These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus)  

PubMed Central

Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3× draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree1 to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far2–5, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica's distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties. PMID:18432245

Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H.; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V.; Lewis, Kanako L. T.; Salzberg, Steven L.; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R.; Skelton, Rachel L.; Murray, Jan E.; Chen, Cuixia; Qian, Wubin; Shen, Junguo; Du, Peng; Eustice, Moriah; Tong, Eric; Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Paull, Robert E.; Michael, Todd P.; Wall, Kerr; Rice, Danny W.; Albert, Henrik; Wang, Ming-Li; Zhu, Yun J.; Schatz, Michael; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Acob, Ricelle A.; Guan, Peizhu; Blas, Andrea; Wai, Ching Man; Ackerman, Christine M.; Ren, Yan; Liu, Chao; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Shakirov, Eugene V.; Haas, Brian; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Nelson, David; Wang, Xiyin; Bowers, John E.; Gschwend, Andrea R.; Delcher, Arthur L.; Singh, Ratnesh; Suzuki, Jon Y.; Tripathi, Savarni; Neupane, Kabi; Wei, Hairong; Irikura, Beth; Paidi, Maya; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Wenli; Presting, Gernot; Windsor, Aaron; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Torres, Manuel J.; Feltus, F. Alex; Porter, Brad; Li, Yingjun; Burroughs, A. Max; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Liu, Lei; Christopher, David A.; Mount, Stephen M.; Moore, Paul H.; Sugimura, Tak; Jiang, Jiming; Schuler, Mary A.; Friedman, Vikki; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Shippen, Dorothy E.; dePamphilis, Claude W.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.; Freeling, Michael; Paterson, Andrew H.; Gonsalves, Dennis; Wang, Lei; Alam, Maqsudul

2010-01-01

2

PAPAYA (CARICA PAPAYA L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transgenic papaya plants were initially obtained using particle bombardment, a method having a poor efficiency in producing intact, single copy insertion of transgenes. Subsequently, transformation has been improved using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. With rapid progress being made in genome sequencing...

3

The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3× draft genome sequence of `SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance

Ray Ming; Shaobin Hou; Yun Feng; Qingyi Yu; Alexandre Dionne-Laporte; Jimmy H. Saw; Pavel Senin; Wei Wang; Benjamin V. Ly; Kanako L. T. Lewis; Lu Feng; Meghan R. Jones; Rachel L. Skelton; Jan E. Murray; Cuixia Chen; Wubin Qian; Junguo Shen; Peng Du; Moriah Eustice; Eric Tong; Haibao Tang; Eric Lyons; Robert E. Paull; Todd P. Michael; Kerr Wall; Danny W. Rice; Henrik Albert; Ming-Li Wang; Yun J. Zhu; Michael Schatz; Niranjan Nagarajan; Ricelle A. Acob; Peizhu Guan; Andrea Blas; Ching Man Wai; Christine M. Ackerman; Yan Ren; Chao Liu; Jianmei Wang; Jianping Wang; Jong-Kuk Na; Eugene V. Shakirov; Brian Haas; Jyothi Thimmapuram; David Nelson; Xiyin Wang; John E. Bowers; Andrea R. Gschwend; Arthur L. Delcher; Ratnesh Singh; Jon Y. Suzuki; Savarni Tripathi; Kabi Neupane; Hairong Wei; Beth Irikura; Maya Paidi; Ning Jiang; Wenli Zhang; Gernot Presting; Aaron Windsor; Rafael Navajas-Pérez; Manuel J. Torres; F. Alex Feltus; Brad Porter; Yingjun Li; A. Max Burroughs; Ming-Cheng Luo; Lei Liu; David A. Christopher; Stephen M. Mount; Paul H. Moore; Tak Sugimura; Jiming Jiang; Mary A. Schuler; Vikki Friedman; Thomas Mitchell-Olds; Dorothy E. Shippen; Claude W. Depamphilis; Jeffrey D. Palmer; Michael Freeling; Andrew H. Paterson; Dennis Gonsalves; Lei Wang; Maqsudul Alam

2008-01-01

4

The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We report a draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree crop. The papaya genome has more than two times the DNA but about 28% fewer genes than the genome of the related botanical model Arabidopsis. A lack of genome duplication, atypical of angi...

5

Comparative seed ecophysiology of wild and cultivated Carica papaya trees from a tropical rain forest region in Mexico.  

PubMed

To ascertain the effects of centuries of cultivation practices on seed behavior and dormancy mechanisms, we compared seed size and germination characteristics of wild and cultivated (domesticated) populations of Carica papaya L. Germination experiments were carried out under various conditions of temperature, light, seed soaking and gibberellic acid treatments. Wild papaya seeds showed responses to treatment that are characteristic of seeds of many rain forest pioneer trees. Seeds were small and light sensitive, whereas cultivated papaya seeds were 33% larger and their light responses as well as other physiological traits indicated that cultivation had resulted in a lessening in the importance of specific environmental conditions for dormancy breaking and germination. PMID:12651383

Paz, Leoncio; Vázquez-Yanes, Carlos

1998-04-01

6

Genome sequence comparison reveals a candidate gene involved in male-hermaphrodite differentiation in papaya (Carica papaya) trees.  

PubMed

The sex type of papaya (Carica papaya) is determined by the pair of sex chromosomes (XX, female; XY, male; and XY(h), hermaphrodite), in which there is a non-recombining genomic region in the Y and Y(h) chromosomes. This region is presumed to be involved in determination of males and hermaphrodites; it is designated as the male-specific region in the Y chromosome (MSY) and the hermaphrodite-specific region in the Y(h) chromosome (HSY). Here, we identified the genes determining male and hermaphrodite sex types by comparing MSY and HSY genomic sequences. In the MSY and HSY genomic regions, we identified 14,528 nucleotide substitutions and 965 short indels with a large gap and two highly diverged regions. In the predicted genes expressed in flower buds, we found no nucleotide differences leading to amino acid changes between the MSY and HSY. However, we found an HSY-specific transposon insertion in a gene (SVP like) showing a similarity to the Short Vegetative Phase (SVP) gene. Study of SVP-like transcripts revealed that the MSY allele encoded an intact protein, while the HSY allele encoded a truncated protein. Our findings demonstrated that the SVP-like gene is a candidate gene for male-hermaphrodite determination in papaya. PMID:25416421

Ueno, Hiroki; Urasaki, Naoya; Natsume, Satoshi; Yoshida, Kentaro; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Terauchi, Ryohei; Matsumura, Hideo

2014-11-22

7

The Crop of the DayThe Crop of the Day Papaya (Papaya (Carica papayaCarica papaya))  

E-print Network

;2 Papaya, its uses Grown in tropics, Hawaii as food: fresh fruit vegetable: cooked fruit (in Peru, also fibreboard cartons lined with low density polyethylene film, storage period of mature fruits is 3 weeks at 10Carica papaya. papaya. EuphyticaEuphytica 153:215153:215220.220.53 553 5 Mark's Fruit Crops: Papaya: Mark

Gepts, Paul

8

Post-irradiation identification of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impact of radiation processing on the volatile essential oil profile of papaya ( Carica papaya) was investigated. Gamma-radiation processing resulted in the appearance of a new peak in the GLC profile that was identified as phenol. The observed dose dependent increase in phenol content suggested possible use of this compound as a marker for radiation processed papaya.

Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

2012-03-01

9

Molecular markers for sex determination in papaya ( Carica papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed molecular markers tightly linked to Sex1, the gene that determines plant sex in papaya (Carica papaya L.). Three RAPD products have been cloned and a portion of their DNA sequenced. Based on these sequences SCAR primers were synthesized. SCAR T12 and SCAR W11 produce products in hermaphrodite and male plants and only rarely in females. SCAR T1

J. C. Deputy; R. Ming; H. Ma; Z. Liu; M. M. M. Fitch; M. Wang; R. Manshardt; J. I. Stiles

2002-01-01

10

MAPPING PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS IN CARICA PAPAYA USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Different varieties of papaya (Carica papaya L.) vary in the phenotypic expression of agronomically important traits. Genetic loci responsible for these differences can be mapped using DNA markers to genotype a segregating progeny population derived from a controlled cross between parents having dif...

11

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF CARICA PAPAYA AS REVEALED BY AFLP MARKERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic relationships among Carica papaya cultivars, breeding lines, unimproved germplasm, and related species were established using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Seventy-one papaya accessions and related species were analyzed with nine EcoRI-MseI primer combinations. A t...

12

Carotenogenesis and physico-chemical characteristics during maturation of red fleshed papaya fruit ( Carica papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotenoid development of red fleshed papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.) was investigated in the course of a complete pre- and postharvest period using HPLC-DAD coupled to mass spectrometry. Esterified xanthophylls such as ?-cryptoxanthin laurate and caprate were the most abundant pigments during incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Subsequent fruit maturation led to a gradual accumulation of carotenoids, whereas particularly ?-cryptoxanthin laurate and

Ralf Martin Schweiggert; Christof Björn Steingass; Eric Mora; Patricia Esquivel; Reinhold Carle

2011-01-01

13

Plant regeneration from encapsulated somatic embryos of Carica papaya L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carica papaya L. (papaya) single somatic embryos (2.0 mm diameter) produced in a high-frequency liquid production system were encapsulated\\u000a in two different synthetic encapsulation compounds. The frequency of regeneration from encapsulated embryos was significantly\\u000a affected by (1) the concentration of sodium alginate, (2) the presence or absence of nutrient salts in the capsule, and (3)\\u000a the duration of exposure to

B. Castillo; M. A. L. Smith; U. L. Yadava

1998-01-01

14

Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya ( Carica papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC–MS revealed striking similarity\\u000a of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained\\u000a only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51%

Ralf M. Schweiggert; Christof B. Steingass; Annerose Heller; Patricia Esquivel; Reinhold Carle

15

A male and hermaphrodite specific RAPD marker for papaya ( Carica papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to determine the sex of a dioecious species, Carica papaya L., with three sex types, male, female and hermaphrodite. A 450 bp marker fragment, named PSDM(Papaya Sex Determination Marker),\\u000a exists in all male and hermaphrodite plants but not in the female plants so far analyzed. The DNA sequence of PSDM exhibited

N. Urasaki; M. Tokumoto; K. Tarora; Y. Ban; T. Kayano; H. Tanaka; H. Oku; I. Chinen; R. Terauchi

2002-01-01

16

Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.).  

PubMed

Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC-MS revealed striking similarity of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51% of total carotenoids). Comparison of the pigment-loaded chromoplast ultrastructures disclosed tubular plastids to be abundant in yellow papaya, whereas larger crystalloid substructures characterized most frequent red papaya chromoplasts. Exclusively existent in red papaya, such crystalloid structures were associated with lycopene accumulation. Non-globular carotenoid deposition was derived from simple solubility calculations based on carotenoid and lipid contents of the differently colored fruit pulps. Since the physical state of carotenoid deposition may be decisive regarding their bioavailability, chromoplasts from lycopene-rich tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were also assessed and compared to red papaya. Besides interesting analogies, various distinctions were ascertained resulting in the prediction of enhanced lycopene bioavailability from red papaya. In addition, the developmental pathway of red papaya chromoplasts was investigated during fruit ripening and carotenogenesis. In the early maturation stage of white-fleshed papaya, undifferentiated proplastids and globular plastids were predominant, corresponding to incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Since intermediate plastids, e.g., amyloplasts or chloroplasts, were absent, chromoplasts are likely to emerge directly from proplastids. PMID:21706336

Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B; Heller, Annerose; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

2011-11-01

17

Spiders associated with papaya, Carica papaya L., in Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The main objective of this work was to study the species composition and population dynamics of spiders associated with papaya plantings in three papaya production areas: Corozal, Isabela, and Lajas, Puerto Rico. Nineteen species representing seven families and 15 genera were identified. Members of ...

18

Erwinia mallotivora sp., a New Pathogen of Papaya (Carica papaya) in Peninsular Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414). Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch’s postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya. PMID:21339975

Amin, Noriha Mat; Bunawan, Hamidun; Redzuan, Rohaiza Ahmad; Jaganath, Indu Bala S.

2011-01-01

19

Quantification of the antiplasmodial alkaloid carpaine in papaya (Carica papaya) leaves.  

PubMed

Daily consumption of papaya (Carica papaya) leaves as greens and an herbal infusion is common in some parts of Indonesia as a means for preventing malaria. Antiplasmodial activity of the leaf extracts and of the main alkaloid carpaine were recently confirmed. A quantitative assay for determination of carpaine in papaya leaves was developed and validated. The assay involved pressurized liquid extraction and quantification with the aid of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Extraction conditions were optimized with respect to solvent, temperature, and number of extraction cycles. The ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy assay was validated over a range of 20-5000 ng/mL (R(2) of 0.9908). A total of 29 papaya leaf samples were analyzed, and carpaine concentration in dry leaves was found to range from 0.02 to 0.31%. No obvious dependence on geographic origin and leaf maturity was observed. PMID:25153096

Julianti, Tasqiah; Oufir, Mouhssin; Hamburger, Matthias

2014-08-01

20

ANALYSIS OF PAPAYA BAC END SEQUENCES REVEALS FIRST INSIGHTS INTO THE ORGANIZATION OF A FRUIT TREE GENOME  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a major tree fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions with an estimated genome size of 372 Mbp. We present the analysis of 4.7% of the papaya genome based on BAC end sequences (BESs) representing 17 million high quality bases. Microsatellites discovered in 5,452 BE...

21

ANALYSIS OF PAPAYA BAC END SEQUENCES REVEALS FIRST INSIGHTS INTO THE ORGANIZATION OF A TREE-FRUIT GENOME  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a major tree fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions with an estimated genome size of 372 Mbp. Here we present the sequence analysis of 4.7% of the papaya genome based on 50,661 BAC end sequences (BESs) representing 17,483,563 high quality bases generated from 26,...

22

Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas ( Carica papaya L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Papaya is cultivated in Espírito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature.

Camargo, R. J.; Tadini, C. C.; Sabato, S. F.

2007-11-01

23

Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract  

PubMed Central

Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1?mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

2014-01-01

24

ASCORBIC ACID, PROVITAMIN A, AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF BANANA (MUSA SP.) AND PAPAYA (CARICA PAPAYA) CULTIVARS GROWN IN HAWAII.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Banana (Musa sp.) and papaya (Carica papaya) cultivars were harvested from different locations throughout Hawaii and analyzed for vitamin C (ascorbic acid), provitamin A ( ß-carotene, alpha-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin), and mineral composition. Dwarf Brazilian ('apple') bananas had almost three times ...

25

Novel thigmomorphogenetic responses in Carica papaya: touch decreases anthocyanin levels and stimulates petiole cork outgrowths  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Because of its rapid growth rate, relative ease of transformation, sequenced genome and low gene number relative to Arabidopsis, the tropical fruit tree, Carica papaya, can serve as a complementary genetic model for complex traits. Here, new phenotypes and touch-regulated gene homologues have been identified that can be used to advance the understanding of thigmomorphogenesis, a multigenic response involving mechanoreception and morphological change. Methods Morphological alterations were quantified, and microscopy of tissue was conducted. Assays for hypocotyl anthocyanins, lignin and chlorophyll were performed, and predicted genes from C. papaya were compared with Arabidopsis touch-inducible (TCH) and Mechanosensitive channel of Small conductance-like genes (MscS-like or MSL). In addition, the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues was characterized. Key Results On the abaxial side of petioles, treated plants were found to have novel, hypertrophic outgrowths associated with periderm and suberin. Touched plants also had higher lignin, dramatically less hypocotyl anthocyanins and chlorophyll, increased hypocotyl diameter, and decreased leaf width, stem length and root fresh weight. Papaya was found to have fewer MSL genes than Arabidopsis, and four touch-regulated genes in Arabidopsis had no counterparts in papaya. Water-spray treatment was found to enhance the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues whereas induction following touch was only slightly correlated. Conclusions The novel petiole outgrowths caused by non-wounding, mechanical perturbation may be the result of hardening mechanisms, including added lignin, providing resistance against petiole movement. Inhibition of anthocyanin accumulation following touch, a new phenotypic association, may be caused by diversion of p-coumaroyl CoA away from chalcone synthase for lignin synthesis. The absence of MSL and touch-gene homologues indicates that papaya may have a smaller set of touch-regulated genes. The genes and novel touch-regulated phenotypes identified here will contribute to a more comprehensive view of thigmomorphogenesis in plants. PMID:19182220

Porter, Brad W.; Zhu, Yun J.; Webb, David T.; Christopher, David A.

2009-01-01

26

Reversible contraception with chloroform extract of Carica papaya linn. seeds in male rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contraceptive efficacy and reversibility of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in adult male rabbits were investigated. Eighteen adult male rabbits were divided into three groups of six animals each; Group I—control, Group II—administered chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya at 20 mg\\/animal\\/d for 150 d by gavage, and Group III—administered the seed extract

Nirmal K Lohiya; N Pathak; Pradyumna K Mishra; B Manivannan

1999-01-01

27

Influence of ripening stages on antioxidant properties of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv Eksotika) is one of the most commonly consumed tropical fruits by humans, especially Malaysians. The objective of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidants activity in different ripening stages of papaya fruit. The fruits were harvested at five different, stages RS1, RS2, RS3, RS4, and RS5 corresponding to 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 weeks after anthesis, respectively. Papayas fruit at five different stage of ripening were obtained from farms at Pusat Flora Cheras, JabatanPertanian and Hulu Langat Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia. The antioxidants activity were analyzed using the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The analyses were conducted in triplicate and the data were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS. The results showed significant differences (P< 0.05) were found at different stages of ripening. The total phenol content TPC, TFC, FRAP and DPPH values increased significantly (P<0.05) with the ripening process. The results showed the important role of the ripening stage in increasing the antioxidant content of papaya fruits.

Addai, Zuhair Radhi; Abdullah, Aminah; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.

2013-11-01

28

Habitat fragmentation threatens wild populations of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) in a lowland rainforest.  

PubMed

• Premise of the study: Wild populations of domesticated species constitute a genetic reservoir and are fundamental to the evolutionary potential of species. Wild papaya (Carica papaya) is a rare, short-lived, gap-colonizing, dioecious tree that persists in the forest by continuous dispersal. Theoretically, these life-history characteristics render wild papaya highly susceptible to habitat fragmentation, with anticipated negative effects on its gene pool. Further, species dioecy may cause founder effects to generate local biases in sex ratio, decreasing effective population size.• Methods: We contrasted the genetic diversity and structure of C. papaya between wild populations from rainforest fragments and continuous forest at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. We evaluated recent migration rates among populations as well as landscape resistance to gene flow. Finally, we calculated the sex ratio of the populations in both habitats.• Key results: Populations of wild papaya in rainforest fragments showed lower genetic diversity and higher population differentiation than populations in continuous rainforest. Estimates of recent migration rates showed a higher percentage of migrants moving from the continuous forest to the forest fragments than in the opposite direction. Agricultural land and cattle pasture were found to be the most resistant matrices to gene flow. Finally, biased sex ratios were seen to affect the effective population size in both habitats.• Conclusions: The mating system, rarity, and short life cycle of C. papaya are exacerbating the effects of rainforest fragmentation on its genetic diversity, threatening the persistence of its natural populations in the proposed place of origin as well as its genetic reservoir. PMID:25016010

Chávez-Pesqueira, Mariana; Suárez-Montes, Pilar; Castillo, Guillermo; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

2014-07-11

29

Cloning and expression analysis of phytoene desaturase and ?-carotene desaturase genes in Carica papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruit flesh color of papaya is an important nutritional quality trait and is due to the accumulation of carotenoid. To\\u000a elucidate the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in Carica papaya, the phytoene desaturase (PDS) and the ?-carotene desaturase (ZDS) genes were isolated from papaya (named CpPDS and CpZDS) using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approach, and their expression levels

P. Yan; X. Z. Gao; W. T. Shen; P. Zhou

2011-01-01

30

Purification and characterization of a papaya (Carica papaya L.) pectin methylesterase isolated from a commercial papain preparation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We purified a single stable pectin methylesterase (CpL-PME; EC 3.1.1.11) from a commercial papain preparation, which is isolated from Carica papaya (L.) fruit latex. This CpL-PME was separated from the abundant cysteine endopeptidases activities using sequential hydrophobic interaction and cation-ex...

31

Antiulcerogenic activity of Carica papaya seed in rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the gastroprotective and healing effects of the methanolic extract of the seed of the papaya Carica papaya L. (MECP) in rats. Models of acute gastric ulcer induction by ethanol and indomethacin and of chronic ulcer by acetic acid were used. The gastric juice and mucus parameters were evaluated using the pylorus ligation model, and the involvement of sulfhydryl compounds (GSH) and nitric oxide in the gastroprotective effect was analyzed using the ethanol model. The toxicity was assessed through toxicity tests. No signs of toxicity were observed when the rats received a single dose of 2000 mg/kg of extract. The MECP in doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the gastric lesion with 56, 76, and 82 % inhibition, respectively, and a dose of 30 mg/kg lansoprazole showed 79 % inhibition in the ethanol model. MECP (125, 250, 500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) reduced the gastric lesion in the indomethacin model, with 62, 67, 81, and 85 % inhibition, respectively. The MECP (500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) treatments showed a reduction in ulcerative symptoms induced by acetic acid by 84 and 73 %, respectively. The antiulcerogenic activity seems to involve GSH because the inhibition dropped from 72 to 13 % in the presence of a GSH inhibitor. Moreover, the MECP showed systemic action, increasing the mucus production and decreasing gastric acidity. Treatments with MECP induce gastroprotection without signs of toxicity. This effect seems to involve sulfhydryl compounds, increased mucus, and reduced gastric acidity. PMID:25418890

Pinto, Lorraine Aparecida; Cordeiro, Kátia Wolff; Carrasco, Viviane; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Cardoso, Cláudia Andréa Lima; Argadoña, Eliana Janet Sanjinez; Freitas, Karine de Cássia

2014-11-25

32

Fractionation and purification of the enzymes stored in the latex of Carica papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The latex of the tropical species Carica papaya is well known for being a rich source of the four cysteine endopeptidases papain, chymopapain, glycyl endopeptidase and caricain. Altogether, these enzymes are present in the laticifers at a concentration higher than 1 mM. The proteinases are synthesized as inactive precursors that convert into mature enzymes within 2 min after wounding the

Mohamed Azarkan; Anouar El Moussaoui; Delphine van Wuytswinkel; Géraldine Dehon; Yvan Looze

2003-01-01

33

Specificity of Carica papaya latex in lipase-catalyzed interesterification reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymatic interesterification of the chiral triacylglycerol, 1-butyroyl-2-stearoyl-3-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol (sn-BSP) with trimyristin indicated that the lipase present in Carica papaya latex exhibits an sn3 stereoselectivity. Other interesterification experiments with homogeneous triacylglycerols of varying chain length with tricaprylin showed that this enzyme also has a typoselectivity for short chain fatty acids.

P. Villeneuve; M. Pina; A. Skarbek; J. Graille; T. A. Foglia

1997-01-01

34

Antiplasmodial Properties and Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Carica papaya Leaves  

PubMed Central

We investigated the antiplasmodial properties of crude extracts from Carica papaya leaves to trace the activity through bioassay-guided fractionation. The greatest antiplasmodial activity was observed in the ethyl acetate crude extract. C. papaya showed a high selectivity for P. falciparum against CHO cells with a selectivity index of 249.25 and 185.37 in the chloroquine-sensitive D10 and chloroquine-resistant DD2 strains, respectively. Carica papaya ethyl acetate extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation to ascertain the most active fraction, which was purified and identified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry) methods. Linoleic and linolenic acids identified from the ethyl acetate fraction showed IC50 of 6.88??g/ml and 3.58??g/ml, respectively. The study demonstrated greater antiplasmodial activity of the crude ethyl acetate extract of Carica papaya leaves with an IC50 of 2.96 ± 0.14??g/ml when compared to the activity of the fractions and isolated compounds. PMID:22174990

Melariri, Paula; Campbell, William; Etusim, Paschal; Smith, Peter

2011-01-01

35

Comparison of the Carotenoids in Yellow-and Red-fleshed Carica papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE colour of ripe Carica papaya flesh is due to caro-tenoid. Cryptoxanthin, violaxanthin, beta-carotene, and zeta-carotene have been identified1,2 in yellow-fleshed fruit. Red-fleshed varieties, which appear to exhibit a single gene difference from yellow-fleshed types3, can also be found. It was of interest to establish the pigment composition of the red-fleshed variety and at the same time to make a

H. Y. Yamamoto

1964-01-01

36

Sorption of Hg(II) onto Carica papaya: Experimental studies and design of batch sorber  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel sorbent, Carica papaya, was evaluated for sorption of Hg(II) from aqueous solution under the varying conditions of contact time, metal ion concentration, sorbent dose and pH. The results indicate that sorption equilibrium was established in about 120min. The Hg(II) sorption was strictly pH dependent, and maximum removal was observed at pH 6.5. The sorption interaction of Hg(II) onto

Shaik Basha; Z. V. P. Murthy; B. Jha

2009-01-01

37

Carica papaya latex is a rich source of a class II chitinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

This enzyme, purified to homogeneity, was classified on the basis of its N-terminal amino acid sequence, activity and free thiol functions content. Some physico-chemical properties were also studied.A class II chitinase is present in the latex of the tropical species Carica papaya. The enzyme may be readily purified by using a combination of hydrophobic interaction- and cation-exchange chromatography. This enzyme

Mohamed Azarkan; Amina Amrani; Michelle Nijs; André Vandermeers; Samira Zerhouni; Nicole Smolders; Yvan Looze

1997-01-01

38

Antihypertensive effect of Carica papaya via a reduction in ACE activity and improved baroreflex.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to evaluate the antihypertensive effects of the standardised methanolic extract of Carica papaya, its angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effects in vivo, its effect on the baroreflex and serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity, and its chemical composition. The chemical composition of the methanolic extract of C. papaya was evaluated by liquid chromatography-mass/mass and mass/mass spectrometry. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effect was evaluated in vivo by Ang I administration. The antihypertensive assay was performed in spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar rats that were treated with enalapril (10 mg/kg), the methanolic extract of C. papaya (100 mg/kg; twice a day), or vehicle for 30 days. The baroreflex was evaluated through the use of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine. Angiotensin converting enzyme activity was measured by ELISA, and cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by morphometric analysis. The methanolic extract of C. papaya was standardised in ferulic acid (203.41 ± 0.02 µg/g), caffeic acid (172.60 ± 0.02 µg/g), gallic acid (145.70 ± 0.02 µg/g), and quercetin (47.11 ± 0.03 µg/g). The flavonoids quercetin, rutin, nicotiflorin, clitorin, and manghaslin were identified in a fraction of the extract. The methanolic extract of C. papaya elicited angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity. The antihypertensive effects elicited by the methanolic extract of C. papaya were similar to those of enalapril, and the baroreflex sensitivity was normalised in treated spontaneously hypertensive rats. Plasma angiotensin converting enzyme activity and cardiac hypertrophy were also reduced to levels comparable to the enalapril-treated group. These results may be associated with the chemical composition of the methanolic extract of C. papaya, and are the first step into the development of a new phytotherapic product which could be used in the treatment of hypertension. PMID:25295669

Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Ronchi, Silas Nascimento; do Nascimento, Andrews Marques; de Lima, Ewelyne Miranda; Romão, Wanderson; da Costa, Helber Barcellos; Scherer, Rodrigo; Ventura, José Aires; Lenz, Dominik; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza; Endringer, Denise Coutinho; de Andrade, Tadeu Uggere

2014-11-01

39

Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract  

PubMed Central

Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) following lead acetate administration and pre-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) followed by lead acetate administration. The substances were administered for 14 days. The effects were evaluated by measuring protein carbonyl content (PCC) and glutathione content (GC) in the bone marrow. Histological changes in the bone marrow were also observed. The results showed that Carica papaya induced a significant reduction in the PCC activity and significantly increased the GC in the bone marrow. Carica papaya also improved the histology of the bone marrow compared with that of the lead acetate-treated group. In summary, Carica papaya was effective against the oxidative damage caused by lead acetate in the bone marrow and had a stimulatory effect on haemopoiesis. PMID:23403524

THAM, CHING S.; CHAKRAVARTHI, SRIKUMAR; HALEAGRAHARA, NAGARAJA; DE ALWIS, RANJIT

2013-01-01

40

Correlation between ethylene emission and skin colour changes during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The skin colour changes and ethylene emission rates were monitored during papaya (C. papaya L.) fruit ripening. Two groups of papaya (‘Formosa’ and ‘Solo’) were applied in this study. The total colour difference was used as measured parameter and the corresponding half time of its saturation was used as correlation parameter. A high correlation factor between the saturation half time and corresponding climacteric peak time was found. It was concluded that high ethylene emission rate in ‘Solo’ fruit promotes a quick change of the total colour difference.

da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Vitoria, A. P.; Corrêa, S. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Campostrini, E.; Santos, E. O.; Cavalli, A.; Vargas, H.

2005-06-01

41

Production of fatty acid butyl esters using the low cost naturally immobilized Carica papaya lipase.  

PubMed

In this work, the low cost naturally immobilized Carica papaya lipase (CPL) was investigated for production of fatty acid butyl esters (FABE) to fulfill the aim of reducing the lipase cost in the enzymatic butyl-biodiesel process. The CPL showed specificities to different alcohol acyl acceptors. Alcohols with more than three carbon atoms did not have negative effects on the CPL activity. The CPL catalyzed butanolysis for FABE production was systematically investigated. The reaction solvent, alcohol/oil molar ratio, enzyme amount, reaction temperature, and water activity all affected the butanolysis process. Under the optimized conditions, the highest conversion of 96% could be attained in 24 h. These optimal conditions were further applied to CPL catalyzed butanolysis of other vegetable oils. All of them showed very high conversion. The CPL packed-bed reactor was further developed, and could be operated continuously for more than 150 h. All of these results showed that the low cost Carica papaya lipase can be used as a promising lipase for biodiesel production. PMID:24954104

Su, Erzheng; Wei, Dongzhi

2014-07-01

42

Development of a Gene-Centered SSR Atlas as a Resource for Papaya (Carica papaya) Marker-Assisted Selection and Population Genetic Studies  

PubMed Central

Carica papaya (papaya) is an economically important tropical fruit. Molecular marker-assisted selection is an inexpensive and reliable tool that has been widely used to improve fruit quality traits and resistance against diseases. In the present study we report the development and validation of an atlas of papaya simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We integrated gene predictions and functional annotations to provide a gene-centered perspective for marker-assisted selection studies. Our atlas comprises 160,318 SSRs, from which 21,231 were located in genic regions (i.e. inside exons, exon-intron junctions or introns). A total of 116,453 (72.6%) of all identified repeats were successfully mapped to one of the nine papaya linkage groups. Primer pairs were designed for markers from 9,594 genes (34.5% of the papaya gene complement). Using papaya-tomato orthology assessments, we assembled a list of 300 genes (comprising 785 SSRs) potentially involved in fruit ripening. We validated our atlas by screening 73 SSR markers (including 25 fruit ripening genes), achieving 100% amplification rate and uncovering 26% polymorphism rate between the parental genotypes (Sekati and JS12). The SSR atlas presented here is the first comprehensive gene-centered collection of annotated and genome positioned papaya SSRs. These features combined with thousands of high-quality primer pairs make the atlas an important resource for the papaya research community. PMID:25393538

Vidal, Newton Medeiros; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Ramos, Helaine Christine Cancela; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Venancio, Thiago Motta

2014-01-01

43

Carica papaya MicroRNAs Are Responsive to Papaya meleira virus Infection  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs are implicated in the response to biotic stresses. Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of sticky disease, a commercially important pathology in papaya for which there are currently no resistant varieties. PMeV has a number of unusual features, such as residence in the laticifers of infected plants, and the response of the papaya to PMeV infection is not well understood. The protein levels of 20S proteasome subunits increase during PMeV infection, suggesting that proteolysis could be an important aspect of the plant defense response mechanism. To date, 10,598 plant microRNAs have been identified in the Plant miRNAs Database, but only two, miR162 and miR403, are from papaya. In this study, known plant microRNA sequences were used to search for potential microRNAs in the papaya genome. A total of 462 microRNAs, representing 72 microRNA families, were identified. The expression of 11 microRNAs, whose targets are involved in 20S and 26S proteasomal degradation and in other stress response pathways, was compared by real-time PCR in healthy and infected papaya leaf tissue. We found that the expression of miRNAs involved in proteasomal degradation increased in response to very low levels of PMeV titre and decreased as the viral titre increased. In contrast, miRNAs implicated in the plant response to biotic stress decreased their expression at very low level of PMeV and increased at high PMeV levels. Corroborating with this results, analysed target genes for this miRNAs had their expression modulated in a dependent manner. This study represents a comprehensive identification of conserved miRNAs inpapaya. The data presented here might help to complement the available molecular and genomic tools for the study of papaya. The differential expression of some miRNAs and identifying their target genes will be helpful for understanding the regulation and interaction of PMeV and papaya. PMID:25072834

Abreu, Paolla M. V.; Gaspar, Clicia G.; Buss, David S.; Ventura, José A.; Ferreira, Paulo C. G.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

2014-01-01

44

Reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage by Carica papaya leaf extract  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the in vitro antioxidant potential of Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract and its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage assessed by haemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Methods Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, hydrogen ion scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and the ferrous ion reducing ability were assessed as antioxidant indices. In the other experiment, human erythrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide to induce erythrocyte damage. The extract (at various concentrations) was subsequently incubated with the erythrocytes and later analysed for haemolysis and lipid peroxidation as indices for erythrocyte damage. Results Preliminary investigation of the extract showed that the leaf possessed significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities using in vitro models in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). The extract also reduced hydrogen peroxide induced erythrocyte haemolysis and lipid peroxidation significantly when compared with ascorbic acid (P<0.05). The IC50 values were 7.33 mg/mL and 1.58 mg/mL for inhibition of haemolysis and lipid peroxidation, respectively. In all cases, ascorbic acid (the reference antioxidant) possessed higher activity than the extract. Conclusions The findings show that C. papaya leaves possess significant bioactive potential which is attributed to the phytochemicals which act in synergy. Thus, the leaves can be exploited for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes. PMID:23569948

Okoko, Tebekeme; Ere, Diepreye

2012-01-01

45

Minimal processing of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) and the physiology of halved fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stage of papaya fruit ripening suitable for minimal processing and the effect of processing on physiology were determined. Wounding during slicing and deseeding led to an increase in ethylene production and respiration, earlier skin degreening and flesh softening. Fruit at the 10–50% skin yellow ripening stage showed higher wound-induced ethylene production and respiration when sliced and deseeded than riper

Robert E Paull; Wenjun Chen

1997-01-01

46

Sex and ploidy of anther culture derived papaya ( Carica papaya L.) plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  To improve the efficiency of papaya anther culture, we investigated (1) hormonal medium conditions for inducing haploids or dihaploids; (2) identified the sex of established plantlets using a sex-specific DNA molecular marker and (3) estimated their ploidy by flow cytometry analysis of DNA content. Anthers with a mixture of uninucleate, mitotic, and binucleate microspores were collected from a male plant,

Fredah K. Rimberia; Shinichi Adaniya; Takeomi Etoh; Yukio Ishimine

2006-01-01

47

Cysteine proteinases from papaya (Carica papaya) in the treatment of experimental Trichuris suis infection in pigs: two randomized controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Background Cysteine proteinases (CPs) from papaya (Carica papaya) possess anthelmintic properties against human soil-transmitted helminths (STH, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm), but there is a lack of supportive and up-to-date efficacy data. We therefore conducted two randomized controlled trials in pigs to assess the efficacy of papaya CPs against experimental infections with T. suis. Methods First, we assessed efficacy by means of egg (ERR) and adult worm reduction rate (WRR) of a single-oral dose of 450 ?mol active CPs (CP450) against low (inoculum of 300 eggs) and high (inoculum of 3,000 eggs) intensity T. suis infections and compared the efficacy with those obtained after a single-oral dose of 400 mg albendazole (ALB). In the second trial, we determined and compared the efficacy of a series of CP doses (45 [CP45], 115 [CP115], 225 [CP225], and 450 [CP450] ?mol) against high intensity infections. Results CP450 was highly efficacious against both levels of infection intensity, resulting in ERR and WRR of more than 97%. For both levels of infection intensity, CP450 was significantly more efficacious compared to ALB by means of WRR (low infection intensity: 99.0% vs. 39.0%; high infection intensity; 97.4% vs. 23.2%). When the efficacy was assessed by ERR, a significant difference was only observed for high intensity infections, CP450 being more efficacious than ALB (98.9% vs. 59.0%). For low infection intensities, there was no significant difference in ERR between CP450 (98.3%) and ALB (64.4%). The efficacy of CPs increased as a function of increasing dose. When determined by ERR, the efficacy ranged from 2.1% for CP45 to 99.2% for CP450. For WRR the results varied from -14.0% to 99.0%, respectively. Pairwise comparison revealed a significant difference in ERR and WRR only between CP45 and CP450, the latter being more efficacious. Conclusions A single dose of 450 ?mol CPs provided greater efficacy against T. suis infections in pigs than a single-oral dose of 400 mg ALB. Although these results highlight the possibility of papaya CPs for controlling human STH, further development is needed in order to obtain and validate an oral formulation for human application. PMID:24886388

2014-01-01

48

Comparative proteomic analysis of somatic embryo maturation in Carica papaya L.  

PubMed Central

Background Somatic embryogenesis is a complex process regulated by numerous factors. The identification of proteins that are differentially expressed during plant development could result in the development of molecular markers of plant metabolism and provide information contributing to the monitoring and understanding of different biological responses. In addition, the identification of molecular markers could lead to the optimization of protocols allowing the use of biotechnology for papaya propagation and reproduction. This work aimed to investigate the effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on somatic embryo development and the protein expression profile during somatic embryo maturation in papaya (Carica papaya L.). Results The maturation treatment supplemented with 6% PEG (PEG6) resulted in the greatest number of somatic embryos and induced differential protein expression compared with cultures grown under the control treatment. Among 135 spots selected for MS/MS analysis, 76 spots were successfully identified, 38 of which were common to both treatments, while 14 spots were unique to the control treatment, and 24 spots were unique to the PEG6 treatment. The identified proteins were assigned to seven categories or were unclassified. The most representative class of proteins observed in the control treatment was associated with the stress response (25.8%), while those under PEG6 treatment were carbohydrate and energy metabolism (18.4%) and the stress response (18.4%). Conclusions The differential expression of three proteins (enolase, esterase and ADH3) induced by PEG6 treatment could play an important role in maturation, and these proteins could be characterized as candidate biomarkers of somatic embryogenesis in papaya. PMID:25076862

2014-01-01

49

Bioefficacy of larvicdial and pupicidal properties of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad, against chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to establish the properties of Carica papaya leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad on larvicidal and pupicidal activity against the chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti. The medicinal plants were collected from the area around Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India. C. papaya leaf was washed with tap water and shade-dried at room temperature. An electrical blender powdered

Kalimuthu Kovendan; Kadarkarai Murugan; Arjunan Naresh Kumar; Savariar Vincent; Jiang-Shiou Hwang

50

Lateral bud culture of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) for clonal propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateral buds may be preferred to shoot tips for in vitro propagation of papaya because of its unbranched nature. Proliferating shoot cultures from lateral buds appeared extremely compact with shortened internodes and leaf lamina of the cytokinin level (BAP 2 µM) reported for multiple shoot production from shoot tips. ZEA (4 µM) and 2iP (8 µM) although reduced the proliferation

M. S. Rajeevan; R. M. Pandey

1986-01-01

51

Genetic-molecular characterization of backcross generations for sexual conversion in papaya (Carica papaya L.).  

PubMed

The low number of improved cultivars limits the expansion of the papaya crop, particularly because of the time required for the development of new varieties using classical procedures. Molecular techniques associated with conventional procedures accelerate this process and allow targeted improvements. Thus, we used microsatellite markers to perform genetic-molecular characterization of papaya genotypes obtained from 3 backcross generations to monitor the inbreeding level and parental genome proportion in the evaluated genotypes. Based on the analysis of 20 microsatellite loci, 77 genotypes were evaluated, 25 of each generation of the backcross program as well as the parental genotypes. The markers analyzed were identified in 11 of the 12 linkage groups established for papaya, ranging from 1 to 4 per linkage group. The average values for the inbreeding coefficient were 0.88 (BC1S4), 0.47 (BC2S3), and 0.63 (BC3S2). Genomic analysis revealed average values of the recurrent parent genome of 82.7% in BC3S2, 64.4% in BC1S4, and 63.9% in BC2S3. Neither the inbreeding level nor the genomic proportions completely followed the expected average values. This demonstrates the significance of molecular analysis when examining different genotype values, given the importance of such information for selection processes in breeding programs. PMID:25501249

Ramos, H C C; Pereira, M G; Pereira, T N S; Barros, G B A; Ferreguetti, G A

2014-01-01

52

Phytochemical and antifungal profiles of the seeds of carica papaya L.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extracts of the seeds of Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) led to the isolation of 2,3,4-trihydroxytoluene (caricaphenyl triol) and glyceryl-1-(2',3',4'-trihydroxybenzoyl)-2,3-dioleate (papayaglyceride) as the new phytoconstituents along with the known components glyceryl-1-oleiyl-2,3-dilinoleiate, glyceryl-1-oleiyl-2,3-diarachidate, glyceryl-1-linoleiyl-2,3-distearate, carpaine, glyceryl-1,2-dipalmitate, glyceryl trimyristate, glyceryl tristearate, glyceryl-1,2-dipalmityl-3-myristate, glyceryl-1-oleiyl-2,3-dimyristate, ?-sitosterol glucoside, glyceryl-1-oleiyl-3-phosphate, glyceryl-1-oleiyl-2-lauryl-3-phosphate and glyceryl-1,2-distearyl-3-phosphate. The structures of all these compounds have been elucidated by spectral data analysis and chemical reactions. The methanolic extract of the seeds and 2,3,4-trihydroxytoluene (200 ?g/ml) showed antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans and Penicillium citrinium. PMID:22707832

Singh, Onkar; Ali, M

2011-07-01

53

Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants  

PubMed Central

Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers’ regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulated proteins in the latex of diseased plants, 9 cysteine proteases (chymopapain) and 1 latex serine proteinase inhibitor. A repression of papaya latex proteolytic activity during PMeV infection was hypothesized. This was further confirmed by enzymatic assays that showed a reduction of cysteine-protease-associated proteolytic activity in the diseased papaya latex. These findings are discussed in the context of plant responses against pathogens and may greatly contribute to understand the roles of laticifers in plant stress responses. PMID:22465191

Rodrigues, Silas P.; Ventura, José A.; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Choi, HyungWon; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Nohara, Lilian L.; Wermelinger, Luciana S.; Almeida, Igor C.; Zingali, Russolina B.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

2012-01-01

54

Folate levels and polyglutamylation profiles of papaya (Carica papaya cv. Maradol) during fruit development and ripening.  

PubMed

Folates are essential micronutrients for humans, and their deficiency causes several detrimental effects on human health. Papaya fruit is an important natural source of some micronutrients. This paper presents a first complete characterization of folate derivatives accumulated in cv. Maradol papaya during fruit development and ripening processes. During postharvest ripening, the fruit accumulated up to 24.5% of the daily folate recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for an adult in a 1 cup (145 g) portion. Tetrahydrofolate (THF) and 5-methyl-THF were the predominant folate classes observed. Surprisingly, an unusually long polyglutamylation profile of tentatively up to 17 glutamates linked to 5-methyl-THF was detected; to the authors' knowledge, this very long polyglutamyl tail has not been reported for any organism, and it is probably characteristic of this plant species. This polyglutamylation degree changed throughout fruit development and ripening, showing the largest differences at the onset of ripening. This work raises questions about the functional role of folate derivatives in fruit development. PMID:23574547

Ramos-Parra, Perla A; García-Salinas, Carolina; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; de la Garza, Rocío I Díaz

2013-04-24

55

In situ Carica papaya stem matrix and Fusarium oxysporum (NCBT-156) mediated bioremediation of chromium.  

PubMed

Removal of heavy metal chromium was carried out using the fungus Fusarium oxysporum NCBT-156 strain isolated from soil of leather tanning effluent in in situ condition using potassium dichromate solution with 10 per cent Czapek-dox liquid medium. Biosorbent matrix was developed using Carica papaya plant dry stem to colonize the fungal strain to facilitate bioabsorption process. Bioabsorption of chromium was by metabolically mediated intracellular accumulation process. Maximum efficiency of chromium removal by biosorption upto 90 per cent was achieved at the end of 5th day of incubation (120 h of contact time) for 100 and 200 ppm concentration, upto 80 per cent for 300 and 400 ppm, and upto 65 per cent for 500 ppm to 1000 ppm concentrations with pH ranging from 5.8, 5.6, 5.5, 5.4 and 5.2, respectively for 100, 200, 300, 400, 500-1000 ppm concentration. SDS-PAGE protein profile showed significant difference in 34 kDa protein band after chromium absorption by the fungus. FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed that the main functional groups involved in the uptake of chromium by F. oxysporium strain were carbonyl, carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl groups. PMID:22403866

Amatussalam, A; Abubacker, M N; Rajendran, R Babu

2011-12-01

56

Effect of wine inhibitors on the proteolytic activity of papain from Carica papaya L. latex.  

PubMed

The influence of potential inhibitors naturally present in wine on the proteolytic activity of papain from Carica papaya latex was investigated to evaluate its applicability in white wine protein haze stabilization. Enzymatic activity was tested against a synthetic tripeptide chromogenic substrate in wine-like acidic medium that consisted of tartaric buffer (pH 3.2) supplemented with ethanol, free sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), grape skin and seed tannins within the average ranges of concentrations that are typical in wine. The diagnosis of inhibition type, performed with the graphical method, demonstrated that all of tested wine constituents were reversible inhibitors of papain. The strongest inhibition was exerted by free SO2 , which acted as a mixed-type inhibitor, similar to grape skin and seed tannins. Finally, when tested in table white wines, the catalytic activity of papain, even when if it was ascribable to the hyperbolic behavior of Michaelis-Menten equation, was determined to be strongly affected by free SO2 and total phenol level. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2014. PMID:25376439

Benucci, Ilaria; Esti, Marco; Liburdi, Katia

2014-11-01

57

Binary Combination of Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans with Piperonyl Butoxide / MGK-264 against Freshwater Snail Lymnaea acuminata  

PubMed Central

Piperonyl butoxide (PB) and MGK-264 were used to enhance the toxicity of the active components papain, arecoline and myristicin from the plants Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans, respectively, against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. A time- and dose-dependent relationship was observed for the toxicity of these combinations. The toxic effects of these plant-derived molluscicides in combination with the synergists PB and MGK-264 were several times higher than the effect of the individual treatments. The highest degree of synergism was observed when MGK-264 was used in combination with C. papaya latex (10.47-fold increase) and PB was used with papain (8.35-fold increase). PMID:24575245

Hanif, Farhat; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

2013-01-01

58

DNA sequence analysis supports the association of phytoplasmas with papaya ( Carica papaya ) dieback, yellow crinkle and mosaic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers that hybridise to regions within and adjacent to the\\u000a 16S rRNA gene have indicated that Australian papaya dieback, papaya mosaic and papaya yellow crinkle are associated with phytoplasmas\\u000a (formerly called mycoplasma-like organisms). In this study, DNA sequence analysis of PCR products obtained from affected plant\\u000a tissue has confirmed that the

D. T. White; S. J. Billington; K. B. Walsh; P. T. Scott

1997-01-01

59

Assessment study on the use of Pawpaw; Carica papaya seeds to control Oreochromis niloticus breeding.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to assess the ability of using pawpaw (Carica papaya) seeds as a natural reproduction inhibitor for tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) culture to control its breeding. Biochemical, physiological and histopathological effects ofpawpaw seeds on male tilapia fish were also determined. Mature male tilapia were stocked for 4 weeks and treated with low dose (3 g/kg/day) and high dose (6 g/kg/day) of ground dried pawpaw seeds mixed with their feed. The obtained results showed that the pawpaw seeds induced permanent sterility in the high dose treated fish while the low dose treatment showed reversible results. The results also demonstrated that fish treated with high dose of pawpaw exhibited higher biochemical and physiological effects as: low meat quality, a progressive fall in erythrocyte (RBCs) count, hemoglobin (Hb) content and haematocrit values. Also the high dose revealed a significant increase in the leukocytes (WBCs) count, serum glucose, total protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine and uric acid levels. Moreover, serum total lipids revealed a significant decrease compared to control group. On the other hand, the low dose treatment revealed lower biochemical and physiological changes. Histological sections of testis showed disintegration of sperm cells and focal necrosis of seminefrous tubules in the high dose treated fish, hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney tissues also showed severe changes in high dose treated fish. Milder degenerative changes in some necrotic foci and slight changes in hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney were observed in the low dose treated fish. The study concluded that pawpaw seeds which are cheap and easy to obtain, can be incorporated into fish feeds with adjusted amount and be used to control breeding of tilapia fish in growing ponds instead of unfavorable and expensive hormonal use. PMID:22335051

Abbas, Hossam H; Abbas, Wafaa T

2011-12-15

60

Sensitivity of a real-time PCR method for the detection of transgenes in a mixture of transgenic and non-transgenic seeds of papaya (Carica papaya L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Genetically engineered (GE) ringspot virus-resistant papaya cultivars ‘Rainbow’ and ‘SunUp’ have been grown in Hawai’i for over 10 years. In Hawai’i, the introduction of GE papayas into regions where non-GE cultivars are grown and where feral non-GE papayas exist have been accompanied with concerns associated with transgene flow. Of particular concern is the possibility of transgenic seeds being found in non-GE papaya fruits via cross-pollination. Development of high-throughput methods to reliably detect the adventitious presence of such transgenic material would benefit both the scientific and regulatory communities. Results We assessed the accuracy of using conventional qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as well as real-time PCR-based assays to quantify the presence of transgenic DNA from bulk samples of non-GE papaya seeds. In this study, an optimized method of extracting high quality DNA from dry seeds of papaya was standardized. A reliable, sensitive real-time PCR method for detecting and quantifying viral coat protein (cp) transgenes in bulk seed samples utilizing the endogenous papain gene is presented. Quantification range was from 0.01 to 100 ng/?l of GE-papaya DNA template with a detection limit as low as 0.01% (10 pg). To test this system, we simulated transgene flow using known quantities of GE and non-GE DNA and determined that 0.038% (38 pg) GE papaya DNA could be detected using real-time PCR. We also validated this system by extracting DNA from known ratios of GE seeds to non-GE seeds of papaya followed by real-time PCR detection and observed a reliable detection limit of 0.4%. Conclusions This method for the quick and sensitive detection of transgenes in bulked papaya seed lots using conventional as well as real-time PCR-based methods will benefit numerous stakeholders. In particular, this method could be utilized to screen selected fruits from maternal non-GE papaya trees in Hawai’i for the presence of transgenic seed at typical regulatory threshold levels. Incorporation of subtle differences in primers and probes for variations in cp worldwide should allow this method to be utilized elsewhere when and if deregulation of transgenic papaya occurs. PMID:24004548

2013-01-01

61

Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling fruit size and shape in papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a pan-tropical tree that bears fruit exhibiting a wide range of size and shape. Depending on variety and environment,\\u000a papaya fruit may weigh from 0.2 kg up to 10 kg. Papaya fruit shape is a sex-linked trait ranging from spherical to ovate,\\u000a cylindrical or pyriform. An F2 mapping population, produced from a cross between the Thai variety

Andrea L. Blas; Qingyi Yu; Olivia J. Veatch; Robert E. Paull; Paul H. Moore; Ray Ming

62

Isolation and functional characterization of a lycopene beta-cyclase gene that controls fruit colour of papaya (Carica papaya L.).  

PubMed

The colour of papaya fruit flesh is determined largely by the presence of carotenoid pigments. Red-fleshed papaya fruit contain lycopene, whilst this pigment is absent from yellow-fleshed fruit. The conversion of lycopene (red) to beta-carotene (yellow) is catalysed by lycopene beta-cyclase. This present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of two different genes encoding lycopene beta-cyclases (lcy-beta1 and lcy-beta2) from red (Tainung) and yellow (Hybrid 1B) papaya cultivars. A mutation in the lcy-beta2 gene, which inactivates enzyme activity, controls lycopene production in fruit and is responsible for the difference in carotenoid production between red and yellow-fleshed papaya fruit. The expression level of both lcy-beta1 and lcy-beta2 genes is similar and low in leaves, but lcy-beta2 expression increases markedly in ripe fruit. Isolation of the lcy-beta2 gene from papaya, that is preferentially expressed in fruit and is correlated with fruit colour, will facilitate marker-assisted breeding for fruit colour in papaya and should create possibilities for metabolic engineering of carotenoid production in papaya fruit to alter both colour and nutritional properties. PMID:19887502

Devitt, Luke C; Fanning, Kent; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Holton, Timothy A

2010-01-01

63

Revisiting the enzymes stored in the laticifers of C arica papaya in the context of their possible participation in the plant defence mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the tropical species Carica papaya, the articulated and anastomosing laticifers form a dense network of vessels displayed in all aerial parts of the plant. Damaging the papaya tree inevitably severs its laticifers, eliciting an abrupt release of latex. Besides the well-known cysteine proteinases, papain, chymopapain, caricain and glycyl endopeptidase, papaya latex is also a rich source of other enzymes.

A. El Moussaoui; M. Nijs; C. Paul; R. Wintjens; J. Vincentelli; M. Azarkan; Yvan Looze

2001-01-01

64

Isolation and functional characterization of a lycopene  -cyclase gene that controls fruit colour of papaya (Carica papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colour of papaya fruit flesh is determined largely by the presence of carotenoid pigments. Red-fleshed papaya fruit contain lycopene, whilst this pigment is absent from yellow-fleshed fruit. The conversion of lycopene (red) to b-carotene (yellow) is catalysed by lycopene b-cyclase. This present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of two different genes encoding lycopene b-cyclases (lcy-b1 and lcy-b2)

Luke C. Devitt; Kent Fanning; Ralf G. Dietzgen; Timothy A. Holton

2010-01-01

65

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a family 19 glycosyl hydrolase from Carica papaya latex.  

PubMed

A chitinase isolated from the latex of the tropical species Carica papaya has been purified to homogeneity and crystallized. This enzyme belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 19 and exhibits exceptional resistance to proteolysis. The initially observed crystals, which diffracted to a resolution of 2.0 A, were improved through modification of the crystallization protocol. Well ordered crystals were subsequently obtained using N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, the monomer resulting from the hydrolysis of chitin, as an additive to the crystallization solution. Here, the characterization of a chitinase crystal that belongs to the monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 69.08, b = 44.79, c = 76.73 A, beta = 95.33 degrees and two molecules per asymmetric unit, is reported. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.8 A. Structure refinement is currently in progress. PMID:18453704

Huet, Joëlle; Azarkan, Mohamed; Looze, Yvan; Villeret, Vincent; Wintjens, René

2008-05-01

66

Elicitor-induced Plant Defense and Pathogenesis-Related Gene Expression in Carica papaya L.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The basic elements of a papaya systemic acquired resistance (SAR) pathway have been reported to resemble that described in Arabidopsis thaliana. An NPR1 (nonexpresser of pathogenesis-related genes) homolog (CpNPR1) was isolated from papaya and partially characterized (Zhu et al., 2003). To character...

67

Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats  

PubMed Central

The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group) at 0 (control), 0.01, 0.14, and 2?g/kg body weight (BW) for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect.

Ismail, Zakiah; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Abdul Rashid, Badrul Amini; Jantan, Ibrahim

2014-01-01

68

Does Carica papaya leaf-extract increase the platelet count? An experimental study in a murine model  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the potential role of fresh Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract on haematological and biochemical parameters and toxicological changes in a murine model. Methods In total 36 mice were used for the trial. Fresh C. papaya leaf extract [0.2 mL (2 g)/mouse] was given only to the test group (18 mice). General behavior, clinical signs and feeding patterns were recorded. Blood and tissue samples were collected at intervals. Haematological parameters including platelet, red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), packed cell volume (PCV), serum biochemistry including serum creatinine, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) were determined. Organs for possible histopathological changes were examined. Results Neither group exhibited alteration of behavior or reduction in food and water intake. Similarly, no significant changes in SGOT, SGPT and serum creatinine levels were detected in the test group. Histopathological organ changes were not observed in either group of mice except in three liver samples of the test group which had a mild focal necrosis. The platelet count (11.33±0.35)×105/µL (P=0.000?04) and the RBC count (7.97±0.61)×106/µL (P=0.000?03) were significantly increased in the test group compared to that of the controls. However, WBC count and PCV (%) values were not changed significantly in the test group. The platelet count in the test group started to increase significantly from Day 3 (3.4±0.18×105/µL), reaching almost a fourfold higher at Day 21 (11.3×105/µL), while it was 3.8×105/µL and 5.5×105/µL at Day 3 and Day 21 respectively in the control. Likewise, the RBC count in the test group increased from 6×106/µL to 9×106/ µL at Day 21 while it remained near constant in the control group (6×106/µL). Conclusions Fresh C. papaya leaf extract significantly increased the platelet and RBC counts in the test group as compared to controls. Therefore, it is very important to identify those chemicals of C. papaya leaves as it can be recommended to be used as a medication to boost thrombopoiesis and erythropoiesis in humans and in animals in which these cell lineages have been compromised. PMID:23998013

Dharmarathna, Sinhalagoda Lekamlage Chandi Asoka; Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Waduge, Roshitha Nilmini; Rajapakse, Rajapakse Peramune Veddikkarage Jayanthe; Kularatne, Senanayake Abeysinghe Mudiyanselage

2013-01-01

69

Effect of papaya trunk angle on infestation by white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two papaya (Carica papaya L.) seedlings growing in one planting hole often results in angular or non-vertical growth of the trees. Data on trunk angularity, or leaning, (deviation from the vertical line of reference) and white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni-Tozzetti (Hemiptera: Dias...

70

Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ripening studies of nontreated and treated papaya (papaya L) are accomplished by monitoring the ethylene and CO2 emission rates of that climacteric fruit, to evaluate its shelf life. The treatments simulate the commercial Phitosanitarian process used to avoid the fly infestation. Ethylene emission was measured using a commercial CO2 laser driven photoacoustic setup and CO2, using a commercial gas analysis also based on the photothermal effect. The results show a marked change in ethylene and CO2 emission rate pattern for treated fruits when compared to the ones obtained for nontreated fruits and a displacement of the climacteric pick shown that the treatment causes a decrease of shelf life of fruit.

da Silva, M. G.; Santos, E. O.; Sthel, M. S.; Cardoso, S. L.; Cavalli, A.; Monteiro, A. R.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

2003-01-01

71

Physico-chemical and sensory quality of fresh cut papaya (Carica papaya) packaged in micro-perforated polyvinyl chloride containers.  

PubMed

Papaya cubes at maturity stages, 5-45 % yellow (more green than yellow) and 55-80 % yellow (more yellow than green) were washed with 5 % H2O2, drained and packaged in PVC trays having five, seven and ten micro-perforations and stored for 19 days. PVC trays with 3 mm diameter punch holes were used as the control. Based on physico-chemical properties, optimum maturity for papaya and micro-perforation level of PVC trays were determined. Effectiveness of citric acid in prevention of browning was also tested. Firmness and TSS changed significantly, on day 19. O2, CO2 and C2H4 concentration changed 2.4 to 4.2 %, 23.4 to 5.9 %, and 0 to 0.13 % respectively, from day 3 to 19. pH and titratable acidity did not change significantly throughout the storage. Pretreated papaya cubes, packaged in PVC trays with ten micro-perforations, kept under 4 °C had storage lives of 19 days. PMID:25477661

Jayathunge, K G L R; Gunawardhana, D K S N; Illeperuma, D C K; Chandrajith, U G; Thilakarathne, B M K S; Fernando, M D; Palipane, K B

2014-12-01

72

Papaya  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya is a tropical crop that is widely grown in household gardens and also commercially in plantations. However, papaya production has been severely limited by papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), the most widespread and damaging virus that affects papaya. In Hawaii, PRSV had been present since the 194...

73

IMPROVED CARICA PAPAYA TOLERANCE TO THE CARMINE SPIDER MITE BY EXPRESSION OF MANDUCA SEXTA CHITINASE TRANSGENE.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya plants producing the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) chitinase protein were obtained following microprojectile bombardment of embryogenic calli derived from the hypocotyls of the cultivar Kapoho. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization of reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PC...

74

Spontaneous processing of peptides during coagulation of latex from Carica papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latex is actively secreted on wounded unripe fruits from Caricapapaya. We describe the changes in peptide composition by SDS-PAGE analysis of latex from C.papaya collected at various times after incision of the unripe fruit. Non random changes in the relative amount of several peptides occur during latex coagulation. The measurement of amidase activity of coagulating latex shows three peaks of

V. Moutim; L. G. Silva; M. T. P. Lopes; G. Wilson Fernandes; C. E. Salas

1999-01-01

75

Effect of green and ripe Carica papaya epicarp extracts on wound healing and during pregnancy.  

PubMed

The traditional use of papaya to treat many diseases, especially skin conditions and its prohibition for consumption during pregnancy has prompted us to determine whether papaya extracts both from green and ripe fruits improve wound healing and also produce foetal toxicity. Aqueous extracts of green papaya epicarp (GPE) and ripe papaya epicarp (RPE) were applied on induced wounds on mice. GPE treatment induced complete healing in shorter periods (13 days) than that required while using RPE (17 days), sterile water (18 days) and Solcoseryl ointment (21 days). Extracts were administered orally (1 mg/g body weight/day) to pregnant mice from day 10 and onwards after conception. 3 (n=7) mice and 1 (n=6) mice given RPE and misoprostol, an abortive drug, respectively experienced embryonic resorption while this effect was observed in none of the mice given GPE (n=5) and water (n=5). The average body weight of live pups delivered by mice given GPE (1.12+/-0.04 g) was significantly lower than those delivered by mice given water (1.38+/-0.02 g). In SDS-PAGE, proteins were distributed in three bands (Mr range approximately 8-29 kDa). Band intensity at Mr approximately 28-29 kDa was higher in GPE than in RPE. In contrast, band intensity at low Mr (approximately 8 kDa) was found to be higher in RPE than in GPE. Notably, the band corresponding to Mr approximately 23-25 kDa was absent in RPE. These differences in composition may have contributed to the different wound healing and abortive effects of green and ripe papaya. PMID:18468758

Anuar, Nor Suhada; Zahari, Shafiyyah Solehah; Taib, Ibrahim Adham; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur

2008-07-01

76

Improved Carica papaya Tolerance to Carmine Spider Mite by the Expression of Manduca sexta chitinase Transgene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya plants producing the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) chitinase protein were obtained following microprojectile bombardment of embryogenic calli derived from the hypocotyls of\\u000a the cultivar Kapoho. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out to confirm the presence of the transgene. RT-PCR and\\u000a a quantitative chitinase assay showed increased levels of chitinase activity in every selected transgenic line. Insect bioassays\\u000a in

Heather R. K. McCafferty; Paul H. Moore; Yun J. Zhu

2006-01-01

77

Construction and characterization of a papaya BAC library as a foundation for molecular dissection of a tree-fruit genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed from high-molecular-weight DNA isolated from young leaves\\u000a of papaya (Carica papaya L.). This BAC library consists of 39168 clones from two separate ligation reactions. The average insert size of the library\\u000a is 132 kb; 96.5% of the 18700 clones from the first ligation contained inserts that averaged 86 kb in size, 95.7%

R. Ming; P. H. Moore; F. Zee; C. A. Abbey; H. Ma; A. H. Paterson

2001-01-01

78

Determining sex and screening for the adventitious presence of transgenic material in Carica papaya L. seed germplasm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) is a devastating disease that has a detrimental impact on both commercial papaya production and Caricaceae germplasm conservation. The PRSV coat protein transgenic line 55-1 and derived progeny are resistant to PRSV and have saved the papaya industry in Hawaii. However,...

79

Genetic differentiation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum associated with Anthracnose disease of papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsium annuum L.) based on ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting.  

PubMed

Members of the genus Colletotrichum include some of the most economically important fungal pathogens in the world. Accurate diagnosis is critical to devising disease management strategies. Two species, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum, are responsible for anthracnose disease in papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Trinidad. The ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of 48 Colletotrichum isolates was sequenced, and the ITS PCR products were analyzed by PCR-RFLP analysis. Restriction site polymorphisms generated from 11 restriction enzymes enabled the identification of specific enzymes that were successful in distinguishing between C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates. Species-specific restriction fragment length polymorphisms generated by the enzymes AluI, HaeIII, PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were used to consistently resolve C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates from papaya. AluI, ApaI, PvuII, RsaI, and SmaI reliably separated isolates of C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum from bell pepper. PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were also capable of distinguishing among the C. gloeosporioides isolates from papaya based on the different restriction patterns that were obtained as a result of intra-specific variation in restriction enzyme recognition sites in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region. Of all the isolates tested, C. gloeosporioides from papaya also had the highest number of PCR-RFLP haplotypes. Cluster analysis of sequence and PCR-RFLP data demonstrated that all C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates clustered separately into species-specific clades regardless of host species. Phylograms also revealed consistent topologies which suggested that the genetic distances for PCR-RFLP-generated data were comparable to that of ITS sequence data. ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting is a rapid and reliable method to identify and differentiate between Colletotrichum species. PMID:21720933

Maharaj, Ariana; Rampersad, Sephra N

2012-03-01

80

Functional Genomics Tools for Papaya  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

With the genome of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sequenced, the study of gene function is becoming an increasing priority. Our research is to develop an RNA-induced gene silencing tool for the study of functional genomics in papaya. We employed agrobacterium leaf infiltration to induce PTGS in '-glucuro...

81

Papaya: environment and crop physiology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of how papaya responds to environmental factors provides a scientific basis for the development of management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. A better understanding of genotyp...

82

NIa-Pro of Papaya ringspot virus interacts with Carica papaya eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit G (CpeIF3G).  

PubMed

The interaction of papaya eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit G (CpeIF3G) with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) NIa-Pro was validated using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in papaya protoplasts based on the previous yeast two-hybrid assay results. The C-terminal (residues 133-239) fragment of PRSV NIa-Pro and the central domain (residues 59-167) of CpeIF3G were required for effective interaction between NIa-Pro and CpeIF3G as shown by a Sos recruitment yeast two-hybrid system with several deletion mutants of NIa-Pro and CpeIF3G. The central domain of CpeIF3G, which contains a C2HC-type zinc finger motif, is required to bind to other eIFs of the translational machinery. In addition, quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR assay confirmed that PRSV infection leads to a 2- to 4.5-fold up-regulation of CpeIF3G mRNA in papaya. Plant eIF3G is involved in various stress response by enhancing the translation of resistance-related proteins. It is proposed that the NIa-Pro-CpeIF3G interaction may impair translation preinitiation complex assembly of defense proteins and interfere with host defense. PMID:25416301

Gao, Le; Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

2014-11-22

83

_____________ Augmentative releases ofpredatory mites on papaya in Hawaii 167 AUGMENTATIVE RELEASES OF PREDATORY MITES ON PAPAYA  

E-print Network

_____________ Augmentative releases ofpredatory mites on papaya in Hawaii 167 AUGMENTATIVE RELEASES OF PREDATORY MITES ON PAPAYA IN HAWAII: FAILURE AND SUCCESS V. Fournier,1,2 J.A. Rosenheirn," M.W. Iohnson on outdoor crops (Olkin and Shaw, 1995;Walsh et ai., 1998). Native to Central America, papaya (Carica papaya

Rosenheim, Jay A.

84

Carica papaya Leaves Juice Significantly Accelerates the Rate of Increase in Platelet Count among Patients with Dengue Fever and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever  

PubMed Central

The study was conducted to investigate the platelet increasing property of Carica papaya leaves juice (CPLJ) in patients with dengue fever (DF). An open labeled randomized controlled trial was carried out on 228 patients with DF and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Approximately half the patients received the juice, for 3 consecutive days while the others remained as controls and received the standard management. Their full blood count was monitored 8 hours for 48 hours. Gene expression studies were conducted on the ALOX 12 and PTAFR genes. The mean increase in platelet counts were compared in both groups using repeated measure ANCOVA. There was a significant increase in mean platelet count observed in the intervention group (P < 0.001) but not in the control group 40 hours since the first dose of CPLJ. Comparison of mean platelet count between intervention and control group showed that mean platelet count in intervention group was significantly higher than control group after 40 and 48 hours of admission (P < 0.01). The ALOX 12 (FC??=??15.00) and PTAFR (FC??=??13.42) genes were highly expressed among those on the juice. It was concluded that CPLJ does significantly increase the platelet count in patients with DF and DHF. PMID:23662145

Subenthiran, Soobitha; Choon, Tan Chwee; Cheong, Kee Chee; Thayan, Ravindran; Teck, Mok Boon; Muniandy, Prem Kumar; Afzan, Adlin; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Ismail, Zakiah

2013-01-01

85

Solenostemon monostachyus, Ipomoea involucrata and Carica papaya seed oil versus Glutathione, or Vernonia amygdalina: Methanolic extracts of novel plants for the management of sickle cell anemia disease  

PubMed Central

Background Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disease caused by an individual inheriting an allele for sickle cell hemoglobin from both parents and is associated with unusually large numbers of immature blood cells, containing many long, thin, crescent-shaped erythrocytes. It is a disease prevalent throughout many populations. The use of medicinal plants and nutrition in managing SCD is gaining increasing attention. Methods The antisickling effects of Solenostemon monostachyus (SolMon), Carica papaya seed oil (Cari-oil) and Ipomoea involucrata (Ipocrata) in male (HbSSM) and female (HbSSF) human sickle cell blood was examined in vitro and compared with controls, or cells treated with glutathione or an antisickling plant (Vernonia amygdalina; VerMyg). Results Levels of sickle blood cells were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in all the plant-extract treated SCD patients’ blood compared with that of untreated SCD patients. RBCs in SolMon, Ipocrata, and Cari-oil treated samples were significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with VerMyg-treated samples. The Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in all plant extract-treated HbSSM samples compared with controls. Hemoglobin concentration was significantly increased (P < 0.05) by SolMon treatment in HbSSF compared with VerMyg. Sickle cell polymerization inhibition exhibited by SolMon was significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with that of VerMyg in HbSSF blood. Sickle cell polymerization inhibition in SolMon and Ipocrata were significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with VerMyg in HbSSM blood. All plant extracts significantly reduced (P < 0.05) lactate dehydrogenase activity in both HbSSM and HbSSF-treated blood. Catalase activity was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in HbSSF blood treated with Ipocrata compared with glutathione. Cari-oil treated HbSSM and HbSSF blood had significantly increased (P < 0.05) peroxidase activity compared with controls. Conclusions Methanolic extracts from S. monostachyus, C. papaya seed oil and I. involucrata exhibited particular antisickling properties coupled with the potential to reduce stress in sickle cell patients. Each plant individually or in combination may be useful for the management of sickle cell disease. PMID:23259718

2012-01-01

86

THE EVOLUTION OF SEX CHROMOSOMES IN PAPAYA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of plant species with male, female, and hermaphrodite plants. Sex determination in papaya is controlled by a primitive Y chromosome that contains a male-specific region with severe recombination suppression and DNA sequence degeneration. Our recent results showed tha...

87

RNA interference of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2) genes expression prolongs the shelf life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L.) papaya fruit.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6). Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants. PMID:24950439

Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom; Yeong, Wee Chien; Pillai, Vilasini

2014-01-01

88

[Effect of the addition of tropical fruits--pineapple (Ananas comosus) and papaya (Carica papaya)--on the production of biological silage from fish].  

PubMed

Microbial Fish Silage was produced from under-utilized fish mixed with juice and waste fruits (pineapple and papaya) at 35 degrees C. Six different products were elaborated as following: A: fish muscle with pineapple juice; B: fish muscle with fruit wastes; C: gutted fish with pineapple juice; D: gutted fish with fruit wastes; E: whole fish with pineapple juice; F: whole fish with fruit wastes. Process development was evaluated by measuring: pH, acidity, non-protein nitrogen, consistency and exudate liquid. Results indicated a slow decrease in pH value and production of acidity during 20 storage days. The addition of fruits to silage did not have any effect on these values. Silage liquefaction or hydrolysis was related to the following parameters: consistency, non-protein nitrogen and exudate liquid. The addition of fruits was related to silage liquefaction or hydrolysis, and it was measured by the consistency. Exudate liquid and non-protein nitrogen increased during storage time. However silage made from whole fish showed highest values in those parameters than other processing conditions. This results suggested that hydrolysis involve first enzymes from guts and second enzymes from muscle and head. Pineapple juice did not contribute to hydrolysis process. Mainly sensory changes in the silage occurs during first 24 hours and they were related to chemical changes. Proximal analysis did not change during silage process and microbial counts indicated the freshness of raw material used i this study. PMID:8779625

Bello, R; Cardillo, E; Martínez, R

1993-09-01

89

Allergenicity assessment of the Papaya ringspot virus coat protein expressed in transgenic Rainbow papaya  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The virus-resistant, transgenic commercial papaya cultivars Rainbow and SunUp (Carica papaya L.) have been consumed locally in Hawaii and elsewhere in the mainland US and Canada since their release to planters in Hawaii in 1998. These cultivars are derived from transgenic papaya line 55-1 and carry ...

90

Update on the development of virus-resistant papaya: Virus-resistant transgenic papaya for people in rural communities of Thailand  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the most important and preferred crops in rural communities in Thailand. Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a serious disease of papaya throughout Thailand. Efforts to control the virus by various methods either have not been successful or have not resulted in sustai...

91

Efficacy of four plant extracts on nematodes associated with papaya in Sindh, Pakistan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This investigation examines the effect of ethanol extracts of four plant species--Azadirachta indica (neem), Withania somnifera (ashwagandha), Tagetes erecta (marigold) and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus)--against nematodes associated with papaya (Carica papaya), and it assesses their influence o...

92

The origin of the non-recombining region of sex chromosomes in Carica and Vasconcellea  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carica and Vasconcellea are two closely related sister genera in the family Caricaceae, and were once classified as two sections under Carica. After the section Vasconcellea with 21 species was reinstated as a separate genus based on molecular marker data, papaya became the sole species in Carica. S...

93

VITAMIN AND MINERAL CONTENT OF HAWAII’S PAPAYA CULTIVARS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya) cultivars were harvested from different locations throughout Hawaii and analyzed for vitamin C (ascorbic acid), provitamin A ( '-carotene, '-carotene, '-cryptoxanthin), and mineral composition. Papaya mean vitamin C content was 51.2 mg/100g, with no significant differences amo...

94

Whole-photosynthesis and transpiration in field-grown papaya plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of papaya response to environmental factors provides a scientific basis to develop management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. In papaya, the photosynthetic capacity also influ...

95

Stable transformation of papaya via microprojectile bombardment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable transformation of papaya (Carica papaya L.) has been achieved following DNA delivery via high velocity microprojectiles. Three types of embryogenic tissues, including immature zygotic embryos, freshly explanted hypocotyl sections, and somatic embryos derived from both, were bombarded with tungsten particles carrying chimeric NPTII and GUS genes. All tissue types were cultured prior to and following bombardment on half-strength MS

Maureen M. M. Fitch; Richard M. Manshardt; Dennis Gonsalves; Jerry L. Slightom; John C. Sanford

1990-01-01

96

Activities of several membrane and cell-wall hydrolases, ethylene biosynthetic enzymes, and cell wall polyuronide degradation during low-temperature storage of intact and fresh-cut papaya ( Carica papaya) fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh-cut fruit tissue deteriorates more rapidly than its intact counterpart. A study was conducted to determine changes in firmness, cell-wall polyuronides, and the activities of cell-wall and membrane hydrolases and ethylene biosynthetic enzymes in intact and fresh-cut papaya fruit during storage at 5°C. Processing of papaya fruit was performed under sanitized conditions at 5°C, and fruit pieces were stored for

Yasar Karakurt; Donald J. Huber

2003-01-01

97

Photoacoustic study of the influence of the cooling temperature on the CO2 emission rate by Carica papaya L. in modified atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monitoring of trace gas emitted by papaya fruits and assessments of its mass loss can contribute to improve the conditions for their storage and transport. The C02 emission rate by the papaya fruits, monitored by a commercial infrared-based gas analyzer, was influenced by the temperature and storage time. The fruits stored at temperature of 13 °C accumulated more CO2 inside the PEBD bags than those fruits stored at 6 °C. The loss of mass of the fruits progressively increased with storage time for both temperatures until the saturation of the moisture inside the PEBD bag, been more pronounced at 13 ºC.

Schramm, D. U.; Sthel, M. S.; da Silva, M. G.; Carneiro, L. O.; Silva, H. R. F.; Martins, M. L. L.; Resende, E. D.; Vitorazi, L.; Vargas, H.

2005-06-01

98

EFFECTIVE SELECTION OF TRANSGENIC PAPAYA PLANTS WITH THE PMI/MAN SELECTION SYSTEM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The selectable marker gene phospho-mannose isomerase (pmi), which encodes the enzyme phospho-mannose isomerase (PMI) to enable selection of transformed cell lines on media containing mannose (Man), was evaluated for genetic transformation of papaya (Carica papaya L.). We found that papaya embryogeni...

99

AFLP analysis of genetic relationships among papaya and its wild relatives (Caricaceae) from Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AFLP technique was used to assess the genetic relationships among the cultivated papaya (Carica papaya L.) and related species native to Ecuador. Genetic distances based on AFLP data were estimated for 95 accessions belonging to three genera including C. papaya, at least eight Vasconcella species and two Jacaratia species. Cluster analysis using different methods and principal co-ordinate analysis (PCO),

B. Van Droogenbroeck; P. Breyne; P. Goetghebeur; E. Romeijn-Peeters; T. Kyndt; G. Gheysen

2002-01-01

100

Using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA for evaluating genetic relationships among papaya cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have applied the recently developed technique of random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to the analysis of the relationships among ten cultivars of papaya (Carica papaya L.). Eleven ten-base synthetic oligonucleotides were chosen that gave multiple PCR amplification products using papaya DNA as template. These 11 primers amplified a total of 102 distinct fragments. Cultivars were scored for presence

J. I. Stiles; C. Lemme; S. Sondur; M. B. Morshidi; R. Manshardt

1993-01-01

101

Anthelmintic activity of papaya latex against patent Heligmosomoides polygyrus infections in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this experiment was to study the possible anthelmintic activity of papaya latex (Carica papaya) against Heligmosomoides polygyrus in experimentally infected mice. Five groups of BALB\\/C mice were infected with 100 Heligmosomoides polygyrus infective larvae\\/mouse. After patency (day 22), four groups of mice (groups B, C, D and E) were given papaya latex suspended in water at dose

F. Satrija; P. Nansen; S. Murtini; S. He

1995-01-01

102

Managing oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae), with spinosad-based protein bait sprays and sanitation in papaya orchards in Hawaii.  

PubMed

The efficacy of GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait in combination with field sanitation was assessed as a control for female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards in Hawaii. Three different bait spray regimes were evaluated: every row (high use of the bait), every fifth row (moderate use), and every 10th row (low use). Orchard plots in which no bait was applied served as controls. For five of the seven biweekly periods that followed the first bait spray, trapping data revealed significantly fewer female B. dorsalis captured in plots subject to high and moderate bait use than in control plots. Differences in incidence of infestation among treatments were detected only by the third (12 wk after first spray) fruit sampling with significantly fewer infested one-fourth to one-half ripe papaya fruit in plots subject to high and moderate bait use than in control plots. Parasitism rates by Fopius arisanus (Sonan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were not negatively affected by bait application. Results indicate that foliar applications of GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait either to all rows (every other tree), or to every fifth row (every tree) in combination with good sanitation can effectively reduce infestation by B. dorsalis in papaya orchards in Hawaii. PMID:19610428

Piñero, Jaime C; Mau, Ronald F L; Vargas, Roger I

2009-06-01

103

Rapid divergence and expansion of the X chromosome in papaya  

PubMed Central

X chromosomes have long been thought to conserve the structure and gene content of the ancestral autosome from which the sex chromosomes evolved. We compared the recently evolved papaya sex chromosomes with a homologous autosome of a close relative, the monoecious Vasconcellea monoica, to infer changes since recombination stopped between the papaya sex chromosomes. We sequenced 12 V. monoica bacterial artificial chromosomes, 11 corresponding to the papaya X-specific region, and 1 to a papaya autosomal region. The combined V. monoica X-orthologous sequences are much shorter (1.10 Mb) than the corresponding papaya region (2.56 Mb). Given that the V. monoica genome is 41% larger than that of papaya, this finding suggests considerable expansion of the papaya X; expansion is supported by a higher repetitive sequence content of the X compared with the papaya autosomal sequence. The alignable regions include 27 transcript-encoding sequences, only 6 of which are functional X/V. monoica gene pairs. Sequence divergence from the V. monoica orthologs is almost identical for papaya X and Y alleles; the Carica-Vasconcellea split therefore occurred before the papaya sex chromosomes stopped recombining, making V. monoica a suitable outgroup for inferring changes in papaya sex chromosomes. The papaya X and the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome and V. monoica have all gained and lost genes, including a surprising amount of changes in the X. PMID:22869742

Gschwend, Andrea R.; Yu, Qingyi; Tong, Eric J.; Zeng, Fanchang; Han, Jennifer; VanBuren, Robert; Aryal, Rishi; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H.; Paterson, Andrew H.; Ming, Ray

2012-01-01

104

IRRADIATION-DERIVED SEX REVERSAL MUTANTS FOR CLONING SEX DETERMINATION GENES IN PAPAYA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unlike most animals, most flowering plants are hermaphrodites possessing both male and female organs. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the few plant species that produce male, female, and hermaphrodite flowers on separate individuals. These variations have distinctive morphologies and sexual func...

105

Irradiation-derived sex reversal mutants for cloning sex determination genes in papaya  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unlike most animals, most flowering plants are hermaphrodites possessing both male and female organs. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the few plant species that produce male, female, and hermaphrodite flowers on separate individuals. These variations have distinctive morphologies and sexual func...

106

A genetic linkage map of papaya based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic linkage map of papaya (Carica papaya L.) was constructed using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and a F2 population derived from a University of Hawaii UH breeding line 356 x ‘Sunrise’ cross. A total of 596 10-mer primers were screened, and 96 polymorphisms were detected. At LOD 4.0, 62 of these markers mapped to 11 linkage groups

S. N. Sondur; R. M. Manshardt; J. I. Stiles

1996-01-01

107

Preharvest factors and the heat sensitivity of field-grown ripening papaya fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesocarp softening during papaya (Carica papaya L.) ripening was impaired by heating so that areas of the flesh failed to soften. Disruption of the softening process varied with harvest date. The sensitivity of fruit to the injurious treatment was greatest during the winter months. During January, exposure to more than 27 min at 49 °C was sufficient to induce areas

Robert E. Paull

1995-01-01

108

METHYL JASMONATE REDUCES DECAY AND MAINTAINS POSTHARVEST QUALITY OF PAPAYA 'SUNRISE'  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Exposure of papaya (Carica papaya L., cv. Sunrise) fruit to methyl jasmonate (MJ) vapors (ten to the -5 or ten to the -4 M) for 16 h at 20 degrees C inhibited fungal decay and reduced chilling injury development and loss of firmness during storage for 14-32 days at 10 degrees C and shelf life (4 day...

109

Atypical internal yellowing of papaya fruit in Hawaii caused by Enterobacter sakazakii  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Internal yellowing (IY), characterized by yellow discolored tissue around the papaya (Carica papaya) seed cavity, diffuse margins and the presence of a distinctly rotten odor, was first reported in 1987. These symptoms were associated with the causal agent Enterobacter cloacae. Here we report the fo...

110

Benzyl isothiocyanate is the chief or sole anthelmintic in papaya seed extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya) seeds were extracted in an aqueous buffer or in organic solvents, fractionated by chromatography on silica and aliquots tested for anthelmintic activity by viability assays using Caenorhabditis elegans. For all preparations and fractions tested, anthelmintic activity and benzyl isothiocyanate content correlated positively. Aqueous extracts prepared from heat-treated seeds had no anthelmintic activity or benzyl isothiocyanate content although

Rohan Kermanshai; Brian E McCarry; Jack Rosenfeld; Peter S Summers; Elizabeth A Weretilnyk; George J Sorger

2001-01-01

111

DEVELOPING TRANSGENIC PAPAYA TO IMPROVE BROAD DISEASE RESISTANCE AGAINST FUNGAL PATHOGENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.), one of the more important fruit crops of the tropics, has limited resistance to a range of fungal pathogens that may kill the plants or, at a minimum, reduce productivity and quality of the fruit. Phytoalexins have been shown to be important natural components in the defe...

112

Evaluating Hawaii-Grown Papaya for Resistance to Internal Yellowing Disease Caused by Enterobacter cloacae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivars and breeding lines were evaluated for resistance to Enterobacter cloacae (Jordan) Hormaeche & Edwards, the bacterial causal agent of internal yellowing disease (IY), using a range of concentrations of the bacterium. Linear regression analysis was performed and IY ...

113

EFFECT OF NATURAL PRODUCTS ON DECAY AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF FRESH-CUT PAPAYAS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of naturally occurring volatile compounds on decay and antioxidant activities in fresh-cut papayas (Carica papaya L.) was studied. Exposure to methyl jasmonate (MJ), methyl salicylate (MS) or allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) substantially delayed the onset and reduced the severity of decay du...

114

Feeding on Papaya Flowers Enhances Mating Competitiveness of Male Oriental Fruit Flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), are attracted to and feed on methyl eugenol. The goal of the present study was to determine whether feeding on a methyl eugenol-bearing plant, papaya ( Carica papaya L.) would result in a mating advantage for B. dorsalis males. Mating frequencies of males given access to flowers (treated) and flower-deprived males

Todd E. Shelly

115

High-Density Linkage Mapping Revealed Suppression of Recombination at the Sex Determination Locus in Papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-density genetic map of papaya (Carica papaya L.) was constructed using 54 F2 plants derived from cultivars Kapoho and SunUp with 1501 markers, including 1498 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, the papaya ringspot virus coat protein marker, morphological sex type, and fruit flesh color. These markers were mapped into 12 linkage groups at a LOD score of 5.0

Hao Ma; Paul H. Moore; Zhiyong Liu; Minna S. Kim; Qingyi Yu; Maureen M. M. Fitch; Terry Sekioka; Andrew H. Paterson; Ray Ming

2004-01-01

116

The treatment of paediatric burns using topical papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the limited resources for the management of burns in most regions of Africa there is a significant role for many aspects of traditional African medicine. The active component of many traditional preparations is often of plant origin and more than 25 plants have been described as useful in relations to burns and wound healing. Carica papaya is currently

Ian F. Starley; Paul Mohammed; Geisela Schneider; Stephen W. Bickler

1999-01-01

117

Gene technology for papaya ringspot virus disease management.  

PubMed

Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research. PMID:24757435

Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

2014-01-01

118

Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management  

PubMed Central

Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research. PMID:24757435

Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

2014-01-01

119

FT-IR spectroscopy as a tool for measuring degree of methyl esterification in pectins isolated from ripening papaya fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

A straightforward method using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy for determination of methyl esterification degree (MED) of pectins is described. The method was used for measuring methylation level of different pectin fractions isolated from papaya (Carica papaya) fruit in three ripening stages as well as of the bulk pectin without isolation from the cell wall. All the samples used were in

Guillermo D. Manrique; Franco M. Lajolo

2002-01-01

120

Methyl jasmonate and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) reduce decay and maintain postharvest quality of papaya ‘Sunrise’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of papaya (Carica papaya L., cv. Sunrise) fruit to methyl jasmonate (MJ) vapors (10?5 or 10?4 M) for 16 h at 20°C inhibited fungal decay and reduced chilling injury development and loss of firmness during storage for 14–32 days at 10°C and 4 days shelf life at 20°C. MJ-treated fruit also retained higher organic acids than the control fruit.

G. A. González-Aguilar; J. G. Buta; C. Y. Wang

2003-01-01

121

Analysis of ripening-related gene expression in papaya using an Arabidopsis-based microarray  

PubMed Central

Background Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a commercially important crop that produces climacteric fruits with a soft and sweet pulp that contain a wide range of health promoting phytochemicals. Despite its importance, little is known about transcriptional modifications during papaya fruit ripening and their control. In this study we report the analysis of ripe papaya transcriptome by using a cross-species (XSpecies) microarray technique based on the phylogenetic proximity between papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Papaya transcriptome analyses resulted in the identification of 414 ripening-related genes with some having their expression validated by qPCR. The transcription profile was compared with that from ripening tomato and grape. There were many similarities between papaya and tomato especially with respect to the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in primary metabolism, regulation of transcription, biotic and abiotic stress and cell wall metabolism. XSpecies microarray data indicated that transcription factors (TFs) of the MADS-box, NAC and AP2/ERF gene families were involved in the control of papaya ripening and revealed that cell wall-related gene expression in papaya had similarities to the expression profiles seen in Arabidopsis during hypocotyl development. Conclusion The cross-species array experiment identified a ripening-related set of genes in papaya allowing the comparison of transcription control between papaya and other fruit bearing taxa during the ripening process. PMID:23256600

2012-01-01

122

Application of a qualitative and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method for detecting genetically modified papaya line 55-1 in papaya products.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.) line 55-1 (55-1), which is resistant to papaya ringspot virus infection, has been marketed internationally. Many countries have mandatory labeling regulations for GM foods, and there is a need for specific methods for detecting 55-1. Here, an event- and construct-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed for detecting 55-1 in papaya products. Quantitative detection was possible for fresh papaya fruit up to dilutions of 0.001% and 0.01% (weight per weight [w/w]) for homozygous SunUp and heterozygous Rainbow cultivars, respectively, in non-GM papaya. The limit of detection and quantification was as low as 250 copies of the haploid genome according to a standard reference plasmid. The method was applicable to qualitative detection of 55-1 in eight types of processed products (canned papaya, pickled papaya, dried fruit, papaya-leaf tea, jam, puree, juice, and frozen dessert) containing papaya as a main ingredient. PMID:23122142

Nakamura, Kosuke; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Noguchi, Akio; Ohmori, Kiyomi; Kasahara, Masaki; Kitta, Kazumi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko

2013-01-15

123

Analysis of Papaya Cell Wall-Related Genes during Fruit Ripening Indicates a Central Role of Polygalacturonases during Pulp Softening  

PubMed Central

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a climacteric fleshy fruit that undergoes dramatic changes during ripening, most noticeably a severe pulp softening. However, little is known regarding the genetics of the cell wall metabolism in papayas. The present work describes the identification and characterization of genes related to pulp softening. We used gene expression profiling to analyze the correlations and co-expression networks of cell wall-related genes, and the results suggest that papaya pulp softening is accomplished by the interactions of multiple glycoside hydrolases. The polygalacturonase cpPG1 appeared to play a central role in the network and was further studied. The transient expression of cpPG1 in papaya results in pulp softening and leaf necrosis in the absence of ethylene action and confirms its role in papaya fruit ripening. PMID:25162506

Fabi, João Paulo; Broetto, Sabrina Garcia; da Silva, Sarah Lígia Garcia Leme; Zhong, Silin; Lajolo, Franco Maria; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

2014-01-01

124

[Anti-infective phytotherapies of the tree-savannah, Senegal (occidental Africa). III: A review of phytochemical substances and the antimicrobial activity of 43 species].  

PubMed

A review has been made of the ethnobotanical and pharmacological data of 43 medicinal plants of the tree-savannah used by the Diola against infectious diseases. The traditional use of ten plants can be explained by pharmacologically active principles: Adansonia digitata, Azadirachta indica, Carica papaya, Cassia tora, Fagara leprieurii, Guiera senegalensis, Khaya senegalensis, Mangifera indica, Psidium guajava and Voacanga africana. Four of these herbs are recommended for use in Primary Health Care. The therapeutic value of the other plants discussed is not absolutely clear. It is, however, obvious that herbal medicine has a large potential, which is still insufficiently explored, for utilization in Primary Health Care. PMID:2664354

Le Grand, A

1989-05-01

125

Papaya nutritional analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papayas are sweet, flavorful tropical fruit, rich in vitamin C and carotenoids. Multiple interactions among preharvest environmental conditions, genetics, and physiology determine papaya nutritional composition at harvest. Selecting a cultivar with the genetic potential for high nutrient content and...

126

Effect of packaging materials and storage environment on postharvest quality of papaya fruit.  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of packaging materials and storage environments on shelf life of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.). A factorial combination of five packaging materials and two storage environments using randomized complete block design with three replications were used. The papaya fruits were evaluated for weight loss, percentage marketability, firmness, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar and total sugar content. The packaged and cooled fruits remained firmer than unpackaged and evaporatively cooled fruits. Higher chemical compositions were recorded in the control fruits stored under ambient conditions during the earlier times of storage. Packaging and cooling maintained the chemical quality of papaya fruits better than the control sample fruits towards the end of storage periods. The evaporatively cooled storage combined with packaging improved the shelf life of papaya fruits by more than two fold. The polyethylene bag packaging combined with evaporatively cooled storage maintained the superior quality of papaya fruit for a period of 21 days. This integrated agro-technology is recommended for postharvest loss reduction biotechnology in hot regions. PMID:24876636

Azene, Mulualem; Workneh, Tilahun Seyoum; Woldetsadik, Kebede

2014-06-01

127

Inhibition of Ethylene Evolution in Papaya Pulp Tissue by Benzyl Isothiocyanate 1  

PubMed Central

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) pulp tissue disks in an incubation medium composed of 0.4 m sucrose evolve ethylene at an optimum pH of 5.25 at 30 C. Disks of young preclimacteric fruit evolve the gas linearly with fruit age until fruit age reaches 4 months. Disks from 5-month-old postclimacteric fruit produce approximately 5-fold more ethylene than disks from 4-month-old fruit. Ethylene evolution by unaged papaya disks is inhibited potently by benzyl isothiocyanate. The compound inhibits production of ethylene by approximately 60% at a concentration of 0.046 mm. However, in aged papaya disks benzyl isothiocyanate causes no inhibition of ethylene production indicating that the compound inhibits the induction of the ethylene-producing system rather than the evolution of the gas per se. Even at a 2-fold higher concentration benzyl isothiocyanate has no effect on respiration of unaged papaya disks. It is proposed that benzyl isothiocyanate may act as an endogenous regulator of ethylene evolution in papaya fruit. PMID:16658747

Patil, Suresh S.; Tang, Chung-Shih

1974-01-01

128

Draft Genome Sequence of Erwinia mallotivora BT-MARDI, Causative Agent of Papaya Dieback Disease.  

PubMed

Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya trees infected with dieback disease, which were planted at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Malaysia. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of E. mallotivora BT-MARDI, which offers an important source of information for understanding pathogen and host interaction during papaya dieback development. PMID:24812220

Redzuan, R Ahmad; Abu Bakar, N; Rozano, L; Badrun, R; Mat Amin, N; Mohd Raih, M F

2014-01-01

129

CONTROL OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS IN PAPAYA: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The papaya crop is severely affected by papaya ringspot virus (PSRV) world- wide. This review focuses on efforts to control the destructiveness of the dis- ease caused by PSRV in Hawaii, starting from the use of cross protection to parasite-derived resistance with transgenic papaya expressing the PSRV coat pro- tein gene. A chronology of the research effort is given and

Dennis Gonsalves

1998-01-01

130

RedOrbit NEWS | Researchers Reveal Genetic Code of Papaya http://www.redorbit.com/modules/news/tools.php?tool=print&id=1356702 1 of 1 4/24/2008 6:39 PM  

E-print Network

RedOrbit NEWS | Researchers Reveal Genetic Code of Papaya http://www.redorbit.com/modules/news/tools.php?tool=print&id=1356702 1 of 1 4/24/2008 6:39 PM Researchers Reveal Genetic Code of Papaya Researchers recently published the full DNA sequence of the "SunUp" papaya, discovering genes that cause the tree evolve and also help

Alam, Maqsudul

131

Papaya ringspot virus (Potyviridae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya ringspot virus, a member of the family Potyviridae, is single stranded RNA plant virus with a monocistronic genome of about 10,326 nucleotides that is expressed via a large polyprotein subsequently cleaved into functional proteins. It causes severe damage on cucurbit crops such as squash and...

132

Beverages of lemon juice and exotic noni and papaya with potential for anticholinergic effects.  

PubMed

Lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.) juice beverages enriched either with noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) (LN) or papaya (Carica papaya L.) (LP), were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n), the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by (DPPH·), superoxide (O2(·-)), hydroxyl radicals (·OH) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) assays, and their potential as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors was also assessed. The fruits are rich in a wide range of bioactive phenolics. Regarding DPPH·, ·OH and HOCl assays, the LP displayed strong activity, and LN was the most active against O2(·-). Concerning cholinesterases, LP was the most active, mainly due to lemon juice contribution. The effect on the cholinesterases was not as strong as in previous reports on purified extracts, but the bioactive-rich beverages offer the possibility of dietary coadjutants for daily consumption of health-promoting substances by adults with aging-related cognitive or physical disorders. PMID:25306312

Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

2015-03-01

133

DEREGULATION OF TRANSGENIC PAPAYA FOR JAPAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The transgenic SunUp and Rainbow papaya developed for Hawaii was commercialized in 1998 and virtually saved Hawaii’s papaya industry from further damage being caused by papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Since Japan makes up a significant part (about 35% in 1992) in Hawaii’s papaya export market, effort...

134

Biogasification of papaya processing wastes  

SciTech Connect

Biogasification of papaya processing wastes for pollution control and energy utilization is feasible. The biogasification process with sludge recycling permits smaller reactor volume without any deterioration of CH4 production rate and CH4 content. Appropriate design and operational criteria for biogasification processing of papaya wastes were developed.

Yang, P.Y.; Weitzenhoff, M.H.; Moy, J.H.

1984-01-01

135

TRANSGENIC PAPAYA: A CASE FOR MANAGING RISKS OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS IN HAWAII  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In May 1992, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV was detected in the Puna district of Hawaii Island, the main papaya growing region of the state of Hawaii. By 1994 Hawaii's papaya industry was facing devastating damage from PRSV. Efforts to develop resistant transgenic papaya were started in the mid 1980s...

136

TRANSGENIC PAPAYA: A CASE FOR WORLDWIDE CONTROL OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was detected in the main papaya growing region of Hawaii in 1992. By 1994 Hawaii's papaya industry was facing devastating damage from PRSV. Efforts to develop resistant transgenic papaya were started in the mid 1980s. By 1991, a resistant line was identified, field tri...

137

Effects of nitric oxide treatment on the cell wall softening related enzymes and several hormones of papaya fruit during storage.  

PubMed

Papaya fruits (Carica papaya L. cv 'Sui you 2') harvested with < 5% yellow surface at the blossom end were fumigated with 60 microL/L of nitric oxide for 3 h and then stored at 20 degrees C with 85% relative humility for 20 days. The effects of nitric oxide treatment on ethylene production rate, the activities of cell wall softening related enzymes including polygalacturonase, pectin methyl esterase, pectate lyase and cellulase and the levels of hormones including indole acetic acid, abscisic acid, gibberellin and zeatin riboside were examined. The results showed that papaya fruits treated with nitric oxide had a significantly lower rate of ethylene production and a lesser loss of firmness during storage. A decrease in polygalacturonase, pectin methyl esterase, pectate lyase and cellulase activities was observed in nitric oxide treated fruit. In addition, the contents of indole acetic acid, abscisic acid and zeatin riboside were reduced in nitric oxide treated fruit, but no significant reduction in the level of gibberellin was found. These results indicate that nitric oxide treatment can effectively delay the softening and ripening of papaya fruit, likely via the regulation of cell wall softening related enzymes and certain hormones. PMID:23744122

Guo, Qin; Wu, Bin; Chen, Weixin; Zhang, Yuli; Wang, Jide; Li, Xueping

2014-06-01

138

CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF TRANSGENIC PAPAYA WORK IN HAWAII  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya ringspot caused severe damage to Hawaii’s papaya industry starting from 1992 when papaya ringspot virus was discovered in Puna, where 95% of the commercial papaya was being grown. The main papaya cultivars grown in Hawaii are the nontransgeic Kapoho, Sunrise, and Sunset, and the transgenic S...

139

Papaya extract to treat dengue: a novel therapeutic option?  

PubMed

Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The search was done independently by the two authors using PubMed, Google and the library database and included relevant articles of the last 10 years. A total of 7 studies were included in this review, which were one animal study, one case report, three case series and two randomized controlled trials. Although many of the studies and case reports published in literature lack adequate information, some of the studies do raise the possibility that this treatment could be an important option in the future. Further large-scale studies could establish the usefulness or ineffectiveness of this natural product in the treatment of dengue. PMID:24971201

Sarala, N; Paknikar, Ss

2014-05-01

140

Papaya Extract to Treat Dengue: A Novel Therapeutic Option?  

PubMed Central

Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The search was done independently by the two authors using PubMed, Google and the library database and included relevant articles of the last 10 years. A total of 7 studies were included in this review, which were one animal study, one case report, three case series and two randomized controlled trials. Although many of the studies and case reports published in literature lack adequate information, some of the studies do raise the possibility that this treatment could be an important option in the future. Further large-scale studies could establish the usefulness or ineffectiveness of this natural product in the treatment of dengue. PMID:24971201

Sarala, N; Paknikar, SS

2014-01-01

141

Cloning of the Papaya Chromoplast-Specific Lycopene ?-Cyclase, CpCYC-b, Controlling Fruit Flesh Color Reveals Conserved Microsynteny and a Recombination Hot Spot1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Carotenoid pigments in fruits are indicative of the ripening process and potential nutritional value. Papaya (Carica papaya) fruit flesh color is caused by the accumulation of lycopene or ?-carotenoids in chromoplasts. It is a distinct feature affecting nutritional composition, fruit quality, shelf life, and consumer preference. To uncover the molecular basis of papaya flesh color, we took map-based cloning and candidate gene approaches using integrated genetic and physical maps. A DNA marker tightly linked to flesh color colocalized on a contig of the physical map with a cDNA probe of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) chromoplast-specific lycopene ?-cyclase, CYC-b. Candidate gene sequences were obtained from amplified fragments and verified by sequencing two bacterial artificial chromosomes containing the two alleles. Sequence comparison revealed a 2-bp insertion in the coding region of the recessive red flesh allele resulting in a frame-shift mutation and a premature stop codon. A color complementation test in bacteria confirmed that the papaya CpCYC-b is the gene controlling fruit flesh color. Sequence analysis of wild and cultivated papaya accessions showed the presence of this frame-shift mutation in all red flesh accessions examined. Evaluation of DNA markers near CpCYC-b revealed a recombination hot spot, showing that CpCYC-b is located in a gene-rich region with a recombination rate at 3.7 kb per centimorgan, more than 100-fold higher than the genome average at 400 kb per centimorgan. Conserved microsynteny of the CpCYC-b region is indicated by colinearity of two to four genes between papaya, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), grape (Vitis vinifera), and tomato. Our results enhanced our understanding of papaya flesh color inheritance and generated new tools for papaya improvement. PMID:20181753

Blas, Andrea L.; Ming, Ray; Liu, Zhiyong; Veatch, Olivia J.; Paull, Robert E.; Moore, Paul H.; Yu, Qingyi

2010-01-01

142

Managing papaya ringspot virus: Impact of grass barriers on alate aphid immigration into papaya orchards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya ringspot virus, transmitted by alate aphids, is the most limiting factor of papaya production in the Caribbean region. Although there are transgenic papaya varieties that provide protection from this virus, these varieties are effective only in certain regions against certain strains of the v...

143

DEVELOPING PHYTOPHTHORA PALMIVORA RESISTANCE IN CARICA PAPAYA L. BY OVEREXPRESSION OF THE NPR1 GENE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

NPR1 is the key regulatory gene controlling the onset of the SAR signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. Overexpression of the Arabidopsis NPR1 gene (AtNPR1) gave Arabidopsis plants enhanced resistance to the pathogens Pseudomonas syringae and Peronospora parasitica without any obvious detrimental effects...

144

Effects of Cultural Practices on the Incidence of Aphids and Virosis on Carica Papaya L.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Trials were conducted at the Agricultural Experimental Station of the University of Puerto Rico at Isabela and Corozal to evaluate the effect of reflective plastic mulch, black plastic mulch, green cover crop (weeds and Wedelia trilobata) and bare ground on the incidence of alate aphids and viral di...

145

Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Safety Evaluation of Papain (Carica papaya L.) Using In Vitro Assays  

PubMed Central

Papain, a phytotherapeutic agent, has been used in the treatment of eschars and as a debriding chemical agent to remove damaged or necrotic tissue of pressure ulcers and gangrene. Its benefits in these treatments are deemed effective, since more than 5000 patients, at the public university hospital at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, have undergone papain treatment and presented satisfactory results. Despite its extensive use, there is little information about toxic and mutagenic properties of papain. This work evaluated the toxic and mutagenic potential of papain and its potential antioxidant activity against induced-H2O2 oxidative stress in Escherichia coli strains. Cytotoxicity assay, Growth inhibition test, WP2-Mutoxitest and Plasmid-DNA treatment, and agarose gel electrophoresis were used to investigate if papain would present any toxic or mutagenic potential as well as if papain would display antioxidant properties. Papain exhibited negative results for all tests. This agent presented an activity protecting cells against H2O2-induced mutagenesis. PMID:20508844

da Silva, Claudia R.; Oliveira, Marcia B. N.; Motta, Ellen S.; de Almeida, Gabriella S.; Varanda, Leandro L.; de Pádula, Marcelo; Leitão, Alvaro C.; Caldeira-de-Araújo, Adriano

2010-01-01

146

Isolation and characterization of the papaya MADS-box E-class genes, CpMADS1 and CpMADS3, and a TM6 lineage gene CpMADS2.  

PubMed

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) plants are polygamous, with female, male, and hermaphroditic flowers. To understand the roles of MADS-box genes in flower development and sex determination, we cloned cDNAs of E-class genes CpMADS1 and CpMADS3 and a TM6 lineage of the B-class gene CpMADS2 from young flower buds of papaya. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR analyses revealed that CpMADS1 and CpMADS3 were preferentially expressed in the carpel and also in petals and stamens. CpMADS2 was expressed in both petals and stamens early during floral development. Comparison of 10 papaya genotypes of 5 different sex phenotypes - hermaphrodite, male, female, progeny-all-hermaphrodite, and progeny-all-male - by Southern blot analysis of genomic DNAs with probes of the 3 genes revealed similar restriction patterns and copy number, suggesting a low relationship of the 3 CpMADS genes with sex expression of papaya plants at the genomic level. PMID:25078586

Lee, M-J; Yang, W-J; Chiu, C-T; Chen, J-J; Chen, F-C; Chang, L-S

2014-01-01

147

COMMERCIALIZATION OF TRANSGENIC PAPAYA: WEIGHING BENEFITS AND POTENTIAL RISKS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya is Hawaii's second most important fruit crop, behind the pineapple. In 1992, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was discovered in Puna Hawaii, where 95% of Hawaii's papaya were being grown. By late 1994, PRSV was widespread in Puna and the papaya industry was facing severe crop loss. In 1998, tr...

148

Effect of papaya latex extract on gravid and non-gravid rat uterine preparations in vitro.  

PubMed

In search of uterotonic principles, papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae) latex extract (PLE) was tested on rat uterine preparations in vitro at various stages of the estrous cycle and gestation periods. Rat uterine contractile activity was remarkably increased by different doses of PLE in proestrus and estrus stages compared to metestrus and diestrus stages of the estrous cycles. The maximum contractile activity of the uterus was observed at the later stages of pregnancy which correspond with the peak level of estrogen in the plasma. A direct dose-dependent spasmodic action with increased frequency and amplitude was observed with PLE in all non-gravid uterine preparations. Pretreatment of the tissue with phenoxybenzamine (PB) non-competitively blocked the effect of PLE. Blocking of the 5-HT receptors with methysergide partially blocked the excitatory response to PLE. Pretreating the tissue with Indomethacin, a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, had no effect on the response to PLE. The release of PLE induced mast cell degranulation and subsequent release of heparin, biogenic amines or prostaglandins (PGs) was ruled out by pretreating the tissue with sodium cromoglycate, a mast cell stabilizer. Pure papain induced uterine contractions were not sustained for a longer period and at higher concentrations the receptor proteins were affected by the enzymatic action of papain. From this study it is evident that the crude papaya latex contain a uterotonic principle which might be a combination of enzymes, alkaloids and other substances which can evoke sustained contraction of the uterus acting mainly on the alpha adrenergic receptor population of the uterus at different stages. PMID:10837984

Cherian, T

2000-06-01

149

Shape Characteristics Analysis for Papaya Size Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior to export, papaya are subjected to inspection for the purpose of quality control and grading. For size grading, the fruit is weighed manually hence the practice is tedious, time consuming and labor intensive. Therefore, this paper will discuss the development of a computer vision system for papaya size grading using shape characteristic analysis. The methodology involves data acquisition to

Slamet Riyadi; A. A. A. Rahni; M. M. Mustafa; A. Hussain

2007-01-01

150

Recent Origin of the Papaya Sex Chromosomes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sex chromosomes in flowering plants, in contrast to those in animals, evolved relatively recently and only a few are heteromorphic. The sex chromosomes of papaya appear at the cytological level to be homomorphic but, at the molecular level, we are finding that the papaya Y chromosome shows features ...

151

Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial covers various aspects of trees. It explains which chemicals cause leaves to change colors, how the process of photosynthesis works, the functions of bark, roots, pollen and leaves, and the effect of trees on nearby temperature.

152

Ancient and modern occurrences of common fig (Ficus carica L.) in the British isles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the reproductive biology of the common fig ( Ficus carica) is essential for the interpretation of present and past occurrences of pips from archaeological layers as well as for understanding the status of trees, cultivated or wild. Only parthenocarpic varieties ripen figs in Britain and these cannot produce fertile pips. Common figs growing wild in Britain all come from pips from imported figs, often figs that had been eaten and the pips evacuated. There are many discoveries of pips from Roman and later urban and military sites in Britain. These pips too were derived from imported figs and not from locally cultivated trees. There is no proof that the Romans grew common fig in Britain and the earliest documentary evidence of cultivation is as late as the 15th century A.D.

Dickson, James H.; Dickson, Camilla

153

Ecological Applications, 16(6), 2006, pp. 23822398 2006 by the Ecological Society of America  

E-print Network

powdery mildew), and their host plant Carica papaya L. in Hawaii. First, we found that herbivorous mites words: additive effects; additivity; Calacarus flagelliseta; Carica papaya; exploitative competition

Rosenheim, Jay A.

154

Toxicity assessment of transgenic papaya ringspot virus of 823-2210 line papaya fruits.  

PubMed

The transgenic papaya is a valuable strategy for creating plants resistant to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) infection and increasing production. This study was further performed to evaluate the comparative toxicity effects of the newly developed transgenic line of the fruits of two backcross transgenic papaya lines (2210 and 823) and one hybrid line (823-2210) and compare to their parent non-transgenic (TN-2) counterparts. The stability analysis of coat protein (CP) of PRSV was investigated using the digestion stability assays in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), and bile salts to detect the CP fragments. Results revealed that the CP fragments were rapidly hydrolyzed in SGF and were undetectable in organs and gastrointestinal contents in rats. For the genotoxicity, three in vitro assays were conducted and exhibited that non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits were negative. Moreover, a repeated animal feeding study was conducted by feeding 2 g/kg of body weight (bw) of non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits for 28 days in rats. There were no biological or toxicological significances between non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits in rats. The results demonstrated that the backcross transgenic papaya fruit can be recognized as an equivalent substitution for traditional papaya in food safety. PMID:23350793

Lin, Hsin-Tang; Yen, Gow-Chin; Huang, Ting-Tzu; Chan, Lit-Fu; Cheng, Ying-Huey; Wu, Jhaol-Huei; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Liao, Jiunn-Wang

2013-02-20

155

Transgenic Papaya: Can We Proceed Beyond the Hawaiian Experience?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The story of the development, deregulation, and commercialization of the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) resistant transgenic SunUp and Rainbow papaya for Hawaii is quite well known at least among plant virologist and knowledgeable people in the field of papaya. Thus, the story will be only briefly r...

156

Propagation Experiments with Avocado, Mango, and Papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past year several different investigations relative to the propagation of the avocado, mango and papaya have been conducted in Florida. In this preliminary report, the results of a few of the different experiments will be described. Germination media:—Avocado seeds of Gottfried (Mex.) during the summer season, and Shooter (Mex.) during the fall season; and Apple Mango seeds during

HAMILTON P. TRAUB; E. C. AUCHTER

157

The Relationship between the Expression of Ethylene-Related Genes and Papaya Fruit Ripening Disorder Caused by Chilling Injury  

PubMed Central

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is sensitive to low temperature and easy to be subjected to chilling injury, which causes fruit ripening disorder. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the expression of genes related to ethylene and fruit ripening disorder caused by chilling injury. Papaya fruits were firstly stored at 7°C and 12°C for 25 and 30 days, respectively, then treated with exogenous ethylene and followed by ripening at 25°C for 5 days. Chilling injury symptoms such as pulp water soaking were observed in fruit stored at 7°C on 20 days, whereas the coloration and softening were completely blocked after 25 days, Large differences in the changes in the expression levels of twenty two genes involved in ethylene were seen during 7°C-storage with chilling injury. Those genes with altered expression could be divided into three groups: the group of genes that were up-regulated, including ACS1/2/3, EIN2, EIN3s/EIL1, CTR1/2/3, and ERF1/3/4; the group of genes that were down-regulated, including ACO3, ETR1, CTR4, EBF2, and ERF2; and the group of genes that were un-regulated, including ACO1/2, ERS, and EBF1. The results also showed that pulp firmness had a significantly positive correlation with the expression of ACS2, ACO1, CTR1/4, EIN3a/b, and EBF1/2 in fruit without chilling injury. This positive correlation was changed to negative one in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. The coloring index displayed significantly negative correlations with the expression levels of ACS2, ACO1/2, CTR4, EIN3a/b, ERF3 in fruit without chilling injury, but these correlations were changed into the positive ones in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. All together, these results indicate that these genes may play important roles in the abnormal softening and coloration with chilling injury in papaya. PMID:25542021

Zou, Yuan; Zhang, Lin; Rao, Shen; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Ye, Lanlan; Chen, Weixin; Li, Xueping

2014-01-01

158

Flüchtige Säuren in Tropenfrüchten: Cherimoya ( Annona cherimolia , Mill.), Guava ( Psidium guajava , L.), Mango ( Mangifera indica , L., var. Alphonso), Papaya ( Carica papaya , L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The volatile acids extracted by pentane\\/dichloromethane (2 + 1) from tropical fruit pulps were identified and determined by capillary gas chromatography (HRGC) and combined capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using EI- and CI mode (HRGC-EI\\/CIMS). In cherimoya (A. cherimolia, Mill.) fruit pulp 47 acids were characterized; major compounds were hexanoic (3 mg\\/kg) and octanoic (1 mg\\/kg) acid. Fiftyone acids were

Heinz Idstein; Claudia Bauer; Peter Schreier

1985-01-01

159

Ficus carica L. (Moraceae): Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Biological Activities  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the botanical features of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), its wide variety of chemical constituents, its use in traditional medicine as remedies for many health problems, and its biological activities. The plant has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer. Phytochemical studies on the leaves and fruits of the plant have shown that they are rich in phenolics, organic acids, and volatile compounds. However, there is little information on the phytochemicals present in the stem and root. Reports on the biological activities of the plant are mainly on its crude extracts which have been proven to possess many biological activities. Some of the most interesting therapeutic effects include anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial activities. Thus, studies related to identification of the bioactive compounds and correlating them to their biological activities are very useful for further research to explore the potential of F. carica as a source of therapeutic agents. PMID:24159359

Mawa, Shukranul; Husain, Khairana; Jantan, Ibrahim

2013-01-01

160

Carica papaya latex lipase: sn -3 stereoselectivity or short-chain selectivity? Model chiral triglycerides are removing the ambiguity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-chain fatty acids are usually located at positionsn-3 in natural triglycerides, particulary in dairy fats. As a result, it is extremely difficult to differentiate betweensn-3 stereospecificity and short-chain typoselectivity in many lipases and acyltransferases that perform in this way. This ambiguity\\u000a can be removed through successive use of a chiral triglyceride with a short fatty acid in positionsn-1 and of

P. Villeneuve; M. Pina; D. Montet; J. Graille

1995-01-01

161

Virus Resistant Transgenic Papaya: Commercial Development and Regulatory and Environmental Issues  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In Hawaii, transgenic papaya resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was developed starting in the 1980s and released commercially in 1998 to combat the wide spread destruction of Hawaii’s papaya industry. This review describes the proactive development of the transgenic papaya and its impact on ...

162

PLANTINSECT INTERACTIONS Inducible Responses in Papaya: Impact on Population Growth Rates of  

E-print Network

PLANTÐINSECT INTERACTIONS Inducible Responses in Papaya: Impact on Population Growth Rates in their shared host plant, papaya. Three key parasites attack papaya foliage in Hawaii: the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval); the papaya rust mite, Calacarus flagelliseta Fletch- mann

Rosenheim, Jay A.

163

Trees, Trees, Trees!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In these activities, students increase their awareness and knowledge of trees through research, literature and hands-on contact. The students will adopt and identify a tree of their choice, make a rubbing of the bark, draw a picture, and research about their tree. They will also write an original piece about their tree, document how it changes throughout the year, and learn the difference between deciduous and coniferous trees.

1998-01-01

164

Papaya Ringspot Virus: Characteristics, Pathogenicity, Sequence Variability and Control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Taxonomy: Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is an aphid-transmitted plant virus belonging to the genus Potyvirus of the family Potyviridae with a positive sense RNA genome. PRSV isolates belong to either one of two major strains, P-type or W-type. The P-type infects both papaya and cucurbits whereas th...

165

VIRUS COAT PROTEIN TRANSGENIC PAPAYA PROVIDES PRACTICAL CONTROL OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS IN HAWAII  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two field trials to evaluate transgenic resistance to Papaya ringspot virus were established in Puna, island of Hawaii. One trial included 'SunUp' (a homozygous transformant of 'Sunset'), 'Rainbow' (a hybrid of 'SunUp'), 'Kapoho' (a widely used non-transgenic cultivar) and '63-1' (another segregati...

166

Papaya glutamine cyclotransferase shows a singular five-fold beta-propeller architecture that suggests a novel reaction mechanism.  

PubMed

Cyclisation of N-terminal glutamine and/or glutamate to yield pyroglutamate is an essential posttranslational event affecting a plethora of bioactive peptides and proteins. It is directly linked with pathologies ranging from neurodegenerative diseases to inflammation and several types of cancers. The reaction is catalysed by ubiquitous glutaminyl cyclotransferases (QCs), which present two distinct prototypes. Mammalian QCs are zinc-dependent enzymes with an alpha/beta-hydrolase fold. Here we present the 1.6-A-resolution structure of the other prototype, the plant analogue from Carica papaya (PQC). The hatbox-shaped molecule consists of an unusual five-fold beta-propeller traversed by a central channel, a topology that has hitherto been described only for some sugar-binding proteins and an extracellular nucleotidase. The high resistance of the enzyme to denaturation and proteolytic degradation is explained by its architecture, which is uniquely stabilised by a series of tethering elements that confer rigidity. Strikingly, the N-terminus of PQC specifically interacts with residues around the entrance to the central channel of a symmetry-related molecule, suggesting that this location is the putative active site. Cyclisation would follow a novel general-acid/base working mechanism, pivoting around a strictly conserved glutamate. This study provides a lead structure not only for plant QC orthologues, but also for bacteria, including potential human pathogens causing diphtheria, plague and malaria. PMID:17081122

Guevara, Tibisay; Mallorquí-Fernández, Noemí; García-Castellanos, Raquel; García-Piqué, Sonia; Ebert Petersen, Gitte; Lauritzen, Conni; Pedersen, John; Arnau, José; Gomis-Rüth, F Xavier; Solà, Maria

2006-01-01

167

77 FR 31294 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Papaya...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Information Collection; Importation of Papaya From Colombia and Ecuador AGENCY: Animal...importation of commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador into the continental...importation of commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador, contact...

2012-05-25

168

A ripening associated peroxidase from papaya having a role in defense and lignification: Heterologous expression and in-silico and in-vitro experimental validation.  

PubMed

Fruit ripening associated full length cDNA of a peroxidase from papaya was cloned and heterologously expressed. The expressed peroxidase was activated by in-vitro re-folding in the presence of hemin and calcium. The purified recombinant peroxidase exhibited broad substrate affinity in the order of o-dianisidine>pyrogallol>guaiacol and was found to be a homotetramer of 155kDa with each subunit having a size of 38kDa. The basis of the distinctive preferences for various substrates was investigated through in-silico molecular modeling approaches. Thus, when the modeled papaya peroxidase-heme complex was docked with these substrates, the in-silico binding efficiency was found to be in agreement with those of wet lab results with the involvement of Arg37, Phe40, His41, Pro137, Asn138, His139, His167, and Phe239 as the common interacting residues in all the cases. However, the binding of the different substrates were found to be associated with conformational changes in the peroxidase. Thus, in the case of o-dianisidine (the most efficient substrate), the protein was folded in the most compact fashion when compared to guaiacol (the least efficient substrate). Protein function annotation analyses revealed that the papaya peroxidase may have biological roles in oxidation-reduction processes, stresses, defense responses etc. In order to further validate its role in lignifications, the papaya peroxidase was compared with a lignin biosynthetic peroxidase from Leucaena leucocephala, a tree legume. Thus, based on 3D structure superimposition and docking, both peroxidases exhibited a great extent of similarity suggesting the papaya peroxidase having a role in lignification (defense response) too. The predicted functions of papaya peroxidase in defense response and lignification were further validated experimentally using qRT-PCR analyses and measurement of oxidation of coniferyl alcohol. PMID:25447898

Pandey, Veda P; Dwivedi, Upendra N

2015-01-25

169

HOMOPTERAN AND MITE PESTS OF PAPAYA AND THEIR CONTROL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Homopteran pests in papaya fields in Florida, include mealybugs, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, soft scales Philephedra tuberculosa Nakahara and Gill, Coccus hesperidum L. and armored scales, Aspidiotus destructor, Acutaspis sp., Hemiberlesia sp., aphids, Myzus persicae (Sul...

170

78 FR 48628 - Importation of Papayas From Peru  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...production locations; field sanitation; hot water treatment; procedures for packing...fruit fly trapping, field sanitation, and hot water treatment to remove pests of concern...papayas. The limitation would ensure that the hot water dip treatment discussed later in...

2013-08-09

171

Plant regeneration from shoot tips and callus of papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Two methods of in vitro culture were employed to regenerate papaya plants. One involved regeneration of plants from callus\\u000a and the other, production of multiple plants from single shoot-tip explants. Callus was induced from stem sections of papaya\\u000a seedlings in a medium containing 1 mg per 1 NAA and 0.1 mg per 1 kinetin. The callus regenerated shoots and\\/or embryoids

Shi-Tao Yie; S. I. Liaw

1977-01-01

172

ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K). Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the ?-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

Kikuchi, Masahiro; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

2011-05-01

173

Identification of phenylpropanoids in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves.  

PubMed

In this study, the phenylpropanoid composition and antioxidant activity of identified components in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves were examined. Known polyphenols rutin, isoschaftoside, isoquercetin, and chlorogenic acid were identified. Furthermore, caffeoylmalic acid (CMA) was the most abundant polyphenol and was identified for the first time. CMA exhibited antioxidant activity similar to that of vitamin C or catechin. Psoralen and bergapten were identified as known furanocoumarins, with psoralen being the most abundant. Moreover, psoralic acid glucoside (PAG) was identified for the first time. As a precursor of psoralen, PAG content was equivalent to the psoralen content in moles. Notably, the content of these compounds varied between the five fig varieties, and the furanocoumarin and PAG contents varied more than that of the polyphenols. Further investigations concerning the influence of CMA and PAG on human health are necessary to elucidate functionalities of fig leaves. PMID:25198243

Takahashi, Toru; Okiura, Aya; Saito, Keita; Kohno, Masahiro

2014-10-15

174

ENGINEERING RESISTANCE AGAINST PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS BY NATIVE, CHIMERIC AND SYNTHETIC TRANSGENES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The transgenic Rainbow papaya is hemizygous for the coat protein gene of a papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate from Hawaii. Rainbow shows excellent resistance to PRSV isolates in Hawaii, but is susceptible to PRSV isolates from many parts of the world. In order to obtain transgenic papaya which m...

175

Optimization of osmotic dehydration of papaya followed by air-drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papayas are a fragile fruit; characteristic that limits large-scale exportation from the producing centers to countries in temperate regions. Loss of fruit ranges from 10% to 40% and could be reduced if papayas were dried. The process of osmotic dehydration followed by air-drying was studied and modeled for papaya preservation, so it could be optimized. The developed model has been

Fabiano A. N. Fernandes; Sueli Rodrigues; Odisséia C. P. Gaspareto; Edson L. Oliveira

2006-01-01

176

110 Plant Protection Quarterly Vol.19(3) 2004 The papaya mealybug (PM), Paracoc-  

E-print Network

110 Plant Protection Quarterly Vol.19(3) 2004 Summary The papaya mealybug (PM), Paracoc- cus 2002 and was causing serious damage to papaya, Plumeria spp., Hibiscus spp. and other plants. The parasitoids Anagyrus loecki, Pseudleptomastix mexicana and Acerophagous papayae totalling 46 200 individuals

Reddy, Gadi VP

177

212 Florida Entomologist 89(2) June 2006 CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF THE PAPAYA MEALYBUG,  

E-print Network

212 Florida Entomologist 89(2) June 2006 CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF THE PAPAYA MEALYBUG The papaya mealybug (PM), Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae and was causing serious damage to papaya, plume- ria, hibiscus, and other plants. The parasitoids Anagyrus loecki

Reddy, Gadi VP

178

CHROMOSOMAL LOCATION AND GENE PAUCITY IN THE MALE SPECIFIC REGION ON PAPAYA Y CHROMOSOME  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sex chromosomes in flowering plants evolved recently and many of them remain homomorphic, including those in papaya. We investigated the chromosomal location of papaya’s small male specific region of the hermaphrodite Y (Yh) chromosome (MSY) and its genomic features. We conducted chromosome fluoresc...

179

Development of an optimised papaya pulp nectar using a combination of irradiation and mild heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya does not sufficiently maintain desired fresh fruit quality when shipped long distances due to an easily bruised soft skin and a short shelf life. This leads to both a large supply of pulp from unsightly fruit that is never shipped and low sales due to blemished fruit. Unfortunately, traditional preservation methods (pasteurisation) negatively alter papaya’s fresh flavour. Thus to

Tory L. Parker; Sarah T. Esgro; Samantha A. Miller; Lauren E. Myers; Rustin A. Meister; Stoyan A. Toshkov; Nicki J. Engeseth

2010-01-01

180

Protection and conservation of Caricaceae germplasm with PRSV resistant transgenic papaya  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a devastating disease that has a detrimental impact on both commercial papaya production and Caricaceae germplasm conservation. The PRSV coat protein transgenic line 55-1 and derived progeny are resistant to PRSV and have saved the papaya industry in Hawaii. Here we ...

181

PARACOCCUS MARGINATUS WILLIAMS AND GRANARA DE WILLINK (HOMOPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE) AFFECTING PAPAYA IN PUERTO RICO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus was detected January 10, 2001 infesting papaya plantings in Isabela, Puerto Rico (18°28'23 N; 66°52’18W; 145.4 meters above sea level). This insect is recognized as a pest of papaya, cassava, hibiscus, eggplant, avocado, annona, and sweetpotato. P. margina...

182

TRANSGENIC VIRUS RESISTANT PAPAYA: THE HAWAIIAN 'RAINBOW' WAS RAPIDLY ADOPTED BY FARMERS AND IS OF MAJOR IMPORTANCE IN HAWAII TODAY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 1992, papaya ringspot virus was discovered in Puna, where 95% of Hawaii’s papaya was being grown. By 1995, the virus had devastated large areas of papaya in Puna. The genetically virus resistant transgenic ‘Rainbow’ papaya was released to growers in May 1998. This was the first genetically eng...

183

Effects of Cream Containing Ficus carica L. Fruit Extract on Skin Parameters: In vivo Evaluation  

PubMed Central

This study was aimed to investigate the effects of cream containing Ficus carica L. fruit (Fig) extract on various skin parameters such as skin melanin, erythema, moisture content, trans-epidermal water loss and sebum. For this purpose, formulation with 4% concentrated extract of F. carica fruit and base without extract were developed. Base served as a control. Both base and formulation were applied to the cheeks of human volunteers for 8 weeks to investigate the effects on different skin parameters using non-invasive bioengineering instruments. Formulation decreased the skin melanin, trans-epidermal water loss and skin sebum significantly. Formulation increased the skin hydration significantly and insignificant effects on skin erythema. We concluded that a stable topical cream (w/o emulsion) containing F. carica fruit extract have effects on skin melanin, trans-epidermal loss, hydration values and sebum content and possibly could be used against for hyper pigmentation, acne, freckles and wrinkle.

Khan, H.; Akhtar, N.; Ali, A.

2014-01-01

184

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Ficus carica Linn. leaves.  

PubMed

Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) is commonly known as edible fig. The leaves, roots, fruits and latex of the plant are medicinally used in different diseases. The leaves are claimed to be effective in various inflammatory conditions like painful or swollen piles, insect sting and bites. However, there has been no report on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Our study validated the traditional claim with pharmacological data. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the drug could be due to the presence of steroids and flavanoids, respectively, which are reported to be present in the drug. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug could be due to its free radical scavenging activity. Further work is also required to isolate and characterise the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:21644169

Ali, B; Mujeeb, M; Aeri, V; Mir, S R; Faiyazuddin, M; Shakeel, F

2012-01-01

185

Effects of Cream Containing Ficus carica L. Fruit Extract on Skin Parameters: In vivo Evaluation.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to investigate the effects of cream containing Ficus carica L. fruit (Fig) extract on various skin parameters such as skin melanin, erythema, moisture content, trans-epidermal water loss and sebum. For this purpose, formulation with 4% concentrated extract of F. carica fruit and base without extract were developed. Base served as a control. Both base and formulation were applied to the cheeks of human volunteers for 8 weeks to investigate the effects on different skin parameters using non-invasive bioengineering instruments. Formulation decreased the skin melanin, trans-epidermal water loss and skin sebum significantly. Formulation increased the skin hydration significantly and insignificant effects on skin erythema. We concluded that a stable topical cream (w/o emulsion) containing F. carica fruit extract have effects on skin melanin, trans-epidermal loss, hydration values and sebum content and possibly could be used against for hyper pigmentation, acne, freckles and wrinkle. PMID:25593393

Khan, H; Akhtar, N; Ali, A

2014-01-01

186

Crystal structure of papaya glutaminyl cyclase, an archetype for plant and bacterial glutaminyl cyclases.  

PubMed

Glutaminyl cyclases (QCs) (EC 2.3.2.5) catalyze the intramolecular cyclization of protein N-terminal glutamine residues into pyroglutamic acid with the concomitant liberation of ammonia. QCs may be classified in two groups containing, respectively, the mammalian enzymes, and the enzymes from plants, bacteria, and parasites. The crystal structure of the QC from the latex of Carica papaya (PQC) has been determined at 1.7A resolution. The structure was solved by the single wavelength anomalous diffraction technique using sulfur and zinc as anomalous scatterers. The enzyme folds into a five-bladed beta-propeller, with two additional alpha-helices and one beta hairpin. The propeller closure is achieved via an original molecular velcro, which links the last two blades into a large eight stranded beta-sheet. The zinc ion present in the PQC is bound via an octahedral coordination into an elongated cavity located along the pseudo 5-fold axis of the beta-propeller fold. This zinc ion presumably plays a structural role and may contribute to the exceptional stability of PQC, along with an extended hydrophobic packing, the absence of long loops, the three-joint molecular velcro and the overall folding itself. Multiple sequence alignments combined with structural analyses have allowed us to tentatively locate the active site, which is filled in the crystal structure either by a Tris molecule or an acetate ion. These analyses are further supported by the experimental evidence that Tris is a competitive inhibitor of PQC. The active site is located at the C-terminal entrance of the PQC central tunnel. W83, W110, W169, Q24, E69, N155, K225, F22 and F67 are highly conserved residues in the C-terminal entrance, and their putative role in catalysis is discussed. The PQC structure is representative of the plants, bacterial and parasite enzymes and contrasts with that of mammalian enzymes, that may possibly share a conserved scaffold of the bacterial aminopeptidase. PMID:16438985

Wintjens, René; Belrhali, Hassan; Clantin, Bernard; Azarkan, Mohamed; Bompard, Coralie; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle; Looze, Yvan; Villeret, Vincent

2006-03-24

187

Odour-active compounds in papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol.  

PubMed

Application of solid-phase microextraction and simultaneous distillation-extraction combined with GC-FID, GC-MS, aroma extract dilution analysis, and odour activity value were used to analyse volatile compounds from papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol and to estimate the most odour-active compounds. The analyses led to the identification of 137 compounds; 118 of them were positively identified. Twenty-five odorants were considered as odour-active compounds and contribute to the typical papaya aroma, from which ethyl butanoate, benzyl isothiocyanate, 1-hexen-3-one, (E)-?-ionone, and methyl benzoate were the most odour-active compounds. PMID:24176322

Pino, Jorge A

2014-03-01

188

Sex specific expression and distribution of small RNAs in papaya  

PubMed Central

Background Regulatory function of small non-coding RNAs (sRNA) in response to environmental and developmental cues has been established. Additionally, sRNA, also plays an important role in maintaining the heterochromatin and centromere structures of the chromosome. Papaya, a trioecious species with recently evolved sex chromosomes, has emerged as an excellent model system to study sex determination and sex chromosome evolution in plants. However, role of small RNA in papaya sex determination is yet to be explored. Results We analyzed the high throughput sRNAs reads in the Illumina libraries prepared from male, female, and hermaphrodite flowers of papaya. Using the sRNA reads, we identified 29 miRNAs that were not previously reported from papaya. Including this and two previous studies, a total of 90 miRNAs has been identified in papaya. We analyzed the expression of these miRNAs in each sex types. A total of 65 miRNAs, including 31 conserved and 34 novel mirNA, were detected in at least one library. Fourteen of the 65 miRNAs were differentially expressed among different sex types. Most of the miRNA expressed higher in male flowers were related to the auxin signaling pathways, whereas the miRNAs expressed higher in female flowers were the potential regulators of the apical meristem identity genes. Aligning the sRNA reads identified the sRNA hotspots adjacent to the gaps of the X and Y chromosomes. The X and Y chromosomes sRNA hotspots has a 7.8 and 4.4 folds higher expression of sRNA, respectively, relative to the chromosome wide average. Approximately 75% of the reads aligned to the X chromosome hotspot was identical to that of the Y chromosome hotspot. Conclusion By analyzing the large-scale sRNA sequences from three sex types, we identified the sRNA hotspots flanking the gaps of papaya X, Y, and Yh chromosome. The sRNAs expression patterns in these regions were reminiscent of the pericentromeric region indicating that the only remaining gap in each of these chromosomes is likely the centromere. We also identified 14 differentially expressed miRNAs in male, female and hermaphrodite flowers of papaya. Our results provide valuable information toward understanding the papaya sex determination. PMID:24410969

2014-01-01

189

Ficus carica L. (Moraceae): an ancient source of food and health.  

PubMed

Since early in the man history, common fig was appreciated as food and for its medicinal properties. This review explores some aspects about the importance of Ficus carica L., an amazing and ancient source of medicines and food. Topics regarding chemistry, biological activity, ethno-pharmacological uses, and its nutritional value are discussed, as well as the potential of the species as a source of new and different chemical scaffolds. Very important in the past, appreciated in our time and extremely promising in the future, F. carica represents an interesting example of healthy foods and bioproducts. PMID:24996314

Barolo, Melisa I; Ruiz Mostacero, Nathalie; López, Silvia N

2014-12-01

190

Papaya Varietal Resistance to Internal Yellowing: Reducing Food Safety Risk  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Internal yellowing (IY) is a bacterial disease of ripening papaya fruit that is caused by the enteric bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae. The disease is characterized by yellow discoloration of flesh, tissue softening and a foul or rotten odor that reduces the quality of fresh fruit and value-added pr...

191

DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF PAPAYA PROTEIN PROFILE USING PROTEOMIC TOOLS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of our project is to evaluate the potential for using proteomic approaches to discover the basis for differential susceptibility of Hawaii papaya cultivars to the root rot pathogen Phytophthora palmivora. Based on previous studies showing that Kapoho was the most resistance cultivar an...

192

Drying of Guava and Papaya: Impact of Different Drying Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat pump dryers (HPD) are known as high-energy-efficiency devices with low economic cost. As it is usually a closed system, the drying media can be substituted by inert gases. In this study, the effect of nitrogen and carbon dioxide on guava and papaya were investigated. Both drying kinetics and quality of these dried fruits resulting from the two methods were

M. N. A. Hawlader; Conrad O. Perera; Min Tian; K. L. Yeo

2006-01-01

193

75 FR 22207 - Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...include requirements for field sanitation, hot water treatment, and fruit fly trapping...fruit fly trapping, field sanitation, and hot water treatment be employed to remove pests...require the treatment of papayas with a hot water dip. The dip requires that...

2010-04-28

194

Papaya fruit quality management during the postharvest supply chain  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papayas are popular in tropical and subtropical regions and are being exported in large volumes to Europe, the U.S. and Japan. The fruit has excellent taste, exotic flavor and nutritional properties, being rich in vitamins A, C, and antioxidants. However, due to its highly perishable nature it has n...

195

Central nervous system activity of an aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica L. in mice  

PubMed Central

Background: Ficus carica Linn. is reported to possess variety of activities, but its potential in CNS disorders is still to be explored. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the CNS depressant activity of aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica Linn on different models in mice. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of the plant Ficus carica L. were extracted with aqueous acetone and the solvent was removed by rotary vacuum evaporator under reduced pressure. A crude extract was given orally and its effects were tested on ketamine-induced sleeping time, muscle-coordination, anxiety (elevated-plus maze and Staircase test), convulsions [maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures], and nociception. In addition, we determined the levels of neurotransmitters, norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Results: Results from the experimental models tested showed: (1) a delay on onset and prolongation of sleep of ketamine-induced sleeping time; (2) significant muscle relaxant activity; (3) a significant attenuation in the anxiety-response (4) a delay in the onset of seizures and reduction in duration of seizures and mortality induced by MES and PTZ; (5) a reduction in the licking time in nociception test and (6) increased levels of NE and 5-HT. Conclusion: This suggests that Ficus carica L. exerts its CNS depressive effect by modulating the neurotransmitters NE and 5-HT in the brain. PMID:24948859

Bhanushali, Mittal M.; Makhija, Dinesh T.; Joshi, Yadunath M.

2014-01-01

196

Int. J. Plant Sci. 163(1):5165. 2002. 2002 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.  

E-print Network

included Moringa oleifera Lam. and Carica papaya L. as representatives of their respective families of the four genera of Caricaceae, with two species of Moringa used as an outgroup. In the tree resulting from that the magnitude of differences between Moringa species would, in other plant groups, be used to delineate family

Olson, Mark

197

Analysis on virus resistance and fruit quality for T4 generation of transgenic papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular biological characterization, fruit characters, and nutrients were analyzed for T4 generation of transgenic papaya.\\u000a All transgenic papaya plants with the mutated replicase (RP) gene from papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) showed high resistance\\u000a or immunity against PRSV in the field. The RP transgene can be steadily inherited to, and expressed at RNA level, the progenies.\\u000a The growth characteristics of transgenic

Xiangdong Wei; Congyu Lan; Zhijing Lu; Changming Ye

2007-01-01

198

Chromosomal location and gene paucity of the male specific region on papaya Y chromosome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex chromosomes in flowering plants evolved recently and many of them remain homomorphic, including those in papaya. We investigated\\u000a the chromosomal location of papaya’s small male specific region of the hermaphrodite Y (Yh) chromosome (MSY) and its genomic features. We conducted chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of Yh-specific bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and placed the MSY near the centromere

Qingyi Yu; Shaobin Hou; Roman Hobza; F. Alex Feltus; Xiue Wang; Weiwei Jin; Rachel L. Skelton; Andrea Blas; Cornelia Lemke; Jimmy H. Saw; Paul H. Moore; Maqsudul Alam; Jiming Jiang; Andrew H. Paterson; Boris Vyskot; Ray Ming

2007-01-01

199

Efficient transformation and regeneration of fig (Ficus carica L.) via somatic embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Fig is one of the most important fruit trees in Egypt. It used to constitute the major source of income for the inhabitants of the western north coast of Egypt. Since 1993 fig cultivations were threatened by a number of factors including virus, insect and mite infections. An efficient system for regeneration and transformation of the common fig Ficus carica L. cultivar Sultani (fresh consumption) was required to conserve fig cultivation in the area. The effect of different combinations of BA and NAA/2,4-D and kinetin on callus formation from leaf segments were studied. Results showed that the best medium for callus formation was MS supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D and 0.2 mg/l kinetin. The best plantlet differentiation was obtained at concentrations of 30 mg/l 2iP and 7 mg/l TDZ with 0.25 mg/l NAA (with a regeneration efficiency of 83 and 79%, respectively). On the other hand, the obtained callus failed to induce organogenesis on media containing a combination of BA and kinetin. The highest shoot formation percentage (89%) was obtained when using 2 mg/l TDZ and 4 mg/l 2iP. The highest percentage of shoots forming roots (95%) was obtained when using MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l IBA. Explants were transformed using Agrobacterium and microprojectile bombardment using the plasmid pISV2678 which harbors the gus-intron and bar genes. Results showed that the highest transformation efficiency using the Agrobacterium (17.5%) was obtained when explants were co-cultivated with the bacteria for 30 min. The highest transformation efficiency recorded using the microprojectile bombardment (12%) was obtained with 2.0 ?g DNA per shot at 1,100 psi and a distance of 6 cm repeated twice. The transgenic nature of regenerated plants was confirmed by PCR analysis, histochemical GUS assay and leaf painting assay. PMID:21912211

Soliman, Hemaid Ibrahim; Gabr, Mahdia; Abdallah, Naglaa A

2010-01-01

200

Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Papaya ringspot virus.  

PubMed

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), which causes disease symptoms similar to PRSV, threaten commercial production of both non-transgenic-papaya and PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in China. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay to detect PLDMV was developed previously. In this study, the development of another RT-LAMP assay to distinguish among transgenic, PRSV-infected and PLDMV-infected papaya by detection of PRSV is reported. A set of four RT-LAMP primers was designed based on the highly conserved region of the P3 gene of PRSV. The RT-LAMP method was specific and sensitive in detecting PRSV, with a detection limit of 1.15×10(-6)?g of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR. Field application of the RT-LAMP assay demonstrated that samples positive for PRSV were detected only in non-transgenic papaya, whereas samples positive for PLDMV were detected only in commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya. This suggests that PRSV remains the major limiting factor for non-transgenic-papaya production, and the emergence of PLDMV threatens the commercial transgenic cultivar in China. However, this study, combined with the earlier development of an RT-LAMP assay for PLDMV, will provide a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective diagnostic power to distinguish virus infections in papaya. PMID:24769198

Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Yang, Yong; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

2014-08-01

201

MATH 132 Solutions to Midterm 2 (papaya) 1.10 pts According to the poem by Ogden Nash,  

E-print Network

MATH 132 Solutions to Midterm 2 (papaya) 1.10 pts According to the poem by Ogden Nash, Big fleas to Midterm 2 (papaya) Wednesday, April 10, 2013 #12;Page 3 of 3 (Strictly speaking, to use the integral test

Sutherland, Scott

202

40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the requirement of...

2010-07-01

203

40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the requirement of...

2012-07-01

204

40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the requirement of...

2013-07-01

205

40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the requirement of...

2014-07-01

206

40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the requirement of...

2011-07-01

207

Effects of chitosan and plant extracts on growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, anthracnose levels and quality of papaya fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this research were to evaluate the in vitro fungicidal effect of chitosan and aqueous extracts of custard apple leaves, papaya leaves and papaya seeds, and the combination of chitosan and plant extracts on the development of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, which causes anthracnose on papaya. Chitosan at 2.0% and 3.0% had a fungicidal effect on C. gloeosporioides. Extracts alone

S. Bautista-Baños; M. Hernández-López; E. Bosquez-Molina; C. L. Wilson

2003-01-01

208

Assaying for pollen drift from transgenic Rainbow to nontransgenic Kapoho papaya under commercial and experimental field conditions in Hawaii  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 1992 papaya ringpsot virus (PRSV) was discovered in Puna district of Hawaii Island where 95% of the state of Hawaii’s papaya was being grown. By 1998 production in Puna had decreased 50% from 1998 levels. A PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya ‘Rainbow’ expressing the coat protein gene of PRSV was ...

209

Assessment of genetic and epigenetic changes following cryopreservation in papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vitrification based cryopreservation technique for storage of in vitro shoot tips of papaya has been tested to ensure applicability\\u000a across a range of genotypes and to assess the stability of both genotype and phenotype of such clonal material following cryopreservation.\\u000a Shoot tips of 12 genotypes were cryopreserved, recovery rates were determined and resultant plants were screened for genetic\\u000a and

A. Kaity; S. E. Ashmore; R. A. Drew; M. E. Dulloo

2008-01-01

210

A bio-hybrid anaerobic treatment of papaya processing wastes  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid anaerobic treatment of papaya processing wastes is technically feasible. At 30/sup 0/C, the optimal organic loading rates for maximizing organic removal efficiency and methane production are 1.3 and 4.8 g TCOD/1/day, respectively. Elimination of post-handling and treatment of digested effluent can also be achieved. The system is more suitable for those processing plants with a waste amount of more than 3,000 metric tons per year.

Yang, P.Y.; Chou, C.Y.

1987-01-01

211

HORTSCIENCE 48(12):15711573. 2013. Do Phytotoxic Compounds in Soils  

E-print Network

with the armored scale Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi. Velocity of Momordica charantia Descourt. and Carica papaya L and C. papaya seedling height and dry weight were among the response variables that were increased al., 2011). We selected papaya (Carica papaya) and bitter melon (Momordica charantia) for the b

Marler, Thomas E.

212

Le dprissement bactrien du papayer aux Antilles franaises  

E-print Network

la maladie. Mots clés additionnels : Carica papaya, Erwinia sp., étiologie, épidémiologie, tropique. SUMMARY Papaya bacterial decline in the French West Indies. Papaya decline caused by Erwinta sp. limits. Additional key words : Carica papaya, Erwinia sp., etiology, epidemiotogy, tropics. 1. INTRODUCTION Le

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

213

Detection of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus by reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.  

PubMed

Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) can infect transgenic papaya resistant to a related pathogen, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), posing a substantial threat to papaya production in China. Current detection methods, however, are unable to be used for rapid detection in the field. Here, a reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of PLDMV, using a set of four RT-LAMP primers designed based on the conserved sequence of PLDMV CP. The RT-LAMP method detected specifically PLDMV and was highly sensitive, with a detection limit of 1.32×10(-6) ?g of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR, while also requiring significantly less time and equipment. The effectiveness of RT-LAMP and one-step RT-PCR in detecting the virus were compared using 90 field samples of non-transgenic papaya and 90 field samples of commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya from Hainan Island. None of the non-transgenic papaya tested positive for PLDMV using either method. In contrast, 19 of the commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya samples tested positive by RT-LAMP assay, and 6 of those tested negative by RT-PCR. Therefore, the PLDMV-specific RT-LAMP is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective tool in the field diagnosis and control of PLDMV. PMID:24100065

Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

2014-01-01

214

The Adoption of genetically modified papaya in Hawaii and its implications for developing countries 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

As agricultural biotechnology becomes increasingly commercialised, numerous constraints limit adoption by developing-country producers. These include technology access, impacts on farmers' yields and profits, privatisation of research and intellectual property, biosafety regulatory frameworks, and trade-related market restrictions. This essay analyses development of the genetically modified papaya and its commercialisation in Hawaii as a response to a virulent plant disease, papaya ringspot

C. Gonsalves; D. R. Lee; D. Gonsalves

2007-01-01

215

DEVELOPMENT, REPRODUCTION, AND SURVIVAL OF PAPAYA MEALYBUG (HOMOPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE) ON DIFFERENT HOST PLANT SPECIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus @illiams and Granara de Willink (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae)) is a polyghagus insect and a pest of various tropical crops and ornamentals. It was introduced into the United States in 1998 in Florida. Papaya mealybug potentially poses a threat to numerous agricul...

216

The Papaya Y Chromosome Evolved Recently and Shows Gene Paucity and DNA Sequence Expansion  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sex chromosomes in flowering plants, in contrast to those in animals, evolved relatively recently and only a few are heteromorphic. At cytological level, the sex chromosomes of papaya appear homomorphic, nevertheless, we are finding the papaya Y chromosome shows features of incipient sex chromosome ...

217

On the evolution and molecular epidemiology of the potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is found throughout the tropics and subtropics. Its P biotype is a devastating pathogen of papaya crops and its W biotype of cucurbits. PRSV-P is thought to arise by mutation from PRSV-W. However, the relative impact of mutation and movement on the structure of PRSV populations is not well characterized. To investigate this, we

Marion F. Bateson; Rosemarie E. Lines; Peter Revill; Worawan Chaleeprom; Cuong V. Ha; Adrian J. Gibbs; James L. Dale

2002-01-01

218

SEQUENCE SIMILARITY BETWEEN THE VIRAL CP GENE AND THE TRANSGENE IN TRANSGENIC PAPAYAS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) coat protein transgene present in ‘Rainbow’ and ‘SunUp’ papayas disclose high sequence similarity (>89%) to the cp gene from PRSV BR and TH. Despite this, both isolates are able to break down the resistance in ‘Rainbow’, while only the latter is able to do so in ‘Sun...

219

TISSUE DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF LYCOPENE BETA-CYCLASE GENE IN PAPAYA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To elucidate the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in papaya, we took a candidate gene approach to clone the lycopene beta-cyclase genes, LCY-B. A papaya LCY-B ortholog, cpLCY-B, was successfully identified from both cDNA and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries and complete genomic sequenc...

220

Microbicidal effect of medicinal plant extracts (Psidium guajava Linn. and Carica papaya Linn.) upon bacteria isolated from fish muscle and known to induce diarrhea in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Out of the twenty-four samples of shrimp and fish muscle used for this study, twelve were collected near a large marine sewer f or waste disposal, 3 km off the coast of Fortaleza (Brazil) and used for the isolation of E. coli. Other twelve were collected at the Mucuripe fresh fish market (Fortaleza, Brazil) and used for the isolation

Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes VIEIRA; Dália dos Prazeres RODRIGUES; Flávia Araújo GONÇALVES; Francisca Gleire Rodrigues de MENEZES; Janisi Sales ARAGÃO; Oscarina Viana SOUSA

2001-01-01

221

Phospholipid Profile of the Stomach and Duodenum of Normal Rabbits Fed with Supplements of Unripe Pawpaw (Carica papaya) and Unripe Plantain (Musa sapientum) Extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reports the effect of unripe pawpaw and/or unripe plantain extracts on the phospholipid profile of the stomach and duodenum of normal rabbits. Supplementation of chow with unripe pawpaw or plantain extract significantly reduced (p< 0.05) the weight gained by rabbits compared with the control. The total phospholipids content in the stomach and duodenum were significantly increased (p< 0.05) in the test groups compared to the control. In the stomach and duodenum, phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and sphingomyelin (SGM) were significantly increased (p< 0.05) in the test groups compared to the control. Pawpaw occasioned a decrease in the PE/PC ratio in both tissues as against an increase observed in the SGM/PC ratio. The results presented suggests that unripe pawpaw meal and unripe plantain extract alter the phospholipid profile of the stomach and duodenum in ways which may affect membrane fluidity of these tissues and would have profound effect on the gastro-duodenal mucosa and thus have implication(s) for gastric and duodenal ulcers in rabbits.

Eriyamremu, G. E.; Asagba, S. O.; Osagie, V. E.; Ojeaburu, S. I.; Lolodi, O.

222

Comparative behaviour of proteinases from the latex of Carica papaya and Funastrum clausum as catalysts for the synthesis of Z-Ala-Phe-OMe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proteolytic extract obtained from the latex of Funastrum clausum (Jacq.) Schlechter (Asclepiadaceae), a South American climbing plant, was assayed as a novel catalyst for peptide synthesis and compared with commercial papain under the same conditions. After immobilization on polyamide, the synthesis of the bitter peptide precursor Z-Ala-Phe-OMe was performed and different conditions were tried. Acetonitrile and ethyl acetate with

Susana R. Morcelle; Sonia Barberis; Nora Priolo; Néstor O. Caffini; Pere Clapés

2006-01-01

223

VITAMIN AND MINERAL CONTENT OF TROPICAL FRUIT CULTIVARS GROWN IN HAWAII  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Banana (Musa sp.), papaya (Carica papaya), longan (Dimocarpus longan), lychee (Litchi chinensis), and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) cultivars were harvested from different locations throughout Hawaii and analyzed for vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and mineral content. Bananas and papayas also were analy...

224

Ficus carica Polysaccharides Promote the Maturation and Function of Dendritic Cells  

PubMed Central

Various polysaccharides purified from plants are considered to be biological response modifiers and have been shown to enhance immune responses. Ficus carica L. is a Chinese traditional plant and has been widely used in Asian countries for its anti-tumor properties. Ficus carica polysaccharides (FCPS), one of the most essential and effective components in Ficus carica L., have been considered to be a beneficial immunomodulator and may be used in immunotherapy. However, the immunologic mechanism of FCPS is still unclear. Dectin-1 is a non-toll-like pattern recognition receptor, predominately expressed on dendritic cells (DCs). Activation of DCs through dectin-1 signaling can lead to the maturation of DC, thus inducing both innate and adaptive immune responses against tumor development and microbial infection. In our study, we found that FCPS could effectively stimulate DCs, partially through the dectin-1/Syk pathway, and promote their maturation, as shown by the up-regulation of CD40, CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII). FCPS also enhanced the production of cytokines by DCs, including IL-12, IFN-?, IL-6, and IL-23. Moreover, FCPS-treated DCs showed an enhanced capability to stimulate T cells and promote T cell proliferation. Altogether, these results demonstrate that FCPS are able to activate and maturate DCs, thereby up-regulating the immunostimulatory capacity of DCs, which leads to enhanced T cell responses. PMID:25026176

Tian, Jie; Zhang, Yue; Yang, Xiaomin; Rui, Ke; Tang, Xinyi; Ma, Jie; Chen, Jianguo; Xu, Huaxi; Lu, Liwei; Wang, Shengjun

2014-01-01

225

Phenological Adaptations in Ficus tikoua Exhibit Convergence with Unrelated Extra-Tropical Fig Trees  

PubMed Central

Flowering phenology is central to the ecology and evolution of most flowering plants. In highly-specific nursery pollination systems, such as that involving fig trees (Ficus species) and fig wasps (Agaonidae), any mismatch in timing has serious consequences because the plants must balance seed production with maintenance of their pollinator populations. Most fig trees are found in tropical or subtropical habitats, but the dioecious Chinese Ficus tikoua has a more northerly distribution. We monitored how its fruiting phenology has adapted in response to a highly seasonal environment. Male trees (where fig wasps reproduce) had one to three crops annually, whereas many seed-producing female trees produced only one fig crop. The timing of release of Ceratosolen fig wasps from male figs in late May and June was synchronized with the presence of receptive figs on female trees, at a time when there were few receptive figs on male trees, thereby ensuring seed set while allowing remnant pollinator populations to persist. F. tikoua phenology has converged with those of other (unrelated) northern Ficus species, but there are differences. Unlike F. carica in Europe, all F. tikoua male figs contain male flowers, and unlike F. pumila in China, but like F. carica, it is the second annual generation of adult wasps that pollinate female figs. The phenologies of all three temperate fig trees generate annual bottlenecks in the size of pollinator populations and for female F. tikoua also a shortage of fig wasps that results in many figs failing to be pollinated. PMID:25474008

Zhao, Ting-Ting; Compton, Stephen G.; Yang, Yong-Jiang; Wang, Rong; Chen, Yan

2014-01-01

226

Effects of different nutrient solution formulations on morphological and biochemical characteristics of nursery fig trees grown in substrate culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was carried out to determine the effects of different nutrient solution formulations on the growth of nursery fig trees in substrate culture, which is one of the soil-less culture techniques. The hardwood cuttings of Ficus carica L. cv. “Sar?lop” (Calimyrna) were planted into pots filled with 13L of perlite. Five different nutrient solution formulations were tested on the

Saadet Sevil Kilinc; Engin Ertan; Saime Seferoglu

2007-01-01

227

Rickettsial Relative Associated with Papaya Bunchy Top Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The phylogeny of a previously unidentified, obligate laticifer-inhabiting bacterium associated with the papaya bunchy top\\u000a disease was investigated. Portions of genes corresponding to those for 16S rRNA, the flavoprotein subunit of succinate dehydrogenase\\u000a (SdhA), citrate synthase (GltA), and the 17-kDa rickettsial common antigen were isolated and sequenced from the non-cultivable\\u000a bacterium from diseased plants. Comparative sequence analyses consistently indicated

Michael J. Davis; Zhentu Ying; Bryan R. Brunner; Alberto Pantoja; Feiko H. Ferwerda

1998-01-01

228

Removal and recovery of heavy metals from aqueous solution using papaya wood as a new biosorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya wood was evaluated as a new biosorbent of heavy metals. On contacting 10mgl?l copper(II), cadmium(II) and zinc(II) solutions with 5gl?1 papaya wood, during shake flask contact time of 60min, the respective metal removal was noted to be 97.8, 94.9 and 66.8%. Sorption was most efficient at pH 5. Metal ion biosorption increased as the ratio of metal solution to

Asma Saeed; M. Waheed Akhter; Muhammed Iqbal

2005-01-01

229

Microsatellite (GATA)n reveals sex-specific differences in Papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya, an economically important fruit plant, is polygamous in nature. The sex of dioecious papaya plants can be deduced\\u000a only after they attain reproductive maturity (6–8 months). Normally, 50% of the population in a field is composed of unfruitful\\u000a male plants and almost 45% of these have to be uprooted at the flowering stage. This unnecessary cultivation of unwanted males

A. S. Parasnis; W. Ramakrishna; K. V. Chowdari; V. S. Gupta; P. K. Ranjekar

1999-01-01

230

Chromosomal location and gene paucity of the male speciWc region on papaya Y chromosome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex chromosomes in Xowering plants evolved recently and many of them remain homomorphic, including those in papaya. We investigated the chromosomal location of papaya's small male speciWc region of the hermaphrodite Y (Yh) chromosome (MSY) and its genomic features. We conducted chromosome Xuorescence in situ hybridization mapping of Yh-speciWc bacterial artiWcial chromosomes (BACs) and placed the MSY near the centromere

Qingyi Yu; Shaobin Hou; Roman Hobza; F. Alex Feltus; Xiue Wang; Weiwei Jin; Rachel L. Skelton; Andrea Blas; Cornelia Lemke; Jimmy H. Saw; Paul H. Moore; Maqsudul Alam; Jiming Jiang; Andrew H. Paterson; Boris Vyskot; Ray Ming

231

Comparative effects of dietary administered transgenic and conventional papaya on selected intestinal parameters in rat models.  

PubMed

Transformation of agricultural crops with novel genes has significantly advanced disease-resistance breeding, including virus resistance through the expression of virus sequences. In this study, the effects of long-term, repeated exposure to transgenic papayas carrying the coat protein gene of Papaya ringspot virus and conventional non-transgenic papaya on the histology and selected biochemical parameters of the intestinal tract were compared. For 3 months, male and female Wistar rats received diets containing transgenic or non-transgenic papaya at twice the equivalent of the average daily consumption of fresh papayas. Gross and macroscopic appearance of intestinal tissues, as well as stomach tissues, was comparable (P < 0.05) as were total intestinal bacterial counts and activities of beta-glucuronidase. Activities of disaccharidases were not affected, neither were those of amylase (P < 0.05). Although significant differences were noted in the activity of Ca(2+) and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase brush border enzymes, no morphological alteration in the integrity of the intestinal mucosa was found. Overall, negligible effects on feed intake, body weight, and fecal output were observed (P < 0.05). Taken together, long-term exposure to diets formulated with transgenic papaya did not result in biologically important unintended effects. PMID:19690973

Powell, Melissa; Wheatley, Andrew O; Omoruyi, Felix; Asemota, Helen N; Williams, Nadia P; Tennant, Paula F

2010-06-01

232

Power, progress and prevarication: local knowledge and GE papaya in Thailand.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered (GE) papaya was developed in the 1990s to improve the livelihoods of small scale farmers in Thailand. Yet these farmers have been excluded from the discourse around its deregulation and deployment. While elite stakeholders continue to debate in Bangkok, little is known about small scale farmers' understanding of biotechnology, their perceptions of the technology and whether or not they are likely to be adopters if it became available. In this case study, I report on farmer knowledge of agricultural biotechnology and genetically engineered papaya in northeast Thailand. Forty farmers in four villages were surveyed with regard to their knowledge and perceptions of GE papaya. A qualitative grounded theory approach was employed to understand their responses, from which three themes emerged: progress, power and prevarication. From these themes, the decision-making process of farmers seems to be dominated by their existing local knowledge and their interest in progressing their economic status. The responses of small-scale Isaan farmers provide a new perspective on the debate over GE virus-resistant papaya in Thailand. Based on the results of this study, we can conclude that this small subset of Thai papaya growers perceive GE virus-resistant papaya as a compatible innovation that is likely to be adopted by Thai farmers if it becomes available. PMID:22538228

Davidson, Sarah N

2012-01-01

233

Research Article Towards Improved Reconstruction of Ancestral  

E-print Network

of alternate solutions, and other means to evaluate these techniques, and employ the papaya (Carica papaya), as well as an early rosid ancestor. A significant result is that the papaya genome has rearranged papaya (papaya), Vitis vinifera (grapevine), and Arabidopsis thaliana, whose sequences have been

dePamphilis, Claude

234

Helpful Tips for Chemigation of Papaya1 Kati L White, Teresa Olczyk, Jonathan Crane, Rafael Muoz-Carpena, Tina Dispenza, and Harry  

E-print Network

ABE 360 Helpful Tips for Chemigation of Papaya1 Kati L White, Teresa Olczyk, Jonathan Crane, Rafael helpful tips for papaya growers interested in chemigation. Depending on the type of chemical being-off valves. #12;Helpful Tips for Chemigation of Papaya 2 Figure 1. Water source, pump, and check valve

Migliaccio, Kati White

235

MATH 132 Solutions to Midterm 2 (papaya) 1. For each of the following sequences, determine whether it converges or diverges. If the  

E-print Network

MATH 132 Solutions to Midterm 2 (papaya) 1. For each of the following sequences, determine whether to Midterm 2 (papaya) Wednesday November 2, 2011 #12;Page 3 of 5 5.15 pts Find the volume of the solid (papaya) Wednesday November 2, 2011 #12;Page 4 of 5 Solution: (continued) So, for the series to converge

Sutherland, Scott

236

Flower Face Face Face Face Flower Tree Tree Tree Tree  

E-print Network

Flower Flower Flower Flower Flower Face Face Face Face Flower Flower Tree Tree Tree Tree Flower Sign Face Face Face Face Sign Sign Building Sign Water Sky Tree Building Building Building Sign Book Building Building Building Sign Bird Bird Road Tree Grass Road Road Bird Sky #12;Bird Bird Water Bird Grass

Chen, Tsuhan

237

SGI -Feature Story: Papaya Genome Sequencing Project Opens Vast Ar... http://www.sgi.com/company_info/features/2007/papaya.html 1 of 4 3/5/2008 12:31 PM  

E-print Network

the papaya from extinction on the islands. The papaya is now the first fruit ­ and the first transgenic crop ­ to be sequenced, helping to pave the way for international export of genetically modified fruits and vegetables at the University of Hawaii (UH), Dr. Takashi Sugimura, Maui Super Computer Center (MHPCC), Dr. Stan Saiki, Pacific

Alam, Maqsudul

238

INFLUENCE OF COAT PROTEIN TRANSGENE COPY NUMBER ON RESISTANCE IN TRANSGENIC LINE 63-1 AGAINST PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS ISOLATES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Line 63-1 is a ‘Sunset’-derived transgenic papaya expressing the coat protein (CP) gene from a mild mutant of a Hawaiian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Previous work showed that line 63-1 R1 plants exhibited a range of resistance to severe PRSV isolates from Hawaii (HA), Jamaica (JA), Thai...

239

Production of Internal Yellowing Symptoms on Resistant and Susceptible Papaya Cultivars by Enterobacter cloacae at Varying Inoculum Concentrations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Internal yellowing (IY) is a bacterial disease of ripening papaya flesh caused by Enterobacter cloacae and characterized by yellow softening tissue. IY restricts food safety of value-added products like fresh or frozen papaya cubes. The incidence of E. cloacae presumably differs in resistant (R) a...

240

ESTABLISHMENT OF CELLULAR REDUCING CONDITIONS WITH SAR INDUCTION IN PAPAYA, PLANT, ANIMAL & MICROBE GENOMES X11. ABSTRACT.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

BTH induces elevated hydrolytic enzyme activity, expression of two members of the PR1 gene family, and resistance to Phytophthora palmivora in papaya. Twenty five additional papaya genes showing elevated systematic expression three days after BTH treatment have now been identified by suppression su...

241

Antioxidant activity of bovine casein hydrolysates produced by Ficus carica L.-derived proteinase.  

PubMed

A Ficus carica L. latex proteinase preparation was investigated for its ability to produce antioxidant hydrolysates/peptides from bovine casein (CN). The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) values for NaCN and ?-CN hydrolysates ranged from 0.06 to 0.18, and from 0.51 to 1.19?mol Trolox equivalents/mg freeze-dried sample, respectively. Gel permeation HPLC showed that the ?-CN hydrolysate with a degree of hydrolysis of 21% had 65% of peptide material with a molecular mass <500Da. The RP-UPLC profiles also indicated that ?-CN was substantially hydrolysed during the early stages of hydrolysis. Analysis of the 4h ?-CN hydrolysate by LC-ESI-MS/MS allowed identification of 8 peptide sequences with potential antioxidant properties. PMID:24629973

Di Pierro, Giovanna; O'Keeffe, Martina B; Poyarkov, Alexey; Lomolino, Giovanna; FitzGerald, Richard J

2014-08-01

242

Fodder Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Agrobrief 'FODDER TREES' deals with trees and shrubs mainly or partially grown to provide fodder for livestock. The information in this brochure helps extension workers in the tropics to advice farmers about feeding fodder tree leaves to cattle, goats and sheep. It describes in short how farmers can benefit from fodder trees and which type of tree, how many

André van Tol

243

What is a Tree? Tree terminology  

E-print Network

1 Trees · What is a Tree? · Tree terminology · Why trees? · What is a general tree? · Implementing trees · Binary trees · Binary tree implementation · Application of Binary trees #12;2 What is a Tree? · A tree, is a finite set of nodes together with a finite set of directed edges that define parent

Razak, Saquib

244

Optimization of process parameters for foam-mat drying of papaya pulp.  

PubMed

Experiments were carried out to optimize the process parameters for production of papaya powder using foam-mat drying. Papaya pulp was foamed by incorporating methyl cellulose (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 %, w/w), glycerol-mono-stearate (1, 2, 3 and 4 %, w/w) and egg white (5, 10, 15 and 20 %, w/w) as foaming agents. The maximum stable foam formation was 72, 90 and 125% at 0.75 % methyl cellulose, 3 % glycerol-mono-stearate and 15 % egg white respectively with 9°Brix pulp and whipping time of 20 min. The foamed pulp was dried at air temperature of 60, 65 and 70 °C with foam thickness of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mm in a batch type cabinet dryer. The drying time required for foamed papaya pulp was lower than non-foamed pulp at all selected temperatures. Biochemical analysis results showed a significant reduction in ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and total sugars in the foamed papaya dried product at higher foam thickness (6, 8 and 10 mm) and temperature (65 and 70 °C due to destruction at higher drying temperature and increasing time. There was no significant change in other biochemical constituents such as pH and acidity. The organoleptic and sensory evaluation of the quality attributes of papaya powder obtained from the pulp of 9°Brix added with 3 % glycerol-mono-stearate, whipped for 20 min and dried with a foam thickness of 4 mm at a temperature of 60 °C was found to be optimum to produce the foam-mat dried papaya powder. PMID:25328192

Kandasamy, Palani; Varadharaju, N; Kalemullah, S; Maladhi, D

2014-10-01

245

Tree Tally  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity and fun race, learners first find the most common type of tree in a forest site. Learners use a "transect," a kind of sampling technique, to estimate the number of different kinds of trees, and a histogram, or simple graph, to record how frequently different tree species occur in the forest. Learners also select one species of tree, and run a forest leap frog race between trees of that species. (Older learners can just run between trees without leapfrogging.)

Science, Lawrence H.

1982-01-01

246

Papaya epicarp extract protects against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity.  

PubMed

In a previous study, we demonstrated the ability of papaya epicarp extract (PEE) to protect against oxidative stress-induced insult in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells in a mechanism that appeared to be by means of PEE potent antioxidant properties. To further understand this relationship, we examined the effect of PEE intervention on aluminum (Al)-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. The results indicated that PEE was effective in protecting against Al-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. PEE restored the Al-induced inhibition of folate-dependent methionine synthase activity and the antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidases and superoxide dismutase). PEE ameliorated the Al-induced impairment of intracellular glutathione and total antioxidant capacity. Together, these findings indicate that PEE supplementation can play a neuroprotective role in ameliorating the changes in redox status of SH-SY5Y cells exposed to Al, a well-known environmental toxin that is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:22956622

Waly, Mostafa I; Guizani, Nejib; Ali, Amanat; Rahman, Mohammad Shafiur

2012-09-01

247

Semen study of papaya workers exposed to ethylene dibromide  

SciTech Connect

A cross sectional semen and cytogenetic study was performed on male workers exposed to ethylene-dibromide (EDB) in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii. Semen analyses were conducted on 46 men in six fumigation facilities with an average length of employment of 5 years and airborne exposures to EDB ranging from 16 to 213 parts per billion. Statistically significant decreases in sperm count per ejaculate and the percentage of viable and motile sperm and increases in the proportion of specific morphological abnormalities were observed among exposed men when compared with controls. Semen volume and sperm concentration were also lower in the exposed group. No effect of exposure to EDB on sperm velocity, the overall proportion of sperm with normal morphology or YFF bodies was noted. The authors conclude that based on the decreases in sperm count, viability and motility and increases in certain types of morphological abnormalities among workers exposed to EDB, EDB may increase the risk of reproductive impairment in workers at exposure levels near the NIOSH recommended limit of 45 parts per billion and far below the current OSHA standard of 20 parts per million.

Ratcliffe, J.M.; Schrader, S.M.; Steenland, K.; Clapp, D.; Turner, T.

1984-01-01

248

Carotenoids are more bioavailable from papaya than from tomato and carrot in humans: a randomised cross-over study  

PubMed Central

Carrot, tomato and papaya represent important dietary sources of ?-carotene and lycopene. The main objective of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of carotenoids from these food sources in healthy human subjects. A total of sixteen participants were recruited for a randomised cross-over study. Test meals containing raw carrots, tomatoes and papayas were adjusted to deliver an equal amount of ?-carotene and lycopene. For the evaluation of bioavailability, TAG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions containing newly absorbed carotenoids were analysed over 9.5 h after test meal consumption. The bioavailability of ?-carotene from papayas was approximately three times higher than that from carrots and tomatoes, whereas differences in the bioavailability of ?-carotene from carrots and tomatoes were insignificant. Retinyl esters appeared in the TRL fractions at a significantly higher concentration after the consumption of the papaya test meal. Similarly, lycopene was approximately 2.6 times more bioavailable from papayas than from tomatoes. Furthermore, the bioavailability of ?-cryptoxanthin from papayas was shown to be 2.9 and 2.3 times higher than that of the other papaya carotenoids ?-carotene and lycopene, respectively. The morphology of chromoplasts and the physical deposition form of carotenoids were hypothesised to play a major role in the differences observed in the bioavailability of carotenoids from the foods investigated. Particularly, the liquid-crystalline deposition of ?-carotene and the storage of lycopene in very small crystalloids in papayas were found to be associated with their high bioavailability. In conclusion, papaya was shown to provide highly bioavailable ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin and lycopene and may represent a readily available dietary source of provitamin A for reducing the incidence of vitamin A deficiencies in many subtropical and tropical developing countries. PMID:23931131

Schweiggert, Ralf M.; Kopec, Rachel E.; Villalobos-Gutierrez, Maria G.; Högel, Josef; Quesada, Silvia; Esquivel, Patricia; Schwartz, Steven J.; Carle, Reinhold

2014-01-01

249

Resistance of non-transgenic papaya plants to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) mediated by intron-containing hairpin dsRNAs expressed in bacteria.  

PubMed

RNA-mediated virus resistance based on natural antiviral RNA silencing has been exploited as a powerful tool for engineering virus resistance in plants. In this study, a conserved 3'-region (positions 9839-10117, 279 nt) of the capsid protein (CP) gene of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), designated CP279, was used to generate an intron-containing hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) construct by one-step, zero-background ligation-independent cloning (OZ-LIC). The RNaseIII-deficient Escherichia coli strain M-JM109lacY was identified as the best choice for producing large quantities of specific ihpRNA-CP279. Resistance analyses and ELISA data verified that most papaya plants mechanically co-inoculated with TRIzol-extracted ihpRNA-CP279 and PRSV were resistant to PRSV, and resistance was maintained throughout the test period (>2 months post-inoculation). In contrast, a 1-2 day interval between sequential inoculation of PRSV and ihpRNA-CP279 did not result in complete protection against PRSV infection, but delayed the appearance of viral symptoms by 3 to 4 days. These findings indicate that direct mechanical inoculation of papaya plants with bacterially-expressed ihpRNA-CP279 targeting the PRSV CP gene can interfere with virus infection. This work lays a foundation for developing a non-transgenic approach to control PRSV by directly spraying plants with ihpRNA or crude bacterial extract preparations. PMID:25283861

Shen, W; Yang, G; Chen, Y; Yan, P; Tuo, D; Li, X; Zhou, P

2014-01-01

250

CLONALY PROPAGATED AND SEED-DERIVED PAPAYA ORCHARDS: 2. COMPARISON OF YIELDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gynodioecious papaya seedlings in commercial cropping systems in Hawaii are typically multiple-planted and thinned upon flowering to a single hermaphrodite because seedlings segregate for sex expression. Use of clonally propagated hermaphrodites would eliminate the over-planting practice and may pro...

251

Molecular and Clinical Effects of Green Tea and Fermented Papaya Preparation on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Assess the Effect of Green Tea on Diabetes; Assess the Effect of Fermented Papaya Pretration on Diabetes; Effects of Green Tea and FPP on C-reactive Proteins; Effects of Green Tea and FPP of Lipid Profiles in Diabetes; Effect of Green Tea and FPP on Atheroma Formation

2014-11-14

252

Physical Mapping Of A Sex Reversal Mutation On Papaya Y Chromosome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unlike animal species, most flowering plants are hermaphrodite, producing flowers that contain both male and female organs. Papaya is one of the limited number of plant species that produce male, female, and hermaphrodite flowers on separate individuals, offering us the opportunity of investigating ...

253

Semen quality in papaya workers with long term exposure to ethylene dibromide  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine whether long term occupational exposure to ethylene dibromide (EDB) affects semen quality a cross sectional study of semen quality was conducted among 46 men employed in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii, with an average duration of exposure of five years and a geometric mean breathing zone exposure to airborne EDB of 88 ppb (eight hour time weighted

J M Ratcliffe; S M Schrader; K Steenland; D E Clapp; T Turner; R W Hornung

1987-01-01

254

HPLC Quantitation of Major Carotenoids of Fresh and Processed Guava, Mango and Papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major carotenoids in 52 samples of guava, mango, papaya and some of their processed products were quantitated by HPLC, using both external standardisation and standard addition calibration techniques. The results, submitted to theFandttests, demonstrated that the precision and the means obtained by the two calibration procedures were not significantly different. The concentrations of ?-carotene and lycopene in guava, ?-carotene

Viktor C. Wilberg; Delia B. Rodriguez-Amaya

1995-01-01

255

Complete Nucleotide Sequence and Genetic Organization of Papaya Ringspot Virus RNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete nucleotide sequence of the RNA genome of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was determined from four overlapping cDNA clones and by direct sequenc- ing of viral RNA. The genomic RNA is 10326 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(A) tract, and contains one large open reading frame that starts at nucleotide positions 86 to 88 and ends at positions 10118

Shyi-Dong Yeh; Fuh-Jyh Jan; Chu-Hui Chiang; Tzyy-Jye Doong; Ming-Cheng Chen; Pei-Hua Chung; Huey-Jimm Bau

1992-01-01

256

The Nucleotide Sequences of the 3'-terminal Regions of Papaya Ringspot Virus Strains W and P  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequences of cDNA clones encoding most of the NI b protein, the coat protein and the 3' untranslated region of papaya ringspot virus (PRV) strains W and P have been determined. The open reading frame of P strain PRV was confirmed by amino acid analysis. Nucleotide sequence comparisons of these strains show that they share a 98-2% identity in

Hector Quemada; Brigitte L'Hostis; Dennis Gonsalves; Ilene M. Reardon; Robert Heinrikson; Ernest L. Hiebert; Leang C. Sieu; Jerry L. Slightom

1990-01-01

257

CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF APETALA3 AND PISTILLATA ORTHOLOGS IN PAPAYA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the ABCE model of flower development, B function organ-identity genes act in the second and third whorls of the flower to control petal and stamen identity. Papaya has three sex forms, male, female, and hermaphrodite so its flowers might be ideal for testing the function of B class genes in all t...

258

AUTOSOMAL DEGENERATION AS THE PROCESS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF A PRIMITIVE Y CHROMOSOME IN PAPAYA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant sex chromosomes, in contrast to those in animals, evolved recently and only a few are heteromorphic. Genomic analyses of the homomorphic sex chromosomes of papaya show features of the early stages of sex chromosome evolution. Sequence analysis of 20% of the male specific region (MSY) shows tha...

259

Efforts to deregulate Rainbow papaya in Japan: Molecular Characterization of Transgene and Vector Inserts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transformation plasmid-derived insert number and insert site sequence in 55-1 line papaya derivatives Rainbow and SunUp was determined as part of a larger petition to allow its import into Japan (Suzuki, et al., 2007, 2008). Three insertions were detected by Southern analysis and their correspondin...

260

Wound-Healing Effect of Papaya-Based Preparation in Experimental Thermal Trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment with the phytopreparation from papaya accelerated wound healing and reduced the severity of local inflammation in rats with burn wounds. The effect of this phytopreparation can be related to an increase in the effectiveness of intracellular bacterial killing by tissue phagocytes due to the inhibition of bacterial catalase. Antioxidant activity of the preparation decreases the risk of oxidative damage

E. V. Mikhalchik; A. V. Ivanova; M. V. Anurov; S. M. Titkova; L. Yu. Penkov; Z. F. Kharaeva; L. G. Korkina

2004-01-01

261

Anthelmintic activity of papaya seeds on Hymenolepis diminuta infections in rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to see the anthelmintic activity potential of papaya seeds against Hymenolepis diminuta in rats. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the effectiveness of papaya seeds on helminths especially H. diminuta in rats and (2) to determine the effective dose level on helminths in rats. Thirty six male rats from strain Sprague-Dawley were chosen as samples in this experiment. Two types of dose level were used for papaya seeds treatments such as 0.6 g kg-1 and 1.2 g kg-1. The geometric mean (GEM) was used to calculate mean for eggs per gram (EPG) before and after the treatment to be included in the reduction percentage calculation. After 21 days post treatment, necropsies were done to get the worm count and the GEM was used to calculate the efficacy percentage for the treatment. Results from this study showed that the reduction percentages in EPG for papaya seeds treatment for both doses level were very high which is 96.8% for 0.6g kg-1 dose level and 96.2% for 1.2 g kg-1 dose level. Whereas the efficacy percentage based on the worm counts for both doses level were also very high that was 90.77% for 0.6 g kg-1 dose level and 93.85% for 1.2 g kg-1. PMID:23202594

Sapaat, A; Satrija, F; Mahsol, H H; Ahmad, A H

2012-12-01

262

Computational prediction of novel non-coding RNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana  

E-print Network

including rice (Oryza sativa), poplar (Populus trichocarpa), grape (Vitis vinifera), and papaya (Carica papaya). By using multiple sequence alignment, a popular ncRNA prediction program (RNAz), 1 #12;wet

Lu, Bao-Liang

263

21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...No. 9001-73-4) is a proteolytic enzyme derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya...aqueous solution of latex. The resulting enzyme preparation may be used in a liquid...

2013-04-01

264

21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...No. 9001-73-4) is a proteolytic enzyme derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya...aqueous solution of latex. The resulting enzyme preparation may be used in a liquid...

2012-04-01

265

21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...No. 9001-73-4) is a proteolytic enzyme derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya...aqueous solution of latex. The resulting enzyme preparation may be used in a liquid...

2011-04-01

266

21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...No. 9001-73-4) is a proteolytic enzyme derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya...aqueous solution of latex. The resulting enzyme preparation may be used in a liquid...

2010-04-01

267

21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...No. 9001-73-4) is a proteolytic enzyme derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya...aqueous solution of latex. The resulting enzyme preparation may be used in a liquid...

2014-04-01

268

Decision Trees Unpredictability Bias Improvements Decision Trees  

E-print Network

Decision Trees Unpredictability Bias Improvements Decision Trees #12;Decision Trees Unpredictability Bias Improvements 1 Decision Trees Using Trees Learning 2 Unpredictability Entropy Entropy for datasets Information Gain 3 Bias Bias Occam's principle Overfitting 4 Improvements #12;Decision Trees

Kjellström, Hedvig

269

76 FR 49725 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia into the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...designated phytosanitary measures will be sufficient to mitigate the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh papaya fruit from Malaysia. DATES: Effective Date: August 11, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

2011-08-11

270

Introduction to Trees Tree Application: Character Reconstruction  

E-print Network

Introduction to Trees Tree Application: Character Reconstruction Trees and Distances Organismal Trees Consensus Trees Chapter 2. Trees Weigang Qiu Department of Biological Sciences Hunter College BIOL 375 Molecular Evolution, Fall 2009 Weigang Qiu Chapter 2. Trees #12;Introduction to Trees Tree

Qiu, Weigang

271

Age and growth of the knobbed whelk Busycon carica (Gmelin 1791) in South Carolina subtidal waters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Knobbed whelk, Busycon carica (Gmelin, 1791), age and growth were estimated using tagged and recaptured individuals (n = 396) from areas off South Carolina coastal islands. Recaptured whelks were at large an average of 298 d (4-2,640 d). Growth, an increase in shell length (SL), was evident in 24% of the recaptured whelks, whereas 29% of recaptured individuals were the same size as when released and 47% were smaller than the released size. Mean growth rate was <0.001 mm SL/d and 0.022 mm SL/d if decreases in SL were assumed to be zero. Smaller whelks (???90 mm SL) at large for over one year grew seven times faster than larger whelks. The von Bertalanffy growth model: SL1 = 159.5(1 - e-0.0765(t+0.4162)), was developed from the mark - recapture whelks exhibiting growth. Based on a South Carolina minimum legal size of 102 mm SL, whelks recruit into the fishery at 13 y of age. The longevity, large size at maturity and slow growth suggest the potential for over harvest of knobbed whelk. Future whelk management plans may wish to consider whether economically viable commercial harvest can be sustainable.

Eversole, A.G.; Anderson, W.D.; Isely, J.J.

2008-01-01

272

Multiscale hierarchical assembly strategy and mechanical prowess in conch shells (Busycon carica).  

PubMed

Seashells are natural body armors with superior mechanical strength and ultra-high toughness compared with their major constituent counterparts. What building blocks and architecture render seashells such mechanical prowess? In this study, micro/nanoscale structural and mechanical characterization of conch shells (Busycon carica) has been carried out. Here we show direct evidence that the previously claimed single-crystal third-order lamellae--the basic building blocks in conch shells are essentially assembled with aragonite nanoparticles of the size ranging from 20 to 45 nm. The nanoparticle-constructed third-order lamellae are not brittle, but ductile. The three-order crossed-lamellar architecture interlocks cracks via crack deflection along the interfaces in a three-dimensional manner, thus confining the damage in a small region. The findings advance the understanding of the mystery of conch shell's mechanical robustness, provide additional design guidelines for developing bioinspired nanomaterials, and lay a constitutive foundation for modeling the deformation behavior of seashells. PMID:24184467

Li, Haoze; Xu, Zhi-Hui; Li, Xiaodong

2013-12-01

273

Growth and Respiratory Response of Fig (Ficus carica L. cv. Mission) Fruits to Ethylene.  

PubMed

Growth in diameter of the fig (Ficus carica L. cv. Mission) fruit takes place in three distinct periods; two periods (I and III) of rapid growth are separated by a period (II) of slow growth. With respect to exposure to ethylene, the fruit exhibits a two phase response. Ethylene inhibits fruit growth in phase A (period I), the period of cell division, stimulates growth in early phase B (early period II), and stimulates both growth and ripening during the remainder of phase B (late period II and period III). The adverse effect of exogenous ethylene on fruits during phase A is thought to be due to inhibition of cell division. The gradual transition occurring in the response of fruits during phase B was interpreted in terms of carbohydrate level in the fruits.The onset of period III and a respiratory climacteric rise was preceded by or concomitant with a sudden burst of endogenous ethylene synthesis. This, together with the fact that exogenous ethylene applied at the proper stage of fruit growth triggers both ripening and the climacteric rise, leads to the conclusion that ethylene is the causal agent. In other words, the data support the concept that ethylene is a growth hormone that initiates a chain of metabolic and physiological events leading to fig fruit ripening. PMID:16657774

Marei, N; Crane, J C

1971-09-01

274

ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR Population Dynamics and Within-Plant Distribution of the Mite  

E-print Network

flagelliseta (Acari: Eriophyidae) on Papaya in Hawaii VALERIE FOURNIER,1, 2, 3, 4 , JAY A. ROSENHEIM,1 JACQUES & Barbosa on papaya, Papaya carica L. (Caricaceae), in Hawaii to quantify 1) patterns of seasonal abundance, 2) its distribution across different vertical strata of the papaya canopy, and 3) shifts in its use

Rosenheim, Jay A.

275

Tree Squirrels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter tree squirrels are divided into three groups: large tree squirrels, pine squirrels, and flying squirrels. Large tree squirrels include fox (Sciurus niger), eastern gray (Sciurus carolinensis), western gray (Sciurus griseus), and tassel-eared (Sciurus aberti) squirrels. Fox squirrels (Fig. 1) measure 18 to 27 inches (46 to 69 cm) from nose to tip of tail. They weigh about

Jeffrey J. Jackson

1994-01-01

276

First draft of transgenic papaya genome yields many fruits http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-04/uoia-fdo041608.php 1 of 2 4/24/2008 7:01 PM  

E-print Network

of transgenic papaya genome yields many fruits A broad collaboration of research institutions in the UFirst draft of transgenic papaya genome yields many fruits http with the plant's ability to photosynthesize. The transgenic papaya at the center of this field (darker

Alam, Maqsudul

277

Papaya genome project bears fruit : Nature News http://www.nature.com/news/2008/080423/full/news.2008.772.html 1 of 2 4/24/2008 7:05 PM  

E-print Network

Papaya genome project bears fruit : Nature News http://www.nature.com/news/2008/080423/full/news.2008.772.html 1 of 2 4/24/2008 7:05 PM Punchstock Papaya: Hawaii's 5th largest crop. Published online 23 April 2008 | Nature | doi:10.1038/news.2008.772 News Papaya genome project bears fruit Hawaiian

Alam, Maqsudul

278

Transgenic Papaya Genome Sequenced http://www.genomeweb.com/issues/news/146481-1.html?type=pf 1 of 2 4/27/2008 7:12 PM  

E-print Network

Transgenic Papaya Genome Sequenced http://www.genomeweb.com/issues/news/146481-1.html?type=pf 1 of 2 4/27/2008 7:12 PM Transgenic Papaya Genome Sequenced April 23, 2008 By a GenomeWeb staff reporter, an international team of researchers report sequencing the first papaya genome. The sequence -- generated from

Alam, Maqsudul

279

Science News / Study Decodes Papaya Genome http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/31444/title/Study_decodes... 1 of 1 4/27/2008 7:05 PM  

E-print Network

Science News / Study Decodes Papaya Genome http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/31444/title team of researchers has unveiled a draft of the catalog of genetic information needed to make papaya. It is the first time researchers have compiled the genome of a transgenic fruit crop -- the papaya variety had

Alam, Maqsudul

280

Ficus carica Latex Prevents Invasion Through Induction of Let-7d Expression in GBM Cell Lines.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the deadliest human malignancies. A cure for GBM remains elusive, and the overall survival time is less than 1 year. Thus, the development of more efficient therapeutic approaches for the treatment of these patients is required. Induction of tumor cell death by certain phytochemicals derived from medicinal herbs and dietary plants has become a new frontier for cancer therapy research. Although the cancer suppressive effect of Ficus carica (fig) latex (FCL) has been determined in a few cancer types, the effect of this latex on GBM tumors has not been investigated. Therefore, in the current study, the anti-proliferative activity of FCL and the effect of the FCL-temozolomide (TMZ) combination were tested in the T98G, U-138 MG, and U-87 MG GBM cell lines using the WST-1 assay. The mechanism of cell death was analyzed using Annexin-V/FITC and TUNEL assays, and the effect of FCL on invasion was tested using the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. To determine the effect of FCL on GBM progression, the expression levels of 40 GBM associated miRNAs were analyzed in T98G cells using RT-qPCR. According to the obtained data, FCL causes cell death in GBM cells with different responses to TMZ, and this effect is synergistically increased in combination with TMZ. In addition, the current study is the first to demonstrate the effect of FCL on modulation of let-7d expression, which may be an important underlying mechanism of the anti-invasive effect of this extract. PMID:25212824

Tezcan, Gulcin; Tunca, Berrin; Bekar, Ahmet; Yalcin, Murat; Sahin, Saliha; Budak, Ferah; Cecener, Gulsah; Egeli, Unal; Demir, Cevdet; Guvenc, Gokcen; Yilmaz, Gozde; Erkan, Leman Gizem; Malyer, Hulusi; Taskapilioglu, Mevlut Ozgur; Evrensel, Turkkan; Bilir, Ayhan

2014-09-12

281

Effect of the potassium permanganate during papaya fruit ripening: Ethylene production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on the ripening process of papaya fruits by monitoring the ethylene emission rates is reported. The ethylene emission was monitored by a photoacoustic spectrometer. Two experimental conditions were applied, being one of them just putting the fruit alone inside the sampling chamber and the second, modifying the atmosphere by the presence of KMnO4. The use of the ethylene absorber reduces the autocatalytic process of ethylene during papaya fruit ripening. For 20 g of KMnO4 the maximal intensity of the ethylene emission decreases by a factor two. Using the same amount of KMnO4, a reduction of about 2.2% in the concentration of ethylene for a mixture of 1ppmv of ethylene in synthetic air was observed.

Corrêa, S. F.; Filho, M. B.; da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Aroucha, E. M. M.; Silva, R. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

2005-06-01

282

Development and validation of a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay for simultaneous detection of three papaya viruses.  

PubMed

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce similar symptoms in papaya. Each threatens commercial production of papaya on Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay was developed to detect simultaneously these three viruses by screening combinations of mixed primer pairs and optimizing the multiplex RT-PCR reaction conditions. A mixture of three specific primer pairs was used to amplify three distinct fragments of 613 bp from the P3 gene of PRSV, 355 bp from the CP gene of PLDMV, and 205 bp from the CP gene of PapMV, demonstrating the assay's specificity. The sensitivity of the multiplex RT-PCR was evaluated by showing plasmids containing each of the viral target genes with 1.44 × 103, 1.79 × 103, and 1.91 × 102 copies for the three viruses could be detected successfully. The multiplex RT-PCR was applied successfully for detection of three viruses from 341 field samples collected from 18 counties of Hainan Island, China. Rates of single infections were 186/341 (54.5%), 93/341 (27.3%), and 3/341 (0.9%), for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively; 59/341 (17.3%) of the samples were co-infected with PRSV and PLDMV, which is the first time being reported in Hainan Island. This multiplex RT-PCR assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method for detecting multiple viruses in papaya and can be used for routine molecular diagnosis and epidemiological studies in papaya. PMID:25337891

Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yang, Yong; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

2014-10-01

283

High-performance thin layer chromatographic quantification of bioactive psoralen and daidzein in leaves of Ficus carica L.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to quantify psoralen and daidzein by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). The methanolic extract of 10 mg mL(-1) concentration solution was prepared for HPTLC quantification of psoralen and daidzein. HPTLC aluminium-backed plates coated with 0.2 mm layers of silica gel 60 F(254) were used as the stationary phase. The working standard solution of psoralen and daidzein was applied along with the test sample solution by means of Camag Linomat IV sample applicator. R (f) values of psoralen and daidzein were found to be 0.60 and 0.88, whilst as their percentage values in methanolic extract were found to be 3.02% and 5.64% (w/w), respectively. A simple quantitative estimation method of psoralen and daidzein by HPTLC is reported that can be used for the quality control of marketed preparations containing Ficus carica. However, further study is warranted to isolate and quantify active constituents present in the leaves of F. carica by sophisticated techniques. PMID:21714728

Ali, B; Mujeeb, M; Aeri, V; Mir, S R; Ahmad, S; Siddique, N A; Faiyazuddin, M; Shakeel, F

2011-10-01

284

Opportunities and constraints to biotechnological applications in the Caribbean: transgenic papayas in Jamaica and Venezuela.  

PubMed

In this opinion article, we briefly review the status of crop biotechnology research-with emphasis on the development of GM crops-in Jamaica and Venezuela. We focus on the transgenic papayas developed for both countries, and examine the factors hindering not only the development and application of this biotechnological commodity for the improvement of agricultural productivity, but also on the challenges influencing societal acceptance of the technology. PMID:21212960

Fermin, Gustavo; Tennant, Paula

2011-05-01

285

Divergence and conservation of the genomic RNAs of Taiwan and Hawaii strains of papaya ringspot potyvirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of a Taiwan isolate of papaya ringspot potyvirus (PRSV YK) was determined\\u000a from three overlapping cDNA clones and by direct RNA sequencing. Comparison was made with the reported Hawaii isolate of PRSV\\u000a HA. Both genomes are 10?326 nucleotides long, excluding the poly(A)-tail. They encode a polyprotein of 3?344 amino acids with\\u000a a

C.-H. Wang; S.-D. Yeh

1997-01-01

286

Phenol induced by irradiation does not impair sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of radiation processing on the sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya exposed to doses in the range of 2.5-10 kGy and 100 Gy-2.5 kGy respectively was investigated. Despite an increase in the content of phenol in the volatile oil of these food products overall sensory quality of the irradiated and control samples was not significantly affected by radiation processing.

Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

2013-11-01

287

Complete genome of Hainan papaya ringspot virus using small RNA deep sequencing.  

PubMed

Small RNA deep sequencing allows for virus identification, virus genome assembly, and strain differentiation. In this study, papaya plants with virus-like symptoms collected in Hainan province were used for deep sequencing and small RNA library construction. After in silicon subtraction of the papaya sRNAs, small RNA reads were used to in the viral genome assembly using a reference-guided, iterative assembly approach. A nearly complete genome was assembled for a Hainan isolate of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-HN-2). The complete PRSV-HN-2 genome (accession no.: KF734962) was obtained after a 15-nucleotide gap was filled by direct sequencing of the amplified genomic region. Direct sequencing of several random genomic regions of the PRSV isolate did not find any sequence discrepancy with the sRNA-assembled genome. The newly sequenced PRSV-HN-2 genome shared a nucleotide identity of 96 and 94 % to that of the PRSV-HN (EF183499) and PRSV-HN-1 (HQ424465) isolates, and together with these two isolates formed a new PRSV clade. These data demonstrate that the small RNA deep sequencing technology provides a viable and rapid mean to assemble complete viral genomes in plants. PMID:24510356

Zhang, Yuliang; Yu, Naitong; Huang, Qixing; Yin, Guohua; Guo, Anping; Wang, Xiangfeng; Xiong, Zhongguo; Liu, Zhixin

2014-06-01

288

Sequencing papaya X and Yh chromosomes reveals molecular basis of incipient sex chromosome evolution  

PubMed Central

Sex determination in papaya is controlled by a recently evolved XY chromosome pair, with two slightly different Y chromosomes controlling the development of males (Y) and hermaphrodites (Yh). To study the events of early sex chromosome evolution, we sequenced the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome (HSY) and its X counterpart, yielding an 8.1-megabase (Mb) HSY pseudomolecule, and a 3.5-Mb sequence for the corresponding X region. The HSY is larger than the X region, mostly due to retrotransposon insertions. The papaya HSY differs from the X region by two large-scale inversions, the first of which likely caused the recombination suppression between the X and Yh chromosomes, followed by numerous additional chromosomal rearrangements. Altogether, including the X and/or HSY regions, 124 transcription units were annotated, including 50 functional pairs present in both the X and HSY. Ten HSY genes had functional homologs elsewhere in the papaya autosomal regions, suggesting movement of genes onto the HSY, whereas the X region had none. Sequence divergence between 70 transcripts shared by the X and HSY revealed two evolutionary strata in the X chromosome, corresponding to the two inversions on the HSY, the older of which evolved about 7.0 million years ago. Gene content differences between the HSY and X are greatest in the older stratum, whereas the gene content and order of the collinear regions are identical. Our findings support theoretical models of early sex chromosome evolution. PMID:22869747

Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Yu, Qingyi; Gschwend, Andrea R.; Han, Jennifer; Zeng, Fanchang; Aryal, Rishi; VanBuren, Robert; Murray, Jan E.; Zhang, Wenli; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Feltus, F. Alex; Lemke, Cornelia; Tong, Eric J.; Chen, Cuixia; Man Wai, Ching; Singh, Ratnesh; Wang, Ming-Li; Min, Xiang Jia; Alam, Maqsudul; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H.; Jiang, Jiming; Paterson, Andrew H.; Ming, Ray

2012-01-01

289

Physicochemical, nutritional, and microbial quality of fresh-cut and frozen papaya prepared from cultivars with varying resistance to internal yellowing disease (Enterobacter cloacae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quality, nutritional, and microbial analyses were completed for fresh-cut and frozen papaya cubes prepared from cultivars with varying resistance to internal yellowing disease, caused by the bacterium Enterobacter cloacae. In general, fresh-cut and frozen papaya retained nutritional and microbial qu...

290

Foraging on and consumption of two species of papaya pest mites, Tetranychus kanzawai and Panonychus citri (Acari: tetranychidae) by Mallada basalis (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Panonychus citri (McGregor) are two major acarine pests of the principal papaya variety in Taiwan, and they often co-occur in the same papaya screenhouses. This study measured prey acceptability, foraging schedule, short-term consumption rate, and handling time of la...

291

Removal of Cr(VI) onto Ficus carica biosorbent from water.  

PubMed

The utilization of sustainable and biodegradable lignocellulosic fiber to detoxify the noxious Cr(VI) from wastewater is considered a versatile approach to clean up a contaminated aquatic environment. The aim of the present research is to assess the proficiency and mechanism of biosorption on Ficus carica bast fiber via isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Harkin's-Jura, and Dubinin-Radushkevich), kinetic models, and thermodynamic parameters. The biomass extracted from fig plant was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. To optimize the maximum removal efficiency, different parameters like effect of initial concentration, effect of temperature, pH, and contact time were studied by batch method. The equilibrium data were best represented by the Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) onto biosorbent was found to be 19.68 mg/g. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model adequately described the kinetic data. The calculated values of thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy change (?H(0)), entropy change (?S(0)), and free energy change (?G(0)) were 21.55 kJ/mol, 76.24 J/mol K, and -1.55 kJ/mol, respectively, at 30 °C which accounted for spontaneous and endothermic processes. The study of adsorbent capacity for Cr(VI) removal in the presence of Na(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), SO 4 (2-) , HCO 3 (-) and Cl(-) illustrated that the removal of Cr(VI) increased in the presence of HCO(3-) ions; the presence of Na(+), SO 4 (2-) or Cl(-) showed no significant influence on Cr(VI) adsorption, while Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions led to an insignificant decrease in Cr(VI) adsorption. Further, the desorption studies illustrated that 31.10% of metal ions can be removed from an aqueous system, out of which 26.63% of metal ions can be recovered by desorption in first cycle and the adsorbent can be reused. The results of the scale-up study show that the ecofriendly detoxification of Cr(VI) from aqueous systems was technologically feasible. PMID:22983603

Gupta, V K; Pathania, Deepak; Agarwal, Shilpi; Sharma, Shikha

2013-04-01

292

Tree Talk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math meets life science lesson, learners measure the circumference of local trees in order to calculate diameters. Learners use this information and a growth rate table to estimate the age of the trees. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.

Rosen, S.

2010-01-01

293

Talking Trees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students love outdoor activities and will love them even more when they build confidence in their tree identification and measurement skills. Through these activities, students will learn to identify the major characteristics of trees and discover how the pace--a nonstandard measuring unit--can be used to estimate not only distances but also the…

Tolman, Marvin

2005-01-01

294

Growing Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Includes RedBlackTrees, BinarySearchTrees, and SplayTrees. It allows the user to create randomly generated input data or to insert user's own input data for a splay tree in different formats such as integer, double, and character. Users can construct a splay tree by directly inserting, deleting, and splaying tree nodes to the top. The user can also select different tree operations such as in, pre- and post-order traversals. It provides a number of flexible user controls including the speed control, stop, forward, backward steps, etc. Text-based descriptions are displayed for each algorithm step. The textual descriptions include miscellaneous information about the tree including the size, number of elements and depth. This text information can define a history of the algorithm. One of the best AVs for the splay tree. It provides interaction-oriented operations and adjustable spatial layout with intuitive animations. This AV includes almost all necessary features for the splay tree. Randomly generated input data offered many advantages for a beginner to start with some input. It also allows constructing the splay tree with user's own input dataset. The graphic representation and animation for the splay tree is intuitive and helpful for understanding each algorithm step. A small text window lists algorithm steps that are performed. The AV has a simple, intuitive interface. For new users, it can be difficult to get started, though, since there is no help facility or introduction to the AV. The user can select a node by clicking it. A context menu then appears which allows double rotation, splay to the top, and delete. Controls at the top allow nodes to be inserted. There are some weaknesses.The layout is spacious but the number representation seems sometimes misleading during the animation and transformation. There is a problem with scalability of nodes in representation of the tree. When the number of elements in the tree grows beyond 10, the nodes become too small for the user to read. There is no quiz or exercise mode to encourage self-evaluation. Some controls ambiguous . For example, although those controls present on the interface menu, backwards and forwards steps of the animation don't seem to do anything. The history window is too small. Recommended as lecture aide, standalone, self-study suppliment to tutorial or lecture.

Bob Sedgewick

295

Accumulation and long-term decline of radiocaesium contamination in tropical fruit trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accumulation of 137Cs, 40K and NH 4+ in several organs of tropical plants species were studied through measurements of its concentrations from mango, avocado, guava, papaya, banana and chili pepper trees. Our goal was to infer their differences in the uptake and translocation of such ions to the aboveground plant parts and to establish the suitability of using radiocaesium as a tracer for the plant uptake of nutrients. The results indicate Cs + is better tracer for K + as it is for NH 4+.

Anjos, R. M.; Mosquera, B.; Carvalho, C.; Sanches, N.; Bastos, J.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Macario, K.

2007-09-01

296

Detection of platypus-type L/D-peptide isomerase activity in aqueous extracts of papaya fruit.  

PubMed

Peptide isomerase catalyses the post-translational isomerisation of the L: - to the D: -form of an amino acid residue around the N/C-termini of substrate peptides. To date, some peptide isomerases have been found in a limited number of animal secretions and cells. We show here that papaya extracts have weak peptide isomerase activity. The activity was detected in each 30-100 kDa fraction of the flesh and the seed extracts of unripe and ripe papaya fruit. The definitive activity was confirmed in the ripe papaya extracts, but even then it was much less active than that of the other peptide isomerases previously reported. The activity was markedly inhibited by methanol, and partly so by amastatin and diethyl pyrocarbonate. This is the first report of peptide isomerase activity in a plant and suggests that perhaps every living organism may have some peptide isomerase activity. PMID:22648682

Arakawa, Kensuke; Koh, Jennifer M S; Crossett, Ben; Torres, Allan M; Kuchel, Philip W

2012-09-01

297

Comparative evaluation of volatiles, phenolics, sugars, organic acids and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papaya varieties.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to determine the phenolic compounds, organic acids, sugars, aroma profiles and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papayas grown in Turkey. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used for the phenolic compounds analysis. Twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in the samples. The total phenolic content of Sel-42 was clearly higher than that of Tainung. Protocatechuic acid-hexoside, gallic acid-deoxyhexoside, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolics in both cultivars. Aroma composition of papaya was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 46 and 42 aroma compounds, including esters, alcohols, terpenes, lactones, acids, carbonyl compounds, and volatile phenols were identified in the Sel-42 and Tainung, respectively. The significant linear correlation was confirmed between the values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of papaya extracts. PMID:25466106

Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan; Gubbuk, Hamide; Gunes, Esma

2015-04-15

298

Ephedra alte (joint pine): an invasive, problematic weedy species in forestry and fruit tree orchards in Jordan.  

PubMed

A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008-2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

Qasem, Jamal R

2012-01-01

299

Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan  

PubMed Central

A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

Qasem, Jamal R.

2012-01-01

300

Estudo Comparativo entre os Constituintes Voláteis Liberados por Machos Ceratitis Capitata e Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) e seus Frutos Hospedeiros Preferencial Averrhoa carambola L. e Secundário, Carica papaya L.  

E-print Network

??Os machos de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) liberam uma mistura complexa de constituintes químicos para atrair machos e fêmeas coespecíficos (feromônio de agregação). Nas espécies de… (more)

Carlos Eduardo da Silva

2005-01-01

301

Role of irradiation in the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles mediated by fig (Ficus carica) leaf extract.  

PubMed

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles in an aqueous mixture of fig (Ficus carica) leaf extract and AgNO3 solution exposed to a set of irradiances at different wavelengths are studied. Nanoparticle formation for irradiances between 6.5 mW/cm(2) and 13.3 mW/cm(2) in the 330-550 nm wavelength range is investigated and the results are compared to those of the nanoparticles synthesized in the dark and under direct sunlight. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, along with particle size analysis and transmission electron microscopy are employed for the characterization of samples and extracts. Irradiance is found to have profound influence on the reduction rates. However, size and spherical shape of the nanoparticles are persistent, irrespective of irradiance and wavelength. Irradiance is discussed to influence the particle formation and aggregation rates through the formation of free radicals in the fig extract. PMID:25062061

Ulug, Bulent; Haluk Turkdemir, M; Cicek, Ahmet; Mete, Ahmet

2015-01-25

302

Role of irradiation in the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles mediated by fig (Ficus carica) leaf extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles in an aqueous mixture of fig (Ficus carica) leaf extract and AgNO3 solution exposed to a set of irradiances at different wavelengths are studied. Nanoparticle formation for irradiances between 6.5 mW/cm2 and 13.3 mW/cm2 in the 330-550 nm wavelength range is investigated and the results are compared to those of the nanoparticles synthesized in the dark and under direct sunlight. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, along with particle size analysis and transmission electron microscopy are employed for the characterization of samples and extracts. Irradiance is found to have profound influence on the reduction rates. However, size and spherical shape of the nanoparticles are persistent, irrespective of irradiance and wavelength. Irradiance is discussed to influence the particle formation and aggregation rates through the formation of free radicals in the fig extract.

Ulug, Bulent; Haluk Turkdemir, M.; Cicek, Ahmet; Mete, Ahmet

2015-01-01

303

Identification of Natural Rubber and Characterization of Rubber Biosynthetic Activity in Fig Tree1  

PubMed Central

Natural rubber was extracted from the fig tree (Ficus carica) cultivated in Korea as part of a survey of rubber producing plants. Fourier transform infrared and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of samples prepared by successive extraction with acetone and benzene confirmed that the benzene-soluble residues are natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene. The rubber content in the latex of fig tree was about 4%, whereas the rubber content in the bark, leaf, and fruit was 0.3%, 0.1%, and 0.1%, respectively. Gel-permeation chromatography revealed that the molecular size of the natural rubber from fig tree is about 190 kD. Similar to rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray), rubber biosynthesis in fig tree is tightly associated with rubber particles. The rubber transferase in rubber particles exhibited a higher affinity for farnesyl pyrophosphate than for isopentenyl pyrophosphate, with apparent Km values of 2.8 and 228 ?m, respectively. Examination of latex serum from fig tree by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed major proteins of 25 and 48 kD in size, and several proteins with molecular mass below 20 and above 100 kD. Partial N-terminal amino acid sequencing and immunochemical analyses revealed that the 25- and 48-kD proteins were novel and not related to any other suggested rubber transferases. The effect of EDTA and Mg2+ ion on in vitro rubber biosynthesis in fig tree and rubber tree suggested that divalent metal ion present in the latex serum is an important factor in determining the different rubber biosynthetic activities in fig tree and rubber tree. PMID:10889262

Kang, Hunseung; Kang, Min Young; Han, Kyung-Hwan

2000-01-01

304

Factor Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online activity, the learner finds the prime factorization of composite numbers by building factor trees. A second level includes finding the greatest common factor and the least common multiple by sorting factors using a Venn Diagram.

2010-01-01

305

Factor Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative allows students to find the prime factorization of numbers by completing factor trees. Then they may use a venn diagram to sort the prime factors to find the greatest common factor and the least common multiple.

Math Playground

2009-07-29

306

Tree frog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tree frog can be found living in jungles and forests. Two reasons why the common frog is considered to be an amphibian are because it lays eggs in water and its spawn goes through metamorphosis to reach adulthood.

Hans Hillewaert (None;)

2008-04-20

307

Effect of temperature on the development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae, reared on guava diet.  

PubMed

Members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex constitute well-recognized destructive pests of fruits in peninsular Thailand. The development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, were compared at six constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D). The objectives were to determine the effect of temperature on the developmental stages for optimizing rearing and to understand the geographical pattern of occurrence of these fruit fly species. A strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of immature stages of B. carambolae. Similarly, a strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of B. papayae. A temperature summation model was used to estimate the lower threshold temperature and the thermal constant. Bactrocera papayae was significantly faster in development and higher in survival and appeared to be better adapted to low temperatures than B. carambolae, as it exhibited the lowest threshold temperatures at all immature stages. The observed differences in response to various temperatures revealed to some extent the impact of temperature on these species' distribution in peninsular Thailand and other parts of the world. PMID:25368070

Danjuma, Solomon; Thaochan, Narit; Permkam, Surakrai; Satasook, Chutamas

2014-01-01

308

Evaluation of General Toxicity, Anti-Oxidant Activity and Effects of Ficus Carica Leaves Extract on Ischemia/Reperfusion Injuries in Isolated Heart of Rat  

PubMed Central

Purpose: This study was aimed to evaluate general toxicity, anti-oxidant activity and effects of Ficus carica leaves extract on ischemia/reperfusion injuries. Methods: Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid compounds of 70% methanolic extract of Ficus carica leaves were measured. The general toxicity test was carried out by brine shrimp lethality assay. Isolated hearts of male rats were mounted on a Langendorff apparatus and perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit solution. In control group, the hearts were perfused with normal Krebs solution, however, treatment groups received enriched solution with the extract (0.04, 0.2 and 1 mg/ml) during stabilization and reperfusion (after 30 min global ischemia), respectively. Cardiac arrhythmias were analyzed and TTC method was used for infarct size determination. Results: The extract displayed antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay (RC50=0.06666 mg/ml). Total phenolic content was 12.29 mg GAE/100 g dry sample and the amount of flavonoids was calculated 40.729 mg/g. LD50 value by brine shrimp test was 0.158 mg/ml. The extract decreased number of VEBs, incidence and duration of Rev VF with clear reduction in infarct size and infarct volume (P<0.001). Conclusion: Ficus carica decreased ischemia/reperfusion-induced injuries. These protections are probably due to antioxidant capacity and the existence of flavonoid and phenolic compounds in the extract.

Allahyari, Saeideh; Delazar, Abbas; Najafi, Moslem

2014-01-01

309

Nontraditional wound care: A review of the evidence for the use of sugar, papaya\\/papain, and fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

With global travel and immigration, WOC nurses may see or be asked questions about wound care practices that are different from those traditionally taught in their educational programs. The purpose of this article is to review the evidence about 3 commonly used wound products, namely, sugar, papaya\\/papain, and essential fatty acids. Although these products are used in numerous countries, their

Barbara Pieper; Maria Helena Larcher Caliri

2003-01-01

310

Yeast ratio is a critical factor for sequential fermentation of papaya wine by Williopsis saturnus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Summary The growth kinetics and fermentation performance of Williopsis saturnus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at ratios of 10:1, 1:1 and 1:10 (W.:S.) were studied in papaya juice with initial 7-day fermentation by W.?saturnus, followed by S.?cerevisiae. The growth kinetics of W.?saturnus were similar at all ratios, but its maximum cell count decreased as the proportion of S.?cerevisiae was increased. Conversely, there was an early death of S.?cerevisiae at the ratio of 10:1. Williopsis saturnus was the dominant yeast at 10:1 ratio that produced papaya wine with elevated concentrations of acetate esters. On the other hand, 1:1 and 1:10 ratios allowed the coexistence of both yeasts which enabled the flavour-enhancing potential of W.?saturnus as well as the ethyl ester and alcohol-producing abilities of S.?cerevisiae. In particular, 1:1 and 1:10 ratios resulted in production of more ethyl esters, alcohols and 2-phenylethyl acetate. However, the persistence of both yeasts at 1:1 and 1:10 ratios led to formation of high levels of acetic acid. The findings suggest that yeast ratio is a critical factor for sequential fermentation of papaya wine by W.?saturnus and S.?cerevisiae as a strategy to modulate papaya wine flavour. PMID:23171032

Lee, Pin-Rou; Kho, Stephanie Hui Chern; Yu, Bin; Curran, Philip; Liu, Shao-Quan

2013-01-01

311

76 FR 13972 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit...public that we have prepared a pest risk analysis for the purpose of evaluating the pest...continental United States. Based on our analysis, we have concluded that the...

2011-03-15

312

The effect of antifungal hot-water treatments on papaya postharvest quality and activity of pectinmethylesterase and polygalacturonase.  

PubMed

The effect of antifungal hot-water treatments (AHWT) at 55 °C for 0, 3, 6 and 9 min on quality attributes and cell-wall enzymatic activity during storage at 25 °C was investigated in papaya fruit. The total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), firmness and fresh weight loss were not affected, whereas color on skin was negatively affected by the treatments of 6- and 9-min. However, the skin color was not different between the 3-min treated fruit and the untreated fruit during the storage. Decay was delayed and reduced by AHWT. We observed that the 3-min treatment of 55 °C did not affect softening and quality of papaya cv Maradol when applied as a pesticide-free treatment at color-break stage of papaya. PME (Pectinmethylesterase) and PG (Polygalacturonase) activities were not significantly affected by AHWT. We concluded that the AHWT did not affect the softening process from papaya pulp since the cell-wall enzyme activity (PME and PG) was not altered by treatments. PMID:24425893

Chávez-Sánchez, Ignacio; Carrillo-López, Armando; Vega-García, Misael; Yahia, Elhadi M

2013-02-01

313

Effect of pre-harvest calcium chloride applications on fruit calcium level and post-harvest anthracnose disease of papaya  

E-print Network

Effect of pre-harvest calcium chloride applications on fruit calcium level and post October 2013 Keywords: Papaya Anthracnose Calcium Disease incidence Disease severity a b s t r a c losses. The goal of this research was to use pre-harvest calcium applications to reduce anthracnose

Biggs, Alan R.

314

Effect of ozone pre-conditioning on quality and antioxidant capacity of papaya fruit during ambient storage.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the physico-chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of ozone-treated papaya fruit and untreated fruit. Freshly harvested papaya fruit were exposed continuously to ozone fumigation (0, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 5ppm) for 96h prior to ambient storage at 25±3°C and 70±5% relative humidity (RH) for up to 14days. The fruit exposed to 2.5ppm ozone had higher levels of total soluble solids (25.0%), ascorbic acid content (12.4%), ?-carotene content (19.6%), lycopene content (52.1%), and antioxidant activity (30.9%), and also reduced weight loss (11.5%) at day 10 compared to the control. The sensory attributes of papaya treated with 2.5ppm ozone was superior in sweetness and overall acceptability. These results support the application of ozone as a non-thermal and safe food preservation technique for papaya which can benefit both the producers and consumers. PMID:24001808

Ali, Asgar; Ong, Mei Kying; Forney, Charles F

2014-01-01

315

Effects of chitosan-based coatings containing peppermint essential oil on the quality of post-harvest papaya fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Edible coatings comprised of antimicrobial polymers based on chitosan are promising technologies to preserve post-harvest fruit quality. In this study, we investigated the potential utility of a coating made from chitosan modified by N-acylation with fatty acid to preserve post-harvest papaya qualit...

316

Molecular characterization and infectivity of Papaya leaf curl China virus infecting tomato in China*  

PubMed Central

Papaya leaf curl China virus (PaLCuCNV) was previously reported as a distinct begomovirus infecting papaya in southern China. Based on molecular diagnostic survey, 13 PaLCuCNV isolates were obtained from tomato plants showing leaf curl symptoms in Henan and Guangxi Provinces of China. Complete nucleotide sequences of 5 representative isolates (AJ558116, AJ558117, AJ704604, FN256260, and FN297834) were determined to be 2738–2751 nucleotides, which share 91.7%–97.9% sequence identities with PaLCuCNV isolate G2 (AJ558123). DNA-? was not found to be associated with PaLCuCNV isolates. To investigate the infectivity of PaLCuCNV, an infectious clone of PaLCuCNV-[CN:HeNZM1] was constructed and agro-inoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum Samsun, N. glutinosa, Solanum lycopersicum and Petunia hybrida plants, which induced severe leaf curling and crinkling symptoms in these plants. Southern blot analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated a systemic infection of test plants by the agro-infectious clone. PMID:20104645

Zhang, Hui; Ma, Xin-ying; Qian, Ya-juan; Zhou, Xue-ping

2010-01-01

317

Community Trees Power Lines and Trees  

E-print Network

Community Trees Power Lines and Trees Introduction Trees serve many purposes in urban and rural trees near power lines. Most high voltage lines are not insulated, and contact will result in electric areas. To assure safe and reliable electric service, trimming or removal of trees is sometimes necessary

Koford, Rolf R.

318

Community Trees Community Tree Steward Program  

E-print Network

1 Community Trees Community Tree Steward Program ...and justice for all The U.S. Department, Iowa February, 2001 Jeff Iles Department of Horticulture Iowa State University Most tree managers realize dead trees should be removed as soon as they are detected. But living trees also can be a threat

Koford, Rolf R.

319

Minimizing Tree Automata for Unranked Trees  

E-print Network

Minimizing Tree Automata for Unranked Trees Wim Martens Joachim Niehren Minimizing Tree Automata for Unranked Trees ­ p.1/20 #12;What and Why? To study the minimization problem for deterministic automata over unranked trees. Bottom-up deterministic: theoretical interest. E.g. do results from deterministic automata

Martens, Wim

320

Trees, Soil and Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Trees, soil and water: Journey to Forever - health care for mountains, trees for deserts, trees for people, forest, forestry, deforestation, erosion, soil conservation, water conservation, desertification.

Keith Addison

2010-01-01

321

Characterization of wound-regulated cDNAs and their expression in fresh-cut and intact papaya fruit during low-temperature storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh-cut papaya fruit undergo rapid tissue deterioration during storage. A comparative gene expression study was conducted to isolate genes differentially expressed upon fresh-cut processing by means of mRNA differential display RT-PCR. Differential display analysis was performed on intact and fresh-cut papaya fruit stored in parallel for 12h at 5°C with three different one-base-anchored oligo dT and eight arbitrary primers. Confirmation

Yasar Karakurt; Donald J. Huber

2007-01-01

322

Behavioral responses of female oriental fruit flies to the odor of papayas at three ripeness stages in a laboratory flight tunnel (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral responses of adult female oriental fruit flies, Dacus dorsalisHendel, to the odor of papayas from three ripeness classes were studied using a threechoice flight tunnel bioassay. Laboratoryreared flies were allowed to respond freely to any of three papaya odors (mature green, colorbreak to one-fourth ripe, and one-half to full ripe) emanating from identical (spherical) fruit models. Five behaviors were

Eric B. Jang; Douglas M. Light

1991-01-01

323

Tea tree oil  

MedlinePLUS

Tea tree oil is derived from the leaves of the tea tree. The tea tree was named by eighteenth century sailors, who made ... smelled like nutmeg from the leaves of the tree growing on the swampy southeast Australian coast. Do ...

324

Shade trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shading is an important part of computer imagery, but shaders have been based on fixed models to which all surfaces must conform. As computer imagery becomes more sophisticated, surfaces have more complex shading characteristics and thus require a less rigid shading model. This paper presents a flexible tree-structured shading model that can represent a wide range of shading characteristics. The

Robert L. Cook

1984-01-01

325

REVIEW & INTERPRETATION A Comparison between Crop Domestication, Classical Plant Breeding,  

E-print Network

.) during domestication and by GE, the increased speed and accuracy Merr.], cotton (Gossypium spp.), papaya (Carica papaya of GE over classical plant breeding, and the higher level of knowledge L.), etc. have been­gatherers, suggesting that introduction of innovations do al., 1997: Papaya ringspotvirus (PRSV) resistance innot

Gepts, Paul

326

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-print Network

to evapotranspiration and soil water sensor irrigation scheduling methods for papaya production in south Florida Kati W: Irrigation scheduling Papaya Evapotranspiration Soil water potential Plant water stress Petiole nutrient content Carica papaya a b s t r a c t An irrigation study was conducted to determine the effects

Migliaccio, Kati White

327

TREES, WOODS AND FORESTS  

E-print Network

SCOTLAND'S TREES, WOODS AND FORESTS #12;2 SCOTLAND'S TREES, WOODS AND FORESTS2 #12;SCOTLAND'S TREES FOR THE ENVIRONMENT CHAPTER 4 FORESTS FOR THE ECONOMY CHAPTER 5 SCOTLAND'S REMARKABLE TREES CHAPTER 6 FINDING OUT MORE SCOTLAND'S TREES, WOODS AND FORESTS #12;4 SCOTLAND'S TREES, WOODS AND FORESTS4 This booklet is written

328

Effects of Ficus carica paste on constipation induced by a high-protein feed and movement restriction in beagles  

PubMed Central

Constipation is one of the most common functional digestive complaints worldwide. We investigated the laxative effects of figs (Ficus carica L) in a beagle model of constipation induced by high protein diet and movement restriction. The experiments were consecutively conducted over 9 weeks divided into 3 periods of 3 weeks each. All 15 beagles were subjected to a non-treatment (control) period, a constipation induction period, and a fig paste treatment period. We administered fig paste (12 g/kg daily, by gavage) for 3 weeks following a 3-week period of constipation induction in dogs. Segmental colonic transit time (CTT) was measured by counting radiopaque markers (Kolomark) using a radiograph performed every 6 h after feeding Kolomark capsules, until capsules were no longer observed. Fig paste significantly increased fecal quantity in constipated dogs, and segmental CTT was also reduced following fig paste administration. There were no significant differences in feed intake, water intake, body weight, or blood test results, between the constipation and fig paste administration periods. Our results demonstrate that fig is an effective treatment for constipation in beagles. Specifically, stool weight increased and segmental CTT decreased. Fig pastes may be useful as a complementary medicine in humans suffering from chronic constipation. PMID:22232635

Oh, Hong-Geun; Lee, Hak-Yong; Seo, Min-Young; Kang, Young-Rye; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Park, Jung-Woo; Back, Hyang-Im; Kim, Sun-Young; Oh, Mi-Ra; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Min-Gul; Jeon, Ji-Young; Hwang, Min-Ho; Shin, Sook-Jeong

2011-01-01

329

Tree Torture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The San Pedro River is one of the only free-flowing waterways in Arizona. Though it's more of a small stream than a river, it nourishes a vibrant ecosystem known as a riparian area. Full of tall trees, it serves as a major flyway for migrating birds and provides a ribbon of green in an otherwise barren landscape. In this Science Update, you'll hear about the research being done to keep the San Pedro flowing.

Science Update;

2002-06-10

330

Process variables influence on microwave assisted extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L. peel.  

PubMed

The objectives of the present study were to evaluate and optimize the influence of process variables such as microwave power, pH, time and solid-liquid ratio on the extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L peel. The experiments were carried out based on a four factors three level Box-Behnken response surface design. A quadratic model was developed from the experimental data in order to predict the pectin yield. The optimal condition was found to be: microwave power of 512w, pH of 1.8, time of 140s and solid-liquid ratio of 1:15g/ml with maximum pectin yield (25.41%). PMID:25445679

Maran, J Prakash; Prakash, K Arun

2015-02-01

331

Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. III. Tropical fruits: bananas, mangoes, and papayas.  

PubMed

The current status of research on the use of ionizing radiation for shelf life improvement and disinfestation of fresh tropical fruits like bananas, mangoes, and papayas are reviewed. The aspects covered are influence of maturity and physiological state of the fruits on delayed ripening and tolerance to radiation; varietal responses; changes in chemical constituents, volatiles, respiration, and ethylene evolution; biochemical mechanisms of delayed ripening and browning of irradiated fruits; and organoleptic quality. The efficacy of the combination of hot water dip and radiation treatments for control of postharvest fungal diseases are considered. The immediate potential of radiation as a quarantine treatment, in place of the currently used chemical fumigants, for disinfestation of fruit flies and mango seed weevil are discussed. Future prospects for irradiation of tropical fruits are discussed in the light of experience gained from studies conducted in different countries. PMID:3082598

Thomas, P

1986-01-01

332

Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. III. Tropical fruits: bananas, mangoes, and papayas  

SciTech Connect

The current status of research on the use of ionizing radiation for shelf life improvement and disinfestation of fresh tropical fruits like bananas, mangoes, and papayas are reviewed. The aspects covered are influence of maturity and physiological state of the fruits on delayed ripening and tolerance to radiation; varietal responses; changes in chemical constituents, volatiles, respiration, and ethylene evolution; biochemical mechanisms of delayed ripening and browning of irradiated fruits; and organoleptic quality. The efficacy of the combination of hot water dip and radiation treatments for control of postharvest fungal diseases are considered. The immediate potential of radiation as a quarantine treatment, in place of the currently used chemical fumigants, for disinfestation of fruit flies and mango seed weevil are discussed. Future prospects for irradiation of tropical fruits are discussed in the light of experience gained from studies conducted in different countries.146 references.

Thomas, P.

1986-01-01

333

Parallelization: Binary Tree Traversal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module teaches the use of binary trees to sort through large data sets, different traversal methods for binary trees, including parallel methods, and how to scale a binary tree traversal on multiple compute cores. Upon completion of this module, students should be able to recognize the structure of a binary tree, employ different methods for traversing a binary tree, understand how to parallelize a binary tree traversal, and how to scale a binary tree traversal over multiple compute cores.

Aaron Weeden

334

Industrial-hygiene report, walk-through survey, papaya packing/shipping facilities, Hilo, Hawaii, July 1983. [Ethylene dibromide exposure  

SciTech Connect

Worker exposure to ethylene dibromide (EDB) was investigated at three papaya packing and shipping facilities in Hilo, Hawaii. Breathing-zone samples were collected in the three facilities over a three day period. Blind spikes were submitted as a control on time and temperature effects. Blank samples were also prepared. Spike results reflected the effects of time and temperature in shipment from Hawaii to Massachusetts. All spikes were roughly comparable and showed a recovery of about 68%. Overnight laboratory results were adjusted upward by 72% and NIOSH laboratory results by 68%. Six out of 38 samples exceeded the NIOSH recommended amount of 130 ppb. The author concludes that there is a chronic, low-concentration exposure to EDB for all workers in the papaya industry in Hilo. An epidemiological study of reproductive and cytogenetic effects of EDB exposure on these workers is recommended.

Clapp, D.

1983-07-01

335

Effect of irradiation on the biochemical and organoleptic changes during the ripening of papaya and mango fruits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Papaya and mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation treatment was used to determine its effect on the quality of papayas and mangoes irradiated at 0,5 to 0,95 kGy. The level of respiration, soluble solids, texture, vitamin C and the sensorial evaluation were effectuated. The results indicate that irradiation treatment reduces significantly (p ? 0,001) the level of respiration and significantly (p ? 0,001) weakens the texture of mangoes. The content of soluble solids and vitamin C are not significantly affected by the irradiation. The sensory evaluation indicates that up to 0,95 kGy the sensorial quality is not changed.

Lacroix, Monique; Bernard, Linda; Jobin, Michele; Milot, Sylvain; Gagnon, Marcel

336

High avidity binding of engineered papaya mosaic virus virus-like particles to resting spores of Plasmodiophora Brassicae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) like particles (VLPs) were used as a platform for fusion of affinity peptides binding to resting spores of Plasmodiophora brassicae—a major pathogen of crucifers. Three peptides with specific affinity to the target were isolated and cloned at the C-terminus of the PapMV coat protein (CP), generating three different high avidity VLPs. The peptides were exposed at

Hélène Morin; Marie-Hélène Tremblay; Édith Plante; Christine Paré; Nathalie Majeau; Richard Hogue; Denis Leclerc

2007-01-01

337

Staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying Staphylococcus aureus isolated from foods and its control by crude alkaloid from papaya leaves.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus is a known pathogen causing intoxication by producing enterotoxins in food. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A is one of the enterotoxins commonly implicated in staphylococcal food poisoning. The ability of crude alkaloid extract from papaya leaves to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxin A synthesis was investigated. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying S. aureus was isolated from raw milk and ready-to-eat foods. Crude alkaloid was extracted from ground, dried papaya leaves using ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and a MIC of the alkaloid was determined by the broth macrodilution method. Furthermore, S. aureus isolate was exposed to the crude alkaloid extract at one- and twofold MIC, and the expression of sea was subsequently analyzed using a quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR. Ten isolates of S. aureus were obtained, and nine of those isolates were sea carriers. The yield of crude alkaloid extract was 0.48 to 1.82% per dry weight of papaya leaves. A MIC of crude alkaloid to S. aureus was 0.25 mg/ml. After exposure to the alkaloid at 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ml for 2 h, a significant increase in cycle threshold values of sea was observed. The sea was expressed 29 and 41 times less when S. aureus was exposed to crude alkaloid at one- and twofold MIC, respectively. This study revealed that crude alkaloid of papaya leaves could control staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying S. aureus by suppressing the expression of sea, in addition to the ability to inhibit the growth of S. aureus. The expression of sea was successfully quantified. PMID:25364936

Handayani, Lita; Faridah, Didah Nur; Kusumaningrum, Harsi D

2014-11-01

338

Nucleotide Sequence of the Capsid Protein Gene and 3' Non-coding Region of Papaya Mosaic Virus RNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The nucleotide sequences of eDNA clones corresponding to the 3' OH end of papaya mosaic virus RNA have been determined. The 3'-terminal sequence obtained was 900 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(A) tail, and contained an open reading frame capable of giving rise to a protein of 214 amino acid residues with an Mr of 22930. This protein was

M. G. Abouhaidar

1988-01-01

339

Tree Troubles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores some of the diseases and other threats that certain trees must contend with to remain healthy and vital. The first website (1), from the USDA Forest Service-St. Paul Field Office, contains a collection of archived publications designed to help people diagnose, control, and identify various threats to different types of trees. Examples of these publications include: How to Control Sapstreak Disease of Sugar Maple; How to Differentiate Dutch Elm Disease From Elm Phloem Necrosis; How to Identify and Manage Needlecast Diseases on Balsam Fir; and How to Manage Eastern White Pine to Minimize Damage from Blister Rust and White Pine Weevil, to name few. The second (2) site, Forest & Shade Tree Pathology, is an online textbook that was developed by Dr. James J. Worrall, a plant pathologist for the USDA Forest Service, and former professor at the College of Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of New York. Dr. Worrall's site contains information about rusts, foliage and root diseases, parasitic plants, cankers, abiotic diseases, and wilts as well as disease profiles for Swiss Needle Cast; Oak Wilt, Chestnut Blight, Armillaria Root Disease, and more. The third (3) site, Oak Wilt: A Threat to Red Oaks & White Oaks Species, was created by Dr. David L. Roberts at Michigan State University Extension. Dr. Robert's concise site contains brief sections addressing oak wilt distribution, field diagnosis, management, disease cycle, and more. The fourth (4) site, from the California Oak Mortality Task Force, contains images, publications, maps, and information about Sudden Oak Death-related research, management recommendations, nursery issues, and regulations. The final three websites come from the USDA Forest Service and contain information about different insect threats. The fifth (5) site offers information about the emerald ash borer. The sixth (6) site provides information about the gypsy moth, and the final (7) site contains information about the Asian longhorned beetle.

340

Learning relational probability trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classification trees are widely used in the machine learning and data mining communities for modeling propositional data. Recent work has extended this basic paradigm to probability estimation trees. Traditional tree learning algorithms assume that instances in the training data are homogenous and independently distributed. Relational probability trees (RPTs) extend standard probability estimation trees to a relational setting in which data

Jennifer Neville; David Jensen; Lisa Friedland; Michael Hay

2003-01-01

341

X-ray crystal structure of CMS1MS2: a high proteolytic activity cysteine proteinase from Carica candamarcensis.  

PubMed

CMS1MS2 (CC-Ib) from Carica candamarcensis (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis) is a cysteine proteinase found as a single polypeptide containing 213 residues of 22,991 Da. The enzyme was purified by three chromatographic steps, two of them involving cationic exchange. Crystals of CMS1MS2 complexed with E-64 were obtained by the hanging drop vapor-diffusion method at 291 K using ammonium sulfate and polyethylene glycol 4000/8000 as precipitant. The complex CMS1MS2-E-64 crystallized in the tetragonal space group P4(1)2(1)2 with unit-cell parameters; a = b = 73.64, c = 118.79 Å. The structure was determined by Molecular Replacement and refined at 1.87 Å resolution to a final R factor of 16.2 % (R (free) = 19.3 %). Based on the model, the structure of CMS1MS2 (PDB 3IOQ) ranks as one of the least basic cysteine isoforms from C. candamarcensis, is structurally closer to papain, caricain, chymopapain and mexicain than to the other cysteine proteinases, while its activity is twice the activity of papain towards BAPNA substrate. Two differences, one in the S2 subsite and another in the S3 subsite of CMS1MS2 may contribute to the enhanced activity relative to papain. In addition, the model provides a structural basis for the sensitivity of CMS1MS2 to inhibition by cystatin, not shown by other enzymes of the group, e.g., glycyl endopeptidase and CMS2MS2. PMID:22610687

Gomes, Marco T R; Teixeira, Raphael D; Lopes, Míriam T P; Nagem, Ronaldo A P; Salas, Carlos E

2012-12-01

342

Minnesota Tree Blitz  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this biology field experience, students will explore trees of Minnesota. Working in cooperative groups, students will discover biodiversity of trees and determine populations of tree species through observation and use of dichotomous keys.

343

American Chestnut Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This annotated slideshow adapted from KET's Electronic Field Trip to the Forest illustrates how blight decimated the American chestnut tree and the methods scientists use to identify and pollinate the remaining trees to create blight-resistant trees.

Ket

2008-09-02

344

Estimation of cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant effects of the leaf extracts of Anatolian Ficus carica var. domestica and their total phenol and flavonoid contents.  

PubMed

Ficus carica var. domestica Tsch. & Rav. (common fig) is widely grown in Turkey and exported for its edible fruits. In this study, the n-hexane, chloroform, acetone, methanol, n-butanol, and water extracts of the leaves of F. carica var. domestica were screened for their cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Cholinesterase inhibition against acetyl- (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) was measured by the spectrophotometric method of Ellman at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 microg/mL., while antioxidant activity was tested using three in vitro methods; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, metal-chelation capacity, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. Our results revealed that the n-hexane and acetone extracts exerted a notable inhibition against both AChE (62.9 +/- 0.9% and 50.8 +/- 2.1%, respectively) and BChE (76.9 +/- 2.2% and 45.6 +/- 1.3%, respectively). However, they had low activity in the antioxidant tests. The chloroform extract was found to be the richest in total flavonoid content (252.5 +/- 1.1 mg/g quercetin equivalent), while the n-butanol extract had the highest total phenol amount (85.9 +/- 3.2 mg/g extract gallic acid equivalent). PMID:21485278

Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Ustün, Osman; Sener, Bilge

2011-03-01

345

Tree Growth Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (located on page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into tree growth rates. Groups of learners will count tree rings to determine each tree’s age. A thorough sample of other measurements will then be taken to calculate the trees’ fastest, slowest, and overall average growth rate. Presenting the results in a table allows learners to compare data for different types of trees. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Temperate Rainforest.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2007-01-01

346

Trees and Air Quality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students describe the positive effects that trees have on air quality and determine how to landscape a home with trees to decrease energy use. Students will draw a map of their yard or school site showing the location of trees and check a leaf of each tree for particulates. They will then make observations on several different days to determine which trees save energy and draw on their map where more trees should be planted to save energy.

347

Essential Kurepa Trees Versus Essential Jech Kunen Trees1  

E-print Network

Essential Kurepa Trees Versus Essential Jech Kunen Trees1 Renling Jin2 & Saharon Shelah3 Abstract By an !1 tree we mean a tree of cardinality !1 and height !1. An !1 tree is called a Kurepa tree if all its levels are countable and it has more than !1 branches. An !1 tree is called a Jech Kunen tree if it has

Jin, Renling

348

Protected trees A guide to tree preservation procedures  

E-print Network

Protected trees A guide to tree preservation procedures #12;Protected trees A guide to tree trees: A guide to tree preservation procedures Introduction This leaflet is written for tree owners, their neighbours and local community groups, and answers some of the most common questions about tree preservation

349

PieTree drawing phylogenetic trees and ancestral state reconstructions  

E-print Network

PieTree drawing phylogenetic trees and ancestral state reconstructions PieTree Release 0.4 Emma E Dependencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 PieTree.2 Input tree file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2

Goldberg, Emma

350

A tree-to-tree model for statistical machine translation  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we take a statistical tree-to-tree approach to solving the problem of machine translation (MT). In a statistical tree-to-tree approach, first the source-language input is parsed into a syntactic tree ...

Cowan, Brooke A. (Brooke Alissa), 1972-

2008-01-01

351

Week 10: Consensus trees, tree distances, tests of tree March, 2010  

E-print Network

Week 10: Consensus trees, tree distances, tests of tree shape Genome 570 March, 2010 Week 10: Consensus trees, tree distances, tests of tree shape ­ p.1/40 #12;Trees we will use for consensus trees A C B E D FG A CG F B E D A CG F B E D Week 10: Consensus trees, tree distances, tests of tree shape ­ p

Borenstein, Elhanan

352

Estimating species trees from unrooted gene trees.  

PubMed

In this study, we develop a distance method for inferring unrooted species trees from a collection of unrooted gene trees. The species tree is estimated by the neighbor joining (NJ) tree built from a distance matrix in which the distance between two species is defined as the average number of internodes between two species across gene trees, that is, average gene-tree internode distance. The distance method is named NJ(st) to distinguish it from the original NJ method. Under the coalescent model, we show that if gene trees are known or estimated correctly, the NJ(st) method is statistically consistent in estimating unrooted species trees. The simulation results suggest that NJ(st) and STAR (another coalescence-based method for inferring species trees) perform almost equally well in estimating topologies of species trees, whereas the Bayesian coalescence-based method, BEST, outperforms both NJ(st) and STAR. Unlike BEST and STAR, the NJ(st) method can take unrooted gene trees to infer species trees without using an outgroup. In addition, the NJ(st) method can handle missing data and is thus useful in phylogenomic studies in which data sets often contain missing loci for some individuals. PMID:21447481

Liu, Liang; Yu, Lili

2011-10-01

353

Construction of physical maps for the sex-specific regions of papaya sex chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Background Papaya is a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. It is trioecious with three sex forms: male, female, and hermaphrodite. Sex determination is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes with two slightly different Y chromosomes, Y for male and Yh for hermaphrodite. The sex chromosome genotypes are XY (male), XYh (hermaphrodite), and XX (female). The papaya hermaphrodite-specific Yh chromosome region (HSY) is pericentromeric and heterochromatic. Physical mapping of HSY and its X counterpart is essential for sequencing these regions and uncovering the early events of sex chromosome evolution and to identify the sex determination genes for crop improvement. Results A reiterate chromosome walking strategy was applied to construct the two physical maps with three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. The HSY physical map consists of 68 overlapped BACs on the minimum tiling path, and covers all four HSY-specific Knobs. One gap remained in the region of Knob 1, the only knob structure shared between HSY and X, due to the lack of HSY-specific sequences. This gap was filled on the physical map of the HSY corresponding region in the X chromosome. The X physical map consists of 44 BACs on the minimum tiling path with one gap remaining in the middle, due to the nature of highly repetitive sequences. This gap was filled on the HSY physical map. The borders of the non-recombining HSY were defined genetically by fine mapping using 1460?F2 individuals. The genetically defined HSY spanned approximately 8.5?Mb, whereas its X counterpart extended about 5.4?Mb including a 900 Kb region containing the Knob 1 shared by the HSY and X. The 8.5?Mb HSY corresponds to 4.5?Mb of its X counterpart, showing 4?Mb (89%) DNA sequence expansion. Conclusion The 89% increase of DNA sequence in HSY indicates rapid expansion of the Yh chromosome after genetic recombination was suppressed 2–3 million years ago. The genetically defined borders coincide with the common BACs on the minimum tiling paths of HSY and X. The minimum tiling paths of HSY and its X counterpart are being used for sequencing these X and Yh-specific regions. PMID:22568889

2012-01-01

354

Effects of ozone exposure on 'Golden' papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening  

SciTech Connect

This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of 'Golden' papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring on the fruit during ripening when exposed to ozone. In addition, one has performed real time studies of fluorescence parameters and the emission rates of carbon dioxide and ethylene. Finally, the amount of pigments and the changes in waxy cuticle have been monitored. Results indicate that a fruit deliberately subjected to ozone at a level of 6 ppmv underwent ripening sooner (at least 24-48 h) than a fruit stored at ambient conditions. Moreover, ozone caused a reduction in the maximum quantum yield of photosynthetic apparatus located within the skin of papaya fruit.

Correa, Savio Figueira; Brito Paiva, Luisa; Mota do Couto, Flavio; Gomes da Silva, Marcelo; Silva Sthel, Marcelo; Vargas, Helion [Laboratorio de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque California 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Mota, Leonardo [Laboratorio de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque California 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Fraunhofer Institut fuer Bauphysik, Nobelstrasse 12, Vaihingen 70569, Stuttgart, Baden Wuerttemberg (Germany); Goncalves de Oliveira, Jurandi [Laboratorio de Melhoramento Genetico Vegetal, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque California 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Miklos, Andras [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Bauphysik, Nobelstrasse 12, Vaihingen 70569, Stuttgart, Baden Wuerttemberg (Germany)

2011-06-01

355

Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from papaya seed by response surface methodology: Oil recovery, radical scavenging antioxidant activity, and oxidation stability.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) condition on the yield, antioxidant activity and stability of the oil from papaya seed. The studied ultrasound variables were time, temperature, ultrasound power and solvent to sample ratio. The main goal was to optimise UAE condition providing the highest recovery of papaya seed oil with the most desirable antioxidant activity and stability. The interaction of ultrasound variables had the most and least significant effects on the antioxidant activity and stability, respectively. Ultrasound-assisted extraction provided a relatively high oil recovery (?73%) from papaya seed. The strongest antioxidant activity was achieved by the extraction at the elevated temperature using low solvent to sample ratio. The optimum ultrasound extraction was set at the elevated temperature (62.5°C) for 38.5min at high ultrasound power (700W) using medium solvent to sample ratio (?7:1 v/w). The optimum point was practically validated. PMID:25442517

Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd; Bordbar, Sara; Serjouie, Alireza

2015-04-01

356

Limit Laws for Functions of Fringe trees for Binary Search Trees and Recursive Trees  

E-print Network

Limit Laws for Functions of Fringe trees for Binary Search Trees and Recursive Trees Cecilia of binary search trees and random recursive trees. In particular, we give simple new proofs of the fact that the number of fringe trees of size k = kn in the binary search tree and the random recursive tree (of total

Janson, Svante

357

The Needs of Trees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tree rings can be used not only to look at plant growth, but also to make connections between plant growth and resource availability. In this lesson, students in 2nd-4th grades use role-play to become familiar with basic requirements of trees and how availability of those resources is related to tree ring sizes and tree growth. These concepts can…

Boyd, Amy E.; Cooper, Jim

2004-01-01

358

Random Trees and Applications  

E-print Network

Random Trees and Applications Jean-Fran¸cois Le Gall1 Notes prepared for the Cornell Summer School;2 #12;Chapter 1 From Discrete to Continuous Trees In this chapter, we first explain how discrete random trees can be coded by discrete paths called the height function and the contour function of the tree. We

Durrett, Richard

359

Glycyl endopeptidase from papaya latex: partial purification and use for production of fish gelatin hydrolysate.  

PubMed

An aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in combination with ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) precipitation was applied to fractionate glycyl endopeptidase from the papaya latex of Red Lady and Khack Dum cultivars. ATPS containing polyethylene glycol (PEG 2000 and 6000) and salts ((NH4)2SO4 and MgSO4) at different concentrations were used. Glycyl endopeptidase with high purification fold (PF) and yield was found in the salt-rich bottom phase of ATPS with 10%PEG 6000-10% (NH4)2SO4. When ATPS fraction from Red Lady cultivar was further precipitated with 40-60% saturation of (NH4)2SO4, PF of 2.1-fold with 80.23% yield was obtained. Almost all offensive odorous compounds, particularly benzyl isothiocyanate, were removed from partially purified glycyl endopeptidase (PPGE). The fish gelatin hydrolysates prepared using PPGE showed higher ABTS radical scavenging activity and less odour, compared with those of crude extract (CE). Thus antioxidative gelatin hydrolysate with negligible undesirable odour could be prepared with the aid of PPGE. PMID:25038693

Karnjanapratum, Supatra; Benjakul, Soottawat

2014-12-15

360

Categorizing Ideas about Trees: A Tree of Trees  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to explore whether matrices and MP trees used to produce systematic categories of organisms could be useful to produce categories of ideas in history of science. We study the history of the use of trees in systematics to represent the diversity of life from 1766 to 1991. We apply to those ideas a method inspired from coding homologous parts of organisms. We discretize conceptual parts of ideas, writings and drawings about trees contained in 41 main writings; we detect shared parts among authors and code them into a 91-characters matrix and use a tree representation to show who shares what with whom. In other words, we propose a hierarchical representation of the shared ideas about trees among authors: this produces a “tree of trees.” Then, we categorize schools of tree-representations. Classical schools like “cladists” and “pheneticists” are recovered but others are not: “gradists” are separated into two blocks, one of them being called here “grade theoreticians.” We propose new interesting categories like the “buffonian school,” the “metaphoricians,” and those using “strictly genealogical classifications.” We consider that networks are not useful to represent shared ideas at the present step of the study. A cladogram is made for showing who is sharing what with whom, but also heterobathmy and homoplasy of characters. The present cladogram is not modelling processes of transmission of ideas about trees, and here it is mostly used to test for proximity of ideas of the same age and for categorization. PMID:23950877

Fisler, Marie; Lecointre, Guillaume

2013-01-01

361

Evidence for Emergence of Sex-Determining Gene(s) in a Centromeric Region in Vasconcellea parviflora.  

PubMed

Sex chromosomes have been studied in many plant and animal species. However, few species are suitable as models to study the evolutionary histories of sex chromosomes. We previously demonstrated that papaya (Carica papaya) (2n = 2x = 18), a fruit tree in the family Caricaceae, contains recently emerged but cytologically heteromorphic X/Y chromosomes. We have been intrigued by the possible presence and evolution of sex chromosomes in other dioecious Caricaceae species. We selected a set of 22 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones that are distributed along the papaya X/Y chromosomes. These BACs were mapped to the meiotic pachytene chromosomes of Vasconcellea parviflora (2n = 2x = 18), a species that diverged from papaya ?27 million years ago. We demonstrate that V. parviflora contains a pair of heteromorphic X/Y chromosomes that are homologous to the papaya X/Y chromosomes. The comparative mapping results revealed that the male-specific regions of the Y chromosomes (MSYs) probably initiated near the centromere of the Y chromosomes in both species. The two MSYs, however, shared only a small chromosomal domain near the centromere in otherwise rearranged chromosomes. The V. parviflora MSY expanded toward the short arm of the chromosome, whereas the papaya MSY expanded in the opposite direction. Most BACs mapped to papaya MSY were not located in V. parviflora MSY, revealing different DNA compositions in the two MSYs. These results suggest that mutation of gene(s) in the centromeric region may have triggered sex chromosome evolution in these plant species. PMID:25480779

Iovene, Marina; Yu, Qingyi; Ming, Ray; Jiang, Jiming

2015-02-01

362

Tree Tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nature often replicates her processes at different scales of space and time in differing media. Here a tree-trunk cross section I am preparing for a dendrochronological display at the Battle Creek Cypress Swamp Nature Sanctuary (Calvert County, Maryland) dried and cracked in a way that replicates practically all the planform features found along the Mid-Oceanic Ridge (see Figure 1). The left-lateral offset of saw marks, contrasting with the right-lateral ``rift'' offset, even illustrates the distinction between transcurrent (strike-slip) and transform faults, the latter only recognized as a geologic feature, by J. Tuzo Wilson, in 1965. However, wood cracking is but one of many examples of natural processes that replicate one or several elements of lithospheric plate tectonics. Many of these examples occur in everyday venues and thus make great teaching aids, ``teachable'' from primary school to university levels. Plate tectonics, the dominant process of Earth geology, also occurs in miniature on the surface of some lava lakes, and as ``ice plate tectonics'' on our frozen seas and lakes. Ice tectonics also happens at larger spatial and temporal scales on the Jovian moons Europa and perhaps Ganymede. Tabletop plate tectonics, in which a molten-paraffin ``asthenosphere'' is surfaced by a skin of congealing wax ``plates,'' first replicated Mid-Oceanic Ridge type seafloor spreading more than three decades ago. A seismologist (J. Brune, personal communication, 2004) discovered wax plate tectonics by casually and serendipitously pulling a stick across a container of molten wax his wife and daughters had used in making candles. Brune and his student D. Oldenburg followed up and mirabile dictu published the results in Science (178, 301-304).

Vogt, Peter R.

2004-09-01

363

COMPONENT User's Guide Random trees  

E-print Network

COMPONENT User's Guide Chapter 6 Random trees COMPONENT can generate a variety of trees at "random," and for small numbers of leaves it can generate all possible trees. These trees have several uses: n as user trees for phylogeny programs that lack the facility to examine all trees or sets of random trees (e

Page, Roderic

364

Hexane-Soluble Fraction of the Common Fig, Ficus carica, Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation in Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages and RAW 264.7 Cells  

PubMed Central

Osteoclasts, derived from multipotent myeloid progenitor cells, play homeostatic roles in skeletal modeling and remodeling, but may also destroy bone in pathological conditions such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoclast development depends critically on a differentiation factor, the receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL). In this study, we found that the hexane soluble fraction of the common fig Ficus carica (HF6-FC) is a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis in RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). HF6-FC exerts its inhibitory effects by suppression of p38 and NF-?B but activation of ERK. In addition, HF6-FC significantly decreased the expression of NFATc1 and c-Fos, the master regulator of osteoclast differentiation. The data indicate that components of HF6-FC may have therapeutic effects on bone-destructive processes such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontal bone resorption. PMID:20054486

Park, Young Ran; Eun, Jae Soon; Choi, Hwa Jung; Nepal, Manoj; Kim, Dae Keun; Seo, Seung-Yong; Li, Rihua; Moon, Woo Sung; Cho, Nam-Pyo; Cho, Sung-Dae; Bae, Tae Sung; Kim, Byung Il

2009-01-01

365

Hexane-Soluble Fraction of the Common Fig, Ficus carica, Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation in Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages and RAW 264.7 Cells.  

PubMed

Osteoclasts, derived from multipotent myeloid progenitor cells, play homeostatic roles in skeletal modeling and remodeling, but may also destroy bone in pathological conditions such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoclast development depends critically on a differentiation factor, the receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL). In this study, we found that the hexane soluble fraction of the common fig Ficus carica (HF6-FC) is a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis in RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). HF6-FC exerts its inhibitory effects by suppression of p38 and NF-kappaB but activation of ERK. In addition, HF6-FC significantly decreased the expression of NFATc1 and c-Fos, the master regulator of osteoclast differentiation. The data indicate that components of HF6-FC may have therapeutic effects on bone-destructive processes such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontal bone resorption. PMID:20054486

Park, Young Ran; Eun, Jae Soon; Choi, Hwa Jung; Nepal, Manoj; Kim, Dae Keun; Seo, Seung-Yong; Li, Rihua; Moon, Woo Sung; Cho, Nam-Pyo; Cho, Sung-Dae; Bae, Tae Sung; Kim, Byung Il; Soh, Yunjo

2009-12-01

366

The effects of Ficus carica polysaccharide on immune response and expression of some immune-related genes in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effect of Ficus carica polysaccharide (FCP), isolated from the fruit of F. carica L., at 0%, 0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% doses supplementation with feed on genes Interleukin 1-? (IL-1?), Tumor Necrosis Factor ? (TNF-?) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene expression in blood, humoral innate immune parameters and resistant to Flavobacterium columnare of grass carp at weeks 1, 2 and 3. The results revealed that administration of FCP significantly (P < 0.05) up regulated IL-1? and TNF-? gene expression. HSP70 gene expression was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in FCP-fed fish at the end of trial. The serum total protein, albumin and globulin did not significantly increased in any diet on the first week whereas it was significantly enhanced in 0.5% and 1.0% supplementation diets on weeks 2 and 3 when compared to control. The serum complement C3 was significantly (P < 0.05) increased on weeks 1 and 2 when compared to control, however, no significant difference was found in this activity after 3 weeks of treatment. All diets significantly enhanced the serum lysozyme activity, bactericidal activity from weeks 1-2 as compared to control. Grass carp fed with FCP showed remarkably higher resistance against F. columnare (60% survival) compared to the control group (30% survival). These results confirm that FCP can up regulate immune related genes expression, stimulates immune response that per se enhances disease resistance in grass carp. PMID:25449378

Yang, Xia; Guo, Jian Lin; Ye, Jin Yun; Zhang, Yi Xiang; Wang, Wei

2015-01-01

367

From Gene Trees to Species Trees II: Species Tree Inference by Minimizing Deep  

E-print Network

From Gene Trees to Species Trees II: Species Tree Inference by Minimizing Deep Coalescence Events Louxin Zhang Abstract--When gene copies are sampled from various species, the resulting gene tree might disagree with the containing species tree. The primary causes of gene tree and species tree discord include

Zhang, Louxin

368

THE EXPRESSION OF THE GENE FOR LYCOPENE ¿-CYCLASE IS ELEVATED IN LEAVES AND FLOWERS AND DOWN-REGULATED IN BOTH YELLOW- AND RED- FLESHED PAPAYA FRUITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carotene pigments in flowers and fruits are distinct features related to fitness advantages such as attracting insects for pollination and birds for seeds disposal. In papaya, the flesh color of fruit is considered a quality trait that varies in nutritional values and is linked to shelf life of the ...

369

Effect of UV-C irradiation and low temperature storage on bioactive compounds, antioxidant enzymes and radical scavenging activity of papaya fruit.  

PubMed

Mature green 'Maradol' papaya fruits were exposed to ultraviolet (UV)-C irradiation (1.48 kJ·m(-2)) and stored at 5 or 14 °C. Changes in total phenols, total flavonoids, enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD), as well as the scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals were investigated in peel and flesh tissues at 0, 5, 10 and 15 days of storage. UV-C irradiation increased significantly (P < 0.05) the flavonoid content (2.5 and 26 %) and ABTS radical scavenging activity (5.7 and 6 %) in flesh and peel at 14 °C respectively; and CAT activity (16.7 %) in flesh at 5 °C. Flavonoid contents, CAT and SOD activities were positively affected under low storage temperature (5 °C). DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities increased in both control and UV-C treated papaya peel during storage at 5 °C. UV-C irradiation effect on radical scavenging of papaya peel could be attributed to increased flavonoid content. Papaya antioxidant system was activated by UV-C and cold storage by increasing phenolic content and antioxidant enzymatic activities as a defense response against oxidative-stress. PMID:25477649

Rivera-Pastrana, Dulce M; Gardea, Alfonso A; Yahia, Elhadi M; Martínez-Téllez, Miguel A; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

2014-12-01

370

Proteasome-Independent Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Cross-Presentation Mediated by Papaya Mosaic Virus-Like Particles Leads to Expansion of Specific Human T Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of versatile vaccine platforms is a priority that is recognized by health authorities worldwide; such platforms should induce both arms of the immune system, the humoral and cytotoxic-T- lymphocyte responses. In this study, we have established that a vaccine platform based on the coat protein of papaya mosaic virus (PapMV CP), previously shown to induce a humoral response,

Denis Leclerc; Diane Beauseigle; Jerome Denis; Helene Morin; Christine Pare; Alain Lamarre; Rejean Lapointe

2007-01-01

371

Enrichment of a papaya high-density genetic map with AFLP markers.  

PubMed

A high-density genetic linkage map of papaya, previously developed using an F2 mapping population derived from the intraspecific cross AU9 x SunUp, was enriched with AFLP markers. The comprehensive genetic map presented here spans 945.2 cM and covers 9 major and 5 minor linkage groups containing 712 SSR, 277 AFLP, and 1 morphological markers. The average marker density for the 9 major linkage groups is 0.9 cM between adjacent markers, and the total number of gaps >5 cM was reduced from 48 to 27 in the current map. AFLPs generated by EcoRI/MseI primer combinations were distributed throughout the 14 linkage groups and resulted in several large locus order rearrangements within the 9 major linkage groups. Integration of AFLP markers provided tighter linkage association between loci, leading to a reduction in map distance on LGs 1, 2, and 4, which were inflated in the previous map, and correction of the marker order on LG8. Suppression of recombination in the male-specific Y region (MSY) of LG1 is further validated by the addition of 27 sex co-segregating AFLP markers. A large region of distorted segregation surrounding the MSY spans 54.4 cM and represents approximately 71% of the linkage group. This comprehensive high-density genetic map provides a framework for mapping quantitative trait loci and for fine mapping as well as for comparative genomic studies of crop plant development and evolution. PMID:19767901

Blas, Andrea L; Yu, Qingyi; Chen, Cuixia; Veatch, Olivia; Moore, Paul H; Paull, Robert E; Ming, Ray

2009-08-01

372

Zucchini tigré mosaic virus is a distinct potyvirus in the papaya ringspot virus cluster: molecular and biological insights.  

PubMed

In recent years, three new potyviruses have been described in the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) cluster. In addition, two types of PRSV are recognized, type W, infecting cucurbit plants, and type P, infecting papaya and also cucurbits. A third type, PRSV-T, was also partially described in Guadeloupe. Complete genome sequencing of four PRSV-T isolates showed that this virus is a related virus that is distinct from PRSV, and the name zucchini tigré mosaic virus (ZTMV) is proposed, in reference to the typical symptoms observed in zucchini squash. Eleven other viral isolates from different geographic origins were confirmed as ZTMV isolates using the complete sequence of the cylindrical inclusion (CI) coding region, whereas pairwise sequence similarities in the coat protein (CP) coding region did not unambiguously distinguish ZTMV isolates from PRSV isolates. The use of the CI coding region for species demarcation appears more suitable than the CP coding region for closely related viruses. Principal coordinates analysis based on the biological behavior of the viral isolates studied clustered PRSV-P, PRSV-W and ZTMV isolates into three different groups. Therefore, ZTMV is different from PRSV in its molecular and biological properties. PMID:23979176

Romay, G; Lecoq, H; Desbiez, C

2014-02-01

373

Ash Tree Identification Key Ash Tree Characteristics  

E-print Network

and furrows form diamond shapes in older bark (green & white ash) opposite arrangements ­ buds, leavesAsh Tree Identification Key Ash Tree Characteristics Bark Branches diamond patterned ­ ridges berries Walnut, Hickory, Mountain-Ash: alternate branching #12;Identifying Emerald Ash Borer what to do

Walter, M.Todd

374

Minimal locked trees  

E-print Network

Locked tree linkages have been known to exist in the plane since 1998, but it is still open whether they have a polynomial-time characterization. This paper examines the properties needed for planar trees to lock, with a ...

Ballinger, Brad

375

Graph homomorphisms between trees  

E-print Network

In this paper we study several problems concerning the number of homomorphisms of trees. We begin with an algorithm for the number of homomorphisms from a tree to any graph. By using this algorithm and some transformations ...

Csikvari, Peter

376

Chem-Is-Tree.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides details on the chemical composition of trees including a definition of wood. Also includes an activity on anthocyanins as well as a discussion of the resistance of wood to solvents and chemicals. Lists interesting products from trees. (DDR)

Barry, Dana M.

1997-01-01

377

Tree Classification Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper introduces the IND Tree Package to prospective users. IND does supervised learning using classification trees. This learning task is a basic tool used in the development of diagnosis, monitoring and expert systems. The IND Tree Package was developed as part of a NASA project to semi-automate the development of data analysis and modelling algorithms using artificial intelligence techniques. The IND Tree Package integrates features from CART and C4 with newer Bayesian and minimum encoding methods for growing classification trees and graphs. The IND Tree Package also provides an experimental control suite on top. The newer features give improved probability estimates often required in diagnostic and screening tasks. The package comes with a manual, Unix 'man' entries, and a guide to tree methods and research. The IND Tree Package is implemented in C under Unix and was beta-tested at university and commercial research laboratories in the United States.

Buntine, Wray

1993-01-01

378

Discordance of species trees with their most likely gene trees  

E-print Network

Discordance of species trees with their most likely gene trees James H. Degnan & Noah A. Rosenberg sort during speciation, gene trees may differ in topology from each other and from species trees gene tree discordance is so common that the most likely gene tree topology to evolve along the branches

Degnan, James

379

8-ary tree. Overview of B-Trees  

E-print Network

Page Page Figure A.1 8-ary tree. APPENDIX A Overview of B-Trees Tree-based searching methods large, we find that often the tree is too large to fit in memory at once. Therefore, the tree is stored. In such an environment, the branches in the tree contain disk addresses, and it is not uncommon for a comparison

Yorke, James

380

Binary Search Trees Page 1 Binary Search Trees  

E-print Network

Binary Search Trees Page 1 Chapter 4 Trees Binary Search Trees · Definition o All keys are distinct subtree is greater than the root. o Left and right subtrees are binary search trees. · Figure 1 is an example: Figure 1 Binary Search Tree · Where would you add X, B, and E? · At seats, build tree from

Allan, Vicki H.

381

State Complexity of Regular Tree Languages for Tree Pattern Matching  

E-print Network

State Complexity of Regular Tree Languages for Tree Pattern Matching Sang-Ki Ko, Ha-Rim Lee, and Yo-749, Korea {narame7,hrlee,emmous}@cs.yonsei.ac.kr Abstract. We study the state complexity of regular tree languages for tree matching problem. Given a tree t and a set of pattern trees L, we can decide whether

Han, Yo-Sub

382

Kids for Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides references for students about the importance of trees to people and the environment. It discusses the interactions between trees and other organisms, how trees provide for their food and water needs, and how people use and work with trees. A teacher's guide provides background information, project and activity ideas, evaluation questions, and extensions that correspond with each student reference page. Links to related resources are included.

383

Build a Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on pages 13-18) has learners build a model tree and then figure out how to make their tree stand up by itself. This illustrates how the tall rain forest trees adapt to support a huge trunk and heavy branches, while also sending their roots out instead of down. Trees built in this activity can be used for the Rain Forest in Your Room activity that is also part of the Wonderwise Rain Forest Ecologist Activity Book.

Museum, University O.; Nebraska Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development

2001-01-01

384

Avery Andrews' Trees Preprocessor  

E-print Network

Avery Andrews' Trees Preprocessor Consider the tree shown in (1): (1) S NP that book S/NP NP I VP/NP V want VP/NP to VP/NP V ask NP Mary VP/NP to VP/NP V send NP Tom NP/NP e Making trees like this in T E X or L A T E X can be a cause for dread. But it can become quite simple and fun with the trees

Pratt, Vaughan

385

Decision-Tree Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IND computer program introduces Bayesian and Markov/maximum-likelihood (MML) methods and more-sophisticated methods of searching in growing trees. Produces more-accurate class-probability estimates important in applications like diagnosis. Provides range of features and styles with convenience for casual user, fine-tuning for advanced user or for those interested in research. Consists of four basic kinds of routines: data-manipulation, tree-generation, tree-testing, and tree-display. Written in C language.

Buntine, Wray

1994-01-01

386

RC trees revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

RC tree approximation is a computationally simple method for calculating the signal delay of MOS circuits with several states of fanout. The author derives a formal solution of RC tree equations. Based on this solution, it is shown that even though waveforms found using RC tree approximation are inaccurate, delays are exact. The author derives the dependence of the delays

Mehinet A. Cirit

1988-01-01

387

Minnesota's Forest Trees. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin describes 46 of the more common trees found in Minnesota's forests and windbreaks. The bulletin contains two tree keys, a summer key and a winter key, to help the reader identify these trees. Besides the two keys, the bulletin includes an introduction, instructions for key use, illustrations of leaf characteristics and twig…

Miles, William R.; Fuller, Bruce L.

388

Boosting Decision Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new boosting algorithm of Freund and Schapire is used to improve the performance of decision trees which are constructed usin: the information ratio criterion of Quinlan's C4.5 algorithm. This boosting algorithm iteratively constructs a series of decision tress, each decision tree being trained and pruned on examples that have been filtered by previously trained trees. Examples that have been

Harris Drucker; Corinna Cortes

1995-01-01

389

Acacia Tree Ants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is the symbiotic relationship between the acacia ant and the swollen thorn acacia tree, shown in a 2:18 minute video. The ant provides protection for the tree against preying insects and other plants competing for sunlight, and the tree provides nourishment and shelter for the ant and the ants' larvae.

390

Winter Birch Trees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…

Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy

2011-01-01

391

The Wish Tree Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the author's experience in implementing a Wish Tree project in her school in an effort to bring the school community together with a positive art-making experience during a potentially stressful time. The concept of a wish tree is simple: plant a tree; provide tags and pencils for writing wishes; and encourage everyone to…

Brooks, Sarah DeWitt

2010-01-01

392

Structural Equation Model Trees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…

Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

2013-01-01

393

Growth of a Pine Tree  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

Rollinson, Susan Wells

2012-01-01

394

Distributed Contour Trees  

SciTech Connect

Topological techniques provide robust tools for data analysis. They are used, for example, for feature extraction, for data de-noising, and for comparison of data sets. This chapter concerns contour trees, a topological descriptor that records the connectivity of the isosurfaces of scalar functions. These trees are fundamental to analysis and visualization of physical phenomena modeled by real-valued measurements. We study the parallel analysis of contour trees. After describing a particular representation of a contour tree, called local{global representation, we illustrate how di#11;erent problems that rely on contour trees can be solved in parallel with minimal communication.

Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther H.

2014-03-31

395

Refining discordant gene trees  

PubMed Central

Background Evolutionary studies are complicated by discordance between gene trees and the species tree in which they evolved. Dealing with discordant trees often relies on comparison costs between gene and species trees, including the well-established Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs. While these costs have provided credible results for binary rooted gene trees, corresponding cost definitions for non-binary unrooted gene trees, which are frequently occurring in practice, are challenged by biological realism. Result We propose a natural extension of the well-established costs for comparing unrooted and non-binary gene trees with rooted binary species trees using a binary refinement model. For the duplication cost we describe an efficient algorithm that is based on a linear time reduction and also computes an optimal rooted binary refinement of the given gene tree. Finally, we show that similar reductions lead to solutions for computing the deep coalescence and the Robinson-Foulds costs. Conclusion Our binary refinement of Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs for unrooted and non-binary gene trees together with the linear time reductions provided here for computing these costs significantly extends the range of trees that can be incorporated into approaches dealing with discordance. PMID:25434729

2014-01-01

396

The Height of Increasing Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing trees have been introduced by Bergeron, Flajolet, and Salvy [1]. This kind of notion covers several well-know classes\\u000a of random trees like binary search trees, recursive trees, and plane oriented (or heap ordered) trees. We consider the height\\u000a of increasing trees and prove for several classes of trees (including the above mentioned ones) that the height satisfies\\u000a EH\\u000a \\u000a n

Michael Drmota

2009-01-01

397

Genome size variation among sex types in dioecious and triecious Caricaceae species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Caricaceae is a small family consisting of 35 species of varying sexual systems and includes economically important fruit crop, Carica papaya, and other species of “highland papayas”. Flow cytometry was used to obtain genome sizes for 11 species in three genera of Caricaceae to determine if genome s...

398

Internal Validation of Ancestral Gene Order Reconstruction in Angiosperm Phylogeny  

E-print Network

Internal Validation of Ancestral Gene Order Reconstruction in Angiosperm Phylogeny David Sankoff1 rearrangement, and is one of four angiosperm genomes, along with those of Carica papaya (papaya), Vitis vinifera. Phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms with sequenced genomes. The circles indicate likely whole genome

dePamphilis, Claude

399

Gelatin hydrolysate from blacktip shark skin prepared using papaya latex enzyme: Antioxidant activity and its potential in model systems.  

PubMed

Antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates from blacktip shark skin prepared using papaya latex enzyme with different degrees of hydrolysis (DHs: 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%) were evaluated. All antioxidant activity indices of hydrolysates increased with increasing DH (P<0.05). When gelatin hydrolysate with 40%DH was determined for its pH and thermal stability, ORAC and chelating activity remained constant or slightly increased in a wide pH range (1-9) and during heating (100°C) for 240min. It was also stable in simulated gastrointestinal tract model system. Moreover, gelatin hydrolysate at a level of 500 and 1000ppm could inhibit lipid oxidation in both ?-carotene linoleate and cooked comminuted pork model systems. Therefore, gelatin hydrolysate from blacktip shark skin (40%DH) can potentially be used as an alternative source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22953833

Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Shahidi, Fereidoon

2012-12-01

400

Discordance of Species Trees with Their Most Likely Gene Trees  

E-print Network

Discordance of Species Trees with Their Most Likely Gene Trees James H. Degnan1 , Noah A. Rosenberg way in which lineages sort during speciation, gene trees may differ in topology from each other for which gene tree discordance is so common that the most likely gene tree topology to evolve along

Rosenberg, Noah

401

From gene trees to species trees through a supertree approach  

E-print Network

From gene trees to species trees through a supertree approach Celine Scornavacca1,2, , Vincent Abstract. Gene trees are leaf-labeled trees inferred from molecular se- quences. Due to duplication events arising in genome evolution, gene trees usually have multiple copies of some labels, i.e. species

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

402

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes  

E-print Network

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Color-shifted complexes Weighted spanning tree enumerators of color-shifted complexes Ghodratollah Aalipour1,2 Art Duval1 1University Ghodratollah Aalipour, Art Duval Spanning tree enumerators of color-shifted complexes #12;Spanning trees

Duval, Art

403

From Gene Trees to Species Trees through a Supertree Approach  

E-print Network

From Gene Trees to Species Trees through a Supertree Approach Celine Scornavacca1,2, , Vincent Abstract. Gene trees are leaf-labeled trees inferred from molecular se- quences. Due to duplication events arising in genome evolution, gene trees usually have multiple copies of some labels, i.e. species

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

404

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes  

E-print Network

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Complete colorful complexes Weighted spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful complexes Ghodratollah Aalipour1,2 Art Duval1 1 Aalipour, Art Duval Spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful complexes #12;Spanning trees of graphs

Duval, Art

405

Friends of Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in Portland, Oregon, the Friends of Trees organization is dedicated to restoring urban forests around the country, with a particular emphasis on the Portland metropolitan area. As their Web site notes, "Trees are an essential part of the urban ecosystem. They help keep our water and air clean, prevent erosion, provide wildlife habitat, and make neighborhoods greener, more beautiful places to live." On the site, visitors can read about their ongoing planting activities and browse the newsletter they publish three times a year. For most visitors, the most helpful area of the site will be the Tree Resources section. Here, users can look through a fact sheet on the benefits of trees in urban environments, the care and maintenance of trees, and a large tree database.

406

Condensation in nongeneric trees  

E-print Network

We study nongeneric planar trees and prove the existence of a Gibbs measure on infinite trees obtained as a weak limit of the finite volume measures. It is shown that in the infinite volume limit there arises exactly one vertex of infinite degree and the rest of the tree is distributed like a subcritical Galton-Watson tree with mean offspring probability $mtrees in the thermodynamic limit and show it goes like $(1-m)N$ where $N$ is the size of the tree. These trees have infinite spectral dimension with probability one but the spectral dimension calculated from the ensemble average of the generating function for return probabilities is given by $2\\beta -2$ if the weight $w_n$ of a vertex of degree $n$ is asymptotic to $n^{-\\beta}$.

Thordur Jonsson; Sigurdur Orn Stefansson

2011-01-04

407

In Focus: The Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In Focus: The Tree, is a Getty Museum exhibition of 41 images inspired by trees. On the exhibition's website visitors can see five images of trees, from Myoung Ho Lee, William Henry Fox Talbot, Darius Kinsey, Rhea Garen, and Simryn Gill, most accompanied by audio of curators or the artists discussing their work. Curator FranÃÂçoise Reynaud explains how early photographer Talbot may have created his 1842 salt print showing a bare oak tree in winter; living artist Rheas Garen discusses her picture "Treehouse", which shows a backyard where a tree dwarfs the house, taken with a large format camera in 1993. The associated book, The Tree in Photographs, compiled by Reynaud, includes eighty-one images selected from the Museum's permanent collection.

408

Tree genetics and improvement  

SciTech Connect

Tree improvement is a complex science and a multifaceted art. Tree improvement is most valuable when integrated within land-management programs. Major efforts are currently geared to developing improved seed for reforestation programs. Progeny testing is now a routine part of tree-improvement programs. Topics such as advanced-generation breeding, shortened generations, resistance breeding, and control of cone and seed insects are being given priority. Activity continues in basic research, involving genetic engineering, tissue culture, and population theory.

Bey, C.F.; Houston, D.B.; Dinus, R.J.

1986-01-01

409

COMPONENT User's Guide Working with trees  

E-print Network

COMPONENT User's Guide Chapter 2 Working with trees This chapter gives you information on basic tree operations. The topics covered include: n reading and writing files of trees n editing trees n displaying and printing trees n selecting subsets of trees n pruning trees n rooting trees n computing tree

Page, Roderic

410

Bronchi, Bronchial Tree, & Lungs  

MedlinePLUS

... Larynx & Trachea Bronchi, Bronchial Tree, & Lungs Review Quiz Digestive System General Structure Regions of the Digestive System Mouth Pharynx & Esophagus Stomach Small & Large Intestine Accessory ...

411

COMPONENT User's Guide Comparing trees  

E-print Network

COMPONENT User's Guide Chapter 5 Comparing trees This chapter describes the tree comparison measures available in COMPONENT, and the various ways you can compare trees using the program. Among the possible uses of tree comparison measures are: n comparing trees for the same taxa computed from different

Page, Roderic

412

National Register of Big Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most trees can outlive us. Even so, it's not unusual for trees to succumb to disease, insects, over development and drought. So it's especially meaningful when a tree reaches a good old age. Here you'll find out all about the oldest trees on earth, as well as have the opportunity to nominate a old tree you might know.

Forests, American

413

TreeCmp: Comparison of Trees in Polynomial Time  

PubMed Central

When a phylogenetic reconstruction does not result in one tree but in several, tree metrics permit finding out how far the reconstructed trees are from one another. They also permit to assess the accuracy of a reconstruction if a true tree is known. TreeCmp implements eight metrics that can be calculated in polynomial time for arbitrary (not only bifurcating) trees: four for unrooted (Matching Split metric, which we have recently proposed, Robinson-Foulds, Path Difference, Quartet) and four for rooted trees (Matching Cluster, Robinson-Foulds cluster, Nodal Splitted and Triple). TreeCmp is the first implementation of Matching Split/Cluster metrics and the first efficient and convenient implementation of Nodal Splitted. It allows to compare relatively large trees. We provide an example of the application of TreeCmp to compare the accuracy of ten approaches to phylogenetic reconstruction with trees up to 5000 external nodes, using a measure of accuracy based on normalized similarity between trees.

Bogdanowicz, Damian; Giaro, Krzysztof; Wróbel, Borys

2012-01-01

414

Attraction of Female and Male Bactrocera papayae to Conspecific Males Fed with Methyl Eugenol and Attraction of Females to Male Sex Pheromone Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attraction of female and male Bactrocera papayae to conspecific males fed with methyl eugenol (ME) and female attraction to male synthetic sex pheromone, trans-coniferyl alcohol (CF), were evaluated in a wind tunnel. Earlier and greater attraction were exhibited by both females and males to ME-fed than to non-ME-fed males as dusk approaches. Males increased their precopulatory behavior (i.e., wing

Alvin Kah-Wei Hee; Keng-Hong Tan

1998-01-01

415

Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the chemical characterisation of modern and archaeological figs (Ficus carica).  

PubMed

Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after alkaline hydrolysis, solvent extraction and trimethylsilylation, and analytical pyrolysis using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) for in situ derivatisation followed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis (Pyrolysis-silylation-GC/MS) were used to investigate the hydrolysable and soluble constituents, and the polymerised macromolecules of an archaeological fig (Ficus carica) recovered in Zaragoza (Spain), as well as of modern figs. The main aim was to study the compositional alterations undergone by the fig tissues in a particular archaeological environment: the fig was in a vessel and covered by a layer of a mixture of orpiment and gypsum. A comparison between the GC/MS results from modern and archaeological figs revealed that degradative reactions took place, leading to the disappearance/depletion of reactive (unsaturated fatty acids) and sensitive compounds (phytosterols and triterpenes). Py-silylation-GC/MS data provided evidence of a significant degradation of the saccharide and lipid components of the fig tissue, which left a residue enriched in polyphenols and polyesters. PMID:21570079

Ribechini, Erika; Pérez-Arantegui, Josefina; Colombini, Maria Perla

2011-06-24

416

Deployment of response surface methodology to optimize recovery of dark fresh fig (Ficus carica L., var. Azenjar) total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

Optimum conditions for extracting total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant activity from fresh dark fig (Ficus carica L.) have been investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The Box-Behnken design was used to investigate the effects of three independent variables, acetone concentration (40-80%), temperature (25-65 °C), and time (60-120 min), on the response. Regression analysis showed that about 96% of the variation was explained by the models. P-value for the lack of fit was insignificant which confirmed the validity of models. Response surface analysis showed that the optimal extraction parameters that maximized antioxidants extraction were 63.48% acetone, 115.14 min, and 48.66 °C. Under optimum conditions the corresponding experimental values for TPC and antioxidant activity were 536.43 and 71.86 mg GAE/100 g DM. The experimental values are in accordance with those predicted, indicating the suitability of the model and the success of RSM in optimizing the extraction conditions. PMID:24874388

Bachir Bey, Mostapha; Meziant, Leila; Benchikh, Yassine; Louaileche, Hayette

2014-11-01

417

A new graphene oxide/polypyrrole foam material with pipette-tip solid-phase extraction for determination of three auxins in papaya juice.  

PubMed

A new material, graphene oxide/polypyrrole (GO/Ppy), was synthesized by mixing graphene oxide and polypyrrole in a specific proportion. It possesses a unique structure similar to that of foam. A homemade pipette-tip solid-phase extraction (PT-SPE) device, which is more simple and convenient than traditional devices, was used for saving reagents and operation time. When GO/Ppy was used as the adsorbent of PT-SPE for determining three auxins (indole-3-propionic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid) present in trace amounts in papaya juice, it showed high affinity and adsorption capacity for all the three auxins. GO/Ppy-PT-SPE also had a significant capacity for eliminating the interferences from the papaya juice matrix. Under optimized conditions, a good linearity of auxins was obtained in the range 16.3-812.5 ng g(-1); the average recoveries at the three spiked levels of the three auxins ranged from 89.4% to 105.6% with the relative standard deviations ? 3.0%. Meanwhile, six papaya juice samples with different growth stages were analyzed under optimum conditions, and trace auxins in the range 18.3-100.6 ng g(-1) were observed. Because of its high selectivity, simplicity, and reliability, the GO/Ppy-PT-SPE method developed herein can be potentially applied for determining trace auxins in complex biological samples. PMID:25441342

Wang, Lihui; Wang, Mingyu; Yan, Hongyuan; Yuan, Yanan; Tian, Jing

2014-11-14

418

Rooting for Trees: Volunteers to Plant 20 Trees, Mark Tree Campus USA Honor  

E-print Network

Rooting for Trees: Volunteers to Plant 20 Trees, Mark Tree Campus USA Honor March 22, 2013 Event at The University of Texas at Austin will join the university urban forestry team in planting 20 large trees on the grounds of the Dell Pediatric Research Institute. Volunteers will also mulch more than 100 existing trees

Hofmann, Hans A.

419

Biodiversity and Evolutionary Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity, learners analyze seashells to explore phylogeny and evolution. Learners identify similar and dissimilar seashells to create a phylogenetic tree. The Teacher Guide includes pre-activity video clip suggestions and a pre-activity sorting exercise. The Teacher Guide also includes instructions on how learners can draw a phylogenetic tree instead of using the online interactive.

2013-09-14

420

Fragmentation of random trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study fragmentation of a random recursive tree into a forest by repeated removal of nodes. The initial tree consists of N nodes and it is generated by sequential addition of nodes with each new node attaching to a randomly-selected existing node. As nodes are removed from the tree, one at a time, the tree dissolves into an ensemble of separate trees, namely, a forest. We study statistical properties of trees and nodes in this heterogeneous forest, and find that the fraction of remaining nodes m characterizes the system in the limit N\\to ? . We obtain analytically the size density {{? }s} of trees of size s. The size density has power-law tail {{? }s}? {{s}-? } with exponent ? =1+\\frac{1}{m}. Therefore, the tail becomes steeper as further nodes are removed, and the fragmentation process is unusual in that exponent ? increases continuously with time. We also extend our analysis to the case where nodes are added as well as removed, and obtain the asymptotic size density for growing trees.

Kalay, Z.; Ben-Naim, E.

2015-01-01

421

Leonardo's Tree Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity focuses on Leonardo da Vinci's tree theory, which states that the cross-sectional area of a major limb is approximately equal to the cross-sectional areas of its two offshoot limbs. Students test this theory by collecting data from 10 trees and perform the mathematical calculations. In addition to data collection skills, this exercise strengthens problem solving skills.

Werner, Suzanne K.

2003-03-01

422

Optimal junction Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with optimality issues in connectionwith updating beliefs in networks. Weaddress two processes: triangulation and constructionof junction trees. In the first part,we give a simple algorithm for constructingan optimal junction tree from a triangulatednetwork. In the second part, we argue thatany exact method based on local calculationsmust either be less efficient than the junctiontree method, or it has

Finn Verner Jensen; Frank Jensen

1994-01-01

423

Survival of Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video a scientist explains how DNA extracted from ancient tree remains provides insights about how trees/plants have adapted, over time, to changes in CO2 in the atmosphere. Her lab research investigates changes in plant genotypes under experimental conditions that simulate potential changes in CO2 levels in the future.

National Science Foundation

424

Tree Diagrams and Probability  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to develop students' ability to create tree diagrams and figure probabilities of events based on those diagrams. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to tree diagrams as well as suggested ways to work them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one.

2011-01-20

425

Trees From Helicopters, Continued  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maples are very interesting trees with lots of variation in form. They provide us with a view of diversity in plants as well as a chance to look at natural phenomena that is very common to anyone who has had a maple tree near them. The main purpose is to

Richard Konicek-Moran

2009-04-01

426

Trees Are Terrific!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. Contents are organized into the following sections: (1) "What Makes a Tree a Tree?," including information…

Braus, Judy, Ed.

1992-01-01

427

CSI for Trees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The circles and patterns in a tree's stem tell a story, but that story can be a mystery. Interpreting the story of tree rings provides a way to heighten the natural curiosity of students and help them gain insight into the interaction of elements in the environment. It also represents a wonderful opportunity to incorporate the nature of science.…

Rubino, Darrin L.; Hanson, Deborah

2009-01-01

428

The Flame Tree  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lewis's own experiences living in Indonesia are fertile ground for telling "a ripping good story," one found in "The Flame Tree." He hopes people will enjoy the tale and appreciate the differences of an unfamiliar culture. The excerpt from "The Flame Tree" will reel readers in quickly.

Lewis, Richard

2004-01-01

429

TRANSPLANTING SHADE TREES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS RESOURCE MATERIAL FOR USE IN HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND ADULT FARMER CLASSES WAS DESIGNED BY SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS. THE OBJECTIVE IS TO HELP SOLVE PROBLEMS IN TRANSPLANTING SHADE TREES. THE MAJOR SECTION TITLES ARE STATED AS PROBLEMS -- (1) HOW SHOULD I PREPARE A TREE FOR MOVING,…

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

430

LVIS Tree Height Cross Section (tree texture)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation starts with a false-color map of tree heights north of San Jose, Costa Rica, and changes to a close-up 3D cut-away of a section of the forest with simulated green canopy. Data from LVIS observations taken in March, 1998.

Jones, Randall; Blair, Bryan

1999-09-17

431

binary-tree B-tree Hashing Space-Filling based location  

E-print Network

#12;#12;#12;binary-tree B-tree Hashing Space-Filling Quad-tree based location keys R -tree+ PLOP Hashing EXCELL R-tree Grid-files kd-tree kd-B-treeBD-tree 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 LSD-tree GBD-tree skd-tree Packed R-tree multi-level GF Cell-tree hB-tree R-files GGF mkd-tree 4d-tree 4d-tree

Ooi, Beng Chin

432

Lazy decision trees  

SciTech Connect

Lazy learning algorithms, exemplified by nearest-neighbor algorithms, do not induce a concise hypothesis from a given training set; the inductive process is delayed until a test instance is given. Algorithms for constructing decision trees, such as C4.5, ID3, and CART create a single {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} decision tree during the training phase, and this tree is then used to classify test instances. The tests at the nodes of the constructed tree are good on average, but there may be better tests for classifying a specific instance. We propose a lazy decision tree algorithm-LazyDT-that conceptually constructs the {open_quotes}best{close_quote} decision tree for each test instance. In practice, only a path needs to be constructed, and a caching scheme makes the algorithm fast. The algorithm is robust with respect to missing values without resorting to the complicated methods usually seen in induction of decision trees. Experiments on real and artificial problems are presented.

Friedman, J.H.; Yun, Yeogirl [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Kohavi, R. [Silicon Graphics, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

433

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes  

E-print Network

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Complete colorful complexes Weighted spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful complexes Ghodratollah Aalipour1,2 Art Duval1 1 April 21, 2013 Ghodratollah Aalipour, Art Duval Spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful complexes

Duval, Art

434

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes  

E-print Network

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Complete colorful complexes Weighted spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful complexes Ghodratollah Aalipour1,2 Art Duval1 1 of Mississippi March 2, 2013 Ghodratollah Aalipour, Art Duval Spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful

Duval, Art

435

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes  

E-print Network

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Critical group of graphs Critical group of simplicial complexes Spanning trees and the critical group of simplicial complexes Art Duval1 Mathematics Colloquium New Mexico State University October 20, 2011 Duval, Klivans, Martin Spanning trees

Duval, Art

436

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes  

E-print Network

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Critical group of graphs Critical group of simplicial complexes Spanning trees and the critical group of simplicial complexes Art Duval1 of Kansas Mathematics Seminar Reed College April 28, 2011 Duval, Klivans, Martin Spanning trees

Duval, Art

437

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes  

E-print Network

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Color-shifted complexes Weighted spanning tree enumerators of color-shifted complexes Ghodratollah Aalipour1,2 Art Duval1 1University in St. Louis October 20, 2013 Ghodratollah Aalipour, Art Duval Spanning tree enumerators of color

Duval, Art

438

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes  

E-print Network

Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Critical group of graphs Critical group of simplicial complexes Spanning trees and the critical group of simplicial complexes Art Duval1 of Kansas Discrete CATS seminar University of Kentucky March 30, 2011 Duval, Klivans, Martin Spanning trees

Duval, Art

439

What Tree Is It?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online tree-identification tool was created by the Ohio Public Library Information Network (OPLIN) and the Ohio Historical Society (OHS). Users work their way through qualities of leaves and fruits, selecting images that more closely resemble their sample. Fact pages provide instruction on fruit and leaf structures and terminology, close-up photographs of seeds, fruits, bark, leaves, or other plant parts useful in identifying the tree, as well as a picture of the full tree and information about its habitat, history, and structure.

440

Learning classification trees  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Algorithms for learning classification trees have had successes in artificial intelligence and statistics over many years. How a tree learning algorithm can be derived from Bayesian decision theory is outlined. This introduces Bayesian techniques for splitting, smoothing, and tree averaging. The splitting rule turns out to be similar to Quinlan's information gain splitting rule, while smoothing and averaging replace pruning. Comparative experiments with reimplementations of a minimum encoding approach, Quinlan's C4 and Breiman et al. Cart show the full Bayesian algorithm is consistently as good, or more accurate than these other approaches though at a computational price.

Buntine, Wray

1991-01-01

441

The Average Height of Binary Trees and Other Simple Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average height of a binary tree with n internal nodes is shown to be asymptotic to 2 6. This represents the average stack height of the simplest recursive tree traversal algorithm. The method used in this estimation is also applicable to the analysis of traversal algorithms of unary-binary trees, unbalanced 2-3 trees, t-ary trees for any t, and other

Philippe Flajolet; Andrew M. Odlyzko

1982-01-01

442

ENERGY SAVINGS WITH TREES1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In conventional buildings, trees increase, decrease, or have little effect on energy use depending on general climate, building type, tree species, and tree location. Tree arrangements that save energy provide shade primarily for east and west walls and roofs and wind protection from the direction of prevailing winter winds. Particularly for buildings specially designed to use solar energy and those

Gordon M. Heisler

1986-01-01

443

COMPONENT User's Guide Consensus trees  

E-print Network

COMPONENT User's Guide Chapter 4 Consensus trees Consensus trees are a convenient way to summarise the agreement between two or more trees. This chapter describes the consensus methods available in COMPONENT subtree (Kubicka et al, 1992; also called the common pruned tree [Finden and Gordon, 1985]). This method

Page, Roderic

444

A future with broadleaved trees  

E-print Network

A future with broadleaved trees A strategy for the Improvement of broadleaved trees in Britain and Ireland 2013-2025 Supported by #12;2 A future with broAdleAved trees Many people and organisations from and highlights areas where we believe further consideration is required. Future Trees Trust, Earth Trust

445

Compositions of Tree Series Transformations  

E-print Network

Compositions of Tree Series Transformations A. Maletti Institute of Theoretical Computer Science Germany URL: http://www.inf.tu-dresden.de/ #12;#12;Compositions of Tree Series Transformations Andreas@tcs.inf.tu-dresden.de Abstract Tree series transformations computed by bottom-up and top-down tree series transducers are called

Reyle, Uwe

446

Tea Tree Oil  

MedlinePLUS

... to-treat bacterial infections such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, large, well-designed clinical trials on ... 40(3):175–178. Halcón L, Milkus K. Staphylococcus aureus and wounds: a review of tea tree oil ...

447

Tree of Hexagons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students use measuring skills and follow directions to make a three-dimensional ornament. Learners construct hexagons of graduated sizes from circles and assemble them into a tree. Complete instructions are provided.

2011-01-01

448

Leonardo's Tree Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a series of activities exploring Leonardo da Vinci's tree theory that are designed to strengthen 8th grade students' data collection and problem solving skills in physical science classes. (KHR)

Werner, Suzanne K.

2003-01-01

449

Construct a phylogenetic tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page will construct a phylogenetic tree of the creatures you select below. It will use the protein sequences of the protein cytochrome c from each of these organisms to construct the tree. Select the desired creatures from the lists below. To select more than one in the same list, hold down the apple key (on Macs); the control key (on PCs); on the Suns, you just click. If you want to clear your selections and start over, click the "Clear all selections" button. You must also choose one and only one outgroup organism so that your tree will have a root. This is especially important for the parsimony analysis. The outgroup organism should not be closely related to the other organisms. When you have made the selections you want, click the "calculate tree" button. Your request will then be processed. This may take a while, so please be patient.

Brian White

2012-06-28

450

Combining Binary Search Trees  

E-print Network

We present a general transformation for combining a constant number of binary search tree data structures (BSTs) into a single BST whose running time is within a constant factor of the minimum of any “well-behaved” bound ...

Demaine, Erik D.

451

Generalized constructive tree weights  

SciTech Connect

The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

Rivasseau, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.rivasseau@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org [LPT, CNRS UMR 8627, Univ. Paris 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Waterloo (Canada)] [LPT, CNRS UMR 8627, Univ. Paris 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Waterloo (Canada); Tanasa, Adrian, E-mail: vincent.rivasseau@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99, Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément LIPN, Institut Galilée, CNRS UMR 7030, F-93430 Villetaneuse, France and Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania)] [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99, Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément LIPN, Institut Galilée, CNRS UMR 7030, F-93430 Villetaneuse, France and Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

2014-04-15

452

TREES of SCa Public Service of Clemson University S.C. Champion Tree Nomination Form  

E-print Network

CHAMPION TREES of SCa Public Service of Clemson University S.C. Champion Tree Nomination Form Today's date: ___________________________ Scientific tree name: ________________________________________________ Common tree name: _________________________________________________ Group

Duchowski, Andrew T.

453

Core Based Trees (CBT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the central problems in one-to-many wide-area communications is forming the delivery tree - the collection of nodes and links that a multicast packet traverses. Significant problems remain to be solved in the area of multicast tree formation, the problem of scaling being paramount among these.In this paper we show how the current IP multicast architecture scales poorly (by

Tony Ballardie; Paul Francis; Jon Crowcroft

1993-01-01

454

Selective and reversible thiol-pegylation, an effective approach for purification and characterization of five fully active ficin (iso)forms from Ficus carica latex.  

PubMed

The latex of Ficus carica constitutes an important source of many proteolytic components known under the general term of ficin (EC 3.4.22.3) which belongs to the cysteine proteases of the papain family. So far, no data on the purification and characterization of individual forms of these proteases are available. An effective strategy was used to fractionate and purify to homogeneity five ficin forms, designated A, B, C, D1 and D2 according to their sequence of elution from a cation-exchange chromatographic support. Following rapid fractionation on a SP-Sepharose Fast Flow column, the different ficin forms were chemically modified by a specific and reversible monomethoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG) reagent. In comparison with their un-derivatized counterparts, the mPEG-protein derivatives behaved differently on the ion-exchanger, allowing us for the first time to obtain five highly purified ficin molecular species titrating 1mol of thiol group per mole of enzyme. The purified ficins were characterized by de novo peptide sequencing and peptide mass fingerprinting analyzes, using mass spectrometry. Circular dichroism measurements indicated that all five ficins were highly structured, both in term of secondary and tertiary structure. Furthermore, analysis of far-UV CD spectra allowed calculation of their secondary structural content. Both these data and the molecular masses determined by MS reinforce the view that the enzymes belong to the family of papain-like proteases. The five ficin forms also displayed different specific amidase activities against small synthetic substrates like dl-BAPNA and Boc-Ala-Ala-Gly-pNA, suggesting some differences in their active site organization. Enzymatic activity of the five ficin forms was completely inhibited by specific cysteine and cysteine/serine proteases inhibitors but was unaffected by specific serine, aspartic and metallo proteases inhibitors. PMID:21665232

Azarkan, Mohamed; Matagne, André; Wattiez, Ruddy; Bolle, Laetitia; Vandenameele, Julie; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle

2011-10-01

455

Oscillation damping in trees.  

PubMed

Oscillation damping is of vital importance for trees to withstand strong gusty winds. Tree adaptation to wind loading takes place over a long time and during a storm only passive damping mechanisms can reduce the impact of the wind on trunk and roots. Structural damping, a phenomenon, which is associated with the conspicuous movements of the branches relative to the trunk is of particular importance. Primary and higher order branches can be seen as multiple tuned mass dampers. Moreover, as the frequency bands overlap within branches and between primary branches and the entire tree, resonance energy transfer can distribute mechanical energy over the entire tree, such that it is dissipated more effectively than in a tree with stiff branches and not so much focused on the tree trunk and the roots. Theoretical studies using modal analysis and finite element methods have supported these assertions. Next to "multiple mass damping" and "multiple resonance damping", both characterized by linear coupling between the elements, a third non linear mode, operative at large amplitudes has been identified: "damping by branching". In all these not mutually exclusive concepts frequency tuning between the elements appears to be a fundamental requisite. PMID:23602100

Spatz, Hanns-Christof; Theckes, Benoit

2013-06-01

456

The Ubiquitous B-Tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

B-trees have become, de facto, a standard for file organization. File indexes of users, dedicated database systems, and general-purpose access methods have all been proposed and implemented using B-trees. This paper reviews B-trees and shows why they have been so successful. It discusses the major variations of the B-tree, especially the W-tree, contrasting the relative merits and costs of each

Douglas E. Comer

1979-01-01

457

The Inference of Gene Trees with Species Trees  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the various models that have been used to describe the relationships between gene trees and species trees. Molecular phylogeny has focused mainly on improving models for the reconstruction of gene trees based on sequence alignments. Yet, most phylogeneticists seek to reveal the history of species. Although the histories of genes and species are tightly linked, they are seldom identical, because genes duplicate, are lost or horizontally transferred, and because alleles can coexist in populations for periods that may span several speciation events. Building models describing the relationship between gene and species trees can thus improve the reconstruction of gene trees when a species tree is known, and vice versa. Several approaches have been proposed to solve the problem in one direction or the other, but in general neither gene trees nor species trees are known. Only a few studies have attempted to jointly infer gene trees and species trees. These models account for gene duplication and loss, transfer or incomplete lineage sorting. Some of them consider several types of events together, but none exists currently that considers the full repertoire of processes that generate gene trees along the species tree. Simulations as well as empirical studies on genomic data show that combining gene tree–species tree models with models of sequence evolution improves gene tree reconstruction. In turn, these better gene trees provide a more reliable basis for studying genome evolution or reconstructing ancestral chromosomes and ancestral gene sequences. We predict that gene tree–species tree methods that can deal with genomic data sets will be instrumental to advancing our understanding of genomic evolution. PMID:25070970

Szöll?si, Gergely J.; Tannier, Eric; Daubin, Vincent; Boussau, Bastien

2015-01-01

458

Plasma cholinesterase inhibition in the clay-colored robin (Turdus grayi) exposed to diazinon in maradol papaya crops in Yucatan, Mexico [Inhibicio??n de colinesterasa plasma??tica en el zorzal pardo (Turdus grayi), expuesto a diazino??n en cultivos de papaya maradol en Yucata??n, Me??xico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The use of organophosphorous pesticides in agriculture can result in intoxication of birds foraging in sprayed crops. Effects on birds resulting from pesticide intoxication are varied and include behavioral and reproductive effects, including death. One widely used insecticide in Maradol papaya crops is diazinon which has been associated with various incidents of intoxication and death of wild birds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of diazinon application to papaya crops on plasma cholinesterase activity of the clay-colored robin (Turdus grayi). We captured clay-colored robins foraging in a papaya crop the following day after the field had been sprayed with diazinon at a dose of 1.5 kg/ha during March and May, respectively. We took a blood sample from the brachialis vein of the birds captured and measured plasma enzymatic activity. The plasma samples from birds used as controls were taken during the same time period and were analyzed in a similar way. Enzymatic activity of males was greater than that of females (53,52%) and mean cholinesterase inhibition was 49.43%. Cholinesterase inhibition was greater during May than in March probably due to more continuous exposure and ingestion of the insecticide through food and possible absorption through the skin. This degree of enzymatic inhibition is possibly affecting the behavior of the clay-colored robin and could result in death in severe cases.

Cobos, V.M.; Mora, M.A.; Escalona, G.

2006-01-01

459

In this chapter we study infinite trees. The main things we look at are Konig's tree theorem, Aronszajn trees, and Suslin trees.  

E-print Network

8. Trees In this chapter we study infinite trees. The main things we look at are K¨onig's tree theorem, Aronszajn trees, and Suslin trees. A tree is a partially ordered set (T, t T, the set {s T : s tree

Monk, Don

460

Nearest tree Always go to the closest  

E-print Network

Nearest tree Always go to the closest tree Largest tree Always go to the tree with the most apples Optimal 1-step forager Maximize rate (= ratio of apples to travel time), but only consider one tree at a time # apples travel time Optimal 2-, 3-step forager Maximize rate over 2-tree (or 3-tree) paths

461

In this chapter we study infinite trees. The main things we look at are Konig's tree theorem, Aronszajn trees, and Suslin trees.  

E-print Network

14. Trees In this chapter we study infinite trees. The main things we look at are K¨onig's tree theorem, Aronszajn trees, and Suslin trees. A tree is a partially ordered set (T, t T, the set {s T : s tree

Monk, Don

462

Recommended Trees for Colorado Front Range  

E-print Network

and unsightly. Do Not Top Your Trees! #12;Eastern redcedar* (Juniperus virginiana) Very hardy tree, excellent windbreak tree, green summer foliage, rusty brown in the winter Rocky Mountain juniper* (Juniperus scopulorum) Very hardy tree, excellent windbreak tree Trees to avoid! Selecting the right tree for the right

463

Trees: Recorders of Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners are introduced to tree rings by examining a cross section of a tree, also known as a “tree cookie.” They discover how tree age can be determined by studying the rings and how ring thickness can be used to deduce times of optimal growing conditions. Next they investigate simulated tree rings by applying the scientific method to explore how climatic conditions varied during the Little Ice Age. Use this activity to begin discussions on global warming and climate change. This lesson guide includes background information and handouts. Note: cost of materials does not include cost of purchasing "tree cookies."

2012-03-30

464

Tree Impact Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this field activity, students document examine the role of a tree in its ecosystem and as part of the environment in a human community. Students measure the tree's dimensions, examine co-residing organisms, leaf litter, and soil, and research the tree's history, using interviews or archival resources. A measuring stick, sturdy string, and an outdoor thermometer are required. An art project concludes the exploration. This activity is supported by a textbook chapter, "A History of Forest use in the Pacific Northwest,â part of the unit, A New World View, in Global Systems Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

465

Forest & Shade Tree Pathology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forest & Shade Tree Pathology is a site created by Jim Worrall, a former professor at the College of Environmental Science and Forestry. The major focus of this resource is the study of tree diseases, "their causes (etiology), factors that affect their spread (epidemiology), ecological and economic impacts, and management." The site is divided into four sections: "Main Topics" such as fungi, root diseases and wilts; "General Topics," which includes quizzes, references, and links to other forest health sites; "Disease Profiles," which includes information on specific diseases like chestnut blight and armillaria root disease; and "Disease Notes," which contains news and updates on specific diseases.

2008-02-01

466

Trees and Carbon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The transport and transformation of substances in the environment are known collectively as biogeochemical cycles. These global cycles involve the circulation of elements and nutrients that sustain both the biological and physical aspects of the environment. As an example, this discussion centers around the carbon cycle and how carbon is sequestered in trees. Students will perform an activity that replicates a case study in which the biomass of trees in a 15-acre plot of forest was calculated to determine the amount of carbon sequestered per acre.

Pratte, John

467

Influence of tree characteristics and forest management on tree microhabitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher densities of tree microhabitats in unmanaged forests may explain biodiversity differences with managed forests. To better understand the determinants of this potential biodiversity indicator, we studied the influence of tree characteristics on a set of tree microhabitats (e.g. cavities, cracks, bark features) on 75 plots in managed and unmanaged French forests. We hypothesized that the number of different microhabitat

Aurélie Vuidot; Yoan Paillet; Frédéric Archaux; Frédéric Gosselin

2011-01-01

468

Flat Tree Oyster (Isognomon alatus)  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

At high tide, the red bark of the Red Mangrove Trees is submerged, creating a brilliant reflection at the water's surface. Flat Tree Oysters (Isognomon alatus) grow on the upper portions of the roots....

469

Can These Trees Be Saved?  

E-print Network

This publication explains how to determine whether a storm-damaged tree can be saved. If the damage is not severe, most trees will recover in time. Helpful illustrations depict different levels of damage....

Taylor, Eric; Foster, C. Darwin

2005-10-19

470

Classify the trees/Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a field investigation where students gather leaves from various trees on school property, interpret findings, name tree and leaves, journal activity and develop a new "aha" for nature!

Mary Walsh

471

An Introduction to Tree Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief article describes the use of tree diagrams in calculating probabilities. The author provides examples of how tree diagrams are used to calculate specific probabilities and why the language chosen relates to the operations used to find the probability.

Cork, Stu

2014-01-01

472

(1R,2S,6R)-2-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-dimethyl-3-oxabicyclo[4.2.0]octane, a new volatile released by males of the papaya borer Pseudopiazurus obesus (Col.: Curculionidae).  

PubMed

Sex-specific volatiles produced by males of the papaya beetle Pseudopiazurus obesus are (1R,2S)-grandisal (1), (1R,2S)-grandisol (2), and the new (1R,2S,6R)-2-hydroxymethyl-2,6-dimethyl-3-oxabicyclo[4.2.0]octane (3) termed papayanol. PMID:20465270

Zarbin, Paulo H G; Moreira, Marcos A B; Haftmann, Jenny; Tröger, Armin; Franke, Stephan; Kopf, Jürgen; Mori, Kenji; Francke, Wittko

2010-06-01

473

Assessment of Prey Preference by the Generalist Predator, Mallada basalis (Walker), When Offered Two Species of Spider Mites, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Panonychus citri (McGregor) on Papaya  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We investigated potential prey preference of the generalist predator Mallada basalis (Walker) when offered two mites, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Panonychus citri (McGregor), both important pests on papaya. Laboratory choice tests revealed that none of the three larval instars of M. basalis sho...

474

Street Trees and Intersection Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This study and report is about street trees and intersection safety in urban contexts. The study derives from a rather simple, straightforward observation: that on the best tree-lined streets the trees come close to the corners. They do not stop at some distance back from the intersecting street right-of-way. Indeed, in Paris, a city noted for its street trees,

Elizabeth Macdonald; Alethea Harper; Jason A. Hayter

2006-01-01

475

Induction of decision trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology for building knowledge-based systems by inductive inference from examples has been demonstrated successfully in several practical applications. This paper summarizes an approach to synthesizing decision trees that has been used in a variety of systems, and it describes one such system, ID3, in detail. Results from recent studies show ways in which the methodology can be modified to

J. Ross Quinlan

1986-01-01

476

Hug a Tree!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methods for teaching pupils to use their senses to explore colors, shapes, textures, and sounds of the great outdoors are described. Ideas include: (1) having children hug their own special tree; (2) looking for geometric shapes in nature; (3) taking nocturnal nature walks; (4) building a track for racing insects; and (5) collecting objects with…

Rockwell, Robert E.; And Others

1983-01-01

477

Digging Deeper with Trees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes hands-on science areas that focus on trees. A project on leaf pigmentation involves putting crushed leaves in a test tube with solvent acetone to dissolve pigment. In another project, students learn taxonomy by sorting and classifying leaves based on observable characteristics. Includes a language arts connection. (PVD)

Growing Ideas, 2001

2001-01-01

478

Tree & Stand Measurement  

E-print Network

are measured for a variety of reasons including forest management planning, forest health monitoring and timber the height but in this case in 16' foot (or partial) logs. To use the hypsometer, pace 66 feet (1 chain) from the tree. Hold the stick at 25" from eye and line botton of stick with stump - read number of logs

New Hampshire, University of

479

Tree theorem for inflation  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that the generating function for tree graphs in the ''in-in'' formalism may be calculated by solving the classical equations of motion subject to certain constraints. This theorem is illustrated by application to the evolution of a single inflaton field in a Robertson-Walker background.

Weinberg, Steven [Theory Group, Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, Texas, 78712 (United States)

2008-09-15

480

Tree-Ties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Created to help students understand how plants were used for food, for medicine, and for arts and crafts among the Ojibwe (Chippewa) Indians, the game Tree-Ties combines earth and social sciences within a specific culture. The game requires mutual respect, understanding, and agreement to succeed. Sounding like the word "treaties", the title is a…

Gresczyk, Rick

481

Phylogenics & Tree-Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phylogenetic trees, which are depictions of the inferred evolutionary relationships among a set of species, now permeate almost all branches of biology and are appearing in increasing numbers in biology textbooks. While few state standards explicitly require knowledge of phylogenetics, most require some knowledge of evolutionary biology, and many…

Baum, David A.; Offner, Susan

2008-01-01

482

Arbutus unedo, Strawberry Tree  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Encylopedia of Fruit and Nuts is designed as a research reference source on temperate and tropical fruit and nut crops. Strawberry tree or madrone is native to the Mediterranean region of southern Europe (Arbutus unedo L., Ericaceae) with a relict population in Ireland, as well as in North Ameri...

483

Why trees live longer?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through simulations of the bit string model for biological aging, we reproduced the observed feature of trees and some species of fish of high maximum lifespans if fertility increases with age. Our results provide an additional evidence for the importance of the mutation accumulation theory from biological aging.

de Menezes, M. Argollo; Racco, A.; Penna, T. J. P.

1996-02-01

484

Tree Fertilization Soil Analysis  

E-print Network

Tree Fertilization #12;Soil Analysis vs. Foliar Analysis #12;Macronutrients N P K Mg S Ca Micronutrients Fe Mn Zn Mo Cu Cl B #12;Complete fertilizer N P K #12;Fertilizer Analysis Percentages of N P K #12;ANSI A-300 Fertilizer Standard Standards are used to develop contract specifications. Fertilize

485

The Growth of Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

JUST fifty years ago I was at school ia Salisbury. I have only visited it once since until last week, when I had the unique pleasure of rambling over the old but familiar haunts, of course including Old Sarum. On mounting the outer ring of the well-known mound from the Stratford side, a beech tree in the bottom of the

W. Symons

1882-01-01

486

Christmas Tree Category Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Pests and diseases of christmas tree plantations are identified and discussed. Section one deals with weeds and woody plants and the application, formulation and effects of herbicides in controlling them. Section two discusses specific diseases…

Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

487

Measure a Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity introduces measurement and scale using hands-on activities. In this activity, students use the concept of similar triangles to determine the height of a tree. This activity is one of several available on an educational poster related to NASA's Space Interferometry Mission.

488

Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle—particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage—increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree’s total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to understand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

Stephenson, N.L.; Das, A.J.; Condit, R.; Russo, S.E.; Baker, P.J.; Beckman, N.G.; Coomes, D.A.; Lines, E.R.; Morris, W.K.; Rüger, N.; Álvarez, E.; Blundo, C.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Chuyong, G.; Davies, S.J.; Duque, Á.; Ewango, C.N.; Flores, O.; Franklin, J.F.; Grau, H.R.; Hao, Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Hubbell, S.P.; Kenfack, D.; Lin, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Malizia, A.; Malizia, L.R.; Pabst, R.J.; Pongpattananurak, N.; Su, S.-H.; Sun, I-F.; Tan, S.; Thomas, D.; van Mantgem, P.J.; Wang, X.; Wiser, S.K.; Zavala, M.A.

2014-01-01

489

Building Your Own Abseil Tree.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The foot and mouth crisis forced many British outdoor education providers to develop new options. The construction of an abseiling tree is described, which requires a living, healthy, straight tree with a trunk thick enough to remain stable under load and with few branches in the lower 15-20 meters. An abseil tree code of practice is presented.…

Barnett, Des

2002-01-01

490

New Life From Dead Trees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are numerous bird species that will nest only in dead or dying trees. Current forestry practices include clearing forests of these snags, or dead trees. This practice is driving many species out of the forests. An illustrated example of bird succession in and on a tree is given. (MA)

DeGraaf, Richard M.

1978-01-01

491

Our Air: Unfit for Trees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help urban, suburban, and rural tree owners know about air pollution's effects on trees and their tolerance and intolerance to pollutants, the USDA Forest Service has prepared this booklet. It answers the following questions about atmospheric pollution: Where does it come from? What can it do to trees? and What can we do about it? In addition,…

Dochinger, Leon S.

492

Trees and Dags An Introduction  

E-print Network

Chapter 5 Trees and Dags An Introduction to Separation Logic c #2007 John C. Reynolds February 28, 2007 In this chapter, we consider various representations of abstract tree­like data. In general­expressions are the initial lawless algebra with an infinite number of constants and one binary operation.) 5.1 Trees We use

Andrews, Peter B.

493

Singular spectrum for radial trees  

E-print Network

We prove several results showing that absolutely continuous spectrum for the Laplacian on radial trees is a rare event. In particular, we show that metric trees with unbounded edges have purely singular spectrum and that generically (in the sense of Baire) radial trees have purely singular continuous spectrum.

Jonathan Breuer; Rupert L. Frank

2008-06-03

494

Building up rhetorical structure trees  

SciTech Connect

I use the distinction between the nuclei and the satellites that pertain to discourse relations to introduce a compositionality criterion for discourse trees. I provide a first-order formalization of rhetorical structure trees and, on its basis, I derive an algorithm that constructs all the valid rhetorical trees that can be associated with a given discourse.

Marcu, D. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

1996-12-31

495

The height of increasing trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We extend results about heights of random trees (Devroye, 1986, 1987, 1998b). In this paper, a general split tree model is considered in which the normalized subtree sizes of nodes converge in distribution. The height of these trees is shown,to be in probability asymptotic to c logn for some constant c. We apply our results to obtain a law

Nicolas Broutin; Luc Devroye; E. Mcleish; M. De La Salle

2008-01-01

496

Bkd-Tree: A Dynamic Scalable kd-Tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper we propose a new index structure, called the Bkd-tree, for indexing large multi-dimensional point data sets.\\u000a The Bkd-tree is an I\\/O-efficient dynamic data structure based on the kd-tree. We present the results of an extensive experimental\\u000a study showing that unlike previous attempts on making external versions of the kd-tree dynamic, the Bkd-tree maintains its\\u000a high space utilization

Octavian Procopiuc; Pankaj K. Agarwal; Lars Arge; Jeffrey Scott Vitter

497

Riparian Forest Grows Trees fall in  

E-print Network

Riparian Forest Grows Trees Die Trees fall in the lake Trees leave the littoral zone "Life" Cycle of Coarse Woody Habitat #12;Riparian Forest Grows What factors drive the species composition and stand structure? Trees Die Trees fall in the lake Trees leave the littoral zone #12;Riparian Forest Grows What

498

Binary search trees of bounded balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new class of binary search trees, called trees of bounded balance, is introduced. These trees are easy to maintain in their form despite insertions and deletions of nodes, and the search time is only moderately longer than in completely balanced trees. Trees of bounded balance differ from other classes of binary search trees in that they contain a parameter

Jürg Nievergelt; Edward M. Reingold

1972-01-01

499

Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size.  

PubMed

Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence. PMID:24429523

Stephenson, N L; Das, A J; Condit, R; Russo, S E; Baker, P J; Beckman, N G; Coomes, D A; Lines, E R; Morris, W K; Rüger, N; Alvarez, E; Blundo, C; Bunyavejchewin, S; Chuyong, G; Davies, S J; Duque, A; Ewango, C N; Flores, O; Franklin, J F; Grau, H R; Hao, Z; Harmon, M E; Hubbell, S P; Kenfack, D; Lin, Y; Makana, J-R; Malizia, A; Malizia, L R; Pabst, R J; Pongpattananurak, N; Su, S-H; Sun, I-F; Tan, S; Thomas, D; van Mantgem, P J; Wang, X; Wiser, S K; Zavala, M A

2014-03-01

500

Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

Stephenson, N. L.; Das, A. J.; Condit, R.; Russo, S. E.; Baker, P. J.; Beckman, N. G.; Coomes, D. A.; Lines, E. R.; Morris, W. K.; Rüger, N.; Álvarez, E.; Blundo, C.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Chuyong, G.; Davies, S. J.; Duque, Á.; Ewango, C. N.; Flores, O.; Franklin, J. F.; Grau, H. R.; Hao, Z.; Harmon, M. E.; Hubbell, S. P.; Kenfack, D.; Lin, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Malizia, A.; Malizia, L. R.; Pabst, R. J.; Pongpattananurak, N.; Su, S.-H.; Sun, I.-F.; Tan, S.; Thomas, D.; van Mantgem, P. J.; Wang, X.; Wiser, S. K.; Zavala, M. A.

2014-03-01