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Novel thigmomorphogenetic responses in Carica papaya: touch decreases anthocyanin levels and stimulates petiole cork outgrowths  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Because of its rapid growth rate, relative ease of transformation, sequenced genome and low gene number relative to Arabidopsis, the tropical fruit tree, Carica papaya, can serve as a complementary genetic model for complex traits. Here, new phenotypes and touch-regulated gene homologues have been identified that can be used to advance the understanding of thigmomorphogenesis, a multigenic response involving mechanoreception and morphological change. Methods Morphological alterations were quantified, and microscopy of tissue was conducted. Assays for hypocotyl anthocyanins, lignin and chlorophyll were performed, and predicted genes from C. papaya were compared with Arabidopsis touch-inducible (TCH) and Mechanosensitive channel of Small conductance-like genes (MscS-like or MSL). In addition, the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues was characterized. Key Results On the abaxial side of petioles, treated plants were found to have novel, hypertrophic outgrowths associated with periderm and suberin. Touched plants also had higher lignin, dramatically less hypocotyl anthocyanins and chlorophyll, increased hypocotyl diameter, and decreased leaf width, stem length and root fresh weight. Papaya was found to have fewer MSL genes than Arabidopsis, and four touch-regulated genes in Arabidopsis had no counterparts in papaya. Water-spray treatment was found to enhance the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues whereas induction following touch was only slightly correlated. Conclusions The novel petiole outgrowths caused by non-wounding, mechanical perturbation may be the result of hardening mechanisms, including added lignin, providing resistance against petiole movement. Inhibition of anthocyanin accumulation following touch, a new phenotypic association, may be caused by diversion of p-coumaroyl CoA away from chalcone synthase for lignin synthesis. The absence of MSL and touch-gene homologues indicates that papaya may have a smaller set of touch-regulated genes. The genes and novel touch-regulated phenotypes identified here will contribute to a more comprehensive view of thigmomorphogenesis in plants.

Porter, Brad W.; Zhu, Yun J.; Webb, David T.; Christopher, David A.




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya has been improved through biotechnology, for example, through the development of in vitro culture methods and genetic transformation. In the last 6 years, commercialized transgenic papaya resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) has been cited as a significant example of the advantages provi...



NSDL National Science Digital Library

Humans are able to feel things touching them because of the nerve endings and different receptors embedded in their skin. Skin covers and protects the body, but it can also detect touch, pressure, heat, cold, and pain.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Because of its relatively small genome (372Mb/1C) and ability to produce ripe fruit 9 to 12 months after planting, papaya (Carica papaya L.) can be a model for studying genes that affect fruit characters. We are developing papaya genomics to understand germplasm diversity, construct a high density g...


Papaya Ringspot Virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The term papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was coined by Jensen in 1949, to describe a papaya disease in Hawaii. Later work showed that diseases such as papaya mosaic and watermelon mosaic virus-1 were caused by PRSV. The primary host range of PRSV is papaya and cucurbits, with Chenopium amaranticolor ...


Touch Affordances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The workshop “Touch Affordances” addresses a concept relevant to human computer interactions based on touch. The main topic is the challenge of applying the notion of affordances to domains related to touch interactions (e.g. (multi)touch screens, RFID & NFC, ubiquitous interfaces). The goals of this workshop are to launch a community of researchers, designers, etc. interested in this topic, to create a common understanding of the field of touch affordances and to generate ideas for new research areas for intuitive touch interactions. The workshop will be highly interactive and will have a creative, generative character.

Slegers, Karin; de Roeck, Dries; Arnall, Timo


Therapeutic Touch  


... Ashford RL. Therapeutic touch for healing acute wounds. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(4):CD002766. Robinson J, ... FC, Dolk H. Therapeutic touch for anxiety disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jul 18;(3):CD006240. ...


Papaya nutritional analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papayas are sweet, flavorful tropical fruit, rich in vitamin C and carotenoids. Multiple interactions among preharvest environmental conditions, genetics, and physiology determine papaya nutritional composition at harvest. Selecting a cultivar with the genetic potential for high nutrient content and...


Caracterizacion, Manejo y Almacenamiento de Papaya (The Papaya: Characteristics, Handling, and Storage).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Papaya were studied during maturation at normal temperatures. The results obtained: the pepsins content increased, changes in protopectina and soluble peptina were less noticeable; acid content increased until a maximum and then decreased, the content of ...

M. C. de Arriola J. F. Menchu C. Rolz




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya ringspot virus causes the most important viral disease of papaya worldwide. The three major efforts to control virus through breeding are: development of virus resistant transgenic papaya, resistant transgenic papaya, intergeneric hybridization to incorporate resistant genes into papaya, and...


Quarantine System for Papaya.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A novel system to ensure that papaya are free of fruit flies so as to meet quarantine restrictions is described. Papaya are subjected to selection on the basis of color in combination with a two-stage heated fluid treatment wherein time and temperature of...

H. M. Couey C. F. Hayes



Touch sense  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous mechanoreceptors are localized in the various layers of the skin where they detect a wide range of mechanical stimuli, including light brush, stretch, vibration and noxious pressure. This variety of stimuli is matched by a diverse array of specialized mechanoreceptors that respond to cutaneous deformation in a specific way and relay these stimuli to higher brain structures. Studies across mechanoreceptors and genetically tractable sensory nerve endings are beginning to uncover touch sensation mechanisms. Work in this field has provided researchers with a more thorough understanding of the circuit organization underlying the perception of touch. Novel ion channels have emerged as candidates for transduction molecules and properties of mechanically gated currents improved our understanding of the mechanisms of adaptation to tactile stimuli. This review highlights the progress made in characterizing functional properties of mechanoreceptors in hairy and glabrous skin and ion channels that detect mechanical inputs and shape mechanoreceptor adaptation.

Roudaut, Yann; Lonigro, Aurelie; Coste, Bertrand; Hao, Jizhe; Delmas, Patrick; Crest, Marcel



Post-irradiation identification of papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impact of radiation processing on the volatile essential oil profile of papaya (Carica papaya) was investigated. Gamma-radiation processing resulted in the appearance of a new peak in the GLC profile that was identified as phenol. The observed dose dependent increase in phenol content suggested possible use of this compound as a marker for radiation processed papaya.

Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun



The "how to's" of touch.  


Touch, described as the most important of all the senses (Clement, 1987), confirms the reality perceived through the other senses and is a central part of the communication process (Montague, 1971; Mintz, 1969). Touch can be a tremendously supportive nursing technique. A pat on the shoulder, a hug, or a squeeze of the hand can create warmth and closeness that facilitates communication, decreases anxiety, and enables patients to tolerate discomfort. However, touch needs to be used deliberatively, with empathy, and with close attention to each person's unique needs. It is a nursing intervention that needs to be tailored to the patient's needs and responses. PMID:1930592

Davidhizar, R


Papaya ringspot virus (Potyviridae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya ringspot virus, a member of the family Potyviridae, is single stranded RNA plant virus with a monocistronic genome of about 10,326 nucleotides that is expressed via a large polyprotein subsequently cleaved into functional proteins. It causes severe damage on cucurbit crops such as squash and...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Molecular markers tightly linked to Sex1, the gene that determines plant sex in papaya (Carica papaya L.), were developed. Three RAPD products have been cloned and a portion of their DNA sequenced. Based on these sequences SCAR primers were synthesized. SCAR T12 and SCAR W11 produce products in h...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is often a limiting factor in the production of papaya worldwide. In 1992, PRSV was discovered in the district of Puna on Hawaii island where 95% of Hawaii's papaya was grown. Within two years, PRSV was widespread and causing severe damage to the papaya in that area. ...


Touching on translation.  


During the last decade, the idea of a "translational" approach has become commonplace within the field of neuroscience. Despite the rapid adaptation of this theoretical framework, few examples of hypothesis-driven translation start with a pre-clinical finding and end with a positive clinical result and no examples of a novel medication have been developed in this way for the treatment of cognition-related disorders. Whereas instances of successful translation exist, most of these are the result of post-hoc hypothesis testing, rather than a priori hypothesis creation. Indeed, part of this disconnection between pre-clinical and clinical results has been driven by paradigms used at both the pre-clinical level (measurement of behaviors that might not be relevant to a patient population) and the clinical level (use of test batteries that cannot be modeled in a pre-clinical environment). However, automated cognition batteries that require responses to stimuli displayed upon a video monitor are decreasing the distance between pre-clinical and clinical behavioral studies. In the last 5 years, numerous papers have been published demonstrating that cognitive functions can be measured in a similar manner in the rodent as in a clinical setting via touch-screen-equipped operant boxes. Here, we argue that the touch-screen approach has the potential of being a powerful tool for the translation of pre-clinical hypotheses into positive clinical findings. PMID:23949375

Talpos, John; Steckler, Thomas



Haptics: Touch Command  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students experience haptic (the sense of touch) feedback by using LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robots and touch sensors to emulate touch feedback recognition. With four touch sensors connected to LEGO NXTs, they design sensor attachments that feel physically distinguishable from each another. Then students answer questions and communicate their answers to the NXT by pressing the touch sensor that is associated with the right multiple-choice answer letter. Haptics becomes essential when students must use the NXT sensors to answer the next set of questions without the aid of their vision. This challenges them to rely solely on the tactile feeling of each unique touch sensor attachment that they created in order to choose the correct peripheral slot. Students also learn about real-world applications of haptics technology.

Applying Mechatronics to Promote Science (AMPS) GK-12 Program,


Touch and Situatedness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the phenomenology of touch and proposes that the structure of touch serves to cast light on the more general way in which we ‘find ourselves in a world’. Recent philosophical work on perception tends to emphasize vision. This, I suggest, motivates the imposition of a distinction between externally directed perception of objects and internally directed perception of

Matthew Ratcliffe



Wound-healing potential of an ethanol extract of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) seeds.  


Carica papaya L. (Linn) (Caricaceae) is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment for various wounds, particularly burns. This study evaluated the wound-healing and antimicrobial activity of C. papaya seed extract. Ethanol extract of C. papaya seed (50 mg/kg/day) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity in Sprague-Dawley rats using excision wound model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each (group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with papaya seed extract, group 3 treated with a standard drug mupirocin and papaya seed extract (1:1 ratio) and group 4 treated with a mupirocin ointment. Rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content were determined to assess the wound-healing activity of the seed extract. The group 2 animals showed a significant decrease in wound area of 89% over 13 days when compared with groups 1 (82%), 3 (86%) and 4 (84%) respectively. The hydroxyproline content was significantly higher with the granulation tissue obtained from group 2 animals which were treated with C. papaya seed extract. Histological analysis of granulation tissue of the group 2 animals showed the deposition of well-organized collagen. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that C. papaya promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation for this activity in humans is suggested. PMID:22296524

Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramdeen, Ria; Adogwa, Andrew; Ramsubhag, Adash; Marshall, Julien Rhodney



Paperworks: The Human Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paperworks: The Human Touch\\u000aan exhibition of works by the Western Reserve Calligraphers\\u000aSOUTH EUCLID, Ohio—8 August 2012—In conjunction with Octavofest, a celebration of the book and paper arts, and Watermarks 2012, Notre Dame College’s (NDC’s) Clara Fritzsche Library will host “Paperworks: The Human Touch,” a showing of works by the Western Reserve Calligraphers. An opening reception will be held



Active touch sensing  

PubMed Central

Active sensing systems are purposive and information-seeking sensory systems. Active sensing usually entails sensor movement, but more fundamentally, it involves control of the sensor apparatus, in whatever manner best suits the task, so as to maximize information gain. In animals, active sensing is perhaps most evident in the modality of touch. In this theme issue, we look at active touch across a broad range of species from insects, terrestrial and marine mammals, through to humans. In addition to analysing natural touch, we also consider how engineering is beginning to exploit physical analogues of these biological systems so as to endow robots with rich tactile sensing capabilities. The different contributions show not only the varieties of active touch—antennae, whiskers and fingertips—but also their commonalities. They explore how active touch sensing has evolved in different animal lineages, how it serves to provide rapid and reliable cues for controlling ongoing behaviour, and even how it can disintegrate when our brains begin to fail. They demonstrate that research on active touch offers a means both to understand this essential and primary sensory modality, and to investigate how animals, including man, combine movement with sensing so as to make sense of, and act effectively in, the world.

Prescott, Tony J.; Diamond, Mathew E.; Wing, Alan M.



Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional plant treatment for diabetes has shown a surging interest in the last few decades. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves in diabetic rats. Several studies have reported that some parts of the C. papaya plant exert hypoglycemic effects in both animals and humans. Methods Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ). The aqueous extract of C. papaya was administered in three different doses (0.75, 1.5 and 3 g/100 mL) as drinking water to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals during 4 weeks. Results The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (0.75 g and 1.5 g/100 mL) significantly decreased blood glucose levels (p<0.05) in diabetic rats. It also decreased cholesterol, triacylglycerol and amino-transferases blood levels. Low plasma insulin levels did not change after treatment in diabetic rats, but they significantly increased in non-diabetic animals. Pancreatic islet cells were normal in non-diabetic treated animals, whereas in diabetic treated rats, C. papaya could help islet regeneration manifested as preservation of cell size. In the liver of diabetic treated rats, C. papaya prevented hepatocyte disruption, as well as accumulation of glycogen and lipids. Finally, an antioxidant effect of C. papaya extract was also detected in diabetic rats. Conclusions This study showed that the aqueous extract of C. papaya exerted a hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect; it also improved the lipid profile in diabetic rats. In addition, the leaf extract positively affected integrity and function of both liver and pancreas.



Touch Preference Shifts for Fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this high-tech society, understanding the substance of high touch is an imperative aptitude for successful design professionals (Pink, 2006). Especially in the apparel industry, discerning consumers' desire for personal touch, namely high touch, is key for engaging the current consumer market. Touch preferences play a critical role not only in consumers' decision-making process when purchasing apparel products, but also

Marilyn Delong



Managing papaya ringspot virus: Impact of grass barriers on alate aphid immigration into papaya orchards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya ringspot virus, transmitted by alate aphids, is the most limiting factor of papaya production in the Caribbean region. Although there are transgenic papaya varieties that provide protection from this virus, these varieties are effective only in certain regions against certain strains of the v...


Touch-sensing input devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We can touch things, and our senses tell us when our hands aretouching something. But most computer input devices cannot detectwhen the user touches or releases the device or some portion of thedevice. Thus, adding touch sensors to input devices offers manypossibilities for novel interaction techniques. We demonstrate theTouchTrackball and the Scrolling TouchMouse, which use unobtrusivecapacitance sensors to detect contact

Ken Hinckley; Mike Sinclair



Touch the Spring (Lightbulb)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, a lightbulb is placed in front of a concave mirror. The actual lightbulb is not visible to the viewer, but the viewer can see the mirror image of the lightbulb formed in space. When the viewer tries to touch the lightbulb, they are attempting to touch an image. Their hand moves right through what seems to be a solid object! Learners will enjoy this illusion, while investigating principles of light and mirrors. In this version of a popular Exploratorium exhibit, a lightbulb is substituted for a spring.

Exploratorium, The




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This 'Forum' article in ARS/USDA Agriculture Research magazine provides a recap of the papaya work in Hawaii that helped the Hawaiian papaya industry recover from severe effects of the papaya ringspot virus. This virus is the most important problem of papaya worldwide, and caused major damage to t...


Teaching Motions by Touching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Literature presents several examples of employment of touch in human-robot interaction, dating back to teaching by playback of robotic arms or interpretat ion of tactile gestures 1 . Recently kinesthetic demonstration has drawn particular attention in the field of humanoid robots 2 . In these works the robot is just a passive entity. Conversely, in our works 3,4 the

Fabio DallaLibera; Takashi Minato; Hiroshi Ishiguro; Enrico Pagello; Emanuele Menegatti



Controversies in therapeutic touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most puzzling areas covered under the umbrella of integrative medicine is the field of energy healing. Based on the notion of a subtle vital force which is presumed to be the source of health, many ancient healing techniques have been evolved within this paradigm, including the modern American variant called Therapeutic Touch (TT). This article reviews the

Eric Leskowitz



DiamondTouch: a multi-user touch technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for creating a touch-sensitive input device is proposed which allows multiple, simultaneous users to interact in an intuitive fashion. Touch location information is determined independently for each user, allowing each touch on a common surface to be associated with a particular user. The surface generates location dependent, modulated electric fields which are capacitively coupled through the users to

Paul H. Dietz; Darren Leigh



Anticancer activity of Carica papaya: a review.  


Carica papaya is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries and is used as food as well as traditional medicine to treat a range of diseases. Increasing anecdotal reports of its effects in cancer treatment and prevention, with many successful cases, have warranted that these pharmacological properties be scientifically validated. A bibliographic search was conducted using the key words "papaya", "anticancer", and "antitumor" along with cross-referencing. No clinical or animal cancer studies were identified and only seven in vitro cell-culture-based studies were reported; these indicate that C. papaya extracts may alter the growth of several types of cancer cell lines. However, many studies focused on specific compounds in papaya and reported bioactivity including anticancer effects. This review summarizes the results of extract-based or specific compound-based investigations and emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to explore the bioactives in C. papaya for their anticancer activities. PMID:23212988

Nguyen, Thao T T; Shaw, Paul N; Parat, Marie-Odile; Hewavitharana, Amitha K



Touch Interventions Positively Affect Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greater and more loving types of touch are expected to enhance the relationship between dyads. While touch behaviors have been shown to have a positive impact on infants’ physiological and psychological development (Field et al., 1996), only recently have empirical studies investigated the mechanisms and systems involved in touch behaviors that impact infant and child development. This chapter will explore

Nancy Aaron Jones; Krystal D. Mize


The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3× draft genome sequence of `SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance

Ray Ming; Shaobin Hou; Yun Feng; Qingyi Yu; Alexandre Dionne-Laporte; Jimmy H. Saw; Pavel Senin; Wei Wang; Benjamin V. Ly; Kanako L. T. Lewis; Lu Feng; Meghan R. Jones; Rachel L. Skelton; Jan E. Murray; Cuixia Chen; Wubin Qian; Junguo Shen; Peng Du; Moriah Eustice; Eric Tong; Haibao Tang; Eric Lyons; Robert E. Paull; Todd P. Michael; Kerr Wall; Danny W. Rice; Henrik Albert; Ming-Li Wang; Yun J. Zhu; Michael Schatz; Niranjan Nagarajan; Ricelle A. Acob; Peizhu Guan; Andrea Blas; Ching Man Wai; Christine M. Ackerman; Yan Ren; Chao Liu; Jianmei Wang; Jianping Wang; Jong-Kuk Na; Eugene V. Shakirov; Brian Haas; Jyothi Thimmapuram; David Nelson; Xiyin Wang; John E. Bowers; Andrea R. Gschwend; Arthur L. Delcher; Ratnesh Singh; Jon Y. Suzuki; Savarni Tripathi; Kabi Neupane; Hairong Wei; Beth Irikura; Maya Paidi; Ning Jiang; Wenli Zhang; Gernot Presting; Aaron Windsor; Rafael Navajas-Pérez; Manuel J. Torres; F. Alex Feltus; Brad Porter; Yingjun Li; A. Max Burroughs; Ming-Cheng Luo; Lei Liu; David A. Christopher; Stephen M. Mount; Paul H. Moore; Tak Sugimura; Jiming Jiang; Mary A. Schuler; Vikki Friedman; Thomas Mitchell-Olds; Dorothy E. Shippen; Claude W. Depamphilis; Jeffrey D. Palmer; Michael Freeling; Andrew H. Paterson; Dennis Gonsalves; Lei Wang; Maqsudul Alam



Papaya proteinase IV amino acid sequence.  


The amino acid sequence of papaya proteinase IV (PPIV), a major proteinase from the latex of Carica papaya [(1989) Biochem. J. 261, 469-476] is described. The enzyme has a high degree of sequence identity with papaya proteinase III, chymopapain and papain (81, 70 and 67%, respectively), and is clearly a member of the papain superfamily of cysteine proteinases. Nevertheless, the sequence shows substitution of certain residues conserved in all other known members of the superfamily. It is suggested that some of these substitutions may account for the unusual specificity of PPIV. PMID:2591528

Ritonja, A; Buttle, D J; Rawlings, N D; Turk, V; Barrett, A J



Papaya Fruit Softening: Role of Hydrolases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivars show a wide variation in fruit softening rates, a character that determines fruit quality and shelf life, and\\u000a thought to be the result of cell wall degradation. The activity of pectin methylesterase, ?-galactosidase, endoglucanase,\\u000a endoxylanase and xylosidase were correlated with normal softening, though no relationship was found between polygalacturonase\\u000a activity and softening. When softening was

Siwaporn Thumdee; Ashariya Manenoi; Nancy J. Chen; Robert E. Paull



Keep in touch: The importance of touch in infant development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a great number of cultures in the world, touch, through the medium of massage, has been understood as being vital for the development of young infants (and often their mothers too). However it is only within the last few decades that Western scientists, professionals and developmentalists have understood the power of touch in illness and health, stress reduction, brain

Lynn Barnett



Toxicity assessment of transgenic papaya ringspot virus of 823-2210 line papaya fruits.  


The transgenic papaya is a valuable strategy for creating plants resistant to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) infection and increasing production. This study was further performed to evaluate the comparative toxicity effects of the newly developed transgenic line of the fruits of two backcross transgenic papaya lines (2210 and 823) and one hybrid line (823-2210) and compare to their parent non-transgenic (TN-2) counterparts. The stability analysis of coat protein (CP) of PRSV was investigated using the digestion stability assays in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), and bile salts to detect the CP fragments. Results revealed that the CP fragments were rapidly hydrolyzed in SGF and were undetectable in organs and gastrointestinal contents in rats. For the genotoxicity, three in vitro assays were conducted and exhibited that non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits were negative. Moreover, a repeated animal feeding study was conducted by feeding 2 g/kg of body weight (bw) of non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits for 28 days in rats. There were no biological or toxicological significances between non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits in rats. The results demonstrated that the backcross transgenic papaya fruit can be recognized as an equivalent substitution for traditional papaya in food safety. PMID:23350793

Lin, Hsin-Tang; Yen, Gow-Chin; Huang, Ting-Tzu; Chan, Lit-Fu; Cheng, Ying-Huey; Wu, Jhaol-Huei; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Liao, Jiunn-Wang



Ripening in papaya fruit is altered by ACC oxidase cosuppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya) is a very important crop in many tropical countries but it is highly susceptible to parasitic diseases, physiological disorders,\\u000a mechanical damage and fruit overripening. Here we report a study on ACC oxidase cosuppression and its effects on papaya fruit\\u000a ripening. Papaya ACC oxidase was isolated using PCR and embriogenic cells transformed by biolistic using the CaMV 35S

Rodolfo López-Gómez; Jose Luis Cabrera-Ponce; Luis Jorge Saucedo-Arias; Lorena Carreto-Montoya; Ramon Villanueva-Arce; Juan Carlos Díaz-Perez; Miguel Angel Gómez-Lim; Luis Herrera-Estrella



Empathic Touch by Relational Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a series of experiments with an agent designed to model human conversational touch-capable of physically touching users in synchrony with speech and other nonverbal communicative behavior-and its use in expressing empathy to users in distress. The agent is composed of an animated human face that is displayed on a monitor affixed to the top of a human mannequin,

Timothy W. Bickmore; Rukmal Fernando; Lazlo Ring; Daniel Schulman



Acquisition of a Touching Style.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study used focus groups to allow students, general-dentistry residents, and dental faculty to discuss issues related to learning to use touch in dental treatment. Analysis of group interactions indicated that learning to touch dental patients was often trial-and-error, and uncomfortable for students. A fine line exists between preventing…

Schifter, Catherine C.; Bogert, Meredith; Boston, Daniel



Therapeutic Touch —The Caring Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: A case study of one nurse's experience of Therapeutic Touch is presented. The major themes of the interview data are discussed by the researcher. The study provides a deeper insight into the caring relationship of the nurse during the time the nurse treats her patient with Therapeutic Touch.Summary: In this case study one nurse presents her experiences while administering

Rose Heidt Patricia



Acquisition of a Touching Style.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study used focus groups to allow students, general-dentistry residents, and dental faculty to discuss issues related to learning to use touch in dental treatment. Analysis of group interactions indicated that learning to touch dental patients was often trial-and-error, and uncomfortable for students. A fine line exists between preventing…

Schifter, Catherine C.; Bogert, Meredith; Boston, Daniel



Touch relieves stress and pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few systematic investigations of the potential benefits of incidental touch as it occurs in medical health care settings. In the present laboratory study 60 college students participated in two testing sessions 1 month apart. These sessions involved counterbalanced conditions of baseline, pulse palpation (touch), cold pressor test (stressor), and combined cold pressor\\/pulse palpation. Heart rate and systolic and

Eric Fishman; Eric Turkheimer; Douglas E. DeGood



Transgenic Papaya: Can We Proceed Beyond the Hawaiian Experience?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The story of the development, deregulation, and commercialization of the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) resistant transgenic SunUp and Rainbow papaya for Hawaii is quite well known at least among plant virologist and knowledgeable people in the field of papaya. Thus, the story will be only briefly r...


Rapid divergence and expansion of the X chromosome in papaya  

PubMed Central

X chromosomes have long been thought to conserve the structure and gene content of the ancestral autosome from which the sex chromosomes evolved. We compared the recently evolved papaya sex chromosomes with a homologous autosome of a close relative, the monoecious Vasconcellea monoica, to infer changes since recombination stopped between the papaya sex chromosomes. We sequenced 12 V. monoica bacterial artificial chromosomes, 11 corresponding to the papaya X-specific region, and 1 to a papaya autosomal region. The combined V. monoica X-orthologous sequences are much shorter (1.10 Mb) than the corresponding papaya region (2.56 Mb). Given that the V. monoica genome is 41% larger than that of papaya, this finding suggests considerable expansion of the papaya X; expansion is supported by a higher repetitive sequence content of the X compared with the papaya autosomal sequence. The alignable regions include 27 transcript-encoding sequences, only 6 of which are functional X/V. monoica gene pairs. Sequence divergence from the V. monoica orthologs is almost identical for papaya X and Y alleles; the Carica-Vasconcellea split therefore occurred before the papaya sex chromosomes stopped recombining, making V. monoica a suitable outgroup for inferring changes in papaya sex chromosomes. The papaya X and the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome and V. monoica have all gained and lost genes, including a surprising amount of changes in the X.

Gschwend, Andrea R.; Yu, Qingyi; Tong, Eric J.; Zeng, Fanchang; Han, Jennifer; VanBuren, Robert; Aryal, Rishi; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H.; Paterson, Andrew H.; Ming, Ray



Nutritional composition of Rainbow papaya, the first commercialized transgenic fruit crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainbow papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a genetically engineered (GE) cultivar with resistance to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This cultivar currently accounts for about 70% of Hawaii's papaya acreage. The nutritional composition of Rainbow papaya and a non-transgenic control were analyzed to address GE food safety concerns regarding the potential for altered nutritional composition and altered expression of inherent allergens

Savarni Tripathi; Jon Y. Suzuki; James B. Carr; Grant T. McQuate; Stephen A. Ferreira; Richard M. Manshardt; Karen Y. Pitz; Marisa M. Wall; Dennis Gonsalves




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya, an important tropical fruit crop, is susceptible to more than a dozen fungal pathogens and displays limited genetic resistance among cultivars. The major fungal pathogens of this crop include: Phytophthora root and fruit rot (Phytophthora palmivora), anthracnose (Colletotricum gloeosporioide...


Air touch: new feeling touch-panel interface you don't need to touch using audio input  

Microsoft Academic Search

A touch-panel is display overlays which have the ability to display and receive information on the same screen. The advantage of this touch screen is that it is easy for all users to operate intuitively. In addition, a touch-panel interface is utilizable for multi-users. However a conventional system cannot provide us with direct touching in the air because the touching

Kunio Sakamoto; Hiroyuki Morimoto



A Sensitive, Reliable Inexpensive Touch Detector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research in a laboratory required a sensitive, reliable, inexpensive touch detector for use with rats to test the reinforcement of inhibition. A small touch detector was also desirable so that the detector could be mounted on the rat's cage close to the object being touched by the rat, whose touches in turn were being detected by current passing…

Anger, Douglas; Schachtman, Todd R.



Significance of Touch in Young Children's Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Touch matters. Humans need nurturing touch for optimum emotional, physical, and cognitive development and health--especially in infancy. Positive touch lowers levels of the stress hormone cortisol in the brain. Drawing on research and anecdotal evidence to support the importance of touch to children's well-being, the author makes a case for…

Carlson, Frances M.



Touch: Its Communicative Functions in Infancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The communicative functions that the tactile modality serves in infancy have been severely neglected by researchers. The present article highlights the importance of touch by addressing two questions. First, what is communicated to infants by touch from their caregivers? In addition to the common notion that touch regulates arousal levels, it is argued that touch is capable of communicating valenced

Matthew J. Hertenstein



Transfections of animal touch, techniques of biosecurity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal touch – in the broadest sense, biological touch across species lines – emerges as a biosecurity threat within contemporary contexts of pandemic alert. At the same time, animal touch is increasingly invested with therapeutic, healing value within neoliberal economies of affect. This article develops two genealogies of animal touch toward historicizing the way it has come to mean and

Nicole Shukin



A male and hermaphrodite specific RAPD marker for papaya ( Carica papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to determine the sex of a dioecious species, Carica papaya L., with three sex types, male, female and hermaphrodite. A 450 bp marker fragment, named PSDM(Papaya Sex Determination Marker),\\u000a exists in all male and hermaphrodite plants but not in the female plants so far analyzed. The DNA sequence of PSDM exhibited

N. Urasaki; M. Tokumoto; K. Tarora; Y. Ban; T. Kayano; H. Tanaka; H. Oku; I. Chinen; R. Terauchi



The Virtual Midas Touch: Helping Behavior After a Mediated Social Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief touch on the upper arm increases people's altruistic behavior and willingness to comply with a request. In this paper, we investigate whether this Midas touch phenomenon would also occur under mediated conditions (i.e., touching via an arm strap equipped with electromechanical actuators). Helping behavior was more frequently endorsed in the touch, compared to the no-touch condition, but this

Antal Haans; Wijnand A. Ijsselsteijn



Update on the development of virus-resistant papaya: Virus-resistant transgenic papaya for people in rural communities of Thailand  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the most important and preferred crops in rural communities in Thailand. Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a serious disease of papaya throughout Thailand. Efforts to control the virus by various methods either have not been successful or have not resulted in sustai...


Propagation Experiments with Avocado, Mango, and Papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past year several different investigations relative to the propagation of the avocado, mango and papaya have been conducted in Florida. In this preliminary report, the results of a few of the different experiments will be described. Germination media:—Avocado seeds of Gottfried (Mex.) during the summer season, and Shooter (Mex.) during the fall season; and Apple Mango seeds during



Touch for Socioemotional and Physical Well-Being: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This review briefly summarizes recent empirical research on touch. The research includes the role of touch in early development, touch deprivation, touch aversion, emotions that can be conveyed by touch, the importance of touch for interpersonal relationships and how friendly touch affects compliance in different situations. MRI data are reviewed…

Field, Tiffany



Touch for socioemotional and physical well-being: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review briefly summarizes recent empirical research on touch. The research includes the role of touch in early development, touch deprivation, touch aversion, emotions that can be conveyed by touch, the importance of touch for interpersonal relationships and how friendly touch affects compliance in different situations. MRI data are reviewed showing activation of the orbitofrontal cortex and the caudate cortex

Tiffany Field



Touching Your Photos and Videos  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter introduced you to the iPod touch’s Photos app and showed you how to navigate your photo collections in a variety\\u000a of ways. We also showed you how your iPod’s wide-screen video features and interactive touchscreen are in a class of their\\u000a own. They offer clear, easy-to-watch video on a (relatively) large screen. In this chapter, you’ve seen how

Michael Grothaus; Erica Sadun


To Touch or Not to Touch: That Is the Question!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People attend museums to see artifacts and learn from them! Ideally, they want to see them, touch them, and learn the story about them. Artifacts have an uncanny ability to mute the passage of time, and unite young and old on common ground. During its sixty-plus-years in existence, the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History has displayed…

Smith, Gene Allen



DNA sequence analysis supports the association of phytoplasmas with papaya ( Carica papaya ) dieback, yellow crinkle and mosaic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers that hybridise to regions within and adjacent to the\\u000a 16S rRNA gene have indicated that Australian papaya dieback, papaya mosaic and papaya yellow crinkle are associated with phytoplasmas\\u000a (formerly called mycoplasma-like organisms). In this study, DNA sequence analysis of PCR products obtained from affected plant\\u000a tissue has confirmed that the

D. T. White; S. J. Billington; K. B. Walsh; P. T. Scott



Direct Learning in Dynamic Touch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A dynamic touch paradigm in which participants judged the lengths of rods and pipes was used to test the D. M. Jacobs and C. F. Michaels (2007) theory of perceptual learning. The theory portrays perception as the exploitation of a locus on an information manifold and learning as continuous movement across that manifold to a new locus, as guided…

Michaels, Claire F.; Arzamarski, Ryan; Isenhower, Robert W.; Jacobs, David M.



TouchCuts and TouchZoom: enhanced target selection for touch displays using finger proximity sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although touch-screen laptops are increasing in popularity, users still do not comfortably rely on touch in these environments, as current software interfaces were not designed for being used by the finger. In this paper, we first demonstrate the benefits of using touch as a complementary input modality along with the keyboard and mouse or touchpad in a laptop setting. To

Xing-Dong Yang; Tovi Grossman; Pourang Irani; George W. Fitzmaurice



Multi-touch surface as input device  

Microsoft Academic Search

In consideration of the rapid development of displays and multi-touch technologies, many workspaces could feature integrated multi-touch displays in the near future and therefore the possibility of using them as input devices for other computers needs to be reviewed. The idea is, to get rid of many different input devices (e.g. keyboard, mouse, multi-touch-pad) by using a single multi-touch display.

Andreas Dippon



Whole-photosynthesis and transpiration in field-grown papaya plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of papaya response to environmental factors provides a scientific basis to develop management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. In papaya, the photosynthetic capacity also influ...


Paper-based, capacitive touch pads.  


Metallized paper is patterned to create touch pads of arrayed buttons that are sensitive to contact with both bare and gloved fingers. The paper-based keypad detects the change in capacitance associated with the touch of a finger to one of its buttons. Mounted on an alarmed cardboard box, the keypad requires the appropriate sequence of touches to disarm the system. PMID:22539155

Mazzeo, Aaron D; Kalb, William B; Chan, Lawrence; Killian, Matthew G; Bloch, Jean-Francis; Mazzeo, Brian A; Whitesides, George M



Slide rule: making mobile touch screens accessible to blind people using multi-touch interaction techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in touch screen technology have increased the prevalence of touch screens and have prompted a wave of new touch screen-based devices. However, touch screens are still largely inaccessible to blind users, who must adopt error-prone compensatory strategies to use them or find accessible alternatives. This inaccessibility is due to interaction techniques that require the user to visually locate

Shaun K. Kane; Jeffrey P. Bigham; Jacob O. Wobbrock




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Different varieties of papaya (Carica papaya L.) vary in the phenotypic expression of agronomically important traits. Genetic loci responsible for these differences can be mapped using DNA markers to genotype a segregating progeny population derived from a controlled cross between parents having dif...


DiamondTouch SDK: Support for Multi-User, Multi-Touch Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

DiamondTouch is a multi-touch input technology that supports multiple, simultaneous users; it can distinguish who is touching where. We present the DiamondTouch SDK; it provides sup- port for the development of applications that utilize DiamondTouch s capabilities to implement computer-supported collaboration and rich input modalities (such as gestures). Our first demo illustrates the basic utilities and functionality of our system.

Alan Esenther; Cliff Forlines; Kathy Ryall; Sam Shipman



Care at just a touch.  


As NHS trusts across the UK strive to make better use of information technology to improve patient safety, some nurses are using an electronic observation system called Wardware on iPod Touch devices. It not only saves time on paperwork and reduces errors, but alerts nurses when action needs to be taken and allows patient data to be shared at once with doctors. PMID:23940936

Clare, Lomas


Using Touch and Gesture Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch, like many portable devices nowadays, uses the finger as the only pointing device. Apple’s\\u000a devices even support several simultaneous contact points, which, along with a simple, intuitive graphical interface, makes\\u000a their use fluid, efficient, and overall pleasing for the user. As we have explained in earlier chapters, this entails a close,\\u000a almost intimate connection

Chris Apers; Daniel Paterson


Collaboration with DiamondTouch  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the performance of collaborative spatial\\/visual tasks under dieren t input congurations. The congurations used are a traditional mouse-monitor, a shared-monitor with multiple-mice, and a multi-user input device (DiamondTouch). Our experiments indicate that there is a signican t variation in performance for the dieren t congura- tions with pairs of users, while there is no such variation with individual

Stephen G. Kobourov; Kyriacos Pavlou; Justin Cappos; Michael Stepp; Mark Miles; Amanda Wixted



Ozone Applications in the PostHarvest of Papaya (Carica papaya L.): An Alternative to Amistar Fungicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article was to evaluate ozone applications in the post-harvest of papaya (Carica papaya L) as an alternative to Amistar fungicide, taking into account the effect on the control of fungal pathogens growth, shelf-life, seed germination percentage and soluble solids content. Ozone doses were applied in vitro to strains of seven fungi species, which cause rot of

Mayra Bataller; José E. González; Eliet Veliz; Lidia A. Fernández



Development of transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) = Desenvolvimento de mamoeiros transgênicos resistentes a vírus expressando o gene da capa protéica de um isolado brasileiro de Papaya ringspot virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya). The biolistic system was used to transform secondary somatic embryo cultures derived from immature zygotic embryos. Fifty-four transgenic lines, 26 translatable and

M. T. Souza; O. Níckel; D. Gonsalves




Microsoft Academic Search

In Desa Timuhun, eventhough papaya is not primary fruit product, but usually papaya is planted among the other plants and easily to grow. Papaya has good potency to be processed to become food product. Matured papaya fruit is usually fresh served for desk fruit. On the other hand, for papaya which is not mature yet, usually used for vegetable. Papaya

Ni Nyoman Sulastri; I Putu Gede Budisanjaya; Gede Ard


Development of Transgenic Papaya through Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation.  


Transgenic papaya plants were regenerated from hypocotyls and immature zygotic embryo after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as the selectable marker and ?-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene. The explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens on regeneration medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime for one week. The cocultivated explants were transferred into the final selection medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime?+?50?mg/L kanamycin for callus induction as well as plant regeneration. The callus derived from the hypocotyls of Carica papaya cv. Shahi showed the highest positive GUS activities compared to Carica papaya cv. Ranchi. The transformed callus grew vigorously and formed embryos followed by transgenic plantlets successfully. The result of this study showed that the hypocotyls of C. papaya cv. Shahi and C. papaya cv. Ranchi are better explants for genetic transformation compared to immature embryos. The transformed C. papaya cv. Shahi also showed the maximum number of plant regeneration compared to that of C. papaya cv. Ranchi. PMID:24066284

Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md Golam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki



Development of Transgenic Papaya through Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation  

PubMed Central

Transgenic papaya plants were regenerated from hypocotyls and immature zygotic embryo after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as the selectable marker and ?-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene. The explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens on regeneration medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime for one week. The cocultivated explants were transferred into the final selection medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime?+?50?mg/L kanamycin for callus induction as well as plant regeneration. The callus derived from the hypocotyls of Carica papaya cv. Shahi showed the highest positive GUS activities compared to Carica papaya cv. Ranchi. The transformed callus grew vigorously and formed embryos followed by transgenic plantlets successfully. The result of this study showed that the hypocotyls of C. papaya cv. Shahi and C. papaya cv. Ranchi are better explants for genetic transformation compared to immature embryos. The transformed C. papaya cv. Shahi also showed the maximum number of plant regeneration compared to that of C. papaya cv. Ranchi.

Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md. Golam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki



ComTouch: A Vibrotactile Communication Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new haptic interface called ComTouch to augment remote voice communication by integrating a touch-to-vibration mapping into a cellular phone. The goal of this work is to enrich interpersonal communication by complementing voice with a new tactile channel. ComTouch, a one -handed device, converts pressure into vibrational intensity between users in real -time. We present preliminary user

Angela Chang; Zahra Kanji; Hiroshi Ishii


Generating STR profile from "Touch DNA".  


As forensic DNA technology has become a common tool in criminal investigations, scientists have attempted to obtain DNA evidence from what were once considered unlikely sources. "Touch DNA" refers to the DNA that is left behind from skin cells when a person touches or comes into contact with an item. This present study shows, DNA profiling of touched evidence materials is reported employing a combination of LCN typing and miniSTRs. The technology is highly valuable for increasing the scope of DNA profiling to large number touched evidence materials. PMID:21907930

Aditya, Sangeeta; Sharma, A K; Bhattacharyya, C N; Chaudhuri, Keya



Touch perception throughout working life: effects of age and expertise.  


Fine motor skills including precise tactile and haptic perception are essential to the manipulation of objects. With increasing age, one's perception decreases; however, little is known about the state of touch perception in middle-aged adults. This study investigated the extent to which the decline in touch perception affects adults throughout their working life. In addition, the influence of work-related expertise on tactile and haptic perception was examined in an attempt to determine whether expertise, in the form of the frequent use of the fingers, affects perception and counters age-related losses. The study was conducted with subjects from three age groups (18-25, 34-46, and 54-65 years) with two levels of expertise. Expertise was classified by the subjects' occupations. Five sensory tasks of touch perception were conducted. The results confirmed age-related changes in tactile perception over the span of one's working life. Older workers were proven to have lower tactile performance than younger adults. However, middle-aged workers were hardly affected by the perception losses and did not differ significantly from younger adults. Work-related expertise was not proven to either affect tactile and haptic perception or counteract age-related declines. We conclude that the age-related decline gets steeper in the late working life and that specific work-related expertise does not lead to generally improved touch perception that would result in lower thresholds and improved performance in non-expertise specific tasks. PMID:22080104

Reuter, Eva-Maria; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Vieluf, Solveig; Godde, Ben



Should nurses practice therapeutic touch? Should nursing schools teach therapeutic touch?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that in the current setting of nursing practice, therapeutic touch should be treated as a religious practice. The article examines the religious sources of the ideas and documents the connection with the teachings of particular religious groups. Recognizing therapeutic touch as a religious issue requires new kinds of approaches in the practice and teaching of therapeutic touch

Vern L. Bullough; Bonnie Bullough




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Instability of papaya flowers, revealed by environmentally influenced sex reversal and stamen carpellody, results in unmarketable malformed fruit. Based on knowledge of flower development in the model plants Antirrhirum and Arabidopsis, we characterized homologous genes associated with carpel develo...


Control of phytoplasma diseases of papaya in Australia using netting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of netting material (coarse, medium and fine mesh) were evaluated for exclusion of insects and thus control of\\u000a phytoplasma diseases (especially dieback disease) of papaya. Disease incidence and yield parameters were recorded for a population\\u000a of papaya plants grown inside netted enclosures, each 20 m long by 12 m wide by 5 m high, containing 78 planting positions.

K. B. Walsh; J. N. Guthrie; D. T. White



ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K).Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the ?-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

Kikuchi, Masahiro; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko



Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in melon, watermelon and papaya pulps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in low-acid fruits (melon, watermelon and papaya) at different times of incubation and at temperatures of 10, 20 and 30 °C was studied. Fruit pulp portions with an average pH of 5.87, 5.50 and 4.87 for melon, watermelon and papaya, respectively, were obtained aseptically, homogenized, weighed and inoculated with suspensions (approximately 102 CFU\\/g) of L. monocytogenes.

Ana L. Penteado; Mauro F. F. Leitão



NIa-pro of Papaya ringspot virus interacts with papaya methionine sulfoxide reductase B1.  


A chloroplast-localized papaya methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (PaMsrB1) interacting with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) NIa-Pro was identified using a Sos recruitment two-hybrid system (SRS). SRS analysis of several deletion mutants of PRSV NIa-Pro and PaMsrB1 demonstrated that the C-terminal (residues 133-239) fragment of PRSV NIa-Pro and residues 112-175 of PaMsrB1 were necessary for this interaction between PRSV NIa-Pro and PaMsrB1. MsrB1 can repair Met-oxidized proteins damaged by reactive oxygen species (ROS). We confirmed that PRSV infection leads to ROS accumulation and a slight upregulation of level PaMsrB1 mRNA in papaya. This interaction between PaMsrB1 with PRSV NIa-Pro may disturb the import of PaMsrB1 into the chloroplasts. These results suggest that this specific interaction could interfere with PaMsrB1 into the chloroplasts to scavenge ROS caused by PRSV infection. This may be a novel mechanism of PRSV towards the host defense. PMID:23040510

Gao, Le; Shen, Wentao; Yan, Pu; Tuo, Decai; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng



Touch & Share: RFID based ubiquitous file containers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we present Touch & Share, an application for sharing multimedia content in our everyday environment. Our main design criterion is ease of use. Visual icons placed in the environment act as data storage (file containers). Users can drop multimedia files into the containers and pick files from them by touching the icons with their mobile terminals. The icons are

Iván Sánchez; Jukka Riekki; Jarkko Rousu; Susanna Pirttikangas



The performance of touch screen soft buttons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of a new generation of attractive touch screen-based devices raises many basic usability questions whose answers may influence future design and market direction. With a set of current mobile devices, we conducted three experiments focusing on one of the most basic interaction actions on touch screens: the operation of soft buttons. Issues investigated in this set of experiments

Seungyon Lee; Shumin Zhai



The Place of Touch in the Arts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, I argue that although philosophers of art have legitimately examined and emphasized the role of sight and hearing in respect to art appreciation, for the most part they have neglected the role of touch. I develop the idea that while sight and hearing form the melody line of art appreciation, touch is its bass line, one that is…

Perricone, Christopher



The Place of Touch in the Arts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this essay, I argue that although philosophers of art have legitimately examined and emphasized the role of sight and hearing in respect to art appreciation, for the most part they have neglected the role of touch. I develop the idea that while sight and hearing form the melody line of art appreciation, touch is its bass line, one that is…

Perricone, Christopher



Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with…

Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna



Interactions of papaya proteinase IV with inhibitors.  


Papaya proteinase IV (PPIV) is not inhibited by chicken cystatin, or human cystatins A or C, unlike most other proteinases of the papain superfamily. The enzyme inactivates chicken cystatin and human cystatin C by limited proteolysis of the glycyl bond previously shown to be involved in the inhibitory inactivity of the cystatins, but has no action on cystatin A. Contamination of commercial crystalline papain with PPIV accounts for the limited proteolysis of cystatins by 'papain' reported previously. PPIV is slowly bound by human alpha 2-macroglobulin. The enzyme is irreversibly inactivated by E-64, and by peptidyl diazomethanes containing glycine in P1 and a hydrophobic side-chain in P2. The reaction of PPIV with iodoacetate is extremely slow. PPIV is inhibited by peptide aldehydes despite the presence of bulky sidechains in P1, suggesting that these reversible inhibitors do not bind as substrate analogues. PMID:1690669

Buttle, D J; Ritonja, A; Dando, P M; Abrahamson, M; Shaw, E N; Wikstrom, P; Turk, V; Barrett, A J




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sex chromosomes in flowering plants evolved recently and many of them remain homomorphic, including those in papaya. We investigated the chromosomal location of papaya’s small male specific region of the hermaphrodite Y (Yh) chromosome (MSY) and its genomic features. We conducted chromosome fluoresc...


7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319.56-25 Section 319.56-25...56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may of the following locations: (1) Brazil: State of Espirito...



7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319.56-25 Section 319.56-25...56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may of the following locations: (1) Brazil: State of Espirito...



PCR and ELISA-based virus surveys of banana, papaya and cucurbit crops in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1998 and 2002, we conducted PCR-based plant virus disease surveys throughout Vietnam, on banana, papaya, and several cucurbit crops, namely pumpkin, cucumber, gourds and loofa. Banana bunchy top virus in banana and Papaya ringspot virus in both papaya and cucurbits were widespread. Squash leaf curl virus-Vietnam and Cucumber mosaic virus were also widespread, predominantly infecting pumpkin and cucumber respectively.

P. A. Revill; C. V. Ha; R. E. Lines; K. E. Bell; M. T. Vu; J. L. Dale



Analysis Of Papaya BAC End Sequences: Insights Into The Organization Of A Tree Fruit Genome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a major tree fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions with an estimated genome size of 372 Mbp. We present the analysis of 4.7% of the papaya genome based on BAC end sequences (BESs) representing 17 million high-quality bases. Microsatellites discovered in 5,452 BE...


Brain mechanisms for processing affective touch.  


Despite the crucial role of touch in social development, there is very little functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research on brain mechanisms underlying social touch processing. The "skin as a social organ" hypothesis is supported by the discovery of C-tactile (CT) nerves that are present in hairy skin and project to the insular cortex. CT-fibers respond specifically well to slow, gentle touch such as that which occurs during close social interactions. Given the social significance of such touch researchers have proposed that the CT-system represents an evolutionarily conserved mechanism important for normative social development. However, it is currently unknown whether brain regions other than the insula are involved in processing CT-targeted touch. In the current fMRI study, we sought to characterize the brain regions involved in the perception of CT-supported affective touch. Twenty-two healthy adults received manual brush strokes to either the arm or palm. A direct contrast of the blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) response to gentle brushing of the arm and palm revealed the involvement of a network of brain regions, in addition to the posterior insula, during CT-targeted affective touch to the arm. This network included areas known to be involved in social perception and social cognition, including the right posterior superior temporal sulcus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)/dorso anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Connectivity analyses with an mPFC/dACC seed revealed coactivation with the left insula and amygdala during arm touch. These findings characterize a network of brain regions beyond the insula involved in coding CT-targeted affective touch. PMID:22125232

Gordon, Ilanit; Voos, Avery C; Bennett, Randi H; Bolling, Danielle Z; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Kaiser, Martha D



Plastic optical touch panels for large-scale flexible display.  


A plastic optical touch panel applicable for large-scale flexible display is demonstrated based on a vertical directional coupling between arrayed channel waveguides and a flexible planar waveguide. When a contact force is applied to the surface, the flexible planar waveguide is bent toward the channel waveguide, and then, the guided mode in the channel waveguide is coupled into the flexible planar waveguide, causing an output power drop. An index-matching liquid is used to fill the gap between the channel and the flexible planar waveguide in order to enhance the transparency of the waveguide touch panel. By applying a force of 1.0 N, the output intensity is decreased by 17 dB, which is sufficiently large for producing a contact signal. PMID:23482006

Cheon, Beom-Jun; Kim, Jun-Whee; Oh, Min-Cheol



Sexualizing men's touch: male nurses and the use of intimate touch in clinical practice.  


Drawn from a larger study, this article reports the experiences of a group of male nurses regarding the use of intimate physical touch. Using discourse analysis, interview data from 18 male nurses were analyzed and related to existing text on men as nurses. The analysis reveals that although touch is important in nursing care, it is problematic for men because discourses have normalized women's use of touch as a caring behavior and have sexualized men's touch. Participants described their vulnerability, how they protected themselves from risk, and the resulting stress. The complicity of nurses in sexualizing men's touch and the neglect of educators in preparing men for providing intimate care are revealed. A paradox emerged whereby the very measures employed to protect both patients and men as nurses exacerbate the perceived risk posed by men carrying out intimate care. Deconstructing and reframing prevailing discourses around nursing, gender, and caring involving touch can help to legitimize men's involvement in physical caring. PMID:18578219

Harding, Thomas; North, Nicola; Perkins, Rod



Analysis of papaya BAC end sequences reveals first insights into the organization of a fruit tree genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a major tree fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions with an estimated genome size of 372 Mbp. We present the analysis of 4.7% of the papaya genome based on BAC end sequences (BESs) representing 17 million high-quality bases. Microsatellites discovered in 5,452 BESs and flanking primer sequences are available to papaya breeding programs at http:\\/\\/\\/papaya\\/BES. Sixteen

Chun Wan J. Lai; Qingyi Yu; Shaobin Hou; Rachel L. Skelton; Meghan R. Jones; Kanako L. T. Lewis; Jan Murray; Moriah Eustice; Peizhu Guan; Ricelle Agbayani; Paul H. Moore; Ray Ming; Gernot G. Presting



New Defibrillator Works without Wires Touching Heart  


... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. New Defibrillator Works Without Wires Touching Heart Device is ... Implantable Defibrillators MONDAY, Aug. 26 (HealthDay News) -- A new implantable defibrillator accurately detects abnormal heart rhythms and ...


FuSA2 Touch Display: A furry and scalable multi-touch display  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a furry and scalable multi-touch display called the “FuSA2 Touch Display.” The furry type of tactile sensation of this surface affords various interactions such as stroking or clawing. The system utilizes plastic fiber optic bundles to realize a furry-type texture. The system can show visual feedback by projection and detects multi-touch input. We implemented a 24-inch display, and

Kosuke Nakajima; Yuichi Itoh; Takayuki Tsukitani; Kazuyuki Fujita; Kazuki Takashima; Yoshifumi Kitamura; Fumio Kishino



Touch Screen User Interfaces for Older Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This study investigated the optimal numbers of blocks and tactile targets for touch screen user interfaces intended for use\\u000a by all (reference and older population). Three independent variables (number of targets, number of interaction blocks on the\\u000a touch screen and number of hands used) were studied in our experiment. Huge amount of data were stored. In this paper, we\\u000a will

Guillaume Lepicard; Nadine Vigouroux



Touch-typing with a stylus  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the attractive features of keyboards is that they support novice as well as expert users. Novice users enter text using “hunt-and-peck,” experts use touch-typing. Although it takes time to learn touch-typing, there is a large payoff in faster operation. In contrast to keyboarda, pen-based computers have only a novice mode for text entry in which users print text

David Goldberg; Cate Richardson



Experiences with Interactive Multi-touch Tables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactive multi-touch tables can be a powerful means of communication for collaborative work as well as an engaging environment for competition. Through enticing gameplay we have evaluated user experience on competitive gameplay, collaborative work and musical expression. In addition, we report on our extensive experiences with two types of interactive multi-touch tables and we introduce a software framework that abstracts from their technical differences.

Fikkert, Wim; Hakvoort, Michiel; van der Vet, Paul; Nijholt, Anton


Learning from vision-to-touch is different than learning from touch-to-vision  

PubMed Central

We studied whether vision can teach touch to the same extent as touch seems to teach vision. In a 2 × 2 between-participants learning study, we artificially correlated visual gloss cues with haptic compliance cues. In two “natural” tasks, we tested whether visual gloss estimations have an influence on haptic estimations of softness and vice versa. In two “novel” tasks, in which participants were either asked to haptically judge glossiness or to visually judge softness, we investigated how perceptual estimates transfer from one sense to the other. Our results showed that vision does not teach touch as efficient as touch seems to teach vision.

Wismeijer, Dagmar A.; Gegenfurtner, Karl R.; Drewing, Knut



Analysis of ripening-related gene expression in papaya using an Arabidopsis-based microarray  

PubMed Central

Background Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a commercially important crop that produces climacteric fruits with a soft and sweet pulp that contain a wide range of health promoting phytochemicals. Despite its importance, little is known about transcriptional modifications during papaya fruit ripening and their control. In this study we report the analysis of ripe papaya transcriptome by using a cross-species (XSpecies) microarray technique based on the phylogenetic proximity between papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Papaya transcriptome analyses resulted in the identification of 414 ripening-related genes with some having their expression validated by qPCR. The transcription profile was compared with that from ripening tomato and grape. There were many similarities between papaya and tomato especially with respect to the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in primary metabolism, regulation of transcription, biotic and abiotic stress and cell wall metabolism. XSpecies microarray data indicated that transcription factors (TFs) of the MADS-box, NAC and AP2/ERF gene families were involved in the control of papaya ripening and revealed that cell wall-related gene expression in papaya had similarities to the expression profiles seen in Arabidopsis during hypocotyl development. Conclusion The cross-species array experiment identified a ripening-related set of genes in papaya allowing the comparison of transcription control between papaya and other fruit bearing taxa during the ripening process.



An evaluation of street-vended sliced papaya ( Carica papaya) for bacteria and indicator micro-organisms of public health significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty samples of ripe papaya (Carica papaya) slices, collected in Calcutta from the itinerant roadside vendors were collected over a 3-month period. The papaya were tested for total aerobic plate count (TPC), coliform and fecal coliform counts, and various foodborne pathogens. TPCs ranged from 3·3 to 6·52 log cfu g?1 (average=5·96 log cfu g?1). Eleven samples had counts >6 log

R. Mukhopadhyay; A. Mitra; R. Roy; A. K. Guha



Interpersonal Touch among Residents of Homes for the Elderly.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on observations of interpersonal touching behavior patterns among residents of homes for the elderly. Analyzes behavior for Blacks and Whites, males and females, in terms of who initiates touching and parts of the body touched and used for touching. (JMF)|

Rinck, Christine M.; And Others



Touch key design for target selection on a mobile phone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile phones with a touch screen replacing traditional keypads have been introduced to the market. Few studies, however, have been conducted on the touch interface design for a mobile phone. This study investigated the effects of touch key sizes and locations on the one-handed thumb input that is popular in mobile phone interactions. Three different touch key sizes (i.e. square

Yong S. Park; Sung Ho Han; Jaehyun Park; Youngseok Cho



Ratings of the appropriateness of touch among family members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased awareness of inappropriate touch with children may discourage positive parent-child touch. The present study was designed to assess the extent of agreement regarding the appropriateness of various types of parent-child touch. Respondents were 83 men and 121 women who were shopping in an open air market in a metropolitan area. Touches involving parents and children in several settings were

Karen Harrison-Speake; Frank N. Willis



Development and characterization of touch sensing devices for robotic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of touch sensing chips for robotic applications and the experimental results from touch sensing elements on the chip. The high resolution tactile sensing chips have overall dimension of 1.5 cm ?? 1.5 cm and consist of 25 touch sensing elements. The touch sensing elements on the chip are the POSFET (Piezoelectric Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect

Ravinder S. Dahiya; Maurizio Valle; Roberto Oboe; Davide Cattin



Folate Levels and Polyglutamylation Profiles of Papaya ( Carica papaya cv. Maradol) during Fruit Development and Ripening.  


Folates are essential micronutrients for humans, and their deficiency causes several detrimental effects on human health. Papaya fruit is an important natural source of some micronutrients. This paper presents a first complete characterization of folate derivatives accumulated in cv. Maradol papaya during fruit development and ripening processes. During postharvest ripening, the fruit accumulated up to 24.5% of the daily folate recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for an adult in a 1 cup (145 g) portion. Tetrahydrofolate (THF) and 5-methyl-THF were the predominant folate classes observed. Surprisingly, an unusually long polyglutamylation profile of tentatively up to 17 glutamates linked to 5-methyl-THF was detected; to the authors' knowledge, this very long polyglutamyl tail has not been reported for any organism, and it is probably characteristic of this plant species. This polyglutamylation degree changed throughout fruit development and ripening, showing the largest differences at the onset of ripening. This work raises questions about the functional role of folate derivatives in fruit development. PMID:23574547

Ramos-Parra, Perla A; García-Salinas, Carolina; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; Díaz de la Garza, Rocío I



Antihyperglycaemic effects of ethanol extracts of Carica papaya and Pandanus amaryfollius leaf in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.  


Diabetes mellitus is a global disease that is increasing in an alarming rate. The present study was undertaken to study the antidiabetic effect of the ethanol extracts of Carica papaya and Pandanus amaryfollius on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. The results of the present study indicated that there was no significant difference in the body weight of the treated groups when compared to diabetic control. Whereas, there was significant (P?decrease in the blood glucose level of the plant-treated groups compared to the diabetic control. Histologically the pancreas of the treated groups indicated significant regeneration of the ?-cells when compared to the diabetic control. The liver tissues of the treated group indicated a reduction in fatty changes and pyknotic nucleus. The kidney tissues of the treated groups indicated significant recovery in the cuboidal tissue. The results from the phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponin and tannin in C. papaya and P. amaryfollius. The antidiabetic effect of C. papaya and P. amaryfollius observed in the present study may be due to the presence of these phytochemicals. PMID:21707251

Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Sumathi, Vello; Jegathambigai, Naidu Rameshwar; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga



Consumer in-store response to irradiated papayas  

SciTech Connect

In this study, purchase behavior of California consumers in response to irradiated papayas is described. The papayas were shipped from Hawaii and irradiated in California under a permit by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and approved by the California Department of Food and Agriculture. Results show that the superior appearance of the irradiated fruit appealed to consumers and that two-thirds or more of the people queried indicated that they would buy irradiated produce. It is noted that this marketing took place in a supportive environment with no protestors present. Informational material was available.

Bruhn, C.M.; Noell, J.W.



Odour-active compounds in papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol.  


Application of solid-phase microextraction and simultaneous distillation-extraction combined with GC-FID, GC-MS, aroma extract dilution analysis, and odour activity value were used to analyse volatile compounds from papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol and to estimate the most odour-active compounds. The analyses led to the identification of 137 compounds; 118 of them were positively identified. Twenty-five odorants were considered as odour-active compounds and contribute to the typical papaya aroma, from which ethyl butanoate, benzyl isothiocyanate, 1-hexen-3-one, (E)-?-ionone, and methyl benzoate were the most odour-active compounds. PMID:24176322

Pino, Jorge A



Automatic segmentation of overlapping and touching chromosomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a technique to segment overlapping and touching chromosomes of human metaphase cells. Automated chromosome classification has been an important pattern recognition problem for decades, numerous attempts were made in the past to characterize chromosome band patterns. But successful separation between touching and overlapping chromosomes is vital for correct classification. Since chromosomes are non-rigid objects, common methods for separation between touching chromosomes are not usable. We proposed a method using shape concave and convex information, topology analysis information, and band pale paths for segmentation of touching and overlapping chromosomes. To detect shape concave and convex information, we should first pre-segment the chromosomes and get the edge of overlapping and touching chromosomes. After filtering the original image using edge-preserving filter, we adopt the Otsu's segmentation method and extract the boundary of chromosomes. Hence the boundary can be used for segment the overlapping and touching chromosomes by detecting the concave and convex information based on boundary information. Most of the traditional boundary-based algorithms detect corners based on two steps: the first step is to acquire the smoothed version of curvature at every point along the contour, and the second step is to detect the positions where curvature maximal occur and threshold the curvature as corner points. Recently wavelet transform has been adopted into corner detection algorithms. Since the metaphase overlapping chromosomes has multi-scale corners, we adopt a multi-scale corner detection method based on Hua's method for corner detection. For touching chromosomes, it is convenient to split them using pale paths. Starting from concave corner points, a search algorithm is represented. The searching algorithm traces three pixels into the object in the direction of the normal vector in order to avoid stopping at the initial boundary until it reaches to another boundary or tracing route. For overlapping chromosomes, the searching algorithm fails. We proposed a topology information based method for analyzing overlapping and touching chromosomes. Mihail Popescu adopts Cross Section Sequence Graph (CSSG) method for shape analyzing. Gady Agam proposed Discrete Curvature Function for splitting touching and overlapping chromosomes. But due to the non-rigid property of chromosomes, it is hard to determine the actual topology structure of chromosomes. In this paper we proposed a new method to produce topology information of chromosomes and had got good results in chromosome segmentation.

Yuan, Zhiqiang; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Renli; Yu, Chang




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Systemic aquired resistance in Carica papaya L. is induced by benzothiadiazole (BTH). The response is manifested by increased tolerance to infection by the virulent pathogen Phytophthora palmivora, by increased B-1,3-glucanase and chitinase activities, and by increased accumulation of a PR1 mRNA. In...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of our project is to evaluate the potential for using proteomic approaches to discover the basis for differential susceptibility of Hawaii papaya cultivars to the root rot pathogen Phytophthora palmivora. Based on previous studies showing that Kapoho was the most resistance cultivar an...


Semen Study of Papaya Workers Exposed to Ethylene Dibromide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A cross sectional semen and cytogenetic study was performed on male workers exposed to ethylene-dibromide (106934) (EDB) in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii. Semen analyses were conducted on 46 men in six fumigation facilities with an average leng...

J. M. Ratcliffe S. M. Schrader K. Steenland D. Clapp T. Turner




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya plants micropropagated on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 3% sucrose, 1 µM benzyladenine, and 1µM naphthalene acetic acid, became contaminated by slow-growing bacteria. Shoot growth was not inhibited on the proliferation medium, but subsequent root development in half-strength MS mediu...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to produce a Carica papaya L. cDNA library enriched for benzothiadiazole (BTH) induced genes. From this library 360 clones were screened by reverse-northern dot blot. ESTs found to be BTH-induced by this method were confirmed by northern blot and ...


Peripheral Somatosensation: A Touch of Genetics  

PubMed Central

Summary The somatosensory system processes information that organisms “feel”: joint position, muscle stretch, pain, pressure, temperature, and touch. The system is composed of a diverse array of peripheral nerve endings specialized to detect these sensory modalities. Several recent discoveries have shed light on the genetic pathways that control specification and differentiation of these neurons, how they accurately innervate their central and peripheral targets, and the molecules that enable them to detect mechanical stimuli. Here, we review the cadre of genes that control these processes, focusing on mechanosensitive neurons and support cells of the skin that mediate different aspects of the sense of touch.

Reed-Geaghan, Erin G.



Chromosomal location and gene paucity of the male specific region on papaya Y chromosome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex chromosomes in flowering plants evolved recently and many of them remain homomorphic, including those in papaya. We investigated\\u000a the chromosomal location of papaya’s small male specific region of the hermaphrodite Y (Yh) chromosome (MSY) and its genomic features. We conducted chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of Yh-specific bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and placed the MSY near the centromere

Qingyi Yu; Shaobin Hou; Roman Hobza; F. Alex Feltus; Xiue Wang; Weiwei Jin; Rachel L. Skelton; Andrea Blas; Cornelia Lemke; Jimmy H. Saw; Paul H. Moore; Maqsudul Alam; Jiming Jiang; Andrew H. Paterson; Boris Vyskot; Ray Ming



Comparative effects of dietary administered transgenic and conventional papaya on selected intestinal parameters in rat models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformation of agricultural crops with novel genes has significantly advanced disease-resistance breeding, including virus\\u000a resistance through the expression of virus sequences. In this study, the effects of long-term, repeated exposure to transgenic\\u000a papayas carrying the coat protein gene of Papaya ringspot virus and conventional non-transgenic papaya on the histology and selected biochemical parameters of the intestinal tract were\\u000a compared. For

Melissa Powell; Andrew O. Wheatley; Felix Omoruyi; Helen N. Asemota; Nadia P. Williams; Paula F. Tennant



Patients' Perceptions of Touch during Labor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory study using interviews of 150 postpartum patients was conducted to determine their perceptions of the touching they received during labor. Answers to the interview questions were analyzed in terms of overall perceptions, positive experiences, and negative experiences, and selected demographic variables were examined for differences…

Penny, Karen M. Stolte; Friedman, Paul G.


Evaluating capacitive touch input on clothes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wearable computing and smart clothing have attracted a lot of attention in the last years. For a variety of applications, it can be seen as potential future direction of mobile user interfaces. In this paper, we concentrate on usability and applicability issues concerned with capacitive touch input on clothing. To be able to perform user studies, we built a generic

Paul Holleis; Albrecht Schmidt; Susanna Paasovaara; Arto Puikkonen; Jonna Häkkilä



The Role of Touch in Facilitated Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imagine that one day a nonverbal autistic child suddenly starts to type messages, such as “I am not retarded,” using a computer keyboard while being touched by an assistant. Facilitated communication (FC) appears to create this miracle around the world. To understand how this works, experiments were conducted involving a “telepathy game” using a rod with an attached strain gauge.

Emiko Kezuka



Experiencing 'Touch' in Mobile Mixed Reality Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss player experiences relating to the interaction with objects included as part of mobile mixed reality games. In particular we focus on the player experience of a touch based reality interface using mobile phones equipped with RFID\\/NFC reader\\/writers for interaction with the RFID tagged objects used in three different mobile mixed reality games. The player experience

Paul Coulton; Omer Rashid; Will Bamford



The Role of Touch in Facilitated Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study investigated the role of touch in the use of facilitated communication with Japanese individuals with autism. Five experiments were conducted involving a "telepathy game" using a rod with an attached strain gauge. Results found the facilitator's contact controlled the motor responses of the subjects. (Author/CR)|

Kezuka, Emiko



Area touch sensor for dextrous manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel touch sensor for robots is described which continuously reports location and magnitude of contact within the area of the sensor. The sensor can be made in many forms, including a flexible membrane which may be applied to planar, cylindrical, or conical surfaces of any size. The sensor is novel in that the location of contact within the large

C. Marc Bastuscheckl



Adding Interactivity: Active Touch in Broadcast Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite continual consumer demand for richer broadcast media, there have been few examinations of senses other than vision and hearing in this domain. This demonstration paper considers the role that touch may be able to play in future broadcast systems. We have begun to explore the addition of haptic cues to children's cartoons, and through this process unearthed a number

M. Sile O'modhrain; Ian Oakley



Vector Keyboard for Touch Screen Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paper introduces a vector keyboard for touch screen devices. Characters are typed by drawing a vector starting from a dedicated\\u000a area. The typing area is divided into three clusters, each containing 9 characters. Measurement of typing speed and of number\\u000a of typos reveals that the keyboard is comparable to ABCDEF virtual keyboard.

Martin Klima; Vaclav Slovacek



Localization of Curved Parts Through Continual Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a simple system that localizes two-dimensional curved shapes through touch sensing, offering computational and experimental studies. The idea lies in determining the placement of a manipulator on a curved object during some special motion—rolling. A geometric algorithm is introduced to locate the boundary segment traced out by their contact using tactile data. Both completeness and local convergence have

Yan-Bin Jia



Patients' Perceptions of Touch during Labor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An exploratory study using interviews of 150 postpartum patients was conducted to determine their perceptions of the touching they received during labor. Answers to the interview questions were analyzed in terms of overall perceptions, positive experiences, and negative experiences, and selected demographic variables were examined for differences…

Penny, Karen M. Stolte; Friedman, Paul G.


FuSA2 touch display  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touching, stroking and pulling are important ways to communicate with fibratus material. Above all, stroking is one of the most representative ways to interact with fibratus material because stroking lets people feel its direction, hardness and thickness. We propose a fibratus visual and tactile display, \\

Kosuke Nakajima; Yuichi Itoh; Ai Yoshida; Kazuki Takashima; Yoshifumi Kitamura; Fumio Kishino



An fMRI study on cortical responses during active self-touch and passive touch from others.  


Active, self-touch and the passive touch from an external source engage comparable afferent mechanoreceptors on the touched skin site. However, touch directed to glabrous skin compared to hairy skin will activate different types of afferent mechanoreceptors. Despite perceptual similarities between touch to different body sites, it is likely that the touch information is processed differently. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate the cortical differences in the neural signal of touch representations during active, self-touch and passive touch from another, to both glabrous (palm) and hairy (arm) skin, where a soft brush was used as the stimulus. There were two active touch conditions, where the participant used the brush in their right hand to stroke either their left palm or arm. There were two similar passive, touch conditions where the experimenter used an identical brush to stroke the same palm and arm areas on the participant. Touch on the left palm elicited a large, significant, positive blood-oxygenation level dependence (BOLD) signal in right sensorimotor areas. Less extensive activity was found for touch to the arm. Separate somatotopical palm and arm representations were found in Brodmann area (BA) 3 of the right primary somatosensory cortex (SI) and in both these areas, active stroking gave significantly higher signals than passive stroking. Active, self-touch elicited a positive BOLD signal in a network of sensorimotor cortical areas in the left hemisphere, compared to the resting baseline. In contrast, during passive touch, a significant negative BOLD signal was found in the left SI. Thus, each of the four conditions had a unique cortical signature despite similarities in afferent signaling or evoked perception. It is hypothesized that attentional mechanisms play a role in the modulation of the touch signal in the right SI, accounting for the differences found between active and passive touch. PMID:22891054

Ackerley, Rochelle; Hassan, Eusra; Curran, Andrew; Wessberg, Johan; Olausson, Håkan; McGlone, Francis



An fMRI study on cortical responses during active self-touch and passive touch from others  

PubMed Central

Active, self-touch and the passive touch from an external source engage comparable afferent mechanoreceptors on the touched skin site. However, touch directed to glabrous skin compared to hairy skin will activate different types of afferent mechanoreceptors. Despite perceptual similarities between touch to different body sites, it is likely that the touch information is processed differently. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate the cortical differences in the neural signal of touch representations during active, self-touch and passive touch from another, to both glabrous (palm) and hairy (arm) skin, where a soft brush was used as the stimulus. There were two active touch conditions, where the participant used the brush in their right hand to stroke either their left palm or arm. There were two similar passive, touch conditions where the experimenter used an identical brush to stroke the same palm and arm areas on the participant. Touch on the left palm elicited a large, significant, positive blood-oxygenation level dependence (BOLD) signal in right sensorimotor areas. Less extensive activity was found for touch to the arm. Separate somatotopical palm and arm representations were found in Brodmann area (BA) 3 of the right primary somatosensory cortex (SI) and in both these areas, active stroking gave significantly higher signals than passive stroking. Active, self-touch elicited a positive BOLD signal in a network of sensorimotor cortical areas in the left hemisphere, compared to the resting baseline. In contrast, during passive touch, a significant negative BOLD signal was found in the left SI. Thus, each of the four conditions had a unique cortical signature despite similarities in afferent signaling or evoked perception. It is hypothesized that attentional mechanisms play a role in the modulation of the touch signal in the right SI, accounting for the differences found between active and passive touch.

Ackerley, Rochelle; Hassan, Eusra; Curran, Andrew; Wessberg, Johan; Olausson, Hakan; McGlone, Francis



RemoteTouch: touch-screen-like interaction in the tv viewing environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored the possibility of touch-screen-like interaction with a remote control in the TV-viewing environment. A shadow representing the user's thumb touches the screen, presses a button, flicks a cover-flow list, and draws a simple stroke, while the thumb stays and moves on and above the touchpad. In order to implement the concept we developed an optical touchpad for tracking

Sangwon Choi; Jaehyun Han; Geehyuk Lee; Narae Lee; Woohun Lee



Teleoperation of robot partners through iPod touche  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with human interface for iPod touch used for the tele-operation of robot partners. We develop a tele-operation system based on touch interface of iPod touch. The environmental information is measured through the sensor network, and is stored in the remote host computer. The iPod touch accesses the environment information through wireless LAN, and sends the control outputs

Naoyuki Kubota; Shiho Wakisaka; Akihiro Yorita



Investigation of fingertip blobs on optical multi-touch screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, multi-touch tabletop displays provided the Natural User Interface (NUI). Humans use the bare finger as a pointing device for manipulation of interactive elements on multi-touch surface. However, fingertip size occupies the large space instead of appropriate target point and creates ambiguity in touch detection. To overcome issue possibly, we develop an optical multi-touch screen using the Frustrated Total Internal

Ahsanullah; A. K. B. Mahmood; Suziah Sulaiman



The effects of touch on depressed and vocationally undecided clients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessed the differential impact of a counselor's touch on depressed and vocationally undecided clients in an initial interview. Specifically, the effects of the counselor's touch on the S's appraisal of the counselor's empathy, unconditional regard, level of regard, congruence, and resistance were investigated. The counselor's touch was also evaluated for its influence on the S's request for a 2nd interview

Christopher N. Bacorn; David N. Dixon



The Effect of Counselor Touch in an Initial Counseling Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the effect of counselor touch on female clients (N=32) and the moderating effect of clients' field dependence-independence on their response to a counselor's touch. Results indicated that counselors were perceived as significantly more expert when they touched than when they did not. Suggests implications for counseling. (Author)

Hubble, Mark A.; And Others



Virtual Interpersonal Touch: Expressing and Recognizing Emotions Through Haptic Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the phenomenon of Virtual Interpersonal Touch (VIT), people touching one another via force-feedback haptic devices. As collaborative virtual environments become utilized more effectively, it is only natural that interactants will have the ability to touch one another. In the work presented here, we used relatively basic devices to begin to explore the expression of emotion through VIT.

Jeremy N. Bailenson; Nick Yee; Scott Brave; Dan Merget; David Koslow



78 FR 37998 - Electronic One Touch Bingo System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of server based electronic bingo system games that can be played utilizing only one touch...touch bingo is a Class II or Class III game. DATES: The agency must receive comments...touch bingo as a Class II or a Class III game pursuant to the Indian Gaming...



The Effect of Counselor Touch in an Initial Counseling Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigated the effect of counselor touch on female clients (N=32) and the moderating effect of clients' field dependence-independence on their response to a counselor's touch. Results indicated that counselors were perceived as significantly more expert when they touched than when they did not. Suggests implications for counseling. (Author)|

Hubble, Mark A.; And Others



Grips and gestures on a multi-touch pen  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the interaction possibilities enabled when the barrel of a digital pen is augmented with a multi-touch sensor. We present a novel multi-touch pen (MTPen) prototype and discuss its alternate uses beyond those of a standard stylus, such as allowing new touch gestures to be performed using the index finger or thumb and detecting how users grip the

Hyunyoung Song; Hrvoje Benko; François Guimbretière; Shahram Izadi; Xiang Cao; Ken Hinckley



Issues and techniques in touch-sensitive tablet input  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch-sensitive tablets and their use in human-computer interaction are discussed. It is shown that such devices have some important properties that differentiate them from other input devices (such as mice and joysticks). The analysis serves two purposes: (1) it sheds light on touch tablets, and (2) it demonstrates how other devices might be approached. Three specific distinctions between touch tablets

William Buxton; Ralph Hill; Peter Rowley



Double-side multi-touch input for mobile devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new mobile interaction model, called double-side multi-touch, based on a mobile device that receives simultaneous multi-touch input from both the front and the back of the device. This new double-sided multi-touch mobile interaction model enables intuitive finger gestures for manipulating 3D objects and user interfaces on a 2D screen.

Erh-li Early Shen; Sung-sheng Daniel Tsai; Hao-hua Chu; Yung-jen Jane Hsu; Chi-wen Euro Chen



Touch and massage for medically fragile infants.  


Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants' safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores of the infants receiving massage. Massage in a tertiary urban academic NICU continues to be an area of needed study. Future studies examining infant health outcomes, such as weight gain, decreased length of hospitalization and caregiver-infant bonding, would provide greater insight into the impact of massage for medically fragile infants. PMID:18955228

Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J; Gallardo, Constance C; Joseph, Michael H; Gold, Jeffrey I



77 FR 31294 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Papaya...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Importation of Papaya From Colombia and Ecuador AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador into the continental United States. DATES...shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador, contact Ms. Dorothy Wayson,...



40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the requirement of...



40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement...tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the...



40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement...tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the...



Development and Application of SCAR Marker for the Detection of Papaya Seed Adulteration in Traded Black Pepper Powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports the development of a specific, sensitive, and reproducible Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) marker to detect papaya seed powder adulteration in traded black pepper powder. A putative RAPD marker (449 bp) specific to papaya seed was identified, cloned, and sequenced to design the SCAR primers. This specific SCAR marker could detect the presence of papaya seed

K. Dhanya; S. Syamkumar; B. Sasikumar



[Assessment strategies of the impact of healing touch in nursing care].  


New care methods have emerged in the last few years. Healing Touch is relaxing and as such, helps prepare the patient for the medical act, the pain of which he may often feel anxious about As they foster confidence between the patient and the medical practitioner, such practices create better conditions for the medical care act to be performed. Even if there is no doubt about its impact on the patient, the effect of Healing Touch has never been scientifically assessed, and the only available references are rather scarce. This is the reason why we wished to assess the impact of this care in a number of clinical situations through a randomised clinical experiment. The object of this paper is to assert the efficacy of such care on the patient, especially on pain relief and the decrease of anxiety. To this end, authenticated assessment scales were used, such as the visual analog pain scale or Spielberg's test anxiety inventory. A prospective multicentre randomised study was carried out to create a control group to be compared to the group treated with Healing Touch. Only willing patients who were prescribed healing touch were included in the experiment. Patients with cognitive problems - be they temporary (linked to a temporary clinical conditions) or not - or those suffering from some disabilities preventing them from using assessment scales and questionnaires are excluded. The recruitment of a 784-patient panel was needed to set out the 8 situations in which a Healing Touch indication may be effective. PMID:19642480

Hentz, F; Mulliez, A; Belgacem, B; Noirfalise, C; Barrier, H; Gorrand, J; Paniagua, C c; Mathé, B; Gerbaud, L



Gender, fashion innovativeness and opinion leadership, and need for touch : Effects on multi-channel choice and touch\\/non-touch preference in clothing shopping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aims to examine whether gender, fashion innovativeness and opinion leadership, and need for touch have effects on consumers' multi-channel choice and touch\\/non-touch shopping channel preference in clothing shopping. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey was conducted using a convenience sample of 123 male and 154 female US college students. Data were analyzed using PASW Statistics 18 and Analysis

Siwon Cho; Jane Workman



Getting Started with MonoTouch  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a When most people think about developing applications for the iPhone, iPad, or iPod Touch, they think of writing applications\\u000a in a low-level language like Objective-C. But the truth is, as the iOS ecosystem has matured, a number of ways to develop\\u000a apps for it has emerged.

Bryan Costanich


Carica papaya latex-catalyzed synthesis of structured triacylglycerols  

Microsoft Academic Search

One impediment to the industrial use of enzymes in fat and oil transformations is the higher cost often associated with an\\u000a enzymatic process compared with the corresponding chemical process. Processes that utilize plant enzymes, however, may have\\u000a advantages because of their lower cost and ready availability. One example of such a plant-derived enzyme is Carica papaya latex (CPL), the principal

T. A. Foglia; P. Villeneuve



Assessment of genetic and epigenetic changes following cryopreservation in papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vitrification based cryopreservation technique for storage of in vitro shoot tips of papaya has been tested to ensure applicability\\u000a across a range of genotypes and to assess the stability of both genotype and phenotype of such clonal material following cryopreservation.\\u000a Shoot tips of 12 genotypes were cryopreserved, recovery rates were determined and resultant plants were screened for genetic\\u000a and

A. Kaity; S. E. Ashmore; R. A. Drew; M. E. Dulloo



Human perception of shape from touch  

PubMed Central

In this paper, I focus on the role of active touch in three aspects of shape perception and discrimination studies. First an overview is given of curvature discrimination experiments. The most prominent result is that first-order stimulus information (that is, the difference in attitude or slope over the stimulus) is the dominant factor determining the curvature threshold. Secondly, I compare touch under bimanual and two-finger performance with unimanual and one-finger performance. Consistently, bimanual or two-finger performance turned out to be worse. The most likely explanation for the former finding is that a loss of accuracy during intermanual comparisons is owing to interhemispheric relay. Thirdly, I address the presence of strong after-effects after just briefly touching a shape. These after-effects have been measured and studied in various conditions (such as, static, dynamic, transfer to other hand or finger). Combination of the results of these studies leads to the insight that there are possibly different classes of after-effect: a strong after-effect, caused by immediate contact with the stimulus, that does only partially transfer to the other hand, and one much less strong after-effect, caused by moving over the stimulus for a certain period, which shows a full transfer to other fingers.

Kappers, Astrid M. L.



Organelle DNA accumulation in the recently evolved papaya sex chromosomes.  


Sex chromosomes are a pair of specialized chromosomes containing a sex determination region that is suppressed for recombination. Without recombination, Y chromosomes are thought to accumulate repetitive DNA sequences which contribute to their degeneration. A pair of primitive sex chromosomes controls sex type in papaya with male and hermaphrodite determined by the slightly different male-specific region of the Y (MSY) and hermaphrodite-specific region of Y(h) (HSY) chromosomes, respectively. Here, we show that the papaya HSY and MSY in the absence of recombination have accumulated nearly 12 times the amount of chloroplast-derived DNA than the corresponding region of the X chromosome and 4 times the papaya genome-wide average. Furthermore, a chloroplast genome fragment containing the rsp15 gene has been amplified 23 times in the HSY, evidence of retrotransposon-mediated duplication. Surprisingly, mitochondria-derived sequences are less abundant in the X and HSY compared to the whole genome. Shared organelle integrations are sparse between X and HSY, with only 11 % of chloroplast and 12 % of mitochondria fragments conserved, respectively, suggesting that the accelerated accumulation of organelle DNA occurred after the HSY was suppressed for recombination. Most of the organelle-derived sequences have divergence times of <7 MYA, reinforcing this notion. The accumulated chloroplast DNA is evidence of the slow degeneration of the HSY. PMID:23636354

VanBuren, Robert; Ming, Ray




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya has been shown to respond to pathogen challenge and benzothiadiazole (BTH) treatment with an increase in ß-glucanase and chitinase enzyme activities [1]. To allow global analysis of defense related gene regulation, we have isolated a set of papaya genes which are up-regulated in response to ...


Removal of Methyl Orange From Aqueous Solution Using Activated Papaya Leaf  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation describes the potential of acid activated papaya leaf for the adsorption of methyl orange (MO) dye from aqueous solution. The FT-IR analysis indicated the presence of a wide variety of functional groups on the surface of the activated papaya leaf. Scanning electron microscopy and Electron dispersion X-ray techniques indicated the morphological behavior of adsorption onto the adsorbent,

M. Ahmaruzzaman



Inconspicuous endophytic bacteria mimicking latex exudates in shoot-tip cultures of papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoot-tip cultures of papaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. Surya were initiated from field-grown plants after extensive surface sterilization for their use in micropropagation and to assess endophytic bacterial associations with apparently clean cultures. Out of 150 explants cultured, 40% of them displayed microbial contamination with obvious colony growth on tissue culture medium during the first in vitro passage of 1

P. Thomas; S. Kumari



On the evolution and molecular epidemiology of the potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is found throughout the tropics and subtropics. Its P biotype is a devastating pathogen of papaya crops and its W biotype of cucurbits. PRSV-P is thought to arise by mutation from PRSV-W. However, the relative impact of mutation and movement on the structure of PRSV populations is not well characterized. To investigate this, we

Marion F. Bateson; Rosemarie E. Lines; Peter Revill; Worawan Chaleeprom; Cuong V. Ha; Adrian J. Gibbs; James L. Dale




Microsoft Academic Search

Production of papaya has been limited in many areas of the world due to the disease caused by the Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). The coat protein (CP) gene-mediated transgenic resistance has become the most effective method to prevent crops from this virus infection. In the late 1980s, the group of Gonsalves at Cornell University and Hawaii started a research project

Shyi-Dong Yeh


Iron Deficiency Induced Changes in Iron Reductase Activity in Papaya Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivars were cultured aeroponically or in perlite to determine the magnitude, timing, and root locality of Fe reductase induced by Fe deficiency. Five soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) lines with a known range of Fe-deficiency chlorosis scores were cultured in perlite for comparison. Speed of inducement of Fe reductase activity was determined in plants cultured

Thomas E. Marler; Andrea L. Blas



The mec-7 beta-tubulin gene of Caenorhabditis elegans is expressed primarily in the touch receptor neurons.  

PubMed Central

Mutants of the mec-7 beta-tubulin gene of Caenorhabditis elegans lack the large diameter 15-protofilament microtubules normally found only in the set of six touch receptor neurons. Both a mec-7-lacZ reporter gene and affinity-purified anti-mec-7 antibodies were used to show that mec-7 is expressed primarily in the touch neurons. These data are consistent with a possible instructive role for the mec-7 tubulin in determining microtubule protofilament number. The antibodies and the mec-7-lacZ transgene were also used to examine mec-7 expression in mutants affecting the generation, differentiation or maintenance of the touch neurons. Decreased expression was observed in mutants of unc-86 and mec-3, genes that encode transcription factors essential for touch receptor neuron generation and differentiation, respectively. Images

Hamelin, M; Scott, I M; Way, J C; Culotti, J G



Feasibility of using papaya skin extract for digestion of swamp eel viscera for harvesting infective stage larva of Gnathostoma spp.  


In this study, we reported the feasibility of using papaya skin extract (Carica papaya L.) as an alternative to enzyme pepsin in harvesting Gnathostoma spinigerum third-stage larvae. From experimental digestion, we found that the different numbers of recovered larvae between papaya skin extract and pepsin were not statistically significant (p >0.05). When the derived larvae from pepsin and papaya skin extract digestion were cultivated in BME medium for 7 days, the survival rates were not significantly different either (p >0.05). Thus, papaya skin extract might be another choice for recovering Gnathostoma spinigerum third-stage larvae. PMID:16438187

Soogarun, Suphan; Lertlum, Thamaporn; Suwansaksri, Jamsai; Wiwanitkit, Viroj



The relative timing of active and passive touch.  


Tactile stimulation usually occurs as a combination of an active movement (reaching out to touch a surface) and a sensation (actually feeling the surface against the skin). The brain has information about the active component (the motor command) before it occurs because of efference copy, while the passive component must be transduced before it can be processed. Since the active and passive tactile components are available to the brain at different times, determining the time of touch requires calculation worked backwards from the passive sensation, and/or worked forward from the active motor command. In order to determine which touch process is perceived more quickly, we varied the relative delay between an active and a passive touch signal and determined the relative time perceived as simultaneous. A passive touch needed to be presented before an active key was pressed in order for the two touches to be perceived as simultaneous, but this timing difference was not significant. In order to test the plasticity of the active and passive touch systems, we exploited the fact that the point of subjective simultaneity between two stimuli can sometimes be altered by repeated exposure to asynchronous presentation. We exposed subjects to an active key press/ passive touch pair delayed by 250 ms. This exposure increased the range of relative delays between active and passive touches at which the pairs were judged as simultaneous. This is consistent with an adaptive change in the processing of active touch. PMID:18634764

Winter, Rebecca; Harrar, Vanessa; Gozdzik, Marta; Harris, Laurence R



Preservation of hermaphrodite and female papaya fruits (Carica papaya L?., Cv Sunrise, Solo group) by freezing: physical, physico-chemical and sensorial aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical, physico-chemical and sensorial changes that occur during the freezing and frozen storage of hermaphrodite and\\u000a female papaya slices (Carica papaya L., cv Sunrise, Solo group) were studied. Samples were evaluated by panellists throughout a 1-year period of storage at –24°C;\\u000a the panellists described the fruit in terms of physico-chemical measurements of texture (firnmess and total pectins content),\\u000a colour

M. Gloria Lobo; M. Pilar Cano



The role of touch in facilitated communication.  


Imagine that one day a nonverbal autistic child suddenly starts to type messages, such as "I am not retarded," using a computer keyboard while being touched by an assistant. Facilitated communication (FC) appears to create this miracle around the world. To understand how this works, experiments were conducted involving a "telepathy game" using a rod with an attached strain gauge. A force from the assistant, which controlled what was spelled through physical support, was measured. It was thus completely possible for any message to appear to be typed with FC regardless of the autistic child's actual knowledge or language ability. PMID:9403373

Kezuka, E



Helping Hands: Designing Video Games with Interpersonal Touch Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Increasingly, the movements of players’ physical bodies are being used as a method of controlling and playing video games.\\u000a This trend is evidenced by the recent development of interpersonal touch-based games; multiplayer games which players control\\u000a by physically touching their partners. Although a small number of interpersonal touch-based games have recently been designed,\\u000a the best practices for creating video games

Cody Watts; Ehud Sharlin; Peter Woytiuk



Midas: a declarative multi-touch interaction framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years, multi-touch user interfaces emerged from research prototypes into mass market products. This evolution has been mainly driven by innovative devices such as Apple's iPhone or Microsoft's Surface tabletop computer. Unfortunately, there seems to be a lack of software engineering abstractions in existing multi-touch development frameworks. Many multi-touch applications are based on hard-coded procedural low level

Christophe Scholliers; Lode Hoste; Beat Signer; Wolfgang De Meuter



Ambient touch: designing tactile interfaces for handheld devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the sense of touch as a channel for communicating with miniature handheld devices. We embedded a PDA with a TouchEngineTM --- a thin, miniature lower-power tactile actuator that we have designed specifically to use in mobile interfaces (Figure 1). Unlike previous tactile actuators, the TouchEngine is a universal tactile display that can produce a wide variety of

Ivan Poupyrev; Shigeaki Maruyama; Jun Rekimoto



AirTouch: Interacting with computer systems at a distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present AirTouch, a new vision-based interaction system. AirTouch uses computer vision techniques to extend commonly used interaction metaphors, such as multitouch screens, yet removes any need to physically touch the display. The user interacts with a virtual plane that rests in between the user and the display. On this plane, hands and fingers are tracked and gestures are recognized

Daniel R. Schlegel; Albert Y. C. Chen; Caiming Xiong; Jeffrey A. Delmerico; Jason J. Corso



Multi-touch Table as Conventional Input Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In order to improve the functionality of multi-touch devices, the possibility of using them as input devices for other computers\\u000a needs to be reviewed. The idea is, to get rid of many different peripherals (e.g. keyboard, mouse, multi-touch pad) by using\\u000a a single multi-touch display. Furthermore the display can be used as an additional monitor to show for example toolbars,

Andreas Dippon; Florian Echtler; Gudrun Klinker


Interaction Design for Multi-touch Interactive Walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent times, following the increasing affordability of large-scale display and multi-touch technologies, the market has seen the development and increasing deployment of multi-touch interactive walls. This new medium offers a unique mix of information density, direct interactivity, and collaboration support, and these new features have radical effects on the interaction design for the multi-touch wall device. Designers and developers

Wang Chen; Song-Yang Lao; Hyowon Lee; Alan F. Smeaton



Contrasting patterns of X/Y polymorphism distinguish Carica papaya from other sex chromosome systems.  


The sex chromosomes of the tropical crop papaya (Carica papaya) are evolutionarily young and consequently allow for the examination of evolutionary mechanisms that drive early sex chromosome divergence. We conducted a molecular population genetic analysis of four X/Y gene pairs from a collection of 45 wild papaya accessions. These population genetic analyses reveal striking differences in the patterns of polymorphism between the X and Y chromosomes that distinguish them from other sex chromosome systems. In most sex chromosome systems, the Y chromosome displays significantly reduced polymorphism levels, whereas the X chromosome maintains a level of polymorphism that is comparable to autosomal loci. However, the four papaya sex-linked loci that we examined display diversity patterns that are opposite this trend: the papaya X alleles exhibit significantly reduced polymorphism levels, whereas the papaya Y alleles maintain greater than expected levels of diversity. Our analyses suggest that selective sweeps in the regions of the X have contributed to this pattern while also revealing geographically restricted haplogroups on the Y. We discuss the possible role sexual selection and/or genomic conflict have played in shaping the contrasting patterns of polymorphism found for the papaya X and Y chromosomes. PMID:22855536

Weingartner, Laura A; Moore, Richard C



Is There Touch in the Game of Twister ® ? The Effects of Innocuous Touch and Suggestive Questions on Children's Eyewitness Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preschool children (ages 48–70 months, N = 48) experienced 2 to-be-remembered events (i.e., the games Twister® and Shapes) that included either innocuous bodily touch or no touch. Participants were interviewed 7 days later and asked direct (“Did Amy kiss you?”) or suggestive “tag” questions (“Amy kissed you, didn't she?”) equated for content. Results indicated that children who were innocuously touched

Elisa Krackow; Steven Jay Lynn



Mirror-touch synaesthesia changes representations of self-identity  

PubMed Central

Individuals with Mirror-Touch Synaesthesia (MTS) experience touch on their own bodies when observing another person being touched. Whilst somatosensory processing in MTS has been extensively investigated, the extent to which the remapping of observed touch on the synaesthete’s body can also lead to changes in the mental representation of the self remains unknown. We adapted the experimental paradigm of the ‘Enfacement Illusion’ to quantify the changes in self-face recognition as a result of synaesthetic touch. MTS and control participants observed the face of an unfamiliar person being touched or not, without delivering touch on the participant’s face. Changes in self-representation were quantified with a self-face recognition task, using ‘morphed’ images containing varying proportions of the participant’s face and the face of the unfamiliar other. This task was administered before and after the exposure to the other face. While self-recognition performance for both groups was similar during pre-test, MTS individuals showed a significant change in self-recognition performance following the observation of touch delivered to the other face. Specifically, the images that participants had initially perceived as containing equal quantities of self and other became more likely to be recognised as the self after viewing the other being touched. These results suggest that observing touch on others not only elicits a conscious experience of touch in MTS, but also elicits a change in the mental representation of the self, blurring self-other boundaries. This is consistent with a multisensory account of the self, whereby integrated multisensory experiences maintain or update self-representations.

Maister, Lara; Banissy, Michael J; Tsakiris, Manos



The neural circuits and sensory channels mediating harsh touch sensation in Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most animals can distinguish two distinct types of touch stimuli: gentle (innocuous) and harsh (noxious\\/painful) touch, however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Caenorhabditis elegans is a useful model for the study of gentle touch sensation. However, little is known about harsh touch sensation in this organism. Here we characterize harsh touch sensation in C. elegans. We show that

Wei Li; Lijun Kang; Beverly J. Piggott; Zhaoyang Feng; X. Z. Shawn Xu



The importance of touch in development  

PubMed Central

Developmental delay is common in children deprived of normal sensory stimulation – for example, in premature neonates and some institutionalized children. Touch has emerged as an important modality for the facilitation of growth and development; positive effects of supplemental mechanosensory stimulation have been demonstrated in a wide range of organisms, from worm larvae to rat pups to human infants. Animal models are being used to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. In rats, the amount of maternal licking received as a pup has a profound impact on the behaviour and physiology of the adult; in the microscopic roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, physical interactions with other worms promote growth and increase adult responsiveness to mechanosensory stimuli. By understanding the underlying mechanisms, as well as the timing and degree of stimulation required to fully reverse the effects of early childhood deprivation, strategies can be developed to best help those in need.

Ardiel, Evan L; Rankin, Catharine H



Sports Coaching in Risk Society: No Touch! No Trust!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper is informed by a UK based Economic and Social Research Council funded research project which developed and deployed a case-study approach to issues of touch between children and professionals in schools and childcare. Outcomes from these settings are referred to, but the focus here is shifted to touch in sports coaching and its…

Piper, Heather; Taylor, Bill; Garratt, Dean



A Simple 2-Transistor Touch or Lick Detector Circuit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contact or touch detectors in which a subject acts as a switch between two metal surfaces have proven more popular and arguably more useful for recording responses than capacitance switches, photocell detectors, and force detectors. Components for touch detectors circuits are inexpensive and, except for some special purpose designs, can be easily…

Slotnick, Burton



Noninformative vision improves the spatial resolution of touch in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on sensory perception now often considers more than one sense at a time. This approach reflects real-world situations, such as when a visible object touches us. Indeed, vision and touch show great interdependence: the sight of a body part can reduce tactile target detection times [1], visual and tactile attentional systems are spatially linked [2], and the texture of

Steffan Kennett; Marisa Taylor-Clarke; Patrick Haggard



Hand occlusion on a multi-touch tabletop  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the shape of hand and forearm occlusion on a multi-touch table for different touch contact types and tasks. Individuals have characteristic occlusion shapes, but with commonalities across tasks, postures, and handedness. Based on this, we create templates for designers to justify occlusion-related decisions and we propose geometric models capturing the shape of occlusion. A model using diffused illumination

Daniel Vogel; Géry Casiez



A Comparison of Injuries between Flag and Touch Football.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was designed to determine whether fewer and less serious injuries result from participation in touch football as compared with flag football. A survey was taken of 30 flag football games and 30 touch football games and the incidence of injuries was recorded on a checklist. Results of the survey suggest the following: (a) intramural or…

Martin, Stephen L.


Effect of robot's active touch on people's motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the effect of a robot's active touch for improving people's motivation. For services in the education and healthcare fields, a robot might be useful for improving the motivation of performing such repetitive and monotonous tasks as exercising or taking medicine. Previous research demonstrated with a robot the effect of user touch on improving its impressions, but they

Kayako Nakagawa; Masahiro Shiomi; Kazuhiko Shinozawa; Reo Matsumura; Hiroshi Ishiguro; Norihiro Hagita



Sports Coaching in Risk Society: No Touch! No Trust!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is informed by a UK based Economic and Social Research Council funded research project which developed and deployed a case-study approach to issues of touch between children and professionals in schools and childcare. Outcomes from these settings are referred to, but the focus here is shifted to touch in sports coaching and its…

Piper, Heather; Taylor, Bill; Garratt, Dean



Sports coaching in risk society: No touch! No trust!  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is informed by a UK based Economic and Social Research Council funded research project which developed and deployed a case-study approach to issues of touch between children and professionals in schools and childcare. Outcomes from these settings are referred to, but the focus here is shifted to touch in sports coaching and its distinctive contextual and institutional characteristics.

Heather Piper; Bill Taylor; Dean Garratt



Sports coaching in risk society: No touch! No trust!  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is informed by a UK based Economic and Social Research Council funded research project which developed and deployed a case-study approach to issues of touch between children and professionals in schools and childcare. Outcomes from these settings are referred to, but the focus here is shifted to touch in sports coaching and its distinctive contextual and institutional characteristics.

Heather Piper; Bill Taylor; Dean Garratt



Nonverbal Communication in Classroom Interactions: A Pedagogical Perspective of Touch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper begins by exploring touch as "tactile perception" dimension, which means what human hands could achieve, especially considering the important role of skin receptors. The author moves forward to a description of children's necessity for contact as well as to their touch disorders. Following descriptions further clarify these items in…

Stamatis, Panagiotis J.



Understanding and Creating Accessible Touch Screen Interactions for Blind People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using touch screens presents a number of usability and accessibility challenges for blind people. Most touch screen-based user interfaces are optimized for visual interaction, and are therefore difficult or impossible to use without vision. This dissertation presents an approach to redesigning gesture-based user interfaces to enable blind people…

Kane, Shaun K.



Touch Sensor Assembly Using Infrared Radiations and its Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses about a novel technology for introducing a touch sensor that can be applied for numerous applications, using optoelectronics. The sensor employed harnesses the attributes of an Infrared LED and an infrared photodiode. The routine touch sensor buttons can be replaced by this cost effective assembly that uses variation in amount of infrared radiations falling upon the photodiode

V. Rana; N. Paliwal; A. Chahar



Direct-touch vs. mouse input for tabletop displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the differences - in terms of both quantitative performance and subjective pref- erence - between direct-touch and mouse input for unimanual and bimanual tasks on tabletop displays. The results of two experiments show that for bimanual tasks performed on tabletops, users benefit from direct-touch input. However, our results also indicate that mouse input may be more appropriate for

Clifton Forlines; Daniel Wigdor; Chia Shen; Ravin Balakrishnan



Households Touched by Crime, 1987. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For the year 1987, 24.4 % of American households were touched by crime. A household is considered touched by crime if during the year it was affected by a burglarly, auto theft, or household theft or if a household member was raped, robbed, or assaulted or was a victim of personal theft, no matter where the crime occurred. These offenses, which…

Rand, Michael R.; And Others


Safe touch temperatures for hot plates.  


A finite difference heat transfer model has been developed to predict the Safe Touch Temperatures (STT) for plates made of different materials. SST can be defined as the highest temperature at which no pain is felt when the surface is touched for a long enough period to allow safe handling of the equipment. The criterion used to quantify damage is the "damage function" that was originally proposed by Henriques and Moritz. There are several uncertainties present in the physiological and thermal properties of the skin that give rise to a solution range rather than a single solution. Certain simplifying assumptions are made that tend to yield solutions for STT that are toward the lower or "safe" end of the solution range. The model developed is a two-dimensional axisymmetric model in cylindrical coordinates. A finite difference scheme that uses the Alternating Direction Implicit method is used to solve the problem. It is a second-order scheme in both space and time domains. A parametric analysis of the model is performed to isolate those factors that affect the STT to the greatest extent. Data are presented for a variety of cases, which cover commonly observed ranges in material and geometric properties. It is found that the material properties, namely thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity, and the plate thickness ratio are the three most important parameters. These three parameters account for a range of STT from 56 degrees C-100 degrees C with thick metals at the low end and thin metals and plastics in the high range. This method represents a significant improvement over existing standard practices. PMID:10412456

Subramanian, B; Chato, J C



The DEG/ENaC protein MEC-10 regulates the transduction channel complex in Caenorhabditis elegans touch receptor neurons.  


Gentle touch sensation in Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by the MEC-4/MEC-10 channel complex, which is expressed exclusively in six touch receptor neurons (TRNs). The complex contains two pore-forming subunits, MEC-4 and MEC-10, as well as the accessory subunits MEC-2, MEC-6, and UNC-24. MEC-4 is essential for channel function, but beyond its role as a pore-forming subunit, the functional contribution of MEC-10 to the channel complex and to touch sensation is unclear. We addressed this question using behavioral assays, in vivo electrophysiological recordings from TRNs, and heterologous expression of mutant MEC-10 isoforms. Animals with a deletion in mec-10 showed only a partial loss of touch sensitivity and a modest decrease in the size of the mechanoreceptor current (MRC). In contrast, five previously identified mec-10 alleles acted as recessive gain-of-function alleles that resulted in complete touch insensitivity. Each of these alleles produced a substantial decrease in MRC size and a shift in the reversal potential in vivo. The latter finding indicates that these mec-10 mutations alter the ionic selectivity of the transduction channel in vivo. All mec-10 mutant animals had properly localized channel complexes, indicating that the loss of MRCs was not attributable to a dramatic mislocalization of transduction channels. Finally, electrophysiological examination of heterologously expressed complexes suggests that mutant MEC-10 proteins may affect channel current via MEC-2. PMID:21880930

Arnadóttir, Jóhanna; O'Hagan, Robert; Chen, Yushu; Goodman, Miriam B; Chalfie, Martin



The DEG/ENaC Protein MEC-10 Regulates The Transduction Channel Complex in C. elegans Touch Receptor Neurons  

PubMed Central

Gentle touch sensation in Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by the MEC-4/MEC-10 channel complex, which is expressed exclusively in six touch receptor neurons (TRNs). The complex contains two pore-forming subunits, MEC-4 and MEC-10, as well as the accessory subunits MEC-2, MEC-6 and UNC-24. MEC-4 is essential for channel function, but beyond its role as a pore-forming subunit, the functional contribution of MEC-10 to the channel complex and to touch sensation is unclear. We addressed this question using behavioral assays, in vivo electrophysiological recordings from TRNs, and heterologous expression of mutant MEC-10 isoforms. Animals with a deletion in mec-10 showed only a partial loss of touch sensitivity and a modest decrease in the size of the mechanoreceptor current (MRC). In contrast, five previously identified mec-10 alleles acted as recessive gain-of-function alleles that resulted in complete touch insensitivity. Each of these alleles produced a substantial decrease in MRC size and a shift in the reversal potential in vivo. The latter finding indicates that these mec-10 mutations alter the ionic selectivity of the transduction channel in vivo. All mec-10 mutant animals had properly localized channel complexes, indicating that the loss of MRCs was not due to a dramatic mislocalization of transduction channels. Finally, electrophysiological examination of heterologously expressed complexes suggests that mutant MEC-10 proteins may affect channel current via MEC-2.

Arnadottir, Johanna; O'Hagan, Robert; Chen, Yushu; Goodman, Miriam B.; Chalfie, Martin



Cyanogenic allosides and glucosides from Passiflora edulis and Carica papaya.  


Leaf and stem material of Passiflora edulis (Passifloraceae) contains the new cyanogenic glycosides (2R)-beta-D-allopyranosyloxy-2-phenylacetonitrile (1a) and (2S)-beta-D-allopyranosyloxy-2-phenylacetonitrile (1b), along with smaller amounts of (2R)-prunasin (2a), sambunigrin (2b), and the alloside of benzyl alcohol (4); the major cyanogens of the fruits are (2R)-prunasin (2a) and (2S)-sambunigrin (2b). The major cyanogenic glycoside of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) is 2a; only small amounts of 2b also are present. We were not able to confirm the presence of a cyclopentenoid cyanogenic glycoside, tetraphyllin B, in Carica papaya leaf and stem materials. In detailed 1H NMR studies of 1a/b and 2a/b, differences in higher order effects in glucosides and allosides proved to be valuable for assignment of structures in this series. The diagnostic chemical shifts of cyanogenic methine and anomeric protons in 1a/b are sensitive to anisotropic environmental effects. The assignment of C-2 stereochemistry of 1a/b was made in analogy to previous assignments in the glucoside series and was supported by GLC analysis of the TMS ethers. PMID:12150815

Seigler, David S; Pauli, Guido F; Nahrstedt, Adolf; Leen, Rosemary



Touching character segmentation method for Chinese historical documents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OCR technology for Chinese historical documents is still an open problem. As these documents are hand-written or hand-carved in various styles, overlapped and touching characters bring great difficulty for character segmentation module. This paper presents an over-segmentation-based method to handle the overlapped and touching Chinese characters in historic documents. The whole segmentation process includes two parts: over-segmented and segmenting path optimization. In the former part, touching strokes will be found and segmented by analyzing the geometric information of the white and black connected components. The segmentation cost of the touching strokes is estimated with connected components' shape and location, as well as the touching stroke width. The latter part uses local optimization dynamic programming to find best segmenting path. HMM is used to express the multiple choices of segmenting paths, and Viterbi algorithm is used to search local optimal solution. Experimental results on practical Chinese documents show the proposed method is effective.

Sun, Xiaolu; Peng, Liangrui; Ding, Xiaoqing



Genetic interactions affecting touch sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed Central

At least 13 genes (mec-1, mec-2, mec-4-10, mec-12, mec-14, mec-15, and mec-18) are needed for the response to gentle touch by 6 touch receptor neurons in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Several, otherwise recessive alleles of some of these genes act as dominant enhancer mutations of temperature-sensitive alleles of mec-4, mec-5, mec-6, mec-12, and mec-15. Screens for additional dominant enhancers of mec-4 and mec-5 yielded mutations in previously known genes. In addition, some mec-7 alleles showed allele-specific, dominant suppression of the mec-15 touch-insensitive (Mec) phenotype. The dominant enhancement and suppression exhibited by these mutations suggest that the products of several touch genes interact. These results are consistent with a model, supported by the known sequences of these genes, that almost all of the touch function genes contribute to the mechanosensory apparatus.

Gu, G; Caldwell, G A; Chalfie, M



Neural coding during active somatosensation revealed using illusory touch.  


Active sensation requires the convergence of external stimuli with representations of body movements. We used mouse behavior, electrophysiology and optogenetics to dissect the temporal interactions among whisker movement, neural activity and sensation of touch. We photostimulated layer 4 activity in single barrels in a closed loop with whisking. Mimicking touch-related neural activity caused illusory perception of an object at a particular location, but scrambling the timing of the spikes over one whisking cycle (tens of milliseconds) did not abolish the illusion, indicating that knowledge of instantaneous whisker position is unnecessary for discriminating object locations. The illusions were induced only during bouts of directed whisking, when mice expected touch, and in the relevant barrel. Reducing activity biased behavior, consistent with a spike count code for object detection at a particular location. Our results show that mice integrate coding of touch with movement over timescales of a whisking bout to produce perception of active touch. PMID:23727820

O'Connor, Daniel H; Hires, S Andrew; Guo, Zengcai V; Li, Nuo; Yu, Jianing; Sun, Qian-Quan; Huber, Daniel; Svoboda, Karel



Touch to Play -- Exploring Touch-Based Mobile Interaction with Public Displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile interactions with public displays are often indirect and not very convenient for multiple users at the same time. In this paper we use the physical, touch-based interaction with Near Field Communication (NFC) to investigate direct mobile interactions with public displays for multiple users. For that purpose, we adopt the Whack-a-Mole game for dynamic NFC-displays, which combine the physical interaction

Gregor Broll; Roman Graebsch; Maximilian Scherr; Sebastian Boring; Paul Holleis; Matthias Wagner



Perception of 3-D location based on vision, touch, and extended touch.  


Perception of the near environment gives rise to spatial images in working memory that continue to represent the spatial layout even after cessation of sensory input. As the observer moves, these spatial images are continuously updated. This research is concerned with (1) whether spatial images of targets are formed when they are sensed using extended touch (i.e., using a probe to extend the reach of the arm) and (2) the accuracy with which such targets are perceived. In Experiment 1, participants perceived the 3-D locations of individual targets from a fixed origin and were then tested with an updating task involving blindfolded walking followed by placement of the hand at the remembered target location. Twenty-four target locations, representing all combinations of two distances, two heights, and six azimuths, were perceived by vision or by blindfolded exploration with the bare hand, a 1-m probe, or a 2-m probe. Systematic errors in azimuth were observed for all targets, reflecting errors in representing the target locations and updating. Overall, updating after visual perception was best, but the quantitative differences between conditions were small. Experiment 2 demonstrated that auditory information signifying contact with the target was not a factor. Overall, the results indicate that 3-D spatial images can be formed of targets sensed by extended touch and that perception by extended touch, even out to 1.75 m, is surprisingly accurate. PMID:23070234

Giudice, Nicholas A; Klatzky, Roberta L; Bennett, Christopher R; Loomis, Jack M



Industrial Hygiene Report, Walk-Through Survey, Papaya Packing/Shipping Facilities, Hilo, Hawaii, July 1983,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Worker exposure to ethylene-dibromide (EDB) was investigated at three papaya packing and shipping facilities (SIC-0723) in Hilo, Hawaii. Breathing zone samples were collected in the three facilities over a three day period. Blind spikes were submitted as ...

D. Clapp



Industrial Hygiene In-Depth Survey Report, Papaya Packing/Shipping Facilities, Hilo, Hawaii.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An industrial hygiene survey was conducted at the Papaya Packing/Shipping facilities (SIC-4581), Hilo, Hawaii to investigate worker exposure to ethylene-dibromide (106934)(EDB) used for pest control in fruit packing plants.

D. E. Clapp



Is there touch in the game of Twister? The effects of innocuous touch and suggestive questions on children's eyewitness memory.  


Preschool children (ages 48-70 months, N = 48) experienced 2 to-be-remembered events (i.e., the games Twister and Shapes) that included either innocuous bodily touch or no touch. Participants were interviewed 7 days later and asked direct ("Did Amy kiss you?") or suggestive "tag" questions ("Amy kissed you, didn't she?") equated for content. Results indicated that children who were innocuously touched were no more likely to falsely assent to "abuse-related" touch questions (e.g., "Amy touched your bottom, didn't she?") than were children who were not touched. However, children who were asked tag questions responded at chance levels, thereby making high errors of commission in response to abuse-touch questions relative to their no-tag counterparts who responded to "abuse questions" accurately 93% of the time. Children who were asked tag questions assented at a higher rate to general forensic questions ("Amy took your picture, didn't she?") than did children asked direct questions, and children assented at higher rates to "abuse-touch" questions than to general forensic questions. Results are discussed in terms of prior research on interviewing techniques and adult influence on children's testimony. PMID:14724958

Krackow, Elisa; Lynn, Steven Jay



‘Kiss, Cuddle, Squeeze’: The Experiences and Meaning of Touch among Parents of Children with Autism Attending a Touch Therapy Programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences and meaning of touch between parents and children with autism before and after attending a Touch Therapy Programme. The sample comprised 12 parents (1 father and 11 mothers) of children (1 female and 11 male) with autism. Parents were interviewed before and immediately after the 8-week programme. Pre-programme results

Lesley Cullen; Julie Barlow



Effect of ethylene and culture environment on development of papaya nodal cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) nodal cultures modified the atmosphere of the headspace of the vessel used for culture maintenance\\u000a by producing ethylene. Under culture maintenance nodal cultures grew poorly and leaves senesced. Incubating nodal cultures\\u000a under a range of ethylene concentrations suggested that this poor performance was caused in part, by the production of ethylene\\u000a and its accumulation in the

Pablito M. Magdalita; Ian D. Godwin; Roderick a. Drew; Stephen W. Adkins



Development and application of microsatellite markers for genomic analysis of papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya has a relatively small genome, displays high levels of phenotypic diversity, and is amenable to transformation, making\\u000a it attractive as a fruit tree model system. The high level of phenotypic diversity seen among papaya cultivars in the field\\u000a does not correlate with the low levels of genotypic polymorphism thus far elucidated. The highly mutable nature of microsatellites\\u000a or simple

Moriah Eustice; Qingyi Yu; Chun Wan Lai; Shaobin Hou; Jyothi Thimmapuram; Lei Liu; Maqsudul Alam; Paul H. Moore; Gernot G. Presting; Ray Ming



Effect of ammonium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate on anthracnose of papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is the causal organism of anthracnose inCarica papaya L. (papaya, papaw). The effect of ammonium carbonate (3%) or sodium bicarbonate (2%) in aqueous solution or when incorporated\\u000a into a wax formulation on anthracnose severity in inoculated or naturally infected fruits was examined. Both salts had significant\\u000a effects, but that of ammonium carbonate was greater than that of sodium

D. Sivakumar; N. K. Hewarathgamagae; R. S. Wilson Wijeratnam; R. L. C. Wijesundera



Regeneration of transgenic papaya plants via somatic embryogenesis induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

AnAgrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated procedure for transformation of papaya (Carica papaya) was developed. Transgenic plants were obtained from somatic embryos that spontaneously formed at the base of transformed\\u000a roots, induced from leaf discs infected withA. rhizogenes. Transformation was monitored by autonomous growth of roots and somatic embryos, resistance to kanamycin, ?-glucuronidase\\u000a activity (GUS), and Southern hybridization analysis. Over one-third of the infected

José Luis Cabrera-Ponce; Ariadne Vegas-Garcia; Luis Herrera-Estrella



Genetic analysis of an attenuated Papaya ringspot virus strain applied for cross-protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) HA 5-1, a nitrous acid-induced mild mutant of severe strain HA, widely applied for control of PRSV by cross-protection,\\u000a was used to study the genetic basis of attenuation. Using infectious clones, a series of recombinants was generated between\\u000a HA 5-1 and HA and their infectivity was analyzed on the systemic host papaya and the local lesion

Chu-Hui Chiang; Chun-Yee Lee; Ching-Hsien Wang; Fuh-Jyh Jan; Shih-Shun Lin; Tsung-Chi Chen; Joseph A. J. Raja; Shyi-Dong Yeh



Characterization of Insertion Sites in Rainbow Papaya, the First Commercialized Transgenic Fruit Crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inserts and insert sites in transgenic, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV)-resistant commercial papaya Rainbow and SunUp, were characterized\\u000a as part of a petition to Japan to allow import of fresh fruit of these cultivars from the U.S. and to provide data for a larger\\u000a study aimed at understanding the global impact of DNA transformation on whole genome structure. The number and

Jon Y. Suzuki; Savarni Tripathi; Gustavo A. Fermín; Fuh-Jyh Jan; Shaobin Hou; Jimmy H. Saw; Christine M. Ackerman; Qingyi Yu; Michael C. Schatz; Karen Y. Pitz; Marcela Yépes; Maureen M. M. Fitch; Richard M. Manshardt; Jerry L. Slightom; Stephen A. Ferreira; Steven L. Salzberg; Maqsudul Alam; Ray Ming; Paul H. Moore; Dennis Gonsalves



Removal and recovery of heavy metals from aqueous solution using papaya wood as a new biosorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya wood was evaluated as a new biosorbent of heavy metals. On contacting 10mgl?l copper(II), cadmium(II) and zinc(II) solutions with 5gl?1 papaya wood, during shake flask contact time of 60min, the respective metal removal was noted to be 97.8, 94.9 and 66.8%. Sorption was most efficient at pH 5. Metal ion biosorption increased as the ratio of metal solution to

Asma Saeed; M. Waheed Akhter; Muhammed Iqbal



Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain\\u000a bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic\\u000a solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest

Pedro Chávez-Quintal; Tania González-Flores; Ingrid Rodríguez-Buenfil; Santiago Gallegos-Tintoré



Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus  

PubMed Central

Background The cysteine proteinases in papaya latex have been shown to have potent anthelmintic properties in monogastric hosts such as rodents, pigs and humans, but this has not been demonstrated in ruminants. Methods In two experiments, sheep were infected concurrently with 5,000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 10,000 infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and were then treated with the supernatant from a suspension of papaya latex from day 28 to day 32 post-infection. Faecal egg counts were monitored from a week before treatment until the end of the experiment and worm burdens were assessed on day 35 post-infection. Results We found that the soluble fraction of papaya latex had a potent in vivo effect on the abomasal nematode H. contortus, but not on the small intestinal nematode T. colubriformis. This effect was dose-dependent and at tolerated levels of gavage with papaya latex (117 ?mol of active papaya latex supernatant for 4 days), the H. contortus worm burdens were reduced by 98%. Repeated treatment, daily for 4 days, was more effective than a single dose, but efficacy was not enhanced by concurrent treatment with the antacid cimetidine. Conclusions Our results provide support for the idea that cysteine proteinases derived from papaya latex may be developed into novel anthelmintics for the treatment of lumenal stages of gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep, particularly those parasitizing the abomasum.



Aging and Curvature Discrimination from Static and Dynamic Touch  

PubMed Central

Two experiments evaluated the ability of 30 older and younger adults to discriminate the curvature of simple object surfaces from static and dynamic touch. The ages of the older adults ranged from 66 to 85 years, while those of the younger adults ranged from 20 to 29 years. For each participant in both experiments, the minimum curvature magnitude needed to reliably discriminate between convex and concave surfaces was determined. In Experiment 1, participants used static touch to make their judgments of curvature, while dynamic touch was used in Experiment 2. When static touch was used to discriminate curvature, a large effect of age occurred (the thresholds were 0.67 & 1.11/m for the younger and older participants, respectively). However, when participants used dynamic touch, there was no significant difference between the ability of younger and older participants to discriminate curvature (the thresholds were 0.58 & 0.59/m for the younger and older participants, respectively). The results of the current study demonstrate that while older adults can accurately discriminate surface curvature from dynamic touch, they possess significant impairments for static touch.

Norman, J. Farley; Kappers, Astrid M. L.; Cheeseman, Jacob R.; Ronning, Cecilia; Thomason, Kelsey E.; Baxter, Michael W.; Calloway, Autum B.; Lamirande, Davora N.



Force and touch make video games 'serious' for dexterity rehabilitation.  


Computerized interfaces are able to represent 3D immersive simulations. Most of them make use of joystick, mouse, gloves, or grasp pressure transducers. Those have the drawback of 'filtering' the user interaction and/or de-locate the touch with respect to the visual stimulus. To overcome this we developed dexterity rehabilitation games on a novel touch interface that measures also force. The system allows dexterity training through 'direct' manipulation of virtual objects in 3D. Two dimensions via the touch screen, the third by the force channel. Tactile feedback is provided with a vibration device mounted on the screen back. PMID:22942045

Confalonieri, Michele; Guandalini, Giovanni; Da Lio, Mauro; De Cecco, Mariolino



The biobehavioral effects of gentle human touch on preterm infants.  


This study examined the physiological and behavioral effects of a gentle human touch nursing intervention on medically fragile preterm infants (27 to 32 weeks gestational age). The Roy adaptation model of nursing was the framework for the study. The results of this study suggest that the immediate and short-term effects of a gentle human touch nursing intervention were not aversive or stressful to preterm infants of 27 to 32 weeks gestational age; furthermore, the findings document several positive, beneficial behavioral effects of the intervention on preterm infants and indicate this type of touching may be appropriate for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:12593316

Modrcin-Talbott, Mary Anne; Harrison, Lynda Law; Groer, Maureen W; Younger, Mary Sue



Healing Touch and Fertility: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Fertility and conception have been a concern through the ages. This case report documents the use of healing touch (HT), a noninvasive energy-field therapy, with the intent to facilitate conception and a healthy pregnancy. After 18 months of being unsuccessful in conceiving, a 40-year-old female sought HT to enhance the possibility of conceiving naturally. She had normal menstrual cycles, and both she and her husband had normal fertility tests. The client conceived after several months of HT therapy, which also included stimulating reflexology points on the ankle designed to affect the uterus and ovaries and encouraging positive affirmations. HT therapy continued throughout a trouble-free pregnancy and during birth. The client gave birth to a healthy baby boy without the use of pain-relieving medications. Perinatal educators and other health-care practitioners who work with women having difficulty conceiving or experiencing difficult pregnancies may wish to consider recommending the use of HT and/or other complementary therapies with the goal of fostering more positive reproductive outcomes.

Kissinger, Jeanette; Kaczmarek, Lori



Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.



Selective cleavage of glycyl bonds by papaya proteinase IV.  


The specificity of papaya proteinase IV (PPIV) has been examined with small substrates and a protein. With both classes of substrate, the enzyme shows a marked selectivity for cleaving glycyl bonds. Boc-Ala-Ala-Gly-NHPhNO2 is a convenient substrate for routine assays that discriminate well against chymopapain, the most common contaminant of PPIV. Sixteen cleavage points in beta-trypsin were identified, of which 13 are glycyl bonds. Tentative suggestions are made as to the reasons for lack of cleavage of some other glycyl bonds. The structure of PPIV has been modelled on that of papain, and we suggest that the replacement of the highly conserved residues Gly-65 and Gly-23 by arginine and glutamic acid, respectively, can account for the specificity of PPIV. PMID:2404797

Buttle, D J; Ritonja, A; Pearl, L H; Turk, V; Barrett, A J



The effect of therapeutic touch on agitated behavior and cortisol in persons with Alzheimer's disease.  


Agitated behavior in persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) presents a challenge to current interventions. Recent developments in neuroendocrinology suggest that changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis alter the responses of persons with AD to stress. Given the deleterious effects of pharmacological interventions in this vulnerable population, it is essential to explore noninvasive treatments for their potential to decrease a hyperresponsiveness to stress and indirectly decrease detrimental cortisol levels. This within-subject, interrupted time-series study was conducted to test the efficacy of therapeutic touch on decreasing the frequency of agitated behavior and salivary and urine cortisol levels in persons with AD. Ten subjects who were 71 to 84 years old and resided in a special care unit were observed every 20 minutes for 10 hours a day, were monitored 24 hours a day for physical activity, and had samples for salivary and urine cortisol taken daily. The study occurred in 4 phases: 1) baseline (4 days), 2) treatment (therapeutic touch for 5 to 7 minutes 2 times a day for 3 days), 3) posttreatment (11 days), and 4) post- "wash-out" (3 days). An analysis of variance for repeated measures indicated a significant decrease in overall agitated behavior and in 2 specific behaviors, vocalization and pacing or walking, during treatment and posttreatment. A decreasing trend over time was notedfor salivary and urine cortisol. Although this study does not provide direct clinical evidence to support dysregulation in the HPA axis, it does suggest that environmental and behavioral interventions such as therapeutic touch have the potential to decrease vocalization and pacing, 2 prevalent behaviors, and may mitigate cortisol levels in persons with AD. PMID:12408216

Woods, Diana Lynn; Dimond, Margaret



Foraging on and consumption of two species of papaya pest mites, Tetranychus kanzawai and Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae), by Mallada basalis (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).  


Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Panonychus citri (McGregor) are two major acarine pests of the principal papaya variety in Taiwan, and they often co-occur in the same papaya screenhouses. This study measured prey acceptability, foraging schedule, short-term consumption rate, and handling time of larvae of a domesticated line of the green lacewing, Mallada basalis (Walker), in no-choice tests with different life stages of these two mite pests. After a period of prey deprivation, all three larval instars of M. basalis exhibited a high rate of acceptance of all life stages of both T. kanzawai and P. citri. In 2-h trials, second- and third-instar predators foraged actively most of the time, whereas first instars spent approximately 40% of the time at rest. Consumption increased and prey handling time decreased as predator life stage advanced and prey stage decreased. Third-instar lacewings consumed an average of 311.4 T. kanzawai eggs (handling time: 6.7 s/egg) and 68.2 adults (handling time: 58.8 s/adult), whereas first instars consumed 19.6 eggs (handling time: 23.6 s/egg) and 4.0 adults (handling time: 633.4 s/adult). M. basalis generally consumed more P. citri than T. kanzawai. Except for prey eggs, handling times of T. kanzawai were generally longer than those of P. citri by all M. basalis instars. Handling times were shorter, and consumption were greater, at the higher P. citri density than at the lower one, whereas there were generally no significant differences in prey acceptability and foraging time between those two densities. This study suggests that M. basalis larvae may have high potential for augmentative biological control of mites on papayas. PMID:19508780

Cheng, Ling Lan; Nechols, James R; Margolies, David C; Campbell, James F; Yang, Ping Shih; Chen, Chien Chung; Lu, Chiu Tung



Multi-Touch Interaction for Robot Command and Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In emergency response, gathering intelligence is still largely a manual process despite advances in mobile computing and multi-touch interaction. The labor-intensive nature of this process means that the information digested by personnel going into the fi...

M. J. Micire



Shortest path based splitting line finding for touching cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A shortest path based algorithm is proposed in this paper to find splitting lines for touching cells. Firstly, an initial splitting line is obtained through the distance transform of a marker image and the watershed algorithm. Then, the initial splitting line is separated into different line segments if necessary, and the start and end points of these line segments act as the start and end points of shortest path. Finally, the shortest path algorithm is used to find the splitting line between the start and end points, and the final result of touching cells splitting can be formed by the contour of the touching cells and the splitting lines. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is efficient for different types of touching cells.

Bai, Xiangzhi; Sun, Changming; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Fugen



New Implanted Defibrillator Works Well without Touching Heart  


New implanted defibrillator works well without touching heart American Heart Association Rapid Access Journal Report August 26, 2013 Study Highlights: A new type of defibrillator implanted under the skin can ...


Touch Computing: Simplifying Human to Environment Interaction through NFC Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work analyses the use of NFC technology to simplify the interactions of users with context- aware services offered by intelligent environments. Touch Computing is a novel explicit user interaction mechanism in which users accompanied by their NFC-enabled mobile devices request services from the environment by touching tags or other NFC-enabled devices. This paper describes the deployment of three NFC-aware

Diego López-de-Ipiña; Juan Ignacio Vazquez; Iker Jamardo


The pedagogic opportunities of touch-screen voting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch-screen systems have been used to count votes in a growing number of precincts across the United States. These controversial systems provide an opportunity for valuable classroom discussions both for service courses and courses for computer science majors.This paper begins with an overview of touch-screen voting systems in the United States. It describes ways to productively address this issue with

Mark Jones



ComTouch: design of a vibrotactile communication device  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the design of ComTouch, a device that augments remote voice communication with touch, by converting hand pressure into vibrational intensity between users in real-time. The goal of this work is to enrich inter-personal communication by complementing voice with a tactile channel. We present preliminary user studies performed on 24 people to observe possible uses of the tactile channel

Angela Chang; Sile O'Modhrain; Robert J. K. Jacob; Eric Gunther; Hiroshi Ishii



New Interfaces at the Touch of a Fingertip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch-screen technology has not been nearly so advanced but instead has been limited to a handful of narrow-use applications with limited functionality such as automated teller machines, gas pumps, museum displays, airline- ticket kiosks, and PDAs. No one is predicting that touch displays will soon replace the traditional keyboard-and-mouse interface for general-purpose computing. However, they are beginning to move into

Steven J. Vaughan-nichols



Touch-less palm print biometrics: Novel design and implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an innovative touch-less palm print recognition system. This project is motivated by the public’s demand for non-invasive and hygienic biometric technology. For various reasons, users are concerned about touching the biometric scanners. Therefore, we propose to use a low-resolution web camera to capture the user’s hand at a distance for recognition. The users do not

Michael Goh Kah Ong; Tee Connie; Andrew Beng Jin Teoh




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

BTH induces elevated hydrolytic enzyme activity, expression of two members of the PR1 gene family, and resistance to Phytophthora palmivora in papaya. Twenty five additional papaya genes showing elevated systematic expression three days after BTH treatment have now been identified by suppression su...


Production of Internal Yellowing Symptoms on Resistant and Susceptible Papaya Cultivars by Enterobacter cloacae at Varying Inoculum Concentrations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Internal yellowing (IY) is a bacterial disease of ripening papaya flesh caused by Enterobacter cloacae and characterized by yellow softening tissue. IY restricts food safety of value-added products like fresh or frozen papaya cubes. The incidence of E. cloacae presumably differs in resistant (R) a...


Analysis of Carica papaya Telomeres and Telomere-Associated Proteins: Insights into the Evolution of Telomere Maintenance in Brassicales  

PubMed Central

Telomeres are terminal regions of linear eukaryotic chromosomes that are critical for genome stability and continued cell proliferation. The draft assembly of the papaya genome provides an opportunity to analyze and compare the evolution of telomeric DNA sequence composition and telomere maintenance machinery in this and other organisms of the Brassicales Order, which includes Arabidopsis. Here we investigate telomere size and sequence variation at papaya chromosome ends. As with most other plant species, papaya telomeres consist of TTTAGGG repeats. However, in contrast to members of the closely related Brassicaceae family, telomeres in papaya are ~10-fold longer. Sequence analysis reveals that many centromereproximal telomere repeats in papaya harbor nucleotide substitutions and insertions of Gs and Ts. In contrast, we found very few N-to-C substitutions, and even fewer instances of nucleotide deletion, suggesting that a six-nucleotide telomere repeat is not well tolerated. The papaya genome encodes single-copy sequence homologues of several genes involved in telomere maintenance and chromosome end protection, including the Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT) and Protection Of Telomeres (POT1). Notably, unlike Arabidopsis, which encodes six Telomere Repeat binding Factor-like (TRFL) proteins that bind double-stranded telomere DNA, papaya appears to encode only two such proteins. Thus, the more streamlined genome of papaya will provide an excellent resource for comparative and functional analysis of telomeres in plants.

Shakirov, E. V.; Salzberg, S. L.; Alam, M.



Maternal inheritance of cytoplasmic organelles in intergeneric hybrids of Carica papaya L. and Vasconcellea spp. (Caricaceae Dumort., Brassicales)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mode of inheritance of chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA has been determined in intergeneric hybrids between C. papaya and four different Vasconcellea species by employing a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a PCR-amplified chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA region. Artificial F1 hybrids were produced between a female specimen of C. papaya and male specimens of either V. parviflora, V. goudotiana,

B. Van Droogenbroeck; I. Maertens; A. Haegeman; T. Kyndt; C. O’Brien; R. A. Drew; G. Gheysen



An Exploratory Study of Touch Zones in College Students on Two Campuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this exploratory study was to characterize college student beliefs about where it is acceptable to touch and be touched by other students in casual social interactions. Undergraduate students at a residential university (N = 242) and at a local community college (N = 200) completed the Touch Survey. The survey measures beliefs about touching in social interactions.

Mark Tomita


Legal and ethical issues of touch in dance\\/movement therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper includes a description of the use of touch in dance\\/movement therapy followed by a brief discussion of the social and emotional roles played by various forms of touch. The frequency of touch between patient and therapist is cited and the ethical issues, particularly concerning sexuality and the use of touch as power, are explored. Legal concerns include the

Carlotta Willis



Recombinant pro-regions from papain and papaya proteinase IV-are selective high affinity inhibitors of the mature papaya enzymes.  


Proteolytic enzymes require the presence of their pro-regions for correct folding. Of the four proteolytic enzymes from Carica papaya, papain and papaya proteinase IV (PPIV) have 68% sequence identity. We find that their pro-regions are even more similar, exhibiting 73.6% identity. cDNAs encoding the pro-regions of these two proteinases have been expressed in Escherichia coli independently from their mature enzymes. The recombinant pro-regions of papain and PPIV have been shown to be high affinity inhibitors of all four of the mature native papaya cysteine proteinases. Their inhibition constants are in the range 10(-6) - 10(-9) M. PPIV was inhibited two to three orders of magnitude less effectively than papain, chymopapain and caricain. The pro-region of PPIV, however, inhibited its own mature enzyme more effectively than did the pro-region of papain. Alignment of the sequences of the four papaya enzymes shows that there is a highly variable section towards the C-terminal of the pro-region. This region may therefore confer selectivity to the pro-regions for the individual proteolytic enzymes. PMID:7770454

Taylor, M A; Baker, K C; Briggs, G S; Connerton, I F; Cummings, N J; Pratt, K A; Revell, D F; Freedman, R B; Goodenough, P W



Performance and touch characteristics of disabled and non-disabled participants during a reciprocal tapping task using touch screen technology.  


Touch screens are becoming more prevalent in everyday environments. Therefore, it is important that this technology is accessible to those with varying disabilities. The objective of the current study was to evaluate performance and touch characteristics (forces, impulses, and dwell times) of individuals with and without a movement disorder during a reciprocal tapping touch screen task. Thirty-seven participants with a motor control disability and 15 non-disabled participants participated. Outcome measures include number of correct taps, dwell time, exerted force, and impulse. Results indicate non-disabled participants had 1.8 more taps than participants with fine motor control disabilities and 2.8 times more than those with gross motor impairments (p<0.05). Additionally, people with gross motor control disabilities demonstrated longer dwell times and greater impulses (p<0.05). The average force used to activate the buttons was 6.2 N, although the button activation force was 0.98 N. Differences in reciprocal tapping and touch characteristics exist between those with and without motor control disabilities. Understanding how people (including those with disabilities) interact with touch screens may allow designers and engineers to ultimately improve usability of touch screen technology. PMID:22483677

Irwin, Curt B; Sesto, Mary E



Effectiveness of dried Carica papaya seeds against human intestinal parasitosis: a pilot study.  


The tropical fruit Carica papaya and its seeds have proven antihelminthic and anti-amoebic activities. To determine the effectiveness of air-dried C. papaya seeds on human intestinal parasitosis, 60 asymptomatic Nigerian children with stool microscopic evidence of intestinal parasites received immediate doses (20 mL) of either an elixir composed with air-dried C. papaya seeds and honey (CPH) or honey alone (placebo) in two randomized treatment groups. Repeat stool microscopic examinations were conducted 7 days postintervention for intestinal parasites. Significantly more subjects given CPH elixir than those given honey had their stools cleared of parasites [23 of 30 (76.7%) vs. five of 30 (16.7%); z = 4.40, P = .0000109]. There were no harmful effects. The stool clearance rate for the various types of parasites encountered was between 71.4% and 100% following CPH elixir treatment compared with 0-15.4% with honey. Thus, air-dried C. papaya seeds are efficacious in treating human intestinal parasites and without significant side effects. Their consumption offers a cheap, natural, harmless, readily available monotherapy and preventive strategy against intestinal parasitosis, especially in tropical communities. Further and large-scale intervention studies to compare C. papaya with standard antiparasitic preparation are desirous. PMID:17472487

Okeniyi, John A O; Ogunlesi, Tinuade A; Oyelami, Oyeku A; Adeyemi, Lateef A



Typing on flat glass: examining ten-finger expert typing patterns on touch surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch screen surfaces large enough for ten-finger input have become increasingly popular, yet typing on touch screens pales in comparison to physical keyboards. We examine typing patterns that emerge when expert users of physical keyboards touch-type on a flat surface. Our aim is to inform future designs of touch screen keyboards, with the ultimate goal of supporting touch-typing with limited

Leah Findlater; Jacob O. Wobbrock; Daniel Wigdor



Three-dimensional touch interface for medical education.  


We present the technical principle and evaluation of a multimodal virtual reality (VR) system for medical education, called a touch simulator. This touch simulator comes with an innovative three-dimensional (3-D) touch sensitive input device. The device comprises a six-axis force-torque sensor connected to a tangible object representing the shape of an anatomical structure. Information related to the point of contact is recorded by the sensor, processed, and audiovisually displayed. The touch simulator provides a high level of user-friendliness and fidelity compared to other purely graphically oriented simulation environments. In this paper, the touch simulator has been realized as an interactive neuroanatomical training simulator. The user can visualize and manipulate graphical information of the brain surface or different cross-sectional slices by a finger-touch on a brain-like shaped tangible object. We evaluated the system by theoretical derivations, experiments, and subjective questionnaires. In the theoretical analysis, we could show that the contact point estimation error mainly depends on the accuracy and the noise of the sensor, the amount and direction of the applied force, and the geometry of the tangible object. The theoretical results could be validated by experiments: applying a normal force of 10 N on a 120 mm x 120 mm x 120 mm cube causes a maximum error of 2.5 +/- 0.7 mm. This error becomes smaller when increasing the contact force. Based on the survey results, the touch simulator may be a useful tool for assisting medical schools in the visualization of brain image data and the study of neuroanatomy. PMID:17521075

Panchaphongsaphak, Bundit; Burgkart, Rainer; Riener, Robert



Adapting deployed touch screen displays for NVG compatibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the battlefield becomes "digitized", all arms of the military are deploying COTS displays in the form of Portable Notebooks, Kneeboards, GPS and PDA's in ever greater numbers. Many of these COTS equipments and associated displays use full color LCD's and resistive touch panels as the operator-interface. These displays are a challenge to those who must modify the COTS equipment for NVG compatibility. Traditional NVG filter options have relatively poor color rendering and are too thick or rigid to interface with touch panels. In addition, many of these displays do not have sufficient dimming capabilities to allow covert night-time operations and do not have sufficient luminance for daytime operations. Polymeric materials recently developed by Wamco have been specifically designed for applications where traditional NVG filters have failed. These applications will be discussed and quantified in terms of NVG Compatibility, Color Rendering, Luminance Contrast and Daytime Readability, Touch Screen Sensitivity and Environmental Performance.

Gaudette, Claude



Papaya epicarp extract protects against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity.  


In a previous study, we demonstrated the ability of papaya epicarp extract (PEE) to protect against oxidative stress-induced insult in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells in a mechanism that appeared to be by means of PEE potent antioxidant properties. To further understand this relationship, we examined the effect of PEE intervention on aluminum (Al)-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. The results indicated that PEE was effective in protecting against Al-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. PEE restored the Al-induced inhibition of folate-dependent methionine synthase activity and the antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidases and superoxide dismutase). PEE ameliorated the Al-induced impairment of intracellular glutathione and total antioxidant capacity. Together, these findings indicate that PEE supplementation can play a neuroprotective role in ameliorating the changes in redox status of SH-SY5Y cells exposed to Al, a well-known environmental toxin that is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:22956622

Waly, Mostafa I; Guizani, Nejib; Ali, Amanat; Rahman, Mohammad Shafiur



Comparative seed ecophysiology of wild and cultivated Carica papaya trees from a tropical rain forest region in Mexico.  


To ascertain the effects of centuries of cultivation practices on seed behavior and dormancy mechanisms, we compared seed size and germination characteristics of wild and cultivated (domesticated) populations of Carica papaya L. Germination experiments were carried out under various conditions of temperature, light, seed soaking and gibberellic acid treatments. Wild papaya seeds showed responses to treatment that are characteristic of seeds of many rain forest pioneer trees. Seeds were small and light sensitive, whereas cultivated papaya seeds were 33% larger and their light responses as well as other physiological traits indicated that cultivation had resulted in a lessening in the importance of specific environmental conditions for dormancy breaking and germination. PMID:12651383

Paz, Leoncio; Vázquez-Yanes, Carlos



A touch of cooling may help.  


EXPANDED ABSTRACT: CITATION: Schortgen F, Clabault K, Katsahian S, Devaquet J, Mercat A, Deye N, Dellamonica J, Bouadma L, Cook F, Beji O, Brun-Buisson C, Lemaire F, Brochard L: Multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial of fever control by external cooling to diminish vasopressor requirements in septic shock. Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, France. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2012, 185:1088-1095. BACKGROUND: Fever control may improve vascular tone and decrease oxygen consumption; however, fever may help combat infection. METHODS: OBJECTIVE: To determine whether fever control by external cooling diminishes vasopressor requirements in septic shock. DESIGN: A multicenter randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Seven ICUs in France. SUBJECTS: Febrile patients with septic shock requiring vasopressors, mechanical ventilation, and sedation. INTERVENTION: Patients were randomly allocated to external cooling to achieve normothermia (36.5 to 37.8°C) for 48 hours. OUTCOMES: The primary outcome was the number of patients with a 50% decrease in baseline vasopressor dose after 48 hours. Secondary outcomes were the numbers of patients with a 50% baseline vasopressor dose decrease after 2, 12, 24, and 36 hours, the percentage of patients requiring a vasopressor dose increase within 48 hours of baseline, the percentage of patients with shock reversal in the ICU, the change in Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (?SOFA) versus baseline, and all-cause mortality on day 14 and at ICU and hospital discharge. RESULTS: There were 200 patients randomized, 101 to the cooling group and 99 to the no-cooling group. The percentage of patients with a 50% vasopressor dose decrease versus baseline was not significantly different at 48 hours of treatment (72% vs. 61%; absolute difference, 11%; 95% confidence interval (CI), -23 to 2; P = 0.4), although it was at 12 hours (54% vs. 20%; absolute difference, 34%; 95% CI, -46 to -21; P < 0.001). External cooling significantly reduced the number of patients needing a vasopressor dose increase (34% vs. 52%; absolute difference, -18%; 95% CI, -4 to -31%; P = 0.011) and significantly increased the shock reversal during the study period (86% vs. 73%; absolute difference, 13%; 95% CI, 2 to 25%; P = 0.021). Day 14 mortality was significantly lower in the cooling group (19% vs. 34%; absolute difference, -16%; 95% CI, -28 to -4; P = 0.013), but mortality was not different at ICU and hospital discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Fever control using external cooling was safe, and decreased vasopressor requirements and early mortality in septic shock. PMID:23470248

Zaaqoq, Akram M; Yende, Sachin



Courtship compliance: The effect of touch on women's behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown that light tactile contact increases compliance to a wide variety of requests. However, the effect of touch on compliance to a courtship request has never been studied. In this paper, three experiments were conducted in a courtship context. In the first experiment, a young male confederate in a nightclub asked young women to dance with him

Nicolas Guéguen



Human Figure Drawings and Children's Recall of Touching  

PubMed Central

In 2 studies, children ages 3 to 7 years were asked to recall a series of touches that occurred during a previous staged event. The recall interview took place 1 week after the event in Study 1 and immediately after the event in Study 2. Each recall interview had 2 sections: In 1 section, children were given human figure drawings (HFDs) and were asked to show where the touching took place; in the other section, the same questions were asked without the HFDs (verbal condition). Children were randomly assigned to 2 different conditions: HFD 1st/verbal 2nd or verbal 1st/HFD 2nd. There were 2 major findings. First, HFDs elicited more errors than the verbal condition when used to probe for information that the child had already been asked. Second, regardless of interview method, children had poor recall of the touches even when these occurred minutes before the interview. It is suggested that cognitive mechanisms involving memory and semantics underlie children’s poor recall of touching in both verbal and HFD conditions.

Bruck, Maggie



Infants & Toddlers: Development--The Power of Touch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When a baby is born, parents check for fingers and toes, and over the next few weeks remain alert to whether the baby can see and hear. When babies nurse well, parents are assured that the sense of taste and smell are fine. But what about touch? This crucial sense for babies is often overlooked. In this article, the author discusses how to ensure…

Honig, Alice Sterling



Music-touch shoes: vibrotactile interface for hearing impaired dancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hearing handicapped children show a penchant for dancing and dance plays an essential part in education of deaf children. This paper introduces the Music-touch Shoes, a pair of shoes particularly designed for hearing handicapped dancers: The rhythm and tempo of music can be communicated and perceived through the vibrotactile interaction. The vibrotactile interface is applied to shoes because feet

Lining Yao; Yan Shi; Hengfeng Chi; Xiaoyu Ji; Fangtian Ying



Capacitive touch sensing : signal and image processing algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capacitive touch sensors have been in use for many years, and recently gained center stage with the ubiquitous use in smart-phones. In this work we will analyze the most common method of projected capacitive sensing, that of absolute capacitive sensing, together with the most common sensing pattern, that of diamond-shaped sensors. After a brief introduction to the problem, and the

Zachi Baharav; Ramakrishna Kakarala



A Touch Screen Interface Design with Tactile Feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various information displays are becoming available for implementing new kinds of human computer interaction (HCI) methods. Touch screen devices become the most popular choice among many types and models. They have been used in wide range of applications and are proven to be a useful infrastructure for creating intuitive HCI. In spite of their popularity, there are some weak points.

Hiroaki Nishino; Ryotaro Goto; Tsuneo Kagawa; Kazuyuki Yoshida; Kouichi Utsumiya; Junji Hirooka; Toshihiko Osada; Nobuhiro Nagatomo; Eiji Aoki



All-I-Touch as Combination of NFC and Lifestyle  

Microsoft Academic Search

For this paper we developed the concept and implemented a fully working prototype of a snowboarder community platform based on Near Field Communication. All-I-Touch is a service which provides product information at the point of sale and additionally connects the user with his social community in Facebook. Through this combination it is possible to increase incentives for the end user

F. Kneissl; R. Rottger; U. Sandner; J. M. Leimeister; H. Krcmar



Touching Text Character Localization in Graphical Documents Using SIFT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interpretation of graphical document images is a challenging task as it requires proper understanding of text/graphics symbols present in such documents. Difficulties arise in graphical document recognition when text and symbol overlapped/touched. Intersection of text and symbols with graphical lines and curves occur frequently in graphical documents and hence separation of such symbols is very difficult.

Roy, Partha Pratim; Pal, Umapada; Lladós, Josep


High Touch in a High-Tech World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a world of high tech and low touch, it is easy for public relations programs to stray from tried-and-true interpersonal strategies long associated with solid communication planning. New technologies allow communications professionals to quickly send e-mails and telephone calls to selected groups. Social media sites provide users immediate…

Gibson, Cindy L.



Adult Communications with Infants through Touch: The Forgotten Sense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite unequivocal evidence for its importance, the study of touch as a communication channel remains one of the least researched areas in the infant interaction literature. Hertenstein’s lament (this issue) about the lack of research on tactile communication is in accord with a point we made 10 years ago [see Kisilevsky, Stack, and Muir, 1991]. The continued lack is surprising

Darwin W. Muir



Unicursal gesture interface for TV remote with touch screens  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new gesture interface based on unicursal figures for TV control via touch-screen personal devices. The interface is a powerful but simple way of accessing the multiple functions of modern TVs. Unicursal figures are made without lifting the thumb from the screen and sequences of commands can be issued without needing to confirm the thumb's position. Trial use

Ryosuke Aoki; Masayuki Ihara; Atsuhiko Maeda; Minoru Kobayashi; Shingo Kagami



Mobile music touch: mobile tactile stimulation for passive learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile Music Touch (MMT) helps teach users to play piano melodies while they perform other tasks. MMT is a lightweight, wireless haptic music instruction system consisting of fingerless gloves and a mobile Bluetooth enabled computing device, such as a mobile phone. Passages to be learned are loaded into the mobile phone and are played repeatedly while the user performs other

Kevin Huang; Thad Starner; Ellen Do; Gil Weinberg; Daniel Kohlsdorf; Claas Ahlrichs; Ruediger Leibrandt



Influence of imaging on touch imprint cytology of breast lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Touch imprint cytology (TIC) facilitates rapid diagnosis of breast diseases in women attending triple assessment clinics. Some pathologists, in our centre, feel that pathological interpretation of TIC slides is contentious when the lesions are radiologically indeterminate (R3), as these can lead to potentially higher false positive or false negative cytology results. We hypothesised that: ‘(R3) lesions are more likely

Vimal Raj; T. Sivashanmugam; S. Gupta; K. Clarkson; E. Denton; M. Al-Attar



An avionics touch screen-based control display concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many cockpits, control display units (CDUs) are vital input and information devices. In order to improve the usability of these devices, Barco, in cooperation with TU-Delft, created a touch screen control unit (TSCU), consisting of a high-quality multi-touch screen. The unit fits in the standard dimensions of a conventional CDU and is thus suitable for both retrofit and new installations. The TSCU offers two major advantages. First, the interface can be reconfigured to enable consecutive execution of several tasks on the same display area, allowing for a more efficient usage of the limited display real-estate as well as a potential reduction of cost. Secondly, advanced graphical interface design, in combination with multi-touch gestures, can improve human-machine interaction. To demonstrate the capabilities of this concept, a graphical software application was developed to perform the same operations as a conventional CDU, but now using a direct manipulation interface (DMI) of the displayed graphics. The TSCU can still be used in a legacy CDU mode, displaying a virtual keyboard operated with the touch interface. In addition, the TSCU could be used for a variety of other cockpit functions. The paper concludes with a report of pilot and non-pilot feedback.

Mertens, Michael; Damveld, Herman J.; Borst, Clark



High Touch in a High-Tech World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a world of high tech and low touch, it is easy for public relations programs to stray from tried-and-true interpersonal strategies long associated with solid communication planning. New technologies allow communications professionals to quickly send e-mails and telephone calls to selected groups. Social media sites provide users immediate…

Gibson, Cindy L.



Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators and Exciting Materials (MS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan, Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators, and Exciting Materials, middle school students learn that heating up a material can rearrange its atoms, and change its properties. The change in the material (a nitinol wire shortens due to heat) activates a lever that exerts force.




Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators and Exciting Materials (HS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan, Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators, and Exciting Materials, high school students learn that heating up a material can rearrange its atoms, and change its properties. The change in the material (a nitinol wire shortens due to heat) activates a lever that exerts force.




Touching Tales: Design Issues in Creating Haptic Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite continual consumer demand for richer broadcast media, there have been few examinations of senses other than vision and hearing in this domain. This paper considers the role that touch may be able to play in future broadcast systems. We have begun to explore the addition of haptic cues to children's cartoons, and through this process unearthed a number of

Ian Oakley; Sile O'Modhrain; Glorianna Davenport; Alison Wood; Steven Davy; David Wall



Rubber Hands Feel Touch, but Not in Blind Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychology and neuroscience have a long-standing tradition of studying blind individuals to investigate how visual experience shapes perception of the external world. Here, we study how blind people experience their own body by exposing them to a multisensory body illusion: the somatic rubber hand illusion. In this illusion, healthy blindfolded participants experience that they are touching their own right hand

Valeria I. Petkova; Hedvig Zetterberg; H. Henrik Ehrsson



HPLC Quantitation of Major Carotenoids of Fresh and Processed Guava, Mango and Papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major carotenoids in 52 samples of guava, mango, papaya and some of their processed products were quantitated by HPLC, using both external standardisation and standard addition calibration techniques. The results, submitted to theFandttests, demonstrated that the precision and the means obtained by the two calibration procedures were not significantly different. The concentrations of ?-carotene and lycopene in guava, ?-carotene

Viktor C. Wilberg; Delia B. Rodriguez-Amaya



Effect of Combined Processes of Osmotic Dehydration and Freezing on Papaya Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of combined processes of osmotic dehydration and freezing on papaya pieces preservation was evaluated. Sucrose solutions were used as osmotic medium. Two multifactorial experimental designs, in two levels, were conducted consecutively to quantify the effect of the following factors: temperature, osmotic dehydration time, concentration of the osmotic medium and freezing rate. The response variables considered were: sensory evaluation,

P. C. Moyano; R. E. Vega; A. Bunger; J. Garretón; F. A. Osorio



Effect of Immersion Time in Osmosis and Ultrasound on Papaya Cell Structure during Dehydration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ultrasound-assisted osmotic dehydration applied at atmospheric pressure for different lengths of time on papaya tissue structure was evaluated. Ultrasound induced the loss of cellular adhesion, formation of large cell interspaces, and light rupture of the cell walls. The changes in the tissue structure caused by ultrasound application increased sugar loss, water loss, and effective water diffusivity. Ultrasound-assisted

Sueli Rodrigues; Francisca I. P. Oliveira; Maria Izabel Gallão; Fabiano A. N. Fernandes



Assessment of the Anti-Protozoal Activity of Crude Carica papaya Seed Extract against Trypanosoma cruzi.  


In order to determine the in vivo activity against the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, two doses (50 and 75 mg/kg) of a chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds were evaluated compared with a control group of allopurinol. The activity of a mixture of the three main compounds (oleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a proportion of 45.9% of oleic acid, 24.1% of palmitic and 8.52% of stearic acid previously identified in the crude extract of C. papaya was evaluated at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Both doses of the extracts were orally administered for 28 days. A significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the number of blood trypomastigotes was observed in animals treated with the evaluated doses of the C. papaya extract in comparison with the positive control group (allopurinol 8.5 mg/kg). Parasitemia in animals treated with the fatty acids mixture was also significantly reduced (p < 0.05), compared to negative control animals. These results demonstrate that the fatty acids identified in the seed extracts of C. papaya (from ripe fruit) are able to reduce the number of parasites from both parasite stages, blood trypomastigote and amastigote (intracellular stage). PMID:24126379

Jiménez-Coello, Matilde; Guzman-Marín, Eugenia; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Perez-Gutiérrez, Salud; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y



Classification for the Ripeness of Papayas Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Threshold Rule  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this project is developing the technique to classify the ripeness of papaya into 3 categories, which is immature, mature and over mature systematically based on their mean RGB value components. This system involved the process of collecting samples with different level of ripeness, image processing and image classification by using artificial neural network and threshold rule.

H. Saad; A. Hussain



Anthelmintic activity of papaya seeds on Hymenolepis diminuta infections in rats.  


The purpose of this study is to see the anthelmintic activity potential of papaya seeds against Hymenolepis diminuta in rats. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the effectiveness of papaya seeds on helminths especially H. diminuta in rats and (2) to determine the effective dose level on helminths in rats. Thirty six male rats from strain Sprague-Dawley were chosen as samples in this experiment. Two types of dose level were used for papaya seeds treatments such as 0.6 g kg-1 and 1.2 g kg-1. The geometric mean (GEM) was used to calculate mean for eggs per gram (EPG) before and after the treatment to be included in the reduction percentage calculation. After 21 days post treatment, necropsies were done to get the worm count and the GEM was used to calculate the efficacy percentage for the treatment. Results from this study showed that the reduction percentages in EPG for papaya seeds treatment for both doses level were very high which is 96.8% for 0.6g kg-1 dose level and 96.2% for 1.2 g kg-1 dose level. Whereas the efficacy percentage based on the worm counts for both doses level were also very high that was 90.77% for 0.6 g kg-1 dose level and 93.85% for 1.2 g kg-1. PMID:23202594

Sapaat, A; Satrija, F; Mahsol, H H; Ahmad, A H



Specificity of Carica papaya latex in lipase-catalyzed interesterification reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymatic interesterification of the chiral triacylglycerol, 1-butyroyl-2-stearoyl-3-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol (sn-BSP) with trimyristin indicated that the lipase present in Carica papaya latex exhibits an sn3 stereoselectivity. Other interesterification experiments with homogeneous triacylglycerols of varying chain length with tricaprylin showed that this enzyme also has a typoselectivity for short chain fatty acids.

P. Villeneuve; M. Pina; A. Skarbek; J. Graille; T. A. Foglia



High-density linkage mapping revealed suppression of recombination at the sex determination locus in papaya.  

PubMed Central

A high-density genetic map of papaya (Carica papaya L.) was constructed using 54 F(2) plants derived from cultivars Kapoho and SunUp with 1501 markers, including 1498 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, the papaya ringspot virus coat protein marker, morphological sex type, and fruit flesh color. These markers were mapped into 12 linkage groups at a LOD score of 5.0 and recombination frequency of 0.25. The 12 major linkage groups covered a total length of 3294.2 cM, with an average distance of 2.2 cM between adjacent markers. This map revealed severe suppression of recombination around the sex determination locus with a total of 225 markers cosegregating with sex types. The cytosine bases were highly methylated in this region on the basis of the distribution of methylation-sensitive and -insensitive markers. This high-density genetic map is essential for cloning of specific genes of interest such as the sex determination gene and for the integration of genetic and physical maps of papaya.

Ma, Hao; Moore, Paul H; Liu, Zhiyong; Kim, Minna S; Yu, Qingyi; Fitch, Maureen M M; Sekioka, Terry; Paterson, Andrew H; Ming, Ray



A highly reliable sex diagnostic PCR assay for mass screening of papaya seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female plants of several dioecious angiosperms are commercially valued for production of fruits or seeds, viz. papaya, nutmeg, pistachio, kiwi fruit and jojoba. To make the cultivation profitable it is necessary to grow more female than male plants. To discriminate between male and female plants, sex-specific molecular markers have been identified in a few dioecious species such as Silene and

A. S. Parasnis; V. S. Gupta; S. A. Tamhankar; P. K. Ranjekar



Herbivorous mites as ecological engineers: indirect effects on arthropods inhabiting papaya foliage  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the potential of a leaf roller to indirectly influence a community of arthropods. Two mite species are the key herbivores on papaya leaves in Hawaii: a spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisduval, and an eriophyid mite, Calacarus flagelliseta, which induces upward curling of the leaf margin at the end of the summer when populations reach high densities. A survey

Valérie Fournier; Jay A. Rosenheim; Jacques Brodeur; Lee O. Laney; Marshall W. Johnson



Synthesis of Cocoa Butter Equivalent from Palm Oil by Carica papaya Lipase-Catalyzed Interesterification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa butter equivalent could be synthesized by lipase-catalyzed interesterification of oil. The objective of this research was to investigate the synthesis of cocoa butter equivalent from interesterification of palm oil catalyzed by Carica papaya lipase. The study showed that the compositions of cocoa butter equivalent were affected by acyl donor sources, substrate ratio, initial water of enzyme, reaction time, reaction

Porntippa Pinyaphong



Complete nucleotide sequence of a monopartite Begomovirus and associated satellites infecting Carica papaya in Nepal.  


Carica papaya (papaya) is a fruit crop that is cultivated mostly in kitchen gardens throughout Nepal. Leaf samples of C. papaya plants with leaf curling, vein darkening, vein thickening, and a reduction in leaf size were collected from a garden in Darai village, Rampur, Nepal in 2010. Full-length clones of a monopartite Begomovirus, a betasatellite and an alphasatellite were isolated. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Begomovirus showed the arrangement of genes typical of Old World begomoviruses with the highest nucleotide sequence identity (>99 %) to an isolate of Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV), confirming it as an isolate of AYVV. The complete nucleotide sequence of betasatellite showed greater than 89 % nucleotide sequence identity to an isolate of Tomato leaf curl Java betasatellite originating from Indonesian. The sequence of the alphasatellite displayed 92 % nucleotide sequence identity to Sida yellow vein China alphasatellite. This is the first identification of these components in Nepal and the first time they have been identified in papaya. PMID:23397078

Shahid, M S; Yoshida, S; Khatri-Chhetri, G B; Briddon, R W; Natsuaki, K T



AFLP analysis of genetic relationships among papaya and its wild relatives (Caricaceae) from Ecuador.  


The AFLP technique was used to assess the genetic relationships among the cultivated papaya ( Carica papaya L.) and related species native to Ecuador. Genetic distances based on AFLP data were estimated for 95 accessions belonging to three genera including C. papaya, at least eight Vasconcella species and two Jacaratia species. Cluster analysis using different methods and principal co-ordinate analysis (PCO), based on the AFLP data from 496 polymorphic bands generated with five primer combinations, was performed. The resulted grouping of accessions of each species corresponds largely with their taxonomic classifications and were found to be consistent with other studies based on RAPD, isozyme and cpDNA data. The AFLP analysis supports the recent rehabilitation of the Vasconcella group as a genus; until recently Vasconcella was considered as a section within the genus Carica. Both cluster and PCO analysis clearly separated the species of the three genera and illustrated the large genetic distance between C. papaya accessions and the Vasconcella group. The specific clustering of the highly diverse group of Vasconcella x heilbornii accessions also suggests that these genotypes may be the result of bi-directional introgression events between Vasconcella stipulata and Vasconcella cundinamarcensis. PMID:12582531

Van Droogenbroeck, B.; Breyne, P.; Goetghebeur, P.; Romeijn-Peeters, E.; Kyndt, T.; Gheysen, G.



[Contribution to food microscopy of Anacardium occidentale L, Carica papaya L and Myrciaria cauliflora (Martius) Berg].  


With a view towards food microscopy the authors present an anatomical study of the pseudofruit of Anacardium occidentale L., the fruit of Carica papaya L., and the fruit of Myrciaria cauliflora (Martius) Berg. Drawings illustrate the text to facilitate identification of the corresponding hystologic elements found in industrialized products. PMID:1233593

de Oliveira, F; Akisue, G; Akisue, M K


Rubber hands feel touch, but not in blind individuals.  


Psychology and neuroscience have a long-standing tradition of studying blind individuals to investigate how visual experience shapes perception of the external world. Here, we study how blind people experience their own body by exposing them to a multisensory body illusion: the somatic rubber hand illusion. In this illusion, healthy blindfolded participants experience that they are touching their own right hand with their left index finger, when in fact they are touching a rubber hand with their left index finger while the experimenter touches their right hand in a synchronized manner (Ehrsson et al. 2005). We compared the strength of this illusion in a group of blind individuals (n = 10), all of whom had experienced severe visual impairment or complete blindness from birth, and a group of age-matched blindfolded sighted participants (n = 12). The illusion was quantified subjectively using questionnaires and behaviorally by asking participants to point to the felt location of the right hand. The results showed that the sighted participants experienced a strong illusion, whereas the blind participants experienced no illusion at all, a difference that was evident in both tests employed. A further experiment testing the participants' basic ability to localize the right hand in space without vision (proprioception) revealed no difference between the two groups. Taken together, these results suggest that blind individuals with impaired visual development have a more veridical percept of self-touch and a less flexible and dynamic representation of their own body in space compared to sighted individuals. We speculate that the multisensory brain systems that re-map somatosensory signals onto external reference frames are less developed in blind individuals and therefore do not allow efficient fusion of tactile and proprioceptive signals from the two upper limbs into a single illusory experience of self-touch as in sighted individuals. PMID:22558268

Petkova, Valeria I; Zetterberg, Hedvig; Ehrsson, H Henrik



19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(a) Before any vessel documented with a fishery license endorsement shall touch and trade at a foreign port or place, the master shall obtain from the port director a permit on Customs Form 1379 to touch and...



It's Mine, Don't Touch!: interactions at a large multi-touch display in a city centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present data from detailed observations of CityWall, a large multi-touch display installed in a central location in Helsinki, Finland. During eight days of installation, 1199 persons interacted with the system in various social con- figurations. Videos of these encounters were examined qualitatively as well as quantitatively based on human cod- ing of events. The data convey phenomena that arise

Peter Peltonen; Esko Kurvinen; Antti Salovaara; Giulio Jacucci; Tommi Ilmonen; John Evans; Antti Oulasvirta; Petri Saarikko



FuSA2 Touch Display: Fur-like Surface Acting As Touch Display using Plastic Optical Fiber Bundles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a fibratus visual display using a plastic optical fiber (POF) bundles for visual and tactile communication. The proposal system has arrayed POF bundles as flexible and pliable hairs. The surface that is composed of tips of the POF bundles can display visual information (colors, shapes, and so on.). This surface also can detect multi-touch input



Grooming and touching behaviour in captive ring-tailed lemurs ( Lemur catta L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of grooming and touching behaviours was recorded in a group of captive ring-tailed lemurs. Grooming was found\\u000a to be performed chiefly by older, higher ranking animals; touching (i.e., “reach out and touch” behaviour) was directed primarily\\u000a by younger, low ranking animals to older, high ranking individuals. It is suggested that such touching is a submissive gesture\\u000a in this

Geoffrey R. Hosey; Robin J. Thompson



The Suggestibility of Children's Memory for Being Touched: Planting, Erasing, and Changing Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigates recent claims that it is relatively easy to suggestively plant false memories in children, by comparing the relative vulnerability to suggestibility of changed, planted, and erased memories. 80 4-year-olds and 80 10-year-olds either were touched in a specific way or were not touched at all, and it was later suggested that a different touch, a completely new touch, or

Kathy Pezdek; Chantal Roe



Appraisal of touching behavior, shame and disgust: a cross-cultural-study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated differences concerning the appraisal of one's own skin between people from Germany, Italy, France and Syria. A sample of 3360 subjects completed the Touch-Shame-Disgust-Questionnaire (TSD-Q: Kupfer, Brosig, Niemeier, & Gieler, 2005), which measures physical pleasure of touching oneself, touching in a partnership and parental touching during childhood, as well as (skin-related) shame and disgust. The factorial structure

Christina Schut; Dennis Linder; Burkhard Brosig; Volker Niemeier; Catharina Ermler; Kathrin Madejski; Simon Saad; Uwe Gieler; Jörg Kupfer



TouchInteract: An Interaction Technique with Large Displays Using Touchscreen-Phone  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, more and more large-scale displays appear in public and semi-public places, but very few of them have interaction capabilities. We present Touch Interact: a novel interaction technique with large displays using touch screen-phone. Touch Interact allows users to remotely control the large displays using their touch screen mobile phone. Users can sliding or tapping on the mobile phone's

Hanqing Ruan; Yi Qian; Yong Zhang; Min Zhou



Functional and structural brain differences associated with mirror-touch synaesthesia.  


Observing touch is known to activate regions of the somatosensory cortex but the interpretation of this finding is controversial (e.g. does it reflect the simulated action of touching or the simulated reception of touch?). For most people, observing touch is not linked to reported experiences of feeling touch but in some people it is (mirror-touch synaesthetes). We conducted an fMRI study in which participants (mirror-touch synaesthetes, controls) watched movies of stimuli (face, dummy, object) being touched or approached. In addition we examined whether mirror touch synaesthesia is associated with local changes of grey and white matter volume in the brain using VBM (voxel-based morphometry). Both synaesthetes and controls activated the somatosensory system (primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, SI and SII) when viewing touch, and the same regions were activated (by a separate localiser) when feeling touch - i.e. there is a mirror system for touch. However, when comparing the two groups, we found evidence that SII seems to play a particular important role in mirror-touch synaesthesia: in synaesthetes, but not in controls, posterior SII was active for watching touch to a face (in addition to SI and posterior temporal lobe); activity in SII correlated with subjective intensity measures of mirror-touch synaesthesia (taken outside the scanner), and we observed an increase in grey matter volume within the SII of the synaesthetes' brains. In addition, the synaesthetes showed hypo-activity when watching touch to a dummy in posterior SII. We conclude that the secondary somatosensory cortex has a key role in this form of synaesthesia. PMID:23921098

Holle, Henning; Banissy, Michael J; Ward, Jamie



A novel useful tool of computerized touch panel-type screening test for evaluating cognitive function of chronic ischemic stroke patients.  


Cognitive and affective impairments are important non-motor features of ischemic stroke (IS) related to white-matter hyperintensity, including periventricular hyperintensity (PVH). To confirm the usefulness of a novel computerized touch panel-type screening test, we investigated cognitive and affective functioning among 142 IS patients and 105 age-and gender-matched normal control subjects. Assessment using the mini-mental state examination, Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised, and frontal assessment battery revealed reduced cognitive function in IS patients, with the most severe reduction exhibited by cardiogenic embolism patients, followed by lacunar infarction patients, and atherothrombotic infarction patients. Our novel touch panel screening test revealed a similar pattern of results. In addition, PVH grading, classified using Fazekas' magnetic resonance imaging method, was also correlated with cognitive decline and touch panel screening test performance. In contrast, affective function, assessed with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, vitality index, and apathy scale, was not significantly decreased in IS, and did not correlate with touch panel screening test results or PVH, although the number of microbleeds was correlated with apathy scale results. The present findings revealed that IS and PVH grading were significantly correlated with decline in general cognitive status (mini-mental state examination and Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised) and frontal lobe function (frontal assessment battery). Performance on all touch panel screening tests was correlated with IS and PVH grading, but was largely independent of depression or apathy. Touch panel screening tests were easily understood and performed by almost all patients with mild cognitive and motor dysfunction, due to visually clear images and simple methods not involving detailed manual-handling tasks such as writing. Touch panel screening tests may provide a useful tool for the early screening of cognitive function. PMID:23290436

Deguchi, Kentaro; Kono, Syoichiro; Deguchi, Shoko; Morimoto, Nobutoshi; Kurata, Tomoko; Ikeda, Yoshio; Abe, Koji



The Effects of Sleep and Touch Therapy on Symptoms of Fibromyalgia and Depression  

PubMed Central

Background Many alternative interventions are practiced in an effort to reduce symptoms of fibromiyalgia. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of sleep and touch therapy accompanied by music and aromatherapy on the symptoms of fibromyalgia and depression. Methods: The study was carried out between September 2009 and March 2011 in the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Polyclinic in Trabzon, Turkey. The sample consisted of 162 female patients and had been diagnosed with fibromyalgia at least 6 months prior to the study. Since the sample contains two intervention groups and one control group, each group was assigned 54 patients. Data were collected through a Personal Information Form, a Fibromyalgia Symptom Form and the Beck Depression Index. The study employed a pre-test/post-test control group design. A paired sample t-test was used in the comparisons of the in-group scale points; the chi-square in the intergroup comparisons, and the McNamer test in the in-group comparisons. Results: After the interventions, it was observed that the depression levels in the touch-music-aroma therapy group showed a larger decrease (before: 22.01±5.3; after: 14.52±3.7) than in the sleep-music-aroma therapy group (before: 24.81±5.1; after: 20.16±4.9) and control groups (before: 23.73±4.4; after: 21.05±2.6). Symptoms such as restless sleep, headache, morning fatigue, exhaustion, feeling like crying and bowel complaints were also significantly reduced (P<0.05). Conclusion: It is suggested that nurses providing healthcare to FMS patients should also offer these patients aromatherapy, sleep, music and touch therapies.

Demirbag, BC; Erci, B



Mediated social touch: a review of current research and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we review research and applications in the area of mediated or remote social touch. Whereas current communication media rely predominately on vision and hearing, mediated social touch allows people to touch each other over a distance by means of haptic feedback technology. Overall, the reviewed applications have interesting potential, such as the communication of simple ideas (e.g.,

Antal Haans; Wijnand Ijsselsteijn



Self-revealing gestures: teaching new touch interactions in windows 8  

Microsoft Academic Search

The touch language we use to interact with computers and devices is still developing. How can we teach users of our systems new touch gestures without interfering with their user experience? A team of user experience designers and researchers went through an iterative process to design a teaching method for two new touch interactions. This case study describes the designs

Kay Hofmeester; Jennifer Wolfe



Physically touching and tasting virtual objects enhances the realism of virtual experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiment 1 explored the impact of physically touching a virtual object on how realistic the virtual environment (VE) seemed to the user. Subjects in a ‘no touch’ group picked up a 3D virtual image of a kitchen plate in a VE, using a traditional 3D wand. ‘See and touch’ subjects physically picked up a virtual plate possessing solidity and weight,

H. G. Hoffman; A. Hollander; K. Schroder; S. Rousseau; T. Furness



Touching Behavior in Sport: Functional Components, Analysis of Sex Differences, and Ethological Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little research exists regarding sex differences in touching behavior in sport or recreational settings. This study investigates sex differences in amounts, types, and factors influencing same-sex touching in a sport context. Subjects were 119 members of four men's college varsity baseball teams and 52 members of three women's college varsity softball teams. All touches performed on-field between team members were

Linda M. Kneidinger; Terry L. Maple; Stuart A. Tross



Arranging touch screen software keyboard split-keys based on contact surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch screen devices, which have become ubiquitous in our daily lives, offer users flexible input and output operations. Typical operation methods for touch screen devices include the use of a stylus or a finger. A touch screen user can select a stylus or finger depending on the user's situation and preference. In this paper, we propose a dynamic method of

Kentaro Go; Leo Tsurumi



Simplifying Touch Data from Tri-axial Sensors Using a New Data Visualization Tool  

PubMed Central

Quantification and evaluation of palpation is a growing field of research in medicine and engineering. A newly developed tri-axial touch sensor has been designed to capture a multi-dimensional profile of touch-loaded forces. We have developed a data visualization tool as a first step in simplifying interpretation of touch for assessing hands-on clinical performance.

SALUD, Lawrence H.; KWAN, Calvin; PUGH, Carla M.



Differentiating Comfortable from Uncomfortable Teacher-Student Touches II: Hugs, Hits, and Handshakes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Touch is an important and powerful form of communication that is often avoided for fear of negative interpretations. However touch has also been associated with positive relational and educational outcomes. In this study, descriptions of touch, elicited from students, that occurred between teachers and students were sorted using S.E. Jones' (1994)…

Frymier, Ann Bainbridge; Mongeau, Paul A.


A sensational illusion: vision-touch synaesthesia and the rubber hand paradigm.  


For individuals with vision-touch synaesthesia, the sight of touch on another person elicits synaesthetic tactile sensation on the observer's own body. Here we used the traditional rubber hand paradigm (Botvinick and Cohen, 1998) and a no-touch rubber hand paradigm to investigate and to authenticate synaesthetic tactile sensation. In the traditional rubber hand paradigm, the participant views a prosthetic hand being touched by the Examiner while the participant's hand - hidden from view - is also touched by the Examiner. Synchronous stimulation of the prosthetic hand and the participant's hidden hand elicits the rubber hand illusion. It may seem to the participant that she is feeling touch at the location of the viewed prosthetic hand - visual capture of touch, and that the prosthetic hand is the participant's own hand - illusion of ownership. Thus, for participants who experience the traditional rubber hand illusion, tactile sensation on the participant's hidden hand is referred to the prosthetic hand. In our no-touch rubber hand paradigm, the participant views a prosthetic hand being touched by the Examiner but the participant's hand - hidden from view - is not touched by the Examiner. Questionnaire ratings indicated that only individuals with vision-touch synaesthesia experienced the no-touch rubber hand illusion. Thus, synaesthetic tactile sensation on the (untouched) hidden hand was referred to the prosthetic hand. These individuals also demonstrated proprioceptive drift (a change, from baseline, in proprioceptively perceived position) of the hidden hand towards the location of the prosthetic hand, and a pattern of increased proprioceptive drift with increased trial duration (60 sec, 180 sec, 300 sec). The no-touch rubber hand paradigm was an excellent method to authenticate vision-touch synaesthesia because participants were naïve about the rubber hand illusion, and they could not have known how they were expected to perform on either the traditional or the no-touch rubber hand paradigm. PMID:22445446

Aimola Davies, Anne M; White, Rebekah C



Merkel cell-neurite complexes in touch domes of hamster cheek pouch.  


Morphological study has been done in touch domes of hamster cheek pouch as a preparation for further electrophysiological study. The touch domes were examined by light and electron microscopy. There were one or two primary ridges (epithelial ridges) in the center of the touch dome, and each dome was supplied by one to three nerve fibres. Tactile cells (Merkel cells) were localized within primary ridges of touch domes and Merkel cell-neurite complexes were observed in every one. Since Merkel cell-neurite complexes are slow adapting mechanoreceptors, these results suggest that they might be involved in touch sensation. PMID:7987970

Tazaki, M; Sakada, S



Light touch contribution to balance in normal bipedal stance.  


It has previously been shown that light contact with the finger tip on a fixed surface reduces centre of pressure (CoP) fluctuations in the frontal plane when standing in an unstable posture with the feet in line (tandem Romberg stance). Positive cross-correlations between horizontal finger forces and CoP fluctuations with finger forces exhibiting a phase lead suggest the hand provides sensory input for postural stability. The present study investigates whether this is the case for normal posture. We report reduced CoP fluctuations in the sagittal plane when light touch is permitted during normal bipedal stance. Moreover, we find positive crosscorrelations between finger tip forces and CoP fluctuations which are of similar magnitude and phase lag to those observed in tandem Romberg stance. This shows the utility of hand touch input for regulation of normal upright posture as well as inherently unstable postures such as tandem Romberg. PMID:10323300

Clapp, S; Wing, A M



RI-MINACE filters to augment segmentation of touching objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Circular harmonic function (CHF) filters are used to determine the number of objects in a cluster in which multiple objects ar touching and to provide estimates of the center of each object. The objects are agricultural products, pistachio nuts, and the senor is x-ray. The nuts can have any orientation. Each nut is basically elliptical, but shape, size and edge smoothness vary plus significant internal gray-scale variations are present; these variations are distortions. To detect such objects, we consider rotation-invariant RI-MINACE filters. To detect the separate correlation peaks, we use peaksorting with a window and minimum threshold. New filter design issues that arise in this application of rotation-invariant touching object detection include: use of gray scale or binary images; the CHF order to use; selection of the reference object, the size of the filter,t he MINACE control parameter c, and the size of the window and threshold in peaksorting.

Casasent, David P.; Cox, Westley



Maternal touch at 1st contact with the newborn infant.  


Human mothers have been reported to exhibit a species-characteristic pattern of tactile contact with their newborn infants that begins with fingertip touch of infant extremities and progresses to palmar massaging of the infant trunk. This study presents data on maternal tactile interaction during 10 min of contact following each of 66 deliveries. Most of the women in the study were of Hispanic origin and delivered with midwives in an El Paso, Texas maternity center. Time-sampling techniques were used with tactile behaviors recorded every 10 sec. Most observations began less than 10 min after birth. The statistical analysis revealed that maternal tactile behavior in the 1st 10 min of active interaction is more variable than previously reported. No evidence was offered of a pattern of touch progression: active tactile exploration appeared to vary with the gender of the infant and parity and socioeconomic or sociocultural background of the mother. PMID:7297766

Trevathan, W R



Gentle Human Touch and Yakson: The Effect on Preterm's Behavioral Reactions  

PubMed Central

Objective. Touch is one of the first strong positive senses that develop in neonate. Therapeutic touch could be considered as a complementary treatment in Neonate intensive care units (NICU). Methods. This quasi-experimental study was conducted to compare the effect of Yakson and GHT on behavioral reaction of preterm infants hospitalized in NICU in south-east of Iran. 90 preterm infants participated in this study. They are randomly divided into 3 groups: (1) Yakson group, n = 30, (2) GHT group, n = 30, (3) control group, n = 30. Each infant received the GHT and Yakson interventions twice a day for 5 days. Each session lasted 15 minutes. The control group received routine nursing care. Results. In interventional group, an increase was found in sleep state score after the Yakson and GHT intervention. Their awake and fussy states' scores decreased after both interventions. No significant difference was found between Yakson and GHT group in their behavioral state scores. Conclusion. The findings suggest that Yakson and GHT had soothing and calming effect on preterm infants and could be beneficial in nursing interventions.

Bahman Bijari, Bahare; Iranmanesh, Sedigheh; Eshghi, Fateme; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza



Gender and situational differences in children's smiles, touch, and proxemics  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was hypothesized that gender differences in nonverbal behaviors which are often considered to be affiliative may represent systematic differences between males and females in self-presentation. Smiling, touching, and interpersonal distance were studied with 256 White adolescents and preadolescents, who were randomly assigned to same-sex grade-level pairs. Self-presentation was made more salient by asking each subject pair to pose for

Phyllis W. Berman; Vicki L. Smith



Independent effects of endogenous and exogenous attention in touch.  


Abstract Endogenous and exogenous attention in touch have typically been investigated separately. Here we use a double-cueing paradigm manipulating both types of orienting in each trial. Bilateral endogenous cues induced long-lasting facilitation of endogenous attention up to 2?s. However, the exogenous cue only elicited an effect at short intervals. Our results favour a supramodal account of attention and this study provides new insight into how endogenous and exogenous attention operates in the tactile modality. PMID:23590842

Jones, Alexander; Forster, Bettina



Sharetouch: a multi-touch social platform for the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sharetouch, which is a multi-touch social interaction system, aims to enable the elderly to engage the benefits of IT and enhance their social interaction among those older persons living in the community. Unlike most of the in-the-market digital devices, the Sharetouch attempts to merge the digital desktop and physical table into one, and has extra capabilities. Hence, a 52-inch

Tsai-hsuan Tsai; Hsien-tsung Chang



Dynamic and predictive links between touch and vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated crossmodal links between vision and touch for moving objects. In experiment 1, observers discriminated visual\\u000a targets presented randomly at one of five locations on their forearm. Tactile pulses simulating motion along the forearm preceded\\u000a visual targets. At short tactile-visual ISIs, discriminations were more rapid when the final tactile pulse and visual target\\u000a were at the same location. At

Rob Gray; Hong Z. Tan



Integration of Touch and Sound in Auditory Cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary To form a coherent percept of the environment, our brain combines information from different senses. Such multisensory integration occurs in higher asso- ciation cortices; butsupposedly, italso occurs inearly sensory areas. Confirming the latter hypothesis, we unequivocally demonstrate supra-additive integration of touch and sound stimulation at the second stage of the auditory cortex. Using high-resolution fMRI of the macaque monkey,

Christoph Kayser; Christopher I. Petkov; Mark Augath; Nikos K. Logothetis



“No-Touch” submuscular saline breast augmentation technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article represents a retrospective view of the author's 17-year experience with 2863 saline implants in 1327 patients and details his “no-touch” technique. The experience included almost an equal number of submammary and subpectoral procedures. The submammary procedures were done early on and were replaced with subpectoral procedures, done exclusively at the present time. There were significantly less complications-capsules, wrinkling

Richard A. Mladick



Experimental Evaluations of Touch Interaction Considering Automotive Requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Three different usability studies present evaluation methods for cross-domain human-computer-interaction. The first study\\u000a compares different input devices like touch screen, turn-push-controller or handwriting recognition under regard of human\\u000a error probability, input speed and subjective usability assessment. The other experiments had a focus on typical automotive\\u000a issues: interruptibility and the influence of oscillations of the cockpit on the interaction.

Andreas Haslbeck; Severina Popova; Michael Krause; Katrina Pecot; Jürgen Mayer; Klaus Bengler


Interface Design for Graphics Editor on Multi Touch Point Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the project is to use the touch sensitive device capability of the iPad to give a better user experience and functionalities for the artists. In this project, I have explored different interactions that can give a better experience for artist when compared to traditional computer-mouse interaction. In the traditional Computer-mouse interaction it is very difficult for

Srujitha Mullapudi



A Multi-modal interface with speech and touch screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-modal input method by combining speech and touch-screen was studied. Since these two methods are complementary to each other, they can be used together to create more user-friendly human interface.To illustrate this, a multi-modal robot control simulation system was built on the Sun Sparc10 using the attached AD converter with 11.025kHz sampling rate. The task was defined as follows:

Seiichi Nakagawa; Jian Xim Zhang; Wicha Chengcharoen



Separation of single- and double-touching handwritten numeral strings based on structural analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a new method to separate touching handwritten numeral pairs using structural analysis. The string is preprocessed with an efficient algorithm for smoothing, linearization, and detection of structural points of image contours. The structural region of the string is determined. Some left- or right-side numerals of the string are recognized. The property of each hole contour in a string is detected. The touching model of a string is determined, whether single- or double-touching. For double-touching, the touching hole contour is determined. For the two touching models, the touching point is preselected, its position is corrected, and the corresponding match touching point is found. The string is separated based on all touching points. All processing procedures are based on morphological structural analyses. We have tested our method on image samples taken from the U.S. National Institute of Science and Technology database. We used 500 sample images to design the required models. For 3287 test samples the correct-separation rate was 97.2% for single- touching strings, and 97% for double-touching strings.

Yu, Donggang; Hu, Jianming; Yan, Hong



Temporal frequency channels are linked across audition and touch  

PubMed Central

Summary Temporal frequency is a fundamental sensory dimension in audition and touch. In audition, analysis of temporal frequency is necessary for speech and music perception [1]; in touch, the spectral analysis of vibratory signals has been implicated in texture perception [2, 3] and in sensing the environment through tools [4–7]. Environmental oscillations impinging upon the ear are generally thought to be processed independently of oscillations impinging upon the skin. Here, we show that frequency channels are perceptually linked across audition and touch. In a series of psychophysical experiments, we demonstrate that auditory stimuli interfere with tactile frequency perception in a systematic manner. Specifically, performance on a tactile frequency-discrimination task is impaired when an auditory distractor is presented with the tactile stimuli, but only if the frequencies of the auditory and tactile stimuli are similar. The frequency-dependent interference effect is observed whether the distractors are pure tones or band-pass noise, so an auditory percept of pitch is not required for the effect to be produced. Importantly, distractors that strongly impair frequency discrimination do not interfere with judgments of tactile intensity. This surprisingly specific crosstalk between different modalities reflects the importance of supramodal representations of fundamental sensory dimensions.

Yau, Jeffrey M.; Olenczak, Jonathon B.; Dammann, John F.; Bensmaia, Sliman J.



Touch the Universe : A NASA Braille Book of Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Touch the Universe is a unique and innovative astronomy book that will help visually impaired people see the wonders of our universe. Using a combination of Braille and large-print captions that face 14 pages of brilliant Hubble Space Telescope photos, it is embossed with shapes that represent various astronomical objects such as stars, gas clouds, and jets of matter streaming into space. Universally designed for both the sighted and visually impaired reader, Touch the Universe takes readers on a voyage of discovery, starting at Earth, proceeding through the solar system, and ending with the most distant image taken by Hubble, the mind-boggling Hubble Deep Field photo -- the first telescope image ever to bring home to human consciousness in a deeply fundamental way the literally infinite reaches of our universe of galaxies. As the author puts it, A visually impaired person can still touch and smell a flower, or a tree, or an animal, but he or she could only imagine what an astronomical object is like ... until now.



Hierarchical multi-touch selection techniques for collaborative geospatial analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In time critical visual analytic environments collaboration between multiple expert users allows for rapid knowledge discovery and facilitates the sharing of insight. New collaborative display technologies, such as multi-touch tables, have shown great promise as the medium for such collaborations to take place. However, under such new technologies, traditional selection techniques, having been developed for mouse and keyboard interfaces, become inconvenient, inefficient, and in some cases, obsolete. We present selection techniques for multi-touch environments that allow for the natural and efficient selection of complex regions-of-interest within a hierarchical geospatial environment, as well as methods for refining and organizing these selections. The intuitive nature of the touch-based interaction permits new users to quickly grasp complex controls, while the consideration for collaboration coordinates the actions of multiple users simultaneously within the same environment. As an example, we apply our simple gestures and actions mimicking real-world tactile behaviors to increase the usefulness and efficacy of an existing urban growth simulation in a traditional GIS-like environment. However, our techniques are general enough to be applied across a wide range of geospatial analytical applications for both domestic security and military use.

Butkiewicz, Thomas; Jeong, Dong Hyun; Wartell, Zachary; Ribarsky, William; Chang, Remco



Effects of modeling and topic stimulus on self-referent touching.  


Self-touching is defined as self-directed touches, e.g., scratching or rubbing, that have no apparent conscious motivation. Earlier research on self-touching focused on internal processes associated with self-touching, e.g., mental conflict, while more recent research has considered external motivators, such as an auditory or visual presentation of a provocative stimulus, e.g., leeches. Here, 110 undergraduate psychology students (68 women, 42 men; M age = 18.7 yr., SD = 1.0) were shown a video about chiggers to replicate previous findings, while simultaneously studying the social influence of self-touching modeled by the presenter. A significant interaction was found as modeled self-touching significantly increased participants' self-touching when they were also attending to the video about chiggers. The results are discussed in terms of potential processes underlying this behavior and directions for research. PMID:16383073

Butzen, Nathan David; Bissonnette, Victor; McBrayer, Dan



Lateral Facilitation between Primary Mechanosensory Neurons Controls Nose Touch Perception in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

Summary The nematode C. elegans senses head and nose touch using multiple classes of mechanoreceptor neurons that are electrically coupled through a network of gap junctions. Using in vivo neuroimaging, we have found that multidendritic nociceptors in the head respond to harsh touch throughout their receptive field but respond to gentle touch only at the tip of the nose. Whereas the harsh touch response depends solely on cell-autonomous mechanosensory channels, gentle nose touch responses require facilitation by additional nose touch mechanoreceptors, which couple electrically to the nociceptors in a hub-and-spoke gap junction network. Conversely, nociceptor activity indirectly facilitates activation of the nose touch neurons, demonstrating that information flow across the network is bidirectional. Thus, a simple gap-junction circuit acts as a coincidence detector that allows primary sensory neurons to integrate information from neighboring mechanoreceptors and generate somatosensory perception.

Chatzigeorgiou, Marios; Schafer, William R.



Characterization of the exogenous insert and development of event-specific PCR detection methods for genetically modified Huanong No. 1 papaya.  


Genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.), Huanong No. 1, was approved for commercialization in Guangdong province, China in 2006, and the development of the Huanong No. 1 papaya detection method is necessary for implementing genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling regulations. In this study, we reported the characterization of the exogenous integration of GM Huanong No. 1 papaya by means of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR strategies. The results suggested that one intact copy of the initial construction was integrated in the papaya genome and which probably resulted in one deletion (38 bp in size) of the host genomic DNA. Also, one unintended insertion of a 92 bp truncated NptII fragment was observed at the 5' end of the exogenous insert. Furthermore, we revealed its 5' and 3' flanking sequences between the insert DNA and the papaya genomic DNA, and developed the event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR assays for GM Huanong No. 1 papaya based on the 5' integration flanking sequence. The relative limit of detection (LOD) of the qualitative PCR assay was about 0.01% in 100 ng of total papaya genomic DNA, corresponding to about 25 copies of papaya haploid genome. In the quantitative PCR, the limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) were as low as 12.5 and 25 copies of papaya haploid genome, respectively. In practical sample quantification, the quantified biases between the test and true values of three samples ranged from 0.44% to 4.41%. Collectively, we proposed that all of these results are useful for the identification and quantification of Huanong No. 1 papaya and its derivates. PMID:19645503

Guo, Jinchao; Yang, Litao; Liu, Xin; Guan, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Lingxi; Zhang, Dabing



Getting Lost? Touch and You Will Find! The User-Centered Design Process of a Touch Screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reforms in office concepts have led to new intensification strategies that aim at more flexibility and efficiency.\\u000a Hot desking is one of these new working practices that reduces office space per worker. These new office concepts however,\\u000a pose new challenges and problems to solve. This paper describes the development phase of an innovative touch screen application\\u000a for location based

Bieke Zaman; Rogier Vermaut



Use of papaya seeds as a biosorbent of methylene blue from aqueous solution.  


In this study papaya seeds were used to remove methylene blue dye from aqueous solution. Papaya seeds were characterized as possessing a macro/mesoporous texture and large pore size. Studies were carried out in batches to evaluate the effect of contact time and pH (2-12) on the removal of dye. It was observed that the adsorption of dye was better in the basic region (pH 12). The equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Raduschkevich, Tempkin, Jovanovich, Redlich-Peterson, Sips, Toth and Radke-Prausnitz isotherms. The equilibrium data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm with a maximum adsorption capacity of 637.29 mg g(-1). Adsorption kinetic data were fitted using the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption kinetic is very fast and was best described by the pseudo-second-order model. PMID:23863440

Paz, Diego S; Baiotto, Alexandre; Schwaab, Marcio; Mazutti, Marcio A; Bassaco, Mariana M; Bertuol, Daniel A; Foletto, Edson L; Meili, Lucas



Different arbuscular mycorrhizal interactions in male and female plants of wild Carica papaya L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The different resource demands on male and female plants of dioecious species can lead to secondary sexual dimorphisms. Male\\u000a and female plants might also interact differently with antagonists and mutualists. We used a repeated measures natural experiment\\u000a in five subpopulations to investigate secondary sexual dimorphism in Carica papaya including interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Male and female plants did not

Rocío Vega-Frutis; Roger Guevara



Phenol induced by irradiation does not impair sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of radiation processing on the sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya exposed to doses in the range of 2.5-10 kGy and 100 Gy-2.5 kGy respectively was investigated. Despite an increase in the content of phenol in the volatile oil of these food products overall sensory quality of the irradiated and control samples was not significantly affected by radiation processing.

Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun



Improved Carica papaya Tolerance to Carmine Spider Mite by the Expression of Manduca sexta chitinase Transgene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya plants producing the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) chitinase protein were obtained following microprojectile bombardment of embryogenic calli derived from the hypocotyls of\\u000a the cultivar Kapoho. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out to confirm the presence of the transgene. RT-PCR and\\u000a a quantitative chitinase assay showed increased levels of chitinase activity in every selected transgenic line. Insect bioassays\\u000a in

Heather R. K. McCafferty; Paul H. Moore; Yun J. Zhu



Discovery of genes associated with fruit ripening in Carica papaya using expressed sequence tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify genes involved in papaya fruit ripening, a total of 1171 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated from randomly selected clones of two independent fruit cDNA libraries derived from yellow and red-fleshed fruit varieties. The most abundant sequences encoded: chitinase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase, catalase and methionine synthase, respectively. DNA sequence comparisons identified ESTs with significant similarity to genes

Luke C. Devitt; Tim Sawbridge; Timothy A. Holton; Keith Mitchelson; Ralf G. Dietzgen



Comparative ecological risks of pesticides used in plantation production of papaya: application of the SYNOPS indicator.  


Pesticides are used intensively for crop protection in tropical fruit plantations. Assessments of the relative risks posed by pesticides are needed to assist in the development of management plans that minimize ecological impacts. In this study, the risk indicator SYNOPS_2 was used to compare risks to aquatic ecosystems by pesticides commonly used in papaya plantations. Plant interception and spray drift were measured during six applications of three pesticides (chlorothalonil, chloropyrifos, and malathion) using a turbo fan driven sprayer. Plant interception was estimated to be higher (42.6+/-12.7%; p=0.04) in late (8-14 months old) than in early (4 months old) trees (20.1+/-25.3%). Chlorothalonil concentrations of up to 11.0 microg L(-1) were found in water from an adjacent ditch after field application. Concentrations of this pesticide (7.4+/-4.1 microg L(-1)) in runoff water were also significantly (p<0.01) higher than those of malathion (2.4+/-1.9 microg L(-1)) and chlorpyrifos (0.8+/-0.5 microg L(-1)). Good correlation between measured and predicted values (r2=0.56-0.85, p<0.01) showed that SYNOPS_2 is able to describe trends in runoff pollution in papaya plantations. Linear equations were obtained in order to correct numerical disagreement between measured and calculated runoff concentrations. An independent test showed a reasonable agreement between measured chlorothalonil concentrations and the predicted values using the proposed equations. Fifteen pesticides used in papaya cultivation were ranked according to their calculated chronic biological risk index. Pesticides with the highest risk index for non-target organisms were: chlorothalonil for algae, lambda cyahalotrin for Daphnia and fish, and malathion for earthworms. Chlorothalonil was the pesticide with the highest exposure level in water and therefore represents a high risk for aquatic life. Results show that SYNOPS_2 can be used as a pesticide risk indicator on papaya and possibly other tropical fruit plantations. PMID:17482661

Hernández-Hernández, Carlos N A; Valle-Mora, Javier; Santiesteban-Hernández, Antonio; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo



Field performance evaluation and genetic integrity assessment of cryopreserved papaya clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the first report of field performance and evaluation of morphological traits following cryopreservation in four\\u000a genotypes of Carica papaya (Z6, 97, TS2 and 35). It also describes the successful establishment of in vitro plantlets following vitrification-based\\u000a cryopreservation of shoot tips and their acclimatisation through to field establishment. Cloned plants resulting from untreated\\u000a controls, as well as controls

Adam Kaity; S. E. Ashmore; R. A. Drew



Studies on moisture sorption isotherms for osmotically dehydrated papaya cubes and verification of selected models.  


The water desorption properties of osmotically dehydrated papaya cubes at various temperatures were studied by fitting experimental isotherms in Henderson, Oswin, Chen and Clayton and Kuhn equations having 2 parameters and Henderson and Oswin equations were modified to describe the temperature dependence of isotherm data. Oswin equation was useful to predict the equilibrium moisture content values for use in determining the effective moisture diffusion coefficient during subsequent air drying process. PMID:23572650

Jain, S K; Verma, R C; Sharma, G P; Jain, H K



Spatial and temporal diversity of begomoviral complexes in papayas with leaf curl disease.  


Old World, monopartite begomoviruses associated with satellite DNA ? were observed in papaya showing symptoms of leaf curl disease sampled randomly over five years from within a radius of 250 km in north-central India. Three groups of DNA A sequences were evident. One group resembled chili leaf curl virus infecting tomatoes (ChiLCuV). Another group resembled tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCuNDV). The third group was novel (tentatively named papaya leaf crumple virus, PaLCrV), with less than 89% identity to known begomovirus sequences in the GenBank database. At least seven DNA A sequences were putative recombinants. The AC4-encoding regions exhibited highest numbers of non-synonymous substitutions. Most DNA ? sequences resembled tomato leaf curl virus-associated DNA ?s. A few DNA ? sequences were similar to that of croton yellow vein mosaic virus-associated DNA ? (CroYVMV?). One DNA ? sequence was novel and showed <65% similarity to its counterparts. Mixed infections and sequence diversity among 25 cloned av1 genes indicated that papayas grown in plantations, kitchen gardens and feral patches in the region are vulnerable to disease outbreak. No geographic or temporal patterns were discernable in the distribution of these viruses. PMID:22437254

Singh-Pant, P; Pant, P; Mukherjee, S K; Mazumdar-Leighton, S



Reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage by Carica papaya leaf extract  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the in vitro antioxidant potential of Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract and its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage assessed by haemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Methods Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, hydrogen ion scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and the ferrous ion reducing ability were assessed as antioxidant indices. In the other experiment, human erythrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide to induce erythrocyte damage. The extract (at various concentrations) was subsequently incubated with the erythrocytes and later analysed for haemolysis and lipid peroxidation as indices for erythrocyte damage. Results Preliminary investigation of the extract showed that the leaf possessed significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities using in vitro models in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). The extract also reduced hydrogen peroxide induced erythrocyte haemolysis and lipid peroxidation significantly when compared with ascorbic acid (P<0.05). The IC50 values were 7.33 mg/mL and 1.58 mg/mL for inhibition of haemolysis and lipid peroxidation, respectively. In all cases, ascorbic acid (the reference antioxidant) possessed higher activity than the extract. Conclusions The findings show that C. papaya leaves possess significant bioactive potential which is attributed to the phytochemicals which act in synergy. Thus, the leaves can be exploited for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes.

Okoko, Tebekeme; Ere, Diepreye



Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds.  


Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC(50) for the leaf extract was 0.625 mg ml(-1) for Fusarium spp. and >10 mg ml(-1) for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties. PMID:22282629

Chávez-Quintal, Pedro; González-Flores, Tania; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintoré, Santiago



Photoacoustic study of the influence of the cooling temperature on the CO2 emission rate by Carica papaya L. in modified atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monitoring of trace gas emitted by papaya fruits and assessments of its mass loss can contribute to improve the conditions for their storage and transport. The C02 emission rate by the papaya fruits, monitored by a commercial infrared-based gas analyzer, was influenced by the temperature and storage time. The fruits stored at temperature of 13 °C accumulated more CO2

D. U. Schramm; M. S. Sthel; M. G. da Silva; L. O. Carneiro; H. R. F. Silva; M. L. L. Martins; E. D. Resende; L. Vitorazi; H. Vargas



Repeated dose 28-days oral toxicity study of Carica papaya L. leaf extract in Sprague Dawley rats.  


Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from 'Sekaki' C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and histopathology changes. A total of twelve compounds consisting of one piperidine alkaloid, two organic acids, six malic acid derivatives, and four flavonol glycosides were characterized or tentatively identified in the C. papaya leaf extract. In the sub-acute study, the C. papaya extract did not cause mortality nor were treatment-related changes in body weight, food intake, water level, and hematological parameters observed between treatment and control groups. Some biochemical parameters such as the total protein, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP were elevated in a non-dose dependent manner. Histopathological examination of all organs including liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Other parameters showed non-significant differences between treatment and control groups. The present results suggest that C. papaya leaf extract at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine in Malaysia could be considered safe as a medicinal agent. PMID:22491681

Afzan, Adlin; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Halim, Siti Zaleha; Rashid, Badrul Amini; Semail, Raja Hazlini Raja; Abdullah, Noordini; Jantan, Ibrahim; Muhammad, Hussin; Ismail, Zakiah



Repeated Questions, Deception, and Children's True and False Reports of Body Touch  

PubMed Central

Four- to 7-year-olds’ ability to answer repeated questions about body touch either honestly or dishonestly was examined. Children experienced a play event, during which one third of the children were touched innocuously. Two weeks later, they returned for a memory interview. Some children who had not been touched were instructed to lie during the interview and say that they had been touched. Children so instructed were consistent in maintaining the lie but performed poorly when answering repeated questions unrelated to the lie. Children who were not touched and told the truth were accurate when answering repeated questions. Of note, children who had been touched and told the truth were the most inconsistent. Results call into question the common assumption that consistency is a useful indicator of veracity in children’s eyewitness accounts.

Quas, Jodi A.; Davis, Elizabeth L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Myers, John E. B.



Prevalence, characteristics and a neurocognitive model of mirror-touch synaesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In so-called ‘mirror-touch synaesthesia’, observing touch to another person induces a subjective tactile sensation on the\\u000a synaesthete’s own body. It has been suggested that this type of synaesthesia depends on increased activity in neural systems\\u000a activated when observing touch to others. Here we report the first study on the prevalence of this variant of synaesthesia.\\u000a Our findings indicate that this

Michael J. Banissy; Roi Cohen Kadosh; Gerrit W. Maus; Vincent Walsh; Jamie Ward



Multi-touch Tabletops in Classrooms: Design and Studies for Teacher-Student Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-touch interactive tabletops are becoming increasingly affordable and are likely to become commonplace in schools. Despite the significant research exploring collaboration around tabletops, little has been done to integrate multi-touch technology for collaborative learning in classrooms. This paper explores the teachers' requirements and the challenges associated with the use of multi-touch surfaces in classroom conditions. To better understand the potential

Iyad AlAgha; Elizabeth Burd; Andrew Hatch



No-Look Notes: Accessible Eyes-Free Multi-touch Text Entry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mobile devices with multi-touch capabilities are becoming increasingly common, largely due to the success of the Apple iPhone\\u000a and iPod Touch. While there have been some advances in touchscreen accessibility for blind people, touchscreens remain inaccessible\\u000a in many ways. Recent research has demonstrated that there is great potential in leveraging multi-touch capabilities to increase\\u000a the accessibility of touchscreen applications for

Matthew N. Bonner; Jeremy T. Brudvik; Gregory D. Abowd; W. Keith Edwards



Code space: touch + air gesture hybrid interactions for supporting developer meetings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present Code Space, a system that contributes touch + air gesture hybrid interactions to support co-located, small group developer meetings by democratizing access, control, and sharing of information across multiple personal devices and public displays. Our system uses a combination of a shared multi-touch screen, mobile touch devices, and Microsoft Kinect sensors. We describe cross-device interactions, which use a

Andrew Bragdon; Rob DeLine; Ken Hinckley; Meredith Ringel Morris



A computer touch-screen apparatus for training visual discriminations in rats.  


We describe an operant conditioning apparatus that uses computerized touch-screen technology and is designed for the versatile and highly controlled testing of rats in a potentially wide variety of behavioral paradigms. Although computer-controlled touch-screen systems have been developed for use with pigeons, monkeys, and humans, analogous technologies and methods have not yet been developed for rats. The development of a touch-screen system for rats could enhance the efficiency of behavioral research with rats, and may offer a unique tool for studying animal learning. In the first test of the utility of the apparatus, 3 Sprague-Dawley rats learned to activate the touch screen only after the touch-screen panel was made slightly movable. These animals then learned to discriminate visual stimuli presented on the computer monitor, but only after the food magazine and pellet dispenser were moved to the rear of the chamber opposite the stimulus display and response window. In a test of the utility of the modified apparatus, 6 Long-Evans rats learned to activate the touch screen and learned one of three different simple discriminations using computer-generated, visually presented stimuli. A basic method for training rats to activate the computer touch screen and for visual discrimination training is described. Results show that rats learned to activate the touch screen and discriminate visual stimuli presented on a computer monitor. Potential applications and advantages of the touch-screen-equipped rat operant conditioning chamber are discussed. PMID:8583196

Markham, M R; Butt, A E; Dougher, M J



Flexible Electronics Sensors for Tactile Multi-Touching  

PubMed Central

Flexible electronics sensors for tactile applications in multi-touch sensing and large scale manufacturing were designed and fabricated. The sensors are based on polyimide substrates, with thixotropy materials used to print organic resistances and a bump on the top polyimide layer. The gap between the bottom electrode layer and the resistance layer provides a buffer distance to reduce erroneous contact during large bending. Experimental results show that the top membrane with a bump protrusion and a resistance layer had a large deflection and a quick sensitive response. The bump and resistance layer provided a concentrated von Mises stress force and inertial force on the top membrane center. When the top membrane had no bump, it had a transient response delay time and took longer to reach steady-state. For printing thick structures of flexible electronics sensors, diffusion effects and dimensional shrinkages can be improved by using a paste material with a high viscosity. Linear algorithm matrixes with Gaussian elimination and control system scanning were used for multi-touch detection. Flexible electronics sensors were printed with a resistance thickness of about 32 ?m and a bump thickness of about 0.2 mm. Feasibility studies show that printing technology is appropriate for large scale manufacturing, producing sensors at a low cost.

Chang, Wen-Yang; Fang, Te-Hua; Yeh, Shao-Hsing; Lin, Yu-Cheng



Our Sense of Touch: Two-Point Discrimination  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners investigate the touch sensory system and discover how to plan and carry out their own experiments. In "CLASS EXPERIMENT," learners find that the ability to tell that two points rather than just one are pressing on the skin depends on two things: the density of skin sensory receptors and the connections that the sensory nerve cells make in the brain. They learn basic facts about sensory receptors and nerve connections, and use their estimates of receptor density to predict the size of the brain areas devoted to input from different skin regions. In "TRY YOUR OWN EXPERIMENT," learners design their own experiments, investigating, for example, how touch information is important in motor tasks, or whether additional sensory input can interfere with two-point discrimination. This lesson plan includes background information and guides for educators and learners. Note: total learning time may be reduced if the number of skin areas tested are limited and you restrict the materials in the second part of the activity.

Murray, Marjorie A.



Detection and segmentation of multiple touching product inspection items  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray images of pistachio nuts on conveyor trays for product inspection are considered. The first step in such a processor is to locate each individual item and place it in a separate file for input to a classifier to determine the quality of each nut. This paper considers new techniques to: detect each item (each nut can be in any orientation, we employ new rotation-invariant filters to locate each item independent of its orientation), produce separate image files for each item [a new blob coloring algorithm provides this for isolated (non-touching) input items], segmentation to provide separate image files for touching or overlapping input items (we use a morphological watershed transform to achieve this), and morphological processing to remove the shell and produce an image of only the nutmeat. Each of these operations and algorithms are detailed and quantitative data for each are presented for the x-ray image nut inspection problem noted. These techniques are of general use in many different product inspection problems in agriculture and other areas.

Casasent, David P.; Talukder, Ashit; Cox, Westley; Chang, Hsuan T.; Weber, David



Cortical dynamics as a therapeutic mechanism for touch healing.  


Touch Healing (TH) therapies, defined here as treatments whose primary route of administration is tactile contact and/or active guiding of somatic attention, are ubiquitous across cultures. Despite increasing integration of TH into mainstream medicine through therapies such as Reiki, Therapeutic Touch,(TM) and somatically focused meditation practices such as Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, relatively little is known about potential underlying mechanisms. Here, we present a neuroscientific explanation for the prevalence and effectiveness of TH therapies for relieving chronic pain. We begin with a cross-cultural review of several different types of TH treatments and identify common characteristics, including: light tactile contact and/or a somatosensory attention directed toward the body, a behaviorally relevant context, a relaxed context and repeated treatment sessions. These cardinal features are also key elements of established mechanisms of neural plasticity in somatosensory cortical maps, suggesting that sensory reorganization is a mechanism for the healing observed. Consideration of the potential health benefits of meditation practice specifically suggests that these practices provide training in the regulation of neural and perceptual dynamics that provide ongoing resistance to the development of maladaptive somatic representations. This model provides several direct predictions for investigating ways that TH may induce cortical plasticity and dynamics in pain remediation. PMID:17309379

Kerr, Catherine E; Wasserman, Rachel H; Moore, Christopher I


Detection of platypus-type L/D-peptide isomerase activity in aqueous extracts of papaya fruit.  


Peptide isomerase catalyses the post-translational isomerisation of the L: - to the D: -form of an amino acid residue around the N/C-termini of substrate peptides. To date, some peptide isomerases have been found in a limited number of animal secretions and cells. We show here that papaya extracts have weak peptide isomerase activity. The activity was detected in each 30-100 kDa fraction of the flesh and the seed extracts of unripe and ripe papaya fruit. The definitive activity was confirmed in the ripe papaya extracts, but even then it was much less active than that of the other peptide isomerases previously reported. The activity was markedly inhibited by methanol, and partly so by amastatin and diethyl pyrocarbonate. This is the first report of peptide isomerase activity in a plant and suggests that perhaps every living organism may have some peptide isomerase activity. PMID:22648682

Arakawa, Kensuke; Koh, Jennifer M S; Crossett, Ben; Torres, Allan M; Kuchel, Philip W



A dated phylogeny of the papaya family (Caricaceae) reveals the crop's closest relatives and the family's biogeographic history.  


Papaya (Carica papaya) is a crop of great economic importance, and the species was among the first plants to have its genome sequenced. However, there has never been a complete species-level phylogeny for the Caricaceae, and the crop's closest relatives are therefore unknown. We investigated the evolution of the Caricaceae based on sequences from all species and genera, the monospecific Carica, African Cylicomorpha with two species, South American Jacaratia and Vasconcellea with together c. 28 species, and Mexican/Guatemalan Jarilla and Horovitzia with four species. Most Caricaceae are trees or shrubs; the species of Jarilla, however, are herbaceous. We generated a matrix of 4711 nuclear and plastid DNA characters and used maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analysis to infer species relationships, rooting trees on the Moringaceae. Divergence times were estimated under relaxed and strict molecular clocks, using different subsets of the data. Ancestral area reconstruction relied on a ML approach. The deepest split in the Caricaceae occurred during the Late Eocene, when the ancestor of the Neotropical clade arrived from Africa. In South America, major diversification events coincide with the Miocene northern Andean uplift and the initial phase of the tectonic collision between South America and Panama resulting in the Panamanian land bridge. Carica papaya is sister to Jarilla/Horovitzia, and all three diverged from South American Caricaceae in the Oligocene, 27 (22-33) Ma ago, coincident with the early stages of the formation of the Panamanian Isthmus. The discovery that C. papaya is closest to a clade of herbaceous or thin-stemmed species has implications for plant breeders who have so far tried to cross papaya only with woody highland papayas (Vasconcellea). PMID:22659516

Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; Renner, Susanne S



Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract.  


Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) following lead acetate administration and pre-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) followed by lead acetate administration. The substances were administered for 14 days. The effects were evaluated by measuring protein carbonyl content (PCC) and glutathione content (GC) in the bone marrow. Histological changes in the bone marrow were also observed. The results showed that Carica papaya induced a significant reduction in the PCC activity and significantly increased the GC in the bone marrow. Carica papaya also improved the histology of the bone marrow compared with that of the lead acetate-treated group. In summary, Carica papaya was effective against the oxidative damage caused by lead acetate in the bone marrow and had a stimulatory effect on haemopoiesis. PMID:23403524

Tham, Ching S; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Haleagrahara, Nagaraja; DE Alwis, Ranjit



Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract  

PubMed Central

Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) following lead acetate administration and pre-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) followed by lead acetate administration. The substances were administered for 14 days. The effects were evaluated by measuring protein carbonyl content (PCC) and glutathione content (GC) in the bone marrow. Histological changes in the bone marrow were also observed. The results showed that Carica papaya induced a significant reduction in the PCC activity and significantly increased the GC in the bone marrow. Carica papaya also improved the histology of the bone marrow compared with that of the lead acetate-treated group. In summary, Carica papaya was effective against the oxidative damage caused by lead acetate in the bone marrow and had a stimulatory effect on haemopoiesis.




Explaining Away the Body: Experiences of Supernaturally Caused Touch and Touch on Non-Hand Objects within the Rubber Hand Illusion  

PubMed Central

Background In rubber hand illusions and full body illusions, touch sensations are projected to non-body objects such as rubber hands, dolls or virtual bodies. The robustness, limits and further perceptual consequences of such illusions are not yet fully explored or understood. A number of experiments are reported that test the limits of a variant of the rubber hand illusion. Methodology/Principal Findings A variant of the rubber hand illusion is explored, in which the real and foreign hands are aligned in personal space. The presence of the illusion is ascertained with participants' scores and temperature changes of the real arm. This generates a basic illusion of touch projected to a foreign arm. Participants are presented with further, unusual visuotactile stimuli subsequent to onset of the basic illusion. Such further visuotactile stimulation is found to generate very unusual experiences of supernatural touch and touch on a non-hand object. The finding of touch on a non-hand object conflicts with prior findings, and to resolve this conflict a further hypothesis is successfully tested: that without prior onset of the basic illusion this unusual experience does not occur. Conclusions/Significance A rubber hand illusion is found that can arise when the real and the foreign arm are aligned in personal space. This illusion persists through periods of no tactile stimulation and is strong enough to allow very unusual experiences of touch felt on a cardboard box and experiences of touch produced at a distance, as if by supernatural causation. These findings suggest that one's visual body image is explained away during experience of the illusion and they may be of further importance to understanding the role of experience in delusion formation. The findings of touch on non-hand objects may help reconcile conflicting results in this area of research. In addition, new evidence is provided that relates to the recently discovered psychologically induced temperature changes that occur during the illusion.



Evaluation of New Reference Genes in Papaya for Accurate Transcript Normalization under Different Experimental Conditions  

PubMed Central

Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) is a preferred method for rapid and accurate quantification of gene expression studies. Appropriate application of RT-qPCR requires accurate normalization though the use of reference genes. As no single reference gene is universally suitable for all experiments, thus reference gene(s) validation under different experimental conditions is crucial for RT-qPCR analysis. To date, only a few studies on reference genes have been done in other plants but none in papaya. In the present work, we selected 21 candidate reference genes, and evaluated their expression stability in 246 papaya fruit samples using three algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder. The samples consisted of 13 sets collected under different experimental conditions, including various tissues, different storage temperatures, different cultivars, developmental stages, postharvest ripening, modified atmosphere packaging, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment, hot water treatment, biotic stress and hormone treatment. Our results demonstrated that expression stability varied greatly between reference genes and that different suitable reference gene(s) or combination of reference genes for normalization should be validated according to the experimental conditions. In general, the internal reference genes EIF (Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A), TBP1 (TATA binding protein 1) and TBP2 (TATA binding protein 2) genes had a good performance under most experimental conditions, whereas the most widely present used reference genes, ACTIN (Actin 2), 18S rRNA (18S ribosomal RNA) and GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) were not suitable in many experimental conditions. In addition, two commonly used programs, geNorm and Normfinder, were proved sufficient for the validation. This work provides the first systematic analysis for the selection of superior reference genes for accurate transcript normalization in papaya under different experimental conditions.

Chen, Weixin; Chen, Jianye; Lu, Wangjin; Chen, Lei; Fu, Danwen



Assisting System in Touch-Panel Operation Using Stereo Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a system that can be used to simplify touch-panel operation for people with visual disability. In the system, a user specifies the target button on the panel by a verbal input. The system detects the button and user's fingertip by analyzing images obtained through a stereo camera. The system helps in guiding a finger to the panel by indicating the direction of motion of the fingertip relative to the panel through sounds generated in a headphone. To devise an efficient navigation method, ways to indicate the direction of motion of the finger, different types of navigation sounds, and ways to indicate the distance between the finger and the panel were considered. The experiment showed the effectiveness of the proposed system and the average navigation time for the most efficient method was 9.7s.

Kuno, So; Yamashita, Atsushi; Kaneko, Toru


Obama address touches on research, energy, and environmental issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

President Barack Obama's State of the Union message, delivered on 24 January, touched on the need for basic research, energy production, support for clean energy, and environmental protection, but it included just one passing reference to climate change. In addition, the speech made no note of the Administration's recent denial of a controversial application for the Keystone XL pipeline to transport crude oil from Canada to the United States and made just an elliptical reference regarding the bankrupt Solyndra Corporation, which the administration had touted as a clean energy company. Innovation “demands basic research,” Obama said, adding that Congress should not “gut these investments in our budget.” Noting that one promise for innovation is American-made energy, Obama said he is directing the administration to “open more than 75% of our potential offshore oil and gas resources.”

Showstack, Randy



Practical touch potential criteria for Australian electrical power distribution  

SciTech Connect

An approach to grounding system design is proposed for Australian conditions, whereby the allocation of limited resources can be made in a manner that provides an acceptable level of safety to people, corresponding to the probability of a hazard occurring. The analysis is based upon realistic operating conditions and safety constraints and aims to provide requirements which are both technically and economically feasible. A philosophy and technique are introduced for quantifying the safety levels associated with particular protective grounding installations based upon location and line voltage levels. Location classifications based upon likelihood of people being present are proposed. Touch potential criteria are allocated such that people are not disadvantaged as a result of living in a remote location.

Carman, W.D. (Shortland Electricity, Newcastle (AU)); Mukhedkar, D. (Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada))



Distant touch hydrodynamic imaging with an artificial lateral line.  


Nearly all underwater vehicles and surface ships today use sonar and vision for imaging and navigation. However, sonar and vision systems face various limitations, e.g., sonar blind zones, dark or murky environments, etc. Evolved over millions of years, fish use the lateral line, a distributed linear array of flow sensing organs, for underwater hydrodynamic imaging and information extraction. We demonstrate here a proof-of-concept artificial lateral line system. It enables a distant touch hydrodynamic imaging capability to critically augment sonar and vision systems. We show that the artificial lateral line can successfully perform dipole source localization and hydrodynamic wake detection. The development of the artificial lateral line is aimed at fundamentally enhancing human ability to detect, navigate, and survive in the underwater environment. PMID:17132735

Yang, Yingchen; Chen, Jack; Engel, Jonathan; Pandya, Saunvit; Chen, Nannan; Tucker, Craig; Coombs, Sheryl; Jones, Douglas L; Liu, Chang



Touch screen man machine interfere for emergency dose calculations  

SciTech Connect

Emergency dose calculation systems generally use a keyboard to provide the interface between the user and the computer. This interface is preferred by users who work daily with computers; however, for many plant personnel who are not continuously involved with computer operations, the use of a keyboard can be cumbersome and time consuming. This is particularly true when the user is under pressure during a drill or an actual emergency. Experience in many applications of Pickard, Lowe and Garrick's PLG's Meteorological Information and Dose Assessment System (MIDAS) has shown that user friendliness is a key ingredient toward achieving acceptance of computerized systems. Hardware to support to touch screen interface is now available and has been implemented in MIDAS. Recent experience has demonstrated that selection times for dose calculations are reduced, data entry errors have been minimized, and confusion over appropriate entries has been avoided due to the built-in logic. A 10-yr search for an acceptable keyboard replacement has ended.

Woodard, K.; Abrams, M.



Touch-free in situ investigation of ancient Egyptian pigments.  


Some of the pigments painted on the Funerary Stele of Amenemhat (ca. 2000 B.C.) exhibited at the Egyptian Museum, Cairo and on the walls of the Tomb of Userhat (ca. 1420 B.C.), a rock-cut tomb in Thebes, Egypt, were investigated in situ using both a convenient home-made hand-held type of X-ray diffractometer and a commercial X-ray fluorescence spectrometer in a complementary way under touch-free conditions. CaCO3.3MgCO3 (huntite) was found in the white-painted parts of these two ancient monuments. An arsenic (As)-bearing phase was detected in the yellow-painted parts of the latter monument. The occurrence of huntite in Egypt has not been reported previously. PMID:10929288

Uda, M; Sassa, S; Taniguchi, K; Nomura, S; Yoshimura, S; Kondo, J; Iskander, N; Zaghloul, B



Capacitive touch sensing : signal and image processing algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capacitive touch sensors have been in use for many years, and recently gained center stage with the ubiquitous use in smart-phones. In this work we will analyze the most common method of projected capacitive sensing, that of absolute capacitive sensing, together with the most common sensing pattern, that of diamond-shaped sensors. After a brief introduction to the problem, and the reasons behind its popularity, we will formulate the problem as a reconstruction from projections. We derive analytic solutions for two simple cases: circular finger on a wire grid, and square finger on a square grid. The solutions give insight into the ambiguities of finding finger location from sensor readings. The main contribution of our paper is the discussion of interpolation algorithms including simple linear interpolation , curve fitting (parabolic and Gaussian), filtering, general look-up-table, and combinations thereof. We conclude with observations on the limits of the present algorithmic methods, and point to possible future research.

Baharav, Zachi; Kakarala, Ramakrishna



Distant touch hydrodynamic imaging with an artificial lateral line  

PubMed Central

Nearly all underwater vehicles and surface ships today use sonar and vision for imaging and navigation. However, sonar and vision systems face various limitations, e.g., sonar blind zones, dark or murky environments, etc. Evolved over millions of years, fish use the lateral line, a distributed linear array of flow sensing organs, for underwater hydrodynamic imaging and information extraction. We demonstrate here a proof-of-concept artificial lateral line system. It enables a distant touch hydrodynamic imaging capability to critically augment sonar and vision systems. We show that the artificial lateral line can successfully perform dipole source localization and hydrodynamic wake detection. The development of the artificial lateral line is aimed at fundamentally enhancing human ability to detect, navigate, and survive in the underwater environment.

Yang, Yingchen; Chen, Jack; Engel, Jonathan; Pandya, Saunvit; Chen, Nannan; Tucker, Craig; Coombs, Sheryl; Jones, Douglas L.; Liu, Chang



Reactions to music, touch and object presentation in the final stage of dementia: an exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two patients in the final stage of dementia of Alzheimer type were stimulated with music, touch and object presentation during 12 consecutive days (16 trials per patient). Evaluations were made by direct observations, analysis of video-taped recordings and registrations of pulse and rate of respiration. Both patients reacted differently to music than to touch and object presentation.

Astrid Norberg; Else Melin; Kenneth Asplund



The mammalian sodium channel BNC1 is required for normal touch sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the vertebrate senses, touch is the least understood at the molecular level. The ion channels that form the core of the mechanosensory complex and confer touch sensitivity remain unknown. However, the similarity of the brain sodium channel 1 (BNC1) to nematode proteins involved in mechanotransduction indicated that it might be a part of such a mechanosensor. Here we show

Margaret P. Price; Gary R. Lewin; Sabrina L. McIlwrath; Chun Cheng; Jinghui Xie; Paul A. Heppenstall; Cheryl L. Stucky; Anne G. Mannsfeldt; Timothy J. Brennan; Heather A. Drummond; Jing Qiao; Christopher J. Benson; Deirdre E. Tarr; Ron F. Hrstka; Baoli Yang; Roger A. Williamson; Michael J. Welsh



When Right Feels Left: Referral of Touch and Ownership between the Hands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeling touch on a body part is paradigmatically considered to require stimulation of tactile afferents from the body part in question, at least in healthy non-synaesthetic individuals. In contrast to this view, we report a perceptual illusion where people experience ''phantom touches'' on a right rubber hand when they see it brushed simultaneously with brushes applied to their left hand.

Valeria I. Petkova; H. Henrik Ehrsson



Self-touching behavior in the job interview: Antecedents and consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined self-touching behavior in a simulated employment interview. Four male and four female interviewers each met with four applicants (four male and four female) under two different conditions of formality (informal and formal). Results showed that sex composition of the dyad, status within the dyad, and situational formality could dramatically affect the frequency and location of self-touching. In

Shelly Goldberg; Robert Rosenthal



Do Gestural Interfaces Promote Thinking? Embodied Interaction: Congruent Gestures and Direct Touch Promote Performance in Math  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Can action support cognition? Can direct touch support performance? Embodied interaction involving digital devices is based on the theory of grounded cognition. Embodied interaction with gestural interfaces involves more of our senses than traditional (mouse-based) interfaces, and in particular includes direct touch and physical movement, which…

Segal, Ayelet



A simplified touch tape preparation from tube cultures for microscopic examination of filamentous fungi.  


Cellophane touch tape preparation provides reproducible results in minimal time when compared to tease mount and slide culture techniques for the identification of fungi from culture plates, but it is difficult to perform from tube cultures. Here, we describe an easy to perform touch tape preparation method that provided a better result from fungal tube culture. PMID:21554905

Maurya, Shesh Prakash; Prakash, Peralam Yegneswaran; Bairy, Indira



Multi-Touch Surfaces: A Technical Guide Technical Report TUM-I0833  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-touch interaction with computationally enhanced sur- faces has received considerable recent attention. Approaches to the implementation of multi-touch interaction such as Frustrated Total Internal Reection (FTIR) and Diused Illumination (DI) have allowed for the low cost development of such surfaces, leading to a number of technology and ap- plication innovations. Although many of these techniques have been presented in an

Johannes Schöning; Peter Brandl; Florian Daiber; Florian Echtler; Otmar Hilliges; Jonathan Hook; Markus Löchtefeld; Nima Motamedi; Laurence Muller; Patrick Olivier; Tim Roth; Ulrich von Zadow


TapTap: a haptic wearable for asynchronous distributed touch therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

TapTap is a wearable haptic system that allows nurturing human touch to be recorded, broadcast and played back for emotional th erapy. Haptic input\\/output modules in a convenient modular scarf provide affectionate touch that can be personalized. We present a working prototype informed by a pilot study.

Leonardo Bonanni; Cati Vaucelle; Jeff Lieberman; Orit Zuckerman



Programming by touch: the different way of human-robot interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile service robots will share their workspaces, e.g., offices, hospitals, or households, with humans. Thus, a direct contact between man and machine is inevitable. Robots equipped with appropriate sensors can sense the touch. In this paper, we present how an unskilled user can intuitively teach the lightweight robot at the German Aerospace Center (DLR), Weßling, Germany, just by touching the

Gerhard Grunwald; Günter Schreiber; Alin Albu-Schäffer; Gerd Hirzinger



Investigating usability and user experience as possible entry barriers for touch interaction in the living room  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interaction with various forms of media is changing. Today, interaction technologies like touch, gesture, or speech are ready for deployment in consumer products. Given that most of these technologies are available for more than 20 years, the take up in end consumer products is limited. To investigate the problems on the introduction of touch interaction to the end consumer market,

Michael Pirker; Regina Bernhaupt; Thomas Mirlacher



College men's and women's reactions to hypothetical sexual touch varied by initiator gender and coercion level  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 152 men and 152 women (mostly Caucasian) rated their reactions to a vignette in which the subjects were to imagine receiving an uninvited genital touch from a college acquaintance. The vignette was varied so that the acquaintance was of the opposite or the same gender as the subject, and the touch was either gentle or forceful. Results

Cindy Struckman-Johnson; David Struckman-Johnson



CLSI On-Line Public Catalog Touch Terminal Manual: Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This training manual developed by the Public Access Subcommittee of the Reference Department of Meriam Library (California State University, Chico) provides instructions for using the library's online public catalog by means of a touch terminal which accepts commands in the form of a touch on a particular part of the terminal screen. Author and…

California State Univ., Chico.


Investigating response similarities between real and mediated social touch: a first test  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate whether the gender differences generally found in same and opposite sex social touch are also present in mediated situations. Participants were led to believe that a male or female stranger was remotely touching them by means of a vest equipped with vibrotactile actuators. Affective responses varied with the stimulated body location, but the effect of

Antal Haans; Christiaan De Nood; Wijnand A. IJsselsteijn



Differential Involvement of Somatosensory and Interoceptive Cortices during the Observation of Affective Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggested that the observation of other individuals' somatosensory experiences also activates brain circuits processing one's own somatosensory experiences. However, it is unclear whether cortical regions involved with the elementary stages of touch processing are also involved in the automatic coding of the affective consequences of observed touch and to which extent they show overlapping activation for somatosensory experiences

Sjoerd J. H. Ebisch; Francesca Ferri; Anatolia Salone; Mauro Gianni Perrucci; Luigi D'Amico; Filippo Maria Ferro; Gian Luca Romani; Vittorio Gallese



MTMR: A conceptual interior design framework integrating Mixed Reality with the Multi-Touch tabletop interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a conceptual interior design framework - Multi-Touch Mixed Reality (MTMR), which integrates mixed reality with the multi-touch tabletop interface, to provide an intuitive and efficient interface for collaborative design and an augmented 3D view to users at the same time. Under this framework, multiple designers can carry out design work simultaneously on the top view displayed on

Dong Wei; Steven Zhiying Zhou; Du Xie



Lovers in Touch: Inoperative Community in Nancy, Duras and India Song  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article takes as its point of departure Maurice Blanchot's pairing of Marguerite Duras and Jean-Luc Nancy in The Unavowable Community, and reads India Song, a film by Duras, through Nancy's work on community. Just as Nancy articulates a thinking of community in terms of touch, so Duras develops her own filmic vocabulary of touch to examine questions of being-with,

Laura McMahon



Out of touch, out of reach: Tactile predispositions as predictors of interpersonal distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of touch avoidance, a person's general predisposition to approach or avoid tactile communication, on interpersonal distance was examined through four hypotheses. Two of the four hypotheses, both involving interpersonal distance from female confederates, were confirmed. Additionally, die combined effects of touch avoidance, receiver apprehension, and physical attraction on interpersonal distance were examined in a series of multiple regression

Peter A. Andersen; Karen Kuish Sull



Phylogenetic analysis of the highland papayas ( Vasconcellea) and allied genera (Caricaceae) using PCR-RFLP.  


The chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA diversity of 61 genotypes belonging to 18 Vasconcellea species, the so-called highland papayas, was studied by PCR-RFLP analysis of two non-coding cpDNA regions ( trnM- rbcL and trnK1- trnK2) and one non-coding mtDNA region ( nad4/1- nad4/2). This sample set was supplemented with six genotypes belonging to three other Caricaceae genera: the monotypic genus Carica, including only the cultivated papaya, and the genera Jacaratia and Cylicomorpha. Moringa ovalifolia was added as an outgroup species. The PCR-amplified cpDNA regions were digested with 18 restriction endonucleases, the mtDNA region with 11. A total of 22 point mutations and four insertion/deletions were scored in the sample. A higher level of interspecific variation was detected in the two cpDNA regions in comparison to the analysis of the mtDNA. Wagner parsimony and Neighbor-Joining analysis resulted in dendrograms with similar topologies. PCR-RFLP analysis supported the monophyly of Caricaceae, but among the 26 mutations scored, an insufficient number of markers discriminated between the different Caricaceae genera included in this study. Hence the inference of the intergeneric relationships within Caricaceae was impossible. However, some conclusions can be noted at a lower taxonomic level. The Caricaceae species were divided into two lineages. One group included only Vasconcellea spp., whereas the second included the remaining Vasconcellea spp., together with the papaya genotypes and those from the other Caricaceae genera. This may indicate a higher level of inter-fertility for the Vasconcellea species from the latter clade in interspecific crossings with papaya. The putative progenitors of the natural sterile hybrid V. x heilbornii, i.e. V. stipulata and V. cundinamarcensis, were only distantly related to V. x heilbornii. This indicates that probably none of these species was involved as the maternal progenitor in the origin of V. x heilbornii. Surprisingly, V. x heilbornii had organellar genome patterns identical with V. weberbaueri, suggesting a possible involvement of this species in the origin of V. x heilbornii. On the basis of discrepancy between morphological traits and the cpDNA profiles of some pairs of Vasconcellea species, we believe that besides V. x heilbornii, some other species have originated through interspecific hybridization. A reticulate evolution for Vasconcellea has therefore been suggested. Finally, intraspecific cpDNA variation was detected in V. microcarpa, thus providing molecular evidence for the high diversity previously indicated by morphological observations. PMID:14752605

Van Droogenbroeck, B; Kyndt, T; Maertens, I; Romeijn-Peeters, E; Scheldeman, X; Romero-Motochi, J P; Van Damme, P; Goetghebeur, P; Gheysen, G



Using Touch Screen Audio-CASI to Obtain Data on Sensitive Topics  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a new interview data collection system that uses a laptop personal computer equipped with a touch-sensitive video monitor. The touch-screen-based audio computer-assisted self-interviewing system, or touch screen audio-CASI, enhances the ease of use of conventional audio CASI systems while simultaneously providing the privacy of self-administered questionnaires. We describe touch screen audio-CASI design features and operational characteristics. In addition, we present data from a recent clinic-based experiment indicating that the touch audio-CASI system is stable, robust, and suitable for administering relatively long and complex questionnaires on sensitive topics, including drug use and sexual behaviors associated with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases.

Cooley, Philip C.; Rogers, Susan M.; Turner, Charles F.; Al-Tayyib, Alia A.; Willis, Gordon; Ganapathi, Laxminarayana



Segmentation of touching handwritten Japanese characters using the graph theory method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Projection analysis methods have been widely used to segment Japanese character strings. However, if adjacent characters have overhanging strokes or a touching point doesn't correspond to the histogram minimum, the methods are prone to result in errors. In contrast, non-projection analysis methods being proposed for use on numerals or alphabet characters cannot be simply applied for Japanese characters because of the differences in the structure of the characters. Based on the oversegmenting strategy, a new pre-segmentation method is presented in this paper: touching patterns are represented as graphs and touching strokes are regarded as the elements of proper edge cutsets. By using the graph theoretical technique, the cutset martrix is calculated. Then, by applying pruning rules, potential touching strokes are determined and the patterns are over segmented. Moreover, this algorithm was confirmed to be valid for touching patterns with overhanging strokes and doubly connected patterns in simulations.

Suwa, Misako



Development of high-performance low-reflection rugged resistive touch screens for military displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Just as iPhones with sophisticated touch interfaces have revolutionised the human interface for the ubiquitous cell phone, the Military is rapidly adopting touch-screens as a primary interface to their computers and vehicle systems. This paper describes the development of a true military touch interface solution from an existing industrial design. We will report on successful development of 10.4" and 15.4" high performance rugged resistive touch panels using IAD sputter coating. Low reflectance (specular < 1% and diffuse < 0.07%) was achieved with high impact, dust, and chemical resistant surface finishes. These touch panels were qualified over a wide operational temperature range, -51°C to +80°C specifically for military and rugged industrial applications.

Wang, Raymond; Wang, Minshine; Thomas, John; Wang, Lawrence; Chang, Victor



Touch interface for sensing fingertip force in mobile device using electromyogram.  


The aim of this study is to develop a three-dimensional touch interface for mobile devices, specifically a touch interface for detecting fingertip force. This interface consists of a conventional touch interface and an electromyogram (EMG) amplifier. The fingertip force during manipulation of the touch interface is estimated from the EMG measurement. We develop a method for obtaining fingertip force information using an EMG, while the two-dimensional position of the finger is measured using the conventional touch interface found in mobile devices. Further, we evaluate the validity of our newly developed interface by comparing the fingertip force estimated using our proposed method with the fingertip force measured using a force sensor. Lastly, we develop an application using our interface. PMID:24110469

Odagaki, Masato; Taura, Toshiyuki; Harakawa, Tetsumi



Effects of chitosan-based coatings containing peppermint essential oil on the quality of post-harvest papaya fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Edible coatings comprised of antimicrobial polymers based on chitosan are promising technologies to preserve post-harvest fruit quality. In this study, we investigated the potential utility of a coating made from chitosan modified by N-acylation with fatty acid to preserve post-harvest papaya qualit...


Effects of Ozone in Combination with Hydrothermal Treatment and Wax on Physical and Chemical Properties of Papayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effects of ozone in combination with hydrothermal treatment and wax on physical and chemical properties of papayas. The ozone concentrations used in this study were 2 and 4 mg\\/L. Heat treatments were applied with a hot water brushing system at temperatures of 45, 55 and 65 °C. No mold was observed under the wax film of

Carolina Pereira Kechinski; Cândida Raquel Sherrer Montero; Caciano Pelajo Zapata Noreña; Isabel Cristina Tessaro; Lígia Damasceno Ferreira Marczak; Renar João Bender



Effects of Coadministration of Extract of Carica papaya Linn (family Cariaceae) on Activity of Two Oral Hypoglycemic Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To investigate the interacting effects of co-administration of Carica papaya leaf extract on the hypoglycemic activity of metformin and glimepiride in an animal model. Method: Experimental factorial design was used to evaluate the individual and interaction influence of three variables ie nature (N), dose administered (C) and duration of administration (D), in a 23(=8) employed at two levels -

T Oladipupo; Y Ogunremi


Effect of ozone pre-conditioning on quality and antioxidant capacity of papaya fruit during ambient storage.  


The objective of this study was to compare the physico-chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of ozone-treated papaya fruit and untreated fruit. Freshly harvested papaya fruit were exposed continuously to ozone fumigation (0, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 5ppm) for 96h prior to ambient storage at 25±3°C and 70±5% relative humidity (RH) for up to 14days. The fruit exposed to 2.5ppm ozone had higher levels of total soluble solids (25.0%), ascorbic acid content (12.4%), ?-carotene content (19.6%), lycopene content (52.1%), and antioxidant activity (30.9%), and also reduced weight loss (11.5%) at day 10 compared to the control. The sensory attributes of papaya treated with 2.5ppm ozone was superior in sweetness and overall acceptability. These results support the application of ozone as a non-thermal and safe food preservation technique for papaya which can benefit both the producers and consumers. PMID:24001808

Ali, Asgar; Ong, Mei Kying; Forney, Charles F



Genetic differentiation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum associated with Anthracnose disease of papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsium annuum L.) based on ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting.  


Members of the genus Colletotrichum include some of the most economically important fungal pathogens in the world. Accurate diagnosis is critical to devising disease management strategies. Two species, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum, are responsible for anthracnose disease in papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Trinidad. The ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of 48 Colletotrichum isolates was sequenced, and the ITS PCR products were analyzed by PCR-RFLP analysis. Restriction site polymorphisms generated from 11 restriction enzymes enabled the identification of specific enzymes that were successful in distinguishing between C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates. Species-specific restriction fragment length polymorphisms generated by the enzymes AluI, HaeIII, PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were used to consistently resolve C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates from papaya. AluI, ApaI, PvuII, RsaI, and SmaI reliably separated isolates of C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum from bell pepper. PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were also capable of distinguishing among the C. gloeosporioides isolates from papaya based on the different restriction patterns that were obtained as a result of intra-specific variation in restriction enzyme recognition sites in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region. Of all the isolates tested, C. gloeosporioides from papaya also had the highest number of PCR-RFLP haplotypes. Cluster analysis of sequence and PCR-RFLP data demonstrated that all C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates clustered separately into species-specific clades regardless of host species. Phylograms also revealed consistent topologies which suggested that the genetic distances for PCR-RFLP-generated data were comparable to that of ITS sequence data. ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting is a rapid and reliable method to identify and differentiate between Colletotrichum species. PMID:21720933

Maharaj, Ariana; Rampersad, Sephra N



Molecular characterization and infectivity of Papaya leaf curl China virus infecting tomato in China*  

PubMed Central

Papaya leaf curl China virus (PaLCuCNV) was previously reported as a distinct begomovirus infecting papaya in southern China. Based on molecular diagnostic survey, 13 PaLCuCNV isolates were obtained from tomato plants showing leaf curl symptoms in Henan and Guangxi Provinces of China. Complete nucleotide sequences of 5 representative isolates (AJ558116, AJ558117, AJ704604, FN256260, and FN297834) were determined to be 2738–2751 nucleotides, which share 91.7%–97.9% sequence identities with PaLCuCNV isolate G2 (AJ558123). DNA-? was not found to be associated with PaLCuCNV isolates. To investigate the infectivity of PaLCuCNV, an infectious clone of PaLCuCNV-[CN:HeNZM1] was constructed and agro-inoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum Samsun, N. glutinosa, Solanum lycopersicum and Petunia hybrida plants, which induced severe leaf curling and crinkling symptoms in these plants. Southern blot analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated a systemic infection of test plants by the agro-infectious clone.

Zhang, Hui; Ma, Xin-ying; Qian, Ya-juan; Zhou, Xue-ping



Carica papaya lipase: a naturally immobilized enzyme with interesting biochemical properties.  


Triacylglycerol (TAG) lipases have been thoroughly characterized in mammals and microorganisms, whereas very little is known about plant TAG lipases. The lipolytic activity occurring in all the laticies is known to be associated with sedimentable particles, and all attempts to solubilize the lipolytic activity of Carica papaya latex have been unsuccessful so far. However, some of the biochemical properties of the lipase from Carica papaya latex (CPL) were determined from the insoluble fraction of the latex. The activity was optimum at a temperature of 37°C and a pH of 9.0, and the specific activities of CPL were found to be 2,000?±?185 and 256?±?8 U/g when tributyrin and olive oil were used as substrates, respectively. CPL was found to be active in the absence of any detergent, whereas many lipases require detergent to prevent the occurrence of interfacial denaturation. CPL was inactive in the presence of micellar concentrations of Triton X-100, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and tetradecyl trimethylammonium bromide (TTAB), and still showed high levels of activity in the presence of sodium taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC) and the zwitterionic Chaps detergent. The effects of various proteases on the lipolytic activity of CPL were studied, and CPL was found to be resistant to treatment with various enzymes, except in the presence of trypsin. All these properties suggest that CPL may be a good candidate for various biotechnological applications. PMID:21267783

Abdelkafi, Slim; Barouh, Nathalie; Fouquet, Benjamin; Fendri, Imen; Pina, Michel; Scheirlinckx, Frantz; Villeneuve, Pierre; Carrière, Frédéric



Identification of miRNAs and miRNA-mediated regulatory pathways in Carica papaya.  


Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) post-transcriptionally regulate target gene expression to modulate growth and development and biotic and abiotic stress responses. By analyzing small RNA deep sequencing data in combination with the genome sequence, we identified 75 conserved miRNAs and 11 novel miRNAs. Their target genes were also predicted. For most conserved miRNAs, the miRNA-target pairs were conserved across plant species. In addition to these conserved miRNA-target pairs, we also identified some papaya-specific miRNA-target regulatory pathways. Both miR168 and miR530 target the Argonaute 1 gene, indicating a second autoregulatory mechanism for miRNA regulation. A non-conserved miRNA was mapped within an intron of Dicer-like 1 (DCL1), suggesting a conserved homeostatic autoregulatory mechanism for DCL1 expression. A 21-nt miRNA triggers secondary siRNA production from its target genes, nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat protein genes. Certain phased-miRNAs were processed from their conserved miRNA precursors, indicating a putative miRNA evolution mechanism. In addition, we identified a Carica papaya-specific miRNA that targets an ethylene receptor gene, implying its function in the ethylene signaling pathway. This work will also advance our understanding of miRNA functions and evolution in plants. PMID:23851604

Liang, Gang; Li, Yang; He, Hua; Wang, Fang; Yu, Diqiu



The Development of a Theoretical Construct of the Concepts of Touch as They Relate to Nursing. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To develop a theoretical construct of touch as it relates to nursing, an extensive was made of the basic and accepted theories of touch, and a survey was conducted of current practices of touch by approximately 900 health personnel in two Dallas, Texas hospitals. Survey data were gathered by observation of 180 sessions involving approximately 540…

Barnett, Kathryn E.


Cell free DNA as a component of forensic evidence recovered from touched surfaces.  


In the course of a criminal investigation, DNA is often recovered from items that have been handled by an individual. Whilst there have been studies investigating the propensity of different individuals to deposit DNA, little is known about the factors involved in the transference of DNA through touch. This investigation seeks to clarify some of the underlying processes involved in DNA transfer, as to better understand the significance of so-called "touch DNA" evidence (tDNA). It was shown that an average yield of 11.5 ng of DNA could be recovered from 1 mL cell-free sweat samples leading to the hypothesis that cell-free nucleic acids (CNAs) of a suitable length for standard DNA profiling are transferred during handling/touching items. A method of standardization of tDNA deposition was developed to overcome the significant sample to sample variability in DNA levels characteristic of tDNA samples. The glass bead method allowed the creation of identical tDNA sample sets, thus permitting direct comparisons to be made in the efficiency of various extraction methods. Extraction methods designed to optimize CNA recovery from touched articles resulted in comparable yields in a general population study, however the methods resulted in a twofold increase in DNA yields from touched items touched by individuals with sweaty hands. These results suggest that the CNA component of touched surfaces should be included to maximize profiling success of tDNA. PMID:21292581

Quinones, Ignacio; Daniel, Barbara



Integration of advanced technologies to enhance problem-based learning over distance: Project TOUCH.  


Distance education delivery has increased dramatically in recent years as a result of the rapid advancement of communication technology. The National Computational Science Alliance's Access Grid represents a significant advancement in communication technology with potential for distance medical education. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the TOUCH project (Telehealth Outreach for Unified Community Health; with special emphasis on the process of problem-based learning case development for distribution over the Access Grid. The objective of the TOUCH project is to use emerging Internet-based technology to overcome geographic barriers for delivery of tutorial sessions to medical students pursuing rotations at remote sites. The TOUCH project also is aimed at developing a patient simulation engine and an immersive virtual reality environment to achieve a realistic health care scenario enhancing the learning experience. A traumatic head injury case is developed and distributed over the Access Grid as a demonstration of the TOUCH system. Project TOUCH serves as an example of a computer-based learning system for developing and implementing problem-based learning cases within the medical curriculum, but this system should be easily applied to other educational environments and disciplines involving functional and clinical anatomy. Future phases will explore PC versions of the TOUCH cases for increased distribution. PMID:12526062

Jacobs, Joshua; Caudell, Thomas; Wilks, David; Keep, Marcus F; Mitchell, Steven; Buchanan, Holly; Saland, Linda; Rosenheimer, Julie; Lozanoff, Beth K; Lozanoff, Scott; Saiki, Stanley; Alverson, Dale



Food Security in Bangladesh: Improving Wheat, Maize and Papaya Production, and Impacts of Arsenic Contamination. Final Program Performance Report For the Period July 2002 to June 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The USAID funded project Food Security in Bangladesh: Improving Wheat, Maize and Papaya Production, and Impacts of Arsenic Contamination was designed to enhance food production through agronomic research and extension to improve the efficiency and profita...



The contribution of light touch sensory cues to corrective reactions during treadmill locomotion.  


The arms play an important role in balance regulation during walking. In general, perturbations delivered during walking trigger whole-body corrective responses. For instance, holding to stable handles can largely attenuate and even suppress responses in the leg muscles to perturbations during walking. Particular attention has been given to the influence of light touch on postural control. During standing, lightly touching a stable contact greatly reduces body sway and enhances corrective responses to postural perturbations, whereas light touch during walking allows subjects to continue to walk on a treadmill with the eyes closed. We hypothesized that in the absence of mechanical support from the arms, sensory cues from the hands would modulate responses in the legs to balance disturbing perturbations delivered at the torso during walking. To test this, subjects walked on a treadmill while periodically being pulled backwards at the waist while walking. The amplitude of the responses evoked in tibialis anterior to these perturbations was compared across 4 test conditions, in a 2 × 2 design. Subjects either (a) lightly touched or (b) did not touch a stable contact, while the eyes were (c) open or (d) closed. Allowing the subjects to touch a stable contact resulted in a reduction in the amount of fore-aft oscillation of the body on the treadmill, which was accompanied by a reduction in the ongoing electromyographic activity in both tibialis anterior and soleus during undisturbed walking. In contrast, the provision of touch resulted in an increase in the amplitude of the evoked responses in tibialis anterior to the backward perturbations that was more evident when subjects walked with the eyes closed. These results indicate that light touch provides a sensory cue that can be used to assist in stabilizing the body while walking. In addition, the sensory information provided by light touch contributes to the regulation of corrective reactions initiated by balance disturbances encountered during walking. PMID:23483209

Forero, Juan; Misiaszek, John E



Cloning of the papaya chromoplast-specific lycopene beta-cyclase, CpCYC-b, controlling fruit flesh color reveals conserved microsynteny and a recombination hot spot.  


Carotenoid pigments in fruits are indicative of the ripening process and potential nutritional value. Papaya (Carica papaya) fruit flesh color is caused by the accumulation of lycopene or beta-carotenoids in chromoplasts. It is a distinct feature affecting nutritional composition, fruit quality, shelf life, and consumer preference. To uncover the molecular basis of papaya flesh color, we took map-based cloning and candidate gene approaches using integrated genetic and physical maps. A DNA marker tightly linked to flesh color colocalized on a contig of the physical map with a cDNA probe of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) chromoplast-specific lycopene beta-cyclase, CYC-b. Candidate gene sequences were obtained from amplified fragments and verified by sequencing two bacterial artificial chromosomes containing the two alleles. Sequence comparison revealed a 2-bp insertion in the coding region of the recessive red flesh allele resulting in a frame-shift mutation and a premature stop codon. A color complementation test in bacteria confirmed that the papaya CpCYC-b is the gene controlling fruit flesh color. Sequence analysis of wild and cultivated papaya accessions showed the presence of this frame-shift mutation in all red flesh accessions examined. Evaluation of DNA markers near CpCYC-b revealed a recombination hot spot, showing that CpCYC-b is located in a gene-rich region with a recombination rate at 3.7 kb per centimorgan, more than 100-fold higher than the genome average at 400 kb per centimorgan. Conserved microsynteny of the CpCYC-b region is indicated by colinearity of two to four genes between papaya, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), grape (Vitis vinifera), and tomato. Our results enhanced our understanding of papaya flesh color inheritance and generated new tools for papaya improvement. PMID:20181753

Blas, Andrea L; Ming, Ray; Liu, Zhiyong; Veatch, Olivia J; Paull, Robert E; Moore, Paul H; Yu, Qingyi



Behavioral responses of female oriental fruit flies to the odor of papayas at three ripeness stages in a laboratory flight tunnel (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral responses of adult female oriental fruit flies, Dacus dorsalisHendel, to the odor of papayas from three ripeness classes were studied using a threechoice flight tunnel bioassay. Laboratoryreared flies were allowed to respond freely to any of three papaya odors (mature green, colorbreak to one-fourth ripe, and one-half to full ripe) emanating from identical (spherical) fruit models. Five behaviors were

Eric B. Jang; Douglas M. Light



Antifungal Activity of Leaf and Stem Extracts from Various Plant Species on the Incidence of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides of Papaya and Mango Fruit After Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bautista-Baños, S., Barrera-Necha, L.L., Bravo-Luna, L., and Bermudez-Torres, K. 2002. Antifungal activity of leaf and stem extracts from various plant species on the incidence of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides of papaya and mango fruit after storage. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatología 20:8-12. Aqueous extracts of leaves and stems of Achras sapota, Annona reticulata, Bromelia hemisphaerica, Carica papaya, Citrus limon, Chrysophylum cainito, Dyospiros ebenaster,

Silvia Bautista-Baños; Laura Leticia Barrera-Necha; Leticia Bravo-Luna



Putting Your Data and Media on the iPod Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, you explored the options you have for syncing your media and data with your iPod touch. You discovered where\\u000a to get your media and how to make sure your iPod touch\\/iTunes sync preferences stick. To wind things up, here is a quick overview\\u000a of some key points from this chapter:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a  \\u000a \\u000a The way your iPod touch connects

Michael Grothaus; Erica Sadun


Scattering of light by bispheres with touching and separated components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the T-matrix method as described by Mishchenko and Mackowski [Opt. Lett. 19, 1604 (1994)] to compute light scattering by bispheres in fixed and random orientations extensively. For all our computations the index of refraction is fixed at a value 1.5 + 0.005i, which is close to the refractive index of mineral tropospheric aerosols and was used in previous extensive studies of light scattering by spheroids and Chebyshev particles. For monodisperse bispheres with touching components in a fixed orientation, electromagnetic interactions between the constituent spheres result in a considerably more complicated interference structure in the scattering patterns than that for single monodisperse spheres. However, this increased structure is largely washed out by orientational averaging and results in scattering patterns for randomly oriented bispheres that are close to those for single spheres with size equal to the size of the bisphere components. Unlike other nonspherical particles such as cubes and spheroids, randomly oriented bispheres do not exhibit pronounced enhancement of side scattering and reduction of backscattering and positive polarization at side-scattering angles. Thus the dominant feature of light scattering by randomly oriented bispheres is the single scattering from the component spheres, whereas the effects of cooperative scattering and concavity of the

Mishchenko, Michael I.; Travis, Larry D.; Mackowski, Daniel W.



Plant neighbor detection through touching leaf tips precedes phytochrome signals.  


Plants in dense vegetation compete for resources, including light, and optimize their growth based on neighbor detection cues. The best studied of such behaviors is the shade-avoidance syndrome that positions leaves in optimally lit zones of a vegetation. Although proximate vegetation is known to be sensed through a reduced ratio between red and far-red light, we show here through computational modeling and manipulative experiments that leaves of the rosette species Arabidopsis thaliana first need to move upward to generate sufficient light reflection potential for subsequent occurrence and perception of a reduced red to far-red ratio. This early hyponastic leaf growth response is not induced by known neighbor detection cues under both climate chamber and natural sunlight conditions, and we identify a unique way for plants to detect future competitors through touching of leaf tips. This signal occurs before light signals and appears to be the earliest means of above-ground plant-plant signaling in horizontally growing rosette plants. PMID:22908260

de Wit, Mieke; Kegge, Wouter; Evers, Jochem B; Vergeer-van Eijk, Marleen H; Gankema, Paulien; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Pierik, Ronald



Haptic augmentation of science instruction: Does touch matter?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the impact of haptic augmentation of a science inquiry program on students' learning about viruses and nanoscale science. The study assessed how the addition of different types of haptic feedback (active touch and kinesthetic feedback) combined with computer visualizations influenced middle and high school students' experiences. The influences of a PHANToM (a sophisticated haptic desktop device), a Sidewinder (a haptic gaming joystick), and a mouse (no haptic feedback) interface were compared. The levels of engagement in the instruction and students' attitudes about the instructional program were assessed using a combination of constructed response and Likert scale items. Potential cognitive differences were examined through an analysis of spontaneously generated analogies that appeared during student discourse. Results showed that the addition of haptic feedback from the haptic-gaming joystick and the PHANToM provided a more immersive learning environment that not only made the instruction more engaging but may also influence the way in which the students construct their understandings about abstract science concepts.

Jones, M. Gail; Minogue, James; Tretter, Thomas R.; Negishi, Atsuko; Taylor, Russell



Massage and touch therapy in neonates: the current evidence.  


Infant massage was first introduced in China in 2nd century BC. Massaging the newborn has been a tradition in India and other Asian countries since time immemorial. Various oil-based preparations have been used depending on the regional availability. There has been a recent surge in this ancient art particularly as a therapy among parents and professionals in the Western world. Evidence exists supporting the benefits of touch and massage therapy. We reviewed the literature to look at the various techniques of providing massage, its benefits, possible mechanism of action and adverse effects. The review suggests that massage has several positive effects in terms of weight gain, better sleep-wake pattern, enhanced neuromotor development, better emotional bonding, reduced rates of nosocomial infection and thereby, reduced mortality in the hospitalized patients. Many studies have described the technique and frequency of this procedure. Massage was found to be more useful when some kind of lubricant oil was used. Harmful effects like physical injury and increased risk of infection were encountered when performed inappropriately. The review also discusses the different hypotheses put forward regarding the mechanism of action. As of now there are very few studies describing the long term impact of neonatal massage. PMID:21048258

Kulkarni, Anjali; Kaushik, Jaya Shankar; Gupta, Piyush; Sharma, Harsh; Agrawal, R K



Touch, the essence of caring for people with end-stage dementia: a mental health perspective in Namaste Care.  


This article presents the mental health aspects of 'touch' associated with a funded research project: Avoiding 'high tech' through 'high touch' in end-stage dementia: Protocol for care at the end-of-life. These mental health aspects highlight the human need for touch that continues up until and inclusive of the final stages of life. This study was informed by Simard's (2007) 'high touch' protocol based on the End-of-Life Namaste Care programme for people with dementia. The article is situated in relation to the research project which used a three-phase mixed methods approach. Data explored in this article are derived from focus groups conducted at three residential aged care facilities located in metropolitan and regional areas of NSW, Australia. The exploration of touch vis-a-vis mental health fell under two broad themes: touch by others and touch by the person. Sub-elements of these themes comprised touch towards a physical objective, touch towards an emotional objective, touch of objects and touch of others. The overarching outcome of interconnectedness embraced environmental awareness and human and life awareness. These two broad themes, with their accompanying elements, express the essential nature of mental health as a reciprocal connectedness, with reciprocal impacts on both those people with advanced dementia and their carers. PMID:23323683

Nicholls, Daniel; Chang, Esther; Johnson, Amanda; Edenborough, Michel



A new method for assessing self-touch enhancement of the foot in stroke patients with mobility problems.  


Patient NG is the first reported case of lower-limb 'self-touch enhancement' following stroke. Mobility problems prevented NG from reaching to touch her foot, thus we used a self-touch rubber-hand paradigm to mimic the conditions of self-administered touch. With vision precluded, NG administered stimulation to a prosthetic limb while the Examiner administered synchronous stimulation to NG's affected left foot. NG detected all stimulation administered with our self-touch paradigm, whereas in the control condition (with NG not involved in administering stimulation), NG had failed to detect one-third of Examiner-administered stimulation. When mobility problems are a barrier to investigating self-touch enhancement, the self-touch paradigm can be used to demonstrate residual tactile sensation following stroke. PMID:23866560

White, Rebekah C; Aimola Davies, Anne M



Active touch sensing in the rat: anticipatory and regulatory control of whisker movements during surface exploration.  


Animals actively regulate the position and movement of their sensory systems to boost the quality and quantity of the sensory information they obtain. The rat vibrissal system is recognized to be an important model system in which to investigate such "active sensing" capabilities. The current study used high-speed video analysis to investigate whisker movements in untrained, freely moving rats encountering unexpected, vertical surfaces. A prominent feature of rat vibrissal movement is the repeated posterior-anterior sweep of the whiskers in which the macrovibrissae are seen to move largely in synchrony. Here we show that a second significant component of whisking behavior is the size of the arc, or "spread," between the whiskers. Observed spread is shown to vary over the whisk cycle and to substantially decrease during exploration of an unexpected surface. We further show that the timing of whisker movements is affected by surface contact such that 1) the whiskers rapidly cease forward protraction following an initial, unexpected contact, and may do so even more rapidly following contact with the same surface in the subsequent whisk cycle, and 2) retraction velocity is reduced following this latter contact, leading to longer second-contact durations. This evidence is taken to support two hypotheses: 1) that the relative velocities of different whiskers may be actively controlled by the rat and 2) that control of whisker velocity and timing may serve to increase the number and duration of whisker-surface contacts while ensuring that such contacts are made with a light touch. PMID:19036871

Grant, Robyn A; Mitchinson, Ben; Fox, Charles W; Prescott, Tony J



Development of air touch interface for floating 3D image in the air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a prototype virtual air touch interface system for interaction in the virtual 3D space. The spatial imaging display system provides the observer virtual 3D objects. These 3D images are floating in the air and one can directly touch objects or virtual images. To take mutual action we need to prepare the interface system which can recognize that the user moves his hand near the virtual objects. Because a conventional touch-panel system detects the user's operation on the display screen but the touching point differs from the actual displaying space, it is important to realize that the user can operate at the same space. A typical method is to use the computer vision. In this paper, the authors propose the interface system using a theremin which is a musical instrument having the unusual aspect of being controlled by the performer's hand motions near the antennas.

Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Sakamoto, Kunio



Actress Debra Winger: “Everyone Is Touched By Addiction.” | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  


... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Preventing Drug Abuse and Addiction Actress Debra Winger: “Everyone Is Touched ... Nora Volkow, Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), discuss the actress’s participation in the NIDA- ...


Shielding method for segmentation of graphics touching text in engineering drawings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Text/graphics segmentation is a fundamental step in engineering drawing images analysis. However, it is hard to handle when texts touch the graphical entities. In this paper, a solving method called 'the shielding method' is proposed. The main idea lies in labeling the basic graphical entities, which are possible touched by texts, in other words, in other words, it is to shield graphical objects in a line drawing image prior to text/graphics segmentation. A usual long line scanning method can be used to detect horizontal and vertical object lines, and then touching characters can be segmented efficiently at a fast speed. For more common situation, a generic object labeling process based on run-based graph is introduced. Test has shown good results of segmentation compared to that without using this method in a drawing with a lot of graphics touching characters.

Jiang, Zao; Liu, Jiren



Worlds of information: designing for engagement at a public multi-touch display  

Microsoft Academic Search

In designing for engagement at a public multi-touch installation, we identified supporting multiple users and allowing for gradual discovery as challenges. In this paper, we present Worlds of Information, a multi-touch application featuring 3D Worlds, which provide access to different content. These 3D widgets gradually unfold and allow for temporal navigation of multimedia in parallel, while also providing a 2D

Giulio Jacucci; Ann Morrison; Gabriela T. Richard; Jari Kleimola; Peter Peltonen; Lorenza Parisi; Toni Laitinen



Game design for ad-hoc multi-touch gameplay on large tabletop displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines game design for multi-touch enabled systems, focusing on tabletop computers that are exposed to the public. We first elaborate on the requirements for ad-hoc collaborative multi-touch gameplay. As our main contribution, we identified particular gameplay aspects and formalized them in reference to formal elements of gameplay: The game mechanics should support different scopes of involvement and make

Jonas Schild; Maic Masuch



If I touch it I have to have it: Individual and environmental influences on impulse purchasing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the influence of touch on impulse-purchasing behavior. We first replicate the Rook and Fisher [Rook DW, Fisher RJ. Normative influences on impulsive buying behavior. J Consum Res 1995;22:305–13.] studies about the moderating effect of the normative evaluation of impulse purchase on impulse-purchasing behavior. Extending the impulse-purchasing literature, we examine individual differences in touch and how they affect

Joann Peck; Terry L. Childers



Improving medication adherence by using practitioner nonverbal techniques: a field experiment on the effect of touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though the positive effect of touch on compliance has been widely reported in the social psychology literature, a new evaluation\\u000a has been made in a health setting. Six general practitioners were instructed to touch (or not) their patients on the forearm\\u000a for 1–2 s. Patients who suffered from mild pharyngitis were solicited by the practitioners at the end of the consultation

Nicolas Guéguen; Sebastien Meineri; Virginie Charles-Sire



Prosthetic finger phalanges with lifelike skin compliance for low-force social touching interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Prosthetic arms and hands that can be controlled by the user's electromyography (EMG) signals are emerging. Eventually, these\\u000a advanced prosthetic devices will be expected to touch and be touched by other people. As realistic as they may look, the currently\\u000a available prosthetic hands have physical properties that are still far from the characteristics of human skins because they\\u000a are much

John-John Cabibihan; Raditya Pradipta; Shuzhi Sam Ge



A multi-touch enabled human-transporter metaphor for virtual 3D traveling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this tech-note we demonstrate how multi-touch hand gestures in combination with foot gestures can be used to perform navigation tasks in interactive 3D environments. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are well suited as a complex testbed for evaluation of user interfaces based on multi-modal input. Recent developments in the area of interactive surfaces enable the construction of low-cost multi-touch displays

Dimitar Valkov; Frank Steinicke; Gerd Bruder; Klaus Hinrichs



Review: Touch and blindness: psychology and neuroscience edited by M.A. Heller, S. Ballesteros  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2002, Morton Heller and Soledad Ballesteros organised an exciting conference on touch,\\u000ablindness, and neuroscience in Madrid, Spain. Their motivation for this conference was to bring\\u000atogether researchers working in different disciplines, like psychology and neuroscience. They\\u000arealised that, although these researchers have `touch' as their common interest, they seldom meet\\u000aand they publish their work in different journals.

A. M. L. Kappers



De iPhone en de iPod Touch in het onderwijs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heb jij al een iPhone? Of een iPod Touch? Als het aan Apple ligt, worden deze gadgets belangrijke middelen om te gebruiken in het onderwijs. Speciaal voor dat doel zijn er al honderden ‘edu apps’ ontwikkeld: educatieve applicaties die te downloaden zijn op de iPhone of iPod Touch. Heeft dat toekomst? We namen een kleine steekproef en probeerden het uit.

R. Filius; Frank Janssen



Searching PubMed on an iPhone or iPod Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of students and faculty come to campus with an iPhone or iPod touch. Aside from recreational use, these devices can be used to search for medical literature, but picking the right applications for searching can be difficult. A comparison test was created to find the best application for searching PubMed from an iPhone or iPod touch. The

Michelle Price



LensMouse: augmenting the mouse with an interactive touch display  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce LensMouse, a novel device that embeds a touch-screen display -- or tangible 'lens' -- onto a mouse. Users interact with the display of the mouse using direct touch, whilst also performing regular cursor-based mouse interactions. We demonstrate some of the unique capabili-ties of such a device, in particular for interacting with auxil-iary windows, such as toolbars, palettes, pop-ups

Xing-Dong Yang; Edward Mak; David C. McCallum; Pourang Irani; Xiang Cao; Shahram Izadi



Using the keystroke-level model for designing user interface on middle-sized touch screens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Keystroke-Level Model was developed to predict accurately task execution time for mouse-and-keyboard systems. Middle-sized touch screens are becoming much more popular so it is important to determine whether KLM can provide useful predictions for these interfaces as well. The KLMs were created using special software CogTool for three touch screen interfaces for integrated control systems and were compared to

Evgeniy Abdulin



An experimental analysis of the impact of Touch Screen Interaction techniques for 3-D positioning tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of Touch Screen Interaction (TSI) for 3-D interaction entails both the addition of new haptic cues and the separation of the manipulation of the Degrees of Freedom (DoF) of the task: a 3 DoF task must be transformed into a 2-D+1-D task to be completed using a touch screen. In this paper, we investigate the impact of these

Manuel Veit; Antonio Capobianco; Dominique Bechmann



Evaluation of User Interface Design and Input Methods for Applications on Mobile Touch Screen Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of touch screen phones, good UI design and simplified input methods for applications running on such devices\\u000a are important factors that contribute to its popularity and success. The goal of this research is to evaluate different user\\u000a interface designs and input methods for mobile phones with touch screen capability. In order to do this, two prototypes of

Florence T. Balagtas-fernandez; Jenny Forrai; Heinrich Hussmann



Collaborative Searching for Video Using the Físchlár System and a Diamond Touch Table  

Microsoft Academic Search

F´ ischl´ ar-DT is one of a family of systems which support interactive searching and browsing through an archive of digital video information. Previous F´ ischl´ ar systems have used a conventional screen, keyboard and mouse interface, but F´ ischlar-DT operates with using an horizontal, multi- user, touch sensitive tabletop known as a DiamondTouch. We present the F´ ischl´ ar-DT

Alan F. Smeaton; Colum Foley; Cathal Gurrin; Hyowon Lee; Sinéad Mcgivney



Evaluating User Effectiveness in Exploratory Search with TouchGraph Google Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

TouchGraph Google Browser displays connectivity of similar pages around search results returned by Google. A major research\\u000a question is: to what extent does this graph help improve user effectiveness during exploratory search? This paper reports\\u000a on our user study with TouchGraph visualization. This study has interesting implications for designing user interfaces of\\u000a search applications.

Kemal Efe; Sabriye Ozerturk



Distinguishing multiple smart-phone interactions on a multi-touch wall display using tilt correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

While very large collaborative surfaces are already being widely employed to facilitate concurrent interactions with multiple users, they involve no personalization in the touch interactions. Augmenting them to identify the touch interactions with multiple smart-phones can enable interesting co-located communal applications with context-based personalized interactions and information exchange amongst users' portable devices and the shared wall display. This paper proposes

William Hutama; Peng Song; Chi-Wing Fu; Wooi-Boon Goh



A Study on the Icon Feedback Types of Small Touch Screen for the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small touch screens are widely used in applications such as bank ATMs, point-of-sale terminals, ticket vending machines, facsimiles,\\u000a and home automation in the daily life. It is intuition-oriented and easy to operate. There are a lot of elements that affect\\u000a the small screen touch performance. One of the essential parts is icon feedback. However, to merely achieve beautiful icon\\u000a feedback

Wang-chin Tsai; Chang-franw Lee



Graspables revisited: multi-touch vs. tangible input for tabletop displays in acquisition and manipulation tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an experimental comparison of multi-touch and tangible user interfaces for basic interface actions. Twelve participants completed manipulation and acquisition tasks on an interactive surface in each of three conditions: tangible user interface; multi-touch; and mouse and puck. We found that interface control objects in the tangible condition were easiest to acquire and, once acquired, were easier\\/more accurate to

Philip Tuddenham; David Kirk; Shahram Izadi



The BendDesk demo: multi-touch on a curved display  

Microsoft Academic Search

BendDesk is a curved interactive display that merges a vertical and a horizontal multi-touch surface with a curve. Users sitting at the table can perform multi-touch input on the entire surface. This demo shows the capabilities and potential applications of such a setup. We also present Bend Invaders, one of the first arcade games on a curved interactive surface. Our

Malte Weiss; Simon Voelker; Jan Borchers



Integrated Rotation and Translation for 3D Manipulation on Multi-Touch Interactive Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the domain of 2D graphical applications multi-touch input is already quite well understood and smoothly integrated translation\\u000a and rotation of objects widely accepted as a standard interaction technique. However, in 3D VR, modeling, or animation applications,\\u000a there are no such generally accepted interaction techniques for multi-touch displays featuring the same smooth and fluid interaction\\u000a style. In this paper we

Marc Herrlich; Benjamin Walther-Franks; Rainer Malaka


A Comparison of Direct and Indirect Multi-touch Input for Large Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-touch input on interactive surfaces has matured as a device for bimanual interaction and invoked widespread research\\u000a interest. We contribute empirical work on direct versus indirect use multi-touch input, comparing direct input on a tabletop\\u000a display with an indirect condition where the table is used as input surface to a separate, vertically arranged display surface.\\u000a Users perform significantly better in

Dominik Schmidt; Florian Block; Hans Gellersen



Niboshi for Slate Devices: A Japanese Input Method Using Multi-touch for Slate Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present Niboshi for slate devices, an input system that utilizes a multi-touch interface. Users hold the device with both\\u000a hands and use both thumbs to input a character in this system. Niboshi for slate devices has four features that improve the\\u000a performance of inputting text to slate devices: it has a multi-touch input, enables the device to be firmly

Gimpei Kimioka; Buntarou Shizuki; Jiro Tanaka


Mechanotransduction: Touch and Feel at the Molecular Level as Modeled in Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival of an organism depends on its ability to respond to its environment through its senses. The sense of touch is\\u000a one of the most vital; still, it is the least understood. In the process of touch sensation, a mechanical stimulus is converted\\u000a into electrical signals. Groundbreaking electrophysiological experiments in organisms ranging from bacteria to mammals have\\u000a suggested that

Laura Bianchi



Electrostatic forces on two almost touching nonspherical charged conductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analytical expressions are derived for the electrostatic forces on two almost touching nonspherical conductors held at unequal voltages or carrying dissimilar charges in an insulating medium. Each conductor is a body of revolution whose surface is defined by the equation rn+zn=an, where r and z are radial and axial cylindrical co-ordinates, respectively, 2a is the equatorial width, and n is a parameter that controls the particle shape. The two objects are of identical shape and placed in a coaxial configuration, in which case the electrostatic forces are solely along their line of centers. The calculation of the forces is performed via a local analysis of the electrostatics in the thin gap region separating the particles. At a fixed potential difference, the magnitude of the attractive force F on the particles scales with the minimum gap height h0 as F~h02(1/n-1) for n > 1 and F~ln h0 for n = 1, to leading order as h0/a-->0. The force increases as the gap region becomes flatter (increasing n), due to the intense electric field in the gap acting over a larger surface area. The opposite is found for particles carrying fixed charges: here, F~h0-2/n for n > 2 and F~h0-1[ln(a/h0)]-2 for n = 2. In this case, the potential difference between the conductors diminishes as the gap region becomes flatter, which overpowers the increase in gap area. Our results demonstrate that like-charge attraction occurs for a broad class of nonspherical conductors at close separations. The predicted sensitivity of the electrostatic force to particle shape is relevant to probe-based microscopy: specifically, to quantify the influence of tip-geometry on the force experienced by a charged probe near a conducting surface.

Khair, Aditya S.



Characterisation of an acidic peroxidase from papaya (Carica papaya L. cv Tainung No. 2) latex and its application in the determination of micromolar hydrogen peroxide in milk.  


An acidic peroxidase isoform, POD-A, with a molecular mass of 69.4 kDa and an isoelectric point of 3.5 was purified from papaya latex. Using o-phenylenediamine (OPD) as a hydrogen donor (citrate-phosphate as pH buffer), the optimum pH for the function of POD-A was 4.6, and the optimum temperature was 50°C. The peroxidase activity of POD-A toward hydrogen donors was both pH- and concentration-dependent. Under optimal conditions, POD-A catalysed the oxidation of OPD at higher rates than pyrogallol, catechol, quercetin and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). The chemical modification reagents N-bromosuccinimide and sodium azide significantly inhibited POD-A activity. The results of kinetic studies indicated that POD-A followed a ping-pong mechanism and had a K(m) value of 2.8mM for OPD. Using CPC silica-immobilised POD-A for the determination of micromolar H(2)O(2) in milk, the lower limit of determination was 0.1 ?M, and the recoveries of added H(2)O(2) were 96-109%. PMID:22980838

Chen, Li-Chun; Chung, Yun-Chin; Chang, Chen-Tien



The Value of Touch Preparation for Rapid Diagnosis of Brain Tumors as an Intraoperative Consultation  

PubMed Central

Background: The touch preparation technique is an accurate and rapid method, and when used as intraoperative consultation examination technique it preserves a good amount of tissue for paraffin embedded sections. This study aimed at examining the accuracy of the touch preparation technique by comparing its diagnosis with that of final pathological diagnosis made by microscopic examinations. Methods: The diagnoses of 139 central nervous system lesions by touch preparation technique and paraffin-embedded sections were compared. Results: Touch preparation technique diagnosed correctly 118 (84%) of the lesions. However, the technique failed to correctly diagnose 12% of the cases. The highest rate of accurate diagnosis (100%) was observed in five types out of 11 types of tumor examined. However, the technique was not able to diagnose hydatid cysts correctly. Conclusion: The findings indicate that touch preparation technique may be useful in diagnosing tumor type during surgical operations. Touch preparation technique is very accurate for intraoperative diagnosis. However, adequate clinical history, neuroimaging details, and the intraoperative impressions of the neurosurgeons, if provided, help the pathologists to improve the diagnostic accuracy of the technique.

Khamechian, Tahere; Alizargar, Javad; Mazoochi, Tahere



Adaptive image enhancement of text images that contain touching or broken characters  

SciTech Connect

Text images that contain touching or broken characters can significantly degrade the accuracy of optical character recognition (OCR) systems. This paper proposes an adaptive image restoration technique that can improve OCR accuracy by enhancing touching or broken character images. The technique begins by processing a distorted text image with an OCR system. Using the distorted text image and output information from the OCR system, an inverse model of the distortion that caused the touching or broken character problem is generated. After generating the inverse model, the unrecognized distorted characters are filtered by the inverse model and then processes by the OCR system. To demonstrate its feasibility, six distorted text images were processed using this technique. Four of the text images, two with touching characters and two with broken characters, were synthesized using mathematical distortion models. The remaining two distorted text images, one with touching characters and one with broken characters, were distorted using a photocopier. The performance of the adaptive image restoration technique was measured using pixel accuracy and OCR improvement. The examples demonstrate that this technique can improve both the pixel and OCR accuracy of text images containing touching or broken characters.

Stubberud, P.; Kalluri, V.; Kanai, J.



Arabidopsis touch-induced morphogenesis is jasmonate mediated and protects against pests.  


Plants cannot change location to escape stressful environments. Therefore, plants evolved to respond and acclimate to diverse stimuli, including the seemingly innocuous touch stimulus [1-4]. Although some species, such as Venus flytrap, have fast touch responses, most plants display more gradual touch-induced morphological alterations, called thigmomorphogenesis [2, 3, 5, 6]. Thigmomorphogenesis may be adaptive; trees subjected to winds develop less elongated and thicker trunks and thus are less likely damaged by powerful wind gusts [7]. Despite the widespread relevance of thigmomorphogenesis, the regulation that underlies plant mechanostimulus-induced morphological responses remains largely unknown. Furthermore, whether thigmomorphogenesis confers additional advantage is not fully understood. Although aspects of thigmomorphogenesis resemble ethylene effects [8], and touch can induce ethylene synthesis [9, 10], Arabidopsis ethylene response mutants show touch-induced thigmomorphogenesis [11]; thus, ethylene response is nonessential for thigmomorphogenesis. Here we show that jasmonate (JA) phytohormone both is required for and promotes the salient characteristics of thigmomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis, including a touch-induced delay in flowering and rosette diameter reduction. Furthermore, we find that repetitive mechanostimulation enhances Arabidopsis pest resistance in a JA-dependent manner. These results highlight an important role for JA in mediating mechanostimulus-induced plant developmental responses and resultant cross-protection against biotic stress. PMID:22483939

Chehab, E Wassim; Yao, Chen; Henderson, Zachary; Kim, Se; Braam, Janet



Expanding the primate body schema in sensorimotor cortex by virtual touches of an avatar.  


The brain representation of the body, called the body schema, is susceptible to plasticity. For instance, subjects experiencing a rubber hand illusion develop a sense of ownership of a mannequin hand when they view it being touched while tactile stimuli are simultaneously applied to their own hand. Here, the cortical basis of such an embodiment was investigated through concurrent recordings from primary somatosensory (i.e., S1) and motor (i.e., M1) cortical neuronal ensembles while two monkeys observed an avatar arm being touched by a virtual ball. Following a period when virtual touches occurred synchronously with physical brushes of the monkeys' arms, neurons in S1 and M1 started to respond to virtual touches applied alone. Responses to virtual touch occurred 50 to 70 ms later than to physical touch, consistent with the involvement of polysynaptic pathways linking the visual cortex to S1 and M1. We propose that S1 and M1 contribute to the rubber hand illusion and that, by taking advantage of plasticity in these areas, patients may assimilate neuroprosthetic limbs as parts of their body schema. PMID:23980141

Shokur, Solaiman; O'Doherty, Joseph E; Winans, Jesse A; Bleuler, Hannes; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L



Inhibition of touch cell fate by egl-44 and egl-46 in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

In wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans, six cells develop as receptors for gentle touch. In egl-44 and egl-46 mutants, two other neurons, the FLP cells, express touch receptor-like features. egl-44 and egl-46 also affect the differentiation of other neurons including the HSN neurons, two cells needed for egg laying. egl-44 encodes a member of the transcription enhancer factor family. The product of the egl-46 gene, two Drosophila proteins, and two proteins in human and mice define a new family of zinc finger proteins. Both egl-44 and egl-46 are expressed in FLP and HSN neurons (and other cells); expression of egl-46 is dependent on egl-44 in the FLP cells but not in the HSN cells. Wild-type touch cells express egl-46 but not egl-44. Moreover, ectopic expression of egl-44 in the touch cells prevents touch cell differentiation in an egl-46-dependent manner. The sequences of these genes and their nuclear location as seen with GFP fusions indicate that they repress transcription of touch cell characteristics in the FLP cells.

Wu, Ji; Duggan, Anne; Chalfie, Martin



Designing of putative siRNA against geminiviral suppressors of RNAi to develop geminivirus-resistant papaya crop.  


Geminiviruses are single-stranded circular DNA viruses causing leaf curl disease in papaya crop. Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing (PTGS), also known as RNAi, acts as a natural antiviral defence mechanism and plays a role in genome maintenance and development in plants. PTGS suppression by viruses makes the plant RNA silencing machinery inefficient. Three geminiviral genes namely AV2, AC2 and AC4 are found to play the role in suppression of RNA silencing. siRNA degrades the target mRNA in a homology-dependent manner. In-silico designing of siRNA against these three genes of geminiviruses infecting Carica papaya was done using bioinformatics tools. This strategy may provide PTGS by specifically targeting the viral genes involved in suppression of plant RNA silencing machinery. PMID:23207994

Saxena, Sangeeta; Kesharwani, Rupesh K; Singh, Vinayak; Singh, Sarita



Postharvest application of gum arabic and essential oils for controlling anthracnose and quality of banana and papaya during cold storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp. is the most important issue for the tropical fruit industry because of resulting financial losses. Antifungal effects of gum arabic (GA) (10%), lemongrass oil (LG) (0.05%), cinnamon oil (CM) (0.4%), and their combinations were investigated in vitro and in vivo for controlling postharvest anthracnose of banana and papaya. LG at 0.05% and 0.4%

Mehdi Maqbool; Asgar Ali; Peter G. Alderson; Mahmud Tengku Muda Mohamed; Yasmeen Siddiqui; Noosheen Zahid



The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene and 3? untranslated region of papaya ringspot virus type W (Aust)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The nucleotide sequence of the 3' terminal region of the Australian isolate of papaya ringspot virus type W [PRSV-W (Aust)] was determined. An open reading frame (864 bp), encoding the putative coat protein gene, occurs upstream of the putative 3' untranslated region (206 bp) and poly(A) tail. A 23 amino acid sequence was obtained from N-terminal analysis of the

M. Bateson; J. Dale



Carica papaya Glutamine Cyclotransferase Belongs to a Novel Plant Enzyme Subfamily: Cloning and Characterization of the Recombinant Enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-length cDNA encoding Carica papaya glutamine cyclotransferase was cloned by RT-PCR on the basis of results from amino acid sequencing of tryptic fragments of the native enzyme. The cDNA of 1036 nucleotides encodes a typical 22-residue signal peptide and a mature protein of 266 residues with a calculated molecular mass of 30,923 Da. Five plant ESTs encoding putative QCs

Søren W. Dahl; Clive Slaughter; Conni Lauritzen; Robert C. Bateman; Ian Connerton; John Pedersen



The effect of antifungal hot-water treatments on papaya postharvest quality and activity of pectinmethylesterase and polygalacturonase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of antifungal hot-water treatments (AHWT) at 55 °C for 0, 3, 6 and 9 min on quality attributes and cell-wall enzymatic\\u000a activity during storage at 25 °C was investigated in papaya fruit. The total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity\\u000a (TA), firmness and fresh weight loss were not affected, whereas color on skin was negatively affected by the treatments of\\u000a 6-

Ignacio Chávez-Sánchez; Armando Carrillo-López; Misael Vega-García; Elhadi M. Yahia


[Parasitism in Trialeurodes variabilis (Quaintance) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) by Encarsia hispida De Santis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), in papaya, in Brazil].  


Infestation of Trialeurodes variabilis (Quaintance) was observed in October 2004, in papaya plants of cultivar Sunrise Solo, under screenhouse conditions, in Cruz das Almas, State of Bahia, Brazil. In infested leaves, around 20% of parasitism on nymphs was verified. Leaves with parasitized nymphs were kept in laboratory until emergence of the parasitoid, identified as Encarsia hispida De Santis. This is the first time that this parasitoid was detected on T. variabilis nymphs in Brazil. PMID:17420874

Lourenção, André L; Fancelli, Marilene; Costa, Valmir A; Ribeiro, Nicolle C


DNA methylation and heterochromatinization in the male-specific region of the primitive Y chromosome of papaya  

PubMed Central

Sex chromosomes evolved from autosomes. Recombination suppression in the sex-determining region and accumulation of deleterious mutations lead to degeneration of the Y chromosomes in many species with heteromorphic X/Y chromosomes. However, how the recombination suppressed domain expands from the sex-determining locus to the entire Y chromosome remains elusive. The Y chromosome of papaya (Carica papaya) diverged from the X chromosome approximately 2–3 million years ago and represents one of the most recently emerged Y chromosomes. Here, we report that the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) spans ?13% of the papaya Y chromosome. Interestingly, the centromere of the Y chromosome is embedded in the MSY. The centromeric domain within the MSY has accumulated significantly more DNA than the corresponding X chromosomal domain, which leads to abnormal chromosome pairing. We observed four knob-like heterochromatin structures specific to the MSY. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence assay revealed that the DNA sequences associated with the heterochromatic knobs are highly divergent and heavily methylated compared with the sequences in the corresponding X chromosomal domains. These results suggest that DNA methylation and heterochromatinization play an important role in the early stage of sex chromosome evolution.

Zhang, Wenli; Wang, Xiue; Yu, Qingyi; Ming, Ray; Jiang, Jiming



Profile of volatile compounds during papaya juice fermentation by a mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Williopsis saturnus.  


This study investigated the formation and utilization of volatile compounds during papaya juice fermentation by a mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Williopsis saturnus. Time-course papaya juice fermentations were carried out using pure cultures of S. cerevisiae var. bayanus R2 and W. saturnus var. mrakii NCYC2251 and a mixed culture of the two yeasts at a ratio of 1:1000 (R2:NCYC2251). Changes in S. cerevisiae cell population, Brix, sugar consumption and pH were similar in the mixed culture and in the S. cerevisiae monoculture. There was an early growth arrest of W. saturnus in the mixed culture fermentation. A range of volatile compounds were produced during fermentation including fatty acids, alcohols, aldehydes and esters and some volatile compounds including those initially present in the juice were utilized. The mixed culture fermentation of S. cerevisiae and W. saturnus benefited from the presence of both yeasts, with more esters being produced than the S. cerevisiae monoculture and more alcohols being formed than the W. saturnus monoculture. The study suggests that papaya juice fermentation with a mixed culture of S. cerevisiae and W. saturnus may be able to result in the formation of more complex aroma compounds and higher ethanol level than those using single yeasts. PMID:20688226

Lee, P-R; Ong, Y-L; Yu, B; Curran, P; Liu, S-Q



The component of Carica papaya seed toxic to A. aegypti and the identification of tegupain, the enzyme that generates it.  


As Aedes aegypti transmits the etiologic agents of both yellow and dengue fever; vector control is considered essential to minimise their incidence. The aim of this work was to identify the component of Carica papaya seed toxic to A. aegypti, and the identification of tegupain, the enzyme that generates it. Aqueous extracts (1%, w/v) of the seed tegument and cotyledon of C. papaya are not larvicidal isolately. However, a mixture of 17?gmL(-1) tegument extract and 27?gmL(-1) cotyledon extract caused 100% larval mortality in a bioassay. The mixture was no longer larvicidal after the tegument extract was pre-treated at 100°C for 10min. The enzyme tegupain efficiently hydrolysed the substrate Z-Phe-Arg-pNan (Km 58.8?M, Kcat 28020s(-1), Kcat/Km 5×10(8)M(-1) s(-1)), and its activity increased with 2mM dithiothreitol (DTT), at 37°C, pH 5.0. The chelating agent EDTA did not modify the enzyme activity. Inhibition of tegupain by cystatin (Kiapp 2.43nM), E64 (3.64nM, 83% inhibition), and the propeptide N-terminal sequence indicate that the toxic activity is due to a novel cysteine proteinase-like enzyme, rendered active upon the hydrolysis of a cotyledon component of C. papaya seeds. PMID:23402920

Nunes, Natalia N dos S; Santana, Lucimeire A; Sampaio, Misako U; Lemos, Francisco J A; Oliva, Maria Luiza



Effects of crude extracts of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) and Carica papaya (Caricaceae) against the protozoan fish parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis.  


The ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is among the most pathogenic parasites of fish maintained in captivity. In the present study, the effects of the crude methanolic extract of leaves of Mucuna pruriens and the petroleum-ether extract of seeds of Carica papaya against I. multifiliis were investigated under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) infected with the parasites were immersed for 72 h in baths with M. pruriens extract, and for 96 h in baths with C. papaya extract. There was a 90% reduction in numbers of I. multifiliis on fish after treatment in baths of each plant extract at 200 mg l(-1 )compared to untreated controls. Consequently, parasite-induced fish mortality was reduced significantly. A complete interruption of trophont recruitment was achieved by immersion in the M. pruriens extract. In vitro tests led to a 100% mortality of I. multifiliis in 150 mg/l M. pruriens extract, and in 200 mg/l of C. papaya extract after 6 h. Although the active constituents of the medicinal plant extracts are still unknown, we have demonstrated that they have potential for effective control of I. multifiliis. PMID:14735356

Ekanem, A P; Obiekezie, A; Kloas, W; Knopf, K



Multi-viewing angle display and touch-panel interface system for collaborative task surrounding round table  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stereoscopic 3D display delivers stereo-pair images to the appropriate both eyes. This image separating technique can be applied to the dual-views display system. This two-viewing angle display enables two users to provide different images on the screen. Meanwhile, a touch-panel is useful for a computer interface. The advantage of this touch screen is that it is easy for all users to operate intuitively. However a conventional system cannot recognize who touch the screen on a display among users. Especially the dual-views display can provide different images so as not to perceive an upside down image. In the collaborative work surrounding round table among multi-users, it is important to recognize who touched the screen and where was pointed. This paper describes the multi-users' touch-panel interface system which can recognize who touch the screen on a display.

Sakamoto, Kunio; Tanaka, Akihiro; Adachi, Mariko



DepthTouch: Using Depth-Sensing Camera to Enable Freehand Interactions On and Above the Interactive Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

DepthTouch is an exploratory interactive surface system that combines the benefits of multi-touch-sensitive surface with the ability to interact in the hover space in front of the surface. DepthTouch uses a depth-sensing camera, which reports a range value per pixel in addition to color, to track the 3D position of the user's head and hand through a transparent vertical display

Hrvoje Benko; Andrew D. Wilson



Reduction in incidence of glove perforation during laparotomy wound closure by 'no touch' technique.  


Intact surgical gloves provide an efficient barrier against the HIV and Hepatitis B viruses but glove perforations are common, particularly during mass closure of laparotomy wounds. Attempts to develop gloves immune to perforation have failed. A series of 100 consecutive laparotomy wounds were randomised to mass closure by either the 'hand in' technique currently favoured by many surgeons, or a 'no touch' technique manipulating the wound edges with instruments only. The two groups were similar with regard to grade of surgeon and assistant, proportion of routine and emergency cases, and proportion of clean or dirty cases. The wound lengths in each group were similar, and the time taken to close the abdominal wall was similar in both groups. Although a similar number of perforated gloves occurred in each group while the operative procedure was being performed ('hand in', 9 of 50 vs 'no touch', 12 of 50; P = 0.62); a significantly reduced number of glove perforations occurred in the 'no touch' group during wound closure ('hand in', 16 of 50 vs 'no touch', 3 of 50, P = 0.0017). No touch closure of the abdominal wall may provide protection to surgeons against blood-borne viruses such as HIV and hepatitis B. PMID:8215148

Corlett, M P; England, D W; Kidner, N L; Attard, A R; Fraser, I A



Does Carica papaya leaf-extract increase the platelet count? An experimental study in a murine model  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the potential role of fresh Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract on haematological and biochemical parameters and toxicological changes in a murine model. Methods In total 36 mice were used for the trial. Fresh C. papaya leaf extract [0.2 mL (2 g)/mouse] was given only to the test group (18 mice). General behavior, clinical signs and feeding patterns were recorded. Blood and tissue samples were collected at intervals. Haematological parameters including platelet, red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), packed cell volume (PCV), serum biochemistry including serum creatinine, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) were determined. Organs for possible histopathological changes were examined. Results Neither group exhibited alteration of behavior or reduction in food and water intake. Similarly, no significant changes in SGOT, SGPT and serum creatinine levels were detected in the test group. Histopathological organ changes were not observed in either group of mice except in three liver samples of the test group which had a mild focal necrosis. The platelet count (11.33±0.35)×105/µL (P=0.000?04) and the RBC count (7.97±0.61)×106/µL (P=0.000?03) were significantly increased in the test group compared to that of the controls. However, WBC count and PCV (%) values were not changed significantly in the test group. The platelet count in the test group started to increase significantly from Day 3 (3.4±0.18×105/µL), reaching almost a fourfold higher at Day 21 (11.3×105/µL), while it was 3.8×105/µL and 5.5×105/µL at Day 3 and Day 21 respectively in the control. Likewise, the RBC count in the test group increased from 6×106/µL to 9×106/ µL at Day 21 while it remained near constant in the control group (6×106/µL). Conclusions Fresh C. papaya leaf extract significantly increased the platelet and RBC counts in the test group as compared to controls. Therefore, it is very important to identify those chemicals of C. papaya leaves as it can be recommended to be used as a medication to boost thrombopoiesis and erythropoiesis in humans and in animals in which these cell lineages have been compromised.

Dharmarathna, Sinhalagoda Lekamlage Chandi Asoka; Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Waduge, Roshitha Nilmini; Rajapakse, Rajapakse Peramune Veddikkarage Jayanthe; Kularatne, Senanayake Abeysinghe Mudiyanselage



A novel flexible capacitive touch pad based on graphene oxide film.  


Recently, graphene oxide (GO) supercapacitors with ultra-high energy densities have received significant attention. In addition to energy storage, GO capacitors might also have broad applications in renewable energy engineering, such as vibration and sound energy harvesting. Here, we experimentally create a macroscopic flexible capacitive touch pad based on GO film. An obvious touch "ON" to "OFF" voltage ratio up to ?60 has been observed. Moreover, we tested the capacitor structure on both flat and curved surfaces and it showed high response sensitivity under fast touch rates. Collectively, our results raise the exciting prospect that the realization of macroscopic flexible keyboards with large-area graphene based materials is technologically feasible, which may open up important applications in control and interface design for solar cells, speakers, supercapacitors, batteries and MEMS systems. PMID:23247540

Tian, He; Yang, Yi; Xie, Dan; Ren, Tian-Ling; Shu, Yi; Zhou, Chang-Jian; Sun, Hui; Liu, Xuan; Zhang, Cang-Hai



Efficacy of therapeutic touch in treating pregnant inpatients who have a chemical dependency.  


Chemical dependency is known to complicate about 3.8% of pregnancies in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. In this study, 54 English-speaking, hospitalized women were randomly assigned to receive either (a) daily Therapeutic Touch over a 7-day period for 20 minutes each day, (b) shared activity with a registered nurse for 20 minutes over a 7-day period, or (c) standard ward care. Anxiety was measured using Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Withdrawal symptoms were measured using a standardized Symptom Checklist. Anxiety scores were significantly less on Days 1, 2, and 3 (p<.05) for the group receiving Therapeutic Touch. Therapeutic Touch may be of value as an adjunctive measure in the treatment of chemical dependency among pregnant women. PMID:15486152

Larden, Cheryl N; Palmer, M Lynne; Janssen, Patricia



Touch-sensitive colour graphics enhance monitoring of loss-of-coolant accident tests  

SciTech Connect

A stand-alone computer-based system with an intelligent colour termimal is described for monitoring parameters during loss-of-coolant accident tests. Colour graphic displays and touch-sensitive control have been combined for effective operator interaction. Data collected by the host MODCOMP II minicomputer are dynamically updated on colour pictures generated by the terminal. Experimenters select system functions by touching simulated switches on a transparent touch-sensitive overlay, mounted directly over the face of the colour screen, eliminating the need for a keyboard. Switch labels and colours are changed on the screen by the terminal software as different functions are selected. Interaction is self-prompting and can be learned quickly. System operation for a complete set of 20 tests has demonstrated the convenience of interactive touchsensitive colour graphics.

Snedden, M.D.; Mead, G.L.



A novel flexible capacitive touch pad based on graphene oxide film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, graphene oxide (GO) supercapacitors with ultra-high energy densities have received significant attention. In addition to energy storage, GO capacitors might also have broad applications in renewable energy engineering, such as vibration and sound energy harvesting. Here, we experimentally create a macroscopic flexible capacitive touch pad based on GO film. An obvious touch ``ON'' to ``OFF'' voltage ratio up to ~60 has been observed. Moreover, we tested the capacitor structure on both flat and curved surfaces and it showed high response sensitivity under fast touch rates. Collectively, our results raise the exciting prospect that the realization of macroscopic flexible keyboards with large-area graphene based materials is technologically feasible, which may open up important applications in control and interface design for solar cells, speakers, supercapacitors, batteries and MEMS systems.

Tian, He; Yang, Yi; Xie, Dan; Ren, Tian-Ling; Shu, Yi; Zhou, Chang-Jian; Sun, Hui; Liu, Xuan; Zhang, Cang-Hai



Light touch for balance: influence of a time-varying external driving signal  

PubMed Central

Sensory information about body sway is used to drive corrective muscle action to keep the body's centre of mass located over the base of support provided by the feet. Loss of vision, by closing the eyes, usually results in increased sway as indexed by fluctuations (i.e. standard deviation, s.d.) in the velocity of a marker at C7 on the neck, s.d. dC7. Variability in the rate of change of centre of pressure (s.d. dCoP), which indexes corrective muscle action, also increases during upright standing with eyes closed. Light touch contact by the tip of one finger with an environmental surface can reduce s.d. dC7 and s.d. dCoP as effectively as opening the eyes. We review studies of light touch and balance and then describe a novel paradigm for studying the nature of somatosensory information contributing to effects of light touch balance. We show that ‘light tight touch’ contact by the index finger held in the thimble of a haptic device results in increased anteroposterior (AP) sway with entraining by either simple or complex AP sinusoidal oscillations of the haptic device. Moreover, sway is also increased when the haptic device plays back the pre-recorded AP sway path of another person. Cross-correlations between hand and C7 motion reveal a 176 ms lead for the hand and we conclude that light tight touch affords an efficient route for somatosensory feedback support for balance. Furthermore, we suggest that the paradigm has potential to contribute to the understanding of interpersonal postural coordination with light touch in future research.

Wing, Alan M.; Johannsen, Leif; Endo, Satoshi



Effects of ozone exposure on `Golden' papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of `Golden' papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring on the fruit during ripening when exposed to ozone. In addition, one has performed real time studies of fluorescence parameters and the emission rates of carbon dioxide and ethylene. Finally, the amount of pigments and the changes in waxy cuticle have been monitored. Results indicate that a fruit deliberately subjected to ozone at a level of 6 ppmv underwent ripening sooner (at least 24-48 h) than a fruit stored at ambient conditions. Moreover, ozone caused a reduction in the maximum quantum yield of photosynthetic apparatus located within the skin of papaya fruit.

Corrêa, Savio Figueira; Mota, Leonardo; Paiva, Luisa Brito; Couto, Flávio Mota Do; Silva, Marcelo Gomes Da; Oliveira, Jurandi Gonçalves De; Sthel, Marcelo Silva; Vargas, Helion; Miklós, András



Enhancing the Expressiveness of Fingers: Multi-touch Ring Menus for Everyday Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the future, environments equipped with interaction surfaces sensitive to touch input will be a key factor to enable ambient intelligence. The user's fingers become input devices, allowing simple and intuitive interaction, like the manipulation of digital objects. However, people are used to everyday applications offering a wide variety of menu choices. We evaluate ring menus to enhance the expressiveness of finger interaction on multi-touch devices. Applicability and limits of ring menus are discussed with regard to our implementation by means of a preliminary user study.

Kammer, Dietrich; Lamack, Frank; Groh, Rainer


Overlapped chromosome segmentation and separation of touching chromosome for automated chromosome classification.  


Karyotyping is the process of arranging pairs of the chromosomes in an order to examine chromosomal abnormalities which are the causes for Birth Defects. The overlapping and touching chromosomes of input metaphase spread images should be segmented and disentangled for this process. This paper proposes an algorithm to separate the touching chromosomes and the segmentation of overlapping chromosomes from G-Band metaspread images. Segmentation is performed by obtaining the interesting (concave) points on the image contour and constructing proper hypotheses for segmentation and separation. PMID:23367148

Madian, Nirmala; Jayanthi, K B



Evaluation of "no touch" extubation technique on airway-related complications during emergence from general anesthesia  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Awake “no touch” extubation requires performing extubations only when the patient spontaneously wakes up without any kind of stimulation during emergence from general anesthesia. The aim of this study was to evaluate absolutely awake extubation “no touch” technique in adult patients, scheduled for elective nasal and paranasal sinus surgeries under general anesthesia as regard to emergence airway complications. Methods: A total of 60 adult patients were randomly allocated into one of two equal groups according to the method of extubation: Group I: Standard fully awake, Group II: Absolutely “no touch” awake extubation (absolutely no stimulation no touch was allowed until patients were able to open their eyes). The incidence of laryngospasm and its grade according to a four-point scale was reported. Occurrence of airway events (excessive secretions, breath-holding, coughing, hoarseness, biting, as well as the number and severity of any desaturation episodes), oozing from the wound, and postoperative sore throat were also recorded. The heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure measured at the end of surgery served as baseline values, and subsequent measurements were taken within 30 minutes after the end of surgery. Results: There was absolutely no case of laryngeal spasm or episode of desaturation among patients who were extubated with the “no touch” technique. On the other hand, there were 3 cases of laryngeal spasm in standard fully awake group. Severity of coughing, excessive secretions and breath holding, hoarseness, biting, and occurrence of non-purposeful movements of the limbs were significantly less in the absolutely “no touch” technique awake technique. The changes in HR, SBP, and DBP during emergence extubation were significantly less in “no touch” technique technique group. However, oozing from the wound was significantly higher with standard fully awake extubation. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the incidence of postoperative sore throat (39 and 36%, respectively). Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that awake “no touch” technique technique for tracheal extubation produces less airway-related complications, as well as minimal hemodynamic response during emergence from general anesthesia in nasal and paranasal surgeries. It could be a safe alternative for tracheal extubation in airway surgery.

Sheta, Saad A.; Abdelhalim, Ashraf A.; Nada, Eman



Improving clinical outcomes in psychiatric care with touch-screen technology.  


Patient-focused research, which uses clinical characteristics to predict outcomes, is a field in which information technology has been effectively integrated with practice. The present research used touch-screen technology to monitor the daily self-report measures of 1,308 consecutive inpatients and day patients participating in a 2-week cognitive-behavioral therapy group. Providing regular feedback was effective in reducing symptoms for patients at risk of poor outcomes (Newnham, Hooke, & Page, 2010b). The use of touch screens in psychiatric monitoring encourages a collaborative dialogue between patients and therapists and promotes engagement in the process of progress monitoring and treatment evaluation. PMID:22662741

Newnham, Elizabeth A; Doyle, Emma L; Sng, Adelln A H; Hooke, Geoffrey R; Page, Andrew C



Vision-Based Finger Detection, Tracking, and Event Identification Techniques for Multi-Touch Sensing and Display Systems  

PubMed Central

This study presents efficient vision-based finger detection, tracking, and event identification techniques and a low-cost hardware framework for multi-touch sensing and display applications. The proposed approach uses a fast bright-blob segmentation process based on automatic multilevel histogram thresholding to extract the pixels of touch blobs obtained from scattered infrared lights captured by a video camera. The advantage of this automatic multilevel thresholding approach is its robustness and adaptability when dealing with various ambient lighting conditions and spurious infrared noises. To extract the connected components of these touch blobs, a connected-component analysis procedure is applied to the bright pixels acquired by the previous stage. After extracting the touch blobs from each of the captured image frames, a blob tracking and event recognition process analyzes the spatial and temporal information of these touch blobs from consecutive frames to determine the possible touch events and actions performed by users. This process also refines the detection results and corrects for errors and occlusions caused by noise and errors during the blob extraction process. The proposed blob tracking and touch event recognition process includes two phases. First, the phase of blob tracking associates the motion correspondence of blobs in succeeding frames by analyzing their spatial and temporal features. The touch event recognition process can identify meaningful touch events based on the motion information of touch blobs, such as finger moving, rotating, pressing, hovering, and clicking actions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed vision-based finger detection, tracking, and event identification system is feasible and effective for multi-touch sensing applications in various operational environments and conditions.

Chen, Yen-Lin; Liang, Wen-Yew; Chiang, Chuan-Yen; Hsieh, Tung-Ju; Lee, Da-Cheng; Yuan, Shyan-Ming; Chang, Yang-Lang



Vision-based finger detection, tracking, and event identification techniques for multi-touch sensing and display systems.  


This study presents efficient vision-based finger detection, tracking, and event identification techniques and a low-cost hardware framework for multi-touch sensing and display applications. The proposed approach uses a fast bright-blob segmentation process based on automatic multilevel histogram thresholding to extract the pixels of touch blobs obtained from scattered infrared lights captured by a video camera. The advantage of this automatic multilevel thresholding approach is its robustness and adaptability when dealing with various ambient lighting conditions and spurious infrared noises. To extract the connected components of these touch blobs, a connected-component analysis procedure is applied to the bright pixels acquired by the previous stage. After extracting the touch blobs from each of the captured image frames, a blob tracking and event recognition process analyzes the spatial and temporal information of these touch blobs from consecutive frames to determine the possible touch events and actions performed by users. This process also refines the detection results and corrects for errors and occlusions caused by noise and errors during the blob extraction process. The proposed blob tracking and touch event recognition process includes two phases. First, the phase of blob tracking associates the motion correspondence of blobs in succeeding frames by analyzing their spatial and temporal features. The touch event recognition process can identify meaningful touch events based on the motion information of touch blobs, such as finger moving, rotating, pressing, hovering, and clicking actions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed vision-based finger detection, tracking, and event identification system is feasible and effective for multi-touch sensing applications in various operational environments and conditions. PMID:22163990

Chen, Yen-Lin; Liang, Wen-Yew; Chiang, Chuan-Yen; Hsieh, Tung-Ju; Lee, Da-Cheng; Yuan, Shyan-Ming; Chang, Yang-Lang



Control of multi-joint arm movements for the manipulation of touch in keystroke by expert pianists  

PubMed Central

Background Production of a variety of finger-key touches in the piano is essential for expressive musical performance. However, it remains unknown how expert pianists control multi-joint finger and arm movements for manipulating the touch. The present study investigated differences in kinematics and kinetics of the upper-limb movements while expert pianists were depressing a key with two different touches: pressed and struck. The former starts key-depression with the finger-tip contacting the key, whereas the latter involves preparatory arm-lift before striking the key. To determine the effect of individual muscular torque (MUS) as well as non-muscular torques on joint acceleration, we performed a series of inverse and forward dynamics computations. Results The pressed touch showed smaller elbow extension velocity, and larger shoulder and finger flexion velocities during key-depression compared with the struck touch. The former touch also showed smaller elbow extension acceleration directly attributed to the shoulder MUS. In contrast, the shoulder flexion acceleration induced by elbow and wrist MUS was greater for the pressed touch than the struck touch. Towards the goal of producing the target finger-key contact dynamics, the pressed and struck touches effectively took advantage of the distal-to-proximal and proximal-to-distal inter-segmental dynamics, respectively. Furthermore, a psychoacoustic experiment confirmed that a tone elicited by the pressed touch was perceived softer than that by the struck touch. Conclusion The present findings suggest that manipulation of tone timbre depends on control of inter-segmental dynamics in piano keystroke.



Generation of hermaphrodite transgenic papaya lines with virus resistance via transformation of somatic embryos derived from adventitious roots of in vitro shoots.  


Papaya production is seriously limited by Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) worldwide and Papaya leaf-distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) in Eastern Asia. An efficient transformation method for developing papaya lines with transgenic resistance to these viruses and commercially desirable traits, such as hermaphroditism, is crucial to shorten the breeding program for this fruit crop. In this investigation, an untranslatable chimeric construct pYP08 containing truncated PRSV coat protein (CP) and PLDMV CP genes coupled with the 3' untranslational region of PLDMV, was generated. Root segments from different portions of adventitious roots of in vitro multiple shoots of hermaphroditic plants of papaya cultivars 'Tainung No. 2', 'Sunrise', and 'Thailand' were cultured on induction medium for regeneration into somatic embryos. The highest frequency of somatic embryogenesis was from the root-tip segments of adventitious roots developed 2-4 weeks after rooting in perlite medium. After proliferation, embryogenic tissues derived from somatic embryos were wounded in liquid-phase by carborundum and transformed by Agrobacterium carrying pYP08. Similarly, another construct pBG-PLDMVstop containing untranslatable CP gene of PLDMV was also transferred to 'Sunrise' and 'Thailand', the parental cultivars of 'Tainung No. 2'. Among 107 transgenic lines regenerated from 349 root-tip segments, nine lines of Tainung No. 2 carrying YP08 were highly resistant to PRSV and PLDMV, and 9 lines (8 'Sunrise' and 1 'Thailand') carrying PLDMV CP highly resistant to PLDMV, by a mechanism of post-transcriptional gene silencing. The hermaphroditic characteristics of the transgenic lines were confirmed by PCR with sex-linked primers and phenotypes of flower and fruit. Our approach has generated transgenic resistance to both PRSV and PLDMV with commercially desirable characters and can significantly shorten the time-consuming breeding programs for the generation of elite cultivars of papaya hybrids. PMID:19943109

Kung, Yi-Jung; Yu, Tsong-Ann; Huang, Chiung-Huei; Wang, Hui-Chin; Wang, Shin-Lan; Yeh, Shyi-Dong



Decreasing strabismus surgery  

PubMed Central

Aim: To determine whether there has been a consistent change across countries and healthcare systems in the frequency of strabismus surgery in children over the past decade. Methods: Retrospective analysis of data on all strabismus surgery performed in NHS hospitals in England and Wales, on children aged 0–16 years between 1989 and 2000, and between 1994 and 2000 in Ontario (Canada) hospitals. These were compared with published data for Scotland, 1989–2000. Results: Between 1989 and 1999–2000 the number of strabismus procedures performed on children, 0–16 years, in England decreased by 41.2% from 15 083 to 8869. Combined medial rectus recession with lateral rectus resection decreased from 5538 to 3013 (45.6%) in the same period. Bimedial recessions increased from 489 to 762, oblique tenotomies from 43 to 121, and the use of adjustable sutures from 29 to 44, in 2000. In Ontario, operations for squint decreased from 2280 to 1685 (26.1%) among 0–16 year olds between 1994 and 2000. Conclusion: The clinical impression of decrease in the frequency of paediatric strabismus surgery is confirmed. In the authors’ opinion this cannot be fully explained by a decrease in births or by the method of healthcare funding. Two factors that might have contributed are better conservative strabismus management and increased subspecialisation that has improved the quality of surgery and the need for re-operation. This finding has a significant impact upon surgical services and also on the training of ophthalmologists.

Arora, A; Williams, B; Arora, A K; McNamara, R; Yates, J; Fielder, A



Photoacoustic study of the influence of the cooling temperature on the CO2 emission rate by Carica papaya L. in modified atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monitoring of trace gas emitted by papaya fruits and assessments of its mass loss can contribute to improve the conditions for their storage and transport. The C02 emission rate by the papaya fruits, monitored by a commercial infrared-based gas analyzer, was influenced by the temperature and storage time. The fruits stored at temperature of 13 °C accumulated more CO2 inside the PEBD bags than those fruits stored at 6 °C. The loss of mass of the fruits progressively increased with storage time for both temperatures until the saturation of the moisture inside the PEBD bag, been more pronounced at 13 ºC.

Schramm, D. U.; Sthel, M. S.; da Silva, M. G.; Carneiro, L. O.; Silva, H. R. F.; Martins, M. L. L.; Resende, E. D.; Vitorazi, L.; Vargas, H.



Analysis of the full-length genome sequence of papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV), determined by deep sequencing, confirms its classification in the genus Sobemovirus.  


Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) causes an economically important disease in papayas in northeastern Brazil. Based on biological and molecular properties, PLYV has been tentatively assigned to the genus Sobemovirus. We report the sequence of the full-length genome of a PLYV isolate from Brazil, determined by deep sequencing. The PLYV genome is 4,145 nt long and contains four ORFs, with an arrangement identical to that of sobemoviruses. The polyprotein and CP display significant sequence identity with the corresponding proteins of other sobemoviruses. Pairwise comparisons and phylogenetic analysis based on complete nucleotide sequences confirm the classification of PLYV in the genus Sobemovirus. PMID:22743825

Pereira, Alvaro J; Alfenas-Zerbini, Poliane; Cascardo, Renan S; Andrade, Eduardo C; Murilo Zerbini, F



In situ Carica papaya stem matrix and Fusarium oxysporum (NCBT-156) mediated bioremediation of chromium.  


Removal of heavy metal chromium was carried out using the fungus Fusarium oxysporum NCBT-156 strain isolated from soil of leather tanning effluent in in situ condition using potassium dichromate solution with 10 per cent Czapek-dox liquid medium. Biosorbent matrix was developed using Carica papaya plant dry stem to colonize the fungal strain to facilitate bioabsorption process. Bioabsorption of chromium was by metabolically mediated intracellular accumulation process. Maximum efficiency of chromium removal by biosorption upto 90 per cent was achieved at the end of 5th day of incubation (120 h of contact time) for 100 and 200 ppm concentration, upto 80 per cent for 300 and 400 ppm, and upto 65 per cent for 500 ppm to 1000 ppm concentrations with pH ranging from 5.8, 5.6, 5.5, 5.4 and 5.2, respectively for 100, 200, 300, 400, 500-1000 ppm concentration. SDS-PAGE protein profile showed significant difference in 34 kDa protein band after chromium absorption by the fungus. FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed that the main functional groups involved in the uptake of chromium by F. oxysporium strain were carbonyl, carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl groups. PMID:22403866

Amatussalam, A; Abubacker, M N; Rajendran, R Babu



The proregion of papaya proteinase IV inhibits Colorado potato beetle digestive cysteine proteinases.  


Three distinct digestive protease systems were induced in larvae of the herbivorous pest, Colorado potato beetle (CPB; Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say), and used as a model to assess the ability of the proregion of papaya proteinase IV (PPIV; glycyl endopeptidase, EC to act as an inhibitor of insect digestive cysteine proteinases. As shown by gelatin/PAGE and complementary inhibition assays, a recombinant form of the proregion produced in Escherichia coli inhibited a fraction of the insect proteases also inhibited by the well-characterized inhibitor of cysteine proteinases, oryzacystatin I (OCI). In contrast with OCI, the inhibitory potency of the proregion was affected by an increase of the temperature, suggesting a certain alteration of its structural integrity by the insect non-target proteases. This apparent susceptibility to proteolysis was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, after challenging the proregion with the different insect extracts. As seen on gel, selective inhibition of the insect aspartate proteinase, cathepsin D, with the inhibitor pepstatin A preserved the activity of the proregion against cysteine proteinases by preventing its hydrolysis. Taken together, these observations suggest the potential of plant protease proregions as regulators of cysteine proteinases in biotechnological systems, and show the ability of protease inhibitors to preserve the integrity of 'companion' defense-related proteins from the action of insensitive proteases in target pests. PMID:9742962

Visal, S; Taylor, M A; Michaud, D



The Effect of Interpersonal Touch during Childhood on Adult Attachment and Depression: A Neglected Area of Family and Developmental Psychology?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Interpersonal touch has been little studied empirically as an indicator of parent- and peer-child intimacy. Undergraduate students (n = 390) were studied using a questionnaire survey regarding the frequencies of interpersonal touch by father, mother, same-sex peers, and opposite-sex peers during preschool ages, grades 1-3, grades 4-6, and grades…

Takeuchi, Mika S.; Miyaoka, Hitoshi; Tomoda, Atsuko; Suzuki, Masao; Liu, Qingbo; Kitamura, Toshinori



Living with a Tabletop: Analysis and Observations of Long Term Office Use of a Multi-Touch Table  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-touch tabletops have been the focus of significant recent study but, to date, few devices have moved from prototype to installed use. In this paper, we present observation and analysis of a subject who has used a direct-touch tabletop as his primary computing environment for the past 13 months, driving all manner of applications in a standard MS Windows environment.

Daniel Wigdor; Gerald Penn; Kathy Ryall; Alan Esenther; Chia Shen



Children designing together on a multi-touch tabletop: an analysis of spatial orientation and user interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications running on multi-touch tabletops are beginning to be developed to enable children to collaborate on a variety of activi- ties, from photo sharing to playing games. However, little is know as to how children work together on such interactive surfaces.