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1

Sencha Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sencha Touch (www.sencha.com\\/products\\/touch) is a JavaScript framework for creating web applications targeted to touch-based\\u000a devices. Sencha Touch is the flagship product of Sencha (formerly Ext JS), a Palo Alto, Calif. company launched in 2007 that\\u000a makes application frameworks. Sencha Touch combines ExtJS, jQTouch and Raphaël. Unlike jQTouch, Sencha Touch is not dependent\\u000a on jQuery and is compatible with both the

Sarah Allen; Vidal Graupera; Lee Lundrigan

2

Caracterizacion, Manejo y Almacenamiento de Papaya (The Papaya: Characteristics, Handling, and Storage).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Papaya were studied during maturation at normal temperatures. The results obtained: the pepsins content increased, changes in protopectina and soluble peptina were less noticeable; acid content increased until a maximum and then decreased, the content of ...

M. C. de Arriola J. F. Menchu C. Rolz

1976-01-01

3

Gas diffusion in ‘Golden’ papaya fruit at different maturity stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the gas diffusion of ‘Golden’ papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.) was evaluated as a function of different maturity stages, by using a photoacoustic spectrometer. The maturity stages were characterized by the anatomical changes, membrane integrity, pulp firmness, and skin color. Microstructural analysis was performed by means of light and scanning electron microscopy. A significant decrease in the

Talita Pereira; Paulo Sergio Gomes de Almeida; Inga Gonçalves de Azevedo; Maura da Cunha; Jurandi Gonçalves de Oliveira; Marcelo Gomes da Silva; Helion Vargas

2009-01-01

4

Touch sense  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous mechanoreceptors are localized in the various layers of the skin where they detect a wide range of mechanical stimuli, including light brush, stretch, vibration and noxious pressure. This variety of stimuli is matched by a diverse array of specialized mechanoreceptors that respond to cutaneous deformation in a specific way and relay these stimuli to higher brain structures. Studies across mechanoreceptors and genetically tractable sensory nerve endings are beginning to uncover touch sensation mechanisms. Work in this field has provided researchers with a more thorough understanding of the circuit organization underlying the perception of touch. Novel ion channels have emerged as candidates for transduction molecules and properties of mechanically gated currents improved our understanding of the mechanisms of adaptation to tactile stimuli. This review highlights the progress made in characterizing functional properties of mechanoreceptors in hairy and glabrous skin and ion channels that detect mechanical inputs and shape mechanoreceptor adaptation.

Roudaut, Yann; Lonigro, Aurelie; Coste, Bertrand; Hao, Jizhe; Delmas, Patrick; Crest, Marcel

2012-01-01

5

Touch panel  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A touch panel of the present invention in which a piezoelectric substrate is fixed to a movable plate or a supporting substrate has a reduced weight, size, and thickness by providing simpler wiring. The touch panel comprises: a movable plate having an input manipulation surface; a supporting substrate, disposed with a slight insulation gap from the movable plate, for supporting the movable plate from a back surface thereof; conductive layers on the movable plate and the supporting substrate on their respective opposing surfaces; and a piezoelectric substrate fixed to the movable plate or the supporting substrate. A pair of driving electrodes on the piezoelectric substrate are fixed to respective opposing surfaces of the piezoelectric substrate. A conductive layer electrode of the movable plate, a conductive layer electrode of the supporting substrate, and the pair of driving electrodes of the piezoelectric substrate are withdrawn integrally using a single connector tail.

2007-06-05

6

Effects of chloroformic extracts from washed and unwashed papaya seeds (Carica papaya) on the sperm concentration of dogs.  

PubMed

Papaya seeds (Carica papaya Linn) have been found to have a significant effect on sperm characteristics in some mammals, including humans, but no studies have investigated the effects on dogs. In the present study, a significant decrease in sperm concentration was observed in a group of dogs treated with extracts from washed papaya seeds, but no decrease was observed in the group of dogs treated with non-washed seeds. An important effect of extract components from washed seeds such as fatty acids is probably involved in the reduction of sperm production because of Sertoli cell damage, as has been suggested for langur monkeys. Dilution of the active components in the non-washed papaya seeds or interference with some of the components may reduce the expected effect on spermatogenesis. This first report on the effects of a chloroformic extract of papaya seeds in dogs suggests that an increased dose is necessary to achieve azoospermia. PMID:19650877

Ortega-Pacheco, A; Jiménez-Coello, M; Gutiérrez-Blanco, E; Acosta-Viana, K Y; Guzmán-Marín, E; Zavala-Sánchez, M A; Montalvo-Beltrán, N E; Pérez-Gutiérrez, M S

2010-12-01

7

Quarantine System for Papaya.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A novel system to ensure that papaya are free of fruit flies so as to meet quarantine restrictions is described. Papaya are subjected to selection on the basis of color in combination with a two-stage heated fluid treatment wherein time and temperature of...

H. M. Couey C. F. Hayes

1985-01-01

8

Industrializacion de la Papaya (Industrialization of the Papaya).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The origin, characteristics, types, maturation, storage, and zones of production of the papaya are presented and the preservation and utilization are described. Tables indicating the proportions of papaya to other fruits in canned production are given. An...

L. L. Orellana

1974-01-01

9

Post-irradiation identification of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impact of radiation processing on the volatile essential oil profile of papaya ( Carica papaya) was investigated. Gamma-radiation processing resulted in the appearance of a new peak in the GLC profile that was identified as phenol. The observed dose dependent increase in phenol content suggested possible use of this compound as a marker for radiation processed papaya.

Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

2012-03-01

10

COMPARACIÓN ENTRE LAS PAPAYAS \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to make maturation scales for two papaya cultivars, of the Solo's group, the most important for exportation and for the internal market: 'Sunrise Solo' and 'Golden'. Fruits were harvested at seven different maturation stages in the tree, on comercial farming located at Linhares-ES, Brazil, based on peel color. It was established a visual maturation

O. Fonseca; Nilton Rocha Leal; Sérgio A. Cenci; Paulo R. Cecon; Ricardo E. Bressan-Smith

11

Pen + touch = new tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe techniques for direct pen+touch input. We observe people's manual behaviors with physical paper and notebooks. These serve as the foundation for a prototype Microsoft Surface application, centered on note-taking and scrapbooking of materials. Based on our explorations we advocate a division of labor between pen and touch: the pen writes, touch manipulates, and the combination of pen +

Ken Hinckley; Koji Yatani; Michel Pahud; Nicole Coddington; Jenny Rodenhouse; Andy Wilson; Hrvoje Benko; Bill Buxton

2010-01-01

12

Observations on active touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of observations, both introspective and behavioral, confirms the distinction between touching and being touched. The former is a channel for a great variety of information about the environment, but whether it should be considered one or several senses is a matter of definition. The simple formula that it consists of passive touch plus kinesthesis is insufficient. The hypothesis

James J. Gibson

1962-01-01

13

P-type H +-ATPases activity, membrane integrity, and apoplastic pH during papaya fruit ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The P-type H+-ATPase activity and related apoplastic pH were analysed in papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. cv. Golden) at different stages of maturation. Postharvest ripening of papaya was characterized by ethylene emission, skin colouration, firmness, and titratable acidity (TA). The climacteric peak of ethylene production occurred on the 2nd day after harvest, along with a sharp decrease in ATP hydrolysis

Inga G. Azevedo; Jurandi G. Oliveira; Marcelo G. da Silva; Talita Pereira; Savio F. Corrêa; Helion Vargas; Arnoldo R. Façanha

2008-01-01

14

Identification and detection method for genetically modified papaya resistant to papaya ringspot virus YK strain.  

PubMed

Unauthorized genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya LINNAEUS) was detected in a commercially processed product, which included papaya as a major ingredient, in Japan. We identified the transgenic vector construct generated based on resistance to infection with the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) YK strain. A specific detection method to qualitatively monitor papaya products for contamination with the GM papaya was developed using the real-time polymerase chain reaction. PMID:21963512

Nakamura, Kosuke; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ohmori, Kiyomi; Takahashi, Yuki; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko

2011-01-01

15

Headphones with touch control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Touch Headphones are meant for portable music players and aim to present an improvement to the conventional remote control in the headphone wire, and a solution for controls on wireless in-ear type headphones. Two capacitive touch sensors per earpiece sense when earpieces are being tapped on, and being put in or out.

Vincent Buil; Gerard Hollemans; Sander van de Wijdeven

2005-01-01

16

RESISTANCE TO PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS IN TRANSGENIC PAPAYA BREEDING LINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resistance of transgenic papaya breeding lines to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was examined. Resistance was conferred by non-translatable transgenes derived from the coat protein (CP) gene of a PRSV isolate (H1K) from Florida. To render the CP gene non-translatable, either a stop-codon (D6 lines) or frame-shift (X17-2 lines) mutation had been intro- duced into the CP gene. Non-transgenic and

J. D AVIS; T HOMAS L. W HITE; J ONATHAN H. C RANE

17

Genetically engineered immunity to Papaya ringspot virus in Australian papaya cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), which has recently been identified inAustralia, is the major limiting factor in papaya production worldwide. In thispaper we report the development of two Australian papaya cultivars that areimmune to infection with PRSV. Papaya somatic embryos were transformed viamicroprojectile bombardment using a construct containing an untranslatable PRSVcoat protein coding region. Immunity was demonstrated by repeated inoculationinthe glasshouse

Rosemarie E. Lines; Denis Persley; James L. Dale; Roderick Drew; Marion F. Bateson

2002-01-01

18

Purification and characterization of peroxidase from papaya (Carica papaya) fruit.  

PubMed

Ripening of papaya fruit was found to be characterized with a decrease in peroxidase activity and its transcript. This peroxidase was purified to homogeneity through successive steps of ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion exchange and molecular exclusion chromatography. The peroxidase was purified 30.22-folds with overall recovery of 44.37% and specific activity of 68.59. Purified peroxidase was found to be a heterotrimer of ~240 kDa, containing two subunits each of 85 and one of 70 kDa. Purified enzyme exhibited pH and temperature optima of 7.0 and 40 °C, respectively. K(m) values for substrates o-dianicidin, guaiacol and ascorbic acid were found to be 0.125, 0.8 and 5.2 mM, respectively. K(m) for H(2)O(2) was found to be 0.25 mM. Salicylic acid was found to activate peroxidase up to 50 ?M concentration, beyond which it acted as inhibitor. Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) activated peroxidase while sodium azide, SDS, and Triton X-100 were found to inhibit peroxidase. PMID:22552804

Pandey, Veda P; Singh, Swati; Singh, Rupinder; Dwivedi, Upendra N

2012-05-01

19

Paperworks: The Human Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paperworks: The Human Touch\\u000aan exhibition of works by the Western Reserve Calligraphers\\u000aSOUTH EUCLID, Ohio—8 August 2012—In conjunction with Octavofest, a celebration of the book and paper arts, and Watermarks 2012, Notre Dame College’s (NDC’s) Clara Fritzsche Library will host “Paperworks: The Human Touch,” a showing of works by the Western Reserve Calligraphers. An opening reception will be held

2012-01-01

20

Active touch sensing  

PubMed Central

Active sensing systems are purposive and information-seeking sensory systems. Active sensing usually entails sensor movement, but more fundamentally, it involves control of the sensor apparatus, in whatever manner best suits the task, so as to maximize information gain. In animals, active sensing is perhaps most evident in the modality of touch. In this theme issue, we look at active touch across a broad range of species from insects, terrestrial and marine mammals, through to humans. In addition to analysing natural touch, we also consider how engineering is beginning to exploit physical analogues of these biological systems so as to endow robots with rich tactile sensing capabilities. The different contributions show not only the varieties of active touch—antennae, whiskers and fingertips—but also their commonalities. They explore how active touch sensing has evolved in different animal lineages, how it serves to provide rapid and reliable cues for controlling ongoing behaviour, and even how it can disintegrate when our brains begin to fail. They demonstrate that research on active touch offers a means both to understand this essential and primary sensory modality, and to investigate how animals, including man, combine movement with sensing so as to make sense of, and act effectively in, the world.

Prescott, Tony J.; Diamond, Mathew E.; Wing, Alan M.

2011-01-01

21

Wound-healing potential of an ethanol extract of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) seeds.  

PubMed

Carica papaya L. (Linn) (Caricaceae) is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment for various wounds, particularly burns. This study evaluated the wound-healing and antimicrobial activity of C. papaya seed extract. Ethanol extract of C. papaya seed (50 mg/kg/day) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity in Sprague-Dawley rats using excision wound model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each (group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with papaya seed extract, group 3 treated with a standard drug mupirocin and papaya seed extract (1:1 ratio) and group 4 treated with a mupirocin ointment. Rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content were determined to assess the wound-healing activity of the seed extract. The group 2 animals showed a significant decrease in wound area of 89% over 13 days when compared with groups 1 (82%), 3 (86%) and 4 (84%) respectively. The hydroxyproline content was significantly higher with the granulation tissue obtained from group 2 animals which were treated with C. papaya seed extract. Histological analysis of granulation tissue of the group 2 animals showed the deposition of well-organized collagen. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that C. papaya promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation for this activity in humans is suggested. PMID:22296524

Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramdeen, Ria; Adogwa, Andrew; Ramsubhag, Adash; Marshall, Julien Rhodney

2012-12-01

22

Helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) protein of Papaya ringspot virus interacts with papaya calreticulin.  

PubMed

Potyviral helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) is a multifunctional protein involved in plant-virus interactions. In this study, we constructed a Carica papaya L. plant cDNA library to investigate the host factors interacting with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) HC-Pro using a Sos recruitment two-hybrid system (SRS). We confirmed that the full-length papaya calreticulin, designated PaCRT (GenBank accession no. FJ913889), interacts specifically with PRSV HC-Pro in yeast, in vitro and in plant cells using SRS, in vitro protein-binding assay and bimolecular fluorescent complementation assay, respectively. SRS analysis of the interaction between three PaCRT deletion mutants and PRSV HC-Pro demonstrated that the C-domain (residues 307-422), with a high Ca(2+)-binding capacity, was responsible for binding to PRSV HC-Pro. In addition, quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay showed that the expression of PaCRT mRNA was significantly upregulated in the primary stage of PRSV infection, and decreased to near-basal expression levels in noninoculated (healthy) papaya plants with virus accumulation inside host cells. PaCRT is a new calcium-binding protein that interacts with potyviral HC-Pro. It is proposed that the upregulated expression of PaCRT mRNA may be an early defence-related response to PRSV infection in the host plant, and that interaction between PRSV HC-Pro and PaCRT may be involved in plant calcium signalling pathways which could interfere with virus infection or host defence. PMID:20447282

Shen, Wentao; Yan, Pu; Gao, Le; Pan, Xueying; Wu, Jinyan; Zhou, Peng

2010-05-01

23

Touch and Discover  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student teams identify and categorize various objects using their senses of touch and sight. One student chooses five objects for his/her blindfolded partner to describe and identify based solely on touch. Then they switch. Both students record their observations, describing the objects as: human-made or natural, living or non-living, as well as any other physical/sensory characteristics. Students become familiar with different classification systems and sharpen their vocabulary to describe the physical characteristics of different objects. They learn why engineers have a need to categorize materials.

Center For Engineering Educational Outreach

24

Touch the Spring (Lightbulb)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, a lightbulb is placed in front of a concave mirror. The actual lightbulb is not visible to the viewer, but the viewer can see the mirror image of the lightbulb formed in space. When the viewer tries to touch the lightbulb, they are attempting to touch an image. Their hand moves right through what seems to be a solid object! Learners will enjoy this illusion, while investigating principles of light and mirrors. In this version of a popular Exploratorium exhibit, a lightbulb is substituted for a spring.

Exploratorium, The

2011-12-07

25

Getting in Touch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the growing demand of using touchscreen interface. Consumers are now seeing touchscreens in a wide variety of electronics, not only in competitors to the iPhone from Sony, Samsung, Motorola, LG and T-Mobile, but also in desktop PCs, printers and copiers, televisions, and MP3 players. Teens, if they don't have a touch-enabled…

Dyrli, Kurt O.

2008-01-01

26

Getting Back in Touch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses strategies for teachers to get back in touch with the earth and re-connect with the environment. Argues that the teacher's appreciation for nature's beauty will bring about a sensitivity not experienced before and help students develop a reverence and awe for the natural world. (JRH)

Stiles, John; Hudson, Kat

1997-01-01

27

Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional plant treatment for diabetes has shown a surging interest in the last few decades. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves in diabetic rats. Several studies have reported that some parts of the C. papaya plant exert hypoglycemic effects in both animals and humans. Methods Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ). The aqueous extract of C. papaya was administered in three different doses (0.75, 1.5 and 3 g/100 mL) as drinking water to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals during 4 weeks. Results The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (0.75 g and 1.5 g/100 mL) significantly decreased blood glucose levels (p<0.05) in diabetic rats. It also decreased cholesterol, triacylglycerol and amino-transferases blood levels. Low plasma insulin levels did not change after treatment in diabetic rats, but they significantly increased in non-diabetic animals. Pancreatic islet cells were normal in non-diabetic treated animals, whereas in diabetic treated rats, C. papaya could help islet regeneration manifested as preservation of cell size. In the liver of diabetic treated rats, C. papaya prevented hepatocyte disruption, as well as accumulation of glycogen and lipids. Finally, an antioxidant effect of C. papaya extract was also detected in diabetic rats. Conclusions This study showed that the aqueous extract of C. papaya exerted a hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect; it also improved the lipid profile in diabetic rats. In addition, the leaf extract positively affected integrity and function of both liver and pancreas.

2012-01-01

28

Enhancing Interaction through Positive Touch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Positive touch is an application of the ancient practice of infant massage. Positive touch provides families and caregivers with simple and positive ways to touch their child that contribute to the overall goal of providing a nurturing environment that supports the child's growth and development. This article describes infant massage techniques in…

Pardew, E. Michelle; Bunse, Carol

2005-01-01

29

Correlation between ethylene emission and skin colour changes during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin colour changes and ethylene emission rates were monitored during papaya (C. papaya L.) fruit ripening. Two groups of papaya (`Formosa' and `Solo') were applied in this study. The total colour difference was used as measured parameter and the corresponding half time of its saturation was used as correlation parameter. A high correlation factor between the saturation half time

M. G. da Silva; J. G. Oliveira; A. P. Vitoria; S. F. Corrêa; M. G. Pereira; E. Campostrini; E. O. Santos; A. Cavalli; H. Vargas

2005-01-01

30

Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas ( Carica papaya L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Papaya is cultivated in Espírito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature.

Camargo, R. J.; Tadini, C. C.; Sabato, S. F.

2007-11-01

31

Physical–chemical analyses of irradiated papayas ( Carica papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya is cultivated in Espírito Santo State\\/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00kGy)

R. J. Camargo; C. C. Tadini; S. F. Sabato

2007-01-01

32

Ambient temperature perception in papaya for papaya ringspot virus interaction.  

PubMed

Temperature dramatically affects the host-virus interaction. Outbreaks of viral diseases are frequently associated with the ambient temperature required for host development. Using papaya as a host and Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) as a pathogen, we studied the effect of temperature on the intensity of disease symptoms and virus accumulation. The phenotypic expression of symptoms and viral accumulation were found to be maximum at ambient temperature (26-31 degrees C) of papaya cultivation. However, there was a drastic difference, 10 degrees C above and below the ambient temperature. The underlying mechanism of these well-known observations are not yet understood completely; however, these observations might help find answers in RNA silencing mechanism of plants. Since viral-derived silencing suppressor proteins play a significant role in RNA silencing mechanism, here we show that PRSV-derived Helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) protein has an affinity for small RNAs in a temperature-dependent manner. This suggested the probable role of HC-Pro in the temperature-regulated host-virus relationship. PMID:19247826

Mangrauthia, Satendra K; Singh Shakya, Viplendra P; Jain, R K; Praveen, Shelly

2009-06-01

33

Recent advances in the development of transgenic papaya technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya with resistance to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is the first genetically modified tree and fruit crop and also the first transgenic crop developed by a public institution that has been commercialized. This chapter reviews the different transformation systems used for papaya and recent advances in the use of transgenic technology to introduce important quality and horticultural traits in papaya.

Evelyn Mae Tecson Mendoza; Antonio C. Laurena; José Ramón Botella

2008-01-01

34

Phylogeography and molecular epidemiology of Papaya ringspot virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is the most important virus affecting papaya and cucurbit plants in tropical and subtropical areas. PRSV isolates are divided into biotypes P and W: both the P and W types naturally infect plants in the family Cucurbitaceae, whereas the P type naturally infects papaya (Carica papaya). Understanding the origin and nature of the PRSV genetic diversity

X. A. Olarte Castillo; G. Fermin; J. Tabima; Y. Rojas; P. F. Tennant; M. Fuchs; R. Sierra; A. J. Bernal; S. Restrepo

2011-01-01

35

Potential threat of a new pathotype of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus infecting transgenic papaya resistant to Papaya ringspot virus.  

PubMed

A virus identified as a new pathotype of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV, P-TW-WF) was isolated from diseased papaya in an isolated test-field in central Taiwan, where transgenic papaya lines resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) were evaluated. The infected plants displayed severe mosaic, distortion and shoe-stringing on leaves; stunting in apex; and water-soaking on petioles and stems. This virus, which did not react in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the antiserum to the PRSV coat protein, infected only papaya, but not the other 18 plant species tested. Virions studied under electron microscope exhibited morphology and dimensions of potyvirus particles. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction conducted using potyvirus-specific primers generated a 1,927-nucleotide product corresponding to the 3' region of a potyvirus, showing high sequence identity to the CP gene and 3' noncoding region of PLDMV. Search for similar isolates with the antiserum against CP of P-TW-WF revealed scattered occurrence of PLDMV in Taiwan. Phylogenetic analysis of PLDMV isolates of Taiwan and Japan indicated that the Taiwan isolates belong to a separate genetic cluster. Since all the Taiwan isolates infected only papaya, unlike the cucurbit-infecting Japanese P type isolates, the Taiwan isolates are considered a new pathotype of PLDMV. Susceptibility of all our PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya lines to PLDMV indicates that the virus is an emerging threat for the application of PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in Taiwan and elsewhere. PMID:18943262

Bau, H-J; Kung, Y-J; Raja, J A J; Chan, S-J; Chen, K-C; Chen, Y-K; Wu, H-W; Yeh, S-D

2008-07-01

36

Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ripening studies of nontreated and treated papaya (papaya L) are accomplished by monitoring the ethylene and CO2 emission rates of that climacteric fruit, to evaluate its shelf life. The treatments simulate the commercial Phitosanitarian process used to avoid the fly infestation. Ethylene emission was measured using a commercial CO2 laser driven photoacoustic setup and CO2, using a commercial gas analysis also based on the photothermal effect. The results show a marked change in ethylene and CO2 emission rate pattern for treated fruits when compared to the ones obtained for nontreated fruits and a displacement of the climacteric pick shown that the treatment causes a decrease of shelf life of fruit.

da Silva, M. G.; Santos, E. O.; Sthel, M. S.; Cardoso, S. L.; Cavalli, A.; Monteiro, A. R.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

2003-01-01

37

Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.).  

PubMed

Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC-MS revealed striking similarity of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51% of total carotenoids). Comparison of the pigment-loaded chromoplast ultrastructures disclosed tubular plastids to be abundant in yellow papaya, whereas larger crystalloid substructures characterized most frequent red papaya chromoplasts. Exclusively existent in red papaya, such crystalloid structures were associated with lycopene accumulation. Non-globular carotenoid deposition was derived from simple solubility calculations based on carotenoid and lipid contents of the differently colored fruit pulps. Since the physical state of carotenoid deposition may be decisive regarding their bioavailability, chromoplasts from lycopene-rich tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were also assessed and compared to red papaya. Besides interesting analogies, various distinctions were ascertained resulting in the prediction of enhanced lycopene bioavailability from red papaya. In addition, the developmental pathway of red papaya chromoplasts was investigated during fruit ripening and carotenogenesis. In the early maturation stage of white-fleshed papaya, undifferentiated proplastids and globular plastids were predominant, corresponding to incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Since intermediate plastids, e.g., amyloplasts or chloroplasts, were absent, chromoplasts are likely to emerge directly from proplastids. PMID:21706336

Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B; Heller, Annerose; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

2011-11-01

38

Free radical scavenging activity of fermented papaya preparation and its effect on lipid peroxide level and superoxide dismutase activity in iron-induced epileptic foci of rats.  

PubMed

Fermented papaya preparation is a natural health food that has been commercially sold in Japan for 2 years. It is made by yeast fermentation of Carica Papaya Linn. We examined the antioxidant action of the fermented papaya preparation on free radicals and lipid peroxidation. Free radicals have been related with aging and diseases, such as cancer, diabetes and especially in neurological disorders, for example, Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease. A diet including variable antioxidant foods may therefore help to prevent these illnesses. The free radical scavenging activity of the fermented papaya preparation was examined using an electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer. Fermented papaya preparation (50 mg/ml) scavenged 80% of hydroxyl radicals (.OH) as spin adducts of spin trap, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) (5.27 x 10(15)spins/ml) generated by Fenton reagents. The value of IC50 was 12.5 mg/ml. The oral administration of the fermented papaya preparation for 4 weeks decreased the elevated of lipid peroxide levels in the ipsilateral 30 min after injection of iron solution by iron into the left cortex of rats. The fermented papaya preparation also increased superoxide dismutase activity in the cortex and hippocampus of them. These results suggest that the fermented papaya preparation has antioxidant actions and that it may be prophylactic food against the age related and neurological diseases associated with free radicals. PMID:9635126

Imao, K; Wang, H; Komatsu, M; Hiramatsu, M

1998-06-01

39

Empathic Touch by Relational Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a series of experiments with an agent designed to model human conversational touch-capable of physically touching users in synchrony with speech and other nonverbal communicative behavior-and its use in expressing empathy to users in distress. The agent is composed of an animated human face that is displayed on a monitor affixed to the top of a human mannequin,

Timothy W. Bickmore; Rukmal Fernando; Lazlo Ring; Daniel Schulman

2010-01-01

40

Acquisition of a Touching Style.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study used focus groups to allow students, general-dentistry residents, and dental faculty to discuss issues related to learning to use touch in dental treatment. Analysis of group interactions indicated that learning to touch dental patients was often trial-and-error, and uncomfortable for students. A fine line exists between preventing…

Schifter, Catherine C.; Bogert, Meredith; Boston, Daniel

1999-01-01

41

Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya ( Carica papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC–MS revealed striking similarity\\u000a of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained\\u000a only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51%

Ralf M. Schweiggert; Christof B. Steingass; Annerose Heller; Patricia Esquivel; Reinhold Carle

42

Development of Mild Strains of Papaya Ringspot Virus-Papaya Strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt was made with BARI papaya-1 to develop the mild strains of Papaya ringspot virus- papaya strain (PRSV-P) to use in cross protection. Three mutagents (viz. nitrous acid, sodium azide and UV radiation) with different concentrations and exposure time were used in this experiment. Mutagenic treatments of extraction of PRSV-P infected sap with 0.075M nitrous acid, 2% sodium azide,

S. MOWLICK; A. M. AKANDA; A. H. M. A. RAHMAN

2007-01-01

43

Papaya ringspot virus resistance in Carica papaya via introgression from Vasconcellea quercifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first successful production of PRSV-P resistant backcross (BC) papaya plants following intergeneric hybridisation\\u000a between C. papaya and a Vasconcellea species after 50 years of reports on unsuccessful attempts. This follows our previous reports of PRSV-P resistant F1 hybrids developed by intergeneric hybridisation between C. papaya and V. quercifolia. One PRSV-P resistant BC 1 (BC1) plant was produced after

S. V. Siar; G. A. Beligan; A. J. C. Sajise; V. N. Villegas; R. A. Drew

44

Papaya fruit ripening: response to ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP).  

PubMed

Ripening affects the quality and nutritional contents of fleshy fruits, and papayas are climacteric fruits very susceptible to postharvest losses due to the fast softening caused by ethylene. This paper reports the changes in respiration, ethylene production, and pulp color and firmness, along with the contents of soluble sugars and major carotenoids, during ripening of 'Golden' papaya, an important Brazilian cultivar that has been exported to North American and European markets. The results obtained for nontreated and ethylene- or 1-MCP-treated papaya suggest that 1-MCP can decrease the quality of treated fruit and that even the use of ethylene for triggering or inducing homogeneous ripening can result in lower quality when compared to that of fruit allowed to ripe naturally. PMID:17602654

Fabi, João Paulo; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana; de Mattos Barreto, Gisela P; Mercadante, Adriana Z; Lajolo, Franco M; Oliveira do Nascimento, João Roberto

2007-07-25

45

Touch, awareness of touch, and compliance with a request.  

PubMed

In certain situations it has been shown that touch has a positive effect on the compliance with a request expressed by a stranger. However, the difference between the effect of touch on request compliance between people who had noticed and those who had not noticed this contact has never been taken into account. In this experiment a female confederate asked 227 women to answer a questionnaire. When asking for their collaboration the forearm was or was not touched for a brief period of 1 to 2 seconds. Analysis showed that touch was associated with significantly higher compliance to the request but no difference was found between subjects who had noticed the tactual contact and subjects who had not noticed. PMID:12434826

Guéguen, Nicolas

2002-10-01

46

Generation of transgenic papaya with double resistance to Papaya ringspot virus and Papaya leaf-distortion mosaic virus.  

PubMed

During the field tests of coat protein (CP)-transgenic papaya lines resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), another Potyvirus sp., Papaya leaf-distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), appeared as an emerging threat to the transgenic papaya. In this investigation, an untranslatable chimeric construct containing the truncated CP coding region of the PLDMV P-TW-WF isolate and the truncated CP coding region with the complete 3' untranslated region of PRSV YK isolate was transferred into papaya (Carica papaya cv. Thailand) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to generate transgenic plants with resistance to PLDMV and PRSV. Seventy-five transgenic lines were obtained and challenged with PRSV YK or PLDMV P-TW-WF by mechanical inoculation under greenhouse conditions. Thirty-eight transgenic lines showing no symptoms 1 month after inoculation were regarded as highly resistant lines. Southern and Northern analyses revealed that four weakly resistant lines have one or two inserts of the construct and accumulate detectable amounts of transgene transcript, whereas nine resistant lines contain two or three inserts without significant accumulation of transgene transcript. The results indicated that double virus resistance in transgenic lines resulted from double or more copies of the insert through the mechanism of RNA-mediated posttranscriptional gene silencing. Furthermore, three of nine resistant lines showed high levels of resistance to heterologous PRSV strains originating from Hawaii, Thailand, and Mexico. Our transgenic lines have great potential for controlling a number of PRSV strains and PLDMV in Taiwan and elsewhere. PMID:19821736

Kung, Yi-Jung; Bau, Huey-Jiunn; Wu, Yi-Ling; Huang, Chiung-Huei; Chen, Tsui-Miao; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

2009-11-01

47

Papaya Fruit Softening: Role of Hydrolases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivars show a wide variation in fruit softening rates, a character that determines fruit quality and shelf life, and\\u000a thought to be the result of cell wall degradation. The activity of pectin methylesterase, ?-galactosidase, endoglucanase,\\u000a endoxylanase and xylosidase were correlated with normal softening, though no relationship was found between polygalacturonase\\u000a activity and softening. When softening was

Siwaporn Thumdee; Ashariya Manenoi; Nancy J. Chen; Robert E. Paull

2010-01-01

48

Affinity purification of the novel cysteine proteinase papaya proteinase IV, and papain from papaya latex.  

PubMed Central

A procedure is described for the purification of a previously undetected cysteine proteinase, which we have called papaya proteinase IV, from spray-dried latex of the papaya (Carica papaya) plant. The purification involves affinity chromatography on Gly-Phe-aminoacetonitrile linked to CH-Sepharose 4B, with elution by 2-hydroxyethyl disulphide at pH 4.5. The product thus obtained is a mixture of almost fully active papain and papay proteinase IV, which are then separated by cation-exchange chromatography. A preliminary characterization of papaya proteinase IV showed it to be very similar to chymopapain in both molecular size and charge. However, the new enzyme is immunologically distinct from the previously characterized cysteine proteinases of papaya latex. It also differs in its lack of activity against the synthetic substrates of the other papaya proteinases, in its narrow specificity against protein substrates and its lack of inhibition by chicken cystatin. Papaya proteinase IV is abundant, contributing almost 30% of the protein in spray-dried papaya latex, and contamination of chymopapain preparations with this enzyme may account for some of the previously reported heterogeneity of chymopapain. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5.

Buttle, D J; Kembhavi, A A; Sharp, S L; Shute, R E; Rich, D H; Barrett, A J

1989-01-01

49

Carotenogenesis and physico-chemical characteristics during maturation of red fleshed papaya fruit ( Carica papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotenoid development of red fleshed papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.) was investigated in the course of a complete pre- and postharvest period using HPLC-DAD coupled to mass spectrometry. Esterified xanthophylls such as ?-cryptoxanthin laurate and caprate were the most abundant pigments during incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Subsequent fruit maturation led to a gradual accumulation of carotenoids, whereas particularly ?-cryptoxanthin laurate and

Ralf Martin Schweiggert; Christof Björn Steingass; Eric Mora; Patricia Esquivel; Reinhold Carle

2011-01-01

50

Significance of Touch in Young Children's Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Touch matters. Humans need nurturing touch for optimum emotional, physical, and cognitive development and health--especially in infancy. Positive touch lowers levels of the stress hormone cortisol in the brain. Drawing on research and anecdotal evidence to support the importance of touch to children's well-being, the author makes a case for…

Carlson, Frances M.

2005-01-01

51

Ripening in papaya fruit is altered by ACC oxidase cosuppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya) is a very important crop in many tropical countries but it is highly susceptible to parasitic diseases, physiological disorders,\\u000a mechanical damage and fruit overripening. Here we report a study on ACC oxidase cosuppression and its effects on papaya fruit\\u000a ripening. Papaya ACC oxidase was isolated using PCR and embriogenic cells transformed by biolistic using the CaMV 35S

Rodolfo López-Gómez; Jose Luis Cabrera-Ponce; Luis Jorge Saucedo-Arias; Lorena Carreto-Montoya; Ramon Villanueva-Arce; Juan Carlos Díaz-Perez; Miguel Angel Gómez-Lim; Luis Herrera-Estrella

2009-01-01

52

Rapid divergence and expansion of the X chromosome in papaya  

PubMed Central

X chromosomes have long been thought to conserve the structure and gene content of the ancestral autosome from which the sex chromosomes evolved. We compared the recently evolved papaya sex chromosomes with a homologous autosome of a close relative, the monoecious Vasconcellea monoica, to infer changes since recombination stopped between the papaya sex chromosomes. We sequenced 12 V. monoica bacterial artificial chromosomes, 11 corresponding to the papaya X-specific region, and 1 to a papaya autosomal region. The combined V. monoica X-orthologous sequences are much shorter (1.10 Mb) than the corresponding papaya region (2.56 Mb). Given that the V. monoica genome is 41% larger than that of papaya, this finding suggests considerable expansion of the papaya X; expansion is supported by a higher repetitive sequence content of the X compared with the papaya autosomal sequence. The alignable regions include 27 transcript-encoding sequences, only 6 of which are functional X/V. monoica gene pairs. Sequence divergence from the V. monoica orthologs is almost identical for papaya X and Y alleles; the Carica-Vasconcellea split therefore occurred before the papaya sex chromosomes stopped recombining, making V. monoica a suitable outgroup for inferring changes in papaya sex chromosomes. The papaya X and the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome and V. monoica have all gained and lost genes, including a surprising amount of changes in the X.

Gschwend, Andrea R.; Yu, Qingyi; Tong, Eric J.; Zeng, Fanchang; Han, Jennifer; VanBuren, Robert; Aryal, Rishi; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H.; Paterson, Andrew H.; Ming, Ray

2012-01-01

53

Papaya Lethal Yellowing Virus (PLYV) Infects Vasconcellea cauliflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) é um dos três vírus descritos infectando mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) no Brasil. Vasconcellea cauliflora (Jacq.) A. DC., antes denominada de Carica cauliflora (Jacq.), é uma reconhecida fonte de resistência natural ao Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), causador da \\

P. P. R. Amaral; Resende de R. O; M. T. Souza

2006-01-01

54

Phospholipids of palash ( Butea monosperma ), papaya ( Carica papaya ), jangli badam ( Sterculia foetida ), coriander ( Coriandrum sativum ) and carrot ( Daucus carota ) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of the phospholipids of palash(Butea monosperma), papaya(Carica papaya), jangli badam(Sterculia foetida), coriander(Coriandrum sativum) and carrot(Daucus carota) seeds are reported in the present study. Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol were identified\\u000a as major components in all the seeds. Small amounts of lysophosphatidylcholine in palash and papaya, and cardiolipin in palash,\\u000a papaya and carrot also were detected. The predominant fatty acids present

R. B. N. Prasad; Y. Nagender Rao; S. Venkob Rao

1987-01-01

55

Nutritional composition of Rainbow papaya, the first commercialized transgenic fruit crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainbow papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a genetically engineered (GE) cultivar with resistance to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This cultivar currently accounts for about 70% of Hawaii's papaya acreage. The nutritional composition of Rainbow papaya and a non-transgenic control were analyzed to address GE food safety concerns regarding the potential for altered nutritional composition and altered expression of inherent allergens

Savarni Tripathi; Jon Y. Suzuki; James B. Carr; Grant T. McQuate; Stephen A. Ferreira; Richard M. Manshardt; Karen Y. Pitz; Marisa M. Wall; Dennis Gonsalves

2011-01-01

56

Allergenicity assessment of the papaya ringspot virus coat protein expressed in transgenic rainbow papaya.  

PubMed

The virus-resistant, transgenic commercial papaya Rainbow and SunUp (Carica papaya L.) have been consumed locally in Hawaii and elsewhere in the mainland United States and Canada since their release to planters in Hawaii in 1998. These papaya are derived from transgenic papaya line 55-1 and carry the coat protein (CP) gene of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). The PRSV CP was evaluated for potential allergenicity, an important component in assessing the safety of food derived from transgenic plants. The transgene PRSV CP sequence of Rainbow papaya did not exhibit greater than 35% amino acid sequence homology to known allergens, nor did it have a stretch of eight amino acids found in known allergens which are known common bioinformatic methods used for assessing similarity to allergen proteins. PRSV CP was also tested for stability in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid and under various heat treatments. The results showed that PRSV CP was degraded under conditions for which allergenic proteins relative to nonallergens are purported to be stable. The potential human intake of transgene-derived PRSV CP was assessed by measuring CP levels in Rainbow and SunUp along with estimating the fruit consumption rates and was compared to potential intake estimates of PRSV CP from naturally infected nontransgenic papaya. Following accepted allergenicity assessment criteria, our results show that the transgene-derived PRSV CP does not pose a risk of food allergy. PMID:21819140

Fermín, Gustavo; Keith, Ronald C; Suzuki, Jon Y; Ferreira, Stephen A; Gaskill, Douglas A; Pitz, Karen Y; Manshardt, Richard M; Gonsalves, Dennis; Tripathi, Savarni

2011-09-28

57

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of unripe papaya.  

PubMed

The meat, seed and pulp of Carica papaya Linn., a popular traditional medicinal herb grown in the tropics, was shown by the agar-cup method to be bacteriostatic against several enteropathogens such as Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The same parts of papaya were unequivocably demonstrated by electron spin resonance spectrometry to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (5.8 x 10(14) spins/ml), hydroxyl (5.1 x 10(14) spins/ml) and superoxide (1.2 x 10(14) spins/ml) radicals with the seed giving the highest activity at concentrations (IC50) of 2.1, 10.0 and 8.7 mg/ml, respectively. The superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity in the meat, seed and pulp amounts to about 32, 98 and 33 units/ml; comparable to those of soybean paste miso, rice bran and baker's yeast. Vitamin C, malic acid, citric acid and glucose are some of the possible antioxidative components in papaya. Our study correlates the bacteriostatic activity of papaya with its scavenging action on superoxide and hydroxyl radicals which could be part of the cellular metabolism of such enteropathogens. This is indicative of the pathophysiological role of these reactive oxygen species in gastrointestinal diseases and papaya's ability to counteract the oxidative stress. PMID:8412504

Osato, J A; Santiago, L A; Remo, G M; Cuadra, M S; Mori, A

1993-01-01

58

Correlation between ethylene emission and skin colour changes during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The skin colour changes and ethylene emission rates were monitored during papaya (C. papaya L.) fruit ripening. Two groups of papaya (‘Formosa’ and ‘Solo’) were applied in this study. The total colour difference was used as measured parameter and the corresponding half time of its saturation was used as correlation parameter. A high correlation factor between the saturation half time and corresponding climacteric peak time was found. It was concluded that high ethylene emission rate in ‘Solo’ fruit promotes a quick change of the total colour difference.

da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Vitoria, A. P.; Corrêa, S. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Campostrini, E.; Santos, E. O.; Cavalli, A.; Vargas, H.

2005-06-01

59

To Touch or Not to Touch: That Is the Question!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People attend museums to see artifacts and learn from them! Ideally, they want to see them, touch them, and learn the story about them. Artifacts have an uncanny ability to mute the passage of time, and unite young and old on common ground. During its sixty-plus-years in existence, the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History has displayed…

Smith, Gene Allen

2011-01-01

60

Touch for Socioemotional and Physical Well-Being: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review briefly summarizes recent empirical research on touch. The research includes the role of touch in early development, touch deprivation, touch aversion, emotions that can be conveyed by touch, the importance of touch for interpersonal relationships and how friendly touch affects compliance in different situations. MRI data are reviewed…

Field, Tiffany

2010-01-01

61

Development of genetically engineered resistant papaya for papaya ringspot virus in a timely manner: a comprehensive and successful approach.  

PubMed

Papaya orchards throughout most of the world are severely damaged by the destructive disease caused by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). PRSV-resistant papaya expressing the coat protein gene (CP) of PRSV have been used in Hawaii to control PRSV since 1998. This chapter presents the experimental steps involved in the development of transgenic papaya, including transgene construction, transformation, and analysis for virus resistance of the transformed papaya. We also describe the important factors that enabled deregulation, commercialization, and adoption of transgenic papaya to occur in Hawaii in a timely manner. Transfer of this technology to other countries with the similar goal and the development of transgenic papaya in other regions of the world also are described. PMID:17172756

Tripathi, Savarni; Suzuki, Jon; Gonsalves, Dennis

2007-01-01

62

Benzyl isothiocyanate is the chief or sole anthelmintic in papaya seed extracts.  

PubMed

Papaya (Carica papaya) seeds were extracted in an aqueous buffer or in organic solvents, fractionated by chromatography on silica and aliquots tested for anthelmintic activity by viability assays using Caenorhabditis elegans. For all preparations and fractions tested, anthelmintic activity and benzyl isothiocyanate content correlated positively. Aqueous extracts prepared from heat-treated seeds had no anthelmintic activity or benzyl isothiocyanate content although both appeared when these extracts were incubated with a myrosinase-containing fraction prepared from papaya seeds. A 10 h incubation of crude seed extracts at room temperature led to a decrease in anthelmintic activity and fractionated samples showed a lower benzyl isothiocyanate content relative to non-incubated controls. Benzyl thiocyanate, benzyl cyanide, and benzonitrile were not detected in any preparations and cyanogenic glucosides. which were present, could not account for the anthelmintic activity detected. Thus, our results are best explained if benzyl isothiocyanate is the predominant or sole anthelmintic agent in papaya seed extracts regardless of how seeds are extracted. PMID:11393524

Kermanshai, R; McCarry, B E; Rosenfeld, J; Summers, P S; Weretilnyk, E A; Sorger, G J

2001-06-01

63

Augmented touch without visual obtrusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Visuo-haptic mixed,reality consists of adding to a real scene the ability to see and touch virtual objects. It requires the use of see- through display technology for visually mixing real and virtual ob- jects, and haptic devices for adding haptic interaction with the vir- tual objects. However, haptic devices tend to be bulky items that appear in the field

Francesco I. Cosco; Carlos Garre; Fabio Bruno; Maurizio Muzzupappa; Miguel A. Otaduy

2009-01-01

64

Direct Learning in Dynamic Touch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A dynamic touch paradigm in which participants judged the lengths of rods and pipes was used to test the D. M. Jacobs and C. F. Michaels (2007) theory of perceptual learning. The theory portrays perception as the exploitation of a locus on an information manifold and learning as continuous movement across that manifold to a new locus, as guided by…

Michaels, Claire F.; Arzamarski, Ryan; Isenhower, Robert W.; Jacobs, David M.

2008-01-01

65

7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319...Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may be imported into the...

2010-01-01

66

7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319...Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may be imported into the...

2009-01-01

67

Effects of the Papaya meleira virus on papaya latex structure and composition.  

PubMed

Spontaneous latex exudation is the main symptom of papaya sticky (meleira) disease caused by the Papaya meleira virus (PMeV), a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus. This paper describes different effects of PMeV on papaya latex. Latex samples were subjected to different histochemical tests to evaluate their chemical composition. Additionally, the integrity of the latex particles was assessed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy analysis. Biochemical and micro- and macro-element measurements were performed. PMeV dsRNA extraction was performed to evaluate the interaction of the virus with the latex particles. Sticky diseased latex was positive for alkaloid biosynthesis and showed an accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals. PMeV also increased H(2)O(2) synthesis within sticky diseased laticifers. The protein, sugar and water levels were altered, probably due to chemical changes. The morphology of the latex particles was further altered; PMeV particles seemed to be bound to the latex particles. The alkaloid and H(2)O(2) biosynthesis in the papaya laticifers indicate a papaya defense response against PMeV. However, such efforts failed, as the virus affected the plant latex. The effects described here suggest some advantages of the infection process, including facilitating the movement of the virus within the papaya plant. PMID:19194708

Rodrigues, Silas P; Da Cunha, Maura; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

2009-05-01

68

Increasing the shelf- life of papaya through vacuum packing.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to increase the shelf life of fruits through vacuum packing. Papaya fruits were pretreated with waxing, oil application, purafil packets, tissue paper wrapping given along with control and were packed in 150 gauge thickness polyethylene film bags under vacuum and another set of these samples under without vacuum. The fruits were then stored at room and refrigerated temperature and analyzed for chemical changes. Results showed that the shelf life of the fruits increased under vacuum packing with room and refrigeration temperatures for one and four weeks respectively. The fruits packed without any pretreatment in 150 gauge polyethylene bags maintained the quality with minimum changes followed by waxing, purafil and oil application. During storage moisture, acidity, Vitamin C and total sugar decreased whereas reducing sugar and total soluble solids (TSS) increased during storage. The sensory qualities declined with the period of storage and temperature differences. The study concluded that vacuum packaging and refrigeration conditions increased the shelf life of the papaya fruits. PMID:24426064

Padmanaban, Geetha; Singaravelu, Kanchana; Annavi, Susheela Thirumaran

2014-01-01

69

Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management  

PubMed Central

Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research.

Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

2014-01-01

70

Gene technology for papaya ringspot virus disease management.  

PubMed

Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research. PMID:24757435

Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

2014-01-01

71

Requesting Pervasive Services by Touching RFID Tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

We suggest a general framework for requesting pervasive services by touching RFID tags. The tags conne ct the physical and digital environments. Visual symbols c ommunicate to users the objects that can be touched and the services that can be activated. When a user touches such a symbol with a mobile phone, the data stored in the tag and other

Jukka Riekki; Timo Salminen; Ismo Alakärppä

2006-01-01

72

Plant sensing: gravity and touch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roots must integrate many stimuli in order to direct their growth as they explore the soil. Gravitropism leads to downward growth but other stimuli such as gradients in nutrients, water, biotic and abiotic stresses and physical obstacles such as rocks all act on the roots sensory systems to modify this gravitropic response. We have therefore investigated the interaction of gravity signaling and response to other stimuli such as a mechanical obstruction to downward growth. A gravitropically directed primary root of Arabidopsis thaliana (growing vertically) senses an obstacle such as a glass plate placed in its direction of growth and initiates an avoidance growth response upon contacting the barrier. This response appears to be caused by an interaction of gravitropic and thigmotropic sensory systems. The touch stimulation of the root cap leads to alteration in growth, initially in the central and later in the distal elongation zone of the root. These growth responses maintain the root tip at an angle of 136 degrees to the barrier as the root grows across the obstacle's surface. Removal of cells in the root cap by laser ablation indicate that all root cap cells are required for this growth response to the barrier. Once the end of the barrier is reached and the root can grow off the obstruciton, gravitropism appears to occur faster than in roots that did not interact with an obstacle, suggesting that the touch stimulation of the barrier may alter gravitropic signaling or response. Touch stimulation of the root cap inhibited the pH-dependent gravity signaling events that are known to be required for gravitropic response. These results imply a transient suppression of gravisensing or graviresponse by touch. Touch stimulation of root cap cells elicited an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ that appears to propagate from cell to cell throughout the cap, suggesting Ca2+ signaling may underlie the communication between gravity and touch sensing cells. Although the pgm1 -1 starch deficient mutant exhibits reduced gravity sensing due to reduced mass of statoliths in its root cap, this mutant exhibited normal bending upon contact with the barrier. This observation implies the reduced gravisensing in the mutant is sufficient to allow the gravitropic component of obstacle avoidance. However, pgm1 -1 develops a more random orientation to the barrier with time, suggesting that sustained tracking over the barrier requires continued input by the gravisensor. The growth response of roots where the root cap has been removed by laser ablation, also suggest that the root cap may be sensing a range of other, non-mechanical stimuli that are interacting with the gravity sensor to direct root growth. This work was supported by grants from NASA and NSF.

Gilroy, S.; Swanson, S.; Massa, G.

73

Effect of water extract of carica papaya seed on the germinal epithelium of the seminiferous tubules of Sprague Dawley rats.  

PubMed

Extracts from different parts of the papaya have been reported to decrease the testicular weight of Wistar rats when administered orally for 8 weeks. It was however reported that suppression of spermatogenesis was observed in these rats following the administration of papaya seed extract. No histological abnormality was observed in these animals. In this experiment, water extract of papaya seeds, was administered orally to Sprague Dawley rats ad libitum for 8 weeks. Results showed that 3 weeks after commencement of this administration, the lumina of the seminiferous tubules were more prominent and empty in the experimental animals with no evidence of spermatids and spermatozoa. It also showed that the lateral walls of adjacent Sertolil cells lost contact with each other. PMID:11806144

Uche-Nwachi, E O; Ezeokoli, D C; Adogwa, A O; Offiah, V N

2001-12-01

74

Mechanical control of the sense of touch by ?-spectrin.  

PubMed

The ability to sense and respond to mechanical stimuli emanates from sensory neurons and is shared by most, if not all, animals. Exactly how such neurons receive and distribute mechanical signals during touch sensation remains mysterious. Here, we show that sensation of mechanical forces depends on a continuous, pre-stressed spectrin cytoskeleton inside neurons. Mutations in the tetramerization domain of Caenorhabditis elegans ?-spectrin (UNC-70), an actin-membrane crosslinker, cause defects in sensory neuron morphology under compressive stress in moving animals. Through atomic force spectroscopy experiments on isolated neurons, in vivo laser axotomy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging to measure force across single cells and molecules, we show that spectrin is held under constitutive tension in living animals, which contributes to elevated pre-stress in touch receptor neurons. Genetic manipulations that decrease such spectrin-dependent tension also selectively impair touch sensation, suggesting that such pre-tension is essential for efficient responses to external mechanical stimuli. PMID:24561618

Krieg, Michael; Dunn, Alexander R; Goodman, Miriam B

2014-03-01

75

Papaya seed represents a rich source of biologically active isothiocyanate.  

PubMed

In the present study, papaya (Carica papaya) seed and edible pulp were carefully separated and then the contents of benzyl isothiocyanate and the corresponding glucosinolate (benzyl glucosinolate, glucotropaeolin) quantified in each part. The papaya seed with myrosinase inactivation contained >1 mmol of benzyl glucosinolate in 100 g of fresh seed. This content is equivalent to that of Karami daikon (the hottest Japanese white radish) or that of cress. The papaya seed extract also showed a very high activity of myrosinase and, without myrosinase inactivation, produced 460 micromol of benzyl isothiocyanate in 100 g of seed. In contrast, papaya pulp contained an undetectable amount of benzyl glucosinolate and showed no significant myrosinase activity. The n-hexane extract of the papaya seed homogenate was highly effective in inhibiting superoxide generation and apoptosis induction in HL-60 cells, the activities of which are comparable to those of authentic benzyl isothiocyanate. PMID:17469845

Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Yoshimoto, Motoko; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Shimoishi, Yasuaki; Asai, Yumi; Park, Eun Young; Sato, Kenji; Nakamura, Yasushi

2007-05-30

76

Host susceptibility of the papaya mosaic virus in Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

75 plant species from 11 families were tested in Sri Lanka for their susceptibility to transferring the papaya mosaic virus. After inoculation with this virus, six species, Cucurbita pepo, Cucumis sativus, Nicotiana tabacum, Chenopodium amaranticolor, Gomphrena globosa and Lycopersicum esculentum, developed such symptoms, and after re-isolation from the host plant the virus again infected papaya plants. Thus these species are possible alternate hosts of papaya mosaic virus in Sri Lanka. PMID:7342959

Rajapakse, R H; Herath, H M

1981-01-01

77

Genome size, base composition and karyotype of Carica papaya L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few data concerning Carica papaya DNA content and chromosomal characterization have been reported in specialized bibliography. Considering this fact, flow\\u000a cytometry and cytogenetic methodologies were applied in order to improve the knowledge about the genome size, base composition\\u000a and karyotype of C. papaya hermaphroditic plants. Flow cytometry results showed that hermaphroditic C. papaya genome size is relatively small (2 C?=?0.65 pg) and

Fernanda Santos Araújo; Carlos Roberto Carvalho; Wellington Ronildo Clarindo

2010-01-01

78

Effect of gamma-irradiation on ripening papaya pectin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya, L., var. Sunset) at three initial ripeness stages were irradiated with 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, or 1.5 kGy gamma-irradiation and pectin changes during ripening determined. A significant linear relationship was found between irradiation dose and firmness immediately after irradiation. Irradiation had no effect on fruit skin or flesh color of papaya fruit irradiated at the 5 to

Min Zhao; James Moy; Robert E. Paull

1996-01-01

79

Toxicological effects of Carica papaya seed extract on spermatozoa of mice.  

PubMed

Investigations were carried out on epididymal spermatozoa of male mice to study the effects of high dosages (100, 200 and 300 mg kg(-1) bwt) of aqueous Carica papaya seed extract. The results revealed a significant dosedependent suppression of cauda epididymal sperm motility coinciding with a decrease in sperm count and viability. When tested 45 days after the withdrawal of treatment, complete normalcy was restored, proving that the induced effects were transient. PMID:17080407

Verma, R J; Nambiar, Deepa; Chinoy, N J

2006-01-01

80

Effects of Different Concentrations and Applications of Calcium on Storage Life and Physicochemical Characteristics of Papaya (Carica Papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica Papaya L.) fruits index 2 were treated with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5% solutions of calcium chloride by dipping and vacuum infiltration (-33 Kpa) or untreated (0%) as control. Effects of these treatments were evaluated on storage life and postharvest quality characteristics of papaya. After 21 days of storage at 13±1°C, the fruits were removed from storage for physicochemical

Mohamed Zaki

2008-01-01

81

Detection of phytoplasma and potyvirus pathogens in papaya ( Carica papaya L.) affected with ‘Bunchy Top Symptom’ (BTS) in eastern Cuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symptoms associated with the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) were observed in papaya fields from eastern Cuba affected with the ‘Bunchy Top Symptom’ (BTS) phytoplasma. Total DNA and RNA extracted from symptomatic and asymptomatic papayas, were respectively subjected to nested PCR by using phytoplasma 16S rDNA primers, and to RT-PCR with generic coat-protein potyvirus primers. Nested PCR products were obtained for

Y. Arocha; B. Piñol; K. Acosta; R. Almeida; J. Devonshire; A. Van de Meene; E. Boa; J. Lucas

2009-01-01

82

First records of the papaya strain of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-P) in French Polynesia and the Cook Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The papaya strain ofPapaya ringspot virus (PRSV-P), the cause of papaya ringspot disease, was confirmed in French Polynesia and the Cook Islands by double antibody\\u000a sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). In French Polynesia, the virus has probably been on the islands of\\u000a Tahiti and Moorea for several years, but appears not to have spread to eight other islands. In

R. I. DavisA; L. Mu; N. Maireroa; W. J. Wigmore; M. Grison; M. F. Bateson; J. E. Thomas

2005-01-01

83

First records of the papaya strain of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-P) in French Polynesia and the Cook Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The papaya strain of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-P), the cause of papaya ringspot disease, was confirmed in French Polynesia and the Cook Islands by double antibody sandwich enzyme,linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). In French Polynesia, the virus has probably been on the islands of Tahiti and Moorea for several years, but appears not to have spread to eight other islands.

R. I. Davis; L. Mu; N. Maireroa; W. J. Wigmore; M. Grisoni; M. F. Bateson; J. E. Thomas

2005-01-01

84

Digital Transcriptome Analysis of Putative Sex-Determination Genes in Papaya (Carica papaya)  

PubMed Central

Papaya (Carica papaya) is a trioecious plant species that has male, female and hermaphrodite flowers on different plants. The primitive sex chromosomes genetically determine the sex of the papaya. Although draft sequences of the papaya genome are already available, the genes for sex determination have not been identified, likely due to the complicated structure of its sex-chromosome sequences. To identify the candidate genes for sex determination, we conducted a transcriptome analysis of flower samples from male, female and hermaphrodite plants using high-throughput SuperSAGE for digital gene expression analysis. Among the short sequence tags obtained from the transcripts, 312 unique tags were specifically mapped to the primitive sex chromosome (X or Yh) sequences. An annotation analysis revealed that retroelements are the most abundant sequences observed in the genes corresponding to these tags. The majority of tags on the sex chromosomes were located on the X chromosome, and only 30 tags were commonly mapped to both the X and Yh chromosome, implying a loss of many genes on the Yh chromosome. Nevertheless, candidate Yh chromosome-specific female determination genes, including a MADS-box gene, were identified. Information on these sex chromosome-specific expressed genes will help elucidating sex determination in the papaya.

Urasaki, Naoya; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Ueno, Hiroki; Tamaki, Moritoshi; Miyagi, Norimichi; Adaniya, Shinichi; Matsumura, Hideo

2012-01-01

85

The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus)  

PubMed Central

Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3× draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree1 to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far2–5, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica's distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties.

Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H.; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V.; Lewis, Kanako L. T.; Salzberg, Steven L.; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R.; Skelton, Rachel L.; Murray, Jan E.; Chen, Cuixia; Qian, Wubin; Shen, Junguo; Du, Peng; Eustice, Moriah; Tong, Eric; Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Paull, Robert E.; Michael, Todd P.; Wall, Kerr; Rice, Danny W.; Albert, Henrik; Wang, Ming-Li; Zhu, Yun J.; Schatz, Michael; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Acob, Ricelle A.; Guan, Peizhu; Blas, Andrea; Wai, Ching Man; Ackerman, Christine M.; Ren, Yan; Liu, Chao; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Shakirov, Eugene V.; Haas, Brian; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Nelson, David; Wang, Xiyin; Bowers, John E.; Gschwend, Andrea R.; Delcher, Arthur L.; Singh, Ratnesh; Suzuki, Jon Y.; Tripathi, Savarni; Neupane, Kabi; Wei, Hairong; Irikura, Beth; Paidi, Maya; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Wenli; Presting, Gernot; Windsor, Aaron; Navajas-Perez, Rafael; Torres, Manuel J.; Feltus, F. Alex; Porter, Brad; Li, Yingjun; Burroughs, A. Max; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Liu, Lei; Christopher, David A.; Mount, Stephen M.; Moore, Paul H.; Sugimura, Tak; Jiang, Jiming; Schuler, Mary A.; Friedman, Vikki; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Shippen, Dorothy E.; dePamphilis, Claude W.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.; Freeling, Michael; Paterson, Andrew H.; Gonsalves, Dennis; Wang, Lei; Alam, Maqsudul

2010-01-01

86

Influence of ripening stages on antioxidant properties of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv Eksotika) is one of the most commonly consumed tropical fruits by humans, especially Malaysians. The objective of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidants activity in different ripening stages of papaya fruit. The fruits were harvested at five different, stages RS1, RS2, RS3, RS4, and RS5 corresponding to 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 weeks after anthesis, respectively. Papayas fruit at five different stage of ripening were obtained from farms at Pusat Flora Cheras, JabatanPertanian and Hulu Langat Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia. The antioxidants activity were analyzed using the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The analyses were conducted in triplicate and the data were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS. The results showed significant differences (P< 0.05) were found at different stages of ripening. The total phenol content TPC, TFC, FRAP and DPPH values increased significantly (P<0.05) with the ripening process. The results showed the important role of the ripening stage in increasing the antioxidant content of papaya fruits.

Addai, Zuhair Radhi; Abdullah, Aminah; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.

2013-11-01

87

The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).  

PubMed

Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3x draft genome sequence of 'SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica's distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties. PMID:18432245

Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V; Lewis, Kanako L T; Salzberg, Steven L; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R; Skelton, Rachel L; Murray, Jan E; Chen, Cuixia; Qian, Wubin; Shen, Junguo; Du, Peng; Eustice, Moriah; Tong, Eric; Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Paull, Robert E; Michael, Todd P; Wall, Kerr; Rice, Danny W; Albert, Henrik; Wang, Ming-Li; Zhu, Yun J; Schatz, Michael; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Acob, Ricelle A; Guan, Peizhu; Blas, Andrea; Wai, Ching Man; Ackerman, Christine M; Ren, Yan; Liu, Chao; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Shakirov, Eugene V; Haas, Brian; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Nelson, David; Wang, Xiyin; Bowers, John E; Gschwend, Andrea R; Delcher, Arthur L; Singh, Ratnesh; Suzuki, Jon Y; Tripathi, Savarni; Neupane, Kabi; Wei, Hairong; Irikura, Beth; Paidi, Maya; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Wenli; Presting, Gernot; Windsor, Aaron; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Torres, Manuel J; Feltus, F Alex; Porter, Brad; Li, Yingjun; Burroughs, A Max; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Liu, Lei; Christopher, David A; Mount, Stephen M; Moore, Paul H; Sugimura, Tak; Jiang, Jiming; Schuler, Mary A; Friedman, Vikki; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Shippen, Dorothy E; dePamphilis, Claude W; Palmer, Jeffrey D; Freeling, Michael; Paterson, Andrew H; Gonsalves, Dennis; Wang, Lei; Alam, Maqsudul

2008-04-24

88

Proteomic analysis of papaya (Carica papaya L.) displaying typical sticky disease symptoms.  

PubMed

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) hosts the only described laticifer-infecting virus (Papaya meleira virus, PMeV), which is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease. To understand the systemic effects of PMeV in papaya, we conducted a comprehensive proteomic analysis of leaf samples from healthy and diseased plants grown under field conditions. First, a reference 2-DE map was established for proteins from healthy samples. A total of 486 reproducible spots were identified, and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS data identified 275 proteins accounting for 159 distinct proteins from 231 spots that were annotated. Second, the differential expression of proteins from healthy and diseased leaves was determined through parallel experiments, using 2-DE and DIGE followed by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and LC-IonTrap-MS/MS, respectively. Conventional 2-DE analysis revealed 75 differentially expressed proteins. Of those, 48 proteins were identified, with 26 being upregulated (U) and 22 downregulated (D). In general, metabolism-related proteins were downregulated, and stress-responsive proteins were upregulated. This expression pattern was corroborated by the results of the DIGE analysis, which identified 79 differentially expressed proteins, with 23 identified (17 U and 6 D). Calreticulin and the proteasome subunits 20S and RPT5a were shown to be upregulated during infection by both 2-DE and DIGE analyses. These data may help shed light on plant responses against stresses and viral infections. PMID:21630455

Rodrigues, Silas P; Ventura, José A; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Almeida, Igor C; Fernandes, Patricia M B; Zingali, Russolina B

2011-07-01

89

Benzylglucosinolate, benzylisothiocyanate, and myrosinase activity in papaya fruit during development and ripening.  

PubMed

Papaya is a climacteric fruit that has high amounts of benzylglucosinolates (BG) and benzylisothiocyanates (BITC), but information regarding levels of BG or BITC during fruit development and ripening is limited. Because BG and BITC are compounds of importance from both a nutritional and a crop yield standpoint, the aim of this work was to access data on the distribution and changes of BG and BITC levels during fruit development and ripening. BG and BITC levels were quantified in peel, pulp, and seeds of papaya fruit. Volatile BITC was also verified in the internal cavity of the fruit during ripening. The influence of the ethylene in BG and BITC levels and mirosinase activity was tested by exposing mature green fruits to ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). The highest BG levels were detected in seeds, followed by the peel and pulp being decreased in all tissues during fruit development. Similarly, the levels of BITC were much higher in the seeds than the peel and pulp. The levels of BG for control and ethylene-treated fruit were very similar, increasing in the pulp and peel during late ripening but not changing significantly in seeds. On the other hand, fruit exposed to 1-MCP showed a decrease in BG amount in the pulp and accumulation in seed. The treatments did not result in clear differences regarding the amount of BITC in the pulp and peel of the fruit. According to the results, ethylene does not have a clear effect on BITC accumulation in ripening papaya fruit. The fact that BG levels in the pulp did not decrease during ripening, regardless of the treatment employed, and that papaya is consumed mainly as fresh fruit, speaks in favor of this fruit as a good dietary source for glucosinolate and isothiocyanates. PMID:18826320

Rossetto, Maria Rosecler Miranda; Oliveira do Nascimento, João Roberto; Purgatto, Eduardo; Fabi, João Paulo; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

2008-10-22

90

How Does a Touch Sensor Work?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about how touch sensors work, while reinforcing their similarities to the human sense of touch. They look at human senses and their electronic imitators, with special focus on the nervous system, skin and touch sensors. A PowerPoint® presentation explains stimulus-to-response pathways, how touch sensors are made and work, and then gives students a chance to handle and get familiar with the LEGO touch sensor, including programming LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robots to use touch sensor input to play music. Students take pre/post quizzes and watch a short online video. The mini-activities prepare students for the associated activity. This lesson and its associated activity enables students to appreciate how robots can take input from sensors, and use that to make decisions to move.

GK-12 Program, Computational Neurobiology Center,

91

Antifertility investigations on the crude chloroform extract of Carica papaya Linn. seeds in male albino rats.  

PubMed

Crude chloroform extract of C. papaya seeds (5 mg/animal/day, po, for 20, 40 and 60 days) was investigated for contraceptive efficacy and related side effects in male albino rats. The crude extract reduced fertility to zero per cent by 40 to 60 days of treatment. Suppression of cauda epididymal sperm motility was the most pronounced effect of the drug administration. Scanning electron microscopic observations revealed treatment induced abnormalities in sperms. Cauda epididymal and testicular sperm counts decreased following treatment. Clinical parameters did not show any alterations. Results suggest that the contraceptive effects of chloroform extract of papaya seeds are mainly post-testicular in nature without influencing toxicological profile and libido of the animals. PMID:1293029

Lohiya, N K; Goyal, R B

1992-11-01

92

Effect of the potassium permanganate during papaya fruit ripening: Ethylene production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on the ripening process of papaya fruits by monitoring the ethylene emission rates is reported. The ethylene emission was monitored by a photoacoustic spectrometer. Two experimental conditions were applied, being one of them just putting the fruit alone inside the sampling chamber and the second, modifying the atmosphere by the presence of KMnO4. The use of the ethylene absorber reduces the autocatalytic process of ethylene during papaya fruit ripening. For 20 g of KMnO4 the maximal intensity of the ethylene emission decreases by a factor two. Using the same amount of KMnO4, a reduction of about 2.2% in the concentration of ethylene for a mixture of 1ppmv of ethylene in synthetic air was observed.

Corrêa, S. F.; Filho, M. B.; da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Aroucha, E. M. M.; Silva, R. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

2005-06-01

93

Three ?-galactosidase cDNA clones related to fruit ripening in papaya ( Carica papaya )  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) is a hydrolase which plays an important role in cell wall modification and fruit softening during\\u000a ripening. In this study, three full-length ?-galactosidase cDNA clones were successfully obtained from papaya mesocarp using\\u000a different approaches. pPGBII which is 2,771 bp in size, was isolated from a papaya ripe mesocarp cDNA library using a heterologous\\u000a probe. The other two cDNA

Roohaida Othman; Huei Li Chong; Tze Siang Choo; Zainon Mohd Ali

94

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT LASER TOUCH AND TECHNOLOGIES, LLC LASER TOUCH MODEL LT-B512  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of Laser Touch model LT-B512 targeting device manufactured by Laser Touch and Technologies, LLC, for manual spray painting operations. The relative transfer efficiency (TE) improved an avera...

95

Characterization of the lipase from Carica papaya residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Lipases from vegetable sources have been the focus of intense and growing research. The use of enzymes from plants has the advantage of employing industrial waste products. Brazil is the world's largest papaya producer and the market for products derived from papaya is growing year after year. In this study, the authors carried out the characterization and partial purification

Fernanda Wiermann PAQUES; Tatiana Fontes PIO; Patrícia de Oliveira CARVALHO; Gabriela Alves MACEDO

96

Tissue differential expression of lycopene ?-cyclase gene in papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotene pigments in flowers and fruits are distinct features related to fitness advantages such as attracting insects for pollination and birds for seed dispersal. In papaya, the flesh color of the fruit is considered a quality trait that correlates with nutritional value and is linked to shelf-life of the fruit. To elucidate the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in papaya, we took

Rachel L Skelton; Qingyi Yu; Rajeswari Srinivasan; Richard Manshardt; Paul H Moore; Ray Ming

2006-01-01

97

Papaya Fruit Quality Management during the Postharvest Supply Chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papayas are popular in tropical and subtropical regions and are being exported in large volumes to Europe, the U.S. and Japan. The fruit has a sweet, exotic flavor and is rich in vitamins A, C, and antioxidants. However, due to its highly perishable nature it has not emerged as a major traded fruit. Papayas are highly susceptible to qualitative and

Dharini Sivakumar; Marisa M. Wall

2012-01-01

98

Novel System for Monitoring and Controlling the Papaya Fruit Fly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method and apparatus for monitoring and controlling the papaya fruit fly are described. The novel system is a combination of the male papaya fruit fly sex pheromone, 2-methyl-6-vinyl-pyrazine, and a fruit mimic. Chemical synthesis of the phenomena is de...

P. J. Landolt R. R. Heath H. R. Agee

1988-01-01

99

Breaking the intergeneric crossing barrier in papaya using sucrose treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A breeding programme was undertaken using Carica papaya var. Surya and Vasconcellea cauliflora with a view to raise progenies resistant to ‘papaya ringspot virus’ (PRSV). Earlier studies have clearly demonstrated the cross incompatibility between these two genera. Hence, an attempt was made to break this barrier using sucrose. The pollen of V. cauliflora was collected and pollination was carried out

M. R. Dinesh; A. Rekha; K. V. Ravishankar; K. S. Praveen; L. C. Santosh

2007-01-01

100

Recent advances in the development of transgenic papaya technology.  

PubMed

Papaya with resistance to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is the first genetically modified tree and fruit crop and also the first transgenic crop developed by a public institution that has been commercialized. This chapter reviews the different transformation systems used for papaya and recent advances in the use of transgenic technology to introduce important quality and horticultural traits in papaya. These include the development of the following traits in papaya: resistance to PRSV, mites and Phytophthora, delayed ripening trait or long shelf life by inhibiting ethylene production or reducing loss of firmness, and tolerance or resistance to herbicide and aluminum toxicity. The use of papaya to produce vaccine against tuberculosis and cysticercosis, an infectious animal disease, has also been explored. Because of the economic importance of papaya, there are several collaborative and independent efforts to develop PRSV transgenic papaya technology in 14 countries. This chapter further reviews the strategies and constraints in the adoption of the technology and biosafety to the environment and food safety. Constraints to adoption include public perception, strict and expensive regulatory procedures and intellectual property issues. PMID:18606373

Tecson Mendoza, Evelyn Mae; C Laurena, Antonio; Botella, José Ramón

2008-01-01

101

A capacitive touch controller robust to display noise for ultrathin touch screen displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capacitive touch screens have become widely adopted in mobile applications. Capacitive touch-screen display modules have conventionally been assembled by bonding two separate modules: 1) a touch-screen module with touch panel glass or film attached to the cover window, and 2) a display module, with a small air gap between them as in Fig. 6.4.1 (top). An important role of the

Ki-Duk Kim; San-Ho Byun; Yoon-Kyung Choi; Jong-Hak Baek; Hwa-Hyun Cho; Jong-Kang Park; Hae-Yong Ahn; Chang-Ju Lee; Min-Soo Cho; Joo-Hyeon Lee; Sang-Woo Kim; Hyung-Dal Kwon; Yong-Yeob Choi; Hosuk Na; Yeon-Joong Shin; Kyungsuk Jang; Gyoocheol Hwang; Myunghee Lee

2012-01-01

102

Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ripening studies of nontreated and treated papaya (papaya L) are accomplished by monitoring the ethylene and CO2 emission rates of that climacteric fruit, to evaluate its shelf life. The treatments simulate the commercial Phitosanitarian process used to avoid the fly infestation. Ethylene emission was measured using a commercial CO2 laser driven photoacoustic setup and CO2, using a commercial gas analysis

M. G. da Silva; E. O. Santos; M. S. Sthel; S. L. Cardoso; A. Cavalli; A. R. Monteiro; J. G. de Oliveira; M. G. Pereira; H. Vargas

2003-01-01

103

Ozone Applications in the PostHarvest of Papaya (Carica papaya L.): An Alternative to Amistar Fungicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article was to evaluate ozone applications in the post-harvest of papaya (Carica papaya L) as an alternative to Amistar fungicide, taking into account the effect on the control of fungal pathogens growth, shelf-life, seed germination percentage and soluble solids content. Ozone doses were applied in vitro to strains of seven fungi species, which cause rot of

Mayra Bataller; José E. González; Eliet Veliz; Lidia A. Fernández

2012-01-01

104

A single amino acid of niapro of papaya ringspot virus determines host specificity for infection of papaya.  

PubMed

Most strains of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) belong to type W, causing severe loss on cucurbits worldwide, or type P, devastating papaya in tropical areas. While the host range of PRSV W is limited to plants of the families Chenopodiaceae and Cucuribitaceae, PRSV P, in addition, infects plants of the family Caricaceae (papaya family). To investigate one or more viral genetic determinants for papaya infection, recombinant viruses were constructed between PRSV P-YK and PRSV W-CI. Host reactions to recombinant viruses indicated that the viral genomic region covering the C-terminal region (142 residues) of NIaVPg, full NIaPro, and N-terminal region (18 residues) of NIb, is critical for papaya infection. Sequence analysis of this region revealed residue variations at position 176 of NIaVPg and positions 27 and 205 of NIaPro between type P and W viruses. Host reactions to the constructed mutants indicated that the amino acid Lys27 of NIaPro determines the host-specificity of PRSV for papaya infection. Predicted three-dimensional structures of NIaPros of parental viruses suggested that Lys27 does not affect the protease activity of NIaPro. Recovery of the infected plants from certain papaya-infecting mutants implied involvement of other viral factors for enhancing virulence and adaptation of PRSV on papaya. PMID:18616401

Chen, Kuan-Chun; Chiang, Chu-Hui; Raja, Joseph A J; Liu, Fang-Lin; Tai, Chun-Hsi; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

2008-08-01

105

Design Issues for Collaborative Touch Table Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes underlying principles that inf luence the creation of successful touch table collaboration so ftware. Scott et al's collaborative tabletop guidelines (2003) are u sed as the basis for discussion. A summary of each table guideline is offered, and applied with respect to current touch-table applica tions. Recommendations for authors of table applications a re provided on a

Craig McNulty

106

Touch increases autonomic coupling between romantic partners  

PubMed Central

Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration). Fourteen couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy.

Chatel-Goldman, Jonas; Congedo, Marco; Jutten, Christian; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

2014-01-01

107

Therapeutic Touch: The Art of Improvisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper is a comparison of the art and practice of Therapeutic Touch with the art and practice of music through improvisation. It is also an exploration of one person's growth from initial learning to a point in lime where expertise is recognized. Students of Therapeutic Touch are often puzzled by their ability to be effective from the first

Anne Hanley Mary

1991-01-01

108

External motivators of self-touching behavior.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that nonverbal self-touching behaviors can be induced by external motivators such as videos and literary passages about insects. This study investigated whether the number of self-touching behaviors differed between presentation of what was assumed to be an anxiety-inducing stimulus (listening to the reading of a passage about leeches and answering questions) or a nonanxiety-inducing stimulus (a passage about canaries). It also investigated whether there was a difference in frequency of self-touching when subjects were passively listening to passages or actively answering questions. The difference in frequency of self-touching between men and women was also observed. Over-all, subjects did not perform significantly more self-touching gestures during the anxiety-inducing stimulus than during the nonanxiety-inducing, as previous research had indicated. Subjects did touch themselves significantly more, however, while answering questions than while listening to the passage. Over-all, men performed significantly more self-touching behaviors than women. And, women touched themselves significantly more during the active anxiety-inducing cell than in any other condition. PMID:10769920

Heaven, L; McBrayer, D

2000-02-01

109

The Place of Touch in the Arts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, I argue that although philosophers of art have legitimately examined and emphasized the role of sight and hearing in respect to art appreciation, for the most part they have neglected the role of touch. I develop the idea that while sight and hearing form the melody line of art appreciation, touch is its bass line, one that is…

Perricone, Christopher

2007-01-01

110

Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

2010-01-01

111

Development of transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) = Desenvolvimento de mamoeiros transgênicos resistentes a vírus expressando o gene da capa protéica de um isolado brasileiro de Papaya ringspot virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya). The biolistic system was used to transform secondary somatic embryo cultures derived from immature zygotic embryos. Fifty-four transgenic lines, 26 translatable and

M. T. Souza; O. Níckel; D. Gonsalves

2005-01-01

112

Abortifacient properties of aqueous extract of Carica papaya (Linn) seeds on female Sprague-Dawley rats.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to investigate the abortifacient potential of aqueous extract of Carica papaya (Linn) seeds in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Oral doses of 100 and 800 mg/kg body weight were administered once a day on days 1-10 post-coitum. No significant differences in total body weight were found in foetuses exposed to these regimes. However, in the group treated with 100 mg/kg body weight, there was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the implantation sites and foetal weight was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) compared to the controls. No dead or malformed foetuses were found. However, in the group treated with 800 mg/kg body weight, there was obvious vaginal bleeding but no treatment related increase in implantation sites compared with control. There was however, complete resorption of about 30% of the foetuses. The surviving foetuses were stunted when compared with the control but were without any external malformations. The results of the present investigations lead to the clear conclusion that low dose aqueous crude extract of Carica papaya (Linn) seeds does not adversely affect prenatal development. The altered toxicological profile indicates that the abortifacient property is a high dose side effect. The results indicate that Carica papaya toxicity can adversely affect the foetus. PMID:12163882

Oderinde, O; Noronha, C; Oremosu, A; Kusemiju, T; Okanlawon, O A

2002-06-01

113

77 FR 31294 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Papaya...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection; Importation of Papaya From Colombia and Ecuador AGENCY: Animal...importation of commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador into the continental...importation of commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador, contact...

2012-05-25

114

Development of Transgenic Papaya through Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation  

PubMed Central

Transgenic papaya plants were regenerated from hypocotyls and immature zygotic embryo after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as the selectable marker and ?-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene. The explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens on regeneration medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime for one week. The cocultivated explants were transferred into the final selection medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime?+?50?mg/L kanamycin for callus induction as well as plant regeneration. The callus derived from the hypocotyls of Carica papaya cv. Shahi showed the highest positive GUS activities compared to Carica papaya cv. Ranchi. The transformed callus grew vigorously and formed embryos followed by transgenic plantlets successfully. The result of this study showed that the hypocotyls of C. papaya cv. Shahi and C. papaya cv. Ranchi are better explants for genetic transformation compared to immature embryos. The transformed C. papaya cv. Shahi also showed the maximum number of plant regeneration compared to that of C. papaya cv. Ranchi.

Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md. Golam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

2013-01-01

115

Isolation and functional characterization of a lycopene ?-cyclase gene that controls fruit colour of papaya (Carica papaya L.)  

PubMed Central

The colour of papaya fruit flesh is determined largely by the presence of carotenoid pigments. Red-fleshed papaya fruit contain lycopene, whilst this pigment is absent from yellow-fleshed fruit. The conversion of lycopene (red) to ?-carotene (yellow) is catalysed by lycopene ?-cyclase. This present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of two different genes encoding lycopene ?-cyclases (lcy-?1 and lcy-?2) from red (Tainung) and yellow (Hybrid 1B) papaya cultivars. A mutation in the lcy-?2 gene, which inactivates enzyme activity, controls lycopene production in fruit and is responsible for the difference in carotenoid production between red and yellow-fleshed papaya fruit. The expression level of both lcy-?1 and lcy-?2 genes is similar and low in leaves, but lcy-?2 expression increases markedly in ripe fruit. Isolation of the lcy-?2 gene from papaya, that is preferentially expressed in fruit and is correlated with fruit colour, will facilitate marker-assisted breeding for fruit colour in papaya and should create possibilities for metabolic engineering of carotenoid production in papaya fruit to alter both colour and nutritional properties.

Devitt, Luke C.; Fanning, Kent; Dietzgen, Ralf G.; Holton, Timothy A.

2010-01-01

116

Stay in Touch in Crisis Situations  

MedlinePLUS

... and activated to summon help. Consider also location-tracking devices such as the On-Star system in automobiles or other wireless technology integrated into watches and cell phones. O utline your STAY IN TOUCH plan in ...

117

[The language of touch in care].  

PubMed

At the heart of the care relationship, the hands of the caregiver the body of the patient interact. The language of touch is therefore expressed in addition to the verbal and nonverbal elements of human communication. PMID:23641577

Malaquin-Pavan, Evelyne

2013-03-01

118

New approach for papaya latex storage without virus degradation.  

PubMed

Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease, which has been detected through analysis of its double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome from plant latex. In this work we demonstrate that PMeV dsRNA is protected during 25 days when latex is diluted in citrate buffer pH 5.0 (1:1 v/v) and maintained at -20ºC. At the same temperature, some protection was observed for pure latex or latex diluted in ultra-pure water. Conversely, the dsRNA was almost completely degraded after 25 days when maintained at 25ºC, indicating the need for freezing. The proper procedures to collect and store papaya latex described here will contribute to efficient and large scale use of molecular diagnosis of PMeV. PMID:24031329

Rodrigues, Silas P; Andrade, Josemar S; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Patricia M B

2009-01-01

119

Developing Robot Motions by Simulated Touch Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch is a very powerful but not much studied communication mean in human-robot interaction. Nonetheless many robots are not\\u000a equipped with touch sensors, because it is often difficult to place such sensors over the robot surface or simply because\\u000a the main task of the robot does not require them. We propose an approach that allows developing motions for a real

Fabio Dalla Libera; Takashi Minato; Hiroshi Ishiguro; Enrico Pagello; Emanuele Menegatti

2008-01-01

120

Learning from vision-to-touch is different than learning from touch-to-vision  

PubMed Central

We studied whether vision can teach touch to the same extent as touch seems to teach vision. In a 2 × 2 between-participants learning study, we artificially correlated visual gloss cues with haptic compliance cues. In two “natural” tasks, we tested whether visual gloss estimations have an influence on haptic estimations of softness and vice versa. In two “novel” tasks, in which participants were either asked to haptically judge glossiness or to visually judge softness, we investigated how perceptual estimates transfer from one sense to the other. Our results showed that vision does not teach touch as efficient as touch seems to teach vision.

Wismeijer, Dagmar A.; Gegenfurtner, Karl R.; Drewing, Knut

2012-01-01

121

ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K). Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the ?-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

Kikuchi, Masahiro; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

2011-05-01

122

Utility of 1-methylcyclopropene as a papaya postharvest treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The postharvest utility of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for papaya, Carica papaya L. (cvs. Gold and Rainbow) was determined. The effect of fruit maturity, storage, 1-MCP concentration (50–1000nLL?1), 1-MCP treatment duration (4 and 24h) and ethephon treatment before and after 1-MCP were evaluated. Fruit treated with various concentrations of 1-MCP for 24h were firmer and the time to reach the edible ripe

Ashariya Manenoi; Emma Ruth V. Bayogan; Siwaporn Thumdee; Robert E. Paull

2007-01-01

123

Complete genome sequence of an isolate of papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus from commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in China.  

PubMed

Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus is highly destructive to commercial papaya production. Here, the complete genome sequence was determined for an isolate of papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus, designated PLDMV-DF, infecting the commercialized papaya ringspot virus (PRSV)-resistant transgenic papaya from China. Excluding the 3'-poly (A) tail, the sequence shares high sequence identity to several PLDMV isolates from Taiwan and Japan and is phylogenetically most closely related to the isolate from Japan. Infection of PLDMV-DF in transgenic PRSV-resistant papaya may indicate emergence of this disease in genetically engineered plants. The reported sequence for this isolate may help generate bi-transgenic papaya resistant to PRSV and PLDMV. PMID:24294960

Tuo, D; Shen, W; Yan, P; Li, Ch; Gao, L; Li, X; Li, H; Zhou, P

2013-01-01

124

NIa-pro of Papaya ringspot virus interacts with papaya methionine sulfoxide reductase B1.  

PubMed

A chloroplast-localized papaya methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (PaMsrB1) interacting with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) NIa-Pro was identified using a Sos recruitment two-hybrid system (SRS). SRS analysis of several deletion mutants of PRSV NIa-Pro and PaMsrB1 demonstrated that the C-terminal (residues 133-239) fragment of PRSV NIa-Pro and residues 112-175 of PaMsrB1 were necessary for this interaction between PRSV NIa-Pro and PaMsrB1. MsrB1 can repair Met-oxidized proteins damaged by reactive oxygen species (ROS). We confirmed that PRSV infection leads to ROS accumulation and a slight upregulation of level PaMsrB1 mRNA in papaya. This interaction between PaMsrB1 with PRSV NIa-Pro may disturb the import of PaMsrB1 into the chloroplasts. These results suggest that this specific interaction could interfere with PaMsrB1 into the chloroplasts to scavenge ROS caused by PRSV infection. This may be a novel mechanism of PRSV towards the host defense. PMID:23040510

Gao, Le; Shen, Wentao; Yan, Pu; Tuo, Decai; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

2012-12-01

125

Molecular detection of Papaya meleira virus in the latex of Carica papaya by RT-PCR.  

PubMed

A RT-PCR assay was developed for early and accurate detection of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) in the latex from infected papayas. The meleira disease is characterized by an excessive exudation of more fluidic latex from fruits, leaves and stems. This latex oxidises and gives the fruit a "sticky" texture. In the field, disease symptoms are seen almost exclusively on fruit. However, infected plants can be a source of virus for dissemination by insects. Primers specific for PMeV were designed based on nucleotide sequences of the viral dsRNA obtained using a RT-RAPD approach. When tested for RT-PCR amplification, one of these primers (C05-3') amplified a 669-nucleotide fragment using dsRNA obtained from purified virus particles as a template. The translated sequence of this DNA fragment showed a certain degree of similarity to the amino acid sequence of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases from other dsRNA viruses. When used as the single primer in two RT-PCR kits available commercially, primer C05-3' also amplified the DNA fragment from papaya latex of infected, but not from healthy plants. The RT-PCR-based method developed in this study could simplify early plant disease diagnosis, assist in monitoring the dissemination of the pathogen within and between fields, and assist in guiding plant disease management. PMID:17826848

Araújo, Marília Mendes Melo de; Tavares, Eder Torres; Silva, Felipe Rodrigues da; Marinho, Vera Lúcia de Almeida; Júnior, Manoel Teixeira Souza

2007-12-01

126

Hand distinction for multi-touch tabletop interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent multi-touch multi-user tabletop systems offer rich touch contact properties to applications. Not only they provide touch positions, but also finger orientations. Applications can use these properties separated for each finger or derive information by combining the given touch contact data. In this paper, we present an approach to map fingers to their associated joined hand contributing to potential enhancements

Chi Tai Dang; Martin Straub; Elisabeth André

2009-01-01

127

The Development and Nature of the Construct Touch Avoidance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Touch avoidance is a nonverbal communication predisposition that consists of same sex touch avoidance and opposite sex touch avoidance. It is related to communication apprehension, self-disclosure, self-esteem, and a series of cultural role variables. These seem to have the greatest relationship with the measures of touch avoidance. (Author)

Andersen, Peter A.; Leibowitz, Kenneth

1978-01-01

128

Ripening in papaya fruit is altered by ACC oxidase cosuppression.  

PubMed

Papaya (Carica papaya) is a very important crop in many tropical countries but it is highly susceptible to parasitic diseases, physiological disorders, mechanical damage and fruit overripening. Here we report a study on ACC oxidase cosuppression and its effects on papaya fruit ripening. Papaya ACC oxidase was isolated using PCR and embriogenic cells transformed by biolistic using the CaMV 35S promoter to drive the expression of the PCR fragment in sense orientation. Fifty transgenic lines were recovered and 20 of those were grown under field conditions. Southern analysis showed incorporation of the transgene in different copy numbers in the papaya genome. Fruits were evaluated in terms of texture (firmness), colour development, respiration and ethylene production. A sharp reduction in ethylene and CO2 production was detected, whereas softening and colour development of the peel were also altered. Overall, transgenic fruits showed a delay in ripening rate. A reduction in mRNA level for ACC oxidase in transgenic fruit was clearly detectable by northern blot. More studies are necessary before this technology can be used to extend the shelf life of papaya fruit. PMID:18612838

López-Gómez, Rodolfo; Cabrera-Ponce, Jose Luis; Saucedo-Arias, Luis Jorge; Carreto-Montoya, Lorena; Villanueva-Arce, Ramon; Díaz-Perez, Juan Carlos; Gómez-Lim, Miguel Angel; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

2009-02-01

129

Sex determination in flowering plants: papaya as a model system.  

PubMed

Unisexuality in flowering plants evolved from a hermaphrodite ancestor. Transition from hermaphrodite to unisexual flowers has occurred multiple times across the different lineages of the angiosperms. Sexuality in plants is regulated by genetic, epigenetic and physiological mechanisms. The most specialized mechanism of sex determination is sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes ensure the stable segregation of sexual phenotypes by preventing the recombination of sex determining genes. Despite continuous efforts, sex determining genes of dioecious plants have not yet been cloned. Concerted efforts with various model systems are necessary to understand the complex mechanism of sex determination in plants. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a tropical fruit tree with three sex forms, male, hermaphrodite, and female. Sexuality in papaya is determined by an XY chromosome system that is in an early evolutionary stage. The male and hermaphrodite of papaya are controlled by two different types of Y chromosomes: Y and Y(h). Large amounts of information in the area of genetics, genomics, and epigenetics of papaya have been accumulated over the last few decades. Relatively short lifecycle, small genome size, and readily available genetic and genomic resources render papaya an excellent model system to study sex determination and sex chromosomes in flowering plants. PMID:24467896

Aryal, Rishi; Ming, Ray

2014-03-01

130

Effect of Glomus mosseae and Entrophospora colombiana on plant growth, production, and fruit quality of ‘Maradol’ papaya ( Carica papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of inoculating ‘Maradol’ papaya plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Glomus mosseae (GM) and Entrophospora colombiana (EC) was assessed. The results showed that both mycorrhizae species increased the number of fruits and yield in papaya plants by 41.9 and 105.2% for GM and 22.1 and 44.1% for EC, respectively, with respect to control plants. GM significantly increased plant

Marcos V. Vázquez-Hernández; Lourdes Arévalo-Galarza; David Jaen-Contreras; José L. Escamilla-García; Antonio Mora-Aguilera; Elías Hernández-Castro; Juan Cibrián-Tovar; Daniel Téliz-Ortiz

2011-01-01

131

Brief deviations from set point temperatures during normal airport handling operations negatively affect the quality of papaya ( Carica papaya) fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consequences of poor temperature management during air transport were investigated by storing intact, abraded, or abraded+inoculated (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) papaya fruit (cv. Red Lady) for 76h in three temperature regimes simulating different commercial air handling scenarios followed by storage for 7 days at 20°C to simulate shelf life. The papayas in two fluctuating temperature regimes deviated from a semi-constant regime

M. C. N. Nunes; J. P. Emond; J. K. Brecht

2006-01-01

132

Transgene-specific and event-specific molecular markers for characterization of transgenic papaya lines resistant to Papaya ringspot virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercially valuable transgenic papaya lines carrying the coat protein (CP) gene of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and conferring virus resistance have been developed in Hawaii and Taiwan in the past decade. Prompt and sensitive\\u000a protocols for transgene-specific and event-specific detections are essential for traceability of these lines to fulfill regulatory\\u000a requirement in EU and some Asian countries. Here, based

Ming-Jen Fan; Shu Chen; Yi-Jung Kung; Ying-Huey Cheng; Huey-Jiunn Bau; Tien-Tsai Su; Shyi-Dong Yeh

2009-01-01

133

Molecular cloning and characterization of a ripening-induced polygalacturonase related to papaya fruit softening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulp softening is one of the most remarkable changes during ripening of papaya (Carica papaya) fruit and it is a major cause for post-harvest losses. Although cell wall catabolism has a major influence on papaya fruit, quality information on the gene products involved in this process is limited. A full-length polygalacturonase cDNA (cpPG) was isolated from papaya pulp and used

João Paulo Fabi; Beatriz Rosana Cordenunsi; Graham B. Seymour; Franco M. Lajolo; João Roberto Oliveira do Nascimento

2009-01-01

134

Development of a codominant CAPS marker linked to PRSV-P resistance in highland papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of resistant papaya varieties is widely considered the best strategy for long-term control of the papaya ringspot virus type P (PRSV-P). Several species of “highland papaya” from the related genus Vasconcellea exhibit complete resistance to PRSV-P, and present a valuable source of resistance genes with potential for application in Carica papaya. The objectives of this study were two fold;

S. Dillon; C. Ramage; S. Ashmore; R. A. Drew

2006-01-01

135

The Sense of Touch: Embodied Simulation in a Visuotactile Mirroring Mechanism for Observed Animate or Inanimate Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown a shared neural circuitry in the somatosensory cortices for the experience of one's own body being touched and the sight of intentional touch. Using func- tional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study aimed to elucidate whether the activation of a visuotactile mirroring mechanism during touch observation applies to the sight of any touch, that is,

Sjoerd J. H. Ebisch; Mauro G. Perrucci; Antonio Ferretti; Cosimo Del Gratta; Gian Luca Romani; Vittorio Gallese

2008-01-01

136

Rapid sex identification of papaya (Carica papaya) using multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mLAMP).  

PubMed

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is established as a cash crop throughout the tropical and subtropical regions due to its easy adaptation to diverse agricultural conditions, high yields, and prompt returns. The sex types of papaya plants are hermaphrodite, male, and female. Among them, hermaphroditic plants are the major type in papaya production, because the fruit has commercial advantages over that of the other sexes. Sex inheritance in papaya is determined by the M and M(h) dominant alleles in males and hermaphrodites, respectively, and a recessive m allele in females. Currently, all hermaphrodite seeds are not available due to the lethality of dominant homozygosity. Therefore, in this study, six male-hermaphrodite-specific markers were developed for a rapid sex identification using multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mLAMP) to efficiently and precisely select hermaphroditic individuals in the seedling or early growth stage. The LM1-LAMP assay consisted of two sex-LAMP reactions for amplifying two male-specific markers (T12 and Cpsm90) in one reaction, and showed several advantages in terms of a rapid reaction time (<1 h), isothermal conditions (less equipment required), a high efficiency (0.5 ng of DNA required in the reaction mixture), and an economical reaction system (5 ?l in volume). The established method can be easily performed in the field by visual inspection and facilitates the selection of all hermaphroditic individuals in papaya production. PMID:22706662

Hsu, Te-Hua; Gwo, Jin-Chywan; Lin, Kuan-Hung

2012-10-01

137

Growth and yield response of papaya to intercropping with vegetable crops in southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria, papaya trees were intercropped with okra, watermelon, sweet potato, bush greens, jews' mallow and Solanum gilo Raddi. The aim of the experiment was to select crops suitable for intercropping in the alleys of papaya plants in orchards. Sweet potato and Solanum gilo Raddi caused marked reduction in the yield of papaya. Land Equivalent Ration (LER) for

I. O. O. Aiyelaagbe; M. A. Jolaoso

1992-01-01

138

Field Released Transgenic Papaya Affects Microbial Communities and Enzyme Activities in Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil properties, microbial communities, and enzyme activities were studied in soil planted with transgenic or nontransgenic papaya under field conditions. The transgenic papaya contained a replicase (RP) mutant gene of the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), which conferred resistance to the virus, the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II) marker gene, which conferred Km resistance, and a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter

X. D. Wei; H. L. Zou; L. M. Chu; B. Liao; C. M. Ye; C. Y. Lan

2006-01-01

139

Automatic segmentation of overlapping and touching chromosomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a technique to segment overlapping and touching chromosomes of human metaphase cells. Automated chromosome classification has been an important pattern recognition problem for decades, numerous attempts were made in the past to characterize chromosome band patterns. But successful separation between touching and overlapping chromosomes is vital for correct classification. Since chromosomes are non-rigid objects, common methods for separation between touching chromosomes are not usable. We proposed a method using shape concave and convex information, topology analysis information, and band pale paths for segmentation of touching and overlapping chromosomes. To detect shape concave and convex information, we should first pre-segment the chromosomes and get the edge of overlapping and touching chromosomes. After filtering the original image using edge-preserving filter, we adopt the Otsu's segmentation method and extract the boundary of chromosomes. Hence the boundary can be used for segment the overlapping and touching chromosomes by detecting the concave and convex information based on boundary information. Most of the traditional boundary-based algorithms detect corners based on two steps: the first step is to acquire the smoothed version of curvature at every point along the contour, and the second step is to detect the positions where curvature maximal occur and threshold the curvature as corner points. Recently wavelet transform has been adopted into corner detection algorithms. Since the metaphase overlapping chromosomes has multi-scale corners, we adopt a multi-scale corner detection method based on Hua's method for corner detection. For touching chromosomes, it is convenient to split them using pale paths. Starting from concave corner points, a search algorithm is represented. The searching algorithm traces three pixels into the object in the direction of the normal vector in order to avoid stopping at the initial boundary until it reaches to another boundary or tracing route. For overlapping chromosomes, the searching algorithm fails. We proposed a topology information based method for analyzing overlapping and touching chromosomes. Mihail Popescu adopts Cross Section Sequence Graph (CSSG) method for shape analyzing. Gady Agam proposed Discrete Curvature Function for splitting touching and overlapping chromosomes. But due to the non-rigid property of chromosomes, it is hard to determine the actual topology structure of chromosomes. In this paper we proposed a new method to produce topology information of chromosomes and had got good results in chromosome segmentation.

Yuan, Zhiqiang; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Renli; Yu, Chang

2001-09-01

140

Bioactivity of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).  

PubMed

The composition of a chloroform seed extract of C. papaya was determined by GC-MS. Nineteen compounds were identified, with oleic (45.97%), palmitic (24.1%) and stearic (8.52%) acids being the main components. The insecticidal and insectistatic activities of the extract and the three main constituents were tested. Larval duration increased by 3.4 d and 2.5 d when the extract was used at 16,000 and 9,600 ppm, respectively, whereas the pupal period increased by 2.2 d and 1.1 d at the same concentrations. Larval viability values were 0%, 29.2%, and 50% when the extract was applied at 24,000, 16,000, and 9,600 ppm, respectively; pupal viability was 42.9% and 66.7% at 16,000 and 9,600 ppm; and pupal weight decreased by 25.4% and 11.5% at 16,000 and 9,600 ppm. The larval viability of the main compounds was 33.3%, 48.5%, and 62.5% when exposed to 1,600 ppm of palmitic acid, oleic acid, or stearic acid, respectively. PMID:21892128

Pérez-Gutiérrez, Salud; Zavala-Sánchez, Miguel Angel; González-Chávez, Marco Martín; Cárdenas-Ortega, Norma Cecilia; Ramos-López, Miguel Angel

2011-01-01

141

ANTIOXIDANT AND IMMUNOSTIMULANT EFFECT OF CARICA PAPAYA LINN. AQUEOUS EXTRACT IN ACRYLAMIDE INTOXICATED RATS  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and immunostimulant effects of The Carica papaya fruit aqueous extract (CPF, Caricaceae) against acrylamide induced oxidative stress and improvement of Immune functions which affected by free radicals liberating acrylamide in rats. Material and methods: Sixty male wistar albino rats (195-230g) were assigned to four groups, (fifteen/group). The first group used as control group and received normal physiological saline orally daily. The second group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water. The third group was gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The fourth group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water and gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The chosen dose of papaya fruit extract was based on the active pharmacological dose range obtained from the orientation study earlier conducted. The experimental period was extended to forty day. At the expiration of the experimental period and night fasting, blood samples were collected from the orbital venous sinus. The sera were separated and used for determining of IgG and IgM and the stomach, liver and kidney homogenates for estimation of MDA, GSH level, SOD and CAT activity as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidative stress. Results and discussion: The obtained results revealed that, acrylamide caused significant increases in MDA and decrease of GSH level, SOD and CAT activity due to the oxidative stress induced by acrylamide on membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat’s stomach, liver and kidney while administration of CPF aqueous extract, was significantly ameliorated the increased levels of MDA and decline of GSH, SOD and CAT activity in the stomach, liver and kidney tissues caused by acrylamide toxicity. Meanwhile, CPF aqueous extract significantly increased immune functions (IgG and IgM) while acrylamide significantly decrease it specially IgG. Thus, this study suggests that acrylamide-induced oxidative stress in rats can be ameliorated by administration of CPF aqueous extract.

Mohamed Sadek, Kadry

2012-01-01

142

Peripheral Somatosensation: A Touch of Genetics  

PubMed Central

Summary The somatosensory system processes information that organisms “feel”: joint position, muscle stretch, pain, pressure, temperature, and touch. The system is composed of a diverse array of peripheral nerve endings specialized to detect these sensory modalities. Several recent discoveries have shed light on the genetic pathways that control specification and differentiation of these neurons, how they accurately innervate their central and peripheral targets, and the molecules that enable them to detect mechanical stimuli. Here, we review the cadre of genes that control these processes, focusing on mechanosensitive neurons and support cells of the skin that mediate different aspects of the sense of touch.

Reed-Geaghan, Erin G.

2011-01-01

143

Broad-Spectrum Resistance to Different Geographic Strains of Papaya ringspot virus in Coat Protein Gene Transgenic Papaya.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a major limiting factor for cultivation of papaya (Carica papaya) in tropical and subtropical areas throughout the world. Although the coat protein (CP) gene of PRSV has been transferred into papaya by particle bombardment and transgenic lines with high resistance to Hawaii strains have been obtained, they are susceptible to PRSV isolates outside of Hawaii. This strain-specific resistance limits the application of the transgenic lines in other areas of the world. In this investigation, the CP gene of a local strain isolated from Taiwan, designated PRSV YK, was transferred into papaya via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A total of 45 putative transgenic lines were obtained and the presence of the transgene in papaya was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction amplification. When the plants of transgenic lines were challenged with PRSV YK by mechanical inoculation, they showed different levels of resistance ranging from delay of symptom development to complete immunity. Molecular analysis of nine selected lines that exhibited different levels of resistance revealed that the expression level of the transgene is negatively correlated with the degree of resistance, suggesting that the resistance is manifested by a RNA-mediated mechanism. The segregation analysis showed that the transgene in the immune line 18-0-9 has an inheritance of two dominant loci and the other four highly resistant lines have a single dominant locus. Seven selected lines were tested further for resistance to three PRSV heterologous strains that originated in Hawaii, Thailand, and Mexico. Six of the seven lines showed varying degrees of resistance to the heterologous strains, and one line, 19-0-1, was immune not only to the homologous YK strain but also to the three heterologous strains. Thus, these CP-transgenic papaya lines with broad-spectrum resistance have great potential for use in Taiwan and other geographic areas to control PRSV. PMID:18944164

Bau, Huey-Jiunn; Cheng, Ying-Huey; Yu, Tsong-Ann; Yang, Jiu-Sherng; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

2003-01-01

144

Analysis of ripening-related gene expression in papaya using an Arabidopsis-based microarray  

PubMed Central

Background Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a commercially important crop that produces climacteric fruits with a soft and sweet pulp that contain a wide range of health promoting phytochemicals. Despite its importance, little is known about transcriptional modifications during papaya fruit ripening and their control. In this study we report the analysis of ripe papaya transcriptome by using a cross-species (XSpecies) microarray technique based on the phylogenetic proximity between papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Papaya transcriptome analyses resulted in the identification of 414 ripening-related genes with some having their expression validated by qPCR. The transcription profile was compared with that from ripening tomato and grape. There were many similarities between papaya and tomato especially with respect to the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in primary metabolism, regulation of transcription, biotic and abiotic stress and cell wall metabolism. XSpecies microarray data indicated that transcription factors (TFs) of the MADS-box, NAC and AP2/ERF gene families were involved in the control of papaya ripening and revealed that cell wall-related gene expression in papaya had similarities to the expression profiles seen in Arabidopsis during hypocotyl development. Conclusion The cross-species array experiment identified a ripening-related set of genes in papaya allowing the comparison of transcription control between papaya and other fruit bearing taxa during the ripening process.

2012-01-01

145

Cloning of the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) replicase gene and generation of PRSV-resistant papayas through the introduction of the PRSV replicase gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) can cause a destructive disease in papaya (Carica papaya L.). Based on observations that viral replicase (RP) gene confers resistance to virus in other plants, we designed a pair of primers and cloned the RP gene from PRSV by RT-PCR. The 3'-truncated and 5'-extended RP gene fragment was then oriented under the control of the CaMV35

G. Chen; C. Ye; J. Huang; M. Yu; B. Li

2001-01-01

146

Suppression of Papaya ringspot virus infection in Carica papaya with CAP34, a systemic antiviral resistance inducing protein from Clerodendrum aculeatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

CAP-34, a protein from Clerodendrum aculeatum inducing systemic antiviral resistance was evaluated for control of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) infection in Carica papaya. In control plants (treated with CAP-34 extraction buffer) systemic mosaic became visible around 20 days that intensified\\u000a up to 30 days in 56% plants. During this period, CAP-34-treated papaya did not show any symptoms. Between 30 and 60 days,\\u000a 95%

Aparana Srivastava; Sonali Trivedi; Sunil Kumar Krishna; H. N. Verma; Vivek Prasad

2009-01-01

147

Teaching Touch Rugby in Physical Education Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical educators are always looking for new ideas that introduce moderate-to-vigorous activity, involve skill, encourage teamwork, and increase student interest. Touch rugby has the potential to contribute to these outcomes. Though the sport is not new, it is not a mainstream sport. Therefore, students see it as something new. Their motivation…

Pugh, Steven F.; Alford, Alan

2004-01-01

148

Multi-Touch Tables and Collaborative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of multi-touch tables, an emerging technology for classroom learning, offers valuable opportunities to explore how its features can be designed to support effective collaboration in schools. In this study, small groups of 10- to 11-year-old children undertook a history task where they had to connect various pieces of information…

Higgins, Steve; Mercier, Emma; Burd, Liz; Joyce-Gibbons, Andrew

2012-01-01

149

Evaluation of an Automated Touch Typing System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Automated Instruction Touch Typing System, an individualized self-paced instructional method of teaching typewriting skills using the principles of response conditioning, was evaluated. The system is divided into four phases. Phase 1 presents keyboard instruction in four to six hours. These lessons are response conditioning sessions during…

Dierks, Caroll J.

150

The development of anticipation in the fetus: A longitudinal account of human fetal mouth movements in reaction to and anticipation of touch.  

PubMed

Research suggests that fetuses open or close their mouth in relation to directed movements but it is unclear whether mouth opening anticipates the touch or is a reaction to touch, as there has been no analysis so far of (1) the facial area of touch and (2) the sequential ordering of touch and mouth movements. If there is prenatal development of the anticipation of touch we would expect the frequency of fetal mouth opening immediately preceding the arriving hand at the mouth area to increase with fetal age. Fifteen healthy fetuses, eight girls and seven boys, underwent four additional 4-D scans at 24, 28, 32, and 36 weeks gestation. Changes in the frequency of touch for different facial regions indicated a significant decline in touch of the upper and side parts of the face and a significant increase in touching lower and perioral regions of the face with increasing gestational age. Results supporting the hypothesis showed a significant increase in the proportion of anticipatory mouth movements before touch increasing by around 8% with each week of gestational age. Additionally there was a decrease in the proportion of reactive mouth movements decreasing by around 3% for each week of gestational age. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 56: 955-963, 2014. PMID:24752616

Reissland, N; Francis, B; Aydin, E; Mason, J; Schaal, B

2014-07-01

151

Papaya fruit softening, endoxylanase gene expression, protein and activity.  

PubMed

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) cell wall matrix polysaccharides are modified as the fruit starts to soften during ripening and an endoxylanase is expressed that may play a role in the softening process. Endoxylanase gene expression, protein amount and activity were determined in papaya cultivars that differ in softening pattern and in one cultivar where softening was modified by the ethylene receptor inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Antibodies to the endoxylanase catalytic domain were used to determine protein accumulation. The three papaya varieties used in the study, 'Line 8', 'Sunset', and 'Line 4-16', differed in softening pattern, respiration rate, ethylene production and showed similar parallel relationships during ripening and softening in endoxylanase expression, protein level and activity. When fruit of the three papaya varieties showed the respiratory climacteric and started to soften, the level of endoxylanase gene expression increased and this increase was related to the amount of endoxylanase protein at 32 kDa and its activity. Fruit when treated at less than 10% skin yellow stage with 1-MCP showed a significant delay in the respiratory climacteric and softening, and reduced ethylene production, and when ripe was firmer and had a 'rubbery' texture. The 1-MCP-treated fruit that had the 'rubbery' texture showed suppressed endoxylanase gene expression, protein and enzymatic activity. Little or no delay occurred between endoxylanase gene expression and the appearance of activity during posttranslational processing from 65 to 32 kDa. The close relationship between endoxylanase gene expression, protein accumulation and activity in different varieties and the failure of the 1-MCP-treated fruit to fully soften, supported de novo synthesis of endoxylanase, rapid posttranslation processing and a role in papaya fruit softening. PMID:18251885

Manenoi, Ashariya; Paull, Robert E

2007-11-01

152

Postharvest Variation in Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymes of Papaya (Carica papaya L.) during Fruit Ripening.  

PubMed

Pectin methylesterase (PME), polygalacturonase (PG), xylanase, cellulase, and proteinase activity were determined and related to respiration, ethylene evolution, and changes in skin color of papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit from harvest through to the start of fruit breakdown. PME gradually increased from the start of the climacteric rise reaching a peak 2 days after the respiratory peak. PG and xylanase were not detectable in the preclimacteric stage but increased during the climacteric: during the post climacteric stage, the PG declined to a level one-quarter of peak activity with xylanase activity returning to zero. Cellulase activity gradually increased 3-fold after harvest to peak at the same time as PME, 2 days after the edible stage. Proteinase declined throughout the climacteric and postclimacteric phases. A close relationship exists between PG and xylanase and the rise in respiration, ethylene evolution, and softening. Cultivar differences in postclimacteric levels of enzymic activity were not detected.An inhibitor of cellulase activity was detected in preclimacteric fruit. The inhibitor was not benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC). BITC did inhibit PG activity, though no inhibitor of PG activity was detected in preclimacteric homogenates when BITC was highest. The results indicate that inhibitors did not play a direct role in controlling wall softening. PMID:16663010

Paull, R E; Chen, N J

1983-06-01

153

Odour-active compounds in papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol.  

PubMed

Application of solid-phase microextraction and simultaneous distillation-extraction combined with GC-FID, GC-MS, aroma extract dilution analysis, and odour activity value were used to analyse volatile compounds from papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol and to estimate the most odour-active compounds. The analyses led to the identification of 137 compounds; 118 of them were positively identified. Twenty-five odorants were considered as odour-active compounds and contribute to the typical papaya aroma, from which ethyl butanoate, benzyl isothiocyanate, 1-hexen-3-one, (E)-?-ionone, and methyl benzoate were the most odour-active compounds. PMID:24176322

Pino, Jorge A

2014-03-01

154

A new highly effective anticysticercosis vaccine expressed in transgenic papaya.  

PubMed

The use of transgenic plants as new antigen-delivery systems for subunit vaccines has been increasingly explored. We herein report progress toward a papaya-based vaccine against cysticercosis. Synthetic peptides (KETc1, KETc12, KETc7) were successfully expressed in 19 different transgenic papaya clones and found to be immunogenic. Complete protection against cysticercosis was induced with the soluble extract of the clones that expressed the higher levels of transcripts in up to 90% of the immunized mice. This study represents a key step towards the development of a more effective, sustainable and affordable oral subunit vaccine against human and pig cysticercosis. PMID:17399859

Hernández, Marisela; Cabrera-Ponce, José Luis; Fragoso, Gladis; López-Casillas, Fernando; Guevara-García, Arturo; Rosas, Gabriela; León-Ramírez, Claudia; Juárez, Patricia; Sánchez-García, Guadalupe; Cervantes, Jaquelynne; Acero, Gonzalo; Toledo, Andrea; Cruz, Carmen; Bojalil, Rafael; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Sciutto, Edda

2007-05-22

155

Touch and massage for medically fragile infants.  

PubMed

Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants' safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores of the infants receiving massage. Massage in a tertiary urban academic NICU continues to be an area of needed study. Future studies examining infant health outcomes, such as weight gain, decreased length of hospitalization and caregiver-infant bonding, would provide greater insight into the impact of massage for medically fragile infants. PMID:18955228

Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J; Gallardo, Constance C; Joseph, Michael H; Gold, Jeffrey I

2009-12-01

156

Touch and Massage for Medically Fragile Infants  

PubMed Central

Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants’ safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores of the infants receiving massage. Massage in a tertiary urban academic NICU continues to be an area of needed study. Future studies examining infant health outcomes, such as weight gain, decreased length of hospitalization and caregiver–infant bonding, would provide greater insight into the impact of massage for medically fragile infants.

Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J.; Gallardo, Constance C.; Joseph, Michael H.

2009-01-01

157

The Power of Touch: Nonverbal Communication within Married Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have suggested that one function of touch in mixed-sex interactions is to exert influence over another person. Yet theories offer different explanations as to when women and men will use touch as an influence strategy. The gender politics hypothesis proposes that men touch more as a way to maintain inequalities present in society. In…

Smith, Joann C. Seeman; Vogel, David L.; Madon, Stephanie; Edwards, Sarah R.

2011-01-01

158

Handling Pressures: Analysing Touch in American Films about Youth Sport  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines how films produced in the USA in the past 10 years and featuring the coaching of youth sport, represent the issue of touch during instruction and training. Touch in such films is figured in diverse ways ranging from pats of reassurance and hugs of congratulation to cuffs of disapprobation. Touch is also occasionally depicted…

Chare, Nicholas

2013-01-01

159

Update on the development of virus-resistant papaya: virus-resistant transgenic papaya for people in rural communities of Thailand.  

PubMed

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the most important and preferred crops in rural communities in Thailand. Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a serious disease of papaya throughout Thailand. Efforts to control the virus by various methods either have not been successful or have not resulted in sustainable control. In 1995, collaborative research by the Department of Agriculture of Thailand and Cornell University to develop transgenic papaya resistant to PRSV was initiated. Two local Thai cultivars were transformed by microprojectile bombardment with the use of a nontranslatable coat protein gene of PRSV from Khon Kaen. Numerous kanamycin-resistantplants were regenerated and were inoculated with the PRSV Khon Kaen isolate for selection of resistant lines. Since 1997, promising RO transgenic lines have been transferred to the research station at Thapra for subsequent screenhouse tests and selection of the most PRSV-resistant lines. In selection set 1, three R3 lines initially derived from Khaknuan papaya showed excellent resistance to PRSV (97% to 100%) and had a yield of fruit 70 times higher than nontransgenic Khaknuan papaya. In selection set 2, one R3 line initially derived from Khakdam papaya showed 100% resistance. Safety assessments of these transgenic papayas have so far found no impact on the surrounding ecology. No natural crossing between transgenic and nonmodified papaya was observed beyond a distance of 10 m from the test plots. Analysis of the nutritional composition found no differences in nutrient levels in comparison with the nonmodified counterparts. Molecular characterization by Southern blotting revealed three copies of the transgene presented; however, no coat protein product was expressed. Data on additional topics, such as the effects offeeding the transgenic papaya to rats and the stability of the gene inserts, are currently being gathered. PMID:16465990

Sakuanrungsirikul, S; Sarindu, N; Prasartsee, V; Chaikiatiyos, S; Siriyan, R; Sriwatanakul, M; Lekananon, P; Kitprasert, C; Boonsong, P; Kosiyachinda, P; Fermin, G; Gonsalves, D

2005-12-01

160

Transmission efficiency of Papaya ringspot virus by three aphid species.  

PubMed

The transmission efficiency of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) by three aphid vectors (i.e., Aphis gossypii, A. craccivora, and Myzus persicae) was studied. Efficiency was measured by single-aphid inoculation, group inoculation (using five aphids), duration of virus retention, and the number of plants following a single acquisition access period (AAP) to which the aphids could successfully transmit the virus. Single-aphid inoculation studies indicated that M. persicae (56%) and A. gossypii (53%) were significantly more efficient in transmitting PRSV than A. craccivora (38%). Further, in the former two species, the time required for initiation of the first probe on the inoculation test plant was significantly shorter compared to A. craccivora. PRSV transmission efficiency was 100% in all three species when a group of five aphids were used per plant. There was a perceptible decline in transmission efficiency as the sequestration period increased, although M. persicae successfully transmitted PRSV after 30 min of sequestration. A simple leaf-disk assay technique was employed for evaluating the transmission efficiency of three species of aphids. The results of leaf-disk assays also indicated that A. gossypii (48%) and M. persicae (56%) were more efficient PRSV vectors than A. craccivora. Using leaf-disk assays, the ability of individual aphids to inoculate PRSV serially to a number of plants was studied. Following a single AAP on an infected leaf, M. persicae was more efficient than the other two species with 52.5% transmission after the first inoculation access period (IAP). However, its inoculation efficiency significantly decreased with the second and subsequent IAPs. A. gossypii was able to transmit PRSV sequentially up to four successive leaf disks, but with significantly declining efficiency. Since A. gossypii is reported to be the numerically dominant vector in south India in addition to being a more efficient vector capable of inoculating PRSV to multiple plants, it should be the target vector for control strategies. PMID:18943221

Kalleshwaraswamy, C M; Kumar, N K Krishna

2008-05-01

161

Touching and feeling: differences in pleasant touch processing between glabrous and hairy skin in humans.  

PubMed

Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in two rare patients, together with microneurography and psychophysical observations in healthy subjects, have demonstrated a system of mechanosensitive C-fiber tactile (CT) afferents sensitive to slowly moving stimuli. They project to the posterior insular cortex and signal pleasant aspects of touch. Importantly, CTs have not been found in the glabrous skin of the hand, yet it is commonly observed that glabrous skin touch is also perceived as pleasant. Here we asked if the brain processing of pleasant touch differs between hairy and glabrous skin by stroking the forearm and glabrous skin of the hand during positron emission tomography. The data showed that, when contrasting slow brush stroking on the forearm with slow brush stroking on the palm, there were significant activations of the posterior insular cortex and mid-anterior orbitofrontal cortex. The opposite contrast showed a significant activation of the somatosensory cortices. Although concurrent psychophysical ratings showed no differences in intensity or pleasantness ratings, a subsequent touch questionnaire in which subjects used a newly developed 'touch perception task' showed significant difference for the two body sites. Emotional descriptors received higher ratings on the forearm and sensory descriptors were rated more highly on the palm. The present findings are consistent with the hypothesis that pleasant touch from hairy skin, mediated by CT afferents, is processed in the limbic-related cortex and represents an innate non-learned process. In contrast, pleasant touch from glabrous skin, mediated by A-beta afferents, is processed in the somatosensory cortex and represents an analytical process dependent on previous tactile experiences. PMID:22594914

McGlone, F; Olausson, H; Boyle, J A; Jones-Gotman, M; Dancer, C; Guest, S; Essick, G

2012-06-01

162

The neurobiology of Etruscan shrew active touch  

PubMed Central

The Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus, is not only the smallest terrestrial mammal, but also one of the fastest and most tactile hunters described to date. The shrew's skeletal muscle consists entirely of fast-twitch types and lacks slow fibres. Etruscan shrews detect, overwhelm, and kill insect prey in large numbers in darkness. The cricket prey is exquisitely mechanosensitive and fast-moving, and is as big as the shrew itself. Experiments with prey replica show that shape cues are both necessary and sufficient for evoking attacks. Shrew attacks are whisker guided by motion- and size-invariant Gestalt-like prey representations. Shrews often attack their prey prior to any signs of evasive manoeuvres. Shrews whisk at frequencies of approximately 14 Hz and can react with latencies as short as 25–30 ms to prey movement. The speed of attacks suggests that shrews identify and classify prey with a single touch. Large parts of the shrew's brain respond to vibrissal touch, which is represented in at least four cortical areas comprising collectively about a third of the cortical volume. Etruscan shrews can enter a torpid state and reduce their body temperature; we observed that cortical response latencies become two to three times longer when body temperature drops from 36°C to 24°C, suggesting that endothermy contributes to the animal's high-speed sensorimotor performance. We argue that small size, high-speed behaviour and extreme dependence on touch are not coincidental, but reflect an evolutionary strategy, in which the metabolic costs of small body size are outweighed by the advantages of being a short-range high-speed touch and kill predator.

Brecht, Michael; Naumann, Robert; Anjum, Farzana; Wolfe, Jason; Munz, Martin; Mende, Carolin; Roth-Alpermann, Claudia

2011-01-01

163

Emotional modulation of touch in alexithymia.  

PubMed

Alexithymia refers to difficulties in recognizing one's own emotions, but difficulties have also been found in the recognition of others' emotions, particularly when the task is not easy. Previous research has demonstrated that, in order to understand other peoples' feelings, observers remap the observed emotion onto their own sensory systems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of high and low alexithymic subjects to remap the emotional expressions of others onto their own somatosensory systems using an indirect task. We used the emotional Visual Remapping of Touch (eVRT) paradigm, in which seeing a face being touched improves detection of near-threshold tactile stimulation concurrently delivered to one's own face. In eVRT, subjects performance is influenced by the emotional content of the stimuli, while they were required to distinguish between unilateral or bilateral tactile stimulation on their own cheeks. The results show that tactile perception was enhanced when viewing touch on a fearful face compared with viewing touch on other expressions in low but not in high alexithymic participants. A negative correlation between TAS-20 alexithymia subscale ("difficulty in identify feelings") and the magnitude of the eVRT effect was also found. Conversely, arousal and valence ratings of emotional faces did not vary as a function of the degree of alexithymia. The results provide evidence that alexithymia is associated with difficulties in remapping seen emotions, particularly fear, onto one's own sensory system. This impairment could be due to an inability to modulate somatosensory system activity according to the observed emotional expression. PMID:24708501

Scarpazza, Cristina; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Làdavas, Elisabetta

2014-06-01

164

Human perception of shape from touch  

PubMed Central

In this paper, I focus on the role of active touch in three aspects of shape perception and discrimination studies. First an overview is given of curvature discrimination experiments. The most prominent result is that first-order stimulus information (that is, the difference in attitude or slope over the stimulus) is the dominant factor determining the curvature threshold. Secondly, I compare touch under bimanual and two-finger performance with unimanual and one-finger performance. Consistently, bimanual or two-finger performance turned out to be worse. The most likely explanation for the former finding is that a loss of accuracy during intermanual comparisons is owing to interhemispheric relay. Thirdly, I address the presence of strong after-effects after just briefly touching a shape. These after-effects have been measured and studied in various conditions (such as, static, dynamic, transfer to other hand or finger). Combination of the results of these studies leads to the insight that there are possibly different classes of after-effect: a strong after-effect, caused by immediate contact with the stimulus, that does only partially transfer to the other hand, and one much less strong after-effect, caused by moving over the stimulus for a certain period, which shows a full transfer to other fingers.

Kappers, Astrid M. L.

2011-01-01

165

Antibacterial effects of Carica papaya fruit on common wound organisms.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to investigate antibacterial activity of ripe and unripe Carica papaya on selected micro-organisms. Cultures of micro-organisms were routinely maintained in nutrient agar slants at 4 degrees C. Extracts of immature, mature and ripe Carica papaya fruit were obtained by separately grinding factions of the epicarp, endocarp and seeds and filtering them through gauze. Sensitivity tests were conducted by adding 0.06 ml of extract to agar wells (6 mm diameter) prepared from 20 ml agar seeded with 10(6) cells/ml suspension of one of the eight organisms per plate. The inoculated plates were allowed to equilibrate at 4 degrees C for 1 hour, incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 hours, and zones of inhibition measured in millimetres. Anti-bacterial activity was expressed in terms of the radius of zone of inhibition. Seed extracts from the fruit showed inhibition in the following order: B cereus > E coli > S faecalis > S aureus > P vulgaris > S flexneri. No significant difference was found in bacterial sensitivity between immature, mature and ripe fruits. No inhibition zone was produced by epicarp and endocarp extracts. Carica papaya seeds contain anti-bacterial activity that inhibits growth of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Observed activity was independent of stage of fruit maturity. Carica papaya has antibacterial effects that could be useful in treating chronic skin ulcers to promote healing. PMID:15040064

Dawkins, G; Hewitt, H; Wint, Y; Obiefuna, P C; Wint, B

2003-12-01

166

75 FR 22207 - Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...include requirements for field sanitation, hot water treatment, and fruit fly trapping...fruit fly trapping, field sanitation, and hot water treatment be employed to remove pests...require the treatment of papayas with a hot water dip. The dip requires that...

2010-04-28

167

Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract.  

PubMed

Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1?mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (?? m ) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

2014-01-01

168

Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract  

PubMed Central

Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1?mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress.

Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

2014-01-01

169

Control Biológico de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ((Penz.) Penz. y Sacc.) en Papaya Maradol Roja (Carica papaya L.) y Fisiología Postcosecha de Frutos Infectados  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three and four isolates of the antagonistic bacteria Bacillus firmus and Pseudomonas fluorescens, respectively, as well as plant extracts with fungitoxic properties were evaluated for the biological control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). Also, the effects of the disease on some physical, chemical, and physiological characteristics of papaya fruits Maradol Roja (Carica papaya) were evaluated. In vitro, only two strains of

Emma Zavaleta-Mejía; Isaac Luna-Romero; Casco de Santo Tomás; Juan Gabriel Gutiérrez-Alonso

2004-01-01

170

Identification and quantification of phenols, carotenoids, and vitamin C from papaya ( Carica papaya L., cv. Maradol) fruit determined by HPLC-DAD-MS\\/MS-ESI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have demonstrated that vitamin C, phenols, and carotenoids are bioactive compounds that protect the body from oxidative stress, reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major phytochemicals found in papaya fruit flesh and skin (Carica papaya L., cv Maradol) was conducted in four stages of ripeness, using high-performance

Laura E. Gayosso-García Sancho; Elhadi M. Yahia; Gustavo Adolfo González-Aguilar

2011-01-01

171

Molecular evidence for association of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus with leaf curl disease of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Association ofTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus with leaf curl disease of papaya (Carica papaya L.) was detected by polymerase chain reaction using begomovirus-specific primers and confirmed by highest sequence similarities\\u000a and close phylogenetic relationships.

S. K. RajA; S. K. SnehiA; M. S. KhanA; R. SinghA; A. A. KhanB

2008-01-01

172

Direct touches to clear barriers: Developmental sensitivity of a new measure of the production of ineffective responses in infancy  

PubMed Central

Current interpretation of the object retrieval task (Diamond, 1990) as an infant assessment of response inhibition requires evidence that younger infants make more ineffective attempts to retrieve toys through clear barriers. On two 30-second trials, infants (9- or 11-months of age) saw an inaccessible toy in the front or back of a clear box. The location of the infants touches corresponded with the toy's location and, on the second trial, the younger infants touched the box more. In an analogous task, non-human primates with orbital-frontal, but not dorsa-lateral, lesions also made ineffective barrier touches. The current developmental decreases in barrier touches may selectively tap developmental increases in inhibitory control supported by the developing orbital-frontal cortex.

Noland, Julia S.; Rodrigues, Nikita P.

2012-01-01

173

Cloning and characterization of transcripts differentially expressed in the pulp of ripening papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya) is a relevant tropical crop and physico-chemical changes take place very quickly, as a consequence of activation of biochemical pathways by de novo synthesis of several proteins. Thus, in order to have information on the changes in gene expression in ripening papaya, transcripts from the pulp of unripe and ripe fruit were profiled by differential-display RT-PCR (DDRT-PCR).

João Paulo Fabi; Franco Maria Lajolo; João Roberto Oliveira do Nascimento

2009-01-01

174

Analysis on virus resistance and fruit quality for T4 generation of transgenic papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular biological characterization, fruit characters, and nutrients were analyzed for T4 generation of transgenic papaya.\\u000a All transgenic papaya plants with the mutated replicase (RP) gene from papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) showed high resistance\\u000a or immunity against PRSV in the field. The RP transgene can be steadily inherited to, and expressed at RNA level, the progenies.\\u000a The growth characteristics of transgenic

Xiangdong Wei; Congyu Lan; Zhijing Lu; Changming Ye

2007-01-01

175

Transgene-specific and event-specific molecular markers for characterization of transgenic papaya lines resistant to Papaya ringspot virus.  

PubMed

The commercially valuable transgenic papaya lines carrying the coat protein (CP) gene of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and conferring virus resistance have been developed in Hawaii and Taiwan in the past decade. Prompt and sensitive protocols for transgene-specific and event-specific detections are essential for traceability of these lines to fulfill regulatory requirement in EU and some Asian countries. Here, based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approaches, we demonstrated different detection protocols for characterization of PRSV CP-transgenic papaya lines. Transgene-specific products were amplified using different specific primer pairs targeting the sequences of the promoter, the terminator, the selection marker, and the transgene, and the region across the promoter and transgene. Moreover, after cloning and sequencing the DNA fragments amplified by adaptor ligation-PCR, the junctions between plant genomic DNA and the T-DNA insert were elucidated. The event-specific method targeting the flanking sequences and the transgene was developed for identification of a specific transgenic line. The PCR patterns using primers designed from the left or the right flanking DNA sequence of the transgene insert in three selected transgenic papaya lines were specific and reproducible. Our results also verified that PRSV CP transgene is integrated into transgenic papaya genome in different loci. The copy number of inserted T-DNA was further confirmed by real-time PCR. The event-specific molecular markers developed in this investigation are crucial for regulatory requirement in some countries and intellectual protection. Also, these markers are helpful for prompt screening of a homozygote-transgenic progeny in the breeding program. PMID:19526355

Fan, Ming-Jen; Chen, Shu; Kung, Yi-Jung; Cheng, Ying-Huey; Bau, Huey-Jiunn; Su, Tien-Tsai; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

2009-12-01

176

Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Papaya ringspot virus.  

PubMed

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), which causes disease symptoms similar to PRSV, threaten commercial production of both non-transgenic-papaya and PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in China. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay to detect PLDMV was developed previously. In this study, the development of another RT-LAMP assay to distinguish among transgenic, PRSV-infected and PLDMV-infected papaya by detection of PRSV is reported. A set of four RT-LAMP primers was designed based on the highly conserved region of the P3 gene of PRSV. The RT-LAMP method was specific and sensitive in detecting PRSV, with a detection limit of 1.15×10(-6)?g of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR. Field application of the RT-LAMP assay demonstrated that samples positive for PRSV were detected only in non-transgenic papaya, whereas samples positive for PLDMV were detected only in commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya. This suggests that PRSV remains the major limiting factor for non-transgenic-papaya production, and the emergence of PLDMV threatens the commercial transgenic cultivar in China. However, this study, combined with the earlier development of an RT-LAMP assay for PLDMV, will provide a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective diagnostic power to distinguish virus infections in papaya. PMID:24769198

Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Yang, Yong; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

2014-08-01

177

Sharing social touch in the primary somatosensory cortex.  

PubMed

Touch has an emotional and communicative meaning, and it plays a crucial role in social perception and empathy. The intuitive link between others' somatosensations and our sense of touch becomes ostensible in mirror-touch synesthesia, a condition in which the view of a touch on another person's body elicits conscious tactile sensations on the observer's own body [1]. This peculiar phenomenon may implicate normal social mirror mechanisms [2]. Here, we show that mirror-touch interference effects, synesthesia-like sensations, and even phantom touches can be induced in nonsynesthetes by priming the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) directly or indirectly via the posterior parietal cortex. These results were obtained by means of facilitatory paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) contingent upon the observation of touch. For these vicarious effects, the SI is engaged at 150 ms from the onset of the visual touch. Intriguingly, individual differences in empathic abilities, assessed with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index [3], drive the activity of the SI when nonsynesthetes witness others' tactile sensations. This evidence implies that, under normal conditions, touch observation activates the SI below the threshold for perceptual awareness [4]; through the visual-dependent tuning of SI activity by ppTMS, what is seen becomes felt, namely, mirror-touch synesthesia. On a broader perspective, the visual responsivity of the SI may allow an automatic and unconscious transference of the sensation that another person is experiencing onto oneself, and, in turn, the empathic sharing of somatosensations [2]. PMID:24954046

Bolognini, Nadia; Rossetti, Angela; Fusaro, Martina; Vallar, Giuseppe; Miniussi, Carlo

2014-07-01

178

The design of light pipe with microstructures for touch screen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Touch screen has a very wide range of applications. Most of them are used in public information inquiries, for instance, service inquiries in telecommunication bureau, tax bureau, bank system, electric department, etc...Touch screen can also be used for entertainment and virtual reality applications too. Traditionally, touch screen was composed of pairs of infrared LED and correspondent receivers which were all installed in the screen frame. Arrays of LED were set in the adjacent sides of the frame of an infrared touch screen while arrays of the infrared receivers were fixed in each opposite side, so that the infrared detecting network was formed. While the infrared touch screen has some technical limitations nowadays such as the low resolution, limitations of touching methods and fault response due to environmental disturbances. The plastic material has a relatively high absorption rate for infrared light, which greatly limits the size of the touch screen. Our design uses laser diode as source and change the traditional inner structure of touch screen by using a light pipe with microstructures. The geometric parameters of the light pipe and the microstructures were obtained through equation solving. Simulation results prove that the design method for touch screen proposed in this paper could achieve high resolution and large size of touch screen.

Yang, Bo; Lu, Kan; Liu, Pengfei; Wei, Xiaona

2010-11-01

179

76 FR 49725 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia into the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...papaya fruit from Malaysia. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, which we made...Carica papaya) from Malaysia. The pest risk analysis consisted of a pest list identifying...are present in Malaysia and could...

2011-08-11

180

Losing touch in the era of superbugs?  

PubMed

Nosocomial infections are increasingly multidrug resistant and at times more virulent. As such, they pose real threats to patients and clinicians. In this essay the author discusses his own methacillin-resistant staphylococcus infection and how it has affected his work in the hospital. In so doing, he reflects on the value of touch in the doctor-patient relationship. In particular, he discusses how gloves serve as a barrier to infection but also create a small distance between the doctors and their patients. The implications of contact precautions must be considered as we reflect on balancing patient-centered care with infection control. PMID:20843889

Hass, Leif

2010-01-01

181

[The effectiveness of therapeutic touch on pain, depression and sleep in patients with chronic pain: clinical trial].  

PubMed

This research aimed to check the effectiveness of Therapeutic Touch on decreased pain intensity, depression self-assessment scores and improved sleep quality. A clinical before-after trial is presented. The study was carried out at a Basic Health Unit in Fernandópolis, SP-Brazil, involving 30 elderly patients with chronic non-oncologic pain who received 8 sessions of Therapeutic Touch in accordance with the Krieger-Kunz method. The Visual Analogue Scale for pain was applied before and after each session, and Beck Depression Inventory and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index before the first and after the last session. Data analysis showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in pain intensity, depression self-assessment scores and the sleep quality index. It is concluded that the Therapeutic Touch was effective to decrease pain intensity and depressive attitudes and symptoms, as well as to improve sleep quality. PMID:21337796

Marta, Ilda Estefani Ribeiro; Baldan, Sueli Santiago; Berton, Ani Fabiana; Pavam, Michele; da Silva, Maria Júlia Paes

2010-12-01

182

40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement...tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the...

2009-07-01

183

40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement...tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the...

2010-07-01

184

40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the requirement of...

2013-07-01

185

Ambient touch: designing tactile interfaces for handheld devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the sense of touch as a channel for communicating with miniature handheld devices. We embedded a PDA with a TouchEngineTM --- a thin, miniature lower-power tactile actuator that we have designed specifically to use in mobile interfaces (Figure 1). Unlike previous tactile actuators, the TouchEngine is a universal tactile display that can produce a wide variety of

Ivan Poupyrev; Shigeaki Maruyama; Jun Rekimoto

2002-01-01

186

Mirror-touch synaesthesia in the phantom limbs of amputees.  

PubMed

In mirror-touch synaesthesia merely observing another person being touched will cause the observers to experience a touch sensation on their own body. The current study investigates whether this, normally a developmental condition, might be acquired following amputation. Twenty-eight amputees observed 67 videos of touch events and indicated a) whether the video elicited tactile sensations, b) where on the body this was located, c) the intensity of the sensation, and d) whether it was painful. Almost a third of amputees report a tactile sensation on their amputated phantom limb when watching someone else being touched. In this particular group the sensations tend to be localised on the phantom limb or stump, but are rarely reported elsewhere on the body. This occurs irrespective of the body part seen. The synaesthetic sensations were more intense when real bodies were observed relative to dummies or objects, and when the observed touch is mildly painful relative to non-painful. Although frequency, intensity and cause of phantom limb pain do not appear to determine whether an amputee will report mirror-touch sensations, those who do report it show greater empathic emotional reactivity. These results suggest that acquired synaesthesia may be linked with sensory loss, arising after amputation, and that highly empathic individuals could be predisposed to strengthening existing pathways between observed touch and felt touch. PMID:22981809

Goller, Aviva I; Richards, Kerrie; Novak, Steven; Ward, Jamie

2013-01-01

187

Increasing the shelf- life of papaya through vacuum packing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study was to increase the shelf life of fruits through vacuum packing. Papaya fruits were pretreated\\u000a with waxing, oil application, purafil packets, tissue paper wrapping given along with control and were packed in 150 gauge\\u000a thickness polyethylene film bags under vacuum and another set of these samples under without vacuum. The fruits were then\\u000a stored

Geetha Padmanaban; Kanchana Singaravelu; Susheela Thirumaran Annavi

188

Fruit-specific expression of papaya subtilase gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subtilisin-like serine proteases (EC 3.4.21) consist of a widespread family of enzymes that is involved in various processes including in plants. The full-length cDNA (CpSUB1) and the corresponding genomic DNA for papaya subtilase have been obtained using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACEs) and PCR primer walking techniques, respectively. The cDNA clone contains an open reading frame of 2316bp encoding

Roohaida Othman; Azimi Nuraziyan

2010-01-01

189

Influence of ethylene on carotenoid biosynthesis during papaya postharvesting ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carotenoid composition was evaluated during ripening of papaya cv. ‘Golden’ under untreated (control) conditions and treated with ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). At the end of the experiments, the total carotenoid content in the control group (2194.4?g\\/100g) was twice as high as that found in ethylene (1018.1?g\\/100g) and 1-MCP (654.5?g\\/100g) gas-treated samples. Separation of 21 carotenoids by HPLC connected to

Gisela P. M. Barreto; João P. Fabi; Veridiana V. De Rosso; Beatriz R. Cordenunsi; Franco M. Lajolo; João R. O. do Nascimento; Adriana Z. Mercadante

2011-01-01

190

Genome-Wide Comparative Analyses of Microsatellites in Papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), are highly polymorphic and universally distributed in eukaryotes. SSRs\\u000a have been used extensively as sequence tagged markers in genetic studies. Recently, the functional and evolutionary importance\\u000a of SSRs has received considerable attention. Here we report the mining and characterization of the SSRs in papaya genome.\\u000a We analyzed SSRs from 277.4 Mb of whole genome shotgun

Jianping Wang; Cuixia Chen; Jong-Kuk Na; Qingyi Yu; Shaobin Hou; Robert E. Paull; Paul H. Moore; Maqsudul Alam; Ray Ming

2008-01-01

191

Phylogeography and molecular epidemiology of Papaya ringspot virus.  

PubMed

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is the most important virus affecting papaya and cucurbit plants in tropical and subtropical areas. PRSV isolates are divided into biotypes P and W: both the P and W types naturally infect plants in the family Cucurbitaceae, whereas the P type naturally infects papaya (Carica papaya). Understanding the origin and nature of the PRSV genetic diversity and evolution is critical for the implementation of control strategies based on cross-protection and the deployment of transgenic plants that show resistance to virus isolates highly similar to the transgene. The molecular epidemiology of PRSV was evaluated by analyzing the nucleotide sequence of the capsid protein (CP) and helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) genes of isolates from around the world, including newly characterized ones from Colombia and Venezuela, using a relaxed molecular clock-based approach and a phylogeographic study. Our results confirm previous estimates on the origin of PRSV around 400 years ago and suggest distinct dispersion events from the Indian Peninsula to the rest of Asia, via Thailand, and subsequently to the Americas. A historical reconstruction of the P- and W-type characters in the phylogenetic study supports the need to revise the hypothesis that PRSV-P derives from PRSV-W since our results suggest that the ancestral state could be either of the two biotypes. Moreover, estimates of epidemic growth predict an increasing genetic diversity of the virus over time that has direct implications for control strategies of PRSV based on cross-protection and the use of transgenic plants. PMID:21549774

Olarte Castillo, X A; Fermin, G; Tabima, J; Rojas, Y; Tennant, P F; Fuchs, M; Sierra, R; Bernal, A J; Restrepo, S

2011-08-01

192

The amino acid sequence of chymopapain from Carica papaya.  

PubMed Central

Chymopapain is a polypeptide of 218 amino acid residues. It has considerable structural similarity with papain and papaya proteinase omega, including conservation of the catalytic site and of the disulphide bonding. Chymopapain is like papaya proteinase omega in carrying four extra residues between papain positions 168 and 169, but differs from both papaya proteinases in the composition of its S2 subsite, as well as in having a second thiol group, Cys-117. Some evidence for the amino acid sequence of chymopapain has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50153 (12 pages) at the British Library Document Supply Centre, Boston Spa., Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1990) 265, 5. The information comprises Supplement Tables 1-4, which contain, in order, amino acid compositions of peptides from tryptic, peptic, CNBr and mild acid cleavages, Supplement Fig. 1, showing re-fractionation of selected peaks from Fig. 2 of the main paper. Supplement Fig. 2, showing cation-exchange chromatography of the earliest-eluted peak of Fig. 3 of the main paper, Supplement Fig. 3, showing reverse-phase h.p.l.c. of the later-eluted peak from Fig. 3 of the main paper, and Supplement Fig. 4, showing the separation of peptides after mild acid hydrolysis of CNBr-cleavage fragment CB3.

Watson, D C; Yaguchi, M; Lynn, K R

1990-01-01

193

Removal of Methyl Orange From Aqueous Solution Using Activated Papaya Leaf  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation describes the potential of acid activated papaya leaf for the adsorption of methyl orange (MO) dye from aqueous solution. The FT-IR analysis indicated the presence of a wide variety of functional groups on the surface of the activated papaya leaf. Scanning electron microscopy and Electron dispersion X-ray techniques indicated the morphological behavior of adsorption onto the adsorbent,

M. Ahmaruzzaman

2012-01-01

194

Chlorophyll fluorescence as a tool to evaluate the ripening of ‘Golden’ papaya fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit classification based on one or more physical or physiological attributes is important to improve quality during storage and marketing. Our objectives were to evaluate changes in chlorophyll fluorescence of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. cv. Golden) at different ripeness stages and during the ripening to determine if this non-destructive technique might assist the evaluation of fruit ripeness. Maximal (Fm),

Ilana Urbano Bron; Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro; Marisa Azzolini; Angelo Pedro Jacomino; Eduardo Caruso Machado

2004-01-01

195

Quality and volatile attributes of attached and detached ‘Pluk Mai Lie’ papaya during fruit ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘Pluk Mai Lie’ papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a promising cultivated fruit for use in fresh and processed products due to its firm flesh, but the aroma it releases is flat. Changes in quality and volatile profiles were analyzed during on- and off-tree fruit ripening. Detached fruit ripened faster than attached fruit, accumulating high internal ethylene levels. Aside from

P. Fuggate; C. Wongs-Aree; S. Noichinda; S. Kanlayanarat

2010-01-01

196

DETERMINATION OF THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY IN PAPAYA PULP AS A FUNCTION OF MATURATION STAGE1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the penetration of the thermal wave in the papaya fruit pulp (Carica papaya L.), cv. Golden, thermal diffusivity of the pulp was obtained measuring temperature at four different depths. Measurements were carried out initially with the fruit on the first stage of maturity. The changes of the thermal diffusivity were expressed as a function of ripening.

SAVIO FIGUEIRA CORRÊA; MAXIMILIANO SILVA DE SOUZA; TALITA PEREIRA; VERÇOSA DE LIMA ALVES; JURANDI GONÇALVES DE OLIVEIRA; MARCELO GOMES DA SILVA; HELION VARGAS

197

Treatment with 1-MCP and the role of ethylene in aroma development of mountain papaya fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain or highland papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens) is a climacteric fruit which develops a strong and characteristic aroma during ripening. The dynamics of aroma volatile production during ripening of whole papaya fruit were analysed by headspace-SPME. The main compounds produced by the fruit were esters (aliphatic and branched) and alcohols: the most abundant esters were ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, methyl butanoate

Cristian Balbontín; Carlos Gaete-Eastman; Mireya Vergara; Raúl Herrera; María Alejandra Moya-León

2007-01-01

199

Draft Genome Sequence of Erwinia mallotivora BT-MARDI, Causative Agent of Papaya Dieback Disease  

PubMed Central

Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya trees infected with dieback disease, which were planted at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Malaysia. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of E. mallotivora BT-MARDI, which offers an important source of information for understanding pathogen and host interaction during papaya dieback development.

Abu Bakar, N.; Rozano, L.; Badrun, R.; Mat Amin, N.; Mohd Raih, M. F.

2014-01-01

200

Detection of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus by reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.  

PubMed

Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) can infect transgenic papaya resistant to a related pathogen, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), posing a substantial threat to papaya production in China. Current detection methods, however, are unable to be used for rapid detection in the field. Here, a reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of PLDMV, using a set of four RT-LAMP primers designed based on the conserved sequence of PLDMV CP. The RT-LAMP method detected specifically PLDMV and was highly sensitive, with a detection limit of 1.32×10(-6) ?g of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR, while also requiring significantly less time and equipment. The effectiveness of RT-LAMP and one-step RT-PCR in detecting the virus were compared using 90 field samples of non-transgenic papaya and 90 field samples of commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya from Hainan Island. None of the non-transgenic papaya tested positive for PLDMV using either method. In contrast, 19 of the commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya samples tested positive by RT-LAMP assay, and 6 of those tested negative by RT-PCR. Therefore, the PLDMV-specific RT-LAMP is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective tool in the field diagnosis and control of PLDMV. PMID:24100065

Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

2014-01-01

201

Draft Genome Sequence of Erwinia mallotivora BT-MARDI, Causative Agent of Papaya Dieback Disease.  

PubMed

Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya trees infected with dieback disease, which were planted at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Malaysia. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of E. mallotivora BT-MARDI, which offers an important source of information for understanding pathogen and host interaction during papaya dieback development. PMID:24812220

Redzuan, R Ahmad; Abu Bakar, N; Rozano, L; Badrun, R; Mat Amin, N; Mohd Raih, M F

2014-01-01

202

CURRENT STATUS OF TRANSGENIC APPROACH FOR THE CONTROL OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of papaya has been limited in many areas of the world due to the disease caused by the Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). The coat protein (CP) gene-mediated transgenic resistance has become the most effective method to prevent crops from this virus infection. In the late 1980s, the group of Gonsalves at Cornell University and Hawaii started a research project

Shyi-Dong Yeh

203

Biological and molecular characterisation of Coimbatore isolate of Papaya ringspot virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed investigation was carried out on the Coimbatore isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) with regard to its transmission, host range and physical properties. Molecular diagnostic tools were also used to detect the virus. Symptoms of papaya ringspot disease included mottling, chlorophyll lobing, filiformity and oily streaks on stem which appeared within 18–22 days of mechanical inoculation. The dilution

S. Dhanam; K. Saveetha; A. Sankaralingam; R. Kannan; R. P. Pant

2011-01-01

204

Haptic Touch Reduces Sway by Increasing Axial Tone  

PubMed Central

It is unclear how haptic touch with a stable surface reduces postural sway. We hypothesized that haptic input enhances postural stability due to alterations in axial postural tone. We measured the influence of heavy and light touch of the hands on a stable bar on axial postural tone and postural sway during stance in 14 healthy adults. A unique “Twister” device measured hip torque by fixing the upper body in space while oscillating the surface in yaw ±10 deg at 1deg/s. Subjects were tested while: 1) standing quietly with their arms at their sides, 2) lightly touching a rigid bar in front of them and 3) firmly gripping the bar. Horizontal and vertical sway was not restricted by the device s yaw fixation, therefore, the subjects remained in a state of active postural control during the three touch conditions. Haptic touch significantly increased hip postural tone by 44% during light touch, from 2.5 ± 0.9 to 3.6 ± 1.0 Nm (P=0.005), and by 40% during firm grip to 3.5 ± 0.8 Nm (P=0.005). Increases in hip postural tone were associated with a reduction in postural sway (r=?0.55, P =0.001). This is the first study showing that axial postural tone can be modified by remote somatosensory input and provides a potential explanation for how light touch improves postural stability. Changes in subjects perception from trunk to surface rotation when changing from no touch to haptic touch, suggests that the central nervous system changes from using a global, to a local, trunk reference frame for control of posture during touch. The increase of hip postural tone during touching and gripping can be explained as a suppression of hip muscle shortening reactions that normally assist axial rotation.

Franzen, Erika; Gurfinkel, Victor S; Wright, W. Geoffrey; Cordo, Paul J; Horak, Fay B

2010-01-01

205

Representations of Pleasant and Painful Touch in the Human Orbitofrontal and Cingulate Cortices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cortical areas that represent affectively positive and negative aspects of touch were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) by comparing activations produced by pleasant touch, painful touch produced by a stylus, and neutral touch, to the left hand. It was found that regions of the orbitofrontal cortex were activated more by pleasant touch and by painful stimuli than

E. T. Rolls; J. O'Doherty; M. L. Kringelbach; S. Francis; R. Bowtell; F. McGlone

2003-01-01

206

Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya  

PubMed Central

Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results: Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion: No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.

Oduola, Taofeeq; Bello, Ibrahim; Idowu, Thomas; Avwioro, Godwin; Adeosun, Ganiyu; Olatubosun, Luqman

2010-01-01

207

Fruit-specific expression of papaya subtilase gene.  

PubMed

Subtilisin-like serine proteases (EC 3.4.21) consist of a widespread family of enzymes that is involved in various processes including in plants. The full-length cDNA (CpSUB1) and the corresponding genomic DNA for papaya subtilase have been obtained using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACEs) and PCR primer walking techniques, respectively. The cDNA clone contains an open reading frame of 2316bp encoding 772 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 82.6kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.97. The CpSUB1 gene is composed of nine exons and eight introns. The amino acid sequence encoded by CpSUB1 shared high identity (>60%) with the amino acid sequence of other plant subtilisin-like proteases. Sequence analysis of CpSUB1 revealed the presence of a possible signal peptide (25 amino acid residues) and an NH(2)-terminal prosequence (88 amino acid residues). In addition, papaya subtilase possesses the characteristic subtilisin catalytic triad amino acids namely Asp, His and Ser, together with the substrate-binding site, Asn. DNA hybridization analysis showed that subtilase gene exists as a single copy in the papaya genome. RNA hybridization analyses showed that expression of the subtilase transcripts was only detected in mesocarp but not in non-fruit tissues. Gene expression in fruit tissues reached the highest level during the ripening stage at which the fruits undergo dramatic softening process. Subsequently, pro-subtilase ( approximately 80kDa) was expressed as recombinant pro-enzyme ( approximately 97kDa), which was used to generate antiserum against papaya subtilase, anti-sub. Protein gel blot analysis using anti-sub towards total protein extracted from all ripening stages revealed that a protein with a molecular mass of approximately 70kDa reacted with the antiserum. Hence both RNA hybridization and protein gel blot analyses confirmed the presence of subtilase during papaya fruit ripening, pointing to its possible involvement in this important process. PMID:19729222

Othman, Roohaida; Nuraziyan, Azimi

2010-01-15

208

A Comparison of Injuries between Flag and Touch Football.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to determine whether fewer and less serious injuries result from participation in touch football as compared with flag football. A survey was taken of 30 flag football games and 30 touch football games and the incidence of injuries was recorded on a checklist. Results of the survey suggest the following: (a) intramural or…

Martin, Stephen L.

209

Ionic Signaling in Plant Responses to Gravity and Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch and gravity are two of the many stimuli that plants must integrate to generate an appropriate growth response. Due to the mechanical nature of both of these signals, shared signal transduction elements could well form the basis of the cross-talk between these two sensory systems. However, touch stimulation must elicit signaling events across the plasma membrane whereas gravity sensing

Jeremiah M. Fasano; Gioia D. Massa; Simon Gilroy

2002-01-01

210

Households Touched by Crime, 1987. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the year 1987, 24.4 % of American households were touched by crime. A household is considered touched by crime if during the year it was affected by a burglarly, auto theft, or household theft or if a household member was raped, robbed, or assaulted or was a victim of personal theft, no matter where the crime occurred. These offenses, which…

Rand, Michael R.; And Others

211

Magic desk: bringing multi-touch surfaces into desktop work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the prominence of multi-touch technologies, there has been little work investigating its integration into the desktop environment. Bringing multi-touch into desktop computing would give users an additional input channel to leverage, enriching the current interaction paradigm dominated by a mouse and keyboard. We provide two main contributions in this domain. First, we describe the results from a study we

Xiaojun Bi; Tovi Grossman; Justin Matejka; George W. Fitzmaurice

2011-01-01

212

Cross-Cultural Differences in Self-Reported Touch Avoidance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two hundred forty-eight male and female subjects from United States, Mediterranean, Near East, and Far East cultures completed a touch avoidance measure in a study examining cultural differences in touching behavior. Factor analysis of the instrument yielded four factors: opposite sex, other-directed same sex, kissing, and self-directed same sex.…

Jones, Tricia S.; Remland, Martin S.

213

Nonverbal Communication in Classroom Interactions: A Pedagogical Perspective of Touch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper begins by exploring touch as "tactile perception" dimension, which means what human hands could achieve, especially considering the important role of skin receptors. The author moves forward to a description of children's necessity for contact as well as to their touch disorders. Following descriptions further clarify these items in the…

Stamatis, Panagiotis J.

2011-01-01

214

Provoking the city—touch installations for urban space  

Microsoft Academic Search

How should one design a media art installation on a public multi-touch screen? Our article presents a case study of the installation At Hand, which was produced for the Media Facades Festival Europe 2010. In the installation touch became the interaction metaphor for an embodied encounter. The installation pilot is understood as a place in which two research projects come

Heidi Tikka; Sandra Viña; Giulio Jacucci; Teemu Korpilahti

2011-01-01

215

Touch Sensor Assembly Using Infrared Radiations and its Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses about a novel technology for introducing a touch sensor that can be applied for numerous applications, using optoelectronics. The sensor employed harnesses the attributes of an Infrared LED and an infrared photodiode. The routine touch sensor buttons can be replaced by this cost effective assembly that uses variation in amount of infrared radiations falling upon the photodiode

V. Rana; N. Paliwal; A. Chahar

2009-01-01

216

Understanding and Creating Accessible Touch Screen Interactions for Blind People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using touch screens presents a number of usability and accessibility challenges for blind people. Most touch screen-based user interfaces are optimized for visual interaction, and are therefore difficult or impossible to use without vision. This dissertation presents an approach to redesigning gesture-based user interfaces to enable blind people…

Kane, Shaun K.

2011-01-01

217

You can't touch this: touch-free navigation through radiological images.  

PubMed

Keyboards, mice, and touch screens are a potential source of infection or contamination in operating rooms, intensive care units, and autopsy suites. The authors present a low-cost prototype of a system, which allows for touch-free control of a medical image viewer. This touch-free navigation system consists of a computer system (IMac, OS X 10.6 Apple, USA) with a medical image viewer (OsiriX, OsiriX foundation, Switzerland) and a depth camera (Kinect, Microsoft, USA). They implemented software that translates the data delivered by the camera and a voice recognition software into keyboard and mouse commands, which are then passed to OsiriX. In this feasibility study, the authors introduced 10 medical professionals to the system and asked them to re-create 12 images from a CT data set. They evaluated response times and usability of the system compared with standard mouse/keyboard control. Users felt comfortable with the system after approximately 10 minutes. Response time was 120 ms. Users required 1.4 times more time to re-create an image with gesture control. Users with OsiriX experience were significantly faster using the mouse/keyboard and faster than users without prior experience. They rated the system 3.4 out of 5 for ease of use in comparison to the mouse/keyboard. The touch-free, gesture-controlled system performs favorably and removes a potential vector for infection, protecting both patients and staff. Because the camera can be quickly and easily integrated into existing systems, requires no calibration, and is low cost, the barriers to using this technology are low. PMID:22064490

Ebert, Lars C; Hatch, Gary; Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Thali, Michael J; Ross, Steffen

2012-09-01

218

Neural coding during active somatosensation revealed using illusory touch.  

PubMed

Active sensation requires the convergence of external stimuli with representations of body movements. We used mouse behavior, electrophysiology and optogenetics to dissect the temporal interactions among whisker movement, neural activity and sensation of touch. We photostimulated layer 4 activity in single barrels in a closed loop with whisking. Mimicking touch-related neural activity caused illusory perception of an object at a particular location, but scrambling the timing of the spikes over one whisking cycle (tens of milliseconds) did not abolish the illusion, indicating that knowledge of instantaneous whisker position is unnecessary for discriminating object locations. The illusions were induced only during bouts of directed whisking, when mice expected touch, and in the relevant barrel. Reducing activity biased behavior, consistent with a spike count code for object detection at a particular location. Our results show that mice integrate coding of touch with movement over timescales of a whisking bout to produce perception of active touch. PMID:23727820

O'Connor, Daniel H; Hires, S Andrew; Guo, Zengcai V; Li, Nuo; Yu, Jianing; Sun, Qian-Quan; Huber, Daniel; Svoboda, Karel

2013-07-01

219

Comparative reactions of recombinant papaya ringspot viruses with chimeric coat protein (CP) genes and wild-type viruses on CP-transgenic papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic papaya cultivars SunUp and Rainbow express the coat protein (CP) gene of the mild mutant of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) HA. Both cultivars are resistant to PRSV HA and other Hawaii isolates through homology-dependent resistance via post-transcriptional gene silencing. However, Rainbow, which is hemizygous for the CP gene, is susceptible to PRSV isolates from outside Hawaii, while the CP-homozygous

Chu-Hui Chiang; Ju-Jung Wang; Fuh-Jyh Jan; Shyi-Dong Yeh; Dennis Gonsalves

2001-01-01

220

‘Kiss, Cuddle, Squeeze’: The Experiences and Meaning of Touch among Parents of Children with Autism Attending a Touch Therapy Programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences and meaning of touch between parents and children with autism before and after attending a Touch Therapy Programme. The sample comprised 12 parents (1 father and 11 mothers) of children (1 female and 11 male) with autism. Parents were interviewed before and immediately after the 8-week programme. Pre-programme results

Lesley Cullen; Julie Barlow

2002-01-01

221

Is there touch in the game of Twister? The effects of innocuous touch and suggestive questions on children's eyewitness memory.  

PubMed

Preschool children (ages 48-70 months, N = 48) experienced 2 to-be-remembered events (i.e., the games Twister and Shapes) that included either innocuous bodily touch or no touch. Participants were interviewed 7 days later and asked direct ("Did Amy kiss you?") or suggestive "tag" questions ("Amy kissed you, didn't she?") equated for content. Results indicated that children who were innocuously touched were no more likely to falsely assent to "abuse-related" touch questions (e.g., "Amy touched your bottom, didn't she?") than were children who were not touched. However, children who were asked tag questions responded at chance levels, thereby making high errors of commission in response to abuse-touch questions relative to their no-tag counterparts who responded to "abuse questions" accurately 93% of the time. Children who were asked tag questions assented at a higher rate to general forensic questions ("Amy took your picture, didn't she?") than did children asked direct questions, and children assented at higher rates to "abuse-touch" questions than to general forensic questions. Results are discussed in terms of prior research on interviewing techniques and adult influence on children's testimony. PMID:14724958

Krackow, Elisa; Lynn, Steven Jay

2003-12-01

222

An analysis on DNA fingerprints of thirty papaya cultivars (Carica papaya L.), grown in Thailand with the use of amplified fragment length polymorphisms technique.  

PubMed

The experiment was carried out at the Department of Horticulture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani province, Northeast Thailand during June 2002 to May 2003 aims to identify DNA fingerprints of thirty papaya cultivars with the use of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP) technique. Papaya cultivars were collected from six different research centers in Thailand. Papaya plants of each cultivar were grown under field conditions up to four months then leaf numbers 2 and 3 of each cultivar (counted from top) were chosen for DNA extraction and the samples were used for AFLP analysis. Out of 64 random primers being used, 55 pairs gave an increase in DNA bands but only 12 pairs of random primers were randomly chosen for the final analysis of the experiment. The results showed that AFLP markers gave Polymorphic Information Contents (PIC) of three ranges i.e., AFLP markers of 235 lied on a PIC range of 0.003-0.05, 47 for a PIC range of 0.15-0.20 and 12 for a PIC range of 0.35-0.40. The results on dendrogram cluster analysis revealed that the thirty papaya cultivars were classified into six groups i.e., (1) Kaeg Dum and Malador (2) Kaeg Nuan (3) Pakchong and Solo (4) Taiwan (5) Co Coa Hai Nan and (6) Sitong. Nevertheless, in spite of the six papaya groups all papaya cultivars were genetically related to each other where diversity among the cultivars was not significantly found. PMID:19090101

Ratchadaporn, Janthasri; Sureeporn, Katengam; Khumcha, U

2007-09-15

223

78 FR 6835 - Certain Mobile Handset Devices and Related Touch Keyboard Software; Institution of Investigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Handset Devices and Related Touch Keyboard Software; Institution of Investigation AGENCY...handset devices and related touch keyboard software by reason of infringement of certain...handset devices and related touch keyboard software that infringe one or more of claims...

2013-01-31

224

The Use of Healing Touch in Integrative Oncology  

PubMed Central

The use of complementary therapies by cancer patients has become so prevalent that nurses working in oncology are finding it necessary to understand these therapies and the evidence-based support for their use. The integrative use of the biofield therapy Healing Touch (HT) in conjunction with the chemoradiation received by patients with cervical cancer (stages 1B1 to IVA) during a recent research study is described. Findings indicated effects of HT on the immune response and on depression, in contrast to patients receiving relaxation or standard care. Specifically, HT patients demonstrated a minimal decrease in natural killer cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) over the course of treatment whereas NKCC of patients receiving relaxation therapy (RT) and standard care (SC) declined sharply during radiation (p = 0.018). HT patients also showed significant decreases in depressed mood compared to RT and SC (p < 0.05). These findings, as well as the energetic effects of chemoradiation that were observed, and the proposed mechanisms and potential contributions of biofield therapy are addressed. It is suggested that the appropriate integration of complementary modalities into oncology care has the potential to enhance the impact of conventional care by putting the patient in the best condition to use their innate healing resources.

Hart, Laura K.; Freel, Mildred I.; Haylock, Pam J.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.

2013-01-01

225

'Kiss, cuddle, squeeze': the experiences and meaning of touch among parents of children with autism attending a Touch Therapy Programme.  

PubMed

The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences and meaning of touch between parents and children with autism before and after attending a Touch Therapy Programme. The sample comprised 12 parents (1 father and 11 mothers) of children (1 female and 11 male) with autism. Parents were interviewed before and immediately after the 8-week programme. Pre-programme results suggested that children were controlling the experience of touch. Parents felt 'hurt' in response to the 'aloof nature of autism, and natural parenting instincts (e.g. spontaneous cuddles) were restricted. Post-programme results suggested that children appeared to tolerate touch. Parents reported that routine tasks (e.g. dressing) were accomplished more easily and that children appeared generally more relaxed. Parents reported feeling 'closer' to their children and felt that the touch therapy had opened a communication channel between themselves and their children. PMID:12224834

Cullen, Lesley; Barlow, Julie

2002-09-01

226

Aging and Curvature Discrimination from Static and Dynamic Touch  

PubMed Central

Two experiments evaluated the ability of 30 older and younger adults to discriminate the curvature of simple object surfaces from static and dynamic touch. The ages of the older adults ranged from 66 to 85 years, while those of the younger adults ranged from 20 to 29 years. For each participant in both experiments, the minimum curvature magnitude needed to reliably discriminate between convex and concave surfaces was determined. In Experiment 1, participants used static touch to make their judgments of curvature, while dynamic touch was used in Experiment 2. When static touch was used to discriminate curvature, a large effect of age occurred (the thresholds were 0.67 & 1.11/m for the younger and older participants, respectively). However, when participants used dynamic touch, there was no significant difference between the ability of younger and older participants to discriminate curvature (the thresholds were 0.58 & 0.59/m for the younger and older participants, respectively). The results of the current study demonstrate that while older adults can accurately discriminate surface curvature from dynamic touch, they possess significant impairments for static touch.

Norman, J. Farley; Kappers, Astrid M. L.; Cheeseman, Jacob R.; Ronning, Cecilia; Thomason, Kelsey E.; Baxter, Michael W.; Calloway, Autum B.; Lamirande, Davora N.

2013-01-01

227

Contrasting patterns of X/Y polymorphism distinguish Carica papaya from other sex chromosome systems.  

PubMed

The sex chromosomes of the tropical crop papaya (Carica papaya) are evolutionarily young and consequently allow for the examination of evolutionary mechanisms that drive early sex chromosome divergence. We conducted a molecular population genetic analysis of four X/Y gene pairs from a collection of 45 wild papaya accessions. These population genetic analyses reveal striking differences in the patterns of polymorphism between the X and Y chromosomes that distinguish them from other sex chromosome systems. In most sex chromosome systems, the Y chromosome displays significantly reduced polymorphism levels, whereas the X chromosome maintains a level of polymorphism that is comparable to autosomal loci. However, the four papaya sex-linked loci that we examined display diversity patterns that are opposite this trend: the papaya X alleles exhibit significantly reduced polymorphism levels, whereas the papaya Y alleles maintain greater than expected levels of diversity. Our analyses suggest that selective sweeps in the regions of the X have contributed to this pattern while also revealing geographically restricted haplogroups on the Y. We discuss the possible role sexual selection and/or genomic conflict have played in shaping the contrasting patterns of polymorphism found for the papaya X and Y chromosomes. PMID:22855536

Weingartner, Laura A; Moore, Richard C

2012-12-01

228

Steroidogenic enzyme histochemistry in the testis of Sprague Dawley rats following the administration the water extracts from Carica papaya seed.  

PubMed

Water extracts from pawpaw seed have been reported to reversibly decrease the testicular weight and to suppress spermatogenesis, and fertility of Wistar rats. The reversible changes become evident, 30 - 45 days after the withdrawal of the extract. The possible effect of this extract on the activities of steroidogenic enzymes of the testis has not been investigated. Water extract of papaya seeds was administered to male Sprague Dawley rats ad libitum for 84 days. Following the discontinuation of the extracts, ten rats each were sacrificed on days 0, 10, 20 and 30 after the withdrawal. Their testes were quickly dissected out and frozen. Cryostat sections, 10µm thick were cut. These sections were used for immunohistochemical stains for side chain cleavage enzyme and aromatase, and for histochemical stains for 17-? Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3-? Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. We conclude that the water extract of papaya seed suppresses the activities of steroidogenic enzymes in the testis of Sprague Dawley rats, and that this may contribute to reversible suppression of spermatogenesis, a property that gives a possible male contraceptive potential. PMID:22238486

Uche-Nwachi, E O; Mitchell, C V; McEwen, C

2011-01-01

229

Optical characterization of OLED displays with touch screens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brightness and color resolution, wider viewing angles, lower power consumption, and a thin aspect ratio are all well understood physical characteristics of organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays, an up-and-coming flat panel displays. Increasing numbers of applications of flat panel displays are being commercialized with touch screens. This paper will describe the optical characteristics of mating a touch screen with a full-color active matrix OLED display. We will quantify the OLED optical properties with respect to touch screens with matte finishes and anti-reflective topcoats, and with and without the use of a polarizer on the OLEDs top glass.

Cropper, A. D.; Feldman, Rodney D.; Siwinski, Michael; Kilmer, Kathleen

2002-02-01

230

Quantifying touch feel perception: tribological aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a new investigation into how surface topography and friction affect human touch-feel perception. In contrast with previous work based on micro-scale mapping of surface mechanical and tribological properties, this investigation focuses on the direct measurement of the friction generated when a fingertip is stroked on a test specimen. A special friction apparatus was built for the in situ testing, based on a linear flexure mechanism with both contact force and frictional force measured simultaneously. Ten specimens, already independently assessed in a 'perception clinic', with materials including natural wood, leather, engineered plastics and metal were tested and the results compared with the perceived rankings. Because surface geometrical features are suspected to play a significant role in perception, a second set of samples, all of one material, were prepared and tested in order to minimize the influence of properties such as hardness and thermal conductivity. To minimize subjective effects, all specimens were also tested in a roller-on-block configuration based upon the same friction apparatus, with the roller materials being steel, brass and rubber. This paper reports the detailed design and instrumentation of the friction apparatus, the experimental set-up and the friction test results. Attempts have been made to correlate the measured properties and the perceived feelings for both roughness and friction. The results show that the measured roughness and friction coefficient both have a strong correlation with the rough-smooth and grippy-slippery feelings.

Liu, X.; Yue, Z.; Cai, Z.; Chetwynd, D. G.; Smith, S. T.

2008-08-01

231

Haptic Holography/Touching the Ethereal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Haptic Holography, was perhaps, first proposed by workers at MIT in the 90s. The Media Lab, headed up by Dr. Stephen Benton, with published papers by Wendy Plesiak and Ravi Pappuh. -1 Recent developments in both the technology of digital holography and haptics have made it practical to conduct further investigations. Haptic holography is auto-stereoscopic and provides co-axial viewing for the user. Haptic holography may find application in medical & surgical training and as a new form of synthetic reality for artists and designers. At OCAD's PHASE Lab (Prototypes for Holographic Art and Science Explorations) workers are exploring hybrid forms of augmented reality, that combine haptics, interactivity and auto-stereoscopic imagery. Conventional Haptic environments, while presenting a 3D physics environment, typically provide a 2D visual work/play space. Orienteering in such an environment creates an uncertain spatial relationship for the user. Our group creates 3d models from which we create holographic constructs. The same model is used to create the physics environment. The two models are super-imposed. The result: Holograms you can touch.

Page, Michael

2013-02-01

232

Genetic variation of papaya ringspot virus in Venezuela.  

PubMed

The genetic variation of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) in Venezuela was estimated by single strand conformation and nucleotide sequence analyses of two genomic regions of twenty-six isolates. These analyses showed that mutation, virus movement, selection, mixed infections and recombination contributed to shape the genetic variation observed. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Venezuelan isolates were within a clade composed of isolates from the Americas and Australia. The genetic diversity of these isolates was sufficiently large that it must be taken into account when designing control strategies such as transgenic resistance and cross-protection. PMID:18030545

Fernández-Rodríguez, T; Rubio, L; Carballo, O; Marys, E

2008-01-01

233

Shortest path based splitting line finding for touching cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A shortest path based algorithm is proposed in this paper to find splitting lines for touching cells. Firstly, an initial splitting line is obtained through the distance transform of a marker image and the watershed algorithm. Then, the initial splitting line is separated into different line segments if necessary, and the start and end points of these line segments act as the start and end points of shortest path. Finally, the shortest path algorithm is used to find the splitting line between the start and end points, and the final result of touching cells splitting can be formed by the contour of the touching cells and the splitting lines. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is efficient for different types of touching cells.

Bai, Xiangzhi; Sun, Changming; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Fugen

2013-10-01

234

inTouch: A Medium for Haptic Interpersonal Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce a new approach for applying haptic feedback technology to interpersonal communication. We present the design of our prototype inTouch system which provides a physical link between users separated by distance.

Scott Brave; Andrew Dahley

1997-01-01

235

piezo2b regulates vertebrate light touch response.  

PubMed

The sense of touch allows an organism to detect and respond to physical environmental stimuli. Mechanosensitive proteins play a crucial role in this process by converting the mechanical cue into a biological response. Recently, the Piezo family of stretch-activated ion channels has been identified as genuine mechanosensitive proteins. We set out to determine whether any of these genes are involved in touch response during zebrafish development. In situ hybridization indicates that piezo2b is specifically expressed in a subset of neurons (Rohon-Beard cells) responsible for detecting light touch. Using morpholino-mediated knockdown, we specifically targeted piezo2b and determined that it is involved in mediating touch-evoked response. PMID:24155313

Faucherre, Adèle; Nargeot, Joël; Mangoni, Matteo E; Jopling, Chris

2013-10-23

236

Integrated Vision Touch-Probe System for Dimensional Inspection Tasks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses the integration of vision and touch sensors in a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) controller used for dimensional inspection tasks. A real-time hierarchical control system is presented in which a vision system extracts positions of f...

M. Herman M. Nashman T. H. Hong W. Rippey

1995-01-01

237

Cysteine proteinases from papaya (Carica papaya) in the treatment of experimental Trichuris suis infection in pigs: two randomized controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Background Cysteine proteinases (CPs) from papaya (Carica papaya) possess anthelmintic properties against human soil-transmitted helminths (STH, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm), but there is a lack of supportive and up-to-date efficacy data. We therefore conducted two randomized controlled trials in pigs to assess the efficacy of papaya CPs against experimental infections with T. suis. Methods First, we assessed efficacy by means of egg (ERR) and adult worm reduction rate (WRR) of a single-oral dose of 450 ?mol active CPs (CP450) against low (inoculum of 300 eggs) and high (inoculum of 3,000 eggs) intensity T. suis infections and compared the efficacy with those obtained after a single-oral dose of 400 mg albendazole (ALB). In the second trial, we determined and compared the efficacy of a series of CP doses (45 [CP45], 115 [CP115], 225 [CP225], and 450 [CP450] ?mol) against high intensity infections. Results CP450 was highly efficacious against both levels of infection intensity, resulting in ERR and WRR of more than 97%. For both levels of infection intensity, CP450 was significantly more efficacious compared to ALB by means of WRR (low infection intensity: 99.0% vs. 39.0%; high infection intensity; 97.4% vs. 23.2%). When the efficacy was assessed by ERR, a significant difference was only observed for high intensity infections, CP450 being more efficacious than ALB (98.9% vs. 59.0%). For low infection intensities, there was no significant difference in ERR between CP450 (98.3%) and ALB (64.4%). The efficacy of CPs increased as a function of increasing dose. When determined by ERR, the efficacy ranged from 2.1% for CP45 to 99.2% for CP450. For WRR the results varied from -14.0% to 99.0%, respectively. Pairwise comparison revealed a significant difference in ERR and WRR only between CP45 and CP450, the latter being more efficacious. Conclusions A single dose of 450 ?mol CPs provided greater efficacy against T. suis infections in pigs than a single-oral dose of 400 mg ALB. Although these results highlight the possibility of papaya CPs for controlling human STH, further development is needed in order to obtain and validate an oral formulation for human application.

2014-01-01

238

Soybean growth rate response to touch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A time-lapse video showing differential growth rates for touch-treated seedlings and control seedlings. This would be appropriate for lessons about plant growth responses to environmental stress and graphing growth rate. Plants were grown in a vermiculite soilless medium with calcium-enhanced water. No other minerals or nutrients were used. Plants were grown in a dark room with specially-filtered green light. The plants did not grow by cellular reproduction but only by expansion of existing cells in the hypocotyl region below the 'hook'. Video contains three plants in total. The first two plants to emerge from the vermiculite medium are the control (right) and treatment (left) plants. A third plant emerges in front of these two but is removed at the time of treatment and is not relevant except to help indicate when treatment was applied (watch for when it disappears). When that plant disappears, the slowed growth rate of the treatment plant is apparent. Treatment included a gentle flexing of the hypocotyl region of the treatment seedling for approximately 5 seconds. A rubber glove was used at this time to avoid an contamination of the plant tissue. Some video players allow users to 'scrub' the playback back and forth. This would help teachers or students isolate particular times (as indicated by the watch) and particular measurements (as indicated by the cm scale). A graph could be constructed by first creating a data table and then plotting the data points from the table. Multiple measurements from the video could be taken to create an accurate graph of the plants' growth rates (treatment vs control). Instructions for graphing usage: The scale in the video is in centimeters (one cm increments). Students could observe the initial time on the watch in the video and use that observation to represent time (t) = 0. For that value, a mark could be made to indicate the height of the seedlings. As they advance and pause the video repeatedly, the students would mark the time (+2.5 hours for example) and mark the related seedling heights. It is not necessary to advance the video at any regular interval but is necessary to mark the time and related heights as accurately as possible. Students may use different time values and would thus have different data sets but should find that their graphs are very similar. (Good opportunity to collect data from real research and create their own data sets) It is advised that the students collect multiple data points around the time where the seedling growth slows in response to touch to more accurately collect information around that growth rate slowing event. The resulting graph should have an initial growth rate slope, a flatter slope after stress treatment, and a return to approximately the same slope as seen pre-treatment. More data points should yield a more thorough view of this. This would be a good point to discuss. Students can use some of their data points to calculate approximate pre-treatment, immediate post-treatment, and late post-treatment slopes for both the control and treatment seedlings. This video was created by the submitter and is original content. Full screen playback should be an option for most video players. Video quality may appear degraded with a larger image but this may aid viewing the watch and scale for data collection.

Data, Adam S.

2012-03-23

239

Sphere: multi-touch interactions on a spherical display  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sphere is a multi-user, multi-touch-sensitive spherical dis- play in which an infrared camera used for touch sensing shares the same optical path with the projector used for the display. This novel configuration permits: (1) the enclosure of both the projection and the sensing mechanism in the base of the device, and (2) easy 360-degree access for mul- tiple users, with

Hrvoje Benko; Andrew D. Wilson; Ravin Balakrishnan

2008-01-01

240

Unmyelinated tactile afferents signal touch and project to insular cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is dual tactile innervation of the human hairy skin: in addition to fast-conducting myelinated afferent fibers, there is a system of slow-conducting unmyelinated (C) afferents that respond to light touch. In a unique patient lacking large myelinated afferents, we found that activation of C tactile (CT) afferents produced a faint sensation of pleasant touch. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

Y. Lamarre; H. Backlund; C. Morin; B. G. Wallin; G. Starck; S. Ekholm; I. Strigo; K. Worsley; Å. B. Vallbo; M. C. Bushnell; H. Olausson

2002-01-01

241

Genetic Interactions Affecting Touch Sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

At least 13 genes (mec-1, mec-2, mec-4-10, mec-12, mec-14, mec-15, and mec-18) are needed for the response to gentle touch by 6 touch receptor neurons in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Several, otherwise recessive alleles of some of these genes act as dominant enhancer mutations of temperature-sensitive alleles of mec-4, mec-5, mec-6, mec-12, and mec-15. Screens for additional dominant enhancers of

Guoqiang Gu; Guy A. Caldwell; Martin Chalfie

1996-01-01

242

ComTouch: design of a vibrotactile communication device  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the design of ComTouch, a device that augments remote voice communication with touch, by converting hand pressure into vibrational intensity between users in real-time. The goal of this work is to enrich inter-personal communication by complementing voice with a tactile channel. We present preliminary user studies performed on 24 people to observe possible uses of the tactile channel

Angela Chang; Sile O'Modhrain; Robert J. K. Jacob; Eric Gunther; Hiroshi Ishii

2002-01-01

243

Eye position affects the perceived location of touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we demonstrate a systematic shift in the perceived location of a tactile stimulus on the arm toward where the eye is\\u000a looking. Participants reported the perceived position of touches presented between the elbow and the wrist while maintaining\\u000a eye positions at various eccentricities. The perceived location of the touch was shifted by between 1 and 5 cm (1.9°–9.5°\\u000a visual angle)

Vanessa Harrar; Laurence R. Harris

2009-01-01

244

Piezoelectric touch-sensitive flexible hybrid energy harvesting nanoarchitectures.  

PubMed

In this work, we report a flexible hybrid nanoarchitecture that can be utilized as both an energy harvester and a touch sensor on a single platform without any cross-talk problems. Based on the electron transport and piezoelectric properties of a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured thin film, a hybrid cell was designed and the total thickness was below 500 nm on a plastic substrate. Piezoelectric touch signals were demonstrated under independent and simultaneous operations with respect to photo-induced charges. Different levels of piezoelectric output signals from different magnitudes of touching pressures suggest new user-interface functions from our hybrid cell. From a signal controller, the decoupled performance of a hybrid cell as an energy harvester and a touch sensor was confirmed. Our hybrid approach does not require additional assembly processes for such multiplex systems of an energy harvester and a touch sensor since we utilize the coupled material properties of ZnO and output signal processing. Furthermore, the hybrid cell can provide a multi-type energy harvester by both solar and mechanical touching energies. PMID:20829570

Choi, Dukhyun; Lee, Keun Young; Lee, Kang Hyuck; Kim, Eok Su; Kim, Tae Sang; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Sang-Woo; Choi, Jae-Young; Kim, Jong Min

2010-10-01

245

Role of sex in externally motivated self-touching gestures.  

PubMed

Self-touching gestures can be externally induced by the verbal presentation of anxiety-inducing stimuli and the active discussion of a passage. The frequency of these self-touching gestures appears to be affected by the individual interacting with the topic, the type of discourse (listening or discussing), the type of stimulus (canaries or leeches), and the interaction between the types of discourse and stimulus. This study assessed these variables as well as the sex of the participant and the order of presentation of stimulus type, neither of which were statistically significant. Participants were read two passages, one about a topic (leeches) expected to produce anxiety and the other about a topic (canaries) not expected to do so, and asked to answer questions about the passages. The number of self-touches was counted by an observer in another room. Each participant had both types of discourse (listening and discussing) and both types of stimulus (canaries and leeches). There was no significant difference between the number of self-touches by participants with either the male or female reader. Discussion as a method of discourse was associated with a significantly greater number of self-touches than listening. The interaction between discourse type and stimulus type was also significant. The combination of the anxiety-producing stimulus and the active discourse (discussion) produced the highest average number of self-touches. PMID:12365266

Heaven, Laura; McBrayer, Dan; Prince, Bob

2002-08-01

246

The ability of Papaya ringspot virus strains overcoming the transgenic resistance of papaya conferred by the coat protein gene is not correlated with higher degrees of sequence divergence from the transgene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coat protein (CP) gene mediated transgenic resistance is found to be the best approach for protecting papaya plants against the destructive disease caused by Papaya ringspot viruses(PRSV). In order to study the variability of PRSV and the potential threat to the CP-transgenic resistance, five virus isolates were collected from transgenic plants of papaya line 16-0-1, which carry the CP

Savarni Tripathi; Huey-jiunn Bau; Li-fang Chen; Shyi-dong Yeh

2004-01-01

247

Industrial Hygiene Report, Walk-Through Survey, Papaya Packing/Shipping Facilities, Hilo, Hawaii, July 1983,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Worker exposure to ethylene-dibromide (EDB) was investigated at three papaya packing and shipping facilities (SIC-0723) in Hilo, Hawaii. Breathing zone samples were collected in the three facilities over a three day period. Blind spikes were submitted as ...

D. Clapp

1983-01-01

248

100,000,000 Taps: Analysis and Improvement of Touch Performance in the Large  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touchscreens became the dominant input device for smartphones. Users' touch behaviour has been widely studied in lab studies with a relative low number of participants. In contrast, we published a game in the Android Market that records the touch behaviour when executing a controlled task to collect large amounts of touch events. Players' task is to simply touch circles appearing

Niels Henze; Enrico Rukzio; Susanne Boll

2011-01-01

249

A novel papaya ACC oxidase gene ( CP-ACO2) associated with late stage fruit ripening and leaf senescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase cDNA clone (CP-ACO2, 1485 bp) was isolated from papaya for the first time. The deduced amino acid sequence shares 77% identity with the previously reported papaya CP-ACO1. Genomic Southern analysis with gene specific probes showed that CP-ACO2 is single copy in papaya genome. It was also identified to be ethylene and wounding inducible, an observation

Yu-Ting Chen; Yi-Ru Lee; Chih-Yuan Yang; Yuh-Tai Wang; Shang-Fa Yang; Jei-Fu Shaw

2003-01-01

250

Molecular characterization of a severe isolate of papaya ringspot virus in Mexico and its relationship with other isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The virus most often reported in papaya (Carica papaya L.) is papaya ringspot (PRSV). The aim of this work was the molecular genomic characterization of a Mexican severe isolate\\u000a of PRSV-P “Mex-VrPO” (isolate from the State of Veracruz in Paso de Ovejas) as well as its comparison with other isolates\\u000a from other world regions. The linear, assembled, single-strand positive sense

Juan Carlos Noa-Carrazana; Diego González-de-León; Laura Silva-Rosales

2007-01-01

251

Genetic mapping of a PRSV-P resistance gene in “highland papaya” based on inheritance of RAF markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya ringspot virus type P (PRSV-P) is a significant disease of Carica papaya. A major gene for PRSV-P resistance has been mapped in Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis, a distant relative of C. papaya. This was achieved by genetic mapping of the resistance phenotype and inherited, dominant, polymorphic randomly amplified DNA fingerprint (RAF) markers in F2 progenies of V. parviflora and V. cundinamarcensis.

S. Dillon; C. Ramage; R. Drew; S. Ashmore

2005-01-01

252

Finger pad friction and its role in grip and touch  

PubMed Central

Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick–slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function.

Adams, Michael J.; Johnson, Simon A.; Lefevre, Philippe; Levesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; Andre, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

2013-01-01

253

Characterization of Insertion Sites in Rainbow Papaya, the First Commercialized Transgenic Fruit Crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inserts and insert sites in transgenic, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV)-resistant commercial papaya Rainbow and SunUp, were characterized\\u000a as part of a petition to Japan to allow import of fresh fruit of these cultivars from the U.S. and to provide data for a larger\\u000a study aimed at understanding the global impact of DNA transformation on whole genome structure. The number and

Jon Y. Suzuki; Savarni Tripathi; Gustavo A. Fermín; Fuh-Jyh Jan; Shaobin Hou; Jimmy H. Saw; Christine M. Ackerman; Qingyi Yu; Michael C. Schatz; Karen Y. Pitz; Marcela Yépes; Maureen M. M. Fitch; Richard M. Manshardt; Jerry L. Slightom; Stephen A. Ferreira; Steven L. Salzberg; Maqsudul Alam; Ray Ming; Paul H. Moore; Dennis Gonsalves

2008-01-01

254

Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain\\u000a bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic\\u000a solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest

Pedro Chávez-Quintal; Tania González-Flores; Ingrid Rodríguez-Buenfil; Santiago Gallegos-Tintoré

2011-01-01

255

Hormonal changes in papaya seedlings subjected to progressive water stress and re-watering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes on abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels were investigated in papaya seedlings\\u000a (Carica papaya L.) cv. “Baixinho de Santa Amalia” under progressive water stress and subsequent rehydration. Also, the behaviour of leaf\\u000a gas exchange and leaf growth was determined under stress condition. The results indicated that ABA and JA differ in their\\u000a pattern of

Jalel Mahouachi; Vicent Arbona; Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas

2007-01-01

256

Transcript profiling of papaya fruit reveals differentially expressed genes associated with fruit ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit has a short shelf life due to fast ripening induced by ethylene, but little is known about the genetic control of ripening and attributes of fruit quality. Therefore, we identified ripening-related genes affected by ethylene using cDNA-AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism of cDNA). Transcript profiling of non-induced and ethylene-induced fruit samples was performed, and 71

João Paulo Fabi; Luana Regina Baratelli Carelli Mendes; Franco Maria Lajolo; João Roberto Oliveira do Nascimento

2010-01-01

257

Effects of chitosan coating on mass transfer during osmotic dehydration of papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of chitosan coatings in the osmotic dehydration of scalded cut papaya var. Red Maradol in two ripening stages (green and ripped). Papaya cubic cuts (1cm3) were divided into three groups depending on the treatments: without chitosan coatings; with chitosan coatings at 1% (w\\/v) in lactic acid 1% (v\\/v) and Tween

M. García; R. Díaz; Y. Martínez; A. Casariego

2010-01-01

258

Ethylene action blockade and cold storage affect ripening of ‘Golden’ papaya fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effects of ethylene action blockade and cold storage on the ripening of ‘Golden’\\u000a papaya fruit. Papayas harvested at maturity stage 1 (up to 15% yellow skin) were evaluated. Half of the fruits, whether treated\\u000a or not treated with 100 nL L?1 of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), were stored at 23°C, while the other half were

Ilana Urbano Bron; Angelo Pedro Jacomino

2009-01-01

259

Papaya ?-galactosidase\\/galactanase isoforms in differential cell wall hydrolysis and fruit softening during ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential significance of the previously reported papaya (Carica papaya L.) ?-galactosidase\\/galactanase (?-d-galactoside galactohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.23) isoforms, ?-gal I, II and III, as softening enzymes during ripening was evaluated for hydrolysis of pectins while still structurally attached to unripe fruit cell wall, and hemicelluloses that were already solubilized in 4 M alkali. The enzymes were capable of differentially hydrolyzing the cell

Hamid Lazan; Syu-Yih Ng; Lee-Yin Goh; Zainon Mohd Ali

2004-01-01

260

High frequency somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from papaya hypocotyl callus  

Microsoft Academic Search

High frequency somatic embryogenesis in papaya (Carica papaya L.) tissue cultures was achieved by culturing hypocotyl sections from ten-day-old seedlings on half-strength Murashige and Skoog salts (MS) medium containing modified MS vitamins, 2.3 to 112.5 µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d), 400 mg l-1 glutamine, and 6% sucrose. Four hermaphroditic Hawaiian cultivars produced embryogenic calluses after ten to 14 weeks of culture

Maureen M. M. Fitch

1993-01-01

261

Breaking the intergeneric hybridization barrier in Carica papaya and Vasconcellea cauliflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation was undertaken to develop PRSV (Papaya ringspot virus) resistant hybrids through intergeneric hybridization. Intergeneric hybridization was done involving nine Carica papaya cultivars as female and Vasconcellea cauliflora as male. To break the intergeneric hybridization barrier, various nutrient combinations were used. Among the combinations used, sucrose 5%, sucrose 5%+boron 0.5% and sucrose 5%+CaCl2 0.5% improved the fruit set

R. Jayavalli; T. N. Balamohan; N. Manivannan; M. Govindaraj

2011-01-01

262

Genomics of Helper Component Proteinase Reveals Effective Strategy for Papaya Ringspot Virus Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) causes severe economic losses in both cucurbits and papaya throughout the tropics and subtropics. Development of PRSV-resistant\\u000a transgenic plants faces a major hurdle in achieving resistance against geographically distinct isolates. One of the major\\u000a reasons of failing to achieve the broad-spectrum PRSV resistance is the involvement of silencing suppressor proteins of viral\\u000a origin. Here, based on

Satendra K. Mangrauthia; Priyanka Singh; Shelly Praveen

2010-01-01

263

Role of Genetic Recombination in the Molecular Architecture of Papaya ringspot virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) has a single-stranded RNA genome and causes severe economic losses both in cucurbits and papaya worldwide. The extent\\u000a to which the genome of PRSV is shaped by recombination provides an understanding of the molecular evolution of PRSV and helps\\u000a in studying features such as host specificity, geographic distribution, and its emergence as new epidemics. The PRSV-P-Indian

Satendra K. Mangrauthia; B. Parameswari; R. K. Jain; Shelly Praveen

2008-01-01

264

The first record of papaya ringspot virus-type P from Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya ringspot virus-type P (PRSV-P) has been identified on papaya (papaw) in Australia for the first time. Outbreaks of\\u000a the disease were recorded in south-east Queensland at Wamuran, Dayboro and Morayfield in the vicinity of Caboolture, in suburban\\u000a Brisbane and at Beaudesert and Bundaberg during February and March 1991. Infected plants showed typical symptoms reported\\u000a from other countries, including the

J. E. ThomasA; R. L. DodmanB

1993-01-01

265

The neural circuits and sensory channels mediating harsh touch sensation in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

Most animals can distinguish two distinct types of touch stimuli: gentle (innocuous) and harsh (noxious/painful) touch, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. C. elegans is a highly successful model for the study of gentle touch sensation. However, little is known about harsh touch sensation in this organism. Here we characterize harsh touch sensation in C. elegans. We show that C. elegans exhibits differential behavioral responses to harsh touch and gentle touch. Laser ablations identify distinct sets of sensory neurons and interneurons required for harsh touch sensation at different body segments. Optogenetic stimulation of the circuitry can drive behavior. Patch-clamp recordings reveal that TRP family and amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels mediate touch-evoked currents in different sensory neurons. Our work identifies the neural circuits and characterizes the sensory channels mediating harsh touch sensation in C. elegans, establishing it as a genetic model for studying this sensory modality.

Li, Wei; Kang, Lijun; Piggott, Beverly J.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Shawn Xu, X. Z.

2011-01-01

266

Postharvest Variation in Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymes of Papaya (Carica papaya L.) during Fruit Ripening 1  

PubMed Central

Pectin methylesterase (PME), polygalacturonase (PG), xylanase, cellulase, and proteinase activity were determined and related to respiration, ethylene evolution, and changes in skin color of papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit from harvest through to the start of fruit breakdown. PME gradually increased from the start of the climacteric rise reaching a peak 2 days after the respiratory peak. PG and xylanase were not detectable in the preclimacteric stage but increased during the climacteric: during the post climacteric stage, the PG declined to a level one-quarter of peak activity with xylanase activity returning to zero. Cellulase activity gradually increased 3-fold after harvest to peak at the same time as PME, 2 days after the edible stage. Proteinase declined throughout the climacteric and postclimacteric phases. A close relationship exists between PG and xylanase and the rise in respiration, ethylene evolution, and softening. Cultivar differences in postclimacteric levels of enzymic activity were not detected. An inhibitor of cellulase activity was detected in preclimacteric fruit. The inhibitor was not benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC). BITC did inhibit PG activity, though no inhibitor of PG activity was detected in preclimacteric homogenates when BITC was highest. The results indicate that inhibitors did not play a direct role in controlling wall softening.

Paull, Robert E.; Chen, Nancy Jung

1983-01-01

267

Touch perceptions across skin sites: differences between sensitivity, direction discrimination and pleasantness  

PubMed Central

Human skin is innervated with different tactile afferents, which are found at varying densities over the body. We investigate how the relationships between tactile pleasantness, sensitivity and discrimination differ across the skin. Tactile pleasantness was assessed by stroking a soft brush over the skin, using five velocities (0.3, 1, 3, 10, 30 cm s?1), known to differentiate hedonic touch, and pleasantness ratings were gained. The ratings velocity-profile is known to correlate with firing in unmyelinated C-tactile (CT) afferents. Tactile sensitivity thresholds were determined using monofilament force detection and the tactile discrimination level was obtained in the direction discrimination of a moving probe; both tasks readily activate myelinated touch receptors. Perceptions were measured over five skin sites: forehead, arm, palm, thigh and shin. The assessment of tactile pleasantness over the skin resulted in a preference for the middle velocities (1–10 cm s?1), where higher ratings were gained compared to the slowest and fastest velocities. This preference in tactile pleasantness was found across all the skin sites, apart from at the palm, where no decrease in pleasantness for the faster stroking velocities was seen. We find that tactile sensitivity and discrimination vary across the skin, where the forehead and palm show increased acuity. Tactile sensitivity and discrimination levels also correlated significantly, although the tactile acuity did not relate to the perceived pleasantness of touch. Tactile pleasantness varied in a subtle way across skin sites, where the middle velocities were always rated as the most pleasant, but the ratings at hairy skin sites were more receptive to changes in stroking velocity. We postulate that although the mechanoreceptive afferent physiology may be different over the skin, the perception of pleasant touch can be interpreted using all of the available incoming somatosensory information in combination with central processing.

Ackerley, Rochelle; Carlsson, Ida; Wester, Henric; Olausson, Hakan; Backlund Wasling, Helena

2014-01-01

268

Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus  

PubMed Central

Background The cysteine proteinases in papaya latex have been shown to have potent anthelmintic properties in monogastric hosts such as rodents, pigs and humans, but this has not been demonstrated in ruminants. Methods In two experiments, sheep were infected concurrently with 5,000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 10,000 infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and were then treated with the supernatant from a suspension of papaya latex from day 28 to day 32 post-infection. Faecal egg counts were monitored from a week before treatment until the end of the experiment and worm burdens were assessed on day 35 post-infection. Results We found that the soluble fraction of papaya latex had a potent in vivo effect on the abomasal nematode H. contortus, but not on the small intestinal nematode T. colubriformis. This effect was dose-dependent and at tolerated levels of gavage with papaya latex (117 ?mol of active papaya latex supernatant for 4 days), the H. contortus worm burdens were reduced by 98%. Repeated treatment, daily for 4 days, was more effective than a single dose, but efficacy was not enhanced by concurrent treatment with the antacid cimetidine. Conclusions Our results provide support for the idea that cysteine proteinases derived from papaya latex may be developed into novel anthelmintics for the treatment of lumenal stages of gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep, particularly those parasitizing the abomasum.

2011-01-01

269

Power, progress and prevarication: local knowledge and GE papaya in Thailand.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered (GE) papaya was developed in the 1990s to improve the livelihoods of small scale farmers in Thailand. Yet these farmers have been excluded from the discourse around its deregulation and deployment. While elite stakeholders continue to debate in Bangkok, little is known about small scale farmers' understanding of biotechnology, their perceptions of the technology and whether or not they are likely to be adopters if it became available. In this case study, I report on farmer knowledge of agricultural biotechnology and genetically engineered papaya in northeast Thailand. Forty farmers in four villages were surveyed with regard to their knowledge and perceptions of GE papaya. A qualitative grounded theory approach was employed to understand their responses, from which three themes emerged: progress, power and prevarication. From these themes, the decision-making process of farmers seems to be dominated by their existing local knowledge and their interest in progressing their economic status. The responses of small-scale Isaan farmers provide a new perspective on the debate over GE virus-resistant papaya in Thailand. Based on the results of this study, we can conclude that this small subset of Thai papaya growers perceive GE virus-resistant papaya as a compatible innovation that is likely to be adopted by Thai farmers if it becomes available. PMID:22538228

Davidson, Sarah N

2012-01-01

270

Effect of packaging materials and storage environment on postharvest quality of papaya fruit.  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of packaging materials and storage environments on shelf life of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.). A factorial combination of five packaging materials and two storage environments using randomized complete block design with three replications were used. The papaya fruits were evaluated for weight loss, percentage marketability, firmness, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar and total sugar content. The packaged and cooled fruits remained firmer than unpackaged and evaporatively cooled fruits. Higher chemical compositions were recorded in the control fruits stored under ambient conditions during the earlier times of storage. Packaging and cooling maintained the chemical quality of papaya fruits better than the control sample fruits towards the end of storage periods. The evaporatively cooled storage combined with packaging improved the shelf life of papaya fruits by more than two fold. The polyethylene bag packaging combined with evaporatively cooled storage maintained the superior quality of papaya fruit for a period of 21 days. This integrated agro-technology is recommended for postharvest loss reduction biotechnology in hot regions. PMID:24876636

Azene, Mulualem; Workneh, Tilahun Seyoum; Woldetsadik, Kebede

2014-06-01

271

Papain protects papaya trees from herbivorous insects: role of cysteine proteases in latex.  

PubMed

Many plants contain latex that exudes when leaves are damaged, and a number of proteins and enzymes have been found in it. The roles of those latex proteins and enzymes are as yet poorly understood. We found that papain, a cysteine protease in latex of the Papaya tree (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), is a crucial factor in the defense of the papaya tree against lepidopteran larvae such as oligophagous Samia ricini (Saturniidae) and two notorious polyphagous pests, Mamestra brassicae (Noctuidae) and Spodoptera litura (Noctuidae). Leaves of a number of laticiferous plants, including papaya and a wild fig, Ficus virgata (Moraceae), showed strong toxicity and growth inhibition against lepidopteran larvae, though no apparent toxic factors from these species have been reported. When the latex was washed off, the leaves of these lactiferous plants lost toxicity. Latexes of both papaya and the wild fig were rich in cysteine-protease activity. E-64, a cysteine protease-specific inhibitor, completely deprived the leaves of toxicity when painted on the surface of papaya and fig leaves. Cysteine proteases, such as papain, ficin, and bromelain, all showed toxicity. The results suggest that plant latex and the proteins in it, cysteine proteases in particular, provide plants with a general defense mechanism against herbivorous insects. PMID:14731257

Konno, Kotaro; Hirayama, Chikara; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Tateishi, Ken; Tamura, Yasumori; Hattori, Makoto; Kohno, Katsuyuki

2004-02-01

272

Molecular cloning and characterization of a ripening-induced polygalacturonase related to papaya fruit softening.  

PubMed

Pulp softening is one of the most remarkable changes during ripening of papaya (Carica papaya) fruit and it is a major cause for post-harvest losses. Although cell wall catabolism has a major influence on papaya fruit, quality information on the gene products involved in this process is limited. A full-length polygalacturonase cDNA (cpPG) was isolated from papaya pulp and used to study gene expression and enzyme activity during normal and ethylene-induced ripening and after exposure of the fruit to 1-MCP. Northern-blot analysis demonstrated that cpPG transcription was strongly induced during ripening and was highly ethylene-dependent. The accumulation of cpPG transcript was paralleled by enzyme activity, and inversely correlated to the pulp firmness. Preliminary in silico analysis of the cpPG genomic sequence revealed the occurrence of putative regulatory motifs in the promoter region that may help to explain the effects of plant hormones and non-abiotic stresses on papaya fruit firmness. This newly isolated cpPG is an important candidate for functional characterization and manipulation to control the process of pulp softening during papaya ripening. PMID:19703778

Fabi, João Paulo; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana; Seymour, Graham B; Lajolo, Franco M; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

2009-01-01

273

Comparative development and impact of transgenic papayas in Hawaii, Jamaica, and Venezuela.  

PubMed

We present data concerning the creation of transgenic papayas resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and their adoption by three different countries: the United States (e.g., Hawaii), Jamaica, and Venezuela. Although the three sets of transgenic papayas showed effective resistance to PRSV, the adoption rate in each country has varied from full utilization in Hawaii to aggressive testing but delay in deregulating of the product in Jamaica to rejection at an early stage in Venezuela. Factors that contributed to the rapid adoption in Hawaii include a timely development of the transgenic product, PRSV causing severe damage to the papaya industry, close collaboration between researchers and the industry, and the existence of procedures for deregulating a transgenic product. In Jamaica, the technology for developing the initial field-testing of the product progressed rather rapidly, but the process of deregulation has been slowed down owing to the lack of sustained governmental efforts to complete the regulatory procedures for transgenic crops. In Venezuela, the technology to develop and greenhouse test the transgenic papaya has moved abreast with the Jamaica project, but the field testing of the transgenic papaya within the country was stopped very early on by actions by people opposed to transgenic products. The three cases are discussed in an effort to provide information on factors, other than technology, that can influence the adoption of a transgenic product. PMID:15310936

Fermín, Gustavo; Tennant, Paula; Gonsalves, Carol; Lee, David; Gonsalves, Dennis

2005-01-01

274

iPhone\\/iPod Touch as Input Devices for Navigation in Immersive Virtual Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

iPhone and iPod Touch are multi-touch handheld devices that pro- vide new possibilities for interaction techniques. We describe iPhone\\/iPod Touch implementation of a navigation interaction tech- nique originally developed for a larger multi-touch device (i.e. Lemur). The interaction technique implemented on an iPhone\\/iPod Touch was used for navigation tasks in a CAVE virtual environ- ment. We performed a pilot study

Ji-sun Kim; Denis Gracanin; Kresimir Matkovic; Francis K. H. Quek

2009-01-01

275

Mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences in synesthesia  

PubMed Central

A fundamental question in the field of synesthesia is whether it is associated with other cognitive phenomena. The current study examined synesthesia's connections with phenomenal traits of mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences, as well as the representation of the three phenomena in the population, across gender and domain of work/study. Mirror-touch is the automatic, involuntary experience of tactile sensation on one's own body when others are being touched. For example, seeing another person's arm being stroked can evoke physical touch sensation on one's own arm. Ticker tape is the automatic visualization of spoken words or thoughts, such as a teleprompter. For example, when spoken to, a ticker taper might see mentally the spoken words displayed in front of his face or as coming out of the speaker's mouth. To explore synesthesia's associations with these phenomena, a diverse group (n = 3743) was systematically recruited from eight universities and one public museum in France to complete an online screening. Of the 1017 eligible respondents, synesthetes (across all subtypes) reported higher rates of mirror-touch and ticker tape than non-synesthetes, suggesting that synesthesia is associated with these phenomenal traits. However, effect sizes were small and we could not rule out that response bias influenced these associations. Mirror-touch and ticker tape were independent. No differences were found across gender or domain of work and study in prevalence of synesthesia, mirror-touch or ticker tape. The prevalence of ticker tape, unknown so far, was estimated at about 7%, an intermediate rate between estimates of grapheme-color (2–4%) and sequence-space synesthesia (9–14%). Within synesthesia, grapheme-personification, also called ordinal-linguistic personification (OLP) was the most common subtype and was estimated around 12%. Co-occurences of the different types of synesthesia were higher than chance, though at the level of small effect sizes.

Chun, Charlotte A.; Hupe, Jean-Michel

2013-01-01

276

The representation of social facial touch in rat barrel cortex.  

PubMed

Controlled presentation of stimuli to anesthetized [1] or awake [2] animals suggested that neurons in sensory cortices respond to elementary features [3, 4], but we know little about neuronal responses evoked by social interactions. Here we investigate processing in the barrel cortex of rats engaging in social facial touch [5, 6]. Sensory stimulation by conspecifics differs from classic whisker stimuli such as deflections, contact poles [7, 8], or textures [9, 10]. A large fraction of barrel cortex neurons responded to facial touch. Social touch responses peaked when animals aligned their faces and contacted each other by multiple whiskers with small, irregular whisker movements. Object touch was associated with larger, more regular whisker movements, and object responses were weaker than social responses. Whisker trimming abolished responses. During social touch, neurons in males increased their firing on average by 44%, while neurons in females increased their firing by only 19%. In females, socially evoked and ongoing firing rates were more than 1.5-fold higher in nonestrus than in estrus. Barrel cortex represented socially different contacts by distinct firing rates, and the variation of activity with sex and sexual status could contribute to the generation of gender-specific neural constructs of conspecifics. PMID:24361064

Bobrov, Evgeny; Wolfe, Jason; Rao, Rajnish P; Brecht, Michael

2014-01-01

277

Optical touch sensing: practical bounds for design and performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Touch sensitive screens are used in many applications ranging in size from smartphones and tablets to display walls and collaborative surfaces. In this study, we consider optical touch sensing, a technology best suited for large-scale touch surfaces. Optical touch sensing utilizes cameras and light sources placed along the edge of the display. Within this framework, we first find a sufficient number of cameras necessary for identifying a convex polygon touching the screen, using a continuous light source on the boundary of a circular domain. We then find the number of cameras necessary to distinguish between two circular objects in a circular or rectangular domain. Finally, we use Matlab to simulate the polygonal mesh formed from distributing cameras and light sources on a circular domain. Using this, we compute the number of polygons in the mesh and the maximum polygon area to give us information about the accuracy of the configuration. We close with summary and conclusions, and pointers to possible future research directions.

Bläßle, Alexander; Janbek, Bebart; Liu, Lifeng; Nakamura, Kanna; Nolan, Kimberly; Paraschiv, Victor

2013-02-01

278

Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

2004-09-01

279

Semen quality in papaya workers with long term exposure to ethylene dibromide.  

PubMed Central

To examine whether long term occupational exposure to ethylene dibromide (EDB) affects semen quality a cross sectional study of semen quality was conducted among 46 men employed in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii, with an average duration of exposure of five years and a geometric mean breathing zone exposure to airborne EDB of 88 ppb (eight hour time weighted average) and peak exposures of up to 262 ppb. The comparison group consisted of 43 unexposed men from a nearby sugar refinery. Statistically significant decreases in sperm count per ejaculate, the percentage of viable and motile sperm, and increases in the proportion of sperm with specific morphological abnormalities (tapered heads, absent heads, and abnormal tails) were observed among exposed men by comparison with controls after consideration of smoking, caffeine and alcohol consumption, subject's age, abstinence, history of urogenital disorders, and other potentially confounding variables. No effect of exposure to EDB on sperm velocity, the overall proportion of sperm with normal morphology, or YFF bodies was observed. These data strongly suggest that EDB may increase the risk of reproductive impairment in workers at exposure levels near the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended limit of 45 ppb (as an eight hour time weighted average) and far below the current standard of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration of 20 ppm.

Ratcliffe, J M; Schrader, S M; Steenland, K; Clapp, D E; Turner, T; Hornung, R W

1987-01-01

280

Evidence for a protein tether involved in somatic touch  

PubMed Central

The gating of ion channels by mechanical force underlies the sense of touch and pain. The mode of gating of mechanosensitive ion channels in vertebrate touch receptors is unknown. Here we show that the presence of a protein link is necessary for the gating of mechanosensitive currents in all low-threshold mechanoreceptors and some nociceptors of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Using TEM, we demonstrate that a protein filament with of length ?100 nm is synthesized by sensory neurons and may link mechanosensitive ion channels in sensory neurons to the extracellular matrix. Brief treatment of sensory neurons with non-specific and site-specific endopeptidases destroys the protein tether and abolishes mechanosensitive currents in sensory neurons without affecting electrical excitability. Protease-sensitive tethers are also required for touch-receptor function in vivo. Thus, unlike the majority of nociceptors, cutaneous mechanoreceptors require a distinct protein tether to transduce mechanical stimuli.

Hu, Jing; Chiang, Li-Yang; Koch, Manuel; Lewin, Gary R

2010-01-01

281

Adapting deployed touch screen displays for NVG compatibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the battlefield becomes "digitized", all arms of the military are deploying COTS displays in the form of Portable Notebooks, Kneeboards, GPS and PDA's in ever greater numbers. Many of these COTS equipments and associated displays use full color LCD's and resistive touch panels as the operator-interface. These displays are a challenge to those who must modify the COTS equipment for NVG compatibility. Traditional NVG filter options have relatively poor color rendering and are too thick or rigid to interface with touch panels. In addition, many of these displays do not have sufficient dimming capabilities to allow covert night-time operations and do not have sufficient luminance for daytime operations. Polymeric materials recently developed by Wamco have been specifically designed for applications where traditional NVG filters have failed. These applications will be discussed and quantified in terms of NVG Compatibility, Color Rendering, Luminance Contrast and Daytime Readability, Touch Screen Sensitivity and Environmental Performance.

Gaudette, Claude

2008-05-01

282

A New Approach to Defining Human Touch Temperature Standards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Defining touch temperature limits for skin contact with both hot and cold objects is important to prevent pain and skin damage, which may affect task performance or become a safety concern. Pain and skin damage depend on the skin temperature during contact, which depends on the contact thermal conductance, the object's initial temperature, and its material properties. However, previous spacecraft standards have incorrectly defined touch temperature limits in terms of a single object temperature value for all materials, or have provided limited material-specific values which do not cover the gamut of likely designs. A new approach has been developed for updated NASA standards, which defines touch temperature limits in terms of skin temperature at pain onset for bare skin contact with hot and cold objects. The authors have developed an analytical verification method for safe hot and cold object temperatures for contact times from 1 second to infinity.

Ungar, Eugene; Stroud, Kenneth

2010-01-01

283

An ergonomics study of thumb movements on smartphone touch screen.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationships between thumb muscle activity and thumb operating tasks on a smartphone touch screen with one-hand posture. Six muscles in the right thumb and forearm were targeted in this study, namely adductor pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis brevis (APB), abductor pollicis longus, first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and extensor digitorum. The performance measures showed that the thumb developed fatigue rapidly when tapping on smaller buttons (diameter: 9 mm compared with 3 mm), and moved more slowly in flexion-extension than in adduction-abduction orientation. Meanwhile, the electromyography and perceived exertion values of FDI significantly increased in small button and flexion-extension tasks, while those of APB were greater in the adduction-abduction task. This study reveals that muscle effort among thumb muscles on a touch screen smartphone varies according to the task, and suggests that the use of small touch buttons should be minimised for better thumb performance. PMID:24707989

Xiong, Jinghong; Muraki, Satoshi

2014-06-01

284

Gentle touch activates the anterior prefrontal cortex: an NIRS study.  

PubMed

Gentle touching of the hand activates emotion- and reward-related regions of the brain. The present study investigated activation of the prefrontal cortex by gentle sweeps of the palm or forearm with three materials (wood, velvet, paintbrush) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Sweeps of the left palm with a sensuous velvet fabric increased the oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration in the frontal-polar cortex (FPC) and a part of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), compared to a neutral touch produced by rounded wood. Pleasantness ratings were higher for the velvet than wood. In conclusion, the present study revealed the involvement of the FPC/OFC in pleasant emotion produced by gentle touch to the hand. PMID:23538146

Kida, Tetsuo; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

2013-01-01

285

A New Approach to Defining Human Touch Temperature Standards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Defining touch temperature limits for skin contact with both hot and cold objects is important to prevent pain and skin damage, which may affect task performance or become a safety concern. Pain and skin damage depend on the resulting skin temperature during contact, which depends on the object s initial temperature, its material properties and its ability to transfer heat. However, previous spacecraft standards have incorrectly defined touch temperature limits in terms of a single object temperature value for all materials, or have provided limited material-specific values which do not cover the gamut of most designs. A new approach is being used in new NASA standards, which defines touch temperature limits in terms of skin temperature at pain onset for bare skin contact with hot and cold objects. The authors have developed an analytical verification method for safe hot and cold object temperatures for contact times from 1 second to infinity.

Ungar, Eugene; Stroud, Kenneth

2009-01-01

286

Analysis of Carica papaya Telomeres and Telomere-Associated Proteins: Insights into the Evolution of Telomere Maintenance in Brassicales  

PubMed Central

Telomeres are terminal regions of linear eukaryotic chromosomes that are critical for genome stability and continued cell proliferation. The draft assembly of the papaya genome provides an opportunity to analyze and compare the evolution of telomeric DNA sequence composition and telomere maintenance machinery in this and other organisms of the Brassicales Order, which includes Arabidopsis. Here we investigate telomere size and sequence variation at papaya chromosome ends. As with most other plant species, papaya telomeres consist of TTTAGGG repeats. However, in contrast to members of the closely related Brassicaceae family, telomeres in papaya are ~10-fold longer. Sequence analysis reveals that many centromereproximal telomere repeats in papaya harbor nucleotide substitutions and insertions of Gs and Ts. In contrast, we found very few N-to-C substitutions, and even fewer instances of nucleotide deletion, suggesting that a six-nucleotide telomere repeat is not well tolerated. The papaya genome encodes single-copy sequence homologues of several genes involved in telomere maintenance and chromosome end protection, including the Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT) and Protection Of Telomeres (POT1). Notably, unlike Arabidopsis, which encodes six Telomere Repeat binding Factor-like (TRFL) proteins that bind double-stranded telomere DNA, papaya appears to encode only two such proteins. Thus, the more streamlined genome of papaya will provide an excellent resource for comparative and functional analysis of telomeres in plants.

Shakirov, E. V.; Salzberg, S. L.; Alam, M.

2010-01-01

287

Molecular diagnosis of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) from leaf samples of Carica papaya L. using conventional and real-time RT-PCR.  

PubMed

Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease. This study describes two methods for molecular diagnosis of PMeV using conventional and real-time PCR. These methods were shown to be more efficient than current methods of viral detection using extraction of PMeV dsRNA and observation of symptoms in the field. The methods described here were used to evaluate the effect of inoculation of papaya plants with purified PMeV dsRNA on the progress of PMeV infection. A single inoculation with PMeV dsRNA was observed to delay the progress of the virus infection by several weeks. The possibility of vertical transmission of PMeV was also investigated. No evidence was found for PMeV transmission through seeds collected from diseased fruit. The implications of these results for the epidemiology of PMeV and the management of papaya sticky disease are discussed. PMID:22193169

Abreu, Paolla M V; Piccin, João G; Rodrigues, Silas P; Buss, David S; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Patricia M B

2012-03-01

288

A touch of cooling may help  

PubMed Central

Expanded abstract Citation Schortgen F, Clabault K, Katsahian S, Devaquet J, Mercat A, Deye N, Dellamonica J, Bouadma L, Cook F, Beji O, Brun-Buisson C, Lemaire F, Brochard L: Multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial of fever control by external cooling to diminish vasopressor requirements in septic shock. Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, France. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2012, 185:1088-1095. Background Fever control may improve vascular tone and decrease oxygen consumption; however, fever may help combat infection. Methods Objective To determine whether fever control by external cooling diminishes vasopressor requirements in septic shock. Design A multicenter randomized controlled trial. Setting Seven ICUs in France. Subjects Febrile patients with septic shock requiring vasopressors, mechanical ventilation, and sedation. Intervention Patients were randomly allocated to external cooling to achieve normothermia (36.5 to 37.8°C) for 48 hours. Outcomes The primary outcome was the number of patients with a 50% decrease in baseline vasopressor dose after 48 hours. Secondary outcomes were the numbers of patients with a 50% baseline vasopressor dose decrease after 2, 12, 24, and 36 hours, the percentage of patients requiring a vasopressor dose increase within 48 hours of baseline, the percentage of patients with shock reversal in the ICU, the change in Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (?SOFA) versus baseline, and all-cause mortality on day 14 and at ICU and hospital discharge. Results There were 200 patients randomized, 101 to the cooling group and 99 to the no-cooling group. The percentage of patients with a 50% vasopressor dose decrease versus baseline was not significantly different at 48 hours of treatment (72% vs. 61%; absolute difference, 11%; 95% confidence interval (CI), -23 to 2; P = 0.4), although it was at 12 hours (54% vs. 20%; absolute difference, 34%; 95% CI, -46 to -21; P < 0.001). External cooling significantly reduced the number of patients needing a vasopressor dose increase (34% vs. 52%; absolute difference, -18%; 95% CI, -4 to -31%; P = 0.011) and significantly increased the shock reversal during the study period (86% vs. 73%; absolute difference, 13%; 95% CI, 2 to 25%; P = 0.021). Day 14 mortality was significantly lower in the cooling group (19% vs. 34%; absolute difference, -16%; 95% CI, -28 to -4; P = 0.013), but mortality was not different at ICU and hospital discharge. Conclusions Fever control using external cooling was safe, and decreased vasopressor requirements and early mortality in septic shock.

2013-01-01

289

Influence of chromoplast morphology on carotenoid bioaccessibility of carrot, mango, papaya, and tomato.  

PubMed

Based on the observation of outstanding dissimilarities of the morphology of pigment-containing chromoplasts in nutritionally important carotenoid sources, the bioaccessibility (BA) of carotenoids from edible portions of carrot, mango, papaya, and tomato was compared using an in vitro digestion model. While carrot and tomato contained large carotenoid crystals clearly visible by light microscopy, mango and papaya contained different types of carotenoid-bearing structures. Particularly, ?-carotene is deposited in globular and tubular elements in papaya and mango chromoplasts, where carotenoids accumulate in a lipid-dissolved and liquid-crystalline form, respectively. The highest BA of ?-carotene was found for mango (10.1%), followed by papaya (5.3%), tomato (3.1%), and carrot (0.5%). In our digestion model, differences between total lycopene BA from papaya and tomato were insignificant, possibly since both pigments occur in a solid crystalline deposition form in both fruits. Furthermore, the BA of lutein, ?-cryptoxanthin, and ?-cryptoxanthin esters was shown to be superior to that of the carotenes from the respective food sources. The effect of lipid addition to the different food sources was studied. Although BA was enhanced for most carotenoids, the above-mentioned ranking of BAs of ?-carotene remained unchanged after lipid addition. Consequently, the physical form of carotenoid deposition in plant chromoplasts is suggested to have major impact on their liberation efficiency from the food matrices. PMID:22980866

Schweiggert, Ralf M; Mezger, Dominik; Schimpf, Franziska; Steingass, Christof B; Carle, Reinhold

2012-12-15

290

Modulation of jejunal contractions by extract of Carica papaya L. seeds.  

PubMed

Carica papaya L. (papaya) seed preparations are used in traditional medicine to expel intestinal worms in human and ruminants. In the present study, an ethanol extract of papaya seeds (EEPS; 0.1-6.4 mg/mL) caused concentration-dependent inhibition of jejunal contractions in contrast to corresponding concentrations of DMSO (solvent control). The inhibitory effect of EEPS on jejunal contractions was significantly irreversible. Previous studies have indicated that benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is the main bioactive compound responsible for the anthelmintic activity of papaya seeds. In the present study, standard BITC (0.01-0.64 mmol/L) also caused significant irreversible inhibition of jejunal contractions. Recovery of jejunal contractions after BITC-induced inhibition was weaker than recovery after EEPS-induced inhibition (BITC versus EEPS: 19 +/- 7% vs 38 +/- 13%). Cryosections of the jejunum showed marked morphological damage of the segments treated with BITC in contrast to DMSO-treated segments. EEPS-induced jejunal damage was, however, less marked. These results indicate that papaya seed extract and BITC, its principal bioactive constituent are capable of weakening the contractile capability of rabbit isolated jejunum. It is thus envisaged that at the toxic level that will be needed to kill and expel intestinal worms in vivo, BITC may also cause impairment of intestinal functions. PMID:16161026

Adebiyi, Adebowale; Adaikan, P Ganesan

2005-07-01

291

Active touch in orthopteroid insects: behaviours, multisensory substrates and evolution‡  

PubMed Central

Orthopteroid insects (cockroaches, crickets, locusts and related species) allow examination of active sensory processing in a comparative framework. Some orthopteroids possess long, mobile antennae endowed with many chemo- and mechanoreceptors. When the antennae are touched, an animal's response depends upon the identity of the stimulus. For example, contact with a predator may lead to escape, but contact with a conspecific may usually not. Active touch of an approaching object influences the likelihood that a discrimination of identity will be made. Using cockroaches, we have identified specific descending mechanosensory interneurons that trigger antennal-mediated escape. Crucial sensory input to these cells comes from chordotonal organs within the antennal base. However, information from other receptors on the base or the long antennal flagellum allows active touch to modulate escape probability based on stimulus identity. This is conveyed, at least to some extent, by textural information. Guidance of the antennae in active exploration depends on visual information. Some of the visual interneurons and the motor neurons necessary for visuomotor control have been identified. Comparisons across Orthoptera suggest an evolutionary model where subtle changes in the architecture of interneurons, and of sensorimotor control loops, may explain differing levels of vision–touch interaction in the active guidance of behaviour.

Comer, Christopher; Baba, Yoshichika

2011-01-01

292

Collaboration and interference: Awareness with mice or touch input  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-touch surfaces are becoming increasingly popular. An assumed benefit is that they can facilitate collaborative interactions in co-located groups. In particular, being able to see another's physical actions can enhance awareness, which in turn can support fluid interaction and coordination. However, there is a paucity of empirical evidence or measures to support these claims. We present an analysis of different

Eva Hornecker; Paul Marshall; Nick Sheep Dalton; Yvonne Rogers

2008-01-01

293

High Touch in a High-Tech World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a world of high tech and low touch, it is easy for public relations programs to stray from tried-and-true interpersonal strategies long associated with solid communication planning. New technologies allow communications professionals to quickly send e-mails and telephone calls to selected groups. Social media sites provide users immediate…

Gibson, Cindy L.

2009-01-01

294

Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators and Exciting Materials (HS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan, Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators, and Exciting Materials, high school students learn that heating up a material can rearrange its atoms, and change its properties. The change in the material (a nitinol wire shortens due to heat) activates a lever that exerts force.

Wpsu

2010-02-01

295

Mouse model of touch-evoked itch (alloknesis)  

PubMed Central

Lightly touching normal skin near a site of itch can elicit itch sensation, a phenomenon known as alloknesis. To investigate the neural mechanisms of alloknesis, we have developed an animal model. Low-threshold mechanical stimulation of the skin normally does not elicit any response in naïve C57/BL6 mice. Following acute intradermal (id) injection of histamine in the rostral back, mechanical stimulation 7 mm from the injection site elicited discrete hindlimb scratch bouts directed toward the stimulus. This began at 10 min and peaked 20–40 min post-histamine, declining over the next hour. Histamine itself elicited bouts of scratching not associated with the mechanical stimulus, that ceased after 30 min. Histamine- and touch-evoked scratching was inhibited by the ?-opiate antagonist naltrexone. Touch-evoked scratching was observed following id 5-HT, a PAR-4 agonist and a MrgprC11 agonist BAM8-22, but not chloroquine or a PAR-2 agonist. The histamine H1 receptor antagonist terfenadine prevented scratching and alloknesis evoked by histamine, but not 5-HT, a PAR-4 agonist or a MrgprC11 agonist. In mice with experimental dry skin, there was a time-dependent increase in spontaneous and touch-evoked scratching. This animal model, which to our knowledge is previously unreported, appears to be useful to investigate neural mechanisms of itch and alloknesis.

Akiyama, Tasuku; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Ikoma, Akihiko; Cevikbas, Ferda; Steinhoff, Martin; Carstens, E.

2012-01-01

296

Web-Based Spatial Training Using Handheld Touch Screen Devices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to harness the opportunities for mobility and the new user interfaces that handheld touch screen devices offer, in a non-formal learning context, with a view to developing spatial ability. This research has addressed two objectives: first, analyzing the effects that training can have on spatial visualisation using the…

Martin-Dorta, Norena; Saorin, Jose Luis; Contero, Manuel

2011-01-01

297

Cane Technique: Modifying the Touch Technique for Full Path Coverage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measurements of height of cane hand, cane length, step size, and forearm length of 17 cane using blind (14-21 years old) Ss were taken for the purpose of testing the hypothesis that the touch technique does not provide 100 percent path coverage. (Author)

Uslan, Mark M.

1978-01-01

298

Haptic Augmentation of Science Instruction: Does Touch Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the impact of haptic augmentation of a science inquiry program on students' learning about viruses and nanoscale science. The study assessed how the addition of different types of haptic feedback (active touch and kinesthetic feedback) combined with computer visualizations influenced middle and high school students'…

Jones, M. Gail; Minogue, James; Tretter, Thomas R.; Negishi, Atsuko; Taylor, Russell

2006-01-01

299

Interviewing Young Children about Body Touch and Handling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children ages 3-6 years were interviewed following a scheduled pediatric clinic visit to assess their ability to remember and report incidents of body touch. Follow-up interviews were conducted after one and six months. Results suggest that children actively and accurately process their experiences and that the quality and quantity of their…

Steward, Margaret S.; Steward, David S.

1996-01-01

300

Therapeutic Massage and Healing Touch Improve Symptoms in Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complementary therapies are increasingly used to reduce side effects of cancer treatment, without evidence for their effectiveness. In a randomized, prospective, 2-period, crossover intervention study, the authors tested the effects of therapeutic massage (MT) and healing touch (HT), in comparison to presence alone or standard care, in inducing relaxation and reducing symptoms in 230 subjects. MT and HT lowered blood

Janice Post-White; Mary Ellen Kinney; Kay Savik; Joanna Berntsen Gau; Carol Wilcox; Irving Lerner

2003-01-01

301

Career and Technical Education with a Delicate Touch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are some professions in which tradition holds strong, in which one generation schools the next in the techniques of the trade. These services help us maintain some of our dearest possessions--such as an antique watch or a prized violin--with their specialized skill and delicate touch. But not all of these technicians enter the field through…

Predmore, Sarah R.

2005-01-01

302

Human Figure Drawings and Children's Recall of Touching  

PubMed Central

In 2 studies, children ages 3 to 7 years were asked to recall a series of touches that occurred during a previous staged event. The recall interview took place 1 week after the event in Study 1 and immediately after the event in Study 2. Each recall interview had 2 sections: In 1 section, children were given human figure drawings (HFDs) and were asked to show where the touching took place; in the other section, the same questions were asked without the HFDs (verbal condition). Children were randomly assigned to 2 different conditions: HFD 1st/verbal 2nd or verbal 1st/HFD 2nd. There were 2 major findings. First, HFDs elicited more errors than the verbal condition when used to probe for information that the child had already been asked. Second, regardless of interview method, children had poor recall of the touches even when these occurred minutes before the interview. It is suggested that cognitive mechanisms involving memory and semantics underlie children’s poor recall of touching in both verbal and HFD conditions.

Bruck, Maggie

2010-01-01

303

Collaborative Learning with Multi-Touch Technology: Developing Adaptive Expertise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing fluency and flexibility in mathematics is a key goal of upper primary schooling, however, while fluency can be developed with practice, designing activities that support the development of flexibility is more difficult. Drawing on concepts of adaptive expertise, we developed a task for a multi-touch classroom, NumberNet, that aimed to…

Mercier, Emma M.; Higgins, Steven E.

2013-01-01

304

Crossing the Hands Increases Illusory Self-Touch  

PubMed Central

Manipulation of hand posture, such as crossing the hands, has been frequently used to study how the body and its immediately surrounding space are represented in the brain. Abundant data show that crossed arms posture impairs remapping of tactile stimuli from somatotopic to external space reference frame and deteriorates performance on several tactile processing tasks. Here we investigated how impaired tactile remapping affects the illusory self-touch, induced by the non-visual variant of the rubber hand illusion (RHI) paradigm. In this paradigm blindfolded participants (Experiment 1) had their hands either uncrossed or crossed over the body midline. The strength of illusory self-touch was measured with questionnaire ratings and proprioceptive drift. Our results showed that, during synchronous tactile stimulation, the strength of illusory self-touch increased when hands were crossed compared to the uncrossed posture. Follow-up experiments showed that the increase in illusion strength was not related to unfamiliar hand position (Experiment 2) and that it was equally strengthened regardless of where in the peripersonal space the hands were crossed (Experiment 3). However, while the boosting effect of crossing the hands was evident from subjective ratings, the proprioceptive drift was not modulated by crossed posture. Finally, in contrast to the illusion increase in the non-visual RHI, the crossed hand postures did not alter illusory ownership or proprioceptive drift in the classical, visuo-tactile version of RHI (Experiment 4). We argue that the increase in illusory self-touch is related to misalignment of somatotopic and external reference frames and consequently inadequate tactile-proprioceptive integration, leading to re-weighting of the tactile and proprioceptive signals.The present study not only shows that illusory self-touch can be induced by crossing the hands, but importantly, that this posture is associated with a stronger illusion.

Pozeg, Polona; Rognini, Giulio; Salomon, Roy; Blanke, Olaf

2014-01-01

305

Rubber Hands Feel Touch, but Not in Blind Individuals  

PubMed Central

Psychology and neuroscience have a long-standing tradition of studying blind individuals to investigate how visual experience shapes perception of the external world. Here, we study how blind people experience their own body by exposing them to a multisensory body illusion: the somatic rubber hand illusion. In this illusion, healthy blindfolded participants experience that they are touching their own right hand with their left index finger, when in fact they are touching a rubber hand with their left index finger while the experimenter touches their right hand in a synchronized manner (Ehrsson et al. 2005). We compared the strength of this illusion in a group of blind individuals (n?=?10), all of whom had experienced severe visual impairment or complete blindness from birth, and a group of age-matched blindfolded sighted participants (n?=?12). The illusion was quantified subjectively using questionnaires and behaviorally by asking participants to point to the felt location of the right hand. The results showed that the sighted participants experienced a strong illusion, whereas the blind participants experienced no illusion at all, a difference that was evident in both tests employed. A further experiment testing the participants' basic ability to localize the right hand in space without vision (proprioception) revealed no difference between the two groups. Taken together, these results suggest that blind individuals with impaired visual development have a more veridical percept of self-touch and a less flexible and dynamic representation of their own body in space compared to sighted individuals. We speculate that the multisensory brain systems that re-map somatosensory signals onto external reference frames are less developed in blind individuals and therefore do not allow efficient fusion of tactile and proprioceptive signals from the two upper limbs into a single illusory experience of self-touch as in sighted individuals.

Ehrsson, H. Henrik

2012-01-01

306

Finding the Right Touch: Extending the Right-Touch Regulation Approach to the Accreditation of Voluntary Registers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is "right-touch regulation"? In this article we explain why the Professional Standards Authority for Health and Social Care (the Authority) has focussed much of its policy work in recent times on seeking an answer to this question, and why it wants to know. We explain why the Authority's predecessor body, the Council for Healthcare Regulatory…

Bilton, Douglas; Cayton, Harry

2013-01-01

307

Molecular cloning of two cysteine proteinases from paw-paw (Carica papaya).  

PubMed Central

Two cDNA clones for plant cysteine proteinases have been isolated from a Carica papaya (paw-paw, papaya) leaf tissue cDNA library by using a mixture of 16 synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotides as a hybridization probe. The inserted regions are 311 and 440 base-pairs in length and have the potential to encode a region corresponding to the C-terminal region of two proteins which are homologous with the known plant cysteine proteinases and the mammalian thiol cathepsins. One of the sequences shows a high (greater than 77%) homology with the plant cysteine proteinase papain, the other is closely related to papaya chymopapain. One sequence contains all, and the other most, of the 3' untranslated region of the mRNA. The inserts were used as specific probes in Northern Blot analyses giving an estimated size for the two mRNA species of 1.45 kilobases. Images Fig. 4.

McKee, R A; Adams, S; Matthews, J A; Smith, C J; Smith, H

1986-01-01

308

Dynamic transposable element accumulation in the nascent sex chromosomes of papaya  

PubMed Central

From their inception, Y chromosomes in plants and animals are subjected to the powerful effects of Müller’s ratchet, a process spurred by suppression of recombination that results in a rapid accumulation of mutations and repetitive elements. These mutations eventually lead to gene loss and degeneration of the Y chromosome. Y chromosomes in mammals are ancient, whereas most sex chromosomes in plants and many in insects and fish evolved recently. Sex type in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes that evolved around 7 million years ago. The papaya X and Yh were recently sequenced, providing valuable insight into the early stages of sex chromosome evolution. Here we discuss the fruits of this work with a focus on the repeat accumulation, gene trafficking and promiscuous DNA sequences found in the slowly degenerating Yh chromosome of papaya.

VanBuren, Robert; Ming, Ray

2013-01-01

309

Dynamic transposable element accumulation in the nascent sex chromosomes of papaya.  

PubMed

From their inception, Y chromosomes in plants and animals are subjected to the powerful effects of Müller's ratchet, a process spurred by suppression of recombination that results in a rapid accumulation of mutations and repetitive elements. These mutations eventually lead to gene loss and degeneration of the Y chromosome. Y chromosomes in mammals are ancient, whereas most sex chromosomes in plants and many in insects and fish evolved recently. Sex type in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes that evolved around 7 million years ago. The papaya X and Y(h) were recently sequenced, providing valuable insight into the early stages of sex chromosome evolution. Here we discuss the fruits of this work with a focus on the repeat accumulation, gene trafficking and promiscuous DNA sequences found in the slowly degenerating Y(h) chromosome of papaya. PMID:23734293

Vanburen, Robert; Ming, Ray

2013-01-01

310

The Suggestibility of Children's Memory for Being Touched: Planting, Erasing, and Changing Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigates recent claims that it is relatively easy to suggestively plant false memories in children, by comparing the relative vulnerability to suggestibility of changed, planted, and erased memories. 80 4-year-olds and 80 10-year-olds either were touched in a specific way or were not touched at all, and it was later suggested that a different touch, a completely new touch, or

Kathy Pezdek; Chantal Roe

1997-01-01

311

Grooming and touching behaviour in captive ring-tailed lemurs ( Lemur catta L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of grooming and touching behaviours was recorded in a group of captive ring-tailed lemurs. Grooming was found\\u000a to be performed chiefly by older, higher ranking animals; touching (i.e., “reach out and touch” behaviour) was directed primarily\\u000a by younger, low ranking animals to older, high ranking individuals. It is suggested that such touching is a submissive gesture\\u000a in this

Geoffrey R. Hosey; Robin J. Thompson

1985-01-01

312

Effects of papaya seed extract and benzyl isothiocyanate on vascular contraction.  

PubMed

To investigate their potentially toxic effects on mammalian vascular smooth muscle, pentane extracts of papaya seeds and the chief active ingredient in the extracts, benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), were tested for their effects on the contraction of strips of dog carotid artery. BITC and the papaya seed extract caused relaxation when added to tissue strips that had been pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE). Incubation of the tissue with papaya seed extract or BITC caused inhibition of contraction when the strips were subsequently contracted with KCl or PE. This relaxation and inhibition of contraction did not appear to be endothelium-dependent, as endothelium-denuded rings showed the same degree of relaxation or inhibition of contraction in response to the preparations/drugs as those with the endothelium intact. The effects of both BITC and the extract were irreversible, i.e., the tissue did not recover to normal contractile ability after extensive washing. Exposure of the tissue to the papaya seed extract caused slower relaxation of the tissue, compared to controls, both after contraction with PE and subsequent addition of carbachol (CCh), and after contraction with KCl and then washing. Calcium imaging studies using cultured endothelial cells showed strong influxes of Ca2+ into the cells in response to addition of the papaya seed extract. We conclude that these extracts, when present in high concentration, are cytotoxic by increasing the membrane permeability to Ca2+, and that the vascular effects of papaya seed extracts are consistent with the notion that BITC is the chief bio-active ingredient. PMID:12052434

Wilson, Ruth K; Kwan, Tony K; Kwan, Chiu-Yin; Sorger, George J

2002-06-21

313

Use of morpho-agronomic traits and DNA profiling for classification of genetic diversity in papaya.  

PubMed

We examined the genetic diversity of papaya (Carica papaya) based on morpho-agronomic and molecular data. Twenty-seven genotypes grown in Brazil were analyzed with 11 AFLP primer combinations, 23 ISSR markers, 22 qualitative, and 30 quantitative descriptors. For the joint analyses, we used the Gower algorithm (Joint Gower) and the average value of the individual dissimilarity matrix for each type of data (Average-Joint Gower); 359 AFLP and 52 ISSR polymorphic bands were found. Approximately 29.2 and 7.7% of the AFLP and ISSR bands, respectively, were genotype-specific and may therefore be used for papaya variety protection. Although there was a significant correlation between the qualitative and quantitative descriptor dissimilarity matrices (r = 0.43), the morpho-agronomic data were not highly correlated with the molecular data. Moreover, correlation between AFLP and ISSR dissimilarity matrices was nearly null (r = -0.01). Joint Gower analysis of all data showed high correlations, especially for AFLP markers, most likely due to the larger number of bands, generating a strong bias in the diversity estimates. The Average-Joint Gower analysis allowed a better balance between the correlations for the continuous and the discrete variables. The results generated by clustering analysis distinguished 5 genetically distinct groups. While we found that papaya genotypes are significantly variable for many traits, we observed that Average-Joint Gower analysis allowed for genotype clustering based on the most widely used criterion for classifying papaya genotypes, which is fruit type ('Formosa' or 'Solo'). This information helps provide an accurate estimate of the genetic diversity and structure of papaya germplasm, which will be used for further breeding strategies. PMID:23546977

de Jesus, O N; de Freitas, J P X; Dantas, J L L; de Oliveira, E J

2013-01-01

314

Let's clean up this mess: exploring multi-touch collaborative play  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-touch play is inherently collaborative, but little work currently explores this aspect. We present preliminary observations of multi-touch collaborative gameplay, focusing on the physical-social environment of a multi-touch surface and its technical issues.

Rilla Khaled; Pippin Barr; Hannah Johnston; Robert Biddle

2009-01-01

315

[An approach to touching while providing high-quality affective health care to hospitalized elderly patients].  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to verify the important factors of tacesics that should be observed while touching the elderly. This qualitative and exploratory field of study was developed using 117 undergraduate students and healthcare professionals who participated in a training course regarding nonverbal communication in gerontology. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to identify at least one care factor that must be respected when touching the elderly. The discourses allowed for the construction of nine categories indicating the conditions that are necessary for high-quality affective care provided within the tacesics context; these conditions included the authorization for the touch to occur, location of the touch, intensity of the touch, condition of the elderly person, intentionality and type of touch, duration of the touch, gender and age of the person who touches and of the person being touched, frequency of the touch, and characteristics of the hands that touch. Touch is part of the quotidian practice of healthcare professionals and expresses their dedication and its related emotions, thereby revealing the quality of the care that is provided. PMID:23743911

Schimidt, Teresa Cristina Gioia; da Silva, Maria Julia Paes

2013-04-01

316

Enhancing the Entertainment Experience of Blind and Low-Vision Theatregoers through Touch Tours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we demonstrate how universal design theory and the research available on museum-based touch tours can be used to develop a touch tour for blind and low-vision theatregoers. We discuss these theoretical and practical approaches with reference to data collected and experience gained from the creation and execution of a touch tour for…

Udo, J. P.; Fels, D. I.

2010-01-01

317

Computer Analysis of the Indirect Piano Touch: Analysis Methods and Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indirect touches - touches that originate from above the key - play an important role in piano technique. Analysis methods are presented and applied in a study with piano students performing different touches in slow motion. Colored markers that were attached to the players' fingers were tracked and the angles in the joints were determined. Methods to judge the regularity

Aristotelis Hadjakos; TU Darmstadt; Erwin Aitenbichler; Bernhard Wetz; Max Mühlhäuser

318

Papaya Extract to Treat Dengue: A Novel Therapeutic Option?  

PubMed Central

Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The search was done independently by the two authors using PubMed, Google and the library database and included relevant articles of the last 10 years. A total of 7 studies were included in this review, which were one animal study, one case report, three case series and two randomized controlled trials. Although many of the studies and case reports published in literature lack adequate information, some of the studies do raise the possibility that this treatment could be an important option in the future. Further large-scale studies could establish the usefulness or ineffectiveness of this natural product in the treatment of dengue.

Sarala, N; Paknikar, SS

2014-01-01

319

Possible immunomodulatory actions of Carica papaya seed extract.  

PubMed

Carica papaya seed extract is currently being marketed as a nutritional supplement with purported ability "to rejuvenate the body condition and to increase energy". The product claims to improve immunity against common infection and body functioning. The present study was initiated to analyze the chemical constituents of the Carica Seed Extract and determine the potential immunomodulatory properties of the different bioactive fractions. These immunomodulatory activities of crude Carica Seed Extract and its bioactive fractions were examined in vitro using lymphocyte proliferation assays and complement-mediated hemolytic assay. Three major observations were made in this study: (1) the crude Carica Seed Extract and two other bioactive fractions significantly enhanced the phytohemagglutinin responsiveness of lymphocytes; (2) none of the Carica Seed Extract (at the concentrations used in this study) was able to protect the lymphocytes from the toxic effects of chromium; and (3) some of the bioactive fractions of Carica Seed Extract were able to significantly inhibit the classical complement-mediated hemolytic pathway. These findings provide evidence for immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory actions of Carica Seed Extract. No single compound is likely responsible for these activities. Further purification, isolation and characterization of the active components are needed. PMID:14724345

Mojica-Henshaw, Mariluz P; Francisco, Angelica D; De Guzman, Florecita; Tigno, Xenia T

2003-01-01

320

Papaya extract to treat dengue: a novel therapeutic option?  

PubMed

Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The search was done independently by the two authors using PubMed, Google and the library database and included relevant articles of the last 10 years. A total of 7 studies were included in this review, which were one animal study, one case report, three case series and two randomized controlled trials. Although many of the studies and case reports published in literature lack adequate information, some of the studies do raise the possibility that this treatment could be an important option in the future. Further large-scale studies could establish the usefulness or ineffectiveness of this natural product in the treatment of dengue. PMID:24971201

Sarala, N; Paknikar, Ss

2014-05-01

321

Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants  

PubMed Central

Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers’ regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulated proteins in the latex of diseased plants, 9 cysteine proteases (chymopapain) and 1 latex serine proteinase inhibitor. A repression of papaya latex proteolytic activity during PMeV infection was hypothesized. This was further confirmed by enzymatic assays that showed a reduction of cysteine-protease-associated proteolytic activity in the diseased papaya latex. These findings are discussed in the context of plant responses against pathogens and may greatly contribute to understand the roles of laticifers in plant stress responses.

Rodrigues, Silas P.; Ventura, Jose A.; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Choi, HyungWon; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Nohara, Lilian L.; Wermelinger, Luciana S.; Almeida, Igor C.; Zingali, Russolina B.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

2012-01-01

322

Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants.  

PubMed

Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers' regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulated proteins in the latex of diseased plants, 9 cysteine proteases (chymopapain) and 1 latex serine proteinase inhibitor. A repression of papaya latex proteolytic activity during PMeV infection was hypothesized. This was further confirmed by enzymatic assays that showed a reduction of cysteine-protease-associated proteolytic activity in the diseased papaya latex. These findings are discussed in the context of plant responses against pathogens and may greatly contribute to understand the roles of laticifers in plant stress responses. PMID:22465191

Rodrigues, Silas P; Ventura, José A; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Choi, HyungWon; Sobreira, Tiago J P; Nohara, Lilian L; Wermelinger, Luciana S; Almeida, Igor C; Zingali, Russolina B; Fernandes, Patricia M B

2012-06-18

323

Touch cytology. A quick, simple, sensitive screening test in the diagnosis of infections of the gastrointestinal mucosa.  

PubMed

To assess the role of touch cytology (imprint from endoscopic biopsy specimens) in the diagnosis of mucosal infections of the gastrointestinal tract, we reviewed all records and specimens of patients seen during a 30-month period. Touch cytology was performed by rolling biopsy specimens on glass slides. After air fixation, a rapid staining method similar to May-Grünwald-Giemsa was used. The following infections and pathogens were diagnosed (in decreasing order of frequency): Helicobacter pylori gastritis (n = 53), Candida albicans esophagitis (n = 40), Giardia lamblia (n = 13), Gastrospirillum hominis (n = 11), and Blastocystis hominis (n = 8). The smear was positive in 45 patients with H pylori, in 35 patients with C albicans, in nine patients with G lamblia, in 11 patients with G hominis, and in eight patients with B hominis. Cytology was the only positive test in eight, nine, four, seven, and eight patients, respectively, and increased thus the diagnostic yield obtained by histologic examination. PMID:7979897

Debongnie, J C; Mairesse, J; Donnay, M; Dekoninck, X

1994-11-01

324

Carotenoids are more bioavailable from papaya than from tomato and carrot in humans: a randomised cross-over study  

PubMed Central

Carrot, tomato and papaya represent important dietary sources of ?-carotene and lycopene. The main objective of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of carotenoids from these food sources in healthy human subjects. A total of sixteen participants were recruited for a randomised cross-over study. Test meals containing raw carrots, tomatoes and papayas were adjusted to deliver an equal amount of ?-carotene and lycopene. For the evaluation of bioavailability, TAG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions containing newly absorbed carotenoids were analysed over 9.5 h after test meal consumption. The bioavailability of ?-carotene from papayas was approximately three times higher than that from carrots and tomatoes, whereas differences in the bioavailability of ?-carotene from carrots and tomatoes were insignificant. Retinyl esters appeared in the TRL fractions at a significantly higher concentration after the consumption of the papaya test meal. Similarly, lycopene was approximately 2.6 times more bioavailable from papayas than from tomatoes. Furthermore, the bioavailability of ?-cryptoxanthin from papayas was shown to be 2.9 and 2.3 times higher than that of the other papaya carotenoids ?-carotene and lycopene, respectively. The morphology of chromoplasts and the physical deposition form of carotenoids were hypothesised to play a major role in the differences observed in the bioavailability of carotenoids from the foods investigated. Particularly, the liquid-crystalline deposition of ?-carotene and the storage of lycopene in very small crystalloids in papayas were found to be associated with their high bioavailability. In conclusion, papaya was shown to provide highly bioavailable ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin and lycopene and may represent a readily available dietary source of provitamin A for reducing the incidence of vitamin A deficiencies in many subtropical and tropical developing countries.

Schweiggert, Ralf M.; Kopec, Rachel E.; Villalobos-Gutierrez, Maria G.; Hogel, Josef; Quesada, Silvia; Esquivel, Patricia; Schwartz, Steven J.; Carle, Reinhold

2014-01-01

325

Carotenoids are more bioavailable from papaya than from tomato and carrot in humans: a randomised cross-over study.  

PubMed

Carrot, tomato and papaya represent important dietary sources of ?-carotene and lycopene. The main objective of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of carotenoids from these food sources in healthy human subjects. A total of sixteen participants were recruited for a randomised cross-over study. Test meals containing raw carrots, tomatoes and papayas were adjusted to deliver an equal amount of ?-carotene and lycopene. For the evaluation of bioavailability, TAG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions containing newly absorbed carotenoids were analysed over 9·5 h after test meal consumption. The bioavailability of ?-carotene from papayas was approximately three times higher than that from carrots and tomatoes, whereas differences in the bioavailability of ?-carotene from carrots and tomatoes were insignificant. Retinyl esters appeared in the TRL fractions at a significantly higher concentration after the consumption of the papaya test meal. Similarly, lycopene was approximately 2·6 times more bioavailable from papayas than from tomatoes. Furthermore, the bioavailability of ?-cryptoxanthin from papayas was shown to be 2·9 and 2·3 times higher than that of the other papaya carotenoids ?-carotene and lycopene, respectively. The morphology of chromoplasts and the physical deposition form of carotenoids were hypothesised to play a major role in the differences observed in the bioavailability of carotenoids from the foods investigated. Particularly, the liquid-crystalline deposition of ?-carotene and the storage of lycopene in very small crystalloids in papayas were found to be associated with their high bioavailability. In conclusion, papaya was shown to provide highly bioavailable ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin and lycopene and may represent a readily available dietary source of provitamin A for reducing the incidence of vitamin A deficiencies in many subtropical and tropical developing countries. PMID:23931131

Schweiggert, Ralf M; Kopec, Rachel E; Villalobos-Gutierrez, Maria G; Högel, Josef; Quesada, Silvia; Esquivel, Patricia; Schwartz, Steven J; Carle, Reinhold

2014-02-01

326

Sterility due to inhibition of sperm motility by oral administration of benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in rats.  

PubMed

The contraceptive effects of benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya have been reported in male albino rats at the dose regimens 5 and 10 mg/animal/day; oral for 150 days. The body weight, weight of testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate remained unaltered during the entire course of the investigation. Total suppression of cauda epididymal sperm motility coincided with a decrease in sperm count, viability and an increase in per cent abnormal spermatozoa during 60-150 days observation period. Minor changes in the germ cell proliferations in the testis and vacuolization and pyknotic nuclei in the few epithelial cells of the cauda epididymis were observed. Histology and biochemical composition of testis and accessory sex organs, haematology and serum clinical biochemistry and serum testosterone levels remained unchanged throughout the course of the investigation. Test for estrogenicity indicated mild estrogenicity. Monthly fertility test showed negative fertility. All the altered parameters returned to normal level following 60 days withdrawal of the treatment. The results suggest that the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya exerts antifertility effects in rats without adverse toxicity and that the effects may be directly rendered on the spermatozoa. PMID:10969727

Pathak, N; Mishra, P K; Manivannan, B; Lohiya, N K

2000-07-01

327

Measurement of micro gears with a touch-trigger probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of micro gears with a touch-trigger probe will be introduced in this paper. Due to the small size and complex geometry of micro gears, it is difficult to measure them by traditional instruments like coordinate measuring machines (CMM) or laser displacement sensors. This study focuses on this topic and proposes an approach to measure the three dimensional profile of micro gears. The methodology is based on coordinate measurement. A special touch-trigger probe which detects the moment of contact is employed in the measuring system. The diameter of the probe tip is smaller than 2µm and therefore small enough for measuring micro structures. All the calibration and error compensation for the measuring system are discussed in the view of micro metrology. The comparison of measured profiles from both coordinate and image measurement is discussed. Results of experiments show that the proposed approach is worth of further development in the future.

Liu, YenChih; Chang, Kai-Hsiung; An, Nia-Chun; Yan, Sheng-Zhan; Tsai, Hsiu-An

2013-01-01

328

Interacting with mouse and touch devices on horizontal interactive displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents and discusses findings on collaborative interaction on horizontal interactive displays using touch and\\u000a mouse input devices. Tabletop interaction environments are suitable for small computer-supported group collaboration, and\\u000a usually allow for concurrent interaction by multiple users. The appropriate support of interaction on horizontal interactive\\u000a displays is crucial to the successful design and adoption of digital tabletops for work,

Christian Müller-Tomfelde

329

Infant Imitation from Television Using Novel Touch Screen Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants learn less from a televised demonstration than from a live demonstration, the "video deficit effect." The present study employs a novel approach, using touch screen technology to examine 15-month olds' transfer of learning. Infants were randomly assigned either to within-dimension (2D/2D or 3D/3D) or cross-dimension (3D/2D or 2D/3D)…

Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel; Gerhardstein, Peter; Dickerson, Kelly; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

2009-01-01

330

Ionic signaling in plant responses to gravity and touch.  

PubMed

Touch and gravity are two of the many stimuli that plants must integrate to generate an appropriate growth response. Due to the mechanical nature of both of these signals, shared signal transduction elements could well form the basis of the cross-talk between these two sensory systems. However, touch stimulation must elicit signaling events across the plasma membrane whereas gravity sensing is thought to represent transformation of an internal force, amyloplast sedimentation, to signal transduction events. In addition, factors such as turgor pressure and presence of the cell wall may also place unique constraints on these plant mechanosensory systems. Even so, the candidate signal transduction elements in both plant touch and gravity sensing, changes in Ca2+, pH and membrane potential, do mirror the known ionic basis of signaling in animal mechanosensory cells. Distinct spatial and temporal signatures of Ca2+ ions may encode information about the different mechanosignaling stimuli. Signals such as Ca2+ waves or action potentials may also rapidly transfer information perceived in one cell throughout a tissue or organ leading to the systemic reactions characteristic of plant touch and gravity responses. Longer-term growth responses are likely sustained via changes in gene expression and asymmetries in compounds such as inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and calmodulin. Thus, it seems likely that plant mechanoperception involves both spatial and temporal encoding of information at all levels, from the cell to the whole plant. Defining this patterning will be a critical step towards understanding how plants integrate information from multiple mechanical stimuli to an appropriate growth response. PMID:12016507

Fasano, Jeremiah M; Massa, Gioia D; Gilroy, Simon

2002-06-01

331

The multi-touch SoundScape renderer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce a direct manipulation tabletop multi-touch user interface for spatial audio scenes. Although spatial audio rendering existed for several decades now, mass market applications have not been developed and the user interfaces still address a small group of expert users. We im- plemented an easy-to-use direct manipulation interface for multiple users, taking full advantage of the

Katharina Bredies; Nick Alexander Mann; Jens Ahrens; Matthias Geier; Sascha Spors; Michael Nischt

2008-01-01

332

Ionic signaling in plant responses to gravity and touch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Touch and gravity are two of the many stimuli that plants must integrate to generate an appropriate growth response. Due to the mechanical nature of both of these signals, shared signal transduction elements could well form the basis of the cross-talk between these two sensory systems. However, touch stimulation must elicit signaling events across the plasma membrane whereas gravity sensing is thought to represent transformation of an internal force, amyloplast sedimentation, to signal transduction events. In addition, factors such as turgor pressure and presence of the cell wall may also place unique constraints on these plant mechanosensory systems. Even so, the candidate signal transduction elements in both plant touch and gravity sensing, changes in Ca2+, pH and membrane potential, do mirror the known ionic basis of signaling in animal mechanosensory cells. Distinct spatial and temporal signatures of Ca2+ ions may encode information about the different mechanosignaling stimuli. Signals such as Ca2+ waves or action potentials may also rapidly transfer information perceived in one cell throughout a tissue or organ leading to the systemic reactions characteristic of plant touch and gravity responses. Longer-term growth responses are likely sustained via changes in gene expression and asymmetries in compounds such as inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and calmodulin. Thus, it seems likely that plant mechanoperception involves both spatial and temporal encoding of information at all levels, from the cell to the whole plant. Defining this patterning will be a critical step towards understanding how plants integrate information from multiple mechanical stimuli to an appropriate growth response.

Fasano, Jeremiah M.; Massa, Gioia D.; Gilroy, Simon

2002-01-01

333

Hand Vein Biometric Authentication in Optical Multi-touch Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Multi-touch systems and their applications are entering a mainstream phase where fast access to visual data and collaborative\\u000a environments are key factors for an informational age. However, most systems are envisioned as public workstations where resources\\u000a are shared equally between the users with few or no restrictions on the content delivered by the applications. While real-time\\u000a identification of the users

S. Crisan; I. G. Tarnovan; B. Tebrean; T. E. Crisan

334

An interactive, multi-touch videowall for scientific data exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of videowalls for scientific data exploration is rising as hardware becomes cheaper and the availability of software and multimedia content grows. Most videowalls are used primarily for outreach and communication purposes, but there is increasing interest in using large display screens to support exploratory visualization as an integral part of scientific research. In this PICO presentation we will present a brief overview of a new videowall system at the University of Reading, which is designed specifically to support interactive, exploratory visualization activities in climate science and Earth Observation. The videowall consists of eight 42-inch full-HD screens (in 4x2 formation), giving a total resolution of about 16 megapixels. The display is managed by a videowall controller, which can direct video to the screen from up to four external laptops, a purpose-built graphics workstation, or any combination thereof. A multi-touch overlay provides the capability for the user to interact directly with the data. There are many ways to use the videowall, and a key technical challenge is to make the most of the touch capabilities - touch has the potential to greatly reduce the learning curve in interactive data exploration, but most software is not yet designed for this purpose. In the PICO we will present an overview of some ways in which the wall can be employed in science, seeking feedback and discussion from the community. The system was inspired by an existing and highly-successful system (known as the "Collaboratorium") at the Netherlands e-Science Center (NLeSC). We will demonstrate how we have adapted NLeSC's visualization software to our system for touch-enabled multi-screen climate data exploration.

Blower, Jon; Griffiths, Guy; van Meersbergen, Maarten; Lusher, Scott; Styles, Jon

2014-05-01

335

Gentle Human Touch and Yakson: The Effect on Preterm's Behavioral Reactions  

PubMed Central

Objective. Touch is one of the first strong positive senses that develop in neonate. Therapeutic touch could be considered as a complementary treatment in Neonate intensive care units (NICU). Methods. This quasi-experimental study was conducted to compare the effect of Yakson and GHT on behavioral reaction of preterm infants hospitalized in NICU in south-east of Iran. 90 preterm infants participated in this study. They are randomly divided into 3 groups: (1) Yakson group, n = 30, (2) GHT group, n = 30, (3) control group, n = 30. Each infant received the GHT and Yakson interventions twice a day for 5 days. Each session lasted 15 minutes. The control group received routine nursing care. Results. In interventional group, an increase was found in sleep state score after the Yakson and GHT intervention. Their awake and fussy states' scores decreased after both interventions. No significant difference was found between Yakson and GHT group in their behavioral state scores. Conclusion. The findings suggest that Yakson and GHT had soothing and calming effect on preterm infants and could be beneficial in nursing interventions.

Bahman Bijari, Bahare; Iranmanesh, Sedigheh; Eshghi, Fateme; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza

2012-01-01

336

Assessment study on the use of Pawpaw; Carica papaya seeds to control Oreochromis niloticus breeding.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to assess the ability of using pawpaw (Carica papaya) seeds as a natural reproduction inhibitor for tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) culture to control its breeding. Biochemical, physiological and histopathological effects ofpawpaw seeds on male tilapia fish were also determined. Mature male tilapia were stocked for 4 weeks and treated with low dose (3 g/kg/day) and high dose (6 g/kg/day) of ground dried pawpaw seeds mixed with their feed. The obtained results showed that the pawpaw seeds induced permanent sterility in the high dose treated fish while the low dose treatment showed reversible results. The results also demonstrated that fish treated with high dose of pawpaw exhibited higher biochemical and physiological effects as: low meat quality, a progressive fall in erythrocyte (RBCs) count, hemoglobin (Hb) content and haematocrit values. Also the high dose revealed a significant increase in the leukocytes (WBCs) count, serum glucose, total protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine and uric acid levels. Moreover, serum total lipids revealed a significant decrease compared to control group. On the other hand, the low dose treatment revealed lower biochemical and physiological changes. Histological sections of testis showed disintegration of sperm cells and focal necrosis of seminefrous tubules in the high dose treated fish, hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney tissues also showed severe changes in high dose treated fish. Milder degenerative changes in some necrotic foci and slight changes in hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney were observed in the low dose treated fish. The study concluded that pawpaw seeds which are cheap and easy to obtain, can be incorporated into fish feeds with adjusted amount and be used to control breeding of tilapia fish in growing ponds instead of unfavorable and expensive hormonal use. PMID:22335051

Abbas, Hossam H; Abbas, Wafaa T

2011-12-15

337

Touch the Universe : A NASA Braille Book of Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Touch the Universe is a unique and innovative astronomy book that will help visually impaired people see the wonders of our universe. Using a combination of Braille and large-print captions that face 14 pages of brilliant Hubble Space Telescope photos, it is embossed with shapes that represent various astronomical objects such as stars, gas clouds, and jets of matter streaming into space. Universally designed for both the sighted and visually impaired reader, Touch the Universe takes readers on a voyage of discovery, starting at Earth, proceeding through the solar system, and ending with the most distant image taken by Hubble, the mind-boggling Hubble Deep Field photo -- the first telescope image ever to bring home to human consciousness in a deeply fundamental way the literally infinite reaches of our universe of galaxies. As the author puts it, A visually impaired person can still touch and smell a flower, or a tree, or an animal, but he or she could only imagine what an astronomical object is like ... until now.

2002-01-01

338

Glycine Inhibitory Dysfunction Turns Touch into Pain through PKCgamma Interneurons  

PubMed Central

Dynamic mechanical allodynia is a widespread and intractable symptom of neuropathic pain for which there is a lack of effective therapy. During tactile allodynia, activation of the sensory fibers which normally detect touch elicits pain. Here we provide a new behavioral investigation into the dynamic component of tactile allodynia that developed in rats after segmental removal of glycine inhibition. Using in vivo electrophysiological recordings, we show that in this condition innocuous mechanical stimuli could activate superficial dorsal horn nociceptive specific neurons. These neurons do not normally respond to touch. We anatomically show that the activation was mediated through a local circuit involving neurons expressing the gamma isoform of protein kinase C (PKC?). Selective inhibition of PKC? as well as selective blockade of glutamate NMDA receptors in the superficial dorsal horn prevented both activation of the circuit and allodynia. Thus, our data demonstrates that a normally inactive circuit in the dorsal horn can be recruited to convert touch into pain. It also provides evidence that glycine inhibitory dysfunction gates tactile input to nociceptive specific neurons through PKC?-dependent activation of a local, excitatory, NMDA receptor-dependent, circuit. As a consequence of these findings, we suggest that pharmacological inhibition of PKC? might provide a new tool for alleviating allodynia in the clinical setting.

Miraucourt, Lois S.; Dallel, Radhouane; Voisin, Daniel L.

2007-01-01

339

Superior facial expression, but not identity recognition, in mirror-touch synesthesia.  

PubMed

Simulation models of expression recognition contend that to understand another's facial expressions, individuals map the perceived expression onto the same sensorimotor representations that are active during the experience of the perceived emotion. To investigate this view, the present study examines facial expression and identity recognition abilities in a rare group of participants who show facilitated sensorimotor simulation (mirror-touch synesthetes). Mirror-touch synesthetes experience touch on their own body when observing touch to another person. These experiences have been linked to heightened sensorimotor simulation in the shared-touch network (brain regions active during the passive observation and experience of touch). Mirror-touch synesthetes outperformed nonsynesthetic participants on measures of facial expression recognition, but not on control measures of face memory or facial identity perception. These findings imply a role for sensorimotor simulation processes in the recognition of facial affect, but not facial identity. PMID:21289192

Banissy, Michael J; Garrido, Lúcia; Kusnir, Flor; Duchaine, Bradley; Walsh, Vincent; Ward, Jamie

2011-02-01

340

Development and comparison of multivariate respiration models for fresh papaya ( Carica papaya L.) based on regression method and artificial neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiration modelling is the fundamental of the packaging and storage of fresh fruit and vegetables. Previous model of respiration\\u000a rate accounted for external forcing from temperature and modified atmosphere but did not attempt to predict internally generated\\u000a natural variability such as maturity. We present two types of respiration models here that predict the respiration rate of\\u000a fresh papaya in response

Zhi-Wei Wang; Hua-Wei Duan; Chang-Ying Hu; Yu-Mei Wu

2010-01-01

341

Nucleotide sequence comparison of the 3?-terminal regions of severe, mild, and non-papaya infecting strains of papaya ringspot virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The 3'-terminal 2,561 nucleotide residues of the severe HA strain of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was determined. Comparison with the published sequence of the mild strain PRSV HA 5-1 showed that they shared a 99.4% identity in their 3'-terminal 2,235 residues. There were ten residues different at the NIb gene, resulting in five amino acid changes, and two residues

C.-H. Wang; S.-D. Yeh

1992-01-01

342

Comparative reactions of recombinant papaya ringspot viruses with chimeric coat protein (CP) genes and wild-type viruses on CP-transgenic papaya.  

PubMed

Transgenic papaya cultivars SunUp and Rainbow express the coat protein (CP) gene of the mild mutant of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) HA. Both cultivars are resistant to PRSV HA and other Hawaii isolates through homology-dependent resistance via post-transcriptional gene silencing. However, Rainbow, which is hemizygous for the CP gene, is susceptible to PRSV isolates from outside Hawaii, while the CP-homozygous SunUp is resistant to most isolates but susceptible to the YK isolate from Taiwan. To investigate the role of CP sequence similarity in overcoming the resistance of Rainbow, PRSV HA recombinants with various CP segments of the YK isolate were constructed and evaluated on Rainbow, SunUp and non-transgenic papaya. Non-transgenic papaya were severely infected by all recombinants, but Rainbow plants developed a variety of symptoms. On Rainbow, a recombinant with the entire CP gene of YK caused severe symptoms, while recombinants with only partial YK CP sequences produced a range of milder symptoms. Interestingly, a recombinant with a YK segment from the 5' region of the CP gene caused very mild, transient symptoms, whereas recombinants with YK segments from the middle and 3' parts of the CP gene caused prominent and lasting symptoms. SunUp was resistant to all but two recombinants, which contained the entire CP gene or the central and 3'-end regions of the CP gene and the 3' non-coding region of YK, and the resulting symptoms were mild. It is concluded that the position of the heterologous sequences in the recombinants influences their pathogenicity on Rainbow. PMID:11602796

Chiang, C H; Wang, J J; Jan, F J; Yeh, S D; Gonsalves, D

2001-11-01

343

Antiplasmodial Properties and Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Carica papaya Leaves  

PubMed Central

We investigated the antiplasmodial properties of crude extracts from Carica papaya leaves to trace the activity through bioassay-guided fractionation. The greatest antiplasmodial activity was observed in the ethyl acetate crude extract. C. papaya showed a high selectivity for P. falciparum against CHO cells with a selectivity index of 249.25 and 185.37 in the chloroquine-sensitive D10 and chloroquine-resistant DD2 strains, respectively. Carica papaya ethyl acetate extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation to ascertain the most active fraction, which was purified and identified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry) methods. Linoleic and linolenic acids identified from the ethyl acetate fraction showed IC50 of 6.88??g/ml and 3.58??g/ml, respectively. The study demonstrated greater antiplasmodial activity of the crude ethyl acetate extract of Carica papaya leaves with an IC50 of 2.96 ± 0.14??g/ml when compared to the activity of the fractions and isolated compounds.

Melariri, Paula; Campbell, William; Etusim, Paschal; Smith, Peter

2011-01-01

344

High-density linkage mapping revealed suppression of recombination at the sex determination locus in papaya.  

PubMed Central

A high-density genetic map of papaya (Carica papaya L.) was constructed using 54 F(2) plants derived from cultivars Kapoho and SunUp with 1501 markers, including 1498 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, the papaya ringspot virus coat protein marker, morphological sex type, and fruit flesh color. These markers were mapped into 12 linkage groups at a LOD score of 5.0 and recombination frequency of 0.25. The 12 major linkage groups covered a total length of 3294.2 cM, with an average distance of 2.2 cM between adjacent markers. This map revealed severe suppression of recombination around the sex determination locus with a total of 225 markers cosegregating with sex types. The cytosine bases were highly methylated in this region on the basis of the distribution of methylation-sensitive and -insensitive markers. This high-density genetic map is essential for cloning of specific genes of interest such as the sex determination gene and for the integration of genetic and physical maps of papaya.

Ma, Hao; Moore, Paul H; Liu, Zhiyong; Kim, Minna S; Yu, Qingyi; Fitch, Maureen M M; Sekioka, Terry; Paterson, Andrew H; Ming, Ray

2004-01-01

345

Anthelmintic activity of papaya seeds on Hymenolepis diminuta infections in rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to see the anthelmintic activity potential of papaya seeds against Hymenolepis diminuta in rats. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the effectiveness of papaya seeds on helminths especially H. diminuta in rats and (2) to determine the effective dose level on helminths in rats. Thirty six male rats from strain Sprague-Dawley were chosen as samples in this experiment. Two types of dose level were used for papaya seeds treatments such as 0.6 g kg-1 and 1.2 g kg-1. The geometric mean (GEM) was used to calculate mean for eggs per gram (EPG) before and after the treatment to be included in the reduction percentage calculation. After 21 days post treatment, necropsies were done to get the worm count and the GEM was used to calculate the efficacy percentage for the treatment. Results from this study showed that the reduction percentages in EPG for papaya seeds treatment for both doses level were very high which is 96.8% for 0.6g kg-1 dose level and 96.2% for 1.2 g kg-1 dose level. Whereas the efficacy percentage based on the worm counts for both doses level were also very high that was 90.77% for 0.6 g kg-1 dose level and 93.85% for 1.2 g kg-1. PMID:23202594

Sapaat, A; Satrija, F; Mahsol, H H; Ahmad, A H

2012-12-01

346

Tissue differential expression of lycopene beta-cyclase gene in papaya.  

PubMed

Carotene pigments in flowers and fruits are distinct features related to fitness advantages such as attracting insects for pollination and birds for seed dispersal. In papaya, the flesh color of the fruit is considered a quality trait that correlates with nutritional value and is linked to shelf-life of the fruit. To elucidate the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in papaya, we took a candidate gene approach to clone the lycopene beta-cyclase gene, LCY-B. A papaya LCY-B ortholog, cpLCY-B, was successfully identified from both cDNA and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries and complete genomic sequence was obtained from the positive BAC including the promoter region. This cpLCY-B shared 80% amino acid identity with citrus LCY-B. However, full genomic sequences from both yellow- and red-fleshed papaya were identical. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) revealed similar levels of expression at six different maturing stages of fruits for both yellow- and red-fleshed genotypes. Further expression analyses of cpLCY-B showed that its expression levels were seven- and three-fold higher in leaves and, respectively, flowers than in fruits, suggesting that cpLCY-B is down-regulated during the fruit ripening process. PMID:16801954

Skelton, Rachel L; Yu, Qingyi; Srinivasan, Rajeswari; Manshardt, Richard; Moore, Paul H; Ming, Ray

2006-08-01

347

Hybrid 'Sinta' papaya exhibits unique ACC synthase 1 cDNA isoforms.  

PubMed

Five ripening-related ACC synthase cDNA isoforms were cloned from 80% ripe papaya cv. 'Sinta' by reverse transcription-PCR using gene-specific primers. Clone 2 had the longest transcript and contained all common exons and three alternative exons. Clones 3 and 4 contained common exons and one alternative exon each, while clone 1, the most common transcript, contained only the common exons. Clone 5 could be due to cloning artifacts and might not be a unique cDNA fragment. Thus, there are only four isoforms of ACC synthase mRNA. Southern blot analysis indicates that all five clones came from only one gene existing as a single copy in the 'Sinta' papaya genome. Multiple sequence alignment indicates that the four isoforms arise from a single gene, possibly through alternative splicing mechanisms. All the putative alternative exons were present at the 5'-end of the gene comprising the N-terminal region of the protein. 'Sinta' ACC synthase cDNAs were of the capacs 1 type and are most closely related to a 1.4 kb capacs 1-type DNA (AJ277160) from Eksotika papaya. No capacs 2-type cDNAs were cloned from 'Sinta' by RT-PCR. This is the first report of possible alternative splicing mechanism in ripening-related ACC synthase genes in hybrid papaya, possibly to modulate or fine-tune gene expression relevant to fruit ripening. PMID:15943908

Hidalgo, Marie-Sol P; Tecson-Mendoza, Evelyn Mae; Laurena, Antonio C; Botella, Jose Ramon

2005-05-31

348

Proteomic analysis of papaya fruit ripening using 2DE-DIGE.  

PubMed

Papayas have a very short green life as a result of their rapid pulp softening as well as their susceptibility to physical injury and mold growth. The ripening-related changes take place very quickly, and there is a continued interest in the reduction of postharvest losses. Proteins have a central role in biological processes, and differential proteomics enables the discrimination of proteins affected during papaya ripening. A comparative analysis of the proteomes of climacteric and pre-climacteric papayas was performed using 2DE-DIGE. Third seven proteins corresponding to spots with significant differences in abundance during ripening were submitted to MS analysis, and 27 proteins were identified and classified into six main categories related to the metabolic changes occurring during ripening. Proteins from the cell wall (alpha-galactosidase and invertase), ethylene biosynthesis (methionine synthase), climacteric respiratory burst, stress response, synthesis of carotenoid precursors (hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase, GcpE), and chromoplast differentiation (fibrillin) were identified. There was some correspondence between the identified proteins and the data from previous transcript profiling of papaya fruit, but new, accumulated proteins were identified, which reinforces the importance of differential proteomics as a tool to investigate ripening and provides potentially useful information for maintaining fruit quality and minimizing postharvest losses. PMID:22134357

Nogueira, Silvia Beserra; Labate, Carlos Alberto; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Oliveira do Nascimento, João Roberto

2012-02-01

349

Molecular and Clinical Effects of Green Tea and Fermented Papaya Preparation on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Assess the Effect of Green Tea on Diabetes; Assess the Effect of Fermented Papaya Pretration on Diabetes; Effects of Green Tea and FPP on C-reactive Proteins; Effects of Green Tea and FPP of Lipid Profiles in Diabetes; Effect of Green Tea and FPP on Atheroma Formation

2010-11-24

350

Studies on the antibacterial activity of root extracts of Carica papaya L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioactive compounds of root extracts of Carica papaya L. were extracted, using water and organic solvents, and were investigated for antibacterial activity against some pathogenic bacteria using the cup plate agar diffusion method. The aqueous extracts did not show significant activity, but the organic extracts had significant activity with the methanol extracts demonstrating the highest activity against the test

J. H. Doughari; S. Manzara

351

Resolution of secondary alcohols via Carica papaya lipase-catalyzed enantioselective acylation.  

PubMed

The Carica papaya lipase-catalyzed acylation of benzylcarbinols with vinyl hexanoate proceeded smoothly and enantiospecifically (E > 200), affording the R-esters and leaving the S-alcohols intact. Thus, this plant lipase proved to be a promising biocatalyst for the resolution of alcohols as well as for that of carboxylic acids reported earlier. PMID:18512020

Miyazawa, Toshifumi; Houhashi, Mika; Inoue, Yusuke; Murashima, Takashi; Yamada, Takashi

2008-10-01

352

A physical map of the papaya genome with integrated genetic map and genome sequence  

PubMed Central

Background Papaya is a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide and has primitive sex chromosomes controlling sex determination in this trioecious species. The papaya genome was recently sequenced because of its agricultural importance, unique biological features, and successful application of transgenic papaya for resistance to papaya ringspot virus. As a part of the genome sequencing project, we constructed a BAC-based physical map using a high information-content fingerprinting approach to assist whole genome shotgun sequence assembly. Results The physical map consists of 963 contigs, representing 9.4× genome equivalents, and was integrated with the genetic map and genome sequence using BAC end sequences and a sequence-tagged high-density genetic map. The estimated genome coverage of the physical map is about 95.8%, while 72.4% of the genome was aligned to the genetic map. A total of 1,181 high quality overgo (overlapping oligonucleotide) probes representing conserved sequences in Arabidopsis and genetically mapped loci in Brassica were anchored on the physical map, which provides a foundation for comparative genomics in the Brassicales. The integrated genetic and physical map aligned with the genome sequence revealed recombination hotspots as well as regions suppressed for recombination across the genome, particularly on the recently evolved sex chromosomes. Suppression of recombination spread to the adjacent region of the male specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY), and recombination rates were recovered gradually and then exceeded the genome average. Recombination hotspots were observed at about 10 Mb away on both sides of the MSY, showing 7-fold increase compared with the genome wide average, demonstrating the dynamics of recombination of the sex chromosomes. Conclusion A BAC-based physical map of papaya was constructed and integrated with the genetic map and genome sequence. The integrated map facilitated the draft genome assembly, and is a valuable resource for comparative genomics and map-based cloning of agronomically and economically important genes and for sex chromosome research.

2009-01-01

353

Effect of green and ripe Carica papaya epicarp extracts on wound healing and during pregnancy.  

PubMed

The traditional use of papaya to treat many diseases, especially skin conditions and its prohibition for consumption during pregnancy has prompted us to determine whether papaya extracts both from green and ripe fruits improve wound healing and also produce foetal toxicity. Aqueous extracts of green papaya epicarp (GPE) and ripe papaya epicarp (RPE) were applied on induced wounds on mice. GPE treatment induced complete healing in shorter periods (13 days) than that required while using RPE (17 days), sterile water (18 days) and Solcoseryl ointment (21 days). Extracts were administered orally (1 mg/g body weight/day) to pregnant mice from day 10 and onwards after conception. 3 (n=7) mice and 1 (n=6) mice given RPE and misoprostol, an abortive drug, respectively experienced embryonic resorption while this effect was observed in none of the mice given GPE (n=5) and water (n=5). The average body weight of live pups delivered by mice given GPE (1.12+/-0.04 g) was significantly lower than those delivered by mice given water (1.38+/-0.02 g). In SDS-PAGE, proteins were distributed in three bands (Mr range approximately 8-29 kDa). Band intensity at Mr approximately 28-29 kDa was higher in GPE than in RPE. In contrast, band intensity at low Mr (approximately 8 kDa) was found to be higher in RPE than in GPE. Notably, the band corresponding to Mr approximately 23-25 kDa was absent in RPE. These differences in composition may have contributed to the different wound healing and abortive effects of green and ripe papaya. PMID:18468758

Anuar, Nor Suhada; Zahari, Shafiyyah Solehah; Taib, Ibrahim Adham; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur

2008-07-01

354

The Complete Nucleotide Sequence and Biotype Variability of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) was determined. The viral RNA genome of strain LDM (leaf distortion mosaic) comprised 10,153 nucleotides, excluding the poly(A) tail, and contained one long open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3,269 amino acids (molecular weight 373,347). The polyprotein contained nine putative proteolytic cleavage sites and some motifs conserved in other potyviral polyproteins with 44 to 50% identities, indicating that PLDMV is a distinct species in the genus Potyvirus. Like the W biotype of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), the non-papaya-infecting biotype of PLDMV (PLDMV-C) was found in plants of the family Cucurbitaceae. The coat protein (CP) sequence of PLDMV-C in naturally infected-Trichosanthes bracteata was compared with those of three strains of the P biotype (PLDMV-P), LDM and two additional strains M (mosaic) and YM (yellow mosaic), which are biologically different from each other. The CP sequences of three strains of PLDMV-P share high identities of 95 to 97%, while they share lower identities of 88 to 89% with that of PLDMV-C. Significant changes in hydrophobicity and a deletion of two amino acids at the N-terminal region of the CP of PLDMV-C were observed. The finding of two biotypes of PLDMV implies the possibility that the papaya-infecting biotype evolved from the cucurbitaceae-infecting potyvirus, as has been previously suggested for PRSV. In addition, a similar evolutionary event acquiring infectivity to papaya may arise frequently in viruses in the family Cucurbitaceae. PMID:18943981

Maoka, Tetsuo; Hataya, Tatsuji

2005-02-01

355

Development of a codominant CAPS marker linked to PRSV-P resistance in highland papaya.  

PubMed

Development of resistant papaya varieties is widely considered the best strategy for long-term control of the papaya ringspot virus type P (PRSV-P). Several species of "highland papaya" from the related genus Vasconcellea exhibit complete resistance to PRSV-P, and present a valuable source of resistance genes with potential for application in Carica papaya. The objectives of this study were two fold; to identify molecular markers linked to a previously characterised PRSV-P resistance gene in V. cundinamarcensis (psrv-1), and to develop codominant marker based strategies for reliable selection of PRSV-P resistant genotypes. Using a bulked segregant analysis approach, dominant randomly amplified DNA fingerprint (RAF) markers linked to prsv-1 were revealed in the resistant DNA bulk, which comprised F2 progeny from a V. parviflora (susceptible) x V. cundinamarcensis (resistant) interspecific cross. One marker, Opk4_1r, mapped adjacent to the prsv-1 locus at 5.4 cM, while a second, Opa11_5r, collocated with it. Sequence characterisation of the Opk4_1r marker permitted its conversion into a codominant CAPS marker (PsiIk4), diagnostic for the resistant genotype based on digestion with the restriction endonuclease PsiI. This marker mapped within 2 cM of the prsv-1 locus. Psilk4 was shown to correctly identify resistant genotypes 99% of the time when applied to interspecific F2 progeny segregating for the resistant character, and has potential for application in breeding programs aimed to deliver the PRSV-P resistance gene from V. cundinamarcensis into C. papaya. PMID:16932884

Dillon, S; Ramage, C; Ashmore, S; Drew, R A

2006-10-01

356

Two-Year Chronic Oral-Toxicity Study with Low-Dose-Irradiated Papayas in Swiss White Mice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A two-year and three-generation reproduction study using Swiss white mice subjected to chronic oral administration of low-dose-irradiated papayas was conducted. There were no statistical differences in growth, body weight, food consumption, mortality, beh...

1971-01-01

357

Three-Generation Reproduction Study with Low Dose Irradiated Papayas in Albino Rats: Results of All Three Generations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A two year and three generation reproduction study employing albino rats subjected to chronic oral administration of low dose irradiated papayas was conducted. The results of the reproduction portion of the study are summarized. (ERA citation 08:001079)

P. S. Smith

1971-01-01

358

Calmodulin Gene Family in Potato: Developmental and Touch-Induced Expression of the mRNA Encoding a Novel Isoform  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eight genomic clones of potato calmodulin (PCM1 to 8) were isolated and characterized. Sequence comparisons of different genes revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of PCM1 had several unique substitutions, especially in the fourth Ca(2+)-binding area. The expression patterns of different genes were studied by northern analysis using the 3'-untranslated regions as probes. The expression of PCM1, 5, and 8 was highest in the stolon tip and it decreased during tuber development. The expression of PCM6 did not vary much in the tissues tested, except in the leaves, where the expression was lower; whereas, the expression of PCM4 was very low in all the tissues. The expression of PCM2 and PCM3 was not detected in any of the tissues tested. Among these genes, only PCM1 showed increased expression following touch stimulation. To study the regulation of PCM1, transgenic potato plants carrying the PCM1 promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene were produced. GUS expression was found to be developmentally regulated and touch-responsive, indicating a positive correlation between the expression of PCM1 and GUS mRNAs. These results suggest that the 5'-flanking region of PCM1 controls developmental and touch-induced expression. X-Gluc staining patterns revealed that GUS localization is high in meristematic tissues such as the stem apex, stolon tip, and vascular regions.

Takezawa, D.; Liu, Z. H.; An, G.; Poovaiah, B. W.

1995-01-01

359

Papaya Ringspot Virus Resistance of Transgenic Rainbow and SunUp is Affected by Gene Dosage, Plant Development, and Coat Protein Homology  

Microsoft Academic Search

R1 plants of the transgenic papaya line 55-1, which expresses a single coat protein (CP) gene of the mild strain of the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) HA from Hawaii, were previously shown to be resistant only to PRSV isolates from Hawaii. Two transgenic papaya cultivars were subsequently derived from line 55-1. UH SunUp (SunUp) is homozygous for the CP gene

Paula Tennant; G. Fermin; M. M. Fitch; R. M. Manshardt; J. L. Slightom; D. Gonsalves

2001-01-01

360

N-terminal of Papaya ringspot virus type-W (PRSV-W) helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) is essential for PRSV systemic infection in zucchini  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is one of the limiting factors affecting papaya and cucurbits production worldwide. PRSV belongs to the potyvirus\\u000a genus which consists of 30% of known plant viruses. Two serological closely related strains, namely type-P and -W, have been\\u000a reported. PRSV type-P infects both papaya and cucurbits, while type-W infects only cucurbits. The genome of PRSV Thailand

Yun-Kiam Yap; Janejira Duangjit; Sakol Panyim

2009-01-01

361

Touch in primary care consultations: qualitative investigation of doctors' and patients' perceptions  

PubMed Central

Background Good communication skills are integral to successful doctor–patient relationships. Communication may be verbal or non-verbal, and touch is a significant component, which has received little attention in the primary care literature. Touch may be procedural (part of a clinical task) or expressive (contact unrelated to a procedure/examination). Aim To explore GPs’ and patients’ experiences of using touch in consultations. Design and setting Qualitative study in urban and semi-rural areas of north-west England. Method Participating GPs recruited registered patients with whom they felt they had an ongoing relationship. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews and subjected to constant comparative qualitative analysis. Results All participants described the importance of verbal and non-verbal communication in developing relationships. Expressive touch was suggested to improve communication quality by most GPs and all patients. GPs reported a lower threshold for using touch with older patients or those who were bereaved, and with patients of the same sex as themselves. All patient responders felt touch on the hand or forearm was appropriate. GPs described limits to using touch, with some responders rarely using anything other than procedural touch. In contrast, most patient responders believed expressive touch was acceptable, especially in situations of distress. All GP responders feared misinterpretation in their use of touch, but patients were keen that these concerns should not prevent doctors using expressive touch in consultations. Conclusion Expressive touch improves interactions between GPs and patients. Increased educational emphasis on the conscious use of expressive touch would enhance clinical communication and, hence, perhaps patient wellbeing and care.

Cocksedge, Simon; George, Bethan; Renwick, Sophie; Chew-Graham, Carolyn A

2013-01-01

362

SOME CHEMICAL AND RESPIRATIONALCHANGES IN THE PAPAYA FRUITDURING RIPENING,AND THE EFFECTS OF COLD STORAGE ON THESE CHANGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya(Carica papaya)isaplantlong, established inHawaii, having beenbrought totheIslands before 1823.Ithasbeenunderstudybythe HawaiiAgricultural Experiment Station since 1902, butmostoftheinvesti- gations havebeenoncultural requirements andselection. Therapid rise in commercial importance ofthefruitinrecent yearsmakesitlnecessary to knowsomething ofthechanges occurring inthefruit during ripening, asa basis forharvesting, storage, andshipnment. Reviewofliterature THOMPSON(13)gives someoftheearly analyses ofthepapaya anid shows thatintheripefruit there isverylittle sucrose butahighpercentage of reducing sugars. Herstudywasofseveral different strains, namely: Trinidad, SouthAfrican, Honolulu,

WINSTON W. JONES; HISASHI KUBOTA

363

Cell wall modification in 1-methylcyclopropene-treated post-climacteric fresh-cut and intact papaya fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya is a climacteric fruit in which ripening is greatly regulated by ethylene often associated with stress responses such\\u000a as wounding. The changes in cell wall compositions in papaya fruit at an advanced stage of ripening under stress conditions\\u000a including chilling temperature of 5°C and wounding employed as fresh-cut and how these changes were affected by an ethylene\\u000a action inhibitor

Muharrem Ergun; Yasar Karakurt; Donald J. Huber

364

Nightingale theory and intentional comfort touch in management of tinea pedis in vulnerable populations.  

PubMed

Vulnerable populations, specifically migrant farm workers and persons experiencing homelessness, are often at an increased risk for foot infections. This risk is related to their working and living conditions, socioeconomic status, limited access to health care, frequent exposure to wet environments, limited access to clean and dry socks and shoes, bathing or laundry facilities, and daily routines that requires them to be on their feet for long periods of time. After years of caring for these populations and hundreds of clinical encounters, an evidence-based, effective method of foot care that incorporates intentional comfort touch has been developed. This article describes methods for mitigating the severity of fungal growth, decreasing the risk of secondary infections, and improving skin integrity by manipulating the micro-environment of the patients' feet. This includes fundamental aspects of hygiene as described by Florence Nightingale's Environmental Theory that suggests that direct sunlight, fresh air, and cleanliness improves health. PMID:20660909

Howett, Maeve; Connor, Ann; Downes, Elizabeth

2010-12-01

365

Ionic signaling in plant gravity and touch responses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plant roots are optimized to exploit resources from the soil and as each root explores this environment it will encounter a range of biotic and abiotic stimuli to which it must respond. Therefore, each root must possess a sensory array capable of monitoring and integrating these diverse stimuli to direct the appropriate growth response. Touch and gravity represent two of the biophysical stimuli that plants must integrate. As sensing both of these signals requires mechano-transduction of biophysical forces to biochemical signaling events, it is likely that they share signal transduction elements. These common signaling components may allow for cross-talk and so integration of thigmotropic and gravitropic responses. Indeed, signal transduction events in both plant touch and gravity sensing are thought to include Ca(2+)- and pH-dependent events. Additionally, it seems clear that the systems responsible for root touch and gravity response interact to generate an integrated growth response. Thus, primary and lateral roots of Arabidopsis respond to mechanical stimuli by eliciting tropic growth that is likely part of a growth strategy employed by the root to circumvent obstacles in the soil. Also, the mechano-signaling induced by encountering an obstacle apparently down-regulates the graviperception machinery to allow this kind of avoidance response. The challenge for future research will be to define how the cellular signaling events in the root cap facilitate this signal integration and growth regulation. In addition, whether other stimuli are likewise integrated with the graviresponse via signal transduction system cross-talk is an important question that remains to be answered.

Massa, Gioia D.; Fasano, Jeremiah M.; Gilroy, Simon

2003-01-01

366

Asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular small RNA population of papaya  

PubMed Central

Background The small RNAs (sRNA) are a regulatory class of RNA mainly represented by the 21 and 24-nucleotide size classes. The cellular sRNAs are processed by RNase III family enzyme dicer (Dicer like in plant) from a self-complementary hairpin loop or other type of RNA duplexes. The papaya genome has been sequenced, but its microRNAs and other regulatory RNAs are yet to be analyzed. Results We analyzed the genomic features of the papaya sRNA population from three sRNA deep sequencing libraries made from leaves, flowers, and leaves infected with Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV). We also used the deep sequencing data to annotate the micro RNA (miRNA) in papaya. We identified 60 miRNAs, 24 of which were conserved in other species, and 36 of which were novel miRNAs specific to papaya. In contrast to the Chargaff’s purine-pyrimidine equilibrium, cellular sRNA was significantly biased towards a purine rich population. Of the two purine bases, higher frequency of adenine was present in 23nt or longer sRNAs, while 22nt or shorter sRNAs were over represented by guanine bases. However, this bias was not observed in the annotated miRNAs in plants. The 21nt species were expressed from fewer loci but expressed at higher levels relative to the 24nt species. The highly expressed 21nt species were clustered in a few isolated locations of the genome. The PRSV infected leaves showed higher accumulation of 21 and 22nt sRNA compared to uninfected leaves. We observed higher accumulation of miRNA* of seven annotated miRNAs in virus-infected tissue, indicating the potential function of miRNA* under stressed conditions. Conclusions We have identified 60 miRNAs in papaya. Our study revealed the asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular sRNA population. The 21nt species of sRNAs have higher expression levels than 24nt sRNA. The miRNA* of some miRNAs shows higher accumulation in PRSV infected tissues, suggesting that these strands are not totally functionally redundant. The findings open a new avenue for further investigation of the sRNA silencing pathway in plants.

2012-01-01

367

3D touch trigger probe based on fiber Bragg gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a 3D touch trigger probe based on Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG). The sensing principle is Bragg equation ?=2n?. Mutative strain and temperature outside alter both the refractive index (n) and grating pitches (?) of the fiber core, so the Bragg wavelength ? will change accordingly. The probe adopts FBG sensor system which has four FBGs provided with same parameter (three as sensor FBG and one as match FBG). Laser beam from broadband light source enter sensor FBGs through one coupler, the reflected light is imported to match FBG via another coupler, eventually captured by a high precision optoelectronic detector which monitors energy of the laser reflected by match FBG. The tip ball swings when it contact work pieces, and causes rotation of the plank by rigid connection, the displacement of the tip ball will be transferred to strain exerting on sensor FBGs. Consequently the strain results in Bragg wavelength shift of the reflected laser beam. The displacement of the probe leads to shift of Bragg wavelength of the sensor FBG, therefore, results in energy change of reflected light from the matching FBG. The probe based on FBG sensor brings an untouched branch of the application of Fiber grating sensors. It is also studied on key points of a touch trigger probe such as repeatability, trigger force and resolution.

Ding, Bangzhou; Fei, Yetai; Fan, Zheguang

2009-03-01

368

Development of brain mechanisms for processing affective touch  

PubMed Central

Affective tactile stimulation plays a key role in the maturation of neural circuits, but the development of brain mechanisms processing touch is poorly understood. We therefore used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study brain responses to soft brush stroking of both glabrous (palm) and hairy (forearm) skin in healthy children (5–13 years), adolescents (14–17 years), and adults (25–35 years). Adult-defined regions-of-interests in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), insular cortex and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) were significantly and similarly activated in all age groups. Whole-brain analyses revealed that responses in the ipsilateral SII were positively correlated with age in both genders, and that responses in bilateral regions near the pSTS correlated significantly and strongly with age in females but not in males. These results suggest that brain mechanisms associated with both sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational aspects of touch are largely established in school-aged children, and that there is a general continuing maturation of SII and a female-specific increase in pSTS sensitivity with age. Our work establishes a groundwork for future comparative studies of tactile processing in developmental disorders characterized by disrupted social perception such as autism.

Bjornsdotter, Malin; Gordon, Ilanit; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Olausson, Hakan; Kaiser, Martha D.

2014-01-01

369

Discriminative and affective touch in human experimental tactile allodynia.  

PubMed

Recently, several studies have suggested a role for unmyelinated (C-tactile, CT) low-threshold mechanoreceptive afferents in the allodynic condition. In this psychophysical study we explored the integrity of both A? and CT afferent processing following application of the heat capsaicin model of tactile allodynia on the left forearm in healthy subjects (n=40). We measured tactile direction discrimination (TDD) to target the integrity of A? processing (n=20). The TDD accuracy was significantly lower in the allodynic compared to a control zone. In addition, we measured the perceived pleasantness and pain of brush stroking at CT targeted (slow) and CT sub-optimal (fast) stroking velocities to investigate the integrity of CT processing (n=20). When comparing touch pleasantness in the allodynic and control zone, there was a significantly larger difference in ratings for CT targeted compared to CT suboptimal stimulation. The results suggest a disturbance in both A?-mediated discriminative and CT-mediated affective touch processing in human experimental tactile allodynia. Our findings support the canonical view that tactile allodynia is signaled by A? afferents but that CTs seem to contribute by the loss of a pain inhibiting role. PMID:24486839

Liljencrantz, Jaquette; Marshall, Andrew; Ackerley, Rochelle; Olausson, Håkan

2014-03-20

370

Developing affordable multi-touch technologies for use in physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics is one of many areas which has the ability to benefit from a number of different teaching styles and sophisticated instructional tools due to it having both theoretical and practical applications which can be explored. The purpose of this research is to develop affordable large scale multi-touch interfaces which can be used within and outside of the classroom as both an instruction technology and a computer supported collaborative learning tool. Not only can this technology be implemented at university levels, but also at the K-12 level of education. Pedagogical research indicates that kinesthetic learning is a fundamental, powerful, and ubiquitous learning style [1]. Through the use of these types of multi-touch tools and teaching methods which incorporate them, the classroom can be enriched to allow for better comprehension and retention of information. This is due in part to a wider range of learning styles, such as kinesthetic learning, which are being catered to within the classroom. [4pt] [1] Wieman, C.E, Perkins, K.K., Adams, W.K., ``Oersted Medal Lecture 2007: Interactive Simulations for teaching physics: What works, what doesn't and why,'' American Journal of Physics. 76 393-99.

Potter, Mark; Ilie, Carolina; Schofield, Damian; Vampola, David

2012-02-01

371

High tech. High touch. John Naisbett's world view.  

PubMed

History will record that 20 years ago, a man named John Naisbett made a contribution which literally changed the world, with his book Megatrends. It changed the way that we think about the world. It changed the way that we think about ourselves. A distinguished scholar, John Naisbett has worked in many different settings, including at the White House under Lyndon B. Johnson. He spent many years at Harvard University, and is best known for introducing a quantitative analysis of the major trends affecting America. One of those, of course, was demographics. Another was the aging of the planet. Another was technology. He recently authored a new book, High Tech, High Touch. Home care has "high touch" down to a science: that's the kind of care for which home care is famous. It is also important, however, that we introduce technology. As technology changes and offers the ability to provide new and more efficient ways of providing care, we need to embrace that opportunity. History will record that 20 years ago, a man named John Naisbett made a contribution which literally changed the world, with his book Megatrends. It changed the way that we think about the world. It changed the way that we think about ourselves. He delivered the following speech at the 2001 National Association for Home Care Annual Meeting. PMID:11957853

Naisbett, John

2002-04-01

372

Investigation of limbal touch sensitivity using a Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer.  

PubMed Central

Following the observation of complex sensory receptors concentrated within the palisade zone of the human conjunctiva, this study sought to measure limbal touch sensitivity using a Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer. Touch sensitivity was found to be significantly higher in the palisade zone compared with the adjacent conjunctiva. A comparison between temporal and inferior limbus showed a greater median sensitivity for the temporal zone. There was a significant reduction in touch sensitivity with age, but not with iris colour or contact lens wear. These data, showing a higher touch sensitivity for the palisade zone, provide indirect evidence for a role of complex nerve endings in mechanoreception. Images

Lawrenson, J G; Ruskell, G L

1993-01-01

373

Characterization of the exogenous insert and development of event-specific PCR detection methods for genetically modified Huanong No. 1 papaya.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.), Huanong No. 1, was approved for commercialization in Guangdong province, China in 2006, and the development of the Huanong No. 1 papaya detection method is necessary for implementing genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling regulations. In this study, we reported the characterization of the exogenous integration of GM Huanong No. 1 papaya by means of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR strategies. The results suggested that one intact copy of the initial construction was integrated in the papaya genome and which probably resulted in one deletion (38 bp in size) of the host genomic DNA. Also, one unintended insertion of a 92 bp truncated NptII fragment was observed at the 5' end of the exogenous insert. Furthermore, we revealed its 5' and 3' flanking sequences between the insert DNA and the papaya genomic DNA, and developed the event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR assays for GM Huanong No. 1 papaya based on the 5' integration flanking sequence. The relative limit of detection (LOD) of the qualitative PCR assay was about 0.01% in 100 ng of total papaya genomic DNA, corresponding to about 25 copies of papaya haploid genome. In the quantitative PCR, the limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) were as low as 12.5 and 25 copies of papaya haploid genome, respectively. In practical sample quantification, the quantified biases between the test and true values of three samples ranged from 0.44% to 4.41%. Collectively, we proposed that all of these results are useful for the identification and quantification of Huanong No. 1 papaya and its derivates. PMID:19645503

Guo, Jinchao; Yang, Litao; Liu, Xin; Guan, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Lingxi; Zhang, Dabing

2009-08-26

374

Design and analysis of a piezoelectric material based touch screen with additional pressure and its acceleration measurement functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Touch screens are becoming more and more prevalent in everyday environments due to their convenience and humanized operation. In this paper, a piezoelectric material based touch screen is developed and investigated. Piezoelectric ceramics arrayed under the touch panel at the edges or corners are used as tactile sensors to measure the touch positioning point similarly to conventional touch screens. However, additional touch pressure and its acceleration performance can also be obtained to obtain a higher-level human-machine interface. The piezoelectric ceramics can also be added to a traditional touch screen structure, or they can be used independently to construct a novel touch screen with a high light transmittance approach to a transparent glass. The piezoelectric ceramics were processed from PZT piezoelectric ceramic powder into a round or rectangular shape. According to the varied touch position and physical press strength of a finger, or even a gloved hand or fingernail, the piezoelectric tactile sensors will have different output voltage responses. By calculating the ratio of different piezoelectric tactile sensors’ responses and summing up all piezoelectric tactile sensors’ output voltages, the touch point position, touch pressure and touch force acceleration can be detected. A prototype of such a touch screen is manufactured and its position accuracy, touch pressure and response speed are measured in detail. The experimental results show that the prototype has many advantages such as high light transmittance, low energy cost and high durability.

Chu, Xiang-Cheng; Liu, Jia-Yi; Gao, Ren-Long; Chang, Jie; Li, Long-Tu

2013-12-01

375

First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee  

PubMed Central

Five mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) plant pest species: Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi), Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus tucumanus Granara de Willink, and Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius are recorded for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These are the first records of D. grassii in Brazil, from papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), and from coffee (Coffea canephora, Rubiaceae). Ferrisia malvastra is also newly recorded in Brazil, where it was found on Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae). Ferrisia virgata was collected from an unidentified weed and Phenacoccus tucumanus from Citrus sp. (Rutaceae). Plotococcus capixaba Kondo was found on pitanga (Eugenia cf. pitanga, Myrtaceae) and Pseudococcus elisae on Coffea canephora, which are new host records for these mealybugs.

Culik, Mark P.; dos Santos Martins, David; Gullan, Penny J.

2006-01-01

376

Use of papaya seeds as a biosorbent of methylene blue from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

In this study papaya seeds were used to remove methylene blue dye from aqueous solution. Papaya seeds were characterized as possessing a macro/mesoporous texture and large pore size. Studies were carried out in batches to evaluate the effect of contact time and pH (2-12) on the removal of dye. It was observed that the adsorption of dye was better in the basic region (pH 12). The equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Raduschkevich, Tempkin, Jovanovich, Redlich-Peterson, Sips, Toth and Radke-Prausnitz isotherms. The equilibrium data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm with a maximum adsorption capacity of 637.29 mg g(-1). Adsorption kinetic data were fitted using the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption kinetic is very fast and was best described by the pseudo-second-order model. PMID:23863440

Paz, Diego S; Baiotto, Alexandre; Schwaab, Marcio; Mazutti, Marcio A; Bassaco, Mariana M; Bertuol, Daniel A; Foletto, Edson L; Meili, Lucas

2013-01-01

377

Phytochemistry and heamatological potential of ethanol seed leaf and pulp extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.).  

PubMed

This study was aimed at qualitative evaluation of the ethanol seed, leaf and pulp extracts of C. papaya for bioactive compounds and also to investigate their effect on the haematology in male albino rats. A 3 x 4 factorial experimental layout using randomized complete design was adopted. Results show that the phytochemicals found in seed, leaf and pulp were almost the same but however, in varying proportions. Present result also revealed that there were significant effects (p < 0.05) of the extracts on the heamatology of the treated rats, which was blamed on the varying and different variants ofbioactive compounds found in the extracts they were administered with. Suggestively, C. papaya extracts could be used to enhance the production of selected blood parameters, taking issue of dosage into consideration. PMID:21902066

Ikpeme, E V; Ekaluo, U B; Kooffreh, M E; Udensi, O

2011-03-15

378

Effects of crude aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds in male albino mice.  

PubMed

The effect of an aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds (5 mg/kg body/day im and 20 mg/kg body wt/day oral) were investigated in male mice treated for 60 days. Reversibility studies were also carried out to elucidate if any induced effects were transient. The aqueous extract did not manifest any estrogenic effects in male mice, and LD50 studies indicated its nontoxic nature. The body weight or the weights of reproductive organs, kidney, and adrenal were not affected, indicating that the extract did not promote body weight gain through obesity or water retention. The serum SGOT, SGPT, protein, and cholesterol levels were also within the normal range in the extract-treated mice, suggesting that the extract does not influence liver function or cholesterol and protein metabolism. These data suggest that the aqueous extracts of papaya seeds is safe and could serve as an effective male contraceptive in rodents. PMID:8186628

Chinoy, N J; D'Souza, J M; Padman, P

1994-01-01

379

Induction of functional sterility in male rats by low dose Carica papaya seed extract treatment.  

PubMed

The result revealed that a short term administration of an aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed manifested an androgen deprived effect on the target organs and thereby caused antifertility effect in adult male albino rats. The complete loss of fertility is attributed to decline in sperm motility and alteration in their morphology as well as to reduced contractile response of the vas deferens. The androgen deprived effect of the extract led to slight alteration in the histoarchitecture and weight of the reproductive organs, mainly cauda and distal vas deferens which has been related to their greater androgen sensitivity in comparison to the other target organs and or their greatly diminished target organ response to testosterone or its metabolites. The data revealed that functional sterility could be induced in male rats by papaya extract treatment, which promises to be a potential male contraceptive. PMID:6675389

Chinoy, N J; George, S M

1983-01-01

380

First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee.  

PubMed

Five mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) plant pest species: Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi), Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus tucumanus Granara de Willink, and Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius are recorded for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These are the first records of D. grassii in Brazil, from papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), and from coffee (Coffea canephora, Rubiaceae). Ferrisia malvastra is also newly recorded in Brazil, where it was found on Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae). Ferrisia virgata was collected from an unidentified weed and Phenacoccus tucumanus from Citrus sp. (Rutaceae). Plotococcus capixaba Kondo was found on pitanga ( Eugenia cf. pitanga, Myrtaceae) and Pseudococcus elisae on Coffea canephora , which are new host records for these mealybugs. PMID:19537975

Culik, Mark P; Martins, David dos Santos; Gullan, Penny J

2006-01-01

381

Variability in the coat protein gene of Papaya ringspot virus isolates from multiple locations in India.  

PubMed

The coat protein (CP) sequences of eleven Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolates originating from different locations in India were determined, analysed and compared with the sequences of other isolates of PRSV. The virus isolates from India exhibited considerable heterogeneity in the CP sequences. The CP-coding region varied in size from 840-858 nucleotides, encoding protein of 280-286 amino acids. Comparative sequence analysis revealed that the PRSV isolates originating from India were divergent up to 11%. Though the PRSV isolates were differentiated in to two clusters, yet the sequence variation could not be correlated with the geographical origin of the isolates. Implication of the sequence variation in the coat protein derived transgenic resistance in papaya is discussed. PMID:15338325

Jain, R K; Sharma, J; Sivakumar, A S; Sharma, P K; Byadgi, A S; Verma, A K; Varma, A

2004-12-01

382

Genomics of helper component proteinase reveals effective strategy for papaya ringspot virus resistance.  

PubMed

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) causes severe economic losses in both cucurbits and papaya throughout the tropics and subtropics. Development of PRSV-resistant transgenic plants faces a major hurdle in achieving resistance against geographically distinct isolates. One of the major reasons of failing to achieve the broad-spectrum PRSV resistance is the involvement of silencing suppressor proteins of viral origin. Here, based on sequence profile of silencing suppressor protein, HcPro, we show that PRSV-HcPro, acts as a suppressor of RNA silencing through micro RNA binding in a dose- dependent manner. In planta expression of PRSV-HcPro affects developmental biology of plants, suggesting the interference of suppressor protein in micro RNA-directed regulatory pathways of plants. Besides facilitating the establishment of PRSV, it showed strong positive synergism with other heterologous viruses as well. This study provides a strategy to develop effective and stable PRSV-resistant transgenic plants. PMID:19672730

Mangrauthia, Satendra K; Singh, Priyanka; Praveen, Shelly

2010-01-01

383

An efficient method for sonication assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of coat protein (CP) coding genes into papaya (Carica papaya L.).  

PubMed

An efficient method for the production of transgenic papaya was developed via Sonication Assisted Agrobacterium-mediated Transformation (SAAT) of somatic embryos. The plasmid pGA482G was modified to contain gene PTi-Epj-TL-PLDMV with CP coding sequence of PLDMV Japan strain and chimeric gene PTi-NP-YKT with multiple CP coding sequences from PRSV Taiwan strain, PRSV Hawaii strain and PRSV Thailand strain, respectively. Disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 carrying the binary plasmid pGA482G with the CP genes and nptII gene was used to transform embryo calli of papaya variety Sunset to produce transgenic papaya plants. The experiment was focused on the screening of effective transformation method. The engineered Agrobacterium grown overnight was diluted with an infection media of high osmotic pressure (1/2 MS medium contain 6% sucrose and 1% glucose, pH 5.7) and adjusted to optical density OD600nm = 0.15-0.20, embryonic calli were immerged in it for 30 min and treated with 5 s, 15 s, and 20 s sonication respectively during the infection. Results indicated that 15 s sonication treatment improved the transformation efficiency dramatically. After 15 s sonication treatment on embryo calli loaded in 15 ml sterile plastic tubes, 21 putative transgenic lines were produced from 80 pieces embryonic calli (26.3%) transformed by Agrobacterium [pGA482G/CPG] and 8 putative transgenic lines was produced from 48 pieces embryonic calli (16.7%) transferred by Agrobacterium [pGA482G/CPB], while only a single line came out of 64 pieces embryonic calli (1.6%) transformed by Agrobacterium [pGA482G/CPG] and none from 25 pieces embryonic calli transformed by Agrobacterium [pGA482G/CPB] in the non-treatment control. Results also showed that the best concentration of selection antibiotic was 120 mg/L kanamycin. A total of 42 resistant shoots were produced from 421 pieces of original embryonic calli in 9 months. The presence of the CP genes in the transgenic plants and their integration into the papaya genome were confirmed by PCR and Southern hybridization respectively. PMID:15323420

Jiang, Ling; Maoka, Tetsuo; Komori, Sadao; Fukamachi, Hiroshi; Kato, Hidenori; Ogawa, Kazunori

2004-06-01

384

Evaluation of tapelifting as a collection method for touch DNA.  

PubMed

The use of tapelifting for collection of touch DNA from fabrics is routine in many jurisdictions. However, there is a paucity of data relating to the effectiveness of different types of tapes for tapelifting, the amount of tapelifting required to generate a useful profile, and whether or not tapelifting is more effective than swabbing from various substrates. This research investigates these questions by comparing two tapes of different adhesive strength currently used in forensic casework (Scotch Magic tape and Scenesafe FAST minitapes), for sampling from touch deposits on four different fabrics-cotton flannelette, cotton drill woven fabric, polyester/cotton plain woven fabric and polyester strapping. Touch DNA was deposited on four replicates of each substrate. Separate areas of each substrate replicate were sampled, either by taping with one of the two tapes or by wet/dry swabbing with cotton swabs. Tape was applied over the defined sampling area once or repeatedly for various numbers of applications. DNA was extracted, quantified and profiled from all tape and swab samples as well as the corresponding sampled substrates. Significantly more DNA was extracted, and a higher proportion of alleles detected, from Scenesafe FAST tape than from Scotch Magic tape. The amount of DNA and number of donor alleles detected generally increased as the tape was reapplied to the surface, although a threshold of collection was seen for both types of tape. For two out of four substrates, taping with Scenesafe FAST collected more DNA than swabbing and, for three substrates, generated a greater median number of donor alleles. There was no significant difference in numbers of alleles between swabbing and taping from flannelette. Based on these findings, it is recommended that a tape with stronger adhesion (such as Scenesafe FAST tapelifters) is generally preferable; that more than one application of tape is suggested (however, increasing the amount of times the area is sampled can diminish collection efficiency); and that there is an advantage using tapelifting rather than swabbing for fabrics unless, such as with flannelette, there are many loose fibres easily removed during the sampling process. PMID:24315606

Verdon, Timothy J; Mitchell, R John; van Oorschot, Roland A H

2014-01-01

385

Mode of action of chitosan coating on anthracnose disease control in papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a chitosan coating on antifungal activity and rate of respiration, chitinase and ?, 1-3 glucanase activities\\u000a with reference to papaya variety ‘Rathna’ was investigated. One percent chitosan, extracted from locally available prawn waste,\\u000a was selected as the effective concentration to inhibit spore germination via a series of experiments on potato dextrose agar.\\u000a Rate of respiration and the

Ilmi Ganga Namali Hewajulige; Yasmina Sultanbawa; R. Shanthi Wilson Wijeratnam; Ravindra L. C. Wijesundara

2009-01-01

386

Phenol induced by irradiation does not impair sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of radiation processing on the sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya exposed to doses in the range of 2.5-10 kGy and 100 Gy-2.5 kGy respectively was investigated. Despite an increase in the content of phenol in the volatile oil of these food products overall sensory quality of the irradiated and control samples was not significantly affected by radiation processing.

Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

2013-11-01

387

Hybrid 'Sinta' Papaya Exhibits Unique ACC Synthase 1 cDNA Isoforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five ripening-related ACC synthase cDNA isoforms were cloned from 80% ripe papaya cv. 'Sinta' by reverse transcription-PCR using gene-specific primers. Clone 2 had the longest transcript and contained all common exons and three alternative exons. Clones 3 and 4 contained common exons and one alternative exon each, while clone 1, the most common transcript, contained only the common exons. Clone

Marie-Sol P. Hidalgo; Evelyn Mae Tecson-Mendoza; Antonio C. Lauren; Jose Ramon Botella

2005-01-01

388

Effect of the potassium permanganate during papaya fruit ripening: Ethylene production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on the ripening process of papaya fruits by monitoring the ethylene emission rates is reported. The ethylene emission was monitored by a photoacoustic spectrometer. Two experimental conditions were applied, being one of them just putting the fruit alone inside the sampling chamber and the second, modifying the atmosphere by the presence of KMnO4. The

S. F. Corrêa; M. B. Filho; M. G. da Silva; J. G. Oliveira; E. M. M. Aroucha; R. F. Silva; M. G. Pereira; H. Vargas

2005-01-01

389

Ripening of mountain papaya ( Vasconcellea pubescens) and ethylene dependence of some ripening events  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first noticeable event during the ripening of mountain papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens) is the rapid degreening of the skin, followed by climacteric ethylene and flesh softening. When ethylene perception is blocked by 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, 0.3?ll?1 for 16h at 20°C), the increase in ethylene evolution is avoided, and softening and color development are partially delayed. This indicates that ethylene perception is

Mar??a Alejandra Moya-León; Mario Moya; Raúl Herrera

2004-01-01

390

Characterization of benzyl isothiocyanate and phenyl acetonitrile from papayas by mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Two unidentified analytical responses in a papaya extract were structurally determined by mass spectrometry to be benzyl isothiocyanate and phenyl acetonitrile. Both these compounds have previously been shown to result from degradation of benzylglucosinolate that occurs naturally in the seeds of the fruit. Characterization by mass spectrometry has now provided a convenient mechanism to detect both these degradation compounds in extracts resulting from routine pesticide residue analysis. PMID:3391960

Cairns, T; Siegmund, E G; Stamp, J J; Jacobs, R M

1988-01-01

391

Comparative proteomic analysis of somatic embryo maturation in Carica papaya L.  

PubMed Central

Background Somatic embryogenesis is a complex process regulated by numerous factors. The identification of proteins that are differentially expressed during plant development could result in the development of molecular markers of plant metabolism and provide information contributing to the monitoring and understanding of different biological responses. In addition, the identification of molecular markers could lead to the optimization of protocols allowing the use of biotechnology for papaya propagation and reproduction. This work aimed to investigate the effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on somatic embryo development and the protein expression profile during somatic embryo maturation in papaya (Carica papaya L.). Results The maturation treatment supplemented with 6% PEG (PEG6) resulted in the greatest number of somatic embryos and induced differential protein expression compared with cultures grown under the control treatment. Among 135 spots selected for MS/MS analysis, 76 spots were successfully identified, 38 of which were common to both treatments, while 14 spots were unique to the control treatment, and 24 spots were unique to the PEG6 treatment. The identified proteins were assigned to seven categories or were unclassified. The most representative class of proteins observed in the control treatment was associated with the stress response (25.8%), while those under PEG6 treatment were carbohydrate and energy metabolism (18.4%) and the stress response (18.4%). Conclusions The differential expression of three proteins (enolase, esterase and ADH3) induced by PEG6 treatment could play an important role in maturation, and these proteins could be characterized as candidate biomarkers of somatic embryogenesis in papaya.

2014-01-01

392

Field performance evaluation and genetic integrity assessment of cryopreserved papaya clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the first report of field performance and evaluation of morphological traits following cryopreservation in four\\u000a genotypes of Carica papaya (Z6, 97, TS2 and 35). It also describes the successful establishment of in vitro plantlets following vitrification-based\\u000a cryopreservation of shoot tips and their acclimatisation through to field establishment. Cloned plants resulting from untreated\\u000a controls, as well as controls

Adam Kaity; S. E. Ashmore; R. A. Drew

2009-01-01

393

Line 63-1: A New Virus-resistant Transgenic Papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disease resistance of a transgenic line expressing the coat protein (CP) gene of the mild strain of the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) from Hawaii was further analyzed against PRSV isolates from Hawaii and other geographical regions. Line 63-1 originated from the same transformation experiment that resulted in line 55-1 from which the transgenic commercial cultivars, `Rainbow' and `SunUp', were

P. Tennant; M. T. Souza; M. M. Fitch; R. Manshardt; J. L. Slightom; D. Gonsalves

2005-01-01

394

Generation of transgenic watermelon resistant to Zucchini yellow mosaic virus and Papaya ringspot virus type W  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV W) are major limiting factors for production of watermelon worldwide. For the effective control of these two\\u000a viruses by transgenic resistance, an untranslatable chimeric construct containing truncated ZYMV coat protein (CP) and PRSV\\u000a W CP genes was transferred to commercial watermelon cultivars by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Using our protocol,

Tsong-Ann Yu; Chu-Hui Chiang; Hui-Wen Wu; Chin-Mei Li; Ching-Fu Yang; Jun-Han Chen; Yu-Wen Chen; Shyi-Dong Yeh

2011-01-01

395

Methods for screening watermelon for resistance to papaya ringspot virus type-W  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) affects all agriculturally important species of the Cucurbitaceae, and is of economic interest because of its destructiveness. The objective of this study was to develop a consistent and reliable method to screen watermelon for resistance to PRSV-W. PRSV-W isolates 1637, 1870, 2030, 2038, 2040, 2052, 2169, 2201, 2207, and W-1A were maintained in ‘Gray Zucchini’

Nihat Guner; E. Bruton Strange; Todd C. Wehner; Zvezdana Pesic-VanEsbroeck

2002-01-01

396

Variability in the coat protein gene of Papaya ringspot virus isolates from multiple locations in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The coat protein (CP) sequences of eleven Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolates originating from different locations in India were determined, analysed and compared with the sequences of other isolates of PRSV. The virus isolates from India exhibited considerable heterogeneity in the CP sequences. The CP-coding region varied in size from 840–858 nucleotides, encoding protein of 280–286 amino acids. Comparative

R. K. Jain; J. Sharma; A. S. Sivakumar; P. K. Sharma; A. S. Byadgi; A. K. Verma; A. Varma

2004-01-01

397

Sequencing papaya X and Yh chromosomes reveals molecular basis of incipient sex chromosome evolution  

PubMed Central

Sex determination in papaya is controlled by a recently evolved XY chromosome pair, with two slightly different Y chromosomes controlling the development of males (Y) and hermaphrodites (Yh). To study the events of early sex chromosome evolution, we sequenced the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome (HSY) and its X counterpart, yielding an 8.1-megabase (Mb) HSY pseudomolecule, and a 3.5-Mb sequence for the corresponding X region. The HSY is larger than the X region, mostly due to retrotransposon insertions. The papaya HSY differs from the X region by two large-scale inversions, the first of which likely caused the recombination suppression between the X and Yh chromosomes, followed by numerous additional chromosomal rearrangements. Altogether, including the X and/or HSY regions, 124 transcription units were annotated, including 50 functional pairs present in both the X and HSY. Ten HSY genes had functional homologs elsewhere in the papaya autosomal regions, suggesting movement of genes onto the HSY, whereas the X region had none. Sequence divergence between 70 transcripts shared by the X and HSY revealed two evolutionary strata in the X chromosome, corresponding to the two inversions on the HSY, the older of which evolved about 7.0 million years ago. Gene content differences between the HSY and X are greatest in the older stratum, whereas the gene content and order of the collinear regions are identical. Our findings support theoretical models of early sex chromosome evolution.

Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Yu, Qingyi; Gschwend, Andrea R.; Han, Jennifer; Zeng, Fanchang; Aryal, Rishi; VanBuren, Robert; Murray, Jan E.; Zhang, Wenli; Navajas-Perez, Rafael; Feltus, F. Alex; Lemke, Cornelia; Tong, Eric J.; Chen, Cuixia; Man Wai, Ching; Singh, Ratnesh; Wang, Ming-Li; Min, Xiang Jia; Alam, Maqsudul; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H.; Jiang, Jiming; Paterson, Andrew H.; Ming, Ray

2012-01-01

398

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the glutaminyl cyclase from Carica papaya latex  

PubMed Central

In living systems, the intramolecular cyclization of N-terminal glutamine residues is accomplished by glutaminyl cyclase enzymes (EC 2.3.2.5). While in mammals these enzymes are involved in the synthesis of hormonal and neurotransmitter peptides, the physiological role played by the corresponding plant enzymes still remains to be unravelled. Papaya glutaminyl cyclase (PQC), a 33?kDa enzyme found in the latex of the tropical tree Carica papaya, displays an exceptional resistance to chemical and thermal denaturation as well as to proteolysis. In order to elucidate its enzymatic mechanism and to gain insights into the structural determinants underlying its remarkable stability, PQC was isolated from papaya latex, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 62.82, b = 81.23, c = 108.17?Å and two molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data have been collected at ESRF beamline BM14 and processed to a resolution of 1.7?Å.

Azarkan, Mohamed; Clantin, Bernard; Bompard, Coralie; Belrhali, Hassan; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle; Looze, Yvan; Villeret, Vincent; Wintjens, Rene

2005-01-01

399

PAPAyA: a platform for breast cancer biomarker signature discovery, evaluation and assessment  

PubMed Central

Background The decision environment for cancer care is becoming increasingly complex due to the discovery and development of novel genomic tests that offer information regarding therapy response, prognosis and monitoring, in addition to traditional histopathology. There is, therefore, a need for translational clinical tools based on molecular bioinformatics, particularly in current cancer care, that can acquire, analyze the data, and interpret and present information from multiple diagnostic modalities to help the clinician make effective decisions. Results We present a platform for molecular signature discovery and clinical decision support that relies on genomic and epigenomic measurement modalities as well as clinical parameters such as histopathological results and survival information. Our Physician Accessible Preclinical Analytics Application (PAPAyA) integrates a powerful set of statistical and machine learning tools that leverage the connections among the different modalities. It is easily extendable and reconfigurable to support integration of existing research methods and tools into powerful data analysis and interpretation pipelines. A current configuration of PAPAyA with examples of its performance on breast cancer molecular profiles is used to present the platform in action. Conclusion PAPAyA enables analysis of data from (pre)clinical studies, formulation of new clinical hypotheses, and facilitates clinical decision support by abstracting molecular profiles for clinicians.

Janevski, Angel; Kamalakaran, Sitharthan; Banerjee, Nilanjana; Varadan, Vinay; Dimitrova, Nevenka

2009-01-01

400

Papaya beta-galactosidase/galactanase isoforms in differential cell wall hydrolysis and fruit softening during ripening.  

PubMed

The potential significance of the previously reported papaya (Carica papaya L.) beta-galactosidase/galactanase (beta-d-galactoside galactohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.23) isoforms, beta-gal I, II and III, as softening enzymes during ripening was evaluated for hydrolysis of pectins while still structurally attached to unripe fruit cell wall, and hemicelluloses that were already solubilized in 4 M alkali. The enzymes were capable of differentially hydrolyzing the cell wall as evidenced by increased pectin solubility, pectin depolymerization, and degradation of the alkali-soluble hemicelluloses (ASH). This enzyme catalyzed in vitro changes to the cell walls reflecting in part the changes that occur in situ during ripening. beta-Galactosidase II was most effective in hydrolyzing pectin, followed by beta-gal III and I. The reverse appeared to be true with respect to the hemicelluloses. Hemicellulose, which was already released from any architectural constraints, seemed to be hydrolyzed more extensively than the pectins. The ability of the beta-galactanases to markedly hydrolyze pectin and hemicellulose suggests that galactans provide a structural cross-linkage between the cell wall components. Collectively, the results support the case for a functional relevance of the papaya enzymes in softening related changes during ripening. PMID:15694277

Lazan, Hamid; Ng, Syu-Yih; Goh, Lee-Yin; Ali, Zainon Mohd

2004-12-01

401

Reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage by Carica papaya leaf extract  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the in vitro antioxidant potential of Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract and its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage assessed by haemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Methods Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, hydrogen ion scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and the ferrous ion reducing ability were assessed as antioxidant indices. In the other experiment, human erythrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide to induce erythrocyte damage. The extract (at various concentrations) was subsequently incubated with the erythrocytes and later analysed for haemolysis and lipid peroxidation as indices for erythrocyte damage. Results Preliminary investigation of the extract showed that the leaf possessed significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities using in vitro models in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). The extract also reduced hydrogen peroxide induced erythrocyte haemolysis and lipid peroxidation significantly when compared with ascorbic acid (P<0.05). The IC50 values were 7.33 mg/mL and 1.58 mg/mL for inhibition of haemolysis and lipid peroxidation, respectively. In all cases, ascorbic acid (the reference antioxidant) possessed higher activity than the extract. Conclusions The findings show that C. papaya leaves possess significant bioactive potential which is attributed to the phytochemicals which act in synergy. Thus, the leaves can be exploited for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes.

Okoko, Tebekeme; Ere, Diepreye

2012-01-01

402

Complete genome of Hainan papaya ringspot virus using small RNA deep sequencing.  

PubMed

Small RNA deep sequencing allows for virus identification, virus genome assembly, and strain differentiation. In this study, papaya plants with virus-like symptoms collected in Hainan province were used for deep sequencing and small RNA library construction. After in silicon subtraction of the papaya sRNAs, small RNA reads were used to in the viral genome assembly using a reference-guided, iterative assembly approach. A nearly complete genome was assembled for a Hainan isolate of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-HN-2). The complete PRSV-HN-2 genome (accession no.: KF734962) was obtained after a 15-nucleotide gap was filled by direct sequencing of the amplified genomic region. Direct sequencing of several random genomic regions of the PRSV isolate did not find any sequence discrepancy with the sRNA-assembled genome. The newly sequenced PRSV-HN-2 genome shared a nucleotide identity of 96 and 94 % to that of the PRSV-HN (EF183499) and PRSV-HN-1 (HQ424465) isolates, and together with these two isolates formed a new PRSV clade. These data demonstrate that the small RNA deep sequencing technology provides a viable and rapid mean to assemble complete viral genomes in plants. PMID:24510356

Zhang, Yuliang; Yu, Naitong; Huang, Qixing; Yin, Guohua; Guo, Anping; Wang, Xiangfeng; Xiong, Zhongguo; Liu, Zhixin

2014-06-01

403

[Sequence analysis of the complete genome of papaya ringspot virus hainan isolate].  

PubMed

Total RNA was extracted from infected papaya (Carica papaya L.) leaves in Hainan Province, and the full-length sequences of papaya ringspot virus were amplified by RT-PCR and RACE, and its complete genomic sequence was assembled, named Hainan-P isolate. The RNA genome sequence of Hainan-P isolate was 10323 nucleotides (nts)in length,excluding the 3'-terminal poly(A) tail. And it was composed of a single open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3343 amino acids.. The result of homology analysis with twelve GenBank PRSV isolates showed that the polyprotein identity of Hainan-P ranged from 89. 8% to 93.2%, that was higher than the complete nt homology of 82.3% to 89.1%. The P1 amino acid was the least conserved (sharing homology only between 65.4% and 80.1%), whereas HC-Pro, CI and CP were the most conserved. Phylogenetic tree were constructed by the Neighbor-joining method in MEGA 3.1, which showed that PRSV isolates were obviously relevant to geographical origin, and it was impossible to delineate host-specific (P type and W type)evolution. PMID:18533348

Lu, Ya-Wei; Shen, Wen-Tao; Tang, Qing-Jie; Niu, Yan-Mei; Zhou, Peng

2008-06-01

404

Engineered Mild Strains of Papaya ringspot virus for Broader Cross Protection in Cucurbits.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) HA5-1, a mild mutant of type P Hawaii severe strain (PRSV P-HA), has been widely used for the control of PRSV type P strains in papaya, but did not provide practical protection against PRSV type W strains in cucurbits. In order to widen the protection effectiveness against W strains, chimeric mild strains were constructed from HA5-1 to carry the heterologous 3' genomic region of a type W strain W-CI. Virus accumulation of recombinants and their crossprotection effectiveness against W-CI and P-HA were investigated. In horn melon and squash plants, the recombinant carrying both the heterologous coat protein (CP) coding region and the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR), but not the heterologous CP coding region alone, significantly enhanced the protection against W-CI. The heterologous 3'UTR alone is critical for the enhancement of the protection against W-CI in horn melon, but not in zucchini squash. In papaya, the heterologous CP coding region or 3'UTR alone, but not both together, significantly reduced the effectiveness of cross protection against P-HA. Our recombinants provide broader protection against both type W and P strains in cucurbits; however, the protective effectiveness is also affected by virus accumulation, the organization of the 3' genomic region, and host factors. PMID:18943319

You, Bang-Jau; Chiang, Chu-Hui; Chen, Li-Fang; Su, Wei-Chih; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

2005-05-01

405

Photoacoustic study of the influence of the cooling temperature on the CO2 emission rate by Carica papaya L. in modified atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monitoring of trace gas emitted by papaya fruits and assessments of its mass loss can contribute to improve the conditions for their storage and transport. The C02 emission rate by the papaya fruits, monitored by a commercial infrared-based gas analyzer, was influenced by the temperature and storage time. The fruits stored at temperature of 13 °C accumulated more CO2

D. U. Schramm; M. S. Sthel; M. G. da Silva; L. O. Carneiro; H. R. F. Silva; M. L. L. Martins; E. D. Resende; L. Vitorazi; H. Vargas

2005-01-01

406

Effects of ozone exposure on ‘Golden’ papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of ‘Golden’ papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring

Leonardo Mota; Luisa Brito Paiva; Fla´vio Mota do Couto; Marcelo Gomes da Silva; Marcelo Silva Sthel; Helion Vargas; Andra´s Miklo´s

2011-01-01

407

Effects of ozone exposure on `Golden' papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of `Golden' papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring

Savio Figueira Corrêa; Leonardo Mota; Luisa Brito Paiva; Flávio Mota Do Couto; Marcelo Gomes Da Silva; Jurandi Gonçalves De Oliveira; Marcelo Silva Sthel; Helion Vargas; András Miklós

2011-01-01

408

AMADURECIMENTO DE MAMÃO FORMOSA COM REVESTIMENTO COMESTÍVEL À BASE DE FÉCULA DE MANDIOCA Formosa papaya ripening with edible coating of cassava starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya is a perishable fruit, of short shelf-life. New technologies of conservation of horticultural products with the possibility of being used in organic systems have been developed, such as the edible coatings that can be eaten with the product. In this work it was evaluated Tainung 1 Formosa type papaya ripening at room temperature and coated with edible cassava starch

Márcio Eduardo; Canto Pereira; Aurivan Santana da Silva; Aline Simões da Rocha Bispo; Djalma Barbosa; Silvia Barbosa; Vânia Jesus dos Santos

409

Sequence similarity between the cp gene and the transgene in transgenic papayas = Similaridade de seqüência entre o gene cp do vírus e do transgene presente em mamoeiros transgênicos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) coat protein transgene present in 'Rainbow' and 'SunUp' papayas disclose high sequence similarity (>89%) to the cp gene from PRSV BR and TH. Despite this, both isolates are able to break down the resistance in 'Rainbow', while only the latter is able to do so in 'SunUp'. The objective of this work was to evaluate

M. T. Souza; M. Teixeira; D. Gonsalves

2005-01-01

410

Distant touch hydrodynamic imaging with an artificial lateral line.  

PubMed

Nearly all underwater vehicles and surface ships today use sonar and vision for imaging and navigation. However, sonar and vision systems face various limitations, e.g., sonar blind zones, dark or murky environments, etc. Evolved over millions of years, fish use the lateral line, a distributed linear array of flow sensing organs, for underwater hydrodynamic imaging and information extraction. We demonstrate here a proof-of-concept artificial lateral line system. It enables a distant touch hydrodynamic imaging capability to critically augment sonar and vision systems. We show that the artificial lateral line can successfully perform dipole source localization and hydrodynamic wake detection. The development of the artificial lateral line is aimed at fundamentally enhancing human ability to detect, navigate, and survive in the underwater environment. PMID:17132735

Yang, Yingchen; Chen, Jack; Engel, Jonathan; Pandya, Saunvit; Chen, Nannan; Tucker, Craig; Coombs, Sheryl; Jones, Douglas L; Liu, Chang

2006-12-12

411

Obama address touches on research, energy, and environmental issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

President Barack Obama's State of the Union message, delivered on 24 January, touched on the need for basic research, energy production, support for clean energy, and environmental protection, but it included just one passing reference to climate change. In addition, the speech made no note of the Administration's recent denial of a controversial application for the Keystone XL pipeline to transport crude oil from Canada to the United States and made just an elliptical reference regarding the bankrupt Solyndra Corporation, which the administration had touted as a clean energy company. Innovation “demands basic research,” Obama said, adding that Congress should not “gut these investments in our budget.” Noting that one promise for innovation is American-made energy, Obama said he is directing the administration to “open more than 75% of our potential offshore oil and gas resources.”

Showstack, Randy

2012-02-01

412

Physical Factors Influencing Pleasant Touch during Tactile Exploration  

PubMed Central

Background When scanning surfaces, humans perceive some of their physical attributes. These percepts are frequently accompanied by a sensation of (un)pleasantness. We therefore hypothesized that aspects of the mechanical activity induced by scanning surfaces with fingertips could be objectively associated with a pleasantness sensation. Previously, we developed a unidimensional measure of pleasantness, the Pleasant Touch Scale, quantifying the pleasantness level of 37 different materials. Findings of this study suggested that the sensation of pleasantness was influenced by the average magnitude of the frictional forces brought about by sliding the finger on the surface, and by the surface topography. In the present study, we correlated (i) characteristics of the fluctuations of frictional forces resulting from the interaction between the finger and the surface asperities as well as (ii) the average friction with the sensation of pleasantness. Results Eight blindfolded participants tactually explored twelve materials of the Pleasant Touch Scale through lateral sliding movements of their index fingertip. During exploration, the normal and tangential interaction force components, fN and fT, as well as the fingertip trajectory were measured. The effect of the frictional force on pleasantness sensation was investigated through the analysis of the ratio fT to fN, i.e. the net coefficient of kinetic friction, ?. The influence of the surface topographies was investigated through analysis of rapid fT fluctuations in the spatial frequency domain. Results showed that high values of ? were anticorrelated with pleasantness. Furthermore, surfaces associated with fluctuations of fT having higher amplitudes in the low frequency range than in the high one were judged to be less pleasant than the surfaces yielding evenly distributed amplitudes throughout the whole spatial frequency domain. Conclusion Characteristics of the frictional force fluctuations and of the net friction taking place during scanning can reliably be correlated with the pleasantness sensation of surfaces.

Klocker, Anne; Wiertlewski, Michael; Theate, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

2013-01-01

413

Integrated Modeling of Spacecraft Touch-and-Go Sampling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated modeling tool has been developed to include multi-body dynamics, orbital dynamics, and touch-and-go dynamics for spacecraft covering three types of end-effectors: a sticky pad, a brush-wheel sampler, and a pellet gun. Several multi-body models of a free-flying spacecraft with a multi-link manipulator driving these end-effectors have been tested with typical contact conditions arising when the manipulator arm is to sample the surface of an asteroidal body. The test data have been infused directly into the dynamics formulation including such information as the mass collected as a function of end-effector longitudinal speed for the brush-wheel and sticky-pad samplers, and the mass collected as a function of projectile speed for the pellet gun sampler. These data represent the realistic behavior of the end effector while in contact with a surface, and represent a low-order model of more complex contact conditions that otherwise would have to be simulated. Numerical results demonstrate the adequacy of these multibody models for spacecraft and manipulator- arm control design. The work contributes to the development of a touch-and-go testbed for small body exploration, denoted as the GREX Testbed (GN&C for Rendezvous-based EXploration). The GREX testbed addresses the key issues involved in landing on an asteroidal body or comet; namely, a complex, low-gravity field; partially known terrain properties; possible comet outgassing; dust ejection; and navigating to a safe and scientifically desirable zone.

Quadrelli, Marco

2009-01-01

414

The cuetable: cooperative and competitive multi-touch interaction on a tabletop  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we explain how we built cueTable, a multi-touch interactive tabletop, as a base technology to explore new interaction concepts for cooperative and competitive multi-touch applications. We present the Puh game application. And most of all we report on user feedback to the cueTable and the Puh game.

Tom Gross; Mirko Fetter; Sascha Liebsch

2008-01-01

415

It does not Fitts my data! Analysing large amounts of mobile touch data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touchscreens are the dominant input device for smartphones and learning about smartphone users' touch behaviour became even more important. We developed a game for Android phones to collect a truly large amount of touch data from diverse devices and players. A part of the game is designed as what we expected to be a Fitts' law task. By publishing the

Niels Henze; Susanne Boll

416

Development of a touch trigger probe for micro\\/nano CMM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMMs) restrict the possibilities for measuring micro mechanical products and noncontact optical measuring methods are not suitable for true three-dimensional measurements. The integrated combination of optical sensors and mechanical transducers employed in this research makes an ideal low cost and high precision touch trigger probe possible to measure miniature components. This touch probe is composed of

Wei-Li Wang; Kuang-Chao Fan; Ye-Jin Chen; Ye-Tai Fei

2008-01-01

417

Lovers in Touch: Inoperative Community in Nancy, Duras and India Song  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article takes as its point of departure Maurice Blanchot's pairing of Marguerite Duras and Jean-Luc Nancy in The Unavowable Community, and reads India Song, a film by Duras, through Nancy's work on community. Just as Nancy articulates a thinking of community in terms of touch, so Duras develops her own filmic vocabulary of touch to examine questions of being-with,

Laura McMahon

2008-01-01

418

User performance on typing tasks involving reduced-size, touch screen keyboards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prospect of using a touch screen to interact with navigation displays led us to develop and evaluate three reduced-size, touch screen keyboards. One keyboard had a standard QWERTY layout; another had a modified QWERTY layout with keys aligned in a matrix; the third had a matrix of keys arranged in alphabetical order. Twenty adults varying in age and typing

Marilyn F. Coleman; Beth A. Loring; Michael E. Wiklund

1991-01-01

419

Photonics Applications: From Simple Optical Touch Switches and Fiber-Optic Switches, to Optical Sensing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This talks will highlight the exploitation of photonics for the implementations of optical touch switches (1), 2x2 fiber-optic switches (2), tunable contrast interferometers (3), and digitally controlled optical beam shapers (4). Our optical touch switches are based on the use of total internal reflection concept that can prevent the leakage light perturbing the user eyes and the ability to adjust

Sarun Sumriddetchkajorn

420

Dyadic Power Theory, Touch, and Counseling Psychology: A Response to Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards (2011)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards' (2011) recent article tested dyadic power theory (DPT) by examining the use of touch as a compliance-gaining tactic in the conflicts of married couples. In this response, we raise a methodological issue about the touch behaviors examined by Smith et al. and also pose a theoretical critique that their test of DPT…

Dunbar, Norah E.; Abra, Gordon

2012-01-01

421

CLSI On-Line Public Catalog Touch Terminal Manual: Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual developed by the Public Access Subcommittee of the Reference Department of Meriam Library (California State University, Chico) provides instructions for using the library's online public catalog by means of a touch terminal which accepts commands in the form of a touch on a particular part of the terminal screen. Author and…

California State Univ., Chico.

422

Development of a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) touch probe using a multi-axis force sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional touch trigger probes are widely used on most commercial coordinate measuring machines (CMMs). However, the CMMs with these probes have a systematic error due to the shape of the probe tip and elastic deformation of the stylus resulting from contact pressure with the specimen. In this paper, a new touch probe with a three degrees-of-freedom force sensor is proposed.

Jae-jun Park; Kihwan Kwon; Nahmgyoo Cho

2006-01-01

423

Modelling of pretravel for touch trigger probes on indexable probe heads on coordinate measuring machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a pretravel model for touch trigger probes mounted on indexable probe heads, which can rotate and tilt the probe into a number of orientations for coordinate measurements on coordinate measuring machines (CMMs). Pretravel accounts for the majority of touch trigger probe errors and is caused by bending deflection of the stylus shaft. A trigger force model is

Yin-Lin Shen; Xianping Zhang

1997-01-01

424

Smile Intensity and Warm Touch as Thin Slices of Child and Family Affective Style  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigate the claim that thin slices of expressive behavior serve as reliable indicators of affective style in children and their families. Using photographs, the authors assessed smile intensity and tactile contact in kindergartners and their families. Consistent with claims that smiling and touch communicate positive emotion, measures of children’s smile intensity and warm family touch were correlated across

Christopher Oveis; June Gruber; Dacher Keltner; Juliet L. Stamper; W. Thomas Boyce

2009-01-01

425

The control system of belt grinder which based on the touch screen and PLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduced the core control system for belt grinder was the PLC, and the touch screen as the man-machine interface. Through the touch screen we can set up the parameters of grinding, and show the grinding process on dynamic condition and realtime. Adopt the USS protocol to control the frequency converter, which can realize the belt grinder speed to

Wang Huiqiang; Xing Yanqiu; Xiao Tao

2010-01-01

426

Functional parcellation of the human primary somatosensory cortex to natural touch.  

PubMed

Despite the significance of human touch, brain responses to interpersonal manual touch have been rarely investigated. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study brain activity in eight healthy adults whose left hand was touched by two individuals, in separate runs and in 20-s blocks, either by holding, smoothing, or poking. Acceleration was measured from both the subject's and the touching person's hands for postimaging control of the stimuli. Independent component analysis of the functional magnetic resonance imaging data unraveled three functional networks involving the primary somatosensory cortex (SI). One network comprised the contralateral and another the ipsilateral Brodmann area 3. The third network included area 2 bilaterally, left-hemisphere middle temporal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal regions, ventral prefrontal cortices bilaterally, and middle cingulate cortex. The response shapes and polarities varied between the three networks. The contralateral area 3 differentiated the responses between the three types of touch stimuli, and the response magnitudes depended on the variability of the touch within each block. However, the responses of the other two networks were strikingly similar to all stimuli. The subjects' reports on the pleasantness of the touch did not correlate with the characteristics of the SI responses. These findings imply area-specific processing of the natural human touch in three networks including the SI cortex, with only area 2 connected to a functional network of brain areas that may support social interaction. PMID:24447026

Malinen, Sanna; Renvall, Ville; Hari, Riitta

2014-03-01

427

Differential Involvement of Somatosensory and Interoceptive Cortices during the Observation of Affective Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggested that the observation of other individuals' somatosensory experiences also activates brain circuits processing one's own somatosensory experiences. However, it is unclear whether cortical regions involved with the elementary stages of touch processing are also involved in the automatic coding of the affective consequences of observed touch and to which extent they show overlapping activation for somatosensory experiences

Sjoerd J. H. Ebisch; Francesca Ferri; Anatolia Salone; Mauro Gianni Perrucci; Luigi D'Amico; Filippo Maria Ferro; Gian Luca Romani; Vittorio Gallese

2011-01-01

428

Viewing One's Own Face Being Touched Modulates Tactile Perception: An fMRI Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perception of tactile stimuli on the face is modulated if subjects concurrently observe a face being touched; this effect, termed visual remapping of touch (VRT), is maximum for observing one's own face. In the present fMRI study, we investigated the neural basis of the VRT effect. Participants in the scanner received tactile stimuli, near the perceptual threshold, on their

Flavia Cardini; Marcello Costantini; Gaspare Galati; Gian Luca Romani; Elisabetta Làdavas; Andrea Serino

2011-01-01

429

Design of the 3D Input Method Based on Touch Device for Mobile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes the technology to express 3D gesture as an input from common 2-dimension touch input panel without additional hardware development or change to provide near real 3D UI and algorithm to implement such technology. It introduces how 3D user interface has become the major issues among the major mobile vendors and briefly describes existing touch devices which can

Moon Sang Hwang; Jae Wook Jeon

2009-01-01

430

Implications for Advanced Nursing Practice in the Use of Therapeutic Touch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Therapeutic Touch is derived from the ancient practice of laying-on of hands. The theory behind Therapeutic Touch is based on the fundamental assumption that there is a universal life energy common to all living things. The art of nursing includes both ph...

L. K. Hogan

1993-01-01

431

Physiological and Behavioral Responses Reveal 9-Month-Old Infants' Sensitivity to Pleasant Touch  

PubMed Central

Caregiving touch has been shown to be essential for the growth and development of human infants. However, the physiological and behavioral mechanisms that underpin infants’ sensitivity to pleasant touch are still poorly understood. In human adults, a subclass of unmyelinated peripheral nerve fibers has been shown to respond preferentially to medium-velocity soft brushing. It has been theorized that this privileged pathway for pleasant touch is used for close affiliative interactions with conspecific individuals, especially between caregivers and infants. To test whether human infants are sensitive to pleasant touch, we examined arousal (heart rate) and attentional engagement (gaze shifts and duration of looks) to varying velocities of brushing (slow, medium, and fast) in 9-month-old infants. Our results provide physiological and behavioral evidence that sensitivity to pleasant touch emerges early in development and therefore plays an important role in regulating human social interactions.

Fairhurst, Merle T.; Loken, Line; Grossmann, Tobias

2014-01-01

432

Modulation of C. elegans touch sensitivity is integrated at multiple levels.  

PubMed

Sensory systems can adapt to different environmental signals. Here we identify four conditions that modulate anterior touch sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans after several hours and demonstrate that such sensory modulation is integrated at multiple levels to produce a single output. Prolonged vibration involving integrin signaling directly sensitizes the touch receptor neurons (TRNs). In contrast, hypoxia, the dauer state, and high salt reduce touch sensitivity by preventing the release of long-range neuroregulators, including two insulin-like proteins. Integration of these latter inputs occurs at upstream neurohormonal cells and at the insulin signaling cascade within the TRNs. These signals and those from integrin signaling converge to modulate touch sensitivity by regulating AKT kinases and DAF-16/FOXO. Thus, activation of either the integrin or insulin pathways can compensate for defects in the other pathway. This modulatory system integrates conflicting signals from different modalities, and adapts touch sensitivity to both mechanical and non-mechanical conditions. PMID:24806678

Chen, Xiaoyin; Chalfie, Martin

2014-05-01

433

Development of high-performance low-reflection rugged resistive touch screens for military displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Just as iPhones with sophisticated touch interfaces have revolutionised the human interface for the ubiquitous cell phone, the Military is rapidly adopting touch-screens as a primary interface to their computers and vehicle systems. This paper describes the development of a true military touch interface solution from an existing industrial design. We will report on successful development of 10.4" and 15.4" high performance rugged resistive touch panels using IAD sputter coating. Low reflectance (specular < 1% and diffuse < 0.07%) was achieved with high impact, dust, and chemical resistant surface finishes. These touch panels were qualified over a wide operational temperature range, -51°C to +80°C specifically for military and rugged industrial applications.

Wang, Raymond; Wang, Minshine; Thomas, John; Wang, Lawrence; Chang, Victor

2010-04-01

434

DNA extraction method using a silica-base resin type kit for the detection of genetically modified papaya.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) papaya has not yet been approved for importation into, or cultivation in the European Union (EU) and Japan. A DNA extraction method using the Qiagen DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (PM method) and a method using a buffer containing cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB method) have been adopted as the official Japanese methods for detecting GM foods. However, the amounts of DNA extracted from papaya by these methods are very low. Therefore, we investigated an extraction method to obtain a high yield of DNA from raw or freeze-dried fresh papaya using the Promega Wizard DNA Clean-Up Resin System (WCR). The incubation for the extraction was carried out at 58 degrees C without proteinase K for 15 min. The extract was applied to a mini-column, then the column was washed with 80% isopropyl alcohol, and genomic DNA adsorbed on the column was eluted with TE buffer. The WCR method gave a higher yield of genomic DNA, and was simpler and faster than the PM method or CTAB method. In addition, it could be used to extract genomic DNA from fresh papaya at various stages of ripeness. Based on these results, we propose that the present method using WCR is the most practical and useful way to extract genomic DNA for the purpose of detecting GM papaya. PMID:18503240

Ohmori, Kiyomi; Tsuchiya, Hisayo; Watanabe, Takahiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio; Yamada, Toshiharu; Hirayama, Kuni; Satoh, Shuji

2008-04-01

435

Effects of Carica papaya (paw paw) seeds extract on the morphology of pituitary-gonadal axis of male Wistar rats.  

PubMed

The effects of oral administration of Carica papaya seeds extract on the morphology of pituitary, testes and sex accessory glands were studied. The C. papaya extract (50 and 200 mg/kg/day) was administered orally to sexually mature male Wistar rats for 1 and 8 weeks, respectively. The control group received corn oil (vehicle) only. The animals were killed after 1 and 8 weeks treatment for histological preparation. The microscopic examination of the sections of pituitary gonadotrophs (FSH and LH cells) treated with 200 mg/kg of C. papaya extract showed pronounced hypertrophy, while section of rats treated with 50 mg/kg showed mild hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Whereas the testes of rats treated with C. papaya extract at 50 and 200 mg/kg revealed gradual degeneration of germ cells, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells as well as germinal epithelium. However, tubules of epididymes of rats treated with extract, 200 mg/kg, appeared empty indicating the degeneration of sperm cells in the lumina. The sections of prostate glands of rats treated with 200 mg/kg extract showed coagulation of secretion in the lumina as well as empty tubules with cell debris, while the effect was reduced in rats treated with 50 mg/kg. The seminal vesicles showed progressive collapse and shrinkage of villi. These results suggest that C. papaya extract interfered with the pituitary - gonadal axis to influence male reproductive functions, which confirmed its antifertility property as reported previously. PMID:16372375

Udoh, Paul; Essien, Itohowo; Udoh, Francis

2005-12-01

436

Your phone or mine?: fusing body, touch and device sensing for multi-user device-display interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining who is interacting with a multi-user interactive touch display is challenging. We describe a technique for associating multi-touch interactions to individual users and their accelerometer-equipped mobile devices. Real-time device accelerometer data and depth camera-based body tracking are compared to associate each phone with a particular user, while body tracking and touch contacts positions are compared to associate a touch

Mahsan Rofouei; Andrew D. Wilson; A. J. Bernheim Brush; Stewart Tansley

2012-01-01

437

Detection of platypus-type L/D-peptide isomerase activity in aqueous extracts of papaya fruit.  

PubMed

Peptide isomerase catalyses the post-translational isomerisation of the L: - to the D: -form of an amino acid residue around the N/C-termini of substrate peptides. To date, some peptide isomerases have been found in a limited number of animal secretions and cells. We show here that papaya extracts have weak peptide isomerase activity. The activity was detected in each 30-100 kDa fraction of the flesh and the seed extracts of unripe and ripe papaya fruit. The definitive activity was confirmed in the ripe papaya extracts, but even then it was much less active than that of the other peptide isomerases previously reported. The activity was markedly inhibited by methanol, and partly so by amastatin and diethyl pyrocarbonate. This is the first report of peptide isomerase activity in a plant and suggests that perhaps every living organism may have some peptide isomerase activity. PMID:22648682

Arakawa, Kensuke; Koh, Jennifer M S; Crossett, Ben; Torres, Allan M; Kuchel, Philip W

2012-09-01

438

The Development of a Theoretical Construct of the Concepts of Touch as They Relate to Nursing. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To develop a theoretical construct of touch as it relates to nursing, an extensive was made of the basic and accepted theories of touch, and a survey was conducted of current practices of touch by approximately 900 health personnel in two Dallas, Texas hospitals. Survey data were gathered by observation of 180 sessions involving approximately 540…

Barnett, Kathryn E.

439

A dated phylogeny of the papaya family (Caricaceae) reveals the crop's closest relatives and the family's biogeographic history.  

PubMed

Papaya (Carica papaya) is a crop of great economic importance, and the species was among the first plants to have its genome sequenced. However, there has never been a complete species-level phylogeny for the Caricaceae, and the crop's closest relatives are therefore unknown. We investigated the evolution of the Caricaceae based on sequences from all species and genera, the monospecific Carica, African Cylicomorpha with two species, South American Jacaratia and Vasconcellea with together c. 28 species, and Mexican/Guatemalan Jarilla and Horovitzia with four species. Most Caricaceae are trees or shrubs; the species of Jarilla, however, are herbaceous. We generated a matrix of 4711 nuclear and plastid DNA characters and used maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analysis to infer species relationships, rooting trees on the Moringaceae. Divergence times were estimated under relaxed and strict molecular clocks, using different subsets of the data. Ancestral area reconstruction relied on a ML approach. The deepest split in the Caricaceae occurred during the Late Eocene, when the ancestor of the Neotropical clade arrived from Africa. In South America, major diversification events coincide with the Miocene northern Andean uplift and the initial phase of the tectonic collision between South America and Panama resulting in the Panamanian land bridge. Carica papaya is sister to Jarilla/Horovitzia, and all three diverged from South American Caricaceae in the Oligocene, 27 (22-33) Ma ago, coincident with the early stages of the formation of the Panamanian Isthmus. The discovery that C. papaya is closest to a clade of herbaceous or thin-stemmed species has implications for plant breeders who have so far tried to cross papaya only with woody highland papayas (Vasconcellea). PMID:22659516

Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; Renner, Susanne S

2012-10-01

440

Neural time-course of the observation of human and non-human object touch.  

PubMed

Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported activation of primary and secondary somatosensory cortices when participants observe another person or object being touched. In this study, we used event-related potentials to examine the nature and time-course of the neural mechanisms associated with the observation of humans and non-human objects being touched. Participants were presented with short video clips of a human arm or a non-human cylindrical object being touched by an object, compared with an object moving in front of the arms or cylinders without touching them. Touch vs non-touch effects were observed in the amplitudes of the N100 and N250 components, as well as a late slow wave component (500-600 ms), measured from electrodes over primary somatosensory cortex. Human vs non-human stimulus effects were reflected in the latencies of the N100, P170 and N250 components recorded over somatosensory cortex, as well as the temporal-parietal visual-perceptual N170 and N250 components. These findings suggest that human and non-human touch observation are associated with somatosensory processing at both an early sensory-perceptual stage and a relatively late cognitive stage, both preceding and following the perceptual encoding of the humanness of stimuli that typically occurs in extrastriate visual areas. PMID:23202659

Streltsova, Alena; McCleery, Joseph P

2014-03-01

441

High-efficiency vitrification protocols for cryopreservation of in vitro grown shoot tips of transgenic papaya lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro grown shoot tips of transgenic papaya lines (Carica papaya L.) were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification. Shoot tips were excised from stock shoots that were preconditioned\\u000a in vitro for 45–50-day-old and placed on hormone-free MS medium with 0.09 M sucrose. After loading for 60 min with a mixture\\u000a of 2 M glycerol and 0.4 M sucrose at 25°C, shoot tips were dehydrated with

Shu-Fen Tsai; Shyi-Dong Yeh; Chin-Feng Chan; Song-Iuan Liaw

2009-01-01

442

Plant neighbor detection through touching leaf tips precedes phytochrome signals.  

PubMed

Plants in dense vegetation compete for resources, including light, and optimize their growth based on neighbor detection cues. The best studied of such behaviors is the shade-avoidance syndrome that positions leaves in optimally lit zones of a vegetation. Although proximate vegetation is known to be sensed through a reduced ratio between red and far-red light, we show here through computational modeling and manipulative experiments that leaves of the rosette species Arabidopsis thaliana first need to move upward to generate sufficient light reflection potential for subsequent occurrence and perception of a reduced red to far-red ratio. This early hyponastic leaf growth response is not induced by known neighbor detection cues under both climate chamber and natural sunlight conditions, and we identify a unique way for plants to detect future competitors through touching of leaf tips. This signal occurs before light signals and appears to be the earliest means of above-ground plant-plant signaling in horizontally growing rosette plants. PMID:22908260

de Wit, Mieke; Kegge, Wouter; Evers, Jochem B; Vergeer-van Eijk, Marleen H; Gankema, Paulien; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Pierik, Ronald

2012-09-01

443

Massage and touch therapy in neonates: the current evidence.  

PubMed

Infant massage was first introduced in China in 2nd century BC. Massaging the newborn has been a tradition in India and other Asian countries since time immemorial. Various oil-based preparations have been used depending on the regional availability. There has been a recent surge in this ancient art particularly as a therapy among parents and professionals in the Western world. Evidence exists supporting the benefits of touch and massage therapy. We reviewed the literature to look at the various techniques of providing massage, its benefits, possible mechanism of action and adverse effects. The review suggests that massage has several positive effects in terms of weight gain, better sleep-wake pattern, enhanced neuromotor development, better emotional bonding, reduced rates of nosocomial infection and thereby, reduced mortality in the hospitalized patients. Many studies have described the technique and frequency of this procedure. Massage was found to be more useful when some kind of lubricant oil was used. Harmful effects like physical injury and increased risk of infection were encountered when performed inappropriately. The review also discusses the different hypotheses put forward regarding the mechanism of action. As of now there are very few studies describing the long term impact of neonatal massage. PMID:21048258

Kulkarni, Anjali; Kaushik, Jaya Shankar; Gupta, Piyush; Sharma, Harsh; Agrawal, R K

2010-09-01

444

Reclamation system design of nanostructured coatings of touch-panel.  

PubMed

A newly design reclamation system using an ultrasonic micro electroetching (UMECE) as a machining process for Indium-tin-oxide(ITO) nanostructured coatings dissolved from a surface of polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) of touch-panel is presented. The design features of the reclamation mechanism and a designed wedge-form tool are of major interest. The low yield of ITO nanostructured coatings is an important factor in optoelectronic semiconductor production. In the current experiment, a small diameter of the anode accompanying with a small distance between the two anodes, reduced the amount of time for effective ultrasonic micro electroetching of ITO since the effect of removal is facilitated by supplying sufficient electrochemical power. The performance of ultrasonics was found to be more effective than pulsed current, requiring no increase in electric power. Additionally, electric power, when combined with a fast feed rate, provides highly effective dissolution. Higher frequency or the greater power of ultrasonics corresponds to a higher dissolution rate for ITO nanostructured coatings. A small anode of the wedge-form tool or a small size of the cathode takes less time for the same amount of ITO removal. Importantly, ultrasonic micro electroetching with the designed wedge-form tool requires only a short period of time to dissolve the ITO's nanostructured coatings easily and cleanly. PMID:20352803

Pa, P S

2010-02-01

445

Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract  

PubMed Central

Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-tr