Science.gov

Sample records for papaya touch decreases

  1. Novel thigmomorphogenetic responses in Carica papaya: touch decreases anthocyanin levels and stimulates petiole cork outgrowths

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Brad W.; Zhu, Yun J.; Webb, David T.; Christopher, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Because of its rapid growth rate, relative ease of transformation, sequenced genome and low gene number relative to Arabidopsis, the tropical fruit tree, Carica papaya, can serve as a complementary genetic model for complex traits. Here, new phenotypes and touch-regulated gene homologues have been identified that can be used to advance the understanding of thigmomorphogenesis, a multigenic response involving mechanoreception and morphological change. Methods Morphological alterations were quantified, and microscopy of tissue was conducted. Assays for hypocotyl anthocyanins, lignin and chlorophyll were performed, and predicted genes from C. papaya were compared with Arabidopsis touch-inducible (TCH) and Mechanosensitive channel of Small conductance-like genes (MscS-like or MSL). In addition, the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues was characterized. Key Results On the abaxial side of petioles, treated plants were found to have novel, hypertrophic outgrowths associated with periderm and suberin. Touched plants also had higher lignin, dramatically less hypocotyl anthocyanins and chlorophyll, increased hypocotyl diameter, and decreased leaf width, stem length and root fresh weight. Papaya was found to have fewer MSL genes than Arabidopsis, and four touch-regulated genes in Arabidopsis had no counterparts in papaya. Water-spray treatment was found to enhance the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues whereas induction following touch was only slightly correlated. Conclusions The novel petiole outgrowths caused by non-wounding, mechanical perturbation may be the result of hardening mechanisms, including added lignin, providing resistance against petiole movement. Inhibition of anthocyanin accumulation following touch, a new phenotypic association, may be caused by diversion of p-coumaroyl CoA away from chalcone synthase for lignin synthesis. The absence of MSL and touch-gene homologues indicates that papaya may have a smaller set of touch

  2. Papaya

    MedlinePlus

    Papaya is a plant. The leaves are used to make medicine. Papaya is used for preventing and treating gastrointestinal tract ... of the lymphatic system caused by parasitic worms. Papaya contains a chemical called papain, which is commonly ...

  3. Papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya is a tropical crop that is widely grown in household gardens and also commercially in plantations. However, papaya production has been severely limited by papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), the most widespread and damaging virus that affects papaya. In Hawaii, PRSV had been present since the 194...

  4. Papaya Ringspot Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The term papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was coined by Jensen in 1949, to describe a papaya disease in Hawaii. Later work showed that diseases such as papaya mosaic and watermelon mosaic virus-1 were caused by PRSV. The primary host range of PRSV is papaya and cucurbits, with Chenopium amaranticolor ...

  5. Papaya nutritional analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papayas are sweet, flavorful tropical fruit, rich in vitamin C and carotenoids. Multiple interactions among preharvest environmental conditions, genetics, and physiology determine papaya nutritional composition at harvest. Selecting a cultivar with the genetic potential for high nutrient content and...

  6. Sex Determination in Papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex determination is an intriguing system in trioecious papaya. Over the past seven decades various hypotheses, based on the knowledge and information available at the time, have been proposed to explain the genetics of the papaya's sex determination. These include a single gene with three alleles...

  7. Assaying for pollen drift from transgenic Rainbow to nontransgenic Kapoho papaya under commercial and experimental field conditions in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1992 papaya ringpsot virus (PRSV) was discovered in Puna district of Hawaii Island where 95% of the state of Hawaii’s papaya was being grown. By 1998 production in Puna had decreased 50% from 1998 levels. A PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya ‘Rainbow’ expressing the coat protein gene of PRSV was ...

  8. Post-irradiation identification of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2012-03-01

    Impact of radiation processing on the volatile essential oil profile of papaya ( Carica papaya) was investigated. Gamma-radiation processing resulted in the appearance of a new peak in the GLC profile that was identified as phenol. The observed dose dependent increase in phenol content suggested possible use of this compound as a marker for radiation processed papaya.

  9. Ecophysiology of papaya Carica papaya L.: a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of how papaya responds to environmental factors provides a scientific basis to develop management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. A better understanding of genotypic responses t...

  10. Papaya: environment and crop physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of how papaya responds to environmental factors provides a scientific basis for the development of management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. A better understanding of genotyp...

  11. Functional Genomics Tools for Papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the genome of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sequenced, the study of gene function is becoming an increasing priority. Our research is to develop an RNA-induced gene silencing tool for the study of functional genomics in papaya. We employed agrobacterium leaf infiltration to induce PTGS in '-glucuro...

  12. Effect of papaya (Carica papaya linn) on pregnancy and estrous cycle in albino rats of Wistar strain.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, M; Rajasekharasetty, M R

    1978-01-01

    The antifertility effects of Carica papaya were investigated by feeding adult cycling and pregnant rats with different components of its fruits. No attempt was made to force-feed the animals. The results indicate that unripe fruits of papaya interrupt estrous cycle and induce abortions. The abortifacient property seems to decrease as the fruit becomes stale or ripe. Exogenous progesterone counteracts partially the adverse effects on pregnancy and the surviving foeti are without any distinct malformations. PMID:680941

  13. Effects of chemical treatments on fresh-cut papaya.

    PubMed

    Albertini, Silvana; Lai Reyes, Andrés Enrique; Trigo, Juliana Moreno; Sarriés, Gabriel Adrián; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet

    2016-01-01

    Four treatments (control, 0.1% cinnamaldehyde, 0.75% calcium chloride and combination of 0.1% cinnamaldehyde and 0.75% calcium chloride) were used to evaluate chemical effects on shelf life, quality and sensory acceptability of fresh-cut papaya (Carica papaya L.). Papaya slices were packed and covered with polypropylene film, stored at 5 °C; and evaluated after 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 days for microbiological and physicochemical changes. A sensory evaluation was performed at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days. There was no occurrence of Salmonella, Escherichia coli or psychotropic bacteria. The cinnamaldehyde alone and a combination of cinnamaldehyde and calcium chloride treatments yielded better control of the total coliforms. The combination treatment decreased the CO2 concentration and increased the maintenance of papaya firmness. All the treatments had acceptability. The combination treatment was the most effective treatment for flavor, taste, and preservation until day 12. PMID:26213093

  14. Papaya ringspot virus (Potyviridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus, a member of the family Potyviridae, is single stranded RNA plant virus with a monocistronic genome of about 10,326 nucleotides that is expressed via a large polyprotein subsequently cleaved into functional proteins. It causes severe damage on cucurbit crops such as squash and...

  15. Carica papaya microRNAs are responsive to Papaya meleira virus infection.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Paolla M V; Gaspar, Clicia G; Buss, David S; Ventura, José A; Ferreira, Paulo C G; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are implicated in the response to biotic stresses. Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of sticky disease, a commercially important pathology in papaya for which there are currently no resistant varieties. PMeV has a number of unusual features, such as residence in the laticifers of infected plants, and the response of the papaya to PMeV infection is not well understood. The protein levels of 20S proteasome subunits increase during PMeV infection, suggesting that proteolysis could be an important aspect of the plant defense response mechanism. To date, 10,598 plant microRNAs have been identified in the Plant miRNAs Database, but only two, miR162 and miR403, are from papaya. In this study, known plant microRNA sequences were used to search for potential microRNAs in the papaya genome. A total of 462 microRNAs, representing 72 microRNA families, were identified. The expression of 11 microRNAs, whose targets are involved in 20S and 26S proteasomal degradation and in other stress response pathways, was compared by real-time PCR in healthy and infected papaya leaf tissue. We found that the expression of miRNAs involved in proteasomal degradation increased in response to very low levels of PMeV titre and decreased as the viral titre increased. In contrast, miRNAs implicated in the plant response to biotic stress decreased their expression at very low level of PMeV and increased at high PMeV levels. Corroborating with this results, analysed target genes for this miRNAs had their expression modulated in a dependent manner. This study represents a comprehensive identification of conserved miRNAs inpapaya. The data presented here might help to complement the available molecular and genomic tools for the study of papaya. The differential expression of some miRNAs and identifying their target genes will be helpful for understanding the regulation and interaction of PMeV and papaya. PMID:25072834

  16. Spiders associated with papaya, Carica papaya L., in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The main objective of this work was to study the species composition and population dynamics of spiders associated with papaya plantings in three papaya production areas: Corozal, Isabela, and Lajas, Puerto Rico. Nineteen species representing seven families and 15 genera were identified. Members of ...

  17. Biogasification of papaya processing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, P.Y.; Weitzenhoff, M.H.; Moy, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Biogasification of papaya processing wastes for pollution control and energy utilization is feasible. The biogasification process with sludge recycling permits smaller reactor volume without any deterioration of CH4 production rate and CH4 content. Appropriate design and operational criteria for biogasification processing of papaya wastes were developed.

  18. Identification and detection of genetically modified papaya resistant to papaya ringspot virus strains in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Noguchi, Akio; Ohmori, Kiyomi; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Many lines of genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus) have been developed worldwide to resist infection from various strains of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). We found an unidentified and unauthorized GM papaya in imported processed papaya food. Transgenic vector construct that provides resistance to the PRSV strains isolated in Thailand was detected. An original and specific real-time polymerase chain reaction method was generated to qualitatively detect the PRSV-Thailand-resistant GM papaya. PMID:24172062

  19. Touch relieves stress and pain.

    PubMed

    Fishman, E; Turkheimer, E; DeGood, D E

    1995-02-01

    There are few systematic investigations of the potential benefits of incidental touch as it occurs in medical health care settings. In the present laboratory study 60 college students participated in two testing sessions 1 month apart. These sessions involved counterbalanced conditions of baseline, pulse palpation (touch), cold pressor test (stressor), and combined cold pressor/pulse palpation. Heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured during each condition. Subjective pain ratings were recorded during stress conditions. Significant decreases in cardiovascular measures and pain ratings were associated with physical contact. However, these changes were small and individual responses to physical contact were not stable over time. Physical contact produces a small but significant decrease in cardiovascular variables and the experience of pain. However, the tendency to show a cardiovascular response to touch does not represent a stable trait for individuals in the laboratory setting. PMID:7595953

  20. Touch influences perceived gloss.

    PubMed

    Adams, Wendy J; Kerrigan, Iona S; Graf, Erich W

    2016-01-01

    Identifying an object's material properties supports recognition and action planning: we grasp objects according to how heavy, hard or slippery we expect them to be. Visual cues to material qualities such as gloss have recently received attention, but how they interact with haptic (touch) information has been largely overlooked. Here, we show that touch modulates gloss perception: objects that feel slippery are perceived as glossier (more shiny).Participants explored virtual objects that varied in look and feel. A discrimination paradigm (Experiment 1) revealed that observers integrate visual gloss with haptic information. Observers could easily detect an increase in glossiness when it was paired with a decrease in friction. In contrast, increased glossiness coupled with decreased slipperiness produced a small perceptual change: the visual and haptic changes counteracted each other. Subjective ratings (Experiment 2) reflected a similar interaction - slippery objects were rated as glossier and vice versa. The sensory system treats visual gloss and haptic friction as correlated cues to surface material. Although friction is not a perfect predictor of gloss, the visual system appears to know and use a probabilistic relationship between these variables to bias perception - a sensible strategy given the ambiguity of visual clues to gloss. PMID:26915492

  1. Touch influences perceived gloss

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Wendy J.; Kerrigan, Iona S.; Graf, Erich W.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying an object’s material properties supports recognition and action planning: we grasp objects according to how heavy, hard or slippery we expect them to be. Visual cues to material qualities such as gloss have recently received attention, but how they interact with haptic (touch) information has been largely overlooked. Here, we show that touch modulates gloss perception: objects that feel slippery are perceived as glossier (more shiny).Participants explored virtual objects that varied in look and feel. A discrimination paradigm (Experiment 1) revealed that observers integrate visual gloss with haptic information. Observers could easily detect an increase in glossiness when it was paired with a decrease in friction. In contrast, increased glossiness coupled with decreased slipperiness produced a small perceptual change: the visual and haptic changes counteracted each other. Subjective ratings (Experiment 2) reflected a similar interaction – slippery objects were rated as glossier and vice versa. The sensory system treats visual gloss and haptic friction as correlated cues to surface material. Although friction is not a perfect predictor of gloss, the visual system appears to know and use a probabilistic relationship between these variables to bias perception – a sensible strategy given the ambiguity of visual clues to gloss. PMID:26915492

  2. Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional plant treatment for diabetes has shown a surging interest in the last few decades. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves in diabetic rats. Several studies have reported that some parts of the C. papaya plant exert hypoglycemic effects in both animals and humans. Methods Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ). The aqueous extract of C. papaya was administered in three different doses (0.75, 1.5 and 3 g/100 mL) as drinking water to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals during 4 weeks. Results The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (0.75 g and 1.5 g/100 mL) significantly decreased blood glucose levels (p<0.05) in diabetic rats. It also decreased cholesterol, triacylglycerol and amino-transferases blood levels. Low plasma insulin levels did not change after treatment in diabetic rats, but they significantly increased in non-diabetic animals. Pancreatic islet cells were normal in non-diabetic treated animals, whereas in diabetic treated rats, C. papaya could help islet regeneration manifested as preservation of cell size. In the liver of diabetic treated rats, C. papaya prevented hepatocyte disruption, as well as accumulation of glycogen and lipids. Finally, an antioxidant effect of C. papaya extract was also detected in diabetic rats. Conclusions This study showed that the aqueous extract of C. papaya exerted a hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect; it also improved the lipid profile in diabetic rats. In addition, the leaf extract positively affected integrity and function of both liver and pancreas. PMID:23190471

  3. Protection and coexistence of conventional papaya productions with PRSV resistant transgenic papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a devastating disease that has a detrimental impact on both commercial papaya production and Caricaceae germplasm conservation. Transgenic line 55-1 and derived progeny ‘SunUp’ and ‘Rainbow’ are resistant to PRSV and have saved the papaya industry in Hawaii. In small...

  4. Managing papaya ringspot virus: Impact of grass barriers on alate aphid immigration into papaya orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus, transmitted by alate aphids, is the most limiting factor of papaya production in the Caribbean region. Although there are transgenic papaya varieties that provide protection from this virus, these varieties are effective only in certain regions against certain strains of the v...

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Papaya Ringspot Virus Isolated from Genetically Modified Papaya in Hainan Island, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guangyuan; Yan, Pu; Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence (10,326 nucleotides) of a papaya ringspot virus isolate infecting genetically modified papaya in Hainan Island of China was determined through reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The virus shares 92% nucleotide sequence identity with the isolate that is unable to infect PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya. PMID:26358610

  6. Allergenicity assessment of the Papaya ringspot virus coat protein expressed in transgenic Rainbow papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The virus-resistant, transgenic commercial papaya cultivars Rainbow and SunUp (Carica papaya L.) have been consumed locally in Hawaii and elsewhere in the mainland US and Canada since their release to planters in Hawaii in 1998. These cultivars are derived from transgenic papaya line 55-1 and carry ...

  7. Touch communicates distinct emotions.

    PubMed

    Hertenstein, Matthew J; Keltner, Dacher; App, Betsy; Bulleit, Brittany A; Jaskolka, Ariane R

    2006-08-01

    The study of emotional signaling has focused almost exclusively on the face and voice. In 2 studies, the authors investigated whether people can identify emotions from the experience of being touched by a stranger on the arm (without seeing the touch). In the 3rd study, they investigated whether observers can identify emotions from watching someone being touched on the arm. Two kinds of evidence suggest that humans can communicate numerous emotions with touch. First, participants in the United States (Study 1) and Spain (Study 2) could decode anger, fear, disgust, love, gratitude, and sympathy via touch at much-better-than-chance levels. Second, fine-grained coding documented specific touch behaviors associated with different emotions. In Study 3, the authors provide evidence that participants can accurately decode distinct emotions by merely watching others communicate via touch. The findings are discussed in terms of their contributions to affective science and the evolution of altruism and cooperation. PMID:16938094

  8. Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas ( Carica papaya L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo, R. J.; Tadini, C. C.; Sabato, S. F.

    2007-11-01

    Papaya is cultivated in Espírito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature.

  9. Recent Origin of the Papaya Sex Chromosomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex chromosomes in flowering plants, in contrast to those in animals, evolved relatively recently and only a few are heteromorphic. The sex chromosomes of papaya appear at the cytological level to be homomorphic but, at the molecular level, we are finding that the papaya Y chromosome shows features ...

  10. Anticancer activity of Carica papaya: a review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao T T; Shaw, Paul N; Parat, Marie-Odile; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2013-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries and is used as food as well as traditional medicine to treat a range of diseases. Increasing anecdotal reports of its effects in cancer treatment and prevention, with many successful cases, have warranted that these pharmacological properties be scientifically validated. A bibliographic search was conducted using the key words "papaya", "anticancer", and "antitumor" along with cross-referencing. No clinical or animal cancer studies were identified and only seven in vitro cell-culture-based studies were reported; these indicate that C. papaya extracts may alter the growth of several types of cancer cell lines. However, many studies focused on specific compounds in papaya and reported bioactivity including anticancer effects. This review summarizes the results of extract-based or specific compound-based investigations and emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to explore the bioactives in C. papaya for their anticancer activities. PMID:23212988

  11. Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, M. G.; Santos, E. O.; Sthel, M. S.; Cardoso, S. L.; Cavalli, A.; Monteiro, A. R.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2003-01-01

    Ripening studies of nontreated and treated papaya (papaya L) are accomplished by monitoring the ethylene and CO2 emission rates of that climacteric fruit, to evaluate its shelf life. The treatments simulate the commercial Phitosanitarian process used to avoid the fly infestation. Ethylene emission was measured using a commercial CO2 laser driven photoacoustic setup and CO2, using a commercial gas analysis also based on the photothermal effect. The results show a marked change in ethylene and CO2 emission rate pattern for treated fruits when compared to the ones obtained for nontreated fruits and a displacement of the climacteric pick shown that the treatment causes a decrease of shelf life of fruit.

  12. Touch Sensor for Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primus, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    Touch sensor for robot hands provides information about shape of grasped object and force exerted by gripper on object. Pins projecting from sensor create electrical signals when pressed. When grasped object depresses pin, it contacts electrode under it, connecting electrode to common electrode. Sensor indicates where, and how firmly, gripper has touched object.

  13. Stay in touch.

    PubMed

    Barker, Phil; Buchanan-Barker, Poppy

    Touch is used in many cultures as a means of relating directly with another person. In this seventh article in our Heart of Nursing series, we look at how touch, used judiciously, can be a priceless form of doing. PMID:17016982

  14. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×103/µL, 8.10×103/µL, 84.0% to 55×103/µL, 3.7×103/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×103/µL to 168×103/µL, WBC from 3.7×103/µL to 7.7×103/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases. PMID:23569787

  15. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report a draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree crop. The papaya genome has more than two times the DNA but about 28% fewer genes than the genome of the related botanical model Arabidopsis. A lack of genome duplication, atypical of angi...

  16. Erwinia mallotivora sp., a new pathogen of papaya (Carica papaya) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Amin, Noriha Mat; Bunawan, Hamidun; Redzuan, Rohaiza Ahmad; Jaganath, Indu Bala S

    2010-01-01

    Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414). Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch's postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya. PMID:21339975

  17. Active touch sensing

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Tony J.; Diamond, Mathew E.; Wing, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Active sensing systems are purposive and information-seeking sensory systems. Active sensing usually entails sensor movement, but more fundamentally, it involves control of the sensor apparatus, in whatever manner best suits the task, so as to maximize information gain. In animals, active sensing is perhaps most evident in the modality of touch. In this theme issue, we look at active touch across a broad range of species from insects, terrestrial and marine mammals, through to humans. In addition to analysing natural touch, we also consider how engineering is beginning to exploit physical analogues of these biological systems so as to endow robots with rich tactile sensing capabilities. The different contributions show not only the varieties of active touch—antennae, whiskers and fingertips—but also their commonalities. They explore how active touch sensing has evolved in different animal lineages, how it serves to provide rapid and reliable cues for controlling ongoing behaviour, and even how it can disintegrate when our brains begin to fail. They demonstrate that research on active touch offers a means both to understand this essential and primary sensory modality, and to investigate how animals, including man, combine movement with sensing so as to make sense of, and act effectively in, the world. PMID:21969680

  18. Diversity of Papaya ringspot virus isolates in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) devastates papaya production worldwide. In Puerto Rico, papaya fields can be completely infected with PRSV within a year of planting. Information about the diversity of the Puerto Rican PRSV population is relevant in order to establish a control strategy in the island. T...

  19. Transgenic Papaya: Can We Proceed Beyond the Hawaiian Experience?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The story of the development, deregulation, and commercialization of the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) resistant transgenic SunUp and Rainbow papaya for Hawaii is quite well known at least among plant virologist and knowledgeable people in the field of papaya. Thus, the story will be only briefly r...

  20. Touch Perception Altered by Chronic Pain and by Opioid Blockade.

    PubMed

    Case, Laura K; Čeko, Marta; Gracely, John L; Richards, Emily A; Olausson, Håkan; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Touch plays a significant role in human social behavior and social communication, and its rewarding nature has been suggested to involve opioids. Opioid blockade in monkeys leads to increased solicitation and receipt of grooming, suggesting heightened enjoyment of touch. We sought to study the role of endogenous opioids in perception of affective touch in healthy adults and in patients with fibromyalgia, a chronic pain condition shown to involve reduced opioid receptor availability. The pleasantness of touch has been linked to the activation of C-tactile fibers, which respond maximally to slow gentle touch and correlate with ratings of pleasantness. We administered naloxone to patients and healthy controls to directly observe the consequences of µ-opioid blockade on the perceived pleasantness and intensity of touch. We found that at baseline chronic pain patients showed a blunted distinction between slow and fast brushing for both intensity and pleasantness, suggesting reduced C-tactile touch processing. In addition, we found a differential effect of opioid blockade on touch perception in healthy subjects and pain patients. In healthy individuals, opioid blockade showed a trend toward increased ratings of touch pleasantness, while in chronic pain patients it significantly decreased ratings of touch intensity. Further, in healthy individuals, naloxone-induced increase in touch pleasantness was associated with naloxone-induced decreased preference for slow touch, suggesting a possible effect of opioid levels on processing of C-tactile fiber input. These findings suggest a role for endogenous opioids in touch processing, and provide further evidence for altered opioid functioning in chronic pain patients. PMID:27022625

  1. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of unripe papaya.

    PubMed

    Osato, J A; Santiago, L A; Remo, G M; Cuadra, M S; Mori, A

    1993-01-01

    The meat, seed and pulp of Carica papaya Linn., a popular traditional medicinal herb grown in the tropics, was shown by the agar-cup method to be bacteriostatic against several enteropathogens such as Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The same parts of papaya were unequivocably demonstrated by electron spin resonance spectrometry to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (5.8 x 10(14) spins/ml), hydroxyl (5.1 x 10(14) spins/ml) and superoxide (1.2 x 10(14) spins/ml) radicals with the seed giving the highest activity at concentrations (IC50) of 2.1, 10.0 and 8.7 mg/ml, respectively. The superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity in the meat, seed and pulp amounts to about 32, 98 and 33 units/ml; comparable to those of soybean paste miso, rice bran and baker's yeast. Vitamin C, malic acid, citric acid and glucose are some of the possible antioxidative components in papaya. Our study correlates the bacteriostatic activity of papaya with its scavenging action on superoxide and hydroxyl radicals which could be part of the cellular metabolism of such enteropathogens. This is indicative of the pathophysiological role of these reactive oxygen species in gastrointestinal diseases and papaya's ability to counteract the oxidative stress. PMID:8412504

  2. Papaya

    MedlinePlus

    Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely ... conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses ...

  3. Touched by Turner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This is a personal reflection on an encounter with the works of the nineteenth-century painter J. M. W. Turner in London's Tate Britain exhibition "Late Turner: Painting Set Free". The article discusses the deeply subjective nature of engaging with artworks, and touches upon theories that might account for the ineffable but moving…

  4. [Developing touch through rugby].

    PubMed

    Becas, Didier; Luksenberg, Marion; Denis, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    Rugby subjects the body to a tough test. Attack, defence, contact, touching are all elements which form part of this physical activity. It is very structured and safe from a psychological perspective. Taking pleasure in the game, with its rules, helps patients to develop interpersonal and relationship skills. PMID:23631084

  5. Getting in Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the growing demand of using touchscreen interface. Consumers are now seeing touchscreens in a wide variety of electronics, not only in competitors to the iPhone from Sony, Samsung, Motorola, LG and T-Mobile, but also in desktop PCs, printers and copiers, televisions, and MP3 players. Teens, if they don't have a touch-enabled…

  6. Correlation between ethylene emission and skin colour changes during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Vitoria, A. P.; Corrêa, S. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Campostrini, E.; Santos, E. O.; Cavalli, A.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The skin colour changes and ethylene emission rates were monitored during papaya (C. papaya L.) fruit ripening. Two groups of papaya (‘Formosa’ and ‘Solo’) were applied in this study. The total colour difference was used as measured parameter and the corresponding half time of its saturation was used as correlation parameter. A high correlation factor between the saturation half time and corresponding climacteric peak time was found. It was concluded that high ethylene emission rate in ‘Solo’ fruit promotes a quick change of the total colour difference.

  7. Olfactory modulation of affective touch processing - A neurophysiological investigation.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Drechsler, Edda; Hamilton, Paul; Hummel, Thomas; Olausson, Håkan

    2016-07-15

    Touch can be highly emotional, and depending on the environment, it can be perceived as pleasant and comforting or disgusting and dangerous. Here, we studied the impact of context on the processing of tactile stimuli using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm. This was achieved by embedding tactile stimulation in a variable olfactory environment. Twenty people were scanned with BOLD fMRI while receiving the following stimulus blocks: Slow stroking Touch, Civette odor (feces like), Rose odor, Touch+Civette, and Touch+Rose. Ratings of pleasantness and intensity of tactile stimuli and ratings of disgust and intensity of olfactory stimuli were collected. The impact of the olfactory context on the processing of touch was studied using covariance analyses. Coupling between olfactory processing and somatosensory processing areas was assessed with psychophysiological interaction analysis (PPI). A subjectively disgusting olfactory environment significantly reduced the perceived pleasantness of touch. The touch fMRI activation in the secondary somatosensory cortex, operculum 1 (OP1), was positively correlated with the disgust towards the odors. Decreased pleasantness of touch was related to decreased posterior insula activity. PPI analysis revealed a significant interaction between the OP1, posterior insula, and regions processing the disgust of odors (orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala). We conclude that the disgust evaluation of the olfactory environment moderates neural reactivity in somatosensory regions by upregulation of the OP1 and downregulation of the posterior insula. This adaptive regulation of affective touch processing may facilitate adaptive reaction to a potentially harmful stimulus. PMID:27138206

  8. Seeing Touches Early in Life

    PubMed Central

    Addabbo, Margaret; Longhi, Elena; Bolognini, Nadia; Senna, Irene; Tagliabue, Paolo; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Turati, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    The sense of touch provides fundamental information about the surrounding world, and feedback about our own actions. Although touch is very important during the earliest stages of life, to date no study has investigated infants’ abilities to process visual stimuli implying touch. This study explores the developmental origins of the ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving others. Looking times and orienting responses were measured in a visual preference task, in which participants were simultaneously presented with two videos depicting a touching and a no-touching gesture involving human body parts (face, hand) and/or an object (spoon). In Experiment 1, 2-day-old newborns and 3-month-old infants viewed two videos: in one video a moving hand touched a static face, in the other the moving hand stopped before touching it. Results showed that only 3-month-olds, but not newborns, differentiated the touching from the no-touching gesture, displaying a preference for the former over the latter. To test whether newborns could manifest a preferential visual response when the touched body part is different from the face, in Experiment 2 newborns were presented with touching/no-touching gestures in which a hand or an inanimate object—i.e., a spoon- moved towards a static hand. Newborns were able to discriminate a hand-to-hand touching gesture, but they did not manifest any preference for the object-to-hand touch. The present findings speak in favour of an early ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving the interaction between human body parts. PMID:26366563

  9. Seeing Touches Early in Life.

    PubMed

    Addabbo, Margaret; Longhi, Elena; Bolognini, Nadia; Senna, Irene; Tagliabue, Paolo; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Turati, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    The sense of touch provides fundamental information about the surrounding world, and feedback about our own actions. Although touch is very important during the earliest stages of life, to date no study has investigated infants' abilities to process visual stimuli implying touch. This study explores the developmental origins of the ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving others. Looking times and orienting responses were measured in a visual preference task, in which participants were simultaneously presented with two videos depicting a touching and a no-touching gesture involving human body parts (face, hand) and/or an object (spoon). In Experiment 1, 2-day-old newborns and 3-month-old infants viewed two videos: in one video a moving hand touched a static face, in the other the moving hand stopped before touching it. Results showed that only 3-month-olds, but not newborns, differentiated the touching from the no-touching gesture, displaying a preference for the former over the latter. To test whether newborns could manifest a preferential visual response when the touched body part is different from the face, in Experiment 2 newborns were presented with touching/no-touching gestures in which a hand or an inanimate object-i.e., a spoon- moved towards a static hand. Newborns were able to discriminate a hand-to-hand touching gesture, but they did not manifest any preference for the object-to-hand touch. The present findings speak in favour of an early ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving the interaction between human body parts. PMID:26366563

  10. Enhancing Interaction through Positive Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardew, E. Michelle; Bunse, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Positive touch is an application of the ancient practice of infant massage. Positive touch provides families and caregivers with simple and positive ways to touch their child that contribute to the overall goal of providing a nurturing environment that supports the child's growth and development. This article describes infant massage techniques in…

  11. Antibacterial substance from Carica papaya fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Emeruwa, A C

    1982-01-01

    Ripe and unripe Carica papaya fruits (epicarp, endocarp, seeds and leaves) were extracted separately and purified. All the extracts except that of leaves produced very significant antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella flexneri. The MIC of the substance was small (0.2-0.3 mg/ml) for gram-positive bacteria and large (1.5-4 mg/ml) for gram-negative bacteria. The substance was bactericidal and showed properties of a protein. Other proteins previously found in C. papaya did not show antibacterial activity. PMID:7097295

  12. Green fluorescent protein as a visual selection marker for papaya (Carica papaya L.) transformation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y J; Agbayani, R; Moore, P H

    2004-04-01

    Chemical-based selection for plant transformation is associated with a number of real and perceived problems that might be avoided through visual selection. We have used green fluorescent protein (GFP), as a visual selectable marker to produce transformed papaya ( Carica papaya) plants following microprojectile bombardment of embryogenic callus. GFP selection reduced the selection time from 3 months on a geneticin (G418) antibiotic-containing medium to 3-4 weeks. Moreover, GFP selection increased the number of transformed papaya plants by five-to eightfold compared to selection in the presence of antibiotics. Overall, the use of GFP for selecting transgenic papaya lines improved our throughput for transformation by 15- to 24-fold while avoiding the drawbacks associated with the use of antibiotic resistance-based selection markers. PMID:14749892

  13. Recovery of poliovirus from cut surface of stored fresh papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Lee, A S; Yap, K L

    1999-06-01

    Poliovirus kept on the cut surfaces of fully ripe papaya cubes placed in an ice box showed a sharp and significant reduction in the recovery of infectious virus about 15 minutes after exposure. Thereafter, a very gradual decrease ensued and infectious residual virus was detected up to the end of the 6-hour exposure period. Papaya cubes washed or kept overnight before virus inoculation, and from less ripe fruits produced a similar survival pattern. A very small proportion of the inoculum was recovered from the mashed content of the inoculated papaya cubes thus suggesting that most of the non-recovered virus particles were inactivated. The results suggest that the importance of poliovirus-contaminated cut papayas as a transmission vehicle for the virus is greatly reduced by the rapid decline in the infectivity of a large proportion of the virus soon after contamination. Nevertheless, the potential to transmit remains as a small residual pool of infectious poliovirus is able to survive for a relatively long period. PMID:10774695

  14. Touch sensors and control.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. W.; Sword, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the equipment employed and results obtained in experiments with tactile feedback and different levels of automatic control. In the experiments described tactile feedback was investigated by incorporating a touch sensing and touch display system into a teleoperator, while the levels of automatic control were investigated by incorporating supervisory control features in the teleoperator control system. In particular, a hand contact system which senses and reproduces to the operator the contact between the end-effector and the object being touched or manipulated is described, as well as a jaw contact system which senses and reproduces to the operator the shape and location of the object held in the remote jaws, and an arm control system consisting of a control station where the operator controls the motion of the arm by transmitting commands, a remote station that accepts the commands and uses them, and a communications link that limits information flow. In addition, an algorithmic language for remote manipulation is described, and the desired features that an automatic arm controller should possess are reviewed.

  15. Gene technology for papaya ringspot virus disease management.

    PubMed

    Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research. PMID:24757435

  16. Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research. PMID:24757435

  17. Update on the development of virus-resistant papaya: Virus-resistant transgenic papaya for people in rural communities of Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the most important and preferred crops in rural communities in Thailand. Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a serious disease of papaya throughout Thailand. Efforts to control the virus by various methods either have not been successful or have not resulted in sustai...

  18. Transgenic Papaya: Development, Release, Impact, and Challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the technology for developing virus-resistant transgenic plants through the use of the coat protein of a virus was unveiled twenty years ago, it is surprising to note that only a three virus-resistant plants (squash, potato, and papaya) have been commercialized in the U.S. The transgenic p...

  19. Origin and domestication of papaya Yh chromosome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes. Females are XX, and two slightly different Y chromosomes distinguish males (XY) and hermaphrodites (XYh). The hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome (HSY) and its X chromosome counterpart were sequenced and analyzed previo...

  20. Toward a theory of touch: the touching process and acquiring a touching style.

    PubMed

    Estabrooks, C A; Morse, J M

    1992-04-01

    Methods of grounded theory were used to explore the questions: How do intensive care nurses perceive touch and the process of touching? How do intensive care nurses learn to touch? Data were collected by in-depth interviews with eight experienced intensive care nurses from the same intensive care unit of a large urban Canadian hospital. Findings revealed two substantive processes, the touching process and acquiring a touching style, neither of which has been previously reported. The stages and phases of these processes are described as well as cueing, the core variable. Based on the data analysis, touch was conceptualized as a gestalt with multiple dimensions, suggesting that valid operational definitions of touch must incorporate more than skin-to-skin contact. PMID:1578067

  1. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Saurabh; Cabot, Peter J; Shaw, P Nicholas; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2016-07-01

    Chronic inflammation is linked with the generation and progression of various diseases such as cancer, diabetes and atherosclerosis, and anti-inflammatory drugs therefore have the potential to assist in the treatment of these conditions. Carica papaya is a tropical plant that is traditionally used in the treatment of various ailments including inflammatory conditions. A literature search was conducted by using the keywords "papaya", "anti-inflammatory and inflammation" and "immunomodulation and immune" along with cross-referencing. Both in vitro and in vivo investigation studies were included. This is a review of all studies published since 2000 on the anti-inflammatory activity of papaya extracts and their effects on various immune-inflammatory mediators. Studies on the anti-inflammatory activities of recognized phytochemicals present in papaya are also included. Although in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that papaya extracts and papaya-associated phytochemicals possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, clinical studies are lacking. PMID:27416522

  2. Influence of ripening stages on antioxidant properties of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addai, Zuhair Radhi; Abdullah, Aminah; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.

    2013-11-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv Eksotika) is one of the most commonly consumed tropical fruits by humans, especially Malaysians. The objective of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidants activity in different ripening stages of papaya fruit. The fruits were harvested at five different, stages RS1, RS2, RS3, RS4, and RS5 corresponding to 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 weeks after anthesis, respectively. Papayas fruit at five different stage of ripening were obtained from farms at Pusat Flora Cheras, JabatanPertanian and Hulu Langat Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia. The antioxidants activity were analyzed using the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The analyses were conducted in triplicate and the data were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS. The results showed significant differences (P< 0.05) were found at different stages of ripening. The total phenol content TPC, TFC, FRAP and DPPH values increased significantly (P<0.05) with the ripening process. The results showed the important role of the ripening stage in increasing the antioxidant content of papaya fruits.

  3. Proteomic analysis of papaya (Carica papaya L.) displaying typical sticky disease symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Silas P; Ventura, José A; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Almeida, Igor C; Fernandes, Patricia M B; Zingali, Russolina B

    2011-07-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) hosts the only described laticifer-infecting virus (Papaya meleira virus, PMeV), which is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease. To understand the systemic effects of PMeV in papaya, we conducted a comprehensive proteomic analysis of leaf samples from healthy and diseased plants grown under field conditions. First, a reference 2-DE map was established for proteins from healthy samples. A total of 486 reproducible spots were identified, and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS data identified 275 proteins accounting for 159 distinct proteins from 231 spots that were annotated. Second, the differential expression of proteins from healthy and diseased leaves was determined through parallel experiments, using 2-DE and DIGE followed by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and LC-IonTrap-MS/MS, respectively. Conventional 2-DE analysis revealed 75 differentially expressed proteins. Of those, 48 proteins were identified, with 26 being upregulated (U) and 22 downregulated (D). In general, metabolism-related proteins were downregulated, and stress-responsive proteins were upregulated. This expression pattern was corroborated by the results of the DIGE analysis, which identified 79 differentially expressed proteins, with 23 identified (17 U and 6 D). Calreticulin and the proteasome subunits 20S and RPT5a were shown to be upregulated during infection by both 2-DE and DIGE analyses. These data may help shed light on plant responses against stresses and viral infections. PMID:21630455

  4. Physical Characteristics of the Leaves and Latex of Papaya Plants Infected with the Papaya meleira Virus

    PubMed Central

    Magaña-Álvarez, Anuar; Vencioneck Dutra, Jean Carlos; Carneiro, Tarcio; Pérez-Brito, Daisy; Tapia-Tussell, Raúl; Ventura, Jose Aires; Higuera-Ciapara, Inocencio; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Sticky disease, which is caused by Papaya meleira virus (PMeV), is a significant papaya disease in Brazil and Mexico, where it has caused severe economic losses, and it seems to have spread to Central and South America. Studies assessing the pathogen-host interaction at the nano-histological level are needed to better understand the mechanisms that underlie natural resistance. In this study, the topography and mechanical properties of the leaf midribs and latex of healthy and PMeV-infected papaya plants were observed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Healthy plants displayed a smooth surface with practically no roughness of the leaf midribs and the latex and a higher adhesion force than infected plants. PMeV promotes changes in the leaf midribs and latex, making them more fragile and susceptible to breakage. These changes, which are associated with increased water uptake and internal pressure in laticifers, causes cell disruption that leads to spontaneous exudation of the latex and facilitates the spread of PMeV to other laticifers. These results provide new insights into the papaya-PMeV interaction that could be helpful for controlling papaya sticky disease. PMID:27092495

  5. Physical Characteristics of the Leaves and Latex of Papaya Plants Infected with the Papaya meleira Virus.

    PubMed

    Magaña-Álvarez, Anuar; Vencioneck Dutra, Jean Carlos; Carneiro, Tarcio; Pérez-Brito, Daisy; Tapia-Tussell, Raúl; Ventura, Jose Aires; Higuera-Ciapara, Inocencio; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Sticky disease, which is caused by Papaya meleira virus (PMeV), is a significant papaya disease in Brazil and Mexico, where it has caused severe economic losses, and it seems to have spread to Central and South America. Studies assessing the pathogen-host interaction at the nano-histological level are needed to better understand the mechanisms that underlie natural resistance. In this study, the topography and mechanical properties of the leaf midribs and latex of healthy and PMeV-infected papaya plants were observed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Healthy plants displayed a smooth surface with practically no roughness of the leaf midribs and the latex and a higher adhesion force than infected plants. PMeV promotes changes in the leaf midribs and latex, making them more fragile and susceptible to breakage. These changes, which are associated with increased water uptake and internal pressure in laticifers, causes cell disruption that leads to spontaneous exudation of the latex and facilitates the spread of PMeV to other laticifers. These results provide new insights into the papaya-PMeV interaction that could be helpful for controlling papaya sticky disease. PMID:27092495

  6. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V; Lewis, Kanako L T; Salzberg, Steven L; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R; Skelton, Rachel L; Murray, Jan E; Chen, Cuixia; Qian, Wubin; Shen, Junguo; Du, Peng; Eustice, Moriah; Tong, Eric; Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Paull, Robert E; Michael, Todd P; Wall, Kerr; Rice, Danny W; Albert, Henrik; Wang, Ming-Li; Zhu, Yun J; Schatz, Michael; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Acob, Ricelle A; Guan, Peizhu; Blas, Andrea; Wai, Ching Man; Ackerman, Christine M; Ren, Yan; Liu, Chao; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Shakirov, Eugene V; Haas, Brian; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Nelson, David; Wang, Xiyin; Bowers, John E; Gschwend, Andrea R; Delcher, Arthur L; Singh, Ratnesh; Suzuki, Jon Y; Tripathi, Savarni; Neupane, Kabi; Wei, Hairong; Irikura, Beth; Paidi, Maya; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Wenli; Presting, Gernot; Windsor, Aaron; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Torres, Manuel J; Feltus, F Alex; Porter, Brad; Li, Yingjun; Burroughs, A Max; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Liu, Lei; Christopher, David A; Mount, Stephen M; Moore, Paul H; Sugimura, Tak; Jiang, Jiming; Schuler, Mary A; Friedman, Vikki; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Shippen, Dorothy E; dePamphilis, Claude W; Palmer, Jeffrey D; Freeling, Michael; Paterson, Andrew H; Gonsalves, Dennis; Wang, Lei; Alam, Maqsudul

    2008-04-24

    Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3x draft genome sequence of 'SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica's distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties. PMID:18432245

  7. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H.; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V.; Lewis, Kanako L. T.; Salzberg, Steven L.; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R.; Skelton, Rachel L.; Murray, Jan E.; Chen, Cuixia; Qian, Wubin; Shen, Junguo; Du, Peng; Eustice, Moriah; Tong, Eric; Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Paull, Robert E.; Michael, Todd P.; Wall, Kerr; Rice, Danny W.; Albert, Henrik; Wang, Ming-Li; Zhu, Yun J.; Schatz, Michael; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Acob, Ricelle A.; Guan, Peizhu; Blas, Andrea; Wai, Ching Man; Ackerman, Christine M.; Ren, Yan; Liu, Chao; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Shakirov, Eugene V.; Haas, Brian; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Nelson, David; Wang, Xiyin; Bowers, John E.; Gschwend, Andrea R.; Delcher, Arthur L.; Singh, Ratnesh; Suzuki, Jon Y.; Tripathi, Savarni; Neupane, Kabi; Wei, Hairong; Irikura, Beth; Paidi, Maya; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Wenli; Presting, Gernot; Windsor, Aaron; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Torres, Manuel J.; Feltus, F. Alex; Porter, Brad; Li, Yingjun; Burroughs, A. Max; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Liu, Lei; Christopher, David A.; Mount, Stephen M.; Moore, Paul H.; Sugimura, Tak; Jiang, Jiming; Schuler, Mary A.; Friedman, Vikki; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Shippen, Dorothy E.; dePamphilis, Claude W.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.; Freeling, Michael; Paterson, Andrew H.; Gonsalves, Dennis; Wang, Lei; Alam, Maqsudul

    2010-01-01

    Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3× draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree1 to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far2–5, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica's distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties. PMID:18432245

  8. Please Touch the Children: Appropriate Touch in the Primary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Pamela M.; Gillentine, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes to shift the current theoretical framework in which teachers practise a guarded approach regarding the touching of children in early childhood settings, towards a practice of acceptance. A brief historical context of touching is presented and supplemented with a survey of 63 currently practising K-3rd grade teachers. The survey…

  9. Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation by the Leaf Extract of Carica papaya During Dengue Infection: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Chinnappan, Shobia; Ramachandrappa, Vijayakumar Shettikothanuru; Tamilarasu, Kadhiravan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Pillai, Agiesh Kumar Balakrishna; Rajendiran, Soundravally

    2016-04-01

    Dengue cases were reported to undergo platelet activation and thrombocytopenia by a poorly understood mechanism. Recent studies suggested that Carica papaya leaf extract could recover the platelet count in dengue cases. However, no studies have attempted to unravel the mechanism of the plant extract in platelet recovery. Since there are no available drugs to treat dengue and considering the significance of C. papaya in dengue treatment, the current study aimed to evaluate two research questions: First one is to study if the C. papaya leaf extract exerts its action directly on platelets and second one is to understand if the extract can specifically inhibit the platelet aggregation during dengue viral infection. Sixty subjects with dengue positive and 60 healthy subjects were recruited in the study. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma were prepared from both the dengue-infected and healthy control blood samples. Effect of the leaf extract obtained from C. papaya leaves was assessed on plasma obtained as well as platelets collected from both healthy and dengue-infected individuals. Platelet aggregation was significantly reduced when leaf extract preincubated with dengue plasma was added into control PRP, whereas no change in aggregation when leaf extract incubated-control plasma was added into control PRP. Upon direct addition of C. papaya leaf extract, both dengue PRP and control PRP showed a significant reduction in platelet aggregation. Within the dengue group, PRP from severe and nonsevere cases showed a significant decrease in aggregation without any difference between them. From the study, it is evident that C. papaya leaf extract can directly act on platelet. The present study, the first of its kind, found that the leaf extract possesses a dengue-specific neutralizing effect on dengue viral-infected plasma that may exert a protective role on platelets. PMID:26910599

  10. Whole-photosynthesis and transpiration in field-grown papaya plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of papaya response to environmental factors provides a scientific basis to develop management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. In papaya, the photosynthetic capacity also influ...

  11. Virus Resistant Transgenic Papaya: Commercial Development and Regulatory and Environmental Issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Hawaii, transgenic papaya resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was developed starting in the 1980s and released commercially in 1998 to combat the wide spread destruction of Hawaii’s papaya industry. This review describes the proactive development of the transgenic papaya and its impact on ...

  12. The cell biology of touch

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Kara L.; Nelson, Aislyn M.

    2010-01-01

    The sense of touch detects forces that bombard the body’s surface. In metazoans, an assortment of morphologically and functionally distinct mechanosensory cell types are tuned to selectively respond to diverse mechanical stimuli, such as vibration, stretch, and pressure. A comparative evolutionary approach across mechanosensory cell types and genetically tractable species is beginning to uncover the cellular logic of touch reception. PMID:20956378

  13. Benzylglucosinolate, benzylisothiocyanate, and myrosinase activity in papaya fruit during development and ripening.

    PubMed

    Rossetto, Maria Rosecler Miranda; Oliveira do Nascimento, João Roberto; Purgatto, Eduardo; Fabi, João Paulo; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2008-10-22

    Papaya is a climacteric fruit that has high amounts of benzylglucosinolates (BG) and benzylisothiocyanates (BITC), but information regarding levels of BG or BITC during fruit development and ripening is limited. Because BG and BITC are compounds of importance from both a nutritional and a crop yield standpoint, the aim of this work was to access data on the distribution and changes of BG and BITC levels during fruit development and ripening. BG and BITC levels were quantified in peel, pulp, and seeds of papaya fruit. Volatile BITC was also verified in the internal cavity of the fruit during ripening. The influence of the ethylene in BG and BITC levels and mirosinase activity was tested by exposing mature green fruits to ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). The highest BG levels were detected in seeds, followed by the peel and pulp being decreased in all tissues during fruit development. Similarly, the levels of BITC were much higher in the seeds than the peel and pulp. The levels of BG for control and ethylene-treated fruit were very similar, increasing in the pulp and peel during late ripening but not changing significantly in seeds. On the other hand, fruit exposed to 1-MCP showed a decrease in BG amount in the pulp and accumulation in seed. The treatments did not result in clear differences regarding the amount of BITC in the pulp and peel of the fruit. According to the results, ethylene does not have a clear effect on BITC accumulation in ripening papaya fruit. The fact that BG levels in the pulp did not decrease during ripening, regardless of the treatment employed, and that papaya is consumed mainly as fresh fruit, speaks in favor of this fruit as a good dietary source for glucosinolate and isothiocyanates. PMID:18826320

  14. Papaya Ringspot Virus: Characteristics, Pathogenicity, Sequence Variability and Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Taxonomy: Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is an aphid-transmitted plant virus belonging to the genus Potyvirus of the family Potyviridae with a positive sense RNA genome. PRSV isolates belong to either one of two major strains, P-type or W-type. The P-type infects both papaya and cucurbits whereas th...

  15. Effect of the potassium permanganate during papaya fruit ripening: Ethylene production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, S. F.; Filho, M. B.; da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Aroucha, E. M. M.; Silva, R. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The effect of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on the ripening process of papaya fruits by monitoring the ethylene emission rates is reported. The ethylene emission was monitored by a photoacoustic spectrometer. Two experimental conditions were applied, being one of them just putting the fruit alone inside the sampling chamber and the second, modifying the atmosphere by the presence of KMnO4. The use of the ethylene absorber reduces the autocatalytic process of ethylene during papaya fruit ripening. For 20 g of KMnO4 the maximal intensity of the ethylene emission decreases by a factor two. Using the same amount of KMnO4, a reduction of about 2.2% in the concentration of ethylene for a mixture of 1ppmv of ethylene in synthetic air was observed.

  16. Antiulcerogenic activity of Carica papaya seed in rats.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Lorraine Aparecida; Cordeiro, Kátia Wolff; Carrasco, Viviane; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Cardoso, Cláudia Andréa Lima; Argadoña, Eliana Janet Sanjinez; Freitas, Karine de Cássia

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the gastroprotective and healing effects of the methanolic extract of the seed of the papaya Carica papaya L. (MECP) in rats. Models of acute gastric ulcer induction by ethanol and indomethacin and of chronic ulcer by acetic acid were used. The gastric juice and mucus parameters were evaluated using the pylorus ligation model, and the involvement of sulfhydryl compounds (GSH) and nitric oxide in the gastroprotective effect was analyzed using the ethanol model. The toxicity was assessed through toxicity tests. No signs of toxicity were observed when the rats received a single dose of 2000 mg/kg of extract. The MECP in doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the gastric lesion with 56, 76, and 82 % inhibition, respectively, and a dose of 30 mg/kg lansoprazole showed 79 % inhibition in the ethanol model. MECP (125, 250, 500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) reduced the gastric lesion in the indomethacin model, with 62, 67, 81, and 85 % inhibition, respectively. The MECP (500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) treatments showed a reduction in ulcerative symptoms induced by acetic acid by 84 and 73 %, respectively. The antiulcerogenic activity seems to involve GSH because the inhibition dropped from 72 to 13 % in the presence of a GSH inhibitor. Moreover, the MECP showed systemic action, increasing the mucus production and decreasing gastric acidity. Treatments with MECP induce gastroprotection without signs of toxicity. This effect seems to involve sulfhydryl compounds, increased mucus, and reduced gastric acidity. PMID:25418890

  17. Yeast ratio is a critical factor for sequential fermentation of papaya wine by Williopsis saturnus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pin-Rou; Kho, Stephanie Hui Chern; Yu, Bin; Curran, Philip; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Summary The growth kinetics and fermentation performance of Williopsis saturnus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at ratios of 10:1, 1:1 and 1:10 (W.:S.) were studied in papaya juice with initial 7-day fermentation by W. saturnus, followed by S. cerevisiae. The growth kinetics of W. saturnus were similar at all ratios, but its maximum cell count decreased as the proportion of S. cerevisiae was increased. Conversely, there was an early death of S. cerevisiae at the ratio of 10:1. Williopsis saturnus was the dominant yeast at 10:1 ratio that produced papaya wine with elevated concentrations of acetate esters. On the other hand, 1:1 and 1:10 ratios allowed the coexistence of both yeasts which enabled the flavour-enhancing potential of W. saturnus as well as the ethyl ester and alcohol-producing abilities of S. cerevisiae. In particular, 1:1 and 1:10 ratios resulted in production of more ethyl esters, alcohols and 2-phenylethyl acetate. However, the persistence of both yeasts at 1:1 and 1:10 ratios led to formation of high levels of acetic acid. The findings suggest that yeast ratio is a critical factor for sequential fermentation of papaya wine by W. saturnus and S. cerevisiae as a strategy to modulate papaya wine flavour. PMID:23171032

  18. Effects of nitric oxide treatment on the cell wall softening related enzymes and several hormones of papaya fruit during storage.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qin; Wu, Bin; Chen, Weixin; Zhang, Yuli; Wang, Jide; Li, Xueping

    2014-06-01

    Papaya fruits (Carica papaya L. cv 'Sui you 2') harvested with < 5% yellow surface at the blossom end were fumigated with 60 microL/L of nitric oxide for 3 h and then stored at 20 degrees C with 85% relative humility for 20 days. The effects of nitric oxide treatment on ethylene production rate, the activities of cell wall softening related enzymes including polygalacturonase, pectin methyl esterase, pectate lyase and cellulase and the levels of hormones including indole acetic acid, abscisic acid, gibberellin and zeatin riboside were examined. The results showed that papaya fruits treated with nitric oxide had a significantly lower rate of ethylene production and a lesser loss of firmness during storage. A decrease in polygalacturonase, pectin methyl esterase, pectate lyase and cellulase activities was observed in nitric oxide treated fruit. In addition, the contents of indole acetic acid, abscisic acid and zeatin riboside were reduced in nitric oxide treated fruit, but no significant reduction in the level of gibberellin was found. These results indicate that nitric oxide treatment can effectively delay the softening and ripening of papaya fruit, likely via the regulation of cell wall softening related enzymes and certain hormones. PMID:23744122

  19. Whole genome sequence analysis of unidentified genetically modified papaya for development of a specific detection method.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takumi; Noguchi, Akio; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Kazuto; Futo, Satoshi; Sakata, Kozue; Fukuda, Nozomi; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Tanaka, Hidenori; Akashi, Ryo; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

    2016-08-15

    Identification of transgenic sequences in an unknown genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.) by whole genome sequence analysis was demonstrated. Whole genome sequence data were generated for a GM-positive fresh papaya fruit commodity detected in monitoring using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sequences obtained were mapped against an open database for papaya genome sequence. Transgenic construct- and event-specific sequences were identified as a GM papaya developed to resist infection from a Papaya ringspot virus. Based on the transgenic sequences, a specific real-time PCR detection method for GM papaya applicable to various food commodities was developed. Whole genome sequence analysis enabled identifying unknown transgenic construct- and event-specific sequences in GM papaya and development of a reliable method for detecting them in papaya food commodities. PMID:27006240

  20. Transparent and conformal 'piezoionic' touch sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    us Sarwar, Mirza S.; Dobashi, Yuta; Scabeni Glitz, Ettore F.; Farajollahi, Meisam; Mirabbasi, Shahriar; Naficy, Sina; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Madden, John D. W.

    2015-04-01

    A polyurethane hydrogel based touch sensor with high transparency and conformability is demonstrated. Polyurethane hydrogels swollen with various electrolytes were compressed at a pressure of 30 kPa, simulating a fingertap on a conventional touch screen device. Unlike ionic polymer metal composite and conducting polymer trilayer sensors, where electrodes render the sensors opaque and relatively rigid, the electrodes used in this work are metal wires or strips, separated from each other by regions of transparent film, enabling transparency and compliance. The voltages and currents observed when the perturbation is above one electrode are on the order of 10-2 V and 10-7 A, relative to a second electrode that is approximately 1 cm away. The sign of voltage and current signals detected from perturbations made between electrodes is determined by relative proximity to each electrode, and the magnitude appears to decrease with increasing distance from the electrodes. These observations suggest that it may be possible to discriminate the location of touch based on signals transmitted to the edges of an ionically conductive film. A model to describe the inhomogeneous ionic distribution and predict the resultant voltage and current is presented to qualitatively explain the sensing, based on the Donnan potential.

  1. A Sensitive, Reliable Inexpensive Touch Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anger, Douglas; Schachtman, Todd R.

    2007-01-01

    Research in a laboratory required a sensitive, reliable, inexpensive touch detector for use with rats to test the reinforcement of inhibition. A small touch detector was also desirable so that the detector could be mounted on the rat's cage close to the object being touched by the rat, whose touches in turn were being detected by current passing…

  2. Significance of Touch in Young Children's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Frances M.

    2005-01-01

    Touch matters. Humans need nurturing touch for optimum emotional, physical, and cognitive development and health--especially in infancy. Positive touch lowers levels of the stress hormone cortisol in the brain. Drawing on research and anecdotal evidence to support the importance of touch to children's well-being, the author makes a case for…

  3. Maternal touch and infant affect in the Still Face Paradigm: A cross-cultural examination.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Jean R; Coulombe, Patrick; Moss, Natalia C; Rieger, Rebecca E; Aragón, Crystal; MacLean, Peggy C; Caprihan, Arvind; Phillips, John P; Handal, Alexis J

    2016-08-01

    Touch between mother and infant plays an important role in development starting from birth. Cross-cultural differences surrounding rearing practices have an influence on parent-infant interaction, including types of touch used and the development of emotional regulation. This study was designed to investigate maternal touch and infant emotional regulation in infant-mother dyads from Ecuador (n=25) and Hispanic dyads from the United States (US) (n=26). Mothers and their 4-month-old full-term infants participated in the Still Face Paradigm. Second-by-second coding of maternal touch and infant affect was completed. Overall the analyses showed that Ecuadorian mothers used more nurturing and accompaniment touch and less attention seeking touch than US Hispanic mothers during the pre-stressor (baseline) episode. Lagged multilevel models were used to investigate the effect of the different types of touch on infant emotional regulation in the groups for the episodes. The data suggest that playful touch had a significant increase in infant affect, whereas accompaniment and attention-seeking touch had a significant decrease in infant affect. Overall, this study provides support for the role of touch in mother-infant synchronicity in relation to infant's emotional regulation. Identifying touch that is more calming is important to foster emotional regulation in infancy, which can have important implications for development. PMID:27362780

  4. Touch satiety: differential effects of stroking velocity on liking and wanting touch over repetitions.

    PubMed

    Triscoli, Chantal; Ackerley, Rochelle; Sailer, Uta

    2014-01-01

    A slow, gentle caress of the skin is a salient hedonic stimulus. Low threshold, unmyelinated C-tactile afferents fire preferentially to this type of touch, where slow (<1 cm/s) and fast (>10 cm/s) stroking velocities produce lower firing frequencies and are rated as less pleasant. The current aim was to investigate how the experience of tactile pleasantness changes with repeated exposure (satiety to touch). A further aim was to determine whether tactile satiety varied with different stroking velocities. The experimental paradigm used a controlled brush stroke to the forearm that was delivered repeatedly for ∼ 50 minutes. In Experiment 1, brush strokes were administered at three different velocities (0.3 cm/s, 3 cm/s and 30 cm/s), which were presented in a pseudo-randomised order. In Experiment 2, brush strokes were applied using only one velocity (either 3 or 30 cm/s). After each stroke, the participants rated both subjective pleasantness (liking) and wanting (the wish to be further exposed to the same stimulus) for each tactile sensation. In Experiment 1, both pleasantness and wanting showed a small, but significant, decrease over repetitions during stroking at 3 cm/s only, where the mean values for pleasantness and wanting were similar. Conversely, slower (0.3 cm/s) and faster (30 cm/s) stroking showed no decrease in ratings over time, however pleasantness was rated higher than wanting. In Experiment 2, both pleasantness and wanting showed a significant decrease over repetitions for both applied velocities, with a larger decrease in ratings for stroking at 3 cm/s. In conclusion, satiety to touch occurred with a slow onset and progression, where pleasantness and wanting ratings to stroking at 3 cm/s were affected more than at the slower or faster velocities. Tactile satiety appears to differ compared to appetitive and olfactory satiety, because the hedonic and rewarding aspects of touch persist for some time. PMID:25405620

  5. Antioxidant activity of papaya seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kaibing; Wang, Hui; Mei, Wenli; Li, Xiaona; Luo, Ying; Dai, Haofu

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of the ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water extract fractions from the seeds of papaya were evaluated in this study. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest DPPH and hydroxyl free radical-scavenging activities, and its activities were stronger than those of ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate, respectively. The n-butanol fraction demonstrated the greatest ABTS⁺ radicals scavenging activity. The ethyl acetate fraction and the n-butanol fraction not only showed higher antioxidant activities than the petroleum ether fraction, water fraction and ethanol fraction, but also showed higher superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging activities than those of the other extract fractions. The high amount of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions contributed to their antioxidant activities. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield two phenolic compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid, which possessed significant antioxidant activities. Therefore, the seeds of papaya and these compounds might be used as natural antioxidants. PMID:21788927

  6. In touch with your emotions: oxytocin and touch change social impressions while others' facial expressions can alter touch.

    PubMed

    Ellingsen, Dan-Mikael; Wessberg, Johan; Chelnokova, Olga; Olausson, Håkan; Laeng, Bruno; Leknes, Siri

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal touch is frequently used for communicating emotions, strengthen social bonds and to give others pleasure. The neuropeptide oxytocin increases social interest, improves recognition of others' emotions, and it is released during touch. Here, we investigated how oxytocin and gentle human touch affect social impressions of others, and vice versa, how others' facial expressions and oxytocin affect touch experience. In a placebo-controlled crossover study using intranasal oxytocin, 40 healthy volunteers viewed faces with different facial expressions along with concomitant gentle human touch or control machine touch, while pupil diameter was monitored. After each stimulus pair, participants rated the perceived friendliness and attractiveness of the faces, perceived facial expression, or pleasantness and intensity of the touch. After intranasal oxytocin treatment, gentle human touch had a sharpening effect on social evaluations of others relative to machine touch, such that frowning faces were rated as less friendly and attractive, whereas smiling faces were rated as more friendly and attractive. Conversely, smiling faces increased, whereas frowning faces reduced, pleasantness of concomitant touch - the latter effect being stronger for human touch. Oxytocin did not alter touch pleasantness. Pupillary responses, a measure of attentional allocation, were larger to human touch than to equally intense machine touch, especially when paired with a smiling face. Overall, our results point to mechanisms important for human affiliation and social bond formation. PMID:24275000

  7. Measurement of light touch perception threshold by contingent negative variation.

    PubMed

    Prevec, T S; Berić, A

    1991-01-01

    An objective method developed to measure the threshold of light touch perception using contingent negative variation (CNV) is described. The light touch stimulus was a slight indentation of the skin produced through a displacement controlled stimulating probe (tip diameter of 2 mm). It was applied as the conditioning (S1) stimulus of the classical CNV paradigm of S1, S2, and R. To increase the CNV amplitude, the S2 stimulus was either a red or a yellow LED. The subjects were required to respond to only one of two by pressing a button. When the light touch stimulus was perceived, the CNV was recorded in all 19 healthy adult volunteers. In 14 of them, a systematic determination of the threshold of the ball of the thumb and index finger, thenar, hypothenar, face, shoulder, anterior thigh, foot dorsum and great toe ball, have been done. The thresholds of the light touch perception as defined by objective CNV measurement are very close to the results of the subjective psychophysiological determinations in normals. The amplitude of the averaged CNV (12 responses) started to decrease when stimulus intensity was reduced to the point that the subjects were able to perceive only a fraction of the presented touch stimuli. We believe, therefore, that the objective CNV determination of the light touch perception threshold is precise and sensitive enough to be used in research as well as in clinical applications. PMID:1864334

  8. The issue of being touched.

    PubMed

    Solvoll, Betty-Ann; Lindseth, Anders

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this empirical paper is to shed light on the phenomenon of being touched in professional care practice. The study has a qualitative design and is a phenomenological hermeneutical exploration based on the story of a care provider. In her story, she describes how her interactions with a substance abuser touched her. The narrative data stems from dialogue with her colleagues and demonstrates a moral appeal and challenge in practical care. Investigations reveal that being touched is about allowing one's self to be awakened by the suffering of others. Being touched by others' suffering thus provides the ability "to see" what is at stake. Identifying with one's suffering and the awareness of what is at risk may be factors that "tip" a person's decision toward acting in the best interest of another person. Being touched may muster an individual's courage to engage in "risk-taking" actions in care. This process paves the way to care and represent essential practical knowledge for health care professionals. PMID:26715287

  9. 78 FR 48628 - Importation of Papayas From Peru

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... more than one-quarter yellow, surrounded by light green) and appear to be free of all injurious insect... fruit flies or other injurious insect pests during transit. The package containing the papayas would...

  10. New approach for papaya latex storage without virus degradation

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Silas P.; Andrade, Josemar S.; Ventura, José A.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

    2009-01-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease, which has been detected through analysis of its double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome from plant latex. In this work we demonstrate that PMeV dsRNA is protected during 25 days when latex is diluted in citrate buffer pH 5.0 (1:1 v/v) and maintained at -20ºC. At the same temperature, some protection was observed for pure latex or latex diluted in ultra-pure water. Conversely, the dsRNA was almost completely degraded after 25 days when maintained at 25ºC, indicating the need for freezing. The proper procedures to collect and store papaya latex described here will contribute to efficient and large scale use of molecular diagnosis of PMeV. PMID:24031329

  11. Touch Perception Altered by Chronic Pain and by Opioid Blockade1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Gracely, John L.; Richards, Emily A.; Olausson, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Touch plays a significant role in human social behavior and social communication, and its rewarding nature has been suggested to involve opioids. Opioid blockade in monkeys leads to increased solicitation and receipt of grooming, suggesting heightened enjoyment of touch. We sought to study the role of endogenous opioids in perception of affective touch in healthy adults and in patients with fibromyalgia, a chronic pain condition shown to involve reduced opioid receptor availability. The pleasantness of touch has been linked to the activation of C-tactile fibers, which respond maximally to slow gentle touch and correlate with ratings of pleasantness. We administered naloxone to patients and healthy controls to directly observe the consequences of µ-opioid blockade on the perceived pleasantness and intensity of touch. We found that at baseline chronic pain patients showed a blunted distinction between slow and fast brushing for both intensity and pleasantness, suggesting reduced C-tactile touch processing. In addition, we found a differential effect of opioid blockade on touch perception in healthy subjects and pain patients. In healthy individuals, opioid blockade showed a trend toward increased ratings of touch pleasantness, while in chronic pain patients it significantly decreased ratings of touch intensity. Further, in healthy individuals, naloxone-induced increase in touch pleasantness was associated with naloxone-induced decreased preference for slow touch, suggesting a possible effect of opioid levels on processing of C-tactile fiber input. These findings suggest a role for endogenous opioids in touch processing, and provide further evidence for altered opioid functioning in chronic pain patients. PMID:27022625

  12. Monoclonal antibodies to the two most basic papaya proteinases.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, P W; Kilshaw, P J; McEwan, F; Owen, A J

    1986-08-01

    The proteinases from Carica papaya include papain, isoenzymes of chymopapain and two proteinases A and B distinguished by their unusually high pI. The identity of one of the most basic proteinases has been questioned. The present report describes the preparation and characterisation of two monoclonal antibodies that react specifically with papaya proteinases A and B respectively and a third that identifies a common structural feature found in papain and proteinase A. PMID:3545314

  13. ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2011-05-01

    ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K). Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the γ-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  14. A conceptual model of intentional comfort touch.

    PubMed

    Connor, Ann; Howett, Maeve

    2009-06-01

    This article discusses the application and integration of intentional comfort touch as a holistic nursing practice. A review of the literature on touch and its related concepts is included. Although nurses use touch frequently in patient encounters, it is not always used intentionally or deliberately to enhance care. The article compares and contrasts intentional comfort touch with nonintentional or procedural touch. The use of intentional comfort touch in innovative clinical settings with diverse and at-risk populations is described. Based on clinical experiences and the current literature, a conceptual model of intentional comfort touch is proposed. The application of touch is discussed as is the meaning and importance of intentional touch for students, faculty, and patients. PMID:19443699

  15. Complete genome sequence of an isolate of papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus from commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in China.

    PubMed

    Tuo, D; Shen, W; Yan, P; Li, Ch; Gao, L; Li, X; Li, H; Zhou, P

    2013-01-01

    Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus is highly destructive to commercial papaya production. Here, the complete genome sequence was determined for an isolate of papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus, designated PLDMV-DF, infecting the commercialized papaya ringspot virus (PRSV)-resistant transgenic papaya from China. Excluding the 3'-poly (A) tail, the sequence shares high sequence identity to several PLDMV isolates from Taiwan and Japan and is phylogenetically most closely related to the isolate from Japan. Infection of PLDMV-DF in transgenic PRSV-resistant papaya may indicate emergence of this disease in genetically engineered plants. The reported sequence for this isolate may help generate bi-transgenic papaya resistant to PRSV and PLDMV. PMID:24294960

  16. Semen study of papaya workers exposed to ethylene dibromide

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, J.M.; Schrader, S.M.; Steenland, K.; Clapp, D.; Turner, T.

    1984-01-01

    A cross sectional semen and cytogenetic study was performed on male workers exposed to ethylene-dibromide (EDB) in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii. Semen analyses were conducted on 46 men in six fumigation facilities with an average length of employment of 5 years and airborne exposures to EDB ranging from 16 to 213 parts per billion. Statistically significant decreases in sperm count per ejaculate and the percentage of viable and motile sperm and increases in the proportion of specific morphological abnormalities were observed among exposed men when compared with controls. Semen volume and sperm concentration were also lower in the exposed group. No effect of exposure to EDB on sperm velocity, the overall proportion of sperm with normal morphology or YFF bodies was noted. The authors conclude that based on the decreases in sperm count, viability and motility and increases in certain types of morphological abnormalities among workers exposed to EDB, EDB may increase the risk of reproductive impairment in workers at exposure levels near the NIOSH recommended limit of 45 parts per billion and far below the current OSHA standard of 20 parts per million.

  17. To Touch or Not to Touch: That Is the Question!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene Allen

    2011-01-01

    People attend museums to see artifacts and learn from them! Ideally, they want to see them, touch them, and learn the story about them. Artifacts have an uncanny ability to mute the passage of time, and unite young and old on common ground. During its sixty-plus-years in existence, the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History has displayed…

  18. Touch for Socioemotional and Physical Well-Being: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    This review briefly summarizes recent empirical research on touch. The research includes the role of touch in early development, touch deprivation, touch aversion, emotions that can be conveyed by touch, the importance of touch for interpersonal relationships and how friendly touch affects compliance in different situations. MRI data are reviewed…

  19. Efficacy of four plant extracts on nematodes associated with papaya in Sindh, Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This investigation examines the effect of ethanol extracts of four plant species--Azadirachta indica (neem), Withania somnifera (ashwagandha), Tagetes erecta (marigold) and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus)--against nematodes associated with papaya (Carica papaya), and it assesses their influence o...

  20. [The "relational" touch in care?].

    PubMed

    Gabay, Juliette; Hérisson, Brigitte

    2013-03-01

    Training in "relational" touch is offered by a nurse and a psychologist working in tandem, according to a theoretical-practical approach. This is based on nurses' experience, their impressions and interdisciplinarity. The carers are therefore supported in the (re)discovery of thisprecioussensewhichoffers a different way of communicating. PMID:23641576

  1. The Troubled Touch of Autism.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, Alexander H; Bartsch, Victoria B; Zylka, Mark J

    2016-07-14

    A study finds that deficits in touch-sensing somatosensory neurons contribute to social interaction and anxiety phenotypes in mouse models of autism and Rett syndrome. These findings suggest that some core symptoms of autism might originate from aberrant development or function of the peripheral nervous system. PMID:27419865

  2. Kinetic analysis of papaya proteinase omega.

    PubMed

    Sumner, I G; Vaughan, A; Eisenthal, R; Pickersgill, R W; Owen, A J; Goodenough, P W

    1993-08-01

    Papaya proteinase omega (pp omega) has been purified from dried latex both by immunoaffinity and traditional methods. Kinetic analysis revealed that (1), the pp omega-catalysed hydrolysis of N-benzoyl-L-arginine p-nitroanilide (BApNA) has a lower specificity (kcat/Km) than the same reaction catalysed by papain; (2), the pp omega-catalysed hydrolysis of a tripeptide substrate having phenylalanine at the second position (S2-site) showed a more similar specificity to that catalysed by papain; (3), the significant difference between the two enzymes is that steady state kinetics with both L-BApNA and a tripeptide enables the identification in pp omega of other ionizations affecting binding. The active sites of papain and pp omega can therefore be distinguished by pH-dependence of kcat/Km. PMID:8393709

  3. Origin and domestication of papaya Yh chromosome

    PubMed Central

    VanBuren, Robert; Zeng, Fanchang; Chen, Cuixia; Zhang, Jisen; Wai, Ching Man; Han, Jennifer; Aryal, Rishi; Gschwend, Andrea R.; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Gou, Jiqing; Arro, Jie; Guyot, Romain; Moore, Richard C.; Wang, Ming-Li; Zee, Francis; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H.; Yu, Qingyi; Ming, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Sex in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes. Females are XX, and two slightly different Y chromosomes distinguish males (XY) and hermaphrodites (XYh). The hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome (HSY) and its X chromosome counterpart were sequenced and analyzed previously. We now report the sequence of the entire male-specific region of the Y (MSY). We used a BAC-by-BAC approach to sequence the MSY and resequence the Y regions of 24 wild males and the Yh regions of 12 cultivated hermaphrodites. The MSY and HSY regions have highly similar gene content and structure, and only 0.4% sequence divergence. The MSY sequences from wild males include three distinct haplotypes, associated with the populations’ geographic locations, but gene flow is detected for other genomic regions. The Yh sequence is highly similar to one Y haplotype (MSY3) found only in wild dioecious populations from the north Pacific region of Costa Rica. The low MSY3-Yh divergence supports the hypothesis that hermaphrodite papaya is a product of human domestication. We estimate that Yh arose only ∼4000 yr ago, well after crop plant domestication in Mesoamerica >6200 yr ago but coinciding with the rise of the Maya civilization. The Yh chromosome has lower nucleotide diversity than the Y, or the genome regions that are not fully sex-linked, consistent with a domestication bottleneck. The identification of the ancestral MSY3 haplotype will expedite investigation of the mutation leading to the domestication of the hermaphrodite Yh chromosome. In turn, this mutation should identify the gene that was affected by the carpel-suppressing mutation that was involved in the evolution of males. PMID:25762551

  4. Protection and conservation of Caricaceae germplasm with PRSV resistant transgenic papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a devastating disease that has a detrimental impact on both commercial papaya production and Caricaceae germplasm conservation. The PRSV coat protein transgenic line 55-1 and derived progeny are resistant to PRSV and have saved the papaya industry in Hawaii. Here we ...

  5. Analysis Of Papaya BAC End Sequences: Insights Into The Organization Of A Tree Fruit Genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a major tree fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions with an estimated genome size of 372 Mbp. We present the analysis of 4.7% of the papaya genome based on BAC end sequences (BESs) representing 17 million high-quality bases. Microsatellites discovered in 5,452 BE...

  6. Potentiating Cancer Immunotherapy Using Papaya Mosaic Virus-Derived Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Marie-Ève; Chartrand, Karine; Tarrab, Esther; Savard, Pierre; Leclerc, Denis; Lamarre, Alain

    2016-03-01

    The recent development of novel immunotherapies is revolutionizing cancer treatment. These include, for example, immune checkpoint blockade, immunomodulation, or therapeutic vaccination. Although effective on their own, combining multiple approaches will most likely be required in order to achieve the maximal therapeutic benefit. In this regard, the papaya mosaic virus nanoparticle (PapMV) has shown tremendous potential as (i) an immunostimulatory molecule, (ii) an adjuvant, and (iii) a vaccine platform through its intrinsic capacity to activate the innate immune response in an IFN-α-dependent manner. Here, we demonstrate that intratumor administration of PapMV significantly slows down melanoma progression and prolongs survival. This correlates with enhanced chemokine and pro-inflammatory-cytokine production in the tumor and increased immune-cell infiltration. Proportions of total and tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells dramatically increase following PapMV treatment whereas those of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) concomitantly decrease. Moreover, systemic PapMV administration prevents metastatic tumor-implantation in the lungs. Importantly, PapMV also synergistically improves the therapeutic benefit of dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccination and PD-1 blockade by potentiating antitumor immune responses. This study illustrates the immunostimulatory potential of a plant virus-derived nanoparticle for cancer therapy either alone or in conjunction with other promising immunotherapies in clinical development. PMID:26891174

  7. The antioxidant effect of fermented papaya preparation involves iron chelation.

    PubMed

    Prus, E; Fibach, E

    2012-01-01

    Iron-overload is a major clinical problem in various diseases. Under this condition, serum iron which surpasses the binding capacity of transferrin is present as non-transferrin bound iron and cellular unbound Labile Iron Pool (LIP) is increased. LIP participates in the generation of free radicals, including reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increased ROS, with concomitant decrease in anti-oxidants, results in oxidative stress and toxicity to the liver, heart and other tissues, causing serious morbidity and eventually mortality. Therapeutic iron chelation reduces the LIP and thereby ameliorates oxidative stress-mediated toxicity. Many food-derived antioxidants have the capacities to scavenge ROS and chelate iron. We have reported that fermented papaya preparation (FPP) has ROS scavenging effect on blood cells in vitro or in vivo (in thalassemic patients and experimental animals). We now investigated FPP's iron chelating effect - its ability to prevent (and revert) LIP accumulation. Liver- and heart-derived cells, and RBCs were exposed to non-transferrin bound iron in the form of ferrous ammonium sulfate and the effect of FPP on their LIP content and ROS generation was measured by flow-cytometry. The results indicate that FPP reduces LIP and ROS, and suggests that its antioxidant mechanism is related, at least in part, to iron chelation. PMID:22824747

  8. Instructor Touch Enhanced College Students' Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legg, Angela M.; Wilson, Janie H.

    2013-01-01

    Touch between people is associated with several outcomes, including reduced stress, more positive mood, enhanced feelings of closeness, and positive behavioral change. However, the potential utility of touch rarely has been examined in a college sample, with teachers touching their students. In the present study, we used instrumental touch…

  9. The effect of expressive physical touch on patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Kim, E J; Buschmann, M T

    1999-06-01

    This study explored the effect of expressive physical touch with verbalization (EPT/V) on anxiety and dysfunctional behavior in patients with dementia using a one group repeated measures design. The study findings are that (1) anxiety is lower immediately following EPT/V and (2) EPT/V causes decreasing episodes of dysfunctional behavior. Therefore, it behooves caregivers and family members to use expressive physical touch and verbalization when caring for these patients, since it is cost-effective, simple to learn and practice and it is most effective in improving and maintaining patient's high quality of life. PMID:10404293

  10. Plant sensing: gravity and touch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilroy, S.; Swanson, S.; Massa, G.

    Roots must integrate many stimuli in order to direct their growth as they explore the soil. Gravitropism leads to downward growth but other stimuli such as gradients in nutrients, water, biotic and abiotic stresses and physical obstacles such as rocks all act on the roots sensory systems to modify this gravitropic response. We have therefore investigated the interaction of gravity signaling and response to other stimuli such as a mechanical obstruction to downward growth. A gravitropically directed primary root of Arabidopsis thaliana (growing vertically) senses an obstacle such as a glass plate placed in its direction of growth and initiates an avoidance growth response upon contacting the barrier. This response appears to be caused by an interaction of gravitropic and thigmotropic sensory systems. The touch stimulation of the root cap leads to alteration in growth, initially in the central and later in the distal elongation zone of the root. These growth responses maintain the root tip at an angle of 136 degrees to the barrier as the root grows across the obstacle's surface. Removal of cells in the root cap by laser ablation indicate that all root cap cells are required for this growth response to the barrier. Once the end of the barrier is reached and the root can grow off the obstruciton, gravitropism appears to occur faster than in roots that did not interact with an obstacle, suggesting that the touch stimulation of the barrier may alter gravitropic signaling or response. Touch stimulation of the root cap inhibited the pH-dependent gravity signaling events that are known to be required for gravitropic response. These results imply a transient suppression of gravisensing or graviresponse by touch. Touch stimulation of root cap cells elicited an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ that appears to propagate from cell to cell throughout the cap, suggesting Ca2+ signaling may underlie the communication between gravity and touch sensing cells. Although the pgm1 -1 starch

  11. Air touch: new feeling touch-panel interface you don't need to touch using audio input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Morimoto, Hiroyuki

    2008-03-01

    A touch-panel is display overlays which have the ability to display and receive information on the same screen. The advantage of this touch screen is that it is easy for all users to operate intuitively. In addition, a touch-panel interface is utilizable for multi-users. However a conventional system cannot provide us with direct touching in the air because the touching point differs from the actual displaying space. The reason is that a conventional touch-panel system detects the user's operation on the display screen. In the virtual 3D space, it is important to realize that the user can operate at the same space. The authors developed a prototype virtual air touch interface system for interaction in the virtual 3D space. In this paper, we propose the interface system using a theremin which is a musical instrument having the unusual aspect of being controlled by the performer's hand motions near the antennas.

  12. The dsRNA Virus Papaya Meleira Virus and an ssRNA Virus Are Associated with Papaya Sticky Disease.

    PubMed

    Sá Antunes, Tathiana Ferreira; Amaral, Raquel J Vionette; Ventura, José Aires; Godinho, Marcio Tadeu; Amaral, Josiane G; Souza, Flávia O; Zerbini, Poliane Alfenas; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

    2016-01-01

    Papaya sticky disease, or "meleira", is one of the major diseases of papaya in Brazil and Mexico, capable of causing complete crop loss. The causal agent of sticky disease was identified as an isometric virus with a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome, named papaya meleira virus (PMeV). In the present study, PMeV dsRNA and a second RNA band of approximately 4.5 kb, both isolated from latex of papaya plants with severe symptoms of sticky disease, were deep-sequenced. The nearly complete sequence obtained for PMeV dsRNA is 8,814 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs; the predicted ORF1 and ORF2 display similarity to capsid proteins and RdRp's, respectively, from mycoviruses tentatively classified in the family Totiviridae. The sequence obtained for the second RNA is 4,515 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs. The predicted ORFs 1 and 2 display 48% and 73% sequence identity, respectively, with the corresponding proteins of papaya virus Q, an umbravirus recently described infecting papaya in Ecuador. Viral purification in a sucrose gradient allowed separation of particles containing each RNA. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that both PMeV and the second RNA virus (named papaya meleira virus 2, PMeV2) were encapsidated in particles formed by the protein encoded by PMeV ORF1. The presence of both PMeV and PMeV2 was confirmed in field plants showing typical symptoms of sticky disease. Interestingly, PMeV was detected alone in asymptomatic plants. Together, our results indicate that sticky disease is associated with double infection by PMeV and PMeV2. PMID:27166626

  13. The dsRNA Virus Papaya Meleira Virus and an ssRNA Virus Are Associated with Papaya Sticky Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sá Antunes, Tathiana Ferreira; Amaral, Raquel J. Vionette; Ventura, José Aires; Godinho, Marcio Tadeu; Amaral, Josiane G.; Souza, Flávia O.; Zerbini, Poliane Alfenas; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo

    2016-01-01

    Papaya sticky disease, or “meleira”, is one of the major diseases of papaya in Brazil and Mexico, capable of causing complete crop loss. The causal agent of sticky disease was identified as an isometric virus with a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome, named papaya meleira virus (PMeV). In the present study, PMeV dsRNA and a second RNA band of approximately 4.5 kb, both isolated from latex of papaya plants with severe symptoms of sticky disease, were deep-sequenced. The nearly complete sequence obtained for PMeV dsRNA is 8,814 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs; the predicted ORF1 and ORF2 display similarity to capsid proteins and RdRp's, respectively, from mycoviruses tentatively classified in the family Totiviridae. The sequence obtained for the second RNA is 4,515 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs. The predicted ORFs 1 and 2 display 48% and 73% sequence identity, respectively, with the corresponding proteins of papaya virus Q, an umbravirus recently described infecting papaya in Ecuador. Viral purification in a sucrose gradient allowed separation of particles containing each RNA. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that both PMeV and the second RNA virus (named papaya meleira virus 2, PMeV2) were encapsidated in particles formed by the protein encoded by PMeV ORF1. The presence of both PMeV and PMeV2 was confirmed in field plants showing typical symptoms of sticky disease. Interestingly, PMeV was detected alone in asymptomatic plants. Together, our results indicate that sticky disease is associated with double infection by PMeV and PMeV2. PMID:27166626

  14. Mechanical Control of the Sense of Touch by β Spectrin

    PubMed Central

    Krieg, Michael; Dunn, Alexander R.; Goodman, Miriam B.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to sense and respond to mechanical stimuli emanates from sensory neurons and is shared by most, if not all animals. Exactly how such neurons receive and distribute mechanical signals during touch sensation remains mysterious. Here, we show that sensation of mechanical forces depends on a continuous, pre-stressed spectrin cytoskeleton inside neurons. Mutations in the tetramerization domain of C. elegans β-spectrin (UNC-70), an actin-membrane cross-linker, cause defects in sensory neuron morphology under compressive stress in moving animals. Through AFM force spectroscopy experiments on isolated neurons, in vivo laser axotomy and FRET imaging to measure force across single cells and molecules, we show that spectrin is held under constitutive tension in living animals, which contributes to an elevated pre-stress in touch receptor neurons. Genetic manipulations that decrease such spectrin-dependent tension also selectively impair touch sensation, suggesting that such pretension is essential for efficient responses to external mechanical stimuli. PMID:24561618

  15. [Affective touch according the nurse's perspective].

    PubMed

    Dias, Andréa Basílio; Oliveira, Leonor; Dias, Denise Gamio; Santana, Maria da Glória

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the conception of nurses about the affective touch as a tool for care promotion and to identify its meanings in nursing care and the moment when it is used as care instrument. Qualitative research differentiating two ways to touch: instrumental touch (objective care) and the affective touch (subjective care). For data collection a semi-structured interview was used, with three assistance nurses of two hospitals in the South Region of Brazil. Through data analysis, the affective touch was demonstrated to be restrictedly, during the invasive procedures, in despite considering it effective instrument to establish empathy. PMID:18982224

  16. ANTIOXIDANT AND IMMUNOSTIMULANT EFFECT OF CARICA PAPAYA LINN. AQUEOUS EXTRACT IN ACRYLAMIDE INTOXICATED RATS

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed Sadek, Kadry

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and immunostimulant effects of The Carica papaya fruit aqueous extract (CPF, Caricaceae) against acrylamide induced oxidative stress and improvement of Immune functions which affected by free radicals liberating acrylamide in rats. Material and methods: Sixty male wistar albino rats (195-230g) were assigned to four groups, (fifteen/group). The first group used as control group and received normal physiological saline orally daily. The second group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water. The third group was gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The fourth group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water and gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The chosen dose of papaya fruit extract was based on the active pharmacological dose range obtained from the orientation study earlier conducted. The experimental period was extended to forty day. At the expiration of the experimental period and night fasting, blood samples were collected from the orbital venous sinus. The sera were separated and used for determining of IgG and IgM and the stomach, liver and kidney homogenates for estimation of MDA, GSH level, SOD and CAT activity as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidative stress. Results and discussion: The obtained results revealed that, acrylamide caused significant increases in MDA and decrease of GSH level, SOD and CAT activity due to the oxidative stress induced by acrylamide on membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat’s stomach, liver and kidney while administration of CPF aqueous extract, was significantly ameliorated the increased levels of MDA and decline of GSH, SOD and CAT activity in the stomach, liver and kidney tissues caused by acrylamide toxicity. Meanwhile, CPF aqueous extract significantly increased immune functions (IgG and IgM) while acrylamide significantly

  17. [Therapeutic touch and anorexia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Satori, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    An innovative practice, therapeutic touch has been used for around ten years in the treatment of eating disorders. Delivered by nurse clinicians having received specific training, this approach is based on nursing diagnoses which identify the major symptoms of this pathology. The support is built around the body and its perceptions. Through the helping relationship, it mobilises the patient's resources to favour a relationship of trust, a letting-go, physical, psychological and emotional relaxation, and improves the therapeutic alliance. PMID:27615696

  18. Social anxiety and response to touch: incongruence between self-evaluative and physiological reactions.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, F H; Kochar, A S; Roth, W T; Gross, J J

    2001-12-01

    Touch is an important form of social interaction, and one that can have powerful emotional consequences. Appropriate touch can be calming, while inappropriate touch can be anxiety provoking. To examine the impact of social touching, this study compared socially high-anxious (N=48) and low-anxious (N=47) women's attitudes concerning social touch, as well as their affective and physiological responses to a wrist touch by a male experimenter. Compared to low-anxious participants, high-anxious participants reported greater anxiety to a variety of social situations involving touch. Consistent with these reports, socially anxious participants reacted to the experimenter's touch with markedly greater increases in self-reported anxiety, self-consciousness, and embarrassment. Physiologically, low-anxious and high-anxious participants showed a distinct pattern of sympathetic-parasympathetic coactivation, as reflected by decreased heart rate and tidal volume, and increased respiratory sinus arrhythmia, skin conductance, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, stroke volume, and respiratory rate. Interestingly, physiological responses were comparable in low and high-anxious groups. These findings indicate that social anxiety is accompanied by heightened aversion towards social situations that involve touch, but this enhanced aversion and negative-emotion report is not reflected in differential physiological responding. PMID:11698114

  19. Explaining mirror-touch synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jamie; Banissy, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) is the conscious experience of tactile sensations induced by seeing someone else touched. This paper considers two different, although not mutually exclusive, theoretical explanations and, in the final section, considers the relation between MTS and other forms of synesthesia and also other kinds of vicarious perception (e.g., contagious yawning). The Threshold Theory explains MTS in terms of hyper-activity within a mirror system for touch and/or pain. This offers a good account for some of the evidence (e.g., from fMRI) but fails to explain the whole pattern (e.g., structural brain differences outside of this system; performance on some tests of social cognition). The Self-Other Theory explains MTS in terms of disturbances in the ability to distinguish the self from others. This can be construed in terms of over-extension of the bodily self in to others, or as difficulties in the control of body-based self-other representations. In this account, MTS is a symptom of a broader cognitive profile. We suggest this meets the criteria for synesthesia, despite the proximal causal mechanisms remaining largely unknown, and that the tendency to localize vicarious sensory experiences distinguishes it from other kinds of seemingly related phenomena (e.g., non-localized affective responses to observing pain). PMID:25893437

  20. Voluntary self-touch increases body ownership

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Masayuki; Pozeg, Polona; Rognini, Giulio; Higuchi, Takahiro; Fukuhara, Kazunobu; Yamamoto, Akio; Higuchi, Toshiro; Blanke, Olaf; Salomon, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI), in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and show an important role for active self-touch in the formation of bodily self. PMID:26617534

  1. Voluntary self-touch increases body ownership.

    PubMed

    Hara, Masayuki; Pozeg, Polona; Rognini, Giulio; Higuchi, Takahiro; Fukuhara, Kazunobu; Yamamoto, Akio; Higuchi, Toshiro; Blanke, Olaf; Salomon, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI), in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and show an important role for active self-touch in the formation of bodily self. PMID:26617534

  2. Subchronic Immunotoxicity Assessment of Genetically Modified Virus-Resistant Papaya in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Tang; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Wu, Jhaol-Huei; Yen, Gow-Chin; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Cheng, Ying-Huey; Chang, Shih-Chieh; Liao, Jiunn-Wang

    2016-07-27

    Papaya is an important fruit that provides a variety of vitamins with nutritional value and also holds some pharmacological properties, including immunomodulation. Genetically modified (GM) papaya plants resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) infection have been generated by cloning the coat protein gene of the PRSV which can be used as a valuable strategy to fight PRSV infection and to increase papaya production. In order to assess the safety of GM papaya as a food, this subchronic study was conducted to assess the immunomodulatory responses of the GM papaya line 823-2210, when compared with its parent plant of non-GM papaya, Tainung-2 (TN-2), in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Both non-GM and GM 823-2210 papaya fruits at low (1 g/kg bw) and high (2 g/kg bw) dosages were administered via daily oral gavage to male and female rats consecutively for 90 days. Immunophenotyping, mitogen-induced splenic cell proliferation, antigen-specific antibody response, and histopathology of the spleen and thymus were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Results of immunotoxicity assays revealed no consistent difference between rats fed for 90 days with GM 823-2210 papaya fruits, as opposed to those fed non-GM TN-2 papaya fruits, suggesting that with regard to immunomodulatory responses, GM 823-2210 papaya fruits maintain substantial equivalence to fruits of their non-GM TN-2 parent. PMID:27396727

  3. Analysis of ripening-related gene expression in papaya using an Arabidopsis-based microarray

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a commercially important crop that produces climacteric fruits with a soft and sweet pulp that contain a wide range of health promoting phytochemicals. Despite its importance, little is known about transcriptional modifications during papaya fruit ripening and their control. In this study we report the analysis of ripe papaya transcriptome by using a cross-species (XSpecies) microarray technique based on the phylogenetic proximity between papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Papaya transcriptome analyses resulted in the identification of 414 ripening-related genes with some having their expression validated by qPCR. The transcription profile was compared with that from ripening tomato and grape. There were many similarities between papaya and tomato especially with respect to the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in primary metabolism, regulation of transcription, biotic and abiotic stress and cell wall metabolism. XSpecies microarray data indicated that transcription factors (TFs) of the MADS-box, NAC and AP2/ERF gene families were involved in the control of papaya ripening and revealed that cell wall-related gene expression in papaya had similarities to the expression profiles seen in Arabidopsis during hypocotyl development. Conclusion The cross-species array experiment identified a ripening-related set of genes in papaya allowing the comparison of transcription control between papaya and other fruit bearing taxa during the ripening process. PMID:23256600

  4. Physico-chemical characteristics of papaya (Carica papaya L.) seed oil of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety.

    PubMed

    Yanty, Noorzianna Abdul Manaf; Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohammed Nazrim; Nusantoro, Bangun Prajanto; Long, Kamariah; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the oil derived from papaya seeds of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety. Proximate analysis showed that seeds of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety contained considerable amount of oil (27.0%). The iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acid contents of freshly extracted papaya seed oil were 76.9 g I2/100g oil, 193.5 mg KOH/g oil, 1.52% and 0.91%, respectively. The oil had a Lovibond color index of 15.2Y + 5.2B. Papaya seed oil contained ten detectable fatty acids, of which 78.33% were unsaturated. Oleic (73.5%) acid was the dominant fatty acids followed by palmitic acid (15.8%). Based on the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, seven species of triacylglycerols (TAGs) were detected. The predominant TAGs of papaya seed oil were OOO (40.4%), POO (29.1%) and SOO (9.9%) where O, P, and S denote oleic, palmitic and stearic acids, respectively. Thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that papaya seed oil had its major melting and crystallization transitions at 12.4°C and -48.2°C, respectively. Analysis of the sample by Z-nose (electronic nose) instrument showed that the sample had a high level of volatile compounds. PMID:25174674

  5. Simultaneous detection of papaya ringspot virus, papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus, and papaya mosaic virus by multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR.

    PubMed

    Huo, P; Shen, W T; Yan, P; Tuo, D C; Li, X Y; Zhou, P

    2015-12-01

    Both the single infection of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) or papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) and double infection of PRSV and PLDMV or PapMV which cause indistinguishable symptoms, threaten the papaya industry in Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was developed to detect simultaneously the three viruses based on their distinctive melting temperatures (Tms): 81.0±0.8°C for PRSV, 84.7±0.6°C for PLDMV, and 88.7±0.4°C for PapMV. The multiplex real-time RT-PCR method was specific and sensitive in detecting the three viruses, with a detection limit of 1.0×10(1), 1.0×10(2), and 1.0×10(2) copies for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively. Indeed, the reaction was 100 times more sensitive than the multiplex RT-PCR for PRSV, and 10 times more sensitive than multiplex RT-PCR for PLDMV. Field application of the multiplex real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that some non-symptomatic samples were positive for PLDMV by multiplex real-time RT-PCR but negative by multiplex RT-PCR, whereas some samples were positive for both PRSV and PLDMV by multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay but only positive for PLDMV by multiplex RT-PCR. Therefore, this multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay provides a more rapid, sensitive and reliable method for simultaneous detection of PRSV, PLDMV, PapMV and their mixed infections in papaya. PMID:26666186

  6. Oxidative stress in patients with Alzheimer's disease: effect of extracts of fermented papaya powder.

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, Mario; Marotta, Francesco; Dominguez, Ligia J

    2015-01-01

    Brain tissue is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress (OS). Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced antioxidant systems, and decreased efficiency in repairing mechanisms have been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Postmortem studies in AD patients' brains have shown oxidative damage markers (i.e., lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative damage, and glycoxidation). Fermented papaya (FPP, a product of Carica papaya Linn fermentation with yeast) is a nutraceutical supplement with favorable effects on immunological, hematological, inflammatory, and OS parameters in chronic/degenerative diseases. We studied 40 patients (age 78.2 ± 1.1 years), 28 AD patients, and 12 controls. Urinary 8-OHdG was measured to assess OS. Twenty AD patients were supplemented with FPP (Immunage, 4.5 grams/day) for 6 months, while controls did not receive any treatment. At baseline, 8-OHdG was significantly higher in patients with AD versus controls (13.7 ± 1.61 ng/mL versus 1.6 ± 0.12 ng/mL, P < 0.01). In AD patients FPP significantly decreased 8-OHdG (14.1 ± 1.7 ng/mL to 8.45 ± 1.1 ng/mL, P < 0.01), with no significant changes in controls. AD is associated with increased OS, and FPP may be helpful to counteract excessive ROS in AD patients. PMID:25944987

  7. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in melon, watermelon and papaya pulps.

    PubMed

    Penteado, Ana L; Leitão, Mauro F F

    2004-04-01

    Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in low-acid fruits (melon, watermelon and papaya) at different times of incubation and at temperatures of 10, 20 and 30 degrees C was studied. Fruit pulp portions with an average pH of 5.87, 5.50 and 4.87 for melon, watermelon and papaya, respectively, were obtained aseptically, homogenized, weighed and inoculated with suspensions (approximately 10(2) CFU/g) of L. monocytogenes. Generation times of 7.12, 13.03 and 15.05 h at 10 degrees C, 1.74, 2.17 and 6.42 h at 20 degrees C and 0.84, 1.00 and 1.16 h at 30 degrees C were obtained, respectively, for melon, watermelon and papaya. The results showed that L. monocytogenes grew in low-acid fruits at all tested temperatures, although growth was diminished, but not inhibited at 10 degrees C. PMID:15033271

  8. Papaya (Carica papaya) consumption is unsafe in pregnancy: fact or fable? Scientific evaluation of a common belief in some parts of Asia using a rat model.

    PubMed

    Adebiyi, Adebowale; Adaikan, P Ganesan; Prasad, R N V

    2002-08-01

    Using controlled in vivo and in vitro pharmacological methods, we evaluated the safety of papaya (Carica papaya) consumption in pregnancy with reference to its common avoidance during pregnancy in some parts of Asia. Ripe papaya (Carica papaya L. (Caricaecae) blend (500 ml/l water) was freely given to four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats at different stages of gestation (days 1-5, 6-11, 12-17 and 1-20). The control group received water. The effect of ripe papaya juice and crude papaya latex on pregnant and non-pregnant rats' uteri was also evaluated using standard isolated-organ-bath methods. The daily volumes (ml) of ripe papaya blend consumed by the treated group were significantly (P<0.05) more than water consumed by the control (control 40.3 (sd 11.6) v. treated 64 (sd 19.0)). There was no significant difference in the number of implantation sites and viable fetuses in the rats given ripe papaya relative to the control. No sign of fetal or maternal toxicity was observed in all the groups. In the in vitro study, ripe papaya juice (0.1-0.8 ml) did not show any significant contractile effect on uterine smooth muscles isolated from pregnant and non-pregnant rats; conversely, crude papaya latex (0.1-3.2 mg/ml) induced spasmodic contraction of the uterine muscles similar to oxytocin (1-64 mU/ml) and prostaglandin F(2 alpha) (0.028-1.81 microm). The response of the isolated rat uterine smooth muscles to 0.2 mg crude papaya latex/ml was comparable to 0.23 microm prostaglandin F(2 alpha) and 32 mU oxytocin/ml. In the 18-19 d pregnant rat uterus, the contractile effect of crude papaya latex was characterized by tetanic spasms. The results of the present study suggest that normal consumption of ripe papaya during pregnancy may not pose any significant danger. However, the unripe or semi-ripe papaya (which contains high concentration of the latex that produces marked uterine contractions) could be unsafe in pregnancy. Though evaluation of potentially toxic agents often

  9. Sequence and genome organization of papaya meleira virus infecting papaya in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Emanuel F M; Daltro, Cleidiane B; Nogueira, Elsa O P L; Andrade, Eduardo C; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2015-12-01

    Papaya sticky disease ('meleira') was first observed in Brazil at the beginning of the 1980s. The disease is characterized by intense latex exudation from the fruit surface that becomes dark as it oxidizes, which makes it difficult to sell. The causal agent, which has been called papaya meleira virus (PMeV), has been identified as an isometric virus particle, approximately 50 nm in diameter, with a double-stranded RNA genome. Here, we report the first complete sequence and organization of the 8.7-kb viral dsRNA genome. Two ORFs coding for a putative coat protein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) were predicted. In silico analysis revealed that the translated ORF2 contains the conserved domains characteristic of an RdRp protein (pfam02123:RdRP 4), which is a family that includes RdRps from members of the genera Luteovirus, Totivirus and Rotavirus. Evolutionary analysis with amino acid sequences with the RdRps from members of the family Totiviridae and some dsRNA viruses showed that PMeV RdRp did not root itself in any genus. PMID:26370790

  10. Fractionation and purification of the thiol proteinases from papaya latex.

    PubMed

    Dekeyser, P M; De Smedt, S; Demeester, J; Lauwers, A

    1994-06-01

    Three cysteine proteinases, i.e. chymopapain, papaya proteinase IV and proteinase III, were purified to homogeneity from papaya latex using a combination of ion-exchange chromatography and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. During the purification procedure, the thiol-groups of the active center were reversibly blocked as mixed disulfides with 2-thiopyridone. Homogeneity was proved electrophoretically by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE and rechromatography on a Mono S 5/5 column at pH 5.0. PMID:7952030

  11. Consumer in-store response to irradiated papayas

    SciTech Connect

    Bruhn, C.M.; Noell, J.W.

    1987-09-01

    In this study, purchase behavior of California consumers in response to irradiated papayas is described. The papayas were shipped from Hawaii and irradiated in California under a permit by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and approved by the California Department of Food and Agriculture. Results show that the superior appearance of the irradiated fruit appealed to consumers and that two-thirds or more of the people queried indicated that they would buy irradiated produce. It is noted that this marketing took place in a supportive environment with no protestors present. Informational material was available.

  12. Gentle touch perception across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Sehlstedt, Isac; Ignell, Hanna; Backlund Wasling, Helena; Ackerley, Rochelle; Olausson, Håkan; Croy, Ilona

    2016-03-01

    Pleasant, affective touch provides various health benefits, including stress and depression relief. There is a dichotomy between mechanoreceptive afferents that predominantly signal discriminative (myelinated A-beta) and affective (unmyelinated C-tactile) aspects of touch. It is well documented that discriminative abilities of touch decline with age. However, a thorough investigation of how the pleasant aspects of touch develop with age has not been previously attempted. Here, we investigated the relationship between age and psychophysical ratings in response to gentle stroking touch. One hundred twenty participants (60 males, 60 females) ages 13-82 years were presented with C-tactile optimal and suboptimal stroking velocities, and rated pleasantness and intensity. Moreover, to examine the specificity of age effects on touch perception, we used olfactory stimuli as a cross-sensory comparison. For all ages, we found that C-tactile optimal stimuli were rated significantly more pleasant than C-tactile suboptimal stimuli. Although, both touch and olfactory intensity ratings were negatively correlated with age, a positive correlation between pleasantness ratings of touch (but not olfactory stimuli) and age was found. We conclude that the affective, but not the discriminative, aspects of touch are enhanced with increasing age. The increase of pleasantness of all touch stimuli in late adulthood is discussed in relation to cognitive modulations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950227

  13. Antihyperglycaemic effects of ethanol extracts of Carica papaya and Pandanus amaryfollius leaf in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Sumathi, Vello; Jegathambigai, Naidu Rameshwar; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga

    2011-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a global disease that is increasing in an alarming rate. The present study was undertaken to study the antidiabetic effect of the ethanol extracts of Carica papaya and Pandanus amaryfollius on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. The results of the present study indicated that there was no significant difference in the body weight of the treated groups when compared to diabetic control. Whereas, there was significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the blood glucose level of the plant-treated groups compared to the diabetic control. Histologically the pancreas of the treated groups indicated significant regeneration of the β-cells when compared to the diabetic control. The liver tissues of the treated group indicated a reduction in fatty changes and pyknotic nucleus. The kidney tissues of the treated groups indicated significant recovery in the cuboidal tissue. The results from the phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponin and tannin in C. papaya and P. amaryfollius. The antidiabetic effect of C. papaya and P. amaryfollius observed in the present study may be due to the presence of these phytochemicals. PMID:21707251

  14. The use of healing touch in integrative oncology.

    PubMed

    Hart, Laura K; Freel, Mildred I; Haylock, Pam J; Lutgendorf, Susan K

    2011-10-01

    The use of complementary therapies by patients with cancer has become increasingly prevalent; as a result, oncology nurses find themselves needing to understand those therapies and the evidence-based support for their use. This article describes the integrative use of the biofield therapy healing touch in conjunction with the chemoradiation received by patients with cervical cancer (stages IB1 to IVA) as reported in a 2010 research study. Findings indicated effects on the immune response and depression in healing touch recipients compared to patients receiving relaxation or standard care. Specifically, healing touch recipients demonstrated a minimal decrease in natural killer cell cytotoxicity over the course of treatment, whereas the cytotoxicity of patients receiving relaxation therapy and standard care declined sharply during radiation. Healing touch recipients also showed decreases in depressed mood compared to relaxation therapy and standard care recipients. The findings suggest that appropriate integration of complementary modalities into oncology care can enhance the impact of conventional care by putting patients in the best condition to use their innate healing resources. PMID:21951738

  15. Highly stretchable, transparent ionic touch panel.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chong-Chan; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Sun, Jeong-Yun

    2016-08-12

    Because human-computer interactions are increasingly important, touch panels may require stretchability and biocompatibility in order to allow integration with the human body. However, most touch panels have been developed based on stiff and brittle electrodes. We demonstrate an ionic touch panel based on a polyacrylamide hydrogel containing lithium chloride salts. The panel is soft and stretchable, so it can sustain a large deformation. The panel can freely transmit light information because the hydrogel is transparent, with 98% transmittance for visible light. A surface-capacitive touch system was adopted to sense a touched position. The panel can be operated under more than 1000% areal strain without sacrificing its functionalities. Epidermal touch panel use on skin was demonstrated by writing words, playing a piano, and playing games. PMID:27516597

  16. Highly stretchable, transparent ionic touch panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chong-Chan; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Sun, Jeong-Yun

    2016-08-01

    Because human-computer interactions are increasingly important, touch panels may require stretchability and biocompatibility in order to allow integration with the human body. However, most touch panels have been developed based on stiff and brittle electrodes. We demonstrate an ionic touch panel based on a polyacrylamide hydrogel containing lithium chloride salts. The panel is soft and stretchable, so it can sustain a large deformation. The panel can freely transmit light information because the hydrogel is transparent, with 98% transmittance for visible light. A surface-capacitive touch system was adopted to sense a touched position. The panel can be operated under more than 1000% areal strain without sacrificing its functionalities. Epidermal touch panel use on skin was demonstrated by writing words, playing a piano, and playing games.

  17. Compositional and functional dynamics of dried papaya as affected by storage time and packaging material.

    PubMed

    Udomkun, Patchimaporn; Nagle, Marcus; Argyropoulos, Dimitrios; Mahayothee, Busarakorn; Latif, Sajid; Müller, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    Papaya has been identified as a valuable source of nutrients and antioxidants, which are beneficial for human health. To preserve the nutritional properties after drying, appropriate storage specifications should be considered. This study aimed to investigate the quality and stability of air-dried papaya in terms of quality dynamics and behavior of bio-active compounds during storage for up to 9 months in two packaging materials: aluminum laminated polyethylene and polyamide/polyethylene. Samples with moisture content (MC) of 0.1328 g g(-1) and water activity (aw) of 0.5 were stored at 30 °C and relative humidity (RH) of 40-50%. The MC, aw, degree of browning (DB) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content were found to notably increase as storage progressed. On the contrary, there was a significant decrease in antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP and ABTS), total phenolic (TP) and ascorbic acid (AA) contents. Packaging in aluminum laminated polyethylene under ambient conditions was found to better preserve bio-active compounds and retard increases in MC, aw and DB, when compared to polyamide/polyethylene. PMID:26593545

  18. Improvement of touch sensitivity by pressing.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hie-yong; Higashimori, Mitsuru; Kaneko, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    It is really interesting to know how a blood flow has an influence on a touch sensitivity during human fingertip exploration over an environment. In this paper, we examine experimentally how the touch sensitivity is changed under the condition that the blood flow is interrupted compulsorily by pressing the proximal phalange of human finger. Through the weight discrimination test based on Weber's Law, we found that the touch sensitivity improves temporarily with the statistical significance test of below 0.1 %, when a finger proximal phalange is bound and pressed. Experimental results also show that there exists a meaningful correlationship between the stiffness of fingertip and the touch sensitivity. PMID:19163188

  19. Touch inhibits subcortical and cortical nociceptive responses

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Flavia; Beaumont, Anne-Lise; Hu, Li; Haggard, Patrick; Iannetti, Gian Domenico D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The neural mechanisms of the powerful analgesia induced by touching a painful body part are controversial. A long tradition of neurophysiologic studies in anaesthetized spinal animals indicate that touch can gate nociceptive input at spinal level. In contrast, recent studies in awake humans have suggested that supraspinal mechanisms can be sufficient to drive touch-induced analgesia. To investigate this issue, we evaluated the modulation exerted by touch on established electrophysiologic markers of nociceptive function at both subcortical and cortical levels in humans. Aδ and C skin nociceptors were selectively activated by high-power laser pulses. As markers of subcortical and cortical function, we recorded the laser blink reflex, which is generated by brainstem circuits before the arrival of nociceptive signals at the cortex, and laser-evoked potentials, which reflect neural activity of a wide array of cortical areas. If subcortical nociceptive responses are inhibited by concomitant touch, supraspinal mechanisms alone are unlikely to be sufficient to drive touch-induced analgesia. Touch induced a clear analgesic effect, suppressed the laser blink reflex, and inhibited both Aδ-fibre and C-fibre laser-evoked potentials. Thus, we conclude that touch-induced analgesia is likely to be mediated by a subcortical gating of the ascending nociceptive input, which in turn results in a modulation of cortical responses. Hence, supraspinal mechanisms alone are not sufficient to mediate touch-induced analgesia. PMID:26058037

  20. Touch inhibits subcortical and cortical nociceptive responses.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Flavia; Beaumont, Anne-Lise; Hu, Li; Haggard, Patrick; Iannetti, Giandomenico D; Iannetti, Gian Domenico D

    2015-10-01

    The neural mechanisms of the powerful analgesia induced by touching a painful body part are controversial. A long tradition of neurophysiologic studies in anaesthetized spinal animals indicate that touch can gate nociceptive input at spinal level. In contrast, recent studies in awake humans have suggested that supraspinal mechanisms can be sufficient to drive touch-induced analgesia. To investigate this issue, we evaluated the modulation exerted by touch on established electrophysiologic markers of nociceptive function at both subcortical and cortical levels in humans. Aδ and C skin nociceptors were selectively activated by high-power laser pulses. As markers of subcortical and cortical function, we recorded the laser blink reflex, which is generated by brainstem circuits before the arrival of nociceptive signals at the cortex, and laser-evoked potentials, which reflect neural activity of a wide array of cortical areas. If subcortical nociceptive responses are inhibited by concomitant touch, supraspinal mechanisms alone are unlikely to be sufficient to drive touch-induced analgesia. Touch induced a clear analgesic effect, suppressed the laser blink reflex, and inhibited both Aδ-fibre and C-fibre laser-evoked potentials. Thus, we conclude that touch-induced analgesia is likely to be mediated by a subcortical gating of the ascending nociceptive input, which in turn results in a modulation of cortical responses. Hence, supraspinal mechanisms alone are not sufficient to mediate touch-induced analgesia. PMID:26058037

  1. Therapeutic touch with adolescent psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Hughes, P P; Meize-Grochowski, R; Harris, C N

    1996-03-01

    Seven hospitalized, adolescent psychiatric patients who received a total of 31 Therapeutic Touch treatments over two 2-week periods were interviewed about their experience. Findings from the interviews were categorized within 2 overarching themes-the therapeutic relationship and the body/mind connection. The study participants enjoyed the Therapeutic Touch, and in fact, they wanted more of it. This research shows the possibility of Therapeutic Touch as a nursing intervention with adolescent psychiatric patients if all care is taken to obtain their consent and to provide them with a safe environment for touch therapy. PMID:8698982

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT LASER TOUCH AND TECHNOLOGIES, LLC LASER TOUCH MODEL LT-B512

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of Laser Touch model LT-B512 targeting device manufactured by Laser Touch and Technologies, LLC, for manual spray painting operations. The relative transfer efficiency (TE) improved an avera...

  3. Genetic diversity of papaya ring spot virus in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that 20-40% of crop yield is lost due to pests and diseases. Viruses are agents that cause diseases which contribute greatly to the global yield loss. Because of this, food production is negatively affected, especially in the tropics. Carica papaya, co...

  4. An ultrasonic system for determining papaya physiological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Sallehuddin; Ramli, Azlin; Yunus, Mohd Amri Md

    2015-05-01

    There is an increasing need for high quality fruit. As such it is important to have a fast, accurate and reliable method for measuring and monitoring the quality of fruit from the field to the consumer. This paper presents an investigation on the use of a non-destructive ultrasonic system which can be used to measure the quality of papaya.

  5. Antibacterial effects of Carica papaya fruit on common wound organisms.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, G; Hewitt, H; Wint, Y; Obiefuna, P C; Wint, B

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate antibacterial activity of ripe and unripe Carica papaya on selected micro-organisms. Cultures of micro-organisms were routinely maintained in nutrient agar slants at 4 degrees C. Extracts of immature, mature and ripe Carica papaya fruit were obtained by separately grinding factions of the epicarp, endocarp and seeds and filtering them through gauze. Sensitivity tests were conducted by adding 0.06 ml of extract to agar wells (6 mm diameter) prepared from 20 ml agar seeded with 10(6) cells/ml suspension of one of the eight organisms per plate. The inoculated plates were allowed to equilibrate at 4 degrees C for 1 hour, incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 hours, and zones of inhibition measured in millimetres. Anti-bacterial activity was expressed in terms of the radius of zone of inhibition. Seed extracts from the fruit showed inhibition in the following order: B cereus > E coli > S faecalis > S aureus > P vulgaris > S flexneri. No significant difference was found in bacterial sensitivity between immature, mature and ripe fruits. No inhibition zone was produced by epicarp and endocarp extracts. Carica papaya seeds contain anti-bacterial activity that inhibits growth of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Observed activity was independent of stage of fruit maturity. Carica papaya has antibacterial effects that could be useful in treating chronic skin ulcers to promote healing. PMID:15040064

  6. Papaya fruit quality management during the postharvest supply chain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papayas are popular in tropical and subtropical regions and are being exported in large volumes to Europe, the U.S. and Japan. The fruit has excellent taste, exotic flavor and nutritional properties, being rich in vitamins A, C, and antioxidants. However, due to its highly perishable nature it has n...

  7. Papaya Varietal Resistance to Internal Yellowing: Reducing Food Safety Risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal yellowing (IY) is a bacterial disease of ripening papaya fruit that is caused by the enteric bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae. The disease is characterized by yellow discoloration of flesh, tissue softening and a foul or rotten odor that reduces the quality of fresh fruit and value-added pr...

  8. Development of a Gene-Centered SSR Atlas as a Resource for Papaya (Carica papaya) Marker-Assisted Selection and Population Genetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Newton Medeiros; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Ramos, Helaine Christine Cancela; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Venancio, Thiago Motta

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) is an economically important tropical fruit. Molecular marker-assisted selection is an inexpensive and reliable tool that has been widely used to improve fruit quality traits and resistance against diseases. In the present study we report the development and validation of an atlas of papaya simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We integrated gene predictions and functional annotations to provide a gene-centered perspective for marker-assisted selection studies. Our atlas comprises 160,318 SSRs, from which 21,231 were located in genic regions (i.e. inside exons, exon-intron junctions or introns). A total of 116,453 (72.6%) of all identified repeats were successfully mapped to one of the nine papaya linkage groups. Primer pairs were designed for markers from 9,594 genes (34.5% of the papaya gene complement). Using papaya-tomato orthology assessments, we assembled a list of 300 genes (comprising 785 SSRs) potentially involved in fruit ripening. We validated our atlas by screening 73 SSR markers (including 25 fruit ripening genes), achieving 100% amplification rate and uncovering 26% polymorphism rate between the parental genotypes (Sekati and JS12). The SSR atlas presented here is the first comprehensive gene-centered collection of annotated and genome positioned papaya SSRs. These features combined with thousands of high-quality primer pairs make the atlas an important resource for the papaya research community. PMID:25393538

  9. Fetal Behavioural Responses to Maternal Voice and Touch

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Viola; Nagy, Emese

    2015-01-01

    Background Although there is data on the spontaneous behavioural repertoire of the fetus, studies on their behavioural responses to external stimulation are scarce. Aim, Methods The aim of the current study was to measure fetal behavioural responses in reaction to maternal voice; to maternal touch of the abdomen compared to a control condition, utilizing 3D real-time (4D) sonography. Behavioural responses of 23 fetuses (21st to 33rd week of gestation; N = 10 in the 2nd and N = 13 in the 3rd trimester) were frame-by-frame coded and analyzed in the three conditions. Results Results showed that fetuses displayed more arm, head, and mouth movements when the mother touched her abdomen and decreased their arm and head movements to maternal voice. Fetuses in the 3rd trimester showed increased regulatory (yawning), resting (arms crossed) and self-touch (hands touching the body) responses to the stimuli when compared to fetuses in the 2nd trimester. Conclusion In summary, the results from this study suggest that fetuses selectively respond to external stimulation earlier than previously reported, fetuses actively regulated their behaviours as a response to the external stimulation, and that fetal maturation affected the emergence of these differential responses to the environment. PMID:26053388

  10. Antagonism or synergism between papaya ringspot virus and papaya mosaic virus in Carica papaya is determined by their order of infection.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Calvillo, Gabriela; Contreras-Paredes, Carlos A; Mora-Macias, Javier; Noa-Carrazana, Juan C; Serrano-Rubio, Angélica A; Dinkova, Tzvetanka D; Carrillo-Tripp, Mauricio; Silva-Rosales, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Antagonism between unrelated plant viruses has not been thoroughly described. Our studies show that two unrelated viruses, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce different symptomatic outcomes during mixed infection depending on the inoculation order. Synergism occurs in plants infected first with PRSV or in plants infected simultaneously with PRSV and PapMV, and antagonism occurs in plants infected first with PapMV and later inoculated with PRSV. During antagonism, elevated pathogenesis-related (PR-1) gene expression and increased reactive oxygen species production indicated the establishment of a host defense resulting in the reduction in PRSV titers. Polyribosomal fractioning showed that PRSV affects translation of cellular eEF1α, PR-1, β-tubulin, and PapMV RNAs in planta, suggesting that its infection could be related to an imbalance in the translation machinery. Our data suggest that primary PapMV infection activates a defense response against PRSV and establishes a protective relationship with the papaya host. PMID:26765969

  11. Purification and characterization of a papaya (Carica papaya L.) pectin methylesterase isolated from a commercial papain preparation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We purified a single stable pectin methylesterase (CpL-PME; EC 3.1.1.11) from a commercial papain preparation, which is isolated from Carica papaya (L.) fruit latex. This CpL-PME was separated from the abundant cysteine endopeptidases activities using sequential hydrophobic interaction and cation-ex...

  12. Portable chlorophyll meter (PCM-502) values are related to total chlorophyll concentration and photosynthetic capacity in papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was carried out to verify the practical use of the portable chlorophyll meter-PCM502 (PCM) in two papaya cultivars with contrasting green coloring of the leaf blade (‘Golden’: yellowish-green; ‘Solo’: dark green). The relationship was studied between the photosynthetic process and leaf n...

  13. A Self-Report Measure of Touching Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Nicola S.; And Others

    Because touching is an important and often studied construct, and there is need for a valid self-report measure of touching behavior, a measure of touching behaviors was developed. Touching behaviors to be reported were: brief touch on the arm or shoulder, handshake, hug, hand holding, kiss on the cheek, and kiss on the lips. Persons identified as…

  14. The Use of Touch in Therapy: Can We Talk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Melanie A.

    The empirical literature regarding the use of nonerotic touch in psychotherapy is reviewed. Theoretical and ethical concerns are discussed, including the taboo against touching clients, situations in which touch may be appropriate, and whether or not nonerotic touch leads to erotic touch. It is difficult to design controlled studies for ongoing…

  15. The Sensory Neurons of Touch

    PubMed Central

    Abraira, Victoria E.; Ginty, David D.

    2013-01-01

    The somatosensory system decodes a wide range of tactile stimuli and thus endows us with a remarkable capacity for object recognition, texture discrimination, sensory-motor feedback and social exchange. The first step leading to perception of innocuous touch is activation of cutaneous sensory neurons called low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs). Here, we review the properties and functions of LTMRs, emphasizing the unique tuning properties of LTMR subtypes and the organizational logic of their peripheral and central axonal projections. We discuss the spinal cord neurophysiological representation of complex mechanical forces acting upon the skin and current views of how tactile information is processed and conveyed from the spinal cord to the brain. An integrative model in which ensembles of impulses arising from physiologically distinct LTMRs are integrated and processed in somatotopically aligned mechanosensory columns of the spinal cord dorsal horn underlies the nervous system’s enormous capacity for perceiving the richness of the tactile world. PMID:23972592

  16. Touch increases autonomic coupling between romantic partners

    PubMed Central

    Chatel-Goldman, Jonas; Congedo, Marco; Jutten, Christian; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration). Fourteen couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy. PMID:24734009

  17. [Communicating with premature newborns through touch].

    PubMed

    Berne-Audéoud, Frédérique; Marcus, Leila; Lejeune, Fleur; Gentaz, Edouard; Debillon, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    How does the premature newborn perceive the outside world? The first sense developed by the foetus is touch. Through the physiology of sensoriality and brain maturation, touch can constitute an essential vector in communicating with and caring for the premature child. PMID:20925301

  18. Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

  19. Characterization of papaya peptidase A as an enzyme of extreme basicity.

    PubMed

    Kaarsholm, N C; Schack, P

    1983-01-01

    Papaya peptidase A, a papain-like enzyme, has formerly been shown to contain a larger excess of basic amino acids and to have a higher isoelectric point than any of the other enzymes in the papaya latex. Determinations of the free electrophoretic mobility as a function of pH now establishes the isoelectric point of papaya peptidase A as 11.7 and that of succinylated papaya peptidase A as 3.8. Although the specific activity of the enzyme appears only slightly affected by the succinylation, the accompanying change in the charge/mobility ratio seems to indicate a relatively large conformational change upon succinylation. PMID:6362305

  20. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Papaya ringspot virus.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Yang, Yong; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2014-08-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), which causes disease symptoms similar to PRSV, threaten commercial production of both non-transgenic-papaya and PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in China. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay to detect PLDMV was developed previously. In this study, the development of another RT-LAMP assay to distinguish among transgenic, PRSV-infected and PLDMV-infected papaya by detection of PRSV is reported. A set of four RT-LAMP primers was designed based on the highly conserved region of the P3 gene of PRSV. The RT-LAMP method was specific and sensitive in detecting PRSV, with a detection limit of 1.15×10(-6)μg of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR. Field application of the RT-LAMP assay demonstrated that samples positive for PRSV were detected only in non-transgenic papaya, whereas samples positive for PLDMV were detected only in commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya. This suggests that PRSV remains the major limiting factor for non-transgenic-papaya production, and the emergence of PLDMV threatens the commercial transgenic cultivar in China. However, this study, combined with the earlier development of an RT-LAMP assay for PLDMV, will provide a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective diagnostic power to distinguish virus infections in papaya. PMID:24769198

  1. Interactions of touch feedback with muscle vibration and galvanic vestibular stimulation in the control of trunk posture.

    PubMed

    Maaswinkel, E; Veeger, H E J; Dieen, J Hv

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of touch on trunk sway in a seated position. Two touch conditions were included: touching an object with the index finger of the right hand (hand-touch) and maintaining contact with an object at the level of the spine of T10 on the mid back (back-touch). In both touch conditions, the exerted force stayed below 2N. Furthermore, the interaction of touch with paraspinal muscle vibration and galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) was studied. Thirteen healthy subjects with no history of low-back pain participated in this study. Subjects sat on a stool and trunk sway was measured with a motion capture system tracking a cluster marker on the trunk. Subjects performed a total of 12 trials of 60-s duration in a randomized order, combining the experimental conditions of no-touch, hand-touch or back-touch with no sensory perturbation, paraspinal muscle vibration or GVS. The results showed that touch through hand or back decreased trunk sway and decreased the effects of muscle vibration and GVS. GVS led to a large increase in sway whereas the effect of muscle vibration was only observed as an increase of drift and not of sway. In the current experimental set-up, the stabilizing effect of touch was strong enough to mask any effects of perturbations of vestibular and paraspinal muscle spindle afference. In conclusion, tactile information, whenever available, seems to play a dominant role in seated postural sway and therefore has important implications for studying trunk control. PMID:24192277

  2. Emotional modulation of visual remapping of touch.

    PubMed

    Cardini, Flavia; Bertini, Caterina; Serino, Andrea; Ladavas, Elisabetta

    2012-10-01

    The perception of tactile stimuli on the face is modulated if subjects concurrently observe a face being touched; this effect is termed "visual remapping of touch" or the VRT effect. Given the high social value of this mechanism, we investigated whether it might be modulated by specific key information processed in face-to-face interactions: facial emotional expression. In two separate experiments, participants received tactile stimuli, near the perceptual threshold, either on their right, left, or both cheeks. Concurrently, they watched several blocks of movies depicting a face with a neutral, happy, or fearful expression that was touched or just approached by human fingers (Experiment 1). Participants were asked to distinguish between unilateral and bilateral felt tactile stimulation. Tactile perception was enhanced when viewing touch toward a fearful face compared with viewing touch toward the other two expressions. In order to test whether this result can be generalized to other negative emotions or whether it is a fear-specific effect, we ran a second experiment, where participants watched movies of faces-touched or approached by fingers-with either a fearful or an angry expression (Experiment 2). In line with the first experiment, tactile perception was enhanced when subjects viewed touch toward a fearful face and not toward an angry face. Results of the present experiments are interpreted in light of different mechanisms underlying different emotions recognition, with a specific involvement of the somatosensory system when viewing a fearful expression and a resulting fear-specific modulation of the VRT effect. PMID:22390704

  3. Reduced Pleasant Touch Appraisal in the Presence of a Disgusting Odor

    PubMed Central

    Croy, Ilona; Angelo, Silvia D'; Olausson, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Odors are powerful emotional stimuli influencing mood, attention and behavior. Here we examined if odors change the perception of pleasant touch. In line with the warning function of the olfactory system, we proposed that especially unpleasant odors will reduce touch pleasantness, presumably through a disgust-related mechanism. Methods Forty-five healthy participants (mean age 23.3 +/− 3years SD, 24 females) were presented to slow (3 cm/s) and fast (30 cm/s) brush stroking delivered by a robot to the forearm. Touch pleasantness under the influence of an unpleasant odor (Civette, smelling like feces) and an intensity matched pleasant odor (Rose) was compared to an odorless control condition. In a pilot study with 30 participants (mean age 25.9 +/−6 years, 21 females), the odors were matched according to their intensity, and we studied the influence of disgust sensitivity on the perception of 4 different odor qualities. Results The unpleasant odor decreased touch pleasantness for both stroking velocities compared to the odorless control (p<0.005) whereas the rose odor did not change touch pleasantness significantly. Disgust sensitivity was correlated with the modulation of touch pleasantness. The pilot study revealed a significant correlation between disgust sensitivity and the perception of the unpleasant odor qualities (r = −0.56; p = 0.007), but not with any of the other odors. Conclusion Unpleasant odors are powerful in modulating touch pleasantness, and disgust might be a moderating variable. PMID:24664177

  4. Applicability of the chymopapain gene used as endogenous reference gene for transgenic huanong no. 1 papaya detection.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinchao; Yang, Litao; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Haibo; Qian, Bingjun; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-08-12

    The virus-resistant papaya (Carica papaya L.), Huanong no. 1, was the genetically modified (GM) fruit approved for growing in China in 2006. To implement the labeling regulation of GM papaya and its derivates, the development of papaya endogenous reference gene is very necessary for GM papaya detection. Herein, we reported one papaya specific gene, Chymopapain (CHY), as one suitable endogenous reference gene, used for GM papaya identification. Thereafter, we established the conventional and real-time quantitative PCR assays of the CHY gene. In the CHY conventional PCR assay, the limit of detection (LOD) was 25 copies of haploid papaya genome. In the CHY real-time quantitative PCR assay, both the LOD and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were as low as 12.5 copies of haploid papaya genome. Furthermore, we revealed the construct-specific sequence of Chinese GM papaya Huanong no. 1 and developed its conventional and quantitative PCR systems employing the CHY gene as endogenous reference gene. This work is useful for papaya specific identification and GM papaya detection. PMID:19722561

  5. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are...

  6. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are...

  7. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are...

  8. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are...

  9. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are...

  10. Determining sex and screening for the adventitious presence of transgenic material in Carica papaya L. seed germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) is a devastating disease that has a detrimental impact on both commercial papaya production and Caricaceae germplasm conservation. The PRSV coat protein transgenic line 55-1 and derived progeny are resistant to PRSV and have saved the papaya industry in Hawaii. However,...

  11. The touch that heals: the uses and meanings of touch in the clinical encounter.

    PubMed

    Leder, Drew; Krucoff, Mitchell W

    2008-04-01

    This paper investigates the healer's touch in contemporary medical practice, with attention to both allopathic and alternative modalities. Healing is understood as the recovery of an integrated relationship between the self and its body, others, and the surrounding world-the relationship that illness has rendered problematic. In this context, touch can play a crucial role in the clinical encounter. Unlike other modes of sensory apprehension, which tend to involve distance and/or objectification, touch unfolds through an impactful, expressive, reciprocity between the toucher and the touched. For the ill person this can serve to reestablish human connection and facilitate healing changes at the prelinguistic level. The healer's touch involves a blending of attention, compassion, and skill. The clinical efficacy of touch is also dependent upon the patient's active receptivity, aspects of which are explored. All too often, modern medical practice is characterized predominately by the "objectifying touch" of the physical examination, or the "absent touch" wherein technological mediation replaces embodied contact. This paper explores the unique properties of touch as a medium of perception, action, and expression that can render touch a healing force within the clinical encounter. PMID:18399760

  12. Touch activates human auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Schürmann, Martin; Caetano, Gina; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Jousmäki, Veikko; Hari, Riitta

    2006-05-01

    Vibrotactile stimuli can facilitate hearing, both in hearing-impaired and in normally hearing people. Accordingly, the sounds of hands exploring a surface contribute to the explorer's haptic percepts. As a possible brain basis of such phenomena, functional brain imaging has identified activations specific to audiotactile interaction in secondary somatosensory cortex, auditory belt area, and posterior parietal cortex, depending on the quality and relative salience of the stimuli. We studied 13 subjects with non-invasive functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to search for auditory brain areas that would be activated by touch. Vibration bursts of 200 Hz were delivered to the subjects' fingers and palm and tactile pressure pulses to their fingertips. Noise bursts served to identify auditory cortex. Vibrotactile-auditory co-activation, addressed with minimal smoothing to obtain a conservative estimate, was found in an 85-mm3 region in the posterior auditory belt area. This co-activation could be related to facilitated hearing at the behavioral level, reflecting the analysis of sound-like temporal patterns in vibration. However, even tactile pulses (without any vibration) activated parts of the posterior auditory belt area, which therefore might subserve processing of audiotactile events that arise during dynamic contact between hands and environment. PMID:16488157

  13. A bio-hybrid anaerobic treatment of papaya processing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, P.Y.; Chou, C.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Hybrid anaerobic treatment of papaya processing wastes is technically feasible. At 30/sup 0/C, the optimal organic loading rates for maximizing organic removal efficiency and methane production are 1.3 and 4.8 g TCOD/1/day, respectively. Elimination of post-handling and treatment of digested effluent can also be achieved. The system is more suitable for those processing plants with a waste amount of more than 3,000 metric tons per year.

  14. The amino acid sequence of chymopapain from Carica papaya.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, D C; Yaguchi, M; Lynn, K R

    1990-01-01

    Chymopapain is a polypeptide of 218 amino acid residues. It has considerable structural similarity with papain and papaya proteinase omega, including conservation of the catalytic site and of the disulphide bonding. Chymopapain is like papaya proteinase omega in carrying four extra residues between papain positions 168 and 169, but differs from both papaya proteinases in the composition of its S2 subsite, as well as in having a second thiol group, Cys-117. Some evidence for the amino acid sequence of chymopapain has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50153 (12 pages) at the British Library Document Supply Centre, Boston Spa., Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1990) 265, 5. The information comprises Supplement Tables 1-4, which contain, in order, amino acid compositions of peptides from tryptic, peptic, CNBr and mild acid cleavages, Supplement Fig. 1, showing re-fractionation of selected peaks from Fig. 2 of the main paper. Supplement Fig. 2, showing cation-exchange chromatography of the earliest-eluted peak of Fig. 3 of the main paper, Supplement Fig. 3, showing reverse-phase h.p.l.c. of the later-eluted peak from Fig. 3 of the main paper, and Supplement Fig. 4, showing the separation of peptides after mild acid hydrolysis of CNBr-cleavage fragment CB3. PMID:2106878

  15. The amino acid sequence of chymopapain from Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Watson, D C; Yaguchi, M; Lynn, K R

    1990-02-15

    Chymopapain is a polypeptide of 218 amino acid residues. It has considerable structural similarity with papain and papaya proteinase omega, including conservation of the catalytic site and of the disulphide bonding. Chymopapain is like papaya proteinase omega in carrying four extra residues between papain positions 168 and 169, but differs from both papaya proteinases in the composition of its S2 subsite, as well as in having a second thiol group, Cys-117. Some evidence for the amino acid sequence of chymopapain has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50153 (12 pages) at the British Library Document Supply Centre, Boston Spa., Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1990) 265, 5. The information comprises Supplement Tables 1-4, which contain, in order, amino acid compositions of peptides from tryptic, peptic, CNBr and mild acid cleavages, Supplement Fig. 1, showing re-fractionation of selected peaks from Fig. 2 of the main paper. Supplement Fig. 2, showing cation-exchange chromatography of the earliest-eluted peak of Fig. 3 of the main paper, Supplement Fig. 3, showing reverse-phase h.p.l.c. of the later-eluted peak from Fig. 3 of the main paper, and Supplement Fig. 4, showing the separation of peptides after mild acid hydrolysis of CNBr-cleavage fragment CB3. PMID:2106878

  16. The potential of papaya leaf extract in controlling Ganoderma boninense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tay, Z. H.; Chong, K. P.

    2016-06-01

    Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease causes significant losses to the oil palm industry. Numerous controls have been applied in managing the disease but no conclusive result was reported. This study investigated the antifungal potential of papaya leaf extracts against Ganoderma boninense, the causal pathogen of BSR. Among the five different solvents tested in extraction of compounds from papaya leaf, methanol and acetone gave the highest yield. In vitro antifungal activity of the methanol and acetone extracts were evaluated against G. boninense using agar dilution at four concentrations: 5 mg mL-1, 15 mg mL-1, 30 mg mL-1and 45 mg mL-1. The results indicated a positive correlation between the concentration of leaf extracts and the inhibition of G. boninense. ED50 of methanol and acetone crude extracts were determined to be 32.016 mg mL-1and 65.268 mg mL-1, respectively. The extracts were later semi-purified using solid phase extraction (SPE) and the nine bioactive compounds were identified: decanoic acid, 2-methyl-, Z,Z-10-12-Hexadecadien-1-ol acetate, dinonanoin monocaprylin, 2-chloroethyl oleate, phenol,4-(1-phenylethyl)-, phenol,2,4-bis(1-phenylethyl)-, phenol-2-(1-phenylethyl)-, ethyl iso-allocholate and 1- monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilyl ether. The findings suggest that papaya leaf extracts have the ability to inhibit the growth of G. boninense, where a higher concentration of the extract exhibits better inhibition effects.

  17. Identification of a new phospholipase D in Carica papaya latex.

    PubMed

    Abdelkafi, Slim; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Fendri, Imen; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Barouh, Nathalie; Fouquet, Benjamin; Scheirlinckx, Frantz; Villeneuve, Pierre; Carrière, Frédéric

    2012-05-15

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is a lipolytic enzyme involved in signal transduction, vesicle trafficking and membrane metabolism. It catalyzes the hydrolysis and transphosphatidylation of glycerophospholipids at the terminal phosphodiester bond. The presence of a PLD in the latex of Carica papaya (CpPLD1) was demonstrated by transphosphatidylation of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) in the presence of 2% ethanol. Although the protein could not be purified to homogeneity due to its presence in high molecular mass aggregates, a protein band was separated by SDS-PAGE after SDS/chloroform-methanol/TCA-acetone extraction of the latex insoluble fraction. This material was digested with trypsin and the amino acid sequences of the tryptic peptides were determined by micro-LC/ESI/MS/MS. These sequences were used to identify a partial cDNA (723 bp) from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of C. papaya. Based upon EST sequences, a full-length gene was identified in the genome of C. papaya, with an open reading frame of 2424 bp encoding a protein of 808 amino acid residues, with a theoretical molecular mass of 92.05 kDa. From sequence analysis, CpPLD1 was identified as a PLD belonging to the plant phosphatidylcholine phosphatidohydrolase family. PMID:22450361

  18. A cytogenetic study of papaya workers exposed to ethylene dibromide.

    PubMed

    Steenland, K; Carrano, A; Ratcliffe, J; Clapp, D; Ashworth, L; Meinhardt, T

    1986-06-01

    Ethylene dibromide (EDB) has been shown to be carcinogenic in animal studies and mutagenic in vitro. One cytogenetic study of workers exposed to low levels of EDB for short durations was negative. To test whether exposure to low levels of EDB over long periods caused cytogenetic changes, we have assessed the frequencies of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) and chromosomal aberrations (CA) in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 60 men occupationally exposed to EDB. These men worked in papaya-packing plants where EDB was used to fumigate the fruit after harvest to kill fruit-fly larvae. 42 other men who worked at a nearby sugar mill served as controls. The average duration of exposure of the papaya workers was 5 years. 82 full shift personal breathing-zone air samples indicated that the papaya workers were exposed to a geometric mean of 88 ppb of EDB, as an 8-h time weighted average (TWA). Peaks up to 262 ppb were measured. The proposed OSHA 8-h TWA for EDB is 100 ppb, while NIOSH recommends 45 ppb. No differences in SCE levels were found between exposed and nonexposed workers. No differences were found in the total CA frequency between exposed and nonexposed workers. SCE levels were significantly increased in men who smoked cigarettes (p = 0.0001) and in men who smoked marijuana (p = 0.01). CA levels showed a significant increasing trend with age (p = 0.03). PMID:3520305

  19. Involvement of AOX and UCP pathways in the post-harvest ripening of papaya fruits.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M G; Mazorra, L M; Souza, A F; Silva, G M C; Correa, S F; Santos, W C; Saraiva, K D C; Teixeira, A J; Melo, D F; Silva, M G; Silva, M A P; Arrabaça, J D C; Costa, J H; Oliveira, J G

    2015-09-15

    Enhanced respiration during ripening in climacteric fruits is sometimes associated with an uncoupling between the ATP synthesis and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. While the participation of two energy-dissipating systems, one of which is mediated by the alternative oxidase (AOX) and the other mediated by the uncoupling protein (UCP), has been linked to fruit ripening, the relation between the activation of both mitochondrial uncoupling systems with the transient increase of ethylene synthesis (ethylene peak) remains unclear. To elucidate this question, ethylene emission and the two uncoupling (AOX and UCP) pathways were monitored in harvested papaya fruit during the ripening, from green to fully yellow skin. The results confirmed the typical climacteric behavior for papaya fruit: an initial increase in endogenous ethylene emission which reaches a maximum (peak) in the intermediate ripening stage, before finally declining to a basal level in ripe fruit. Respiration of intact fruit also increased and achieved higher levels at the end of ripening. On the other hand, in purified mitochondria extracted from fruit pulp the total respiration and respiratory control decrease while an increase in the participation of AOX and UCP pathways was markedly evident during papaya ripening. There was an increase in the AOX capacity during the transition from green fruit to the intermediate stage that accompanied the transient ethylene peak, while the O2 consumption triggered by UCP activation increased by 80% from the beginning to end stage of fruit ripening. Expression analyses of AOX (AOX1 and 2) and UCP (UCP1-5) genes revealed that the increases in the AOX and UCP capacities were linked to a higher expression of AOX1 and UCP (mainly UCP1) genes, respectively. In silico promoter analyses of both genes showed the presence of ethylene-responsive cis-elements in UCP1 and UCP2 genes. Overall, the data suggest a differential activation of AOX and UCP pathways in regulation

  20. The communication of emotion via touch.

    PubMed

    Hertenstein, Matthew J; Holmes, Rachel; McCullough, Margaret; Keltner, Dacher

    2009-08-01

    The study of emotional communication has focused predominantly on the facial and vocal channels but has ignored the tactile channel. Participants in the current study were allowed to touch an unacquainted partner on the whole body to communicate distinct emotions. Of interest was how accurately the person being touched decoded the intended emotions without seeing the tactile stimulation. The data indicated that anger, fear, disgust, love, gratitude, and sympathy were decoded at greater than chance levels, as well as happiness and sadness, 2 emotions that have not been shown to be communicated by touch to date. Moreover, fine-grained coding documented specific touch behaviors associated with different emotions. The findings are discussed in terms of their contribution to the study of emotion-related communication. PMID:19653781

  1. Nucleotide sequence and expression in Escherichia coli of cDNAs encoding papaya proteinase omega from Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Revell, D F; Cummings, N J; Baker, K C; Collins, M E; Taylor, M A; Sumner, I G; Pickersgill, R W; Connerton, I F; Goodenough, P W

    1993-05-30

    We have cloned and sequenced two similar, but distinct, cDNAs from both fruit and leaf tissues of Carica papaya. The C-terminal portion of the predicted amino acid (aa) sequence of one of the clones has complete identity with the mature enzyme sequence of the cysteine proteinase papaya proteinase omega (Pp omega). The second clone contains ten individual bp changes compared with the first and encodes a protein with three single-aa substitutions, only one of which is located in the mature sequence, but most noticeably carries an additional 19-aa C-terminal extension. The clones encode pre-pro precursor isoforms of Pp omega. The former of these clones has been expressed in Escherichia coli using a T7 polymerase expression system to produce insoluble pro-enzyme which has been solubilized and refolded to yield auto-activable pro-Pp omega. PMID:7684720

  2. An umbra-like virus of papaya discovered in Ecuador: detection, occurrence and phylogenetic relatedness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) extractions from papaya leaves infected with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) revealed the presence of an unusual 4kb band, in addition to the presumed PRSV-associated 10kb band. Partial sequence of RT-PCR products from the 4kb dsRNA revealed homology to genomes of several me...

  3. Irradiation-derived sex reversal mutants for cloning sex determination genes in papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unlike most animals, most flowering plants are hermaphrodites possessing both male and female organs. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the few plant species that produce male, female, and hermaphrodite flowers on separate individuals. These variations have distinctive morphologies and sexual func...

  4. Elicitor-induced Plant Defense and Pathogenesis-Related Gene Expression in Carica papaya L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The basic elements of a papaya systemic acquired resistance (SAR) pathway have been reported to resemble that described in Arabidopsis thaliana. An NPR1 (nonexpresser of pathogenesis-related genes) homolog (CpNPR1) was isolated from papaya and partially characterized (Zhu et al., 2003). To character...

  5. Papaya is not a host for Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The economic value of tomato production is threatened by tomato yellow leaf-curl virus TYLCV and its vector, the silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Use of papaya Carica papaya L. as a banker plant for a whitefly parasitoid shows promise as a whitefly m...

  6. A biochemical comparison between latex from Carica candamarcensis and C. papaya.

    PubMed

    Bravo, L M; Hermosilla, J; Salas, C E

    1994-12-01

    1. A group of plant proteinases is present mainly in the unripe fruit of the papaya tree (Carica papaya), which is a member of the genus Carica. C. candamarcensis is another species that belongs to this group. Its latex contains several proteinases displaying high proteolytic activity. 2. We used several electrophoretic techniques to compare the protein composition of the latex from the two species. Acid electrophoresis followed by staining or Western blot revealed a total of 17 proteins in C. candamarcensis and 7 proteins in C. papaya. Some of the proteins observed in C. papaya have been previously reported in the literature. 3. Electrophoresis on denaturing gels, followed by staining or Western blot revealed the presence of 14 proteins in C. candamarcensis and 6 proteins in C. papaya. Non-equilibrium isoelectrofocusing of the latex from both species showed a larger array of proteins in C. candamarcensis. The analysis of esterase and proteolytic activities on gel fractions after electrophoresis revealed the presence of distinct areas presenting enzyme activity. Some proteins detected in C. candamarcensis have different mobilities when compared with proteins from C. papaya. 4. These results support the view that latex from C. candamarcensis contains a wider diversity of proteins compared to C. papaya, and that some of the proteins not in C. papaya present esterase and proteolytic activity. PMID:7550003

  7. A current overview of the Papaya meleira virus, an unusual plant virus.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Paolla M V; Antunes, Tathiana F S; Magaña-Álvarez, Anuar; Pérez-Brito, Daisy; Tapia-Tussell, Raúl; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Antonio A R; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2015-04-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease, which is characterized by a spontaneous exudation of fluid and aqueous latex from the papaya fruit and leaves. The latex oxidizes after atmospheric exposure, resulting in a sticky feature on the fruit from which the name of the disease originates. PMeV is an isometric virus particle with a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome of approximately 12 Kb. Unusual for a plant virus, PMeV particles are localized on and linked to the polymers present in the latex. The ability of the PMeV to inhabit such a hostile environment demonstrates an intriguing interaction of the virus with the papaya. A hypersensitivity response is triggered against PMeV infection, and there is a reduction in the proteolytic activity of papaya latex during sticky disease. In papaya leaf tissues, stress responsive proteins, mostly calreticulin and proteasome-related proteins, are up regulated and proteins related to metabolism are down-regulated. Additionally, PMeV modifies the transcription of several miRNAs involved in the modulation of genes related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Until now, no PMeV resistant papaya genotype has been identified and roguing is the only viral control strategy available. However, a single inoculation of papaya plants with PMeV dsRNA delayed the progress of viral infection. PMID:25856636

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Erwinia mallotivora BT-MARDI, Causative Agent of Papaya Dieback Disease.

    PubMed

    Redzuan, R Ahmad; Abu Bakar, N; Rozano, L; Badrun, R; Mat Amin, N; Mohd Raih, M F

    2014-01-01

    Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya trees infected with dieback disease, which were planted at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Malaysia. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of E. mallotivora BT-MARDI, which offers an important source of information for understanding pathogen and host interaction during papaya dieback development. PMID:24812220

  9. DEVELOPMENT, REPRODUCTION, AND SURVIVAL OF PAPAYA MEALYBUG (HOMOPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE) ON DIFFERENT HOST PLANT SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus @illiams and Granara de Willink (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae)) is a polyghagus insect and a pest of various tropical crops and ornamentals. It was introduced into the United States in 1998 in Florida. Papaya mealybug potentially poses a threat to numerous agricul...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319.56-25 Section 319.56-25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America...

  11. A Current Overview of the Papaya meleira virus, an Unusual Plant Virus

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Paolla M. V.; Antunes, Tathiana F. S.; Magaña-Álvarez, Anuar; Pérez-Brito, Daisy; Tapia-Tussell, Raúl; Ventura, José A.; Fernandes, Antonio A. R.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease, which is characterized by a spontaneous exudation of fluid and aqueous latex from the papaya fruit and leaves. The latex oxidizes after atmospheric exposure, resulting in a sticky feature on the fruit from which the name of the disease originates. PMeV is an isometric virus particle with a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome of approximately 12 Kb. Unusual for a plant virus, PMeV particles are localized on and linked to the polymers present in the latex. The ability of the PMeV to inhabit such a hostile environment demonstrates an intriguing interaction of the virus with the papaya. A hypersensitivity response is triggered against PMeV infection, and there is a reduction in the proteolytic activity of papaya latex during sticky disease. In papaya leaf tissues, stress responsive proteins, mostly calreticulin and proteasome-related proteins, are up regulated and proteins related to metabolism are down-regulated. Additionally, PMeV modifies the transcription of several miRNAs involved in the modulation of genes related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Until now, no PMeV resistant papaya genotype has been identified and roguing is the only viral control strategy available. However, a single inoculation of papaya plants with PMeV dsRNA delayed the progress of viral infection. PMID:25856636

  12. Effect of papaya trunk angle on infestation by white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two papaya (Carica papaya L.) seedlings growing in one planting hole often results in angular or non-vertical growth of the trees. Data on trunk angularity, or leaning, (deviation from the vertical line of reference) and white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni-Tozzetti (Hemiptera: Dias...

  13. Release and establishment of Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera:Aphelididae) against white peach scale in papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera:Diaspididae) is a serious economic pest of papaya, Carica papaya L. The parasitic wasp Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was brought from Samoa into a quarantine containment facility in Hawaii for evaluation and potential release...

  14. Evaluating Hawaii-Grown Papaya for Resistance to Internal Yellowing Disease Caused by Enterobacter cloacae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivars and breeding lines were evaluated for resistance to Enterobacter cloacae (Jordan) Hormaeche & Edwards, the bacterial causal agent of internal yellowing disease (IY), using a range of concentrations of the bacterium. Linear regression analysis was performed and IY ...

  15. Atypical internal yellowing of papaya fruit in Hawaii caused by Enterobacter sakazakii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal yellowing (IY), characterized by yellow discolored tissue around the papaya (Carica papaya) seed cavity, diffuse margins and the presence of a distinctly rotten odor, was first reported in 1987. These symptoms were associated with the causal agent Enterobacter cloacae. Here we report the fo...

  16. The Papaya Y Chromosome Evolved Recently and Shows Gene Paucity and DNA Sequence Expansion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex chromosomes in flowering plants, in contrast to those in animals, evolved relatively recently and only a few are heteromorphic. At cytological level, the sex chromosomes of papaya appear homomorphic, nevertheless, we are finding the papaya Y chromosome shows features of incipient sex chromosome ...

  17. Cloning Of Organ-Specific Genes from Papaya Using cDNA-AFLP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya is a fast growing and productive fruit crop in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Papaya industry has benefited from application of molecular biology and biotechnology for crop improvement, particularly for viral disease resistance using transgenic varieties. The goal of this researc...

  18. Experiences with Interactive Multi-touch Tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fikkert, Wim; Hakvoort, Michiel; van der Vet, Paul; Nijholt, Anton

    Interactive multi-touch tables can be a powerful means of communication for collaborative work as well as an engaging environment for competition. Through enticing gameplay we have evaluated user experience on competitive gameplay, collaborative work and musical expression. In addition, we report on our extensive experiences with two types of interactive multi-touch tables and we introduce a software framework that abstracts from their technical differences.

  19. Geographical and Genetic Divergence Among Papaya ringspot virus Populations Within Hainan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Jia, Rui Zong; Zhang, Yu-Liang; Zhu, Yun Judy; Zeng, Hui-Cai; Kong, Hua; McCafferty, Heather; Guo, An-Ping; Peng, Ming

    2016-08-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) severely affects the global papaya industry. Transgenic papaya has been proven to have effective resistance to PRSV isolates from Hawaii, Thailand, Taiwan, and other countries. However, those transgenic cultivars failed to show resistance to Hainan Island isolates. Some 76 PRSV samples, representative of all traditional papaya planting areas across five cities (Wen Chang, n = 13; Cheng Mai, n = 14; Chang Jiang, n = 11; Le Dong, n = 25; and San Ya, n = 13) within Hainan Province, were investigated. Results revealed three genetic diversity groups (Hainan I, II, and III) that correlated with geographical distribution. Frequent mutations among PRSV isolates from Hainan were also observed. The high genetic divergence in PRSV isolates from Hainan is likely to be the cause of the failure of genetically modified papaya that targets sequence-specific virus. PMID:27070425

  20. Physico-chemical and sensory quality of fresh cut papaya (Carica papaya) packaged in micro-perforated polyvinyl chloride containers.

    PubMed

    Jayathunge, K G L R; Gunawardhana, D K S N; Illeperuma, D C K; Chandrajith, U G; Thilakarathne, B M K S; Fernando, M D; Palipane, K B

    2014-12-01

    Papaya cubes at maturity stages, 5-45 % yellow (more green than yellow) and 55-80 % yellow (more yellow than green) were washed with 5 % H2O2, drained and packaged in PVC trays having five, seven and ten micro-perforations and stored for 19 days. PVC trays with 3 mm diameter punch holes were used as the control. Based on physico-chemical properties, optimum maturity for papaya and micro-perforation level of PVC trays were determined. Effectiveness of citric acid in prevention of browning was also tested. Firmness and TSS changed significantly, on day 19. O2, CO2 and C2H4 concentration changed 2.4 to 4.2 %, 23.4 to 5.9 %, and 0 to 0.13 % respectively, from day 3 to 19. pH and titratable acidity did not change significantly throughout the storage. Pretreated papaya cubes, packaged in PVC trays with ten micro-perforations, kept under 4 °C had storage lives of 19 days. PMID:25477661

  1. Essential Touch: Meeting the Needs of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Frances M.

    2006-01-01

    Learn how to safely incorporate touch in the early childhood setting and how to prepare children to confront troubling touch-related situations that may arise outside your setting. Following Acknowledgments, the book includes the following six chapters: (1) Taking a Look at Touch; (2) The Importance of Touch in Development and Learning; (3)…

  2. Touch: An Exploration of Its Role in the Counseling Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Kathleen C.

    1987-01-01

    Explores the efficacy of touch in the counseling situation by examining the importance of tactile communication in human development, the impact of socialization and cultural factors on the meanings of touch, and clinical and research evidence relevant to the use of touch in therapeutic settings. Suggests guidelines for the use of touch in…

  3. Biotic stress induced demolition of thylakoid structure and loss in photoelectron transport of chloroplasts in papaya leaves.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Rashmi Madhumita; Biswal, Basanti

    2008-04-01

    Papaya mosaic virus (PMV) causes severe mosaic symptoms in the papaya (Carica papaya L.) leaves. The PMV-induced alterations in photosystem II (PS II) structure and photochemical functions were probed. An increase in chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence polarization suggests pathogen-induced transformation of thylakoid membrane to a gel phase. This transformation in physical state of thylakoid membrane may result in alteration in topology of pigments on pigment-binding proteins as reflected in pathogen-induced loss in the efficiency of energy transfer from carotenoids to chlorophylls. The fast Chl a fluorescence induction kinetics of healthy and PMV-infected plants by F(O)-F(J)-F(I)-F(P) transients revealed pathogen-induced perturbation on PS II acceptor side electron transfer equilibrium between Q(A) and Q(B) and in the pool size of electron transport acceptors. Pathogen-induced loss in photosynthetic pigments, changes in thylakoid structure and decrease in the ratio of F(V)/F(M) (photochemical potential of PS II) further correlate with the loss in photoelectron transport of PS II as probed by 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP)-Hill reaction. Restoration of the loss by 1,5-diphenyl carbazide (DPC), an exogenous electron donor, that donates electron directly to reaction centre II bypassing the oxygen evolving system (OES), leads towards the conclusion that OES is one of the major targets of biotic stress. Further, the data suggest that chlorophyll fluorescence could be used as a non-invasive handy tool to assess the loss in photosynthetic efficiency and symptom severity in infected green tissues vis-a-vis the healthy ones. PMID:18328719

  4. ROSETTA lander Philae: Touch-down reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roll, Reinhard; Witte, Lars

    2016-06-01

    The landing of the ROSETTA-mission lander Philae on November 12th 2014 on Comet 67 P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko was planned as a descent with passive landing and anchoring by harpoons at touch-down. Actually the lander was not fixed at touch-down to the ground due to failing harpoons. The lander internal damper was actuated at touch-down for 42.6 mm with a speed of 0.08 m/s while the lander touch-down speed was 1 m/s. The kinetic energy before touch-down was 50 J, 45 J were dissipated by the lander internal damper and by ground penetration at touch-down, and 5 J kinetic energy are left after touch-down (0.325 m/s speed). Most kinetic energy was dissipated by ground penetration (41 J) while only 4 J are dissipated by the lander internal damper. Based on these data, a value for a constant compressive soil-strength of between 1.55 kPa and 1.8 kPa is calculated. This paper focuses on the reconstruction of the touch-down at Agilkia over a period of around 20 s from first ground contact to lift-off again. After rebound Philae left a strange pattern on ground documented by the OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). The analysis shows, that the touch-down was not just a simple damped reflection on the surface. Instead the lander had repeated contacts with the surface over a period of about 20 s±10 s. This paper discusses scenarios for the reconstruction of the landing sequence based on the data available and on computer simulations. Simulations are performed with a dedicated mechanical multi-body model of the lander, which was validated previously in numerous ground tests. The SIMPACK simulation software was used, including the option to set forces at the feet to the ground. The outgoing velocity vector is mostly influenced by the timing of the ground contact of the different feet. It turns out that ground friction during damping has strong impact on the lander outgoing velocity, on its rotation, and on its nutation. After the end of damping, the attitude of the lander can be

  5. An analysis on DNA fingerprints of thirty papaya cultivars (Carica papaya L.), grown in Thailand with the use of amplified fragment length polymorphisms technique.

    PubMed

    Ratchadaporn, Janthasri; Sureeporn, Katengam; Khumcha, U

    2007-09-15

    The experiment was carried out at the Department of Horticulture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani province, Northeast Thailand during June 2002 to May 2003 aims to identify DNA fingerprints of thirty papaya cultivars with the use of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP) technique. Papaya cultivars were collected from six different research centers in Thailand. Papaya plants of each cultivar were grown under field conditions up to four months then leaf numbers 2 and 3 of each cultivar (counted from top) were chosen for DNA extraction and the samples were used for AFLP analysis. Out of 64 random primers being used, 55 pairs gave an increase in DNA bands but only 12 pairs of random primers were randomly chosen for the final analysis of the experiment. The results showed that AFLP markers gave Polymorphic Information Contents (PIC) of three ranges i.e., AFLP markers of 235 lied on a PIC range of 0.003-0.05, 47 for a PIC range of 0.15-0.20 and 12 for a PIC range of 0.35-0.40. The results on dendrogram cluster analysis revealed that the thirty papaya cultivars were classified into six groups i.e., (1) Kaeg Dum and Malador (2) Kaeg Nuan (3) Pakchong and Solo (4) Taiwan (5) Co Coa Hai Nan and (6) Sitong. Nevertheless, in spite of the six papaya groups all papaya cultivars were genetically related to each other where diversity among the cultivars was not significantly found. PMID:19090101

  6. Definition Of Touch-Sensitive Zones For Graphical Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Burt L., III; Jones, Denise R.

    1988-01-01

    Touch zones defined simply by touching, while editing done automatically. Development of touch-screen interactive computing system, tedious task. Interactive Editor for Definition of Touch-Sensitive Zones computer program increases efficiency of human/machine communications by enabling user to define each zone interactively, minimizing redundancy in programming and eliminating need for manual computation of boundaries of touch areas. Information produced during editing process written to data file, to which access gained when needed by application program.

  7. Touch. The beneficial effects for the surgical patient.

    PubMed

    Tovar, M K; Cassmeyer, V L

    1989-05-01

    Touch can cause positive or negative neurophysiological responses. In the OR, nurses do a great deal of touching, and they need to be aware of the appropriateness of their touch. Touch can be an alternative mode of conveying empathy and caring for certain patients when it is difficult for the nurse to communicate verbal empathy. Touch assessments and interventions need to be included in perioperative nursing care plans to promote the patient's comfort and avoid unwanted physiological responses from the patient. PMID:2729967

  8. Investigation of "Thermal Touch" Response of Coated Steel Plates Employing Square-Wave-Excited Photothermal Infrared Radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Preethy; Rajesh, Ravindran; Xiong, Jichuan; Glorieux, Christ

    2012-11-01

    When a person is touching an object, which is at a different temperature than the person's body, heat starts to flow from the body to the object (or in the other direction), and as a result, the temperature of the skin starts to decrease (increase), leading to a cold (warm) perception of the object's temperature. It is well accepted that the degree of thermal impact of touching the free surface of a bulk material is determined by the thermal effusivity of that material. In this study, the more complicated situation of touching a coating covering a substrate with different thermal properties is studied. Insight in the involved heat transport effects and their effect on the thermal touch is gained by a photothermal model experiment in which the effect of touching on the measured surface temperature, and from there, the calculated heat flux is mimicked by the effect of illumination by laser light.

  9. Automatic segmentation of overlapping and touching chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhiqiang; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Renli; Yu, Chang

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes a technique to segment overlapping and touching chromosomes of human metaphase cells. Automated chromosome classification has been an important pattern recognition problem for decades, numerous attempts were made in the past to characterize chromosome band patterns. But successful separation between touching and overlapping chromosomes is vital for correct classification. Since chromosomes are non-rigid objects, common methods for separation between touching chromosomes are not usable. We proposed a method using shape concave and convex information, topology analysis information, and band pale paths for segmentation of touching and overlapping chromosomes. To detect shape concave and convex information, we should first pre-segment the chromosomes and get the edge of overlapping and touching chromosomes. After filtering the original image using edge-preserving filter, we adopt the Otsu's segmentation method and extract the boundary of chromosomes. Hence the boundary can be used for segment the overlapping and touching chromosomes by detecting the concave and convex information based on boundary information. Most of the traditional boundary-based algorithms detect corners based on two steps: the first step is to acquire the smoothed version of curvature at every point along the contour, and the second step is to detect the positions where curvature maximal occur and threshold the curvature as corner points. Recently wavelet transform has been adopted into corner detection algorithms. Since the metaphase overlapping chromosomes has multi-scale corners, we adopt a multi-scale corner detection method based on Hua's method for corner detection. For touching chromosomes, it is convenient to split them using pale paths. Starting from concave corner points, a search algorithm is represented. The searching algorithm traces three pixels into the object in the direction of the normal vector in order to avoid stopping at the initial boundary until it

  10. Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching.

    PubMed

    Turvey, M T; Carello, Claudia

    2011-11-12

    Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this 'information about'. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

  11. The science of interpersonal touch: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gallace, Alberto; Spence, Charles

    2010-02-01

    Surprisingly little scientific research has been conducted on the topic of interpersonal touch over the years, despite the importance of touch in our everyday social interactions from birth through to adulthood and old age. In this review, we critically evaluate the results of the research on this topic that have emerged from disciplines, such as cognitive and social psychology, neuroscience, and cultural anthropology. We highlight some of the most important advances to have been made in our understanding of this topic: For example, research has shown that interpersonal tactile stimulation provides an effective means of influencing people's social behaviors (such as modulating their tendency to comply with requests, in affecting people's attitudes toward specific services, in creating bonds between couples or groups, and in strengthening romantic relationships), regardless of whether or not the tactile contact itself can be remembered explicitly. What is more, interpersonal touch can be used to communicate emotion in a manner similar to that demonstrated previously in vision and audition. The recent growth of studies investigating the potential introduction of tactile sensations to long-distance communication technologies (by means of mediated or 'virtual' touch) are also reviewed briefly. Finally, we highlight the synergistic effort that will be needed by researchers in different disciplines if we are to develop a more complete understanding of interpersonal touch in the years to come. PMID:18992276

  12. Perception of touch quality in piano tones.

    PubMed

    Goebl, Werner; Bresin, Roberto; Fujinaga, Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    Both timbre and dynamics of isolated piano tones are determined exclusively by the speed with which the hammer hits the strings. This physical view has been challenged by pianists who emphasize the importance of the way the keyboard is touched. This article presents empirical evidence from two perception experiments showing that touch-dependent sound components make sounds with identical hammer velocities but produced with different touch forms clearly distinguishable. The first experiment focused on finger-key sounds: musicians could identify pressed and struck touches. When the finger-key sounds were removed from the sounds, the effect vanished, suggesting that these sounds were the primary identification cue. The second experiment looked at key-keyframe sounds that occur when the key reaches key-bottom. Key-bottom impact was identified from key motion measured by a computer-controlled piano. Musicians were able to discriminate between piano tones that contain a key-bottom sound from those that do not. However, this effect might be attributable to sounds associated with the mechanical components of the piano action. In addition to the demonstrated acoustical effects of different touch forms, visual and tactile modalities may play important roles during piano performance that influence the production and perception of musical expression on the piano. PMID:25373983

  13. Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, M. T.; Carello, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this ‘information about’. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

  14. A New NASA Book: Touch the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grice, N. A.

    2005-05-01

    People who are blind or visually impaired rely partly on their sense of touch to help paint pictures of objects and places in their mind's eye; however, astronomy and space science are, by nature, generally inaccessible to the touch. The universe, as seen by the Hubble Space Telescope, was made hands-on in 2002 with the publication of Touch the Universe: A NASA Braille Book of Astronomy. This year, the Sun becomes an accessible object in a new universally designed publication called Touch the Sun. Touch the Sun contains text pages with both print and Braille. It features colorful embossed images from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) spacecraft. There is also a close-up picture of a sunspot from the National Solar Observatory at Sacramento Peak. Textures of swirling gas currents, dark sunspots, curving magnetic fields and explosive eruptions emphasize the dynamic nature of the Sun. The prototype images were tested with students from the Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind; the images were revised, based upon their evaluations. Drs. Joe Gurman and Steele Hill from the Goddard Space Flight Center served as scientific consultants. Learn more about this special resource and try out some of the tactile images yourself!

  15. A 1H NMR Investigation of the Interaction between Phenolic Acids Found in Mango (Manguifera indica cv Ataulfo) and Papaya (Carica papaya cv Maradol) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Free Radicals

    PubMed Central

    López-Martínez, Luis M.; Santacruz-Ortega, Hisila; Navarro, Rosa-Elena; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A.

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of phenolic acids on human health are very often ascribed to their potential to counteract free radicals to provide antioxidant protection. This potential has been attributed to their acidic chemical structure, which possesses hydroxyl groups in different positions. Phenolic acids can interact between themselves and exhibit an additive, antagonistic or synergistic effect. In this paper, we used 1H NMR to analyze the interactions and mechanisms that are present in major phenolic acids found in mango (gallic, protocatechuic, chlorogenic and vanillic acids) and papaya (caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids), and the DPPH radical was used to evaluate the effect of the antioxidant mixtures. The interactions were found to occur via hydrogen bonds between the -OH and -COOH groups. Moreover, the phenolic acids exhibit two types of mechanisms for the neutralization of the DPPH radical. According to the results, these two mechanisms are Hydrogen Atom Transfer (HAT) and Single Electron Transfer (SET). The ability of the phenolic acid to neutralize the DPPH radical decreases in the following order in mango: gallic > chlorogenic > protocatechuic > vanillic. Moreover, within the acids found in papaya, the order was as follows: caffeic > p-coumaric > ferulic. PMID:26559189

  16. The gentle touch receptors of mammalian skin.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Amanda; Bai, Ling; Ginty, David D

    2014-11-21

    The skin is our largest sensory organ, transmitting pain, temperature, itch, and touch information to the central nervous system. Touch sensations are conveyed by distinct combinations of mechanosensory end organs and the low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) that innervate them. Here we explore the various structures underlying the diverse functions of cutaneous LTMR end organs. Beyond anchoring of LTMRs to the surrounding dermis and epidermis, recent evidence suggests that the non-neuronal components of end organs play an active role in signaling to LTMRs and may physically gate force-sensitive channels in these receptors. Combined with LTMR intrinsic properties, the balance of these factors comprises the response properties of mechanosensory neurons and, thus, the neural encoding of touch. PMID:25414303

  17. The gentle touch receptors of mammalian skin

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Amanda; Bai, Ling; Ginty, David D.

    2015-01-01

    The skin is our largest sensory organ, transmitting pain, temperature, itch, and touch information to the central nervous system. Touch sensations are conveyed by distinct combinations of mechanosensory end organs and the low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) that innervate them. Here we explore the various structures underlying the diverse functions of cutaneous LTMR end organs. Beyond anchoring of LTMRs to the surrounding dermis and epidermis, recent evidence suggests that the non-neuronal components of end organs play an active role in signaling to LTMRs and may physically gate force-sensitive channels in these receptors. Combined with LTMR intrinsic properties, the balance of these factors comprises the response properties of mechanosensory neurons and, thus, the neural encoding of touch. PMID:25414303

  18. Touch and Go Surface Sampler (TGSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorevan, S. P.; Rafeek, S.

    2001-01-01

    The Touch and Go Surface Sampler (TGSS) is a new class of planetary and small body sample acquisition tool that can be used for the surface exploration of Europa, Titan and comets. TGSS in its basic configuration consists of a high speed sampling head attached to the end of a flexible shaft. The sampling head consists of counter rotating cutters that rotates at speeds of 3000 to 15000 RPM. The attractive feature of this if touch and go type sampler is that there are no requirements for a lander type spacecraft. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Flexible graphene woven fabrics for touch sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Xiao; Yang, Tingting; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Rujing; Zhu, Miao; Zhang, Hongze; Xie, Dan; Wei, Jinquan; Zhong, Minlin; Wang, Kunlin; Wu, Dehai; Li, Zhihong; Zhu, Hongwei

    2013-04-01

    Graphene woven fabric (GWF) prepared from chemical vapor deposition was used as smart self-sensing element to assemble piezoresistor through directly transferring onto the flexible substrate poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) with the deposited Ti/Au electrodes. A rational strategy was proposed to fabricate flexible touch sensors easily and effectively with the full usage of the mechanical and electrical properties of GWF, whose resistance is highly sensitive to macro-deformation or micro-defect. Compared to commercial and traditional touch sensing, the GWF-on-PDMS piezoresistor is structurally flexible that is demanded under special conditions and meanwhile makes the piezoresistor to have excellent durability.

  20. Reach out and touch someone: anticipatory sensorimotor processes of active interpersonal touch.

    PubMed

    Ebisch, Sjoerd J H; Ferri, Francesca; Romani, Gian Luca; Gallese, Vittorio

    2014-09-01

    Anticipating the sensorimotor consequences of an action for both self and other is fundamental for action coordination when individuals socially interact. Somatosensation constitutes an elementary component of social cognition and sensorimotor prediction, but its functions in active social behavior remain unclear. We hypothesized that the somatosensory system contributes to social haptic behavior as evidenced by specific anticipatory activation patterns when touching an animate target (human hand) compared with an inanimate target (fake hand). fMRI scanning was performed during a paradigm that allowed us to isolate the anticipatory representations of active interpersonal touch while controlling for nonsocial sensorimotor processes and possible confounds because of interpersonal relationships or socioemotional valence. Active interpersonal touch was studied both as skin-to-skin contact and as object-mediated touch. The results showed weaker deactivation in primary somatosensory cortex and medial pFC and stronger activation in cerebellum for the animate target, compared with the inanimate target, when intending to touch it with one's own hand. Differently, in anticipation of touching the human hand with an object, anterior inferior parietal lobule and lateral occipital-temporal cortex showed stronger activity. When actually touching a human hand with one's own hand, activation was stronger in medial pFC but weaker in primary somatosensory cortex. The findings provide new insight on the contribution of simulation and sensory prediction mechanisms to active social behavior. They also suggest that literally getting in touch with someone and touching someone by using an object might be approached by an agent as functionally distinct conditions. PMID:24666131

  1. Cysteine proteinases from papaya (Carica papaya) in the treatment of experimental Trichuris suis infection in pigs: two randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cysteine proteinases (CPs) from papaya (Carica papaya) possess anthelmintic properties against human soil-transmitted helminths (STH, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm), but there is a lack of supportive and up-to-date efficacy data. We therefore conducted two randomized controlled trials in pigs to assess the efficacy of papaya CPs against experimental infections with T. suis. Methods First, we assessed efficacy by means of egg (ERR) and adult worm reduction rate (WRR) of a single-oral dose of 450 μmol active CPs (CP450) against low (inoculum of 300 eggs) and high (inoculum of 3,000 eggs) intensity T. suis infections and compared the efficacy with those obtained after a single-oral dose of 400 mg albendazole (ALB). In the second trial, we determined and compared the efficacy of a series of CP doses (45 [CP45], 115 [CP115], 225 [CP225], and 450 [CP450] μmol) against high intensity infections. Results CP450 was highly efficacious against both levels of infection intensity, resulting in ERR and WRR of more than 97%. For both levels of infection intensity, CP450 was significantly more efficacious compared to ALB by means of WRR (low infection intensity: 99.0% vs. 39.0%; high infection intensity; 97.4% vs. 23.2%). When the efficacy was assessed by ERR, a significant difference was only observed for high intensity infections, CP450 being more efficacious than ALB (98.9% vs. 59.0%). For low infection intensities, there was no significant difference in ERR between CP450 (98.3%) and ALB (64.4%). The efficacy of CPs increased as a function of increasing dose. When determined by ERR, the efficacy ranged from 2.1% for CP45 to 99.2% for CP450. For WRR the results varied from -14.0% to 99.0%, respectively. Pairwise comparison revealed a significant difference in ERR and WRR only between CP45 and CP450, the latter being more efficacious. Conclusions A single dose of 450 μmol CPs provided greater efficacy against T. suis infections in pigs

  2. A flexible graphene touch sensor in the general human touch range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Sungwoo; Kim, Youngjun; Jung, Hyojin; Park, Wanjun

    2014-07-01

    We present a transparent touch sensor based on single layers of graphene that works under a gentle touch. Using the flexible characteristics of graphene, a touching event and a vertical force are measured by a change in the channel conductance. In contrast to the previous graphene gauge sensors, this is an alternative scheme that responds to a vertical force using the contacting properties of two isolated and patterned single graphene layers. This sensor responded to pressures ranging from 1 to 14 kPa, corresponding to the lowest human perception. In addition, we outline the processing methods for handling single layers of graphene for the integration of devices on transparent and flexible substrates.

  3. Dissociating the Neural Correlates of Experiencing and Imagining Affective Touch.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Molly V; Anderson, Laura C; Bolling, Danielle Z; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Kaiser, Martha D

    2015-09-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examined experiencing and imagining gentle arm and palm touch to determine whether these processes activate overlapping or distinct brain regions. Although past research shows brain responses to experiencing and viewing touch, this study investigates neural processing of touch absent of visual stimulation. C-tactile (CT) nerves, present in hairy skin, respond specifically to caress-like touch. CT-targeted touch activates "social brain" regions including insula, right posterior superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, temporal poles, and orbitofrontal cortex ( McGlone et al. 2012). We addressed whether activations reflect sensory input-driven mechanisms, cognitive-based mechanisms, or both. We identified a functional dissociation between insula regions. Posterior insula responded during experienced touch. Anterior insula responded during both experienced and imagined touch. To isolate stimulus-independent mechanisms recruited during physical experience of CT-targeted touch, we identified regions active to experiencing and imagining such touch. These included amygdala and temporal pole. We posit that the dissociation of insula function suggests posterior and anterior insula involvement in distinct yet interacting processes: coding physical stimulation and affective interpretation of touch. Regions active during experiencing and imagining CT-targeted touch are associated with social processes indicating that imagining touch conjures affective aspects of experiencing such touch. PMID:24700583

  4. Papaya latex enzymes capable of detoxification of gliadin.

    PubMed

    Cornell, H J; Doherty, W; Stelmasiak, T

    2010-01-01

    Assay of fractions obtained from ion exchange chromatography of papaya latex on CM Sephadex-C50, size exclusion chromatography on Sephacryl S-300 and size exclusion HPLC have provided an insight into the relative contributions of the gluten-detoxifying enzymes present. This outcome has been achieved by the use of the above chromatographic techniques, coupled with assays of lysosomal activity, protease activity using benzylarginine ethyl ester (BAEE) as substrate, prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) using glycylprolylnitroanilide and a prolidase assay using acetylprolylglycine. These procedures have shown that the activity in papaya latex is due largely to caricain and to a lesser extent, chymopapain and glutamine cyclotransferase. The presence of caricain and these other enzymes was confirmed by mass spectrometry of trypsin digests of the most active fraction obtained by CM Sephadex-C50 chromatography and size exclusion HPLC. Fractions rich in caricain would be suitable for enzyme therapy in gluten intolerance and appear to have synergistic action with porcine intestinal extracts. PMID:19156482

  5. Detection of three wound-induced proteins in papaya latex.

    PubMed

    Azarkan, Mohamed; Wintjens, René; Looze, Yvan; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle

    2004-03-01

    The effects of routine mechanical wounding for latex collection from unripe fruits of the tropical Carica papaya tree were investigated. For that purpose, the protein composition of three different latexes was analyzed. The first one, commercially available, was provided in the form of a spray-dried powder, the second one was harvested from fully grown but unripe papaya fruits that are regularly tapped for latex production and the last one, was obtained from similar fruits wounded for the first time. Repeated mechanical wounding was found to profoundly affect the protein content of the latex inducing, among others, activation of papain. Regularly tapped latexes also accumulated several low molecular weight proteins not yet identified, as well as three proteins identified as a trypsin inhibitor, a class-II chitinase and a glutaminyl cyclase on the basis of their enzymatic or inhibitory activities and chromatographic elution profiles. This latter was found here, for the first time, to be a wound-induced protein. The roles of these proteins in the plant defense mechanism are discussed. PMID:15003415

  6. Evaluation of an Automated Touch Typing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierks, Caroll J.

    The Automated Instruction Touch Typing System, an individualized self-paced instructional method of teaching typewriting skills using the principles of response conditioning, was evaluated. The system is divided into four phases. Phase 1 presents keyboard instruction in four to six hours. These lessons are response conditioning sessions during…

  7. Families Talking about Ecology at Touch Tanks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopczak, Charles; Kisiel, James F.; Rowe, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that conversations among museum, aquarium, and zoo visitors can be a clear indication of active learning, engagement, and participation in scientific reasoning. This descriptive study sought to determine the extent of talk about ecology-related topics exhibited by family groups visiting marine touch tanks at four Pacific…

  8. Patients' Perceptions of Touch during Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penny, Karen M. Stolte; Friedman, Paul G.

    An exploratory study using interviews of 150 postpartum patients was conducted to determine their perceptions of the touching they received during labor. Answers to the interview questions were analyzed in terms of overall perceptions, positive experiences, and negative experiences, and selected demographic variables were examined for differences…

  9. Teaching Touch Rugby in Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Steven F.; Alford, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Physical educators are always looking for new ideas that introduce moderate-to-vigorous activity, involve skill, encourage teamwork, and increase student interest. Touch rugby has the potential to contribute to these outcomes. Though the sport is not new, it is not a mainstream sport. Therefore, students see it as something new. Their motivation…

  10. The Power of Touch: Massage for Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Elaine Fogel

    1996-01-01

    The potential benefits of massage for infants are discussed, including the role of touch on attachment and bonding and implications of massage for special needs infants. Research results on the benefits of massage for the infant and caregiver are covered, including increased bonding and enhanced growth and development. Historical information on…

  11. Multi-Touch Tables and Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Steve; Mercier, Emma; Burd, Liz; Joyce-Gibbons, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The development of multi-touch tables, an emerging technology for classroom learning, offers valuable opportunities to explore how its features can be designed to support effective collaboration in schools. In this study, small groups of 10- to 11-year-old children undertook a history task where they had to connect various pieces of information…

  12. Touch Screen Tablets and Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of touch screen tablets by young children is increasing in the home and in early childhood settings. The simple tactile interface and finger-based operating features of tablets may facilitate preschoolers' use of tablet application software and support their educational development in domains such as literacy. This article reviews…

  13. The Role of Touch in Facilitated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezuka, Emiko

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the role of touch in the use of facilitated communication with Japanese individuals with autism. Five experiments were conducted involving a "telepathy game" using a rod with an attached strain gauge. Results found the facilitator's contact controlled the motor responses of the subjects. (Author/CR)

  14. Analysis of Papaya Cell Wall-Related Genes during Fruit Ripening Indicates a Central Role of Polygalacturonases during Pulp Softening

    PubMed Central

    Fabi, João Paulo; Broetto, Sabrina Garcia; da Silva, Sarah Lígia Garcia Leme; Zhong, Silin; Lajolo, Franco Maria; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a climacteric fleshy fruit that undergoes dramatic changes during ripening, most noticeably a severe pulp softening. However, little is known regarding the genetics of the cell wall metabolism in papayas. The present work describes the identification and characterization of genes related to pulp softening. We used gene expression profiling to analyze the correlations and co-expression networks of cell wall-related genes, and the results suggest that papaya pulp softening is accomplished by the interactions of multiple glycoside hydrolases. The polygalacturonase cpPG1 appeared to play a central role in the network and was further studied. The transient expression of cpPG1 in papaya results in pulp softening and leaf necrosis in the absence of ethylene action and confirms its role in papaya fruit ripening. PMID:25162506

  15. [Human chromosome banding with raw extract of fruits or leaves of papaya].

    PubMed

    Solís, M V

    2001-01-01

    One week old human chromosome preparations were treated with filtrate from one liquefied leaf (53 g) of papaya (Carica papaya) in 100 ml of distilled water, and stained with 1.5% Giemsa (pH 6.8). Good chromosome banding was obtained after 2 min of treatment. Solutions that have been frozen even for years are effective and the method is cheaper and easier than others. PMID:12189805

  16. Touch and massage for medically fragile infants.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J; Gallardo, Constance C; Joseph, Michael H; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2009-12-01

    Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants' safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores

  17. Topical use of papaya in chronic skin ulcer therapy in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, H; Whittle, S; Lopez, S; Bailey, E; Weaver, S

    2000-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of the use of the fruit (papaya) of Carica papaya as topical ulcer dressings by registered nurses in the Spanish Town Hospital (STH), Kingston Public Hospital (KPH) and the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI), Jamaica. A ten-item pretested self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 285 randomly selected registered nurses at the UHWI, KPH and STH. There was a 72% response rate. The prevalence of topical papaya use among the respondents was 75%. Comments from the users of papaya suggested that topical application of the unripe fruit promoted desloughing, granulation and healing and reduced odour in chronic skin ulcers. It was cost effective. Papaya was considered to be more effective than other topical applications in the treatment of chronic ulcers. There was some difficulty in preparation of the fruit and occasionally a sensation of burning was reported by the patients. There was concern about the use of a non-sterile, non-standardised procedure but there were no reports of wound infection from its use. Papaya is widely used by nurses as a form of dressing for chronic ulcers and there is need for standardisation of its preparation and application. PMID:10786448

  18. Effect of packaging materials and storage environment on postharvest quality of papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Azene, Mulualem; Workneh, Tilahun Seyoum; Woldetsadik, Kebede

    2014-06-01

    This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of packaging materials and storage environments on shelf life of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.). A factorial combination of five packaging materials and two storage environments using randomized complete block design with three replications were used. The papaya fruits were evaluated for weight loss, percentage marketability, firmness, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar and total sugar content. The packaged and cooled fruits remained firmer than unpackaged and evaporatively cooled fruits. Higher chemical compositions were recorded in the control fruits stored under ambient conditions during the earlier times of storage. Packaging and cooling maintained the chemical quality of papaya fruits better than the control sample fruits towards the end of storage periods. The evaporatively cooled storage combined with packaging improved the shelf life of papaya fruits by more than two fold. The polyethylene bag packaging combined with evaporatively cooled storage maintained the superior quality of papaya fruit for a period of 21 days. This integrated agro-technology is recommended for postharvest loss reduction biotechnology in hot regions. PMID:24876636

  19. Power, progress and prevarication: local knowledge and GE papaya in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Sarah N

    2012-01-01

    Genetically engineered (GE) papaya was developed in the 1990s to improve the livelihoods of small scale farmers in Thailand. Yet these farmers have been excluded from the discourse around its deregulation and deployment. While elite stakeholders continue to debate in Bangkok, little is known about small scale farmers' understanding of biotechnology, their perceptions of the technology and whether or not they are likely to be adopters if it became available. In this case study, I report on farmer knowledge of agricultural biotechnology and genetically engineered papaya in northeast Thailand. Forty farmers in four villages were surveyed with regard to their knowledge and perceptions of GE papaya. A qualitative grounded theory approach was employed to understand their responses, from which three themes emerged: progress, power and prevarication. From these themes, the decision-making process of farmers seems to be dominated by their existing local knowledge and their interest in progressing their economic status. The responses of small-scale Isaan farmers provide a new perspective on the debate over GE virus-resistant papaya in Thailand. Based on the results of this study, we can conclude that this small subset of Thai papaya growers perceive GE virus-resistant papaya as a compatible innovation that is likely to be adopted by Thai farmers if it becomes available. PMID:22538228

  20. The Power of Touch: Nonverbal Communication within Married Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joann C. Seeman; Vogel, David L.; Madon, Stephanie; Edwards, Sarah R.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that one function of touch in mixed-sex interactions is to exert influence over another person. Yet theories offer different explanations as to when women and men will use touch as an influence strategy. The gender politics hypothesis proposes that men touch more as a way to maintain inequalities present in society. In…

  1. Handling Pressures: Analysing Touch in American Films about Youth Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chare, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how films produced in the USA in the past 10 years and featuring the coaching of youth sport, represent the issue of touch during instruction and training. Touch in such films is figured in diverse ways ranging from pats of reassurance and hugs of congratulation to cuffs of disapprobation. Touch is also occasionally depicted…

  2. Touch in Family Therapy: An Exploratory Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moy, Caryl T.

    The use of touch in therapeutic relationships is seldom dealt with as a practice issue except in a proscriptive way. To gather descriptive information on the use of touch in therapy, professional therapists (N=50) whose practice was largely family therapy were interviewed about the successful use of touch in their helping relationships. Interview…

  3. The Effect of Counselor Touch in an Initial Counseling Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubble, Mark A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the effect of counselor touch on female clients (N=32) and the moderating effect of clients' field dependence-independence on their response to a counselor's touch. Results indicated that counselors were perceived as significantly more expert when they touched than when they did not. Suggests implications for counseling. (Author)

  4. Friendly touch increases gratitude by inducing communal feelings

    PubMed Central

    Simão, Cláudia; Seibt, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Communion among people is easily identifiable. Close friends or relatives frequently touch each other and this physical contact helps identifying the type of relationship they have. We tested whether a friendly touch and benefits elicit the emotion of gratitude given the close link between gratitude and communal relations. In Study 1, we induced a communal mindset and manipulated friendly touch (vs. non-touch) and benefit to female participants by a female confederate. We measured pre- and post-benefit gratitude, communal feelings, and liking toward the toucher, as well as general affect. In Study 2, we manipulated mindset, friendly touch and benefit, and measured the same variables in female pairs (confederate and participants). In both studies the results showed a main effect of touch on pre-benefit gratitude: participants who were touched by the confederate indicated more gratitude than those not touched. Moreover, benefit increased gratitude toward a confederate in the absence of touch, but not in the presence of touch. Additionally, perceiving the relationship as communal, and not merely liking the confederate, or a positive mood mediated the link between touch and gratitude. The results further support a causal model where touch increases communal feelings, which in turn increase gratitude at the end of the interaction, after having received a benefit from the interaction partner. These results support a broader definition of gratitude as an emotion embodied in communal relationship cues. PMID:26124737

  5. Patterns of Touching between Preschool Children and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fialkov, Claire; And Others

    Twenty 2- to 5-year-old children were observed during separate play with their mothers and fathers in an attempt to more clearly define patterns of touching. Specific purposes of the study were: (1) to identify the different functions of touch; (2) to determine the frequency of occurrence and duration of different types of touches; (3) to describe…

  6. Effects of healing touch in clinical practice: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joel G; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2011-09-01

    Hands-on healing and energy-based interventions have been found in cultures throughout history around the world. These complementary therapies, rooted in ancient Eastern healing practices, are becoming mainstream. Healing Touch, a biofield therapy that arose in the nursing field in the late 1980s, is used in a variety of settings (i.e., pain centers, surgical settings, and private practices) with reported benefits (i.e., decreased anxiety, pain, and depressive behaviors; increased relaxation and a sense of well-being). However, clinical trial data concerning the effectiveness of Healing Touch have not been evaluated using a systematic, evidence-based approach. Thus, this systematic review is aimed at critically evaluating the data from randomized clinical trials examining the clinical efficacy of Healing Touch as a supportive care modality for any medical condition. PMID:21228402

  7. The neurobiology of Etruscan shrew active touch

    PubMed Central

    Brecht, Michael; Naumann, Robert; Anjum, Farzana; Wolfe, Jason; Munz, Martin; Mende, Carolin; Roth-Alpermann, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus, is not only the smallest terrestrial mammal, but also one of the fastest and most tactile hunters described to date. The shrew's skeletal muscle consists entirely of fast-twitch types and lacks slow fibres. Etruscan shrews detect, overwhelm, and kill insect prey in large numbers in darkness. The cricket prey is exquisitely mechanosensitive and fast-moving, and is as big as the shrew itself. Experiments with prey replica show that shape cues are both necessary and sufficient for evoking attacks. Shrew attacks are whisker guided by motion- and size-invariant Gestalt-like prey representations. Shrews often attack their prey prior to any signs of evasive manoeuvres. Shrews whisk at frequencies of approximately 14 Hz and can react with latencies as short as 25–30 ms to prey movement. The speed of attacks suggests that shrews identify and classify prey with a single touch. Large parts of the shrew's brain respond to vibrissal touch, which is represented in at least four cortical areas comprising collectively about a third of the cortical volume. Etruscan shrews can enter a torpid state and reduce their body temperature; we observed that cortical response latencies become two to three times longer when body temperature drops from 36°C to 24°C, suggesting that endothermy contributes to the animal's high-speed sensorimotor performance. We argue that small size, high-speed behaviour and extreme dependence on touch are not coincidental, but reflect an evolutionary strategy, in which the metabolic costs of small body size are outweighed by the advantages of being a short-range high-speed touch and kill predator. PMID:21969684

  8. Human perception of shape from touch

    PubMed Central

    Kappers, Astrid M. L.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I focus on the role of active touch in three aspects of shape perception and discrimination studies. First an overview is given of curvature discrimination experiments. The most prominent result is that first-order stimulus information (that is, the difference in attitude or slope over the stimulus) is the dominant factor determining the curvature threshold. Secondly, I compare touch under bimanual and two-finger performance with unimanual and one-finger performance. Consistently, bimanual or two-finger performance turned out to be worse. The most likely explanation for the former finding is that a loss of accuracy during intermanual comparisons is owing to interhemispheric relay. Thirdly, I address the presence of strong after-effects after just briefly touching a shape. These after-effects have been measured and studied in various conditions (such as, static, dynamic, transfer to other hand or finger). Combination of the results of these studies leads to the insight that there are possibly different classes of after-effect: a strong after-effect, caused by immediate contact with the stimulus, that does only partially transfer to the other hand, and one much less strong after-effect, caused by moving over the stimulus for a certain period, which shows a full transfer to other fingers. PMID:21969692

  9. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  10. Effects of Healing Touch on Postsurgical Adult Outpatients.

    PubMed

    Foley, Mary Kay Hausladen; Anderson, Joan; Mallea, Laurie; Morrison, Karen; Downey, Marty

    2016-09-01

    This prospective pilot study was implemented to determine whether a Healing Touch (HT) treatment postoperatively would have an effect on pain, anxiety, blood pressure, and pulse rate in adult postoperative outpatients. Using a randomized control trial design, participants were assigned to a control or intervention group. The control group received traditional nursing care (TNC), and the intervention group received a HT treatment in addition to TNC. Pre- and postdata collection included measurement of pain, anxiety, blood pressure, and pulse. HT treatment was at least as effective as TNC for reduction in pain and more effective in reducing anxiety. Posttreatment anxiety ratings in the intervention group had a significant decrease (0.55; p = .029), while the reduction in anxiety in the control group was not significant (0.25; p = .22). Neither group showed any difference pre- versus posttreatment in blood pressure or pulse. The intervention group had a decrease in pain rating of 1.0 (p < .001), and the control group had a decrease of 0.64 (p = .02). There was a trend toward a decrease in the use of narcotics with HT. HT is an appropriate modality to decrease anxiety, may be appropriate for pain reduction, and may decrease the amount of narcotics needed postoperatively. Patient comments reflected the relaxing effects of receiving HT. The findings support the use of HT as an effective complementary intervention for surgical outpatients, however additional research is recommended. PMID:26453532