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1

The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).  

PubMed

Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3x draft genome sequence of 'SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica's distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties. PMID:18432245

Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V; Lewis, Kanako L T; Salzberg, Steven L; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R; Skelton, Rachel L; Murray, Jan E; Chen, Cuixia; Qian, Wubin; Shen, Junguo; Du, Peng; Eustice, Moriah; Tong, Eric; Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Paull, Robert E; Michael, Todd P; Wall, Kerr; Rice, Danny W; Albert, Henrik; Wang, Ming-Li; Zhu, Yun J; Schatz, Michael; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Acob, Ricelle A; Guan, Peizhu; Blas, Andrea; Wai, Ching Man; Ackerman, Christine M; Ren, Yan; Liu, Chao; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Shakirov, Eugene V; Haas, Brian; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Nelson, David; Wang, Xiyin; Bowers, John E; Gschwend, Andrea R; Delcher, Arthur L; Singh, Ratnesh; Suzuki, Jon Y; Tripathi, Savarni; Neupane, Kabi; Wei, Hairong; Irikura, Beth; Paidi, Maya; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Wenli; Presting, Gernot; Windsor, Aaron; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Torres, Manuel J; Feltus, F Alex; Porter, Brad; Li, Yingjun; Burroughs, A Max; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Liu, Lei; Christopher, David A; Mount, Stephen M; Moore, Paul H; Sugimura, Tak; Jiang, Jiming; Schuler, Mary A; Friedman, Vikki; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Shippen, Dorothy E; dePamphilis, Claude W; Palmer, Jeffrey D; Freeling, Michael; Paterson, Andrew H; Gonsalves, Dennis; Wang, Lei; Alam, Maqsudul

2008-04-24

2

PAPAYA (CARICA PAPAYA L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transgenic papaya plants were initially obtained using particle bombardment, a method having a poor efficiency in producing intact, single copy insertion of transgenes. Subsequently, transformation has been improved using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. With rapid progress being made in genome sequencing...

3

The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3× draft genome sequence of `SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance

Ray Ming; Shaobin Hou; Yun Feng; Qingyi Yu; Alexandre Dionne-Laporte; Jimmy H. Saw; Pavel Senin; Wei Wang; Benjamin V. Ly; Kanako L. T. Lewis; Lu Feng; Meghan R. Jones; Rachel L. Skelton; Jan E. Murray; Cuixia Chen; Wubin Qian; Junguo Shen; Peng Du; Moriah Eustice; Eric Tong; Haibao Tang; Eric Lyons; Robert E. Paull; Todd P. Michael; Kerr Wall; Danny W. Rice; Henrik Albert; Ming-Li Wang; Yun J. Zhu; Michael Schatz; Niranjan Nagarajan; Ricelle A. Acob; Peizhu Guan; Andrea Blas; Ching Man Wai; Christine M. Ackerman; Yan Ren; Chao Liu; Jianmei Wang; Jianping Wang; Jong-Kuk Na; Eugene V. Shakirov; Brian Haas; Jyothi Thimmapuram; David Nelson; Xiyin Wang; John E. Bowers; Andrea R. Gschwend; Arthur L. Delcher; Ratnesh Singh; Jon Y. Suzuki; Savarni Tripathi; Kabi Neupane; Hairong Wei; Beth Irikura; Maya Paidi; Ning Jiang; Wenli Zhang; Gernot Presting; Aaron Windsor; Rafael Navajas-Pérez; Manuel J. Torres; F. Alex Feltus; Brad Porter; Yingjun Li; A. Max Burroughs; Ming-Cheng Luo; Lei Liu; David A. Christopher; Stephen M. Mount; Paul H. Moore; Tak Sugimura; Jiming Jiang; Mary A. Schuler; Vikki Friedman; Thomas Mitchell-Olds; Dorothy E. Shippen; Claude W. Depamphilis; Jeffrey D. Palmer; Michael Freeling; Andrew H. Paterson; Dennis Gonsalves; Lei Wang; Maqsudul Alam

2008-01-01

4

The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We report a draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree crop. The papaya genome has more than two times the DNA but about 28% fewer genes than the genome of the related botanical model Arabidopsis. A lack of genome duplication, atypical of angi...

5

Genome sequence comparison reveals a candidate gene involved in male-hermaphrodite differentiation in papaya (Carica papaya) trees.  

PubMed

The sex type of papaya (Carica papaya) is determined by the pair of sex chromosomes (XX, female; XY, male; and XY(h), hermaphrodite), in which there is a non-recombining genomic region in the Y and Y(h) chromosomes. This region is presumed to be involved in determination of males and hermaphrodites; it is designated as the male-specific region in the Y chromosome (MSY) and the hermaphrodite-specific region in the Y(h) chromosome (HSY). Here, we identified the genes determining male and hermaphrodite sex types by comparing MSY and HSY genomic sequences. In the MSY and HSY genomic regions, we identified 14,528 nucleotide substitutions and 965 short indels with a large gap and two highly diverged regions. In the predicted genes expressed in flower buds, we found no nucleotide differences leading to amino acid changes between the MSY and HSY. However, we found an HSY-specific transposon insertion in a gene (SVP like) showing a similarity to the Short Vegetative Phase (SVP) gene. Study of SVP-like transcripts revealed that the MSY allele encoded an intact protein, while the HSY allele encoded a truncated protein. Our findings demonstrated that the SVP-like gene is a candidate gene for male-hermaphrodite determination in papaya. PMID:25416421

Ueno, Hiroki; Urasaki, Naoya; Natsume, Satoshi; Yoshida, Kentaro; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Terauchi, Ryohei; Matsumura, Hideo

2015-04-01

6

Post-irradiation identification of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impact of radiation processing on the volatile essential oil profile of papaya ( Carica papaya) was investigated. Gamma-radiation processing resulted in the appearance of a new peak in the GLC profile that was identified as phenol. The observed dose dependent increase in phenol content suggested possible use of this compound as a marker for radiation processed papaya.

Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

2012-03-01

7

Ecophysiology of papaya Carica papaya L.: a review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of how papaya responds to environmental factors provides a scientific basis to develop management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. A better understanding of genotypic responses t...

8

Anticancer activity of Carica papaya: a review.  

PubMed

Carica papaya is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries and is used as food as well as traditional medicine to treat a range of diseases. Increasing anecdotal reports of its effects in cancer treatment and prevention, with many successful cases, have warranted that these pharmacological properties be scientifically validated. A bibliographic search was conducted using the key words "papaya", "anticancer", and "antitumor" along with cross-referencing. No clinical or animal cancer studies were identified and only seven in vitro cell-culture-based studies were reported; these indicate that C. papaya extracts may alter the growth of several types of cancer cell lines. However, many studies focused on specific compounds in papaya and reported bioactivity including anticancer effects. This review summarizes the results of extract-based or specific compound-based investigations and emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to explore the bioactives in C. papaya for their anticancer activities. PMID:23212988

Nguyen, Thao T T; Shaw, Paul N; Parat, Marie-Odile; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

2013-01-01

9

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF CARICA PAPAYA AS REVEALED BY AFLP MARKERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic relationships among Carica papaya cultivars, breeding lines, unimproved germplasm, and related species were established using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Seventy-one papaya accessions and related species were analyzed with nine EcoRI-MseI primer combinations. A t...

10

MAPPING PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS IN CARICA PAPAYA USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Different varieties of papaya (Carica papaya L.) vary in the phenotypic expression of agronomically important traits. Genetic loci responsible for these differences can be mapped using DNA markers to genotype a segregating progeny population derived from a controlled cross between parents having dif...

11

Carotenogenesis and physico-chemical characteristics during maturation of red fleshed papaya fruit ( Carica papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotenoid development of red fleshed papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.) was investigated in the course of a complete pre- and postharvest period using HPLC-DAD coupled to mass spectrometry. Esterified xanthophylls such as ?-cryptoxanthin laurate and caprate were the most abundant pigments during incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Subsequent fruit maturation led to a gradual accumulation of carotenoids, whereas particularly ?-cryptoxanthin laurate and

Ralf Martin Schweiggert; Christof Björn Steingass; Eric Mora; Patricia Esquivel; Reinhold Carle

2011-01-01

12

Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya ( Carica papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC–MS revealed striking similarity\\u000a of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained\\u000a only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51%

Ralf M. Schweiggert; Christof B. Steingass; Annerose Heller; Patricia Esquivel; Reinhold Carle

13

Plant lipases: partial purification of Carica papaya lipase.  

PubMed

Lipases from plants have very interesting features for application in different fields. This chapter provides an overview on some of the most important aspects of plant lipases, such as sources, applications, physiological functions, and specificities. Lipases from laticifers and particularly Carica papaya lipase (CPL) have emerged as a versatile autoimmobilized biocatalyst. However, to get a better understanding of CPL biocatalytic properties, the isolation and purification of individual C. papaya lipolytic enzymes become necessary. In this chapter, a practical protocol for partial purification of the latex-associated lipolytic activity from C. papaya is given. PMID:22426715

Rivera, Ivanna; Mateos-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Sandoval, Georgina

2012-01-01

14

Analysis Of Papaya BAC End Sequences: Insights Into The Organization Of A Tree Fruit Genome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a major tree fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions with an estimated genome size of 372 Mbp. We present the analysis of 4.7% of the papaya genome based on BAC end sequences (BESs) representing 17 million high-quality bases. Microsatellites discovered in 5,452 BE...

15

A male and hermaphrodite specific RAPD marker for papaya ( Carica papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to determine the sex of a dioecious species, Carica papaya L., with three sex types, male, female and hermaphrodite. A 450 bp marker fragment, named PSDM(Papaya Sex Determination Marker),\\u000a exists in all male and hermaphrodite plants but not in the female plants so far analyzed. The DNA sequence of PSDM exhibited

N. Urasaki; M. Tokumoto; K. Tarora; Y. Ban; T. Kayano; H. Tanaka; H. Oku; I. Chinen; R. Terauchi

2002-01-01

16

Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.).  

PubMed

Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC-MS revealed striking similarity of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51% of total carotenoids). Comparison of the pigment-loaded chromoplast ultrastructures disclosed tubular plastids to be abundant in yellow papaya, whereas larger crystalloid substructures characterized most frequent red papaya chromoplasts. Exclusively existent in red papaya, such crystalloid structures were associated with lycopene accumulation. Non-globular carotenoid deposition was derived from simple solubility calculations based on carotenoid and lipid contents of the differently colored fruit pulps. Since the physical state of carotenoid deposition may be decisive regarding their bioavailability, chromoplasts from lycopene-rich tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were also assessed and compared to red papaya. Besides interesting analogies, various distinctions were ascertained resulting in the prediction of enhanced lycopene bioavailability from red papaya. In addition, the developmental pathway of red papaya chromoplasts was investigated during fruit ripening and carotenogenesis. In the early maturation stage of white-fleshed papaya, undifferentiated proplastids and globular plastids were predominant, corresponding to incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Since intermediate plastids, e.g., amyloplasts or chloroplasts, were absent, chromoplasts are likely to emerge directly from proplastids. PMID:21706336

Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B; Heller, Annerose; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

2011-11-01

17

Carica papaya lipase-catalyzed synthesis of terpene esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient approach to synthesize terpene esters using plant lipase-Carica papaya lipase (CPL) as the biocatalyst was developed in this work. The effects of chain length of acyl donor and solvent type on the CPL-catalyzed transesterification reaction were investigated firstly. It was found that CPL showed the highest activity in n-hexane with vinyl octanoate as the best acyl donor. To

Pengyong You; Erzheng Su; Xuepeng Yang; Duobin Mao; Dongzhi Wei

2011-01-01

18

Spiders associated with papaya, Carica papaya L., in Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The main objective of this work was to study the species composition and population dynamics of spiders associated with papaya plantings in three papaya production areas: Corozal, Isabela, and Lajas, Puerto Rico. Nineteen species representing seven families and 15 genera were identified. Members of ...

19

Erwinia mallotivora sp., a New Pathogen of Papaya (Carica papaya) in Peninsular Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414). Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch’s postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya. PMID:21339975

Amin, Noriha Mat; Bunawan, Hamidun; Redzuan, Rohaiza Ahmad; Jaganath, Indu Bala S.

2011-01-01

20

Erwinia mallotivora sp., a new pathogen of papaya (Carica papaya) in Peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414). Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch's postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya. PMID:21339975

Amin, Noriha Mat; Bunawan, Hamidun; Redzuan, Rohaiza Ahmad; Jaganath, Indu Bala S

2010-01-01

21

ANALYSIS OF PAPAYA BAC END SEQUENCES REVEALS FIRST INSIGHTS INTO THE ORGANIZATION OF A TREE-FRUIT GENOME  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a major tree fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions with an estimated genome size of 372 Mbp. Here we present the sequence analysis of 4.7% of the papaya genome based on 50,661 BAC end sequences (BESs) representing 17,483,563 high quality bases generated from 26,...

22

ANALYSIS OF PAPAYA BAC END SEQUENCES REVEALS FIRST INSIGHTS INTO THE ORGANIZATION OF A FRUIT TREE GENOME  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a major tree fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions with an estimated genome size of 372 Mbp. We present the analysis of 4.7% of the papaya genome based on BAC end sequences (BESs) representing 17 million high quality bases. Microsatellites discovered in 5,452 BE...

23

Quantification of the antiplasmodial alkaloid carpaine in papaya (Carica papaya) leaves.  

PubMed

Daily consumption of papaya (Carica papaya) leaves as greens and an herbal infusion is common in some parts of Indonesia as a means for preventing malaria. Antiplasmodial activity of the leaf extracts and of the main alkaloid carpaine were recently confirmed. A quantitative assay for determination of carpaine in papaya leaves was developed and validated. The assay involved pressurized liquid extraction and quantification with the aid of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Extraction conditions were optimized with respect to solvent, temperature, and number of extraction cycles. The ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy assay was validated over a range of 20-5000 ng/mL (R(2) of 0.9908). A total of 29 papaya leaf samples were analyzed, and carpaine concentration in dry leaves was found to range from 0.02 to 0.31%. No obvious dependence on geographic origin and leaf maturity was observed. PMID:25153096

Julianti, Tasqiah; Oufir, Mouhssin; Hamburger, Matthias

2014-08-01

24

Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts  

PubMed Central

The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×103/µL, 8.10×103/µL, 84.0% to 55×103/µL, 3.7×103/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×103/µL to 168×103/µL, WBC from 3.7×103/µL to 7.7×103/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases. PMID:23569787

Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

2011-01-01

25

Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts.  

PubMed

The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×10(3)/µL, 8.10×10(3)/µL, 84.0% to 55×10(3)/µL, 3.7×10(3)/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×10(3)/µL to 168×10(3)/µL, WBC from 3.7×10(3)/µL to 7.7×10(3)/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases. PMID:23569787

Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

2011-08-01

26

Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas ( Carica papaya L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Papaya is cultivated in Espírito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature.

Camargo, R. J.; Tadini, C. C.; Sabato, S. F.

2007-11-01

27

Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract  

PubMed Central

Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1?mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

2014-01-01

28

[Aroma of the papaya fruit (Carica papaya, L.): indication of volatile precursors of terpene compounds].  

PubMed

In fruit pulp of papaya (Carica papaya, L.) the enzymes were inhibited by Hg2+. These sample were compared with others, in which the enzymes had not been inhibited. After separation and prefractionation of volatiles by means of high vacuum distillation/solvent extraction and subsequent adsorption chromatography on silicagel, capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that in the experiment with Hg2+ the formation of terpene alcohols and hydrocarbons as well as benzylisothiocyanate was totally inhibited. The formation of linalooloxides and related compounds was inhibited to about 60%. From these results the occurrence of bound terpene precursors in papaya fruit may be postulated, from which the free volatile terpenes are enzymatically liberated after decompartmentalization of tissue during fruit pulp preparation. PMID:4002865

Schreier, P; Lehr, M; Heidlas, J; Idstein, H

1985-04-01

29

Novel thigmomorphogenetic responses in Carica papaya: touch decreases anthocyanin levels and stimulates petiole cork outgrowths  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Because of its rapid growth rate, relative ease of transformation, sequenced genome and low gene number relative to Arabidopsis, the tropical fruit tree, Carica papaya, can serve as a complementary genetic model for complex traits. Here, new phenotypes and touch-regulated gene homologues have been identified that can be used to advance the understanding of thigmomorphogenesis, a multigenic response involving mechanoreception and morphological change. Methods Morphological alterations were quantified, and microscopy of tissue was conducted. Assays for hypocotyl anthocyanins, lignin and chlorophyll were performed, and predicted genes from C. papaya were compared with Arabidopsis touch-inducible (TCH) and Mechanosensitive channel of Small conductance-like genes (MscS-like or MSL). In addition, the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues was characterized. Key Results On the abaxial side of petioles, treated plants were found to have novel, hypertrophic outgrowths associated with periderm and suberin. Touched plants also had higher lignin, dramatically less hypocotyl anthocyanins and chlorophyll, increased hypocotyl diameter, and decreased leaf width, stem length and root fresh weight. Papaya was found to have fewer MSL genes than Arabidopsis, and four touch-regulated genes in Arabidopsis had no counterparts in papaya. Water-spray treatment was found to enhance the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues whereas induction following touch was only slightly correlated. Conclusions The novel petiole outgrowths caused by non-wounding, mechanical perturbation may be the result of hardening mechanisms, including added lignin, providing resistance against petiole movement. Inhibition of anthocyanin accumulation following touch, a new phenotypic association, may be caused by diversion of p-coumaroyl CoA away from chalcone synthase for lignin synthesis. The absence of MSL and touch-gene homologues indicates that papaya may have a smaller set of touch-regulated genes. The genes and novel touch-regulated phenotypes identified here will contribute to a more comprehensive view of thigmomorphogenesis in plants. PMID:19182220

Porter, Brad W.; Zhu, Yun J.; Webb, David T.; Christopher, David A.

2009-01-01

30

Influence of ripening stages on antioxidant properties of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv Eksotika) is one of the most commonly consumed tropical fruits by humans, especially Malaysians. The objective of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidants activity in different ripening stages of papaya fruit. The fruits were harvested at five different, stages RS1, RS2, RS3, RS4, and RS5 corresponding to 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 weeks after anthesis, respectively. Papayas fruit at five different stage of ripening were obtained from farms at Pusat Flora Cheras, JabatanPertanian and Hulu Langat Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia. The antioxidants activity were analyzed using the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The analyses were conducted in triplicate and the data were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS. The results showed significant differences (P< 0.05) were found at different stages of ripening. The total phenol content TPC, TFC, FRAP and DPPH values increased significantly (P<0.05) with the ripening process. The results showed the important role of the ripening stage in increasing the antioxidant content of papaya fruits.

Addai, Zuhair Radhi; Abdullah, Aminah; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.

2013-11-01

31

Proteomic analysis of papaya (Carica papaya L.) displaying typical sticky disease symptoms.  

PubMed

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) hosts the only described laticifer-infecting virus (Papaya meleira virus, PMeV), which is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease. To understand the systemic effects of PMeV in papaya, we conducted a comprehensive proteomic analysis of leaf samples from healthy and diseased plants grown under field conditions. First, a reference 2-DE map was established for proteins from healthy samples. A total of 486 reproducible spots were identified, and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS data identified 275 proteins accounting for 159 distinct proteins from 231 spots that were annotated. Second, the differential expression of proteins from healthy and diseased leaves was determined through parallel experiments, using 2-DE and DIGE followed by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and LC-IonTrap-MS/MS, respectively. Conventional 2-DE analysis revealed 75 differentially expressed proteins. Of those, 48 proteins were identified, with 26 being upregulated (U) and 22 downregulated (D). In general, metabolism-related proteins were downregulated, and stress-responsive proteins were upregulated. This expression pattern was corroborated by the results of the DIGE analysis, which identified 79 differentially expressed proteins, with 23 identified (17 U and 6 D). Calreticulin and the proteasome subunits 20S and RPT5a were shown to be upregulated during infection by both 2-DE and DIGE analyses. These data may help shed light on plant responses against stresses and viral infections. PMID:21630455

Rodrigues, Silas P; Ventura, José A; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Almeida, Igor C; Fernandes, Patricia M B; Zingali, Russolina B

2011-07-01

32

Habitat fragmentation threatens wild populations of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) in a lowland rainforest.  

PubMed

• Premise of the study: Wild populations of domesticated species constitute a genetic reservoir and are fundamental to the evolutionary potential of species. Wild papaya (Carica papaya) is a rare, short-lived, gap-colonizing, dioecious tree that persists in the forest by continuous dispersal. Theoretically, these life-history characteristics render wild papaya highly susceptible to habitat fragmentation, with anticipated negative effects on its gene pool. Further, species dioecy may cause founder effects to generate local biases in sex ratio, decreasing effective population size.• Methods: We contrasted the genetic diversity and structure of C. papaya between wild populations from rainforest fragments and continuous forest at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. We evaluated recent migration rates among populations as well as landscape resistance to gene flow. Finally, we calculated the sex ratio of the populations in both habitats.• Key results: Populations of wild papaya in rainforest fragments showed lower genetic diversity and higher population differentiation than populations in continuous rainforest. Estimates of recent migration rates showed a higher percentage of migrants moving from the continuous forest to the forest fragments than in the opposite direction. Agricultural land and cattle pasture were found to be the most resistant matrices to gene flow. Finally, biased sex ratios were seen to affect the effective population size in both habitats.• Conclusions: The mating system, rarity, and short life cycle of C. papaya are exacerbating the effects of rainforest fragmentation on its genetic diversity, threatening the persistence of its natural populations in the proposed place of origin as well as its genetic reservoir. PMID:25016010

Chávez-Pesqueira, Mariana; Suárez-Montes, Pilar; Castillo, Guillermo; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

2014-07-11

33

Cloning and expression analysis of phytoene desaturase and ?-carotene desaturase genes in Carica papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruit flesh color of papaya is an important nutritional quality trait and is due to the accumulation of carotenoid. To\\u000a elucidate the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in Carica papaya, the phytoene desaturase (PDS) and the ?-carotene desaturase (ZDS) genes were isolated from papaya (named CpPDS and CpZDS) using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approach, and their expression levels

P. Yan; X. Z. Gao; W. T. Shen; P. Zhou

2011-01-01

34

Carica papaya lipase (CPL): an emerging and versatile biocatalyst.  

PubMed

In recent years, the Carica papaya lipase (CPL) is attracting more and more interest. This hydrolase, being tightly bonded to the water-insoluble fraction of crude papain, is thus considered as a "naturally immobilized" biocatalyst. To date, several CPL applications have already been described: (i) fats and oils modification, derived from the sn-3 selectivity of CPL as well as from its preference for short-chain fatty acids; (ii) esterification and inter-esterification reactions in organic media, accepting a wide range of acids and alcohols as substrates; (iii) more recently, the asymmetric resolution of different non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), 2-(chlorophenoxy)propionic acids, and non-natural amino acids. Taking into account the novelty and the current interest of the topic, this review aims to highlight the origin, features, and applications of the C. papaya lipase, with the objective to prompt research groups to further investigate the spectra of applications that this emerging and versatile CPL could have in the future. PMID:16716557

Domínguez de María, Pablo; Sinisterra, José V; Tsai, Shau-Wei; Alcántara, Andrés R

2006-01-01

35

Purification and characterization of a papaya (Carica papaya L.) pectin methylesterase isolated from a commercial papain preparation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We purified a single stable pectin methylesterase (CpL-PME; EC 3.1.1.11) from a commercial papain preparation, which is isolated from Carica papaya (L.) fruit latex. This CpL-PME was separated from the abundant cysteine endopeptidases activities using sequential hydrophobic interaction and cation-ex...

36

Antiulcerogenic activity of Carica papaya seed in rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the gastroprotective and healing effects of the methanolic extract of the seed of the papaya Carica papaya L. (MECP) in rats. Models of acute gastric ulcer induction by ethanol and indomethacin and of chronic ulcer by acetic acid were used. The gastric juice and mucus parameters were evaluated using the pylorus ligation model, and the involvement of sulfhydryl compounds (GSH) and nitric oxide in the gastroprotective effect was analyzed using the ethanol model. The toxicity was assessed through toxicity tests. No signs of toxicity were observed when the rats received a single dose of 2000 mg/kg of extract. The MECP in doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the gastric lesion with 56, 76, and 82 % inhibition, respectively, and a dose of 30 mg/kg lansoprazole showed 79 % inhibition in the ethanol model. MECP (125, 250, 500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) reduced the gastric lesion in the indomethacin model, with 62, 67, 81, and 85 % inhibition, respectively. The MECP (500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) treatments showed a reduction in ulcerative symptoms induced by acetic acid by 84 and 73 %, respectively. The antiulcerogenic activity seems to involve GSH because the inhibition dropped from 72 to 13 % in the presence of a GSH inhibitor. Moreover, the MECP showed systemic action, increasing the mucus production and decreasing gastric acidity. Treatments with MECP induce gastroprotection without signs of toxicity. This effect seems to involve sulfhydryl compounds, increased mucus, and reduced gastric acidity. PMID:25418890

Pinto, Lorraine Aparecida; Cordeiro, Kátia Wolff; Carrasco, Viviane; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Cardoso, Cláudia Andréa Lima; Argadoña, Eliana Janet Sanjinez; Freitas, Karine de Cássia

2015-03-01

37

Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain\\u000a bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic\\u000a solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest

Pedro Chávez-Quintal; Tania González-Flores; Ingrid Rodríguez-Buenfil; Santiago Gallegos-Tintoré

2011-01-01

38

Identification and biochemical characterization of a GDSL-motif carboxylester hydrolase from Carica papaya latex  

Microsoft Academic Search

An esterase (CpEst) showing high specific activities on tributyrin and short chain vinyl esters was obtained from Carica papaya latex after an extraction step with zwitterionic detergent and sonication, followed by gel filtration chromatography. Although the protein could not be purified to complete homogeneity due to its presence in high molecular mass aggregates, a major protein band with an apparent

Slim Abdelkafi; Hiroyuki Ogata; Nathalie Barouh; Benjamin Fouquet; Régine Lebrun; Michel Pina; Frantz Scheirlinckx; Pierre Villeneuve; Frédéric Carrière

2009-01-01

39

An evaluation of street-vended sliced papaya ( Carica papaya) for bacteria and indicator micro-organisms of public health significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty samples of ripe papaya (Carica papaya) slices, collected in Calcutta from the itinerant roadside vendors were collected over a 3-month period. The papaya were tested for total aerobic plate count (TPC), coliform and fecal coliform counts, and various foodborne pathogens. TPCs ranged from 3·3 to 6·52 log cfu g?1 (average=5·96 log cfu g?1). Eleven samples had counts >6 log

R. Mukhopadhyay; A. Mitra; R. Roy; A. K. Guha

2002-01-01

40

Antiplasmodial Properties and Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Carica papaya Leaves.  

PubMed

We investigated the antiplasmodial properties of crude extracts from Carica papaya leaves to trace the activity through bioassay-guided fractionation. The greatest antiplasmodial activity was observed in the ethyl acetate crude extract. C. papaya showed a high selectivity for P. falciparum against CHO cells with a selectivity index of 249.25 and 185.37 in the chloroquine-sensitive D10 and chloroquine-resistant DD2 strains, respectively. Carica papaya ethyl acetate extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation to ascertain the most active fraction, which was purified and identified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry) methods. Linoleic and linolenic acids identified from the ethyl acetate fraction showed IC(50) of 6.88??g/ml and 3.58??g/ml, respectively. The study demonstrated greater antiplasmodial activity of the crude ethyl acetate extract of Carica papaya leaves with an IC(50) of 2.96 ± 0.14??g/ml when compared to the activity of the fractions and isolated compounds. PMID:22174990

Melariri, Paula; Campbell, William; Etusim, Paschal; Smith, Peter

2011-01-01

41

Wound-healing potential of an ethanol extract of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) seeds.  

PubMed

Carica papaya L. (Linn) (Caricaceae) is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment for various wounds, particularly burns. This study evaluated the wound-healing and antimicrobial activity of C. papaya seed extract. Ethanol extract of C. papaya seed (50 mg/kg/day) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity in Sprague-Dawley rats using excision wound model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each (group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with papaya seed extract, group 3 treated with a standard drug mupirocin and papaya seed extract (1:1 ratio) and group 4 treated with a mupirocin ointment. Rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content were determined to assess the wound-healing activity of the seed extract. The group 2 animals showed a significant decrease in wound area of 89% over 13 days when compared with groups 1 (82%), 3 (86%) and 4 (84%) respectively. The hydroxyproline content was significantly higher with the granulation tissue obtained from group 2 animals which were treated with C. papaya seed extract. Histological analysis of granulation tissue of the group 2 animals showed the deposition of well-organized collagen. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that C. papaya promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation for this activity in humans is suggested. PMID:22296524

Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramdeen, Ria; Adogwa, Andrew; Ramsubhag, Adash; Marshall, Julien Rhodney

2012-12-01

42

SODIUM TETRATHIONATE EFFECT ON PAPAIN PURIFICATION FROM DIFFERENT Carica papaya LATEX CRUDE EXTRACTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papain from latex of Carica papaya was purified up to matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry homogeneity by salt precipitation from two different crude extract sources: a refined preparation obtained in our laboratory and a commercial one. Sodium tetrathionate was tested in the purification process to preserve the enzymatic activity of the peptidase. Purification was checked by sodium

Carlos R. Llerena-Suster; Nora S. Priolo; Susana R. Morcelle

2011-01-01

43

Comparison of the Carotenoids in Yellow-and Red-fleshed Carica papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE colour of ripe Carica papaya flesh is due to caro-tenoid. Cryptoxanthin, violaxanthin, beta-carotene, and zeta-carotene have been identified1,2 in yellow-fleshed fruit. Red-fleshed varieties, which appear to exhibit a single gene difference from yellow-fleshed types3, can also be found. It was of interest to establish the pigment composition of the red-fleshed variety and at the same time to make a

H. Y. Yamamoto

1964-01-01

44

Identification and expression of the WRKY transcription factors of Carica papaya in response to abiotic and biotic stresses.  

PubMed

The WRKY transcription factor (TF) plays a very important role in the response of plants to various abiotic and biotic stresses. A local papaya database was built according to the GenBank expressed sequence tag database using the BioEdit software. Fifty-two coding sequences of Carica papaya WRKY TFs were predicted using the tBLASTn tool. The phylogenetic tree of the WRKY proteins was classified. The expression profiles of 13 selected C. papaya WRKY TF genes under stress induction were constructed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of these WRKY genes in response to 3 abiotic and 2 biotic stresses were evaluated. TF807.3 and TF72.14 are upregulated by low temperature; TF807.3, TF43.76, TF12.199 and TF12.62 are involved in the response to drought stress; TF9.35, TF18.51, TF72.14 and TF12.199 is involved in response to wound; TF12.199, TF807.3, TF21.156 and TF18.51 was induced by PRSV pathogen; TF72.14 and TF43.76 are upregulated by SA. The regulated expression levels of above eight genes normalized against housekeeping gene actin were significant at probability of 0.01 levels. These WRKY TFs could be related to corresponding stress resistance and selected as the candidate genes, especially, the two genes TF807.3 and TF12.199, which were regulated notably by four stresses respectively. This study may provide useful information and candidate genes for the development of transgenic stress tolerant papaya varieties. PMID:24390238

Pan, Lin-Jie; Jiang, Ling

2014-03-01

45

Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds.  

PubMed

Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC(50) for the leaf extract was 0.625 mg ml(-1) for Fusarium spp. and >10 mg ml(-1) for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties. PMID:22282629

Chávez-Quintal, Pedro; González-Flores, Tania; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintoré, Santiago

2011-01-01

46

Antihypertensive effect of Carica papaya via a reduction in ACE activity and improved baroreflex.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to evaluate the antihypertensive effects of the standardised methanolic extract of Carica papaya, its angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effects in vivo, its effect on the baroreflex and serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity, and its chemical composition. The chemical composition of the methanolic extract of C. papaya was evaluated by liquid chromatography-mass/mass and mass/mass spectrometry. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effect was evaluated in vivo by Ang I administration. The antihypertensive assay was performed in spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar rats that were treated with enalapril (10 mg/kg), the methanolic extract of C. papaya (100 mg/kg; twice a day), or vehicle for 30 days. The baroreflex was evaluated through the use of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine. Angiotensin converting enzyme activity was measured by ELISA, and cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by morphometric analysis. The methanolic extract of C. papaya was standardised in ferulic acid (203.41 ± 0.02 µg/g), caffeic acid (172.60 ± 0.02 µg/g), gallic acid (145.70 ± 0.02 µg/g), and quercetin (47.11 ± 0.03 µg/g). The flavonoids quercetin, rutin, nicotiflorin, clitorin, and manghaslin were identified in a fraction of the extract. The methanolic extract of C. papaya elicited angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity. The antihypertensive effects elicited by the methanolic extract of C. papaya were similar to those of enalapril, and the baroreflex sensitivity was normalised in treated spontaneously hypertensive rats. Plasma angiotensin converting enzyme activity and cardiac hypertrophy were also reduced to levels comparable to the enalapril-treated group. These results may be associated with the chemical composition of the methanolic extract of C. papaya, and are the first step into the development of a new phytotherapic product which could be used in the treatment of hypertension. PMID:25295669

Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Ronchi, Silas Nascimento; do Nascimento, Andrews Marques; de Lima, Ewelyne Miranda; Romão, Wanderson; da Costa, Helber Barcellos; Scherer, Rodrigo; Ventura, José Aires; Lenz, Dominik; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza; Endringer, Denise Coutinho; de Andrade, Tadeu Uggere

2014-11-01

47

Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract.  

PubMed

Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) following lead acetate administration and pre-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) followed by lead acetate administration. The substances were administered for 14 days. The effects were evaluated by measuring protein carbonyl content (PCC) and glutathione content (GC) in the bone marrow. Histological changes in the bone marrow were also observed. The results showed that Carica papaya induced a significant reduction in the PCC activity and significantly increased the GC in the bone marrow. Carica papaya also improved the histology of the bone marrow compared with that of the lead acetate-treated group. In summary, Carica papaya was effective against the oxidative damage caused by lead acetate in the bone marrow and had a stimulatory effect on haemopoiesis. PMID:23403524

Tham, Ching S; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Haleagrahara, Nagaraja; DE Alwis, Ranjit

2013-02-01

48

Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract  

PubMed Central

Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) following lead acetate administration and pre-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) followed by lead acetate administration. The substances were administered for 14 days. The effects were evaluated by measuring protein carbonyl content (PCC) and glutathione content (GC) in the bone marrow. Histological changes in the bone marrow were also observed. The results showed that Carica papaya induced a significant reduction in the PCC activity and significantly increased the GC in the bone marrow. Carica papaya also improved the histology of the bone marrow compared with that of the lead acetate-treated group. In summary, Carica papaya was effective against the oxidative damage caused by lead acetate in the bone marrow and had a stimulatory effect on haemopoiesis. PMID:23403524

THAM, CHING S.; CHAKRAVARTHI, SRIKUMAR; HALEAGRAHARA, NAGARAJA; DE ALWIS, RANJIT

2013-01-01

49

Correlation between ethylene emission and skin colour changes during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The skin colour changes and ethylene emission rates were monitored during papaya (C. papaya L.) fruit ripening. Two groups of papaya (‘Formosa’ and ‘Solo’) were applied in this study. The total colour difference was used as measured parameter and the corresponding half time of its saturation was used as correlation parameter. A high correlation factor between the saturation half time and corresponding climacteric peak time was found. It was concluded that high ethylene emission rate in ‘Solo’ fruit promotes a quick change of the total colour difference.

da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Vitoria, A. P.; Corrêa, S. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Campostrini, E.; Santos, E. O.; Cavalli, A.; Vargas, H.

2005-06-01

50

Complete nucleotide sequence of a monopartite Begomovirus and associated satellites infecting Carica papaya in Nepal.  

PubMed

Carica papaya (papaya) is a fruit crop that is cultivated mostly in kitchen gardens throughout Nepal. Leaf samples of C. papaya plants with leaf curling, vein darkening, vein thickening, and a reduction in leaf size were collected from a garden in Darai village, Rampur, Nepal in 2010. Full-length clones of a monopartite Begomovirus, a betasatellite and an alphasatellite were isolated. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Begomovirus showed the arrangement of genes typical of Old World begomoviruses with the highest nucleotide sequence identity (>99 %) to an isolate of Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV), confirming it as an isolate of AYVV. The complete nucleotide sequence of betasatellite showed greater than 89 % nucleotide sequence identity to an isolate of Tomato leaf curl Java betasatellite originating from Indonesian. The sequence of the alphasatellite displayed 92 % nucleotide sequence identity to Sida yellow vein China alphasatellite. This is the first identification of these components in Nepal and the first time they have been identified in papaya. PMID:23397078

Shahid, M S; Yoshida, S; Khatri-Chhetri, G B; Briddon, R W; Natsuaki, K T

2013-06-01

51

Antihyperglycaemic effects of ethanol extracts of Carica papaya and Pandanus amaryfollius leaf in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes mellitus is a global disease that is increasing in an alarming rate. The present study was undertaken to study the antidiabetic effect of the ethanol extracts of Carica papaya and Pandanus amaryfollius on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. The results of the present study indicated that there was no significant difference in the body weight of the treated groups when compared

Sreenivasan Sasidharan; Vello Sumathi; Naidu Rameshwar Jegathambigai; Lachimanan Yoga Latha

2011-01-01

52

Flavonoid from Carica papaya inhibits NS2B-NS3 protease and prevents Dengue 2 viral assembly  

PubMed Central

Dengue virus belongs to the virus family Flaviviridae. Dengue hemorrhagic disease caused by dengue virus is a public health problem worldwide. The viral non structural 2B and 3 (NS2B-NS3) protease complex is crucial for virus replication and hence, it is considered to be a good anti-viral target. Leaf extracts from Carica papaya is generally prescribed for patients with dengue fever, but there are no scientific evidences for its anti-dengue activity; hence we intended to investigate the anti-viral activity of compounds present in the leaves of Carica papaya against dengue 2 virus (DENV-2). We analysed the anti-dengue activities of the extracts from Carica papaya by using bioinformatics tools. Interestingly, we find the flavonoid quercetin with highest binding energy against NS2B-NS3 protease which is evident by the formation of six hydrogen bonds with the amino acid residues at the binding site of the receptor. Our results suggest that the flavonoids from Carica papaya have significant anti-dengue activities. Abbreviations ADME - Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, BBB - Blood brain barrier, CYP - Cytochrome P450, DENV - – Dengue virus, DHF - Dengue hemorrhagic fever, DSS - Dengue shock syndrome, GCMS - – Gas chromatography- Mass spectrometry, MOLCAD - Molecular Computer Aided Design, NS - Non structural, PDB - Protein data bank, PMF - Potential Mean Force. PMID:24307765

Senthilvel, Padmanaban; Lavanya, Pandian; Kumar, Kalavathi Murugan; Swetha, Rayapadi; Anitha, Parimelzaghan; Bag, Susmita; Sarveswari, Sundaramoorthy; Vijayakumar, Vijayaparthasarathi; Ramaiah, Sudha; Anbarasu, Anand

2013-01-01

53

Production of fatty acid butyl esters using the low cost naturally immobilized Carica papaya lipase.  

PubMed

In this work, the low cost naturally immobilized Carica papaya lipase (CPL) was investigated for production of fatty acid butyl esters (FABE) to fulfill the aim of reducing the lipase cost in the enzymatic butyl-biodiesel process. The CPL showed specificities to different alcohol acyl acceptors. Alcohols with more than three carbon atoms did not have negative effects on the CPL activity. The CPL catalyzed butanolysis for FABE production was systematically investigated. The reaction solvent, alcohol/oil molar ratio, enzyme amount, reaction temperature, and water activity all affected the butanolysis process. Under the optimized conditions, the highest conversion of 96% could be attained in 24 h. These optimal conditions were further applied to CPL catalyzed butanolysis of other vegetable oils. All of them showed very high conversion. The CPL packed-bed reactor was further developed, and could be operated continuously for more than 150 h. All of these results showed that the low cost Carica papaya lipase can be used as a promising lipase for biodiesel production. PMID:24954104

Su, Erzheng; Wei, Dongzhi

2014-07-01

54

Carica papaya lipase: a naturally immobilized enzyme with interesting biochemical properties.  

PubMed

Triacylglycerol (TAG) lipases have been thoroughly characterized in mammals and microorganisms, whereas very little is known about plant TAG lipases. The lipolytic activity occurring in all the laticies is known to be associated with sedimentable particles, and all attempts to solubilize the lipolytic activity of Carica papaya latex have been unsuccessful so far. However, some of the biochemical properties of the lipase from Carica papaya latex (CPL) were determined from the insoluble fraction of the latex. The activity was optimum at a temperature of 37°C and a pH of 9.0, and the specific activities of CPL were found to be 2,000?±?185 and 256?±?8 U/g when tributyrin and olive oil were used as substrates, respectively. CPL was found to be active in the absence of any detergent, whereas many lipases require detergent to prevent the occurrence of interfacial denaturation. CPL was inactive in the presence of micellar concentrations of Triton X-100, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and tetradecyl trimethylammonium bromide (TTAB), and still showed high levels of activity in the presence of sodium taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC) and the zwitterionic Chaps detergent. The effects of various proteases on the lipolytic activity of CPL were studied, and CPL was found to be resistant to treatment with various enzymes, except in the presence of trypsin. All these properties suggest that CPL may be a good candidate for various biotechnological applications. PMID:21267783

Abdelkafi, Slim; Barouh, Nathalie; Fouquet, Benjamin; Fendri, Imen; Pina, Michel; Scheirlinckx, Frantz; Villeneuve, Pierre; Carrière, Frédéric

2011-03-01

55

Identification and expression of C2H2 transcription factor genes in Carica papaya under abiotic and biotic stresses.  

PubMed

C2H2 proteins belong to a group of transcription factors (TFs) existing as a superfamily that plays important roles in defense responses and various other physiological processes in plants. The present study aimed to screen for and identify C2H2 proteins associated with defense responses to abiotic and biotic stresses in Carica papaya L. Data were collected for 47,483 papaya-expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The full-length cDNA nucleotide sequences of 87 C2H2 proteins were predicated by BioEdit. All 91 C2H2 proteins were aligned, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed using DNAman. The expression levels of 42 C2H2 were analyzed under conditions of salt stress by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Methyl jasmonate treatment rapidly upregulated ZF(23.4) and ZF(30,912.1) by 18.6- and 21.7-fold, respectively. ZF(1.3), ZF(138.44), ZF(94.49), ZF(29.160), and ZF(20.206) were found to be downregulated after low temperature treatment at very significant levels (p < 0.01). ZF(23.4), ZF(161.1), and ZF(30,912.1) were upregulated while ZF1.3, ZF(158.1), ZF(249.5), ZF(138.44), ZF(94.49), ZF(29.160), and ZF(20.206) were significantly downregulated by Spermine treatment. ZF(23.4) was upregulated while ZF(1.3), ZF(249.5), ZF(94.94), ZF(29.160), ZF(138.44), and ZF(20.206) were significantly repressed after SA treatment. ZF(23.4) and ZF(30,912.1) were significantly upregulated after sap inoculation with papaya ringspot virus pathogen. ZF(30,912.1) was subcellularly localized in the nucleus by a transgenic fusion of pBS-ZF(30,912.1)-GFP into the protoplast of papaya. The results of the present study showed that ZF(30,912.1) could be an important TF that mediates responses to abiotic and biotic stresses in papaya. PMID:22484790

Jiang, Ling; Pan, Lin-jie

2012-06-01

56

Postharvest Variation in Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymes of Papaya (Carica papaya L.) during Fruit Ripening 1  

PubMed Central

Pectin methylesterase (PME), polygalacturonase (PG), xylanase, cellulase, and proteinase activity were determined and related to respiration, ethylene evolution, and changes in skin color of papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit from harvest through to the start of fruit breakdown. PME gradually increased from the start of the climacteric rise reaching a peak 2 days after the respiratory peak. PG and xylanase were not detectable in the preclimacteric stage but increased during the climacteric: during the post climacteric stage, the PG declined to a level one-quarter of peak activity with xylanase activity returning to zero. Cellulase activity gradually increased 3-fold after harvest to peak at the same time as PME, 2 days after the edible stage. Proteinase declined throughout the climacteric and postclimacteric phases. A close relationship exists between PG and xylanase and the rise in respiration, ethylene evolution, and softening. Cultivar differences in postclimacteric levels of enzymic activity were not detected. An inhibitor of cellulase activity was detected in preclimacteric fruit. The inhibitor was not benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC). BITC did inhibit PG activity, though no inhibitor of PG activity was detected in preclimacteric homogenates when BITC was highest. The results indicate that inhibitors did not play a direct role in controlling wall softening. PMID:16663010

Paull, Robert E.; Chen, Nancy Jung

1983-01-01

57

Development of a Gene-Centered SSR Atlas as a Resource for Papaya (Carica papaya) Marker-Assisted Selection and Population Genetic Studies  

PubMed Central

Carica papaya (papaya) is an economically important tropical fruit. Molecular marker-assisted selection is an inexpensive and reliable tool that has been widely used to improve fruit quality traits and resistance against diseases. In the present study we report the development and validation of an atlas of papaya simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We integrated gene predictions and functional annotations to provide a gene-centered perspective for marker-assisted selection studies. Our atlas comprises 160,318 SSRs, from which 21,231 were located in genic regions (i.e. inside exons, exon-intron junctions or introns). A total of 116,453 (72.6%) of all identified repeats were successfully mapped to one of the nine papaya linkage groups. Primer pairs were designed for markers from 9,594 genes (34.5% of the papaya gene complement). Using papaya-tomato orthology assessments, we assembled a list of 300 genes (comprising 785 SSRs) potentially involved in fruit ripening. We validated our atlas by screening 73 SSR markers (including 25 fruit ripening genes), achieving 100% amplification rate and uncovering 26% polymorphism rate between the parental genotypes (Sekati and JS12). The SSR atlas presented here is the first comprehensive gene-centered collection of annotated and genome positioned papaya SSRs. These features combined with thousands of high-quality primer pairs make the atlas an important resource for the papaya research community. PMID:25393538

Vidal, Newton Medeiros; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Ramos, Helaine Christine Cancela; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Venancio, Thiago Motta

2014-01-01

58

Carica papaya MicroRNAs Are Responsive to Papaya meleira virus Infection  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs are implicated in the response to biotic stresses. Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of sticky disease, a commercially important pathology in papaya for which there are currently no resistant varieties. PMeV has a number of unusual features, such as residence in the laticifers of infected plants, and the response of the papaya to PMeV infection is not well understood. The protein levels of 20S proteasome subunits increase during PMeV infection, suggesting that proteolysis could be an important aspect of the plant defense response mechanism. To date, 10,598 plant microRNAs have been identified in the Plant miRNAs Database, but only two, miR162 and miR403, are from papaya. In this study, known plant microRNA sequences were used to search for potential microRNAs in the papaya genome. A total of 462 microRNAs, representing 72 microRNA families, were identified. The expression of 11 microRNAs, whose targets are involved in 20S and 26S proteasomal degradation and in other stress response pathways, was compared by real-time PCR in healthy and infected papaya leaf tissue. We found that the expression of miRNAs involved in proteasomal degradation increased in response to very low levels of PMeV titre and decreased as the viral titre increased. In contrast, miRNAs implicated in the plant response to biotic stress decreased their expression at very low level of PMeV and increased at high PMeV levels. Corroborating with this results, analysed target genes for this miRNAs had their expression modulated in a dependent manner. This study represents a comprehensive identification of conserved miRNAs inpapaya. The data presented here might help to complement the available molecular and genomic tools for the study of papaya. The differential expression of some miRNAs and identifying their target genes will be helpful for understanding the regulation and interaction of PMeV and papaya. PMID:25072834

Abreu, Paolla M. V.; Gaspar, Clicia G.; Buss, David S.; Ventura, José A.; Ferreira, Paulo C. G.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

2014-01-01

59

Bioseparation of papain from Carica papaya latex by precipitation of papain-poly (vinyl sulfonate) complexes.  

PubMed

The formation of insoluble complexes between enzymes and polyelectrolytes is a suitable technique for isolating these biomolecules from natural sources, because it is a simple and rapid technique that allows the concentration of the protein. This technique can be used in most purification protocols at the beginning of the downstream process. The aim of this investigation is to isolate papain from Carica papaya latex by precipitation of insoluble complexes between this enzyme and poly (vinyl sulfonate). The papain-poly (vinyl sulfonate) complex was insoluble at pH lower than 6, with a PVS/PAP stoichiometric ratio of 1:279. Ionic strength affected the complex formation. The presence of the polymer increased the enzymatic activity and protected the enzyme from autodegradation. The optimal conditions for the formation of insoluble papain-polyelectrolyte complex formation were applied to C. papaya latex and a high recovery was obtained (around 86%) and a purification factor around 2. This method can be applied as an isolation method of papain from C. papaya latex or as a first step in a larger purification strategy. PMID:23891572

Braia, Mauricio; Ferrero, Maximiliano; Rocha, María Victoria; Loureiro, Dana; Tubio, Gisela; Romanini, Diana

2013-09-01

60

Reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage by Carica papaya leaf extract  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the in vitro antioxidant potential of Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract and its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage assessed by haemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Methods Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, hydrogen ion scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and the ferrous ion reducing ability were assessed as antioxidant indices. In the other experiment, human erythrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide to induce erythrocyte damage. The extract (at various concentrations) was subsequently incubated with the erythrocytes and later analysed for haemolysis and lipid peroxidation as indices for erythrocyte damage. Results Preliminary investigation of the extract showed that the leaf possessed significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities using in vitro models in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). The extract also reduced hydrogen peroxide induced erythrocyte haemolysis and lipid peroxidation significantly when compared with ascorbic acid (P<0.05). The IC50 values were 7.33 mg/mL and 1.58 mg/mL for inhibition of haemolysis and lipid peroxidation, respectively. In all cases, ascorbic acid (the reference antioxidant) possessed higher activity than the extract. Conclusions The findings show that C. papaya leaves possess significant bioactive potential which is attributed to the phytochemicals which act in synergy. Thus, the leaves can be exploited for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes. PMID:23569948

Okoko, Tebekeme; Ere, Diepreye

2012-01-01

61

Cysteine proteinases from papaya (Carica papaya) in the treatment of experimental Trichuris suis infection in pigs: two randomized controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Background Cysteine proteinases (CPs) from papaya (Carica papaya) possess anthelmintic properties against human soil-transmitted helminths (STH, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm), but there is a lack of supportive and up-to-date efficacy data. We therefore conducted two randomized controlled trials in pigs to assess the efficacy of papaya CPs against experimental infections with T. suis. Methods First, we assessed efficacy by means of egg (ERR) and adult worm reduction rate (WRR) of a single-oral dose of 450 ?mol active CPs (CP450) against low (inoculum of 300 eggs) and high (inoculum of 3,000 eggs) intensity T. suis infections and compared the efficacy with those obtained after a single-oral dose of 400 mg albendazole (ALB). In the second trial, we determined and compared the efficacy of a series of CP doses (45 [CP45], 115 [CP115], 225 [CP225], and 450 [CP450] ?mol) against high intensity infections. Results CP450 was highly efficacious against both levels of infection intensity, resulting in ERR and WRR of more than 97%. For both levels of infection intensity, CP450 was significantly more efficacious compared to ALB by means of WRR (low infection intensity: 99.0% vs. 39.0%; high infection intensity; 97.4% vs. 23.2%). When the efficacy was assessed by ERR, a significant difference was only observed for high intensity infections, CP450 being more efficacious than ALB (98.9% vs. 59.0%). For low infection intensities, there was no significant difference in ERR between CP450 (98.3%) and ALB (64.4%). The efficacy of CPs increased as a function of increasing dose. When determined by ERR, the efficacy ranged from 2.1% for CP45 to 99.2% for CP450. For WRR the results varied from -14.0% to 99.0%, respectively. Pairwise comparison revealed a significant difference in ERR and WRR only between CP45 and CP450, the latter being more efficacious. Conclusions A single dose of 450 ?mol CPs provided greater efficacy against T. suis infections in pigs than a single-oral dose of 400 mg ALB. Although these results highlight the possibility of papaya CPs for controlling human STH, further development is needed in order to obtain and validate an oral formulation for human application. PMID:24886388

2014-01-01

62

Comparative proteomic analysis of somatic embryo maturation in Carica papaya L.  

PubMed Central

Background Somatic embryogenesis is a complex process regulated by numerous factors. The identification of proteins that are differentially expressed during plant development could result in the development of molecular markers of plant metabolism and provide information contributing to the monitoring and understanding of different biological responses. In addition, the identification of molecular markers could lead to the optimization of protocols allowing the use of biotechnology for papaya propagation and reproduction. This work aimed to investigate the effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on somatic embryo development and the protein expression profile during somatic embryo maturation in papaya (Carica papaya L.). Results The maturation treatment supplemented with 6% PEG (PEG6) resulted in the greatest number of somatic embryos and induced differential protein expression compared with cultures grown under the control treatment. Among 135 spots selected for MS/MS analysis, 76 spots were successfully identified, 38 of which were common to both treatments, while 14 spots were unique to the control treatment, and 24 spots were unique to the PEG6 treatment. The identified proteins were assigned to seven categories or were unclassified. The most representative class of proteins observed in the control treatment was associated with the stress response (25.8%), while those under PEG6 treatment were carbohydrate and energy metabolism (18.4%) and the stress response (18.4%). Conclusions The differential expression of three proteins (enolase, esterase and ADH3) induced by PEG6 treatment could play an important role in maturation, and these proteins could be characterized as candidate biomarkers of somatic embryogenesis in papaya. PMID:25076862

2014-01-01

63

Bioefficacy of larvicdial and pupicidal properties of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad, against chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to establish the properties of Carica papaya leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad on larvicidal and pupicidal activity against the chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti. The medicinal plants were collected from the area around Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India. C. papaya leaf was washed with tap water and shade-dried at room temperature. An electrical blender powdered

Kalimuthu Kovendan; Kadarkarai Murugan; Arjunan Naresh Kumar; Savariar Vincent; Jiang-Shiou Hwang

64

Genetic-molecular characterization of backcross generations for sexual conversion in papaya (Carica papaya L.).  

PubMed

The low number of improved cultivars limits the expansion of the papaya crop, particularly because of the time required for the development of new varieties using classical procedures. Molecular techniques associated with conventional procedures accelerate this process and allow targeted improvements. Thus, we used microsatellite markers to perform genetic-molecular characterization of papaya genotypes obtained from 3 backcross generations to monitor the inbreeding level and parental genome proportion in the evaluated genotypes. Based on the analysis of 20 microsatellite loci, 77 genotypes were evaluated, 25 of each generation of the backcross program as well as the parental genotypes. The markers analyzed were identified in 11 of the 12 linkage groups established for papaya, ranging from 1 to 4 per linkage group. The average values for the inbreeding coefficient were 0.88 (BC1S4), 0.47 (BC2S3), and 0.63 (BC3S2). Genomic analysis revealed average values of the recurrent parent genome of 82.7% in BC3S2, 64.4% in BC1S4, and 63.9% in BC2S3. Neither the inbreeding level nor the genomic proportions completely followed the expected average values. This demonstrates the significance of molecular analysis when examining different genotype values, given the importance of such information for selection processes in breeding programs. PMID:25501249

Ramos, H C C; Pereira, M G; Pereira, T N S; Barros, G B A; Ferreguetti, G A

2014-01-01

65

Sodium tetrathionate effect on papain purification from different Carica papaya latex crude extracts.  

PubMed

Papain from latex of Carica papaya was purified up to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry homogeneity by salt precipitation from two different crude extract sources: a refined preparation obtained in our laboratory and a commercial one. Sodium tetrathionate was tested in the purification process to preserve the enzymatic activity of the peptidase. Purification was checked by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and cation exchange chromatography, using commercial pure papain as standard for a rapid comparison. The best purification yields (3.4%) were obtained in presence of 30 mM sodium tetrathionate for the crude extract prepared in our laboratory. The described purification method proved to be robust and reliable to obtain pure papain on a preparative scale. PMID:21442548

Llerena-Suster, Carlos R; Priolo, Nora S; Morcelle, Susana R

2011-01-01

66

Enantioselective esterification of (R,S)-2-methylalkanoic acid with Carica papaya lipase in organic solvents.  

PubMed

Isooctane was the best reaction medium for the enantioselective esterification of (R,S)-2-methylalkanoic acid with n-butanol using Carica papaya lipase as catalyst. Increasing linear alkyl-chain length of racemic 2-methylalkanoic acids from ethyl to hexyl increased the enantioselectivity (E) from 2.1 to 98.2 for the esterification of racemic 2-methylalkanoic acids with n-butanol at 35°C. Decreasing reaction temperature from 40 to 20°C increased the enantioselectivity (E) from 14 to 33 for the esterification of racemic 2-methylhexanoic acids with n-butanol. We obtained a maximum enantioselectivity, of E = 24.3, for the enantioselective esterification of racemic 2-methylhexanoic acids with n-butanol in isooctane at water activity 0.33, and at 35°C. PMID:21744274

Chang, Chun-Sheng; Ho, Ssu-Ching

2011-11-01

67

Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants.  

PubMed

Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers' regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulated proteins in the latex of diseased plants, 9 cysteine proteases (chymopapain) and 1 latex serine proteinase inhibitor. A repression of papaya latex proteolytic activity during PMeV infection was hypothesized. This was further confirmed by enzymatic assays that showed a reduction of cysteine-protease-associated proteolytic activity in the diseased papaya latex. These findings are discussed in the context of plant responses against pathogens and may greatly contribute to understand the roles of laticifers in plant stress responses. PMID:22465191

Rodrigues, Silas P; Ventura, José A; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Choi, HyungWon; Sobreira, Tiago J P; Nohara, Lilian L; Wermelinger, Luciana S; Almeida, Igor C; Zingali, Russolina B; Fernandes, Patricia M B

2012-06-18

68

Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants  

PubMed Central

Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers’ regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulated proteins in the latex of diseased plants, 9 cysteine proteases (chymopapain) and 1 latex serine proteinase inhibitor. A repression of papaya latex proteolytic activity during PMeV infection was hypothesized. This was further confirmed by enzymatic assays that showed a reduction of cysteine-protease-associated proteolytic activity in the diseased papaya latex. These findings are discussed in the context of plant responses against pathogens and may greatly contribute to understand the roles of laticifers in plant stress responses. PMID:22465191

Rodrigues, Silas P.; Ventura, José A.; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Choi, HyungWon; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Nohara, Lilian L.; Wermelinger, Luciana S.; Almeida, Igor C.; Zingali, Russolina B.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

2012-01-01

69

Purification of a thermostable alkaline laccase from papaya (Carica papaya) using affinity chromatography.  

PubMed

A laccase from papaya leaves was purified to homogeneity by a two step procedure namely, heat treatment (at 70 °C) and Con-A affinity chromatography. The procedure resulted in 1386.7-fold purification of laccase with a specific activity of 41.3 units mg(-1) and an overall yield of 61.5%. The native purified laccase was found to be a hexameric protein of ? 260 kDa. The purified enzyme exhibited acidic and alkaline pH optima of 6.0 and 8.0 with the non-phenolic substrate (ABTS) and phenolic substrate (catechol), respectively. The purified laccase was found to be thermostable up to 70 °C such that it retained ? 80% activity upon 30 min incubation at 70 °C. The Arrhenius energy of activation for purified laccase was found to be 7.7 kJ mol(-1). The enzyme oxidized various phenolic and non-phenolic substrates having catalytic efficiency (K(cat)/K(m)) in the order of 7.25>0.67>0.27 mM(-1) min(-1) for ABTS, catechol and hydroquinone, respectively. The purified laccase was found to be activated by Mn(2+), Cd(2+), Ca(2+), Na(+), Fe(2+), Co(2+) and Cu(2+) while weakly inhibited by Hg(2+). The properties such as thermostability, alkaline pH optima and metal tolerance exhibited by the papaya laccase make it a promising candidate enzyme for industrial exploitation. PMID:25192855

Jaiswal, Nivedita; Pandey, Veda P; Dwivedi, Upendra N

2015-01-01

70

Identification and biochemical characterization of a GDSL-motif carboxylester hydrolase from Carica papaya latex.  

PubMed

An esterase (CpEst) showing high specific activities on tributyrin and short chain vinyl esters was obtained from Carica papaya latex after an extraction step with zwitterionic detergent and sonication, followed by gel filtration chromatography. Although the protein could not be purified to complete homogeneity due to its presence in high molecular mass aggregates, a major protein band with an apparent molecular mass of 41 kDa was obtained by SDS-PAGE. This material was digested with trypsin and the amino acid sequences of the tryptic peptides were determined by LC/ESI/MS/MS. These sequences were used to identify a partial cDNA (679 bp) from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of C. papaya. Based upon EST sequences, a full-length gene was identified in the genome of C. papaya, with an open reading frame of 1029 bp encoding a protein of 343 amino acid residues, with a theoretical molecular mass of 38 kDa. From sequence analysis, CpEst was identified as a GDSL-motif carboxylester hydrolase belonging to the SGNH protein family and four potential N-glycosylation sites were identified. The putative catalytic triad was localised (Ser(35)-Asp(307)-His(310)) with the nucleophile serine being part of the GDSL-motif. A 3D-model of CpEst was built from known X-ray structures and sequence alignments and the catalytic triad was found to be exposed at the surface of the molecule, thus confirming the results of CpEst inhibition by tetrahydrolipstatin suggesting a direct accessibility of the inhibitor to the active site. PMID:19555778

Abdelkafi, Slim; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Barouh, Nathalie; Fouquet, Benjamin; Lebrun, Régine; Pina, Michel; Scheirlinckx, Frantz; Villeneuve, Pierre; Carrière, Frédéric

2009-11-01

71

Phytophotodermatitis caused by contact with a fig tree (Ficus carica).  

PubMed

Two arborists presented acutely with blistering eruptions affecting their forearms, hands, and fingers. The previous day, both men had pruned branches from a large fig tree, Ficus carica, which had sustained damaged during a storm. The following morning, both complained of a burning discomfort which rapidly evolved into erythema and bullae on skin that had been in direct contact with the tree branches. These symptoms gradually resolved over 4 to 6 weeks. Although phytophotodermatitis from Ficus carica has been reported, it is often poorly recognised and there is a need to raise awareness amongst arborists, orchardists, forestry workers, gardeners, and health professionals. PMID:17721568

Derraik, José G B; Rademaker, Marius

2007-01-01

72

Phytophotodermatitis caused by contact with a fig tree (Ficus carica).  

PubMed

Two arborists presented acutely with blistering eruptions affecting their forearms, hands, and fingers. The previous day, both men had pruned branches from a large fig tree, Ficus carica, which had sustained damaged during a storm. The following morning, both complained of a burning discomfort which rapidly evolved into erythema and bullae on skin that had been in direct contact with the tree branches. These symptoms gradually resolved over 4 to 6 weeks. Although phytophotodermatitis from Ficus carica has been reported, it is often poorly recognised and there is a need to raise awareness amongst arborists, orchardists, forestry workers, gardeners, and health professionals. PMID:17867224

Derraik, José G B; Rademaker, Marius

2007-01-01

73

ANTIOXIDANT AND IMMUNOSTIMULANT EFFECT OF CARICA PAPAYA LINN. AQUEOUS EXTRACT IN ACRYLAMIDE INTOXICATED RATS  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and immunostimulant effects of The Carica papaya fruit aqueous extract (CPF, Caricaceae) against acrylamide induced oxidative stress and improvement of Immune functions which affected by free radicals liberating acrylamide in rats. Material and methods: Sixty male wistar albino rats (195-230g) were assigned to four groups, (fifteen/group). The first group used as control group and received normal physiological saline orally daily. The second group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water. The third group was gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The fourth group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water and gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The chosen dose of papaya fruit extract was based on the active pharmacological dose range obtained from the orientation study earlier conducted. The experimental period was extended to forty day. At the expiration of the experimental period and night fasting, blood samples were collected from the orbital venous sinus. The sera were separated and used for determining of IgG and IgM and the stomach, liver and kidney homogenates for estimation of MDA, GSH level, SOD and CAT activity as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidative stress. Results and discussion: The obtained results revealed that, acrylamide caused significant increases in MDA and decrease of GSH level, SOD and CAT activity due to the oxidative stress induced by acrylamide on membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat’s stomach, liver and kidney while administration of CPF aqueous extract, was significantly ameliorated the increased levels of MDA and decline of GSH, SOD and CAT activity in the stomach, liver and kidney tissues caused by acrylamide toxicity. Meanwhile, CPF aqueous extract significantly increased immune functions (IgG and IgM) while acrylamide significantly decrease it specially IgG. Thus, this study suggests that acrylamide-induced oxidative stress in rats can be ameliorated by administration of CPF aqueous extract. PMID:23322975

Mohamed Sadek, Kadry

2012-01-01

74

Repeated dose 28-days oral toxicity study of Carica papaya L. leaf extract in Sprague Dawley rats.  

PubMed

Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from 'Sekaki' C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and histopathology changes. A total of twelve compounds consisting of one piperidine alkaloid, two organic acids, six malic acid derivatives, and four flavonol glycosides were characterized or tentatively identified in the C. papaya leaf extract. In the sub-acute study, the C. papaya extract did not cause mortality nor were treatment-related changes in body weight, food intake, water level, and hematological parameters observed between treatment and control groups. Some biochemical parameters such as the total protein, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP were elevated in a non-dose dependent manner. Histopathological examination of all organs including liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Other parameters showed non-significant differences between treatment and control groups. The present results suggest that C. papaya leaf extract at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine in Malaysia could be considered safe as a medicinal agent. PMID:22491681

Afzan, Adlin; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Halim, Siti Zaleha; Rashid, Badrul Amini; Semail, Raja Hazlini Raja; Abdullah, Noordini; Jantan, Ibrahim; Muhammad, Hussin; Ismail, Zakiah

2012-01-01

75

Effect of wine inhibitors on the proteolytic activity of papain from Carica papaya L. latex.  

PubMed

The influence of potential inhibitors naturally present in wine on the proteolytic activity of papain from Carica papaya latex was investigated to evaluate its applicability in white wine protein haze stabilization. Enzymatic activity was tested against a synthetic tripeptide chromogenic substrate in wine-like acidic medium that consisted of tartaric buffer (pH 3.2) supplemented with ethanol, free sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), grape skin and seed tannins within the average ranges of concentrations that are typical in wine. The diagnosis of inhibition type, performed with the graphical method, demonstrated that all of tested wine constituents were reversible inhibitors of papain. The strongest inhibition was exerted by free SO2 , which acted as a mixed-type inhibitor, similar to grape skin and seed tannins. Finally, when tested in table white wines, the catalytic activity of papain, even when if it was ascribable to the hyperbolic behavior of Michaelis-Menten equation, was determined to be strongly affected by free SO2 and total phenol level. PMID:25376439

Benucci, Ilaria; Esti, Marco; Liburdi, Katia

2015-01-01

76

Long-term spatial memory and morphological changes in hippocampus of Wistar rats exposed to smoke from Carica papaya leaves  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the effects of smoking of dried leaves of Carica papaya (pawpaw) based on ethnopharmacological information which indicated that smoking of papaya leaves could influence motor performance and learning. Methods Twenty-four rats were used for the study, and were grouped into four groups. Groups 1 served as the control (not exposed to papaya leaves smoke), while Groups 2, 3 and 4 were exposed to smoke from 6.25 g, 12.50 g and 18.75 g of dry pawpaw leaves respectively in a smoking chamber twice daily for 21 d with each exposure lasting for 3 min. Lastly, hippocampus was harvested in each group for histological study. Results The results showed that there were significant (P<0.05) increases in mean of recall latencies of long-term spatial memory in the animal administered the high dose while the other groups had significantly (P<0.05) lower frequencies. Histological investigation showed signs of mild neural degeneration in high dose group and hypochromic appearance of the Nissl substance in all treated groups. Conclusions In conclusion, the findings from this study has demonstrated that smoking of papaya leaves has the ability to maintain an intact long-term spatial memory at all doses but retrieving such memory is faster with the low and medium dosages. PMID:25182440

Oyewole, Aboyeji Lukuman; Owoyele, Bamidele Victor

2014-01-01

77

Sensitivity of a real-time PCR method for the detection of transgenes in a mixture of transgenic and non-transgenic seeds of papaya (Carica papaya L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Genetically engineered (GE) ringspot virus-resistant papaya cultivars ‘Rainbow’ and ‘SunUp’ have been grown in Hawai’i for over 10 years. In Hawai’i, the introduction of GE papayas into regions where non-GE cultivars are grown and where feral non-GE papayas exist have been accompanied with concerns associated with transgene flow. Of particular concern is the possibility of transgenic seeds being found in non-GE papaya fruits via cross-pollination. Development of high-throughput methods to reliably detect the adventitious presence of such transgenic material would benefit both the scientific and regulatory communities. Results We assessed the accuracy of using conventional qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as well as real-time PCR-based assays to quantify the presence of transgenic DNA from bulk samples of non-GE papaya seeds. In this study, an optimized method of extracting high quality DNA from dry seeds of papaya was standardized. A reliable, sensitive real-time PCR method for detecting and quantifying viral coat protein (cp) transgenes in bulk seed samples utilizing the endogenous papain gene is presented. Quantification range was from 0.01 to 100 ng/?l of GE-papaya DNA template with a detection limit as low as 0.01% (10 pg). To test this system, we simulated transgene flow using known quantities of GE and non-GE DNA and determined that 0.038% (38 pg) GE papaya DNA could be detected using real-time PCR. We also validated this system by extracting DNA from known ratios of GE seeds to non-GE seeds of papaya followed by real-time PCR detection and observed a reliable detection limit of 0.4%. Conclusions This method for the quick and sensitive detection of transgenes in bulked papaya seed lots using conventional as well as real-time PCR-based methods will benefit numerous stakeholders. In particular, this method could be utilized to screen selected fruits from maternal non-GE papaya trees in Hawai’i for the presence of transgenic seed at typical regulatory threshold levels. Incorporation of subtle differences in primers and probes for variations in cp worldwide should allow this method to be utilized elsewhere when and if deregulation of transgenic papaya occurs. PMID:24004548

2013-01-01

78

Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling fruit size and shape in papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a pan-tropical tree that bears fruit exhibiting a wide range of size and shape. Depending on variety and environment,\\u000a papaya fruit may weigh from 0.2 kg up to 10 kg. Papaya fruit shape is a sex-linked trait ranging from spherical to ovate,\\u000a cylindrical or pyriform. An F2 mapping population, produced from a cross between the Thai variety

Andrea L. Blas; Qingyi Yu; Olivia J. Veatch; Robert E. Paull; Paul H. Moore; Ray Ming

79

Isolation and functional characterization of a lycopene beta-cyclase gene that controls fruit colour of papaya (Carica papaya L.).  

PubMed

The colour of papaya fruit flesh is determined largely by the presence of carotenoid pigments. Red-fleshed papaya fruit contain lycopene, whilst this pigment is absent from yellow-fleshed fruit. The conversion of lycopene (red) to beta-carotene (yellow) is catalysed by lycopene beta-cyclase. This present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of two different genes encoding lycopene beta-cyclases (lcy-beta1 and lcy-beta2) from red (Tainung) and yellow (Hybrid 1B) papaya cultivars. A mutation in the lcy-beta2 gene, which inactivates enzyme activity, controls lycopene production in fruit and is responsible for the difference in carotenoid production between red and yellow-fleshed papaya fruit. The expression level of both lcy-beta1 and lcy-beta2 genes is similar and low in leaves, but lcy-beta2 expression increases markedly in ripe fruit. Isolation of the lcy-beta2 gene from papaya, that is preferentially expressed in fruit and is correlated with fruit colour, will facilitate marker-assisted breeding for fruit colour in papaya and should create possibilities for metabolic engineering of carotenoid production in papaya fruit to alter both colour and nutritional properties. PMID:19887502

Devitt, Luke C; Fanning, Kent; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Holton, Timothy A

2010-01-01

80

Antihyperglycaemic effects of ethanol extracts of Carica papaya and Pandanus amaryfollius leaf in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is a global disease that is increasing in an alarming rate. The present study was undertaken to study the antidiabetic effect of the ethanol extracts of Carica papaya and Pandanus amaryfollius on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. The results of the present study indicated that there was no significant difference in the body weight of the treated groups when compared to diabetic control. Whereas, there was significant (P?papaya and P. amaryfollius. The antidiabetic effect of C. papaya and P. amaryfollius observed in the present study may be due to the presence of these phytochemicals. PMID:21707251

Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Sumathi, Vello; Jegathambigai, Naidu Rameshwar; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga

2011-12-01

81

Isolation and functional characterization of a lycopene  -cyclase gene that controls fruit colour of papaya (Carica papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colour of papaya fruit flesh is determined largely by the presence of carotenoid pigments. Red-fleshed papaya fruit contain lycopene, whilst this pigment is absent from yellow-fleshed fruit. The conversion of lycopene (red) to b-carotene (yellow) is catalysed by lycopene b-cyclase. This present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of two different genes encoding lycopene b-cyclases (lcy-b1 and lcy-b2)

Luke C. Devitt; Kent Fanning; Ralf G. Dietzgen; Timothy A. Holton

2010-01-01

82

The effect of praziquantel and Carica papaya seeds on Hymenolepis nana infection in mice using scanning electron microscope.  

PubMed

Hymenolepis nana (H. nana) is the most common tapeworm infection worldwide. It is more prevalent in warm climates where sanitation is poor, particularly among children. The effect and mechanism of action of praziquantel (PZQ), given at a dose of 25-mg/kg BW, and Carica papaya dried seed crude aqueous extract (CAE), given at a dose of 1.2-g/kg BW, were assessed on H. nana worms in experimentally infected mice. Tegumental changes were studied using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and different parasitological parameters were observed. Each group of infected mice was divided into two subgroups. The first subgroup received either treatment before the 4th day after infection to investigate their effects on the cysticercoid stage. The other subgroup received treatments after the development of the adult stage, confirmed by eggs detection in stool. Both PZQ and C. papaya dried seed CAE resulted in a significant reduction of worm burden, total egg output and viable egg count. Marked tegumental changes were evident in adult worms treated with either treatment including shrinkage of the scolex and neck region with rostellar edema and complete loss of its hooks. However, all previous effects were exerted more rapidly in the case of PZQ treatment. They both significantly reduced cysticercoid stage size. Nevertheless, C. papaya outstand PZQ in having a deforming effect on adults arising from treated cysticercoids. It was concluded that C. papaya has significant anti-cestodal properties that enable its seed extract to be a very effective alternative to PZQ against H. nana. PMID:24849866

Abou Shady, Omayma M; Basyoni, Maha M A; Mahdy, Olfat A; Bocktor, Nardden Zakka

2014-08-01

83

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a family 19 glycosyl hydrolase from Carica papaya latex  

PubMed Central

A chitinase isolated from the latex of the tropical species Carica papaya has been purified to homogeneity and crystallized. This enzyme belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 19 and exhibits exceptional resistance to proteolysis. The initially observed crystals, which diffracted to a resolution of 2.0?Å, were improved through modification of the crystallization protocol. Well ordered crystals were subsequently obtained using N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, the mono­mer resulting from the hydrolysis of chitin, as an additive to the crystallization solution. Here, the characterization of a chitinase crystal that belongs to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 69.08, b = 44.79, c = 76.73?Å, ? = 95.33° and two molecules per asymmetric unit, is reported. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.8?Å. Structure refinement is currently in progress. PMID:18453704

Huet, Joëlle; Azarkan, Mohamed; Looze, Yvan; Villeret, Vincent; Wintjens, René

2008-01-01

84

Green synthesis of colloidal copper oxide nanoparticles using Carica papaya and its application in photocatalytic dye degradation.  

PubMed

Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were synthesized by treating 5 mM cupric sulphate with Carica papaya leaves extract. The kinetics of the reaction was studied using UV-visible spectrophotometry. An intense surface Plasmon resonance between 250-300 nm in the UV-vis spectrum clearly reveals the formation of copper oxide nanoparticles. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) exhibited that the green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles are rod in shape and having a mean particle size of 140 nm, further negative zeta potential disclose its stability at -28.9 mV. The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results examined the occurrence of bioactive functional groups required for the reduction of copper ions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra confirmed the copper oxide nanoparticles crystalline nature. Furthermore, colloidal copper oxide nanoparticles effectively degrade the Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 dye beneath the sunlight. PMID:24388701

Sankar, Renu; Manikandan, Perumal; Malarvizhi, Viswanathan; Fathima, Tajudeennasrin; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

2014-01-01

85

Effect of papaya trunk angle on infestation by white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two papaya (Carica papaya L.) seedlings growing in one planting hole often results in angular or non-vertical growth of the trees. Data on trunk angularity, or leaning, (deviation from the vertical line of reference) and white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni-Tozzetti (Hemiptera: Dias...

86

Preliminary in vitro antisickilng properties of crude juice extracts of Persia Americana, Citrus sinensis, Carica papaya and Ciklavit®.  

PubMed

The antisickling properties of crude juice extracts of the edible portions of three commonly consumed tropical fruits namely Persia americana, Citrus sinensis, and Carica papaya were investigated in vitro alongside a new drug preparation called Ciklavit® that has antisickling activity. Four different solvent extracts of the crude juice of each fruit including aqueous, acidic, alkaline and alcoholic extracts were prepared and their antisickling effects on sickle cell trait (HbAS) and sickle cell disease (HbSS) blood samples checked alongside Ciklavit®. Blood samples were stabilized using normal saline and the antisickling effects were checked by counting the number of sickle cells remaining after incubation of the blood samples with the crude fruit extracts and Ciklavit® for twenty-four hours. The results showed that Ciklavit® produced a sustained reduction in the number of sickle cells in both HbAS and HbSS blood samples. Also the alkaline and alcoholic extracts of P. americana and C. papaya produced significant reduction in the number of sickle cells. PMID:21304622

Iweala, E E J; Uhegbu, F O; Ogu, G N

2010-01-01

87

Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats.  

PubMed

The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group) at 0 (control), 0.01, 0.14, and 2?g/kg body weight (BW) for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect. PMID:25530788

Ismail, Zakiah; Halim, Siti Zaleha; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Afzan, Adlin; Abdul Rashid, Badrul Amini; Jantan, Ibrahim

2014-01-01

88

Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats  

PubMed Central

The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group) at 0 (control), 0.01, 0.14, and 2?g/kg body weight (BW) for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect. PMID:25530788

Ismail, Zakiah; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Abdul Rashid, Badrul Amini; Jantan, Ibrahim

2014-01-01

89

The primary structure and characterization of carbohydrate chains of the extracellular glycoprotein proteinase inhibitor from latex of Carica papaya.  

PubMed

A secretory proteinase inhibitor was isolated from the latex of green fruits of papaya (Carica papaya). The protein exhibited stoichiometric inhibition of bovine trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin by the same site or overlapping binding sites. The complete covalent structure consisting of 184 amino acids and two disulfide bonds was determined by protein analysis. During the structural analysis, a procedure was established to separate very hydrophilic peptides by reverse-phase HPLC. The result revealed that the latex protein belongs to an extensively diverse plant protein family that includes inhibitors of serine, cysteine and aspartic proteases, a taste-modifying protein, wound responsive proteins, storage proteins, amylase inhibitors and even an oxidoreductase. In this superfamily, the latex proteinase inhibitor is most similar to the curious protein, miraculin, which makes sour food taste sweet. Two carbohydrate chains, each probably composed of (mannose)5, (xylose)1, (fucose)0-2, and (N-acetylglucosamine)2 residues, were attached to asparagine 84 and 90. Mass-spectrometric and compositional analysis suggested that they may represent a new class of plant xylose-containing carbohydrate chains with five mannose residues. PMID:8898891

Odani, S; Yokokawa, Y; Takeda, H; Abe, S; Odani, S

1996-10-01

90

Sperm motility inhibitory effect of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in langur monkey, Presbytis entellus entellus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:To assess the contraceptive efficacy of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in langur monkeys.Methods:The test substance was given p.o. to five monkeys at 50 mg\\/kg body weight\\/day for 360 days. Control animals (n = 3) received olive oil as vehicle. Sperm parameters as per World Health Organization standards, sperm functional tests,

Nirmal K. Lohiya; Boomi Manivannan; Shipra Goyal; Abdul S. Ansari

2008-01-01

91

Does Carica papaya leaf-extract increase the platelet count? An experimental study in a murine model  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the potential role of fresh Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract on haematological and biochemical parameters and toxicological changes in a murine model. Methods In total 36 mice were used for the trial. Fresh C. papaya leaf extract [0.2 mL (2 g)/mouse] was given only to the test group (18 mice). General behavior, clinical signs and feeding patterns were recorded. Blood and tissue samples were collected at intervals. Haematological parameters including platelet, red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), packed cell volume (PCV), serum biochemistry including serum creatinine, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) were determined. Organs for possible histopathological changes were examined. Results Neither group exhibited alteration of behavior or reduction in food and water intake. Similarly, no significant changes in SGOT, SGPT and serum creatinine levels were detected in the test group. Histopathological organ changes were not observed in either group of mice except in three liver samples of the test group which had a mild focal necrosis. The platelet count (11.33±0.35)×105/µL (P=0.000?04) and the RBC count (7.97±0.61)×106/µL (P=0.000?03) were significantly increased in the test group compared to that of the controls. However, WBC count and PCV (%) values were not changed significantly in the test group. The platelet count in the test group started to increase significantly from Day 3 (3.4±0.18×105/µL), reaching almost a fourfold higher at Day 21 (11.3×105/µL), while it was 3.8×105/µL and 5.5×105/µL at Day 3 and Day 21 respectively in the control. Likewise, the RBC count in the test group increased from 6×106/µL to 9×106/ µL at Day 21 while it remained near constant in the control group (6×106/µL). Conclusions Fresh C. papaya leaf extract significantly increased the platelet and RBC counts in the test group as compared to controls. Therefore, it is very important to identify those chemicals of C. papaya leaves as it can be recommended to be used as a medication to boost thrombopoiesis and erythropoiesis in humans and in animals in which these cell lineages have been compromised. PMID:23998013

Dharmarathna, Sinhalagoda Lekamlage Chandi Asoka; Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Waduge, Roshitha Nilmini; Rajapakse, Rajapakse Peramune Veddikkarage Jayanthe; Kularatne, Senanayake Abeysinghe Mudiyanselage

2013-01-01

92

Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ripening studies of nontreated and treated papaya (papaya L) are accomplished by monitoring the ethylene and CO2 emission rates of that climacteric fruit, to evaluate its shelf life. The treatments simulate the commercial Phitosanitarian process used to avoid the fly infestation. Ethylene emission was measured using a commercial CO2 laser driven photoacoustic setup and CO2, using a commercial gas analysis also based on the photothermal effect. The results show a marked change in ethylene and CO2 emission rate pattern for treated fruits when compared to the ones obtained for nontreated fruits and a displacement of the climacteric pick shown that the treatment causes a decrease of shelf life of fruit.

da Silva, M. G.; Santos, E. O.; Sthel, M. S.; Cardoso, S. L.; Cavalli, A.; Monteiro, A. R.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

2003-01-01

93

Bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus plantarum ST16Pa isolated from papaya ( Carica papaya) — From isolation to application: Characterization of a bacteriocin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strain ST16PA, isolated from papaya was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum based on biochemical tests, PCR with species-specific primers and 16S rDNA sequencing. L. plantarum ST16PA produces a 6.5kDa bacteriocin, active against different species from genera Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus and different serotypes of Listeria spp. The peptide is inactivated by proteolytic enzymes, but not when treated with

Svetoslav D. Todorov; Hervé Prévost; Martine Lebois; Xavier Dousset; Jean Guy LeBlanc; Bernadette D. G. M. Franco

2011-01-01

94

Physico-chemical and sensory quality of fresh cut papaya (Carica papaya) packaged in micro-perforated polyvinyl chloride containers.  

PubMed

Papaya cubes at maturity stages, 5-45 % yellow (more green than yellow) and 55-80 % yellow (more yellow than green) were washed with 5 % H2O2, drained and packaged in PVC trays having five, seven and ten micro-perforations and stored for 19 days. PVC trays with 3 mm diameter punch holes were used as the control. Based on physico-chemical properties, optimum maturity for papaya and micro-perforation level of PVC trays were determined. Effectiveness of citric acid in prevention of browning was also tested. Firmness and TSS changed significantly, on day 19. O2, CO2 and C2H4 concentration changed 2.4 to 4.2 %, 23.4 to 5.9 %, and 0 to 0.13 % respectively, from day 3 to 19. pH and titratable acidity did not change significantly throughout the storage. Pretreated papaya cubes, packaged in PVC trays with ten micro-perforations, kept under 4 °C had storage lives of 19 days. PMID:25477661

Jayathunge, K G L R; Gunawardhana, D K S N; Illeperuma, D C K; Chandrajith, U G; Thilakarathne, B M K S; Fernando, M D; Palipane, K B

2014-12-01

95

IMPROVED CARICA PAPAYA TOLERANCE TO THE CARMINE SPIDER MITE BY EXPRESSION OF MANDUCA SEXTA CHITINASE TRANSGENE.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya plants producing the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) chitinase protein were obtained following microprojectile bombardment of embryogenic calli derived from the hypocotyls of the cultivar Kapoho. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization of reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PC...

96

Carica papaya (Caricaceae): a case study into the effects of domestication on plant vegetative growth and reproduction.  

PubMed

Few studies have quantitatively evaluated the gender specific effects of cultivation on plant growth and reproduction. The availability of cultivated and wild populations of different genders of Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) on Guam provided an opportunity to study these effects quantitatively. We compared the gender specific allometry of height vs. basal stem diameter (H vs. D), stem slenderness ratio (H/D), and the height at first flowering (H(fl)) of carpellate and staminate plants growing under natural conditions (N = 150 each) with those of carpellate and hermaphroditic plants (N = 250 each) from two cultivars (Sunrise and Tainung 2). These comparisons indicated that (1) wild carpellate and staminate plants are significantly taller than either gender of the two cultivars with equivalent D; (2) the scaling exponent governing the H vs. D relationship of both genders of wild plants is significantly higher than that of either cultivated gender; (3) cultivar type does not affect the H vs. D exponent, but gender expression does; (4) gender expression (but not cultivar-type) also affects H(fl) (cultivation substantially reduces carpellate plant H(fl)); and (5) the onset of sexual maturity is associated with a dramatic reversal in H/D ontogeny. Cultivation therefore has "condensed" patterns of vegetative growth in a gender specific manner, whereas gender expression alters both vegetative and reproductive growth significantly more so than does cultivar-type. PMID:21636469

Niklas, Karl J; Marler, Thomas E

2007-06-01

97

Phytochemistry and heamatological potential of ethanol seed leaf and pulp extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.).  

PubMed

This study was aimed at qualitative evaluation of the ethanol seed, leaf and pulp extracts of C. papaya for bioactive compounds and also to investigate their effect on the haematology in male albino rats. A 3 x 4 factorial experimental layout using randomized complete design was adopted. Results show that the phytochemicals found in seed, leaf and pulp were almost the same but however, in varying proportions. Present result also revealed that there were significant effects (p < 0.05) of the extracts on the heamatology of the treated rats, which was blamed on the varying and different variants ofbioactive compounds found in the extracts they were administered with. Suggestively, C. papaya extracts could be used to enhance the production of selected blood parameters, taking issue of dosage into consideration. PMID:21902066

Ikpeme, E V; Ekaluo, U B; Kooffreh, M E; Udensi, O

2011-03-15

98

Determining sex and screening for the adventitious presence of transgenic material in Carica papaya L. seed germplasm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) is a devastating disease that has a detrimental impact on both commercial papaya production and Caricaceae germplasm conservation. The PRSV coat protein transgenic line 55-1 and derived progeny are resistant to PRSV and have saved the papaya industry in Hawaii. However,...

99

Genetic differentiation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum associated with Anthracnose disease of papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsium annuum L.) based on ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting.  

PubMed

Members of the genus Colletotrichum include some of the most economically important fungal pathogens in the world. Accurate diagnosis is critical to devising disease management strategies. Two species, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum, are responsible for anthracnose disease in papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Trinidad. The ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of 48 Colletotrichum isolates was sequenced, and the ITS PCR products were analyzed by PCR-RFLP analysis. Restriction site polymorphisms generated from 11 restriction enzymes enabled the identification of specific enzymes that were successful in distinguishing between C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates. Species-specific restriction fragment length polymorphisms generated by the enzymes AluI, HaeIII, PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were used to consistently resolve C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates from papaya. AluI, ApaI, PvuII, RsaI, and SmaI reliably separated isolates of C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum from bell pepper. PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were also capable of distinguishing among the C. gloeosporioides isolates from papaya based on the different restriction patterns that were obtained as a result of intra-specific variation in restriction enzyme recognition sites in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region. Of all the isolates tested, C. gloeosporioides from papaya also had the highest number of PCR-RFLP haplotypes. Cluster analysis of sequence and PCR-RFLP data demonstrated that all C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates clustered separately into species-specific clades regardless of host species. Phylograms also revealed consistent topologies which suggested that the genetic distances for PCR-RFLP-generated data were comparable to that of ITS sequence data. ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting is a rapid and reliable method to identify and differentiate between Colletotrichum species. PMID:21720933

Maharaj, Ariana; Rampersad, Sephra N

2012-03-01

100

Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva Medicinal Plants Collected in Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background The vast majority of the population around the world has always used medicinal plants as first source of health care to fight infectious and non infectious diseases. Most of these medicinal plants may have scientific evidence to be considered in general practice. Objective The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of leaves of Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa and the stem bark of Polyscias fulva, collected in Cameroon. Methods Chemiluminescence was used to analyze the antioxidant activities of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion. Comet assays were used to analyze the protection against antioxidant-induced DNA damage induced in white blood cells after treating with hydrogen peroxide. Flow cytometry was used to measure ?? T cells proliferation and anti-inflammatory activity of ?? T cells and of immature dendritic cells (imDC) in the presence of different concentrations of plant extracts. Results Ethanol extracts showed strong antioxidant properties against both hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Cassia alata showed the highest antioxidant activity. The effect of plant extracts on ?? T cells and imDC was evidenced by the dose dependent reduction in TNF-? production in the presence of Cassia alata, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa Eleusine indica, and Polyscias fulva. ?? T cells proliferation was affected to the greatest extent by Polyscias fulva. Conclusion These results clearly show the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activities of plant extracts collected in Cameroon. These properties of leaves and stem bark extracts may contribute to the value for these plants in traditional medicine and in general medical practice. PMID:25090613

Sagnia, Bertrand; Fedeli, Donatella; Casetti, Rita; Montesano, Carla; Falcioni, Giancarlo; Colizzi, Vittorio

2014-01-01

101

In Vivo Antiprotozoal Activity of the Chloroform Extract from Carica papaya Seeds against Amastigote Stage of Trypanosoma cruzi during Indeterminate and Chronic Phase of Infection  

PubMed Central

In order to evaluate the antiprotozoal activity of the chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds during the subacute and chronic phase of infection of Trypanosoma cruzi, doses of 50 and 75?mg/kg were evaluated during the subacute phase, including a mixture of their main components (oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids). Subsequently, doses of 50 and 75?mg/kg in mice during the chronic phase of infection (100?dpi) were also evaluated. It was found that chloroform extract was able to reduce the amastigote nests numbers during the subacute phase in 55.5 and 69.7% (P > 0.05) as well as in 56.45% in animals treated with the mixture of fatty acids. Moreover, the experimental groups treated with 50 and 75?mg/kg during the chronic phase of the infection showed a significant reduction of 46.8 and 53.13% respectively (P < 0.05). It is recommended to carry out more studies to determine if higher doses of chloroformic extract or its administration in combination with other antichagasic drugs allows a better response over the intracellular stage of T. cruzi in infected animal models and determine if the chloroform extract of C. papaya could be considered as an alternative for treatment during the indeterminate and chronic phase of the infection. PMID:25276216

Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Perez-Gutierrez, Salud; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia

2014-01-01

102

Functional Genomics Tools for Papaya  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

With the genome of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sequenced, the study of gene function is becoming an increasing priority. Our research is to develop an RNA-induced gene silencing tool for the study of functional genomics in papaya. We employed agrobacterium leaf infiltration to induce PTGS in '-glucuro...

103

Molecular diagnosis of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) from leaf samples of Carica papaya L. using conventional and real-time RT-PCR.  

PubMed

Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease. This study describes two methods for molecular diagnosis of PMeV using conventional and real-time PCR. These methods were shown to be more efficient than current methods of viral detection using extraction of PMeV dsRNA and observation of symptoms in the field. The methods described here were used to evaluate the effect of inoculation of papaya plants with purified PMeV dsRNA on the progress of PMeV infection. A single inoculation with PMeV dsRNA was observed to delay the progress of the virus infection by several weeks. The possibility of vertical transmission of PMeV was also investigated. No evidence was found for PMeV transmission through seeds collected from diseased fruit. The implications of these results for the epidemiology of PMeV and the management of papaya sticky disease are discussed. PMID:22193169

Abreu, Paolla M V; Piccin, João G; Rodrigues, Silas P; Buss, David S; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Patricia M B

2012-03-01

104

Bioefficacy of larvicdial and pupicidal properties of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad, against chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to establish the properties of Carica papaya leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad on larvicidal and pupicidal activity against the chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti. The medicinal plants were collected from the area around Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India. C. papaya leaf was washed with tap water and shade-dried at room temperature. An electrical blender powdered the dried plant materials (leaves). The powder (500 g) of the leaf was extracted with 1.5 l of organic solvents of methanol for 8 h using a Soxhlet apparatus and then filtered. The crude leaf extracts were evaporated to dryness in a rotary vacuum evaporator. The plant extract showed larvicidal and pupicidal effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest larval and pupal mortality was found in the leaf extract of methanol C. papaya against the first- to fourth-instar larvae and pupae of values LC(50)?=?I instar was 51.76 ppm, II instar was 61.87 ppm, III instar was 74.07 ppm, and IV instar was 82.18 ppm, and pupae was 440.65 ppm, respectively, and bacterial insecticide, spinosad against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of values LC(50)?=?I instar was 51.76 ppm, II instar was 61.87 ppm, III instar was 74.07 ppm, and IV instar was 82.18 ppm, and pupae was 93.44 ppm, respectively. Moreover, combined treatment of values of LC(50)?=?I instar was 55.77 ppm, II instar was 65.77 ppm, III instar was 76.36 ppm, and IV instar was 92.78 ppm, and pupae was 107.62 ppm, respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. The results that the leaves extract of C. papaya and bacterial insecticide, Spinosad is promising as good larvicidal and pupicidal properties of against chikungunya vector, A. aegypti. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of chikungunya vector, A. aegypti as target species of vector control programs. PMID:21750871

Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Naresh Kumar, Arjunan; Vincent, Savariar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

2012-02-01

105

Carica papaya Leaves Juice Significantly Accelerates the Rate of Increase in Platelet Count among Patients with Dengue Fever and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to investigate the platelet increasing property of Carica papaya leaves juice (CPLJ) in patients with dengue fever (DF). An open labeled randomized controlled trial was carried out on 228 patients with DF and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Approximately half the patients received the juice, for 3 consecutive days while the others remained as controls and received the standard management. Their full blood count was monitored 8 hours for 48 hours. Gene expression studies were conducted on the ALOX 12 and PTAFR genes. The mean increase in platelet counts were compared in both groups using repeated measure ANCOVA. There was a significant increase in mean platelet count observed in the intervention group (P < 0.001) but not in the control group 40 hours since the first dose of CPLJ. Comparison of mean platelet count between intervention and control group showed that mean platelet count in intervention group was significantly higher than control group after 40 and 48 hours of admission (P < 0.01). The ALOX 12 (FC??=??15.00) and PTAFR (FC??=??13.42) genes were highly expressed among those on the juice. It was concluded that CPLJ does significantly increase the platelet count in patients with DF and DHF. PMID:23662145

Subenthiran, Soobitha; Choon, Tan Chwee; Cheong, Kee Chee; Thayan, Ravindran; Teck, Mok Boon; Muniandy, Prem Kumar; Afzan, Adlin; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Ismail, Zakiah

2013-01-01

106

Hydrolytic resolution of (R,S)-naproxen 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl thioester by Carica papaya lipase in water-saturated organic solvents.  

PubMed

For the first time, the Carica papaya lipase (CPL) stored in crude papain is explored as a potential enantioselective biocatalyst for obtaining chiral acids from their racemic thioesters. Hydrolytic resolution of (R,S)-naproxen 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl thioester in water-saturated organic solvents is employed as a model system for studying the effects of temperature and solvents on lipase activity and enantioselectivity. An optimal temperature of 60 degrees C, based on the initial rate of (S)-thioester and a high enantiomeric ratio (i.e., E-value defined as the ratio of initial rates for both substrates) of >100 at 45 degrees C in isooctane, is obtained. Kinetic analysis, considering product inhibition and enzyme deactivation, is also performed, showing agreement between the experimental and best-fit conversions for (S)-thioester. A comparison of the kinetic and thermodynamic behaviors of CPL and Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) in isooctane and cyclohexane indicates that both lipases are very similar in terms of thermodynamic parameters DeltaDeltaH and DeltaDeltaS, initial rate of (S)-substrate, and E-value when (R,S)-naproxen 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl thioester or ester is employed as substrate. PMID:15543625

Ng, I-Son; Tsai, Shau-Wei

2005-01-01

107

THE EVOLUTION OF SEX CHROMOSOMES IN PAPAYA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of plant species with male, female, and hermaphrodite plants. Sex determination in papaya is controlled by a primitive Y chromosome that contains a male-specific region with severe recombination suppression and DNA sequence degeneration. Our recent results showed tha...

108

Solenostemon monostachyus, Ipomoea involucrata and Carica papaya seed oil versus Glutathione, or Vernonia amygdalina: Methanolic extracts of novel plants for the management of sickle cell anemia disease  

PubMed Central

Background Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disease caused by an individual inheriting an allele for sickle cell hemoglobin from both parents and is associated with unusually large numbers of immature blood cells, containing many long, thin, crescent-shaped erythrocytes. It is a disease prevalent throughout many populations. The use of medicinal plants and nutrition in managing SCD is gaining increasing attention. Methods The antisickling effects of Solenostemon monostachyus (SolMon), Carica papaya seed oil (Cari-oil) and Ipomoea involucrata (Ipocrata) in male (HbSSM) and female (HbSSF) human sickle cell blood was examined in vitro and compared with controls, or cells treated with glutathione or an antisickling plant (Vernonia amygdalina; VerMyg). Results Levels of sickle blood cells were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in all the plant-extract treated SCD patients’ blood compared with that of untreated SCD patients. RBCs in SolMon, Ipocrata, and Cari-oil treated samples were significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with VerMyg-treated samples. The Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in all plant extract-treated HbSSM samples compared with controls. Hemoglobin concentration was significantly increased (P < 0.05) by SolMon treatment in HbSSF compared with VerMyg. Sickle cell polymerization inhibition exhibited by SolMon was significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with that of VerMyg in HbSSF blood. Sickle cell polymerization inhibition in SolMon and Ipocrata were significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with VerMyg in HbSSM blood. All plant extracts significantly reduced (P < 0.05) lactate dehydrogenase activity in both HbSSM and HbSSF-treated blood. Catalase activity was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in HbSSF blood treated with Ipocrata compared with glutathione. Cari-oil treated HbSSM and HbSSF blood had significantly increased (P < 0.05) peroxidase activity compared with controls. Conclusions Methanolic extracts from S. monostachyus, C. papaya seed oil and I. involucrata exhibited particular antisickling properties coupled with the potential to reduce stress in sickle cell patients. Each plant individually or in combination may be useful for the management of sickle cell disease. PMID:23259718

2012-01-01

109

RNA interference of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2) genes expression prolongs the shelf life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L.) papaya fruit.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6). Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants. PMID:24950439

Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom; Yeong, Wee Chien; Pillai, Vilasini

2014-01-01

110

Allergenicity assessment of the Papaya ringspot virus coat protein expressed in transgenic Rainbow papaya  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The virus-resistant, transgenic commercial papaya cultivars Rainbow and SunUp (Carica papaya L.) have been consumed locally in Hawaii and elsewhere in the mainland US and Canada since their release to planters in Hawaii in 1998. These cultivars are derived from transgenic papaya line 55-1 and carry ...

111

Characterization of papaya peptidase A as a cysteine proteinase of Carica papaya L. with active-centre properties that differ from those of papain by using 2,2'-dipyridyl disulphide and 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan as reactivity probes. Use of two-protonic-state electrophiles in the identification of catalytic-site thiol groups.  

PubMed Central

1. The proteinase papaya peptidase A, one of the major components of the latex of Carica papaya L., was shown to contain 1 thiol group per molecule; this thiol group is essential for catalytic activity and is part of the catalytic site. 2. The usefulness of two-protonic-state reactivity probes coupled with modification/activity-loss data in assigning a thiol group as an integral part of the catalytic site as against merely 'essential' for activity is discussed. 3. The active centre of papaya peptidase A was investigated by using 2,2'-dipyridyl disulphide and 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan as reactivity probes. The presence in the enzyme in weakly acidic media of an interactive system containing a nucleophile S atom (pKI3.9,pKII7.9) was demonstrated. 5. Papaya peptidase A resembles ficin (EC 3.4.22.3) and actinidin (the cysteine proteinase from Actinidin chinenis) in that it does not appear to possess a carboxy group able to influence the reactivity of the thiol group by change of ionization state at pH values of about 4, a situation that contrasts markedly with that which obtains in papain. 6. Implications of the results for possible variations in cysteine proteinase mechanism are discussed. PMID:6751321

Baines, B S; Brocklehurst, K

1982-01-01

112

Sex determination in flowering plants: papaya as a model system.  

PubMed

Unisexuality in flowering plants evolved from a hermaphrodite ancestor. Transition from hermaphrodite to unisexual flowers has occurred multiple times across the different lineages of the angiosperms. Sexuality in plants is regulated by genetic, epigenetic and physiological mechanisms. The most specialized mechanism of sex determination is sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes ensure the stable segregation of sexual phenotypes by preventing the recombination of sex determining genes. Despite continuous efforts, sex determining genes of dioecious plants have not yet been cloned. Concerted efforts with various model systems are necessary to understand the complex mechanism of sex determination in plants. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a tropical fruit tree with three sex forms, male, hermaphrodite, and female. Sexuality in papaya is determined by an XY chromosome system that is in an early evolutionary stage. The male and hermaphrodite of papaya are controlled by two different types of Y chromosomes: Y and Y(h). Large amounts of information in the area of genetics, genomics, and epigenetics of papaya have been accumulated over the last few decades. Relatively short lifecycle, small genome size, and readily available genetic and genomic resources render papaya an excellent model system to study sex determination and sex chromosomes in flowering plants. PMID:24467896

Aryal, Rishi; Ming, Ray

2014-03-01

113

Update on the development of virus-resistant papaya: Virus-resistant transgenic papaya for people in rural communities of Thailand  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the most important and preferred crops in rural communities in Thailand. Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a serious disease of papaya throughout Thailand. Efforts to control the virus by various methods either have not been successful or have not resulted in sustai...

114

Efficacy of four plant extracts on nematodes associated with papaya in Sindh, Pakistan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This investigation examines the effect of ethanol extracts of four plant species--Azadirachta indica (neem), Withania somnifera (ashwagandha), Tagetes erecta (marigold) and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus)--against nematodes associated with papaya (Carica papaya), and it assesses their influence o...

115

VITAMIN AND MINERAL CONTENT OF HAWAII’S PAPAYA CULTIVARS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya) cultivars were harvested from different locations throughout Hawaii and analyzed for vitamin C (ascorbic acid), provitamin A ( '-carotene, '-carotene, '-cryptoxanthin), and mineral composition. Papaya mean vitamin C content was 51.2 mg/100g, with no significant differences amo...

116

Whole-photosynthesis and transpiration in field-grown papaya plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of papaya response to environmental factors provides a scientific basis to develop management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. In papaya, the photosynthetic capacity also influ...

117

Photoacoustic study of the influence of the cooling temperature on the CO2 emission rate by Carica papaya L. in modified atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monitoring of trace gas emitted by papaya fruits and assessments of its mass loss can contribute to improve the conditions for their storage and transport. The C02 emission rate by the papaya fruits, monitored by a commercial infrared-based gas analyzer, was influenced by the temperature and storage time. The fruits stored at temperature of 13 °C accumulated more CO2 inside the PEBD bags than those fruits stored at 6 °C. The loss of mass of the fruits progressively increased with storage time for both temperatures until the saturation of the moisture inside the PEBD bag, been more pronounced at 13 ºC.

Schramm, D. U.; Sthel, M. S.; da Silva, M. G.; Carneiro, L. O.; Silva, H. R. F.; Martins, M. L. L.; Resende, E. D.; Vitorazi, L.; Vargas, H.

2005-06-01

118

Barriers in a tropical orchard landscape: how the presence or absence of hedges influences insect dispersal in mixed orchards of Carica papaya and Manilkara zapota.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The presence of plants in the form of a hedge may hinder or alter movement of certain insects into and within an orchard. We investigated the impact that the presence of a hedge of tall grass had on infestation by various pests into mixed orchards of papaya and sapodilla. For most insects there was ...

119

A necessary modification to the preparation of papain from any high-quality latex of Carica papaya and evidence for the structural integrity of the enzyme produced by traditional methods  

PubMed Central

A method of preparation of papain (EC 3.4.22.2) from relatively soluble types of latex of Carica papaya, including spray-dried latex produced by a controlled and relatively mild process, was devised. Spray-dried latex dissolves easily in water up to 350mg/ml at 22°C, which corresponds to approx. 230mg of protein/ml. When the usual method of preparation of crystalline papain contaminated only by its oxidation products, developed by Kimmel & Smith [J. Biol. Chem. (1954) 207, 515–531], is applied to spray-dried latex, the result is a preparation of papain heavily contaminated by chymopapains A and B (EC 3.4.22.6), and to a lesser extent by papaya peptidase A. This applies also to other types of papaya-latex currently commercially available, which, though less soluble than spray-dried latex, are more soluble than the types of latex available when the method of Kimmel & Smith (1954) was developed. This contamination is avoided by adjusting the concentration of the initial latex extract to 65mg of protein/ml (or less) before salt fractionation. For spray-dried latex this corresponds to 100mg of latex/ml. Papain isolated from spray-dried latex was characterized by using 2,2?-dipyridyl disulphide and 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan as thiol-specific reactivity probes and ?-N-benzoyl-l-arginine ethyl ester as substrate. Papain isolated from this source appears to have the same catalytic-centre characteristics as papain isolated previously from latex produced by harsher methods. The catalysis of the hydrolysis of ?-N-benzoyl-l-arginine ethyl ester by the mixture of thiol proteinases extracted from spray-dried latex by application of the method of Kimmel & Smith (1954) appears to obey Michaelis–Menten kinetics. The presence of the other enzymes results in an increase in the value of Km and a decrease in the catalytic-centre activity (kcat.) relative to the values for the catalysis by papain. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3. PMID:435250

Baines, Baldev S.; Brocklehurst†, Keith

1979-01-01

120

EFFECTIVE SELECTION OF TRANSGENIC PAPAYA PLANTS WITH THE PMI/MAN SELECTION SYSTEM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The selectable marker gene phospho-mannose isomerase (pmi), which encodes the enzyme phospho-mannose isomerase (PMI) to enable selection of transformed cell lines on media containing mannose (Man), was evaluated for genetic transformation of papaya (Carica papaya L.). We found that papaya embryogeni...

121

FREQUENCY AND VARIATION OF MICROSATELLITE MARKERS IN THE PAPAYA GENOME  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are single locus markers that display co-dominant inheritance and are widely used in genetic mapping, gene tagging, and genetic diversity studies. Genomic research on papaya (Carica papaya L.) is rapidly advancing and has recently yielded signif...

122

Effect of gamma-irradiation on ripening papaya pectin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya, L., var. Sunset) at three initial ripeness stages were irradiated with 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, or 1.5 kGy gamma-irradiation and pectin changes during ripening determined. A significant linear relationship was found between irradiation dose and firmness immediately after irradiation. Irradiation had no effect on fruit skin or flesh color of papaya fruit irradiated at the 5 to

Min Zhao; James Moy; Robert E. Paull

1996-01-01

123

Rapid divergence and expansion of the X chromosome in papaya  

PubMed Central

X chromosomes have long been thought to conserve the structure and gene content of the ancestral autosome from which the sex chromosomes evolved. We compared the recently evolved papaya sex chromosomes with a homologous autosome of a close relative, the monoecious Vasconcellea monoica, to infer changes since recombination stopped between the papaya sex chromosomes. We sequenced 12 V. monoica bacterial artificial chromosomes, 11 corresponding to the papaya X-specific region, and 1 to a papaya autosomal region. The combined V. monoica X-orthologous sequences are much shorter (1.10 Mb) than the corresponding papaya region (2.56 Mb). Given that the V. monoica genome is 41% larger than that of papaya, this finding suggests considerable expansion of the papaya X; expansion is supported by a higher repetitive sequence content of the X compared with the papaya autosomal sequence. The alignable regions include 27 transcript-encoding sequences, only 6 of which are functional X/V. monoica gene pairs. Sequence divergence from the V. monoica orthologs is almost identical for papaya X and Y alleles; the Carica-Vasconcellea split therefore occurred before the papaya sex chromosomes stopped recombining, making V. monoica a suitable outgroup for inferring changes in papaya sex chromosomes. The papaya X and the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome and V. monoica have all gained and lost genes, including a surprising amount of changes in the X. PMID:22869742

Gschwend, Andrea R.; Yu, Qingyi; Tong, Eric J.; Zeng, Fanchang; Han, Jennifer; VanBuren, Robert; Aryal, Rishi; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H.; Paterson, Andrew H.; Ming, Ray

2012-01-01

124

110 Plant Protection Quarterly Vol.19(3) 2004 The papaya mealybug (PM), Paracoc-  

E-print Network

2002 and was causing serious damage to papaya, Plumeria spp., Hibiscus spp. and other plants such as Annona squamosa, Carica papaya, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Ipomoea spp., Manihot esculenta and Solanum in Plumeria spp. (Apocynaceae) plants. On Hibiscus spp. (Malvaceae) the tender shoots covered by mealybugs

Reddy, Gadi VP

125

Atypical internal yellowing of papaya fruit in Hawaii caused by Enterobacter sakazakii  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Internal yellowing (IY), characterized by yellow discolored tissue around the papaya (Carica papaya) seed cavity, diffuse margins and the presence of a distinctly rotten odor, was first reported in 1987. These symptoms were associated with the causal agent Enterobacter cloacae. Here we report the fo...

126

DEVELOPING TRANSGENIC PAPAYA TO IMPROVE BROAD DISEASE RESISTANCE AGAINST FUNGAL PATHOGENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.), one of the more important fruit crops of the tropics, has limited resistance to a range of fungal pathogens that may kill the plants or, at a minimum, reduce productivity and quality of the fruit. Phytoalexins have been shown to be important natural components in the defe...

127

IRRADIATION-DERIVED SEX REVERSAL MUTANTS FOR CLONING SEX DETERMINATION GENES IN PAPAYA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unlike most animals, most flowering plants are hermaphrodites possessing both male and female organs. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the few plant species that produce male, female, and hermaphrodite flowers on separate individuals. These variations have distinctive morphologies and sexual func...

128

METHYL JASMONATE REDUCES DECAY AND MAINTAINS POSTHARVEST QUALITY OF PAPAYA 'SUNRISE'  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Exposure of papaya (Carica papaya L., cv. Sunrise) fruit to methyl jasmonate (MJ) vapors (ten to the -5 or ten to the -4 M) for 16 h at 20 degrees C inhibited fungal decay and reduced chilling injury development and loss of firmness during storage for 14-32 days at 10 degrees C and shelf life (4 day...

129

Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management  

PubMed Central

Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research. PMID:24757435

Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

2014-01-01

130

Genetic diversity of papaya ring spot virus in Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that 20-40% of crop yield is lost due to pests and diseases. Viruses are agents that cause diseases which contribute greatly to the global yield loss. Because of this, food production is negatively affected, especially in the tropics. Carica papaya, co...

131

Development of Transgenic Papaya through Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation.  

PubMed

Transgenic papaya plants were regenerated from hypocotyls and immature zygotic embryo after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as the selectable marker and ?-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene. The explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens on regeneration medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime for one week. The cocultivated explants were transferred into the final selection medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime?+?50?mg/L kanamycin for callus induction as well as plant regeneration. The callus derived from the hypocotyls of Carica papaya cv. Shahi showed the highest positive GUS activities compared to Carica papaya cv. Ranchi. The transformed callus grew vigorously and formed embryos followed by transgenic plantlets successfully. The result of this study showed that the hypocotyls of C. papaya cv. Shahi and C. papaya cv. Ranchi are better explants for genetic transformation compared to immature embryos. The transformed C. papaya cv. Shahi also showed the maximum number of plant regeneration compared to that of C. papaya cv. Ranchi. PMID:24066284

Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md Golam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

2013-01-01

132

Development of Transgenic Papaya through Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation  

PubMed Central

Transgenic papaya plants were regenerated from hypocotyls and immature zygotic embryo after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as the selectable marker and ?-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene. The explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens on regeneration medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime for one week. The cocultivated explants were transferred into the final selection medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime?+?50?mg/L kanamycin for callus induction as well as plant regeneration. The callus derived from the hypocotyls of Carica papaya cv. Shahi showed the highest positive GUS activities compared to Carica papaya cv. Ranchi. The transformed callus grew vigorously and formed embryos followed by transgenic plantlets successfully. The result of this study showed that the hypocotyls of C. papaya cv. Shahi and C. papaya cv. Ranchi are better explants for genetic transformation compared to immature embryos. The transformed C. papaya cv. Shahi also showed the maximum number of plant regeneration compared to that of C. papaya cv. Ranchi. PMID:24066284

Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md. Golam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

2013-01-01

133

Structural characterization of two papaya chitinases, a family GH19 of glycosyl hydrolases.  

PubMed

Two chitinases, able to use tetra-N-acetylglucosamine, chitin and chitosan as substrates, were characterized after purification from Carica papaya latex. The complete amino acid sequence of the major form and about 40% of the minor one were determined through proteolytic digestions and mass spectroscopy analysis. Sequencing demonstrated that both papaya chitinases are members of the family 19 of glycosyl hydrolases (GH19). Based on the known 3-D structures of other members of family GH19, it was expected that papaya chitinases would adopt all-alpha structures. However, circular dichroism and infrared spectroscopy indicated, for the papaya chitinases, a content of 15-20% of extended structures besides the expected 40% of alpha helices. Since the fully sequenced papaya chitinase contains a large number of proline residues the possibility that papaya chitinase contains polyproline II stretches was examined in the context of their resistance against proteolytic degradation. PMID:17115118

Huet, J; Wyckmans, J; Wintjens, R; Boussard, P; Raussens, V; Vandenbussche, G; Ruysschaert, J M; Azarkan, M; Looze, Y

2006-12-01

134

Application of a qualitative and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method for detecting genetically modified papaya line 55-1 in papaya products.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.) line 55-1 (55-1), which is resistant to papaya ringspot virus infection, has been marketed internationally. Many countries have mandatory labeling regulations for GM foods, and there is a need for specific methods for detecting 55-1. Here, an event- and construct-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed for detecting 55-1 in papaya products. Quantitative detection was possible for fresh papaya fruit up to dilutions of 0.001% and 0.01% (weight per weight [w/w]) for homozygous SunUp and heterozygous Rainbow cultivars, respectively, in non-GM papaya. The limit of detection and quantification was as low as 250 copies of the haploid genome according to a standard reference plasmid. The method was applicable to qualitative detection of 55-1 in eight types of processed products (canned papaya, pickled papaya, dried fruit, papaya-leaf tea, jam, puree, juice, and frozen dessert) containing papaya as a main ingredient. PMID:23122142

Nakamura, Kosuke; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Noguchi, Akio; Ohmori, Kiyomi; Kasahara, Masaki; Kitta, Kazumi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko

2013-01-15

135

Papaya Ringspot Virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The term papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was coined by Jensen in 1949, to describe a papaya disease in Hawaii. Later work showed that diseases such as papaya mosaic and watermelon mosaic virus-1 were caused by PRSV. The primary host range of PRSV is papaya and cucurbits, with Chenopium amaranticolor ...

136

Analysis of Papaya Cell Wall-Related Genes during Fruit Ripening Indicates a Central Role of Polygalacturonases during Pulp Softening  

PubMed Central

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a climacteric fleshy fruit that undergoes dramatic changes during ripening, most noticeably a severe pulp softening. However, little is known regarding the genetics of the cell wall metabolism in papayas. The present work describes the identification and characterization of genes related to pulp softening. We used gene expression profiling to analyze the correlations and co-expression networks of cell wall-related genes, and the results suggest that papaya pulp softening is accomplished by the interactions of multiple glycoside hydrolases. The polygalacturonase cpPG1 appeared to play a central role in the network and was further studied. The transient expression of cpPG1 in papaya results in pulp softening and leaf necrosis in the absence of ethylene action and confirms its role in papaya fruit ripening. PMID:25162506

Fabi, João Paulo; Broetto, Sabrina Garcia; da Silva, Sarah Lígia Garcia Leme; Zhong, Silin; Lajolo, Franco Maria; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

2014-01-01

137

Isolation and Characterisation of PRSV-P Resistance Genes in Carica and Vasconcellea  

PubMed Central

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the major tropical fruit crops worldwide, but it is limited throughout its range by papaya ringspot virus type P (PRSV-P). Previous genetic studies identified a functional PRSV-P resistance marker in a mapping population of F2 plants of Vasconcellea pubescens (resistant to PRSV-P) × Vasconcellea parviflora (susceptible to PRSV-P) and showed that the marker exhibited homology to a serine threonine protein kinase (STK) gene. Full length cDNAs of putative PRSV-P resistance genes designated CP_STK from C. papaya and VP_STK1 and VP_STK2 from V. pubescens were cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Due to a frame-shift mutation, the two homologous sequences are transcribed and edited differently such that the gene product in V. pubescens is two separate transcripts, whereas in C. papaya they are fused into a single message. A peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS2) present in VP_STK2 but absent in the other transcripts may be the functional source of PRSV resistance in V. pubescens. The STK gene from V. pubescens may have been derived from an alternative splicing to confer resistance. The putative resistance gene, VP_STK2, that was identified in this study is a potential new source of PRSV-P resistance for papaya genotypes. PMID:25184131

Razean Haireen, M. R.; Drew, R. A.

2014-01-01

138

Morphological Variability of Fig (Ficus carica L.) Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty one cultivars of fig (Ficus carica L.) were analyzed based on both qualitative and quantitative morphological characters. The cultivars can be found in five different regions: three originated from the north and two from localities from the south of Tunisia. A morphological study was conducted to determine variables in biological characteristics, tree growth, and leaf and fruit descriptors. This

O. Saddoud; G. Baraket; K. Chatti; M. Trifi; M. Marrakchi; A. Salhi-Hannachi; M. Mars

2008-01-01

139

Strategies of leaf expansion in Ficus carica under semiarid conditions.  

PubMed

Leaf area expansion, thickness and inclination, gas exchange parameters and relative chlorophyll content were analysed in field-grown fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves over time, from emergence until after full leaf expansion (FLE). Ficus carica leaves showed a subtle change in shape during the early stages of development, and FLE was reached within ca. 30 days after emergence. Changes in leaf thickness and inclination after FLE demonstrated good adaptation to environmental conditions during summer in areas with a Mediterranean climate. Changes in gas exchange parameters and relative chlorophyll content showed that F. carica is a delayed-greening species, reaching maximum values 20 days after FLE. Correlation analysis of datasets collected during leaf expansion, confirmed dependence among structural and functional traits in F. carica. Pn was directly correlated with stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration (E), leaf area (LA) and relative chlorophyll content up to FLE. The effect of pruning on leaf expansion, a cultural technique commonly applied in this fruit tree, was also evaluated. Although leaf development in pruned branches gave a significantly higher relative leaf area growth rate (RGR(l)) and higher LA than non-pruned branches, no significant differences were found in other morphological and physiological traits, indicating no pruning effect on leaf development. All studied morphological and physiological characteristics indicate that F. carica is well adapted to semiarid conditions. The delayed greening strategy of this species is discussed. PMID:20522183

González-Rodríguez, A M; Peters, J

2010-05-01

140

Field performance evaluation and genetic integrity assessment of cryopreserved papaya clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the first report of field performance and evaluation of morphological traits following cryopreservation in four\\u000a genotypes of Carica papaya (Z6, 97, TS2 and 35). It also describes the successful establishment of in vitro plantlets following vitrification-based\\u000a cryopreservation of shoot tips and their acclimatisation through to field establishment. Cloned plants resulting from untreated\\u000a controls, as well as controls

Adam Kaity; S. E. Ashmore; R. A. Drew

2009-01-01

141

Thrombocyte counts in mice after the administration of papaya leaf suspension.  

PubMed

Following up a popular use of crude leaf preparations from Carica papaya for the treatment of dengue infections, a suspension of powdered Carica papaya leaves in palm oil has been investigated for its effect on thrombocyte counts in mice, administering by gavage 15 mg of powdered leaves per kg body weight to 5 mice. Equal numbers of animals received corresponding volumes of either palm oil alone or physiological saline solution. Thrombocyte counts before and at 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after dosing revealed significantly higher mean counts at 1, 2, 4, 8, 10 and 12 after dosing with the C. papaya leaf formulation as compared to the mean count at hour 0. There was only a non-significant rise of thrombocyte counts in the group having received saline solution, possibly the expression of a normal circadian rhythm in mice. The group having received palm oil only showed a protracted increase of platelet counts that was significant at hours 8 and 48 and obviously the result of a hitherto unknown stimulation of thrombocyte release. The results call for a dose-response investigation and for extending the studies to the isolation and identification of the C. papaya substances responsible for the release and/or production of thrombocytes. PMID:19915811

Sathasivam, Kathiresan; Ramanathan, Surash; Mansor, Sharif M; Haris, Mas Rosemal M H; Wernsdorfer, Walther H

2009-10-01

142

Effect of packaging materials and storage environment on postharvest quality of papaya fruit.  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of packaging materials and storage environments on shelf life of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.). A factorial combination of five packaging materials and two storage environments using randomized complete block design with three replications were used. The papaya fruits were evaluated for weight loss, percentage marketability, firmness, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar and total sugar content. The packaged and cooled fruits remained firmer than unpackaged and evaporatively cooled fruits. Higher chemical compositions were recorded in the control fruits stored under ambient conditions during the earlier times of storage. Packaging and cooling maintained the chemical quality of papaya fruits better than the control sample fruits towards the end of storage periods. The evaporatively cooled storage combined with packaging improved the shelf life of papaya fruits by more than two fold. The polyethylene bag packaging combined with evaporatively cooled storage maintained the superior quality of papaya fruit for a period of 21 days. This integrated agro-technology is recommended for postharvest loss reduction biotechnology in hot regions. PMID:24876636

Azene, Mulualem; Workneh, Tilahun Seyoum; Woldetsadik, Kebede

2014-06-01

143

Draft Genome Sequence of Erwinia mallotivora BT-MARDI, Causative Agent of Papaya Dieback Disease  

PubMed Central

Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya trees infected with dieback disease, which were planted at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Malaysia. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of E. mallotivora BT-MARDI, which offers an important source of information for understanding pathogen and host interaction during papaya dieback development. PMID:24812220

Abu Bakar, N.; Rozano, L.; Badrun, R.; Mat Amin, N.; Mohd Raih, M. F.

2014-01-01

144

The proteolytic activities in latex from Carica candamarcensis.  

PubMed

Prior evidence suggests that proteinases in latex from Caricaceae protect against injuries induced by physical wounding. While the proteolytic enzymes from Carica papaya are well characterized, the homologues from Carica candamarcensis were not given similar attention, probably because its distribution is restricted to South American regions. We describe the chromatographic steps to fractionate 14 components from C. candamarcensis, 12 of them displaying amidase activity. The mass of these proteins plus two others isolated by HPLC rank between 23,943 and 22,991Da, and their N-terminal sequences showed similarities or identities with the enzymes described earlier in this species. Following CM-Sephadex chromatography two major peaks containing proteolytic activity were resolved. Each of these peaks was further resolved by Mono S chromatography yielding several purified fractions. The kinetic parameters of two of the Mono S purified enzymes originated from each of the CMS-Sephadex peaks were determined. While the Km with (Pyr-Phe-Leu-pNA), is similar in both enzymes, the kcat for one of them is 10-fold lower than the other. Based on these differences it is proposed that two groups of proteinases exist in latex of C. candamarcensis. PMID:18672376

Teixeira, Raphael D; Ribeiro, Henrique A L; Gomes, Marco-Túlio R; Lopes, Miriam T P; Salas, Carlos E

2008-11-01

145

Phylogenetic analysis of the highland papayas ( Vasconcellea ) and allied genera (Caricaceae) using PCR-RFLP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA diversity of 61 genotypes belonging to 18 Vasconcellea species, the so-called highland papayas, was studied by PCR-RFLP analysis of two non-coding cpDNA regions ( trnM- rbcL and trnK1- trnK2) and one non-coding mtDNA region ( nad4\\/1- nad4\\/2). This sample set was supplemented with six genotypes belonging to three other Caricaceae genera: the monotypic genus Carica,

B. Van Droogenbroeck; T. Kyndt; I. Maertens; E. Romeijn-Peeters; X. Scheldeman; J. P. Romero-Motochi; P. Van Damme; P. Goetghebeur; G. Gheysen

2004-01-01

146

Beverages of lemon juice and exotic noni and papaya with potential for anticholinergic effects.  

PubMed

Lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.) juice beverages enriched either with noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) (LN) or papaya (Carica papaya L.) (LP), were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n), the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by (DPPH·), superoxide (O2(·-)), hydroxyl radicals (·OH) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) assays, and their potential as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors was also assessed. The fruits are rich in a wide range of bioactive phenolics. Regarding DPPH·, ·OH and HOCl assays, the LP displayed strong activity, and LN was the most active against O2(·-). Concerning cholinesterases, LP was the most active, mainly due to lemon juice contribution. The effect on the cholinesterases was not as strong as in previous reports on purified extracts, but the bioactive-rich beverages offer the possibility of dietary coadjutants for daily consumption of health-promoting substances by adults with aging-related cognitive or physical disorders. PMID:25306312

Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

2015-03-01

147

DEREGULATION OF TRANSGENIC PAPAYA FOR JAPAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The transgenic SunUp and Rainbow papaya developed for Hawaii was commercialized in 1998 and virtually saved Hawaii’s papaya industry from further damage being caused by papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Since Japan makes up a significant part (about 35% in 1992) in Hawaii’s papaya export market, effort...

148

The treatment of paediatric burns using topical papaya.  

PubMed

Due to the limited resources for the management of burns in most regions of Africa there is a significant role for many aspects of traditional African medicine. The active component of many traditional preparations is often of plant origin and more than 25 plants have been described as useful in relations to burns and wound healing. Carica papaya is currently used in The Gambia at the Royal Victoria Hospital, Banjul in the Paediatric Unit as the major component of burns dressings, where it is well tolerated by the children. Cheap and widely available, the pulp of the papaya fruit is mashed and applied daily to full thickness and infected burns. It appears to be effective in desloughing necrotic tissue, preventing burn wound infection, and providing a granulating wound suitable for the application of a split thickness skin graft. Possible mechanisms of action include the activity of proteolytic enzymes chymopapain and papain, as well as an antimicrobial activity, although further studies are required. PMID:10563690

Starley, I F; Mohammed, P; Schneider, G; Bickler, S W

1999-11-01

149

Isolation and primary structure of the CCI papain-like cysteine proteinases from the latex of Carica candamarcensis hook.  

PubMed

The dried latex of the mountain papaya, Carica candamarcensis, was chromatographed on CM-Sephadex C50, giving rise to three peaks (CCI, CCII and CCIII) with amidase activity on N-alpha-benzoyl-DL-arginine-4-nitroanilide. The less basic, most active, peak, CCI, was separated into two components, CCIa and CCIb, by reverse-phase HPLC under denaturing conditions. The primary structures of CCIa and CCIb are presented. They were deduced from sequence analysis of the whole proteins and peptides resulting from enzymatic digestions. Both proteinases are made of 213 amino acid residues, CCIb sharing 88-89% similarity with the three subvariants (G90/R212, E90/R212, E90/K212) of CCIa. 139-140 amino acid residues (65.8%) of CCIa and 141 residues (66.5%) of CCIb are common to papain. The seven cysteine residues are aligned with those of papain and the catalytic triad (Cys25, His159, Asn175) of all cysteine peptidases of the papain family is conserved. The similarity with the other cysteine proteases from Carica papaya is discussed. PMID:10355634

Walraevens, V; Vandermeers-Piret, M C; Vandermeers, A; Gourlet, P; Robberecht, P

1999-04-01

150

TRANSGENIC PAPAYA: A CASE FOR WORLDWIDE CONTROL OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was detected in the main papaya growing region of Hawaii in 1992. By 1994 Hawaii's papaya industry was facing devastating damage from PRSV. Efforts to develop resistant transgenic papaya were started in the mid 1980s. By 1991, a resistant line was identified, field tri...

151

TRANSGENIC PAPAYA: A CASE FOR MANAGING RISKS OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS IN HAWAII  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In May 1992, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV was detected in the Puna district of Hawaii Island, the main papaya growing region of the state of Hawaii. By 1994 Hawaii's papaya industry was facing devastating damage from PRSV. Efforts to develop resistant transgenic papaya were started in the mid 1980s...

152

Molecular cloning of a mitogenic proteinase from Carica candamarcensis: its potential use in wound healing.  

PubMed

Cysteine proteinases from the Caricaceae belong to the C1 family of the CA clan and display papain-like structured, the archetype enzyme for this group of proteins. Carica candamarcensis, also named Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis, a member of Caricaceae family common to many areas in South America, contains cysteine proteinases with proteolytic activity five to eight-fold higher than those from latex of Carica papaya. The cysteine protease CMS2MS2 from C. candamarcensis latex has been shown to enhance proliferation of L929 fibroblast and to activate the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK). In this study, the cDNA cloning, expression and evaluation of biological activity of a CMS2MS2-like protein from C. candamarcensis is reported. The 650 bp fragment was cloned in bacteria and the DNA sequence confirmed a cysteine-proteinase similar to CMS2MS2. The recombinant protein is 30 kDa, induces a mitogenic response, and enhances ERK1/2 phosphorylation, like the non-recombinant enzyme, but lacks either amidase or caseinolytic activity. The mitogenic activity of this protein and its lack of proteolytic activity underscore a potential for use in wound healing treatment. PMID:21798567

Corrêa, Natássia C R; Mendes, Isabela C; Gomes, Marco Túlio R; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Chagas, Brisa C A; Lopes, Miriam T P; Salas, Carlos E

2011-11-01

153

Effects of nitric oxide treatment on the cell wall softening related enzymes and several hormones of papaya fruit during storage.  

PubMed

Papaya fruits (Carica papaya L. cv 'Sui you 2') harvested with < 5% yellow surface at the blossom end were fumigated with 60 microL/L of nitric oxide for 3 h and then stored at 20 degrees C with 85% relative humility for 20 days. The effects of nitric oxide treatment on ethylene production rate, the activities of cell wall softening related enzymes including polygalacturonase, pectin methyl esterase, pectate lyase and cellulase and the levels of hormones including indole acetic acid, abscisic acid, gibberellin and zeatin riboside were examined. The results showed that papaya fruits treated with nitric oxide had a significantly lower rate of ethylene production and a lesser loss of firmness during storage. A decrease in polygalacturonase, pectin methyl esterase, pectate lyase and cellulase activities was observed in nitric oxide treated fruit. In addition, the contents of indole acetic acid, abscisic acid and zeatin riboside were reduced in nitric oxide treated fruit, but no significant reduction in the level of gibberellin was found. These results indicate that nitric oxide treatment can effectively delay the softening and ripening of papaya fruit, likely via the regulation of cell wall softening related enzymes and certain hormones. PMID:23744122

Guo, Qin; Wu, Bin; Chen, Weixin; Zhang, Yuli; Wang, Jide; Li, Xueping

2014-06-01

154

CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF TRANSGENIC PAPAYA WORK IN HAWAII  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya ringspot caused severe damage to Hawaii’s papaya industry starting from 1992 when papaya ringspot virus was discovered in Puna, where 95% of the commercial papaya was being grown. The main papaya cultivars grown in Hawaii are the nontransgeic Kapoho, Sunrise, and Sunset, and the transgenic S...

155

Papaya Extract to Treat Dengue: A Novel Therapeutic Option?  

PubMed Central

Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The search was done independently by the two authors using PubMed, Google and the library database and included relevant articles of the last 10 years. A total of 7 studies were included in this review, which were one animal study, one case report, three case series and two randomized controlled trials. Although many of the studies and case reports published in literature lack adequate information, some of the studies do raise the possibility that this treatment could be an important option in the future. Further large-scale studies could establish the usefulness or ineffectiveness of this natural product in the treatment of dengue. PMID:24971201

Sarala, N; Paknikar, SS

2014-01-01

156

Papaya extract to treat dengue: a novel therapeutic option?  

PubMed

Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The search was done independently by the two authors using PubMed, Google and the library database and included relevant articles of the last 10 years. A total of 7 studies were included in this review, which were one animal study, one case report, three case series and two randomized controlled trials. Although many of the studies and case reports published in literature lack adequate information, some of the studies do raise the possibility that this treatment could be an important option in the future. Further large-scale studies could establish the usefulness or ineffectiveness of this natural product in the treatment of dengue. PMID:24971201

Sarala, N; Paknikar, Ss

2014-05-01

157

Effects of papaya leaves on thrombocyte counts in dengue--a case report.  

PubMed

Dengue fever is on the rise in developing nations like India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. There is no antiviral chemotherapy or vaccine for dengue virus and management of the disease is done on supportive measures. The decline in the thrombocyte count leads to dengue haemorrhagic fever accounting for complications and mortality. Oral administration of Carica papaya leaves extract is said to have a positive impact on thrombocyte count. A 23-year-old man was administered a calculated dose for five days. Blood samples were tested for complete blood count before and after the administration of the juice. Thrombocyte count had increased from 28000/micro liter to 138000/micro liter at the end of five days. We present our experience here. PMID:24864622

Siddique, Osama; Sundus, Ayesha; Ibrahim, Mohammad Faisal

2014-03-01

158

Managing papaya ringspot virus: Impact of grass barriers on alate aphid immigration into papaya orchards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya ringspot virus, transmitted by alate aphids, is the most limiting factor of papaya production in the Caribbean region. Although there are transgenic papaya varieties that provide protection from this virus, these varieties are effective only in certain regions against certain strains of the v...

159

Cloning of the Papaya Chromoplast-Specific Lycopene ?-Cyclase, CpCYC-b, Controlling Fruit Flesh Color Reveals Conserved Microsynteny and a Recombination Hot Spot1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Carotenoid pigments in fruits are indicative of the ripening process and potential nutritional value. Papaya (Carica papaya) fruit flesh color is caused by the accumulation of lycopene or ?-carotenoids in chromoplasts. It is a distinct feature affecting nutritional composition, fruit quality, shelf life, and consumer preference. To uncover the molecular basis of papaya flesh color, we took map-based cloning and candidate gene approaches using integrated genetic and physical maps. A DNA marker tightly linked to flesh color colocalized on a contig of the physical map with a cDNA probe of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) chromoplast-specific lycopene ?-cyclase, CYC-b. Candidate gene sequences were obtained from amplified fragments and verified by sequencing two bacterial artificial chromosomes containing the two alleles. Sequence comparison revealed a 2-bp insertion in the coding region of the recessive red flesh allele resulting in a frame-shift mutation and a premature stop codon. A color complementation test in bacteria confirmed that the papaya CpCYC-b is the gene controlling fruit flesh color. Sequence analysis of wild and cultivated papaya accessions showed the presence of this frame-shift mutation in all red flesh accessions examined. Evaluation of DNA markers near CpCYC-b revealed a recombination hot spot, showing that CpCYC-b is located in a gene-rich region with a recombination rate at 3.7 kb per centimorgan, more than 100-fold higher than the genome average at 400 kb per centimorgan. Conserved microsynteny of the CpCYC-b region is indicated by colinearity of two to four genes between papaya, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), grape (Vitis vinifera), and tomato. Our results enhanced our understanding of papaya flesh color inheritance and generated new tools for papaya improvement. PMID:20181753

Blas, Andrea L.; Ming, Ray; Liu, Zhiyong; Veatch, Olivia J.; Paull, Robert E.; Moore, Paul H.; Yu, Qingyi

2010-01-01

160

Is the old world fig, Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), an alternate host for the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) (Homoptera: Psyllidae)?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The only non-rutaceous plant on which D. citri has been found breeding in Texas is the edible fig, Ficus carica (Moraceae). In the summer of 2010, we discovered D. citri nymphs on a dooryard fig tree. Fig has its own species of psyllid, Homatoma ficus, but both adults and nymphs of that species ar...

161

COMMERCIALIZATION OF TRANSGENIC PAPAYA: WEIGHING BENEFITS AND POTENTIAL RISKS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya is Hawaii's second most important fruit crop, behind the pineapple. In 1992, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was discovered in Puna Hawaii, where 95% of Hawaii's papaya were being grown. By late 1994, PRSV was widespread in Puna and the papaya industry was facing severe crop loss. In 1998, tr...

162

Recent Origin of the Papaya Sex Chromosomes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sex chromosomes in flowering plants, in contrast to those in animals, evolved relatively recently and only a few are heteromorphic. The sex chromosomes of papaya appear at the cytological level to be homomorphic but, at the molecular level, we are finding that the papaya Y chromosome shows features ...

163

Isolation and characterization of the papaya MADS-box E-class genes, CpMADS1 and CpMADS3, and a TM6 lineage gene CpMADS2.  

PubMed

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) plants are polygamous, with female, male, and hermaphroditic flowers. To understand the roles of MADS-box genes in flower development and sex determination, we cloned cDNAs of E-class genes CpMADS1 and CpMADS3 and a TM6 lineage of the B-class gene CpMADS2 from young flower buds of papaya. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR analyses revealed that CpMADS1 and CpMADS3 were preferentially expressed in the carpel and also in petals and stamens. CpMADS2 was expressed in both petals and stamens early during floral development. Comparison of 10 papaya genotypes of 5 different sex phenotypes - hermaphrodite, male, female, progeny-all-hermaphrodite, and progeny-all-male - by Southern blot analysis of genomic DNAs with probes of the 3 genes revealed similar restriction patterns and copy number, suggesting a low relationship of the 3 CpMADS genes with sex expression of papaya plants at the genomic level. PMID:25078586

Lee, M-J; Yang, W-J; Chiu, C-T; Chen, J-J; Chen, F-C; Chang, L-S

2014-01-01

164

Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Safety Evaluation of Papain (Carica papaya L.) Using In Vitro Assays  

PubMed Central

Papain, a phytotherapeutic agent, has been used in the treatment of eschars and as a debriding chemical agent to remove damaged or necrotic tissue of pressure ulcers and gangrene. Its benefits in these treatments are deemed effective, since more than 5000 patients, at the public university hospital at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, have undergone papain treatment and presented satisfactory results. Despite its extensive use, there is little information about toxic and mutagenic properties of papain. This work evaluated the toxic and mutagenic potential of papain and its potential antioxidant activity against induced-H2O2 oxidative stress in Escherichia coli strains. Cytotoxicity assay, Growth inhibition test, WP2-Mutoxitest and Plasmid-DNA treatment, and agarose gel electrophoresis were used to investigate if papain would present any toxic or mutagenic potential as well as if papain would display antioxidant properties. Papain exhibited negative results for all tests. This agent presented an activity protecting cells against H2O2-induced mutagenesis. PMID:20508844

da Silva, Claudia R.; Oliveira, Marcia B. N.; Motta, Ellen S.; de Almeida, Gabriella S.; Varanda, Leandro L.; de Pádula, Marcelo; Leitão, Alvaro C.; Caldeira-de-Araújo, Adriano

2010-01-01

165

DEVELOPING PHYTOPHTHORA PALMIVORA RESISTANCE IN CARICA PAPAYA L. BY OVEREXPRESSION OF THE NPR1 GENE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

NPR1 is the key regulatory gene controlling the onset of the SAR signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. Overexpression of the Arabidopsis NPR1 gene (AtNPR1) gave Arabidopsis plants enhanced resistance to the pathogens Pseudomonas syringae and Peronospora parasitica without any obvious detrimental effects...

166

Cysteine-specific, covalent anchoring of transition organometallic complexes to the protein papain from Carica papaya.  

PubMed

Site-directed and covalent introduction of various transition metal-organic entities to the active site of the cysteine endoproteinase, papain, was achieved by treatment of this enzyme with a series of organometallic maleimide derivatives specially designed for the purpose. Kinetic studies made it clear that time-dependent irreversible inactivation of papain occurred in the presence of these organometallic maleimides as a result of Michael addition of the sulfhydryl of Cys25. The rate and mechanism of inactivation were highly dependent on the structure of the organometallic entity attached to the maleimide group. Combined ESI-MS and IR analysis indicated that all the resulting papain adducts contained one organometallic moiety per protein molecule. This confirmed that chemospecific introduction of the metal complexes was indeed achieved. Thus, three novel reagents for heavy-atom derivatization of protein crystals, which include ruthenium, rhenium and tungsten, are now available for the introduction of electron-dense scatterers for phasing of X-ray crystallographic data. PMID:17167808

Haquette, Pierre; Salmain, Michèle; Svedlung, Karolina; Martel, Annie; Rudolf, Bogna; Zakrzewski, Janusz; Cordier, Stéphane; Roisnel, Thierry; Fosse, Céline; Jaouen, Gérard

2007-01-22

167

Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial covers various aspects of trees. It explains which chemicals cause leaves to change colors, how the process of photosynthesis works, the functions of bark, roots, pollen and leaves, and the effect of trees on nearby temperature.

168

Inhibition of the host proteasome facilitates papaya ringspot virus accumulation and proteosomal catalytic activity is modulated by viral factor HcPro.  

PubMed

The ubiquitin/26S proteasome system plays an essential role not only in maintaining protein turnover, but also in regulating many other plant responses, including plant-pathogen interactions. Previous studies highlighted different roles of the 20S proteasome in plant defense during virus infection, either indirectly through viral suppressor-mediated degradation of Argonaute proteins, affecting the RNA interference pathway, or directly through modulation of the proteolytic and RNase activity of the 20S proteasome, a component of the 20S proteasome, by viral proteins, affecting the levels of viral proteins and RNAs. Here we show that MG132, a cell permeable proteasomal inhibitor, caused an increase in papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) accumulation in its natural host papaya (Carica papaya). We also show that the PRSV HcPro interacts with the papaya homologue of the Arabidopsis PAA (?1 subunit of the 20S proteasome), but not with the papaya homologue of Arabidopsis PAE (?5 subunit of the 20S proteasome), associated with the RNase activity, although the two 20S proteasome subunits interacted with each other. Mutated forms of PRSV HcPro showed that the conserved KITC54 motif in the N-terminal domain of HcPro was necessary for its binding to PAA. Co-agroinfiltration assays demonstrated that HcPro expression mimicked the action of MG132, and facilitated the accumulation of bothtotal ubiquitinated proteins and viral/non-viral exogenous RNA in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. These effects were not observed by using an HcPro mutant (KITS54), which impaired the HcPro - PAA interaction. Thus, the PRSV HcPro interacts with a proteasomal subunit, inhibiting the action of the 20S proteasome, suggesting that HcPro might be crucial for modulating its catalytic activities in support of virus accumulation. PMID:23300704

Sahana, Nandita; Kaur, Harpreet; Basavaraj; Tena, Fatima; Jain, Rakesh Kumar; Palukaitis, Peter; Canto, Tomas; Praveen, Shelly

2012-01-01

169

Toxicity assessment of transgenic papaya ringspot virus of 823-2210 line papaya fruits.  

PubMed

The transgenic papaya is a valuable strategy for creating plants resistant to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) infection and increasing production. This study was further performed to evaluate the comparative toxicity effects of the newly developed transgenic line of the fruits of two backcross transgenic papaya lines (2210 and 823) and one hybrid line (823-2210) and compare to their parent non-transgenic (TN-2) counterparts. The stability analysis of coat protein (CP) of PRSV was investigated using the digestion stability assays in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), and bile salts to detect the CP fragments. Results revealed that the CP fragments were rapidly hydrolyzed in SGF and were undetectable in organs and gastrointestinal contents in rats. For the genotoxicity, three in vitro assays were conducted and exhibited that non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits were negative. Moreover, a repeated animal feeding study was conducted by feeding 2 g/kg of body weight (bw) of non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits for 28 days in rats. There were no biological or toxicological significances between non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits in rats. The results demonstrated that the backcross transgenic papaya fruit can be recognized as an equivalent substitution for traditional papaya in food safety. PMID:23350793

Lin, Hsin-Tang; Yen, Gow-Chin; Huang, Ting-Tzu; Chan, Lit-Fu; Cheng, Ying-Huey; Wu, Jhaol-Huei; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Liao, Jiunn-Wang

2013-02-20

170

Transgenic Papaya: Can We Proceed Beyond the Hawaiian Experience?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The story of the development, deregulation, and commercialization of the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) resistant transgenic SunUp and Rainbow papaya for Hawaii is quite well known at least among plant virologist and knowledgeable people in the field of papaya. Thus, the story will be only briefly r...

171

Construction of a Sequence-Tagged High-Density Genetic Map of Papaya for Comparative Structural and Evolutionary Genomics in Brassicales  

PubMed Central

A high-density genetic map of papaya (Carica papaya L.) was constructed using microsatellite markers derived from BAC end sequences and whole-genome shot gun sequences. Fifty-four F2 plants derived from varieties AU9 and SunUp were used for linkage mapping. A total of 707 markers, including 706 microsatellite loci and the morphological marker fruit flesh color, were mapped into nine major and three minor linkage groups. The resulting map spanned 1069.9 cM with an average distance of 1.5 cM between adjacent markers. This sequence-based microsatellite map resolved the very large linkage group 2 (LG 2) of the previous high-density map using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. The nine major LGs of our map represent papaya's haploid nine chromosomes with LG 1 of the sex chromosome being the largest. This map validates the suppression of recombination at the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) mapped on LG 1 and at potential centromeric regions of other LGs. Segregation distortion was detected in a large region on LG 1 surrounding the MSY region due to the abortion of the YY genotype and in a region of LG6 due to an unknown cause. This high-density sequence-tagged genetic map is being used to integrate genetic and physical maps and to assign genome sequence scaffolds to papaya chromosomes. It provides a framework for comparative structural and evolutional genomic research in the order Brassicales. PMID:17947401

Chen, Cuixia; Yu, Qingyi; Hou, Shaobin; Li, Yingjun; Eustice, Moriah; Skelton, Rachel L.; Veatch, Olivia; Herdes, Rachel E.; Diebold, Lauren; Saw, Jimmy; Feng, Yun; Qian, Wubin; Bynum, Lee; Wang, Lei; Moore, Paul H.; Paull, Robert E.; Alam, Maqsudul; Ming, Ray

2007-01-01

172

The structure of CMS2MS2, a mitogenic protein isolated from Carica candamarcensis.  

PubMed

In a recent study we showed that two proteinases (CMS2MS2 and CMS2MS3) from Carica candamarcensis enhance mammalian cell proliferation. The aim of the present study is the determination of the primary structure of CMS2MS2 and prediction of its three-dimensional structure. The protein contains 214 residues, including the catalytic triad composed of Cys(25), His(159), and Asn(175). A phylogenetic tree analysis demonstrated that CMS2MS2 ranks closer to chymopapain than to papain. The overall predicted three-dimensional structure is similar to proteinases from the papain family. These results suggest that minor structural differences within CMS2MS2 must account for its proliferative action. PMID:17655500

Gomes, Marco Túlio R; Bemquerer, Marcelo P; Lopes, Miriam Tereza P; Richardson, Michael; Júnior, Sergio Oyama; Salas, Carlos E

2007-08-01

173

The Relationship between the Expression of Ethylene-Related Genes and Papaya Fruit Ripening Disorder Caused by Chilling Injury  

PubMed Central

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is sensitive to low temperature and easy to be subjected to chilling injury, which causes fruit ripening disorder. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the expression of genes related to ethylene and fruit ripening disorder caused by chilling injury. Papaya fruits were firstly stored at 7°C and 12°C for 25 and 30 days, respectively, then treated with exogenous ethylene and followed by ripening at 25°C for 5 days. Chilling injury symptoms such as pulp water soaking were observed in fruit stored at 7°C on 20 days, whereas the coloration and softening were completely blocked after 25 days, Large differences in the changes in the expression levels of twenty two genes involved in ethylene were seen during 7°C-storage with chilling injury. Those genes with altered expression could be divided into three groups: the group of genes that were up-regulated, including ACS1/2/3, EIN2, EIN3s/EIL1, CTR1/2/3, and ERF1/3/4; the group of genes that were down-regulated, including ACO3, ETR1, CTR4, EBF2, and ERF2; and the group of genes that were un-regulated, including ACO1/2, ERS, and EBF1. The results also showed that pulp firmness had a significantly positive correlation with the expression of ACS2, ACO1, CTR1/4, EIN3a/b, and EBF1/2 in fruit without chilling injury. This positive correlation was changed to negative one in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. The coloring index displayed significantly negative correlations with the expression levels of ACS2, ACO1/2, CTR4, EIN3a/b, ERF3 in fruit without chilling injury, but these correlations were changed into the positive ones in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. All together, these results indicate that these genes may play important roles in the abnormal softening and coloration with chilling injury in papaya. PMID:25542021

Zou, Yuan; Zhang, Lin; Rao, Shen; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Ye, Lanlan; Chen, Weixin; Li, Xueping

2014-01-01

174

Trees, Trees, Trees!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In these activities, students increase their awareness and knowledge of trees through research, literature and hands-on contact. The students will adopt and identify a tree of their choice, make a rubbing of the bark, draw a picture, and research about their tree. They will also write an original piece about their tree, document how it changes throughout the year, and learn the difference between deciduous and coniferous trees.

1998-01-01

175

A physical map of the papaya genome with integrated genetic map and genome sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Papaya is a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide and has primitive sex chromosomes controlling sex determination in this trioecious species. The papaya genome was recently sequenced because of its agricultural importance, unique biological features, and successful application of transgenic papaya for resistance to papaya ringspot virus. As a part of the genome sequencing project, we

Qingyi Yu; Eric Tong; Rachel L Skelton; John E Bowers; Meghan R Jones; Jan E Murray; Shaobin Hou; Peizhu Guan; Ricelle A Acob; Ming-Cheng Luo; Paul H Moore; Maqsudul Alam; Andrew H Paterson; Ray Ming

2009-01-01

176

ENGINEERED RESISTANCE AGAINST PRSV IN VENEZUELAN TRANSGENIC PAPAYAS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Local varieties of papaya grown in the Andean foothills of Mérida, Venezuela were transformed independently with the coat protein (CP) gene from two different geographical Papaya Ringspot virus (PRSV) isolates, designated VE and LA, via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The CP genes of both PRSV isolates s...

177

Environmental Regulation of Tree Biotechnology for Wood and Bioenergy: Effect of USDA and EPA Regulations on Research, Breeding, and Commercial Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite great hope for tree biotechnology to contribute toward improved economic and environmental sustainability of tree farms for wood, fiber, and energy products, there have to date been no releases of any genetically engineered (GE)1 forest trees. In contrast, GE varieties account for a majority of the soy and cotton crop is the USA, and fruit from GE papaya trees

Steven H. Strauss; Roger A. Sedjo

178

Ficus carica L. (Moraceae): Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Biological Activities  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the botanical features of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), its wide variety of chemical constituents, its use in traditional medicine as remedies for many health problems, and its biological activities. The plant has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer. Phytochemical studies on the leaves and fruits of the plant have shown that they are rich in phenolics, organic acids, and volatile compounds. However, there is little information on the phytochemicals present in the stem and root. Reports on the biological activities of the plant are mainly on its crude extracts which have been proven to possess many biological activities. Some of the most interesting therapeutic effects include anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial activities. Thus, studies related to identification of the bioactive compounds and correlating them to their biological activities are very useful for further research to explore the potential of F. carica as a source of therapeutic agents. PMID:24159359

Mawa, Shukranul; Husain, Khairana; Jantan, Ibrahim

2013-01-01

179

Ficus carica L. (Moraceae): Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Biological Activities.  

PubMed

This paper describes the botanical features of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), its wide variety of chemical constituents, its use in traditional medicine as remedies for many health problems, and its biological activities. The plant has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer. Phytochemical studies on the leaves and fruits of the plant have shown that they are rich in phenolics, organic acids, and volatile compounds. However, there is little information on the phytochemicals present in the stem and root. Reports on the biological activities of the plant are mainly on its crude extracts which have been proven to possess many biological activities. Some of the most interesting therapeutic effects include anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial activities. Thus, studies related to identification of the bioactive compounds and correlating them to their biological activities are very useful for further research to explore the potential of F. carica as a source of therapeutic agents. PMID:24159359

Mawa, Shukranul; Husain, Khairana; Jantan, Ibrahim

2013-01-01

180

77 FR 31294 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Papaya...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Collection; Importation of Papaya From Colombia and Ecuador AGENCY: Animal and Plant...commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador into the continental United...commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador, contact Ms. Dorothy...

2012-05-25

181

HOMOPTERAN AND MITE PESTS OF PAPAYA AND THEIR CONTROL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Homopteran pests in papaya fields in Florida, include mealybugs, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, soft scales Philephedra tuberculosa Nakahara and Gill, Coccus hesperidum L. and armored scales, Aspidiotus destructor, Acutaspis sp., Hemiberlesia sp., aphids, Myzus persicae (Sul...

182

78 FR 48628 - Importation of Papayas From Peru  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...production locations; field sanitation; hot water treatment; procedures for packing...fruit fly trapping, field sanitation, and hot water treatment to remove pests of concern...papayas. The limitation would ensure that the hot water dip treatment discussed later in...

2013-08-09

183

212 Florida Entomologist 89(2) June 2006 CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF THE PAPAYA MEALYBUG,  

E-print Network

and was causing serious damage to papaya, plume- ria, hibiscus, and other plants. The parasitoids Anagyrus loecki en papaya, hibiscus y otras plan- tas. Un total de 24,586 de los parasitoides,Anagyrus loecki Noyes

Reddy, Gadi VP

184

Purification and autolysis of the ficin isoforms from fig (Ficus carica cv. Sabz) latex  

PubMed Central

Ficin (EC 3.4.22.3), a cysteine endoproteolytic protease in fig trees’ latex, has multiple isoforms. Until now, no data on autolysis of individual ficins (ficin isoforms) are available. Following purification, ficins’ autolysis was determined by HPLC chromatogram changes and ultrafiltrations at different temperatures and storage times. These results showed that the number of HPLC peaks in latex proteins purification of Ficus carica cv. Sabz varied from previous fig varieties or cultivars. Proteolytic activity of ficins was inhibited by specific cysteine protease inhibitors, confirming the participation of the cysteine residue in the active site. The zeta potential of the first two eluted peaks (I and II) was negative, while that of other peaks were positive. All ficins were susceptible to autolysis when stored at high temperatures. In contrast, only the last two ficins (B, C) were prone to autolysis at cold temperature after long storage period. The rate of degradation of the ficins was significantly increased with the increased storage time. The ficin (A) related to peak (III) had the highest and the lowest surface hydrophobic patches and ratio of autolytic to proteolytic activity, respectively. PMID:23312458

Zare, Hamid; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Salami, Maryam; Mirzaei, Morteza; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Sheibani, Nader

2013-01-01

185

Purification and autolysis of the ficin isoforms from fig (Ficus carica cv. Sabz) latex.  

PubMed

Ficin (EC 3.4.22.3), a cysteine endoproteolytic protease in fig trees' latex, has multiple isoforms. Until now, no data on autolysis of individual ficins (ficin isoforms) are available. Following purification, ficins' autolysis was determined by HPLC chromatogram changes and ultrafiltrations at different temperatures and storage times. These results showed that the number of HPLC peaks in latex proteins purification of Ficus carica cv. Sabz varied from previous fig varieties or cultivars. Proteolytic activity of ficins was inhibited by specific cysteine protease inhibitors, confirming the participation of the cysteine residue in the active site. The zeta potential of the first two eluted peaks (I and II) was negative, while that of other peaks were positive. All ficins were susceptible to autolysis when stored at high temperatures. In contrast, only the last two ficins (B, C) were prone to autolysis at cold temperature after long storage period. The rate of degradation of the ficins was significantly increased with the increased storage time. The ficin (A) related to peak (III) had the highest and the lowest surface hydrophobic patches and ratio of autolytic to proteolytic activity, respectively. PMID:23312458

Zare, Hamid; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Salami, Maryam; Mirzaei, Morteza; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Sheibani, Nader

2013-03-01

186

Purification, characterization, and solvent-induced thermal stabilization of ficin from Ficus carica.  

PubMed

Ficin (EC 3.4.22.3), a cysteine proteinase isolated from the latex of a Ficus tree, is known to occur in multiple forms. Although crude ficin is of considerable commercial importance, ficin as such has not been fully characterized. A major ficin from the commercial crude proteinase mixture preparation of Ficus carica was purified and characterized. The purified enzyme was homogeneous in both sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and gel-filtration chromatography and is a single polypeptide chain protein with a molecular mass of 23 100 +/- 300 Da as determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF). The enzyme was active in the pH range of 6.5-8.5, and maximum activity was observed at pH 7.0. The N-terminal core sequence of ficin has homology with N-terminal sequences of plant cysteine proteinases. The enzyme contains three disulfide bonds and a single free cysteine residue at the active site. The effect of co-solvents, such as sorbitol, trehalose, sucrose, and xylitol, on the thermal stability of ficin was determined by activity measurements, fluorescence, and thermal denaturation studies. The apparent thermal denaturation temperature (T(m)) of ficin was significantly increased from the control value of 72 +/- 1 degrees C in the presence of all co-solvents. However, the maximum stabilization effect was observed in terms of thermal stabilization by the co-solvent trehalose. PMID:18991449

Devaraj, Kamsagara Basavarajappa; Kumar, Parigi Ramesh; Prakash, Vishweshwaraiah

2008-12-10

187

Origin and domestication of papaya Yh chromosome.  

PubMed

Sex in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes. Females are XX, and two slightly different Y chromosomes distinguish males (XY) and hermaphrodites (XY(h)). The hermaphrodite-specific region of the Y(h) chromosome (HSY) and its X chromosome counterpart were sequenced and analyzed previously. We now report the sequence of the entire male-specific region of the Y (MSY). We used a BAC-by-BAC approach to sequence the MSY and resequence the Y regions of 24 wild males and the Y(h) regions of 12 cultivated hermaphrodites. The MSY and HSY regions have highly similar gene content and structure, and only 0.4% sequence divergence. The MSY sequences from wild males include three distinct haplotypes, associated with the populations' geographic locations, but gene flow is detected for other genomic regions. The Y(h) sequence is highly similar to one Y haplotype (MSY3) found only in wild dioecious populations from the north Pacific region of Costa Rica. The low MSY3-Y(h) divergence supports the hypothesis that hermaphrodite papaya is a product of human domestication. We estimate that Y(h) arose only ?4000 yr ago, well after crop plant domestication in Mesoamerica >6200 yr ago but coinciding with the rise of the Maya civilization. The Y(h) chromosome has lower nucleotide diversity than the Y, or the genome regions that are not fully sex-linked, consistent with a domestication bottleneck. The identification of the ancestral MSY3 haplotype will expedite investigation of the mutation leading to the domestication of the hermaphrodite Y(h) chromosome. In turn, this mutation should identify the gene that was affected by the carpel-suppressing mutation that was involved in the evolution of males. PMID:25762551

VanBuren, Robert; Zeng, Fanchang; Chen, Cuixia; Zhang, Jisen; Wai, Ching Man; Han, Jennifer; Aryal, Rishi; Gschwend, Andrea R; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Gou, Jiqing; Arro, Jie; Guyot, Romain; Moore, Richard C; Wang, Ming-Li; Zee, Francis; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H; Yu, Qingyi; Ming, Ray

2015-04-01

188

CHROMOSOMAL LOCATION AND GENE PAUCITY IN THE MALE SPECIFIC REGION ON PAPAYA Y CHROMOSOME  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sex chromosomes in flowering plants evolved recently and many of them remain homomorphic, including those in papaya. We investigated the chromosomal location of papaya’s small male specific region of the hermaphrodite Y (Yh) chromosome (MSY) and its genomic features. We conducted chromosome fluoresc...

189

Protection and conservation of Caricaceae germplasm with PRSV resistant transgenic papaya  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a devastating disease that has a detrimental impact on both commercial papaya production and Caricaceae germplasm conservation. The PRSV coat protein transgenic line 55-1 and derived progeny are resistant to PRSV and have saved the papaya industry in Hawaii. Here we ...

190

ENGINEERING RESISTANCE AGAINST PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS BY NATIVE, CHIMERIC AND SYNTHETIC TRANSGENES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The transgenic Rainbow papaya is hemizygous for the coat protein gene of a papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate from Hawaii. Rainbow shows excellent resistance to PRSV isolates in Hawaii, but is susceptible to PRSV isolates from many parts of the world. In order to obtain transgenic papaya which m...

191

PARACOCCUS MARGINATUS WILLIAMS AND GRANARA DE WILLINK (HOMOPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE) AFFECTING PAPAYA IN PUERTO RICO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus was detected January 10, 2001 infesting papaya plantings in Isabela, Puerto Rico (18°28'23 N; 66°52’18W; 145.4 meters above sea level). This insect is recognized as a pest of papaya, cassava, hibiscus, eggplant, avocado, annona, and sweetpotato. P. margina...

192

TRANSGENIC VIRUS RESISTANT PAPAYA: THE HAWAIIAN 'RAINBOW' WAS RAPIDLY ADOPTED BY FARMERS AND IS OF MAJOR IMPORTANCE IN HAWAII TODAY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 1992, papaya ringspot virus was discovered in Puna, where 95% of Hawaii’s papaya was being grown. By 1995, the virus had devastated large areas of papaya in Puna. The genetically virus resistant transgenic ‘Rainbow’ papaya was released to growers in May 1998. This was the first genetically eng...

193

Amelioration of oxidative stress in red blood cells from patients with beta-thalassemia major and intermedia and E-beta-thalassemia following administration of a fermented papaya preparation.  

PubMed

In beta-hemoglobinopathies, such as beta-thalassemia (thal) and sickle cell anemia, the primary defects are mutations in the beta-globin gene. However, many aspects of the pathophysiology are mediated by oxidative stress. Fermented papaya preparation (FPP), a natural health food product obtained by biofermentation of carica papaya, has been shown to limit oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. We studied the effect of FPP on two groups of beta-thal patients: beta-thal, major and intermedia, (in Israel) and E-beta-thal (in Singapore). The results indicated that in both groups FPP treatment increased the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) in red blood cells (RBC), and decreased their reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, membrane lipid peroxidation, and externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS), indicating amelioration of their oxidative status, without a significant change in the hematological parameters. Since the turnover of the erythron is relatively slow, it is possible that longer duration of treatment, probably with the addition of an iron chelator, is required in order to achieve the latter goals. PMID:20127662

Fibach, Eitan; Tan, Ee-Shien; Jamuar, Saumya; Ng, Ivy; Amer, Johnny; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer A

2010-09-01

194

Immunotoxicity activity of natural furocoumarins from milky sap of Ficus carica L. against Aedes aegypti L.  

PubMed

Ficus carica L., its fruits are delicious and can be eaten by human. Its leaves are commonly used to cure hemorrhoid and clear away heart ache. The milky sap of F. carica have a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an lethal concentration (LC(50)) value of 10.2??g/ml and an LC(90) value of 42.3??g/ml. Two natural furocoumarins, 5-methoxypsoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen were isolated from the milky sap of F. carica. The LC(50) value of 5-methoxypsoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen were 9.4 and 56.3??g/ml, respectively. The above indicates that major compounds may play a more important role in the toxicity of the milky sap of F. carica. PMID:21214422

Chung, Iii-Min; Kim, Sun-Jin; Yeo, Min-A; Park, Se-Won; Moon, Hyung-In

2011-09-01

195

Odour-active compounds in papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol.  

PubMed

Application of solid-phase microextraction and simultaneous distillation-extraction combined with GC-FID, GC-MS, aroma extract dilution analysis, and odour activity value were used to analyse volatile compounds from papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol and to estimate the most odour-active compounds. The analyses led to the identification of 137 compounds; 118 of them were positively identified. Twenty-five odorants were considered as odour-active compounds and contribute to the typical papaya aroma, from which ethyl butanoate, benzyl isothiocyanate, 1-hexen-3-one, (E)-?-ionone, and methyl benzoate were the most odour-active compounds. PMID:24176322

Pino, Jorge A

2014-03-01

196

Identification of phenylpropanoids in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves.  

PubMed

In this study, the phenylpropanoid composition and antioxidant activity of identified components in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves were examined. Known polyphenols rutin, isoschaftoside, isoquercetin, and chlorogenic acid were identified. Furthermore, caffeoylmalic acid (CMA) was the most abundant polyphenol and was identified for the first time. CMA exhibited antioxidant activity similar to that of vitamin C or catechin. Psoralen and bergapten were identified as known furanocoumarins, with psoralen being the most abundant. Moreover, psoralic acid glucoside (PAG) was identified for the first time. As a precursor of psoralen, PAG content was equivalent to the psoralen content in moles. Notably, the content of these compounds varied between the five fig varieties, and the furanocoumarin and PAG contents varied more than that of the polyphenols. Further investigations concerning the influence of CMA and PAG on human health are necessary to elucidate functionalities of fig leaves. PMID:25198243

Takahashi, Toru; Okiura, Aya; Saito, Keita; Kohno, Masahiro

2014-10-15

197

Papaya fruit quality management during the postharvest supply chain  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papayas are popular in tropical and subtropical regions and are being exported in large volumes to Europe, the U.S. and Japan. The fruit has excellent taste, exotic flavor and nutritional properties, being rich in vitamins A, C, and antioxidants. However, due to its highly perishable nature it has n...

198

75 FR 22207 - Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...include requirements for field sanitation, hot water treatment, and fruit fly trapping...fruit fly trapping, field sanitation, and hot water treatment be employed to remove pests...require the treatment of papayas with a hot water dip. The dip requires that...

2010-04-28

199

Papaya Varietal Resistance to Internal Yellowing: Reducing Food Safety Risk  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Internal yellowing (IY) is a bacterial disease of ripening papaya fruit that is caused by the enteric bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae. The disease is characterized by yellow discoloration of flesh, tissue softening and a foul or rotten odor that reduces the quality of fresh fruit and value-added pr...

200

DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF PAPAYA PROTEIN PROFILE USING PROTEOMIC TOOLS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of our project is to evaluate the potential for using proteomic approaches to discover the basis for differential susceptibility of Hawaii papaya cultivars to the root rot pathogen Phytophthora palmivora. Based on previous studies showing that Kapoho was the most resistance cultivar an...

201

Internal Validation of Ancestral Gene Order Reconstruction in Angiosperm Phylogeny  

E-print Network

rearrangement, and is one of four angiosperm genomes, along with those of Carica papaya (papaya), Vitis vinifera;Internal Validation of Ancestral Gene Order Reconstruction 253 Vitis Arabidopsis Carica Populus Fig. 1

dePamphilis, Claude

202

Analysis on virus resistance and fruit quality for T4 generation of transgenic papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular biological characterization, fruit characters, and nutrients were analyzed for T4 generation of transgenic papaya.\\u000a All transgenic papaya plants with the mutated replicase (RP) gene from papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) showed high resistance\\u000a or immunity against PRSV in the field. The RP transgene can be steadily inherited to, and expressed at RNA level, the progenies.\\u000a The growth characteristics of transgenic

Xiangdong Wei; Congyu Lan; Zhijing Lu; Changming Ye

2007-01-01

203

Effects of Cream Containing Ficus carica L. Fruit Extract on Skin Parameters: In vivo Evaluation.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to investigate the effects of cream containing Ficus carica L. fruit (Fig) extract on various skin parameters such as skin melanin, erythema, moisture content, trans-epidermal water loss and sebum. For this purpose, formulation with 4% concentrated extract of F. carica fruit and base without extract were developed. Base served as a control. Both base and formulation were applied to the cheeks of human volunteers for 8 weeks to investigate the effects on different skin parameters using non-invasive bioengineering instruments. Formulation decreased the skin melanin, trans-epidermal water loss and skin sebum significantly. Formulation increased the skin hydration significantly and insignificant effects on skin erythema. We concluded that a stable topical cream (w/o emulsion) containing F. carica fruit extract have effects on skin melanin, trans-epidermal loss, hydration values and sebum content and possibly could be used against for hyper pigmentation, acne, freckles and wrinkle. PMID:25593393

Khan, H; Akhtar, N; Ali, A

2014-01-01

204

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Ficus carica Linn. leaves.  

PubMed

Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) is commonly known as edible fig. The leaves, roots, fruits and latex of the plant are medicinally used in different diseases. The leaves are claimed to be effective in various inflammatory conditions like painful or swollen piles, insect sting and bites. However, there has been no report on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Our study validated the traditional claim with pharmacological data. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the drug could be due to the presence of steroids and flavanoids, respectively, which are reported to be present in the drug. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug could be due to its free radical scavenging activity. Further work is also required to isolate and characterise the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:21644169

Ali, B; Mujeeb, M; Aeri, V; Mir, S R; Faiyazuddin, M; Shakeel, F

2012-01-01

205

Effects of Cream Containing Ficus carica L. Fruit Extract on Skin Parameters: In vivo Evaluation  

PubMed Central

This study was aimed to investigate the effects of cream containing Ficus carica L. fruit (Fig) extract on various skin parameters such as skin melanin, erythema, moisture content, trans-epidermal water loss and sebum. For this purpose, formulation with 4% concentrated extract of F. carica fruit and base without extract were developed. Base served as a control. Both base and formulation were applied to the cheeks of human volunteers for 8 weeks to investigate the effects on different skin parameters using non-invasive bioengineering instruments. Formulation decreased the skin melanin, trans-epidermal water loss and skin sebum significantly. Formulation increased the skin hydration significantly and insignificant effects on skin erythema. We concluded that a stable topical cream (w/o emulsion) containing F. carica fruit extract have effects on skin melanin, trans-epidermal loss, hydration values and sebum content and possibly could be used against for hyper pigmentation, acne, freckles and wrinkle. PMID:25593393

Khan, H.; Akhtar, N.; Ali, A.

2014-01-01

206

Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Papaya ringspot virus.  

PubMed

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), which causes disease symptoms similar to PRSV, threaten commercial production of both non-transgenic-papaya and PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in China. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay to detect PLDMV was developed previously. In this study, the development of another RT-LAMP assay to distinguish among transgenic, PRSV-infected and PLDMV-infected papaya by detection of PRSV is reported. A set of four RT-LAMP primers was designed based on the highly conserved region of the P3 gene of PRSV. The RT-LAMP method was specific and sensitive in detecting PRSV, with a detection limit of 1.15×10(-6)?g of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR. Field application of the RT-LAMP assay demonstrated that samples positive for PRSV were detected only in non-transgenic papaya, whereas samples positive for PLDMV were detected only in commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya. This suggests that PRSV remains the major limiting factor for non-transgenic-papaya production, and the emergence of PLDMV threatens the commercial transgenic cultivar in China. However, this study, combined with the earlier development of an RT-LAMP assay for PLDMV, will provide a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective diagnostic power to distinguish virus infections in papaya. PMID:24769198

Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Yang, Yong; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

2014-08-01

207

Int. J. Plant Sci. 163(1):5165. 2002. 2002 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.  

E-print Network

of the four genera of Caricaceae, with two species of Moringa used as an outgroup. In the tree resulting from. Syn- apomorphies of Moringaceae include pinnately compound leaves and monothecal, bisporangiate included Moringa oleifera Lam. and Carica papaya L. as representatives of their respective families

Olson, Mark

208

Ficus carica L. (Moraceae): an ancient source of food and health.  

PubMed

Since early in the man history, common fig was appreciated as food and for its medicinal properties. This review explores some aspects about the importance of Ficus carica L., an amazing and ancient source of medicines and food. Topics regarding chemistry, biological activity, ethno-pharmacological uses, and its nutritional value are discussed, as well as the potential of the species as a source of new and different chemical scaffolds. Very important in the past, appreciated in our time and extremely promising in the future, F. carica represents an interesting example of healthy foods and bioproducts. PMID:24996314

Barolo, Melisa I; Ruiz Mostacero, Nathalie; López, Silvia N

2014-12-01

209

40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the requirement of...

2012-07-01

210

40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the requirement of...

2013-07-01

211

40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the requirement of...

2011-07-01

212

40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the requirement of...

2014-07-01

213

40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the requirement of...

2010-07-01

214

Effects of chitosan and plant extracts on growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, anthracnose levels and quality of papaya fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this research were to evaluate the in vitro fungicidal effect of chitosan and aqueous extracts of custard apple leaves, papaya leaves and papaya seeds, and the combination of chitosan and plant extracts on the development of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, which causes anthracnose on papaya. Chitosan at 2.0% and 3.0% had a fungicidal effect on C. gloeosporioides. Extracts alone

S. Bautista-Baños; M. Hernández-López; E. Bosquez-Molina; C. L. Wilson

2003-01-01

215

76 FR 49725 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia into the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Authorize the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia into the Continental United...continental United States of fresh papaya fruit from Malaysia. Based on the findings of...weeds via the importation of fresh papaya fruit from Malaysia. DATES: Effective...

2011-08-11

216

DEVELOPMENT, REPRODUCTION, AND SURVIVAL OF PAPAYA MEALYBUG (HOMOPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE) ON DIFFERENT HOST PLANT SPECIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus @illiams and Granara de Willink (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae)) is a polyghagus insect and a pest of various tropical crops and ornamentals. It was introduced into the United States in 1998 in Florida. Papaya mealybug potentially poses a threat to numerous agricul...

217

TISSUE DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF LYCOPENE BETA-CYCLASE GENE IN PAPAYA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To elucidate the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in papaya, we took a candidate gene approach to clone the lycopene beta-cyclase genes, LCY-B. A papaya LCY-B ortholog, cpLCY-B, was successfully identified from both cDNA and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries and complete genomic sequenc...

218

The Papaya Y Chromosome Evolved Recently and Shows Gene Paucity and DNA Sequence Expansion  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sex chromosomes in flowering plants, in contrast to those in animals, evolved relatively recently and only a few are heteromorphic. At cytological level, the sex chromosomes of papaya appear homomorphic, nevertheless, we are finding the papaya Y chromosome shows features of incipient sex chromosome ...

219

Cloning Of Organ-Specific Genes from Papaya Using cDNA-AFLP  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya is a fast growing and productive fruit crop in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Papaya industry has benefited from application of molecular biology and biotechnology for crop improvement, particularly for viral disease resistance using transgenic varieties. The goal of this researc...

220

Central nervous system activity of an aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica L. in mice  

PubMed Central

Background: Ficus carica Linn. is reported to possess variety of activities, but its potential in CNS disorders is still to be explored. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the CNS depressant activity of aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica Linn on different models in mice. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of the plant Ficus carica L. were extracted with aqueous acetone and the solvent was removed by rotary vacuum evaporator under reduced pressure. A crude extract was given orally and its effects were tested on ketamine-induced sleeping time, muscle-coordination, anxiety (elevated-plus maze and Staircase test), convulsions [maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures], and nociception. In addition, we determined the levels of neurotransmitters, norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Results: Results from the experimental models tested showed: (1) a delay on onset and prolongation of sleep of ketamine-induced sleeping time; (2) significant muscle relaxant activity; (3) a significant attenuation in the anxiety-response (4) a delay in the onset of seizures and reduction in duration of seizures and mortality induced by MES and PTZ; (5) a reduction in the licking time in nociception test and (6) increased levels of NE and 5-HT. Conclusion: This suggests that Ficus carica L. exerts its CNS depressive effect by modulating the neurotransmitters NE and 5-HT in the brain. PMID:24948859

Bhanushali, Mittal M.; Makhija, Dinesh T.; Joshi, Yadunath M.

2014-01-01

221

Genetic diversity of different Tunisian fig ( Ficus carica L.) collections revealed by RAPD fingerprints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic diversity in Tunisian fig (Ficus carica L.) was studied using RAPD markers. Thirtyfive fig cultivars originating from diverse geographical areas and belonging to three collections were analysed. Random decamer primers were screened to assess their ability to detect polymorphisms in this crop. Fortyfour RAPD markers were revealed and used to survey the genetic diversity and to detect cases

AMEL SALHI-HANNACHI; KHALED CHATTI; OLFA SADDOUD; MESSAOUD MARS; ABDELMAJID RHOUMA; MOHAMED MARRAKCHI; MOKHTAR TRIFI

2006-01-01

222

Comparative reactions of recombinant papaya ringspot viruses with chimeric coat protein (CP) genes and wild-type viruses on CP-transgenic papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic papaya cultivars SunUp and Rainbow express the coat protein (CP) gene of the mild mutant of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) HA. Both cultivars are resistant to PRSV HA and other Hawaii isolates through homology-dependent resistance via post-transcriptional gene silencing. However, Rainbow, which is hemizygous for the CP gene, is susceptible to PRSV isolates from outside Hawaii, while the CP-homozygous

Chu-Hui Chiang; Ju-Jung Wang; Fuh-Jyh Jan; Shyi-Dong Yeh; Dennis Gonsalves

2001-01-01

223

Phospholipid Profile of the Stomach and Duodenum of Normal Rabbits Fed with Supplements of Unripe Pawpaw (Carica papaya) and Unripe Plantain (Musa sapientum) Extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reports the effect of unripe pawpaw and/or unripe plantain extracts on the phospholipid profile of the stomach and duodenum of normal rabbits. Supplementation of chow with unripe pawpaw or plantain extract significantly reduced (p< 0.05) the weight gained by rabbits compared with the control. The total phospholipids content in the stomach and duodenum were significantly increased (p< 0.05) in the test groups compared to the control. In the stomach and duodenum, phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and sphingomyelin (SGM) were significantly increased (p< 0.05) in the test groups compared to the control. Pawpaw occasioned a decrease in the PE/PC ratio in both tissues as against an increase observed in the SGM/PC ratio. The results presented suggests that unripe pawpaw meal and unripe plantain extract alter the phospholipid profile of the stomach and duodenum in ways which may affect membrane fluidity of these tissues and would have profound effect on the gastro-duodenal mucosa and thus have implication(s) for gastric and duodenal ulcers in rabbits.

Eriyamremu, G. E.; Asagba, S. O.; Osagie, V. E.; Ojeaburu, S. I.; Lolodi, O.

224

Phenological Adaptations in Ficus tikoua Exhibit Convergence with Unrelated Extra-Tropical Fig Trees  

PubMed Central

Flowering phenology is central to the ecology and evolution of most flowering plants. In highly-specific nursery pollination systems, such as that involving fig trees (Ficus species) and fig wasps (Agaonidae), any mismatch in timing has serious consequences because the plants must balance seed production with maintenance of their pollinator populations. Most fig trees are found in tropical or subtropical habitats, but the dioecious Chinese Ficus tikoua has a more northerly distribution. We monitored how its fruiting phenology has adapted in response to a highly seasonal environment. Male trees (where fig wasps reproduce) had one to three crops annually, whereas many seed-producing female trees produced only one fig crop. The timing of release of Ceratosolen fig wasps from male figs in late May and June was synchronized with the presence of receptive figs on female trees, at a time when there were few receptive figs on male trees, thereby ensuring seed set while allowing remnant pollinator populations to persist. F. tikoua phenology has converged with those of other (unrelated) northern Ficus species, but there are differences. Unlike F. carica in Europe, all F. tikoua male figs contain male flowers, and unlike F. pumila in China, but like F. carica, it is the second annual generation of adult wasps that pollinate female figs. The phenologies of all three temperate fig trees generate annual bottlenecks in the size of pollinator populations and for female F. tikoua also a shortage of fig wasps that results in many figs failing to be pollinated. PMID:25474008

Zhao, Ting-Ting; Compton, Stephen G.; Yang, Yong-Jiang; Wang, Rong; Chen, Yan

2014-01-01

225

Papaya latex enzymes capable of detoxification of gliadin.  

PubMed

Assay of fractions obtained from ion exchange chromatography of papaya latex on CM Sephadex-C50, size exclusion chromatography on Sephacryl S-300 and size exclusion HPLC have provided an insight into the relative contributions of the gluten-detoxifying enzymes present. This outcome has been achieved by the use of the above chromatographic techniques, coupled with assays of lysosomal activity, protease activity using benzylarginine ethyl ester (BAEE) as substrate, prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) using glycylprolylnitroanilide and a prolidase assay using acetylprolylglycine. These procedures have shown that the activity in papaya latex is due largely to caricain and to a lesser extent, chymopapain and glutamine cyclotransferase. The presence of caricain and these other enzymes was confirmed by mass spectrometry of trypsin digests of the most active fraction obtained by CM Sephadex-C50 chromatography and size exclusion HPLC. Fractions rich in caricain would be suitable for enzyme therapy in gluten intolerance and appear to have synergistic action with porcine intestinal extracts. PMID:19156482

Cornell, H J; Doherty, W; Stelmasiak, T

2010-01-01

226

Ficus carica polysaccharides promote the maturation and function of dendritic cells.  

PubMed

Various polysaccharides purified from plants are considered to be biological response modifiers and have been shown to enhance immune responses. Ficus carica L. is a Chinese traditional plant and has been widely used in Asian countries for its anti-tumor properties. Ficus carica polysaccharides (FCPS), one of the most essential and effective components in Ficus carica L., have been considered to be a beneficial immunomodulator and may be used in immunotherapy. However, the immunologic mechanism of FCPS is still unclear. Dectin-1 is a non-toll-like pattern recognition receptor, predominately expressed on dendritic cells (DCs). Activation of DCs through dectin-1 signaling can lead to the maturation of DC, thus inducing both innate and adaptive immune responses against tumor development and microbial infection. In our study, we found that FCPS could effectively stimulate DCs, partially through the dectin-1/Syk pathway, and promote their maturation, as shown by the up-regulation of CD40, CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII). FCPS also enhanced the production of cytokines by DCs, including IL-12, IFN-?, IL-6, and IL-23. Moreover, FCPS-treated DCs showed an enhanced capability to stimulate T cells and promote T cell proliferation. Altogether, these results demonstrate that FCPS are able to activate and maturate DCs, thereby up-regulating the immunostimulatory capacity of DCs, which leads to enhanced T cell responses. PMID:25026176

Tian, Jie; Zhang, Yue; Yang, Xiaomin; Rui, Ke; Tang, Xinyi; Ma, Jie; Chen, Jianguo; Xu, Huaxi; Lu, Liwei; Wang, Shengjun

2014-01-01

227

Ficus carica Polysaccharides Promote the Maturation and Function of Dendritic Cells  

PubMed Central

Various polysaccharides purified from plants are considered to be biological response modifiers and have been shown to enhance immune responses. Ficus carica L. is a Chinese traditional plant and has been widely used in Asian countries for its anti-tumor properties. Ficus carica polysaccharides (FCPS), one of the most essential and effective components in Ficus carica L., have been considered to be a beneficial immunomodulator and may be used in immunotherapy. However, the immunologic mechanism of FCPS is still unclear. Dectin-1 is a non-toll-like pattern recognition receptor, predominately expressed on dendritic cells (DCs). Activation of DCs through dectin-1 signaling can lead to the maturation of DC, thus inducing both innate and adaptive immune responses against tumor development and microbial infection. In our study, we found that FCPS could effectively stimulate DCs, partially through the dectin-1/Syk pathway, and promote their maturation, as shown by the up-regulation of CD40, CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII). FCPS also enhanced the production of cytokines by DCs, including IL-12, IFN-?, IL-6, and IL-23. Moreover, FCPS-treated DCs showed an enhanced capability to stimulate T cells and promote T cell proliferation. Altogether, these results demonstrate that FCPS are able to activate and maturate DCs, thereby up-regulating the immunostimulatory capacity of DCs, which leads to enhanced T cell responses. PMID:25026176

Tian, Jie; Zhang, Yue; Yang, Xiaomin; Rui, Ke; Tang, Xinyi; Ma, Jie; Chen, Jianguo; Xu, Huaxi; Lu, Liwei; Wang, Shengjun

2014-01-01

228

Removal and recovery of heavy metals from aqueous solution using papaya wood as a new biosorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya wood was evaluated as a new biosorbent of heavy metals. On contacting 10mgl?l copper(II), cadmium(II) and zinc(II) solutions with 5gl?1 papaya wood, during shake flask contact time of 60min, the respective metal removal was noted to be 97.8, 94.9 and 66.8%. Sorption was most efficient at pH 5. Metal ion biosorption increased as the ratio of metal solution to

Asma Saeed; M. Waheed Akhter; Muhammed Iqbal

2005-01-01

229

Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus  

PubMed Central

Background The cysteine proteinases in papaya latex have been shown to have potent anthelmintic properties in monogastric hosts such as rodents, pigs and humans, but this has not been demonstrated in ruminants. Methods In two experiments, sheep were infected concurrently with 5,000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 10,000 infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and were then treated with the supernatant from a suspension of papaya latex from day 28 to day 32 post-infection. Faecal egg counts were monitored from a week before treatment until the end of the experiment and worm burdens were assessed on day 35 post-infection. Results We found that the soluble fraction of papaya latex had a potent in vivo effect on the abomasal nematode H. contortus, but not on the small intestinal nematode T. colubriformis. This effect was dose-dependent and at tolerated levels of gavage with papaya latex (117 ?mol of active papaya latex supernatant for 4 days), the H. contortus worm burdens were reduced by 98%. Repeated treatment, daily for 4 days, was more effective than a single dose, but efficacy was not enhanced by concurrent treatment with the antacid cimetidine. Conclusions Our results provide support for the idea that cysteine proteinases derived from papaya latex may be developed into novel anthelmintics for the treatment of lumenal stages of gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep, particularly those parasitizing the abomasum. PMID:21406090

2011-01-01

230

Production of Internal Yellowing Symptoms on Resistant and Susceptible Papaya Cultivars by Enterobacter cloacae at Varying Inoculum Concentrations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Internal yellowing (IY) is a bacterial disease of ripening papaya flesh caused by Enterobacter cloacae and characterized by yellow softening tissue. IY restricts food safety of value-added products like fresh or frozen papaya cubes. The incidence of E. cloacae presumably differs in resistant (R) a...

231

INFLUENCE OF COAT PROTEIN TRANSGENE COPY NUMBER ON RESISTANCE IN TRANSGENIC LINE 63-1 AGAINST PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS ISOLATES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Line 63-1 is a ‘Sunset’-derived transgenic papaya expressing the coat protein (CP) gene from a mild mutant of a Hawaiian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Previous work showed that line 63-1 R1 plants exhibited a range of resistance to severe PRSV isolates from Hawaii (HA), Jamaica (JA), Thai...

232

Tirucallane-Type Triterpenoids from the Fruit of Ficus carica and Their Cytotoxic Activity.  

PubMed

Nine new tirucallane-type triterpenoids, ficutirucins A-I (1-9), were isolated from the fruit of Ficus carica. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical methods. All isolates were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against three human cancer cell lines, MCF-7, HepG-2, and U2OS. Compounds 1-3, 6, 7, and 9 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities with IC50 values of 11.67-45.61?µM against one or more of the three cancer cell lines. PMID:25757495

Jing, Lin; Zhang, Yang-Mei; Luo, Jian-Guang; Kong, Ling-Yi

2015-01-01

233

What is a Tree? Tree terminology  

E-print Network

1 Trees · What is a Tree? · Tree terminology · Why trees? · What is a general tree? · Implementing trees · Binary trees · Binary tree implementation · Application of Binary trees #12;2 What is a Tree? · A tree, is a finite set of nodes together with a finite set of directed edges that define parent

Razak, Saquib

234

Tree Tally  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity and fun race, learners first find the most common type of tree in a forest site. Learners use a "transect," a kind of sampling technique, to estimate the number of different kinds of trees, and a histogram, or simple graph, to record how frequently different tree species occur in the forest. Learners also select one species of tree, and run a forest leap frog race between trees of that species. (Older learners can just run between trees without leapfrogging.)

Lawrence Hall of Science

1982-01-01

235

Papaya epicarp extract protects against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity.  

PubMed

In a previous study, we demonstrated the ability of papaya epicarp extract (PEE) to protect against oxidative stress-induced insult in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells in a mechanism that appeared to be by means of PEE potent antioxidant properties. To further understand this relationship, we examined the effect of PEE intervention on aluminum (Al)-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. The results indicated that PEE was effective in protecting against Al-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. PEE restored the Al-induced inhibition of folate-dependent methionine synthase activity and the antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidases and superoxide dismutase). PEE ameliorated the Al-induced impairment of intracellular glutathione and total antioxidant capacity. Together, these findings indicate that PEE supplementation can play a neuroprotective role in ameliorating the changes in redox status of SH-SY5Y cells exposed to Al, a well-known environmental toxin that is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:22956622

Waly, Mostafa I; Guizani, Nejib; Ali, Amanat; Rahman, Mohammad Shafiur

2012-09-01

236

Semen study of papaya workers exposed to ethylene dibromide  

SciTech Connect

A cross sectional semen and cytogenetic study was performed on male workers exposed to ethylene-dibromide (EDB) in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii. Semen analyses were conducted on 46 men in six fumigation facilities with an average length of employment of 5 years and airborne exposures to EDB ranging from 16 to 213 parts per billion. Statistically significant decreases in sperm count per ejaculate and the percentage of viable and motile sperm and increases in the proportion of specific morphological abnormalities were observed among exposed men when compared with controls. Semen volume and sperm concentration were also lower in the exposed group. No effect of exposure to EDB on sperm velocity, the overall proportion of sperm with normal morphology or YFF bodies was noted. The authors conclude that based on the decreases in sperm count, viability and motility and increases in certain types of morphological abnormalities among workers exposed to EDB, EDB may increase the risk of reproductive impairment in workers at exposure levels near the NIOSH recommended limit of 45 parts per billion and far below the current OSHA standard of 20 parts per million.

Ratcliffe, J.M.; Schrader, S.M.; Steenland, K.; Clapp, D.; Turner, T.

1984-01-01

237

Carotenoids are more bioavailable from papaya than from tomato and carrot in humans: a randomised cross-over study  

PubMed Central

Carrot, tomato and papaya represent important dietary sources of ?-carotene and lycopene. The main objective of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of carotenoids from these food sources in healthy human subjects. A total of sixteen participants were recruited for a randomised cross-over study. Test meals containing raw carrots, tomatoes and papayas were adjusted to deliver an equal amount of ?-carotene and lycopene. For the evaluation of bioavailability, TAG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions containing newly absorbed carotenoids were analysed over 9.5 h after test meal consumption. The bioavailability of ?-carotene from papayas was approximately three times higher than that from carrots and tomatoes, whereas differences in the bioavailability of ?-carotene from carrots and tomatoes were insignificant. Retinyl esters appeared in the TRL fractions at a significantly higher concentration after the consumption of the papaya test meal. Similarly, lycopene was approximately 2.6 times more bioavailable from papayas than from tomatoes. Furthermore, the bioavailability of ?-cryptoxanthin from papayas was shown to be 2.9 and 2.3 times higher than that of the other papaya carotenoids ?-carotene and lycopene, respectively. The morphology of chromoplasts and the physical deposition form of carotenoids were hypothesised to play a major role in the differences observed in the bioavailability of carotenoids from the foods investigated. Particularly, the liquid-crystalline deposition of ?-carotene and the storage of lycopene in very small crystalloids in papayas were found to be associated with their high bioavailability. In conclusion, papaya was shown to provide highly bioavailable ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin and lycopene and may represent a readily available dietary source of provitamin A for reducing the incidence of vitamin A deficiencies in many subtropical and tropical developing countries. PMID:23931131

Schweiggert, Ralf M.; Kopec, Rachel E.; Villalobos-Gutierrez, Maria G.; Högel, Josef; Quesada, Silvia; Esquivel, Patricia; Schwartz, Steven J.; Carle, Reinhold

2014-01-01

238

Carotenoids are more bioavailable from papaya than from tomato and carrot in humans: a randomised cross-over study.  

PubMed

Carrot, tomato and papaya represent important dietary sources of ?-carotene and lycopene. The main objective of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of carotenoids from these food sources in healthy human subjects. A total of sixteen participants were recruited for a randomised cross-over study. Test meals containing raw carrots, tomatoes and papayas were adjusted to deliver an equal amount of ?-carotene and lycopene. For the evaluation of bioavailability, TAG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions containing newly absorbed carotenoids were analysed over 9·5 h after test meal consumption. The bioavailability of ?-carotene from papayas was approximately three times higher than that from carrots and tomatoes, whereas differences in the bioavailability of ?-carotene from carrots and tomatoes were insignificant. Retinyl esters appeared in the TRL fractions at a significantly higher concentration after the consumption of the papaya test meal. Similarly, lycopene was approximately 2·6 times more bioavailable from papayas than from tomatoes. Furthermore, the bioavailability of ?-cryptoxanthin from papayas was shown to be 2·9 and 2·3 times higher than that of the other papaya carotenoids ?-carotene and lycopene, respectively. The morphology of chromoplasts and the physical deposition form of carotenoids were hypothesised to play a major role in the differences observed in the bioavailability of carotenoids from the foods investigated. Particularly, the liquid-crystalline deposition of ?-carotene and the storage of lycopene in very small crystalloids in papayas were found to be associated with their high bioavailability. In conclusion, papaya was shown to provide highly bioavailable ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin and lycopene and may represent a readily available dietary source of provitamin A for reducing the incidence of vitamin A deficiencies in many subtropical and tropical developing countries. PMID:23931131

Schweiggert, Ralf M; Kopec, Rachel E; Villalobos-Gutierrez, Maria G; Högel, Josef; Quesada, Silvia; Esquivel, Patricia; Schwartz, Steven J; Carle, Reinhold

2014-02-01

239

Flower Face Face Face Face Flower Tree Tree Tree Tree  

E-print Network

Flower Flower Flower Flower Flower Face Face Face Face Flower Flower Tree Tree Tree Tree Flower Flower Flower Flower Sky Sky Sky Sky Flower Grass Grass Grass Grass Flower Flower Flower #12;Sign Sign Road Road Chair Face Face Face Face Chair #12;Chair Chair Chair Flower Flower Flower Flower Grass Chair

Chen, Tsuhan

240

Resistance of non-transgenic papaya plants to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) mediated by intron-containing hairpin dsRNAs expressed in bacteria.  

PubMed

RNA-mediated virus resistance based on natural antiviral RNA silencing has been exploited as a powerful tool for engineering virus resistance in plants. In this study, a conserved 3'-region (positions 9839-10117, 279 nt) of the capsid protein (CP) gene of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), designated CP279, was used to generate an intron-containing hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) construct by one-step, zero-background ligation-independent cloning (OZ-LIC). The RNaseIII-deficient Escherichia coli strain M-JM109lacY was identified as the best choice for producing large quantities of specific ihpRNA-CP279. Resistance analyses and ELISA data verified that most papaya plants mechanically co-inoculated with TRIzol-extracted ihpRNA-CP279 and PRSV were resistant to PRSV, and resistance was maintained throughout the test period (>2 months post-inoculation). In contrast, a 1-2 day interval between sequential inoculation of PRSV and ihpRNA-CP279 did not result in complete protection against PRSV infection, but delayed the appearance of viral symptoms by 3 to 4 days. These findings indicate that direct mechanical inoculation of papaya plants with bacterially-expressed ihpRNA-CP279 targeting the PRSV CP gene can interfere with virus infection. This work lays a foundation for developing a non-transgenic approach to control PRSV by directly spraying plants with ihpRNA or crude bacterial extract preparations. PMID:25283861

Shen, W; Yang, G; Chen, Y; Yan, P; Tuo, D; Li, X; Zhou, P

2014-01-01

241

7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...America and Brazil. 319.56-25 Section 319.56-25 Agriculture Regulations of the...Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and...Santo and all areas in the State of Rio Grande del Norte that contain...

2010-01-01

242

7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and South America.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...America and South America. 319.56-25 Section 319.56-25 Agriculture Regulations of the...Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and...Santo and all areas in the State of Rio Grande del Norte that contain...

2011-01-01

243

AUTOSOMAL DEGENERATION AS THE PROCESS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF A PRIMITIVE Y CHROMOSOME IN PAPAYA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant sex chromosomes, in contrast to those in animals, evolved recently and only a few are heteromorphic. Genomic analyses of the homomorphic sex chromosomes of papaya show features of the early stages of sex chromosome evolution. Sequence analysis of 20% of the male specific region (MSY) shows tha...

244

Efforts to deregulate Rainbow papaya in Japan: Molecular Characterization of Transgene and Vector Inserts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transformation plasmid-derived insert number and insert site sequence in 55-1 line papaya derivatives Rainbow and SunUp was determined as part of a larger petition to allow its import into Japan (Suzuki, et al., 2007, 2008). Three insertions were detected by Southern analysis and their correspondin...

245

Anthelmintic activity of papaya seeds on Hymenolepis diminuta infections in rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to see the anthelmintic activity potential of papaya seeds against Hymenolepis diminuta in rats. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the effectiveness of papaya seeds on helminths especially H. diminuta in rats and (2) to determine the effective dose level on helminths in rats. Thirty six male rats from strain Sprague-Dawley were chosen as samples in this experiment. Two types of dose level were used for papaya seeds treatments such as 0.6 g kg-1 and 1.2 g kg-1. The geometric mean (GEM) was used to calculate mean for eggs per gram (EPG) before and after the treatment to be included in the reduction percentage calculation. After 21 days post treatment, necropsies were done to get the worm count and the GEM was used to calculate the efficacy percentage for the treatment. Results from this study showed that the reduction percentages in EPG for papaya seeds treatment for both doses level were very high which is 96.8% for 0.6g kg-1 dose level and 96.2% for 1.2 g kg-1 dose level. Whereas the efficacy percentage based on the worm counts for both doses level were also very high that was 90.77% for 0.6 g kg-1 dose level and 93.85% for 1.2 g kg-1. PMID:23202594

Sapaat, A; Satrija, F; Mahsol, H H; Ahmad, A H

2012-12-01

246

Molecular and Clinical Effects of Green Tea and Fermented Papaya Preparation on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Assess the Effect of Green Tea on Diabetes; Assess the Effect of Fermented Papaya Pretration on Diabetes; Effects of Green Tea and FPP on C-reactive Proteins; Effects of Green Tea and FPP of Lipid Profiles in Diabetes; Effect of Green Tea and FPP on Atheroma Formation

2014-11-14

247

Autosomal Degeneration as the Process for the Evolution of a Primitive Y Chromosome in Papaya  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant sex chromosomes, in contrast to those in animals, evolved recently and only a few are heteromorphic. Genomic analyses of the homomorphic sex chromosomes of papaya show features of the early stages of sex chromosome evolution. Sequence analysis of 20% of the male specific region (MSY) shows tha...

248

Decision Trees Unpredictability Bias Improvements Decision Trees  

E-print Network

Decision Trees Unpredictability Bias Improvements Decision Trees #12;Decision Trees Unpredictability Bias Improvements 1 Decision Trees Using Trees Learning 2 Unpredictability Entropy Entropy for datasets Information Gain 3 Bias Bias Occam's principle Overfitting 4 Improvements #12;Decision Trees

Kjellström, Hedvig

249

Antioxidant activity of bovine casein hydrolysates produced by Ficus carica L.-derived proteinase.  

PubMed

A Ficus carica L. latex proteinase preparation was investigated for its ability to produce antioxidant hydrolysates/peptides from bovine casein (CN). The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) values for NaCN and ?-CN hydrolysates ranged from 0.06 to 0.18, and from 0.51 to 1.19?mol Trolox equivalents/mg freeze-dried sample, respectively. Gel permeation HPLC showed that the ?-CN hydrolysate with a degree of hydrolysis of 21% had 65% of peptide material with a molecular mass <500Da. The RP-UPLC profiles also indicated that ?-CN was substantially hydrolysed during the early stages of hydrolysis. Analysis of the 4h ?-CN hydrolysate by LC-ESI-MS/MS allowed identification of 8 peptide sequences with potential antioxidant properties. PMID:24629973

Di Pierro, Giovanna; O'Keeffe, Martina B; Poyarkov, Alexey; Lomolino, Giovanna; FitzGerald, Richard J

2014-08-01

250

Detection of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting the cucurbit weed Cucumis melo var. dudaim in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is the first report of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting Cucumis melo var. dudaim, a cucurbit weed, in Florida. It provides an overview of this virus reservoir for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

251

Cell wall modification in 1-methylcyclopropene-treated post-climacteric fresh-cut and intact papaya fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya is a climacteric fruit in which ripening is greatly regulated by ethylene often associated with stress responses such\\u000a as wounding. The changes in cell wall compositions in papaya fruit at an advanced stage of ripening under stress conditions\\u000a including chilling temperature of 5°C and wounding employed as fresh-cut and how these changes were affected by an ethylene\\u000a action inhibitor

Muharrem Ergun; Yasar Karakurt; Donald J. Huber

252

Contrasted genetic diversity and differentiation among Mediterranean populations of Ficus carica L.: A study using mtDNA RFLP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation revealed by RFLP were investigated for 63 individuals of the common fig, Ficus carica L., in 15 supposedly natural populations throughout the Mediterranean basin. Fifteen haplotypes were detected using one restriction enzyme (HindIII) and four probes (atpa, coxIII, nad3rpsl2 and rps12). Mitochondrial diversity within populations varied from monomorphic to entirely polymorphic and population differentiation

B. Khadari; C. Grout; S. Santoni; F. Kjellberg

2005-01-01

253

21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...No. 9001-73-4) is a proteolytic enzyme derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya...aqueous solution of latex. The resulting enzyme preparation may be used in a liquid...

2011-04-01

254

21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...No. 9001-73-4) is a proteolytic enzyme derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya...aqueous solution of latex. The resulting enzyme preparation may be used in a liquid...

2010-04-01

255

21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...No. 9001-73-4) is a proteolytic enzyme derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya...aqueous solution of latex. The resulting enzyme preparation may be used in a liquid...

2014-04-01

256

21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...No. 9001-73-4) is a proteolytic enzyme derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya...aqueous solution of latex. The resulting enzyme preparation may be used in a liquid...

2012-04-01

257

21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...No. 9001-73-4) is a proteolytic enzyme derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya...aqueous solution of latex. The resulting enzyme preparation may be used in a liquid...

2013-04-01

258

Tree Squirrels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter tree squirrels are divided into three groups: large tree squirrels, pine squirrels, and flying squirrels. Large tree squirrels include fox (Sciurus niger), eastern gray (Sciurus carolinensis), western gray (Sciurus griseus), and tassel-eared (Sciurus aberti) squirrels. Fox squirrels (Fig. 1) measure 18 to 27 inches (46 to 69 cm) from nose to tip of tail. They weigh about

Jeffrey J. Jackson

1994-01-01

259

Molecular docking simulation analysis of alcohol acyltransferases from two related fruit species explains their different substrate selectivities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical papaya (Carica papaya) and mountain papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens) fruits are characterised for their strong and particular aroma. The aroma of both fruits is different and dominated by esters, which are synthesised by alcohol acyltransferases (AATs). The ability to produce esters is contrasting, V. pubescens (VpAAT1) being a very active enzyme towards the production of benzyl acetate, whereas C. papaya

Luis Morales-Quintana; María Alejandra Moya-León; Raúl Herrera

2012-01-01

260

Development and Validation of a Multiplex Reverse Transcription PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Three Papaya Viruses  

PubMed Central

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce similar symptoms in papaya. Each threatens commercial production of papaya on Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay was developed to detect simultaneously these three viruses by screening combinations of mixed primer pairs and optimizing the multiplex RT-PCR reaction conditions. A mixture of three specific primer pairs was used to amplify three distinct fragments of 613 bp from the P3 gene of PRSV, 355 bp from the CP gene of PLDMV, and 205 bp from the CP gene of PapMV, demonstrating the assay’s specificity. The sensitivity of the multiplex RT-PCR was evaluated by showing plasmids containing each of the viral target genes with 1.44 × 103, 1.79 × 103, and 1.91 × 102 copies for the three viruses could be detected successfully. The multiplex RT-PCR was applied successfully for detection of three viruses from 341 field samples collected from 18 counties of Hainan Island, China. Rates of single infections were 186/341 (54.5%), 93/341 (27.3%), and 3/341 (0.9%), for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively; 59/341 (17.3%) of the samples were co-infected with PRSV and PLDMV, which is the first time being reported in Hainan Island. This multiplex RT-PCR assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method for detecting multiple viruses in papaya and can be used for routine molecular diagnosis and epidemiological studies in papaya. PMID:25337891

Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yang, Yong; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

2014-01-01

261

Fatty acids, coumarins and polyphenolic compounds of Ficus carica L. cv. Dottato: variation of bioactive compounds and biological activity of aerial parts.  

PubMed

Leaves, bark and woody part of Ficus carica L. cultivar Dottato collected in different months were examined to assess their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and phototoxicity on C32 human melanoma cells after UVA irradiation. The phytochemical investigation revealed different composition in the coumarin, fatty acid, polyphenol and flavonoid content. The second harvest of leaves and the first harvest of the bark possessed the highest antiradical activity with IC50 values of 64.00 ± 0.59 and 67.00 ± 1.09 ?g/mL, respectively. Harvest III of leaves showed the best inhibition of lipid peroxidation (IC50 = 1.48 ± 0.04 ?g/mL). Leaf samples of F. carica showed also the best antiproliferative activity in comparison with bark and woody part of F. carica. PMID:24087937

Marrelli, Mariangela; Statti, Giancarlo A; Tundis, Rosa; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

2014-01-01

262

Complete genome of Hainan papaya ringspot virus using small RNA deep sequencing.  

PubMed

Small RNA deep sequencing allows for virus identification, virus genome assembly, and strain differentiation. In this study, papaya plants with virus-like symptoms collected in Hainan province were used for deep sequencing and small RNA library construction. After in silicon subtraction of the papaya sRNAs, small RNA reads were used to in the viral genome assembly using a reference-guided, iterative assembly approach. A nearly complete genome was assembled for a Hainan isolate of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-HN-2). The complete PRSV-HN-2 genome (accession no.: KF734962) was obtained after a 15-nucleotide gap was filled by direct sequencing of the amplified genomic region. Direct sequencing of several random genomic regions of the PRSV isolate did not find any sequence discrepancy with the sRNA-assembled genome. The newly sequenced PRSV-HN-2 genome shared a nucleotide identity of 96 and 94 % to that of the PRSV-HN (EF183499) and PRSV-HN-1 (HQ424465) isolates, and together with these two isolates formed a new PRSV clade. These data demonstrate that the small RNA deep sequencing technology provides a viable and rapid mean to assemble complete viral genomes in plants. PMID:24510356

Zhang, Yuliang; Yu, Naitong; Huang, Qixing; Yin, Guohua; Guo, Anping; Wang, Xiangfeng; Xiong, Zhongguo; Liu, Zhixin

2014-06-01

263

Sequencing papaya X and Yh chromosomes reveals molecular basis of incipient sex chromosome evolution  

PubMed Central

Sex determination in papaya is controlled by a recently evolved XY chromosome pair, with two slightly different Y chromosomes controlling the development of males (Y) and hermaphrodites (Yh). To study the events of early sex chromosome evolution, we sequenced the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome (HSY) and its X counterpart, yielding an 8.1-megabase (Mb) HSY pseudomolecule, and a 3.5-Mb sequence for the corresponding X region. The HSY is larger than the X region, mostly due to retrotransposon insertions. The papaya HSY differs from the X region by two large-scale inversions, the first of which likely caused the recombination suppression between the X and Yh chromosomes, followed by numerous additional chromosomal rearrangements. Altogether, including the X and/or HSY regions, 124 transcription units were annotated, including 50 functional pairs present in both the X and HSY. Ten HSY genes had functional homologs elsewhere in the papaya autosomal regions, suggesting movement of genes onto the HSY, whereas the X region had none. Sequence divergence between 70 transcripts shared by the X and HSY revealed two evolutionary strata in the X chromosome, corresponding to the two inversions on the HSY, the older of which evolved about 7.0 million years ago. Gene content differences between the HSY and X are greatest in the older stratum, whereas the gene content and order of the collinear regions are identical. Our findings support theoretical models of early sex chromosome evolution. PMID:22869747

Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Yu, Qingyi; Gschwend, Andrea R.; Han, Jennifer; Zeng, Fanchang; Aryal, Rishi; VanBuren, Robert; Murray, Jan E.; Zhang, Wenli; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Feltus, F. Alex; Lemke, Cornelia; Tong, Eric J.; Chen, Cuixia; Man Wai, Ching; Singh, Ratnesh; Wang, Ming-Li; Min, Xiang Jia; Alam, Maqsudul; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H.; Jiang, Jiming; Paterson, Andrew H.; Ming, Ray

2012-01-01

264

Physicochemical, nutritional, and microbial quality of fresh-cut and frozen papaya prepared from cultivars with varying resistance to internal yellowing disease (Enterobacter cloacae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quality, nutritional, and microbial analyses were completed for fresh-cut and frozen papaya cubes prepared from cultivars with varying resistance to internal yellowing disease, caused by the bacterium Enterobacter cloacae. In general, fresh-cut and frozen papaya retained nutritional and microbial qu...

265

INCREASING TREE FAMILIES Michael Drmota  

E-print Network

INCREASING TREE FAMILIES Michael Drmota Inst. of Discrete Mathematics and Geometry Vienna · Recursive Trees · Plane Oriented Trees · General Increasing Trees · Degree Distribution · Conclusion #12;Recursive Trees #12;Recursive Trees #12;Recursive Trees #12;Recursive Trees #12;Recursive Trees #12

Drmota, Michael

266

Age and growth of the knobbed whelk Busycon carica (Gmelin 1791) in South Carolina subtidal waters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Knobbed whelk, Busycon carica (Gmelin, 1791), age and growth were estimated using tagged and recaptured individuals (n = 396) from areas off South Carolina coastal islands. Recaptured whelks were at large an average of 298 d (4-2,640 d). Growth, an increase in shell length (SL), was evident in 24% of the recaptured whelks, whereas 29% of recaptured individuals were the same size as when released and 47% were smaller than the released size. Mean growth rate was <0.001 mm SL/d and 0.022 mm SL/d if decreases in SL were assumed to be zero. Smaller whelks (???90 mm SL) at large for over one year grew seven times faster than larger whelks. The von Bertalanffy growth model: SL1 = 159.5(1 - e-0.0765(t+0.4162)), was developed from the mark - recapture whelks exhibiting growth. Based on a South Carolina minimum legal size of 102 mm SL, whelks recruit into the fishery at 13 y of age. The longevity, large size at maturity and slow growth suggest the potential for over harvest of knobbed whelk. Future whelk management plans may wish to consider whether economically viable commercial harvest can be sustainable.

Eversole, A.G.; Anderson, W.D.; Isely, J.J.

2008-01-01

267

The gastric ulcer protective and healing role of cysteine proteinases from Carica candamarcensis.  

PubMed

Latex from Caricaceae contains proteolytic enzymes localized in the fruit, which are used ethnopharmacologically to treat digestive disorders. Some of these proteins display proliferative properties when probed with mammalian cells, suggesting a role in the reconstruction of wounded tissue. We tested the efficacy of a proteolytic fraction derived from Carica candamarcensis, designated as P1G10 in experimental rodent models, to protect and heal chemically induced gastric ulcers. The protective effect of oral administration of P1G10 fraction was analyzed in indomethacin-treated Wistar animals. The healing effect of P1G10 was studied following sub-serous injection of acetic acid in a Wistar rat model. The results show that P1G10 between 0.1 and 10 mg/kg protect indomethacin but not ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. The maximal protection attained was 67% with 10 mg/kg of P1G10. The healing rate by 10 mg/kg of P1G10 using the acetic acid ulcerogenic model is similar to that of omeprazole (10 mg/kg) or ranitidine (100 mg/kg). The effect of P1G10 at 10 mg/kg seems to be mediated by an increase in the mucus content by 25% and stimulation of angiogenesis by 64% in a manner similar to growth factors. These results confirm the protective and healing role of proteinases from C. candamarcensis. PMID:17689943

Mello, Vanessa J; Gomes, Marco Túlio R; Lemos, Fernanda O; Delfino, Jose L; Andrade, Silvia P; Lopes, Miriam T P; Salas, Carlos E

2008-04-01

268

Genetic sex determination, gender identification and pseudohermaphroditism in the knobbed whelk, Busycon carica (Mollusca: Melongenidae).  

PubMed Central

We report perhaps the first genic-level molecular documentation of a mammalian-like 'X-linked' mode of sex determination in molluscs. From family inheritance data and observed associations between sex-phenotyped adults and genotypes in Busycon carica, we deduce that a polymorphic microsatellite locus (bc2.2) is diploid and usually heterozygous in females, hemizygous in males, and that its alleles are transmitted from mothers to sons and daughters but from fathers to daughters only. We also employ bc2.2 to estimate near-conception sex ratio in whelk embryos, where gender is indeterminable by visual inspection. Statistical corrections are suggested at both family and population levels to accommodate the presence of homozygous bc2.2 females that could otherwise be genetically mistaken for hemizygous males. Knobbed whelks were thought to be sequential hermaphrodites, but our evidence for genetic dioecy supports an earlier hypothesis that whelks are pseudohermaphroditic (falsely appear to switch functional sex when environmental conditions induce changes in sexual phenotype). These findings highlight the distinction between gender in a genetic versus phenotypic sense. PMID:15156923

Avise, John C.; Power, Alan J.; Walker, DeEtte

2004-01-01

269

Multiscale hierarchical assembly strategy and mechanical prowess in conch shells (Busycon carica).  

PubMed

Seashells are natural body armors with superior mechanical strength and ultra-high toughness compared with their major constituent counterparts. What building blocks and architecture render seashells such mechanical prowess? In this study, micro/nanoscale structural and mechanical characterization of conch shells (Busycon carica) has been carried out. Here we show direct evidence that the previously claimed single-crystal third-order lamellae--the basic building blocks in conch shells are essentially assembled with aragonite nanoparticles of the size ranging from 20 to 45 nm. The nanoparticle-constructed third-order lamellae are not brittle, but ductile. The three-order crossed-lamellar architecture interlocks cracks via crack deflection along the interfaces in a three-dimensional manner, thus confining the damage in a small region. The findings advance the understanding of the mystery of conch shell's mechanical robustness, provide additional design guidelines for developing bioinspired nanomaterials, and lay a constitutive foundation for modeling the deformation behavior of seashells. PMID:24184467

Li, Haoze; Xu, Zhi-Hui; Li, Xiaodong

2013-12-01

270

Talking Trees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students love outdoor activities and will love them even more when they build confidence in their tree identification and measurement skills. Through these activities, students will learn to identify the major characteristics of trees and discover how the pace--a nonstandard measuring unit--can be used to estimate not only distances but also the…

Tolman, Marvin

2005-01-01

271

Tree Talk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math meets life science lesson, learners measure the circumference of local trees in order to calculate diameters. Learners use this information and a growth rate table to estimate the age of the trees. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.

S. Rosen

2010-01-01

272

Growing Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Includes RedBlackTrees, BinarySearchTrees, and SplayTrees. It allows the user to create randomly generated input data or to insert user's own input data for a splay tree in different formats such as integer, double, and character. Users can construct a splay tree by directly inserting, deleting, and splaying tree nodes to the top. The user can also select different tree operations such as in, pre- and post-order traversals. It provides a number of flexible user controls including the speed control, stop, forward, backward steps, etc. Text-based descriptions are displayed for each algorithm step. The textual descriptions include miscellaneous information about the tree including the size, number of elements and depth. This text information can define a history of the algorithm. One of the best AVs for the splay tree. It provides interaction-oriented operations and adjustable spatial layout with intuitive animations. This AV includes almost all necessary features for the splay tree. Randomly generated input data offered many advantages for a beginner to start with some input. It also allows constructing the splay tree with user's own input dataset. The graphic representation and animation for the splay tree is intuitive and helpful for understanding each algorithm step. A small text window lists algorithm steps that are performed. The AV has a simple, intuitive interface. For new users, it can be difficult to get started, though, since there is no help facility or introduction to the AV. The user can select a node by clicking it. A context menu then appears which allows double rotation, splay to the top, and delete. Controls at the top allow nodes to be inserted. There are some weaknesses.The layout is spacious but the number representation seems sometimes misleading during the animation and transformation. There is a problem with scalability of nodes in representation of the tree. When the number of elements in the tree grows beyond 10, the nodes become too small for the user to read. There is no quiz or exercise mode to encourage self-evaluation. Some controls ambiguous . For example, although those controls present on the interface menu, backwards and forwards steps of the animation don't seem to do anything. The history window is too small. Recommended as lecture aide, standalone, self-study suppliment to tutorial or lecture.

Bob Sedgewick

273

Detection of platypus-type L/D-peptide isomerase activity in aqueous extracts of papaya fruit.  

PubMed

Peptide isomerase catalyses the post-translational isomerisation of the L: - to the D: -form of an amino acid residue around the N/C-termini of substrate peptides. To date, some peptide isomerases have been found in a limited number of animal secretions and cells. We show here that papaya extracts have weak peptide isomerase activity. The activity was detected in each 30-100 kDa fraction of the flesh and the seed extracts of unripe and ripe papaya fruit. The definitive activity was confirmed in the ripe papaya extracts, but even then it was much less active than that of the other peptide isomerases previously reported. The activity was markedly inhibited by methanol, and partly so by amastatin and diethyl pyrocarbonate. This is the first report of peptide isomerase activity in a plant and suggests that perhaps every living organism may have some peptide isomerase activity. PMID:22648682

Arakawa, Kensuke; Koh, Jennifer M S; Crossett, Ben; Torres, Allan M; Kuchel, Philip W

2012-09-01

274

Comparative evaluation of volatiles, phenolics, sugars, organic acids and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papaya varieties.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to determine the phenolic compounds, organic acids, sugars, aroma profiles and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papayas grown in Turkey. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used for the phenolic compounds analysis. Twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in the samples. The total phenolic content of Sel-42 was clearly higher than that of Tainung. Protocatechuic acid-hexoside, gallic acid-deoxyhexoside, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolics in both cultivars. Aroma composition of papaya was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 46 and 42 aroma compounds, including esters, alcohols, terpenes, lactones, acids, carbonyl compounds, and volatile phenols were identified in the Sel-42 and Tainung, respectively. The significant linear correlation was confirmed between the values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of papaya extracts. PMID:25466106

Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan; Gubbuk, Hamide; Gunes, Esma

2015-04-15

275

Inferring trees.  

PubMed

Molecular phylogenetics examines how biological sequences evolve and the historical relationships between them. An important aspect of many such studies is the estimation of a phylogenetic tree, which explicitly describes evolutionary relationships between the sequences. This chapter provides an introduction to evolutionary trees and some commonly used inferential methodology, focusing on the assumptions made and how they affect an analysis. Detailed discussion is also provided about some common algorithms used for phylogenetic tree estimation. Finally, there are a few practical guidelines, including how to combine multiple software packages to improve inference, and a comparison between Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetics. PMID:18566770

Whelan, Simon

2008-01-01

276

Ficus carica Latex Prevents Invasion Through Induction of Let-7d Expression in GBM Cell Lines.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the deadliest human malignancies. A cure for GBM remains elusive, and the overall survival time is less than 1 year. Thus, the development of more efficient therapeutic approaches for the treatment of these patients is required. Induction of tumor cell death by certain phytochemicals derived from medicinal herbs and dietary plants has become a new frontier for cancer therapy research. Although the cancer suppressive effect of Ficus carica (fig) latex (FCL) has been determined in a few cancer types, the effect of this latex on GBM tumors has not been investigated. Therefore, in the current study, the anti-proliferative activity of FCL and the effect of the FCL-temozolomide (TMZ) combination were tested in the T98G, U-138 MG, and U-87 MG GBM cell lines using the WST-1 assay. The mechanism of cell death was analyzed using Annexin-V/FITC and TUNEL assays, and the effect of FCL on invasion was tested using the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. To determine the effect of FCL on GBM progression, the expression levels of 40 GBM associated miRNAs were analyzed in T98G cells using RT-qPCR. According to the obtained data, FCL causes cell death in GBM cells with different responses to TMZ, and this effect is synergistically increased in combination with TMZ. In addition, the current study is the first to demonstrate the effect of FCL on modulation of let-7d expression, which may be an important underlying mechanism of the anti-invasive effect of this extract. PMID:25212824

Tezcan, Gulcin; Tunca, Berrin; Bekar, Ahmet; Yalcin, Murat; Sahin, Saliha; Budak, Ferah; Cecener, Gulsah; Egeli, Unal; Demir, Cevdet; Guvenc, Gokcen; Yilmaz, Gozde; Erkan, Leman Gizem; Malyer, Hulusi; Taskapilioglu, Mevlut Ozgur; Evrensel, Turkkan; Bilir, Ayhan

2015-03-01

277

Factor Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online activity, the learner finds the prime factorization of composite numbers by building factor trees. A second level includes finding the greatest common factor and the least common multiple by sorting factors using a Venn Diagram.

2010-01-01

278

Factor Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative allows students to find the prime factorization of numbers by completing factor trees. Then they may use a venn diagram to sort the prime factors to find the greatest common factor and the least common multiple.

Math Playground

2009-07-29

279

Tree frog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tree frog can be found living in jungles and forests. Two reasons why the common frog is considered to be an amphibian are because it lays eggs in water and its spawn goes through metamorphosis to reach adulthood.

Hans Hillewaert (None; )

2008-04-20

280

High-performance thin layer chromatographic quantification of bioactive psoralen and daidzein in leaves of Ficus carica L.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to quantify psoralen and daidzein by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). The methanolic extract of 10 mg mL(-1) concentration solution was prepared for HPTLC quantification of psoralen and daidzein. HPTLC aluminium-backed plates coated with 0.2 mm layers of silica gel 60 F(254) were used as the stationary phase. The working standard solution of psoralen and daidzein was applied along with the test sample solution by means of Camag Linomat IV sample applicator. R (f) values of psoralen and daidzein were found to be 0.60 and 0.88, whilst as their percentage values in methanolic extract were found to be 3.02% and 5.64% (w/w), respectively. A simple quantitative estimation method of psoralen and daidzein by HPTLC is reported that can be used for the quality control of marketed preparations containing Ficus carica. However, further study is warranted to isolate and quantify active constituents present in the leaves of F. carica by sophisticated techniques. PMID:21714728

Ali, B; Mujeeb, M; Aeri, V; Mir, S R; Ahmad, S; Siddique, N A; Faiyazuddin, M; Shakeel, F

2011-10-01

281

Protective Role of Ficus carica Stem Extract against Hepatic Oxidative Damage Induced by Methanol in Male Wistar Rats  

PubMed Central

The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of Ficus carica stem extract (FE) in methanol-induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into two batches: 16 control rats (C) drinking tap water and 16 treated rats drinking Ficus carica stem extract for six weeks. Then, each group was divided into two subgroups, and one of them was intraperitoneally injected (i.p.) daily methanol at a dose of 2.37?g/kg body weight i.p. for 30 days, for four weeks. The results showed that FE was found to contain large amounts of polyphenols and carotenoids. The treatment with methanol exhibited a significant increase of serum hepatic biochemical parameters (ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH) and hepatic lipid peroxidation. Hepatic antioxidant enzymes, namely, SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px, were significantly decreased in methanol-treated animals. FE treatment prior to methanol intoxication has significant role in protecting animals from methanol-induced hepatic oxidative damage. PMID:22203864

Saoudi, Mongi; El Feki, Abdelfattah

2012-01-01

282

Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan  

PubMed Central

A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

Qasem, Jamal R.

2012-01-01

283

Ephedra alte (joint pine): an invasive, problematic weedy species in forestry and fruit tree orchards in Jordan.  

PubMed

A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008-2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

Qasem, Jamal R

2012-01-01

284

Effect of Temperature on the Development and Survival of Immature Stages of the Carambola Fruit Fly, Bactrocera carambolae, and the Asian Papaya Fruit Fly, Bactrocera papayae, Reared On Guava Diet  

PubMed Central

Members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex constitute wellrecognized destructive pests of fruits in peninsular Thailand. The development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, were compared at six constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D). The objectives were to determine the effect of temperature on the developmental stages for optimizing rearing and to understand the geographical pattern of occurrence of these fruit fly species. A strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of immature stages of B. carambolae. Similarly, a strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of B. papayae. A temperature summation model was used to estimate the lower threshold temperature and the thermal constant. Bactrocera papayae was significantly faster in development and higher in survival and appeared to be better adapted to low temperatures than B. carambolae, as it exhibited the lowest threshold temperatures at all immature stages. The observed differences in response to various temperatures revealed to some extent the impact of temperature on these species' distribution in peninsular Thailand and other parts of the world. PMID:25368070

Danjuma, Solomon; Thaochan, Narit; Permkam, Surakrai; Satasook, Chutamas

2014-01-01

285

Effects of chitosan-based coatings containing peppermint essential oil on the quality of post-harvest papaya fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Edible coatings comprised of antimicrobial polymers based on chitosan are promising technologies to preserve post-harvest fruit quality. In this study, we investigated the potential utility of a coating made from chitosan modified by N-acylation with fatty acid to preserve post-harvest papaya qualit...

286

Plant response to evapotranspiration and soil water sensor irrigation scheduling methods for papaya production in south Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

An irrigation study was conducted to determine the effects of implementing different irrigation practices on growth and yields of papaya plants in south Florida. Treatments included using automated switching tensiometers based on soil water status, irrigation based on ET calculated from historic weather data and a set schedule irrigation regime. The study consisted of two trials (2006–2007 and 2008–2009). Water

Kati W. Migliaccio; Bruce Schaffer; Jonathan H. Crane; Frederick S. Davies

2010-01-01

287

76 FR 13972 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Papaya...public that we have prepared a pest risk analysis for the purpose of evaluating...risk. We are making the pest risk analysis available to the public for...

2011-03-15

288

Effect of pre-harvest calcium chloride applications on fruit calcium level and post-harvest anthracnose disease of papaya  

E-print Network

Effect of pre-harvest calcium chloride applications on fruit calcium level and post October 2013 Keywords: Papaya Anthracnose Calcium Disease incidence Disease severity a b s t r a c losses. The goal of this research was to use pre-harvest calcium applications to reduce anthracnose

Biggs, Alan R.

289

Effect of ozone pre-conditioning on quality and antioxidant capacity of papaya fruit during ambient storage.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the physico-chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of ozone-treated papaya fruit and untreated fruit. Freshly harvested papaya fruit were exposed continuously to ozone fumigation (0, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 5ppm) for 96h prior to ambient storage at 25±3°C and 70±5% relative humidity (RH) for up to 14days. The fruit exposed to 2.5ppm ozone had higher levels of total soluble solids (25.0%), ascorbic acid content (12.4%), ?-carotene content (19.6%), lycopene content (52.1%), and antioxidant activity (30.9%), and also reduced weight loss (11.5%) at day 10 compared to the control. The sensory attributes of papaya treated with 2.5ppm ozone was superior in sweetness and overall acceptability. These results support the application of ozone as a non-thermal and safe food preservation technique for papaya which can benefit both the producers and consumers. PMID:24001808

Ali, Asgar; Ong, Mei Kying; Forney, Charles F

2014-01-01

290

Managing Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), Using Spinosad-Based Protein Bait Sprays in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The efficacy of GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait was evaluated as a control of female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in papaya orchards in Hawaii. Two important components of this study were field sanitation and mass trapping using the male-specific lure methyl eugenol. Three different spray ...

291

Community Trees Community Tree Steward Program  

E-print Network

1 Community Trees Community Tree Steward Program ...and justice for all The U.S. Department, Iowa February, 2001 Jeff Iles Department of Horticulture Iowa State University Most tree managers realize dead trees should be removed as soon as they are detected. But living trees also can be a threat

Koford, Rolf R.

292

Community Trees Power Lines and Trees  

E-print Network

Community Trees Power Lines and Trees Introduction Trees serve many purposes in urban and rural trees near power lines. Most high voltage lines are not insulated, and contact will result in electric areas. To assure safe and reliable electric service, trimming or removal of trees is sometimes necessary

Koford, Rolf R.

293

Minimizing Tree Automata for Unranked Trees  

E-print Network

Minimizing Tree Automata for Unranked Trees Wim Martens Joachim Niehren Minimizing Tree Automata for Unranked Trees ­ p.1/20 #12;What and Why? To study the minimization problem for deterministic automata over unranked trees. Bottom-up deterministic: theoretical interest. E.g. do results from deterministic automata

Martens, Wim

294

Community Trees Community Tree Steward Program  

E-print Network

-sized shade tree, yet in many urban sites, trees are routinely confined to tree pits that provide a paltry 401 Community Trees Community Tree Steward Program ...and justice for all The U.S. Department environmental requirements for plant growth include adequate space for root and canopy development, sufficient

Koford, Rolf R.

295

Trees, Soil and Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Trees, soil and water: Journey to Forever - health care for mountains, trees for deserts, trees for people, forest, forestry, deforestation, erosion, soil conservation, water conservation, desertification.

Keith Addison

2010-01-01

296

Christmas Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last year, the front page of the Christmas Day New York Times talked about how you could do `finger xmastree@cygnus.com' to find out the current state of the Christmas tree in the offices of Cygnus Support. Well, it's back again this year. But, we wouldn't want you to be bored! "Oh, ho hum, that same boring thing all over again...been there, saw that." So to follow the example of a few million enthusiasts, the increasingly-popular World Wide Web is now toting its very own Christmas tree, which is so interactive it's almost like it's in your home. (Well, not quite. But if you'd like to send some wrapped gifts, I'm sure we wouldn't be upset.) Along with getting to look at a small photo of the tree when you first connect to it, you may: choose to see a full-size version of that picture -- they are updated every two minutes; choose to watch an MPEG movie of the tree which is 20 frames long, so you can watch the lights blink, etc. This is updated every fifteen minutes; vote on the different features of the tree, and every fifteen minutes the system will do the vote count and change the tree accordingly; send any one of ten random cards to a given email address; find out the technical details of how it was done, if you're really that interested. If you have any comments, suggestions, or complaints (come to think of it, you can keep the complaints), write to

297

Molecular characterization and infectivity of Papaya leaf curl China virus infecting tomato in China.  

PubMed

Papaya leaf curl China virus (PaLCuCNV) was previously reported as a distinct begomovirus infecting papaya in southern China. Based on molecular diagnostic survey, 13 PaLCuCNV isolates were obtained from tomato plants showing leaf curl symptoms in Henan and Guangxi Provinces of China. Complete nucleotide sequences of 5 representative isolates (AJ558116, AJ558117, AJ704604, FN256260, and FN297834) were determined to be 2738-2751 nucleotides, which share 91.7%-97.9% sequence identities with PaLCuCNV isolate G2 (AJ558123). DNA-beta was not found to be associated with PaLCuCNV isolates. To investigate the infectivity of PaLCuCNV, an infectious clone of PaLCuCNV-[CN:HeNZM1] was constructed and agro-inoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum Samsun, N. glutinosa, Solanum lycopersicum and Petunia hybrida plants, which induced severe leaf curling and crinkling symptoms in these plants. Southern blot analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated a systemic infection of test plants by the agro-infectious clone. PMID:20104645

Zhang, Hui; Ma, Xin-ying; Qian, Ya-juan; Zhou, Xue-ping

2010-02-01

298

Shade trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shading is an important part of computer imagery, but shaders have been based on fixed models to which all surfaces must conform. As computer imagery becomes more sophisticated, surfaces have more complex shading characteristics and thus require a less rigid shading model. This paper presents a flexible tree-structured shading model that can represent a wide range of shading characteristics. The

Robert L. Cook

1984-01-01

299

Tea tree oil  

MedlinePLUS

Tea tree oil is derived from the leaves of the tea tree. The tea tree was named by eighteenth century sailors, who made ... smelled like nutmeg from the leaves of the tree growing on the swampy southeast Australian coast. Do ...

300

Urban tree mortality  

E-print Network

for managing the urban canopy, in terms of tree removal andurban tree planting initiatives, these trees must survive to maturity, when canopyurban forest programs. Fifteen percent would like researchers to provide accurate estimates of tree mortality, growth, and canopy

Roman, Lara Angelica

2013-01-01

301

Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of CMS1MS2: a cysteine proteinase from Carica candamarcensis latex.  

PubMed

Cysteine proteinases from the latex of plants of the family Caricaceae are widely used industrially as well as in pharmaceutical preparations. In the present work, a 23 kDa cysteine proteinase from Carica candamarcensis latex (designated CMS1MS2) was purified for crystallization using three chromatography steps. The enzyme shows about fourfold higher activity than papain with BAPNA as substrate. Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction experiments were obtained by the hanging-drop method in the presence of PEG and ammonium sulfate as precipitants. The crystals are monoclinic (space group P2(1)), with unit-cell parameters a = 53.26, b = 75.71, c = 53.23 A, beta = 96.81 degrees , and diffract X-rays to 1.8 A resolution. PMID:18540057

Gomes, Marco Túlio Ribeiro; Teixeira, Raphael Dias; Ribeiro, Henrique de Assis Lopes; Turchetti, Andréia Pereira; Junqueira, Caroline Furtado; Lopes, Míriam Tereza Paz; Salas, Carlos Edmundo; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto

2008-06-01

302

Role of irradiation in the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles mediated by fig (Ficus carica) leaf extract.  

PubMed

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles in an aqueous mixture of fig (Ficus carica) leaf extract and AgNO3 solution exposed to a set of irradiances at different wavelengths are studied. Nanoparticle formation for irradiances between 6.5 mW/cm(2) and 13.3 mW/cm(2) in the 330-550 nm wavelength range is investigated and the results are compared to those of the nanoparticles synthesized in the dark and under direct sunlight. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, along with particle size analysis and transmission electron microscopy are employed for the characterization of samples and extracts. Irradiance is found to have profound influence on the reduction rates. However, size and spherical shape of the nanoparticles are persistent, irrespective of irradiance and wavelength. Irradiance is discussed to influence the particle formation and aggregation rates through the formation of free radicals in the fig extract. PMID:25062061

Ulug, Bulent; Haluk Turkdemir, M; Cicek, Ahmet; Mete, Ahmet

2015-01-25

303

Hepatoprotective Activity of the Ethanolic Extract of Ficus caricaLinn. LeavesinCarbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicityin Rats.  

PubMed

The ethanolic extract of Ficus carica leaves was screened for hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity in hepatotoxic Albino rats induced via carbon tetrachloride. The degree of protection was measured by estimating biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate Oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase ( SGPT),totalprotein (TP), totalalbumin (TA), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) and the level of total serum bilirubin. The extract in addition reduced CCl4 induced lipid peroxidation in - vivo and in - vitro. The ethanolic extract (50 mg/kg, 100mg/kg,200mg/kg)exhibited significant hepatoprotection incarbontetra chloride in toxicated rats in a dose dependant manner. The hepatoprotective effects of the extract were comparable with the standard drug silymarin 10)mg/kg body weight, IP). PMID:24250358

Mujeeb, Mohd; Alam Khan, Shah; Aeri, Vidhu; Ali, Babar

2011-01-01

304

TREES, WOODS AND FORESTS  

E-print Network

SCOTLAND'S TREES, WOODS AND FORESTS #12;2 SCOTLAND'S TREES, WOODS AND FORESTS2 #12;SCOTLAND'S TREES FOR THE ENVIRONMENT CHAPTER 4 FORESTS FOR THE ECONOMY CHAPTER 5 SCOTLAND'S REMARKABLE TREES CHAPTER 6 FINDING OUT MORE SCOTLAND'S TREES, WOODS AND FORESTS #12;4 SCOTLAND'S TREES, WOODS AND FORESTS4 This booklet is written

305

Technical Tree Climbing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tree climbing offers a safe, inexpensive adventure sport that can be performed almost anywhere. Using standard procedures practiced in tree surgery or rock climbing, almost any tree can be climbed. Tree climbing provides challenge and adventure as well as a vigorous upper-body workout. Tree Climbers International classifies trees using a system…

Jenkins, Peter

306

Tree Link  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site was created to provide information, research, and networking for people working in urban and community forestry. It is meant to inform, educate, and inspire the researcher, arborist, community group leader, and volunteer. The site contains: educational materials, how-to guides, a research database, discussion forums, a quarterly web-zine, a comprehensive link list of national and local resources, late-breaking news, interactive tools for tree identification and selection, and an Ask an Arborist section.

307

Tree Torture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The San Pedro River is one of the only free-flowing waterways in Arizona. Though it's more of a small stream than a river, it nourishes a vibrant ecosystem known as a riparian area. Full of tall trees, it serves as a major flyway for migrating birds and provides a ribbon of green in an otherwise barren landscape. In this Science Update, you'll hear about the research being done to keep the San Pedro flowing.

Science Update

2002-06-10

308

Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacers (ITSs) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) in fig cultivars ( Ficus carica L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITSs) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) were analysed in a set of Tunisian fig (Ficus carica L.) cultivars. The size of the spacers sequences ranged from 200 to 279 bases for ITS1 and from 253 to 314 bases for ITS2. Variation of GC contents has been also observed and scored as 59–68% and 55–68%

Ghada Baraket; Olfa Saddoud; Khaled Chatti; Messaoud Mars; Mohamed Marrakchi; Mokhtar Trifi; Amel Salhi-Hannachi

2009-01-01

309

Comparative Assessment of SSR and AFLP Markers for Evaluation of Genetic Diversity and Conservation of Fig, Ficus carica L., Genetic Resources in Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study characterises the genetic variability of fig, Ficus carica L., using simple sequence repeat (SSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. It compares the efficiency\\u000a and utility of the two techniques in detecting variation and establishing genetic relationships among Tunisian fig cultivars.\\u000a Our results show that using both marker systems, the Tunisian fig germ plasm is characterised by

Ghada Baraket; Khaled Chatti; Olfa Saddoud; Ahmed Ben Abdelkarim; Messaoud Mars; Mokhtar Trifi; Amel Salhi Hannachi

2011-01-01

310

What Makes a Tree a Tree?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides: (1) background information on trees, focusing on the parts of trees and how they differ from other plants; (2) eight activities; and (3) ready-to-copy pages dealing with tree identification and tree rings. Activities include objective(s), recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. (JN)

NatureScope, 1986

1986-01-01

311

Fig latex (Ficus carica L. cultivar Dottato) in combination with UV irradiation decreases the viability of A375 melanoma cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers are among the most prevalent cancers in the human population. In the present work latex of Ficus carica cultivar Dottato from Italy collected from fruits and leaves was examined to assess its free radical-scavenging activity with 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and its phototoxicity on A375 human melanoma cells. The latex obtained from the fruits of Ficus carica cv. Dottato showed the best antiradical activity with an IC50 value of 0.05 mg/ml while the latex obtained from the leaves showed the best antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 1.5 ?g/ml on the human tumor cell line A375 (melanoma) after irradiation at a specific UVA dose (1.08 J/cm2). Control experiments with UVA light or drugs alone were carried out without significant cytotoxic effects. Polyphenolic content of the samples was also evaluated. This is the first study comparing F. carica latex of leaves and fruits. Plant derived natural products have long been and will continue to be an important source for anticancer drug development. PMID:22339064

Menichini, Giulio; Alfano, Carmine; Provenzano, Eugenio; Marrelli, Mariangela; Statti, Giancarlo A; Somma, Francesco; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

2012-10-01

312

Evaluation of General Toxicity, Anti-Oxidant Activity and Effects of Ficus Carica Leaves Extract on Ischemia/Reperfusion Injuries in Isolated Heart of Rat  

PubMed Central

Purpose: This study was aimed to evaluate general toxicity, anti-oxidant activity and effects of Ficus carica leaves extract on ischemia/reperfusion injuries. Methods: Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid compounds of 70% methanolic extract of Ficus carica leaves were measured. The general toxicity test was carried out by brine shrimp lethality assay. Isolated hearts of male rats were mounted on a Langendorff apparatus and perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit solution. In control group, the hearts were perfused with normal Krebs solution, however, treatment groups received enriched solution with the extract (0.04, 0.2 and 1 mg/ml) during stabilization and reperfusion (after 30 min global ischemia), respectively. Cardiac arrhythmias were analyzed and TTC method was used for infarct size determination. Results: The extract displayed antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay (RC50=0.06666 mg/ml). Total phenolic content was 12.29 mg GAE/100 g dry sample and the amount of flavonoids was calculated 40.729 mg/g. LD50 value by brine shrimp test was 0.158 mg/ml. The extract decreased number of VEBs, incidence and duration of Rev VF with clear reduction in infarct size and infarct volume (P<0.001). Conclusion: Ficus carica decreased ischemia/reperfusion-induced injuries. These protections are probably due to antioxidant capacity and the existence of flavonoid and phenolic compounds in the extract. PMID:25671192

Allahyari, Saeideh; Delazar, Abbas; Najafi, Moslem

2014-01-01

313

Preparation and characterization of inclusion complex of benzyl isothiocyanate extracted from papaya seed with ?-cyclodextrin.  

PubMed

The inclusion complex of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), extracted from papaya seed with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD), was prepared. Different analytical techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, X-ray diffractometry, particle size distribution analysis and (1)H Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, were used to investigate the characterization of the inclusion complex (BITC-?-CD). All these approaches indicated that the inclusion complex was capable of being formed. The inclusion complex exhibited different spectroscopic and thermodynamic features and properties from BITC, and we deduced the possible inclusion modes for BITC-?-CD. The calculated apparent stability constant of the BITC-?-CD was 600.8l/mol, and the aqueous solubility of BITC was indistinctively improved by phase solubility studies. The results illustrated that ?-CD was a proper excipient for increasing the stability and controlled release of BITC. Thus, ?-CD complexation technology would be a promising approach, in expanding the application of BITC as a food antibacterial agent. PMID:25872431

Li, Wenzhao; Liu, Xiaoyu; Yang, Qingfeng; Zhang, Ning; Du, Yideng; Zhu, Huaping

2015-10-01

314

Covalent chromatography. Preparation of fully active papain from dried papaya latex  

PubMed Central

1. A Sepharose–(glutathione–2-pyridyl disulphide) conjugate has been prepared. 2. Its use in a new type of chromatography, covalent chromatography by thiol–disulphide interchange, is described. 3. With this technique, papain containing 1 intact catalytic site [thiol with high reactivity towards 2,2?-dipyridyl disulphide (2-Py-S-S-2-Py) at pH4] per mol of protein is readily prepared both from dried papaya latex and from commercial 2×crystallized partially active papain. 4. The catalysis of the hydrolysis of ?-N-benzoyl-l-arginine ethyl ester at pH6.0, 25.0°C, I=0.3 by fully active papain thus prepared is characterized by Km=18.2±<0.1mm and kcat.=16.4±0.5s?1. PMID:4733241

Brocklehurst, Keith; Carlsson, Jan; Kierstan, Marek P. J.; Crook, Eric M.

1973-01-01

315

Parallelization: Binary Tree Traversal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module teaches the use of binary trees to sort through large data sets, different traversal methods for binary trees, including parallel methods, and how to scale a binary tree traversal on multiple compute cores. Upon completion of this module, students should be able to recognize the structure of a binary tree, employ different methods for traversing a binary tree, understand how to parallelize a binary tree traversal, and how to scale a binary tree traversal over multiple compute cores.

Aaron Weeden

316

The anthelmintic efficacy of papaya latex in a rodent-nematode model is not dependent on fasting before treatment.  

PubMed

In earlier studies of the anthelmintic activity of plant cysteine proteinases (CPs), a period of food deprivation was routinely employed before administration of CPs, but there has been no systematic evaluation as to whether this does actually benefit the anthelmintic efficacy. Therefore, we assessed the effect of fasting on the efficacy of CPs from papaya latex (PL) against Heligmosomoides bakeri in C3H mice. We used a refined, supernatant extract of papaya latex (PLS) with known active enzyme content. The animals were divided into three groups (fasted prior to treatment with PLS, not fasted but treated with PLS and fasted but given only water). The study demonstrated clearly that although food deprivation had been routinely employed in much of the earlier work on CPs in mice infected with nematodes, fasting has no beneficial effect on the efficacy of PLS against H. bakeri infections. Administration of CPs to fed animals will also reduce the stress associated with fasting. PMID:21794201

Luoga, W; Mansur, F; Buttle, D J; Duce, I R; Garnett, M C; Behnke, J M

2012-09-01

317

Tree Troubles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores some of the diseases and other threats that certain trees must contend with to remain healthy and vital. The first website (1), from the USDA Forest Service-St. Paul Field Office, contains a collection of archived publications designed to help people diagnose, control, and identify various threats to different types of trees. Examples of these publications include: How to Control Sapstreak Disease of Sugar Maple; How to Differentiate Dutch Elm Disease From Elm Phloem Necrosis; How to Identify and Manage Needlecast Diseases on Balsam Fir; and How to Manage Eastern White Pine to Minimize Damage from Blister Rust and White Pine Weevil, to name few. The second (2) site, Forest & Shade Tree Pathology, is an online textbook that was developed by Dr. James J. Worrall, a plant pathologist for the USDA Forest Service, and former professor at the College of Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of New York. Dr. Worrall's site contains information about rusts, foliage and root diseases, parasitic plants, cankers, abiotic diseases, and wilts as well as disease profiles for Swiss Needle Cast; Oak Wilt, Chestnut Blight, Armillaria Root Disease, and more. The third (3) site, Oak Wilt: A Threat to Red Oaks & White Oaks Species, was created by Dr. David L. Roberts at Michigan State University Extension. Dr. Robert's concise site contains brief sections addressing oak wilt distribution, field diagnosis, management, disease cycle, and more. The fourth (4) site, from the California Oak Mortality Task Force, contains images, publications, maps, and information about Sudden Oak Death-related research, management recommendations, nursery issues, and regulations. The final three websites come from the USDA Forest Service and contain information about different insect threats. The fifth (5) site offers information about the emerald ash borer. The sixth (6) site provides information about the gypsy moth, and the final (7) site contains information about the Asian longhorned beetle.

318

Staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying Staphylococcus aureus isolated from foods and its control by crude alkaloid from papaya leaves.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus is a known pathogen causing intoxication by producing enterotoxins in food. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A is one of the enterotoxins commonly implicated in staphylococcal food poisoning. The ability of crude alkaloid extract from papaya leaves to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxin A synthesis was investigated. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying S. aureus was isolated from raw milk and ready-to-eat foods. Crude alkaloid was extracted from ground, dried papaya leaves using ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and a MIC of the alkaloid was determined by the broth macrodilution method. Furthermore, S. aureus isolate was exposed to the crude alkaloid extract at one- and twofold MIC, and the expression of sea was subsequently analyzed using a quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR. Ten isolates of S. aureus were obtained, and nine of those isolates were sea carriers. The yield of crude alkaloid extract was 0.48 to 1.82% per dry weight of papaya leaves. A MIC of crude alkaloid to S. aureus was 0.25 mg/ml. After exposure to the alkaloid at 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ml for 2 h, a significant increase in cycle threshold values of sea was observed. The sea was expressed 29 and 41 times less when S. aureus was exposed to crude alkaloid at one- and twofold MIC, respectively. This study revealed that crude alkaloid of papaya leaves could control staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying S. aureus by suppressing the expression of sea, in addition to the ability to inhibit the growth of S. aureus. The expression of sea was successfully quantified. PMID:25364936

Handayani, Lita; Faridah, Didah Nur; Kusumaningrum, Harsi D

2014-11-01

319

Ancient trees in Amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ages of tropical rain forest trees provide critical information for understanding the dynamics of tree populations, determining historical patterns of disturbance, developing sustainable forestry practices and calculating carbon cycling rates. Nevertheless, the ecological life history of most tropical trees is unknown and even the ages of the largest trees remain to be determined. Tree ages are typically measured by

Jeffrey Q. Chambers; Niro Higuchi; Joshua P. Schimel

1998-01-01

320

The Tree Worker's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to prepare students for entry-level positions as tree care professionals. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: the tree service industry; clothing, eqiupment, and tools; tree workers; basic tree anatomy; techniques of pruning; procedures for climbing and working in the tree; aerial…

Smithyman, S. J.

321

Tea Tree Oil  

MedlinePLUS

... Services National Institutes of Health Search NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health ® Follow NCCAM: Read our disclaimer about external links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Tea Tree Oil Common Names: Australian tea tree oil, tea tree ...

322

Minnesota Tree Blitz  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this biology field experience, students will explore trees of Minnesota. Working in cooperative groups, students will discover biodiversity of trees and determine populations of tree species through observation and use of dichotomous keys.

323

American Chestnut Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This annotated slideshow adapted from KET's Electronic Field Trip to the Forest illustrates how blight decimated the American chestnut tree and the methods scientists use to identify and pollinate the remaining trees to create blight-resistant trees.

2008-08-25

324

Trees and Air Quality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students describe the positive effects that trees have on air quality and determine how to landscape a home with trees to decrease energy use. Students will draw a map of their yard or school site showing the location of trees and check a leaf of each tree for particulates. They will then make observations on several different days to determine which trees save energy and draw on their map where more trees should be planted to save energy.

325

Tree Growth Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (located on page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into tree growth rates. Groups of learners will count tree rings to determine each tree’s age. A thorough sample of other measurements will then be taken to calculate the trees’ fastest, slowest, and overall average growth rate. Presenting the results in a table allows learners to compare data for different types of trees. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Temperate Rainforest.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2007-01-01

326

Structure i-Tree Tree Eco Overview  

E-print Network

The Davey InstituteHow do we communicate the value of the resource at risk? Evanston has over 4,000 ash trees on its parkways and in its parks, which is about 12 % of the City of Evanston’s 33,000 public trees. Evanston resource at risk to EAB 3500 ash street trees 10.5 % of public trees $3.18 million structural value 4.9 million gal/yr of rainfall intercepted worth $135,000/yr $122,000/yr energy savings $20,350/yr in air quality improvement $113,000 annual CO2 valueCan you justify your needsIncreasing Public Scrutinyi-Tree Tree Backgroundi-Tree Tree Includes…

Urban Forest; Al Zelaya; Urban Forest; Canopy Loss; Ufore Assessing Urban Ecosystems

327

Protected trees A guide to tree preservation procedures  

E-print Network

Protected trees A guide to tree preservation procedures #12;Protected trees A guide to tree trees: A guide to tree preservation procedures Introduction This leaflet is written for tree owners, their neighbours and local community groups, and answers some of the most common questions about tree preservation

328

Essential Kurepa Trees Versus Essential Jech Kunen Trees1  

E-print Network

Essential Kurepa Trees Versus Essential Jech Kunen Trees1 Renling Jin2 & Saharon Shelah3 Abstract By an !1 tree we mean a tree of cardinality !1 and height !1. An !1 tree is called a Kurepa tree if all its levels are countable and it has more than !1 branches. An !1 tree is called a Jech Kunen tree if it has

Jin, Renling

329

A tree-to-tree model for statistical machine translation  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we take a statistical tree-to-tree approach to solving the problem of machine translation (MT). In a statistical tree-to-tree approach, first the source-language input is parsed into a syntactic tree ...

Cowan, Brooke A. (Brooke Alissa), 1972-

2008-01-01

330

Estimating species trees from unrooted gene trees.  

PubMed

In this study, we develop a distance method for inferring unrooted species trees from a collection of unrooted gene trees. The species tree is estimated by the neighbor joining (NJ) tree built from a distance matrix in which the distance between two species is defined as the average number of internodes between two species across gene trees, that is, average gene-tree internode distance. The distance method is named NJ(st) to distinguish it from the original NJ method. Under the coalescent model, we show that if gene trees are known or estimated correctly, the NJ(st) method is statistically consistent in estimating unrooted species trees. The simulation results suggest that NJ(st) and STAR (another coalescence-based method for inferring species trees) perform almost equally well in estimating topologies of species trees, whereas the Bayesian coalescence-based method, BEST, outperforms both NJ(st) and STAR. Unlike BEST and STAR, the NJ(st) method can take unrooted gene trees to infer species trees without using an outgroup. In addition, the NJ(st) method can handle missing data and is thus useful in phylogenomic studies in which data sets often contain missing loci for some individuals. PMID:21447481

Liu, Liang; Yu, Lili

2011-10-01

331

Minimum Spanning Tree Jayadev Misra  

E-print Network

Minimum Spanning Tree Jayadev Misra 12/12/98 1 Spanning Tree A spanning tree of an undirected graph for finding the minimum spanning tree. Properties of spanning trees In a spanning tree: · There is no cycle edges have non-negative weights. A minimum span- ning tree is a spanning tree whose total edge weight

Misra, Jayadev

332

Construction of physical maps for the sex-specific regions of papaya sex chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Background Papaya is a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. It is trioecious with three sex forms: male, female, and hermaphrodite. Sex determination is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes with two slightly different Y chromosomes, Y for male and Yh for hermaphrodite. The sex chromosome genotypes are XY (male), XYh (hermaphrodite), and XX (female). The papaya hermaphrodite-specific Yh chromosome region (HSY) is pericentromeric and heterochromatic. Physical mapping of HSY and its X counterpart is essential for sequencing these regions and uncovering the early events of sex chromosome evolution and to identify the sex determination genes for crop improvement. Results A reiterate chromosome walking strategy was applied to construct the two physical maps with three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. The HSY physical map consists of 68 overlapped BACs on the minimum tiling path, and covers all four HSY-specific Knobs. One gap remained in the region of Knob 1, the only knob structure shared between HSY and X, due to the lack of HSY-specific sequences. This gap was filled on the physical map of the HSY corresponding region in the X chromosome. The X physical map consists of 44 BACs on the minimum tiling path with one gap remaining in the middle, due to the nature of highly repetitive sequences. This gap was filled on the HSY physical map. The borders of the non-recombining HSY were defined genetically by fine mapping using 1460?F2 individuals. The genetically defined HSY spanned approximately 8.5?Mb, whereas its X counterpart extended about 5.4?Mb including a 900 Kb region containing the Knob 1 shared by the HSY and X. The 8.5?Mb HSY corresponds to 4.5?Mb of its X counterpart, showing 4?Mb (89%) DNA sequence expansion. Conclusion The 89% increase of DNA sequence in HSY indicates rapid expansion of the Yh chromosome after genetic recombination was suppressed 2–3 million years ago. The genetically defined borders coincide with the common BACs on the minimum tiling paths of HSY and X. The minimum tiling paths of HSY and its X counterpart are being used for sequencing these X and Yh-specific regions. PMID:22568889

2012-01-01

333

Effects of Ficus carica paste on constipation induced by a high-protein feed and movement restriction in beagles  

PubMed Central

Constipation is one of the most common functional digestive complaints worldwide. We investigated the laxative effects of figs (Ficus carica L) in a beagle model of constipation induced by high protein diet and movement restriction. The experiments were consecutively conducted over 9 weeks divided into 3 periods of 3 weeks each. All 15 beagles were subjected to a non-treatment (control) period, a constipation induction period, and a fig paste treatment period. We administered fig paste (12 g/kg daily, by gavage) for 3 weeks following a 3-week period of constipation induction in dogs. Segmental colonic transit time (CTT) was measured by counting radiopaque markers (Kolomark) using a radiograph performed every 6 h after feeding Kolomark capsules, until capsules were no longer observed. Fig paste significantly increased fecal quantity in constipated dogs, and segmental CTT was also reduced following fig paste administration. There were no significant differences in feed intake, water intake, body weight, or blood test results, between the constipation and fig paste administration periods. Our results demonstrate that fig is an effective treatment for constipation in beagles. Specifically, stool weight increased and segmental CTT decreased. Fig pastes may be useful as a complementary medicine in humans suffering from chronic constipation. PMID:22232635

Oh, Hong-Geun; Lee, Hak-Yong; Seo, Min-Young; Kang, Young-Rye; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Park, Jung-Woo; Back, Hyang-Im; Kim, Sun-Young; Oh, Mi-Ra; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Min-Gul; Jeon, Ji-Young; Hwang, Min-Ho; Shin, Sook-Jeong

2011-01-01

334

Traditional agroecosystems as conservatories and incubators of cultivated plant varietal diversity: the case of fig (Ficus carica L.) in Morocco  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional agroecosystems are known to host both large crop species diversity and high within crop genetic diversity. In a context of global change, this diversity may be needed to feed the world. Are these agroecosystems museums (i.e. large core collections) or cradles of diversity? We investigated this question for a clonally propagated plant, fig (Ficus carica), within its native range, in Morocco, but as far away as possible from supposed centers of domestication. Results Fig varieties were locally numerous. They were found to be mainly highly local and corresponded to clones propagated vegetatively. Nevertheless these clones were often sufficiently old to have accumulated somatic mutations for selected traits (fig skin color) and at neutral loci (microsatellite markers). Further the pattern of spatial genetic structure was similar to the pattern expected in natural population for a mutation/drift/migration model at equilibrium, with homogeneous levels of local genetic diversity throughout Moroccan traditional agroecosystems. Conclusions We conclude that traditional agroecosystems constitue active incubators of varietal diversity even for clonally propagated crop species, and even when varieties correspond to clones that are often old. As only female fig is cultivated, wild fig and cultivated fig probably constitute a single evolutionary unit within these traditional agroecosystems. Core collections, however useful, are museums and hence cannot serve the same functions as traditional agroecosystems. PMID:20167055

2010-01-01

335

Cytotoxic Effects of Different Extracts and Latex of Ficus carica L. on HeLa cell Line.  

PubMed

It has been reported that latex and extracts of different species of Ficus are cytotoxic to some human cancerous cell lines. In this study, cytotoxicity of fruit and leaf extracts as well as the latex of Ficuscarica L. on HeLa cell line were evaluated. ethanolic extracts of leaves and fruits were prepared through percolation and ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extracts were prepared by reflux method. Cytotoxic effects of these extracts and latex against HeLa cell line were then examined. Briefly, He Lacells were seeded at 2 × 10(4) cells/mL in 96-well plates. After 24 h incubation at 37(°)C, the cells were treated with different concentrations of the extracts or latex. The viability of the cells was determined by the reduction of 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) from formazan following 48 h incubation and the absorbance was measured at 540 nm using an ELISA plate reader. The results indicated that the latex and different extracts of Ficus carica could reduce the viability of the He Lacells at concentrations as low as 2 µg/mL in a dose dependent manner. The approximate IC50 values of the ethanolic, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extracts of the leaves and fruits were 10, 19, 12 µg/mL and 12, 12, 11.5 µg/mL, respectively. The IC50 for the latex was about 17 µg/mL. PMID:24250354

Khodarahmi, Ghadam Ali; Ghasemi, Nasrollah; Hassanzadeh, Farshid; Safaie, Marzieh

2011-01-01

336

Identification, purification and characterization of a novel collagenolytic serine protease from fig (Ficus carica var. Brown Turkey) latex.  

PubMed

A novel collagenolytic serine protease was identified and then purified (along with ficin) to apparent homogeneity from the latex of fig (Ficus carica, var. Brown Turkey) by two step chromatographic procedure using gel and covalent chromatography. The enzyme is a monomeric protein of molecular mass of 41 ± 9 kDa as estimated by analytical gel filtration chromatography. It is an acidic protein with a pI value of approximately 5 and optimal activity at pH 8.0-8.5 and temperature 60°C. The enzymatic activity was strongly inhibited by PMSF and Pefabloc SC, indicating that the enzyme is a serine protease. The enzyme showed specificity towards gelatin and collagen (215 GDU/mg and 24.8 CDU/mg, respectively) and non-specific protease activity (0.18 U/mg against casein). The enzyme was stable and retained full activity over a broad range of pH and temperature. The fig latex collagenolytic protease is potentially useful as a non-microbial enzyme with collagenolytic activity for various applications in the fields of biochemistry, biotechnology and medicine. PMID:24982021

Raskovic, Brankica; Bozovic, Olga; Prodanovic, Radivoje; Niketic, Vesna; Polovic, Natalija

2014-12-01

337

Effects of ozone exposure on 'Golden' papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening  

SciTech Connect

This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of 'Golden' papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring on the fruit during ripening when exposed to ozone. In addition, one has performed real time studies of fluorescence parameters and the emission rates of carbon dioxide and ethylene. Finally, the amount of pigments and the changes in waxy cuticle have been monitored. Results indicate that a fruit deliberately subjected to ozone at a level of 6 ppmv underwent ripening sooner (at least 24-48 h) than a fruit stored at ambient conditions. Moreover, ozone caused a reduction in the maximum quantum yield of photosynthetic apparatus located within the skin of papaya fruit.

Correa, Savio Figueira; Brito Paiva, Luisa; Mota do Couto, Flavio; Gomes da Silva, Marcelo; Silva Sthel, Marcelo; Vargas, Helion [Laboratorio de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque California 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Mota, Leonardo [Laboratorio de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque California 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Fraunhofer Institut fuer Bauphysik, Nobelstrasse 12, Vaihingen 70569, Stuttgart, Baden Wuerttemberg (Germany); Goncalves de Oliveira, Jurandi [Laboratorio de Melhoramento Genetico Vegetal, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque California 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Miklos, Andras [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Bauphysik, Nobelstrasse 12, Vaihingen 70569, Stuttgart, Baden Wuerttemberg (Germany)

2011-06-01

338

Effects of ozone exposure on `Golden' papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of `Golden' papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring on the fruit during ripening when exposed to ozone. In addition, one has performed real time studies of fluorescence parameters and the emission rates of carbon dioxide and ethylene. Finally, the amount of pigments and the changes in waxy cuticle have been monitored. Results indicate that a fruit deliberately subjected to ozone at a level of 6 ppmv underwent ripening sooner (at least 24-48 h) than a fruit stored at ambient conditions. Moreover, ozone caused a reduction in the maximum quantum yield of photosynthetic apparatus located within the skin of papaya fruit.

Corrêa, Savio Figueira; Mota, Leonardo; Paiva, Luisa Brito; Couto, Flávio Mota do; Silva, Marcelo Gomes da; Oliveira, Jurandi Gonçalves de; Sthel, Marcelo Silva; Vargas, Helion; Miklós, András

2011-06-01

339

Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from papaya seed by response surface methodology: oil recovery, radical scavenging antioxidant activity, and oxidation stability.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) condition on the yield, antioxidant activity and stability of the oil from papaya seed. The studied ultrasound variables were time, temperature, ultrasound power and solvent to sample ratio. The main goal was to optimise UAE condition providing the highest recovery of papaya seed oil with the most desirable antioxidant activity and stability. The interaction of ultrasound variables had the most and least significant effects on the antioxidant activity and stability, respectively. Ultrasound-assisted extraction provided a relatively high oil recovery (? 73%) from papaya seed. The strongest antioxidant activity was achieved by the extraction at the elevated temperature using low solvent to sample ratio. The optimum ultrasound extraction was set at the elevated temperature (62.5 °C) for 38.5 min at high ultrasound power (700 W) using medium solvent to sample ratio (? 7:1 v/w). The optimum point was practically validated. PMID:25442517

Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd; Bordbar, Sara; Serjouie, Alireza

2015-04-01

340

Limit Laws for Functions of Fringe trees for Binary Search Trees and Recursive Trees  

E-print Network

Limit Laws for Functions of Fringe trees for Binary Search Trees and Recursive Trees Cecilia of binary search trees and random recursive trees. In particular, we give simple new proofs of the fact that the number of fringe trees of size k = kn in the binary search tree and the random recursive tree (of total

Janson, Svante

341

Additive similarity trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Similarity data can be represented by additive trees. In this model, objects are represented by the external nodes of a tree, and the dissimilarity between objects is the length of the path joining them. The additive tree is less restrictive than the ultrametric tree, commonly known as the hierarchical clustering scheme. The two representations are characterized and compared. A computer

Shmuel Sattath; Amos Tversky

1977-01-01

342

Random Trees and Applications  

E-print Network

Random Trees and Applications Jean-Fran¸cois Le Gall1 Notes prepared for the Cornell Summer School;2 #12;Chapter 1 From Discrete to Continuous Trees In this chapter, we first explain how discrete random trees can be coded by discrete paths called the height function and the contour function of the tree. We

Durrett, Richard

343

The Needs of Trees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tree rings can be used not only to look at plant growth, but also to make connections between plant growth and resource availability. In this lesson, students in 2nd-4th grades use role-play to become familiar with basic requirements of trees and how availability of those resources is related to tree ring sizes and tree growth. These concepts can…

Boyd, Amy E.; Cooper, Jim

2004-01-01

344

Categorizing Ideas about Trees: A Tree of Trees  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to explore whether matrices and MP trees used to produce systematic categories of organisms could be useful to produce categories of ideas in history of science. We study the history of the use of trees in systematics to represent the diversity of life from 1766 to 1991. We apply to those ideas a method inspired from coding homologous parts of organisms. We discretize conceptual parts of ideas, writings and drawings about trees contained in 41 main writings; we detect shared parts among authors and code them into a 91-characters matrix and use a tree representation to show who shares what with whom. In other words, we propose a hierarchical representation of the shared ideas about trees among authors: this produces a “tree of trees.” Then, we categorize schools of tree-representations. Classical schools like “cladists” and “pheneticists” are recovered but others are not: “gradists” are separated into two blocks, one of them being called here “grade theoreticians.” We propose new interesting categories like the “buffonian school,” the “metaphoricians,” and those using “strictly genealogical classifications.” We consider that networks are not useful to represent shared ideas at the present step of the study. A cladogram is made for showing who is sharing what with whom, but also heterobathmy and homoplasy of characters. The present cladogram is not modelling processes of transmission of ideas about trees, and here it is mostly used to test for proximity of ideas of the same age and for categorization. PMID:23950877

Fisler, Marie; Lecointre, Guillaume

2013-01-01

345

Categorizing ideas about trees: a tree of trees.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to explore whether matrices and MP trees used to produce systematic categories of organisms could be useful to produce categories of ideas in history of science. We study the history of the use of trees in systematics to represent the diversity of life from 1766 to 1991. We apply to those ideas a method inspired from coding homologous parts of organisms. We discretize conceptual parts of ideas, writings and drawings about trees contained in 41 main writings; we detect shared parts among authors and code them into a 91-characters matrix and use a tree representation to show who shares what with whom. In other words, we propose a hierarchical representation of the shared ideas about trees among authors: this produces a "tree of trees." Then, we categorize schools of tree-representations. Classical schools like "cladists" and "pheneticists" are recovered but others are not: "gradists" are separated into two blocks, one of them being called here "grade theoreticians." We propose new interesting categories like the "buffonian school," the "metaphoricians," and those using "strictly genealogical classifications." We consider that networks are not useful to represent shared ideas at the present step of the study. A cladogram is made for showing who is sharing what with whom, but also heterobathmy and homoplasy of characters. The present cladogram is not modelling processes of transmission of ideas about trees, and here it is mostly used to test for proximity of ideas of the same age and for categorization. PMID:23950877

Fisler, Marie; Lecointre, Guillaume

2013-01-01

346

Relationship between fermented papaya preparation supplementation, erythrocyte integrity and antioxidant status in pre-diabetics.  

PubMed

Erythrocytes and their membranes are favorable models to study the relationship between diabetes and susceptibility of erythrocytes to oxidative stress damage. The recommendation for the use of fermented papaya preparation (FPP) as a functional food for dietary management of type 2 diabetes was evaluated by assessing its effect on the human antioxidant status and erythrocyte integrity on a multi-ethnical pre-diabetic population. The in vivo effect of FPP was compared with its in vitro free radical scavenging potentials. FPP exhibited potent in vitro free radical scavenging activities thought to be attributed to residual phenolic or flavonoid compounds. Low doses of FPP significantly reduced the susceptibility of human erythrocytes to undergo free radical-induced hemolysis. The intake of 6g FPP/day for a period of 14weeks was observed to significantly reduce the rate of hemolysis and accumulation of protein carbonyls in the blood plasma of pre-diabetics. That FPP consumption on a daily basis can strengthen the antioxidant defense system in vivo was clearly demonstrated by the marked increase of total antioxidant status in the FPP-supplemented pre-diabetics. That FPP maintains the integrity of erythrocytes could benefit the strategies to improve the quality of future blood products. PMID:24316314

Somanah, Jhoti; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Rondeau, Philippe; Bahorun, Theeshan; Aruoma, Okezie I

2014-03-01

347

Tree Tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nature often replicates her processes at different scales of space and time in differing media. Here a tree-trunk cross section I am preparing for a dendrochronological display at the Battle Creek Cypress Swamp Nature Sanctuary (Calvert County, Maryland) dried and cracked in a way that replicates practically all the planform features found along the Mid-Oceanic Ridge (see Figure 1). The left-lateral offset of saw marks, contrasting with the right-lateral ``rift'' offset, even illustrates the distinction between transcurrent (strike-slip) and transform faults, the latter only recognized as a geologic feature, by J. Tuzo Wilson, in 1965. However, wood cracking is but one of many examples of natural processes that replicate one or several elements of lithospheric plate tectonics. Many of these examples occur in everyday venues and thus make great teaching aids, ``teachable'' from primary school to university levels. Plate tectonics, the dominant process of Earth geology, also occurs in miniature on the surface of some lava lakes, and as ``ice plate tectonics'' on our frozen seas and lakes. Ice tectonics also happens at larger spatial and temporal scales on the Jovian moons Europa and perhaps Ganymede. Tabletop plate tectonics, in which a molten-paraffin ``asthenosphere'' is surfaced by a skin of congealing wax ``plates,'' first replicated Mid-Oceanic Ridge type seafloor spreading more than three decades ago. A seismologist (J. Brune, personal communication, 2004) discovered wax plate tectonics by casually and serendipitously pulling a stick across a container of molten wax his wife and daughters had used in making candles. Brune and his student D. Oldenburg followed up and mirabile dictu published the results in Science (178, 301-304).

Vogt, Peter R.

2004-09-01

348

Water treeing in polyethylene cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water tree growth in polyethylene cable insulation is discussed. The characteristics of water trees, the effect of aging parameters on water tree growth, and the possible mechanisms of growth are considered, emphasizing vented tree development in polyethylene insulating materials. The morphology of water trees, the characteristics of the tree-infested dielectric cable, and test methods and measures to reduce water treeing

E. F. Steennis; F. H. Kreuger

1990-01-01

349

COMPONENT User's Guide Random trees  

E-print Network

COMPONENT User's Guide Chapter 6 Random trees COMPONENT can generate a variety of trees at "random," and for small numbers of leaves it can generate all possible trees. These trees have several uses: n as user trees for phylogeny programs that lack the facility to examine all trees or sets of random trees (e

Page, Roderic

350

From Gene Trees to Species Trees II: Species Tree Inference by Minimizing Deep  

E-print Network

From Gene Trees to Species Trees II: Species Tree Inference by Minimizing Deep Coalescence Events Louxin Zhang Abstract--When gene copies are sampled from various species, the resulting gene tree might disagree with the containing species tree. The primary causes of gene tree and species tree discord include

Zhang, Louxin

351

TreeTFDB: An Integrative Database of the Transcription Factors from Six Economically Important Tree Crops for Functional Predictions and Comparative and Functional Genomics  

PubMed Central

Crop plants, whose productivity is affected by a wide range of growing and environmental conditions, are grown for economic purposes. Transcription factors (TFs) play central role in regulation of many biological processes, including plant development and responses to environmental stimuli, by activating or repressing spatiotemporal gene expression. Here, we describe the TreeTFDB (http://treetfdb.bmep.riken.jp/index.pl) that houses the TF repertoires of six economically important tree crop species: Jatropha curcas, papaya, cassava, poplar, castor bean and grapevine. Among these, the TF repertoire of J. curcas has not been reported by any other TF databases. In addition to their basic information, such as sequence and domain features, domain alignments, gene ontology assignment and sequence comparison, information on available full-length cDNAs, identity and positions of all types of known cis-motifs found in the promoter regions, gene expression data are provided. With its newly designed and friendly interface and its unique features, TreeTFDB will enable research community to predict the functions and provide access to available genetic resources for performing comparative and functional genomics of the crop TFs, either individually or at whole family level, in a comprehensive and convenient manner. PMID:23284086

Mochida, Keiichi; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

2013-01-01

352

Ficus carica leaf extract modulates the lipid profile of rats fed with a high-fat diet through an increase of HDL-C.  

PubMed

Ficus carica has been traditionally used for the treatment of several metabolic syndrome-related health problems. It was the objective of this study to investigate the preventive effects of a Ficus carica (FC) leaf extract on hyperlipidemia in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese male rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (180-200 g) were fed with a regular diet, HFD or a HFD?+?oral treatment of either 50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg of FC or 30 mg/kg pioglitazone for six weeks. A range of parameters was evaluated including body weight development, plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), adiponectin, leptin, glucose, insulin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), atherogenic index (AI) and the coronary risk index (CRI). FC significantly lowered TG and IL-6 levels and elevated HDL cholesterol (p?

Joerin, Lorenz; Kauschka, Michaela; Bonnländer, Bernd; Pischel, Ivo; Benedek, Birgit; Butterweck, Veronika

2014-02-01

353

Estimation of cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant effects of the leaf extracts of Anatolian Ficus carica var. domestica and their total phenol and flavonoid contents.  

PubMed

Ficus carica var. domestica Tsch. & Rav. (common fig) is widely grown in Turkey and exported for its edible fruits. In this study, the n-hexane, chloroform, acetone, methanol, n-butanol, and water extracts of the leaves of F. carica var. domestica were screened for their cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Cholinesterase inhibition against acetyl- (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) was measured by the spectrophotometric method of Ellman at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 microg/mL., while antioxidant activity was tested using three in vitro methods; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, metal-chelation capacity, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. Our results revealed that the n-hexane and acetone extracts exerted a notable inhibition against both AChE (62.9 +/- 0.9% and 50.8 +/- 2.1%, respectively) and BChE (76.9 +/- 2.2% and 45.6 +/- 1.3%, respectively). However, they had low activity in the antioxidant tests. The chloroform extract was found to be the richest in total flavonoid content (252.5 +/- 1.1 mg/g quercetin equivalent), while the n-butanol extract had the highest total phenol amount (85.9 +/- 3.2 mg/g extract gallic acid equivalent). PMID:21485278

Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Ustün, Osman; Sener, Bilge

2011-03-01

354

Effectiveness of Hydrothermal-Calcium Chloride Treatment and Chitosan on Quality Retention and Microbial Growth during Storage of Fresh-Cut Papaya.  

PubMed

Rapid degradation of fresh-cut papaya limits its marketability. Hydrothermal treatments in combination with a calcium dip, applied to whole fruit before slicing, and also the application of chitosan as a coating film, have been found to have very good results in maintaining the quality of fresh-cut fruits. Based on these considerations, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrothermal treatment (HT; 49 °C, 25 min) containing calcium chloride (Ca; 1%, w/v) followed by dipping in chitosan (Chit; 1%, w/v, 3 min) on the physical, chemical, and microbial qualities of papaya slices stored at 5 °C for 10 d. Pulp color, firmness, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, ?-carotene, and lycopene were evaluated every 2 d while the microbial quality (mesophilics, psychrophilics, molds, and yeasts) was evaluated every 5 d. Fruit treated with HT-Ca and HT-Ca + Chit showed better color and firmness retention than Control and Chit. Papaya slices treated with HT-Ca + Chit had higher nutritional content and lower microbial growth at the end of storage. The application of the HT-Ca + Chit could be used to reduce deterioration processes, maintaining physical, chemical, and microbial qualities and increasing the shelf life of fresh-cut papaya stored at 5 °C. PMID:25627320

Ayón-Reyna, Lidia E; Tamayo-Limón, Ransés; Cárdenas-Torres, Feliznando; López-López, Martha E; López-Angulo, Gabriela; López-Moreno, Héctor S; López-Cervántes, Jaime; López-Valenzuela, José A; Vega-García, Misael O

2015-03-01

355

Effect of UV-C irradiation and low temperature storage on bioactive compounds, antioxidant enzymes and radical scavenging activity of papaya fruit.  

PubMed

Mature green 'Maradol' papaya fruits were exposed to ultraviolet (UV)-C irradiation (1.48 kJ·m(-2)) and stored at 5 or 14 °C. Changes in total phenols, total flavonoids, enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD), as well as the scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals were investigated in peel and flesh tissues at 0, 5, 10 and 15 days of storage. UV-C irradiation increased significantly (P < 0.05) the flavonoid content (2.5 and 26 %) and ABTS radical scavenging activity (5.7 and 6 %) in flesh and peel at 14 °C respectively; and CAT activity (16.7 %) in flesh at 5 °C. Flavonoid contents, CAT and SOD activities were positively affected under low storage temperature (5 °C). DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities increased in both control and UV-C treated papaya peel during storage at 5 °C. UV-C irradiation effect on radical scavenging of papaya peel could be attributed to increased flavonoid content. Papaya antioxidant system was activated by UV-C and cold storage by increasing phenolic content and antioxidant enzymatic activities as a defense response against oxidative-stress. PMID:25477649

Rivera-Pastrana, Dulce M; Gardea, Alfonso A; Yahia, Elhadi M; Martínez-Téllez, Miguel A; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

2014-12-01

356

Tree Decline Shade trees often gradually lose  

E-print Network

observed in the aboveground parts of the plant usually begin in the root system. Stress Factors Trees conditions, and other environmental effects. These are often called "stress factors" and alone or collectively reduce growth and may cause dieback of the tree. The root system is espe- cially vulnerable

357

Tree Classification Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper introduces the IND Tree Package to prospective users. IND does supervised learning using classification trees. This learning task is a basic tool used in the development of diagnosis, monitoring and expert systems. The IND Tree Package was developed as part of a NASA project to semi-automate the development of data analysis and modelling algorithms using artificial intelligence techniques. The IND Tree Package integrates features from CART and C4 with newer Bayesian and minimum encoding methods for growing classification trees and graphs. The IND Tree Package also provides an experimental control suite on top. The newer features give improved probability estimates often required in diagnostic and screening tasks. The package comes with a manual, Unix 'man' entries, and a guide to tree methods and research. The IND Tree Package is implemented in C under Unix and was beta-tested at university and commercial research laboratories in the United States.

Buntine, Wray

1993-01-01

358

Minimal locked trees  

E-print Network

Locked tree linkages have been known to exist in the plane since 1998, but it is still open whether they have a polynomial-time characterization. This paper examines the properties needed for planar trees to lock, with a ...

Ballinger, Brad

359

Graph homomorphisms between trees  

E-print Network

In this paper we study several problems concerning the number of homomorphisms of trees. We begin with an algorithm for the number of homomorphisms from a tree to any graph. By using this algorithm and some transformations ...

Csikvari, Peter

360

Pine tree forest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The pine tree demonstrates the differences among gymnosperms and bryophytes and seedless vascular plants. Pine trees have separate cones with pollen and ovulates. Wind blows the pollen onto the ovulate cone and seeds are produced.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-13

361

Grizzly Giant Tree  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This giant sequoia is named the Grizzly Giant, the oldest sequoia tree in the Mariposa Grove of Big Trees, located within Yosemite National Park. It is believed to be between 1,900 and 2,400 years old. ...

362

Tree SelectionTree Selection Why is selection important?  

E-print Network

Tree SelectionTree Selection #12; Why is selection important? What happens when we think it's not important? Not all trees grow alike Incompatible situation Average life span of city tree is 7-13 years end up with a tree in the wrong location. #12;Tree Selection Style I Let's Try Another Selection

363

Minimum Spanning Tree What is a Minimum Spanning Tree.  

E-print Network

Minimum Spanning Tree · What is a Minimum Spanning Tree. · Constructing Minimum Spanning Trees. · What is a Minimum-Cost Spanning Tree. · Applications of Minimum Cost Spanning Trees. · Prim's Algorithm;What is a Minimum Spanning Tree. · Let G = (V, E) be a simple, connected, undirected graph

Razak, Saquib

364

Balancing Minimum Spanning Trees and Shortest-Path Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a simple algorithm to find a spanning tree that simultaneously approximates a shortest-path tree and a minimum spanning tree. The algorithm provides a continuous tradeoff: given the two trees and a 7 > 0, the algorithm returns a spanning tree in which the distance between any vertex and the root of the shortest-path tree is at most 1

Samir Khuller; Balaji Raghavachari; Neal E. Young

1995-01-01

365

Binary Search Trees Page 1 Binary Search Trees  

E-print Network

Binary Search Trees Page 1 Chapter 4 Trees Binary Search Trees · Definition o All keys are distinct subtree is greater than the root. o Left and right subtrees are binary search trees. · Figure 1 is an example: Figure 1 Binary Search Tree · Where would you add X, B, and E? · At seats, build tree from

Allan, Vicki H.

366

8-ary tree. Overview of B-Trees  

E-print Network

Page Page Figure A.1 8-ary tree. APPENDIX A Overview of B-Trees Tree-based searching methods large, we find that often the tree is too large to fit in memory at once. Therefore, the tree is stored. In such an environment, the branches in the tree contain disk addresses, and it is not uncommon for a comparison

Yorke, James

367

Build a Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on pages 13-18) has learners build a model tree and then figure out how to make their tree stand up by itself. This illustrates how the tall rain forest trees adapt to support a huge trunk and heavy branches, while also sending their roots out instead of down. Trees built in this activity can be used for the Rain Forest in Your Room activity that is also part of the Wonderwise Rain Forest Ecologist Activity Book.

University of Nebraska State Museum

2001-01-01

368

Kids for Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides references for students about the importance of trees to people and the environment. It discusses the interactions between trees and other organisms, how trees provide for their food and water needs, and how people use and work with trees. A teacher's guide provides background information, project and activity ideas, evaluation questions, and extensions that correspond with each student reference page. Links to related resources are included.

369

Symbolic Tree Transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic transducers are useful in the context of web security as they form the foundation for sanitization of potentially malicious data. We define Symbolic Tree Transducers as a generalization of Regular Transducers as finite state input-output tree automata with logical constraints over a parametric background theory. We examine key closure properties of Symbolic Tree Transducers and we develop a composition

Margus Veanes; Nikolaj Bjorner

2011-01-01

370

Overprvning Large Decision Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents empirical evidence for five hypotheses about learning from large noisy domains: that trees built from very large training sets are larger and more accurate than trees built from even large subsets; that this increased accuracy is only in part due to the extra size of the trees; and that the extra training instances allow both better choices

Jason Catlett

1991-01-01

371

Marrying Words and Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, data that has both linear and hierarchical structure, such as annotated linguistic data, is modeled us- ing ordered trees and queried using tree automata. In this paper, we argue that nested words and automata over nested words oer a better way to capture and process the dual structure. Nested words generalize both words and ordered trees, and allow both

Rajeev Alur

2007-01-01

372

Multiclass Alternating Decision Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alternating decision tree (ADTree) is a successful clas- sication technique that combines decision trees with the predictive ac- curacy of boosting into a set of interpretable classication rules. The original formulation of the tree induction algorithm restricted atten- tion to binary classication problems. This paper empirically evaluates several wrapper methods for extending the algorithm to the multiclass case by

Geoffrey Holmes; Bernhard Pfahringer; Richard Kirkby; Eibe Frank; Mark Hall

2002-01-01

373

Representing Trees with Constraints   

E-print Network

This paper presents a method for representing trees using constraint logic programming over finite domains. We describe a class of trees that is of particular interest to us and how we can represent the set of trees belonging to that class using...

Curry, Benjamin; Wiggins, Geraint; Hayes, Gillian

374

Winter Birch Trees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…

Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy

2011-01-01

375

Boosting Decision Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new boosting algorithm of Freund and Schapire is used to improve the performance of decision trees which are constructed usin: the information ratio criterion of Quinlan's C4.5 algorithm. This boosting algorithm iteratively constructs a series of decision tress, each decision tree being trained and pruned on examples that have been filtered by previously trained trees. Examples that have been

Harris Drucker; Corinna Cortes

1995-01-01

376

Fault Tree Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, a state-of-the-art review of fault tree analysis is presented. Different forms of fault trees, including\\u000a static, dynamic, and non-coherent fault trees, their applications and analyses will be discussed. Some advanced topics such\\u000a as importance analysis, dependent failures, disjoint events, and multistate systems will also be presented.

Liudong Xing; Suprasad V. Amari

377

Sharing A Labeled Tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a way to share a labeled tree. For sharing a labeled tree, the Prufer code or a Prufer-like code of the tree is evaluated. Then, the terms of this code are modified by a function introduced to make shares, so that every term of the code can be deter- mined if and only if all the shares

Yasser A. Phoulady; Mahdi Behzadi; Hassan Taheri

378

Acacia Tree Ants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is the symbiotic relationship between the acacia ant and the swollen thorn acacia tree, shown in a 2:18 minute video. The ant provides protection for the tree against preying insects and other plants competing for sunlight, and the tree provides nourishment and shelter for the ant and the ants' larvae.

379

Minnesota's Forest Trees. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin describes 46 of the more common trees found in Minnesota's forests and windbreaks. The bulletin contains two tree keys, a summer key and a winter key, to help the reader identify these trees. Besides the two keys, the bulletin includes an introduction, instructions for key use, illustrations of leaf characteristics and twig…

Miles, William R.; Fuller, Bruce L.

380

RECURSIVE TREES Michael Drmota  

E-print Network

copies of ancient texts · convex hull algorithms · ... #12;Enumeration of Recursive Trees All recursiveRECURSIVE TREES Michael Drmota Institue of Discrete Mathematics and Geometry Vienna University School on GROWTH AND SHAPES, Paris, IHP, June 2­6, 2008 #12;Contents · Combinatorics on Recursive Trees

Drmota, Michael

381

Structural Equation Model Trees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree

Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

2013-01-01

382

The Wish Tree Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the author's experience in implementing a Wish Tree project in her school in an effort to bring the school community together with a positive art-making experience during a potentially stressful time. The concept of a wish tree is simple: plant a tree; provide tags and pencils for writing wishes; and encourage everyone to…

Brooks, Sarah DeWitt

2010-01-01

383

Growth of a Pine Tree  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

Rollinson, Susan Wells

2012-01-01

384

Distributed Contour Trees  

SciTech Connect

Topological techniques provide robust tools for data analysis. They are used, for example, for feature extraction, for data de-noising, and for comparison of data sets. This chapter concerns contour trees, a topological descriptor that records the connectivity of the isosurfaces of scalar functions. These trees are fundamental to analysis and visualization of physical phenomena modeled by real-valued measurements. We study the parallel analysis of contour trees. After describing a particular representation of a contour tree, called local{global representation, we illustrate how di#11;erent problems that rely on contour trees can be solved in parallel with minimal communication.

Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther H.

2014-03-31

385

Refining discordant gene trees  

PubMed Central

Background Evolutionary studies are complicated by discordance between gene trees and the species tree in which they evolved. Dealing with discordant trees often relies on comparison costs between gene and species trees, including the well-established Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs. While these costs have provided credible results for binary rooted gene trees, corresponding cost definitions for non-binary unrooted gene trees, which are frequently occurring in practice, are challenged by biological realism. Result We propose a natural extension of the well-established costs for comparing unrooted and non-binary gene trees with rooted binary species trees using a binary refinement model. For the duplication cost we describe an efficient algorithm that is based on a linear time reduction and also computes an optimal rooted binary refinement of the given gene tree. Finally, we show that similar reductions lead to solutions for computing the deep coalescence and the Robinson-Foulds costs. Conclusion Our binary refinement of Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs for unrooted and non-binary gene trees together with the linear time reductions provided here for computing these costs significantly extends the range of trees that can be incorporated into approaches dealing with discordance. PMID:25434729

2014-01-01

386

Hexane-Soluble Fraction of the Common Fig, Ficus carica, Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation in Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages and RAW 264.7 Cells  

PubMed Central

Osteoclasts, derived from multipotent myeloid progenitor cells, play homeostatic roles in skeletal modeling and remodeling, but may also destroy bone in pathological conditions such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoclast development depends critically on a differentiation factor, the receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL). In this study, we found that the hexane soluble fraction of the common fig Ficus carica (HF6-FC) is a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis in RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). HF6-FC exerts its inhibitory effects by suppression of p38 and NF-?B but activation of ERK. In addition, HF6-FC significantly decreased the expression of NFATc1 and c-Fos, the master regulator of osteoclast differentiation. The data indicate that components of HF6-FC may have therapeutic effects on bone-destructive processes such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontal bone resorption. PMID:20054486

Park, Young Ran; Eun, Jae Soon; Choi, Hwa Jung; Nepal, Manoj; Kim, Dae Keun; Seo, Seung-Yong; Li, Rihua; Moon, Woo Sung; Cho, Nam-Pyo; Cho, Sung-Dae; Bae, Tae Sung; Kim, Byung Il

2009-01-01

387

Balancing Minimum Spanning Trees and ShortestPath Trees  

E-print Network

Balancing Minimum Spanning Trees and Shortest­Path Trees Samir Khuller \\Lambda University and a minimum spanning tree. The algorithm provides a continuous trade­off: given the two trees and a fl ? 0 is at most 1 + p 2=fl times the weight of a minimum spanning tree. Our algorithm runs in linear time

Khuller, Samir

388

SIMPLY GENERATED TREES, CONDITIONED GALTONWATSON TREES, RANDOM ALLOCATIONS  

E-print Network

SIMPLY GENERATED TREES, CONDITIONED GALTON­WATSON TREES, RANDOM ALLOCATIONS AND CONDENSATION: EXTENDED ABSTRACT SVANTE JANSON 1. Simply generated trees and Galton­Watson trees We suppose that we nodes v in T, where d+(v) is the outdegree of v. Trees with such weights are called simply generated

Janson, Svante

389

SIMPLY GENERATED TREES, CONDITIONED GALTON--WATSON TREES, RANDOM ALLOCATIONS  

E-print Network

SIMPLY GENERATED TREES, CONDITIONED GALTON--WATSON TREES, RANDOM ALLOCATIONS AND CONDENSATION: EXTENDED ABSTRACT SVANTE JANSON 1. Simply generated trees and Galton--Watson trees We suppose that we of a finite rooted and ordered (a.k.a. plane) tree T by w(T ) := # v#T w d + (v) , (1.1) taking the product

Janson, Svante

390

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes  

E-print Network

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Color-shifted complexes Weighted spanning tree enumerators of color-shifted complexes Ghodratollah Aalipour1,2 Art Duval1 1University Ghodratollah Aalipour, Art Duval Spanning tree enumerators of color-shifted complexes #12;Spanning trees

Duval, Art

391

From gene trees to species trees through a supertree approach  

E-print Network

From gene trees to species trees through a supertree approach Celine Scornavacca1,2, , Vincent Abstract. Gene trees are leaf-labeled trees inferred from molecular se- quences. Due to duplication events arising in genome evolution, gene trees usually have multiple copies of some labels, i.e. species

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

392

From Gene Trees to Species Trees through a Supertree Approach  

E-print Network

From Gene Trees to Species Trees through a Supertree Approach Celine Scornavacca1,2, , Vincent Abstract. Gene trees are leaf-labeled trees inferred from molecular se- quences. Due to duplication events arising in genome evolution, gene trees usually have multiple copies of some labels, i.e. species

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

393

Discordance of species trees with their most likely gene trees  

E-print Network

Discordance of species trees with their most likely gene trees James H. Degnan & Noah A. Rosenberg sort during speciation, gene trees may differ in topology from each other and from species trees find that for any species tree topology with five or more species, there exist branch lengths for which

Degnan, James

394

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes  

E-print Network

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Complete colorful complexes Weighted spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful complexes Ghodratollah Aalipour1,2 Art Duval1 1 Aalipour, Art Duval Spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful complexes #12;Spanning trees of graphs

Duval, Art

395

Condensation in nongeneric trees  

E-print Network

We study nongeneric planar trees and prove the existence of a Gibbs measure on infinite trees obtained as a weak limit of the finite volume measures. It is shown that in the infinite volume limit there arises exactly one vertex of infinite degree and the rest of the tree is distributed like a subcritical Galton-Watson tree with mean offspring probability $mtrees in the thermodynamic limit and show it goes like $(1-m)N$ where $N$ is the size of the tree. These trees have infinite spectral dimension with probability one but the spectral dimension calculated from the ensemble average of the generating function for return probabilities is given by $2\\beta -2$ if the weight $w_n$ of a vertex of degree $n$ is asymptotic to $n^{-\\beta}$.

Thordur Jonsson; Sigurdur Orn Stefansson

2011-01-04

396

Friends of Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in Portland, Oregon, the Friends of Trees organization is dedicated to restoring urban forests around the country, with a particular emphasis on the Portland metropolitan area. As their Web site notes, "Trees are an essential part of the urban ecosystem. They help keep our water and air clean, prevent erosion, provide wildlife habitat, and make neighborhoods greener, more beautiful places to live." On the site, visitors can read about their ongoing planting activities and browse the newsletter they publish three times a year. For most visitors, the most helpful area of the site will be the Tree Resources section. Here, users can look through a fact sheet on the benefits of trees in urban environments, the care and maintenance of trees, and a large tree database.

397

In Focus: The Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In Focus: The Tree, is a Getty Museum exhibition of 41 images inspired by trees. On the exhibition's website visitors can see five images of trees, from Myoung Ho Lee, William Henry Fox Talbot, Darius Kinsey, Rhea Garen, and Simryn Gill, most accompanied by audio of curators or the artists discussing their work. Curator Fran�§oise Reynaud explains how early photographer Talbot may have created his 1842 salt print showing a bare oak tree in winter; living artist Rheas Garen discusses her picture "Treehouse", which shows a backyard where a tree dwarfs the house, taken with a large format camera in 1993. The associated book, The Tree in Photographs, compiled by Reynaud, includes eighty-one images selected from the Museum's permanent collection.

398

The effects of Ficus carica polysaccharide on immune response and expression of some immune-related genes in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effect of Ficus carica polysaccharide (FCP), isolated from the fruit of F. carica L., at 0%, 0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% doses supplementation with feed on genes Interleukin 1-? (IL-1?), Tumor Necrosis Factor ? (TNF-?) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene expression in blood, humoral innate immune parameters and resistant to Flavobacterium columnare of grass carp at weeks 1, 2 and 3. The results revealed that administration of FCP significantly (P<0.05) up regulated IL-1? and TNF-? gene expression. HSP70 gene expression was significantly (P<0.05) lower in FCP-fed fish at the end of trial. The serum total protein, albumin and globulin did not significantly increased in any diet on the first week whereas it was significantly enhanced in 0.5% and 1.0% supplementation diets on weeks 2 and 3 when compared to control. The serum complement C3 was significantly (P<0.05) increased on weeks 1 and 2 when compared to control, however, no significant difference was found in this activity after 3 weeks of treatment. All diets significantly enhanced the serum lysozyme activity, bactericidal activity from weeks 1-2 as compared to control. Grass carp fed with FCP showed remarkably higher resistance against F. columnare (60% survival) compared to the control group (30% survival). These results confirm that FCP can up regulate immune related genes expression, stimulates immune response that per se enhances disease resistance in grass carp. PMID:25449378

Yang, Xia; Guo, Jian Lin; Ye, Jin Yun; Zhang, Yi Xiang; Wang, Wei

2015-01-01

399

Early diagnosis of a Mexican variant of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV-Mx) by RT-PCR.  

PubMed

Papaya meleira disease was identified in Brazil in the 1980s. The disease is caused by a double-stranded RNA virus known as Papaya meleira virus (PMeV), which has also been recently reported in Mexico. However, previously reported PMeV primers failed to diagnose the Mexican form of the disease. A genomic approach was used to identify sequences of the Mexican virus isolate, referred here to as PMeV-Mx, to develop a diagnostic method. A mini cDNA library was generated using total RNA from the latex of fruits; this RNA was also sequenced using the Illumina platform. Sequences corresponding to the previously reported 669-base pair sequence for PMeV from Brazil (PMeV-Br) were identified within the PMeV-Mx genome, exhibiting 79-92% identity with PMeV-Br. In addition, a new sequence of 1154-base pairs encoding a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase was identified in PMeV-Mx. Primers designed against this sequence detected both virus isolates, 2 amplicons of 173 and 491 base pairs from PMeV-Br and PMeV-Mx, and shared 100 and 98% identity, respectively. PMeV-Mx was found in the latex of fruits, in seedlings, and in the leaves, flowers, petioles, and seeds of mature plants. PMeV-Mx was more abundant in the latex of fruits than in the leaves. The limit of detection of the CB38/CB39 primer pair was 1 fg and 1 pg using total RNA extracted from the latex of fruits and from seedlings, respectively. A sensitive and early diagnosis protocol was developed; this method will enable the certification of seeds and seedlings prior to transplantation to the field. PMID:25730054

Zamudio-Moreno, E; Ramirez-Prado, J H; Moreno-Valenzuela, O A; Lopez-Ochoa, L A

2015-01-01

400

Bronchi, Bronchial Tree, & Lungs  

MedlinePLUS

... Larynx & Trachea Bronchi, Bronchial Tree, & Lungs Review Quiz Digestive System General Structure Regions of the Digestive System Mouth Pharynx & Esophagus Stomach Small & Large Intestine Accessory ...

401

Recursively Imputed Survival Trees  

PubMed Central

We propose recursively imputed survival tree (RIST) regression for right-censored data. This new nonparametric regression procedure uses a novel recursive imputation approach combined with extremely randomized trees that allows significantly better use of censored data than previous tree based methods, yielding improved model fit and reduced prediction error. The proposed method can also be viewed as a type of Monte Carlo EM algorithm which generates extra diversity in the tree-based fitting process. Simulation studies and data analyses demonstrate the superior performance of RIST compared to previous methods. PMID:23125470

Zhu, Ruoqing; Kosorok, Michael R.

2011-01-01

402

Species integrity in trees.  

PubMed

From California sequoia, to Australian eucalyptus, to the outstanding diversity of Amazonian forests, trees are fundamental to many processes in ecology and evolution. Trees define the communities that they inhabit, are host to a multiplicity of other organisms and can determine the ecological dynamics of other plants and animals. Trees are also at the heart of major patterns of biodiversity such as the latitudinal gradient of species diversity and thus are important systems for studying the origin of new plant species. Although the role of trees in community assembly and ecological succession is partially understood, the origin of tree diversity remains largely opaque. For instance, the relative importance of differing habitats and phenologies as barriers to hybridization between closely related species is still largely uncharacterized in trees. Consequently, we know very little about the origin of trees species and their integrity. Similarly, studies on the interplay between speciation and tree community assembly are in their infancy and so are studies on how processes like forest maturation modifies the context in which reproductive isolation evolves. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Lindtke et al. (2014) and Lagache et al. (2014) overcome some traditional difficulties in studying mating systems and sexual isolation in the iconic oaks and poplars, providing novel insights about the integrity of tree species and on how ecology leads to variation in selection on reproductive isolation over time and space. PMID:25155715

Ortiz-Barrientos, Daniel; Baack, Eric J

2014-09-01

403

COMPONENT User's Guide Working with trees  

E-print Network

COMPONENT User's Guide Chapter 2 Working with trees This chapter gives you information on basic tree operations. The topics covered include: n reading and writing files of trees n editing trees n displaying and printing trees n selecting subsets of trees n pruning trees n rooting trees n computing tree

Page, Roderic

404

MUNICIPAL TREE PROGRAMS IN PENNSYLVANIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal tree programs were assessed in Pennsylvania through mail surveys. Pennsylvania has ap- proximately 378 tree programs of which 57% are implemented thrqugh shade tree commissions. Only 28% of Pennsylvania's citiqs and boroughs have tree programs. A high level of tree health exists in only 27% of the cities with programs. Only 28% of the programs have streettree inventories. Numbers

Eric C. Reeder; Henry D. Gerhold

1988-01-01

405

National Register of Big Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most trees can outlive us. Even so, it's not unusual for trees to succumb to disease, insects, over development and drought. So it's especially meaningful when a tree reaches a good old age. Here you'll find out all about the oldest trees on earth, as well as have the opportunity to nominate a old tree you might know.

American Forests

406

COMPONENT User's Guide Comparing trees  

E-print Network

COMPONENT User's Guide Chapter 5 Comparing trees This chapter describes the tree comparison measures available in COMPONENT, and the various ways you can compare trees using the program. Among the possible uses of tree comparison measures are: n comparing trees for the same taxa computed from different

Page, Roderic

407

TreeCmp: Comparison of Trees in Polynomial Time  

PubMed Central

When a phylogenetic reconstruction does not result in one tree but in several, tree metrics permit finding out how far the reconstructed trees are from one another. They also permit to assess the accuracy of a reconstruction if a true tree is known. TreeCmp implements eight metrics that can be calculated in polynomial time for arbitrary (not only bifurcating) trees: four for unrooted (Matching Split metric, which we have recently proposed, Robinson-Foulds, Path Difference, Quartet) and four for rooted trees (Matching Cluster, Robinson-Foulds cluster, Nodal Splitted and Triple). TreeCmp is the first implementation of Matching Split/Cluster metrics and the first efficient and convenient implementation of Nodal Splitted. It allows to compare relatively large trees. We provide an example of the application of TreeCmp to compare the accuracy of ten approaches to phylogenetic reconstruction with trees up to 5000 external nodes, using a measure of accuracy based on normalized similarity between trees.

Bogdanowicz, Damian; Giaro, Krzysztof; Wróbel, Borys

2012-01-01

408

Balancing Minimum Spanning Trees and Shortest-Path Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a simple algorithm to find a spanning tree that simultaneously approxi- mates a shortest-path tree and a minimum spanning tree. The algorithm provides a continuous trade-off: given the two trees and a > 0, the algorithm returns a span- ning tree in which the distance between any vertex and the root of the shortest-path tree is at most

Samir Khuller; Penn State

1993-01-01

409

Identification of phenolic compounds from the fruits of the mountain papaya Vasconcellea pubescens A. DC. grown in Chile by liquid chromatography–UV detection–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quercetin glycosides rutin and manghaslin were isolated from the fruits of the mountain papaya Vasconcellea pubescens A. DC. grown in Chile by selective fractionation using the bleaching of the free radical scavenger 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as the guiding assay. The structures were characterized by spectroscopic methods. Furthermore, 19 phenolic compounds were identified for the first time in the edible fruits

Mario J. Simirgiotis; Peter D. S. Caligari; Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

2009-01-01

410

Tree height measurement protocol J Chave Page 1 Measuring tree height for tropical forest trees  

E-print Network

Tree height measurement protocol ­ J Chave Page 1 Measuring tree height for tropical forest trees Diversité Biologique Université Paul Sabatier 31000 Toulouse, France 1. Introduction Tree height is a fundamental geometrical variable for trees. Unfortunately, most measures are based on visual inspection

Chave, Jérôme

411

Apple Tree, NH Big Tree for May By Anne Krantz, NH Big Tree Team,  

E-print Network

Apple Tree, NH Big Tree for May By Anne Krantz, NH Big Tree Team, UNH Cooperative Extension The explosion of apple blossoms in May transforms the most gnarled old tree into a delicate cloud of beauty (1817-1862) in his essay "The Wild Apple Tree," described the blossoms perfectly: `The flowers

New Hampshire, University of

412

Rooting for Trees: Volunteers to Plant 20 Trees, Mark Tree Campus USA Honor  

E-print Network

Rooting for Trees: Volunteers to Plant 20 Trees, Mark Tree Campus USA Honor March 22, 2013 Event at The University of Texas at Austin will join the university urban forestry team in planting 20 large trees on the grounds of the Dell Pediatric Research Institute. Volunteers will also mulch more than 100 existing trees

Hofmann, Hans A.

413

THE POTENTIAL FOR INCREASING PHYTOALEXINS TO ENHANCE PLANT RESISTANCE TO OOMYCETE PATHOGENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytoalexins have been shown to be important natural components in plant defense against pathogens. Although the tropical fruit crop papaya (Carica papaya L.) produces several classes of phytoalexins that have been shown to have anti-microbial activity, it is nevertheless highly susceptible to fung...

414

Lipase-catalyzed alcoholysis of crambe oil and camelina oil for the preparation of long-chain esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crambe oil and camelina oil were transesterified with oleyl alcohol, the alcohols derived from crambe and camelina oils, n-octanol or isopropanol using Novozym 435 (immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica), Lipozyme IM (immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei), and papaya (Carica papaya) latex lipase as biocatalysts. The highest conversions to alkyl esters were obtained with Novozym 435 (up to 95%) in

Georg Steinke; Rita Kirchhoff; Kumar D. Mukherjee

2000-01-01

415

Genome size variation among sex types in dioecious and triecious Caricaceae species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Caricaceae is a small family consisting of 35 species of varying sexual systems and includes economically important fruit crop, Carica papaya, and other species of “highland papayas”. Flow cytometry was used to obtain genome sizes for 11 species in three genera of Caricaceae to determine if genome s...

416

Fragmentation of random trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study fragmentation of a random recursive tree into a forest by repeated removal of nodes. The initial tree consists of N nodes and it is generated by sequential addition of nodes with each new node attaching to a randomly-selected existing node. As nodes are removed from the tree, one at a time, the tree dissolves into an ensemble of separate trees, namely, a forest. We study statistical properties of trees and nodes in this heterogeneous forest, and find that the fraction of remaining nodes m characterizes the system in the limit N\\to ? . We obtain analytically the size density {{? }s} of trees of size s. The size density has power-law tail {{? }s}˜ {{s}-? } with exponent ? =1+\\frac{1}{m}. Therefore, the tail becomes steeper as further nodes are removed, and the fragmentation process is unusual in that exponent ? increases continuously with time. We also extend our analysis to the case where nodes are added as well as removed, and obtain the asymptotic size density for growing trees.

Kalay, Z.; Ben-Naim, E.

2015-01-01

417

The Flame Tree  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lewis's own experiences living in Indonesia are fertile ground for telling "a ripping good story," one found in "The Flame Tree." He hopes people will enjoy the tale and appreciate the differences of an unfamiliar culture. The excerpt from "The Flame Tree" will reel readers in quickly.

Lewis, Richard

2004-01-01

418

TRANSPLANTING SHADE TREES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS RESOURCE MATERIAL FOR USE IN HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND ADULT FARMER CLASSES WAS DESIGNED BY SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS. THE OBJECTIVE IS TO HELP SOLVE PROBLEMS IN TRANSPLANTING SHADE TREES. THE MAJOR SECTION TITLES ARE STATED AS PROBLEMS -- (1) HOW SHOULD I PREPARE A TREE FOR MOVING,…

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

419

Oriented trees in digraphs  

E-print Network

Let f(k) be the smallest integer such that every f(k)-chromatic digraph contains every oriented tree of order k. Burr proved that f(k) ? (k?1) 2 and conjectured f(k) = 2n?2. In this paper, we give some sufficient conditions for an n-chromatic digraphs to contains some oriented tree. In particular

Louigi Addario-berry; Frédéric Havet; Cláudia Linhares Sales; Bruce Reed; Stéphan Thomassé

2011-01-01

420

Leonardo's Tree Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity focuses on Leonardo da Vinci's tree theory, which states that the cross-sectional area of a major limb is approximately equal to the cross-sectional areas of its two offshoot limbs. Students test this theory by collecting data from 10 trees and perform the mathematical calculations. In addition to data collection skills, this exercise strengthens problem solving skills.

Suzanne K. Werner

2003-03-01

421

Survival of Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video a scientist explains how DNA extracted from ancient tree remains provides insights about how trees/plants have adapted, over time, to changes in CO2 in the atmosphere. Her lab research investigates changes in plant genotypes under experimental conditions that simulate potential changes in CO2 levels in the future.

National Science Foundation

422

Biodiversity and Evolutionary Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity, learners analyze seashells to explore phylogeny and evolution. Learners identify similar and dissimilar seashells to create a phylogenetic tree. The Teacher Guide includes pre-activity video clip suggestions and a pre-activity sorting exercise. The Teacher Guide also includes instructions on how learners can draw a phylogenetic tree instead of using the online interactive.

2013-09-14

423

Trees From Helicopters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This story is aimed at promoting not only inquiry into the germination of tree seeds but seeing trees as typical flowering plants, also known as angiosperms. There is also ample opportunity to take an excursion into fruits and seeds and the germination of

Richard Konicek-Moran

2008-04-01

424

Probabilistic Timed Behavior Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Behavior Tree notation has been developed as a method for systematically and traceably capturing user requirements. In this paper we extend the notation with probabilistic behaviour, so that relia- bility, performance, and other dependability properties can be expressed. The semantics of probabilistic timed Behavior Trees is given by mapping them to probabilistic timed automata. We gain advantages for require-

Robert Colvin; Lars Grunske; Kirsten Winter

2007-01-01

425

CSI for Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The circles and patterns in a tree's stem tell a story, but that story can be a mystery. Interpreting the story of tree rings provides a way to heighten the natural curiosity of students and help them gain insight into the interaction of elements in the e

Darrin L. Rubino

2009-10-01

426

Trees in Our Lives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides: (1) background information on how trees have influenced human history and how trees affect people today; (2) four activities dealing with these topics; and (3) a ready-to-copy page related to paper and plastics. Activities include an objective, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. (JN)

NatureScope, 1986

1986-01-01

427

CSI for Trees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The circles and patterns in a tree's stem tell a story, but that story can be a mystery. Interpreting the story of tree rings provides a way to heighten the natural curiosity of students and help them gain insight into the interaction of elements in the environment. It also represents a wonderful opportunity to incorporate the nature of science.…

Rubino, Darrin L.; Hanson, Deborah

2009-01-01

428

Trees From Helicopters, Continued  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maples are very interesting trees with lots of variation in form. They provide us with a view of diversity in plants as well as a chance to look at natural phenomena that is very common to anyone who has had a maple tree near them. The main purpose is to

Richard Konicek-Moran

2009-04-01

429

Tree Diagrams and Probability  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to develop students' ability to create tree diagrams and figure probabilities of events based on those diagrams. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to tree diagrams as well as suggested ways to work them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one.

2011-01-20

430

Climate change & street trees project  

E-print Network

Climate change & street trees project Social Research Report The social and cultural values, and governance, of street trees Norman Dandy March 2010 #12;Contents Summary .................................................................................................4 1.1 What is a `street tree

431

Verticillium Wilt of Shade Trees  

E-print Network

Ginkgo Mountain ash Walnut Hackberry Mulberry Willow Hawthorn Oak Yew Hickory Pawpaw Zelkova Verticillium Sassafras Boxwood Horse chestnut Serviceberry Brambles Japanese pagoda tree Smoke tree Buckeye Lilac Sumac

432

Ash Tree Identification Key Ash Tree Characteristics  

E-print Network

berries Walnut, Hickory, Mountain-Ash: alternate branching #12;Identifying Emerald Ash Borer what to do if you think you have the ash-killing Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) in your ash tree Verify the signs of EAB: 1/8" "D" shaped "S" shaped tunnels small, 3/4" metallic green beetles 1/8 D shaped exit holes

Walter, M.Todd

433

Language trees not equal gene trees.  

PubMed

Darwin saw similarities between the evolution of species and the evolution of languages, and it is now widely accepted that similarities between related languages can often be interpreted in terms of a bifurcating descent history ('phylogenesis'). Such interpretations are supported when the distributions of shared and unshared traits (for example, in terms of etymological roots for elements of basic vocabulary) are analysed using tree-building techniques and found to be well-explained by a phylogenetic model. In this article, we question the demographic assumption which is sometimes made when a tree-building approach has been taken to a set of cultures or languages, namely that the resulting tree is also representative of a bifurcating population history. Using historical census data relating to Gaelic- and English-speaking inhabitants of Sutherland (Highland Scotland), we have explored the dynamics of language death due to language shift, representing the extreme case of lack of congruence between the genetic and the culture-historical processes. Such cases highlight the important role of selective cultural migration (or shifting between branches) in determining the extinction rates of different languages on such trees. PMID:20532998

Steele, James; Kandler, Anne

2010-09-01

434

LVIS Tree Height Cross Section (tree texture)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation starts with a false-color map of tree heights north of San Jose, Costa Rica, and changes to a close-up 3D cut-away of a section of the forest with simulated green canopy. Data from LVIS observations taken in March, 1998.

Randall Jones

1999-09-17

435

Week 10: Consensus trees, tree distances, tests of tree March, 2010  

E-print Network

­ p.11/40 #12;A consensus subtree F C A B G DFCA BDE F AB D E Week 10: Consensus trees, tree distances, tests of tree shape ­ p.12/40 #12;A consensus subtree F C A B G DFCA BDE F AB D E Week 10: Consensus trees, tree distances, tests of tree shape ­ p.13/40 #12;A consensus subtree F C A B G DFCA BDE F AB D E

Borenstein, Elhanan

436

binary-tree B-tree Hashing Space-Filling based location  

E-print Network

#12;#12;#12;binary-tree B-tree Hashing Space-Filling Quad-tree based location keys R -tree+ PLOP Hashing EXCELL R-tree Grid-files kd-tree kd-B-treeBD-tree 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 LSD-tree GBD-tree skd-tree Packed R-tree multi-level GF Cell-tree hB-tree R-files GGF mkd-tree 4d-tree 4d-tree

Ooi, Beng Chin

437

Lazy decision trees  

SciTech Connect

Lazy learning algorithms, exemplified by nearest-neighbor algorithms, do not induce a concise hypothesis from a given training set; the inductive process is delayed until a test instance is given. Algorithms for constructing decision trees, such as C4.5, ID3, and CART create a single {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} decision tree during the training phase, and this tree is then used to classify test instances. The tests at the nodes of the constructed tree are good on average, but there may be better tests for classifying a specific instance. We propose a lazy decision tree algorithm-LazyDT-that conceptually constructs the {open_quotes}best{close_quote} decision tree for each test instance. In practice, only a path needs to be constructed, and a caching scheme makes the algorithm fast. The algorithm is robust with respect to missing values without resorting to the complicated methods usually seen in induction of decision trees. Experiments on real and artificial problems are presented.

Friedman, J.H.; Yun, Yeogirl [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Kohavi, R. [Silicon Graphics, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

438

Global Trees Campaign  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Along with increasing concerns about the extinction of different animal species, there has been increased interest in monitoring the fate of plant species, particularly those of various trees. Drawing on a partnership between Flora & Fauna International and the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, the Global Trees Campaign Web site serves as an online conduit for information about endangered tree species. First-time visitors will want to read the various tree profiles along the right-hand side of the homepage. Some of the species covered here include the African blackwood, Honduras rosewood, and the monkey puzzle tree, which grows naturally in Chile and Argentina. The resources section of the site is also worth a look, as it contains a database with information on close to 7,300 tree species, and list of suggested readings -- including several that are available as PDF files. For those interested in the projects initiated by the Global Trees Campaign, a section detailing their various initiatives around the globe is also available for consultation.

439

Phylogenetic trees in bioinformatics  

SciTech Connect

Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding the best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.

Burr, Tom L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

440

44 TREE CARE INDUSTRY -MARCH 2002 Tree&Landscape  

E-print Network

44 TREE CARE INDUSTRY - MARCH 2002 Tree&Landscape 44 II nstallation of underground irrigation green in more ways than one. From keeping trees healthy to providing a viable source of income to their clients. Improved soil con- ditions for tree growth can be achieved using irrigation, and state

Schweik, Charles M.

441

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes  

E-print Network

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Critical group of graphs Critical group of simplicial complexes Spanning trees and the critical group of simplicial complexes Art Duval1 of Kansas Mathematics Seminar Reed College April 28, 2011 Duval, Klivans, Martin Spanning trees

Duval, Art

442

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes  

E-print Network

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Critical group of graphs Critical group of simplicial complexes Spanning trees and the critical group of simplicial complexes Art Duval1 of Kansas Discrete CATS seminar University of Kentucky March 30, 2011 Duval, Klivans, Martin Spanning trees

Duval, Art

443

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes  

E-print Network

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Critical group of graphs Critical group of simplicial complexes Spanning trees and the critical group of simplicial complexes Art Duval1 Mathematics Colloquium New Mexico State University October 20, 2011 Duval, Klivans, Martin Spanning trees

Duval, Art

444

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes  

E-print Network

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Complete colorful complexes Weighted spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful complexes Ghodratollah Aalipour1,2 Art Duval1 1 of Mississippi March 2, 2013 Ghodratollah Aalipour, Art Duval Spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful

Duval, Art

445

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes  

E-print Network

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Complete colorful complexes Weighted spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful complexes Ghodratollah Aalipour1,2 Art Duval1 1 April 21, 2013 Ghodratollah Aalipour, Art Duval Spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful complexes

Duval, Art

446

Discordance of Species Trees with Their Most Likely Gene Trees  

E-print Network

Discordance of Species Trees with Their Most Likely Gene Trees James H. Degnan1 , Noah A. Rosenberg way in which lineages sort during speciation, gene trees may differ in topology from each other and from species trees. Surprisingly, assuming that genetic lineages follow a coalescent model of within

Rosenberg, Noah

447

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes  

E-print Network

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Color-shifted complexes Weighted spanning tree enumerators of color-shifted complexes Ghodratollah Aalipour1,2 Art Duval1 1University in St. Louis October 20, 2013 Ghodratollah Aalipour, Art Duval Spanning tree enumerators of color

Duval, Art

448

Discordance of Species Trees with Their Most Likely Gene Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the stochastic way in which lineages sort during speciation, gene trees may differ in topology from each other and from species trees. Surprisingly, assuming that genetic lineages follow a coalescent model of within-species evolution, we find that for any species tree topology with five or more species, there exist branch lengths for which gene tree discordance is so

James H. Degnan; Noah A. Rosenberg

2006-01-01

449

Peach Tree Pruning.  

E-print Network

removes the terminal portion of shoots, stimulates regrowth near the cut and is the most invigorating type of cut. It induces branching at spe cific points such as establishing scaffolds in young trees. However, heading has the greatest effect... are small to reduce regrowth. Train scaffolds to a 45? angle in the early years to minimize the need for severe bench cuts later (figure 2). Pruning Newly Set Trees Prune newly planted trees immediately after plant ing. Use a heading cut 24 to 30...

Lyons, Calvin G.

1986-01-01

450

What Tree Is It?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online tree-identification tool was created by the Ohio Public Library Information Network (OPLIN) and the Ohio Historical Society (OHS). Users work their way through qualities of leaves and fruits, selecting images that more closely resemble their sample. Fact pages provide instruction on fruit and leaf structures and terminology, close-up photographs of seeds, fruits, bark, leaves, or other plant parts useful in identifying the tree, as well as a picture of the full tree and information about its habitat, history, and structure.

451

Evolutionary tree reconstruction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is described how Minimum Description Length (MDL) can be applied to the problem of DNA and protein evolutionary tree reconstruction. If there is a set of mutations that transform a common ancestor into a set of the known sequences, and this description is shorter than the information to encode the known sequences directly, then strong evidence for an evolutionary relationship has been found. A heuristic algorithm is described that searches for the simplest tree (smallest MDL) that finds close to optimal trees on the test data. Various ways of extending the MDL theory to more complex evolutionary relationships are discussed.

Cheeseman, Peter; Kanefsky, Bob

1990-01-01

452

Learning classification trees  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Algorithms for learning classification trees have had successes in artificial intelligence and statistics over many years. How a tree learning algorithm can be derived from Bayesian decision theory is outlined. This introduces Bayesian techniques for splitting, smoothing, and tree averaging. The splitting rule turns out to be similar to Quinlan's information gain splitting rule, while smoothing and averaging replace pruning. Comparative experiments with reimplementations of a minimum encoding approach, Quinlan's C4 and Breiman et al. Cart show the full Bayesian algorithm is consistently as good, or more accurate than these other approaches though at a computational price.

Buntine, Wray

1991-01-01

453

TreeBase  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

TreeBase (last mentioned in the October 30, 1998 Scout Report) is a database of phylogenetic information sponsored by Harvard University Herbaria, Leiden University EEW, and the University of California, Davis. The site stores phylogenetic trees and the data matrices used to generate them from published research papers and currently includes 1098 authors, 614 studies, 1704 trees, and 21456 taxa (roughly three times more data than the Scout Report first review in 1998). The searchable database takes a little time getting used to, but the resulting information is valuable.

454

Minimum spanning trees for tree metrics: abridgements and adjustments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two properties of tree metrics are already known in the literature: tree metrics on a setX withn elements have 2n?3 degrees of freedom; a tree metric has Robinson form with regard to its minimum spanning tree (MST), or to any such MST\\u000a if several of them exist. Starting from these results, we prove that a tree metrict is entirely defined

Bruno Leclerc

1995-01-01

455

Structural Equation Model Trees  

PubMed Central

In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree structures that separate a data set recursively into subsets with significantly different parameter estimates in a SEM. SEM Trees provide means for finding covariates and covariate interactions that predict differences in structural parameters in observed as well as in latent space and facilitate theory-guided exploration of empirical data. We describe the methodology, discuss theoretical and practical implications, and demonstrate applications to a factor model and a linear growth curve model. PMID:22984789

Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

2015-01-01

456

Construct a phylogenetic tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page will construct a phylogenetic tree of the creatures you select below. It will use the protein sequences of the protein cytochrome c from each of these organisms to construct the tree. Select the desired creatures from the lists below. To select more than one in the same list, hold down the apple key (on Macs); the control key (on PCs); on the Suns, you just click. If you want to clear your selections and start over, click the "Clear all selections" button. You must also choose one and only one outgroup organism so that your tree will have a root. This is especially important for the parsimony analysis. The outgroup organism should not be closely related to the other organisms. When you have made the selections you want, click the "calculate tree" button. Your request will then be processed. This may take a while, so please be patient.

Brian White

2012-06-28

457

Leonardo's Tree Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a series of activities exploring Leonardo da Vinci's tree theory that are designed to strengthen 8th grade students' data collection and problem solving skills in physical science classes. (KHR)

Werner, Suzanne K.

2003-01-01

458

Generalized constructive tree weights  

SciTech Connect

The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

Rivasseau, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.rivasseau@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org [LPT, CNRS UMR 8627, Univ. Paris 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Waterloo (Canada)] [LPT, CNRS UMR 8627, Univ. Paris 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Waterloo (Canada); Tanasa, Adrian, E-mail: vincent.rivasseau@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99, Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément LIPN, Institut Galilée, CNRS UMR 7030, F-93430 Villetaneuse, France and Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania)] [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99, Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément LIPN, Institut Galilée, CNRS UMR 7030, F-93430 Villetaneuse, France and Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

2014-04-15

459

Combining Binary Search Trees  

E-print Network

We present a general transformation for combining a constant number of binary search tree data structures (BSTs) into a single BST whose running time is within a constant factor of the minimum of any “well-behaved” bound ...

Demaine, Erik D.

460

Tree-bank grammars  

SciTech Connect

By a {open_quotes}tree-bank grammar{close_quotes} we mean a context-free grammar created by reading the production rules directly from hand-parsed sentences in a tree bank. Common wisdom has it that such grammars do not perform well, though we know of no published data on the issue. The primary purpose of this paper is to show that the common wisdom is wrong. In particular, we present results on a tree-bank grammar based on the Penn Wall Street Journal tree bank. To the best of our knowledge, this grammar outperforms all other non-word-based statistical parsers/grammars on this corpus. That is, it outperforms parsers that consider the input as a string of tags and ignore the actual words of the corpus.

Charniak, E. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)

1996-12-31

461

Generalized constructive tree weights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

Rivasseau, Vincent; Tanasa, Adrian

2014-04-01

462

Life of a Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from the National Arbor Day Foundation, take a sixty-two-year journey observing the inner layers, rings, and environmental factors that affect a tree's growth and life cycle.

2007-08-09

463

Tree of Hexagons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students use measuring skills and follow directions to make a three-dimensional ornament. Learners construct hexagons of graduated sizes from circles and assemble them into a tree. Complete instructions are provided.

2011-01-01

464

ENERGY SAVINGS WITH TREES1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In conventional buildings, trees increase, decrease, or have little effect on energy use depending on general climate, building type, tree species, and tree location. Tree arrangements that save energy provide shade primarily for east and west walls and roofs and wind protection from the direction of prevailing winter winds. Particularly for buildings specially designed to use solar energy and those

Gordon M. Heisler

1986-01-01

465

Planar Bichromatic Minimum Spanning Trees  

E-print Network

Planar Bichromatic Minimum Spanning Trees Magdalene G. Borgelt Marc van Kreveld Maarten L Bichromatic Minimum Spanning Trees Magdalene G. Borgelt1 Marc van Kreveld2 Maarten L¨offler2 Jun Luo2 Damian points in the plane, a planar bichromatic minimum spanning tree is the shortest possible spanning tree

Utrecht, Universiteit

466

The Minimum Labeling Spanning Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the fundamental problems in graph theory is to compute a minimum weight spanning tree. In this paper, a variant of spanning trees, called the minimum labeling spanning tree, is studied. The purpose is to find a spanning tree that tries to use edges that are as similar as possible. Giving each edge a label, the minimum labeling spanning

Ruay-Shiung Chang; Shing-jiuan Leu

1997-01-01

467

State Trees and Arbor Days.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information on state trees for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Includes for each state: (1) year in which state tree was chosen; (2) common and scientific names of the tree; (3) arbor day observance; (4) address of state forester; and (5) drawings of the tree, leaf, and fruit or cone. (JN)

Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

468

Quantum computation and decision trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many interesting computational problems can be reformulated in terms of decision trees. A natural classical algorithm is to then run a random walk on the tree, starting at the root, to see if the tree contains a node n level from the root. We devise a quantum-mechanical algorithm that evolves a state, initially localized at the root, through the tree.

Edward Farhi; Sam Gutmann

1998-01-01

469

COMPONENT User's Guide Consensus trees  

E-print Network

COMPONENT User's Guide Chapter 4 Consensus trees Consensus trees are a convenient way to summarise the agreement between two or more trees. This chapter describes the consensus methods available in COMPONENT subtree (Kubicka et al, 1992; also called the common pruned tree [Finden and Gordon, 1985]). This method

Page, Roderic

470

Carbon Sequestration in Campus Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use a spreadsheet to calculate the net carbon sequestration in a set of trees; they will utilize an allometric approach based upon parameters measured on the individual trees. They determine the species of trees in the set, measure trunk diameter at a particular height, and use the spreadsheet to calculate carbon content of the tree using forestry research data.

Robert S. Cole

471

A future with broadleaved trees  

E-print Network

A future with broadleaved trees A strategy for the Improvement of broadleaved trees in Britain and Ireland 2013-2025 Supported by #12;2 A future with broAdleAved trees Many people and organisations from and highlights areas where we believe further consideration is required. Future Trees Trust, Earth Trust

472

How Trees Can Save Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document might easily have been called "How To Use Trees To Save Energy". It presents the energy saving advantages of landscaping the home and community with trees. The discussion includes: (1) landscaping advice to obtain the benefits of tree shade; (2) the heat island phenomenon in cities; (3) how and where to properly plant trees for…

Fazio, James R., Ed.

1991-01-01

473

TREES of SCa Public Service of Clemson University S.C. Champion Tree Nomination Form  

E-print Network

CHAMPION TREES of SCa Public Service of Clemson University S.C. Champion Tree Nomination Form Today's date: ___________________________ Scientific tree name: ________________________________________________ Common tree name: _________________________________________________ Group

Duchowski, Andrew T.

474

Core Based Trees (CBT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the central problems in one-to-many wide-area communications is forming the delivery tree - the collection of nodes and links that a multicast packet traverses. Significant problems remain to be solved in the area of multicast tree formation, the problem of scaling being paramount among these.In this paper we show how the current IP multicast architecture scales poorly (by

Tony Ballardie; Paul Francis; Jon Crowcroft

1993-01-01

475

Oscillation damping in trees.  

PubMed

Oscillation damping is of vital importance for trees to withstand strong gusty winds. Tree adaptation to wind loading takes place over a long time and during a storm only passive damping mechanisms can reduce the impact of the wind on trunk and roots. Structural damping, a phenomenon, which is associated with the conspicuous movements of the branches relative to the trunk is of particular importance. Primary and higher order branches can be seen as multiple tuned mass dampers. Moreover, as the frequency bands overlap within branches and between primary branches and the entire tree, resonance energy transfer can distribute mechanical energy over the entire tree, such that it is dissipated more effectively than in a tree with stiff branches and not so much focused on the tree trunk and the roots. Theoretical studies using modal analysis and finite element methods have supported these assertions. Next to "multiple mass damping" and "multiple resonance damping", both characterized by linear coupling between the elements, a third non linear mode, operative at large amplitudes has been identified: "damping by branching". In all these not mutually exclusive concepts frequency tuning between the elements appears to be a fundamental requisite. PMID:23602100

Spatz, Hanns-Christof; Theckes, Benoit

2013-06-01

476

The Ubiquitous B-Tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

B-trees have become, de facto, a standard for file organization. File indexes of users, dedicated database systems, and general-purpose access methods have all been proposed and implemented using B-trees. This paper reviews B-trees and shows why they have been so successful. It discusses the major variations of the B-tree, especially the W-tree, contrasting the relative merits and costs of each

Douglas E. Comer

1979-01-01

477

Tree manipulation experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some forest operations such as thinning and harvesting management could cause changes in N cycling and N2O emission from soils, since thinning and harvesting managements are accompanied with changes in aboveground environments such as an increase of slash falling and solar radiation on the forest floor. However, a considerable uncertainty exists in effects of thinning and harvesting on N2O fluxes regarding changes in belowground environments by cutting trees. To focus on the effect of changes in belowground environments on the N2O emissions from soils, we conducted a tree manipulation experiment in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) stand without soil compaction and slash falling near the chambers and measured N2O flux at 50 cm and 150 cm distances from the tree trunk (stump) before and after cutting. We targeted 5 trees for the manipulation and established the measurement chambers to the 4 directions around each targeted tree relative to upper slope (upper, left, right, lower positions). We evaluated the effect of logging on the emission by using hierarchical Bayesian model. HB model can evaluate the variability in observed data and their uncertainties in the estimation with various probability distributions. Moreover, the HB model can easily accommodate the non-linear relationship among the N2O emissions and the environmental factors, and explicitly take non-independent data (nested structure of data) for the estimation into account by using random effects in the model. Our results showed tree cutting stimulated N2O emission from soils, and also that the increase of N2O flux depended on the distance from the trunk (stump): the increase of N2O flux at 50 cm from the trunk (stump) was greater than that of 150 cm from the trunk. The posterior simulation of the HB model indicated that the stimulation of N2O emission by tree cut- ting could reach up to 200 cm in our experimental plot. By tree cutting, the estimated N2O emission at 0-40 cm from the trunk doubled (the % increase of N2O emission; 54% to 213%; 95% C.I.) condition when soil temperature was 25oC and WFPS was 60%. The posterior simulation of the model estimated that 10% logging caused a 20% (15% to 24%; 95% CI) increase N2O emission in our study site (2000 trees ha-1) for the only tree cutting effects during the measurement period (about 160 day). On the basis of our findings, the belowground environmental changes by logging management would considerably contribute the stimulation of N2O emission.

Nishina, K.; Takenaka, C.; Ishizuka, S.; Hashimoto, S.; Yagai, Y.

2012-12-01

478

The Inference of Gene Trees with Species Trees  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the various models that have been used to describe the relationships between gene trees and species trees. Molecular phylogeny has focused mainly on improving models for the reconstruction of gene trees based on sequence alignments. Yet, most phylogeneticists seek to reveal the history of species. Although the histories of genes and species are tightly linked, they are seldom identical, because genes duplicate, are lost or horizontally transferred, and because alleles can coexist in populations for periods that may span several speciation events. Building models describing the relationship between gene and species trees can thus improve the reconstruction of gene trees when a species tree is known, and vice versa. Several approaches have been proposed to solve the problem in one direction or the other, but in general neither gene trees nor species trees are known. Only a few studies have attempted to jointly infer gene trees and species trees. These models account for gene duplication and loss, transfer or incomplete lineage sorting. Some of them consider several types of events together, but none exists currently that considers the full repertoire of processes that generate gene trees along the species tree. Simulations as well as empirical studies on genomic data show that combining gene tree–species tree models with models of sequence evolution improves gene tree reconstruction. In turn, these better gene trees provide a more reliable basis for studying genome evolution or reconstructing ancestral chromosomes and ancestral gene sequences. We predict that gene tree–species tree methods that can deal with genomic data sets will be instrumental to advancing our understanding of genomic evolution. PMID:25070970

Szöll?si, Gergely J.; Tannier, Eric; Daubin, Vincent; Boussau, Bastien

2015-01-01

479

The inference of gene trees with species trees.  

PubMed

This article reviews the various models that have been used to describe the relationships between gene trees and species trees. Molecular phylogeny has focused mainly on improving models for the reconstruction of gene trees based on sequence alignments. Yet, most phylogeneticists seek to reveal the history of species. Although the histories of genes and species are tightly linked, they are seldom identical, because genes duplicate, are lost or horizontally transferred, and because alleles can coexist in populations for periods that may span several speciation events. Building models describing the relationship between gene and species trees can thus improve the reconstruction of gene trees when a species tree is known, and vice versa. Several approaches have been proposed to solve the problem in one direction or the other, but in general neither gene trees nor species trees are known. Only a few studies have attempted to jointly infer gene trees and species trees. These models account for gene duplication and loss, transfer or incomplete lineage sorting. Some of them consider several types of events together, but none exists currently that considers the full repertoire of processes that generate gene trees along the species tree. Simulations as well as empirical studies on genomic data show that combining gene tree-species tree models with models of sequence evolution improves gene tree reconstruction. In turn, these better gene trees provide a more reliable basis for studying genome evolution or reconstructing ancestral chromosomes and ancestral gene sequences. We predict that gene tree-species tree methods that can deal with genomic data sets will be instrumental to advancing our understanding of genomic evolution. PMID:25070970

Szöll?si, Gergely J; Tannier, Eric; Daubin, Vincent; Boussau, Bastien

2015-01-01

480

Bioprocessing papaya processing waste for potential aquaculture feed supplement--economic and nutrient analysis with shrimp feeding trial.  

PubMed

Papaya processing waste (PPW), a major fruit processing waste in the Hawaii islands, served as substrate for yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) growth. The fermented PPW products containing nutrients of 45% crude protein and various fat, fiber, lignin, cellulose, and minerals were advantages to nutrients of yeast alone. Three experimental diets controlled at 35% protein formulation containing different levels of inclusion of PPW products and a commercial control diet were fed to shrimps for 8 weeks. The 50% inclusion of PPW diets were comparable to commercial feed in weight, growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and survival rate. Such bioprocess treatment system would be economically feasible with the control of annual cost and increase of the amount of PPW treated. The selling price of PPW products and annual operation and maintenance cost were the most influential factors to additional profits. This study presented a promising alternative for environmental-friendly treatment of organic wastes as well as the sustainability of local agriculture and aquaculture industries. PMID:20541398

Kang, H Y; Yang, P Y; Dominy, W G; Lee, C S

2010-10-01

481

Nearest tree Always go to the closest  

E-print Network

Nearest tree Always go to the closest tree Largest tree Always go to the tree with the most apples Optimal 1-step forager Maximize rate (= ratio of apples to travel time), but only consider one tree at a time # apples travel time Optimal 2-, 3-step forager Maximize rate over 2-tree (or 3-tree) paths

482

In this chapter we study infinite trees. The main things we look at are Konig's tree theorem, Aronszajn trees, and Suslin trees.  

E-print Network

14. Trees In this chapter we study infinite trees. The main things we look at are K¨onig's tree theorem, Aronszajn trees, and Suslin trees. A tree is a partially ordered set (T, t T, the set {s T : s tree

Monk, Don

483

In this chapter we study infinite trees. The main things we look at are Konig's tree theorem, Aronszajn trees, and Suslin trees.  

E-print Network

8. Trees In this chapter we study infinite trees. The main things we look at are K¨onig's tree theorem, Aronszajn trees, and Suslin trees. A tree is a partially ordered set (T, t T, the set {s T : s tree

Monk, Don

484

Tree Rings: Timekeepers of the Past.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of general interest publications on science issues, this booklet describes the uses of tree rings in historical and biological recordkeeping. Separate sections cover the following topics: dating of tree rings, dating with tree rings, tree ring formation, tree ring identification, sample collections, tree ring cross dating, tree

Phipps, R. L.; McGowan, J.

485

Peptidases from Latex of Carica candamarcensis Upregulate COX-2 and IL-1 mRNA Transcripts against Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium-Mediated Inflammation  

PubMed Central

The immunomodulatory properties of a mixture of cysteine peptidases (P1G10) obtained from the fruit lattice of Carica candamarcensis were investigated. P1G10 was obtained from fresh latex samples by chromatography in a Sephadex column and initially administered to Swiss mice (n = 5; 1 or 10?mg/kg) via i.p. After 30?min, the mice were injected with carrageenan (0.5?mg/mouse) or heat-killed S. Typhimurium (107?CFU/mL; 100°C/30?min) into the peritoneal cavity. Afterwards, two animal groups were i.p. administered with P1G10 (n = 6; 1, 5, or 10?mg/Kg) or PBS 24 hours prior to challenge with live S. Typhimurium (107?CFU/mL). P1G10 stimulated the proliferation of circulating neutrophils and lymphocytes, 6?h after injection of carrageenan or heat-killed bacteria, respectively. Furthermore, survival after infection was dose-dependent and reached 60% of the animal group. On the other hand, control mice died 1–3 days after infection. The examination of mRNA transcripts in liver cells 24?h after infection confirmed fold variation increases of 5.8 and 4.8 times on average for IL-1 and COX-2, respectively, in P1G10 pretreated mice but not for TNF-?, IL-10, ?-IFN and iNOS, for which the results were comparable to untreated animals. These data are discussed in light of previous reports. PMID:24757289

Ralph, Maria Taciana; Silva, Ayrles Fernanda Brandão; da Silva, Dayane Laíse; do Nascimento, Danielle Cristina Oliveira; da Silva, Diogo Manoel Farias; Gomes-Filho, Manoel A.; Souza, Paulo Roberto Eleutério; Evêncio-Neto, Joaquim; Ramos, Márcio Viana; Salas, Carlos Edmundo; Lima-Filho, José Vitor

2014-01-01

486

Deployment of response surface methodology to optimize recovery of dark fresh fig (Ficus carica L., var. Azenjar) total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

Optimum conditions for extracting total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant activity from fresh dark fig (Ficus carica L.) have been investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The Box-Behnken design was used to investigate the effects of three independent variables, acetone concentration (40-80%), temperature (25-65 °C), and time (60-120 min), on the response. Regression analysis showed that about 96% of the variation was explained by the models. P-value for the lack of fit was insignificant which confirmed the validity of models. Response surface analysis showed that the optimal extraction parameters that maximized antioxidants extraction were 63.48% acetone, 115.14 min, and 48.66 °C. Under optimum conditions the corresponding experimental values for TPC and antioxidant activity were 536.43 and 71.86 mg GAE/100 g DM. The experimental values are in accordance with those predicted, indicating the suitability of the model and the success of RSM in optimizing the extraction conditions. PMID:24874388

Bachir Bey, Mostapha; Meziant, Leila; Benchikh, Yassine; Louaileche, Hayette

2014-11-01

487

Plasma cholinesterase inhibition in the clay-colored robin (Turdus grayi) exposed to diazinon in maradol papaya crops in Yucatan, Mexico [Inhibicio??n de colinesterasa plasma??tica en el zorzal pardo (Turdus grayi), expuesto a diazino??n en cultivos de papaya maradol en Yucata??n, Me??xico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The use of organophosphorous pesticides in agriculture can result in intoxication of birds foraging in sprayed crops. Effects on birds resulting from pesticide intoxication are varied and include behavioral and reproductive effects, including death. One widely used insecticide in Maradol papaya crops is diazinon which has been associated with various incidents of intoxication and death of wild birds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of diazinon application to papaya crops on plasma cholinesterase activity of the clay-colored robin (Turdus grayi). We captured clay-colored robins foraging in a papaya crop the following day after the field had been sprayed with diazinon at a dose of 1.5 kg/ha during March and May, respectively. We took a blood sample from the brachialis vein of the birds captured and measured plasma enzymatic activity. The plasma samples from birds used as controls were taken during the same time period and were analyzed in a similar way. Enzymatic activity of males was greater than that of females (53,52%) and mean cholinesterase inhibition was 49.43%. Cholinesterase inhibition was greater during May than in March probably due to more continuous exposure and ingestion of the insecticide through food and possible absorption through the skin. This degree of enzymatic inhibition is possibly affecting the behavior of the clay-colored robin and could result in death in severe cases.

Cobos, V.M.; Mora, M.A.; Escalona, G.

2006-01-01

488

Trees: Recorders of Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners are introduced to tree rings by examining a cross section of a tree, also known as a “tree cookie.” They discover how tree age can be determined by studying the rings and how ring thickness