysis of results obtained by quantitative ICC and ELISA for space flight, modeled weightlessness animals, and their controls demonstrated a significant correlation. These findings after a short-term exposure to microgravity or modeled weightlessness suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins may contribute to the disorders of Ca2+ metabolism induced by space flight.

Sergeev, I. N.; Rhoten, W. B.; Carney, M. D.

1996-01-01

459

Detection of strep throat causing bacterium directly from medical swabs by touch spray-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Strep throat causing Streptococcus pyogenes was detected in vitro and in simulated clinical samples by performing touch spray ionization-mass spectrometry. MS analysis took only seconds to reveal characteristic bacterial and human lipids. Medical swabs were used as the substrate for ambient ionization. This work constitutes the initial step in developing a non-invasive MS-based test for clinical diagnosis of strep throat. It is limited to the single species, S. pyogenes, which is responsible for the vast majority of cases. The method is complementary to and, with further testing, a potential alternative to current methods of point-of-care detection of S. pyogenes. PMID:25102079

Jarmusch, Alan K; Pirro, Valentina; Kerian, Kevin S; Cooks, R Graham

2014-08-26

460

Technologies for Decreasing Mining Losses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In case of stratified deposits like oil shale deposit in Estonia, mining losses depend on mining technologies. Current research focuses on extraction and separation possibilities of mineral resources. Selective mining, selective crushing and separation tests have been performed, showing possibilities of decreasing mining losses. Rock crushing and screening process simulations were used for optimizing rock fractions. In addition mine backfilling, fine separation, and optimized drilling and blasting have been analyzed. All tested methods show potential and depend on mineral usage. Usage in addition depends on the utilization technology. The questions like stability of the material flow and influences of the quality fluctuations to the final yield are raised.

Valgma, Ingo; Väizene, Vivika; Kolats, Margit; Saarnak, Martin

2013-12-01

461

Texture perception through direct and indirect touch: An analysis of perceptual space for tactile textures in two modes of exploration  

PubMed Central

Considerable information about the texture of objects can be perceived remotely through a probe. It is not clear, however, how texture perception with a probe compares with texture perception with the bare finger. Here we investigate the perception of a variety of textured surfaces encountered daily (e.g., corduroy, paper, and rubber) using the two scanning modes—direct touch through the finger and indirect touch through a probe held in the hand—in two tasks. In the first task, subjects rated the overall pair-wise dissimilarity of the textures. In the second task, subjects rated each texture along three continua, namely, perceived roughness, hardness, and stickiness of the surfaces, shown previously as the primary dimensions of texture perception in direct touch. From the dissimilarity judgment experiment, we found that the texture percept is similar though not identical in the two scanning modes. From the adjective rating experiments, we found that while roughness ratings are similar, hardness and stickiness ratings tend to differ between scanning conditions. These differences between the two modes of scanning are apparent in perceptual space for tactile textures based on multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis. Finally, we demonstrate that three physical quantities, vibratory power, compliance, and friction carry roughness, hardness, and stickiness information, predicting perceived dissimilarity of texture pairs with indirect touch. Given that different types of texture information are processed by separate groups of neurons across direct and indirect touch, we propose that the neural mechanisms underlying texture perception differ between scanning modes. PMID:17558923

Yoshioka, T.; Bensamaia, S. J.; Craig, J. C.; Hsiao, S. S.

2007-01-01

462

Response speed advantage for vision does not extend to touch in early deaf adults.  

PubMed

Early deaf adults typically respond faster than hearing controls when performing a speeded simple detection on visual targets. Whether this response time advantage can generalise to another intact modality (touch) or it is instead specific to visual processing remained unexplored. We tested eight early deaf adults and twelve hearing controls in a simple detection task, with visual or tactile targets delivered on the arms and occupying the same locations in external space. Catch trials were included in the experimental paradigm. Results revealed a response time advantage in deaf adults compared to hearing controls, selectively for visual targets. This advantage did not extend to touch. The number of anticipation errors was negligible and comparable in both groups. The present findings strengthen the notion that response time advantage in deaf adults emerges as a consequence of changes specific to visual processing. They also exclude the involvement of sensory-unspecific cognitive mechanisms in this improvement (e.g. increased impulsivity in initiation of response, longer-lasting sustained attention or higher motivation to perform the task). Finally, they provide initial evidence that the intact sensory modalities can reorganise independently from each other following early auditory deprivation. PMID:24477765

Heimler, Benedetta; Pavani, Francesco

2014-04-01

463

Generating tactile afferent stimulation patterns for slip and touch feedback in neural prosthetics.  

PubMed

Current prosthetic limbs are limited by a lack of tactile feedback. Slip feedback is particularly important to inform grip. Object slip is marked by both a change in the normal grip force applied and a change in force tangential to the fingertips. In this study, we demonstrate that a new multi-axial tactile sensor composed of gold nanoparticle strain gauges is able to record slip and reconstruct the X, Y, and Z forces incident on the sensor's surface due to a slipping object. We entered the X, Y, and Z force components generated by the slip event into a noisy leaky integrate and fire model to simulate the firing responses of SA1 and FA1 afferents. We also recorded a uniaxial normal force input representative of tactile contact. A single set of SA1 model and FA1 model parameters generated realistic firing patterns for both the slip and normal force recordings. These results suggest that canonical SA1 and FA1 afferent models could be used to generate biomimetic electrical stimulation patterns for both slip and touch stimuli. When used to activate the tactile afferents of an amputee, these electrical stimulation patterns could create natural and distinguishable slip and touch percepts for closed loop control of an upper limb neural prosthesis. PMID:24111087

Rager, Danielle M; Alvares, Darren; Birznieks, Ingvars; Redmond, Stephen J; Morley, John W; Lovell, Nigel H; Vickery, Richard M

2013-01-01

464

Tuning Piezo ion channels to detect molecular-scale movements relevant for fine touch  

PubMed Central

In sensory neurons, mechanotransduction is sensitive, fast and requires mechanosensitive ion channels. Here we develop a new method to directly monitor mechanotransduction at defined regions of the cell-substrate interface. We show that molecular-scale (~13?nm) displacements are sufficient to gate mechanosensitive currents in mouse touch receptors. Using neurons from knockout mice, we show that displacement thresholds increase by one order of magnitude in the absence of stomatin-like protein 3 (STOML3). Piezo1 is the founding member of a class of mammalian stretch-activated ion channels, and we show that STOML3, but not other stomatin-domain proteins, brings the activation threshold for Piezo1 and Piezo2 currents down to ~10?nm. Structure–function experiments localize the Piezo modulatory activity of STOML3 to the stomatin domain, and higher-order scaffolds are a prerequisite for function. STOML3 is the first potent modulator of Piezo channels that tunes the sensitivity of mechanically gated channels to detect molecular-scale stimuli relevant for fine touch. PMID:24662763

Poole, Kate; Herget, Regina; Lapatsina, Liudmila; Ngo, Ha-Duong; Lewin, Gary R.

2014-01-01

465

The brain’s response to pleasant touch: an EEG investigation of tactile caressing  

PubMed Central

Somatosensation as a proximal sense can have a strong impact on our attitude toward physical objects and other human beings. However, relatively little is known about how hedonic valence of touch is processed at the cortical level. Here we investigated the electrophysiological correlates of affective tactile sensation during caressing of the right forearm with pleasant and unpleasant textile fabrics. We show dissociation between more physically driven differential brain responses to the different fabrics in early somatosensory cortex – the well-known mu-suppression (10–20 Hz) – and a beta-band response (25–30 Hz) in presumably higher-order somatosensory areas in the right hemisphere that correlated well with the subjective valence of tactile caressing. Importantly, when using single trial classification techniques, beta-power significantly distinguished between pleasant and unpleasant stimulation on a single trial basis with high accuracy. Our results therefore suggest a dissociation of the sensory and affective aspects of touch in the somatosensory system and may provide features that may be used for single trial decoding of affective mental states from simple electroencephalographic measurements.

Singh, Harsimrat; Bauer, Markus; Chowanski, Wojtek; Sui, Yi; Atkinson, Douglas; Baurley, Sharon; Fry, Martin; Evans, Joe; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia

2014-01-01

466

Synthetic aperture radar data visualization on the iPod Touch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major area of focus for the Air Force is sensor performance in urban environments. Aircraft with multiple sensor modalities, such as Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR), Infrared (IR), and Electro-Optics (EO), are essential for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) of current and future urban battlefields. Although applications exist for visualization of these types of imagery, they usually require at least a laptop computer and internet connection. Field operatives need to be able to access georeferenced information about imagery as part of a Geographic Information System (GIS) on mobile devices. The iPod/iPhone has a 640x480 resolution multi-touch display, making it an excellent device for interacting with georeferenced imagery. We created an iPhone application that loads SAR imagery and allows the user to interact with it. The user multi-touch interface provides pan and zoom capabilities as well as options to change parameters relating to the query. We describe how operatives in the field can use this application to investigate SAR and GIS related problems on the iPhone mobile device, which otherwise would require a computer and Internet connection.

Fouts, Aaron; Vickery, Rhonda; Majumder, Uttam; Burchett, Tracy; Klein, Troy; Minardi, Michael

2010-04-01

467

Touch HDR: photograph enhancement by user controlled wide dynamic range adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Dynamic Range (HDR) technology enables photographers to capture a greater range of tonal detail. HDR is typically used to bring out detail in a dark foreground object set against a bright background. HDR technologies include multi-frame HDR and single-frame HDR. Multi-frame HDR requires the combination of a sequence of images taken at different exposures. Single-frame HDR requires histogram equalization post-processing of a single image, a technique referred to as local tone mapping (LTM). Images generated using HDR technology can look less natural than their non- HDR counterparts. Sometimes it is only desired to enhance small regions of an original image. For example, it may be desired to enhance the tonal detail of one subject's face while preserving the original background. The Touch HDR technique described in this paper achieves these goals by enabling selective blending of HDR and non-HDR versions of the same image to create a hybrid image. The HDR version of the image can be generated by either multi-frame or single-frame HDR. Selective blending can be performed as a post-processing step, for example, as a feature of a photo editor application, at any time after the image has been captured. HDR and non-HDR blending is controlled by a weighting surface, which is configured by the user through a sequence of touches on a touchscreen.

Verrall, Steve; Siddiqui, Hasib; Atanassov, Kalin; Goma, Sergio; Ramachandra, Vikas

2013-03-01

468

Force sensitive handles and capacitive touch sensor for driving a flexible haptic-based immersive system.  

PubMed

In this article, we present an approach that uses both two force sensitive handles (FSH) and a flexible capacitive touch sensor (FC