Sample records for papaya tree carica

  1. The Crop of the DayThe Crop of the Day Papaya (Papaya (Carica papayaCarica papaya))

    E-print Network

    Gepts, Paul

    1 The Crop of the DayThe Crop of the Day Papaya (Papaya (Carica papayaCarica papaya)) © Paul Gepts 2011 SourcesSources Storey WB (1976) Papaya Storey WB (1976) Papaya CaricaCarica papaya (papaya and reproductive structure of papaya Fisher JB (1980) The vegetative and reproductive structure of papaya ((Carica

  2. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray Ming; Shaobin Hou; Yun Feng; Qingyi Yu; Alexandre Dionne-Laporte; Jimmy H. Saw; Pavel Senin; Wei Wang; Benjamin V. Ly; Kanako L. T. Lewis; Lu Feng; Meghan R. Jones; Rachel L. Skelton; Jan E. Murray; Cuixia Chen; Wubin Qian; Junguo Shen; Peng Du; Moriah Eustice; Eric Tong; Haibao Tang; Eric Lyons; Robert E. Paull; Todd P. Michael; Kerr Wall; Danny W. Rice; Henrik Albert; Ming-Li Wang; Yun J. Zhu; Michael Schatz; Niranjan Nagarajan; Ricelle A. Acob; Peizhu Guan; Andrea Blas; Ching Man Wai; Christine M. Ackerman; Yan Ren; Chao Liu; Jianmei Wang; Jianping Wang; Jong-Kuk Na; Eugene V. Shakirov; Brian Haas; Jyothi Thimmapuram; David Nelson; Xiyin Wang; John E. Bowers; Andrea R. Gschwend; Arthur L. Delcher; Ratnesh Singh; Jon Y. Suzuki; Savarni Tripathi; Kabi Neupane; Hairong Wei; Beth Irikura; Maya Paidi; Ning Jiang; Wenli Zhang; Gernot Presting; Aaron Windsor; Rafael Navajas-Pérez; Manuel J. Torres; F. Alex Feltus; Brad Porter; Yingjun Li; A. Max Burroughs; Ming-Cheng Luo; Lei Liu; David A. Christopher; Stephen M. Mount; Paul H. Moore; Tak Sugimura; Jiming Jiang; Mary A. Schuler; Vikki Friedman; Thomas Mitchell-Olds; Dorothy E. Shippen; Claude W. Depamphilis; Jeffrey D. Palmer; Michael Freeling; Andrew H. Paterson; Dennis Gonsalves; Lei Wang; Maqsudul Alam

    2008-01-01

    Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3× draft genome sequence of `SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance

  3. Anther culture of papaya ( Carica papaya L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. S. Tsay; C. Y. Su

    1985-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) anther containing microspores in tetrad to early-binucleate stages were successfully cultured on 1\\/2 strength MS salts and vitamins with full strength Na-Fe-EDTA supplemented with 2 mg\\/l NAA, 1 mg\\/l BA and 6% sucrose for callus initiation and formation. Highest frequencies of callus induction were obtained when anthers at the uninucleate stage were cultured in the dark.

  4. Bumpiness problem and its remedy in Papaya (Carica Papaya)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anand P Tyagi; Bijendra Datt

    Papaya (pawpaw) Carica papaya L. belongs to family Caricaceae. Papaya is a very good source of fruit sugar, vitamin A, B and C. This fruit is rich in minerals and salts and makes very good food. Fiji's climate is very suitable to grow papaya and Fijian grown papaya has a big export market. Main importing countries so far are New

  5. Genome sequence comparison reveals a candidate gene involved in male-hermaphrodite differentiation in papaya (Carica papaya) trees.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Hiroki; Urasaki, Naoya; Natsume, Satoshi; Yoshida, Kentaro; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Terauchi, Ryohei; Matsumura, Hideo

    2015-04-01

    The sex type of papaya (Carica papaya) is determined by the pair of sex chromosomes (XX, female; XY, male; and XY(h), hermaphrodite), in which there is a non-recombining genomic region in the Y and Y(h) chromosomes. This region is presumed to be involved in determination of males and hermaphrodites; it is designated as the male-specific region in the Y chromosome (MSY) and the hermaphrodite-specific region in the Y(h) chromosome (HSY). Here, we identified the genes determining male and hermaphrodite sex types by comparing MSY and HSY genomic sequences. In the MSY and HSY genomic regions, we identified 14,528 nucleotide substitutions and 965 short indels with a large gap and two highly diverged regions. In the predicted genes expressed in flower buds, we found no nucleotide differences leading to amino acid changes between the MSY and HSY. However, we found an HSY-specific transposon insertion in a gene (SVP like) showing a similarity to the Short Vegetative Phase (SVP) gene. Study of SVP-like transcripts revealed that the MSY allele encoded an intact protein, while the HSY allele encoded a truncated protein. Our findings demonstrated that the SVP-like gene is a candidate gene for male-hermaphrodite determination in papaya. PMID:25416421

  6. Anther culture of papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Tsay, H S; Su, C Y

    1985-02-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) anther containing microspores in tetrad to early-binucleate stages were successfully cultured on 1/2 strength MS salts and vitamins with full strength Na-Fe-EDTA supplemented with 2 mg/l NAA, 1 mg/l BA and 6% sucrose for callus initiation and formation. Highest frequencies of callus induction were obtained when anthers at the uninucleate stage were cultured in the dark. Haploid plantlets and pollen-derived embryoids were obtained from anthers cultured at the uninucleate stage on solidified MS medium containing 3% sucrose without any growth regulators under a low light intensity (1,500 lux). Large quantities of embryoids were obtained when the original embryoids were transferred to MS medium with 3% sucrose and no growth regulators. Cytology of root tips of embryoid-derived plants confirmed the haploid chromosome number of 9 indicating that the embryoids originated from pollen. PMID:24253639

  7. Post-irradiation identification of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2012-03-01

    Impact of radiation processing on the volatile essential oil profile of papaya ( Carica papaya) was investigated. Gamma-radiation processing resulted in the appearance of a new peak in the GLC profile that was identified as phenol. The observed dose dependent increase in phenol content suggested possible use of this compound as a marker for radiation processed papaya.

  8. Ecophysiology of papaya Carica papaya L.: a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of how papaya responds to environmental factors provides a scientific basis to develop management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. A better understanding of genotypic responses t...

  9. Molecular markers for sex determination in papaya ( Carica papaya L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Deputy; R. Ming; H. Ma; Z. Liu; M. M. M. Fitch; M. Wang; R. Manshardt; J. I. Stiles

    2002-01-01

    We have developed molecular markers tightly linked to Sex1, the gene that determines plant sex in papaya (Carica papaya L.). Three RAPD products have been cloned and a portion of their DNA sequenced. Based on these sequences SCAR primers were synthesized. SCAR T12 and SCAR W11 produce products in hermaphrodite and male plants and only rarely in females. SCAR T1

  10. Micropropagation of Papaya (Carica Papaya L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mishra; N. Shukla; R. Chandra

    Micropropagation of papaya began three decade ago. Papaya is a polygamous fruit crop and both dioceous as well as gynodioceous\\u000a varieties of papaya are being cultivated. Cloning of female papaya plants through in vitro shoot bud culture is an ideal approach. In vitro regeneration with shoot tip, excised from mature papaya plant, has been attempted (Ali & Hogan, 1976; Litz

  11. Study on the compositional differences between transgenic and non-transgenic papaya ( Carica papaya L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhe Jiao; Jianchao Deng; Gongke Li; Zhuomin Zhang; Zongwei Cai

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic papaya (Carica papaya L.) was produced with the introduction of replicase (rep) gene for resistance to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). In order to investigate the potential unintended compositional changes in transgenic papaya, profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), sugar\\/polyals, organic acids, carotenoids and alkaloids in transgenic and non-transgenic papaya were obtained respectively by HPLC, GC–MS and LC–MS, and compared

  12. MAPPING PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS IN CARICA PAPAYA USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different varieties of papaya (Carica papaya L.) vary in the phenotypic expression of agronomically important traits. Genetic loci responsible for these differences can be mapped using DNA markers to genotype a segregating progeny population derived from a controlled cross between parents having dif...

  13. Biosynthesis of benzylglucosinolate, cyanogenic glucosides and phenylpropanoids in Carica papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard N. Bennett; Guy Kiddle; Roger M. Wallsgrove

    1997-01-01

    Benzylglucosinolate was detected in all of the tissues of Carica papaya (pawpaw). No other glucosinolates were detected in any tissue of C. papaya. Previous suggestions that indolyl-3-methylglucosinolate might be present could not be confirmed. The highest concentrations of benzylglucosinolate were found in the youngest leaves, but the compound was also detected in leaf stalks, stem internodes and roots. The presence

  14. Carotenogenesis and physico-chemical characteristics during maturation of red fleshed papaya fruit ( Carica papaya L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Martin Schweiggert; Christof Björn Steingass; Eric Mora; Patricia Esquivel; Reinhold Carle

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoid development of red fleshed papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.) was investigated in the course of a complete pre- and postharvest period using HPLC-DAD coupled to mass spectrometry. Esterified xanthophylls such as ?-cryptoxanthin laurate and caprate were the most abundant pigments during incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Subsequent fruit maturation led to a gradual accumulation of carotenoids, whereas particularly ?-cryptoxanthin laurate and

  15. Cell-wall polysaccharide modifications during postharvest ripening of papaya fruit ( Carica papaya)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillermo D Manrique; Franco M Lajolo

    2004-01-01

    Modifications of cell-wall polysaccharides and flesh firmness, as a measure of texture, were evaluated during postharvest ripening of papaya fruit (Carica papaya). Cell-wall material (CWM) was isolated from pericarp at different ripening stages. Three pectic and one hemicellulosic fractions, as well as a cellulosic residue, were obtained from CWM. A water soluble fraction contained pectins presumably not cell wall associated.

  16. Plant regeneration from encapsulated somatic embryos of Carica papaya L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Castillo; M. A. L. Smith; U. L. Yadava

    1998-01-01

    Carica papaya L. (papaya) single somatic embryos (2.0 mm diameter) produced in a high-frequency liquid production system were encapsulated\\u000a in two different synthetic encapsulation compounds. The frequency of regeneration from encapsulated embryos was significantly\\u000a affected by (1) the concentration of sodium alginate, (2) the presence or absence of nutrient salts in the capsule, and (3)\\u000a the duration of exposure to

  17. Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya ( Carica papaya L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf M. Schweiggert; Christof B. Steingass; Annerose Heller; Patricia Esquivel; Reinhold Carle

    Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC–MS revealed striking similarity\\u000a of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained\\u000a only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51%

  18. Antibacterial effects of Carica papaya fruit on common wound organisms.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, G; Hewitt, H; Wint, Y; Obiefuna, P C; Wint, B

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate antibacterial activity of ripe and unripe Carica papaya on selected micro-organisms. Cultures of micro-organisms were routinely maintained in nutrient agar slants at 4 degrees C. Extracts of immature, mature and ripe Carica papaya fruit were obtained by separately grinding factions of the epicarp, endocarp and seeds and filtering them through gauze. Sensitivity tests were conducted by adding 0.06 ml of extract to agar wells (6 mm diameter) prepared from 20 ml agar seeded with 10(6) cells/ml suspension of one of the eight organisms per plate. The inoculated plates were allowed to equilibrate at 4 degrees C for 1 hour, incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 hours, and zones of inhibition measured in millimetres. Anti-bacterial activity was expressed in terms of the radius of zone of inhibition. Seed extracts from the fruit showed inhibition in the following order: B cereus > E coli > S faecalis > S aureus > P vulgaris > S flexneri. No significant difference was found in bacterial sensitivity between immature, mature and ripe fruits. No inhibition zone was produced by epicarp and endocarp extracts. Carica papaya seeds contain anti-bacterial activity that inhibits growth of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Observed activity was independent of stage of fruit maturity. Carica papaya has antibacterial effects that could be useful in treating chronic skin ulcers to promote healing. PMID:15040064

  19. Possible immunomodulatory actions of Carica papaya seed extract.

    PubMed

    Mojica-Henshaw, Mariluz P; Francisco, Angelica D; De Guzman, Florecita; Tigno, Xenia T

    2003-01-01

    Carica papaya seed extract is currently being marketed as a nutritional supplement with purported ability "to rejuvenate the body condition and to increase energy". The product claims to improve immunity against common infection and body functioning. The present study was initiated to analyze the chemical constituents of the Carica Seed Extract and determine the potential immunomodulatory properties of the different bioactive fractions. These immunomodulatory activities of crude Carica Seed Extract and its bioactive fractions were examined in vitro using lymphocyte proliferation assays and complement-mediated hemolytic assay. Three major observations were made in this study: (1) the crude Carica Seed Extract and two other bioactive fractions significantly enhanced the phytohemagglutinin responsiveness of lymphocytes; (2) none of the Carica Seed Extract (at the concentrations used in this study) was able to protect the lymphocytes from the toxic effects of chromium; and (3) some of the bioactive fractions of Carica Seed Extract were able to significantly inhibit the classical complement-mediated hemolytic pathway. These findings provide evidence for immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory actions of Carica Seed Extract. No single compound is likely responsible for these activities. Further purification, isolation and characterization of the active components are needed. PMID:14724345

  20. A male and hermaphrodite specific RAPD marker for papaya ( Carica papaya L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Urasaki; M. Tokumoto; K. Tarora; Y. Ban; T. Kayano; H. Tanaka; H. Oku; I. Chinen; R. Terauchi

    2002-01-01

    The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to determine the sex of a dioecious species, Carica papaya L., with three sex types, male, female and hermaphrodite. A 450 bp marker fragment, named PSDM(Papaya Sex Determination Marker),\\u000a exists in all male and hermaphrodite plants but not in the female plants so far analyzed. The DNA sequence of PSDM exhibited

  1. Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B; Heller, Annerose; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

    2011-11-01

    Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC-MS revealed striking similarity of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51% of total carotenoids). Comparison of the pigment-loaded chromoplast ultrastructures disclosed tubular plastids to be abundant in yellow papaya, whereas larger crystalloid substructures characterized most frequent red papaya chromoplasts. Exclusively existent in red papaya, such crystalloid structures were associated with lycopene accumulation. Non-globular carotenoid deposition was derived from simple solubility calculations based on carotenoid and lipid contents of the differently colored fruit pulps. Since the physical state of carotenoid deposition may be decisive regarding their bioavailability, chromoplasts from lycopene-rich tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were also assessed and compared to red papaya. Besides interesting analogies, various distinctions were ascertained resulting in the prediction of enhanced lycopene bioavailability from red papaya. In addition, the developmental pathway of red papaya chromoplasts was investigated during fruit ripening and carotenogenesis. In the early maturation stage of white-fleshed papaya, undifferentiated proplastids and globular plastids were predominant, corresponding to incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Since intermediate plastids, e.g., amyloplasts or chloroplasts, were absent, chromoplasts are likely to emerge directly from proplastids. PMID:21706336

  2. Comparative Study of Quality Changes in Shea Butter Coated Pawpaw Carica papaya Fruit During Storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. O. Adetuyi; T. A. Ayileye; I. B. O. Dada

    2008-01-01

    2 Abstract: The storage of shea butter coated pawpaw carica papaya fruit at different storage temperature was investigated as regard the nutrients, sugars and minerals. Freshly harvested just ripe fruit of pawpaw carica papaya was coated with shea butter and stored at room temperature (27 C±1 C), refrigeration temperature o o galactose) and minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn) were

  3. Spiders associated with papaya, Carica papaya L., in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The main objective of this work was to study the species composition and population dynamics of spiders associated with papaya plantings in three papaya production areas: Corozal, Isabela, and Lajas, Puerto Rico. Nineteen species representing seven families and 15 genera were identified. Members of ...

  4. Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya

    PubMed Central

    Oduola, Taofeeq; Bello, Ibrahim; Idowu, Thomas; Avwioro, Godwin; Adeosun, Ganiyu; Olatubosun, Luqman

    2010-01-01

    Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results: Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion: No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. PMID:22574295

  5. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×103/µL, 8.10×103/µL, 84.0% to 55×103/µL, 3.7×103/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×103/µL to 168×103/µL, WBC from 3.7×103/µL to 7.7×103/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases. PMID:23569787

  6. Cyanogenic allosides and glucosides from Passiflora edulis and Carica papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Seigler; Guido F. Pauli; Adolf Nahrstedt; Rosemary Leen

    2002-01-01

    Leaf and stem material of Passiflora edulis (Passifloraceae) contains the new cyanogenic glycosides (2R)–?-d-allopyranosyloxy-2-phenylacetonitrile (1a) and (2S)–?-d-allopyranosyloxy-2-phenylacetonitrile (1b), along with smaller amounts of (2R)–prunasin (2a), sambunigrin (2b), and the alloside of benzyl alcohol (4); the major cyanogens of the fruits are (2R)–prunasin (2a) and (2S)–sambunigrin (2b). The major cyanogenic glycoside of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) is 2a; only small amounts of

  7. Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas ( Carica papaya L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo, R. J.; Tadini, C. C.; Sabato, S. F.

    2007-11-01

    Papaya is cultivated in Espírito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature.

  8. Physical–chemical analyses of irradiated papayas ( Carica papaya L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Camargo; C. C. Tadini; S. F. Sabato

    2007-01-01

    Papaya is cultivated in Espírito Santo State\\/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00kGy)

  9. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract

    PubMed Central

    Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1?mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

  10. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract.

    PubMed

    Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1?mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (?? m ) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

  11. Cyanogenic allosides and glucosides from Passiflora edulis and Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Seigler, David S; Pauli, Guido F; Nahrstedt, Adolf; Leen, Rosemary

    2002-08-01

    Leaf and stem material of Passiflora edulis (Passifloraceae) contains the new cyanogenic glycosides (2R)-beta-D-allopyranosyloxy-2-phenylacetonitrile (1a) and (2S)-beta-D-allopyranosyloxy-2-phenylacetonitrile (1b), along with smaller amounts of (2R)-prunasin (2a), sambunigrin (2b), and the alloside of benzyl alcohol (4); the major cyanogens of the fruits are (2R)-prunasin (2a) and (2S)-sambunigrin (2b). The major cyanogenic glycoside of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) is 2a; only small amounts of 2b also are present. We were not able to confirm the presence of a cyclopentenoid cyanogenic glycoside, tetraphyllin B, in Carica papaya leaf and stem materials. In detailed 1H NMR studies of 1a/b and 2a/b, differences in higher order effects in glucosides and allosides proved to be valuable for assignment of structures in this series. The diagnostic chemical shifts of cyanogenic methine and anomeric protons in 1a/b are sensitive to anisotropic environmental effects. The assignment of C-2 stereochemistry of 1a/b was made in analogy to previous assignments in the glucoside series and was supported by GLC analysis of the TMS ethers. PMID:12150815

  12. Wound healing properties of Carica papaya latex: In vivo evaluation in mice burn model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shila Gurung; Nataša Škalko-Basnet

    2009-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevanceCarica papaya is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment of various wounds, particularly burns.

  13. Reversible contraception with chloroform extract of Carica papaya linn. seeds in male rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nirmal K Lohiya; N Pathak; Pradyumna K Mishra; B Manivannan

    1999-01-01

    The contraceptive efficacy and reversibility of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in adult male rabbits were investigated. Eighteen adult male rabbits were divided into three groups of six animals each; Group I—control, Group II—administered chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya at 20 mg\\/animal\\/d for 150 d by gavage, and Group III—administered the seed extract

  14. Influence of ripening stages on antioxidant properties of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addai, Zuhair Radhi; Abdullah, Aminah; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.

    2013-11-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv Eksotika) is one of the most commonly consumed tropical fruits by humans, especially Malaysians. The objective of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidants activity in different ripening stages of papaya fruit. The fruits were harvested at five different, stages RS1, RS2, RS3, RS4, and RS5 corresponding to 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 weeks after anthesis, respectively. Papayas fruit at five different stage of ripening were obtained from farms at Pusat Flora Cheras, JabatanPertanian and Hulu Langat Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia. The antioxidants activity were analyzed using the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The analyses were conducted in triplicate and the data were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS. The results showed significant differences (P< 0.05) were found at different stages of ripening. The total phenol content TPC, TFC, FRAP and DPPH values increased significantly (P<0.05) with the ripening process. The results showed the important role of the ripening stage in increasing the antioxidant content of papaya fruits.

  15. Ascorbic acid, vitamin A, and mineral composition of banana ( Musa sp.) and papaya ( Carica papaya) cultivars grown in Hawaii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marisa M. Wall

    2006-01-01

    Banana (Musa sp.) and papaya (Carica papaya) cultivars were harvested from different locations throughout Hawaii and analyzed for vitamin C (ascorbic acid), provitamin A (?-carotene, ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin), and mineral composition. Dwarf Brazilian (“apple”) bananas had almost three times more vitamin C (12.7mg\\/100g fresh weight) than Williams fruit (4.5mg\\/100g). Also, Dwarf Brazilian bananas had 96.9?g?-carotene and 104.9?g?-carotene\\/100g, whereas Williams fruit averaged

  16. Antiulcerogenic activity of Carica papaya seed in rats.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Lorraine Aparecida; Cordeiro, Kátia Wolff; Carrasco, Viviane; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Cardoso, Cláudia Andréa Lima; Argadoña, Eliana Janet Sanjinez; Freitas, Karine de Cássia

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the gastroprotective and healing effects of the methanolic extract of the seed of the papaya Carica papaya L. (MECP) in rats. Models of acute gastric ulcer induction by ethanol and indomethacin and of chronic ulcer by acetic acid were used. The gastric juice and mucus parameters were evaluated using the pylorus ligation model, and the involvement of sulfhydryl compounds (GSH) and nitric oxide in the gastroprotective effect was analyzed using the ethanol model. The toxicity was assessed through toxicity tests. No signs of toxicity were observed when the rats received a single dose of 2000 mg/kg of extract. The MECP in doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the gastric lesion with 56, 76, and 82 % inhibition, respectively, and a dose of 30 mg/kg lansoprazole showed 79 % inhibition in the ethanol model. MECP (125, 250, 500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) reduced the gastric lesion in the indomethacin model, with 62, 67, 81, and 85 % inhibition, respectively. The MECP (500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) treatments showed a reduction in ulcerative symptoms induced by acetic acid by 84 and 73 %, respectively. The antiulcerogenic activity seems to involve GSH because the inhibition dropped from 72 to 13 % in the presence of a GSH inhibitor. Moreover, the MECP showed systemic action, increasing the mucus production and decreasing gastric acidity. Treatments with MECP induce gastroprotection without signs of toxicity. This effect seems to involve sulfhydryl compounds, increased mucus, and reduced gastric acidity. PMID:25418890

  17. Callus culture and plantlet production in Carica papaya (Var. Honey Dew)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mousumi Mondal; Sukumar Gupta; Barid Baran Mukherjee

    1994-01-01

    Summary  In order to develop techniques for efficient callus production and regeneration in Carica papaya (Var. Honey Dew), lamina, petiole, stem and root explants from in vitro plantlets were cultured in media supplemented with 2.0 mg\\/1 IBA and 0.5 mg\\/1 BAP. Use of in vitro-grown plantlets as an explant source helped to avoid contamination common in papaya tissue culture. Callusing was

  18. A SCAR marker for the sex types determination in Colombian genotypes of Carica papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni Chaves-Bedoya; Víctor Nuñez

    2007-01-01

    Sex type determination in papaya (Carica papaya L.) is very important for crop improvement processes because it accelerates the identification of the fruitful plants. The\\u000a use of molecular technology provides a quick and reliable identification of sex types in plantlets growing in seedbeds. Random\\u000a amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to determine the sex types of Colombian cultivars of

  19. Papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lili Zhou; Robert E. Paull; Nancy Jung Chen

    Scientific Name and Introduction: Papaya, papaw or paw paw (Carica papaya L.) is cultivated throughout the tropics for its fruit (Nakasone, 1986). Fruit are eaten green or ripe, in salads or fresh. The related Ecuadorian babaco (C. pentagonia) is also eaten fresh. Fruit are pyriform (pear-shaped), spherical or cylindrical. The pyriform, hermaphroditic fruit is the most common in commerce. These

  20. Postharvest Variation in Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymes of Papaya (Carica papaya L.) during Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed

    Paull, R E; Chen, N J

    1983-06-01

    Pectin methylesterase (PME), polygalacturonase (PG), xylanase, cellulase, and proteinase activity were determined and related to respiration, ethylene evolution, and changes in skin color of papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit from harvest through to the start of fruit breakdown. PME gradually increased from the start of the climacteric rise reaching a peak 2 days after the respiratory peak. PG and xylanase were not detectable in the preclimacteric stage but increased during the climacteric: during the post climacteric stage, the PG declined to a level one-quarter of peak activity with xylanase activity returning to zero. Cellulase activity gradually increased 3-fold after harvest to peak at the same time as PME, 2 days after the edible stage. Proteinase declined throughout the climacteric and postclimacteric phases. A close relationship exists between PG and xylanase and the rise in respiration, ethylene evolution, and softening. Cultivar differences in postclimacteric levels of enzymic activity were not detected.An inhibitor of cellulase activity was detected in preclimacteric fruit. The inhibitor was not benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC). BITC did inhibit PG activity, though no inhibitor of PG activity was detected in preclimacteric homogenates when BITC was highest. The results indicate that inhibitors did not play a direct role in controlling wall softening. PMID:16663010

  1. Specificity of Carica papaya latex in lipase-catalyzed interesterification reactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Villeneuve; M. Pina; A. Skarbek; J. Graille; T. A. Foglia

    1997-01-01

    Enzymatic interesterification of the chiral triacylglycerol, 1-butyroyl-2-stearoyl-3-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol (sn-BSP) with trimyristin indicated that the lipase present in Carica papaya latex exhibits an sn3 stereoselectivity. Other interesterification experiments with homogeneous triacylglycerols of varying chain length with tricaprylin showed that this enzyme also has a typoselectivity for short chain fatty acids.

  2. Fractionation and purification of the enzymes stored in the latex of Carica papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Azarkan; Anouar El Moussaoui; Delphine van Wuytswinkel; Géraldine Dehon; Yvan Looze

    2003-01-01

    The latex of the tropical species Carica papaya is well known for being a rich source of the four cysteine endopeptidases papain, chymopapain, glycyl endopeptidase and caricain. Altogether, these enzymes are present in the laticifers at a concentration higher than 1 mM. The proteinases are synthesized as inactive precursors that convert into mature enzymes within 2 min after wounding the

  3. Identification and biochemical characterization of a GDSL-motif carboxylester hydrolase from Carica papaya latex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Slim Abdelkafi; Hiroyuki Ogata; Nathalie Barouh; Benjamin Fouquet; Régine Lebrun; Michel Pina; Frantz Scheirlinckx; Pierre Villeneuve; Frédéric Carrière

    2009-01-01

    An esterase (CpEst) showing high specific activities on tributyrin and short chain vinyl esters was obtained from Carica papaya latex after an extraction step with zwitterionic detergent and sonication, followed by gel filtration chromatography. Although the protein could not be purified to complete homogeneity due to its presence in high molecular mass aggregates, a major protein band with an apparent

  4. Molecular evidence for association of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus with leaf curl disease of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. RajA; S. K. SnehiA; M. S. KhanA; R. SinghA; A. A. KhanB

    2008-01-01

    Association ofTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus with leaf curl disease of papaya (Carica papaya L.) was detected by polymerase chain reaction using begomovirus-specific primers and confirmed by highest sequence similarities\\u000a and close phylogenetic relationships.

  5. Identification and quantification of phenols, carotenoids, and vitamin C from papaya ( Carica papaya L., cv. Maradol) fruit determined by HPLC-DAD-MS\\/MS-ESI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura E. Gayosso-García Sancho; Elhadi M. Yahia; Gustavo Adolfo González-Aguilar

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that vitamin C, phenols, and carotenoids are bioactive compounds that protect the body from oxidative stress, reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major phytochemicals found in papaya fruit flesh and skin (Carica papaya L., cv Maradol) was conducted in four stages of ripeness, using high-performance

  6. Plant regeneration of Carica papaya L. through somatic embryogenesis in response to light quality, gelling agent and phloridzin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azucena Ascencio-Cabral; Humberto Gutiérrez-Pulido; Benjamín Rodríguez-Garay; Antonia Gutiérrez-Mora

    2008-01-01

    Difficulties to develop an easy and reproducible protocol to get healthy and well formed plants from somatic embryos of papaya (Carica papaya L.) had included low germination, callus production at the base of the embryo radicle and the occurrence of hyperhydric plantlets among others, and by consequence unsuccessful transfer to the field. With the aim of improving a propagation method,

  7. Characterization of the lipase from Carica papaya residues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernanda Wiermann PAQUES; Tatiana Fontes PIO; Patrícia de Oliveira CARVALHO; Gabriela Alves MACEDO

    Summary Lipases from vegetable sources have been the focus of intense and growing research. The use of enzymes from plants has the advantage of employing industrial waste products. Brazil is the world's largest papaya producer and the market for products derived from papaya is growing year after year. In this study, the authors carried out the characterization and partial purification

  8. Wound-healing potential of an ethanol extract of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) seeds.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramdeen, Ria; Adogwa, Andrew; Ramsubhag, Adash; Marshall, Julien Rhodney

    2012-12-01

    Carica papaya L. (Linn) (Caricaceae) is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment for various wounds, particularly burns. This study evaluated the wound-healing and antimicrobial activity of C. papaya seed extract. Ethanol extract of C. papaya seed (50 mg/kg/day) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity in Sprague-Dawley rats using excision wound model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each (group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with papaya seed extract, group 3 treated with a standard drug mupirocin and papaya seed extract (1:1 ratio) and group 4 treated with a mupirocin ointment. Rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content were determined to assess the wound-healing activity of the seed extract. The group 2 animals showed a significant decrease in wound area of 89% over 13 days when compared with groups 1 (82%), 3 (86%) and 4 (84%) respectively. The hydroxyproline content was significantly higher with the granulation tissue obtained from group 2 animals which were treated with C. papaya seed extract. Histological analysis of granulation tissue of the group 2 animals showed the deposition of well-organized collagen. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that C. papaya promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation for this activity in humans is suggested. PMID:22296524

  9. Carica papaya latex is a rich source of a class II chitinase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Azarkan; Amina Amrani; Michelle Nijs; André Vandermeers; Samira Zerhouni; Nicole Smolders; Yvan Looze

    1997-01-01

    This enzyme, purified to homogeneity, was classified on the basis of its N-terminal amino acid sequence, activity and free thiol functions content. Some physico-chemical properties were also studied.A class II chitinase is present in the latex of the tropical species Carica papaya. The enzyme may be readily purified by using a combination of hydrophobic interaction- and cation-exchange chromatography. This enzyme

  10. Carica papaya Lipase: A Naturally Immobilized Enzyme with Interesting Biochemical Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Slim Abdelkafi; Nathalie Barouh; Benjamin Fouquet; Imen Fendri; Michel Pina; Frantz Scheirlinckx; Pierre Villeneuve; Frédéric Carrière

    2011-01-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) lipases have been thoroughly characterized in mammals and microorganisms, whereas very little is known\\u000a about plant TAG lipases. The lipolytic activity occurring in all the laticies is known to be associated with sedimentable\\u000a particles, and all attempts to solubilize the lipolytic activity of Carica papaya latex have been unsuccessful so far. However, some of the biochemical properties of

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal status and root phosphatase activities in vegetative Carica papaya L. varieties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharda W. KhadeBernard; Bernard F. Rodrigues; Prabhat K. Sharma

    2010-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) status and root phosphatase activities were studied in four vegetative Carica papaya L. varieties viz., CO-1, CO-2, Honey Dew and Washington. Standard techniques were used to ascertain information on spore\\u000a density and species diversity of AM fungi. Although in case of estimation of root colonization and root phosphatase activities,\\u000a the existing methods were slightly modified. Root

  12. Morphological, molecular and cytological analyses of Carica papaya×C. cauliflora interspecific hybrids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Magdalita; R. A. Drew; S. W. Adkins; I. D. Godwin

    1997-01-01

    Morphological, molecular and cytological analyses were performed to assess the hybridity of 120 putative interspecific hybrids\\u000a of Carica papaya L.?C. cauliflora Jacq. In the putative interspecific hybrids the number of main leaf veins was intermediate between the two parents while\\u000a the hermaphrodite flower sex form and the low vigour were distinctive features of these hybrids. Petiole length, stem diameter,\\u000a leaf

  13. Different arbuscular mycorrhizal interactions in male and female plants of wild Carica papaya L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rocío Vega-Frutis; Roger Guevara

    2009-01-01

    The different resource demands on male and female plants of dioecious species can lead to secondary sexual dimorphisms. Male\\u000a and female plants might also interact differently with antagonists and mutualists. We used a repeated measures natural experiment\\u000a in five subpopulations to investigate secondary sexual dimorphism in Carica papaya including interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Male and female plants did not

  14. Pythium aphanidermatum root rot of pawpaw ( Carica papaya L.) in Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. O. A. Oluma; A. O. Oladiran

    1993-01-01

    Root rot of pawpaw (Carica papaya L.) reported in Nigeria is caused byPythium aphanidermatum which was consistently isolated from diseased plant parts and highly pothogenic. Out of 16 different media tested, it grew best on corn-meal-agar (CMA) and CMA supplemented with cellulose and sucrose. The highest number of oospores\\/ml was on CMA with average diameter of 19.9±0.1 µm. The symptom

  15. Correlation between ethylene emission and skin colour changes during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. da Silva; J. G. Oliveira; A. P. Vitoria; S. F. Corrêa; M. G. Pereira; E. Campostrini; E. O. Santos; A. Cavalli; H. Vargas

    2005-01-01

    The skin colour changes and ethylene emission rates were monitored during papaya (C. papaya L.) fruit ripening. Two groups of papaya (`Formosa' and `Solo') were applied in this study. The total colour difference was used as measured parameter and the corresponding half time of its saturation was used as correlation parameter. A high correlation factor between the saturation half time

  16. Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional plant treatment for diabetes has shown a surging interest in the last few decades. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves in diabetic rats. Several studies have reported that some parts of the C. papaya plant exert hypoglycemic effects in both animals and humans. Methods Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ). The aqueous extract of C. papaya was administered in three different doses (0.75, 1.5 and 3 g/100 mL) as drinking water to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals during 4 weeks. Results The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (0.75 g and 1.5 g/100 mL) significantly decreased blood glucose levels (p<0.05) in diabetic rats. It also decreased cholesterol, triacylglycerol and amino-transferases blood levels. Low plasma insulin levels did not change after treatment in diabetic rats, but they significantly increased in non-diabetic animals. Pancreatic islet cells were normal in non-diabetic treated animals, whereas in diabetic treated rats, C. papaya could help islet regeneration manifested as preservation of cell size. In the liver of diabetic treated rats, C. papaya prevented hepatocyte disruption, as well as accumulation of glycogen and lipids. Finally, an antioxidant effect of C. papaya extract was also detected in diabetic rats. Conclusions This study showed that the aqueous extract of C. papaya exerted a hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect; it also improved the lipid profile in diabetic rats. In addition, the leaf extract positively affected integrity and function of both liver and pancreas. PMID:23190471

  17. Plasma response to a single dose of dietary ?-cryptoxanthin esters from papaya (Carica papaya L.) or non-esterified ?-cryptoxanthin in adult human subjects: a comparative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dietmar E. Breithaupt; Philipp Weller; Maike Wolters; Andreas Hahn

    2003-01-01

    Many orange-coloured fruits contain b-cryptoxanthin in its non-esterified as well as its esterified form. Information concerning the absorp- tion of b-cryptoxanthin, especially with regard to the metabolism of its fatty acid esters, is rather scarce. The present study assessed the plasma concentration reached after consumption of a single dose of native b-cryptoxanthin esters from papaya (Carica papaya L.) or non-

  18. Identification and expression of the WRKY transcription factors of Carica papaya in response to abiotic and biotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lin-Jie; Jiang, Ling

    2014-03-01

    The WRKY transcription factor (TF) plays a very important role in the response of plants to various abiotic and biotic stresses. A local papaya database was built according to the GenBank expressed sequence tag database using the BioEdit software. Fifty-two coding sequences of Carica papaya WRKY TFs were predicted using the tBLASTn tool. The phylogenetic tree of the WRKY proteins was classified. The expression profiles of 13 selected C. papaya WRKY TF genes under stress induction were constructed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of these WRKY genes in response to 3 abiotic and 2 biotic stresses were evaluated. TF807.3 and TF72.14 are upregulated by low temperature; TF807.3, TF43.76, TF12.199 and TF12.62 are involved in the response to drought stress; TF9.35, TF18.51, TF72.14 and TF12.199 is involved in response to wound; TF12.199, TF807.3, TF21.156 and TF18.51 was induced by PRSV pathogen; TF72.14 and TF43.76 are upregulated by SA. The regulated expression levels of above eight genes normalized against housekeeping gene actin were significant at probability of 0.01 levels. These WRKY TFs could be related to corresponding stress resistance and selected as the candidate genes, especially, the two genes TF807.3 and TF12.199, which were regulated notably by four stresses respectively. This study may provide useful information and candidate genes for the development of transgenic stress tolerant papaya varieties. PMID:24390238

  19. Antihypertensive effect of Carica papaya via a reduction in ACE activity and improved baroreflex.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Ronchi, Silas Nascimento; do Nascimento, Andrews Marques; de Lima, Ewelyne Miranda; Romão, Wanderson; da Costa, Helber Barcellos; Scherer, Rodrigo; Ventura, José Aires; Lenz, Dominik; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza; Endringer, Denise Coutinho; de Andrade, Tadeu Uggere

    2014-11-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the antihypertensive effects of the standardised methanolic extract of Carica papaya, its angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effects in vivo, its effect on the baroreflex and serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity, and its chemical composition. The chemical composition of the methanolic extract of C. papaya was evaluated by liquid chromatography-mass/mass and mass/mass spectrometry. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effect was evaluated in vivo by Ang I administration. The antihypertensive assay was performed in spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar rats that were treated with enalapril (10 mg/kg), the methanolic extract of C. papaya (100 mg/kg; twice a day), or vehicle for 30 days. The baroreflex was evaluated through the use of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine. Angiotensin converting enzyme activity was measured by ELISA, and cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by morphometric analysis. The methanolic extract of C. papaya was standardised in ferulic acid (203.41 ± 0.02 µg/g), caffeic acid (172.60 ± 0.02 µg/g), gallic acid (145.70 ± 0.02 µg/g), and quercetin (47.11 ± 0.03 µg/g). The flavonoids quercetin, rutin, nicotiflorin, clitorin, and manghaslin were identified in a fraction of the extract. The methanolic extract of C. papaya elicited angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity. The antihypertensive effects elicited by the methanolic extract of C. papaya were similar to those of enalapril, and the baroreflex sensitivity was normalised in treated spontaneously hypertensive rats. Plasma angiotensin converting enzyme activity and cardiac hypertrophy were also reduced to levels comparable to the enalapril-treated group. These results may be associated with the chemical composition of the methanolic extract of C. papaya, and are the first step into the development of a new phytotherapic product which could be used in the treatment of hypertension. PMID:25295669

  20. Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract

    PubMed Central

    THAM, CHING S.; CHAKRAVARTHI, SRIKUMAR; HALEAGRAHARA, NAGARAJA; DE ALWIS, RANJIT

    2013-01-01

    Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) following lead acetate administration and pre-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) followed by lead acetate administration. The substances were administered for 14 days. The effects were evaluated by measuring protein carbonyl content (PCC) and glutathione content (GC) in the bone marrow. Histological changes in the bone marrow were also observed. The results showed that Carica papaya induced a significant reduction in the PCC activity and significantly increased the GC in the bone marrow. Carica papaya also improved the histology of the bone marrow compared with that of the lead acetate-treated group. In summary, Carica papaya was effective against the oxidative damage caused by lead acetate in the bone marrow and had a stimulatory effect on haemopoiesis. PMID:23403524

  1. Complete nucleotide sequence of a monopartite Begomovirus and associated satellites infecting Carica papaya in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shahid, M S; Yoshida, S; Khatri-Chhetri, G B; Briddon, R W; Natsuaki, K T

    2013-06-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) is a fruit crop that is cultivated mostly in kitchen gardens throughout Nepal. Leaf samples of C. papaya plants with leaf curling, vein darkening, vein thickening, and a reduction in leaf size were collected from a garden in Darai village, Rampur, Nepal in 2010. Full-length clones of a monopartite Begomovirus, a betasatellite and an alphasatellite were isolated. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Begomovirus showed the arrangement of genes typical of Old World begomoviruses with the highest nucleotide sequence identity (>99 %) to an isolate of Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV), confirming it as an isolate of AYVV. The complete nucleotide sequence of betasatellite showed greater than 89 % nucleotide sequence identity to an isolate of Tomato leaf curl Java betasatellite originating from Indonesian. The sequence of the alphasatellite displayed 92 % nucleotide sequence identity to Sida yellow vein China alphasatellite. This is the first identification of these components in Nepal and the first time they have been identified in papaya. PMID:23397078

  2. The Evolutionary Tempo of Sex Chromosome Degradation in Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng; Moore, Richard C

    2015-06-01

    Genes on non-recombining heterogametic sex chromosomes may degrade over time through the irreversible accumulation of deleterious mutations. In papaya, the non-recombining male-specific region of the Y (MSY) consists of two evolutionary strata corresponding to chromosomal inversions occurring approximately 7.0 and 1.9 MYA. The step-wise recombination suppression between the papaya X and Y allows for a temporal examination of the degeneration progress of the young Y chromosome. Comparative evolutionary analyses of 55 X/Y gene pairs showed that Y-linked genes have more unfavorable substitutions than X-linked genes. However, this asymmetric evolutionary pattern is confined to the oldest stratum, and is only observed when recently evolved pseudogenes are included in the analysis, indicating a slow degeneration tempo of the papaya Y chromosome. Population genetic analyses of coding sequence variation of six Y-linked focal loci in the oldest evolutionary stratum detected an excess of nonsynonymous polymorphism and reduced codon bias relative to autosomal loci. However, this pattern was also observed for corresponding X-linked loci. Both the MSY and its corresponding X-specific region are pericentromeric where recombination has been shown to be greatly reduced. Like the MSY region, overall selective efficacy on the X-specific region may be reduced due to the interference of selective forces between highly linked loci, or the Hill-Robertson effect, that is accentuated in regions of low or suppressed recombination. Thus, a pattern of gene decay on the X-specific region may be explained by relaxed purifying selection and widespread genetic hitchhiking due to its pericentromeric location. PMID:25987354

  3. Correlation between ethylene emission and skin colour changes during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Vitoria, A. P.; Corrêa, S. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Campostrini, E.; Santos, E. O.; Cavalli, A.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The skin colour changes and ethylene emission rates were monitored during papaya (C. papaya L.) fruit ripening. Two groups of papaya (‘Formosa’ and ‘Solo’) were applied in this study. The total colour difference was used as measured parameter and the corresponding half time of its saturation was used as correlation parameter. A high correlation factor between the saturation half time and corresponding climacteric peak time was found. It was concluded that high ethylene emission rate in ‘Solo’ fruit promotes a quick change of the total colour difference.

  4. Purification of papain from Carica papaya latex: Aqueous two-phase extraction versus two-step salt precipitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarote Nitsawang; Rajni Hatti-Kaul; Pawinee Kanasawud

    2006-01-01

    Purification of papain from wet Carica papaya latex by extraction in aqueous two-phase system was studied and compared with the traditional procedure involving a two-step salt precipitation. The papain obtained by the latter method was usually contaminated with other proteins, and its purity was dependent on the initial protein concentration in the material used for processing. Highly pure papain was

  5. Effects of crude extracts of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) and Carica papaya (Caricaceae) against the protozoan fish parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Ekanem; A. Obiekezie; W. Kloas; K. Knopf

    2004-01-01

    The ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is among the most pathogenic parasites of fish maintained in captivity. In the present study, the effects of the crude methanolic extract of leaves of Mucuna pruriens and the petroleum-ether extract of seeds of Carica papaya against I. multifiliis were investigated under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Goldfish ( Carassius auratus auratus) infected with the

  6. Acute and chronic toxicity of pawpaw (Carica papaya) seed powder to adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linne 1757)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ezekiel O. Ayotunde; Benedict O. Ofem

    2008-01-01

    This experiment determined the toxicity of pawpaw seed powder to adult tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, the most cultivable fish species in Africa. The 96 h static bioassay experiment was conducted to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50) for adult Nile tilapia, to pawpaw seed, Carica papaya. Two hundred live, and apparently healthy O. niloticus measuring 11.5 - 14.6 cm total length

  7. Correct names for some of the closest relatives of Carica papaya: A review of the Mexican/Guatemalan genera Jarilla and Horovitzia

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; Renner, Susanne S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Using molecular data, we recently showed that Carica papaya L. is sister to a Mexican/Guatemalan clade of two genera, Jarilla Rusby with three species and Horovitzia V.M. Badillo with one. These species are herbs or thin-stemmed trees and may be of interest for future genomics-enabled papaya breeding. Here we clarify the correct names of Jarilla heterophylla (Cerv. ex La Llave) Rusby and Jarilla caudata (Brandegee) Standl., which were confused in a recent systematic treatment of Jarilla (McVaugh 2001). We designate epitypes for both, provide weblinks to type specimens, a key to the species of Jarilla and Horovitzia, and notes on their habitats and distribution. PMID:24399895

  8. Development of a Gene-Centered SSR Atlas as a Resource for Papaya (Carica papaya) Marker-Assisted Selection and Population Genetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Newton Medeiros; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Ramos, Helaine Christine Cancela; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Venancio, Thiago Motta

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) is an economically important tropical fruit. Molecular marker-assisted selection is an inexpensive and reliable tool that has been widely used to improve fruit quality traits and resistance against diseases. In the present study we report the development and validation of an atlas of papaya simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We integrated gene predictions and functional annotations to provide a gene-centered perspective for marker-assisted selection studies. Our atlas comprises 160,318 SSRs, from which 21,231 were located in genic regions (i.e. inside exons, exon-intron junctions or introns). A total of 116,453 (72.6%) of all identified repeats were successfully mapped to one of the nine papaya linkage groups. Primer pairs were designed for markers from 9,594 genes (34.5% of the papaya gene complement). Using papaya-tomato orthology assessments, we assembled a list of 300 genes (comprising 785 SSRs) potentially involved in fruit ripening. We validated our atlas by screening 73 SSR markers (including 25 fruit ripening genes), achieving 100% amplification rate and uncovering 26% polymorphism rate between the parental genotypes (Sekati and JS12). The SSR atlas presented here is the first comprehensive gene-centered collection of annotated and genome positioned papaya SSRs. These features combined with thousands of high-quality primer pairs make the atlas an important resource for the papaya research community. PMID:25393538

  9. Reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage by Carica papaya leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Okoko, Tebekeme; Ere, Diepreye

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the in vitro antioxidant potential of Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract and its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage assessed by haemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Methods Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, hydrogen ion scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and the ferrous ion reducing ability were assessed as antioxidant indices. In the other experiment, human erythrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide to induce erythrocyte damage. The extract (at various concentrations) was subsequently incubated with the erythrocytes and later analysed for haemolysis and lipid peroxidation as indices for erythrocyte damage. Results Preliminary investigation of the extract showed that the leaf possessed significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities using in vitro models in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). The extract also reduced hydrogen peroxide induced erythrocyte haemolysis and lipid peroxidation significantly when compared with ascorbic acid (P<0.05). The IC50 values were 7.33 mg/mL and 1.58 mg/mL for inhibition of haemolysis and lipid peroxidation, respectively. In all cases, ascorbic acid (the reference antioxidant) possessed higher activity than the extract. Conclusions The findings show that C. papaya leaves possess significant bioactive potential which is attributed to the phytochemicals which act in synergy. Thus, the leaves can be exploited for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes. PMID:23569948

  10. Minimal processing of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) and the physiology of halved fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E Paull; Wenjun Chen

    1997-01-01

    The stage of papaya fruit ripening suitable for minimal processing and the effect of processing on physiology were determined. Wounding during slicing and deseeding led to an increase in ethylene production and respiration, earlier skin degreening and flesh softening. Fruit at the 10–50% skin yellow ripening stage showed higher wound-induced ethylene production and respiration when sliced and deseeded than riper

  11. Ripening behavior of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) exposed to gamma irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Paull

    1996-01-01

    Papaya fruit treated with 250 Gy of ?-irradiation frequently softened more uniformly than non-irradiated fruit. Fruit with less than 25% of their surface colored yellow placed immediately into storage at 10 °C after irradiation developed skin scald. This was prevented by delaying storage by 12 h. Fruit that were irradiated when 30% of the skin was yellowed softened at a

  12. Extraction and Physicochemical Characteristics of Extraction and Physicochemical Characteristics of Extraction and Physicochemical Characteristics of Extraction and Physicochemical Characteristics of Extraction and Physicochemical Characteristics of Acid-Soluble Pectin from Raw Papaya Acid-Soluble Pectin from Raw Papaya Acid-Soluble Pectin from Raw Papaya Acid-Soluble Pectin from Raw Papaya Acid-Soluble Pectin from Raw Papaya (Carica (Carica (Carica (Carica (Carica papaya) papaya) papaya) papaya) papaya) Peel Peel Peel Peel Peel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennapa Boonrod; Hataichanoke Niamsup

    Extraction of pectin from raw papaya peel, a waste from restaurants and food processing industries, was carried out using ethanol and aluminium chloride precipitations. The optimized procedures yielding 2.23% and 5.84% on the papaya fr esh weight basis, respectively, were presented. Even though aluminium precipitated pectin had higher ash and moisture contents (22.19 and 14.86% compared to 5.22 and 9.72%

  13. Cysteine proteinases from papaya (Carica papaya) in the treatment of experimental Trichuris suis infection in pigs: two randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cysteine proteinases (CPs) from papaya (Carica papaya) possess anthelmintic properties against human soil-transmitted helminths (STH, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm), but there is a lack of supportive and up-to-date efficacy data. We therefore conducted two randomized controlled trials in pigs to assess the efficacy of papaya CPs against experimental infections with T. suis. Methods First, we assessed efficacy by means of egg (ERR) and adult worm reduction rate (WRR) of a single-oral dose of 450 ?mol active CPs (CP450) against low (inoculum of 300 eggs) and high (inoculum of 3,000 eggs) intensity T. suis infections and compared the efficacy with those obtained after a single-oral dose of 400 mg albendazole (ALB). In the second trial, we determined and compared the efficacy of a series of CP doses (45 [CP45], 115 [CP115], 225 [CP225], and 450 [CP450] ?mol) against high intensity infections. Results CP450 was highly efficacious against both levels of infection intensity, resulting in ERR and WRR of more than 97%. For both levels of infection intensity, CP450 was significantly more efficacious compared to ALB by means of WRR (low infection intensity: 99.0% vs. 39.0%; high infection intensity; 97.4% vs. 23.2%). When the efficacy was assessed by ERR, a significant difference was only observed for high intensity infections, CP450 being more efficacious than ALB (98.9% vs. 59.0%). For low infection intensities, there was no significant difference in ERR between CP450 (98.3%) and ALB (64.4%). The efficacy of CPs increased as a function of increasing dose. When determined by ERR, the efficacy ranged from 2.1% for CP45 to 99.2% for CP450. For WRR the results varied from -14.0% to 99.0%, respectively. Pairwise comparison revealed a significant difference in ERR and WRR only between CP45 and CP450, the latter being more efficacious. Conclusions A single dose of 450 ?mol CPs provided greater efficacy against T. suis infections in pigs than a single-oral dose of 400 mg ALB. Although these results highlight the possibility of papaya CPs for controlling human STH, further development is needed in order to obtain and validate an oral formulation for human application. PMID:24886388

  14. Lateral bud culture of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) for clonal propagation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Rajeevan; R. M. Pandey

    1986-01-01

    Lateral buds may be preferred to shoot tips for in vitro propagation of papaya because of its unbranched nature. Proliferating shoot cultures from lateral buds appeared extremely compact with shortened internodes and leaf lamina of the cytokinin level (BAP 2 µM) reported for multiple shoot production from shoot tips. ZEA (4 µM) and 2iP (8 µM) although reduced the proliferation

  15. Proximate composition and selected functional properties of defatted papaya ( Carica papaya L.) kernel flour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arubi P. Alobo

    2003-01-01

    Defatted papaya kernel flour was analyzed for proximate composition and functional properties. The flour was high in protein (32.4%) but moderate in available carbohydrates. The mineral (ash) and fiber contents were 5.3% and 4.2%, respectively. The protein of the flour was soluble at both acidic and alkaline pH; maximum solubility was at pH 9.0. Oil and water absorption capacities of

  16. Phytophotodermatitis caused by contact with a fig tree (Ficus carica).

    PubMed

    Derraik, José G B; Rademaker, Marius

    2007-01-01

    Two arborists presented acutely with blistering eruptions affecting their forearms, hands, and fingers. The previous day, both men had pruned branches from a large fig tree, Ficus carica, which had sustained damaged during a storm. The following morning, both complained of a burning discomfort which rapidly evolved into erythema and bullae on skin that had been in direct contact with the tree branches. These symptoms gradually resolved over 4 to 6 weeks. Although phytophotodermatitis from Ficus carica has been reported, it is often poorly recognised and there is a need to raise awareness amongst arborists, orchardists, forestry workers, gardeners, and health professionals. PMID:17867224

  17. Phytophotodermatitis caused by contact with a fig tree (Ficus carica).

    PubMed

    Derraik, José G B; Rademaker, Marius

    2007-01-01

    Two arborists presented acutely with blistering eruptions affecting their forearms, hands, and fingers. The previous day, both men had pruned branches from a large fig tree, Ficus carica, which had sustained damaged during a storm. The following morning, both complained of a burning discomfort which rapidly evolved into erythema and bullae on skin that had been in direct contact with the tree branches. These symptoms gradually resolved over 4 to 6 weeks. Although phytophotodermatitis from Ficus carica has been reported, it is often poorly recognised and there is a need to raise awareness amongst arborists, orchardists, forestry workers, gardeners, and health professionals. PMID:17721568

  18. Genetic-molecular characterization of backcross generations for sexual conversion in papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Ramos, H C C; Pereira, M G; Pereira, T N S; Barros, G B A; Ferreguetti, G A

    2014-01-01

    The low number of improved cultivars limits the expansion of the papaya crop, particularly because of the time required for the development of new varieties using classical procedures. Molecular techniques associated with conventional procedures accelerate this process and allow targeted improvements. Thus, we used microsatellite markers to perform genetic-molecular characterization of papaya genotypes obtained from 3 backcross generations to monitor the inbreeding level and parental genome proportion in the evaluated genotypes. Based on the analysis of 20 microsatellite loci, 77 genotypes were evaluated, 25 of each generation of the backcross program as well as the parental genotypes. The markers analyzed were identified in 11 of the 12 linkage groups established for papaya, ranging from 1 to 4 per linkage group. The average values for the inbreeding coefficient were 0.88 (BC1S4), 0.47 (BC2S3), and 0.63 (BC3S2). Genomic analysis revealed average values of the recurrent parent genome of 82.7% in BC3S2, 64.4% in BC1S4, and 63.9% in BC2S3. Neither the inbreeding level nor the genomic proportions completely followed the expected average values. This demonstrates the significance of molecular analysis when examining different genotype values, given the importance of such information for selection processes in breeding programs. PMID:25501249

  19. Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Silas P.; Ventura, José A.; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Choi, HyungWon; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Nohara, Lilian L.; Wermelinger, Luciana S.; Almeida, Igor C.; Zingali, Russolina B.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

    2012-01-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers’ regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulated proteins in the latex of diseased plants, 9 cysteine proteases (chymopapain) and 1 latex serine proteinase inhibitor. A repression of papaya latex proteolytic activity during PMeV infection was hypothesized. This was further confirmed by enzymatic assays that showed a reduction of cysteine-protease-associated proteolytic activity in the diseased papaya latex. These findings are discussed in the context of plant responses against pathogens and may greatly contribute to understand the roles of laticifers in plant stress responses. PMID:22465191

  20. Purification of a thermostable alkaline laccase from papaya (Carica papaya) using affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Nivedita; Pandey, Veda P; Dwivedi, Upendra N

    2015-01-01

    A laccase from papaya leaves was purified to homogeneity by a two step procedure namely, heat treatment (at 70 °C) and Con-A affinity chromatography. The procedure resulted in 1386.7-fold purification of laccase with a specific activity of 41.3 units mg(-1) and an overall yield of 61.5%. The native purified laccase was found to be a hexameric protein of ? 260 kDa. The purified enzyme exhibited acidic and alkaline pH optima of 6.0 and 8.0 with the non-phenolic substrate (ABTS) and phenolic substrate (catechol), respectively. The purified laccase was found to be thermostable up to 70 °C such that it retained ? 80% activity upon 30 min incubation at 70 °C. The Arrhenius energy of activation for purified laccase was found to be 7.7 kJ mol(-1). The enzyme oxidized various phenolic and non-phenolic substrates having catalytic efficiency (K(cat)/K(m)) in the order of 7.25>0.67>0.27 mM(-1) min(-1) for ABTS, catechol and hydroquinone, respectively. The purified laccase was found to be activated by Mn(2+), Cd(2+), Ca(2+), Na(+), Fe(2+), Co(2+) and Cu(2+) while weakly inhibited by Hg(2+). The properties such as thermostability, alkaline pH optima and metal tolerance exhibited by the papaya laccase make it a promising candidate enzyme for industrial exploitation. PMID:25192855

  1. Folate levels and polyglutamylation profiles of papaya (Carica papaya cv. Maradol) during fruit development and ripening.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Parra, Perla A; García-Salinas, Carolina; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; de la Garza, Rocío I Díaz

    2013-04-24

    Folates are essential micronutrients for humans, and their deficiency causes several detrimental effects on human health. Papaya fruit is an important natural source of some micronutrients. This paper presents a first complete characterization of folate derivatives accumulated in cv. Maradol papaya during fruit development and ripening processes. During postharvest ripening, the fruit accumulated up to 24.5% of the daily folate recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for an adult in a 1 cup (145 g) portion. Tetrahydrofolate (THF) and 5-methyl-THF were the predominant folate classes observed. Surprisingly, an unusually long polyglutamylation profile of tentatively up to 17 glutamates linked to 5-methyl-THF was detected; to the authors' knowledge, this very long polyglutamyl tail has not been reported for any organism, and it is probably characteristic of this plant species. This polyglutamylation degree changed throughout fruit development and ripening, showing the largest differences at the onset of ripening. This work raises questions about the functional role of folate derivatives in fruit development. PMID:23574547

  2. Antioxidant potentials of Iranian Carica papaya juice in vitro and in vivo are comparable to alpha-tocopherol.

    PubMed

    Mehdipour, Sanaz; Yasa, Narges; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Khorasani, Reza; Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Rahimi, Roja; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2006-07-01

    Carica papaya is widely cultivated throughout the world and is used as a food and also as a traditional medicine, particularly as an antiseptic and contraceptive. The present study was designed to explore the toxicological and antioxidant potential of dried C. papaya juice in vitro and in vivo. The oral LD(50) of the juice of C. papaya was determined, and the antioxidant potentials determined by DPPH and FRAP tests. In vivo examination was performed after oral administration of dried papaya juice to rats for 2 weeks at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg. Blood TBARS and FRAP assays were used to determine the potential of the juice to act against oxidative stress. The acute toxicity test (LD(50)) demonstrated that papaya juice is not lethal up to a dose of 1500 mg/kg after oral administration and thus is considered nontoxic. In treated groups, no sign of toxicity was observed. In vitro evaluation of the antioxidant effects of papaya showed that the highest antioxidant activity (80%) was observed with a concentration of 17.6 mg/mL. Blood lipid peroxidation levels decreased significantly after administration of all doses of papaya juice (100, 200, 400 mg/kg/day) to 35.5%, 39.5% and 40.86% of the control, respectively, compared with a value of 28.8% for vitamin E. The blood total antioxidant power was increased significantly by all doses of papaya juice (100, 200, 400 mg/kg/day) to 11.11%, 23.58% and 23.14% of the control, respectively. The value for vitamin E was 18.44%. This preliminary study indicates the safety and antioxidative stress potential of the juice of C. papaya, which was found to be comparable to the standard antioxidant compound alpha-tocopherol. PMID:16691628

  3. ANTIOXIDANT AND IMMUNOSTIMULANT EFFECT OF CARICA PAPAYA LINN. AQUEOUS EXTRACT IN ACRYLAMIDE INTOXICATED RATS

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed Sadek, Kadry

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and immunostimulant effects of The Carica papaya fruit aqueous extract (CPF, Caricaceae) against acrylamide induced oxidative stress and improvement of Immune functions which affected by free radicals liberating acrylamide in rats. Material and methods: Sixty male wistar albino rats (195-230g) were assigned to four groups, (fifteen/group). The first group used as control group and received normal physiological saline orally daily. The second group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water. The third group was gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The fourth group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water and gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The chosen dose of papaya fruit extract was based on the active pharmacological dose range obtained from the orientation study earlier conducted. The experimental period was extended to forty day. At the expiration of the experimental period and night fasting, blood samples were collected from the orbital venous sinus. The sera were separated and used for determining of IgG and IgM and the stomach, liver and kidney homogenates for estimation of MDA, GSH level, SOD and CAT activity as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidative stress. Results and discussion: The obtained results revealed that, acrylamide caused significant increases in MDA and decrease of GSH level, SOD and CAT activity due to the oxidative stress induced by acrylamide on membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat’s stomach, liver and kidney while administration of CPF aqueous extract, was significantly ameliorated the increased levels of MDA and decline of GSH, SOD and CAT activity in the stomach, liver and kidney tissues caused by acrylamide toxicity. Meanwhile, CPF aqueous extract significantly increased immune functions (IgG and IgM) while acrylamide significantly decrease it specially IgG. Thus, this study suggests that acrylamide-induced oxidative stress in rats can be ameliorated by administration of CPF aqueous extract. PMID:23322975

  4. Effect of wine inhibitors on the proteolytic activity of papain from Carica papaya L. latex.

    PubMed

    Benucci, Ilaria; Esti, Marco; Liburdi, Katia

    2015-01-01

    The influence of potential inhibitors naturally present in wine on the proteolytic activity of papain from Carica papaya latex was investigated to evaluate its applicability in white wine protein haze stabilization. Enzymatic activity was tested against a synthetic tripeptide chromogenic substrate in wine-like acidic medium that consisted of tartaric buffer (pH 3.2) supplemented with ethanol, free sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), grape skin and seed tannins within the average ranges of concentrations that are typical in wine. The diagnosis of inhibition type, performed with the graphical method, demonstrated that all of tested wine constituents were reversible inhibitors of papain. The strongest inhibition was exerted by free SO2 , which acted as a mixed-type inhibitor, similar to grape skin and seed tannins. Finally, when tested in table white wines, the catalytic activity of papain, even when if it was ascribable to the hyperbolic behavior of Michaelis-Menten equation, was determined to be strongly affected by free SO2 and total phenol level. PMID:25376439

  5. Studies on antifertility effect of pawpaw seeds (Carica papaya) on the gonads of male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Udoh, P; Kehinde, A

    1999-05-01

    Preliminary studies on the antifertility effect of pawpaw seeds (Carica papaya) on the gonads of male albino (Wistar) rats was investigated. An oral dose of crude ripe pawpaw seeds at 100 mg/kg body weight and 50 mg/kg body weight were administered orally for 8 weeks. Histological observations at a high dose of 100 mg/kg body weight showed degeneration of the germinal epithelium and germ cells, a reduction in the number of Leydig cells and the presence of vacuoles in the tubules. At a low dose of 50 mg/kg body weight little effect was observed. However, there was disorganization in some of the seminiferous tubules while others appeared normal. Leydig cells also appeared normal compared with the controls. At a high dose the epididymis showed many empty tubules containing degenerated spermatozoa and cell debris in the lumen. The epithelium appeared normal compared with the controls. At a low dose a milder effect was observed. The epithelial tissue appeared normal. A possible mechanism of action is discussed. PMID:10353163

  6. Long-term spatial memory and morphological changes in hippocampus of Wistar rats exposed to smoke from Carica papaya leaves

    PubMed Central

    Oyewole, Aboyeji Lukuman; Owoyele, Bamidele Victor

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of smoking of dried leaves of Carica papaya (pawpaw) based on ethnopharmacological information which indicated that smoking of papaya leaves could influence motor performance and learning. Methods Twenty-four rats were used for the study, and were grouped into four groups. Groups 1 served as the control (not exposed to papaya leaves smoke), while Groups 2, 3 and 4 were exposed to smoke from 6.25 g, 12.50 g and 18.75 g of dry pawpaw leaves respectively in a smoking chamber twice daily for 21 d with each exposure lasting for 3 min. Lastly, hippocampus was harvested in each group for histological study. Results The results showed that there were significant (P<0.05) increases in mean of recall latencies of long-term spatial memory in the animal administered the high dose while the other groups had significantly (P<0.05) lower frequencies. Histological investigation showed signs of mild neural degeneration in high dose group and hypochromic appearance of the Nissl substance in all treated groups. Conclusions In conclusion, the findings from this study has demonstrated that smoking of papaya leaves has the ability to maintain an intact long-term spatial memory at all doses but retrieving such memory is faster with the low and medium dosages. PMID:25182440

  7. DNA sequence analysis supports the association of phytoplasmas with papaya ( Carica papaya ) dieback, yellow crinkle and mosaic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. T. White; S. J. Billington; K. B. Walsh; P. T. Scott

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers that hybridise to regions within and adjacent to the\\u000a 16S rRNA gene have indicated that Australian papaya dieback, papaya mosaic and papaya yellow crinkle are associated with phytoplasmas\\u000a (formerly called mycoplasma-like organisms). In this study, DNA sequence analysis of PCR products obtained from affected plant\\u000a tissue has confirmed that the

  8. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling fruit size and shape in papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea L. Blas; Qingyi Yu; Olivia J. Veatch; Robert E. Paull; Paul H. Moore; Ray Ming

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a pan-tropical tree that bears fruit exhibiting a wide range of size and shape. Depending on variety and environment,\\u000a papaya fruit may weigh from 0.2 kg up to 10 kg. Papaya fruit shape is a sex-linked trait ranging from spherical to ovate,\\u000a cylindrical or pyriform. An F2 mapping population, produced from a cross between the Thai variety

  9. Revisiting the enzymes stored in the laticifers of C arica papaya in the context of their possible participation in the plant defence mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. El Moussaoui; M. Nijs; C. Paul; R. Wintjens; J. Vincentelli; M. Azarkan; Yvan Looze

    2001-01-01

    In the tropical species Carica papaya, the articulated and anastomosing laticifers form a dense network of vessels displayed in all aerial parts of the plant. Damaging the papaya tree inevitably severs its laticifers, eliciting an abrupt release of latex. Besides the well-known cysteine proteinases, papain, chymopapain, caricain and glycyl endopeptidase, papaya latex is also a rich source of other enzymes.

  10. The component of Carica papaya seed toxic to A. aegypti and the identification of tegupain, the enzyme that generates it.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Natalia N dos S; Santana, Lucimeire A; Sampaio, Misako U; Lemos, Francisco J A; Oliva, Maria Luiza

    2013-07-01

    As Aedes aegypti transmits the etiologic agents of both yellow and dengue fever; vector control is considered essential to minimise their incidence. The aim of this work was to identify the component of Carica papaya seed toxic to A. aegypti, and the identification of tegupain, the enzyme that generates it. Aqueous extracts (1%, w/v) of the seed tegument and cotyledon of C. papaya are not larvicidal isolately. However, a mixture of 17?gmL(-1) tegument extract and 27?gmL(-1) cotyledon extract caused 100% larval mortality in a bioassay. The mixture was no longer larvicidal after the tegument extract was pre-treated at 100°C for 10min. The enzyme tegupain efficiently hydrolysed the substrate Z-Phe-Arg-pNan (Km 58.8?M, Kcat 28020s(-1), Kcat/Km 5×10(8)M(-1) s(-1)), and its activity increased with 2mM dithiothreitol (DTT), at 37°C, pH 5.0. The chelating agent EDTA did not modify the enzyme activity. Inhibition of tegupain by cystatin (Kiapp 2.43nM), E64 (3.64nM, 83% inhibition), and the propeptide N-terminal sequence indicate that the toxic activity is due to a novel cysteine proteinase-like enzyme, rendered active upon the hydrolysis of a cotyledon component of C. papaya seeds. PMID:23402920

  11. Physico-chemical characteristics of papaya (Carica papaya L.) seed oil of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety.

    PubMed

    Yanty, Noorzianna Abdul Manaf; Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohammed Nazrim; Nusantoro, Bangun Prajanto; Long, Kamariah; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the oil derived from papaya seeds of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety. Proximate analysis showed that seeds of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety contained considerable amount of oil (27.0%). The iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acid contents of freshly extracted papaya seed oil were 76.9 g I2/100g oil, 193.5 mg KOH/g oil, 1.52% and 0.91%, respectively. The oil had a Lovibond color index of 15.2Y + 5.2B. Papaya seed oil contained ten detectable fatty acids, of which 78.33% were unsaturated. Oleic (73.5%) acid was the dominant fatty acids followed by palmitic acid (15.8%). Based on the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, seven species of triacylglycerols (TAGs) were detected. The predominant TAGs of papaya seed oil were OOO (40.4%), POO (29.1%) and SOO (9.9%) where O, P, and S denote oleic, palmitic and stearic acids, respectively. Thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that papaya seed oil had its major melting and crystallization transitions at 12.4°C and -48.2°C, respectively. Analysis of the sample by Z-nose (electronic nose) instrument showed that the sample had a high level of volatile compounds. PMID:25174674

  12. Elicitor-induced Plant Defense and Pathogenesis-Related Gene Expression in Carica papaya L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The basic elements of a papaya systemic acquired resistance (SAR) pathway have been reported to resemble that described in Arabidopsis thaliana. An NPR1 (nonexpresser of pathogenesis-related genes) homolog (CpNPR1) was isolated from papaya and partially characterized (Zhu et al., 2003). To character...

  13. Portable chlorophyll meter (PCM-502) values are related to total chlorophyll concentration and photosynthetic capacity in papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was carried out to verify the practical use of the portable chlorophyll meter-PCM502 (PCM) in two papaya cultivars with contrasting green coloring of the leaf blade (‘Golden’: yellowish-green; ‘Solo’: dark green). The relationship was studied between the photosynthetic process and leaf n...

  14. Some chemical characteristics and availability of vitamin A and vitamin C from Kenyan varieties of papayas (Carica papaya L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jasper K. Imungi; Mary N. Wabule

    1990-01-01

    Papayas from 14 Kenyan varieties were analysed for dry matter, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, total sugar, vitamin C, total carotenoids and ??carotene. There were significant varietal differences (p < 0.05) among the levels of dry matter, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, total sugar, vitamin C, total carotenoids and ??carotene, but no significant differences among pH values.

  15. Cloning of a heat stress transcription factor, CphsfB1, that is constitutively expressed in radicles and is heat-inducible in the leaves of Carica papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiko Tarora; Moritoshi Tamaki; Ayano Shudo; Naoya Urasaki; Hideo Matsumura; Shinichi Adaniya

    2010-01-01

    We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to clone the Carica papaya heat stress transcription factor gene, Cphsf. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Cphsf protein, named CphsfB1, is a homolog\\u000a of Lycopersicon peruvianum HsfB1. Northern blot analysis revealed that CphsfB1 is constitutively expressed in radicles and is heat-inducible in leaves.\\u000a The blast program embedded CphsfB1 in a gene cluster constituting four genes:

  16. Reduced arbuscular mycorrhizal root colonization in Tropaeolum majus and Carica papaya after jasmonic acid application can not be attributed to increased glucosinolate levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jutta Ludwig-Müller; Richard N. Bennett; José M. García-Garrido; Yves Piché; Horst Vierheilig

    2002-01-01

    Summary The plant signal compounds jasmonic acid or salicylic acid were applied as abiotic elicitors to leaves of glucosinolate-containing members of the Tropaeolaceae (Tropaeolum majus) and Caricaceae (Carica papaya) and to leaves of the glucosinolate-free plant cucumber. Both compounds are known to induce the accumulation of glucosinolates in Brassica plants. In roots of glucosinolate-containing plants the two compounds enhanced glucosinolate

  17. Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Zakiah; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Abdul Rashid, Badrul Amini; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group) at 0 (control), 0.01, 0.14, and 2?g/kg body weight (BW) for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect. PMID:25530788

  18. Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, M. G.; Santos, E. O.; Sthel, M. S.; Cardoso, S. L.; Cavalli, A.; Monteiro, A. R.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2003-01-01

    Ripening studies of nontreated and treated papaya (papaya L) are accomplished by monitoring the ethylene and CO2 emission rates of that climacteric fruit, to evaluate its shelf life. The treatments simulate the commercial Phitosanitarian process used to avoid the fly infestation. Ethylene emission was measured using a commercial CO2 laser driven photoacoustic setup and CO2, using a commercial gas analysis also based on the photothermal effect. The results show a marked change in ethylene and CO2 emission rate pattern for treated fruits when compared to the ones obtained for nontreated fruits and a displacement of the climacteric pick shown that the treatment causes a decrease of shelf life of fruit.

  19. Bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus plantarum ST16Pa isolated from papaya ( Carica papaya) — From isolation to application: Characterization of a bacteriocin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svetoslav D. Todorov; Hervé Prévost; Martine Lebois; Xavier Dousset; Jean Guy LeBlanc; Bernadette D. G. M. Franco

    2011-01-01

    Strain ST16PA, isolated from papaya was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum based on biochemical tests, PCR with species-specific primers and 16S rDNA sequencing. L. plantarum ST16PA produces a 6.5kDa bacteriocin, active against different species from genera Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus and different serotypes of Listeria spp. The peptide is inactivated by proteolytic enzymes, but not when treated with

  20. Physico-chemical and sensory quality of fresh cut papaya (Carica papaya) packaged in micro-perforated polyvinyl chloride containers.

    PubMed

    Jayathunge, K G L R; Gunawardhana, D K S N; Illeperuma, D C K; Chandrajith, U G; Thilakarathne, B M K S; Fernando, M D; Palipane, K B

    2014-12-01

    Papaya cubes at maturity stages, 5-45 % yellow (more green than yellow) and 55-80 % yellow (more yellow than green) were washed with 5 % H2O2, drained and packaged in PVC trays having five, seven and ten micro-perforations and stored for 19 days. PVC trays with 3 mm diameter punch holes were used as the control. Based on physico-chemical properties, optimum maturity for papaya and micro-perforation level of PVC trays were determined. Effectiveness of citric acid in prevention of browning was also tested. Firmness and TSS changed significantly, on day 19. O2, CO2 and C2H4 concentration changed 2.4 to 4.2 %, 23.4 to 5.9 %, and 0 to 0.13 % respectively, from day 3 to 19. pH and titratable acidity did not change significantly throughout the storage. Pretreated papaya cubes, packaged in PVC trays with ten micro-perforations, kept under 4 °C had storage lives of 19 days. PMID:25477661

  1. Papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya is a tropical crop that is widely grown in household gardens and also commercially in plantations. However, papaya production has been severely limited by papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), the most widespread and damaging virus that affects papaya. In Hawaii, PRSV had been present since the 194...

  2. BIOCONVERSION 'OF PROVITAMIN A CAROTENOIDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTMTY OF CARICA PAPAYA FRUITS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. G. CHANDRIKA; E. R. JANST; N. WICKRAMASINGHE

    Previous studies have shown that the red-fleshed Caricapapaya has significantly higher p-carotene and lycopene than the yellow-fleshed variety. This study with Wistar rats h as shown that irrespective of the colour of the flesh, a significant increase of serum vitamin A is shown only if papaya is fed along with a standard diet (ppapaya

  3. Spontaneous processing of peptides during coagulation of latex from Carica papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Moutim; L. G. Silva; M. T. P. Lopes; G. Wilson Fernandes; C. E. Salas

    1999-01-01

    Latex is actively secreted on wounded unripe fruits from Caricapapaya. We describe the changes in peptide composition by SDS-PAGE analysis of latex from C.papaya collected at various times after incision of the unripe fruit. Non random changes in the relative amount of several peptides occur during latex coagulation. The measurement of amidase activity of coagulating latex shows three peaks of

  4. Interactions between vegetative and generative growth and between crop generations in fig tree ( Ficus carica L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Badii Gaaliche; Pierre-Eric Lauri; Mehdi Trad; Evelyne Costes; Messaoud Mars

    2011-01-01

    Yield in fruit trees strongly depends on the balance between vegetative growth and fruiting. This balance is particularly complex in fig tree (Ficus carica L.), in which two generations of figs (Breba and Main crop) develop along an annual shoot and compete with two consecutive growth seasons. For better understanding the interaction between vegetative growth and fruiting in this species,

  5. Effect of Osmotic Pretreatment on Hot Air Drying Kinetics and Quality of Chilean Papaya (Carica pubescens)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Lemus-Mondaca; M. Miranda; A. Andres Grau; V. Briones; R. Villalobos; A. Vega-Gálvez

    2009-01-01

    The effect of osmotic pretreatment on the mass transfer kinetics and quality of dried rehydrated Chilean papaya was researched. Osmotic treatments were sucrose solutions of 40, 50, and 60% w\\/w and dried at 60°C; non-pretreated samples were dried at different temperatures (40, 60, and 80°C). Quality parameters were analyzed: proximal composition, rehydration ratio, water-holding capacity, color, vitamin C content, firmness,

  6. Construction and characterization of a papaya BAC library as a foundation for molecular dissection of a tree-fruit genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ming; P. H. Moore; F. Zee; C. A. Abbey; H. Ma; A. H. Paterson

    2001-01-01

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed from high-molecular-weight DNA isolated from young leaves\\u000a of papaya (Carica papaya L.). This BAC library consists of 39168 clones from two separate ligation reactions. The average insert size of the library\\u000a is 132 kb; 96.5% of the 18700 clones from the first ligation contained inserts that averaged 86 kb in size, 95.7%

  7. Genetic differentiation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum associated with Anthracnose disease of papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsium annuum L.) based on ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Ariana; Rampersad, Sephra N

    2012-03-01

    Members of the genus Colletotrichum include some of the most economically important fungal pathogens in the world. Accurate diagnosis is critical to devising disease management strategies. Two species, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum, are responsible for anthracnose disease in papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Trinidad. The ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of 48 Colletotrichum isolates was sequenced, and the ITS PCR products were analyzed by PCR-RFLP analysis. Restriction site polymorphisms generated from 11 restriction enzymes enabled the identification of specific enzymes that were successful in distinguishing between C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates. Species-specific restriction fragment length polymorphisms generated by the enzymes AluI, HaeIII, PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were used to consistently resolve C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates from papaya. AluI, ApaI, PvuII, RsaI, and SmaI reliably separated isolates of C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum from bell pepper. PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were also capable of distinguishing among the C. gloeosporioides isolates from papaya based on the different restriction patterns that were obtained as a result of intra-specific variation in restriction enzyme recognition sites in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region. Of all the isolates tested, C. gloeosporioides from papaya also had the highest number of PCR-RFLP haplotypes. Cluster analysis of sequence and PCR-RFLP data demonstrated that all C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates clustered separately into species-specific clades regardless of host species. Phylograms also revealed consistent topologies which suggested that the genetic distances for PCR-RFLP-generated data were comparable to that of ITS sequence data. ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting is a rapid and reliable method to identify and differentiate between Colletotrichum species. PMID:21720933

  8. In Vivo Antiprotozoal Activity of the Chloroform Extract from Carica papaya Seeds against Amastigote Stage of Trypanosoma cruzi during Indeterminate and Chronic Phase of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Perez-Gutierrez, Salud; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the antiprotozoal activity of the chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds during the subacute and chronic phase of infection of Trypanosoma cruzi, doses of 50 and 75?mg/kg were evaluated during the subacute phase, including a mixture of their main components (oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids). Subsequently, doses of 50 and 75?mg/kg in mice during the chronic phase of infection (100?dpi) were also evaluated. It was found that chloroform extract was able to reduce the amastigote nests numbers during the subacute phase in 55.5 and 69.7% (P > 0.05) as well as in 56.45% in animals treated with the mixture of fatty acids. Moreover, the experimental groups treated with 50 and 75?mg/kg during the chronic phase of the infection showed a significant reduction of 46.8 and 53.13% respectively (P < 0.05). It is recommended to carry out more studies to determine if higher doses of chloroformic extract or its administration in combination with other antichagasic drugs allows a better response over the intracellular stage of T. cruzi in infected animal models and determine if the chloroform extract of C. papaya could be considered as an alternative for treatment during the indeterminate and chronic phase of the infection. PMID:25276216

  9. Report: In vivo anticoccidial effects of Azadirachta indica and Carica papaya L. with salinomycin drug as a dietary feed supplement in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Hema, Srinivasan; Arun, Thangavel; Senthilkumar, Balakrishnan; Senbagam, Duraisamy; Sureshkumar, Muthusamy

    2015-07-01

    A total of thirty suspected broiler chicks were screened for coccidiosis, of them 25 chicks were found to be infected with coccidiosis viz. Eimeria tenella (15) Eimeria maxima (5) Eimeria necatrix (6) and Eimeria mitis (4). The anticoccidial efficacy of Azadirachta indica and Carica papaya with Salinomycin as a dietary feed supplement on the representative E. tenella (25X103 oocyst) infection challenged in broiler chicks was studied in six groups for the period of six weeks. A. indica and C. papaya leaves were administered in powder form at the concentration of 0.1% and 0.2% respectively. The Oocysts per gram (OPG) count were observed on 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th day of post inoculation (DPI). The challenged experimental chicks revealed haemorrhage, thickening of mucosa, cores of blood and ballooning of caecum. The experimental group T5 chicks treated with A. indica were analyzed to possess the maximum weight gain (2.003), better feed conversion ratio (FCR) (2.32), OPG count (5.87), livability percentage (88) and the lesion score (3.33). Chi-square test analysis revealed no significant differences among the treated groups and the performance parameters. Therefore, this study concludes that plant sources used as a remedial curate for coccidiosis is a perforated growth in the commercial broiler industries. PMID:26142532

  10. Functional Genomics Tools for Papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the genome of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sequenced, the study of gene function is becoming an increasing priority. Our research is to develop an RNA-induced gene silencing tool for the study of functional genomics in papaya. We employed agrobacterium leaf infiltration to induce PTGS in '-glucuro...

  11. Papaya: environment and crop physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of how papaya responds to environmental factors provides a scientific basis for the development of management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. A better understanding of genotyp...

  12. Carica papaya (Cultivated) 6 

    E-print Network

    Monique D. Reed

    2011-08-10

    METABOLISM OF VITAMIN K IN SWISS 3T3 Mouse FIBROBLASTS A Thesis by TERRyL MARIE JOHNSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1985... Major Subject: Nutrition METABOLISM OF VITAMIN K IN SWISS 3T3 MOUSE PIBROBLASTS A Thesis by TERRYL MARIE JOHNSON Approved as to style and content by: Dr, Louise Mo enfield-Sander (Chair of Committee) Dr Gary CD Smith (Head of Department) D ~ J...

  13. Carica papaya (Cultivated) 3 

    E-print Network

    James R. Manhart

    2011-08-10

    and variable microbiome that had previously not been demonstrated by culture-based methods. The goals of this study were to describe the microbiome inhabiting different areas of the canine skin, and to compare the skin microbiome of healthy and allergic dogs...

  14. NIa-Pro of Papaya ringspot virus interacts with Carica papaya eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit G (CpeIF3G).

    PubMed

    Gao, Le; Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2015-02-01

    The interaction of papaya eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit G (CpeIF3G) with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) NIa-Pro was validated using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in papaya protoplasts based on the previous yeast two-hybrid assay results. The C-terminal (residues 133-239) fragment of PRSV NIa-Pro and the central domain (residues 59-167) of CpeIF3G were required for effective interaction between NIa-Pro and CpeIF3G as shown by a Sos recruitment yeast two-hybrid system with several deletion mutants of NIa-Pro and CpeIF3G. The central domain of CpeIF3G, which contains a C2HC-type zinc finger motif, is required to bind to other eIFs of the translational machinery. In addition, quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR assay confirmed that PRSV infection leads to a 2- to 4.5-fold up-regulation of CpeIF3G mRNA in papaya. Plant eIF3G is involved in various stress response by enhancing the translation of resistance-related proteins. It is proposed that the NIa-Pro-CpeIF3G interaction may impair translation preinitiation complex assembly of defense proteins and interfere with host defense. PMID:25416301

  15. _____________ Augmentative releases ofpredatory mites on papaya in Hawaii 167 AUGMENTATIVE RELEASES OF PREDATORY MITES ON PAPAYA

    E-print Network

    Rosenheim, Jay A.

    _____________ Augmentative releases ofpredatory mites on papaya in Hawaii 167 AUGMENTATIVE RELEASES OF PREDATORY MITES ON PAPAYA IN HAWAII: FAILURE AND SUCCESS V. Fournier,1,2 J.A. Rosenheirn," M.W. Iohnson on outdoor crops (Olkin and Shaw, 1995;Walsh et ai., 1998). Native to Central America, papaya (Carica papaya

  16. Characterization of a novel ?-thioglucosidase CpTGG1 in Carica papaya and its substrate-dependent and ascorbic acid-independent O-?-glucosidase activity.

    PubMed

    Nong, Han; Zhang, Jia-Ming; Li, Ding-Qin; Wang, Meng; Sun, Xue-Piao; Zhu, Yun Judy; Meijer, Johan; Wang, Qin-Huang

    2010-10-01

    Plant thioglucosidases are the only known S-glycosidases in the large superfamily of glycosidases. These enzymes evolved more recently and are distributed mainly in Brassicales. Thioglucosidase research has focused mainly on the cruciferous crops due to their economic importance and cancer preventive benefits. In this study, we cloned a novel myrosinase gene, CpTGG1, from Carica papaya Linnaeus. and showed that it was expressed in the aboveground tissues in planta. The recombinant CpTGG1 expressed in Pichia pastoris catalyzed the hydrolysis of both sinigrin and glucotropaeolin (the only thioglucoside present in papaya), showing that CpTGG1 was indeed a functional myrosinase gene. Sequence alignment analysis indicated that CpTGG1 contained all the motifs conserved in functional myrosinases from crucifers, except for two aglycon-binding motifs, suggesting substrate priority variation of the non-cruciferous myrosinases. Using sinigrin as substrate, the apparent K(m) and V(max) values of recombinant CpTGG1 were 2.82 mM and 59.9 ?mol min?¹ mg protein?¹ , respectively. The K(cat) /K(m) value was 23 s?¹ mM?¹ . O-?-glucosidase activity towards a variety of substrates were tested, CpTGG1 displayed substrate-dependent and ascorbic acid-independent O-?-glucosidase activity towards 2-nitrophenyl-?-D-glucopyranoside and 4-nitrophenyl-?-D-glucopyranoside, but was inactive towards glucovanillin and n-octyl-?-D-glucopyranoside. Phylogenetic analysis indicated CpTGG1 belongs to the MYR II subfamily of myrosinases. PMID:20883440

  17. Development and comparison of multivariate respiration models for fresh papaya ( Carica papaya L.) based on regression method and artificial neural network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-Wei Wang; Hua-Wei Duan; Chang-Ying Hu; Yu-Mei Wu

    2010-01-01

    Respiration modelling is the fundamental of the packaging and storage of fresh fruit and vegetables. Previous model of respiration\\u000a rate accounted for external forcing from temperature and modified atmosphere but did not attempt to predict internally generated\\u000a natural variability such as maturity. We present two types of respiration models here that predict the respiration rate of\\u000a fresh papaya in response

  18. Plasma response to a single dose of dietary beta-cryptoxanthin esters from papaya (Carica papaya L.) or non-esterified beta-cryptoxanthin in adult human subjects: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Breithaupt, Dietmar E; Weller, Philipp; Wolters, Maike; Hahn, Andreas

    2003-10-01

    Many orange-coloured fruits contain beta-cryptoxanthin in its non-esterified as well as its esterified form. Information concerning the absorption of beta-cryptoxanthin, especially with regard to the metabolism of its fatty acid esters, is rather scarce. The present study assessed the plasma concentration reached after consumption of a single dose of native beta-cryptoxanthin esters from papaya (Carica papaya L.) or non-esterified beta-cryptoxanthin in equal total amounts. In a randomized, single-blind crossover study, twelve subjects were served a portion of yoghurt containing esterified or non-esterified beta-cryptoxanthin (1.3 mg absolute) together with a balanced breakfast. Between the two intervention days, there was a 2-week depletion period. After a fasting blood sample had been taken, futher samples were taken from the subjects at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 h. The concentration of non-esterified beta-cryptoxanthin in the whole plasma was determined by HPLC; beta-cryptoxanthin identification was confirmed by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-MS analyses. Irrespective of the consumed diet, the plasma beta-cryptoxanthin concentrations increased significantly (P=0.05) and peaked after 6-12 h. The concentration curves, as well as the areas under the curves, were not distinguishable according to two-sided F and t tests (P=0.05). Standardization of beta-cryptoxanthin concentrations to plasma triacylglycerol and cholesterol had no impact on the results. Thus, the present study indicates comparable bioavailability of both non-esterified beta-cryptoxanthin and mixtures of beta-cryptoxanthin esters. The results support the existence of an effective enzymatic cleavage system accepting various beta-cryptoxanthin esters. PMID:13129448

  19. Solenostemon monostachyus, Ipomoea involucrata and Carica papaya seed oil versus Glutathione, or Vernonia amygdalina: Methanolic extracts of novel plants for the management of sickle cell anemia disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disease caused by an individual inheriting an allele for sickle cell hemoglobin from both parents and is associated with unusually large numbers of immature blood cells, containing many long, thin, crescent-shaped erythrocytes. It is a disease prevalent throughout many populations. The use of medicinal plants and nutrition in managing SCD is gaining increasing attention. Methods The antisickling effects of Solenostemon monostachyus (SolMon), Carica papaya seed oil (Cari-oil) and Ipomoea involucrata (Ipocrata) in male (HbSSM) and female (HbSSF) human sickle cell blood was examined in vitro and compared with controls, or cells treated with glutathione or an antisickling plant (Vernonia amygdalina; VerMyg). Results Levels of sickle blood cells were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in all the plant-extract treated SCD patients’ blood compared with that of untreated SCD patients. RBCs in SolMon, Ipocrata, and Cari-oil treated samples were significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with VerMyg-treated samples. The Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in all plant extract-treated HbSSM samples compared with controls. Hemoglobin concentration was significantly increased (P < 0.05) by SolMon treatment in HbSSF compared with VerMyg. Sickle cell polymerization inhibition exhibited by SolMon was significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with that of VerMyg in HbSSF blood. Sickle cell polymerization inhibition in SolMon and Ipocrata were significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with VerMyg in HbSSM blood. All plant extracts significantly reduced (P < 0.05) lactate dehydrogenase activity in both HbSSM and HbSSF-treated blood. Catalase activity was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in HbSSF blood treated with Ipocrata compared with glutathione. Cari-oil treated HbSSM and HbSSF blood had significantly increased (P < 0.05) peroxidase activity compared with controls. Conclusions Methanolic extracts from S. monostachyus, C. papaya seed oil and I. involucrata exhibited particular antisickling properties coupled with the potential to reduce stress in sickle cell patients. Each plant individually or in combination may be useful for the management of sickle cell disease. PMID:23259718

  20. [Effect of the addition of tropical fruits--pineapple (Ananas comosus) and papaya (Carica papaya)--on the production of biological silage from fish].

    PubMed

    Bello, R; Cardillo, E; Martínez, R

    1993-09-01

    Microbial Fish Silage was produced from under-utilized fish mixed with juice and waste fruits (pineapple and papaya) at 35 degrees C. Six different products were elaborated as following: A: fish muscle with pineapple juice; B: fish muscle with fruit wastes; C: gutted fish with pineapple juice; D: gutted fish with fruit wastes; E: whole fish with pineapple juice; F: whole fish with fruit wastes. Process development was evaluated by measuring: pH, acidity, non-protein nitrogen, consistency and exudate liquid. Results indicated a slow decrease in pH value and production of acidity during 20 storage days. The addition of fruits to silage did not have any effect on these values. Silage liquefaction or hydrolysis was related to the following parameters: consistency, non-protein nitrogen and exudate liquid. The addition of fruits was related to silage liquefaction or hydrolysis, and it was measured by the consistency. Exudate liquid and non-protein nitrogen increased during storage time. However silage made from whole fish showed highest values in those parameters than other processing conditions. This results suggested that hydrolysis involve first enzymes from guts and second enzymes from muscle and head. Pineapple juice did not contribute to hydrolysis process. Mainly sensory changes in the silage occurs during first 24 hours and they were related to chemical changes. Proximal analysis did not change during silage process and microbial counts indicated the freshness of raw material used i this study. PMID:8779625

  1. RNA interference of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2) genes expression prolongs the shelf life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L.) papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom; Yeong, Wee Chien; Pillai, Vilasini

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6). Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants. PMID:24950439

  2. Nutritional composition of Rainbow papaya, the first commercialized transgenic fruit crop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Savarni Tripathi; Jon Y. Suzuki; James B. Carr; Grant T. McQuate; Stephen A. Ferreira; Richard M. Manshardt; Karen Y. Pitz; Marisa M. Wall; Dennis Gonsalves

    2011-01-01

    Rainbow papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a genetically engineered (GE) cultivar with resistance to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This cultivar currently accounts for about 70% of Hawaii's papaya acreage. The nutritional composition of Rainbow papaya and a non-transgenic control were analyzed to address GE food safety concerns regarding the potential for altered nutritional composition and altered expression of inherent allergens

  3. Allergenicity assessment of the Papaya ringspot virus coat protein expressed in transgenic Rainbow papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The virus-resistant, transgenic commercial papaya cultivars Rainbow and SunUp (Carica papaya L.) have been consumed locally in Hawaii and elsewhere in the mainland US and Canada since their release to planters in Hawaii in 1998. These cultivars are derived from transgenic papaya line 55-1 and carry ...

  4. Thrombocyte counts in mice after the administration of papaya leaf suspension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathiresan Sathasivam; Surash Ramanathan; Sharif M. Mansor; Mas Rosemal M. H. Haris; Walther H. Wernsdorfer

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a Zusammenfassung  Angeregt von dem volksmedizinischen Gebrauch von Papaya carica Blattmaterial zur Behandlung von Dengueinfektionen wurde eine Suspension von pulversisierten Carica papaya Blättern in Palmöl auf die Beeinflussung der Thrombozytenzahlen bei Mäusen untersucht. Jeweils 5 Mäuse erhielten peroral\\u000a 15 mg der Carica papaya Blattsuspension, gleiche Volumina physiologischer Kochsalzlösung oder Palmöl. Die Thrombozytenzahl wurde unmittelbar vor\\u000a sowie 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 12,

  5. Sex determination in flowering plants: papaya as a model system.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Rishi; Ming, Ray

    2014-03-01

    Unisexuality in flowering plants evolved from a hermaphrodite ancestor. Transition from hermaphrodite to unisexual flowers has occurred multiple times across the different lineages of the angiosperms. Sexuality in plants is regulated by genetic, epigenetic and physiological mechanisms. The most specialized mechanism of sex determination is sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes ensure the stable segregation of sexual phenotypes by preventing the recombination of sex determining genes. Despite continuous efforts, sex determining genes of dioecious plants have not yet been cloned. Concerted efforts with various model systems are necessary to understand the complex mechanism of sex determination in plants. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a tropical fruit tree with three sex forms, male, hermaphrodite, and female. Sexuality in papaya is determined by an XY chromosome system that is in an early evolutionary stage. The male and hermaphrodite of papaya are controlled by two different types of Y chromosomes: Y and Y(h). Large amounts of information in the area of genetics, genomics, and epigenetics of papaya have been accumulated over the last few decades. Relatively short lifecycle, small genome size, and readily available genetic and genomic resources render papaya an excellent model system to study sex determination and sex chromosomes in flowering plants. PMID:24467896

  6. Update on the development of virus-resistant papaya: Virus-resistant transgenic papaya for people in rural communities of Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the most important and preferred crops in rural communities in Thailand. Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a serious disease of papaya throughout Thailand. Efforts to control the virus by various methods either have not been successful or have not resulted in sustai...

  7. VITAMIN AND MINERAL CONTENT OF HAWAII’S PAPAYA CULTIVARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya) cultivars were harvested from different locations throughout Hawaii and analyzed for vitamin C (ascorbic acid), provitamin A ( '-carotene, '-carotene, '-cryptoxanthin), and mineral composition. Papaya mean vitamin C content was 51.2 mg/100g, with no significant differences amo...

  8. Whole-photosynthesis and transpiration in field-grown papaya plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of papaya response to environmental factors provides a scientific basis to develop management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. In papaya, the photosynthetic capacity also influ...

  9. Stable transformation of papaya via microprojectile bombardment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maureen M. M. Fitch; Richard M. Manshardt; Dennis Gonsalves; Jerry L. Slightom; John C. Sanford

    1990-01-01

    Stable transformation of papaya (Carica papaya L.) has been achieved following DNA delivery via high velocity microprojectiles. Three types of embryogenic tissues, including immature zygotic embryos, freshly explanted hypocotyl sections, and somatic embryos derived from both, were bombarded with tungsten particles carrying chimeric NPTII and GUS genes. All tissue types were cultured prior to and following bombardment on half-strength MS

  10. Activities of several membrane and cell-wall hydrolases, ethylene biosynthetic enzymes, and cell wall polyuronide degradation during low-temperature storage of intact and fresh-cut papaya ( Carica papaya) fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasar Karakurt; Donald J. Huber

    2003-01-01

    Fresh-cut fruit tissue deteriorates more rapidly than its intact counterpart. A study was conducted to determine changes in firmness, cell-wall polyuronides, and the activities of cell-wall and membrane hydrolases and ethylene biosynthetic enzymes in intact and fresh-cut papaya fruit during storage at 5°C. Processing of papaya fruit was performed under sanitized conditions at 5°C, and fruit pieces were stored for

  11. POTENCIAL BIOCIDA DE EXTRACTOS DE Gliricidia sepium CONTRA PATOGENOS DEL CULTIVO DE LA PAPAYA (Caricapapaya)l

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Eduardo Loaiza; German River

    2000-01-01

    Se realizaron aislarnientos de Colletotri- Biocidal potencial of Gliricidia sepium chum gloeosporioides a partir de frutos de papaya extracts against papaya (Carica papaya) criolla, y de Pseudomonas sp. a partir de hojas, pathogens. Pure isolates of Colletotrichum obtenidas en una plantacion comercial en Gama- gloeosporioides obtained from creole papaya lotillo de Puriscal. En cultivos puros de ambos or- fruits, and

  12. FEASIBILITY OF USING PAPAYA SKIN EXTRACT FOR DIGESTION OF SWAMP EEL VISCERA FOR HARVESTING INFECTIVE STAGE LARVA OF GNATHOSTOMA SPP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suphan Soogarun; Thamaporn Lertlum; Jamsai Suwansaksri; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    In this study, we reported the feasibility of using papaya skin extract (Carica papaya L.) as an alternative to enzyme pepsin in harvesting Gnathostoma spinigerum third-stage larvae. From experimental digestion, we found that the different numbers of recovered larvae between papaya skin extract and pepsin were not statistically significant (p >0.05). When the derived larvae from pepsin and papaya skin

  13. Photoacoustic study of the influence of the cooling temperature on the CO2 emission rate by Carica papaya L. in modified atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, D. U.; Sthel, M. S.; da Silva, M. G.; Carneiro, L. O.; Silva, H. R. F.; Martins, M. L. L.; Resende, E. D.; Vitorazi, L.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The monitoring of trace gas emitted by papaya fruits and assessments of its mass loss can contribute to improve the conditions for their storage and transport. The C02 emission rate by the papaya fruits, monitored by a commercial infrared-based gas analyzer, was influenced by the temperature and storage time. The fruits stored at temperature of 13 °C accumulated more CO2 inside the PEBD bags than those fruits stored at 6 °C. The loss of mass of the fruits progressively increased with storage time for both temperatures until the saturation of the moisture inside the PEBD bag, been more pronounced at 13 ºC.

  14. Barriers in a tropical orchard landscape: how the presence or absence of hedges influences insect dispersal in mixed orchards of Carica papaya and Manilkara zapota.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of plants in the form of a hedge may hinder or alter movement of certain insects into and within an orchard. We investigated the impact that the presence of a hedge of tall grass had on infestation by various pests into mixed orchards of papaya and sapodilla. For most insects there was ...

  15. AFLP analysis of genetic relationships among papaya and its wild relatives (Caricaceae) from Ecuador

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Van Droogenbroeck; P. Breyne; P. Goetghebeur; E. Romeijn-Peeters; T. Kyndt; G. Gheysen

    2002-01-01

    The AFLP technique was used to assess the genetic relationships among the cultivated papaya (Carica papaya L.) and related species native to Ecuador. Genetic distances based on AFLP data were estimated for 95 accessions belonging to three genera including C. papaya, at least eight Vasconcella species and two Jacaratia species. Cluster analysis using different methods and principal co-ordinate analysis (PCO),

  16. Anthelmintic activity of papaya latex against patent Heligmosomoides polygyrus infections in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Satrija; P. Nansen; S. Murtini; S. He

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to study the possible anthelmintic activity of papaya latex (Carica papaya) against Heligmosomoides polygyrus in experimentally infected mice. Five groups of BALB\\/C mice were infected with 100 Heligmosomoides polygyrus infective larvae\\/mouse. After patency (day 22), four groups of mice (groups B, C, D and E) were given papaya latex suspended in water at dose

  17. Using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA for evaluating genetic relationships among papaya cultivars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. I. Stiles; C. Lemme; S. Sondur; M. B. Morshidi; R. Manshardt

    1993-01-01

    We have applied the recently developed technique of random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to the analysis of the relationships among ten cultivars of papaya (Carica papaya L.). Eleven ten-base synthetic oligonucleotides were chosen that gave multiple PCR amplification products using papaya DNA as template. These 11 primers amplified a total of 102 distinct fragments. Cultivars were scored for presence

  18. Dried papaya skin as a dietary ingredient for broiler chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kamaruzzaman; S. D. Chowdhury; C. K. Podder; M. A. H. Pramanik

    2005-01-01

    1. The chemical composition of dried papaya (Carica papaya) skin (DPS) was determined and its potential as a dietary ingredient for broiler chickens was investigated at dietary concentrations of 0, 40, 80 and 120?g\\/kg.2. DPS was found to give similar food consumption, food conversion efficiency, survivability and meat yields (except male liver weight) to a control diet when used up

  19. Gas diffusion in ‘Golden’ papaya fruit at different maturity stages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Talita Pereira; Paulo Sergio Gomes de Almeida; Inga Gonçalves de Azevedo; Maura da Cunha; Jurandi Gonçalves de Oliveira; Marcelo Gomes da Silva; Helion Vargas

    2009-01-01

    In this work the gas diffusion of ‘Golden’ papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.) was evaluated as a function of different maturity stages, by using a photoacoustic spectrometer. The maturity stages were characterized by the anatomical changes, membrane integrity, pulp firmness, and skin color. Microstructural analysis was performed by means of light and scanning electron microscopy. A significant decrease in the

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF VIRUS RESISTANT TRANSGENIC PAPAYAS EXPRESSING THE COAT PROTEIN FROM A BRAZILIAN ISOLATE OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS (PRSV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Translatable and untranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the State of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of Carica papaya L. The biolistic system was used to transform secondary soma...

  1. Efficient rooting for establishment of papaya plantlets by micropropagation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsong-Ann Yu; Shyi-Dong Yeh; Ying-Huey Cheng; Jiu-Sherng Yang

    2000-01-01

    A low cost micropropagation protocol to produce high quality root systems which are easy and economical to acclimatize is\\u000a essential for large-scale micropropagation of papaya (Carica papaya L.). In this study, individual shoots (>0.5 cm) with 2?3 leaves from in vitro papaya multiple shoots were cultured on MS agar medium containing 2.5 ?M IBA under dark conditions for 1 week

  2. Effect of gamma-irradiation on ripening papaya pectin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Zhao; James Moy; Robert E. Paull

    1996-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya, L., var. Sunset) at three initial ripeness stages were irradiated with 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, or 1.5 kGy gamma-irradiation and pectin changes during ripening determined. A significant linear relationship was found between irradiation dose and firmness immediately after irradiation. Irradiation had no effect on fruit skin or flesh color of papaya fruit irradiated at the 5 to

  3. Papaya Fruit Softening: Role of Hydrolases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siwaporn Thumdee; Ashariya Manenoi; Nancy J. Chen; Robert E. Paull

    2010-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivars show a wide variation in fruit softening rates, a character that determines fruit quality and shelf life, and\\u000a thought to be the result of cell wall degradation. The activity of pectin methylesterase, ?-galactosidase, endoglucanase,\\u000a endoxylanase and xylosidase were correlated with normal softening, though no relationship was found between polygalacturonase\\u000a activity and softening. When softening was

  4. RECUPERATION OF THE HIGH GERMINABILITY CONDITION OF PAPAYA SEED THROUGH PRIMING TECHNOLOGY AND BIOREGULATORS RECUPERACIÓN DE LA ALTA CAPACIDAD DE GERMINACIÓN DE LA SEMILLA DE PAPAYA MEDIANTE LA TECNOLOGÍA DE PREACONDICIONAMIENTO y BIORREGULADORES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco Bautista-Calles; Guillermo Carrillo-Castañeda; Ángel Villegas-Monter

    Rapid loss of seed viability of Carica papaya L. (papaya) and its high commercial price impairs the availability of high quality seed to growers. Certified papaya seed cv. Maradol was utilized to define practical methodologies to restore the seed germination performance. Seed was submitted to: 1) hydropriming: 4 d of hydropriming rose seed germination up to 84%, 250% more than

  5. Atypical internal yellowing of papaya fruit in Hawaii caused by Enterobacter sakazakii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal yellowing (IY), characterized by yellow discolored tissue around the papaya (Carica papaya) seed cavity, diffuse margins and the presence of a distinctly rotten odor, was first reported in 1987. These symptoms were associated with the causal agent Enterobacter cloacae. Here we report the fo...

  6. Papaya is not a host for Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The economic value of tomato production is threatened by tomato yellow leaf-curl virus TYLCV and its vector, the silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Use of papaya Carica papaya L. as a banker plant for a whitefly parasitoid shows promise as a whitefly m...

  7. Evaluating Hawaii-Grown Papaya for Resistance to Internal Yellowing Disease Caused by Enterobacter cloacae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivars and breeding lines were evaluated for resistance to Enterobacter cloacae (Jordan) Hormaeche & Edwards, the bacterial causal agent of internal yellowing disease (IY), using a range of concentrations of the bacterium. Linear regression analysis was performed and IY ...

  8. DEVELOPING TRANSGENIC PAPAYA TO IMPROVE BROAD DISEASE RESISTANCE AGAINST FUNGAL PATHOGENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.), one of the more important fruit crops of the tropics, has limited resistance to a range of fungal pathogens that may kill the plants or, at a minimum, reduce productivity and quality of the fruit. Phytoalexins have been shown to be important natural components in the defe...

  9. Benzyl isothiocyanate is the chief or sole anthelmintic in papaya seed extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohan Kermanshai; Brian E McCarry; Jack Rosenfeld; Peter S Summers; Elizabeth A Weretilnyk; George J Sorger

    2001-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) seeds were extracted in an aqueous buffer or in organic solvents, fractionated by chromatography on silica and aliquots tested for anthelmintic activity by viability assays using Caenorhabditis elegans. For all preparations and fractions tested, anthelmintic activity and benzyl isothiocyanate content correlated positively. Aqueous extracts prepared from heat-treated seeds had no anthelmintic activity or benzyl isothiocyanate content although

  10. A genetic linkage map of papaya based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Sondur; R. M. Manshardt; J. I. Stiles

    1996-01-01

    A genetic linkage map of papaya (Carica papaya L.) was constructed using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and a F2 population derived from a University of Hawaii UH breeding line 356 x ‘Sunrise’ cross. A total of 596 10-mer primers were screened, and 96 polymorphisms were detected. At LOD 4.0, 62 of these markers mapped to 11 linkage groups

  11. Chlorophyll fluorescence as a tool to evaluate the ripening of ‘Golden’ papaya fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilana Urbano Bron; Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro; Marisa Azzolini; Angelo Pedro Jacomino; Eduardo Caruso Machado

    2004-01-01

    Fruit classification based on one or more physical or physiological attributes is important to improve quality during storage and marketing. Our objectives were to evaluate changes in chlorophyll fluorescence of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. cv. Golden) at different ripeness stages and during the ripening to determine if this non-destructive technique might assist the evaluation of fruit ripeness. Maximal (Fm),

  12. Preharvest factors and the heat sensitivity of field-grown ripening papaya fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Paull

    1995-01-01

    Mesocarp softening during papaya (Carica papaya L.) ripening was impaired by heating so that areas of the flesh failed to soften. Disruption of the softening process varied with harvest date. The sensitivity of fruit to the injurious treatment was greatest during the winter months. During January, exposure to more than 27 min at 49 °C was sufficient to induce areas

  13. High-Density Linkage Mapping Revealed Suppression of Recombination at the Sex Determination Locus in Papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Ma; Paul H. Moore; Zhiyong Liu; Minna S. Kim; Qingyi Yu; Maureen M. M. Fitch; Terry Sekioka; Andrew H. Paterson; Ray Ming

    2004-01-01

    A high-density genetic map of papaya (Carica papaya L.) was constructed using 54 F2 plants derived from cultivars Kapoho and SunUp with 1501 markers, including 1498 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, the papaya ringspot virus coat protein marker, morphological sex type, and fruit flesh color. These markers were mapped into 12 linkage groups at a LOD score of 5.0

  14. Utility of 1-methylcyclopropene as a papaya postharvest treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashariya Manenoi; Emma Ruth V. Bayogan; Siwaporn Thumdee; Robert E. Paull

    2007-01-01

    The postharvest utility of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for papaya, Carica papaya L. (cvs. Gold and Rainbow) was determined. The effect of fruit maturity, storage, 1-MCP concentration (50–1000nLL?1), 1-MCP treatment duration (4 and 24h) and ethephon treatment before and after 1-MCP were evaluated. Fruit treated with various concentrations of 1-MCP for 24h were firmer and the time to reach the edible ripe

  15. Influence of Boron on Somatic Embryogenesis in Papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Renukdas; M. L. Mohan; S. S. Khuspe; S. K. Rawal

    2003-01-01

    Influence of boron on somatic embryogenesis in papaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. Honey Dew was investigated. Immature zygotic embryos were grown in the induction medium containing Murashige and\\u000a Skoog basal salts, with B5 vitamins, picloram (1 mg dm?3) or 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2 mg dm?3) and different concentrations of boric acid (30 to 500 mg dm?3). Maximum somatic embryo initiation

  16. Conserved Daily Transcriptional Programs in Carica papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Zdepski; Wenqin Wang; Henry D. Priest; Faraz Ali; Maqsudul Alam; Todd C. Mockler; Todd P. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Most organisms have internal circadian clocks that mediate responses to daily environmental changes in order to synchronize\\u000a biological functions to the correct times of the day. Previous studies have focused on plants found in temperate and sub-tropical\\u000a climates, and little is known about the circadian transcriptional networks of plants that typically grow under conditions\\u000a with relatively constant day lengths and

  17. Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research. PMID:24757435

  18. The treatment of paediatric burns using topical papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian F. Starley; Paul Mohammed; Geisela Schneider; Stephen W. Bickler

    1999-01-01

    Due to the limited resources for the management of burns in most regions of Africa there is a significant role for many aspects of traditional African medicine. The active component of many traditional preparations is often of plant origin and more than 25 plants have been described as useful in relations to burns and wound healing. Carica papaya is currently

  19. Genetic diversity of papaya ring spot virus in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that 20-40% of crop yield is lost due to pests and diseases. Viruses are agents that cause diseases which contribute greatly to the global yield loss. Because of this, food production is negatively affected, especially in the tropics. Carica papaya, co...

  20. FT-IR spectroscopy as a tool for measuring degree of methyl esterification in pectins isolated from ripening papaya fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillermo D. Manrique; Franco M. Lajolo

    2002-01-01

    A straightforward method using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy for determination of methyl esterification degree (MED) of pectins is described. The method was used for measuring methylation level of different pectin fractions isolated from papaya (Carica papaya) fruit in three ripening stages as well as of the bulk pectin without isolation from the cell wall. All the samples used were in

  1. Feasibility of using papaya skin extract for digestion of swamp eel viscera for harvesting infective stage larva of Gnathostoma spp.

    PubMed

    Soogarun, Suphan; Lertlum, Thamaporn; Suwansaksri, Jamsai; Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we reported the feasibility of using papaya skin extract (Carica papaya L.) as an alternative to enzyme pepsin in harvesting Gnathostoma spinigerum third-stage larvae. From experimental digestion, we found that the different numbers of recovered larvae between papaya skin extract and pepsin were not statistically significant (p >0.05). When the derived larvae from pepsin and papaya skin extract digestion were cultivated in BME medium for 7 days, the survival rates were not significantly different either (p >0.05). Thus, papaya skin extract might be another choice for recovering Gnathostoma spinigerum third-stage larvae. PMID:16438187

  2. P-type H +-ATPases activity, membrane integrity, and apoplastic pH during papaya fruit ripening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inga G. Azevedo; Jurandi G. Oliveira; Marcelo G. da Silva; Talita Pereira; Savio F. Corrêa; Helion Vargas; Arnoldo R. Façanha

    2008-01-01

    The P-type H+-ATPase activity and related apoplastic pH were analysed in papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. cv. Golden) at different stages of maturation. Postharvest ripening of papaya was characterized by ethylene emission, skin colouration, firmness, and titratable acidity (TA). The climacteric peak of ethylene production occurred on the 2nd day after harvest, along with a sharp decrease in ATP hydrolysis

  3. Influence of Exogenous Glycine Betaine and Abscisic Acid on Papaya in Responses to Water-deficit Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jalel Mahouachi; Rosa Argamasilla; Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas

    The effects of exogenous foliar glycine betaine (GB) and abscisic acid (ABA) on papaya responses to water stress were investigated\\u000a under distinct water regimes. Papaya seedlings (Carica papaya L. cultivar “BH-65”) were pretreated with GB or ABA and subsequently subjected to consecutive periods of drought, rehydration,\\u000a and a second period of drought conditions. Results indicated that water stress induced ABA,

  4. Allergenicity assessment of the papaya ringspot virus coat protein expressed in transgenic rainbow papaya.

    PubMed

    Fermín, Gustavo; Keith, Ronald C; Suzuki, Jon Y; Ferreira, Stephen A; Gaskill, Douglas A; Pitz, Karen Y; Manshardt, Richard M; Gonsalves, Dennis; Tripathi, Savarni

    2011-09-28

    The virus-resistant, transgenic commercial papaya Rainbow and SunUp (Carica papaya L.) have been consumed locally in Hawaii and elsewhere in the mainland United States and Canada since their release to planters in Hawaii in 1998. These papaya are derived from transgenic papaya line 55-1 and carry the coat protein (CP) gene of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). The PRSV CP was evaluated for potential allergenicity, an important component in assessing the safety of food derived from transgenic plants. The transgene PRSV CP sequence of Rainbow papaya did not exhibit greater than 35% amino acid sequence homology to known allergens, nor did it have a stretch of eight amino acids found in known allergens which are known common bioinformatic methods used for assessing similarity to allergen proteins. PRSV CP was also tested for stability in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid and under various heat treatments. The results showed that PRSV CP was degraded under conditions for which allergenic proteins relative to nonallergens are purported to be stable. The potential human intake of transgene-derived PRSV CP was assessed by measuring CP levels in Rainbow and SunUp along with estimating the fruit consumption rates and was compared to potential intake estimates of PRSV CP from naturally infected nontransgenic papaya. Following accepted allergenicity assessment criteria, our results show that the transgene-derived PRSV CP does not pose a risk of food allergy. PMID:21819140

  5. Methyl jasmonate and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) reduce decay and maintain postharvest quality of papaya ‘Sunrise’

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. González-Aguilar; J. G. Buta; C. Y. Wang

    2003-01-01

    Exposure of papaya (Carica papaya L., cv. Sunrise) fruit to methyl jasmonate (MJ) vapors (10?5 or 10?4 M) for 16 h at 20°C inhibited fungal decay and reduced chilling injury development and loss of firmness during storage for 14–32 days at 10°C and 4 days shelf life at 20°C. MJ-treated fruit also retained higher organic acids than the control fruit.

  6. High frequency somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from papaya hypocotyl callus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maureen M. M. Fitch

    1993-01-01

    High frequency somatic embryogenesis in papaya (Carica papaya L.) tissue cultures was achieved by culturing hypocotyl sections from ten-day-old seedlings on half-strength Murashige and Skoog salts (MS) medium containing modified MS vitamins, 2.3 to 112.5 µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d), 400 mg l-1 glutamine, and 6% sucrose. Four hermaphroditic Hawaiian cultivars produced embryogenic calluses after ten to 14 weeks of culture

  7. Transcript profiling of papaya fruit reveals differentially expressed genes associated with fruit ripening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    João Paulo Fabi; Luana Regina Baratelli Carelli Mendes; Franco Maria Lajolo; João Roberto Oliveira do Nascimento

    2010-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit has a short shelf life due to fast ripening induced by ethylene, but little is known about the genetic control of ripening and attributes of fruit quality. Therefore, we identified ripening-related genes affected by ethylene using cDNA-AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism of cDNA). Transcript profiling of non-induced and ethylene-induced fruit samples was performed, and 71

  8. Regeneration of transgenic papaya plants via somatic embryogenesis induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Luis Cabrera-Ponce; Ariadne Vegas-Garcia; Luis Herrera-Estrella

    1996-01-01

    AnAgrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated procedure for transformation of papaya (Carica papaya) was developed. Transgenic plants were obtained from somatic embryos that spontaneously formed at the base of transformed\\u000a roots, induced from leaf discs infected withA. rhizogenes. Transformation was monitored by autonomous growth of roots and somatic embryos, resistance to kanamycin, ?-glucuronidase\\u000a activity (GUS), and Southern hybridization analysis. Over one-third of the infected

  9. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of unripe papaya.

    PubMed

    Osato, J A; Santiago, L A; Remo, G M; Cuadra, M S; Mori, A

    1993-01-01

    The meat, seed and pulp of Carica papaya Linn., a popular traditional medicinal herb grown in the tropics, was shown by the agar-cup method to be bacteriostatic against several enteropathogens such as Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The same parts of papaya were unequivocably demonstrated by electron spin resonance spectrometry to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (5.8 x 10(14) spins/ml), hydroxyl (5.1 x 10(14) spins/ml) and superoxide (1.2 x 10(14) spins/ml) radicals with the seed giving the highest activity at concentrations (IC50) of 2.1, 10.0 and 8.7 mg/ml, respectively. The superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity in the meat, seed and pulp amounts to about 32, 98 and 33 units/ml; comparable to those of soybean paste miso, rice bran and baker's yeast. Vitamin C, malic acid, citric acid and glucose are some of the possible antioxidative components in papaya. Our study correlates the bacteriostatic activity of papaya with its scavenging action on superoxide and hydroxyl radicals which could be part of the cellular metabolism of such enteropathogens. This is indicative of the pathophysiological role of these reactive oxygen species in gastrointestinal diseases and papaya's ability to counteract the oxidative stress. PMID:8412504

  10. Dried papaya skin as a dietary ingredient for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kamaruzzaman, M; Chowdhury, S D; Podder, C K; Pramanik, M A H

    2005-06-01

    The chemical composition of dried papaya (Carica papaya) skin (DPS) was determined and its potential as a dietary ingredient for broiler chickens was investigated at dietary concentrations of 0, 40, 80 and 120g/kg. DPS was found to give similar food consumption, food conversion efficiency, survivability and meat yields (except male liver weight) to a control diet when used up to 120 g/kg of diet. Weight gain tended to increase with dietary concentration of DPS up to 80 g/kg. It was concluded that DPS could safely be used up to 120 g/kg in the diet of broiler chickens. PMID:16050195

  11. Applicability of the chymopapain gene used as endogenous reference gene for transgenic huanong no. 1 papaya detection.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinchao; Yang, Litao; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Haibo; Qian, Bingjun; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-08-12

    The virus-resistant papaya (Carica papaya L.), Huanong no. 1, was the genetically modified (GM) fruit approved for growing in China in 2006. To implement the labeling regulation of GM papaya and its derivates, the development of papaya endogenous reference gene is very necessary for GM papaya detection. Herein, we reported one papaya specific gene, Chymopapain (CHY), as one suitable endogenous reference gene, used for GM papaya identification. Thereafter, we established the conventional and real-time quantitative PCR assays of the CHY gene. In the CHY conventional PCR assay, the limit of detection (LOD) was 25 copies of haploid papaya genome. In the CHY real-time quantitative PCR assay, both the LOD and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were as low as 12.5 copies of haploid papaya genome. Furthermore, we revealed the construct-specific sequence of Chinese GM papaya Huanong no. 1 and developed its conventional and quantitative PCR systems employing the CHY gene as endogenous reference gene. This work is useful for papaya specific identification and GM papaya detection. PMID:19722561

  12. Analysis of papaya cell wall-related genes during fruit ripening indicates a central role of polygalacturonases during pulp softening.

    PubMed

    Fabi, João Paulo; Broetto, Sabrina Garcia; da Silva, Sarah Lígia Garcia Leme; Zhong, Silin; Lajolo, Franco Maria; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a climacteric fleshy fruit that undergoes dramatic changes during ripening, most noticeably a severe pulp softening. However, little is known regarding the genetics of the cell wall metabolism in papayas. The present work describes the identification and characterization of genes related to pulp softening. We used gene expression profiling to analyze the correlations and co-expression networks of cell wall-related genes, and the results suggest that papaya pulp softening is accomplished by the interactions of multiple glycoside hydrolases. The polygalacturonase cpPG1 appeared to play a central role in the network and was further studied. The transient expression of cpPG1 in papaya results in pulp softening and leaf necrosis in the absence of ethylene action and confirms its role in papaya fruit ripening. PMID:25162506

  13. Papaya Ringspot Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The term papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was coined by Jensen in 1949, to describe a papaya disease in Hawaii. Later work showed that diseases such as papaya mosaic and watermelon mosaic virus-1 were caused by PRSV. The primary host range of PRSV is papaya and cucurbits, with Chenopium amaranticolor ...

  14. Isolation and Characterisation of PRSV-P Resistance Genes in Carica and Vasconcellea

    PubMed Central

    Razean Haireen, M. R.; Drew, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the major tropical fruit crops worldwide, but it is limited throughout its range by papaya ringspot virus type P (PRSV-P). Previous genetic studies identified a functional PRSV-P resistance marker in a mapping population of F2 plants of Vasconcellea pubescens (resistant to PRSV-P) × Vasconcellea parviflora (susceptible to PRSV-P) and showed that the marker exhibited homology to a serine threonine protein kinase (STK) gene. Full length cDNAs of putative PRSV-P resistance genes designated CP_STK from C. papaya and VP_STK1 and VP_STK2 from V. pubescens were cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Due to a frame-shift mutation, the two homologous sequences are transcribed and edited differently such that the gene product in V. pubescens is two separate transcripts, whereas in C. papaya they are fused into a single message. A peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS2) present in VP_STK2 but absent in the other transcripts may be the functional source of PRSV resistance in V. pubescens. The STK gene from V. pubescens may have been derived from an alternative splicing to confer resistance. The putative resistance gene, VP_STK2, that was identified in this study is a potential new source of PRSV-P resistance for papaya genotypes. PMID:25184131

  15. Papaya fruit softening, endoxylanase gene expression, protein and activity.

    PubMed

    Manenoi, Ashariya; Paull, Robert E

    2007-11-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) cell wall matrix polysaccharides are modified as the fruit starts to soften during ripening and an endoxylanase is expressed that may play a role in the softening process. Endoxylanase gene expression, protein amount and activity were determined in papaya cultivars that differ in softening pattern and in one cultivar where softening was modified by the ethylene receptor inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Antibodies to the endoxylanase catalytic domain were used to determine protein accumulation. The three papaya varieties used in the study, 'Line 8', 'Sunset', and 'Line 4-16', differed in softening pattern, respiration rate, ethylene production and showed similar parallel relationships during ripening and softening in endoxylanase expression, protein level and activity. When fruit of the three papaya varieties showed the respiratory climacteric and started to soften, the level of endoxylanase gene expression increased and this increase was related to the amount of endoxylanase protein at 32 kDa and its activity. Fruit when treated at less than 10% skin yellow stage with 1-MCP showed a significant delay in the respiratory climacteric and softening, and reduced ethylene production, and when ripe was firmer and had a 'rubbery' texture. The 1-MCP-treated fruit that had the 'rubbery' texture showed suppressed endoxylanase gene expression, protein and enzymatic activity. Little or no delay occurred between endoxylanase gene expression and the appearance of activity during posttranslational processing from 65 to 32 kDa. The close relationship between endoxylanase gene expression, protein accumulation and activity in different varieties and the failure of the 1-MCP-treated fruit to fully soften, supported de novo synthesis of endoxylanase, rapid posttranslation processing and a role in papaya fruit softening. PMID:18251885

  16. Topical use of papaya in chronic skin ulcer therapy in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, H; Whittle, S; Lopez, S; Bailey, E; Weaver, S

    2000-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of the use of the fruit (papaya) of Carica papaya as topical ulcer dressings by registered nurses in the Spanish Town Hospital (STH), Kingston Public Hospital (KPH) and the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI), Jamaica. A ten-item pretested self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 285 randomly selected registered nurses at the UHWI, KPH and STH. There was a 72% response rate. The prevalence of topical papaya use among the respondents was 75%. Comments from the users of papaya suggested that topical application of the unripe fruit promoted desloughing, granulation and healing and reduced odour in chronic skin ulcers. It was cost effective. Papaya was considered to be more effective than other topical applications in the treatment of chronic ulcers. There was some difficulty in preparation of the fruit and occasionally a sensation of burning was reported by the patients. There was concern about the use of a non-sterile, non-standardised procedure but there were no reports of wound infection from its use. Papaya is widely used by nurses as a form of dressing for chronic ulcers and there is need for standardisation of its preparation and application. PMID:10786448

  17. Effect of packaging materials and storage environment on postharvest quality of papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Azene, Mulualem; Workneh, Tilahun Seyoum; Woldetsadik, Kebede

    2014-06-01

    This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of packaging materials and storage environments on shelf life of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.). A factorial combination of five packaging materials and two storage environments using randomized complete block design with three replications were used. The papaya fruits were evaluated for weight loss, percentage marketability, firmness, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar and total sugar content. The packaged and cooled fruits remained firmer than unpackaged and evaporatively cooled fruits. Higher chemical compositions were recorded in the control fruits stored under ambient conditions during the earlier times of storage. Packaging and cooling maintained the chemical quality of papaya fruits better than the control sample fruits towards the end of storage periods. The evaporatively cooled storage combined with packaging improved the shelf life of papaya fruits by more than two fold. The polyethylene bag packaging combined with evaporatively cooled storage maintained the superior quality of papaya fruit for a period of 21 days. This integrated agro-technology is recommended for postharvest loss reduction biotechnology in hot regions. PMID:24876636

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Erwinia mallotivora BT-MARDI, Causative Agent of Papaya Dieback Disease.

    PubMed

    Redzuan, R Ahmad; Abu Bakar, N; Rozano, L; Badrun, R; Mat Amin, N; Mohd Raih, M F

    2014-01-01

    Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya trees infected with dieback disease, which were planted at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Malaysia. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of E. mallotivora BT-MARDI, which offers an important source of information for understanding pathogen and host interaction during papaya dieback development. PMID:24812220

  19. CONTROL OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS IN PAPAYA: A Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis Gonsalves

    1998-01-01

    The papaya crop is severely affected by papaya ringspot virus (PSRV) world- wide. This review focuses on efforts to control the destructiveness of the dis- ease caused by PSRV in Hawaii, starting from the use of cross protection to parasite-derived resistance with transgenic papaya expressing the PSRV coat pro- tein gene. A chronology of the research effort is given and

  20. Characterization of the exogenous insert and development of event-specific PCR detection methods for genetically modified Huanong No. 1 papaya.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinchao; Yang, Litao; Liu, Xin; Guan, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Lingxi; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-08-26

    Genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.), Huanong No. 1, was approved for commercialization in Guangdong province, China in 2006, and the development of the Huanong No. 1 papaya detection method is necessary for implementing genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling regulations. In this study, we reported the characterization of the exogenous integration of GM Huanong No. 1 papaya by means of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR strategies. The results suggested that one intact copy of the initial construction was integrated in the papaya genome and which probably resulted in one deletion (38 bp in size) of the host genomic DNA. Also, one unintended insertion of a 92 bp truncated NptII fragment was observed at the 5' end of the exogenous insert. Furthermore, we revealed its 5' and 3' flanking sequences between the insert DNA and the papaya genomic DNA, and developed the event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR assays for GM Huanong No. 1 papaya based on the 5' integration flanking sequence. The relative limit of detection (LOD) of the qualitative PCR assay was about 0.01% in 100 ng of total papaya genomic DNA, corresponding to about 25 copies of papaya haploid genome. In the quantitative PCR, the limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) were as low as 12.5 and 25 copies of papaya haploid genome, respectively. In practical sample quantification, the quantified biases between the test and true values of three samples ranged from 0.44% to 4.41%. Collectively, we proposed that all of these results are useful for the identification and quantification of Huanong No. 1 papaya and its derivates. PMID:19645503

  1. RedOrbit NEWS | Researchers Reveal Genetic Code of Papaya http://www.redorbit.com/modules/news/tools.php?tool=print&id=1356702 1 of 1 4/24/2008 6:39 PM

    E-print Network

    Alam, Maqsudul

    RedOrbit NEWS | Researchers Reveal Genetic Code of Papaya http://www.redorbit.com/modules/news/tools.php?tool=print&id=1356702 1 of 1 4/24/2008 6:39 PM Researchers Reveal Genetic Code of Papaya Researchers recently published the full DNA sequence of the "SunUp" papaya, discovering genes that cause the tree evolve and also help

  2. tRNALeu intron (UAA) of Ficus carica L.: genetic diversity and evolutionary patterns.

    PubMed

    Baraket, G; Abdelkrim, A B; Salhi-Hannachi, A

    2015-01-01

    Cytoplasmic chloroplast DNA was explored to establish genetic relationships among Ficus carica cultivars and elucidate the molecular evolution of the species. The results suggest the occurrence of haplotype and nucleotide diversity. Conserved group I intron sequence motifs were detected and showed a common secondary structure, despite the presence of some mutations on their sequences. The neighbor-joining dendrogram showed a continuous diversity that characterizes local resources. The maximum parsimony tree, with an RI index of 0.507, indicated minimal homoplasy within the data set. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the trnL intron is the seat of numerous substitutions. Herein, new insight on the mechanism involved in the evolution of the trnL intron in the fig is presented. From the study, it appears that there is an explicit rejection of the null hypothesis in F. carica. A scenario of positive selection and recent expansion of F. carica genotypes across Tunisia seems to be retained. PMID:25966152

  3. Beverages of lemon juice and exotic noni and papaya with potential for anticholinergic effects.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    Lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.) juice beverages enriched either with noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) (LN) or papaya (Carica papaya L.) (LP), were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n), the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by (DPPH·), superoxide (O2(·-)), hydroxyl radicals (·OH) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) assays, and their potential as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors was also assessed. The fruits are rich in a wide range of bioactive phenolics. Regarding DPPH·, ·OH and HOCl assays, the LP displayed strong activity, and LN was the most active against O2(·-). Concerning cholinesterases, LP was the most active, mainly due to lemon juice contribution. The effect on the cholinesterases was not as strong as in previous reports on purified extracts, but the bioactive-rich beverages offer the possibility of dietary coadjutants for daily consumption of health-promoting substances by adults with aging-related cognitive or physical disorders. PMID:25306312

  4. Use of dried papaya skin in the diet of growing pullets.

    PubMed

    Fouzder, S K; Chowdhury, S D; Howlider, M A; Podder, C K

    1999-03-01

    1. The chemical composition of dried papaya (Carica papaya) skin (DPS) was determined and the effect of diets containing different concentrations of this ingredient (0, 30, 60 and 90 g/kg) was studied using growing pullets as experimental animals. 2. Crude protein concentration was determined to be 229 g/kg and metabolisable energy content was estimated to be 6.4 MJ/kg. 3. Use of DPS in the diet up to 90 g/kg did not produce any significant difference in weight gain, food intake, food conversion and protein efficiency when compared with birds that received the control diet. 4. Survivability of growing pullets fed on DPS was 100%, as in the control group. 5. It was concluded that DPS can safely be used up to 90 g/kg in the diet of growing pullets. PMID:10405041

  5. First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee

    PubMed Central

    Culik, Mark P.; dos Santos Martins, David; Gullan, Penny J.

    2006-01-01

    Five mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) plant pest species: Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi), Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus tucumanus Granara de Willink, and Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius are recorded for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These are the first records of D. grassii in Brazil, from papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), and from coffee (Coffea canephora, Rubiaceae). Ferrisia malvastra is also newly recorded in Brazil, where it was found on Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae). Ferrisia virgata was collected from an unidentified weed and Phenacoccus tucumanus from Citrus sp. (Rutaceae). Plotococcus capixaba Kondo was found on pitanga (Eugenia cf. pitanga, Myrtaceae) and Pseudococcus elisae on Coffea canephora, which are new host records for these mealybugs. PMID:19537975

  6. Papaya ringspot virus (Potyviridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus, a member of the family Potyviridae, is single stranded RNA plant virus with a monocistronic genome of about 10,326 nucleotides that is expressed via a large polyprotein subsequently cleaved into functional proteins. It causes severe damage on cucurbit crops such as squash and...

  7. The treatment of paediatric burns using topical papaya.

    PubMed

    Starley, I F; Mohammed, P; Schneider, G; Bickler, S W

    1999-11-01

    Due to the limited resources for the management of burns in most regions of Africa there is a significant role for many aspects of traditional African medicine. The active component of many traditional preparations is often of plant origin and more than 25 plants have been described as useful in relations to burns and wound healing. Carica papaya is currently used in The Gambia at the Royal Victoria Hospital, Banjul in the Paediatric Unit as the major component of burns dressings, where it is well tolerated by the children. Cheap and widely available, the pulp of the papaya fruit is mashed and applied daily to full thickness and infected burns. It appears to be effective in desloughing necrotic tissue, preventing burn wound infection, and providing a granulating wound suitable for the application of a split thickness skin graft. Possible mechanisms of action include the activity of proteolytic enzymes chymopapain and papain, as well as an antimicrobial activity, although further studies are required. PMID:10563690

  8. DEREGULATION OF TRANSGENIC PAPAYA FOR JAPAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transgenic SunUp and Rainbow papaya developed for Hawaii was commercialized in 1998 and virtually saved Hawaii’s papaya industry from further damage being caused by papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Since Japan makes up a significant part (about 35% in 1992) in Hawaii’s papaya export market, effort...

  9. Development and application of microsatellite markers for genomic analysis of papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moriah Eustice; Qingyi Yu; Chun Wan Lai; Shaobin Hou; Jyothi Thimmapuram; Lei Liu; Maqsudul Alam; Paul H. Moore; Gernot G. Presting; Ray Ming

    2008-01-01

    Papaya has a relatively small genome, displays high levels of phenotypic diversity, and is amenable to transformation, making\\u000a it attractive as a fruit tree model system. The high level of phenotypic diversity seen among papaya cultivars in the field\\u000a does not correlate with the low levels of genotypic polymorphism thus far elucidated. The highly mutable nature of microsatellites\\u000a or simple

  10. Biogasification of papaya processing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, P.Y.; Weitzenhoff, M.H.; Moy, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Biogasification of papaya processing wastes for pollution control and energy utilization is feasible. The biogasification process with sludge recycling permits smaller reactor volume without any deterioration of CH4 production rate and CH4 content. Appropriate design and operational criteria for biogasification processing of papaya wastes were developed.

  11. ECOLOGY, BEHAVIOR AND BIONOMICS Biologia Comparada de Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) em Fruteiras Tropicais

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAISI G. F. BARBOSA; MANOEL G. C. GONDIM; REGINALDO BARROS; JOSÉ V. DE OLIVEIRA

    The objective of this research was to determine the potential development and reproduction of Eutetranchus banski (McGregor) in some economically important species of tropical fruit tree. The mites were collected from papaya tree (Carica papaya L.), in the UFRPE Campus and reared in the laboratory, in arenas consisted of leaf discs of papaya tree. Four host species were tryied: cultivars

  12. Cloning of the papaya chromoplast-specific lycopene beta-cyclase, CpCYC-b, controlling fruit flesh color reveals conserved microsynteny and a recombination hot spot.

    PubMed

    Blas, Andrea L; Ming, Ray; Liu, Zhiyong; Veatch, Olivia J; Paull, Robert E; Moore, Paul H; Yu, Qingyi

    2010-04-01

    Carotenoid pigments in fruits are indicative of the ripening process and potential nutritional value. Papaya (Carica papaya) fruit flesh color is caused by the accumulation of lycopene or beta-carotenoids in chromoplasts. It is a distinct feature affecting nutritional composition, fruit quality, shelf life, and consumer preference. To uncover the molecular basis of papaya flesh color, we took map-based cloning and candidate gene approaches using integrated genetic and physical maps. A DNA marker tightly linked to flesh color colocalized on a contig of the physical map with a cDNA probe of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) chromoplast-specific lycopene beta-cyclase, CYC-b. Candidate gene sequences were obtained from amplified fragments and verified by sequencing two bacterial artificial chromosomes containing the two alleles. Sequence comparison revealed a 2-bp insertion in the coding region of the recessive red flesh allele resulting in a frame-shift mutation and a premature stop codon. A color complementation test in bacteria confirmed that the papaya CpCYC-b is the gene controlling fruit flesh color. Sequence analysis of wild and cultivated papaya accessions showed the presence of this frame-shift mutation in all red flesh accessions examined. Evaluation of DNA markers near CpCYC-b revealed a recombination hot spot, showing that CpCYC-b is located in a gene-rich region with a recombination rate at 3.7 kb per centimorgan, more than 100-fold higher than the genome average at 400 kb per centimorgan. Conserved microsynteny of the CpCYC-b region is indicated by colinearity of two to four genes between papaya, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), grape (Vitis vinifera), and tomato. Our results enhanced our understanding of papaya flesh color inheritance and generated new tools for papaya improvement. PMID:20181753

  13. TRANSGENIC PAPAYA: A CASE FOR WORLDWIDE CONTROL OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was detected in the main papaya growing region of Hawaii in 1992. By 1994 Hawaii's papaya industry was facing devastating damage from PRSV. Efforts to develop resistant transgenic papaya were started in the mid 1980s. By 1991, a resistant line was identified, field tri...

  14. TRANSGENIC PAPAYA: A CASE FOR MANAGING RISKS OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS IN HAWAII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In May 1992, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV was detected in the Puna district of Hawaii Island, the main papaya growing region of the state of Hawaii. By 1994 Hawaii's papaya industry was facing devastating damage from PRSV. Efforts to develop resistant transgenic papaya were started in the mid 1980s...

  15. Is the old world fig, Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), an alternate host for the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) (Homoptera: Psyllidae)?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The only non-rutaceous plant on which D. citri has been found breeding in Texas is the edible fig, Ficus carica (Moraceae). In the summer of 2010, we discovered D. citri nymphs on a dooryard fig tree. Fig has its own species of psyllid, Homatoma ficus, but both adults and nymphs of that species ar...

  16. Chemical composition of papaya seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Calvino Passera; Paolo Spettoli

    1981-01-01

    Seeds of papaya cultivated in Somalia, which accounted for about 16% of the fresh fruit weight, were divided into sarcotesta and endosperm. Sarcotesta showed higher percentages of ash, crude protein, and crude fiber than did endosperm, but was lacking in fat. In contrast, endosperm contained 60% fat. Oil extract showed very high levels of oleic and palmitic acids. The essential

  17. Cloning of the Papaya Chromoplast-Specific Lycopene ?-Cyclase, CpCYC-b, Controlling Fruit Flesh Color Reveals Conserved Microsynteny and a Recombination Hot Spot1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Blas, Andrea L.; Ming, Ray; Liu, Zhiyong; Veatch, Olivia J.; Paull, Robert E.; Moore, Paul H.; Yu, Qingyi

    2010-01-01

    Carotenoid pigments in fruits are indicative of the ripening process and potential nutritional value. Papaya (Carica papaya) fruit flesh color is caused by the accumulation of lycopene or ?-carotenoids in chromoplasts. It is a distinct feature affecting nutritional composition, fruit quality, shelf life, and consumer preference. To uncover the molecular basis of papaya flesh color, we took map-based cloning and candidate gene approaches using integrated genetic and physical maps. A DNA marker tightly linked to flesh color colocalized on a contig of the physical map with a cDNA probe of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) chromoplast-specific lycopene ?-cyclase, CYC-b. Candidate gene sequences were obtained from amplified fragments and verified by sequencing two bacterial artificial chromosomes containing the two alleles. Sequence comparison revealed a 2-bp insertion in the coding region of the recessive red flesh allele resulting in a frame-shift mutation and a premature stop codon. A color complementation test in bacteria confirmed that the papaya CpCYC-b is the gene controlling fruit flesh color. Sequence analysis of wild and cultivated papaya accessions showed the presence of this frame-shift mutation in all red flesh accessions examined. Evaluation of DNA markers near CpCYC-b revealed a recombination hot spot, showing that CpCYC-b is located in a gene-rich region with a recombination rate at 3.7 kb per centimorgan, more than 100-fold higher than the genome average at 400 kb per centimorgan. Conserved microsynteny of the CpCYC-b region is indicated by colinearity of two to four genes between papaya, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), grape (Vitis vinifera), and tomato. Our results enhanced our understanding of papaya flesh color inheritance and generated new tools for papaya improvement. PMID:20181753

  18. Trees

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This tutorial covers various aspects of trees. It explains which chemicals cause leaves to change colors, how the process of photosynthesis works, the functions of bark, roots, pollen and leaves, and the effect of trees on nearby temperature.

  19. Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Safety Evaluation of Papain (Carica papaya L.) Using In Vitro Assays

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Claudia R.; Oliveira, Marcia B. N.; Motta, Ellen S.; de Almeida, Gabriella S.; Varanda, Leandro L.; de Pádula, Marcelo; Leitão, Alvaro C.; Caldeira-de-Araújo, Adriano

    2010-01-01

    Papain, a phytotherapeutic agent, has been used in the treatment of eschars and as a debriding chemical agent to remove damaged or necrotic tissue of pressure ulcers and gangrene. Its benefits in these treatments are deemed effective, since more than 5000 patients, at the public university hospital at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, have undergone papain treatment and presented satisfactory results. Despite its extensive use, there is little information about toxic and mutagenic properties of papain. This work evaluated the toxic and mutagenic potential of papain and its potential antioxidant activity against induced-H2O2 oxidative stress in Escherichia coli strains. Cytotoxicity assay, Growth inhibition test, WP2-Mutoxitest and Plasmid-DNA treatment, and agarose gel electrophoresis were used to investigate if papain would present any toxic or mutagenic potential as well as if papain would display antioxidant properties. Papain exhibited negative results for all tests. This agent presented an activity protecting cells against H2O2-induced mutagenesis. PMID:20508844

  20. Oxidative stress in patients with Alzheimer's disease: effect of extracts of fermented papaya powder.

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, Mario; Marotta, Francesco; Dominguez, Ligia J

    2015-01-01

    Brain tissue is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress (OS). Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced antioxidant systems, and decreased efficiency in repairing mechanisms have been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Postmortem studies in AD patients' brains have shown oxidative damage markers (i.e., lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative damage, and glycoxidation). Fermented papaya (FPP, a product of Carica papaya Linn fermentation with yeast) is a nutraceutical supplement with favorable effects on immunological, hematological, inflammatory, and OS parameters in chronic/degenerative diseases. We studied 40 patients (age 78.2 ± 1.1 years), 28 AD patients, and 12 controls. Urinary 8-OHdG was measured to assess OS. Twenty AD patients were supplemented with FPP (Immunage, 4.5 grams/day) for 6 months, while controls did not receive any treatment. At baseline, 8-OHdG was significantly higher in patients with AD versus controls (13.7 ± 1.61?ng/mL versus 1.6 ± 0.12?ng/mL, P < 0.01). In AD patients FPP significantly decreased 8-OHdG (14.1 ± 1.7?ng/mL to 8.45 ± 1.1?ng/mL, P < 0.01), with no significant changes in controls. AD is associated with increased OS, and FPP may be helpful to counteract excessive ROS in AD patients. PMID:25944987

  1. Oxidative Stress in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: Effect of Extracts of Fermented Papaya Powder

    PubMed Central

    Barbagallo, Mario; Marotta, Francesco; Dominguez, Ligia J.

    2015-01-01

    Brain tissue is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress (OS). Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced antioxidant systems, and decreased efficiency in repairing mechanisms have been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Postmortem studies in AD patients' brains have shown oxidative damage markers (i.e., lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative damage, and glycoxidation). Fermented papaya (FPP, a product of Carica papaya Linn fermentation with yeast) is a nutraceutical supplement with favorable effects on immunological, hematological, inflammatory, and OS parameters in chronic/degenerative diseases. We studied 40 patients (age 78.2 ± 1.1 years), 28 AD patients, and 12 controls. Urinary 8-OHdG was measured to assess OS. Twenty AD patients were supplemented with FPP (Immunage, 4.5 grams/day) for 6 months, while controls did not receive any treatment. At baseline, 8-OHdG was significantly higher in patients with AD versus controls (13.7 ± 1.61?ng/mL versus 1.6 ± 0.12?ng/mL, P < 0.01). In AD patients FPP significantly decreased 8-OHdG (14.1 ± 1.7?ng/mL to 8.45 ± 1.1?ng/mL, P < 0.01), with no significant changes in controls. AD is associated with increased OS, and FPP may be helpful to counteract excessive ROS in AD patients. PMID:25944987

  2. Cancer chemopreventive effects of the flavonoid-rich fraction isolated from papaya seeds.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Neelam; Khan, Saba; Bhargava, Arpit; Raghuram, Gorantla V; Jain, Deepika; Panwar, Hariom; Samarth, Ravindra M; Jain, Subodh K; Maudar, Kewal K; Mishra, Dinesh K; Mishra, Pradyumna K

    2014-01-01

    Intervention to decelerate, arrest, or reverse the process of carcinogenesis by the use of either natural or synthetic agents individually or in combination has emerged as a promising and pragmatic medical approach to reduce cancer risk. In the present study, we examined the cancer chemopreventive potential of a flavonoid-rich fraction isolated from the seeds of Carica papaya, a plant traditionally referred to as papaw. The flavonoid-enriched benzene fraction of the aqueous extract exerted its anticancer properties in vitro through cytoprotection, antioxidative and antiinflammatory mechanisms and genoprotection in response to isocyanate-induced carcinogenicity. Medium-term anticarcinogenicity and 2-stage skin papillomagenesis studies conducted in benzopyrene-induced lung carcinogenesis and 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene-mediated skin papillomagenesis mouse models further validated our in vitro observations. This is the first demonstration of chemopreventive activities of papaya seed products, however, further studies to understand the subtle targets of intracellular signaling pathways, pharmacological profile and toxicological safety of this bioactive fraction are essential to pave the way for successful clinical translation. Our study supports the inverse association between dietary flavonoid intake and cancer risk. PMID:24820939

  3. COMMERCIALIZATION OF TRANSGENIC PAPAYA: WEIGHING BENEFITS AND POTENTIAL RISKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya is Hawaii's second most important fruit crop, behind the pineapple. In 1992, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was discovered in Puna Hawaii, where 95% of Hawaii's papaya were being grown. By late 1994, PRSV was widespread in Puna and the papaya industry was facing severe crop loss. In 1998, tr...

  4. Applications and bioefficacy of the functional food supplement fermented papaya preparation.

    PubMed

    Aruoma, Okezie I; Hayashi, Yuki; Marotta, Francesco; Mantello, Pierre; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer; Montagnier, Luc

    2010-11-28

    Fermented papaya preparation (FPP) (a product of yeast fermentation of Carica papaya Linn) is a food supplement. Studies in chronic and degenerative disease conditions (such as thalassemia, cirrhosis, diabetes and aging) and performance sports show that FPP favorably modulates immunological, hematological, inflammatory, vascular and oxidative stress damage parameters. Neuroprotective potential evaluated in an Alzheimer's disease cell model showed that the toxicity of the ?-amyloid can be significantly modulated by FPP. Oxidative stress trigger apoptotic pathways such as the c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) are preferentially activated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress resulting in cell differentiation and apoptosis. FPP modulated the H?O?-induced ERK, Akt and p38 activation with the reduction of p38 phosphorylation induced by H?O?. FPP reduces the extent of the H?O?-induced DNA damage, an outcome corroborated by similar effects obtained in the benzo[a]pyrene treated cells. No genotoxic effect was observed in experiments with FPP exposed to HepG2 cells nor was FPP toxic to the PC12 cells. Oxidative stress-induced cell damage and inflammation are implicated in a variety of cancers, diabetes, arthritis, cardiovascular dysfunctions, neurodegenerative disorders (such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease), exercise physiology (including performance sports) and aging. These conditions could potentially benefit from functional nutraceutical/food supplements (as illustrated here with fermented papaya preparation) exhibiting anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunostimulatory (at the level of the mucus membrane) and induction of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:20870007

  5. PLANTINSECT INTERACTIONS Inducible Responses in Papaya: Impact on Population Growth Rates of

    E-print Network

    Rosenheim, Jay A.

    PLANTÐINSECT INTERACTIONS Inducible Responses in Papaya: Impact on Population Growth Rates in their shared host plant, papaya. Three key parasites attack papaya foliage in Hawaii: the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval); the papaya rust mite, Calacarus flagelliseta Fletch- mann

  6. Inhibition of the Host Proteasome Facilitates Papaya Ringspot Virus Accumulation and Proteosomal Catalytic Activity Is Modulated by Viral Factor HcPro

    PubMed Central

    Sahana, Nandita; Kaur, Harpreet; Basavaraj; Tena, Fatima; Jain, Rakesh Kumar; Palukaitis, Peter; Canto, Tomas; Praveen, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitin/26S proteasome system plays an essential role not only in maintaining protein turnover, but also in regulating many other plant responses, including plant–pathogen interactions. Previous studies highlighted different roles of the 20S proteasome in plant defense during virus infection, either indirectly through viral suppressor-mediated degradation of Argonaute proteins, affecting the RNA interference pathway, or directly through modulation of the proteolytic and RNase activity of the 20S proteasome, a component of the 20S proteasome, by viral proteins, affecting the levels of viral proteins and RNAs. Here we show that MG132, a cell permeable proteasomal inhibitor, caused an increase in papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) accumulation in its natural host papaya (Carica papaya). We also show that the PRSV HcPro interacts with the papaya homologue of the Arabidopsis PAA (?1 subunit of the 20S proteasome), but not with the papaya homologue of Arabidopsis PAE (?5 subunit of the 20S proteasome), associated with the RNase activity, although the two 20S proteasome subunits interacted with each other. Mutated forms of PRSV HcPro showed that the conserved KITC54 motif in the N-terminal domain of HcPro was necessary for its binding to PAA. Co-agroinfiltration assays demonstrated that HcPro expression mimicked the action of MG132, and facilitated the accumulation of bothtotal ubiquitinated proteins and viral/non-viral exogenous RNA in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. These effects were not observed by using an HcPro mutant (KITS54), which impaired the HcPro – PAA interaction. Thus, the PRSV HcPro interacts with a proteasomal subunit, inhibiting the action of the 20S proteasome, suggesting that HcPro might be crucial for modulating its catalytic activities in support of virus accumulation. PMID:23300704

  7. Ecological Applications, 16(6), 2006, pp. 23822398 2006 by the Ecological Society of America

    E-print Network

    Rosenheim, Jay A.

    powdery mildew), and their host plant Carica papaya L. in Hawaii. First, we found that herbivorous mites words: additive effects; additivity; Calacarus flagelliseta; Carica papaya; exploitative competition

  8. LYOPHILIZATION OF BARBADOS CHERRY AND PAPAYA PULPS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. G. Marques; J. T. Freire

    In this work an investigation was carried out to analyze the freeze-drying kinetics of barbados cherry and papaya after freezing by three different techniques: directly in a freezer, by contact with liquid nitrogen N2(l) or by contact with nitrogen vapor, N2(v). To predict the lyophilization curves of barbados cherry and papaya, six empirical equations commonly applied for convective drying of

  9. Sexual genetic and simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis for molecular marker development on the all hermaphrodite papaya.

    PubMed

    Chiu, C T; Wang, C W; Chen, F C; Chin, S W; Liu, C C; Lee, M J; Chung, W C; Chien, Y W; Chang, H J; Lee, C Y

    2015-01-01

    The papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the most important economic tropical fruits in the world, and the hermaphrodite is the preferred type in field cultures. We analyzed the sexual ratio of offspring from the cultivar 'Taiwan Seed Station No. 7' (T7) by a self-cross and its cross with Taichung Sunrise (TS). Female progeny from the T7 self-crossing were not observed. This finding may be caused by a lethal gene that is linked to females. In this study, we selected 192 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) to analyze the polymorphism between T7 and TS. A total of 37 SSRs were identified for T7 and TS. In addition, 14 SSRs served as the molecular makers for identification of T7, TS and their hybrid offsprings. Thus, the results show that the genetic similarity between T7 and TS is rather high. This suggests that T7 may be a mutant of TS. Phylogenetic analysis from the SSR polymorphisms of the above parent strains and 15 F1 offspring revealed the genetic distance of the F1 offspring located between T7 and TS. The results of this study may provide an opportunity for elucidating the genetic characteristics of all hermaphrodites via identification of molecular makers. PMID:25867396

  10. Transgenic Papaya: Can We Proceed Beyond the Hawaiian Experience?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The story of the development, deregulation, and commercialization of the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) resistant transgenic SunUp and Rainbow papaya for Hawaii is quite well known at least among plant virologist and knowledgeable people in the field of papaya. Thus, the story will be only briefly r...

  11. Trees, Trees, Trees!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    In these activities, students increase their awareness and knowledge of trees through research, literature and hands-on contact. The students will adopt and identify a tree of their choice, make a rubbing of the bark, draw a picture, and research about their tree. They will also write an original piece about their tree, document how it changes throughout the year, and learn the difference between deciduous and coniferous trees.

  12. Propagation Experiments with Avocado, Mango, and Papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HAMILTON P. TRAUB; E. C. AUCHTER

    During the past year several different investigations relative to the propagation of the avocado, mango and papaya have been conducted in Florida. In this preliminary report, the results of a few of the different experiments will be described. Germination media:—Avocado seeds of Gottfried (Mex.) during the summer season, and Shooter (Mex.) during the fall season; and Apple Mango seeds during

  13. The Relationship between the Expression of Ethylene-Related Genes and Papaya Fruit Ripening Disorder Caused by Chilling Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yuan; Zhang, Lin; Rao, Shen; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Ye, Lanlan; Chen, Weixin; Li, Xueping

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is sensitive to low temperature and easy to be subjected to chilling injury, which causes fruit ripening disorder. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the expression of genes related to ethylene and fruit ripening disorder caused by chilling injury. Papaya fruits were firstly stored at 7°C and 12°C for 25 and 30 days, respectively, then treated with exogenous ethylene and followed by ripening at 25°C for 5 days. Chilling injury symptoms such as pulp water soaking were observed in fruit stored at 7°C on 20 days, whereas the coloration and softening were completely blocked after 25 days, Large differences in the changes in the expression levels of twenty two genes involved in ethylene were seen during 7°C-storage with chilling injury. Those genes with altered expression could be divided into three groups: the group of genes that were up-regulated, including ACS1/2/3, EIN2, EIN3s/EIL1, CTR1/2/3, and ERF1/3/4; the group of genes that were down-regulated, including ACO3, ETR1, CTR4, EBF2, and ERF2; and the group of genes that were un-regulated, including ACO1/2, ERS, and EBF1. The results also showed that pulp firmness had a significantly positive correlation with the expression of ACS2, ACO1, CTR1/4, EIN3a/b, and EBF1/2 in fruit without chilling injury. This positive correlation was changed to negative one in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. The coloring index displayed significantly negative correlations with the expression levels of ACS2, ACO1/2, CTR4, EIN3a/b, ERF3 in fruit without chilling injury, but these correlations were changed into the positive ones in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. All together, these results indicate that these genes may play important roles in the abnormal softening and coloration with chilling injury in papaya. PMID:25542021

  14. The relationship between the expression of ethylene-related genes and papaya fruit ripening disorder caused by chilling injury.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yuan; Zhang, Lin; Rao, Shen; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Ye, Lanlan; Chen, Weixin; Li, Xueping

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is sensitive to low temperature and easy to be subjected to chilling injury, which causes fruit ripening disorder. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the expression of genes related to ethylene and fruit ripening disorder caused by chilling injury. Papaya fruits were firstly stored at 7°C and 12°C for 25 and 30 days, respectively, then treated with exogenous ethylene and followed by ripening at 25°C for 5 days. Chilling injury symptoms such as pulp water soaking were observed in fruit stored at 7°C on 20 days, whereas the coloration and softening were completely blocked after 25 days, Large differences in the changes in the expression levels of twenty two genes involved in ethylene were seen during 7°C-storage with chilling injury. Those genes with altered expression could be divided into three groups: the group of genes that were up-regulated, including ACS1/2/3, EIN2, EIN3s/EIL1, CTR1/2/3, and ERF1/3/4; the group of genes that were down-regulated, including ACO3, ETR1, CTR4, EBF2, and ERF2; and the group of genes that were un-regulated, including ACO1/2, ERS, and EBF1. The results also showed that pulp firmness had a significantly positive correlation with the expression of ACS2, ACO1, CTR1/4, EIN3a/b, and EBF1/2 in fruit without chilling injury. This positive correlation was changed to negative one in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. The coloring index displayed significantly negative correlations with the expression levels of ACS2, ACO1/2, CTR4, EIN3a/b, ERF3 in fruit without chilling injury, but these correlations were changed into the positive ones in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. All together, these results indicate that these genes may play important roles in the abnormal softening and coloration with chilling injury in papaya. PMID:25542021

  15. Ficus carica L. (Moraceae): Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Mawa, Shukranul; Husain, Khairana; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the botanical features of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), its wide variety of chemical constituents, its use in traditional medicine as remedies for many health problems, and its biological activities. The plant has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer. Phytochemical studies on the leaves and fruits of the plant have shown that they are rich in phenolics, organic acids, and volatile compounds. However, there is little information on the phytochemicals present in the stem and root. Reports on the biological activities of the plant are mainly on its crude extracts which have been proven to possess many biological activities. Some of the most interesting therapeutic effects include anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial activities. Thus, studies related to identification of the bioactive compounds and correlating them to their biological activities are very useful for further research to explore the potential of F. carica as a source of therapeutic agents. PMID:24159359

  16. A physical map of the papaya genome with integrated genetic map and genome sequence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingyi Yu; Eric Tong; Rachel L Skelton; John E Bowers; Meghan R Jones; Jan E Murray; Shaobin Hou; Peizhu Guan; Ricelle A Acob; Ming-Cheng Luo; Paul H Moore; Maqsudul Alam; Andrew H Paterson; Ray Ming

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Papaya is a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide and has primitive sex chromosomes controlling sex determination in this trioecious species. The papaya genome was recently sequenced because of its agricultural importance, unique biological features, and successful application of transgenic papaya for resistance to papaya ringspot virus. As a part of the genome sequencing project, we

  17. Environmental Regulation of Tree Biotechnology for Wood and Bioenergy: Effect of USDA and EPA Regulations on Research, Breeding, and Commercial Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven H. Strauss; Roger A. Sedjo

    Despite great hope for tree biotechnology to contribute toward improved economic and environmental sustainability of tree farms for wood, fiber, and energy products, there have to date been no releases of any genetically engineered (GE)1 forest trees. In contrast, GE varieties account for a majority of the soy and cotton crop is the USA, and fruit from GE papaya trees

  18. Carica papaya latex lipase: sn -3 stereoselectivity or short-chain selectivity? Model chiral triglycerides are removing the ambiguity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Villeneuve; M. Pina; D. Montet; J. Graille

    1995-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids are usually located at positionsn-3 in natural triglycerides, particulary in dairy fats. As a result, it is extremely difficult to differentiate betweensn-3 stereospecificity and short-chain typoselectivity in many lipases and acyltransferases that perform in this way. This ambiguity\\u000a can be removed through successive use of a chiral triglyceride with a short fatty acid in positionsn-1 and of

  19. Carica papaya Genes Regulated by Phytophthora palmivora : A Model System for Genomic Studies of Compatible Phytophthora -plant Interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brad W. Porter; Yun J. Zhu; David A. Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Plant pathogenic Phytophthora species are predicted to encode a large arsenal of ‘effector’ proteins that target and disrupt normal host cell function,\\u000a but genes regulated by effectors are difficult to distinguish from those more generally regulated by microbe associated molecular\\u000a patterns (MAMPs). To help make this distinction, expression studies of host-Phytophthora interactions can be compared to reveal patterns of gene

  20. Papaya Fruit Quality Management during the Postharvest Supply Chain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dharini Sivakumar; Marisa M. Wall

    2012-01-01

    Papayas are popular in tropical and subtropical regions and are being exported in large volumes to Europe, the U.S. and Japan. The fruit has a sweet, exotic flavor and is rich in vitamins A, C, and antioxidants. However, due to its highly perishable nature it has not emerged as a major traded fruit. Papayas are highly susceptible to qualitative and

  1. A ripening associated peroxidase from papaya having a role in defense and lignification: heterologous expression and in-silico and in-vitro experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Veda P; Dwivedi, Upendra N

    2015-01-25

    Fruit ripening associated full length cDNA of a peroxidase from papaya was cloned and heterologously expressed. The expressed peroxidase was activated by in-vitro re-folding in the presence of hemin and calcium. The purified recombinant peroxidase exhibited broad substrate affinity in the order of o-dianisidine>pyrogallol>guaiacol and was found to be a homotetramer of 155kDa with each subunit having a size of 38kDa. The basis of the distinctive preferences for various substrates was investigated through in-silico molecular modeling approaches. Thus, when the modeled papaya peroxidase-heme complex was docked with these substrates, the in-silico binding efficiency was found to be in agreement with those of wet lab results with the involvement of Arg37, Phe40, His41, Pro137, Asn138, His139, His167, and Phe239 as the common interacting residues in all the cases. However, the binding of the different substrates were found to be associated with conformational changes in the peroxidase. Thus, in the case of o-dianisidine (the most efficient substrate), the protein was folded in the most compact fashion when compared to guaiacol (the least efficient substrate). Protein function annotation analyses revealed that the papaya peroxidase may have biological roles in oxidation-reduction processes, stresses, defense responses etc. In order to further validate its role in lignifications, the papaya peroxidase was compared with a lignin biosynthetic peroxidase from Leucaena leucocephala, a tree legume. Thus, based on 3D structure superimposition and docking, both peroxidases exhibited a great extent of similarity suggesting the papaya peroxidase having a role in lignification (defense response) too. The predicted functions of papaya peroxidase in defense response and lignification were further validated experimentally using qRT-PCR analyses and measurement of oxidation of coniferyl alcohol. PMID:25447898

  2. KURSUS SINGKAT DAN PELATIHAN PEMANFAATAN PEPAYA (Carisa papaya L.) MENJADI MANISAN KERING BUAH PEPAYA DI DESA TIMUHUN, KECAMATAN BANJARANGKAN, KABUPATEN KLUNGKUNG I Made Nada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ni Nyoman Sulastri; I Putu Gede Budisanjaya; Gede Ard

    In Desa Timuhun, eventhough papaya is not primary fruit product, but usually papaya is planted among the other plants and easily to grow. Papaya has good potency to be processed to become food product. Matured papaya fruit is usually fresh served for desk fruit. On the other hand, for papaya which is not mature yet, usually used for vegetable. Papaya

  3. 77 FR 31294 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Papaya...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ...Collection; Importation of Papaya From Colombia and Ecuador AGENCY: Animal and Plant...commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador into the continental United...commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador, contact Ms. Dorothy...

  4. Carica candicans Gray (Mito), an alimentary resource from Peruvian flora.

    PubMed

    De Feo, V; De Simone, F; Arroyo, G A; Senatore, F

    1999-09-01

    In addition to some histological observations, the chemical composition of Carica candicans Gray (Caricaceae) fruit and seeds, a plant common in Peruvian nutritional habits, was determined. The fruit contains high amounts of total proteins (8.2% on dry weight basis) and carbohydrates (70.1%) and appreciable contents of vitamin C and minerals. The oil extracted from seeds is in high amount (41. 6%). The fatty acid composition, with a prevalence of oleic, palmitic, and linoleic acids, suggests a possible use of this oil in alimentation. PMID:10552704

  5. HOMOPTERAN AND MITE PESTS OF PAPAYA AND THEIR CONTROL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homopteran pests in papaya fields in Florida, include mealybugs, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, soft scales Philephedra tuberculosa Nakahara and Gill, Coccus hesperidum L. and armored scales, Aspidiotus destructor, Acutaspis sp., Hemiberlesia sp., aphids, Myzus persicae (Sul...

  6. 78 FR 48628 - Importation of Papayas From Peru

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ...production locations; field sanitation; hot water treatment; procedures for packing...fruit fly trapping, field sanitation, and hot water treatment to remove pests of concern...papayas. The limitation would ensure that the hot water dip treatment discussed later in...

  7. ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2011-05-01

    ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K). Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the ?-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  8. Plant regeneration from shoot tips and callus of papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shi-Tao Yie; S. I. Liaw

    1977-01-01

    Summary  Two methods of in vitro culture were employed to regenerate papaya plants. One involved regeneration of plants from callus\\u000a and the other, production of multiple plants from single shoot-tip explants. Callus was induced from stem sections of papaya\\u000a seedlings in a medium containing 1 mg per 1 NAA and 0.1 mg per 1 kinetin. The callus regenerated shoots and\\/or embryoids

  9. Identification of phenylpropanoids in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toru; Okiura, Aya; Saito, Keita; Kohno, Masahiro

    2014-10-15

    In this study, the phenylpropanoid composition and antioxidant activity of identified components in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves were examined. Known polyphenols rutin, isoschaftoside, isoquercetin, and chlorogenic acid were identified. Furthermore, caffeoylmalic acid (CMA) was the most abundant polyphenol and was identified for the first time. CMA exhibited antioxidant activity similar to that of vitamin C or catechin. Psoralen and bergapten were identified as known furanocoumarins, with psoralen being the most abundant. Moreover, psoralic acid glucoside (PAG) was identified for the first time. As a precursor of psoralen, PAG content was equivalent to the psoralen content in moles. Notably, the content of these compounds varied between the five fig varieties, and the furanocoumarin and PAG contents varied more than that of the polyphenols. Further investigations concerning the influence of CMA and PAG on human health are necessary to elucidate functionalities of fig leaves. PMID:25198243

  10. First report of anaphylactic reaction after fig (Ficus carica) ingestion.

    PubMed

    Dechamp, C; Bessot, J C; Pauli, G; Deviller, P

    1995-06-01

    We report an anaphylactic reaction which occurred very shortly after ingestion of a fresh fig. The IgE-dependent mechanism was demonstrated on the basis of positivity of the prick test performed with fresh fig (Ficus carica) extract. In addition, we were able to detect specific IgE to the same extract in the serum. The patient did not demonstrate sensitization to other common allergens involved in respiratory and food allergies. However, detection of specific IgE to F. benjamina indicated a sensitization to weeping fig. The CAP F. benjamina was partially inhibited by preincubation of the serum with fig extract, suggesting that these two species of Ficus share some common allergens. In this context, the assumption can be made that weeping fig was responsible for the initial sensitization in this patient. PMID:7573846

  11. 110 Plant Protection Quarterly Vol.19(3) 2004 The papaya mealybug (PM), Paracoc-

    E-print Network

    Reddy, Gadi VP

    110 Plant Protection Quarterly Vol.19(3) 2004 Summary The papaya mealybug (PM), Paracoc- cus 2002 and was causing serious damage to papaya, Plumeria spp., Hibiscus spp. and other plants. The parasitoids Anagyrus loecki, Pseudleptomastix mexicana and Acerophagous papayae totalling 46 200 individuals

  12. 212 Florida Entomologist 89(2) June 2006 CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF THE PAPAYA MEALYBUG,

    E-print Network

    Reddy, Gadi VP

    212 Florida Entomologist 89(2) June 2006 CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF THE PAPAYA MEALYBUG The papaya mealybug (PM), Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae and was causing serious damage to papaya, plume- ria, hibiscus, and other plants. The parasitoids Anagyrus loecki

  13. Optimization of osmotic dehydration of papaya followed by air-drying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabiano A. N. Fernandes; Sueli Rodrigues; Odisséia C. P. Gaspareto; Edson L. Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Papayas are a fragile fruit; characteristic that limits large-scale exportation from the producing centers to countries in temperate regions. Loss of fruit ranges from 10% to 40% and could be reduced if papayas were dried. The process of osmotic dehydration followed by air-drying was studied and modeled for papaya preservation, so it could be optimized. The developed model has been

  14. PARACOCCUS MARGINATUS WILLIAMS AND GRANARA DE WILLINK (HOMOPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE) AFFECTING PAPAYA IN PUERTO RICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus was detected January 10, 2001 infesting papaya plantings in Isabela, Puerto Rico (18°28'23 N; 66°52’18W; 145.4 meters above sea level). This insect is recognized as a pest of papaya, cassava, hibiscus, eggplant, avocado, annona, and sweetpotato. P. margina...

  15. Development of an optimised papaya pulp nectar using a combination of irradiation and mild heat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tory L. Parker; Sarah T. Esgro; Samantha A. Miller; Lauren E. Myers; Rustin A. Meister; Stoyan A. Toshkov; Nicki J. Engeseth

    2010-01-01

    Papaya does not sufficiently maintain desired fresh fruit quality when shipped long distances due to an easily bruised soft skin and a short shelf life. This leads to both a large supply of pulp from unsightly fruit that is never shipped and low sales due to blemished fruit. Unfortunately, traditional preservation methods (pasteurisation) negatively alter papaya’s fresh flavour. Thus to

  16. Protection and conservation of Caricaceae germplasm with PRSV resistant transgenic papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a devastating disease that has a detrimental impact on both commercial papaya production and Caricaceae germplasm conservation. The PRSV coat protein transgenic line 55-1 and derived progeny are resistant to PRSV and have saved the papaya industry in Hawaii. Here we ...

  17. ENGINEERING RESISTANCE AGAINST PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS BY NATIVE, CHIMERIC AND SYNTHETIC TRANSGENES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transgenic Rainbow papaya is hemizygous for the coat protein gene of a papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate from Hawaii. Rainbow shows excellent resistance to PRSV isolates in Hawaii, but is susceptible to PRSV isolates from many parts of the world. In order to obtain transgenic papaya which m...

  18. CHROMOSOMAL LOCATION AND GENE PAUCITY IN THE MALE SPECIFIC REGION ON PAPAYA Y CHROMOSOME

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex chromosomes in flowering plants evolved recently and many of them remain homomorphic, including those in papaya. We investigated the chromosomal location of papaya’s small male specific region of the hermaphrodite Y (Yh) chromosome (MSY) and its genomic features. We conducted chromosome fluoresc...

  19. Effects of Cream Containing Ficus carica L. Fruit Extract on Skin Parameters: In vivo Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Khan, H; Akhtar, N; Ali, A

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of cream containing Ficus carica L. fruit (Fig) extract on various skin parameters such as skin melanin, erythema, moisture content, trans-epidermal water loss and sebum. For this purpose, formulation with 4% concentrated extract of F. carica fruit and base without extract were developed. Base served as a control. Both base and formulation were applied to the cheeks of human volunteers for 8 weeks to investigate the effects on different skin parameters using non-invasive bioengineering instruments. Formulation decreased the skin melanin, trans-epidermal water loss and skin sebum significantly. Formulation increased the skin hydration significantly and insignificant effects on skin erythema. We concluded that a stable topical cream (w/o emulsion) containing F. carica fruit extract have effects on skin melanin, trans-epidermal loss, hydration values and sebum content and possibly could be used against for hyper pigmentation, acne, freckles and wrinkle. PMID:25593393

  20. Effects of Cream Containing Ficus carica L. Fruit Extract on Skin Parameters: In vivo Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Khan, H.; Akhtar, N.; Ali, A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of cream containing Ficus carica L. fruit (Fig) extract on various skin parameters such as skin melanin, erythema, moisture content, trans-epidermal water loss and sebum. For this purpose, formulation with 4% concentrated extract of F. carica fruit and base without extract were developed. Base served as a control. Both base and formulation were applied to the cheeks of human volunteers for 8 weeks to investigate the effects on different skin parameters using non-invasive bioengineering instruments. Formulation decreased the skin melanin, trans-epidermal water loss and skin sebum significantly. Formulation increased the skin hydration significantly and insignificant effects on skin erythema. We concluded that a stable topical cream (w/o emulsion) containing F. carica fruit extract have effects on skin melanin, trans-epidermal loss, hydration values and sebum content and possibly could be used against for hyper pigmentation, acne, freckles and wrinkle. PMID:25593393

  1. Ficus carica L. (Moraceae): an ancient source of food and health.

    PubMed

    Barolo, Melisa I; Ruiz Mostacero, Nathalie; López, Silvia N

    2014-12-01

    Since early in the man history, common fig was appreciated as food and for its medicinal properties. This review explores some aspects about the importance of Ficus carica L., an amazing and ancient source of medicines and food. Topics regarding chemistry, biological activity, ethno-pharmacological uses, and its nutritional value are discussed, as well as the potential of the species as a source of new and different chemical scaffolds. Very important in the past, appreciated in our time and extremely promising in the future, F. carica represents an interesting example of healthy foods and bioproducts. PMID:24996314

  2. Int. J. Plant Sci. 163(1):5165. 2002. 2002 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

    E-print Network

    Olson, Mark

    included Moringa oleifera Lam. and Carica papaya L. as representatives of their respective families of the four genera of Caricaceae, with two species of Moringa used as an outgroup. In the tree resulting from that the magnitude of differences between Moringa species would, in other plant groups, be used to delineate family

  3. Drying of Guava and Papaya: Impact of Different Drying Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. A. Hawlader; Conrad O. Perera; Min Tian; K. L. Yeo

    2006-01-01

    Heat pump dryers (HPD) are known as high-energy-efficiency devices with low economic cost. As it is usually a closed system, the drying media can be substituted by inert gases. In this study, the effect of nitrogen and carbon dioxide on guava and papaya were investigated. Both drying kinetics and quality of these dried fruits resulting from the two methods were

  4. Papaya Varietal Resistance to Internal Yellowing: Reducing Food Safety Risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal yellowing (IY) is a bacterial disease of ripening papaya fruit that is caused by the enteric bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae. The disease is characterized by yellow discoloration of flesh, tissue softening and a foul or rotten odor that reduces the quality of fresh fruit and value-added pr...

  5. An ultrasonic system for determining papaya physiological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Sallehuddin; Ramli, Azlin; Yunus, Mohd Amri Md

    2015-05-01

    There is an increasing need for high quality fruit. As such it is important to have a fast, accurate and reliable method for measuring and monitoring the quality of fruit from the field to the consumer. This paper presents an investigation on the use of a non-destructive ultrasonic system which can be used to measure the quality of papaya.

  6. DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF PAPAYA PROTEIN PROFILE USING PROTEOMIC TOOLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of our project is to evaluate the potential for using proteomic approaches to discover the basis for differential susceptibility of Hawaii papaya cultivars to the root rot pathogen Phytophthora palmivora. Based on previous studies showing that Kapoho was the most resistance cultivar an...

  7. 75 FR 22207 - Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ...include requirements for field sanitation, hot water treatment, and fruit fly trapping...fruit fly trapping, field sanitation, and hot water treatment be employed to remove pests...require the treatment of papayas with a hot water dip. The dip requires that...

  8. Chemical evaluation and storage stability of a beverage formulated from soybean and papaya pulp flour blends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. U. Ukwuru; A. Adama

    2003-01-01

    Flour blends [soyflour (SF): papaya pulp flour (PF) 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70, 0:100] were prepared from soybean and papaya pulp flours. The blends were fortified with vitamin C. The chemical compositions and sensory characteristics of the soybean flour (SF), papaya pulp flour (PF) and their blends were determined. Storage stabilities of the most accepted blends were determined. The SF contained

  9. Analysis on virus resistance and fruit quality for T4 generation of transgenic papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangdong Wei; Congyu Lan; Zhijing Lu; Changming Ye

    2007-01-01

    Molecular biological characterization, fruit characters, and nutrients were analyzed for T4 generation of transgenic papaya.\\u000a All transgenic papaya plants with the mutated replicase (RP) gene from papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) showed high resistance\\u000a or immunity against PRSV in the field. The RP transgene can be steadily inherited to, and expressed at RNA level, the progenies.\\u000a The growth characteristics of transgenic

  10. MATH 132 Solutions to Midterm 2 (papaya) 1.10 pts According to the poem by Ogden Nash,

    E-print Network

    Sutherland, Scott

    MATH 132 Solutions to Midterm 2 (papaya) 1.10 pts According to the poem by Ogden Nash, Big fleas to Midterm 2 (papaya) Wednesday, April 10, 2013 #12;Page 3 of 3 (Strictly speaking, to use the integral test

  11. SGI -Feature Story: Papaya Genome Sequencing Project Opens Vast Ar... http://www.sgi.com/company_info/features/2007/papaya.html 1 of 4 3/5/2008 12:31 PM

    E-print Network

    Alam, Maqsudul

    SGI - Feature Story: Papaya Genome Sequencing Project Opens Vast Ar... http://www.sgi.com/company_info/features/2007/papaya.html 1 of 4 3/5/2008 12:31 PM Features Feature Archive Related Sites SGI Altix SGI InfiniteStorage Papaya Genome Sequencing Project Opens Vast Array of Agricultural, Scientific and Culinary Opportunities

  12. Assaying for pollen drift from transgenic Rainbow to nontransgenic Kapoho papaya under commercial and experimental field conditions in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1992 papaya ringpsot virus (PRSV) was discovered in Puna district of Hawaii Island where 95% of the state of Hawaii’s papaya was being grown. By 1998 production in Puna had decreased 50% from 1998 levels. A PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya ‘Rainbow’ expressing the coat protein gene of PRSV was ...

  13. Effects of chitosan and plant extracts on growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, anthracnose levels and quality of papaya fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bautista-Baños; M. Hernández-López; E. Bosquez-Molina; C. L. Wilson

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate the in vitro fungicidal effect of chitosan and aqueous extracts of custard apple leaves, papaya leaves and papaya seeds, and the combination of chitosan and plant extracts on the development of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, which causes anthracnose on papaya. Chitosan at 2.0% and 3.0% had a fungicidal effect on C. gloeosporioides. Extracts alone

  14. Effect of pre-harvest calcium chloride applications on fruit calcium level and post-harvest anthracnose disease of papaya

    E-print Network

    Biggs, Alan R.

    -harvest anthracnose disease of papaya Babak Madani a,*, Mahmud Tengku Muda Mohamed a,**, Alan R. Biggs c , Jugah Kadir October 2013 Keywords: Papaya Anthracnose Calcium Disease incidence Disease severity a b s t r a c t Anthracnose disease of papaya, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz, can cause extensive postharvest

  15. Changes in papaya cell walls during fruit ripening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E Paull; Ken Gross; Yunxia Qiu

    1999-01-01

    The apparent molecular mass range of different extractable fractions of papaya fruit pectin and hemicellulose during fruit ripening was determined. The pectin molecular mass declined and the solubility of pectin in cyclohexane-diaminotetraacetic acid and Na2CO3 solutions increased during ripening. The molecular mass decreased and the solubility of hemicellulose in KOH increased during ripening. Water soluble uronic acid increased 6-fold during

  16. A bio-hybrid anaerobic treatment of papaya processing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, P.Y.; Chou, C.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Hybrid anaerobic treatment of papaya processing wastes is technically feasible. At 30/sup 0/C, the optimal organic loading rates for maximizing organic removal efficiency and methane production are 1.3 and 4.8 g TCOD/1/day, respectively. Elimination of post-handling and treatment of digested effluent can also be achieved. The system is more suitable for those processing plants with a waste amount of more than 3,000 metric tons per year.

  17. Increasing the shelf- life of papaya through vacuum packing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geetha Padmanaban; Kanchana Singaravelu; Susheela Thirumaran Annavi

    The main objective of this study was to increase the shelf life of fruits through vacuum packing. Papaya fruits were pretreated\\u000a with waxing, oil application, purafil packets, tissue paper wrapping given along with control and were packed in 150 gauge\\u000a thickness polyethylene film bags under vacuum and another set of these samples under without vacuum. The fruits were then\\u000a stored

  18. Genome-Wide Comparative Analyses of Microsatellites in Papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianping Wang; Cuixia Chen; Jong-Kuk Na; Qingyi Yu; Shaobin Hou; Robert E. Paull; Paul H. Moore; Maqsudul Alam; Ray Ming

    2008-01-01

    Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), are highly polymorphic and universally distributed in eukaryotes. SSRs\\u000a have been used extensively as sequence tagged markers in genetic studies. Recently, the functional and evolutionary importance\\u000a of SSRs has received considerable attention. Here we report the mining and characterization of the SSRs in papaya genome.\\u000a We analyzed SSRs from 277.4 Mb of whole genome shotgun

  19. HORTSCIENCE 48(12):15711573. 2013. Do Phytotoxic Compounds in Soils

    E-print Network

    Marler, Thomas E.

    with the armored scale Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi. Velocity of Momordica charantia Descourt. and Carica papaya L and C. papaya seedling height and dry weight were among the response variables that were increased al., 2011). We selected papaya (Carica papaya) and bitter melon (Momordica charantia) for the b

  20. Le dprissement bactrien du papayer aux Antilles franaises

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    la maladie. Mots clés additionnels : Carica papaya, Erwinia sp., étiologie, épidémiologie, tropique. SUMMARY Papaya bacterial decline in the French West Indies. Papaya decline caused by Erwinta sp. limits. Additional key words : Carica papaya, Erwinia sp., etiology, epidemiotogy, tropics. 1. INTRODUCTION Le

  1. Phenological adaptations in Ficus tikoua exhibit convergence with unrelated extra-tropical fig trees.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ting-Ting; Compton, Stephen G; Yang, Yong-Jiang; Wang, Rong; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Flowering phenology is central to the ecology and evolution of most flowering plants. In highly-specific nursery pollination systems, such as that involving fig trees (Ficus species) and fig wasps (Agaonidae), any mismatch in timing has serious consequences because the plants must balance seed production with maintenance of their pollinator populations. Most fig trees are found in tropical or subtropical habitats, but the dioecious Chinese Ficus tikoua has a more northerly distribution. We monitored how its fruiting phenology has adapted in response to a highly seasonal environment. Male trees (where fig wasps reproduce) had one to three crops annually, whereas many seed-producing female trees produced only one fig crop. The timing of release of Ceratosolen fig wasps from male figs in late May and June was synchronized with the presence of receptive figs on female trees, at a time when there were few receptive figs on male trees, thereby ensuring seed set while allowing remnant pollinator populations to persist. F. tikoua phenology has converged with those of other (unrelated) northern Ficus species, but there are differences. Unlike F. carica in Europe, all F. tikoua male figs contain male flowers, and unlike F. pumila in China, but like F. carica, it is the second annual generation of adult wasps that pollinate female figs. The phenologies of all three temperate fig trees generate annual bottlenecks in the size of pollinator populations and for female F. tikoua also a shortage of fig wasps that results in many figs failing to be pollinated. PMID:25474008

  2. Development of Flavor Descriptors for Pawpaw Fruit Puree: A Step Toward the Establishment of a Native Tree Fruit Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melani W. Duffrin; Kirk W. Pomper

    2006-01-01

    The pawpaw (Asimina triloba) is a native tree fruit with potential as a high-value niche crop for farmers in fresh-market and processing ventures. With a flavor resembling a combination of banana, mango, and pineapple, this fruit could compete with exported specialty fruits in the United States such as mango and papaya. The study objective was to develop a descriptive language

  3. SEQUENCE SIMILARITY BETWEEN THE VIRAL CP GENE AND THE TRANSGENE IN TRANSGENIC PAPAYAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) coat protein transgene present in ‘Rainbow’ and ‘SunUp’ papayas disclose high sequence similarity (>89%) to the cp gene from PRSV BR and TH. Despite this, both isolates are able to break down the resistance in ‘Rainbow’, while only the latter is able to do so in ‘Sun...

  4. A current overview of the Papaya meleira virus, an unusual plant virus.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Paolla M V; Antunes, Tathiana F S; Magaña-Álvarez, Anuar; Pérez-Brito, Daisy; Tapia-Tussell, Raúl; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Antonio A R; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2015-04-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease, which is characterized by a spontaneous exudation of fluid and aqueous latex from the papaya fruit and leaves. The latex oxidizes after atmospheric exposure, resulting in a sticky feature on the fruit from which the name of the disease originates. PMeV is an isometric virus particle with a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome of approximately 12 Kb. Unusual for a plant virus, PMeV particles are localized on and linked to the polymers present in the latex. The ability of the PMeV to inhabit such a hostile environment demonstrates an intriguing interaction of the virus with the papaya. A hypersensitivity response is triggered against PMeV infection, and there is a reduction in the proteolytic activity of papaya latex during sticky disease. In papaya leaf tissues, stress responsive proteins, mostly calreticulin and proteasome-related proteins, are up regulated and proteins related to metabolism are down-regulated. Additionally, PMeV modifies the transcription of several miRNAs involved in the modulation of genes related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Until now, no PMeV resistant papaya genotype has been identified and roguing is the only viral control strategy available. However, a single inoculation of papaya plants with PMeV dsRNA delayed the progress of viral infection. PMID:25856636

  5. On the evolution and molecular epidemiology of the potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marion F. Bateson; Rosemarie E. Lines; Peter Revill; Worawan Chaleeprom; Cuong V. Ha; Adrian J. Gibbs; James L. Dale

    2002-01-01

    The potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is found throughout the tropics and subtropics. Its P biotype is a devastating pathogen of papaya crops and its W biotype of cucurbits. PRSV-P is thought to arise by mutation from PRSV-W. However, the relative impact of mutation and movement on the structure of PRSV populations is not well characterized. To investigate this, we

  6. The phytopathology of Australian papaya dieback: a proposed role for the phytoplasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N. Guthrie; K. B. Walsh; P. T. Scott; T. S. Rasmussen

    2001-01-01

    Australian papaya dieback is a severe phytoplasma related disease of papaya in which plant apical death can be observed within 2 weeks of first visible external symptom expression, and 3 weeks of first detection of phytoplasma in host tissue. The pathological mechanisms involved in this disease, and indeed in phytoplasma diseases in general, are unclear. We have attempted to contribute

  7. Evolutionary history of the GH3 family of acyl adenylases Rachel A. Okrent Mary C. Wildermuth

    E-print Network

    Wildermuth, Mary C

    . The evolution of GH3 genes in plant species is explored using the sequenced rosids Arabidopsis, papaya, poplar Carica papaya (papaya) Mg Mimulus guttatus (monkey flower) Os Oryza sativa (rice) Accession numbers: At

  8. VITAMIN AND MINERAL CONTENT OF TROPICAL FRUIT CULTIVARS GROWN IN HAWAII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banana (Musa sp.), papaya (Carica papaya), longan (Dimocarpus longan), lychee (Litchi chinensis), and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) cultivars were harvested from different locations throughout Hawaii and analyzed for vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and mineral content. Bananas and papayas also were analy...

  9. Identification and quantification of furanocoumarins in stem bark and wood of eight Algerian varieties of Ficus carica by RP-HPLC-DAD and RP-HPLC-DAD-MS.

    PubMed

    Rouaiguia-Bouakkaz, Samia; Amira-Guebailia, Habiba; Rivière, Céline; Delaunay, Jean-Claude; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

    2013-04-01

    Furanocoumarins are the major phytoalexins of Ficus carica and are effective natural drug candidates for treatment of several types of cancer and skin disease. The objectives of this study were to analyze and quantify linear furanocoumarins, mainly psoralen and bergapten, in wood and bark of stems from eight Algerian varieties of fig and to establish the differences in the content of these metabolites in the eight local samples. Psoralen and bergapten contents in the stem bark and wood (in microg/g DW) varied respectively from 146.6 to 1110.3 and from 395.7 to 1671.8 for psoralen, and from 114.3 to 524.0 and from 144.2 to 718.6 for bergapten. This study fills a gap in our knowledge of furanocoumarin distribution in different parts of the fig tree. Psoralen and bergapten concentrations were higher in the wood than in the stem bark. Most of the dark fruited fig trees produce these two coumarins more than the green ones. PMID:23738460

  10. Phospholipid Profile of the Stomach and Duodenum of Normal Rabbits Fed with Supplements of Unripe Pawpaw (Carica papaya) and Unripe Plantain (Musa sapientum) Extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriyamremu, G. E.; Asagba, S. O.; Osagie, V. E.; Ojeaburu, S. I.; Lolodi, O.

    This study reports the effect of unripe pawpaw and/or unripe plantain extracts on the phospholipid profile of the stomach and duodenum of normal rabbits. Supplementation of chow with unripe pawpaw or plantain extract significantly reduced (p< 0.05) the weight gained by rabbits compared with the control. The total phospholipids content in the stomach and duodenum were significantly increased (p< 0.05) in the test groups compared to the control. In the stomach and duodenum, phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and sphingomyelin (SGM) were significantly increased (p< 0.05) in the test groups compared to the control. Pawpaw occasioned a decrease in the PE/PC ratio in both tissues as against an increase observed in the SGM/PC ratio. The results presented suggests that unripe pawpaw meal and unripe plantain extract alter the phospholipid profile of the stomach and duodenum in ways which may affect membrane fluidity of these tissues and would have profound effect on the gastro-duodenal mucosa and thus have implication(s) for gastric and duodenal ulcers in rabbits.

  11. Phospholipid Profile of the Stomach and Duodenum of Normal Rabbits Fed with Supplements of Unripe Pawpaw (Carica papaya) and Unripe Plantain (Musa sapientum) Extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Eriyamremu; S. O. Asagba; V. E. Osagie; S. I. Ojeaburu; O. Lolodi

    2007-01-01

    This study reports the effect of unripe pawpaw and\\/or unripe plantain extracts on the phospholipid profile of the stomach and duodenum of normal rabbits. Supplementation of chow with unripe pawpaw or plantain extract significantly reduced (p< 0.05) the weight gained by rabbits compared with the control. The total phospholipids content in the stomach and duodenum were significantly increased (p< 0.05)

  12. Experimental diabetes treated with ficus carica extract: effect on oxidative stress parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Pèrez; J. R. Canal; M. D. Torres

    2003-01-01

    .   Parameters related to oxidative stress were studied in rats divided into 4 groups: streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (n=10),\\u000a diabetic rats who received a single dose of a basic fraction of Ficus carica extract (n=14), diabetic rats who received a single dose of a chloroform fraction of the extract (n=10), and normal rats\\u000a (n=10). Compared to normal animals, the diabetic animals

  13. Ficus carica Polysaccharides Promote the Maturation and Function of Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jie; Zhang, Yue; Yang, Xiaomin; Rui, Ke; Tang, Xinyi; Ma, Jie; Chen, Jianguo; Xu, Huaxi; Lu, Liwei; Wang, Shengjun

    2014-01-01

    Various polysaccharides purified from plants are considered to be biological response modifiers and have been shown to enhance immune responses. Ficus carica L. is a Chinese traditional plant and has been widely used in Asian countries for its anti-tumor properties. Ficus carica polysaccharides (FCPS), one of the most essential and effective components in Ficus carica L., have been considered to be a beneficial immunomodulator and may be used in immunotherapy. However, the immunologic mechanism of FCPS is still unclear. Dectin-1 is a non-toll-like pattern recognition receptor, predominately expressed on dendritic cells (DCs). Activation of DCs through dectin-1 signaling can lead to the maturation of DC, thus inducing both innate and adaptive immune responses against tumor development and microbial infection. In our study, we found that FCPS could effectively stimulate DCs, partially through the dectin-1/Syk pathway, and promote their maturation, as shown by the up-regulation of CD40, CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII). FCPS also enhanced the production of cytokines by DCs, including IL-12, IFN-?, IL-6, and IL-23. Moreover, FCPS-treated DCs showed an enhanced capability to stimulate T cells and promote T cell proliferation. Altogether, these results demonstrate that FCPS are able to activate and maturate DCs, thereby up-regulating the immunostimulatory capacity of DCs, which leads to enhanced T cell responses. PMID:25026176

  14. Rickettsial Relative Associated with Papaya Bunchy Top Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Davis; Zhentu Ying; Bryan R. Brunner; Alberto Pantoja; Feiko H. Ferwerda

    1998-01-01

    .   The phylogeny of a previously unidentified, obligate laticifer-inhabiting bacterium associated with the papaya bunchy top\\u000a disease was investigated. Portions of genes corresponding to those for 16S rRNA, the flavoprotein subunit of succinate dehydrogenase\\u000a (SdhA), citrate synthase (GltA), and the 17-kDa rickettsial common antigen were isolated and sequenced from the non-cultivable\\u000a bacterium from diseased plants. Comparative sequence analyses consistently indicated

  15. Flower Face Face Face Face Flower Tree Tree Tree Tree

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    Flower Flower Flower Flower Flower Face Face Face Face Flower Flower Tree Tree Tree Tree Flower Sign Face Face Face Face Sign Sign Building Sign Water Sky Tree Building Building Building Sign Book Building Building Building Sign Bird Bird Road Tree Grass Road Road Bird Sky #12;Bird Bird Water Bird Grass

  16. The ability of Papaya ringspot virus strains overcoming the transgenic resistance of papaya conferred by the coat protein gene is not correlated with higher degrees of sequence divergence from the transgene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Savarni Tripathi; Huey-jiunn Bau; Li-fang Chen; Shyi-dong Yeh

    2004-01-01

    The coat protein (CP) gene mediated transgenic resistance is found to be the best approach for protecting papaya plants against the destructive disease caused by Papaya ringspot viruses(PRSV). In order to study the variability of PRSV and the potential threat to the CP-transgenic resistance, five virus isolates were collected from transgenic plants of papaya line 16-0-1, which carry the CP

  17. 63 FR 12383 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables; Papayas From Brazil and Costa Rica

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-03-13

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...96-046-5] Importation of Fruits and Vegetables; Papayas From Brazil...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...the importation of fruits and vegetables into the United...

  18. Tirucallane-type triterpenoids from the fruit of Ficus carica and their cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Jing, Lin; Zhang, Yang-Mei; Luo, Jian-Guang; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Nine new tirucallane-type triterpenoids, ficutirucins A-I (1-9), were isolated from the fruit of Ficus carica. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical methods. All isolates were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against three human cancer cell lines, MCF-7, HepG-2, and U2OS. Compounds 1-3, 6, 7, and 9 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities with IC50 values of 11.67-45.61?µM against one or more of the three cancer cell lines. PMID:25757495

  19. Microsatellite (GATA)n reveals sex-specific differences in Papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Parasnis; W. Ramakrishna; K. V. Chowdari; V. S. Gupta; P. K. Ranjekar

    1999-01-01

    Papaya, an economically important fruit plant, is polygamous in nature. The sex of dioecious papaya plants can be deduced\\u000a only after they attain reproductive maturity (6–8 months). Normally, 50% of the population in a field is composed of unfruitful\\u000a male plants and almost 45% of these have to be uprooted at the flowering stage. This unnecessary cultivation of unwanted males

  20. Removal and recovery of heavy metals from aqueous solution using papaya wood as a new biosorbent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asma Saeed; M. Waheed Akhter; Muhammed Iqbal

    2005-01-01

    Papaya wood was evaluated as a new biosorbent of heavy metals. On contacting 10mgl?l copper(II), cadmium(II) and zinc(II) solutions with 5gl?1 papaya wood, during shake flask contact time of 60min, the respective metal removal was noted to be 97.8, 94.9 and 66.8%. Sorption was most efficient at pH 5. Metal ion biosorption increased as the ratio of metal solution to

  1. Genomics of Papaya a Common Source of Vitamins in the Tropics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray Ming; Qingyi Yu; Andrea Blas; Cuixia Chen; Jong-Kuk Na; Paul H. Moore

    Papaya is amajor fruit crop of the tropics and is grown to a lesser extent in the subtropics. The genome is small (372 Mbp)\\u000a and has evolutionarily primitive sex chromosomes. These characters justify papaya genomics programs. In addition to whole\\u000a genome sequencing, a second major goal is to completely sequence the male specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) and

  2. What is a Tree? Tree terminology

    E-print Network

    Razak, Saquib

    1 Trees · What is a Tree? · Tree terminology · Why trees? · What is a general tree? · Implementing trees · Binary trees · Binary tree implementation · Application of Binary trees #12;2 What is a Tree? · A tree, is a finite set of nodes together with a finite set of directed edges that define parent

  3. In vitro antiviral activity of Ficus carica latex against caprine herpesvirus-1.

    PubMed

    Camero, Michele; Marinaro, Mariarosaria; Lovero, Angela; Elia, Gabriella; Losurdo, Michele; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The latex of Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) has been shown to possess antiviral properties against some human viruses. To determine the ability of F. carica latex (F-latex) to interfere with the infection of caprine herpesvirus-1 (CpHV-1) in vitro, F-latex was resuspended in culture media containing 1% ethanol and was tested for potential antiviral effects against CpHV-1. Titration of CpHV-1 in the presence or in the absence of F-latex was performed on monolayers of Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells. Simultaneous addition of F-latex and CpHV-1 to monolayers of MDBK cells resulted in a significant reduction of CpHV-1 titres 3 days post-infection and this effect was comparable to that induced by acyclovir. The study suggests that the F-latex is able to interfere with the replication of CpHV-1 in vitro on MDBK cells and future studies will determine the mechanisms responsible for the observed antiviral activity. PMID:24853920

  4. Research Article Towards Improved Reconstruction of Ancestral

    E-print Network

    dePamphilis, Claude

    of alternate solutions, and other means to evaluate these techniques, and employ the papaya (Carica papaya), as well as an early rosid ancestor. A significant result is that the papaya genome has rearranged papaya (papaya), Vitis vinifera (grapevine), and Arabidopsis thaliana, whose sequences have been

  5. Helpful Tips for Chemigation of Papaya1 Kati L White, Teresa Olczyk, Jonathan Crane, Rafael Muoz-Carpena, Tina Dispenza, and Harry

    E-print Network

    Migliaccio, Kati White

    ABE 360 Helpful Tips for Chemigation of Papaya1 Kati L White, Teresa Olczyk, Jonathan Crane, Rafael helpful tips for papaya growers interested in chemigation. Depending on the type of chemical being-off valves. #12;Helpful Tips for Chemigation of Papaya 2 Figure 1. Water source, pump, and check valve

  6. MATH 132 Solutions to Midterm 2 (papaya) 1. For each of the following sequences, determine whether it converges or diverges. If the

    E-print Network

    Sutherland, Scott

    MATH 132 Solutions to Midterm 2 (papaya) 1. For each of the following sequences, determine whether to Midterm 2 (papaya) Wednesday November 2, 2011 #12;Page 3 of 5 5.15 pts Find the volume of the solid (papaya) Wednesday November 2, 2011 #12;Page 4 of 5 Solution: (continued) So, for the series to converge

  7. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  8. VARIABILIDADE MORFOCULTURAL E GENÉTICA DE FUNGOS ASSOCIADOS À PODRIDÃO PEDUNCULAR DO MAMÃO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ÂNGELA PIMENTA PERES; RENATA SILVA-MANN

    The objective of this work was to look at the variability between isolates of the three fungal species, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium solani and Phoma caricae-papayae associated with stem-end rot in papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.) which were produced in different regions of Brazil. In one trial, comparisons were made considering morphological and cultural characteristics exhibited by the fungi grown in

  9. INFLUENCE OF COAT PROTEIN TRANSGENE COPY NUMBER ON RESISTANCE IN TRANSGENIC LINE 63-1 AGAINST PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS ISOLATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Line 63-1 is a ‘Sunset’-derived transgenic papaya expressing the coat protein (CP) gene from a mild mutant of a Hawaiian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Previous work showed that line 63-1 R1 plants exhibited a range of resistance to severe PRSV isolates from Hawaii (HA), Jamaica (JA), Thai...

  10. Production of Internal Yellowing Symptoms on Resistant and Susceptible Papaya Cultivars by Enterobacter cloacae at Varying Inoculum Concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal yellowing (IY) is a bacterial disease of ripening papaya flesh caused by Enterobacter cloacae and characterized by yellow softening tissue. IY restricts food safety of value-added products like fresh or frozen papaya cubes. The incidence of E. cloacae presumably differs in resistant (R) a...

  11. Experimental diabetes treated with ficus carica extract: effect on oxidative stress parameters.

    PubMed

    Pèrez, C; Canal, J R; Torres, M D

    2003-03-01

    Parameters related to oxidative stress were studied in rats divided into 4 groups: streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (n=10), diabetic rats who received a single dose of a basic fraction of Ficus carica extract (n=14), diabetic rats who received a single dose of a chloroform fraction of the extract (n=10), and normal rats (n=10). Compared to normal animals, the diabetic animals presented significantly higher values for erythrocyte catalase normalized to haemoglobin levels (1.5+/-0.15 vs. 0.96+/-0.18 microg/mg) and for plasma vitamin E (73.4+/-43.9 vs. 12.0+/-1.6 mg/l), monounsaturated fatty acids (0.219+/-0.118 vs. 0.067+/-0.014 mg/ml), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 0.567+/-0.293 vs. 0.175+/-0.040 mg/ml), saturated fatty acids (0.779+/-0.262 vs. 0.401+/-0.055 mg/ml), and linoleic acid (0.202+/-0.086 vs. 0.106 +/-0.014 mg/ml). Both Ficus carica fractions tended to normalize the values of the diabetic animals' fatty acids and plasma vitamin E values. On studying the ratios of vitamins E and A to PUFA (129.4+/-77.5 diabetic and 68.8+/-9.1 microg/mg normal; 37.5+/-20.8 vs. 108.0+/-43.6 microg/mg) and to C18:2 (259.9+/-65.8 vs. 161.0+/-21.3 microg/mg; 68.3+/-37.9 vs. 252.7+/-102.1 microg/mg), we found statistically significant differences as a function of diabetes, with the vitamin E/C18:2 ratio being normalized by the administration of the chloroform fraction (to 152.1+/-80.3 microg/mg) and the vitamin A/C18:2 ratio being raised relative to the untreated diabetic rats by the administration of the basic fraction (91.9+/-14.5 microg/mg). Our work confirms that antioxidant status is affected in the diabetes syndrome, and that Ficus carica extracts tend to normalize it. PMID:12682822

  12. Carbon disulfide formation in papaya under conditions of dithiocarbamate residue analysis.

    PubMed

    Abakerli, R B; Sparrapan, R; Sawaya, A C H F; Eberlin, M N; Jara, J L P; Rodrigues, N R; Fay, E F; Luiz, A J B; Galvão, T D L; Martins, D Dos S; Yamanishi, O K; Toledo, H H B

    2015-12-01

    Golden, Sunrise Solo and Tainung cultivars of papaya were found to release CS2 when submitted to experimental conditions of dithiocarbamate residue analysis. Three common analytical methods were used to quantitate CS2; one spectrophotometric method and two chromatographic methods. All three methods gave positive CS2 results for all three papaya varieties. Other endogenous compounds present in isooctane extracts of papaya fractions detected via gas chromatography (GC/ITD) using electron ionization (EI) were: carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, 2-methylthiophene, 3-methylthiophene, 2-ethylthiophene, 3-ethylthiophene, benzylisothiocyanate, benzylthiocyanate and benzonitrile. Control samples were obtained from papaya plantations cultivated in experimental areas, in which no treatment with fungicides of the dithiocarbamate group was applied. Endogenous CS2 levels were compared with true dithiocarbamate residues measured in papaya samples from the field trials following applications of the mancozeb fungicide. Three days after application, true dithiocarbamate residues, measured by the procedure with isooctane partitioning and GC-ITD, were at the average level of 2mgkg(-1). PMID:26041166

  13. Decision Trees Unpredictability Bias Improvements Decision Trees

    E-print Network

    Kjellström, Hedvig

    Decision Trees Unpredictability Bias Improvements Decision Trees #12;Decision Trees Unpredictability Bias Improvements 1 Decision Trees Using Trees Learning 2 Unpredictability Entropy Entropy for datasets Information Gain 3 Bias Bias Occam's principle Overfitting 4 Improvements #12;Decision Trees

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of four cysteine proteases from Ficus carica latex.

    PubMed

    Haesaerts, Sarah; Rodriguez Buitrago, John Alexander; Loris, Remy; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle; Azarkan, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The latex of the common fig (Ficus carica) contains a mixture of at least five cysteine proteases commonly known as ficins (EC 3.4.22.3). Four of these proteases were purified to homogeneity and crystals were obtained in a variety of conditions. The four ficin (iso)forms appear in ten different crystal forms. All diffracted to better than 2.10?Å resolution and for each form at least one crystal form diffracted to 1.60?Å resolution or higher. Ficin (iso)forms B and C share a common crystal form, suggesting close sequence and structural similarity. The latter diffracted to a resolution of 1.20?Å and belonged to space group P3?21 or P3?21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 88.9, c = 55.9?Å. PMID:25849510

  15. Evolutionary history and variation in host range of three Stagonosporopsis species causing gummy stem blight of cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jane E; Turner, Ashley N; Brewer, Marin T

    2015-05-01

    Recently diverged species may form complexes of morphologically similar, yet genetically distinct lineages that occur in overlapping geographic ranges and niches. Using a multilocus sequencing approach we discovered that gummy stem blight of cucurbits is caused by three genetically distinct species: Stagonosporopsis cucurbitacearum (syn. Didymella bryoniae), Stagonosporopsis citrulli, and Stagonosporopsis caricae, which had previously been considered only a pathogen of papaya. Experiments showed that all three species are pathogenic to cucurbits in the genera Cucurbita, Cucumis, and Citrullus, but only S. caricae is aggressive to papaya. Species tree estimates show that S. citrulli and S. cucurbitacearum are phylogenetically distinct sister species, and that S. caricae is the ancestral lineage. The time estimate for divergence of S. caricae from the ancestor of S. cucurbitacearum and S. citrulli at 72 900 YBP pre-dates domestication of papaya and Cucurbita species in the American tropics. The divergence estimate observed for S. cucurbitacearum and S. citrulli at 10 900 YBP suggests that diversification of Cucurbita species and domestication of gourds and squashes could have driven their divergence. This work highlights the use of molecular systematics and population genetics to elucidate genetic identity among previously unassociated fungi and to understand the patterns of pathogen diversification. PMID:25937065

  16. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye.

    PubMed

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-01

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450°C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8g/100mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it. PMID:25875031

  17. Molecular characterization and infectivity of Papaya leaf curl China virus infecting tomato in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Zhang; Xin-ying Ma; Ya-juan Qian; Xue-ping Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Papaya leaf curl China virus (PaLCuCNV) was previously reported as a distinct begomovirus infecting papaya in southern China.\\u000a Based on molecular diagnostic survey, 13 PaLCuCNV isolates were obtained from tomato plants showing leaf curl symptoms in\\u000a Henan and Guangxi Provinces of China. Complete nucleotide sequences of 5 representative isolates (AJ558116, AJ558117, AJ704604,\\u000a FN256260, and FN297834) were determined to be 2738–2751

  18. Contrasted genetic diversity and differentiation among Mediterranean populations of Ficus carica L.: A study using mtDNA RFLP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Khadari; C. Grout; S. Santoni; F. Kjellberg

    2005-01-01

    Patterns of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation revealed by RFLP were investigated for 63 individuals of the common fig, Ficus carica L., in 15 supposedly natural populations throughout the Mediterranean basin. Fifteen haplotypes were detected using one restriction enzyme (HindIII) and four probes (atpa, coxIII, nad3rpsl2 and rps12). Mitochondrial diversity within populations varied from monomorphic to entirely polymorphic and population differentiation

  19. Semen study of papaya workers exposed to ethylene dibromide

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, J.M.; Schrader, S.M.; Steenland, K.; Clapp, D.; Turner, T.

    1984-01-01

    A cross sectional semen and cytogenetic study was performed on male workers exposed to ethylene-dibromide (EDB) in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii. Semen analyses were conducted on 46 men in six fumigation facilities with an average length of employment of 5 years and airborne exposures to EDB ranging from 16 to 213 parts per billion. Statistically significant decreases in sperm count per ejaculate and the percentage of viable and motile sperm and increases in the proportion of specific morphological abnormalities were observed among exposed men when compared with controls. Semen volume and sperm concentration were also lower in the exposed group. No effect of exposure to EDB on sperm velocity, the overall proportion of sperm with normal morphology or YFF bodies was noted. The authors conclude that based on the decreases in sperm count, viability and motility and increases in certain types of morphological abnormalities among workers exposed to EDB, EDB may increase the risk of reproductive impairment in workers at exposure levels near the NIOSH recommended limit of 45 parts per billion and far below the current OSHA standard of 20 parts per million.

  20. Maple tree

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Derek Ramsey (None; )

    2006-09-23

    Trees give animals shade and a place to live and hide. Trees give many animals food. They also take in carbon dioxide, which animals breathe out, and replace it with oxygen, which is what animals need to breathe.

  1. Carotenoids are more bioavailable from papaya than from tomato and carrot in humans: a randomised cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Kopec, Rachel E; Villalobos-Gutierrez, Maria G; Högel, Josef; Quesada, Silvia; Esquivel, Patricia; Schwartz, Steven J; Carle, Reinhold

    2014-02-01

    Carrot, tomato and papaya represent important dietary sources of ?-carotene and lycopene. The main objective of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of carotenoids from these food sources in healthy human subjects. A total of sixteen participants were recruited for a randomised cross-over study. Test meals containing raw carrots, tomatoes and papayas were adjusted to deliver an equal amount of ?-carotene and lycopene. For the evaluation of bioavailability, TAG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions containing newly absorbed carotenoids were analysed over 9·5 h after test meal consumption. The bioavailability of ?-carotene from papayas was approximately three times higher than that from carrots and tomatoes, whereas differences in the bioavailability of ?-carotene from carrots and tomatoes were insignificant. Retinyl esters appeared in the TRL fractions at a significantly higher concentration after the consumption of the papaya test meal. Similarly, lycopene was approximately 2·6 times more bioavailable from papayas than from tomatoes. Furthermore, the bioavailability of ?-cryptoxanthin from papayas was shown to be 2·9 and 2·3 times higher than that of the other papaya carotenoids ?-carotene and lycopene, respectively. The morphology of chromoplasts and the physical deposition form of carotenoids were hypothesised to play a major role in the differences observed in the bioavailability of carotenoids from the foods investigated. Particularly, the liquid-crystalline deposition of ?-carotene and the storage of lycopene in very small crystalloids in papayas were found to be associated with their high bioavailability. In conclusion, papaya was shown to provide highly bioavailable ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin and lycopene and may represent a readily available dietary source of provitamin A for reducing the incidence of vitamin A deficiencies in many subtropical and tropical developing countries. PMID:23931131

  2. 21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...No. 9001-73-4) is a proteolytic enzyme derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya...aqueous solution of latex. The resulting enzyme preparation may be used in a liquid...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...No. 9001-73-4) is a proteolytic enzyme derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya...aqueous solution of latex. The resulting enzyme preparation may be used in a liquid...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...No. 9001-73-4) is a proteolytic enzyme derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya...aqueous solution of latex. The resulting enzyme preparation may be used in a liquid...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...No. 9001-73-4) is a proteolytic enzyme derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya...aqueous solution of latex. The resulting enzyme preparation may be used in a liquid...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...No. 9001-73-4) is a proteolytic enzyme derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya...aqueous solution of latex. The resulting enzyme preparation may be used in a liquid...

  7. Resistance of non-transgenic papaya plants to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) mediated by intron-containing hairpin dsRNAs expressed in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shen, W; Yang, G; Chen, Y; Yan, P; Tuo, D; Li, X; Zhou, P

    2014-01-01

    RNA-mediated virus resistance based on natural antiviral RNA silencing has been exploited as a powerful tool for engineering virus resistance in plants. In this study, a conserved 3'-region (positions 9839-10117, 279 nt) of the capsid protein (CP) gene of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), designated CP279, was used to generate an intron-containing hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) construct by one-step, zero-background ligation-independent cloning (OZ-LIC). The RNaseIII-deficient Escherichia coli strain M-JM109lacY was identified as the best choice for producing large quantities of specific ihpRNA-CP279. Resistance analyses and ELISA data verified that most papaya plants mechanically co-inoculated with TRIzol-extracted ihpRNA-CP279 and PRSV were resistant to PRSV, and resistance was maintained throughout the test period (>2 months post-inoculation). In contrast, a 1-2 day interval between sequential inoculation of PRSV and ihpRNA-CP279 did not result in complete protection against PRSV infection, but delayed the appearance of viral symptoms by 3 to 4 days. These findings indicate that direct mechanical inoculation of papaya plants with bacterially-expressed ihpRNA-CP279 targeting the PRSV CP gene can interfere with virus infection. This work lays a foundation for developing a non-transgenic approach to control PRSV by directly spraying plants with ihpRNA or crude bacterial extract preparations. PMID:25283861

  8. Efforts to deregulate Rainbow papaya in Japan: Molecular Characterization of Transgene and Vector Inserts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transformation plasmid-derived insert number and insert site sequence in 55-1 line papaya derivatives Rainbow and SunUp was determined as part of a larger petition to allow its import into Japan (Suzuki, et al., 2007, 2008). Three insertions were detected by Southern analysis and their correspondin...

  9. Factors affecting the anthelmintic efficacy of papaya latex in vivo: host sex and intensity of infection.

    PubMed

    Luoga, Wenceslaus; Mansur, Fadlul; Lowe, Ann; Duce, Ian R; Buttle, David J; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2015-07-01

    The development of plant-derived cysteine proteinases, such as those in papaya latex, as novel anthelmintics requires that the variables affecting efficacy be fully evaluated. Here, we conducted two experiments, the first to test for any effect of host sex and the second to determine whether the intensity of the worm burden carried by mice would influence efficacy. In both experiments, we used the standard C3H mouse reference strain in which papaya latex supernatant (PLS) consistently shows >80 % reduction in Heligmosomoides bakeri worm burdens, but to broaden the perspective, we also included for comparison mice of other strains that are known to respond more poorly to treatment with papaya latex. Our results confirmed that there is a strong genetic influence affecting efficacy of PLS in removing adult worm burdens. However, there was no effect of host sex on efficacy (C3H and NIH) and no effect of infection intensity (C3H and BALB/c). These results offer optimism that plant-derived cysteine proteinases (CPs), such as these from papaya latex, can function as effective anthelmintics, with neither host sex nor infection intensity presenting further hurdles to impede their development for future medicinal and veterinary usage. PMID:25855350

  10. The Nucleotide Sequences of the 3'-terminal Regions of Papaya Ringspot Virus Strains W and P

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hector Quemada; Brigitte L'Hostis; Dennis Gonsalves; Ilene M. Reardon; Robert Heinrikson; Ernest L. Hiebert; Leang C. Sieu; Jerry L. Slightom

    1990-01-01

    The sequences of cDNA clones encoding most of the NI b protein, the coat protein and the 3' untranslated region of papaya ringspot virus (PRV) strains W and P have been determined. The open reading frame of P strain PRV was confirmed by amino acid analysis. Nucleotide sequence comparisons of these strains show that they share a 98-2% identity in

  11. HPLC Quantitation of Major Carotenoids of Fresh and Processed Guava, Mango and Papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viktor C. Wilberg; Delia B. Rodriguez-Amaya

    1995-01-01

    The major carotenoids in 52 samples of guava, mango, papaya and some of their processed products were quantitated by HPLC, using both external standardisation and standard addition calibration techniques. The results, submitted to theFandttests, demonstrated that the precision and the means obtained by the two calibration procedures were not significantly different. The concentrations of ?-carotene and lycopene in guava, ?-carotene

  12. Complete Nucleotide Sequence and Genetic Organization of Papaya Ringspot Virus RNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shyi-Dong Yeh; Fuh-Jyh Jan; Chu-Hui Chiang; Tzyy-Jye Doong; Ming-Cheng Chen; Pei-Hua Chung; Huey-Jimm Bau

    1992-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the RNA genome of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was determined from four overlapping cDNA clones and by direct sequenc- ing of viral RNA. The genomic RNA is 10326 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(A) tract, and contains one large open reading frame that starts at nucleotide positions 86 to 88 and ends at positions 10118

  13. Semen quality in papaya workers with long term exposure to ethylene dibromide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J M Ratcliffe; S M Schrader; K Steenland; D E Clapp; T Turner; R W Hornung

    1987-01-01

    To examine whether long term occupational exposure to ethylene dibromide (EDB) affects semen quality a cross sectional study of semen quality was conducted among 46 men employed in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii, with an average duration of exposure of five years and a geometric mean breathing zone exposure to airborne EDB of 88 ppb (eight hour time weighted

  14. Molecular and Clinical Effects of Green Tea and Fermented Papaya Preparation on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-14

    Assess the Effect of Green Tea on Diabetes; Assess the Effect of Fermented Papaya Pretration on Diabetes; Effects of Green Tea and FPP on C-reactive Proteins; Effects of Green Tea and FPP of Lipid Profiles in Diabetes; Effect of Green Tea and FPP on Atheroma Formation

  15. A highly reliable sex diagnostic PCR assay for mass screening of papaya seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Parasnis; V. S. Gupta; S. A. Tamhankar; P. K. Ranjekar

    2000-01-01

    Female plants of several dioecious angiosperms are commercially valued for production of fruits or seeds, viz. papaya, nutmeg, pistachio, kiwi fruit and jojoba. To make the cultivation profitable it is necessary to grow more female than male plants. To discriminate between male and female plants, sex-specific molecular markers have been identified in a few dioecious species such as Silene and

  16. 62 FR 50260 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables; Papayas From Brazil and Costa Rica

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-09-25

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR...96-046-2] Importation of Fruits and Vegetables; Papayas From Brazil and...AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA...certain previously prohibited fruits and vegetables to be imported into...

  17. Autosomal Degeneration as the Process for the Evolution of a Primitive Y Chromosome in Papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant sex chromosomes, in contrast to those in animals, evolved recently and only a few are heteromorphic. Genomic analyses of the homomorphic sex chromosomes of papaya show features of the early stages of sex chromosome evolution. Sequence analysis of 20% of the male specific region (MSY) shows tha...

  18. Engineered Antibody Fragments for Immunodiagnosis of Papaya ringspot virus.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Yogita; Verma, H N; Jain, R K; Mandal, Bikash

    2015-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to clone and express the genes encoding antibody to the recombinant coat protein (rCP) of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and to assess the engineered antibody for the detection of PRSV. A 33-kDa rCP of PRSV, which was produced in Escherichia coli, generated PRSV specific antibody in immunized mouse. The heavy and light chain variable domain genes (VH and VL) of 351 and 360 nucleotides, respectively, were cloned from the mRNA isolated from the spleen of the immunized mouse with rCP of PRSV. The VH and VL belong to the family IgG1 and kappa chain, respectively, and contained the framework regions and complementarity determining regions. The VH and VL genes were individually used to develop the expression constructs in pET28a (+) vector and 14-kDa proteins were obtained in E. coli. The amount of purified VH and VL proteins was 3-4 mg/l of bacterial culture. Both the antibody fragments recognized PRSV in the crude sap; however, the VL antibody fragment showed higher affinity to PRSV. The mixture of VH and VL detected PRSV as effectively as polyclonal antibody. The recombinant antibody fragments mixture detected PRSV in the field samples with 100 % accuracy in dot immunobinding assay (DIBA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitivity of the detection of PRSV using antibody fragments was 1.0 and 10.0 ng in DIBA and ELISA, respectively. The results showed successful isolation of functional single-domain antibody encoding genes to PRSV directly from the immunized spleen cells of mouse. This study for the first time demonstrates application of bacterial expressed recombinant antibody fragments in immunodiagnosis of PRSV. PMID:25854961

  19. Detection of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting the cucurbit weed Cucumis melo var. dudaim in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting Cucumis melo var. dudaim, a cucurbit weed, in Florida. It provides an overview of this virus reservoir for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

  20. 76 FR 49725 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia into the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ...designated phytosanitary measures will be sufficient to mitigate the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh papaya fruit from Malaysia. DATES: Effective Date: August 11, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

  1. ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense’ is the phytoplasma associated with Australian grapevine yellows, papaya dieback and Phormium yellow leaf diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lia W. Liefting; Anna C. Padovan; Karen S. Gibb; Ross E. Beever; Mark T. Andersen; Richard D. Newcomb; David L. Beck; Richard L. S. Forster

    1998-01-01

    Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA genes and the 16S\\/23S spacer regions of the phytoplasmas associated with Australian grapevine yellows, papaya dieback and Phormium yellow leaf diseases revealed minimal nucleotide differences between them resulting in the formation of a monophyletic group. Therefore, along with Australian grapevine yellows, the phytoplasmas associated with Phormium yellow leaf and papaya dieback

  2. INCREASING TREE FAMILIES Michael Drmota

    E-print Network

    Drmota, Michael

    INCREASING TREE FAMILIES Michael Drmota Inst. of Discrete Mathematics and Geometry Vienna · Recursive Trees · Plane Oriented Trees · General Increasing Trees · Degree Distribution · Conclusion #12;Recursive Trees #12;Recursive Trees #12;Recursive Trees #12;Recursive Trees #12;Recursive Trees #12

  3. Multiscale hierarchical assembly strategy and mechanical prowess in conch shells (Busycon carica).

    PubMed

    Li, Haoze; Xu, Zhi-Hui; Li, Xiaodong

    2013-12-01

    Seashells are natural body armors with superior mechanical strength and ultra-high toughness compared with their major constituent counterparts. What building blocks and architecture render seashells such mechanical prowess? In this study, micro/nanoscale structural and mechanical characterization of conch shells (Busycon carica) has been carried out. Here we show direct evidence that the previously claimed single-crystal third-order lamellae--the basic building blocks in conch shells are essentially assembled with aragonite nanoparticles of the size ranging from 20 to 45 nm. The nanoparticle-constructed third-order lamellae are not brittle, but ductile. The three-order crossed-lamellar architecture interlocks cracks via crack deflection along the interfaces in a three-dimensional manner, thus confining the damage in a small region. The findings advance the understanding of the mystery of conch shell's mechanical robustness, provide additional design guidelines for developing bioinspired nanomaterials, and lay a constitutive foundation for modeling the deformation behavior of seashells. PMID:24184467

  4. Wound-healing activity of a proteolytic fraction from Carica candamarcensis on experimentally induced burn.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Flávia S L; Spínola, Cássia de V; Ribeiro, Henrique A; Lopes, Miriam T P; Cassali, Geovanni D; Salas, Carlos E

    2010-03-01

    Carica candamarcensis is a species from the Caricaceae family whose immature fruit contains latex with large amounts of cysteine proteinases. In prior studies, we isolated two of these enzymes displaying mitogenic activity when incubated with L929 fibroblastic cells. One of the fractions containing these enzymes (P1G10) was shown to enhance wound healing of skin and to accelerate healing of chemically induced gastric ulcer. In this study we evaluate the effect of P1G10 on heat-induced, third-degree burn using a rodent model. The results show that 0.1% P1G10 accelerates epithelisation while the effect of 1% or 0.01% P1G10 is not significantly different to 1% silver sulphadiazine, 2% papain or the hydrosoluble vehicle used as control. In a double-blind randomised experiment comparing the healing response of 0.1%, 1% and the vehicle alone, we confirmed the enhanced healing property of P1G10. Histological analysis of burn-tissue sections following treatment with P1G10 support these observations. These results extend the healing properties of these groups of enzymes to a different type of trauma and open the way to future clinical applications. PMID:19577373

  5. Color and antioxidant characteristics of some fresh fig (Ficus carica L.) genotypes from northeastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ercisli, Sezai; Tosun, Murat; Karlidag, Huseyin; Dzubur, Ahmed; Hadziabulic, Semina; Aliman, Yasmina

    2012-09-01

    Fruit skin color, total phenolics, total anthocyanins, soluble solids content, titratable acidity and total antioxidant capacity in fresh fruits of a number of local and well-known fig (Ficus carica L.) genotypes and cultivars grown in northeastern Turkey were determined. TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) assays were used to determine total antioxidant capacity. Fruit skin color of genotypes were found to be very diverse, i.e., light green, light purple, purple, dark purple and black. The content of total phenolics, soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity greatly varied in the range from 24 to 237 mg of gallic acid equivalent per 100 g fresh weight, 18.60 to 26.30 % and 0.16 to 0.47 % in local genotypes and studied cultivars. In general, total antioxidant capacities determined by two methods expressed higher values in the local fig genotypes compared with the cultivars. The results suggested that genotype is the main factor that determines difference in the composition of bioactive compounds in figs and provide information on putative health benefits locally grown genotypes. PMID:22618081

  6. In vitro cytotoxic and antiviral activities of Ficus carica latex extracts.

    PubMed

    Lazreg Aref, Houda; Gaaliche, Badii; Fekih, Abdelwaheb; Mars, Massoud; Aouni, Mahjoub; Pierre Chaumon, Jean; Said, Khaled

    2011-02-01

    The latex of fig fruit (Ficus carica) is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of skin infections such as warts and also diseases of possible viral origin. Five extracts (methanolic, hexanic, ethyl acetate, hexane-ethyl acetate (v/v) and chloroformic) of this species were investigated in vitro for their antiviral potential activity against herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1), echovirus type 11 (ECV-11) and adenovirus (ADV). To evaluate the capacity of the extracts to inhibit the replication of viruses, the following assays were performed: adsorption and penetration, intracellular inhibition and virucidal activity. Observation of cytopathic effects was used to determine the antiviral action. The hexanic and hexane-ethyl acetate (v/v) extracts inhibited multiplication of viruses by tested techniques at concentrations of 78 µg mL(-1). These two extracts were possible candidates as herbal medicines for herpes virus, echovirus and adenovirus infectious diseases. All extracts had no cytotoxic effect on Vero cells at all tested concentrations. PMID:21294043

  7. ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR Population Dynamics and Within-Plant Distribution of the Mite

    E-print Network

    Rosenheim, Jay A.

    flagelliseta (Acari: Eriophyidae) on Papaya in Hawaii VALERIE FOURNIER,1, 2, 3, 4 , JAY A. ROSENHEIM,1 JACQUES & Barbosa on papaya, Papaya carica L. (Caricaceae), in Hawaii to quantify 1) patterns of seasonal abundance, 2) its distribution across different vertical strata of the papaya canopy, and 3) shifts in its use

  8. 236 Plant Disease / Vol. 94 No. 2 Evaluation of Onion Cultivars for Resistance to Enterobacter cloacae in Storage

    E-print Network

    Schroeder, Brenda K.

    ,17), corn (Zea mays L.) (25), apple (Malus domestica) (26), papaya (Carica papaya) (19), coconut (Cocos of papaya, ginger, macadamia nut, and onion (2,18­20). These high-value crops appear to be infected by E bulb decay (11). In papaya crops, E. cloacae has been isolated from fruit flies (19). The mecha- nism

  9. Preliminary studies on the postharvest physiology and storage of babaco fruit (Carica × heilbornii Badillo nm. pentagona (Heilborn) Badillo)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Harman

    1983-01-01

    The babaco is a subtropical plant of the papaya family, indigenous to the mountainous regions of Ecuador. The fruit were found to be climacteric|respiration and ethylene production increase as the fruit ripen and the colour changes from green to yellow. Fruit are chilling-sensitive below 3°C. Chilling injury is charact'erised by dark, sunken areas of skin, abnormal ripening, and increased susceptibility

  10. Tree Amigos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Environmental Study, Grand Rapids, MI.

    Tree Amigos is a special cross-cultural program that uses trees as a common bond to bring the people of the Americas together in unique partnerships to preserve and protect the shared global environment. It is a tangible program that embodies the philosophy that individuals, acting together, can make a difference. This resource book contains…

  11. Talking Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Students love outdoor activities and will love them even more when they build confidence in their tree identification and measurement skills. Through these activities, students will learn to identify the major characteristics of trees and discover how the pace--a nonstandard measuring unit--can be used to estimate not only distances but also the…

  12. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. on fresh and frozen cut mangoes and papayas.

    PubMed

    Strawn, Laura K; Danyluk, Michelle D

    2010-03-31

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella infections have been associated with consumption of a number of fruits and vegetables. Although the fate of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on many of these products is well studied, little is known about their behavior on cut mango and papaya. Mangoes and papayas have been associated with four and two documented outbreaks of salmonellosis, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fate of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on fresh (4 degrees C, 12 degrees C and 23 degrees C) and frozen (-20 degrees C) cut mangoes and papayas. Cut mangoes and papayas were spot inoculated with either a four-strain or five-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella, respectively. Inoculated samples were air dried, placed in containers and stored at 4+/-2, 12+/-2, 23+/-2 and -20+/-2 degrees C. Samples were enumerated following stomaching on nonselective and selective media at days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 (4+/-2 and 12+/-2 degrees C); 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 (23+/-2 degrees C); and 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 (-20+/-2 degrees C). Population levels (log CFU/g) of fruit were calculated. E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella have the potential to grow on temperature-abused fresh cut mangoes and papayas held at 23 degrees C. At 12 degrees C, Salmonella populations can grow on cut mangoes and papayas, however E. coli O157:H7 populations only grew on papayas. E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella survived for 28 days, at 4 degrees C, on refrigerated mangoes and papayas. E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella can survive on frozen cut mangoes and papayas for at least 180 days. Fresh and frozen cut mangoes and papayas are potential vectors for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella transmission. PMID:20022397

  13. Science News / Study Decodes Papaya Genome http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/31444/title/Study_decodes... 1 of 1 4/27/2008 7:05 PM

    E-print Network

    Alam, Maqsudul

    Science News / Study Decodes Papaya Genome http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/31444/title team of researchers has unveiled a draft of the catalog of genetic information needed to make papaya. It is the first time researchers have compiled the genome of a transgenic fruit crop -- the papaya variety had

  14. First draft of transgenic papaya genome yields many fruits http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-04/uoia-fdo041608.php 1 of 2 4/24/2008 7:01 PM

    E-print Network

    Alam, Maqsudul

    First draft of transgenic papaya genome yields many fruits http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-04/uoia-fdo041608.php 1 of 2 4/24/2008 7:01 PM The papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) interferes with the plant's ability to photosynthesize. The transgenic papaya at the center of this field (darker

  15. Transgenic Papaya Genome Sequenced http://www.genomeweb.com/issues/news/146481-1.html?type=pf 1 of 2 4/27/2008 7:12 PM

    E-print Network

    Alam, Maqsudul

    Transgenic Papaya Genome Sequenced http://www.genomeweb.com/issues/news/146481-1.html?type=pf 1 of 2 4/27/2008 7:12 PM Transgenic Papaya Genome Sequenced April 23, 2008 By a GenomeWeb staff reporter, an international team of researchers report sequencing the first papaya genome. The sequence -- generated from

  16. Papaya genome project bears fruit : Nature News http://www.nature.com/news/2008/080423/full/news.2008.772.html 1 of 2 4/24/2008 7:05 PM

    E-print Network

    Alam, Maqsudul

    Papaya genome project bears fruit : Nature News http://www.nature.com/news/2008/080423/full/news.2008.772.html 1 of 2 4/24/2008 7:05 PM Punchstock Papaya: Hawaii's 5th largest crop. Published online 23 April 2008 | Nature | doi:10.1038/news.2008.772 News Papaya genome project bears fruit Hawaiian

  17. Effect of the potassium permanganate during papaya fruit ripening: Ethylene production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, S. F.; Filho, M. B.; da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Aroucha, E. M. M.; Silva, R. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The effect of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on the ripening process of papaya fruits by monitoring the ethylene emission rates is reported. The ethylene emission was monitored by a photoacoustic spectrometer. Two experimental conditions were applied, being one of them just putting the fruit alone inside the sampling chamber and the second, modifying the atmosphere by the presence of KMnO4. The use of the ethylene absorber reduces the autocatalytic process of ethylene during papaya fruit ripening. For 20 g of KMnO4 the maximal intensity of the ethylene emission decreases by a factor two. Using the same amount of KMnO4, a reduction of about 2.2% in the concentration of ethylene for a mixture of 1ppmv of ethylene in synthetic air was observed.

  18. Genomics of helper component proteinase reveals effective strategy for papaya ringspot virus resistance.

    PubMed

    Mangrauthia, Satendra K; Singh, Priyanka; Praveen, Shelly

    2010-01-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) causes severe economic losses in both cucurbits and papaya throughout the tropics and subtropics. Development of PRSV-resistant transgenic plants faces a major hurdle in achieving resistance against geographically distinct isolates. One of the major reasons of failing to achieve the broad-spectrum PRSV resistance is the involvement of silencing suppressor proteins of viral origin. Here, based on sequence profile of silencing suppressor protein, HcPro, we show that PRSV-HcPro, acts as a suppressor of RNA silencing through micro RNA binding in a dose- dependent manner. In planta expression of PRSV-HcPro affects developmental biology of plants, suggesting the interference of suppressor protein in micro RNA-directed regulatory pathways of plants. Besides facilitating the establishment of PRSV, it showed strong positive synergism with other heterologous viruses as well. This study provides a strategy to develop effective and stable PRSV-resistant transgenic plants. PMID:19672730

  19. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus Carica L. (Caricaceae) based on restriction fragment length variation in a cpDNA intergenic spacer region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phylogenetic relationships among twelve wild and cultivated species of Carica (Caricaceae) were analyzed using restriction fragment length variation in a 3.2-kb PCR amplified intergenic spacer region of the chloroplast DNA. A total of 138 fragments representing 137 restriction sites accounting f...

  20. Development and Validation of a Multiplex Reverse Transcription PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Three Papaya Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yang, Yong; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce similar symptoms in papaya. Each threatens commercial production of papaya on Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay was developed to detect simultaneously these three viruses by screening combinations of mixed primer pairs and optimizing the multiplex RT-PCR reaction conditions. A mixture of three specific primer pairs was used to amplify three distinct fragments of 613 bp from the P3 gene of PRSV, 355 bp from the CP gene of PLDMV, and 205 bp from the CP gene of PapMV, demonstrating the assay’s specificity. The sensitivity of the multiplex RT-PCR was evaluated by showing plasmids containing each of the viral target genes with 1.44 × 103, 1.79 × 103, and 1.91 × 102 copies for the three viruses could be detected successfully. The multiplex RT-PCR was applied successfully for detection of three viruses from 341 field samples collected from 18 counties of Hainan Island, China. Rates of single infections were 186/341 (54.5%), 93/341 (27.3%), and 3/341 (0.9%), for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively; 59/341 (17.3%) of the samples were co-infected with PRSV and PLDMV, which is the first time being reported in Hainan Island. This multiplex RT-PCR assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method for detecting multiple viruses in papaya and can be used for routine molecular diagnosis and epidemiological studies in papaya. PMID:25337891

  1. Development and validation of a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay for simultaneous detection of three papaya viruses.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yang, Yong; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2014-10-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce similar symptoms in papaya. Each threatens commercial production of papaya on Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay was developed to detect simultaneously these three viruses by screening combinations of mixed primer pairs and optimizing the multiplex RT-PCR reaction conditions. A mixture of three specific primer pairs was used to amplify three distinct fragments of 613 bp from the P3 gene of PRSV, 355 bp from the CP gene of PLDMV, and 205 bp from the CP gene of PapMV, demonstrating the assay's specificity. The sensitivity of the multiplex RT-PCR was evaluated by showing plasmids containing each of the viral target genes with 1.44 × 103, 1.79 × 103, and 1.91 × 102 copies for the three viruses could be detected successfully. The multiplex RT-PCR was applied successfully for detection of three viruses from 341 field samples collected from 18 counties of Hainan Island, China. Rates of single infections were 186/341 (54.5%), 93/341 (27.3%), and 3/341 (0.9%), for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively; 59/341 (17.3%) of the samples were co-infected with PRSV and PLDMV, which is the first time being reported in Hainan Island. This multiplex RT-PCR assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method for detecting multiple viruses in papaya and can be used for routine molecular diagnosis and epidemiological studies in papaya. PMID:25337891

  2. Ficus carica latex prevents invasion through induction of let-7d expression in GBM cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tezcan, Gulcin; Tunca, Berrin; Bekar, Ahmet; Yalcin, Murat; Sahin, Saliha; Budak, Ferah; Cecener, Gulsah; Egeli, Unal; Demir, Cevdet; Guvenc, Gokcen; Yilmaz, Gozde; Erkan, Leman Gizem; Malyer, Hulusi; Taskapilioglu, Mevlut Ozgur; Evrensel, Turkkan; Bilir, Ayhan

    2015-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the deadliest human malignancies. A cure for GBM remains elusive, and the overall survival time is less than 1 year. Thus, the development of more efficient therapeutic approaches for the treatment of these patients is required. Induction of tumor cell death by certain phytochemicals derived from medicinal herbs and dietary plants has become a new frontier for cancer therapy research. Although the cancer suppressive effect of Ficus carica (fig) latex (FCL) has been determined in a few cancer types, the effect of this latex on GBM tumors has not been investigated. Therefore, in the current study, the anti-proliferative activity of FCL and the effect of the FCL-temozolomide (TMZ) combination were tested in the T98G, U-138 MG, and U-87 MG GBM cell lines using the WST-1 assay. The mechanism of cell death was analyzed using Annexin-V/FITC and TUNEL assays, and the effect of FCL on invasion was tested using the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. To determine the effect of FCL on GBM progression, the expression levels of 40 GBM associated miRNAs were analyzed in T98G cells using RT-qPCR. According to the obtained data, FCL causes cell death in GBM cells with different responses to TMZ, and this effect is synergistically increased in combination with TMZ. In addition, the current study is the first to demonstrate the effect of FCL on modulation of let-7d expression, which may be an important underlying mechanism of the anti-invasive effect of this extract. PMID:25212824

  3. Divergence and conservation of the genomic RNAs of Taiwan and Hawaii strains of papaya ringspot potyvirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-H. Wang; S.-D. Yeh

    1997-01-01

    Summary.   The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of a Taiwan isolate of papaya ringspot potyvirus (PRSV YK) was determined\\u000a from three overlapping cDNA clones and by direct RNA sequencing. Comparison was made with the reported Hawaii isolate of PRSV\\u000a HA. Both genomes are 10?326 nucleotides long, excluding the poly(A)-tail. They encode a polyprotein of 3?344 amino acids with\\u000a a

  4. Oxidation of thiols and ascorbic acid in the latex of papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. V. Ganapathy; B. N. Sastri

    1939-01-01

    Conclusions and Summary  The presence in the latex, and more especially in the pulp of the papaya fruit, of a system responsible for maintaining the\\u000a thiol compounds in the reduced condition is clearly established. Its thermolabile character is indicated by the observation\\u000a that a preliminary heating of the latex dispersed in buffer or the press-juice from the pulp to a temperature

  5. Recovering polyploid papaya in vitro regenerants as screened by flow cytometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wellington Ronildo Clarindo; Carlos Roberto de Carvalho; Fernanda Santos Araújo; Isabella Santiago de Abreu; Wagner Campos Otoni

    2008-01-01

    Several protocols have been proposed for in vitro propagation of papaya, either based on somatic embryogenesis or shoot organogenesis.\\u000a It is well-known that tissue culture-based approaches are frequently associated with somaclonal variation. Whether on the\\u000a one hand this phenomenon can preclude further stages of in vitro culture, on the other hand it can generate useful genetic\\u000a variability for crop improvement. However, somaclonal

  6. Quality Attributes of Fruit Bar Made from Papaya and Tomato by Incorporating Hydrocolloids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ahmad; A. K. Vashney; P. K. Srivasta

    2005-01-01

    Fruit bar was prepared from blend of ripe papaya and tomato pulps (variety, Red Lady and C.V. Naveen, respectively) in the ratio 75:25 on weight basis. Effects of hydrocolloids viz. pectin (P), starch (S), and ethyl cellulose (EC) and its three different levels on physico-chemical, sensory, and textural characteristics were investigated. It was found that seven different samples of fruit

  7. Accumulation and long-term decline of radiocaesium contamination in tropical fruit trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjos, R. M.; Mosquera, B.; Carvalho, C.; Sanches, N.; Bastos, J.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Macario, K.

    2007-09-01

    The accumulation of 137Cs, 40K and NH 4+ in several organs of tropical plants species were studied through measurements of its concentrations from mango, avocado, guava, papaya, banana and chili pepper trees. Our goal was to infer their differences in the uptake and translocation of such ions to the aboveground plant parts and to establish the suitability of using radiocaesium as a tracer for the plant uptake of nutrients. The results indicate Cs + is better tracer for K + as it is for NH 4+.

  8. Fungal Presence in Selected Tree Nuts and Dried Fruits.

    PubMed

    Tournas, V H; Niazi, N S; Kohn, J S

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-four tree nut samples (almonds, pecans, pine nuts, and walnuts) and 50 dried fruit samples (apricots, cranberries, papaya, pineapple, and raisins) were purchased from local supermarkets and analyzed for fungal contamination using conventional culture as well as molecular methods. The results of our study showed that the highest yeast and mold (YM) counts (5.34 log10 CFU g(-1)) were found in walnuts and the lowest in pecans. The most common mold in nuts was Aspergillus niger, relatively low numbers of A. flavus were found across the board, while Penicillium spp. were very common in pine nuts and walnuts. Low levels (2.00-2.84 log10 CFU g(-1)) of yeasts were recovered from only two pine nut samples. Fungal contamination in dried fruits was minimal (ranging from <2.00 to 3.86 log10 CFU g(-1)). The highest fungal levels were present in raisins. All papaya samples and the majority of cranberry, pineapple, and apricot samples were free of live fungi. The most common mold in dried fruits was A. niger followed by Penicillium spp. One apricot sample also contained low levels (2.00 log10 CFU g(-1)) of yeasts. PMID:26056470

  9. Fungal Presence in Selected Tree Nuts and Dried Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Tournas, VH; Niazi, NS; Kohn, JS

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-four tree nut samples (almonds, pecans, pine nuts, and walnuts) and 50 dried fruit samples (apricots, cranberries, papaya, pineapple, and raisins) were purchased from local supermarkets and analyzed for fungal contamination using conventional culture as well as molecular methods. The results of our study showed that the highest yeast and mold (YM) counts (5.34 log10 CFU g?1) were found in walnuts and the lowest in pecans. The most common mold in nuts was Aspergillus niger, relatively low numbers of A. flavus were found across the board, while Penicillium spp. were very common in pine nuts and walnuts. Low levels (2.00–2.84 log10 CFU g?1) of yeasts were recovered from only two pine nut samples. Fungal contamination in dried fruits was minimal (ranging from <2.00 to 3.86 log10 CFU g?1). The highest fungal levels were present in raisins. All papaya samples and the majority of cranberry, pineapple, and apricot samples were free of live fungi. The most common mold in dried fruits was A. niger followed by Penicillium spp. One apricot sample also contained low levels (2.00 log10 CFU g?1) of yeasts. PMID:26056470

  10. Host genetic influences on the anthelmintic efficacy of papaya-derived cysteine proteinases in mice.

    PubMed

    Luoga, Wenceslaus; Mansur, Fadlul; Stepek, Gillian; Lowe, Ann; Duce, Ian R; Buttle, David J; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2015-06-01

    Eight strains of mice, of contrasting genotypes, infected with Heligmosomoides bakeri were studied to determine whether the anthelmintic efficacy of papaya latex varied between inbred mouse strains and therefore whether there is an underlying genetic influence on the effectiveness of removing the intestinal nematode. Infected mice were treated with 330 nmol of crude papaya latex or with 240 nmol of papaya latex supernatant (PLS). Wide variation of response between different mouse strains was detected. Treatment was most effective in C3H (90·5-99·3% reduction in worm counts) and least effective in CD1 and BALB/c strains (36·0 and 40·5%, respectively). Cimetidine treatment did not improve anthelmintic efficacy of PLS in a poor drug responder mouse strain. Trypsin activity, pH and PLS activity did not differ significantly along the length of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract between poor (BALB/c) and high (C3H) drug responder mouse strains. Our data indicate that there is a genetic component explaining between-mouse variation in the efficacy of a standard dose of PLS in removing worms, and therefore warrant some caution in developing this therapy for wider scale use in the livestock industry, and even in human medicine. PMID:25736575

  11. Supercritical fluid chromatography with photodiode array detection for pesticide analysis in papaya and avocado samples.

    PubMed

    Pano-Farias, Norma S; Ceballos-Magaña, Silvia G; Gonzalez, Jorge; Jurado, José M; Muñiz-Valencia, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    To improve the analysis of pesticides in complex food matrices with economic importance, alternative chromatographic techniques, such as supercritical fluid chromatography, can be used. Supercritical fluid chromatography has barely been applied for pesticide analysis in food matrices. In this paper, an analytical method using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to a photodiode array detection has been established for the first time for the quantification of pesticides in papaya and avocado. The extraction of methyl parathion, atrazine, ametryn, carbofuran, and carbaryl was performed through the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe methodology. The method was validated using papaya and avocado samples. For papaya, the correlation coefficient values were higher than 0.99; limits of detection and quantification ranged from 130-380 and 220-640 ?g/kg, respectively; recovery values ranged from 72.8-94.6%; precision was lower than 3%. For avocado, limit of detection values were ?450 ?g/kg; precision was lower than 11%; recoveries ranged from 50.0-94.2%. Method feasibility was tested for lime, banana, mango, and melon samples. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method is applicable to methyl parathion, atrazine, ametryn, and carbaryl, toxics pesticides used worldwide. The methodology presented in this work could be applicable to other fruits. PMID:25641906

  12. Methanolic Extract of Ficus carica Linn. Leaves Exerts Antiangiogenesis Effects Based on the Rat Air Pouch Model of Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Eteraf-Oskouei, Tahereh; Allahyari, Saeideh; Akbarzadeh-Atashkhosrow, Arezu; Delazar, Abbas; Pashaii, Mahdiyeh; Gan, Siew Hua; Najafi, Moslem

    2015-01-01

    The antiangiogenesis effect of Ficus carica leaves extract in an air pouch model of inflammation was investigated in rat. Inflammation was induced by injection of carrageenan into pouches. After antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) investigations, the extract was administered at 5, 25, and 50?mg/pouch, and then the volume of exudates, the cell number, TNF?, PGE2, and VEGF levels were measured. Angiogenesis of granulation tissues was determined by measuring hemoglobin content. Based on the DPPH assay, the extract had significant antioxidant activity with TPC of 11.70?mg GAE/100?g dry sample. In addition, leukocyte accumulation and volume of exudate were significantly inhibited by the extract. Moreover, it significantly decreased the production of TNF?, PGE2, and VEGF, while angiogenesis was significantly inhibited by all administered doses. Interestingly, attenuation of angiogenesis and inflammatory parameters (except leukocyte accumulation) by the extract was similar to that shown by diclofenac. The extract has anti-inflammatory effects and ameliorated cell influx and exudation to the site of the inflammatory response which may be related to the local inhibition of TNF?, PGE2, and VEGF levels as similarly shown by diclofenac. The antiangiogenesis and anti-VEGF effects of Ficus carica may be correlated with its significant antioxidant potentials. PMID:25977699

  13. Methanolic Extract of Ficus carica Linn. Leaves Exerts Antiangiogenesis Effects Based on the Rat Air Pouch Model of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Eteraf-Oskouei, Tahereh; Allahyari, Saeideh; Akbarzadeh-Atashkhosrow, Arezu; Delazar, Abbas; Pashaii, Mahdiyeh; Gan, Siew Hua; Najafi, Moslem

    2015-01-01

    The antiangiogenesis effect of Ficus carica leaves extract in an air pouch model of inflammation was investigated in rat. Inflammation was induced by injection of carrageenan into pouches. After antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) investigations, the extract was administered at 5, 25, and 50?mg/pouch, and then the volume of exudates, the cell number, TNF?, PGE2, and VEGF levels were measured. Angiogenesis of granulation tissues was determined by measuring hemoglobin content. Based on the DPPH assay, the extract had significant antioxidant activity with TPC of 11.70?mg GAE/100?g dry sample. In addition, leukocyte accumulation and volume of exudate were significantly inhibited by the extract. Moreover, it significantly decreased the production of TNF?, PGE2, and VEGF, while angiogenesis was significantly inhibited by all administered doses. Interestingly, attenuation of angiogenesis and inflammatory parameters (except leukocyte accumulation) by the extract was similar to that shown by diclofenac. The extract has anti-inflammatory effects and ameliorated cell influx and exudation to the site of the inflammatory response which may be related to the local inhibition of TNF?, PGE2, and VEGF levels as similarly shown by diclofenac. The antiangiogenesis and anti-VEGF effects of Ficus carica may be correlated with its significant antioxidant potentials. PMID:25977699

  14. Physicochemical, nutritional, and microbial quality of fresh-cut and frozen papaya prepared from cultivars with varying resistance to internal yellowing disease (Enterobacter cloacae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quality, nutritional, and microbial analyses were completed for fresh-cut and frozen papaya cubes prepared from cultivars with varying resistance to internal yellowing disease, caused by the bacterium Enterobacter cloacae. In general, fresh-cut and frozen papaya retained nutritional and microbial qu...

  15. Factor Trees

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Math Playground

    2009-07-29

    This virtual manipulative allows students to find the prime factorization of numbers by completing factor trees. Then they may use a venn diagram to sort the prime factors to find the greatest common factor and the least common multiple.

  16. Factor Trees

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    In this online activity, the learner finds the prime factorization of composite numbers by building factor trees. A second level includes finding the greatest common factor and the least common multiple by sorting factors using a Venn Diagram.

  17. Ephedra alte (joint pine): an invasive, problematic weedy species in forestry and fruit tree orchards in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Qasem, Jamal R

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008-2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  18. Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Qasem, Jamal R.

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  19. Community Trees Community Tree Steward Program

    E-print Network

    Koford, Rolf R.

    1 Community Trees Community Tree Steward Program ...and justice for all The U.S. Department, Iowa February, 2001 Jeff Iles Department of Horticulture Iowa State University Most tree managers realize dead trees should be removed as soon as they are detected. But living trees also can be a threat

  20. Community Trees Power Lines and Trees

    E-print Network

    Koford, Rolf R.

    Community Trees Power Lines and Trees Introduction Trees serve many purposes in urban and rural trees near power lines. Most high voltage lines are not insulated, and contact will result in electric areas. To assure safe and reliable electric service, trimming or removal of trees is sometimes necessary

  1. Minimizing Tree Automata for Unranked Trees

    E-print Network

    Martens, Wim

    Minimizing Tree Automata for Unranked Trees Wim Martens Joachim Niehren Minimizing Tree Automata for Unranked Trees ­ p.1/20 #12;What and Why? To study the minimization problem for deterministic automata over unranked trees. Bottom-up deterministic: theoretical interest. E.g. do results from deterministic automata

  2. Comparative evaluation of volatiles, phenolics, sugars, organic acids and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papaya varieties.

    PubMed

    Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan; Gubbuk, Hamide; Gunes, Esma

    2015-04-15

    The present study was designed to determine the phenolic compounds, organic acids, sugars, aroma profiles and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papayas grown in Turkey. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used for the phenolic compounds analysis. Twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in the samples. The total phenolic content of Sel-42 was clearly higher than that of Tainung. Protocatechuic acid-hexoside, gallic acid-deoxyhexoside, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolics in both cultivars. Aroma composition of papaya was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 46 and 42 aroma compounds, including esters, alcohols, terpenes, lactones, acids, carbonyl compounds, and volatile phenols were identified in the Sel-42 and Tainung, respectively. The significant linear correlation was confirmed between the values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of papaya extracts. PMID:25466106

  3. Supplementing lactating women with puréed papaya and grated carrots improved vitamin A status in a placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ncube, T N; Greiner, T; Malaba, L C; Gebre-Medhin, M

    2001-05-01

    Doubts have been raised about the effectiveness of carotene-containing foods in improving the vitamin A status of populations at risk. We investigated the effect of papaya and carrots on the vitamin A status of lactating women with 2- to 12-mo-old infants in ZIMBABWE: The women were randomly assigned to three supplementation groups and a placebo group, and received 6 mg of beta-carotene capsules, 650 g puréed papaya, 100 g grated carrots or a placebo, daily for 60 d. All groups were given a meal containing 10 g of vegetable oil daily. Serum retinol, relative dose response, serum ferritin, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein were measured before and after the supplementation period. Mean serum retinol increased significantly after supplementation in the beta-carotene group (P < 0.001), the papaya group (P < 0.001) and the carrot group (P < 0.001), but not in the placebo group (P > 0.05). The relative dose response decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the beta-carotene and papaya groups, but not in the carrot or placebo groups (P > 0.05). There was an increase in mean serum ferritin in all groups but the increase did not differ among groups. The hemoglobin increases in the beta-carotene and papaya groups were greater than that in the placebo group. We conclude that puréed papaya and grated carrots can improve the vitamin A and iron nutriture of lactating women. These findings reinforce the importance of plant food-based approaches in the control of vitamin A deficiency in low income countries. PMID:11340106

  4. Role of irradiation in the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles mediated by fig (Ficus carica) leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Ulug, Bulent; Haluk Turkdemir, M; Cicek, Ahmet; Mete, Ahmet

    2015-01-25

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles in an aqueous mixture of fig (Ficus carica) leaf extract and AgNO3 solution exposed to a set of irradiances at different wavelengths are studied. Nanoparticle formation for irradiances between 6.5 mW/cm(2) and 13.3 mW/cm(2) in the 330-550 nm wavelength range is investigated and the results are compared to those of the nanoparticles synthesized in the dark and under direct sunlight. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, along with particle size analysis and transmission electron microscopy are employed for the characterization of samples and extracts. Irradiance is found to have profound influence on the reduction rates. However, size and spherical shape of the nanoparticles are persistent, irrespective of irradiance and wavelength. Irradiance is discussed to influence the particle formation and aggregation rates through the formation of free radicals in the fig extract. PMID:25062061

  5. Role of irradiation in the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles mediated by fig (Ficus carica) leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulug, Bulent; Haluk Turkdemir, M.; Cicek, Ahmet; Mete, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles in an aqueous mixture of fig (Ficus carica) leaf extract and AgNO3 solution exposed to a set of irradiances at different wavelengths are studied. Nanoparticle formation for irradiances between 6.5 mW/cm2 and 13.3 mW/cm2 in the 330-550 nm wavelength range is investigated and the results are compared to those of the nanoparticles synthesized in the dark and under direct sunlight. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, along with particle size analysis and transmission electron microscopy are employed for the characterization of samples and extracts. Irradiance is found to have profound influence on the reduction rates. However, size and spherical shape of the nanoparticles are persistent, irrespective of irradiance and wavelength. Irradiance is discussed to influence the particle formation and aggregation rates through the formation of free radicals in the fig extract.

  6. Shrinking Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trevor Hastie; Daryl Pregibon

    Tree-based models provide an alternative to linear models for classification and regres- sion data. They are used primarily for exploratory analysis of complex data or as a diagnostic tool following a linear model analysis. They are also used as the end prod- uct in certain applications, such as speech recognition, medical diagnoses, and other instances where repeated fast classifications are

  7. Shade trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Cook

    1984-01-01

    Shading is an important part of computer imagery, but shaders have been based on fixed models to which all surfaces must conform. As computer imagery becomes more sophisticated, surfaces have more complex shading characteristics and thus require a less rigid shading model. This paper presents a flexible tree-structured shading model that can represent a wide range of shading characteristics. The

  8. Evaluation of General Toxicity, Anti-Oxidant Activity and Effects of Ficus Carica Leaves Extract on Ischemia/Reperfusion Injuries in Isolated Heart of Rat

    PubMed Central

    Allahyari, Saeideh; Delazar, Abbas; Najafi, Moslem

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study was aimed to evaluate general toxicity, anti-oxidant activity and effects of Ficus carica leaves extract on ischemia/reperfusion injuries. Methods: Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid compounds of 70% methanolic extract of Ficus carica leaves were measured. The general toxicity test was carried out by brine shrimp lethality assay. Isolated hearts of male rats were mounted on a Langendorff apparatus and perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit solution. In control group, the hearts were perfused with normal Krebs solution, however, treatment groups received enriched solution with the extract (0.04, 0.2 and 1 mg/ml) during stabilization and reperfusion (after 30 min global ischemia), respectively. Cardiac arrhythmias were analyzed and TTC method was used for infarct size determination. Results: The extract displayed antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay (RC50=0.06666 mg/ml). Total phenolic content was 12.29 mg GAE/100 g dry sample and the amount of flavonoids was calculated 40.729 mg/g. LD50 value by brine shrimp test was 0.158 mg/ml. The extract decreased number of VEBs, incidence and duration of Rev VF with clear reduction in infarct size and infarct volume (P<0.001). Conclusion: Ficus carica decreased ischemia/reperfusion-induced injuries. These protections are probably due to antioxidant capacity and the existence of flavonoid and phenolic compounds in the extract. PMID:25671192

  9. Fig latex (Ficus carica L. cultivar Dottato) in combination with UV irradiation decreases the viability of A375 melanoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Menichini, Giulio; Alfano, Carmine; Provenzano, Eugenio; Marrelli, Mariangela; Statti, Giancarlo A; Somma, Francesco; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

    2012-10-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers are among the most prevalent cancers in the human population. In the present work latex of Ficus carica cultivar Dottato from Italy collected from fruits and leaves was examined to assess its free radical-scavenging activity with 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and its phototoxicity on A375 human melanoma cells. The latex obtained from the fruits of Ficus carica cv. Dottato showed the best antiradical activity with an IC50 value of 0.05 mg/ml while the latex obtained from the leaves showed the best antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 1.5 ?g/ml on the human tumor cell line A375 (melanoma) after irradiation at a specific UVA dose (1.08 J/cm2). Control experiments with UVA light or drugs alone were carried out without significant cytotoxic effects. Polyphenolic content of the samples was also evaluated. This is the first study comparing F. carica latex of leaves and fruits. Plant derived natural products have long been and will continue to be an important source for anticancer drug development. PMID:22339064

  10. Tree Decline Shade trees often gradually lose

    E-print Network

    Tree Decline Shade trees often gradually lose vigor and may show off-color, small leaves, poor several years and is often re- ferred to as "tree decline," because it is a gradual loss of growth observed in the aboveground parts of the plant usually begin in the root system. Stress Factors Trees

  11. Tree Torture

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update

    2002-06-10

    The San Pedro River is one of the only free-flowing waterways in Arizona. Though it's more of a small stream than a river, it nourishes a vibrant ecosystem known as a riparian area. Full of tall trees, it serves as a major flyway for migrating birds and provides a ribbon of green in an otherwise barren landscape. In this Science Update, you'll hear about the research being done to keep the San Pedro flowing.

  12. Managing Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), Using Spinosad-Based Protein Bait Sprays in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait was evaluated as a control of female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in papaya orchards in Hawaii. Two important components of this study were field sanitation and mass trapping using the male-specific lure methyl eugenol. Three different spray ...

  13. Effects of chitosan-based coatings containing peppermint essential oil on the quality of post-harvest papaya fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible coatings comprised of antimicrobial polymers based on chitosan are promising technologies to preserve post-harvest fruit quality. In this study, we investigated the potential utility of a coating made from chitosan modified by N-acylation with fatty acid to preserve post-harvest papaya qualit...

  14. Effect of ozone pre-conditioning on quality and antioxidant capacity of papaya fruit during ambient storage.

    PubMed

    Ali, Asgar; Ong, Mei Kying; Forney, Charles F

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physico-chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of ozone-treated papaya fruit and untreated fruit. Freshly harvested papaya fruit were exposed continuously to ozone fumigation (0, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 5ppm) for 96h prior to ambient storage at 25±3°C and 70±5% relative humidity (RH) for up to 14days. The fruit exposed to 2.5ppm ozone had higher levels of total soluble solids (25.0%), ascorbic acid content (12.4%), ?-carotene content (19.6%), lycopene content (52.1%), and antioxidant activity (30.9%), and also reduced weight loss (11.5%) at day 10 compared to the control. The sensory attributes of papaya treated with 2.5ppm ozone was superior in sweetness and overall acceptability. These results support the application of ozone as a non-thermal and safe food preservation technique for papaya which can benefit both the producers and consumers. PMID:24001808

  15. VARYING GENETIC DIVERSITY OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS ISOLATES FROM TWO TIME-SEPARATED OUTBREAKS IN JAMAICA AND VENEZUELA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coat protein (CP) genes of eleven Jamaican Papaya ringspot virus type-p (PRSV) isolates that were collected in 1999 were cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of these isolates were compared to each other, with a sequence of another Jamaican isolate collected after the f...

  16. Effects of Ozone in Combination with Hydrothermal Treatment and Wax on Physical and Chemical Properties of Papayas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolina Pereira Kechinski; Cândida Raquel Sherrer Montero; Caciano Pelajo Zapata Noreña; Isabel Cristina Tessaro; Lígia Damasceno Ferreira Marczak; Renar João Bender

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of ozone in combination with hydrothermal treatment and wax on physical and chemical properties of papayas. The ozone concentrations used in this study were 2 and 4 mg\\/L. Heat treatments were applied with a hot water brushing system at temperatures of 45, 55 and 65 °C. No mold was observed under the wax film of

  17. The effect of antifungal hot-water treatments on papaya postharvest quality and activity of pectinmethylesterase and polygalacturonase.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Sánchez, Ignacio; Carrillo-López, Armando; Vega-García, Misael; Yahia, Elhadi M

    2013-02-01

    The effect of antifungal hot-water treatments (AHWT) at 55 °C for 0, 3, 6 and 9 min on quality attributes and cell-wall enzymatic activity during storage at 25 °C was investigated in papaya fruit. The total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), firmness and fresh weight loss were not affected, whereas color on skin was negatively affected by the treatments of 6- and 9-min. However, the skin color was not different between the 3-min treated fruit and the untreated fruit during the storage. Decay was delayed and reduced by AHWT. We observed that the 3-min treatment of 55 °C did not affect softening and quality of papaya cv Maradol when applied as a pesticide-free treatment at color-break stage of papaya. PME (Pectinmethylesterase) and PG (Polygalacturonase) activities were not significantly affected by AHWT. We concluded that the AHWT did not affect the softening process from papaya pulp since the cell-wall enzyme activity (PME and PG) was not altered by treatments. PMID:24425893

  18. A matrix solid-phase dispersion method for the extraction of seven pesticides from mango and papaya.

    PubMed

    Navickiene, Sandro; Aquino, Adriano; Bezerra, Débora Santos Silva

    2010-10-01

    A simple and effective extraction method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion was developed to determine trichlorfon, pyrimethanil, methyl parathion, tetraconazole, thiabendazole, imazalil, and tebuconazole in papaya and mango using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring. Different parameters of the method were evaluated, such as type of solid-phase (silica-gel, neutral alumina, and Florisil), the amount of solid-phase, and eluent [dichloromethane, ethyl acetate-dichloromethane (4:1, 1:4, 1:1, 2:3, v/v)]. The best results were obtained using 2.0 g of mango or papaya, 3.0 g of silica as dispersant sorbent, and ethyl acetate-dichloromethane (1:1, v/v) as eluting solvent. The method was validated using mango and papaya samples fortified with pesticides at different concentration levels (0.05, 0.10, and 1.0 mg/kg). Average recoveries (4 replicates) ranged from 80% to 146%, with relative standard deviations between 1.0% and 28%. Detection and quantification limits for mango and papaya ranged from 0.01 to 0.03 mg/kg and 0.05 to 0.10 mg/kg, respectively. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of these compounds in commercial fruit samples from a local market (Aracaju/SE, Brazil), and residues of the pesticides were not detected on the samples. PMID:20875237

  19. Behavioral responses of female oriental fruit flies to the odor of papayas at three ripeness stages in a laboratory flight tunnel (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric B. Jang; Douglas M. Light

    1991-01-01

    Behavioral responses of adult female oriental fruit flies, Dacus dorsalisHendel, to the odor of papayas from three ripeness classes were studied using a threechoice flight tunnel bioassay. Laboratoryreared flies were allowed to respond freely to any of three papaya odors (mature green, colorbreak to one-fourth ripe, and one-half to full ripe) emanating from identical (spherical) fruit models. Five behaviors were

  20. Tree Troubles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Topic in Depth explores some of the diseases and other threats that certain trees must contend with to remain healthy and vital. The first website (1), from the USDA Forest Service-St. Paul Field Office, contains a collection of archived publications designed to help people diagnose, control, and identify various threats to different types of trees. Examples of these publications include: How to Control Sapstreak Disease of Sugar Maple; How to Differentiate Dutch Elm Disease From Elm Phloem Necrosis; How to Identify and Manage Needlecast Diseases on Balsam Fir; and How to Manage Eastern White Pine to Minimize Damage from Blister Rust and White Pine Weevil, to name few. The second (2) site, Forest & Shade Tree Pathology, is an online textbook that was developed by Dr. James J. Worrall, a plant pathologist for the USDA Forest Service, and former professor at the College of Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of New York. Dr. Worrall's site contains information about rusts, foliage and root diseases, parasitic plants, cankers, abiotic diseases, and wilts as well as disease profiles for Swiss Needle Cast; Oak Wilt, Chestnut Blight, Armillaria Root Disease, and more. The third (3) site, Oak Wilt: A Threat to Red Oaks & White Oaks Species, was created by Dr. David L. Roberts at Michigan State University Extension. Dr. Robert's concise site contains brief sections addressing oak wilt distribution, field diagnosis, management, disease cycle, and more. The fourth (4) site, from the California Oak Mortality Task Force, contains images, publications, maps, and information about Sudden Oak Death-related research, management recommendations, nursery issues, and regulations. The final three websites come from the USDA Forest Service and contain information about different insect threats. The fifth (5) site offers information about the emerald ash borer. The sixth (6) site provides information about the gypsy moth, and the final (7) site contains information about the Asian longhorned beetle.

  1. Extrapolating Tree Transformations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed Bouajjani; Tayssir Touili

    2002-01-01

    We consider the framework of regular tree model checking where sets of configurations of a system are represented by regular tree languages and its dynamics is modeled by a term rewriting system (or a regular tree transducer). We focus on the computation of the reachability set R?(L) where R is a regular tree transducer and L is a regular tree

  2. On generalized fat trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine R. Öhring; Maximilian Ibel; Sajal K. Das; Mohan J. Kumar

    1995-01-01

    We introduce and analyze a new family of multiprocesser interconnection networks, called generalized fat trees, which include as special cases the fat trees used for the connection machine architecture CM-5, pruned butterflies, and various other fat trees proposed in the literature. The generalized fat trees provide a formal unifying concept to design and analyse a fat tree based architecture. The

  3. REVIEW & INTERPRETATION A Comparison between Crop Domestication, Classical Plant Breeding,

    E-print Network

    Gepts, Paul

    .) during domestication and by GE, the increased speed and accuracy Merr.], cotton (Gossypium spp.), papaya (Carica papaya of GE over classical plant breeding, and the higher level of knowledge L.), etc. have been­gatherers, suggesting that introduction of innovations do al., 1997: Papaya ringspotvirus (PRSV) resistance innot

  4. This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research

    E-print Network

    Migliaccio, Kati White

    to evapotranspiration and soil water sensor irrigation scheduling methods for papaya production in south Florida Kati W: Irrigation scheduling Papaya Evapotranspiration Soil water potential Plant water stress Petiole nutrient content Carica papaya a b s t r a c t An irrigation study was conducted to determine the effects

  5. American Chestnut Tree

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    KET

    2008-09-02

    This annotated slideshow adapted from KET's Electronic Field Trip to the Forest illustrates how blight decimated the American chestnut tree and the methods scientists use to identify and pollinate the remaining trees to create blight-resistant trees.

  6. Trees and Air Quality

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, students describe the positive effects that trees have on air quality and determine how to landscape a home with trees to decrease energy use. Students will draw a map of their yard or school site showing the location of trees and check a leaf of each tree for particulates. They will then make observations on several different days to determine which trees save energy and draw on their map where more trees should be planted to save energy.

  7. Protected trees A guide to tree preservation procedures

    E-print Network

    Protected trees A guide to tree preservation procedures #12;Protected trees A guide to tree trees: A guide to tree preservation procedures Introduction This leaflet is written for tree owners, their neighbours and local community groups, and answers some of the most common questions about tree preservation

  8. Essential Kurepa Trees Versus Essential Jech Kunen Trees1

    E-print Network

    Jin, Renling

    Essential Kurepa Trees Versus Essential Jech Kunen Trees1 Renling Jin2 & Saharon Shelah3 Abstract By an !1 tree we mean a tree of cardinality !1 and height !1. An !1 tree is called a Kurepa tree if all its levels are countable and it has more than !1 branches. An !1 tree is called a Jech Kunen tree if it has

  9. Tree Comparison Contest: TreeJuxtaposer

    E-print Network

    Munzner, Tamara

    Tree Comparison Contest: TreeJuxtaposer James Slack, Tamara Munzner (UBC) François Guimbretière Tasiran, Li Zhang, Yunhong Zhou, SIGGRAPH 2003 · Entry: http://www.cs.ubc.ca/~tmm/papers/contest03 · Visit our interactive poster for demonstration #12;

  10. A tree-to-tree model for statistical machine translation

    E-print Network

    Cowan, Brooke A. (Brooke Alissa), 1972-

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, we take a statistical tree-to-tree approach to solving the problem of machine translation (MT). In a statistical tree-to-tree approach, first the source-language input is parsed into a syntactic tree ...

  11. Traditional agroecosystems as conservatories and incubators of cultivated plant varietal diversity: the case of fig (Ficus carica L.) in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Traditional agroecosystems are known to host both large crop species diversity and high within crop genetic diversity. In a context of global change, this diversity may be needed to feed the world. Are these agroecosystems museums (i.e. large core collections) or cradles of diversity? We investigated this question for a clonally propagated plant, fig (Ficus carica), within its native range, in Morocco, but as far away as possible from supposed centers of domestication. Results Fig varieties were locally numerous. They were found to be mainly highly local and corresponded to clones propagated vegetatively. Nevertheless these clones were often sufficiently old to have accumulated somatic mutations for selected traits (fig skin color) and at neutral loci (microsatellite markers). Further the pattern of spatial genetic structure was similar to the pattern expected in natural population for a mutation/drift/migration model at equilibrium, with homogeneous levels of local genetic diversity throughout Moroccan traditional agroecosystems. Conclusions We conclude that traditional agroecosystems constitue active incubators of varietal diversity even for clonally propagated crop species, and even when varieties correspond to clones that are often old. As only female fig is cultivated, wild fig and cultivated fig probably constitute a single evolutionary unit within these traditional agroecosystems. Core collections, however useful, are museums and hence cannot serve the same functions as traditional agroecosystems. PMID:20167055

  12. Cytotoxic Effects of Different Extracts and Latex of Ficus carica L. on HeLa cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Khodarahmi, Ghadam Ali; Ghasemi, Nasrollah; Hassanzadeh, Farshid; Safaie, Marzieh

    2011-01-01

    It has been reported that latex and extracts of different species of Ficus are cytotoxic to some human cancerous cell lines. In this study, cytotoxicity of fruit and leaf extracts as well as the latex of Ficuscarica L. on HeLa cell line were evaluated. ethanolic extracts of leaves and fruits were prepared through percolation and ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extracts were prepared by reflux method. Cytotoxic effects of these extracts and latex against HeLa cell line were then examined. Briefly, He Lacells were seeded at 2 × 104 cells/mL in 96-well plates. After 24 h incubation at 37°C, the cells were treated with different concentrations of the extracts or latex. The viability of the cells was determined by the reduction of 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) from formazan following 48 h incubation and the absorbance was measured at 540 nm using an ELISA plate reader. The results indicated that the latex and different extracts of Ficus carica could reduce the viability of the He Lacells at concentrations as low as 2 µg/mL in a dose dependent manner. The approximate IC50 values of the ethanolic, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extracts of the leaves and fruits were 10, 19, 12 µg/mL and 12, 12, 11.5 µg/mL, respectively. The IC50 for the latex was about 17 µg/mL. PMID:24250354

  13. Pigment Changes Associated with Application of Ethephon ((2-Chloroethyl)phosphonic Acid) to Fig (Ficus carica L.) Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Puech, Antoine A.; Rebeiz, Constantin A.; Crane, Julian C.

    1976-01-01

    The application of (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (Ethephon) to `Mission' fig fruits (Ficus carica L.) during late period II of their development stimulated ripening and change in color from green to bluish black within 8 days. Chlorophylls a and b decreased rapidly within 4 days after Ethephon treatment, and degradation continued at a decreasing rate for an additional 4 days, at which time the fruits had attained their maximum diameter and were considered fully ripe. Levels of ?-carotene, lutein, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin decreased in a pattern similar to that of chlorophylls a and b. The rates of ?-carotene and lutein degradation were initially greater than those of the xanthophyll pigments. Degradation rates of the various carotenoids were comparable 4 to 8 days after treatment. There was no measurable anthocyanin synthesis during a 2- to 4-day period following Ethephon treatment. Beyond this lag phase, anthocyanin accumulation was linear, and the amount of pigment synthesized was a function of both light intensity and duration. Although Ethephon promoted the rate of anthocyanin accumulation, it did not increase the total amount of pigment synthesized in treated fruits. Etiolation of fruits from the time of Ethephon treatment until maturity stimulated an increase in growth and completely inhibited anthocyanin production in the skin. Ethephon-treated fruits which ripened while etiolated were larger in diameter and higher in both fresh and dry weights than nonetiolated controls. Images PMID:16659515

  14. Identification, purification and characterization of a novel collagenolytic serine protease from fig (Ficus carica var. Brown Turkey) latex.

    PubMed

    Raskovic, Brankica; Bozovic, Olga; Prodanovic, Radivoje; Niketic, Vesna; Polovic, Natalija

    2014-12-01

    A novel collagenolytic serine protease was identified and then purified (along with ficin) to apparent homogeneity from the latex of fig (Ficus carica, var. Brown Turkey) by two step chromatographic procedure using gel and covalent chromatography. The enzyme is a monomeric protein of molecular mass of 41 ± 9 kDa as estimated by analytical gel filtration chromatography. It is an acidic protein with a pI value of approximately 5 and optimal activity at pH 8.0-8.5 and temperature 60°C. The enzymatic activity was strongly inhibited by PMSF and Pefabloc SC, indicating that the enzyme is a serine protease. The enzyme showed specificity towards gelatin and collagen (215 GDU/mg and 24.8 CDU/mg, respectively) and non-specific protease activity (0.18 U/mg against casein). The enzyme was stable and retained full activity over a broad range of pH and temperature. The fig latex collagenolytic protease is potentially useful as a non-microbial enzyme with collagenolytic activity for various applications in the fields of biochemistry, biotechnology and medicine. PMID:24982021

  15. Pigment Changes Associated with Application of Ethephon ((2-Chloroethyl)phosphonic Acid) to Fig (Ficus carica L.) Fruits.

    PubMed

    Puech, A A; Rebeiz, C A; Crane, J C

    1976-04-01

    The application of (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (Ethephon) to ;Mission' fig fruits (Ficus carica L.) during late period II of their development stimulated ripening and change in color from green to bluish black within 8 days. Chlorophylls a and b decreased rapidly within 4 days after Ethephon treatment, and degradation continued at a decreasing rate for an additional 4 days, at which time the fruits had attained their maximum diameter and were considered fully ripe. Levels of beta-carotene, lutein, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin decreased in a pattern similar to that of chlorophylls a and b. The rates of beta-carotene and lutein degradation were initially greater than those of the xanthophyll pigments. Degradation rates of the various carotenoids were comparable 4 to 8 days after treatment.There was no measurable anthocyanin synthesis during a 2- to 4-day period following Ethephon treatment. Beyond this lag phase, anthocyanin accumulation was linear, and the amount of pigment synthesized was a function of both light intensity and duration. Although Ethephon promoted the rate of anthocyanin accumulation, it did not increase the total amount of pigment synthesized in treated fruits. Etiolation of fruits from the time of Ethephon treatment until maturity stimulated an increase in growth and completely inhibited anthocyanin production in the skin. Ethephon-treated fruits which ripened while etiolated were larger in diameter and higher in both fresh and dry weights than nonetiolated controls. PMID:16659515

  16. Process variables influence on microwave assisted extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L. peel.

    PubMed

    Maran, J Prakash; Prakash, K Arun

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate and optimize the influence of process variables such as microwave power, pH, time and solid-liquid ratio on the extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L peel. The experiments were carried out based on a four factors three level Box-Behnken response surface design. A quadratic model was developed from the experimental data in order to predict the pectin yield. The optimal condition was found to be: microwave power of 512 w, pH of 1.8, time of 140 s and solid-liquid ratio of 1:15 g/ml with maximum pectin yield (25.41%). PMID:25445679

  17. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. III. Tropical fruits: bananas, mangoes, and papayas.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P

    1986-01-01

    The current status of research on the use of ionizing radiation for shelf life improvement and disinfestation of fresh tropical fruits like bananas, mangoes, and papayas are reviewed. The aspects covered are influence of maturity and physiological state of the fruits on delayed ripening and tolerance to radiation; varietal responses; changes in chemical constituents, volatiles, respiration, and ethylene evolution; biochemical mechanisms of delayed ripening and browning of irradiated fruits; and organoleptic quality. The efficacy of the combination of hot water dip and radiation treatments for control of postharvest fungal diseases are considered. The immediate potential of radiation as a quarantine treatment, in place of the currently used chemical fumigants, for disinfestation of fruit flies and mango seed weevil are discussed. Future prospects for irradiation of tropical fruits are discussed in the light of experience gained from studies conducted in different countries. PMID:3082598

  18. Improved Immunoassay Sensitivity in Serum as a Result of Polymer-Entrapped Quantum Dots: 'Papaya Particles'.

    PubMed

    Ranzoni, Andrea; den Hamer, Anniek; Karoli, Tomislav; Buechler, Joseph; Cooper, Matthew A

    2015-06-16

    Fluorescent labels are widely employed in biomarker quantification and diagnostics, however they possess narrow Stokes shifts and can photobleach, limiting multiplexed detection applications and compromising sensitivity. In contrast, quantum dots do not photobleach and have much wider Stokes shifts, but a paucity of robust surface attachment chemistries for bioconjugation has limited their uptake in biomedical diagnostics. We report a novel class of biofunctional fluorescent labels based on trapping of ?10(4) quantum dots within a core nanoparticle. The doped particles act as scaffolds for generation of a multilayered shell consisting of a functionalized hydrophilic polymer with covalently attached receptors for analyte capture. These constructs, which conceptually resemble a papaya fruit, are chemically stable, remain monodispersed for >6 months in buffer, and show utility in immunoassay applications. Using monoclonal antibody fragments against nonstructural protein dengue NS1, an early biomarker for dengue fever, antibody immobilization capacity was 75-fold higher compared with traditional carbodiimide protein coupling. In the model dengue immunoassay, we observed a 15-fold lower limit of detection and 4-fold higher fluorescence intensity with the "papaya particles" compared to current "best-in-class" commercial reagents. Direct deployment in human serum allowed sensitive detection of different NS1 serotypes with lower limits of detection within the clinically relevant range (1-10 ng/mL), and sufficient specificity for identification of the dengue serotype was achieved for concentrations >10 ng/mL (DV1-3) and >50 ng/mL (DV4). The combination of chemical and physical stability and high binding capacity combined with the intrinsic advantages of quantum dots may enable more simple, robust diagnostic assays in the future. PMID:25971296

  19. Limit Laws for Functions of Fringe trees for Binary Search Trees and Recursive Trees

    E-print Network

    Janson, Svante

    Limit Laws for Functions of Fringe trees for Binary Search Trees and Recursive Trees Cecilia of binary search trees and random recursive trees. In particular, we give simple new proofs of the fact that the number of fringe trees of size k = kn in the binary search tree and the random recursive tree (of total

  20. Effect of irradiation on the biochemical and organoleptic changes during the ripening of papaya and mango fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, Monique; Bernard, Linda; Jobin, Michele; Milot, Sylvain; Gagnon, Marcel

    Papaya and mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation treatment was used to determine its effect on the quality of papayas and mangoes irradiated at 0,5 to 0,95 kGy. The level of respiration, soluble solids, texture, vitamin C and the sensorial evaluation were effectuated. The results indicate that irradiation treatment reduces significantly (p ? 0,001) the level of respiration and significantly (p ? 0,001) weakens the texture of mangoes. The content of soluble solids and vitamin C are not significantly affected by the irradiation. The sensory evaluation indicates that up to 0,95 kGy the sensorial quality is not changed.

  1. Industrial-hygiene report, walk-through survey, papaya packing/shipping facilities, Hilo, Hawaii, July 1983. [Ethylene dibromide exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Clapp, D.

    1983-07-01

    Worker exposure to ethylene dibromide (EDB) was investigated at three papaya packing and shipping facilities in Hilo, Hawaii. Breathing-zone samples were collected in the three facilities over a three day period. Blind spikes were submitted as a control on time and temperature effects. Blank samples were also prepared. Spike results reflected the effects of time and temperature in shipment from Hawaii to Massachusetts. All spikes were roughly comparable and showed a recovery of about 68%. Overnight laboratory results were adjusted upward by 72% and NIOSH laboratory results by 68%. Six out of 38 samples exceeded the NIOSH recommended amount of 130 ppb. The author concludes that there is a chronic, low-concentration exposure to EDB for all workers in the papaya industry in Hilo. An epidemiological study of reproductive and cytogenetic effects of EDB exposure on these workers is recommended.

  2. Nontraditional wound care: A review of the evidence for the use of sugar, papaya/papain, and fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Barbara; Caliri, Maria Helena Larcher

    2003-07-01

    With global travel and immigration, WOC nurses may see or be asked questions about wound care practices that are different from those traditionally taught in their educational programs. The purpose of this article is to review the evidence about 3 commonly used wound products, namely, sugar, papaya/papain, and essential fatty acids. Although these products are used in numerous countries, their application in Brazil will provide the examples of use in this article. Nontraditional wound care is still frequently practiced even in countries where access to evidence-based products is fairly good. Research studies about sugar, papain/papaya, and essential fatty acids generally are case reports/studies and descriptive. Protocols in the use of the products varied. Use of these products is often based on tradition and economics. WOC nurses need to be knowledgeable regarding nonstandard wound care products and procedures so they can respond appropriately in situations where these products are used. PMID:12851592

  3. cDNA cloning of a novel gene codifying for the enzyme lycopene ?-cyclase from Ficus carica and its expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Araya-Garay, José Miguel; Feijoo-Siota, Lucía; Veiga-Crespo, Patricia; Villa, Tomás González

    2011-11-01

    Lycopene beta-cyclase (?-LCY) is the key enzyme that modifies the linear lycopene molecule into cyclic ?-carotene, an indispensable carotenoid of the photosynthetic apparatus and an important source of vitamin A in human and animal nutrition. Owing to its antioxidant activity, it is commercially used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries, as well as an additive in foodstuffs. Therefore, ?-carotene has a large share of the carotenoidic market. In this study, we used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR to obtain and clone a cDNA copy of the gene Lyc-? from Ficus carica (Lyc-? Fc), which codes for the enzyme lycopene ?-cyclase (?-LCY). Expression of this gene in Escherichia coli produced a single polypeptide of 56 kDa of weight, containing 496 amino acids, that was able to cycle both ends of the lycopene chain. Amino acid analysis revealed that the protein contained several conserved plant cyclase motifs. ?-LCY activity was revealed by heterologous complementation analysis, with lycopene being converted to ?-carotene as a result of the enzyme's action. The ?-LCY activity of the expressed protein was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) identification of the ?-carotene. The lycopene to ?-carotene conversion rate was 90%. The experiments carried out in this work showed that ?-LYC is the enzyme responsible for converting lycopene, an acyclic carotene, to ?-carotene, a bicyclic carotene in F. carica. Therefore, by cloning and expressing ?-LCY in E. coli, we have obtained a new gene for ?-carotene production or as part of the biosynthetic pathway of astaxanthin. So far, this is the first and only gene of the carotenoid pathway identified in F. carica. PMID:21792589

  4. A dynamic fault tree

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marko ?epin; Borut Mavko

    2002-01-01

    The fault tree analysis is a widely used method for evaluation of systems reliability and nuclear power plants safety. This paper presents a new method, which represents extension of the classic fault tree with the time requirements. The dynamic fault tree offers a range of risk informed applications. The results show that application of dynamic fault tree may reduce the

  5. Tree Lines: Discussion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G. Jarvis; J. Grace; N. Hutchings; J. L. Monteith; W. J. Shuttleworth; D. Fowler; J. Corlett; J. Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Trees do not generally grow in places where the mean temperature of the warmest month is less than about 10 ^circ C. At their limit, trees are often short and crooked, the condition known as krummholz; and the transition from tall forest to dwarf shrubby vegetation is often abrupt, forming a distinct tree line. Tree lines fluctuate with climatic change.

  6. Random Trees and Applications

    E-print Network

    Durrett, Richard

    Random Trees and Applications Jean-Fran¸cois Le Gall1 Notes prepared for the Cornell Summer School;2 #12;Chapter 1 From Discrete to Continuous Trees In this chapter, we first explain how discrete random trees can be coded by discrete paths called the height function and the contour function of the tree. We

  7. Tree Rings as Environmental

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    359 Tree Rings as Environmental Indicators year to year throughout the life of a tree. This pattern, recog- nized that trees form new rings of growth each year, but the modern development. Because he knew that plant growth was affected by changes in cli- mate, he thought that the size of a tree

  8. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying Staphylococcus aureus isolated from foods and its control by crude alkaloid from papaya leaves.

    PubMed

    Handayani, Lita; Faridah, Didah Nur; Kusumaningrum, Harsi D

    2014-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a known pathogen causing intoxication by producing enterotoxins in food. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A is one of the enterotoxins commonly implicated in staphylococcal food poisoning. The ability of crude alkaloid extract from papaya leaves to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxin A synthesis was investigated. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying S. aureus was isolated from raw milk and ready-to-eat foods. Crude alkaloid was extracted from ground, dried papaya leaves using ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and a MIC of the alkaloid was determined by the broth macrodilution method. Furthermore, S. aureus isolate was exposed to the crude alkaloid extract at one- and twofold MIC, and the expression of sea was subsequently analyzed using a quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR. Ten isolates of S. aureus were obtained, and nine of those isolates were sea carriers. The yield of crude alkaloid extract was 0.48 to 1.82% per dry weight of papaya leaves. A MIC of crude alkaloid to S. aureus was 0.25 mg/ml. After exposure to the alkaloid at 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ml for 2 h, a significant increase in cycle threshold values of sea was observed. The sea was expressed 29 and 41 times less when S. aureus was exposed to crude alkaloid at one- and twofold MIC, respectively. This study revealed that crude alkaloid of papaya leaves could control staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying S. aureus by suppressing the expression of sea, in addition to the ability to inhibit the growth of S. aureus. The expression of sea was successfully quantified. PMID:25364936

  9. Nucleotide Sequence of the Capsid Protein Gene and 3' Non-coding Region of Papaya Mosaic Virus RNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Abouhaidar

    1988-01-01

    SUMMARY The nucleotide sequences of eDNA clones corresponding to the 3' OH end of papaya mosaic virus RNA have been determined. The 3'-terminal sequence obtained was 900 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(A) tail, and contained an open reading frame capable of giving rise to a protein of 214 amino acid residues with an Mr of 22930. This protein was

  10. Postharvest application of gum arabic and essential oils for controlling anthracnose and quality of banana and papaya during cold storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehdi Maqbool; Asgar Ali; Peter G. Alderson; Mahmud Tengku Muda Mohamed; Yasmeen Siddiqui; Noosheen Zahid

    2011-01-01

    Management of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp. is the most important issue for the tropical fruit industry because of resulting financial losses. Antifungal effects of gum arabic (GA) (10%), lemongrass oil (LG) (0.05%), cinnamon oil (CM) (0.4%), and their combinations were investigated in vitro and in vivo for controlling postharvest anthracnose of banana and papaya. LG at 0.05% and 0.4%

  11. Systemic levels of carotenoids from mangoes and papaya consumed in three forms (juice, fresh and dry slice)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Gouado; F J Schweigert; R A Ejeh; M F Tchouanguep; J V Camp

    2007-01-01

    Background:Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in Cameroon. Data on the bioavailability of carotenoid in fruits currently consumed in Cameroon are scarce.Objective:To assess the systemic levels of carotenoids from mangoes and papaya consumed as juice, fresh or dried slices.Methods:Two groups of seven healthy volunteers (24 and 25 years of age; body mass index: 21 and 22 kg\\/m2 respectively

  12. Supplementing Lactating Women with Pureed Papaya and Grated Carrots Improved Vitamin A Status in a Placebo-Controlled Trial1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thokozile N. Ncube; Ted Greiner; Lucie C. Malaba; Mehari Gebre-Medhin

    Doubts have been raised about the effectiveness of carotene-containing foods in improving the vitamin A status of populations at risk. We investigated the effect of papaya and carrots on the vitamin A status of lactating women with 2- to 12-mo-old infants in Zimbabwe. The women were randomly assigned to three supplementation groups and a placebo group, and received 6 mg

  13. Categorizing Ideas about Trees: A Tree of Trees

    PubMed Central

    Fisler, Marie; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore whether matrices and MP trees used to produce systematic categories of organisms could be useful to produce categories of ideas in history of science. We study the history of the use of trees in systematics to represent the diversity of life from 1766 to 1991. We apply to those ideas a method inspired from coding homologous parts of organisms. We discretize conceptual parts of ideas, writings and drawings about trees contained in 41 main writings; we detect shared parts among authors and code them into a 91-characters matrix and use a tree representation to show who shares what with whom. In other words, we propose a hierarchical representation of the shared ideas about trees among authors: this produces a “tree of trees.” Then, we categorize schools of tree-representations. Classical schools like “cladists” and “pheneticists” are recovered but others are not: “gradists” are separated into two blocks, one of them being called here “grade theoreticians.” We propose new interesting categories like the “buffonian school,” the “metaphoricians,” and those using “strictly genealogical classifications.” We consider that networks are not useful to represent shared ideas at the present step of the study. A cladogram is made for showing who is sharing what with whom, but also heterobathmy and homoplasy of characters. The present cladogram is not modelling processes of transmission of ideas about trees, and here it is mostly used to test for proximity of ideas of the same age and for categorization. PMID:23950877

  14. Tree Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Peter R.

    2004-09-01

    Nature often replicates her processes at different scales of space and time in differing media. Here a tree-trunk cross section I am preparing for a dendrochronological display at the Battle Creek Cypress Swamp Nature Sanctuary (Calvert County, Maryland) dried and cracked in a way that replicates practically all the planform features found along the Mid-Oceanic Ridge (see Figure 1). The left-lateral offset of saw marks, contrasting with the right-lateral ``rift'' offset, even illustrates the distinction between transcurrent (strike-slip) and transform faults, the latter only recognized as a geologic feature, by J. Tuzo Wilson, in 1965. However, wood cracking is but one of many examples of natural processes that replicate one or several elements of lithospheric plate tectonics. Many of these examples occur in everyday venues and thus make great teaching aids, ``teachable'' from primary school to university levels. Plate tectonics, the dominant process of Earth geology, also occurs in miniature on the surface of some lava lakes, and as ``ice plate tectonics'' on our frozen seas and lakes. Ice tectonics also happens at larger spatial and temporal scales on the Jovian moons Europa and perhaps Ganymede. Tabletop plate tectonics, in which a molten-paraffin ``asthenosphere'' is surfaced by a skin of congealing wax ``plates,'' first replicated Mid-Oceanic Ridge type seafloor spreading more than three decades ago. A seismologist (J. Brune, personal communication, 2004) discovered wax plate tectonics by casually and serendipitously pulling a stick across a container of molten wax his wife and daughters had used in making candles. Brune and his student D. Oldenburg followed up and mirabile dictu published the results in Science (178, 301-304).

  15. COMPONENT User's Guide Random trees

    E-print Network

    Page, Roderic

    COMPONENT User's Guide Chapter 6 Random trees COMPONENT can generate a variety of trees at "random," and for small numbers of leaves it can generate all possible trees. These trees have several uses: n as user trees for phylogeny programs that lack the facility to examine all trees or sets of random trees (e

  16. From Gene Trees to Species Trees II: Species Tree Inference by Minimizing Deep

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Louxin

    From Gene Trees to Species Trees II: Species Tree Inference by Minimizing Deep Coalescence Events Louxin Zhang Abstract--When gene copies are sampled from various species, the resulting gene tree might disagree with the containing species tree. The primary causes of gene tree and species tree discord include

  17. Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from papaya seed by response surface methodology: oil recovery, radical scavenging antioxidant activity, and oxidation stability.

    PubMed

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd; Bordbar, Sara; Serjouie, Alireza

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) condition on the yield, antioxidant activity and stability of the oil from papaya seed. The studied ultrasound variables were time, temperature, ultrasound power and solvent to sample ratio. The main goal was to optimise UAE condition providing the highest recovery of papaya seed oil with the most desirable antioxidant activity and stability. The interaction of ultrasound variables had the most and least significant effects on the antioxidant activity and stability, respectively. Ultrasound-assisted extraction provided a relatively high oil recovery (? 73%) from papaya seed. The strongest antioxidant activity was achieved by the extraction at the elevated temperature using low solvent to sample ratio. The optimum ultrasound extraction was set at the elevated temperature (62.5 °C) for 38.5 min at high ultrasound power (700 W) using medium solvent to sample ratio (? 7:1 v/w). The optimum point was practically validated. PMID:25442517

  18. Effects of ozone exposure on 'Golden' papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening

    SciTech Connect

    Correa, Savio Figueira; Brito Paiva, Luisa; Mota do Couto, Flavio; Gomes da Silva, Marcelo; Silva Sthel, Marcelo; Vargas, Helion [Laboratorio de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque California 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Mota, Leonardo [Laboratorio de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque California 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Fraunhofer Institut fuer Bauphysik, Nobelstrasse 12, Vaihingen 70569, Stuttgart, Baden Wuerttemberg (Germany); Goncalves de Oliveira, Jurandi [Laboratorio de Melhoramento Genetico Vegetal, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque California 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Miklos, Andras [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Bauphysik, Nobelstrasse 12, Vaihingen 70569, Stuttgart, Baden Wuerttemberg (Germany)

    2011-06-01

    This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of 'Golden' papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring on the fruit during ripening when exposed to ozone. In addition, one has performed real time studies of fluorescence parameters and the emission rates of carbon dioxide and ethylene. Finally, the amount of pigments and the changes in waxy cuticle have been monitored. Results indicate that a fruit deliberately subjected to ozone at a level of 6 ppmv underwent ripening sooner (at least 24-48 h) than a fruit stored at ambient conditions. Moreover, ozone caused a reduction in the maximum quantum yield of photosynthetic apparatus located within the skin of papaya fruit.

  19. Effects of ozone exposure on `Golden' papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, Savio Figueira; Mota, Leonardo; Paiva, Luisa Brito; Couto, Flávio Mota do; Silva, Marcelo Gomes da; Oliveira, Jurandi Gonçalves de; Sthel, Marcelo Silva; Vargas, Helion; Miklós, András

    2011-06-01

    This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of `Golden' papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring on the fruit during ripening when exposed to ozone. In addition, one has performed real time studies of fluorescence parameters and the emission rates of carbon dioxide and ethylene. Finally, the amount of pigments and the changes in waxy cuticle have been monitored. Results indicate that a fruit deliberately subjected to ozone at a level of 6 ppmv underwent ripening sooner (at least 24-48 h) than a fruit stored at ambient conditions. Moreover, ozone caused a reduction in the maximum quantum yield of photosynthetic apparatus located within the skin of papaya fruit.

  20. Become "Tree Detectives": Identifying Broadleaf Trees...

    E-print Network

    Koford, Rolf R.

    Forest and ShadeTrees of Iowa. Peter J. van der Linden & Donald R. Farrar, Iowa State University Press for loan, ISU Forestry Extension at 515-294-6739 or Trees Forever at 1-800-369-1269. needles seed cone Pine species have needles in a bundle. Fir species have flat shaped needles and cones that sit upright

  1. Evidence for emergence of sex-determining gene(s) in a centromeric region in Vasconcellea parviflora.

    PubMed

    Iovene, Marina; Yu, Qingyi; Ming, Ray; Jiang, Jiming

    2015-02-01

    Sex chromosomes have been studied in many plant and animal species. However, few species are suitable as models to study the evolutionary histories of sex chromosomes. We previously demonstrated that papaya (Carica papaya) (2n = 2x = 18), a fruit tree in the family Caricaceae, contains recently emerged but cytologically heteromorphic X/Y chromosomes. We have been intrigued by the possible presence and evolution of sex chromosomes in other dioecious Caricaceae species. We selected a set of 22 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones that are distributed along the papaya X/Y chromosomes. These BACs were mapped to the meiotic pachytene chromosomes of Vasconcellea parviflora (2n = 2x = 18), a species that diverged from papaya ?27 million years ago. We demonstrate that V. parviflora contains a pair of heteromorphic X/Y chromosomes that are homologous to the papaya X/Y chromosomes. The comparative mapping results revealed that the male-specific regions of the Y chromosomes (MSYs) probably initiated near the centromere of the Y chromosomes in both species. The two MSYs, however, shared only a small chromosomal domain near the centromere in otherwise rearranged chromosomes. The V. parviflora MSY expanded toward the short arm of the chromosome, whereas the papaya MSY expanded in the opposite direction. Most BACs mapped to papaya MSY were not located in V. parviflora MSY, revealing different DNA compositions in the two MSYs. These results suggest that mutation of gene(s) in the centromeric region may have triggered sex chromosome evolution in these plant species. PMID:25480779

  2. Tea Tree Oil

    MedlinePLUS

    From the National Institutes of Health ... main content U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health Search NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health Follow ... Tea Tree Oil Common Names: Australian tea tree oil, tea ...

  3. Pine tree forest

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-01-13

    The pine tree demonstrates the differences among gymnosperms and bryophytes and seedless vascular plants. Pine trees have separate cones with pollen and ovulates. Wind blows the pollen onto the ovulate cone and seeds are produced.

  4. Tree Classification Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the IND Tree Package to prospective users. IND does supervised learning using classification trees. This learning task is a basic tool used in the development of diagnosis, monitoring and expert systems. The IND Tree Package was developed as part of a NASA project to semi-automate the development of data analysis and modelling algorithms using artificial intelligence techniques. The IND Tree Package integrates features from CART and C4 with newer Bayesian and minimum encoding methods for growing classification trees and graphs. The IND Tree Package also provides an experimental control suite on top. The newer features give improved probability estimates often required in diagnostic and screening tasks. The package comes with a manual, Unix 'man' entries, and a guide to tree methods and research. The IND Tree Package is implemented in C under Unix and was beta-tested at university and commercial research laboratories in the United States.

  5. Minimal locked trees

    E-print Network

    Ballinger, Brad

    Locked tree linkages have been known to exist in the plane since 1998, but it is still open whether they have a polynomial-time characterization. This paper examines the properties needed for planar trees to lock, with a ...

  6. Graph homomorphisms between trees

    E-print Network

    Csikvari, Peter

    In this paper we study several problems concerning the number of homomorphisms of trees. We begin with an algorithm for the number of homomorphisms from a tree to any graph. By using this algorithm and some transformations ...

  7. RECURSIVE TREES Michael Drmota

    E-print Network

    Drmota, Michael

    copies of ancient texts · convex hull algorithms · ... #12;Enumeration of Recursive Trees All recursive Combinatorial Description · labelled rooted tree · labels are strictly increasing · no left-to-right order (non-planar

  8. Binary Search Trees Page 1 Binary Search Trees

    E-print Network

    Allan, Vicki H.

    Binary Search Trees Page 1 Chapter 4 Trees Binary Search Trees · Definition o All keys are distinct subtree is greater than the root. o Left and right subtrees are binary search trees. · Figure 1 is an example: Figure 1 Binary Search Tree · Where would you add X, B, and E? · At seats, build tree from

  9. Tree SelectionTree Selection Why is selection important?

    E-print Network

    Tree SelectionTree Selection #12; Why is selection important? What happens when we think it's not important? Not all trees grow alike Incompatible situation Average life span of city tree is 7-13 years end up with a tree in the wrong location. #12;Tree Selection Style I Let's Try Another Selection

  10. 8-ary tree. Overview of B-Trees

    E-print Network

    Yorke, James

    Page Page Figure A.1 8-ary tree. APPENDIX A Overview of B-Trees Tree-based searching methods large, we find that often the tree is too large to fit in memory at once. Therefore, the tree is stored. In such an environment, the branches in the tree contain disk addresses, and it is not uncommon for a comparison

  11. Kids for Trees

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website provides references for students about the importance of trees to people and the environment. It discusses the interactions between trees and other organisms, how trees provide for their food and water needs, and how people use and work with trees. A teacher's guide provides background information, project and activity ideas, evaluation questions, and extensions that correspond with each student reference page. Links to related resources are included.

  12. Minnesota's Forest Trees. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, William R.; Fuller, Bruce L.

    This bulletin describes 46 of the more common trees found in Minnesota's forests and windbreaks. The bulletin contains two tree keys, a summer key and a winter key, to help the reader identify these trees. Besides the two keys, the bulletin includes an introduction, instructions for key use, illustrations of leaf characteristics and twig…

  13. Pecan tree biomass estimates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Allometric equations were developed for orchard-grown pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] trees. Trees, ranging in size from 22 to 33 cm in trunk diameter 1.4 m above the ground, were destructively harvested from two sites. The entire above-ground portion of the trees was harvested and...

  14. Fault Tree Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liudong Xing; Suprasad V. Amari

    In this chapter, a state-of-the-art review of fault tree analysis is presented. Different forms of fault trees, including\\u000a static, dynamic, and non-coherent fault trees, their applications and analyses will be discussed. Some advanced topics such\\u000a as importance analysis, dependent failures, disjoint events, and multistate systems will also be presented.

  15. RC trees revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehinet A. Cirit

    1988-01-01

    RC tree approximation is a computationally simple method for calculating the signal delay of MOS circuits with several states of fanout. The author derives a formal solution of RC tree equations. Based on this solution, it is shown that even though waveforms found using RC tree approximation are inaccurate, delays are exact. The author derives the dependence of the delays

  16. Representing Trees with Constraints 

    E-print Network

    Curry, Benjamin; Wiggins, Geraint; Hayes, Gillian

    This paper presents a method for representing trees using constraint logic programming over finite domains. We describe a class of trees that is of particular interest to us and how we can represent the set of trees belonging to that class using...

  17. Boosting Decision Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harris Drucker; Corinna Cortes

    1995-01-01

    A new boosting algorithm of Freund and Schapire is used to improve the performance of decision trees which are constructed usin: the information ratio criterion of Quinlan's C4.5 algorithm. This boosting algorithm iteratively constructs a series of decision tress, each decision tree being trained and pruned on examples that have been filtered by previously trained trees. Examples that have been

  18. Glycyl endopeptidase from papaya latex: partial purification and use for production of fish gelatin hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Karnjanapratum, Supatra; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-12-15

    An aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in combination with ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) precipitation was applied to fractionate glycyl endopeptidase from the papaya latex of Red Lady and Khack Dum cultivars. ATPS containing polyethylene glycol (PEG 2000 and 6000) and salts ((NH4)2SO4 and MgSO4) at different concentrations were used. Glycyl endopeptidase with high purification fold (PF) and yield was found in the salt-rich bottom phase of ATPS with 10%PEG 6000-10% (NH4)2SO4. When ATPS fraction from Red Lady cultivar was further precipitated with 40-60% saturation of (NH4)2SO4, PF of 2.1-fold with 80.23% yield was obtained. Almost all offensive odorous compounds, particularly benzyl isothiocyanate, were removed from partially purified glycyl endopeptidase (PPGE). The fish gelatin hydrolysates prepared using PPGE showed higher ABTS radical scavenging activity and less odour, compared with those of crude extract (CE). Thus antioxidative gelatin hydrolysate with negligible undesirable odour could be prepared with the aid of PPGE. PMID:25038693

  19. Molecular markers linked to papaya ring spot virus resistance and Fusarium race 2 resistance in melon.

    PubMed

    Brotman, Yariv; Kovalski, Irina; Dogimont, Catherine; Pitrat, Michel; Portnoy, Vitaly; Katzir, Nurit; Perl-Treves, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    In melon, the Fom-1 gene confers monogenic resistance against the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, races 0 and 2, while the closely linked Prv gene specifies resistance against the papaya ring spot virus. Markers linked to these resistance (R) genes were identified using two recombinant inbred line populations, derived from crosses between Cucumis melo Vedrantais and C. melo PI 161375, and between C. melo Vedrantais and C. melo PI 414723, respectively. Using bulked segregant analysis, as well as systematic scoring of the mapping populations, we developed two amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, two random amplified polymorphic DNA markers and five restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers linked to this locus. Four of the RFLP sequences bear homology to nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat R genes, indicating the presence of a significant R-gene cluster in this locus. Our study provides the most closely linked markers published so far for these important traits. It also improves the resolution of the whole linkage group IX, which was difficult to order in our previous studies. Two of the markers were converted to cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers to facilitate their application in marker-assisted selection. Testing these two markers in several melon lines revealed different marker haplotypes in the melon germplasm and supported multiple, independent origin of the Fusarium races 0 and 2 resistance trait. PMID:15551034

  20. Proteasome-Independent Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Cross-Presentation Mediated by Papaya Mosaic Virus-Like Particles Leads to Expansion of Specific Human T Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denis Leclerc; Diane Beauseigle; Jerome Denis; Helene Morin; Christine Pare; Alain Lamarre; Rejean Lapointe

    2007-01-01

    The development of versatile vaccine platforms is a priority that is recognized by health authorities worldwide; such platforms should induce both arms of the immune system, the humoral and cytotoxic-T- lymphocyte responses. In this study, we have established that a vaccine platform based on the coat protein of papaya mosaic virus (PapMV CP), previously shown to induce a humoral response,

  1. Effectiveness of hydrothermal-calcium chloride treatment and chitosan on quality retention and microbial growth during storage of fresh-cut papaya.

    PubMed

    Ayón-Reyna, Lidia E; Tamayo-Limón, Ransés; Cárdenas-Torres, Feliznando; López-López, Martha E; López-Angulo, Gabriela; López-Moreno, Héctor S; López-Cervántes, Jaime; López-Valenzuela, José A; Vega-García, Misael O

    2015-03-01

    Rapid degradation of fresh-cut papaya limits its marketability. Hydrothermal treatments in combination with a calcium dip, applied to whole fruit before slicing, and also the application of chitosan as a coating film, have been found to have very good results in maintaining the quality of fresh-cut fruits. Based on these considerations, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrothermal treatment (HT; 49 °C, 25 min) containing calcium chloride (Ca; 1%, w/v) followed by dipping in chitosan (Chit; 1%, w/v, 3 min) on the physical, chemical, and microbial qualities of papaya slices stored at 5 °C for 10 d. Pulp color, firmness, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, ?-carotene, and lycopene were evaluated every 2 d while the microbial quality (mesophilics, psychrophilics, molds, and yeasts) was evaluated every 5 d. Fruit treated with HT-Ca and HT-Ca + Chit showed better color and firmness retention than Control and Chit. Papaya slices treated with HT-Ca + Chit had higher nutritional content and lower microbial growth at the end of storage. The application of the HT-Ca + Chit could be used to reduce deterioration processes, maintaining physical, chemical, and microbial qualities and increasing the shelf life of fresh-cut papaya stored at 5 °C. PMID:25627320

  2. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Rhizopus stolonifer in stored papaya fruit and their possible application in coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Bosquez-Molina; E. Ronquillo-de Jesús; S. Bautista-Baños; J. R. Verde-Calvo; J. Morales-López

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fungicidal effect of the thyme and Mexican lime essential oils studies against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Rhizopus stolonifer, and to determine the possibility of incorporating them in edible coatings to control postharvest diseases of papaya fruits.For in vitro studies, both essential oils were tested to evaluate their effect on mycelial growth of

  3. A Non-invasive Method to Measure the Sweetness of Malaysian Papaya Quantitatively Using NIR Full-transmittance Technique - A Preliminary Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A'zraa Afhzan Ab Rahim; Muhammad Syafiq Abdullah Sawal; Mazidah Tajjudin; Ili Shairah Abdul Halim

    2011-01-01

    The fruit industry requires rapid, economical, and non destructive method for classifying fruits by internal quality. This research studied the development of a non destructive method that would enable consumers and producers to assess the maturity of papayas rapidly. Near Infra Red Spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to assess total Soluble Solid Content (SSC). A device consisting of infrared receiver sensor

  4. THE EXPRESSION OF THE GENE FOR LYCOPENE ¿-CYCLASE IS ELEVATED IN LEAVES AND FLOWERS AND DOWN-REGULATED IN BOTH YELLOW- AND RED- FLESHED PAPAYA FRUITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotene pigments in flowers and fruits are distinct features related to fitness advantages such as attracting insects for pollination and birds for seeds disposal. In papaya, the flesh color of fruit is considered a quality trait that varies in nutritional values and is linked to shelf life of the ...

  5. The effects of Ficus carica polysaccharide on immune response and expression of some immune-related genes in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xia; Guo, Jian Lin; Ye, Jin Yun; Zhang, Yi Xiang; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of Ficus carica polysaccharide (FCP), isolated from the fruit of F. carica L., at 0%, 0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% doses supplementation with feed on genes Interleukin 1-? (IL-1?), Tumor Necrosis Factor ? (TNF-?) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene expression in blood, humoral innate immune parameters and resistant to Flavobacterium columnare of grass carp at weeks 1, 2 and 3. The results revealed that administration of FCP significantly (P<0.05) up regulated IL-1? and TNF-? gene expression. HSP70 gene expression was significantly (P<0.05) lower in FCP-fed fish at the end of trial. The serum total protein, albumin and globulin did not significantly increased in any diet on the first week whereas it was significantly enhanced in 0.5% and 1.0% supplementation diets on weeks 2 and 3 when compared to control. The serum complement C3 was significantly (P<0.05) increased on weeks 1 and 2 when compared to control, however, no significant difference was found in this activity after 3 weeks of treatment. All diets significantly enhanced the serum lysozyme activity, bactericidal activity from weeks 1-2 as compared to control. Grass carp fed with FCP showed remarkably higher resistance against F. columnare (60% survival) compared to the control group (30% survival). These results confirm that FCP can up regulate immune related genes expression, stimulates immune response that per se enhances disease resistance in grass carp. PMID:25449378

  6. Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes

    E-print Network

    Duval, Art

    Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Color-shifted complexes Weighted spanning tree enumerators of color-shifted complexes Ghodratollah Aalipour1,2 Art Duval1 1University Ghodratollah Aalipour, Art Duval Spanning tree enumerators of color-shifted complexes #12;Spanning trees

  7. From gene trees to species trees through a supertree approach

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    From gene trees to species trees through a supertree approach Celine Scornavacca1,2, , Vincent Abstract. Gene trees are leaf-labeled trees inferred from molecular se- quences. Due to duplication events arising in genome evolution, gene trees usually have multiple copies of some labels, i.e. species

  8. Discordance of species trees with their most likely gene trees

    E-print Network

    Degnan, James

    Discordance of species trees with their most likely gene trees James H. Degnan & Noah A. Rosenberg sort during speciation, gene trees may differ in topology from each other and from species trees find that for any species tree topology with five or more species, there exist branch lengths for which

  9. From Gene Trees to Species Trees through a Supertree Approach

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    From Gene Trees to Species Trees through a Supertree Approach Celine Scornavacca1,2, , Vincent Abstract. Gene trees are leaf-labeled trees inferred from molecular se- quences. Due to duplication events arising in genome evolution, gene trees usually have multiple copies of some labels, i.e. species

  10. Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes

    E-print Network

    Duval, Art

    Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Complete colorful complexes Weighted spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful complexes Ghodratollah Aalipour1,2 Art Duval1 1 Aalipour, Art Duval Spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful complexes #12;Spanning trees of graphs

  11. The cut-tree of large recursive trees Jean Bertoin

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The cut-tree of large recursive trees Jean Bertoin Abstract Imagine a graph which is progressively destroyed by cutting its edges one after the other in a uniform random order. The so-called cut-tree records with a natural probability mass. In this work, we show that the cut-tree of a random recursive tree of size n

  12. Friends of Trees

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Based in Portland, Oregon, the Friends of Trees organization is dedicated to restoring urban forests around the country, with a particular emphasis on the Portland metropolitan area. As their Web site notes, "Trees are an essential part of the urban ecosystem. They help keep our water and air clean, prevent erosion, provide wildlife habitat, and make neighborhoods greener, more beautiful places to live." On the site, visitors can read about their ongoing planting activities and browse the newsletter they publish three times a year. For most visitors, the most helpful area of the site will be the Tree Resources section. Here, users can look through a fact sheet on the benefits of trees in urban environments, the care and maintenance of trees, and a large tree database.

  13. COMPONENT User's Guide Working with trees

    E-print Network

    Page, Roderic

    COMPONENT User's Guide Chapter 2 Working with trees This chapter gives you information on basic tree operations. The topics covered include: n reading and writing files of trees n editing trees n displaying and printing trees n selecting subsets of trees n pruning trees n rooting trees n computing tree

  14. Recursively Imputed Survival Trees

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ruoqing; Kosorok, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    We propose recursively imputed survival tree (RIST) regression for right-censored data. This new nonparametric regression procedure uses a novel recursive imputation approach combined with extremely randomized trees that allows significantly better use of censored data than previous tree based methods, yielding improved model fit and reduced prediction error. The proposed method can also be viewed as a type of Monte Carlo EM algorithm which generates extra diversity in the tree-based fitting process. Simulation studies and data analyses demonstrate the superior performance of RIST compared to previous methods. PMID:23125470

  15. COMPONENT User's Guide Comparing trees

    E-print Network

    Page, Roderic

    COMPONENT User's Guide Chapter 5 Comparing trees This chapter describes the tree comparison measures available in COMPONENT, and the various ways you can compare trees using the program. Among the possible uses of tree comparison measures are: n comparing trees for the same taxa computed from different

  16. TREE RISK ASSESSMENT Importance of

    E-print Network

    TREE RISK ASSESSMENT #12;Importance of Assessing The Risk Trees provide significant benefits to our homes and cities, but when trees fall and injure people or damage property, they are liabilities. Taking care of tree hazards makes your property safer and prolongs the life of the tree. (ISA

  17. Rooting for Trees: Volunteers to Plant 20 Trees, Mark Tree Campus USA Honor

    E-print Network

    Hofmann, Hans A.

    Rooting for Trees: Volunteers to Plant 20 Trees, Mark Tree Campus USA Honor March 22, 2013 Event at The University of Texas at Austin will join the university urban forestry team in planting 20 large trees on the grounds of the Dell Pediatric Research Institute. Volunteers will also mulch more than 100 existing trees

  18. Tree height measurement protocol J Chave Page 1 Measuring tree height for tropical forest trees

    E-print Network

    Chave, Jérôme

    Tree height measurement protocol ­ J Chave Page 1 Measuring tree height for tropical forest trees Diversité Biologique Université Paul Sabatier 31000 Toulouse, France 1. Introduction Tree height is a fundamental geometrical variable for trees. Unfortunately, most measures are based on visual inspection

  19. Apple Tree, NH Big Tree for May By Anne Krantz, NH Big Tree Team,

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Apple Tree, NH Big Tree for May By Anne Krantz, NH Big Tree Team, UNH Cooperative Extension The explosion of apple blossoms in May transforms the most gnarled old tree into a delicate cloud of beauty (1817-1862) in his essay "The Wild Apple Tree," described the blossoms perfectly: `The flowers

  20. Biodiversity and Evolutionary Trees

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-09-14

    In this interactive activity, learners analyze seashells to explore phylogeny and evolution. Learners identify similar and dissimilar seashells to create a phylogenetic tree. The Teacher Guide includes pre-activity video clip suggestions and a pre-activity sorting exercise. The Teacher Guide also includes instructions on how learners can draw a phylogenetic tree instead of using the online interactive.

  1. Fault tree handbook

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F. Haasl; N. H. Roberts; W. E. Vesely; F. F. Goldberg

    1981-01-01

    This handbook describes a methodology for reliability analysis of complex systems such as those which comprise the engineered safety features of nuclear power generating stations. After an initial overview of the available system analysis approaches, the handbook focuses on a description of the deductive method known as fault tree analysis. The following aspects of fault tree analysis are covered: basic

  2. Total tree chips story

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1979-01-01

    A Minneapolis company, Total Tree Chips, Inc., originally formed to chip city trees killed by Dutch elm disease, has expanded to include operations such as clearing land for parks and shopping centers and selling some of the chipped material back to the owners for trails and landscaping. Excess chips are sold to civic and commercial developments for landscaping, to a

  3. Trees Are Terrific!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. Contents are organized into the following sections: (1) "What Makes a Tree a Tree?," including information…

  4. Tree nut oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major tree nuts include almonds, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachio nuts, and walnuts. Tree nut oils are appreciated in food applications because of their flavors and are generally more expensive than other gourmet oils. Research during the last de...

  5. Survival of Trees

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Foundation

    In this video a scientist explains how DNA extracted from ancient tree remains provides insights about how trees/plants have adapted, over time, to changes in CO2 in the atmosphere. Her lab research investigates changes in plant genotypes under experimental conditions that simulate potential changes in CO2 levels in the future.

  6. Tree ring analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hayet Laggoune; Sarifuddin; V. Guesdon

    2005-01-01

    Tree ring analysis provides useful data for dendrochnologists that can help them for better understanding of climatic and environmental changes. Yet detection and counting of rings in cross section of tree were realized manually which is time consuming and tedious work. Our research was motivated by the need of a fast and accurate method. This paper describes a semi automatic

  7. Shrinking Trees Trevor Hastie

    E-print Network

    Hastie, Trevor

    Shrinking Trees Trevor Hastie Daryl Pregibon AT&T Bell Laboratories 600 Mountain Avenue, Murray shrinking. The shrinking process is parameterized by a scalar which ranges from zero to one. A value of zero implies shrinking all fitted values to that of the root of the tree, whereas a value of one

  8. Trees From Helicopters, Continued

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Richard Konicek-Moran

    2009-04-01

    Maples are very interesting trees with lots of variation in form. They provide us with a view of diversity in plants as well as a chance to look at natural phenomena that is very common to anyone who has had a maple tree near them. The main purpose is to

  9. Extracting Species Trees From Complex Gene Trees: Reconciled Trees And Vertebrate Phylogeny

    E-print Network

    Page, Roderic

    Extracting Species Trees From Complex Gene Trees: Reconciled Trees And Vertebrate Phylogeny Roderic for nine vertebrate genes (aldolase, -feto- protein, lactate dehydrogenase, prolactin, rhodopsin with currently accepted vertebrate relationships. 2000 Academic Press INTRODUCTION ``Regarding the analysis

  10. binary-tree B-tree Hashing Space-Filling based location

    E-print Network

    Ooi, Beng Chin

    #12;#12;#12;binary-tree B-tree Hashing Space-Filling Quad-tree based location keys R -tree+ PLOP Hashing EXCELL R-tree Grid-files kd-tree kd-B-treeBD-tree 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 LSD-tree GBD-tree skd-tree Packed R-tree multi-level GF Cell-tree hB-tree R-files GGF mkd-tree 4d-tree 4d-tree

  11. Ash Tree Identification Key Ash Tree Characteristics

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    berries Walnut, Hickory, Mountain-Ash: alternate branching #12;Identifying Emerald Ash Borer what to do if you think you have the ash-killing Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) in your ash tree Verify the signs of EAB: 1 activity Educate Yourself: Emerald Ash Borer information and links can be found at http://nyis.info Report

  12. On reconfiguring tree linkages: Trees can lock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Therese C. Biedl; Erik D. Demaine; Martin L. Demaine; Sylvain Lazard; Anna Lubiw; Joseph O'rourke; Steve Robbins; Ileana Streinu; Godfried T. Toussaint; Sue Whitesides

    1998-01-01

    It is an open problem to determine whether a polygonal chain can be "straightened" inthe plane if its links are not allowed to cross. This problem been raised independently byseveral researchers, including J. Mitchell, and W. Lenhart and S. Whitesides [LW95]. In thispaper we propose a related question: whether a tree linkage can always be "straightened" inthe plane, without allowing

  13. IN VITRO EFFICACY OF SOME INDIGENOUS PLANTS ON THE INHIBITION OF DEVELOPMENT OF EGGS OF ASCARIDIA GALLI (DIGENIA: NEMATODA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Islam; T. Farjana; N. Begum; M. M. H. Mondal

    2008-01-01

    In vitro efficacy of five indigenous plants namely Bishkatali (Polygonum hydropiper), Neem (Azadirachta indica), Papaya (Carica papaya), Korolla (Momordica charantia) and Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) were studied against the development of Ascaridia galli eggs from July 2007 to May 2008. Fresh juice, extracts and dust of leaves were tested. Fresh juice of leaves were trialed at 5%, 10% and 20% concentrations;

  14. Lipase-catalyzed alcoholysis of crambe oil and camelina oil for the preparation of long-chain esters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georg Steinke; Rita Kirchhoff; Kumar D. Mukherjee

    2000-01-01

    Crambe oil and camelina oil were transesterified with oleyl alcohol, the alcohols derived from crambe and camelina oils, n-octanol or isopropanol using Novozym 435 (immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica), Lipozyme IM (immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei), and papaya (Carica papaya) latex lipase as biocatalysts. The highest conversions to alkyl esters were obtained with Novozym 435 (up to 95%) in

  15. Weathering and chemical degradation of Methyl Eugenol and Raspberry Ketone solid dispensers for detection, monitoring and male annihilation of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solid male lure dispensers containing methyl eugenol (ME) and raspberry ketone (RK), or mixtures of the lures (ME + RK), and dimethyl dichloro-vinyl phosphate (DDVP) were evaluated in AWPM bucket or Jackson traps in commercial papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards where both oriental fruit fly, Bactroc...

  16. THE POTENTIAL FOR INCREASING PHYTOALEXINS TO ENHANCE PLANT RESISTANCE TO OOMYCETE PATHOGENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytoalexins have been shown to be important natural components in plant defense against pathogens. Although the tropical fruit crop papaya (Carica papaya L.) produces several classes of phytoalexins that have been shown to have anti-microbial activity, it is nevertheless highly susceptible to fung...

  17. Phylogenetic trees in bioinformatics

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Tom L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding the best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.

  18. Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes

    E-print Network

    Duval, Art

    Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Color-shifted complexes Weighted spanning tree enumerators of color-shifted complexes Ghodratollah Aalipour1,2 Art Duval1 1University in St. Louis October 20, 2013 Ghodratollah Aalipour, Art Duval Spanning tree enumerators of color

  19. Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes

    E-print Network

    Duval, Art

    Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Critical group of graphs Critical group of simplicial complexes Spanning trees and the critical group of simplicial complexes Art Duval1 Mathematics Colloquium New Mexico State University October 20, 2011 Duval, Klivans, Martin Spanning trees

  20. Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes

    E-print Network

    Duval, Art

    Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Critical group of graphs Critical group of simplicial complexes Spanning trees and the critical group of simplicial complexes Art Duval1 of Kansas Discrete CATS seminar University of Kentucky March 30, 2011 Duval, Klivans, Martin Spanning trees

  1. Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes

    E-print Network

    Duval, Art

    Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Critical group of graphs Critical group of simplicial complexes Spanning trees and the critical group of simplicial complexes Art Duval1 of Kansas Mathematics Seminar Reed College April 28, 2011 Duval, Klivans, Martin Spanning trees

  2. Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes

    E-print Network

    Duval, Art

    Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Complete colorful complexes Weighted spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful complexes Ghodratollah Aalipour1,2 Art Duval1 1 April 21, 2013 Ghodratollah Aalipour, Art Duval Spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful complexes

  3. Discordance of Species Trees with Their Most Likely Gene Trees

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    Discordance of Species Trees with Their Most Likely Gene Trees James H. Degnan1 , Noah A. Rosenberg way in which lineages sort during speciation, gene trees may differ in topology from each other and from species trees. Surprisingly, assuming that genetic lineages follow a coalescent model of within

  4. Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes

    E-print Network

    Duval, Art

    Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Complete colorful complexes Weighted spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful complexes Ghodratollah Aalipour1,2 Art Duval1 1 of Mississippi March 2, 2013 Ghodratollah Aalipour, Art Duval Spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful

  5. 44 TREE CARE INDUSTRY -MARCH 2002 Tree&Landscape

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    44 TREE CARE INDUSTRY - MARCH 2002 Tree&Landscape 44 II nstallation of underground irrigation green in more ways than one. From keeping trees healthy to providing a viable source of income to their clients. Improved soil con- ditions for tree growth can be achieved using irrigation, and state

  6. Evolutionary tree reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, Peter; Kanefsky, Bob

    1990-01-01

    It is described how Minimum Description Length (MDL) can be applied to the problem of DNA and protein evolutionary tree reconstruction. If there is a set of mutations that transform a common ancestor into a set of the known sequences, and this description is shorter than the information to encode the known sequences directly, then strong evidence for an evolutionary relationship has been found. A heuristic algorithm is described that searches for the simplest tree (smallest MDL) that finds close to optimal trees on the test data. Various ways of extending the MDL theory to more complex evolutionary relationships are discussed.

  7. Learning classification trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1991-01-01

    Algorithms for learning classification trees have had successes in artificial intelligence and statistics over many years. How a tree learning algorithm can be derived from Bayesian decision theory is outlined. This introduces Bayesian techniques for splitting, smoothing, and tree averaging. The splitting rule turns out to be similar to Quinlan's information gain splitting rule, while smoothing and averaging replace pruning. Comparative experiments with reimplementations of a minimum encoding approach, Quinlan's C4 and Breiman et al. Cart show the full Bayesian algorithm is consistently as good, or more accurate than these other approaches though at a computational price.

  8. Genetic diversity in the 3'-terminal region of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W) isolates from watermelon in Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Osama A; Ali, Akhtar

    2012-03-01

    The 3'-terminal region (1191 nt) containing part of the NIb gene, complete coat protein (CP) and poly-A tail of 64 papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W) isolates collected during 2008-2009 from watermelon in commercial fields of four different counties of Oklahoma were cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities ranged from 95.2-100% and 97.1-100%, respectively, among the Oklahoman PRSV-W isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PRSW-W isolates clustered according to the locations where they were collected within Oklahoma, and each cluster contained two subgroups. All subgroups of Oklahoman PRSV-W isolates were on separate branches when compared to 35 known isolates originating from other parts of the world, including the one reported previously from the USA. This study helps in our understanding about the genetic diversity of PRSV-W isolates infecting cucurbits in Oklahoma. PMID:22160129

  9. Gelatin hydrolysate from blacktip shark skin prepared using papaya latex enzyme: Antioxidant activity and its potential in model systems.

    PubMed

    Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2012-12-01

    Antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates from blacktip shark skin prepared using papaya latex enzyme with different degrees of hydrolysis (DHs: 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%) were evaluated. All antioxidant activity indices of hydrolysates increased with increasing DH (P<0.05). When gelatin hydrolysate with 40%DH was determined for its pH and thermal stability, ORAC and chelating activity remained constant or slightly increased in a wide pH range (1-9) and during heating (100°C) for 240min. It was also stable in simulated gastrointestinal tract model system. Moreover, gelatin hydrolysate at a level of 500 and 1000ppm could inhibit lipid oxidation in both ?-carotene linoleate and cooked comminuted pork model systems. Therefore, gelatin hydrolysate from blacktip shark skin (40%DH) can potentially be used as an alternative source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22953833

  10. Early diagnosis of a Mexican variant of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV-Mx) by RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Zamudio-Moreno, E; Ramirez-Prado, J H; Moreno-Valenzuela, O A; Lopez-Ochoa, L A

    2015-01-01

    Papaya meleira disease was identified in Brazil in the 1980s. The disease is caused by a double-stranded RNA virus known as Papaya meleira virus (PMeV), which has also been recently reported in Mexico. However, previously reported PMeV primers failed to diagnose the Mexican form of the disease. A genomic approach was used to identify sequences of the Mexican virus isolate, referred here to as PMeV-Mx, to develop a diagnostic method. A mini cDNA library was generated using total RNA from the latex of fruits; this RNA was also sequenced using the Illumina platform. Sequences corresponding to the previously reported 669-base pair sequence for PMeV from Brazil (PMeV-Br) were identified within the PMeV-Mx genome, exhibiting 79-92% identity with PMeV-Br. In addition, a new sequence of 1154-base pairs encoding a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase was identified in PMeV-Mx. Primers designed against this sequence detected both virus isolates, 2 amplicons of 173 and 491 base pairs from PMeV-Br and PMeV-Mx, and shared 100 and 98% identity, respectively. PMeV-Mx was found in the latex of fruits, in seedlings, and in the leaves, flowers, petioles, and seeds of mature plants. PMeV-Mx was more abundant in the latex of fruits than in the leaves. The limit of detection of the CB38/CB39 primer pair was 1 fg and 1 pg using total RNA extracted from the latex of fruits and from seedlings, respectively. A sensitive and early diagnosis protocol was developed; this method will enable the certification of seeds and seedlings prior to transplantation to the field. PMID:25730054

  11. The Average Height of Binary Trees and Other Simple Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Flajolet; Andrew M. Odlyzko

    1982-01-01

    The average height of a binary tree with n internal nodes is shown to be asymptotic to 2 6. This represents the average stack height of the simplest recursive tree traversal algorithm. The method used in this estimation is also applicable to the analysis of traversal algorithms of unary-binary trees, unbalanced 2-3 trees, t-ary trees for any t, and other

  12. Carbon Sequestration in Campus Trees

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robert S. Cole

    In this activity, students use a spreadsheet to calculate the net carbon sequestration in a set of trees; they will utilize an allometric approach based upon parameters measured on the individual trees. They determine the species of trees in the set, measure trunk diameter at a particular height, and use the spreadsheet to calculate carbon content of the tree using forestry research data.

  13. A future with broadleaved trees

    E-print Network

    A future with broadleaved trees A strategy for the Improvement of broadleaved trees in Britain and Ireland 2013-2025 Supported by #12;2 A future with broAdleAved trees Many people and organisations from and highlights areas where we believe further consideration is required. Future Trees Trust, Earth Trust

  14. COMPONENT User's Guide Consensus trees

    E-print Network

    Page, Roderic

    COMPONENT User's Guide Chapter 4 Consensus trees Consensus trees are a convenient way to summarise the agreement between two or more trees. This chapter describes the consensus methods available in COMPONENT subtree (Kubicka et al, 1992; also called the common pruned tree [Finden and Gordon, 1985]). This method

  15. Verticillium Wilt of Shade Trees

    E-print Network

    , resulting in blockage of water movement from the roots to the foliage. The tree responds to infection recurrence of the trouble. NOTE: Yews and conifers are resistant to Verticillium wilt. Redbud and smoke tree Sassafras Boxwood Horse chestnut Serviceberry Brambles Japanese pagoda tree Smoke tree Buckeye Lilac Sumac

  16. Tree of Hexagons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    In this activity students use measuring skills and follow directions to make a three-dimensional ornament. Learners construct hexagons of graduated sizes from circles and assemble them into a tree. Complete instructions are provided.

  17. Life of a Tree

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-08-09

    In this interactive activity adapted from the National Arbor Day Foundation, take a sixty-two-year journey observing the inner layers, rings, and environmental factors that affect a tree's growth and life cycle.

  18. Combining Binary Search Trees

    E-print Network

    Demaine, Erik D.

    We present a general transformation for combining a constant number of binary search tree data structures (BSTs) into a single BST whose running time is within a constant factor of the minimum of any “well-behaved” bound ...

  19. Generalized constructive tree weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivasseau, Vincent; Tanasa, Adrian

    2014-04-01

    The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

  20. Generalized constructive tree weights

    SciTech Connect

    Rivasseau, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.rivasseau@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org [LPT, CNRS UMR 8627, Univ. Paris 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Waterloo (Canada)] [LPT, CNRS UMR 8627, Univ. Paris 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Waterloo (Canada); Tanasa, Adrian, E-mail: vincent.rivasseau@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99, Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément LIPN, Institut Galilée, CNRS UMR 7030, F-93430 Villetaneuse, France and Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania)] [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99, Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément LIPN, Institut Galilée, CNRS UMR 7030, F-93430 Villetaneuse, France and Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

    2014-04-15

    The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.