Note: This page contains sample records for the topic papaya tree carica from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus)  

PubMed Central

Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3× draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree1 to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far2–5, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica's distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties.

Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H.; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V.; Lewis, Kanako L. T.; Salzberg, Steven L.; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R.; Skelton, Rachel L.; Murray, Jan E.; Chen, Cuixia; Qian, Wubin; Shen, Junguo; Du, Peng; Eustice, Moriah; Tong, Eric; Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Paull, Robert E.; Michael, Todd P.; Wall, Kerr; Rice, Danny W.; Albert, Henrik; Wang, Ming-Li; Zhu, Yun J.; Schatz, Michael; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Acob, Ricelle A.; Guan, Peizhu; Blas, Andrea; Wai, Ching Man; Ackerman, Christine M.; Ren, Yan; Liu, Chao; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Shakirov, Eugene V.; Haas, Brian; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Nelson, David; Wang, Xiyin; Bowers, John E.; Gschwend, Andrea R.; Delcher, Arthur L.; Singh, Ratnesh; Suzuki, Jon Y.; Tripathi, Savarni; Neupane, Kabi; Wei, Hairong; Irikura, Beth; Paidi, Maya; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Wenli; Presting, Gernot; Windsor, Aaron; Navajas-Perez, Rafael; Torres, Manuel J.; Feltus, F. Alex; Porter, Brad; Li, Yingjun; Burroughs, A. Max; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Liu, Lei; Christopher, David A.; Mount, Stephen M.; Moore, Paul H.; Sugimura, Tak; Jiang, Jiming; Schuler, Mary A.; Friedman, Vikki; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Shippen, Dorothy E.; dePamphilis, Claude W.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.; Freeling, Michael; Paterson, Andrew H.; Gonsalves, Dennis; Wang, Lei; Alam, Maqsudul

2010-01-01

2

The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).  

PubMed

Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3x draft genome sequence of 'SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica's distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties. PMID:18432245

Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V; Lewis, Kanako L T; Salzberg, Steven L; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R; Skelton, Rachel L; Murray, Jan E; Chen, Cuixia; Qian, Wubin; Shen, Junguo; Du, Peng; Eustice, Moriah; Tong, Eric; Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Paull, Robert E; Michael, Todd P; Wall, Kerr; Rice, Danny W; Albert, Henrik; Wang, Ming-Li; Zhu, Yun J; Schatz, Michael; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Acob, Ricelle A; Guan, Peizhu; Blas, Andrea; Wai, Ching Man; Ackerman, Christine M; Ren, Yan; Liu, Chao; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Shakirov, Eugene V; Haas, Brian; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Nelson, David; Wang, Xiyin; Bowers, John E; Gschwend, Andrea R; Delcher, Arthur L; Singh, Ratnesh; Suzuki, Jon Y; Tripathi, Savarni; Neupane, Kabi; Wei, Hairong; Irikura, Beth; Paidi, Maya; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Wenli; Presting, Gernot; Windsor, Aaron; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Torres, Manuel J; Feltus, F Alex; Porter, Brad; Li, Yingjun; Burroughs, A Max; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Liu, Lei; Christopher, David A; Mount, Stephen M; Moore, Paul H; Sugimura, Tak; Jiang, Jiming; Schuler, Mary A; Friedman, Vikki; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Shippen, Dorothy E; dePamphilis, Claude W; Palmer, Jeffrey D; Freeling, Michael; Paterson, Andrew H; Gonsalves, Dennis; Wang, Lei; Alam, Maqsudul

2008-04-24

3

Post-irradiation identification of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impact of radiation processing on the volatile essential oil profile of papaya ( Carica papaya) was investigated. Gamma-radiation processing resulted in the appearance of a new peak in the GLC profile that was identified as phenol. The observed dose dependent increase in phenol content suggested possible use of this compound as a marker for radiation processed papaya.

Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

2012-03-01

4

Genome size, base composition and karyotype of Carica papaya L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few data concerning Carica papaya DNA content and chromosomal characterization have been reported in specialized bibliography. Considering this fact, flow\\u000a cytometry and cytogenetic methodologies were applied in order to improve the knowledge about the genome size, base composition\\u000a and karyotype of C. papaya hermaphroditic plants. Flow cytometry results showed that hermaphroditic C. papaya genome size is relatively small (2 C?=?0.65 pg) and

Fernanda Santos Araújo; Carlos Roberto Carvalho; Wellington Ronildo Clarindo

2010-01-01

5

Carotenogenesis and physico-chemical characteristics during maturation of red fleshed papaya fruit ( Carica papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotenoid development of red fleshed papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.) was investigated in the course of a complete pre- and postharvest period using HPLC-DAD coupled to mass spectrometry. Esterified xanthophylls such as ?-cryptoxanthin laurate and caprate were the most abundant pigments during incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Subsequent fruit maturation led to a gradual accumulation of carotenoids, whereas particularly ?-cryptoxanthin laurate and

Ralf Martin Schweiggert; Christof Björn Steingass; Eric Mora; Patricia Esquivel; Reinhold Carle

2011-01-01

6

Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya ( Carica papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC–MS revealed striking similarity\\u000a of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained\\u000a only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51%

Ralf M. Schweiggert; Christof B. Steingass; Annerose Heller; Patricia Esquivel; Reinhold Carle

7

Antibacterial effects of Carica papaya fruit on common wound organisms.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to investigate antibacterial activity of ripe and unripe Carica papaya on selected micro-organisms. Cultures of micro-organisms were routinely maintained in nutrient agar slants at 4 degrees C. Extracts of immature, mature and ripe Carica papaya fruit were obtained by separately grinding factions of the epicarp, endocarp and seeds and filtering them through gauze. Sensitivity tests were conducted by adding 0.06 ml of extract to agar wells (6 mm diameter) prepared from 20 ml agar seeded with 10(6) cells/ml suspension of one of the eight organisms per plate. The inoculated plates were allowed to equilibrate at 4 degrees C for 1 hour, incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 hours, and zones of inhibition measured in millimetres. Anti-bacterial activity was expressed in terms of the radius of zone of inhibition. Seed extracts from the fruit showed inhibition in the following order: B cereus > E coli > S faecalis > S aureus > P vulgaris > S flexneri. No significant difference was found in bacterial sensitivity between immature, mature and ripe fruits. No inhibition zone was produced by epicarp and endocarp extracts. Carica papaya seeds contain anti-bacterial activity that inhibits growth of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Observed activity was independent of stage of fruit maturity. Carica papaya has antibacterial effects that could be useful in treating chronic skin ulcers to promote healing. PMID:15040064

Dawkins, G; Hewitt, H; Wint, Y; Obiefuna, P C; Wint, B

2003-12-01

8

Possible immunomodulatory actions of Carica papaya seed extract.  

PubMed

Carica papaya seed extract is currently being marketed as a nutritional supplement with purported ability "to rejuvenate the body condition and to increase energy". The product claims to improve immunity against common infection and body functioning. The present study was initiated to analyze the chemical constituents of the Carica Seed Extract and determine the potential immunomodulatory properties of the different bioactive fractions. These immunomodulatory activities of crude Carica Seed Extract and its bioactive fractions were examined in vitro using lymphocyte proliferation assays and complement-mediated hemolytic assay. Three major observations were made in this study: (1) the crude Carica Seed Extract and two other bioactive fractions significantly enhanced the phytohemagglutinin responsiveness of lymphocytes; (2) none of the Carica Seed Extract (at the concentrations used in this study) was able to protect the lymphocytes from the toxic effects of chromium; and (3) some of the bioactive fractions of Carica Seed Extract were able to significantly inhibit the classical complement-mediated hemolytic pathway. These findings provide evidence for immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory actions of Carica Seed Extract. No single compound is likely responsible for these activities. Further purification, isolation and characterization of the active components are needed. PMID:14724345

Mojica-Henshaw, Mariluz P; Francisco, Angelica D; De Guzman, Florecita; Tigno, Xenia T

2003-01-01

9

Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.).  

PubMed

Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC-MS revealed striking similarity of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51% of total carotenoids). Comparison of the pigment-loaded chromoplast ultrastructures disclosed tubular plastids to be abundant in yellow papaya, whereas larger crystalloid substructures characterized most frequent red papaya chromoplasts. Exclusively existent in red papaya, such crystalloid structures were associated with lycopene accumulation. Non-globular carotenoid deposition was derived from simple solubility calculations based on carotenoid and lipid contents of the differently colored fruit pulps. Since the physical state of carotenoid deposition may be decisive regarding their bioavailability, chromoplasts from lycopene-rich tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were also assessed and compared to red papaya. Besides interesting analogies, various distinctions were ascertained resulting in the prediction of enhanced lycopene bioavailability from red papaya. In addition, the developmental pathway of red papaya chromoplasts was investigated during fruit ripening and carotenogenesis. In the early maturation stage of white-fleshed papaya, undifferentiated proplastids and globular plastids were predominant, corresponding to incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Since intermediate plastids, e.g., amyloplasts or chloroplasts, were absent, chromoplasts are likely to emerge directly from proplastids. PMID:21706336

Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B; Heller, Annerose; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

2011-11-01

10

Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya  

PubMed Central

Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results: Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion: No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.

Oduola, Taofeeq; Bello, Ibrahim; Idowu, Thomas; Avwioro, Godwin; Adeosun, Ganiyu; Olatubosun, Luqman

2010-01-01

11

Phospholipids of palash ( Butea monosperma ), papaya ( Carica papaya ), jangli badam ( Sterculia foetida ), coriander ( Coriandrum sativum ) and carrot ( Daucus carota ) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of the phospholipids of palash(Butea monosperma), papaya(Carica papaya), jangli badam(Sterculia foetida), coriander(Coriandrum sativum) and carrot(Daucus carota) seeds are reported in the present study. Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol were identified\\u000a as major components in all the seeds. Small amounts of lysophosphatidylcholine in palash and papaya, and cardiolipin in palash,\\u000a papaya and carrot also were detected. The predominant fatty acids present

R. B. N. Prasad; Y. Nagender Rao; S. Venkob Rao

1987-01-01

12

Ozone Applications in the PostHarvest of Papaya (Carica papaya L.): An Alternative to Amistar Fungicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article was to evaluate ozone applications in the post-harvest of papaya (Carica papaya L) as an alternative to Amistar fungicide, taking into account the effect on the control of fungal pathogens growth, shelf-life, seed germination percentage and soluble solids content. Ozone doses were applied in vitro to strains of seven fungi species, which cause rot of

Mayra Bataller; José E. González; Eliet Veliz; Lidia A. Fernández

2012-01-01

13

Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas ( Carica papaya L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Papaya is cultivated in Espírito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature.

Camargo, R. J.; Tadini, C. C.; Sabato, S. F.

2007-11-01

14

Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract.  

PubMed

Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1?mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (?? m ) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

2014-01-01

15

Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract  

PubMed Central

Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1?mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress.

Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

2014-01-01

16

Physical–chemical analyses of irradiated papayas ( Carica papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya is cultivated in Espírito Santo State\\/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00kGy)

R. J. Camargo; C. C. Tadini; S. F. Sabato

2007-01-01

17

Effects of Different Concentrations and Applications of Calcium on Storage Life and Physicochemical Characteristics of Papaya (Carica Papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica Papaya L.) fruits index 2 were treated with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5% solutions of calcium chloride by dipping and vacuum infiltration (-33 Kpa) or untreated (0%) as control. Effects of these treatments were evaluated on storage life and postharvest quality characteristics of papaya. After 21 days of storage at 13±1°C, the fruits were removed from storage for physicochemical

Mohamed Zaki

2008-01-01

18

Digital Transcriptome Analysis of Putative Sex-Determination Genes in Papaya (Carica papaya)  

PubMed Central

Papaya (Carica papaya) is a trioecious plant species that has male, female and hermaphrodite flowers on different plants. The primitive sex chromosomes genetically determine the sex of the papaya. Although draft sequences of the papaya genome are already available, the genes for sex determination have not been identified, likely due to the complicated structure of its sex-chromosome sequences. To identify the candidate genes for sex determination, we conducted a transcriptome analysis of flower samples from male, female and hermaphrodite plants using high-throughput SuperSAGE for digital gene expression analysis. Among the short sequence tags obtained from the transcripts, 312 unique tags were specifically mapped to the primitive sex chromosome (X or Yh) sequences. An annotation analysis revealed that retroelements are the most abundant sequences observed in the genes corresponding to these tags. The majority of tags on the sex chromosomes were located on the X chromosome, and only 30 tags were commonly mapped to both the X and Yh chromosome, implying a loss of many genes on the Yh chromosome. Nevertheless, candidate Yh chromosome-specific female determination genes, including a MADS-box gene, were identified. Information on these sex chromosome-specific expressed genes will help elucidating sex determination in the papaya.

Urasaki, Naoya; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Ueno, Hiroki; Tamaki, Moritoshi; Miyagi, Norimichi; Adaniya, Shinichi; Matsumura, Hideo

2012-01-01

19

Influence of ripening stages on antioxidant properties of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv Eksotika) is one of the most commonly consumed tropical fruits by humans, especially Malaysians. The objective of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidants activity in different ripening stages of papaya fruit. The fruits were harvested at five different, stages RS1, RS2, RS3, RS4, and RS5 corresponding to 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 weeks after anthesis, respectively. Papayas fruit at five different stage of ripening were obtained from farms at Pusat Flora Cheras, JabatanPertanian and Hulu Langat Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia. The antioxidants activity were analyzed using the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The analyses were conducted in triplicate and the data were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS. The results showed significant differences (P< 0.05) were found at different stages of ripening. The total phenol content TPC, TFC, FRAP and DPPH values increased significantly (P<0.05) with the ripening process. The results showed the important role of the ripening stage in increasing the antioxidant content of papaya fruits.

Addai, Zuhair Radhi; Abdullah, Aminah; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.

2013-11-01

20

Proteomic analysis of papaya (Carica papaya L.) displaying typical sticky disease symptoms.  

PubMed

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) hosts the only described laticifer-infecting virus (Papaya meleira virus, PMeV), which is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease. To understand the systemic effects of PMeV in papaya, we conducted a comprehensive proteomic analysis of leaf samples from healthy and diseased plants grown under field conditions. First, a reference 2-DE map was established for proteins from healthy samples. A total of 486 reproducible spots were identified, and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS data identified 275 proteins accounting for 159 distinct proteins from 231 spots that were annotated. Second, the differential expression of proteins from healthy and diseased leaves was determined through parallel experiments, using 2-DE and DIGE followed by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and LC-IonTrap-MS/MS, respectively. Conventional 2-DE analysis revealed 75 differentially expressed proteins. Of those, 48 proteins were identified, with 26 being upregulated (U) and 22 downregulated (D). In general, metabolism-related proteins were downregulated, and stress-responsive proteins were upregulated. This expression pattern was corroborated by the results of the DIGE analysis, which identified 79 differentially expressed proteins, with 23 identified (17 U and 6 D). Calreticulin and the proteasome subunits 20S and RPT5a were shown to be upregulated during infection by both 2-DE and DIGE analyses. These data may help shed light on plant responses against stresses and viral infections. PMID:21630455

Rodrigues, Silas P; Ventura, José A; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Almeida, Igor C; Fernandes, Patricia M B; Zingali, Russolina B

2011-07-01

21

Purification and characterization of peroxidase from papaya (Carica papaya) fruit.  

PubMed

Ripening of papaya fruit was found to be characterized with a decrease in peroxidase activity and its transcript. This peroxidase was purified to homogeneity through successive steps of ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion exchange and molecular exclusion chromatography. The peroxidase was purified 30.22-folds with overall recovery of 44.37% and specific activity of 68.59. Purified peroxidase was found to be a heterotrimer of ~240 kDa, containing two subunits each of 85 and one of 70 kDa. Purified enzyme exhibited pH and temperature optima of 7.0 and 40 °C, respectively. K(m) values for substrates o-dianicidin, guaiacol and ascorbic acid were found to be 0.125, 0.8 and 5.2 mM, respectively. K(m) for H(2)O(2) was found to be 0.25 mM. Salicylic acid was found to activate peroxidase up to 50 ?M concentration, beyond which it acted as inhibitor. Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) activated peroxidase while sodium azide, SDS, and Triton X-100 were found to inhibit peroxidase. PMID:22552804

Pandey, Veda P; Singh, Swati; Singh, Rupinder; Dwivedi, Upendra N

2012-05-01

22

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the glutaminyl cyclase from Carica papaya latex  

PubMed Central

In living systems, the intramolecular cyclization of N-terminal glutamine residues is accomplished by glutaminyl cyclase enzymes (EC 2.3.2.5). While in mammals these enzymes are involved in the synthesis of hormonal and neurotransmitter peptides, the physiological role played by the corresponding plant enzymes still remains to be unravelled. Papaya glutaminyl cyclase (PQC), a 33?kDa enzyme found in the latex of the tropical tree Carica papaya, displays an exceptional resistance to chemical and thermal denaturation as well as to proteolysis. In order to elucidate its enzymatic mechanism and to gain insights into the structural determinants underlying its remarkable stability, PQC was isolated from papaya latex, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 62.82, b = 81.23, c = 108.17?Å and two molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data have been collected at ESRF beamline BM14 and processed to a resolution of 1.7?Å.

Azarkan, Mohamed; Clantin, Bernard; Bompard, Coralie; Belrhali, Hassan; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle; Looze, Yvan; Villeret, Vincent; Wintjens, Rene

2005-01-01

23

Effects of chloroformic extracts from washed and unwashed papaya seeds (Carica papaya) on the sperm concentration of dogs.  

PubMed

Papaya seeds (Carica papaya Linn) have been found to have a significant effect on sperm characteristics in some mammals, including humans, but no studies have investigated the effects on dogs. In the present study, a significant decrease in sperm concentration was observed in a group of dogs treated with extracts from washed papaya seeds, but no decrease was observed in the group of dogs treated with non-washed seeds. An important effect of extract components from washed seeds such as fatty acids is probably involved in the reduction of sperm production because of Sertoli cell damage, as has been suggested for langur monkeys. Dilution of the active components in the non-washed papaya seeds or interference with some of the components may reduce the expected effect on spermatogenesis. This first report on the effects of a chloroformic extract of papaya seeds in dogs suggests that an increased dose is necessary to achieve azoospermia. PMID:19650877

Ortega-Pacheco, A; Jiménez-Coello, M; Gutiérrez-Blanco, E; Acosta-Viana, K Y; Guzmán-Marín, E; Zavala-Sánchez, M A; Montalvo-Beltrán, N E; Pérez-Gutiérrez, M S

2010-12-01

24

Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain\\u000a bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic\\u000a solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest

Pedro Chávez-Quintal; Tania González-Flores; Ingrid Rodríguez-Buenfil; Santiago Gallegos-Tintoré

2011-01-01

25

Breaking the intergeneric hybridization barrier in Carica papaya and Vasconcellea cauliflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation was undertaken to develop PRSV (Papaya ringspot virus) resistant hybrids through intergeneric hybridization. Intergeneric hybridization was done involving nine Carica papaya cultivars as female and Vasconcellea cauliflora as male. To break the intergeneric hybridization barrier, various nutrient combinations were used. Among the combinations used, sucrose 5%, sucrose 5%+boron 0.5% and sucrose 5%+CaCl2 0.5% improved the fruit set

R. Jayavalli; T. N. Balamohan; N. Manivannan; M. Govindaraj

2011-01-01

26

Postharvest Variation in Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymes of Papaya (Carica papaya L.) during Fruit Ripening.  

PubMed

Pectin methylesterase (PME), polygalacturonase (PG), xylanase, cellulase, and proteinase activity were determined and related to respiration, ethylene evolution, and changes in skin color of papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit from harvest through to the start of fruit breakdown. PME gradually increased from the start of the climacteric rise reaching a peak 2 days after the respiratory peak. PG and xylanase were not detectable in the preclimacteric stage but increased during the climacteric: during the post climacteric stage, the PG declined to a level one-quarter of peak activity with xylanase activity returning to zero. Cellulase activity gradually increased 3-fold after harvest to peak at the same time as PME, 2 days after the edible stage. Proteinase declined throughout the climacteric and postclimacteric phases. A close relationship exists between PG and xylanase and the rise in respiration, ethylene evolution, and softening. Cultivar differences in postclimacteric levels of enzymic activity were not detected.An inhibitor of cellulase activity was detected in preclimacteric fruit. The inhibitor was not benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC). BITC did inhibit PG activity, though no inhibitor of PG activity was detected in preclimacteric homogenates when BITC was highest. The results indicate that inhibitors did not play a direct role in controlling wall softening. PMID:16663010

Paull, R E; Chen, N J

1983-06-01

27

Studies on the antibacterial activity of root extracts of Carica papaya L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioactive compounds of root extracts of Carica papaya L. were extracted, using water and organic solvents, and were investigated for antibacterial activity against some pathogenic bacteria using the cup plate agar diffusion method. The aqueous extracts did not show significant activity, but the organic extracts had significant activity with the methanol extracts demonstrating the highest activity against the test

J. H. Doughari; S. Manzara

28

Resolution of secondary alcohols via Carica papaya lipase-catalyzed enantioselective acylation.  

PubMed

The Carica papaya lipase-catalyzed acylation of benzylcarbinols with vinyl hexanoate proceeded smoothly and enantiospecifically (E > 200), affording the R-esters and leaving the S-alcohols intact. Thus, this plant lipase proved to be a promising biocatalyst for the resolution of alcohols as well as for that of carboxylic acids reported earlier. PMID:18512020

Miyazawa, Toshifumi; Houhashi, Mika; Inoue, Yusuke; Murashima, Takashi; Yamada, Takashi

2008-10-01

29

Control Biológico de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ((Penz.) Penz. y Sacc.) en Papaya Maradol Roja (Carica papaya L.) y Fisiología Postcosecha de Frutos Infectados  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three and four isolates of the antagonistic bacteria Bacillus firmus and Pseudomonas fluorescens, respectively, as well as plant extracts with fungitoxic properties were evaluated for the biological control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). Also, the effects of the disease on some physical, chemical, and physiological characteristics of papaya fruits Maradol Roja (Carica papaya) were evaluated. In vitro, only two strains of

Emma Zavaleta-Mejía; Isaac Luna-Romero; Casco de Santo Tomás; Juan Gabriel Gutiérrez-Alonso

2004-01-01

30

Identification and quantification of phenols, carotenoids, and vitamin C from papaya ( Carica papaya L., cv. Maradol) fruit determined by HPLC-DAD-MS\\/MS-ESI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have demonstrated that vitamin C, phenols, and carotenoids are bioactive compounds that protect the body from oxidative stress, reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major phytochemicals found in papaya fruit flesh and skin (Carica papaya L., cv Maradol) was conducted in four stages of ripeness, using high-performance

Laura E. Gayosso-García Sancho; Elhadi M. Yahia; Gustavo Adolfo González-Aguilar

2011-01-01

31

Molecular evidence for association of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus with leaf curl disease of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Association ofTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus with leaf curl disease of papaya (Carica papaya L.) was detected by polymerase chain reaction using begomovirus-specific primers and confirmed by highest sequence similarities\\u000a and close phylogenetic relationships.

S. K. RajA; S. K. SnehiA; M. S. KhanA; R. SinghA; A. A. KhanB

2008-01-01

32

Suppression of Papaya ringspot virus infection in Carica papaya with CAP34, a systemic antiviral resistance inducing protein from Clerodendrum aculeatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

CAP-34, a protein from Clerodendrum aculeatum inducing systemic antiviral resistance was evaluated for control of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) infection in Carica papaya. In control plants (treated with CAP-34 extraction buffer) systemic mosaic became visible around 20 days that intensified\\u000a up to 30 days in 56% plants. During this period, CAP-34-treated papaya did not show any symptoms. Between 30 and 60 days,\\u000a 95%

Aparana Srivastava; Sonali Trivedi; Sunil Kumar Krishna; H. N. Verma; Vivek Prasad

2009-01-01

33

Rapid sex identification of papaya (Carica papaya) using multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mLAMP).  

PubMed

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is established as a cash crop throughout the tropical and subtropical regions due to its easy adaptation to diverse agricultural conditions, high yields, and prompt returns. The sex types of papaya plants are hermaphrodite, male, and female. Among them, hermaphroditic plants are the major type in papaya production, because the fruit has commercial advantages over that of the other sexes. Sex inheritance in papaya is determined by the M and M(h) dominant alleles in males and hermaphrodites, respectively, and a recessive m allele in females. Currently, all hermaphrodite seeds are not available due to the lethality of dominant homozygosity. Therefore, in this study, six male-hermaphrodite-specific markers were developed for a rapid sex identification using multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mLAMP) to efficiently and precisely select hermaphroditic individuals in the seedling or early growth stage. The LM1-LAMP assay consisted of two sex-LAMP reactions for amplifying two male-specific markers (T12 and Cpsm90) in one reaction, and showed several advantages in terms of a rapid reaction time (<1 h), isothermal conditions (less equipment required), a high efficiency (0.5 ng of DNA required in the reaction mixture), and an economical reaction system (5 ?l in volume). The established method can be easily performed in the field by visual inspection and facilitates the selection of all hermaphroditic individuals in papaya production. PMID:22706662

Hsu, Te-Hua; Gwo, Jin-Chywan; Lin, Kuan-Hung

2012-10-01

34

Antiplasmodial Properties and Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Carica papaya Leaves  

PubMed Central

We investigated the antiplasmodial properties of crude extracts from Carica papaya leaves to trace the activity through bioassay-guided fractionation. The greatest antiplasmodial activity was observed in the ethyl acetate crude extract. C. papaya showed a high selectivity for P. falciparum against CHO cells with a selectivity index of 249.25 and 185.37 in the chloroquine-sensitive D10 and chloroquine-resistant DD2 strains, respectively. Carica papaya ethyl acetate extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation to ascertain the most active fraction, which was purified and identified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry) methods. Linoleic and linolenic acids identified from the ethyl acetate fraction showed IC50 of 6.88??g/ml and 3.58??g/ml, respectively. The study demonstrated greater antiplasmodial activity of the crude ethyl acetate extract of Carica papaya leaves with an IC50 of 2.96 ± 0.14??g/ml when compared to the activity of the fractions and isolated compounds.

Melariri, Paula; Campbell, William; Etusim, Paschal; Smith, Peter

2011-01-01

35

Contrasting patterns of X/Y polymorphism distinguish Carica papaya from other sex chromosome systems.  

PubMed

The sex chromosomes of the tropical crop papaya (Carica papaya) are evolutionarily young and consequently allow for the examination of evolutionary mechanisms that drive early sex chromosome divergence. We conducted a molecular population genetic analysis of four X/Y gene pairs from a collection of 45 wild papaya accessions. These population genetic analyses reveal striking differences in the patterns of polymorphism between the X and Y chromosomes that distinguish them from other sex chromosome systems. In most sex chromosome systems, the Y chromosome displays significantly reduced polymorphism levels, whereas the X chromosome maintains a level of polymorphism that is comparable to autosomal loci. However, the four papaya sex-linked loci that we examined display diversity patterns that are opposite this trend: the papaya X alleles exhibit significantly reduced polymorphism levels, whereas the papaya Y alleles maintain greater than expected levels of diversity. Our analyses suggest that selective sweeps in the regions of the X have contributed to this pattern while also revealing geographically restricted haplogroups on the Y. We discuss the possible role sexual selection and/or genomic conflict have played in shaping the contrasting patterns of polymorphism found for the papaya X and Y chromosomes. PMID:22855536

Weingartner, Laura A; Moore, Richard C

2012-12-01

36

Wound-healing potential of an ethanol extract of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) seeds.  

PubMed

Carica papaya L. (Linn) (Caricaceae) is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment for various wounds, particularly burns. This study evaluated the wound-healing and antimicrobial activity of C. papaya seed extract. Ethanol extract of C. papaya seed (50 mg/kg/day) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity in Sprague-Dawley rats using excision wound model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each (group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with papaya seed extract, group 3 treated with a standard drug mupirocin and papaya seed extract (1:1 ratio) and group 4 treated with a mupirocin ointment. Rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content were determined to assess the wound-healing activity of the seed extract. The group 2 animals showed a significant decrease in wound area of 89% over 13 days when compared with groups 1 (82%), 3 (86%) and 4 (84%) respectively. The hydroxyproline content was significantly higher with the granulation tissue obtained from group 2 animals which were treated with C. papaya seed extract. Histological analysis of granulation tissue of the group 2 animals showed the deposition of well-organized collagen. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that C. papaya promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation for this activity in humans is suggested. PMID:22296524

Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramdeen, Ria; Adogwa, Andrew; Ramsubhag, Adash; Marshall, Julien Rhodney

2012-12-01

37

Characterization of the lipase from Carica papaya residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Lipases from vegetable sources have been the focus of intense and growing research. The use of enzymes from plants has the advantage of employing industrial waste products. Brazil is the world's largest papaya producer and the market for products derived from papaya is growing year after year. In this study, the authors carried out the characterization and partial purification

Fernanda Wiermann PAQUES; Tatiana Fontes PIO; Patrícia de Oliveira CARVALHO; Gabriela Alves MACEDO

38

Toxicological effects of Carica papaya seed extract on spermatozoa of mice.  

PubMed

Investigations were carried out on epididymal spermatozoa of male mice to study the effects of high dosages (100, 200 and 300 mg kg(-1) bwt) of aqueous Carica papaya seed extract. The results revealed a significant dosedependent suppression of cauda epididymal sperm motility coinciding with a decrease in sperm count and viability. When tested 45 days after the withdrawal of treatment, complete normalcy was restored, proving that the induced effects were transient. PMID:17080407

Verma, R J; Nambiar, Deepa; Chinoy, N J

2006-01-01

39

Abortifacient properties of aqueous extract of Carica papaya (Linn) seeds on female Sprague-Dawley rats.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to investigate the abortifacient potential of aqueous extract of Carica papaya (Linn) seeds in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Oral doses of 100 and 800 mg/kg body weight were administered once a day on days 1-10 post-coitum. No significant differences in total body weight were found in foetuses exposed to these regimes. However, in the group treated with 100 mg/kg body weight, there was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the implantation sites and foetal weight was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) compared to the controls. No dead or malformed foetuses were found. However, in the group treated with 800 mg/kg body weight, there was obvious vaginal bleeding but no treatment related increase in implantation sites compared with control. There was however, complete resorption of about 30% of the foetuses. The surviving foetuses were stunted when compared with the control but were without any external malformations. The results of the present investigations lead to the clear conclusion that low dose aqueous crude extract of Carica papaya (Linn) seeds does not adversely affect prenatal development. The altered toxicological profile indicates that the abortifacient property is a high dose side effect. The results indicate that Carica papaya toxicity can adversely affect the foetus. PMID:12163882

Oderinde, O; Noronha, C; Oremosu, A; Kusemiju, T; Okanlawon, O A

2002-06-01

40

Molecular cloning of two cysteine proteinases from paw-paw (Carica papaya).  

PubMed Central

Two cDNA clones for plant cysteine proteinases have been isolated from a Carica papaya (paw-paw, papaya) leaf tissue cDNA library by using a mixture of 16 synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotides as a hybridization probe. The inserted regions are 311 and 440 base-pairs in length and have the potential to encode a region corresponding to the C-terminal region of two proteins which are homologous with the known plant cysteine proteinases and the mammalian thiol cathepsins. One of the sequences shows a high (greater than 77%) homology with the plant cysteine proteinase papain, the other is closely related to papaya chymopapain. One sequence contains all, and the other most, of the 3' untranslated region of the mRNA. The inserts were used as specific probes in Northern Blot analyses giving an estimated size for the two mRNA species of 1.45 kilobases. Images Fig. 4.

McKee, R A; Adams, S; Matthews, J A; Smith, C J; Smith, H

1986-01-01

41

Correlation between ethylene emission and skin colour changes during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin colour changes and ethylene emission rates were monitored during papaya (C. papaya L.) fruit ripening. Two groups of papaya (`Formosa' and `Solo') were applied in this study. The total colour difference was used as measured parameter and the corresponding half time of its saturation was used as correlation parameter. A high correlation factor between the saturation half time

M. G. da Silva; J. G. Oliveira; A. P. Vitoria; S. F. Corrêa; M. G. Pereira; E. Campostrini; E. O. Santos; A. Cavalli; H. Vargas

2005-01-01

42

Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional plant treatment for diabetes has shown a surging interest in the last few decades. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves in diabetic rats. Several studies have reported that some parts of the C. papaya plant exert hypoglycemic effects in both animals and humans. Methods Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ). The aqueous extract of C. papaya was administered in three different doses (0.75, 1.5 and 3 g/100 mL) as drinking water to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals during 4 weeks. Results The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (0.75 g and 1.5 g/100 mL) significantly decreased blood glucose levels (p<0.05) in diabetic rats. It also decreased cholesterol, triacylglycerol and amino-transferases blood levels. Low plasma insulin levels did not change after treatment in diabetic rats, but they significantly increased in non-diabetic animals. Pancreatic islet cells were normal in non-diabetic treated animals, whereas in diabetic treated rats, C. papaya could help islet regeneration manifested as preservation of cell size. In the liver of diabetic treated rats, C. papaya prevented hepatocyte disruption, as well as accumulation of glycogen and lipids. Finally, an antioxidant effect of C. papaya extract was also detected in diabetic rats. Conclusions This study showed that the aqueous extract of C. papaya exerted a hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect; it also improved the lipid profile in diabetic rats. In addition, the leaf extract positively affected integrity and function of both liver and pancreas.

2012-01-01

43

Papain protects papaya trees from herbivorous insects: role of cysteine proteases in latex.  

PubMed

Many plants contain latex that exudes when leaves are damaged, and a number of proteins and enzymes have been found in it. The roles of those latex proteins and enzymes are as yet poorly understood. We found that papain, a cysteine protease in latex of the Papaya tree (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), is a crucial factor in the defense of the papaya tree against lepidopteran larvae such as oligophagous Samia ricini (Saturniidae) and two notorious polyphagous pests, Mamestra brassicae (Noctuidae) and Spodoptera litura (Noctuidae). Leaves of a number of laticiferous plants, including papaya and a wild fig, Ficus virgata (Moraceae), showed strong toxicity and growth inhibition against lepidopteran larvae, though no apparent toxic factors from these species have been reported. When the latex was washed off, the leaves of these lactiferous plants lost toxicity. Latexes of both papaya and the wild fig were rich in cysteine-protease activity. E-64, a cysteine protease-specific inhibitor, completely deprived the leaves of toxicity when painted on the surface of papaya and fig leaves. Cysteine proteases, such as papain, ficin, and bromelain, all showed toxicity. The results suggest that plant latex and the proteins in it, cysteine proteases in particular, provide plants with a general defense mechanism against herbivorous insects. PMID:14731257

Konno, Kotaro; Hirayama, Chikara; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Tateishi, Ken; Tamura, Yasumori; Hattori, Makoto; Kohno, Katsuyuki

2004-02-01

44

Identification and expression of the WRKY transcription factors of Carica papaya in response to abiotic and biotic stresses.  

PubMed

The WRKY transcription factor (TF) plays a very important role in the response of plants to various abiotic and biotic stresses. A local papaya database was built according to the GenBank expressed sequence tag database using the BioEdit software. Fifty-two coding sequences of Carica papaya WRKY TFs were predicted using the tBLASTn tool. The phylogenetic tree of the WRKY proteins was classified. The expression profiles of 13 selected C. papaya WRKY TF genes under stress induction were constructed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of these WRKY genes in response to 3 abiotic and 2 biotic stresses were evaluated. TF807.3 and TF72.14 are upregulated by low temperature; TF807.3, TF43.76, TF12.199 and TF12.62 are involved in the response to drought stress; TF9.35, TF18.51, TF72.14 and TF12.199 is involved in response to wound; TF12.199, TF807.3, TF21.156 and TF18.51 was induced by PRSV pathogen; TF72.14 and TF43.76 are upregulated by SA. The regulated expression levels of above eight genes normalized against housekeeping gene actin were significant at probability of 0.01 levels. These WRKY TFs could be related to corresponding stress resistance and selected as the candidate genes, especially, the two genes TF807.3 and TF12.199, which were regulated notably by four stresses respectively. This study may provide useful information and candidate genes for the development of transgenic stress tolerant papaya varieties. PMID:24390238

Pan, Lin-Jie; Jiang, Ling

2014-03-01

45

Modulation of jejunal contractions by extract of Carica papaya L. seeds.  

PubMed

Carica papaya L. (papaya) seed preparations are used in traditional medicine to expel intestinal worms in human and ruminants. In the present study, an ethanol extract of papaya seeds (EEPS; 0.1-6.4 mg/mL) caused concentration-dependent inhibition of jejunal contractions in contrast to corresponding concentrations of DMSO (solvent control). The inhibitory effect of EEPS on jejunal contractions was significantly irreversible. Previous studies have indicated that benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is the main bioactive compound responsible for the anthelmintic activity of papaya seeds. In the present study, standard BITC (0.01-0.64 mmol/L) also caused significant irreversible inhibition of jejunal contractions. Recovery of jejunal contractions after BITC-induced inhibition was weaker than recovery after EEPS-induced inhibition (BITC versus EEPS: 19 +/- 7% vs 38 +/- 13%). Cryosections of the jejunum showed marked morphological damage of the segments treated with BITC in contrast to DMSO-treated segments. EEPS-induced jejunal damage was, however, less marked. These results indicate that papaya seed extract and BITC, its principal bioactive constituent are capable of weakening the contractile capability of rabbit isolated jejunum. It is thus envisaged that at the toxic level that will be needed to kill and expel intestinal worms in vivo, BITC may also cause impairment of intestinal functions. PMID:16161026

Adebiyi, Adebowale; Adaikan, P Ganesan

2005-07-01

46

Papaya ringspot virus resistance in Carica papaya via introgression from Vasconcellea quercifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first successful production of PRSV-P resistant backcross (BC) papaya plants following intergeneric hybridisation\\u000a between C. papaya and a Vasconcellea species after 50 years of reports on unsuccessful attempts. This follows our previous reports of PRSV-P resistant F1 hybrids developed by intergeneric hybridisation between C. papaya and V. quercifolia. One PRSV-P resistant BC 1 (BC1) plant was produced after

S. V. Siar; G. A. Beligan; A. J. C. Sajise; V. N. Villegas; R. A. Drew

47

Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract  

PubMed Central

Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) following lead acetate administration and pre-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) followed by lead acetate administration. The substances were administered for 14 days. The effects were evaluated by measuring protein carbonyl content (PCC) and glutathione content (GC) in the bone marrow. Histological changes in the bone marrow were also observed. The results showed that Carica papaya induced a significant reduction in the PCC activity and significantly increased the GC in the bone marrow. Carica papaya also improved the histology of the bone marrow compared with that of the lead acetate-treated group. In summary, Carica papaya was effective against the oxidative damage caused by lead acetate in the bone marrow and had a stimulatory effect on haemopoiesis.

THAM, CHING S.; CHAKRAVARTHI, SRIKUMAR; HALEAGRAHARA, NAGARAJA; DE ALWIS, RANJIT

2013-01-01

48

The amino acid sequence of chymopapain from Carica papaya.  

PubMed Central

Chymopapain is a polypeptide of 218 amino acid residues. It has considerable structural similarity with papain and papaya proteinase omega, including conservation of the catalytic site and of the disulphide bonding. Chymopapain is like papaya proteinase omega in carrying four extra residues between papain positions 168 and 169, but differs from both papaya proteinases in the composition of its S2 subsite, as well as in having a second thiol group, Cys-117. Some evidence for the amino acid sequence of chymopapain has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50153 (12 pages) at the British Library Document Supply Centre, Boston Spa., Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1990) 265, 5. The information comprises Supplement Tables 1-4, which contain, in order, amino acid compositions of peptides from tryptic, peptic, CNBr and mild acid cleavages, Supplement Fig. 1, showing re-fractionation of selected peaks from Fig. 2 of the main paper. Supplement Fig. 2, showing cation-exchange chromatography of the earliest-eluted peak of Fig. 3 of the main paper, Supplement Fig. 3, showing reverse-phase h.p.l.c. of the later-eluted peak from Fig. 3 of the main paper, and Supplement Fig. 4, showing the separation of peptides after mild acid hydrolysis of CNBr-cleavage fragment CB3.

Watson, D C; Yaguchi, M; Lynn, K R

1990-01-01

49

Effects of crude aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds in male albino mice.  

PubMed

The effect of an aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds (5 mg/kg body/day im and 20 mg/kg body wt/day oral) were investigated in male mice treated for 60 days. Reversibility studies were also carried out to elucidate if any induced effects were transient. The aqueous extract did not manifest any estrogenic effects in male mice, and LD50 studies indicated its nontoxic nature. The body weight or the weights of reproductive organs, kidney, and adrenal were not affected, indicating that the extract did not promote body weight gain through obesity or water retention. The serum SGOT, SGPT, protein, and cholesterol levels were also within the normal range in the extract-treated mice, suggesting that the extract does not influence liver function or cholesterol and protein metabolism. These data suggest that the aqueous extracts of papaya seeds is safe and could serve as an effective male contraceptive in rodents. PMID:8186628

Chinoy, N J; D'Souza, J M; Padman, P

1994-01-01

50

Induction of functional sterility in male rats by low dose Carica papaya seed extract treatment.  

PubMed

The result revealed that a short term administration of an aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed manifested an androgen deprived effect on the target organs and thereby caused antifertility effect in adult male albino rats. The complete loss of fertility is attributed to decline in sperm motility and alteration in their morphology as well as to reduced contractile response of the vas deferens. The androgen deprived effect of the extract led to slight alteration in the histoarchitecture and weight of the reproductive organs, mainly cauda and distal vas deferens which has been related to their greater androgen sensitivity in comparison to the other target organs and or their greatly diminished target organ response to testosterone or its metabolites. The data revealed that functional sterility could be induced in male rats by papaya extract treatment, which promises to be a potential male contraceptive. PMID:6675389

Chinoy, N J; George, S M

1983-01-01

51

Correct names for some of the closest relatives of Carica papaya: A review of the Mexican/Guatemalan genera Jarilla and Horovitzia.  

PubMed

Using molecular data, we recently showed that Carica papaya L. is sister to a Mexican/Guatemalan clade of two genera, Jarilla Rusby with three species and Horovitzia V.M. Badillo with one. These species are herbs or thin-stemmed trees and may be of interest for future genomics-enabled papaya breeding. Here we clarify the correct names of Jarilla heterophylla (Cerv. ex La Llave) Rusby and Jarilla caudata (Brandegee) Standl., which were confused in a recent systematic treatment of Jarilla (McVaugh 2001). We designate epitypes for both, provide weblinks to type specimens, a key to the species of Jarilla and Horovitzia, and notes on their habitats and distribution. PMID:24399895

Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; Renner, Susanne S

2013-01-01

52

Correlation between ethylene emission and skin colour changes during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The skin colour changes and ethylene emission rates were monitored during papaya (C. papaya L.) fruit ripening. Two groups of papaya (‘Formosa’ and ‘Solo’) were applied in this study. The total colour difference was used as measured parameter and the corresponding half time of its saturation was used as correlation parameter. A high correlation factor between the saturation half time and corresponding climacteric peak time was found. It was concluded that high ethylene emission rate in ‘Solo’ fruit promotes a quick change of the total colour difference.

da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Vitoria, A. P.; Corrêa, S. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Campostrini, E.; Santos, E. O.; Cavalli, A.; Vargas, H.

2005-06-01

53

Flavonoid from Carica papaya inhibits NS2B-NS3 protease and prevents Dengue 2 viral assembly  

PubMed Central

Dengue virus belongs to the virus family Flaviviridae. Dengue hemorrhagic disease caused by dengue virus is a public health problem worldwide. The viral non structural 2B and 3 (NS2B-NS3) protease complex is crucial for virus replication and hence, it is considered to be a good anti-viral target. Leaf extracts from Carica papaya is generally prescribed for patients with dengue fever, but there are no scientific evidences for its anti-dengue activity; hence we intended to investigate the anti-viral activity of compounds present in the leaves of Carica papaya against dengue 2 virus (DENV-2). We analysed the anti-dengue activities of the extracts from Carica papaya by using bioinformatics tools. Interestingly, we find the flavonoid quercetin with highest binding energy against NS2B-NS3 protease which is evident by the formation of six hydrogen bonds with the amino acid residues at the binding site of the receptor. Our results suggest that the flavonoids from Carica papaya have significant anti-dengue activities. Abbreviations ADME - Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, BBB - Blood brain barrier, CYP - Cytochrome P450, DENV - – Dengue virus, DHF - Dengue hemorrhagic fever, DSS - Dengue shock syndrome, GCMS - – Gas chromatography- Mass spectrometry, MOLCAD - Molecular Computer Aided Design, NS - Non structural, PDB - Protein data bank, PMF - Potential Mean Force.

Senthilvel, Padmanaban; Lavanya, Pandian; Kumar, Kalavathi Murugan; Swetha, Rayapadi; Anitha, Parimelzaghan; Bag, Susmita; Sarveswari, Sundaramoorthy; Vijayakumar, Vijayaparthasarathi; Ramaiah, Sudha; Anbarasu, Anand

2013-01-01

54

Phytophotodermatitis caused by contact with a fig tree (Ficus carica).  

PubMed

Two arborists presented acutely with blistering eruptions affecting their forearms, hands, and fingers. The previous day, both men had pruned branches from a large fig tree, Ficus carica, which had sustained damaged during a storm. The following morning, both complained of a burning discomfort which rapidly evolved into erythema and bullae on skin that had been in direct contact with the tree branches. These symptoms gradually resolved over 4 to 6 weeks. Although phytophotodermatitis from Ficus carica has been reported, it is often poorly recognised and there is a need to raise awareness amongst arborists, orchardists, forestry workers, gardeners, and health professionals. PMID:17721568

Derraik, José G B; Rademaker, Marius

2007-01-01

55

Phytophotodermatitis caused by contact with a fig tree (Ficus carica).  

PubMed

Two arborists presented acutely with blistering eruptions affecting their forearms, hands, and fingers. The previous day, both men had pruned branches from a large fig tree, Ficus carica, which had sustained damaged during a storm. The following morning, both complained of a burning discomfort which rapidly evolved into erythema and bullae on skin that had been in direct contact with the tree branches. These symptoms gradually resolved over 4 to 6 weeks. Although phytophotodermatitis from Ficus carica has been reported, it is often poorly recognised and there is a need to raise awareness amongst arborists, orchardists, forestry workers, gardeners, and health professionals. PMID:17867224

Derraik, José G B; Rademaker, Marius

2007-01-01

56

Identification and expression of C2H2 transcription factor genes in Carica papaya under abiotic and biotic stresses.  

PubMed

C2H2 proteins belong to a group of transcription factors (TFs) existing as a superfamily that plays important roles in defense responses and various other physiological processes in plants. The present study aimed to screen for and identify C2H2 proteins associated with defense responses to abiotic and biotic stresses in Carica papaya L. Data were collected for 47,483 papaya-expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The full-length cDNA nucleotide sequences of 87 C2H2 proteins were predicated by BioEdit. All 91 C2H2 proteins were aligned, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed using DNAman. The expression levels of 42 C2H2 were analyzed under conditions of salt stress by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Methyl jasmonate treatment rapidly upregulated ZF(23.4) and ZF(30,912.1) by 18.6- and 21.7-fold, respectively. ZF(1.3), ZF(138.44), ZF(94.49), ZF(29.160), and ZF(20.206) were found to be downregulated after low temperature treatment at very significant levels (p < 0.01). ZF(23.4), ZF(161.1), and ZF(30,912.1) were upregulated while ZF1.3, ZF(158.1), ZF(249.5), ZF(138.44), ZF(94.49), ZF(29.160), and ZF(20.206) were significantly downregulated by Spermine treatment. ZF(23.4) was upregulated while ZF(1.3), ZF(249.5), ZF(94.94), ZF(29.160), ZF(138.44), and ZF(20.206) were significantly repressed after SA treatment. ZF(23.4) and ZF(30,912.1) were significantly upregulated after sap inoculation with papaya ringspot virus pathogen. ZF(30,912.1) was subcellularly localized in the nucleus by a transgenic fusion of pBS-ZF(30,912.1)-GFP into the protoplast of papaya. The results of the present study showed that ZF(30,912.1) could be an important TF that mediates responses to abiotic and biotic stresses in papaya. PMID:22484790

Jiang, Ling; Pan, Lin-jie

2012-06-01

57

Production of Fatty Acid Butyl Esters Using the Low Cost Naturally Immobilized Carica papaya Lipase.  

PubMed

In this work, the low cost naturally immobilized Carica papaya lipase (CPL) was investigated for production of fatty acid butyl esters (FABE) to fulfill the aim of reducing the lipase cost in the enzymatic butyl-biodiesel process. The CPL showed specificities to different alcohol acyl acceptors. Alcohols with more than three carbon atoms did not have negative effects on the CPL activity. The CPL catalyzed butanolysis for FABE production was systematically investigated. The reaction solvent, alcohol/oil molar ratio, enzyme amount, reaction temperature, and water activity all affected the butanolysis process. Under the optimized conditions, the highest conversion of 96% could be attained in 24 h. These optimal conditions were further applied to CPL catalyzed butanolysis of other vegetable oils. All of them showed very high conversion. The CPL packed-bed reactor was further developed, and could be operated continuously for more than 150 h. All of these results showed that the low cost Carica papaya lipase can be used as a promising lipase for biodiesel production. PMID:24954104

Su, Erzheng; Wei, Dongzhi

2014-07-01

58

Postharvest Variation in Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymes of Papaya (Carica papaya L.) during Fruit Ripening 1  

PubMed Central

Pectin methylesterase (PME), polygalacturonase (PG), xylanase, cellulase, and proteinase activity were determined and related to respiration, ethylene evolution, and changes in skin color of papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit from harvest through to the start of fruit breakdown. PME gradually increased from the start of the climacteric rise reaching a peak 2 days after the respiratory peak. PG and xylanase were not detectable in the preclimacteric stage but increased during the climacteric: during the post climacteric stage, the PG declined to a level one-quarter of peak activity with xylanase activity returning to zero. Cellulase activity gradually increased 3-fold after harvest to peak at the same time as PME, 2 days after the edible stage. Proteinase declined throughout the climacteric and postclimacteric phases. A close relationship exists between PG and xylanase and the rise in respiration, ethylene evolution, and softening. Cultivar differences in postclimacteric levels of enzymic activity were not detected. An inhibitor of cellulase activity was detected in preclimacteric fruit. The inhibitor was not benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC). BITC did inhibit PG activity, though no inhibitor of PG activity was detected in preclimacteric homogenates when BITC was highest. The results indicate that inhibitors did not play a direct role in controlling wall softening.

Paull, Robert E.; Chen, Nancy Jung

1983-01-01

59

Carpeloidy in flower evolution and diversification: a comparative study in Carica papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Bisexual flowers of Carica papaya range from highly regular flowers to morphs with various fusions of stamens to the ovary. Arabidopsis thaliana sup1 mutants have carpels replaced by chimeric carpel–stamen structures. Comparative analysis of stamen to carpel conversions in the two different plant systems was used to understand the stage and origin of carpeloidy when derived from stamen tissues, and consequently to understand how carpeloidy contributes to innovations in flower evolution. Methods Floral development of bisexual flowers of Carica was studied by scanning electron microscopy and was compared with teratological sup mutants of A. thaliana. Key Results In Carica development of bisexual flowers was similar to wild (unisexual) forms up to locule initiation. Feminization ranges from fusion of stamen tissue to the gynoecium to complete carpeloidy of antepetalous stamens. In A. thaliana, partial stamen feminization occurs exclusively at the flower apex, with normal stamens forming at the periphery. Such transformations take place relatively late in development, indicating strong developmental plasticity of most stamen tissues. These results are compared with evo-devo theories on flower bisexuality, as derived from unisexual ancestors. The Arabidopsis data highlight possible early evolutionary events in the acquisition of bisexuality by a patchy transformation of stamen parts into female parts linked to a flower axis-position effect. The Carica results highlight tissue-fusion mechanisms in angiosperms leading to carpeloidy once bisexual flowers have evolved. Conclusions We show two different developmental routes leading to stamen to carpel conversions by late re-specification. The process may be a fundamental aspect of flower development that is hidden in most instances by developmental homeostasis.

Ronse De Craene, Louis; Trehin, Christophe; Morel, Patrice; Negrutiu, Ioan

2011-01-01

60

Reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage by Carica papaya leaf extract  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the in vitro antioxidant potential of Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract and its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage assessed by haemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Methods Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, hydrogen ion scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and the ferrous ion reducing ability were assessed as antioxidant indices. In the other experiment, human erythrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide to induce erythrocyte damage. The extract (at various concentrations) was subsequently incubated with the erythrocytes and later analysed for haemolysis and lipid peroxidation as indices for erythrocyte damage. Results Preliminary investigation of the extract showed that the leaf possessed significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities using in vitro models in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). The extract also reduced hydrogen peroxide induced erythrocyte haemolysis and lipid peroxidation significantly when compared with ascorbic acid (P<0.05). The IC50 values were 7.33 mg/mL and 1.58 mg/mL for inhibition of haemolysis and lipid peroxidation, respectively. In all cases, ascorbic acid (the reference antioxidant) possessed higher activity than the extract. Conclusions The findings show that C. papaya leaves possess significant bioactive potential which is attributed to the phytochemicals which act in synergy. Thus, the leaves can be exploited for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes.

Okoko, Tebekeme; Ere, Diepreye

2012-01-01

61

Three ?-galactosidase cDNA clones related to fruit ripening in papaya ( Carica papaya )  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) is a hydrolase which plays an important role in cell wall modification and fruit softening during\\u000a ripening. In this study, three full-length ?-galactosidase cDNA clones were successfully obtained from papaya mesocarp using\\u000a different approaches. pPGBII which is 2,771 bp in size, was isolated from a papaya ripe mesocarp cDNA library using a heterologous\\u000a probe. The other two cDNA

Roohaida Othman; Huei Li Chong; Tze Siang Choo; Zainon Mohd Ali

62

Bioactivity of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).  

PubMed

The composition of a chloroform seed extract of C. papaya was determined by GC-MS. Nineteen compounds were identified, with oleic (45.97%), palmitic (24.1%) and stearic (8.52%) acids being the main components. The insecticidal and insectistatic activities of the extract and the three main constituents were tested. Larval duration increased by 3.4 d and 2.5 d when the extract was used at 16,000 and 9,600 ppm, respectively, whereas the pupal period increased by 2.2 d and 1.1 d at the same concentrations. Larval viability values were 0%, 29.2%, and 50% when the extract was applied at 24,000, 16,000, and 9,600 ppm, respectively; pupal viability was 42.9% and 66.7% at 16,000 and 9,600 ppm; and pupal weight decreased by 25.4% and 11.5% at 16,000 and 9,600 ppm. The larval viability of the main compounds was 33.3%, 48.5%, and 62.5% when exposed to 1,600 ppm of palmitic acid, oleic acid, or stearic acid, respectively. PMID:21892128

Pérez-Gutiérrez, Salud; Zavala-Sánchez, Miguel Angel; González-Chávez, Marco Martín; Cárdenas-Ortega, Norma Cecilia; Ramos-López, Miguel Angel

2011-01-01

63

Cysteine proteinases from papaya (Carica papaya) in the treatment of experimental Trichuris suis infection in pigs: two randomized controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Background Cysteine proteinases (CPs) from papaya (Carica papaya) possess anthelmintic properties against human soil-transmitted helminths (STH, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm), but there is a lack of supportive and up-to-date efficacy data. We therefore conducted two randomized controlled trials in pigs to assess the efficacy of papaya CPs against experimental infections with T. suis. Methods First, we assessed efficacy by means of egg (ERR) and adult worm reduction rate (WRR) of a single-oral dose of 450 ?mol active CPs (CP450) against low (inoculum of 300 eggs) and high (inoculum of 3,000 eggs) intensity T. suis infections and compared the efficacy with those obtained after a single-oral dose of 400 mg albendazole (ALB). In the second trial, we determined and compared the efficacy of a series of CP doses (45 [CP45], 115 [CP115], 225 [CP225], and 450 [CP450] ?mol) against high intensity infections. Results CP450 was highly efficacious against both levels of infection intensity, resulting in ERR and WRR of more than 97%. For both levels of infection intensity, CP450 was significantly more efficacious compared to ALB by means of WRR (low infection intensity: 99.0% vs. 39.0%; high infection intensity; 97.4% vs. 23.2%). When the efficacy was assessed by ERR, a significant difference was only observed for high intensity infections, CP450 being more efficacious than ALB (98.9% vs. 59.0%). For low infection intensities, there was no significant difference in ERR between CP450 (98.3%) and ALB (64.4%). The efficacy of CPs increased as a function of increasing dose. When determined by ERR, the efficacy ranged from 2.1% for CP45 to 99.2% for CP450. For WRR the results varied from -14.0% to 99.0%, respectively. Pairwise comparison revealed a significant difference in ERR and WRR only between CP45 and CP450, the latter being more efficacious. Conclusions A single dose of 450 ?mol CPs provided greater efficacy against T. suis infections in pigs than a single-oral dose of 400 mg ALB. Although these results highlight the possibility of papaya CPs for controlling human STH, further development is needed in order to obtain and validate an oral formulation for human application.

2014-01-01

64

Comparative proteomic analysis of somatic embryo maturation in Carica papaya L.  

PubMed Central

Background Somatic embryogenesis is a complex process regulated by numerous factors. The identification of proteins that are differentially expressed during plant development could result in the development of molecular markers of plant metabolism and provide information contributing to the monitoring and understanding of different biological responses. In addition, the identification of molecular markers could lead to the optimization of protocols allowing the use of biotechnology for papaya propagation and reproduction. This work aimed to investigate the effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on somatic embryo development and the protein expression profile during somatic embryo maturation in papaya (Carica papaya L.). Results The maturation treatment supplemented with 6% PEG (PEG6) resulted in the greatest number of somatic embryos and induced differential protein expression compared with cultures grown under the control treatment. Among 135 spots selected for MS/MS analysis, 76 spots were successfully identified, 38 of which were common to both treatments, while 14 spots were unique to the control treatment, and 24 spots were unique to the PEG6 treatment. The identified proteins were assigned to seven categories or were unclassified. The most representative class of proteins observed in the control treatment was associated with the stress response (25.8%), while those under PEG6 treatment were carbohydrate and energy metabolism (18.4%) and the stress response (18.4%). Conclusions The differential expression of three proteins (enolase, esterase and ADH3) induced by PEG6 treatment could play an important role in maturation, and these proteins could be characterized as candidate biomarkers of somatic embryogenesis in papaya.

2014-01-01

65

Phytochemical and Antifungal Profiles of the Seeds of Carica Papaya L.  

PubMed Central

Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extracts of the seeds of Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) led to the isolation of 2,3,4-trihydroxytoluene (caricaphenyl triol) and glyceryl-1-(2’,3’,4’-trihydroxybenzoyl)-2,3-dioleate (papayaglyceride) as the new phytoconstituents along with the known components glyceryl-1-oleiyl-2,3-dilinoleiate, glyceryl-1-oleiyl-2,3-diarachidate, glyceryl-1-linoleiyl-2,3-distearate, carpaine, glyceryl-1,2-dipalmitate, glyceryl trimyristate, glyceryl tristearate, glyceryl-1,2-dipalmityl-3-myristate, glyceryl-1-oleiyl-2,3-dimyristate, ?-sitosterol glucoside, glyceryl-1-oleiyl-3-phosphate, glyceryl-1-oleiyl-2-lauryl-3-phosphate and glyceryl-1,2-distearyl-3-phosphate. The structures of all these compounds have been elucidated by spectral data analysis and chemical reactions. The methanolic extract of the seeds and 2,3,4-trihydroxytoluene (200 ?g/ml) showed antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans and Penicillium citrinium.

Singh, Onkar; Ali, M.

2011-01-01

66

Phytochemical and antifungal profiles of the seeds of carica papaya L.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extracts of the seeds of Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) led to the isolation of 2,3,4-trihydroxytoluene (caricaphenyl triol) and glyceryl-1-(2',3',4'-trihydroxybenzoyl)-2,3-dioleate (papayaglyceride) as the new phytoconstituents along with the known components glyceryl-1-oleiyl-2,3-dilinoleiate, glyceryl-1-oleiyl-2,3-diarachidate, glyceryl-1-linoleiyl-2,3-distearate, carpaine, glyceryl-1,2-dipalmitate, glyceryl trimyristate, glyceryl tristearate, glyceryl-1,2-dipalmityl-3-myristate, glyceryl-1-oleiyl-2,3-dimyristate, ?-sitosterol glucoside, glyceryl-1-oleiyl-3-phosphate, glyceryl-1-oleiyl-2-lauryl-3-phosphate and glyceryl-1,2-distearyl-3-phosphate. The structures of all these compounds have been elucidated by spectral data analysis and chemical reactions. The methanolic extract of the seeds and 2,3,4-trihydroxytoluene (200 ?g/ml) showed antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans and Penicillium citrinium. PMID:22707832

Singh, Onkar; Ali, M

2011-07-01

67

Molecular detection of Papaya meleira virus in the latex of Carica papaya by RT-PCR.  

PubMed

A RT-PCR assay was developed for early and accurate detection of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) in the latex from infected papayas. The meleira disease is characterized by an excessive exudation of more fluidic latex from fruits, leaves and stems. This latex oxidises and gives the fruit a "sticky" texture. In the field, disease symptoms are seen almost exclusively on fruit. However, infected plants can be a source of virus for dissemination by insects. Primers specific for PMeV were designed based on nucleotide sequences of the viral dsRNA obtained using a RT-RAPD approach. When tested for RT-PCR amplification, one of these primers (C05-3') amplified a 669-nucleotide fragment using dsRNA obtained from purified virus particles as a template. The translated sequence of this DNA fragment showed a certain degree of similarity to the amino acid sequence of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases from other dsRNA viruses. When used as the single primer in two RT-PCR kits available commercially, primer C05-3' also amplified the DNA fragment from papaya latex of infected, but not from healthy plants. The RT-PCR-based method developed in this study could simplify early plant disease diagnosis, assist in monitoring the dissemination of the pathogen within and between fields, and assist in guiding plant disease management. PMID:17826848

Araújo, Marília Mendes Melo de; Tavares, Eder Torres; Silva, Felipe Rodrigues da; Marinho, Vera Lúcia de Almeida; Júnior, Manoel Teixeira Souza

2007-12-01

68

Reversible contraception with chloroform extract of Carica papaya Linn. seeds in male rabbits.  

PubMed

The contraceptive efficacy and reversibility of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in adult male rabbits were investigated. Eighteen adult male rabbits were divided into three groups of six animals each; Group I--control, Group II--administered chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya at 20 mg/animal/d for 150 d by gavage, and Group III--administered the seed extract at 50 mg/animal/d for 150 d. Body weight and organ weight, semen analysis, sperm morphology by scanning electron microscopy, semen biochemistry, histology of the testis, haematology, serum clinical biochemistry, and the fertility status of the control and the treated animals were evaluated. Body weight and the weight of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicles, and prostate did not show appreciable changes. Sperm concentration showed a gradual decline, reached severe oligospermia (fewer than 20 million/mL) after 75 d treatment, and attained uniform azoospermia after 120 d treatment. Sperm motility and viability were severely affected after 45 d treatment and reached less than 1% after 75 d treatment. The morphology of the spermatozoa by scanning electron microscopy revealed membrane damage in the acrosome, bent midpiece, coiled tail, and detached head and tail. The levels of fructose, glycerylphosphorylcholine, acid phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase in the seminal plasma were unaltered. Histology of the testis revealed arrest of spermatogenesis beyond the level of spermatocytes. No toxicity was evident from the haematology and serum biochemistry parameters. The libido of the treated animals was unaffected and the fertility rate was zero. The effects were comparable in both the dose regimens (Groups II and III) and were restored to normal 45 d after withdrawal of the treatment. PMID:10080301

Lohiya, N K; Pathak, N; Mishra, P K; Manivannan, B

1999-01-01

69

Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants  

PubMed Central

Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers’ regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulated proteins in the latex of diseased plants, 9 cysteine proteases (chymopapain) and 1 latex serine proteinase inhibitor. A repression of papaya latex proteolytic activity during PMeV infection was hypothesized. This was further confirmed by enzymatic assays that showed a reduction of cysteine-protease-associated proteolytic activity in the diseased papaya latex. These findings are discussed in the context of plant responses against pathogens and may greatly contribute to understand the roles of laticifers in plant stress responses.

Rodrigues, Silas P.; Ventura, Jose A.; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Choi, HyungWon; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Nohara, Lilian L.; Wermelinger, Luciana S.; Almeida, Igor C.; Zingali, Russolina B.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

2012-01-01

70

Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants.  

PubMed

Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers' regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulated proteins in the latex of diseased plants, 9 cysteine proteases (chymopapain) and 1 latex serine proteinase inhibitor. A repression of papaya latex proteolytic activity during PMeV infection was hypothesized. This was further confirmed by enzymatic assays that showed a reduction of cysteine-protease-associated proteolytic activity in the diseased papaya latex. These findings are discussed in the context of plant responses against pathogens and may greatly contribute to understand the roles of laticifers in plant stress responses. PMID:22465191

Rodrigues, Silas P; Ventura, José A; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Choi, HyungWon; Sobreira, Tiago J P; Nohara, Lilian L; Wermelinger, Luciana S; Almeida, Igor C; Zingali, Russolina B; Fernandes, Patricia M B

2012-06-18

71

Antifertility effects of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds in male rats.  

PubMed

The influence of the crude aqueous extract of Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) seeds has been studied on semen profile, fertility, body and organ weight response, and toxicology in male albino rats. The extract was administered at the dose regimens of 10 and 50 mg/animal/day orally for 30, 60, and 90 days and 0.1 and 1.0 mg/animal/day intramuscularly for 15 and 30 days. Cauda epididymal sperm motility and count was reduced significantly at low and high dose regimens both in the oral as well as the intramuscular groups. The reduced sperm motility was associated with morphological defects. Testicular sperm counts were also reduced in all the treatment groups except the low dose intramuscular group. Fertility tests showed dose- and duration-dependent reduction and zero fertility was observed at high dose regimens of the oral and intramuscular groups following 60 and 30 days of treatment, respectively. Testicular weight was reduced in all the treatment groups, whereas accessory sex organs showed a variable response. Body weight and toxicological observations did not show any untoward response. Fertility and all other associated changes returned to normal within 45 and 30 days of treatment cessation in the oral and intramuscular groups, respectively. The data revealed that reversible sterility could be induced in male rats by papaya seeds aqueous extract treatment without adverse effects on libido and toxicological profile. PMID:7997464

Lohiya, N K; Goyal, R B; Jayaprakash, D; Ansari, A S; Sharma, S

1994-10-01

72

ANTIOXIDANT AND IMMUNOSTIMULANT EFFECT OF CARICA PAPAYA LINN. AQUEOUS EXTRACT IN ACRYLAMIDE INTOXICATED RATS  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and immunostimulant effects of The Carica papaya fruit aqueous extract (CPF, Caricaceae) against acrylamide induced oxidative stress and improvement of Immune functions which affected by free radicals liberating acrylamide in rats. Material and methods: Sixty male wistar albino rats (195-230g) were assigned to four groups, (fifteen/group). The first group used as control group and received normal physiological saline orally daily. The second group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water. The third group was gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The fourth group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water and gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The chosen dose of papaya fruit extract was based on the active pharmacological dose range obtained from the orientation study earlier conducted. The experimental period was extended to forty day. At the expiration of the experimental period and night fasting, blood samples were collected from the orbital venous sinus. The sera were separated and used for determining of IgG and IgM and the stomach, liver and kidney homogenates for estimation of MDA, GSH level, SOD and CAT activity as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidative stress. Results and discussion: The obtained results revealed that, acrylamide caused significant increases in MDA and decrease of GSH level, SOD and CAT activity due to the oxidative stress induced by acrylamide on membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat’s stomach, liver and kidney while administration of CPF aqueous extract, was significantly ameliorated the increased levels of MDA and decline of GSH, SOD and CAT activity in the stomach, liver and kidney tissues caused by acrylamide toxicity. Meanwhile, CPF aqueous extract significantly increased immune functions (IgG and IgM) while acrylamide significantly decrease it specially IgG. Thus, this study suggests that acrylamide-induced oxidative stress in rats can be ameliorated by administration of CPF aqueous extract.

Mohamed Sadek, Kadry

2012-01-01

73

Effects of Carica papaya (paw paw) seeds extract on the morphology of pituitary-gonadal axis of male Wistar rats.  

PubMed

The effects of oral administration of Carica papaya seeds extract on the morphology of pituitary, testes and sex accessory glands were studied. The C. papaya extract (50 and 200 mg/kg/day) was administered orally to sexually mature male Wistar rats for 1 and 8 weeks, respectively. The control group received corn oil (vehicle) only. The animals were killed after 1 and 8 weeks treatment for histological preparation. The microscopic examination of the sections of pituitary gonadotrophs (FSH and LH cells) treated with 200 mg/kg of C. papaya extract showed pronounced hypertrophy, while section of rats treated with 50 mg/kg showed mild hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Whereas the testes of rats treated with C. papaya extract at 50 and 200 mg/kg revealed gradual degeneration of germ cells, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells as well as germinal epithelium. However, tubules of epididymes of rats treated with extract, 200 mg/kg, appeared empty indicating the degeneration of sperm cells in the lumina. The sections of prostate glands of rats treated with 200 mg/kg extract showed coagulation of secretion in the lumina as well as empty tubules with cell debris, while the effect was reduced in rats treated with 50 mg/kg. The seminal vesicles showed progressive collapse and shrinkage of villi. These results suggest that C. papaya extract interfered with the pituitary - gonadal axis to influence male reproductive functions, which confirmed its antifertility property as reported previously. PMID:16372375

Udoh, Paul; Essien, Itohowo; Udoh, Francis

2005-12-01

74

Studies on antifertility effect of pawpaw seeds (Carica papaya) on the gonads of male albino rats.  

PubMed

Preliminary studies on the antifertility effect of pawpaw seeds (Carica papaya) on the gonads of male albino (Wistar) rats was investigated. An oral dose of crude ripe pawpaw seeds at 100 mg/kg body weight and 50 mg/kg body weight were administered orally for 8 weeks. Histological observations at a high dose of 100 mg/kg body weight showed degeneration of the germinal epithelium and germ cells, a reduction in the number of Leydig cells and the presence of vacuoles in the tubules. At a low dose of 50 mg/kg body weight little effect was observed. However, there was disorganization in some of the seminiferous tubules while others appeared normal. Leydig cells also appeared normal compared with the controls. At a high dose the epididymis showed many empty tubules containing degenerated spermatozoa and cell debris in the lumen. The epithelium appeared normal compared with the controls. At a low dose a milder effect was observed. The epithelial tissue appeared normal. A possible mechanism of action is discussed. PMID:10353163

Udoh, P; Kehinde, A

1999-05-01

75

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a protease inhibitor from the latex of Carica papaya  

PubMed Central

A Kunitz-type protease inhibitor purified from the latex of green papaya (Carica papaya) fruits was crystallized in the presence and absence of divalent metal ions. Crystal form I, which is devoid of divalent cations, diffracts to a resolution of 2.6?Å and belongs to space group P31 or P32. This crystal form is a merohedral twin with two molecules in the asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = b = 74.70, c = 78.97?Å. Crystal form II, which was grown in the presence of Co2+, diffracts to a resolution of 1.7?Å and belongs to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.26, b = 81.99, c = 140.89?Å.

Azarkan, Mohamed; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Dibiani, Rachid; Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle

2006-01-01

76

Binary Combination of Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans with Piperonyl Butoxide / MGK-264 against Freshwater Snail Lymnaea acuminata.  

PubMed

Piperonyl butoxide (PB) and MGK-264 were used to enhance the toxicity of the active components papain, arecoline and myristicin from the plants Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans, respectively, against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. A time- and dose-dependent relationship was observed for the toxicity of these combinations. The toxic effects of these plant-derived molluscicides in combination with the synergists PB and MGK-264 were several times higher than the effect of the individual treatments. The highest degree of synergism was observed when MGK-264 was used in combination with C. papaya latex (10.47-fold increase) and PB was used with papain (8.35-fold increase). PMID:24575245

Hanif, Farhat; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

2013-12-01

77

Binary Combination of Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans with Piperonyl Butoxide / MGK-264 against Freshwater Snail Lymnaea acuminata  

PubMed Central

Piperonyl butoxide (PB) and MGK-264 were used to enhance the toxicity of the active components papain, arecoline and myristicin from the plants Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans, respectively, against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. A time- and dose-dependent relationship was observed for the toxicity of these combinations. The toxic effects of these plant-derived molluscicides in combination with the synergists PB and MGK-264 were several times higher than the effect of the individual treatments. The highest degree of synergism was observed when MGK-264 was used in combination with C. papaya latex (10.47-fold increase) and PB was used with papain (8.35-fold increase).

Hanif, Farhat; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

2013-01-01

78

Effect of fermented and unfermented seed extracts of Carica papaya on pre-implantation embryo development in female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to determine the safety or otherwise of Carica papaya seeds used as food condiment on pre-implantation embryo development in female Wistar rats. Rats were divided into 5 major groups: Group I served as control, groups II and III were given the fermented extract at 500 and 1500 mg\\/kg respectively; groups IV and V were given the

A. Abdulazeez; D. A. Ameh; Sani Ibrahim; Joseph Ayo; S. F. Ambali

79

Spatio-temporal variations of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi associated with Carica papaya L. in agro-based ecosystem of Goa, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were carried out on spatio-temporal variations of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi associated with Carica papaya L. growing in two different geographic localities in Goa, India – Western Ghats and coastal area, differing in soil characteristics and plantation status. The study recorded considerable variation in root colonization, spore density and distribution of AM fungi in the selected sites. The mean

Sharda Waman Khade; Bernard F. Rodrigues

2010-01-01

80

Detection of phytoplasma and potyvirus pathogens in papaya ( Carica papaya L.) affected with ‘Bunchy Top Symptom’ (BTS) in eastern Cuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symptoms associated with the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) were observed in papaya fields from eastern Cuba affected with the ‘Bunchy Top Symptom’ (BTS) phytoplasma. Total DNA and RNA extracted from symptomatic and asymptomatic papayas, were respectively subjected to nested PCR by using phytoplasma 16S rDNA primers, and to RT-PCR with generic coat-protein potyvirus primers. Nested PCR products were obtained for

Y. Arocha; B. Piñol; K. Acosta; R. Almeida; J. Devonshire; A. Van de Meene; E. Boa; J. Lucas

2009-01-01

81

Assessment study on the use of Pawpaw; Carica papaya seeds to control Oreochromis niloticus breeding.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to assess the ability of using pawpaw (Carica papaya) seeds as a natural reproduction inhibitor for tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) culture to control its breeding. Biochemical, physiological and histopathological effects ofpawpaw seeds on male tilapia fish were also determined. Mature male tilapia were stocked for 4 weeks and treated with low dose (3 g/kg/day) and high dose (6 g/kg/day) of ground dried pawpaw seeds mixed with their feed. The obtained results showed that the pawpaw seeds induced permanent sterility in the high dose treated fish while the low dose treatment showed reversible results. The results also demonstrated that fish treated with high dose of pawpaw exhibited higher biochemical and physiological effects as: low meat quality, a progressive fall in erythrocyte (RBCs) count, hemoglobin (Hb) content and haematocrit values. Also the high dose revealed a significant increase in the leukocytes (WBCs) count, serum glucose, total protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine and uric acid levels. Moreover, serum total lipids revealed a significant decrease compared to control group. On the other hand, the low dose treatment revealed lower biochemical and physiological changes. Histological sections of testis showed disintegration of sperm cells and focal necrosis of seminefrous tubules in the high dose treated fish, hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney tissues also showed severe changes in high dose treated fish. Milder degenerative changes in some necrotic foci and slight changes in hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney were observed in the low dose treated fish. The study concluded that pawpaw seeds which are cheap and easy to obtain, can be incorporated into fish feeds with adjusted amount and be used to control breeding of tilapia fish in growing ponds instead of unfavorable and expensive hormonal use. PMID:22335051

Abbas, Hossam H; Abbas, Wafaa T

2011-12-15

82

Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ripening studies of nontreated and treated papaya (papaya L) are accomplished by monitoring the ethylene and CO2 emission rates of that climacteric fruit, to evaluate its shelf life. The treatments simulate the commercial Phitosanitarian process used to avoid the fly infestation. Ethylene emission was measured using a commercial CO2 laser driven photoacoustic setup and CO2, using a commercial gas analysis

M. G. da Silva; E. O. Santos; M. S. Sthel; S. L. Cardoso; A. Cavalli; A. R. Monteiro; J. G. de Oliveira; M. G. Pereira; H. Vargas

2003-01-01

83

Isolation and functional characterization of a lycopene ?-cyclase gene that controls fruit colour of papaya (Carica papaya L.)  

PubMed Central

The colour of papaya fruit flesh is determined largely by the presence of carotenoid pigments. Red-fleshed papaya fruit contain lycopene, whilst this pigment is absent from yellow-fleshed fruit. The conversion of lycopene (red) to ?-carotene (yellow) is catalysed by lycopene ?-cyclase. This present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of two different genes encoding lycopene ?-cyclases (lcy-?1 and lcy-?2) from red (Tainung) and yellow (Hybrid 1B) papaya cultivars. A mutation in the lcy-?2 gene, which inactivates enzyme activity, controls lycopene production in fruit and is responsible for the difference in carotenoid production between red and yellow-fleshed papaya fruit. The expression level of both lcy-?1 and lcy-?2 genes is similar and low in leaves, but lcy-?2 expression increases markedly in ripe fruit. Isolation of the lcy-?2 gene from papaya, that is preferentially expressed in fruit and is correlated with fruit colour, will facilitate marker-assisted breeding for fruit colour in papaya and should create possibilities for metabolic engineering of carotenoid production in papaya fruit to alter both colour and nutritional properties.

Devitt, Luke C.; Fanning, Kent; Dietzgen, Ralf G.; Holton, Timothy A.

2010-01-01

84

Effect of Glomus mosseae and Entrophospora colombiana on plant growth, production, and fruit quality of ‘Maradol’ papaya ( Carica papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of inoculating ‘Maradol’ papaya plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Glomus mosseae (GM) and Entrophospora colombiana (EC) was assessed. The results showed that both mycorrhizae species increased the number of fruits and yield in papaya plants by 41.9 and 105.2% for GM and 22.1 and 44.1% for EC, respectively, with respect to control plants. GM significantly increased plant

Marcos V. Vázquez-Hernández; Lourdes Arévalo-Galarza; David Jaen-Contreras; José L. Escamilla-García; Antonio Mora-Aguilera; Elías Hernández-Castro; Juan Cibrián-Tovar; Daniel Téliz-Ortiz

2011-01-01

85

Brief deviations from set point temperatures during normal airport handling operations negatively affect the quality of papaya ( Carica papaya) fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consequences of poor temperature management during air transport were investigated by storing intact, abraded, or abraded+inoculated (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) papaya fruit (cv. Red Lady) for 76h in three temperature regimes simulating different commercial air handling scenarios followed by storage for 7 days at 20°C to simulate shelf life. The papayas in two fluctuating temperature regimes deviated from a semi-constant regime

M. C. N. Nunes; J. P. Emond; J. K. Brecht

2006-01-01

86

Quality and volatile attributes of attached and detached ‘Pluk Mai Lie’ papaya during fruit ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘Pluk Mai Lie’ papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a promising cultivated fruit for use in fresh and processed products due to its firm flesh, but the aroma it releases is flat. Changes in quality and volatile profiles were analyzed during on- and off-tree fruit ripening. Detached fruit ripened faster than attached fruit, accumulating high internal ethylene levels. Aside from

P. Fuggate; C. Wongs-Aree; S. Noichinda; S. Kanlayanarat

2010-01-01

87

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a family 19 glycosyl hydrolase from Carica papaya latex  

PubMed Central

A chitinase isolated from the latex of the tropical species Carica papaya has been purified to homogeneity and crystallized. This enzyme belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 19 and exhibits exceptional resistance to proteolysis. The initially observed crystals, which diffracted to a resolution of 2.0?Å, were improved through modification of the crystallization protocol. Well ordered crystals were subsequently obtained using N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, the mono­mer resulting from the hydrolysis of chitin, as an additive to the crystallization solution. Here, the characterization of a chitinase crystal that belongs to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 69.08, b = 44.79, c = 76.73?Å, ? = 95.33° and two molecules per asymmetric unit, is reported. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.8?Å. Structure refinement is currently in progress.

Huet, Joelle; Azarkan, Mohamed; Looze, Yvan; Villeret, Vincent; Wintjens, Rene

2008-01-01

88

Green synthesis of colloidal copper oxide nanoparticles using Carica papaya and its application in photocatalytic dye degradation.  

PubMed

Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were synthesized by treating 5 mM cupric sulphate with Carica papaya leaves extract. The kinetics of the reaction was studied using UV-visible spectrophotometry. An intense surface Plasmon resonance between 250-300 nm in the UV-vis spectrum clearly reveals the formation of copper oxide nanoparticles. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) exhibited that the green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles are rod in shape and having a mean particle size of 140 nm, further negative zeta potential disclose its stability at -28.9 mV. The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results examined the occurrence of bioactive functional groups required for the reduction of copper ions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra confirmed the copper oxide nanoparticles crystalline nature. Furthermore, colloidal copper oxide nanoparticles effectively degrade the Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 dye beneath the sunlight. PMID:24388701

Sankar, Renu; Manikandan, Perumal; Malarvizhi, Viswanathan; Fathima, Tajudeennasrin; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

2014-03-01

89

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a family 19 glycosyl hydrolase from Carica papaya latex.  

PubMed

A chitinase isolated from the latex of the tropical species Carica papaya has been purified to homogeneity and crystallized. This enzyme belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 19 and exhibits exceptional resistance to proteolysis. The initially observed crystals, which diffracted to a resolution of 2.0 A, were improved through modification of the crystallization protocol. Well ordered crystals were subsequently obtained using N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, the monomer resulting from the hydrolysis of chitin, as an additive to the crystallization solution. Here, the characterization of a chitinase crystal that belongs to the monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 69.08, b = 44.79, c = 76.73 A, beta = 95.33 degrees and two molecules per asymmetric unit, is reported. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.8 A. Structure refinement is currently in progress. PMID:18453704

Huet, Joëlle; Azarkan, Mohamed; Looze, Yvan; Villeret, Vincent; Wintjens, René

2008-05-01

90

Preliminary in vitro antisickilng properties of crude juice extracts of Persia Americana, Citrus sinensis, Carica papaya and Ciklavit®.  

PubMed

The antisickling properties of crude juice extracts of the edible portions of three commonly consumed tropical fruits namely Persia americana, Citrus sinensis, and Carica papaya were investigated in vitro alongside a new drug preparation called Ciklavit® that has antisickling activity. Four different solvent extracts of the crude juice of each fruit including aqueous, acidic, alkaline and alcoholic extracts were prepared and their antisickling effects on sickle cell trait (HbAS) and sickle cell disease (HbSS) blood samples checked alongside Ciklavit®. Blood samples were stabilized using normal saline and the antisickling effects were checked by counting the number of sickle cells remaining after incubation of the blood samples with the crude fruit extracts and Ciklavit® for twenty-four hours. The results showed that Ciklavit® produced a sustained reduction in the number of sickle cells in both HbAS and HbSS blood samples. Also the alkaline and alcoholic extracts of P. americana and C. papaya produced significant reduction in the number of sickle cells. PMID:21304622

Iweala, E E J; Uhegbu, F O; Ogu, G N

2010-01-01

91

Contraceptive evaluation and toxicological study of aqueous extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in male rabbits.  

PubMed

The contraceptive evaluation and toxicological effects of the aqueous extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in adult male rabbits have been reported. Thirty adult male rabbits were divided into five groups of six animals each; Group I, control; Groups II-V were administered orally with aqueous extract of the seeds of C. papaya at doses of 20, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg per day for 150 days, respectively. The body weight, reproductive organs weight, semen analysis, semen biochemistry, toxicological profiles and the fertility status have been recorded. The aqueous extract failed to exhibit contraceptive effects at any of the dose regimens tested, contrary to the observations made in the previous studies. Unaltered toxicological profiles indicated that the drug was free of side effects. The results suggest that the failure of contraceptive effects may be due to species specificity, relative resistance of the animals to the drug or lack of potency of the extract due to factors generally affect biological activity of the plant preparations. PMID:10720785

Lohiya, N K; Pathak, N; Mishra, P K; Manivannan, B

2000-04-01

92

Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ripening studies of nontreated and treated papaya (papaya L) are accomplished by monitoring the ethylene and CO2 emission rates of that climacteric fruit, to evaluate its shelf life. The treatments simulate the commercial Phitosanitarian process used to avoid the fly infestation. Ethylene emission was measured using a commercial CO2 laser driven photoacoustic setup and CO2, using a commercial gas analysis also based on the photothermal effect. The results show a marked change in ethylene and CO2 emission rate pattern for treated fruits when compared to the ones obtained for nontreated fruits and a displacement of the climacteric pick shown that the treatment causes a decrease of shelf life of fruit.

da Silva, M. G.; Santos, E. O.; Sthel, M. S.; Cardoso, S. L.; Cavalli, A.; Monteiro, A. R.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

2003-01-01

93

Esterase and acid phosphatase polymorphism in the fig tree (Ficus carica L.).  

PubMed

The genetics of two enzymatic loci, esterase (Est-D) and acid phosphatase (AcP-A), were studied by means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the fig tree (Ficus carica L.). Two codominant alleles are described at the Est-D locus and four codominant alleles at the AcP-A locus. Heterozygotes at the AcP-A locus have a hybrid band, thus showing that the AcP-A allozymes, are at least dimer molecules. Both loci are independent of the male sterility factor in F. carica. The polymorphism in four natural populations was investigated for both loci. A significant deficiency of heterozygotes was observed. PMID:603613

Valizadeh, M

1977-12-01

94

Effect of green and ripe Carica papaya epicarp extracts on wound healing and during pregnancy.  

PubMed

The traditional use of papaya to treat many diseases, especially skin conditions and its prohibition for consumption during pregnancy has prompted us to determine whether papaya extracts both from green and ripe fruits improve wound healing and also produce foetal toxicity. Aqueous extracts of green papaya epicarp (GPE) and ripe papaya epicarp (RPE) were applied on induced wounds on mice. GPE treatment induced complete healing in shorter periods (13 days) than that required while using RPE (17 days), sterile water (18 days) and Solcoseryl ointment (21 days). Extracts were administered orally (1 mg/g body weight/day) to pregnant mice from day 10 and onwards after conception. 3 (n=7) mice and 1 (n=6) mice given RPE and misoprostol, an abortive drug, respectively experienced embryonic resorption while this effect was observed in none of the mice given GPE (n=5) and water (n=5). The average body weight of live pups delivered by mice given GPE (1.12+/-0.04 g) was significantly lower than those delivered by mice given water (1.38+/-0.02 g). In SDS-PAGE, proteins were distributed in three bands (Mr range approximately 8-29 kDa). Band intensity at Mr approximately 28-29 kDa was higher in GPE than in RPE. In contrast, band intensity at low Mr (approximately 8 kDa) was found to be higher in RPE than in GPE. Notably, the band corresponding to Mr approximately 23-25 kDa was absent in RPE. These differences in composition may have contributed to the different wound healing and abortive effects of green and ripe papaya. PMID:18468758

Anuar, Nor Suhada; Zahari, Shafiyyah Solehah; Taib, Ibrahim Adham; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur

2008-07-01

95

Fertility, developmental toxicity and teratogenicity in albino rats treated with methanol sub-fraction of Carica papaya seeds  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the status of fertility, developmental stages during gestation and teratological changes, if any, following oral administration of methanol sub-fraction (MSF) of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in rats. Materials and Methods: The MSF was administered at the doses of 50 mg contraceptive dose (CD), 100 mg (2× CD), 250 mg (5× CD) and 500 mg (10× CD)/kg body wt/day along with vehicle-treated control using 10 male and 20 female Wistar rats in each group. Necropsies were performed one day before the expected parturition. Status of gravid/non-gravid uterus, the number of corpora lutea in the ovary, implantation status, fetal wellbeing, fetal resorption, fetal body weight, external, visceral and skeletal malformations were recorded. Results: Pregnancies were recorded in vehicle-treated control animals and in the animals treated with 50 mg/kg body wt/day. The animals treated with 2× CD, 5× CD and 10× CD did not get pregnant. The fetuses and the status of the ovary, uterus and implantation, fetal body weight, soft tissues and skeletal structures were recorded normal. Data were comparable to those of control. Conclusion: The results suggest that the test substance had no developmental toxicity and teratogenicity which could affect pregnancy, implantation and gestation.

Shrivastava, S.; Ansari, A.S.; Lohiya, N.K.

2011-01-01

96

Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of aqueous extract of Carica papaya Linn. leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background: India is considered as the diabetic capital of the world. The study of plants having antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities may give a new approach in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Objective: The study was intended to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Carica papaya Linn. (AECPL) in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, i.p.). Rats were divided into 6 groups of 6 animals each. First group served as non-diabetic control, second group as diabetic control, third group as standard and was treated with 0.1 mg/kg/day of glibenclamide. Group 4, 5, and 6 received 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight of AECPL. Blood samples were analyzed for blood glucose on day 0, 1, 7, 14, 21 and lipid profile on day 21. Results: The AECPL showed significant reduction (P<0.01) in blood glucose level and serum lipid profile levels with 400 mg/kg body weight in alloxan-induced diabetic rats as compared with the control. Conclusion: It is concluded that AECPL is effective in controlling blood glucose levels and in improving lipid profile in diabetic rats.

Maniyar, Yasmeen; Bhixavatimath, Prabhu

2012-01-01

97

Phytochemistry and heamatological potential of ethanol seed leaf and pulp extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.).  

PubMed

This study was aimed at qualitative evaluation of the ethanol seed, leaf and pulp extracts of C. papaya for bioactive compounds and also to investigate their effect on the haematology in male albino rats. A 3 x 4 factorial experimental layout using randomized complete design was adopted. Results show that the phytochemicals found in seed, leaf and pulp were almost the same but however, in varying proportions. Present result also revealed that there were significant effects (p < 0.05) of the extracts on the heamatology of the treated rats, which was blamed on the varying and different variants ofbioactive compounds found in the extracts they were administered with. Suggestively, C. papaya extracts could be used to enhance the production of selected blood parameters, taking issue of dosage into consideration. PMID:21902066

Ikpeme, E V; Ekaluo, U B; Kooffreh, M E; Udensi, O

2011-03-15

98

Antifertility investigations on the crude chloroform extract of Carica papaya Linn. seeds in male albino rats.  

PubMed

Crude chloroform extract of C. papaya seeds (5 mg/animal/day, po, for 20, 40 and 60 days) was investigated for contraceptive efficacy and related side effects in male albino rats. The crude extract reduced fertility to zero per cent by 40 to 60 days of treatment. Suppression of cauda epididymal sperm motility was the most pronounced effect of the drug administration. Scanning electron microscopic observations revealed treatment induced abnormalities in sperms. Cauda epididymal and testicular sperm counts decreased following treatment. Clinical parameters did not show any alterations. Results suggest that the contraceptive effects of chloroform extract of papaya seeds are mainly post-testicular in nature without influencing toxicological profile and libido of the animals. PMID:1293029

Lohiya, N K; Goyal, R B

1992-11-01

99

Carica papaya seed macerate as inhibitor of conjugative R plasmid transfer from Salmonella typhimurium to Escherichia coli in vitro and in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice.  

PubMed

In this study, the effect of Carica papaya seed macerate on conjugal R plasmid transfer from Salmonella typhimurium to Escherichia coli was investigated in vitro and in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice. Twenty-five micrograms per milliliter and 430 mg (administered intragastrically twice a day) of papaya seed macerate concentrations were used during conjugation for in vitro and in vivo assays, respectively. High frequency of conjugation inhibition by macerate was observed for both in vitro and in vivo experiments, independently of bacterial growth and mating conditions. Papaya seed macerate caused a reduction of the transconjugant population ranging from 71% to about 100%. There was no lethal effect of the seed macerate on donor or recipient cells in the concentrations used. Once the mechanisms and magnitude of resistance gene transfer are clearly understood, strategies to reduce or minimize the dissemination of these genes could be relevant. The data here obtained show a clinical potential use of papaya seed macerate on this transfer. PMID:15864757

Leite, Ana A M; Nardi, Regina M D; Nicoli, Jacques R; Chartone-Souza, Edmar; Nascimento, Andréa M A

2005-02-01

100

Efficacy trial on the purified compounds of the seeds of Carica papaya for male contraception in albino rat.  

PubMed

The contraceptive efficacy and toxicological screening of the two principal compounds, MCP I and ECP I, isolated from the seeds of Carica papaya, in male albino rats at the standardized dose regimen, at 50 mg/kg b.w./day, for a period of 360 days and up to 90 days of treatment withdrawal have been reported. The body and organ weights, cauda epididymal sperm characteristics, androgen sensitive tissue biochemistry, reactive oxygen species and anti-oxidant defense system in the cauda epididymal microenvironment, histology and ultrastructure of testis and cauda epididymis, histology of seminal vesicle and prostate, toxicological investigations through routine hematology and serum clinical chemistry, sexual behaviour and fertility index have been studied. The results revealed that oral administration of MCP I and ECP I were equally effective, exhibiting complete inhibition of sperm motility following 90 days of treatment that coincided with a gradual and significant decline in cauda epididymal sperm density, percent viable spermatozoa and significant increase in sperm anomalies. Histology of testis of treated animals revealed degenerated germinal epithelium, vacuolization in Sertoli cells and proliferating germ cells and disturbances in spermatid differentiation. Spermatogonial stem cell reserves and Leydig cells appeared normal. Ultrastructure of the testis revealed vacuolization in the Sertoli cells and germ cells, loss of cytoplasmic characteristics in the Sertoli cells, nuclear degeneration and mitochondrial vacuolization in spermatocytes and spermatids. Leydig cells exhibited steroidogenic features. Cauda epididymis showed normal epithelial cell function. Absence of spermatozoa or disruption of spermatozoa clusters in the lumen were evident. Ultrastructure of cauda epididymis revealed normal secretory activity. Morphology of seminal vesicle and prostate of the treated animals were comparable to control animals. Serum testosterone, tissue biochemical and toxicological parameters remained unaffected. Fertility test revealed 100% efficacy. All the altered parameters showed sign of recovery following 90 days of treatment withdrawal. It is concluded that both MCP I and ECP I are equally effective in terms of contraceptive efficacy which is likely reversible and without adverse side effects. PMID:15808797

Lohiya, Nirmal K; Mishra, Pradyumna K; Pathak, N; Manivannan, B; Bhande, Satish S; Panneerdoss, S; Sriram, S

2005-01-01

101

Reversible azoospermia by oral administration of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in rabbits.  

PubMed

Contraceptive efficacy, reversibility and toxicity, if any, of the benzene, chloroform and ethyl acetate chromatographic fractions of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya have been investigated in adult male rabbits at a dose regimen of 50 mg/animal/day for 150 days of treatment. Body weight, semen analysis, hematology, serum clinical biochemistry and the fertility status of control and treated animals were evaluated. Chloroform and ethyl acetate chromatographic fractions did not produce appreciable changes in these parameters. However, the benzene chromatographic fraction resulted in uniform azoospermia after 15 days of treatment, which was maintained for the remainder of the 150-day observation period. The levels of fructose, glycerophosphocholine, acid phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase in the seminal plasma were within the control range. Hematology and the serum clinical parameters showed no appreciable changes, indicating lack of toxicity. The libido of the treated animals was normal and the fertility rate was zero. Complete normalcy of altered parameters was observed 60 days following withdrawal of treatment. It is concluded that the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya possesses reversible male contraceptive potential and the effects appear to be mediated through the testis. PMID:10997896

Lohiya, N K; Mishra, P K; Pathak, N; Manivannan, B; Jain, S C

1999-01-01

102

Sterility due to inhibition of sperm motility by oral administration of benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in rats.  

PubMed

The contraceptive effects of benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya have been reported in male albino rats at the dose regimens 5 and 10 mg/animal/day; oral for 150 days. The body weight, weight of testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate remained unaltered during the entire course of the investigation. Total suppression of cauda epididymal sperm motility coincided with a decrease in sperm count, viability and an increase in per cent abnormal spermatozoa during 60-150 days observation period. Minor changes in the germ cell proliferations in the testis and vacuolization and pyknotic nuclei in the few epithelial cells of the cauda epididymis were observed. Histology and biochemical composition of testis and accessory sex organs, haematology and serum clinical biochemistry and serum testosterone levels remained unchanged throughout the course of the investigation. Test for estrogenicity indicated mild estrogenicity. Monthly fertility test showed negative fertility. All the altered parameters returned to normal level following 60 days withdrawal of the treatment. The results suggest that the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya exerts antifertility effects in rats without adverse toxicity and that the effects may be directly rendered on the spermatozoa. PMID:10969727

Pathak, N; Mishra, P K; Manivannan, B; Lohiya, N K

2000-07-01

103

Effects of Carica papaya seed extracts on the physiology of the vas deferens of albino rats.  

PubMed

The physiology of vas deferens after administrating papaya seed extract (1 mg/0.2 ml/day/rat) for 7 and 15 days was studied with reference to organ weights, fertility rate, some biochemical parameters and contractile pattern of isolated right and left vas deferens. Studies on combined extract + ascorbic acid feeding and discontinuation of treatment for 1 and 2 1/2 months were also carried out. The results revealed that the treatment altered the biochemical parameters except cholesterol levels and the contractile pattern was reduced in comparison to control. However, significant recovery occurred by withdrawal of treatment in all parameters studied. AA feeding was efficaceous in restoring the androgenicity of vas deferens under treated conditions. On the whole, the distal vas deferens was affected more by the seed extract treatment than proximal vas and recovery was slower probably due to its higher threshold requirement for androgen. The results are discussed in the light of recent work. PMID:6730867

Chinoy, N J; Ranga Geetha, M

1984-01-01

104

Genetic differentiation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum associated with Anthracnose disease of papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsium annuum L.) based on ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting.  

PubMed

Members of the genus Colletotrichum include some of the most economically important fungal pathogens in the world. Accurate diagnosis is critical to devising disease management strategies. Two species, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum, are responsible for anthracnose disease in papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Trinidad. The ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of 48 Colletotrichum isolates was sequenced, and the ITS PCR products were analyzed by PCR-RFLP analysis. Restriction site polymorphisms generated from 11 restriction enzymes enabled the identification of specific enzymes that were successful in distinguishing between C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates. Species-specific restriction fragment length polymorphisms generated by the enzymes AluI, HaeIII, PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were used to consistently resolve C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates from papaya. AluI, ApaI, PvuII, RsaI, and SmaI reliably separated isolates of C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum from bell pepper. PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were also capable of distinguishing among the C. gloeosporioides isolates from papaya based on the different restriction patterns that were obtained as a result of intra-specific variation in restriction enzyme recognition sites in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region. Of all the isolates tested, C. gloeosporioides from papaya also had the highest number of PCR-RFLP haplotypes. Cluster analysis of sequence and PCR-RFLP data demonstrated that all C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates clustered separately into species-specific clades regardless of host species. Phylograms also revealed consistent topologies which suggested that the genetic distances for PCR-RFLP-generated data were comparable to that of ITS sequence data. ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting is a rapid and reliable method to identify and differentiate between Colletotrichum species. PMID:21720933

Maharaj, Ariana; Rampersad, Sephra N

2012-03-01

105

Analysis of Carica papaya Telomeres and Telomere-Associated Proteins: Insights into the Evolution of Telomere Maintenance in Brassicales  

PubMed Central

Telomeres are terminal regions of linear eukaryotic chromosomes that are critical for genome stability and continued cell proliferation. The draft assembly of the papaya genome provides an opportunity to analyze and compare the evolution of telomeric DNA sequence composition and telomere maintenance machinery in this and other organisms of the Brassicales Order, which includes Arabidopsis. Here we investigate telomere size and sequence variation at papaya chromosome ends. As with most other plant species, papaya telomeres consist of TTTAGGG repeats. However, in contrast to members of the closely related Brassicaceae family, telomeres in papaya are ~10-fold longer. Sequence analysis reveals that many centromereproximal telomere repeats in papaya harbor nucleotide substitutions and insertions of Gs and Ts. In contrast, we found very few N-to-C substitutions, and even fewer instances of nucleotide deletion, suggesting that a six-nucleotide telomere repeat is not well tolerated. The papaya genome encodes single-copy sequence homologues of several genes involved in telomere maintenance and chromosome end protection, including the Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT) and Protection Of Telomeres (POT1). Notably, unlike Arabidopsis, which encodes six Telomere Repeat binding Factor-like (TRFL) proteins that bind double-stranded telomere DNA, papaya appears to encode only two such proteins. Thus, the more streamlined genome of papaya will provide an excellent resource for comparative and functional analysis of telomeres in plants.

Shakirov, E. V.; Salzberg, S. L.; Alam, M.

2010-01-01

106

An analysis on DNA fingerprints of thirty papaya cultivars (Carica papaya L.), grown in Thailand with the use of amplified fragment length polymorphisms technique.  

PubMed

The experiment was carried out at the Department of Horticulture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani province, Northeast Thailand during June 2002 to May 2003 aims to identify DNA fingerprints of thirty papaya cultivars with the use of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP) technique. Papaya cultivars were collected from six different research centers in Thailand. Papaya plants of each cultivar were grown under field conditions up to four months then leaf numbers 2 and 3 of each cultivar (counted from top) were chosen for DNA extraction and the samples were used for AFLP analysis. Out of 64 random primers being used, 55 pairs gave an increase in DNA bands but only 12 pairs of random primers were randomly chosen for the final analysis of the experiment. The results showed that AFLP markers gave Polymorphic Information Contents (PIC) of three ranges i.e., AFLP markers of 235 lied on a PIC range of 0.003-0.05, 47 for a PIC range of 0.15-0.20 and 12 for a PIC range of 0.35-0.40. The results on dendrogram cluster analysis revealed that the thirty papaya cultivars were classified into six groups i.e., (1) Kaeg Dum and Malador (2) Kaeg Nuan (3) Pakchong and Solo (4) Taiwan (5) Co Coa Hai Nan and (6) Sitong. Nevertheless, in spite of the six papaya groups all papaya cultivars were genetically related to each other where diversity among the cultivars was not significantly found. PMID:19090101

Ratchadaporn, Janthasri; Sureeporn, Katengam; Khumcha, U

2007-09-15

107

Molecular diagnosis of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) from leaf samples of Carica papaya L. using conventional and real-time RT-PCR.  

PubMed

Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease. This study describes two methods for molecular diagnosis of PMeV using conventional and real-time PCR. These methods were shown to be more efficient than current methods of viral detection using extraction of PMeV dsRNA and observation of symptoms in the field. The methods described here were used to evaluate the effect of inoculation of papaya plants with purified PMeV dsRNA on the progress of PMeV infection. A single inoculation with PMeV dsRNA was observed to delay the progress of the virus infection by several weeks. The possibility of vertical transmission of PMeV was also investigated. No evidence was found for PMeV transmission through seeds collected from diseased fruit. The implications of these results for the epidemiology of PMeV and the management of papaya sticky disease are discussed. PMID:22193169

Abreu, Paolla M V; Piccin, João G; Rodrigues, Silas P; Buss, David S; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Patricia M B

2012-03-01

108

Papaya Lethal Yellowing Virus (PLYV) Infects Vasconcellea cauliflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) é um dos três vírus descritos infectando mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) no Brasil. Vasconcellea cauliflora (Jacq.) A. DC., antes denominada de Carica cauliflora (Jacq.), é uma reconhecida fonte de resistência natural ao Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), causador da \\

P. P. R. Amaral; Resende de R. O; M. T. Souza

2006-01-01

110

Identification and detection method for genetically modified papaya resistant to papaya ringspot virus YK strain.  

PubMed

Unauthorized genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya LINNAEUS) was detected in a commercially processed product, which included papaya as a major ingredient, in Japan. We identified the transgenic vector construct generated based on resistance to infection with the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) YK strain. A specific detection method to qualitatively monitor papaya products for contamination with the GM papaya was developed using the real-time polymerase chain reaction. PMID:21963512

Nakamura, Kosuke; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ohmori, Kiyomi; Takahashi, Yuki; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko

2011-01-01

111

Effect of water extract of carica papaya seed on the germinal epithelium of the seminiferous tubules of Sprague Dawley rats.  

PubMed

Extracts from different parts of the papaya have been reported to decrease the testicular weight of Wistar rats when administered orally for 8 weeks. It was however reported that suppression of spermatogenesis was observed in these rats following the administration of papaya seed extract. No histological abnormality was observed in these animals. In this experiment, water extract of papaya seeds, was administered orally to Sprague Dawley rats ad libitum for 8 weeks. Results showed that 3 weeks after commencement of this administration, the lumina of the seminiferous tubules were more prominent and empty in the experimental animals with no evidence of spermatids and spermatozoa. It also showed that the lateral walls of adjacent Sertolil cells lost contact with each other. PMID:11806144

Uche-Nwachi, E O; Ezeokoli, D C; Adogwa, A O; Offiah, V N

2001-12-01

112

Sperm characteristics and ultrastructure of testes of rats after long-term treatment with the methanol subfraction of Carica papaya seeds  

PubMed Central

The contraceptive efficacy of Carica papaya seeds after short-term evaluation has been well established. We have examined the safety and mechanism of contraception in rats after long-term treatment with the methanol subfraction (MSF) of C. papaya seeds. The test substance was administered orally to the male albino rats (n = 40) at 50 mg per kg body weight each day for 360 days. Control animals (n = 40) received olive oil as a vehicle. Recovery was assessed up to 120 days after treatment withdrawal. Sperm parameters, serum testosterone levels, fertility, histology and ultrastructure of the testis, haematology and serum clinical chemistry were evaluated to establish the safety and efficacy of the test substance. Safety of long-term treatment was evidenced by unaltered health status, organ weight, haematology and clinical chemistry, and by an increase in body weight. The mechanism of contraception was shown by reduction in nuclear and cytoplasmic volume, normal nuclear characteristics and vacuolization in the cytoplasmic organelles of the Sertoli cells, as well as nuclear degeneration in spermatocytes and spermatids indicating disturbed spermatogenesis. Leydig cells were normal. Initial effects were observed in Sertoli cells at 60 days of treatment. Spermatocytes and spermatids were affected after 120–240 days of treatment. A significant decline in sperm count and viability, total inhibition of sperm motility, increased numbers of sperm abnormalities, normal serum testosterone levels and 100% sterility were evident after 60 days of treatment. All the altered parameters, including percent fertility, were restored to control level 120 days after treatment withdrawal. It is concluded that the MSF is safe for long-term treatment and the mechanism of contraception is shown by its effect on spermatid differentiation in the testis, possibly mediated by the Sertoli cell factors.

Manivannan, Boomi; Mittal, Ruchi; Goyal, Shipra; Ansari, Abdul S.; Lohiya, Nirmal K.

2009-01-01

113

Sperm characteristics and ultrastructure of testes of rats after long-term treatment with the methanol subfraction of Carica papaya seeds.  

PubMed

The contraceptive efficacy of Carica papaya seeds after short-term evaluation has been well established. We have examined the safety and mechanism of contraception in rats after long-term treatment with the methanol subfraction (MSF) of C. papaya seeds. The test substance was administered orally to the male albino rats (n = 40) at 50 mg per kg body weight each day for 360 days. Control animals (n = 40) received olive oil as a vehicle. Recovery was assessed up to 120 days after treatment withdrawal. Sperm parameters, serum testosterone levels, fertility, histology and ultrastructure of the testis, haematology and serum clinical chemistry were evaluated to establish the safety and efficacy of the test substance. Safety of long-term treatment was evidenced by unaltered health status, organ weight, haematology and clinical chemistry, and by an increase in body weight. The mechanism of contraception was shown by reduction in nuclear and cytoplasmic volume, normal nuclear characteristics and vacuolization in the cytoplasmic organelles of the Sertoli cells, as well as nuclear degeneration in spermatocytes and spermatids indicating disturbed spermatogenesis. Leydig cells were normal. Initial effects were observed in Sertoli cells at 60 days of treatment. Spermatocytes and spermatids were affected after 120-240 days of treatment. A significant decline in sperm count and viability, total inhibition of sperm motility, increased numbers of sperm abnormalities, normal serum testosterone levels and 100% sterility were evident after 60 days of treatment. All the altered parameters, including percent fertility, were restored to control level 120 days after treatment withdrawal. It is concluded that the MSF is safe for long-term treatment and the mechanism of contraception is shown by its effect on spermatid differentiation in the testis, possibly mediated by the Sertoli cell factors. PMID:19648937

Manivannan, Boomi; Mittal, Ruchi; Goyal, Shipra; Ansari, Abdul S; Lohiya, Nirmal K

2009-09-01

114

Development and comparison of multivariate respiration models for fresh papaya ( Carica papaya L.) based on regression method and artificial neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiration modelling is the fundamental of the packaging and storage of fresh fruit and vegetables. Previous model of respiration\\u000a rate accounted for external forcing from temperature and modified atmosphere but did not attempt to predict internally generated\\u000a natural variability such as maturity. We present two types of respiration models here that predict the respiration rate of\\u000a fresh papaya in response

Zhi-Wei Wang; Hua-Wei Duan; Chang-Ying Hu; Yu-Mei Wu

2010-01-01

115

Ultrastructural changes in the testis and epididymis of rats following treatment with the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya.  

PubMed

The benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya at a dose of 10 mg/rat/day for 150 days, which has shown a total inhibition of motility, reduced sperm count and infertility, was tested to de fi ne the mode of action at the subcellular level in the testis and epididymis. The ultrastructure of the testis of the treated animals revealed no appreciable changes in the subcellular characteristics. The mechanism of protein synthesis as well as steroidogenesis were evident in the Sertoli cells while the spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids, both round and elongated, depicted a prominent nucleus, distinct nuclear membrane and cytoplasmic characteristics indicating normal germ cell differentiation. The principal cells of the cauda epididymis were characterized by the presence of well-de fi ned rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, Golgi bodies and secretary granules, suggesting active secretory functions. The absorptive function of the cauda epididymis was evidenced by the presence of numerous vesicles and multivesicular bodies adjacent to stereocilia. It is concluded that the inhibition of sperm motility by the drug could be due to other epididymal factors rather than the subcellular characteristics of testis and epididymis. PMID:15162362

Manivannan, B; Mishra, P K; Pathak, N; Sriram, S; Bhande, S S; Panneerdoss, S; Lohiya, N K

2004-04-01

116

Toxicological investigations on the methanol sub-fraction of the seeds of Carica papaya as a male contraceptive in albino rats.  

PubMed

Pre-clinical acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of the methanol sub-fraction (MSF) of the seeds of Carica papaya, a putative male contraceptive, have been investigated in rats to evaluate safety of the test substance. A single oral dose of MSF at 2000 mg/kg body weight was studied over 14 days for acute toxicity, and daily oral doses of 50, 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight were studied for 28- and 90-day periods for sub-chronic toxicity. Body weight, food and water intake and phenotypical toxicological symptoms were recorded daily. Sperm analysis, hematology, serum clinical biochemistry, libido and pathological examination of vital organs were recorded at the termination of the experimental periods. We observed no overt general toxicity in exposed animals. Food and water intake showed daily fluctuations within control limits. Sperm density showed a significant decrease in all 28- and 90-day repeated dose treated animals whereas total sperm motility inhibition was observed at 250 and 500 mg/kg dose levels at the 28-day time interval but in all dose groups at the 90-day interval. The preliminary results suggest the test substance may be a safe approach to male anti-fertility. PMID:16515854

Lohiya, Nirmal K; Manivannan, Boomi; Garg, Shipra

2006-10-01

117

An efficient method for sonication assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of coat protein (CP) coding genes into papaya (Carica papaya L.).  

PubMed

An efficient method for the production of transgenic papaya was developed via Sonication Assisted Agrobacterium-mediated Transformation (SAAT) of somatic embryos. The plasmid pGA482G was modified to contain gene PTi-Epj-TL-PLDMV with CP coding sequence of PLDMV Japan strain and chimeric gene PTi-NP-YKT with multiple CP coding sequences from PRSV Taiwan strain, PRSV Hawaii strain and PRSV Thailand strain, respectively. Disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 carrying the binary plasmid pGA482G with the CP genes and nptII gene was used to transform embryo calli of papaya variety Sunset to produce transgenic papaya plants. The experiment was focused on the screening of effective transformation method. The engineered Agrobacterium grown overnight was diluted with an infection media of high osmotic pressure (1/2 MS medium contain 6% sucrose and 1% glucose, pH 5.7) and adjusted to optical density OD600nm = 0.15-0.20, embryonic calli were immerged in it for 30 min and treated with 5 s, 15 s, and 20 s sonication respectively during the infection. Results indicated that 15 s sonication treatment improved the transformation efficiency dramatically. After 15 s sonication treatment on embryo calli loaded in 15 ml sterile plastic tubes, 21 putative transgenic lines were produced from 80 pieces embryonic calli (26.3%) transformed by Agrobacterium [pGA482G/CPG] and 8 putative transgenic lines was produced from 48 pieces embryonic calli (16.7%) transferred by Agrobacterium [pGA482G/CPB], while only a single line came out of 64 pieces embryonic calli (1.6%) transformed by Agrobacterium [pGA482G/CPG] and none from 25 pieces embryonic calli transformed by Agrobacterium [pGA482G/CPB] in the non-treatment control. Results also showed that the best concentration of selection antibiotic was 120 mg/L kanamycin. A total of 42 resistant shoots were produced from 421 pieces of original embryonic calli in 9 months. The presence of the CP genes in the transgenic plants and their integration into the papaya genome were confirmed by PCR and Southern hybridization respectively. PMID:15323420

Jiang, Ling; Maoka, Tetsuo; Komori, Sadao; Fukamachi, Hiroshi; Kato, Hidenori; Ogawa, Kazunori

2004-06-01

118

Phylogeography and molecular epidemiology of Papaya ringspot virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is the most important virus affecting papaya and cucurbit plants in tropical and subtropical areas. PRSV isolates are divided into biotypes P and W: both the P and W types naturally infect plants in the family Cucurbitaceae, whereas the P type naturally infects papaya (Carica papaya). Understanding the origin and nature of the PRSV genetic diversity

X. A. Olarte Castillo; G. Fermin; J. Tabima; Y. Rojas; P. F. Tennant; M. Fuchs; R. Sierra; A. J. Bernal; S. Restrepo

2011-01-01

119

Steroidogenic enzyme histochemistry in the testis of Sprague Dawley rats following the administration the water extracts from Carica papaya seed.  

PubMed

Water extracts from pawpaw seed have been reported to reversibly decrease the testicular weight and to suppress spermatogenesis, and fertility of Wistar rats. The reversible changes become evident, 30 - 45 days after the withdrawal of the extract. The possible effect of this extract on the activities of steroidogenic enzymes of the testis has not been investigated. Water extract of papaya seeds was administered to male Sprague Dawley rats ad libitum for 84 days. Following the discontinuation of the extracts, ten rats each were sacrificed on days 0, 10, 20 and 30 after the withdrawal. Their testes were quickly dissected out and frozen. Cryostat sections, 10µm thick were cut. These sections were used for immunohistochemical stains for side chain cleavage enzyme and aromatase, and for histochemical stains for 17-? Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3-? Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. We conclude that the water extract of papaya seed suppresses the activities of steroidogenic enzymes in the testis of Sprague Dawley rats, and that this may contribute to reversible suppression of spermatogenesis, a property that gives a possible male contraceptive potential. PMID:22238486

Uche-Nwachi, E O; Mitchell, C V; McEwen, C

2011-01-01

120

Characterisation of an acidic peroxidase from papaya (Carica papaya L. cv Tainung No. 2) latex and its application in the determination of micromolar hydrogen peroxide in milk.  

PubMed

An acidic peroxidase isoform, POD-A, with a molecular mass of 69.4 kDa and an isoelectric point of 3.5 was purified from papaya latex. Using o-phenylenediamine (OPD) as a hydrogen donor (citrate-phosphate as pH buffer), the optimum pH for the function of POD-A was 4.6, and the optimum temperature was 50°C. The peroxidase activity of POD-A toward hydrogen donors was both pH- and concentration-dependent. Under optimal conditions, POD-A catalysed the oxidation of OPD at higher rates than pyrogallol, catechol, quercetin and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). The chemical modification reagents N-bromosuccinimide and sodium azide significantly inhibited POD-A activity. The results of kinetic studies indicated that POD-A followed a ping-pong mechanism and had a K(m) value of 2.8mM for OPD. Using CPC silica-immobilised POD-A for the determination of micromolar H(2)O(2) in milk, the lower limit of determination was 0.1 ?M, and the recoveries of added H(2)O(2) were 96-109%. PMID:22980838

Chen, Li-Chun; Chung, Yun-Chin; Chang, Chen-Tien

2012-12-15

121

RNA Interference of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2) Genes Expression Prolongs the Shelf Life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L.) Papaya Fruit.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6). Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants. PMID:24950439

Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Bakar, Umi Kalsom Abu; Yeong, Wee Chien; Pillai, Vilasini

2014-01-01

122

Nutritional composition of Rainbow papaya, the first commercialized transgenic fruit crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainbow papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a genetically engineered (GE) cultivar with resistance to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This cultivar currently accounts for about 70% of Hawaii's papaya acreage. The nutritional composition of Rainbow papaya and a non-transgenic control were analyzed to address GE food safety concerns regarding the potential for altered nutritional composition and altered expression of inherent allergens

Savarni Tripathi; Jon Y. Suzuki; James B. Carr; Grant T. McQuate; Stephen A. Ferreira; Richard M. Manshardt; Karen Y. Pitz; Marisa M. Wall; Dennis Gonsalves

2011-01-01

123

Characterization of papaya peptidase A as a cysteine proteinase of Carica papaya L. with active-centre properties that differ from those of papain by using 2,2'-dipyridyl disulphide and 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan as reactivity probes. Use of two-protonic-state electrophiles in the identification of catalytic-site thiol groups.  

PubMed Central

1. The proteinase papaya peptidase A, one of the major components of the latex of Carica papaya L., was shown to contain 1 thiol group per molecule; this thiol group is essential for catalytic activity and is part of the catalytic site. 2. The usefulness of two-protonic-state reactivity probes coupled with modification/activity-loss data in assigning a thiol group as an integral part of the catalytic site as against merely 'essential' for activity is discussed. 3. The active centre of papaya peptidase A was investigated by using 2,2'-dipyridyl disulphide and 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan as reactivity probes. The presence in the enzyme in weakly acidic media of an interactive system containing a nucleophile S atom (pKI3.9,pKII7.9) was demonstrated. 5. Papaya peptidase A resembles ficin (EC 3.4.22.3) and actinidin (the cysteine proteinase from Actinidin chinenis) in that it does not appear to possess a carboxy group able to influence the reactivity of the thiol group by change of ionization state at pH values of about 4, a situation that contrasts markedly with that which obtains in papain. 6. Implications of the results for possible variations in cysteine proteinase mechanism are discussed.

Baines, B S; Brocklehurst, K

1982-01-01

124

Sex determination in flowering plants: papaya as a model system.  

PubMed

Unisexuality in flowering plants evolved from a hermaphrodite ancestor. Transition from hermaphrodite to unisexual flowers has occurred multiple times across the different lineages of the angiosperms. Sexuality in plants is regulated by genetic, epigenetic and physiological mechanisms. The most specialized mechanism of sex determination is sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes ensure the stable segregation of sexual phenotypes by preventing the recombination of sex determining genes. Despite continuous efforts, sex determining genes of dioecious plants have not yet been cloned. Concerted efforts with various model systems are necessary to understand the complex mechanism of sex determination in plants. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a tropical fruit tree with three sex forms, male, hermaphrodite, and female. Sexuality in papaya is determined by an XY chromosome system that is in an early evolutionary stage. The male and hermaphrodite of papaya are controlled by two different types of Y chromosomes: Y and Y(h). Large amounts of information in the area of genetics, genomics, and epigenetics of papaya have been accumulated over the last few decades. Relatively short lifecycle, small genome size, and readily available genetic and genomic resources render papaya an excellent model system to study sex determination and sex chromosomes in flowering plants. PMID:24467896

Aryal, Rishi; Ming, Ray

2014-03-01

125

Photoacoustic study of the influence of the cooling temperature on the CO2 emission rate by Carica papaya L. in modified atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monitoring of trace gas emitted by papaya fruits and assessments of its mass loss can contribute to improve the conditions for their storage and transport. The C02 emission rate by the papaya fruits, monitored by a commercial infrared-based gas analyzer, was influenced by the temperature and storage time. The fruits stored at temperature of 13 °C accumulated more CO2

D. U. Schramm; M. S. Sthel; M. G. da Silva; L. O. Carneiro; H. R. F. Silva; M. L. L. Martins; E. D. Resende; L. Vitorazi; H. Vargas

2005-01-01

126

A dated phylogeny of the papaya family (Caricaceae) reveals the crop's closest relatives and the family's biogeographic history.  

PubMed

Papaya (Carica papaya) is a crop of great economic importance, and the species was among the first plants to have its genome sequenced. However, there has never been a complete species-level phylogeny for the Caricaceae, and the crop's closest relatives are therefore unknown. We investigated the evolution of the Caricaceae based on sequences from all species and genera, the monospecific Carica, African Cylicomorpha with two species, South American Jacaratia and Vasconcellea with together c. 28 species, and Mexican/Guatemalan Jarilla and Horovitzia with four species. Most Caricaceae are trees or shrubs; the species of Jarilla, however, are herbaceous. We generated a matrix of 4711 nuclear and plastid DNA characters and used maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analysis to infer species relationships, rooting trees on the Moringaceae. Divergence times were estimated under relaxed and strict molecular clocks, using different subsets of the data. Ancestral area reconstruction relied on a ML approach. The deepest split in the Caricaceae occurred during the Late Eocene, when the ancestor of the Neotropical clade arrived from Africa. In South America, major diversification events coincide with the Miocene northern Andean uplift and the initial phase of the tectonic collision between South America and Panama resulting in the Panamanian land bridge. Carica papaya is sister to Jarilla/Horovitzia, and all three diverged from South American Caricaceae in the Oligocene, 27 (22-33) Ma ago, coincident with the early stages of the formation of the Panamanian Isthmus. The discovery that C. papaya is closest to a clade of herbaceous or thin-stemmed species has implications for plant breeders who have so far tried to cross papaya only with woody highland papayas (Vasconcellea). PMID:22659516

Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; Renner, Susanne S

2012-10-01

127

76 FR 49725 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia into the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...papaya fruit from Malaysia. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, which we made...Carica papaya) from Malaysia. The pest risk analysis consisted of a pest list identifying...are present in Malaysia and could...

2011-08-11

128

Ripening in papaya fruit is altered by ACC oxidase cosuppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya) is a very important crop in many tropical countries but it is highly susceptible to parasitic diseases, physiological disorders,\\u000a mechanical damage and fruit overripening. Here we report a study on ACC oxidase cosuppression and its effects on papaya fruit\\u000a ripening. Papaya ACC oxidase was isolated using PCR and embriogenic cells transformed by biolistic using the CaMV 35S

Rodolfo López-Gómez; Jose Luis Cabrera-Ponce; Luis Jorge Saucedo-Arias; Lorena Carreto-Montoya; Ramon Villanueva-Arce; Juan Carlos Díaz-Perez; Miguel Angel Gómez-Lim; Luis Herrera-Estrella

2009-01-01

129

Field and glasshouse evaluations of metalaxyl, potassium phosphonate, acibenzolar and tea tree oil in managing Phytophthora root rot of papaya in far northern Queensland, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytophthora palmivora, the causal agent of Phytophthora root rot, is widespread in the papaya-growing areas of far northern Queensland. Phytophthora\\u000a root rot causes decay of the tap root and eventual death of the affected plant. In glasshouse and field experiments, metalaxyl,\\u000a potassium phosphonate, acibenzolar and tea tree oil were evaluated for the control of Phytophthora root rot of papaya. In

L. L. Vawdrey; D. Westerhuis

2007-01-01

130

Photoacoustic study of the influence of the cooling temperature on the CO2 emission rate by Carica papaya L. in modified atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monitoring of trace gas emitted by papaya fruits and assessments of its mass loss can contribute to improve the conditions for their storage and transport. The C02 emission rate by the papaya fruits, monitored by a commercial infrared-based gas analyzer, was influenced by the temperature and storage time. The fruits stored at temperature of 13 °C accumulated more CO2 inside the PEBD bags than those fruits stored at 6 °C. The loss of mass of the fruits progressively increased with storage time for both temperatures until the saturation of the moisture inside the PEBD bag, been more pronounced at 13 ºC.

Schramm, D. U.; Sthel, M. S.; da Silva, M. G.; Carneiro, L. O.; Silva, H. R. F.; Martins, M. L. L.; Resende, E. D.; Vitorazi, L.; Vargas, H.

2005-06-01

131

Development of transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) = Desenvolvimento de mamoeiros transgênicos resistentes a vírus expressando o gene da capa protéica de um isolado brasileiro de Papaya ringspot virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya). The biolistic system was used to transform secondary somatic embryo cultures derived from immature zygotic embryos. Fifty-four transgenic lines, 26 translatable and

M. T. Souza; O. Níckel; D. Gonsalves

2005-01-01

132

Gas diffusion in ‘Golden’ papaya fruit at different maturity stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the gas diffusion of ‘Golden’ papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.) was evaluated as a function of different maturity stages, by using a photoacoustic spectrometer. The maturity stages were characterized by the anatomical changes, membrane integrity, pulp firmness, and skin color. Microstructural analysis was performed by means of light and scanning electron microscopy. A significant decrease in the

Talita Pereira; Paulo Sergio Gomes de Almeida; Inga Gonçalves de Azevedo; Maura da Cunha; Jurandi Gonçalves de Oliveira; Marcelo Gomes da Silva; Helion Vargas

2009-01-01

133

Breaking the intergeneric crossing barrier in papaya using sucrose treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A breeding programme was undertaken using Carica papaya var. Surya and Vasconcellea cauliflora with a view to raise progenies resistant to ‘papaya ringspot virus’ (PRSV). Earlier studies have clearly demonstrated the cross incompatibility between these two genera. Hence, an attempt was made to break this barrier using sucrose. The pollen of V. cauliflora was collected and pollination was carried out

M. R. Dinesh; A. Rekha; K. V. Ravishankar; K. S. Praveen; L. C. Santosh

2007-01-01

134

Effect of gamma-irradiation on ripening papaya pectin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya, L., var. Sunset) at three initial ripeness stages were irradiated with 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, or 1.5 kGy gamma-irradiation and pectin changes during ripening determined. A significant linear relationship was found between irradiation dose and firmness immediately after irradiation. Irradiation had no effect on fruit skin or flesh color of papaya fruit irradiated at the 5 to

Min Zhao; James Moy; Robert E. Paull

1996-01-01

135

Papaya Fruit Softening: Role of Hydrolases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivars show a wide variation in fruit softening rates, a character that determines fruit quality and shelf life, and\\u000a thought to be the result of cell wall degradation. The activity of pectin methylesterase, ?-galactosidase, endoglucanase,\\u000a endoxylanase and xylosidase were correlated with normal softening, though no relationship was found between polygalacturonase\\u000a activity and softening. When softening was

Siwaporn Thumdee; Ashariya Manenoi; Nancy J. Chen; Robert E. Paull

2010-01-01

136

Isolation of stress-related genes of rubber particles and latex in fig tree (Ficus carica) and their expressions by abiotic stress or plant hormone treatments.  

PubMed

Two rubber particle protein genes and one latex gene in fig tree (Ficus carica) have been isolated and their expression following various abiotic stress treatments have been investigated. The two major proteins that are tightly associated with the catalytically active rubber particles have been sequenced to be peroxidase (POX) and trypsin inhibitor (TRI). A cDNA encoding a basic class I chitinase (CHI) has also been isolated from the fig tree latex. Wounding treatment strongly induced the expression of the three stress-related genes. Among the abiotic stresses investigated, drought treatment greatly induced the expression of POX, whereas the expression of CHI and TRI decreased after the same treatment. Cold treatment reduced slightly the transcript levels of the thee genes, and NaCl reduced marginally the expression of CHI. The expression of POX, CHI, and TRI was induced by jasmonic acid and abscisic acid, by jasmonic acid, and by salicylic acid, respectively. Different expression of the stress-related genes following various abiotic stress or plant hormone treatments suggests that a crosstalk exists between the signal transduction pathways elicited by abiotic stresses and hormones in plants. Our present results showing the expression of stress-related proteins on the surface of rubber particles and latex in F. carica also imply the possible role of rubber particles and latex in defense in rubber-producing plant species. PMID:12721382

Kim, Jin Sun; Kim, Yeon Ok; Ryu, Hyun Ju; Kwak, Yeon Sig; Lee, Ji Yeon; Kang, Hunseung

2003-04-01

137

Analysis of genetic diversity of southern Spain fig tree (Ficus carica L.) and reference materials as a tool for breeding and conservation.  

PubMed

The common fig tree (Ficus carica L.) is a Mediterranean crop with problematic cultivar identification. The recovery and conservation of possible local varieties for ecological production requires the previous genetic characterization of the available germplasm. In this context, 42 lines corresponding to 12 local varieties and two caprifigs, in addition to 15 reference samples have been fingerprinted using 21 SSR markers. A total of 77 alleles were revealed, detecting a useful level of genetic variability within the local germplasm pools. UPGMA clustering analysis has revealed the genetic structure and relationships among the local and reference germplasm. Eleven of the local varieties could be identified and defined as obtained clusters, showing that SSR analysis is an efficient method to evaluate the Andalusian fig tree diversity for on-farm conservation. PMID:22804343

Perez-Jiménez, M; López, B; Dorado, G; Pujadas-Salvá, A; Guzmán, G; Hernandez, P

2012-06-01

138

Molecular cloning and characterization of a ripening-induced polygalacturonase related to papaya fruit softening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulp softening is one of the most remarkable changes during ripening of papaya (Carica papaya) fruit and it is a major cause for post-harvest losses. Although cell wall catabolism has a major influence on papaya fruit, quality information on the gene products involved in this process is limited. A full-length polygalacturonase cDNA (cpPG) was isolated from papaya pulp and used

João Paulo Fabi; Beatriz Rosana Cordenunsi; Graham B. Seymour; Franco M. Lajolo; João Roberto Oliveira do Nascimento

2009-01-01

139

Development of a codominant CAPS marker linked to PRSV-P resistance in highland papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of resistant papaya varieties is widely considered the best strategy for long-term control of the papaya ringspot virus type P (PRSV-P). Several species of “highland papaya” from the related genus Vasconcellea exhibit complete resistance to PRSV-P, and present a valuable source of resistance genes with potential for application in Carica papaya. The objectives of this study were two fold;

S. Dillon; C. Ramage; S. Ashmore; R. A. Drew

2006-01-01

140

Recent advances in the development of transgenic papaya technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya with resistance to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is the first genetically modified tree and fruit crop and also the first transgenic crop developed by a public institution that has been commercialized. This chapter reviews the different transformation systems used for papaya and recent advances in the use of transgenic technology to introduce important quality and horticultural traits in papaya.

Evelyn Mae Tecson Mendoza; Antonio C. Laurena; José Ramón Botella

2008-01-01

141

Cloning of the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) replicase gene and generation of PRSV-resistant papayas through the introduction of the PRSV replicase gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) can cause a destructive disease in papaya (Carica papaya L.). Based on observations that viral replicase (RP) gene confers resistance to virus in other plants, we designed a pair of primers and cloned the RP gene from PRSV by RT-PCR. The 3'-truncated and 5'-extended RP gene fragment was then oriented under the control of the CaMV35

G. Chen; C. Ye; J. Huang; M. Yu; B. Li

2001-01-01

142

Rapid divergence and expansion of the X chromosome in papaya  

PubMed Central

X chromosomes have long been thought to conserve the structure and gene content of the ancestral autosome from which the sex chromosomes evolved. We compared the recently evolved papaya sex chromosomes with a homologous autosome of a close relative, the monoecious Vasconcellea monoica, to infer changes since recombination stopped between the papaya sex chromosomes. We sequenced 12 V. monoica bacterial artificial chromosomes, 11 corresponding to the papaya X-specific region, and 1 to a papaya autosomal region. The combined V. monoica X-orthologous sequences are much shorter (1.10 Mb) than the corresponding papaya region (2.56 Mb). Given that the V. monoica genome is 41% larger than that of papaya, this finding suggests considerable expansion of the papaya X; expansion is supported by a higher repetitive sequence content of the X compared with the papaya autosomal sequence. The alignable regions include 27 transcript-encoding sequences, only 6 of which are functional X/V. monoica gene pairs. Sequence divergence from the V. monoica orthologs is almost identical for papaya X and Y alleles; the Carica-Vasconcellea split therefore occurred before the papaya sex chromosomes stopped recombining, making V. monoica a suitable outgroup for inferring changes in papaya sex chromosomes. The papaya X and the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome and V. monoica have all gained and lost genes, including a surprising amount of changes in the X.

Gschwend, Andrea R.; Yu, Qingyi; Tong, Eric J.; Zeng, Fanchang; Han, Jennifer; VanBuren, Robert; Aryal, Rishi; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H.; Paterson, Andrew H.; Ming, Ray

2012-01-01

143

Chlorophyll fluorescence as a tool to evaluate the ripening of ‘Golden’ papaya fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit classification based on one or more physical or physiological attributes is important to improve quality during storage and marketing. Our objectives were to evaluate changes in chlorophyll fluorescence of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. cv. Golden) at different ripeness stages and during the ripening to determine if this non-destructive technique might assist the evaluation of fruit ripeness. Maximal (Fm),

Ilana Urbano Bron; Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro; Marisa Azzolini; Angelo Pedro Jacomino; Eduardo Caruso Machado

2004-01-01

144

DETERMINATION OF THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY IN PAPAYA PULP AS A FUNCTION OF MATURATION STAGE1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the penetration of the thermal wave in the papaya fruit pulp (Carica papaya L.), cv. Golden, thermal diffusivity of the pulp was obtained measuring temperature at four different depths. Measurements were carried out initially with the fruit on the first stage of maturity. The changes of the thermal diffusivity were expressed as a function of ripening.

SAVIO FIGUEIRA CORRÊA; MAXIMILIANO SILVA DE SOUZA; TALITA PEREIRA; VERÇOSA DE LIMA ALVES; JURANDI GONÇALVES DE OLIVEIRA; MARCELO GOMES DA SILVA; HELION VARGAS

145

Papaya seed represents a rich source of biologically active isothiocyanate.  

PubMed

In the present study, papaya (Carica papaya) seed and edible pulp were carefully separated and then the contents of benzyl isothiocyanate and the corresponding glucosinolate (benzyl glucosinolate, glucotropaeolin) quantified in each part. The papaya seed with myrosinase inactivation contained >1 mmol of benzyl glucosinolate in 100 g of fresh seed. This content is equivalent to that of Karami daikon (the hottest Japanese white radish) or that of cress. The papaya seed extract also showed a very high activity of myrosinase and, without myrosinase inactivation, produced 460 micromol of benzyl isothiocyanate in 100 g of seed. In contrast, papaya pulp contained an undetectable amount of benzyl glucosinolate and showed no significant myrosinase activity. The n-hexane extract of the papaya seed homogenate was highly effective in inhibiting superoxide generation and apoptosis induction in HL-60 cells, the activities of which are comparable to those of authentic benzyl isothiocyanate. PMID:17469845

Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Yoshimoto, Motoko; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Shimoishi, Yasuaki; Asai, Yumi; Park, Eun Young; Sato, Kenji; Nakamura, Yasushi

2007-05-30

146

Cloning and characterization of transcripts differentially expressed in the pulp of ripening papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya) is a relevant tropical crop and physico-chemical changes take place very quickly, as a consequence of activation of biochemical pathways by de novo synthesis of several proteins. Thus, in order to have information on the changes in gene expression in ripening papaya, transcripts from the pulp of unripe and ripe fruit were profiled by differential-display RT-PCR (DDRT-PCR).

João Paulo Fabi; Franco Maria Lajolo; João Roberto Oliveira do Nascimento

2009-01-01

147

Utility of 1-methylcyclopropene as a papaya postharvest treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The postharvest utility of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for papaya, Carica papaya L. (cvs. Gold and Rainbow) was determined. The effect of fruit maturity, storage, 1-MCP concentration (50–1000nLL?1), 1-MCP treatment duration (4 and 24h) and ethephon treatment before and after 1-MCP were evaluated. Fruit treated with various concentrations of 1-MCP for 24h were firmer and the time to reach the edible ripe

Ashariya Manenoi; Emma Ruth V. Bayogan; Siwaporn Thumdee; Robert E. Paull

2007-01-01

148

COMPARACIÓN ENTRE LAS PAPAYAS \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to make maturation scales for two papaya cultivars, of the Solo's group, the most important for exportation and for the internal market: 'Sunrise Solo' and 'Golden'. Fruits were harvested at seven different maturation stages in the tree, on comercial farming located at Linhares-ES, Brazil, based on peel color. It was established a visual maturation

O. Fonseca; Nilton Rocha Leal; Sérgio A. Cenci; Paulo R. Cecon; Ricardo E. Bressan-Smith

149

[Sequence analysis of the complete genome of papaya ringspot virus hainan isolate].  

PubMed

Total RNA was extracted from infected papaya (Carica papaya L.) leaves in Hainan Province, and the full-length sequences of papaya ringspot virus were amplified by RT-PCR and RACE, and its complete genomic sequence was assembled, named Hainan-P isolate. The RNA genome sequence of Hainan-P isolate was 10323 nucleotides (nts)in length,excluding the 3'-terminal poly(A) tail. And it was composed of a single open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3343 amino acids.. The result of homology analysis with twelve GenBank PRSV isolates showed that the polyprotein identity of Hainan-P ranged from 89. 8% to 93.2%, that was higher than the complete nt homology of 82.3% to 89.1%. The P1 amino acid was the least conserved (sharing homology only between 65.4% and 80.1%), whereas HC-Pro, CI and CP were the most conserved. Phylogenetic tree were constructed by the Neighbor-joining method in MEGA 3.1, which showed that PRSV isolates were obviously relevant to geographical origin, and it was impossible to delineate host-specific (P type and W type)evolution. PMID:18533348

Lu, Ya-Wei; Shen, Wen-Tao; Tang, Qing-Jie; Niu, Yan-Mei; Zhou, Peng

2008-06-01

150

Affinity purification of the novel cysteine proteinase papaya proteinase IV, and papain from papaya latex.  

PubMed Central

A procedure is described for the purification of a previously undetected cysteine proteinase, which we have called papaya proteinase IV, from spray-dried latex of the papaya (Carica papaya) plant. The purification involves affinity chromatography on Gly-Phe-aminoacetonitrile linked to CH-Sepharose 4B, with elution by 2-hydroxyethyl disulphide at pH 4.5. The product thus obtained is a mixture of almost fully active papain and papay proteinase IV, which are then separated by cation-exchange chromatography. A preliminary characterization of papaya proteinase IV showed it to be very similar to chymopapain in both molecular size and charge. However, the new enzyme is immunologically distinct from the previously characterized cysteine proteinases of papaya latex. It also differs in its lack of activity against the synthetic substrates of the other papaya proteinases, in its narrow specificity against protein substrates and its lack of inhibition by chicken cystatin. Papaya proteinase IV is abundant, contributing almost 30% of the protein in spray-dried papaya latex, and contamination of chymopapain preparations with this enzyme may account for some of the previously reported heterogeneity of chymopapain. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5.

Buttle, D J; Kembhavi, A A; Sharp, S L; Shute, R E; Rich, D H; Barrett, A J

1989-01-01

151

Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management  

PubMed Central

Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research.

Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

2014-01-01

152

Gene technology for papaya ringspot virus disease management.  

PubMed

Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research. PMID:24757435

Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

2014-01-01

153

Development of Transgenic Papaya through Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation  

PubMed Central

Transgenic papaya plants were regenerated from hypocotyls and immature zygotic embryo after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as the selectable marker and ?-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene. The explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens on regeneration medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime for one week. The cocultivated explants were transferred into the final selection medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime?+?50?mg/L kanamycin for callus induction as well as plant regeneration. The callus derived from the hypocotyls of Carica papaya cv. Shahi showed the highest positive GUS activities compared to Carica papaya cv. Ranchi. The transformed callus grew vigorously and formed embryos followed by transgenic plantlets successfully. The result of this study showed that the hypocotyls of C. papaya cv. Shahi and C. papaya cv. Ranchi are better explants for genetic transformation compared to immature embryos. The transformed C. papaya cv. Shahi also showed the maximum number of plant regeneration compared to that of C. papaya cv. Ranchi.

Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md. Golam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

2013-01-01

154

P-type H +-ATPases activity, membrane integrity, and apoplastic pH during papaya fruit ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The P-type H+-ATPase activity and related apoplastic pH were analysed in papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. cv. Golden) at different stages of maturation. Postharvest ripening of papaya was characterized by ethylene emission, skin colouration, firmness, and titratable acidity (TA). The climacteric peak of ethylene production occurred on the 2nd day after harvest, along with a sharp decrease in ATP hydrolysis

Inga G. Azevedo; Jurandi G. Oliveira; Marcelo G. da Silva; Talita Pereira; Savio F. Corrêa; Helion Vargas; Arnoldo R. Façanha

2008-01-01

155

Molecular characterization of a severe isolate of papaya ringspot virus in Mexico and its relationship with other isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The virus most often reported in papaya (Carica papaya L.) is papaya ringspot (PRSV). The aim of this work was the molecular genomic characterization of a Mexican severe isolate\\u000a of PRSV-P “Mex-VrPO” (isolate from the State of Veracruz in Paso de Ovejas) as well as its comparison with other isolates\\u000a from other world regions. The linear, assembled, single-strand positive sense

Juan Carlos Noa-Carrazana; Diego González-de-León; Laura Silva-Rosales

2007-01-01

156

Genetic mapping of a PRSV-P resistance gene in “highland papaya” based on inheritance of RAF markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya ringspot virus type P (PRSV-P) is a significant disease of Carica papaya. A major gene for PRSV-P resistance has been mapped in Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis, a distant relative of C. papaya. This was achieved by genetic mapping of the resistance phenotype and inherited, dominant, polymorphic randomly amplified DNA fingerprint (RAF) markers in F2 progenies of V. parviflora and V. cundinamarcensis.

S. Dillon; C. Ramage; R. Drew; S. Ashmore

2005-01-01

157

Generation of transgenic papaya with double resistance to Papaya ringspot virus and Papaya leaf-distortion mosaic virus.  

PubMed

During the field tests of coat protein (CP)-transgenic papaya lines resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), another Potyvirus sp., Papaya leaf-distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), appeared as an emerging threat to the transgenic papaya. In this investigation, an untranslatable chimeric construct containing the truncated CP coding region of the PLDMV P-TW-WF isolate and the truncated CP coding region with the complete 3' untranslated region of PRSV YK isolate was transferred into papaya (Carica papaya cv. Thailand) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to generate transgenic plants with resistance to PLDMV and PRSV. Seventy-five transgenic lines were obtained and challenged with PRSV YK or PLDMV P-TW-WF by mechanical inoculation under greenhouse conditions. Thirty-eight transgenic lines showing no symptoms 1 month after inoculation were regarded as highly resistant lines. Southern and Northern analyses revealed that four weakly resistant lines have one or two inserts of the construct and accumulate detectable amounts of transgene transcript, whereas nine resistant lines contain two or three inserts without significant accumulation of transgene transcript. The results indicated that double virus resistance in transgenic lines resulted from double or more copies of the insert through the mechanism of RNA-mediated posttranscriptional gene silencing. Furthermore, three of nine resistant lines showed high levels of resistance to heterologous PRSV strains originating from Hawaii, Thailand, and Mexico. Our transgenic lines have great potential for controlling a number of PRSV strains and PLDMV in Taiwan and elsewhere. PMID:19821736

Kung, Yi-Jung; Bau, Huey-Jiunn; Wu, Yi-Ling; Huang, Chiung-Huei; Chen, Tsui-Miao; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

2009-11-01

158

Allergenicity assessment of the papaya ringspot virus coat protein expressed in transgenic rainbow papaya.  

PubMed

The virus-resistant, transgenic commercial papaya Rainbow and SunUp (Carica papaya L.) have been consumed locally in Hawaii and elsewhere in the mainland United States and Canada since their release to planters in Hawaii in 1998. These papaya are derived from transgenic papaya line 55-1 and carry the coat protein (CP) gene of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). The PRSV CP was evaluated for potential allergenicity, an important component in assessing the safety of food derived from transgenic plants. The transgene PRSV CP sequence of Rainbow papaya did not exhibit greater than 35% amino acid sequence homology to known allergens, nor did it have a stretch of eight amino acids found in known allergens which are known common bioinformatic methods used for assessing similarity to allergen proteins. PRSV CP was also tested for stability in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid and under various heat treatments. The results showed that PRSV CP was degraded under conditions for which allergenic proteins relative to nonallergens are purported to be stable. The potential human intake of transgene-derived PRSV CP was assessed by measuring CP levels in Rainbow and SunUp along with estimating the fruit consumption rates and was compared to potential intake estimates of PRSV CP from naturally infected nontransgenic papaya. Following accepted allergenicity assessment criteria, our results show that the transgene-derived PRSV CP does not pose a risk of food allergy. PMID:21819140

Fermín, Gustavo; Keith, Ronald C; Suzuki, Jon Y; Ferreira, Stephen A; Gaskill, Douglas A; Pitz, Karen Y; Manshardt, Richard M; Gonsalves, Dennis; Tripathi, Savarni

2011-09-28

159

Hormonal changes in papaya seedlings subjected to progressive water stress and re-watering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes on abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels were investigated in papaya seedlings\\u000a (Carica papaya L.) cv. “Baixinho de Santa Amalia” under progressive water stress and subsequent rehydration. Also, the behaviour of leaf\\u000a gas exchange and leaf growth was determined under stress condition. The results indicated that ABA and JA differ in their\\u000a pattern of

Jalel Mahouachi; Vicent Arbona; Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas

2007-01-01

160

Transcript profiling of papaya fruit reveals differentially expressed genes associated with fruit ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit has a short shelf life due to fast ripening induced by ethylene, but little is known about the genetic control of ripening and attributes of fruit quality. Therefore, we identified ripening-related genes affected by ethylene using cDNA-AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism of cDNA). Transcript profiling of non-induced and ethylene-induced fruit samples was performed, and 71

João Paulo Fabi; Luana Regina Baratelli Carelli Mendes; Franco Maria Lajolo; João Roberto Oliveira do Nascimento

2010-01-01

161

Papaya ?-galactosidase\\/galactanase isoforms in differential cell wall hydrolysis and fruit softening during ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential significance of the previously reported papaya (Carica papaya L.) ?-galactosidase\\/galactanase (?-d-galactoside galactohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.23) isoforms, ?-gal I, II and III, as softening enzymes during ripening was evaluated for hydrolysis of pectins while still structurally attached to unripe fruit cell wall, and hemicelluloses that were already solubilized in 4 M alkali. The enzymes were capable of differentially hydrolyzing the cell

Hamid Lazan; Syu-Yih Ng; Lee-Yin Goh; Zainon Mohd Ali

2004-01-01

162

High frequency somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from papaya hypocotyl callus  

Microsoft Academic Search

High frequency somatic embryogenesis in papaya (Carica papaya L.) tissue cultures was achieved by culturing hypocotyl sections from ten-day-old seedlings on half-strength Murashige and Skoog salts (MS) medium containing modified MS vitamins, 2.3 to 112.5 µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d), 400 mg l-1 glutamine, and 6% sucrose. Four hermaphroditic Hawaiian cultivars produced embryogenic calluses after ten to 14 weeks of culture

Maureen M. M. Fitch

1993-01-01

163

New approach for papaya latex storage without virus degradation.  

PubMed

Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease, which has been detected through analysis of its double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome from plant latex. In this work we demonstrate that PMeV dsRNA is protected during 25 days when latex is diluted in citrate buffer pH 5.0 (1:1 v/v) and maintained at -20ºC. At the same temperature, some protection was observed for pure latex or latex diluted in ultra-pure water. Conversely, the dsRNA was almost completely degraded after 25 days when maintained at 25ºC, indicating the need for freezing. The proper procedures to collect and store papaya latex described here will contribute to efficient and large scale use of molecular diagnosis of PMeV. PMID:24031329

Rodrigues, Silas P; Andrade, Josemar S; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Patricia M B

2009-01-01

164

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of unripe papaya.  

PubMed

The meat, seed and pulp of Carica papaya Linn., a popular traditional medicinal herb grown in the tropics, was shown by the agar-cup method to be bacteriostatic against several enteropathogens such as Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The same parts of papaya were unequivocably demonstrated by electron spin resonance spectrometry to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (5.8 x 10(14) spins/ml), hydroxyl (5.1 x 10(14) spins/ml) and superoxide (1.2 x 10(14) spins/ml) radicals with the seed giving the highest activity at concentrations (IC50) of 2.1, 10.0 and 8.7 mg/ml, respectively. The superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity in the meat, seed and pulp amounts to about 32, 98 and 33 units/ml; comparable to those of soybean paste miso, rice bran and baker's yeast. Vitamin C, malic acid, citric acid and glucose are some of the possible antioxidative components in papaya. Our study correlates the bacteriostatic activity of papaya with its scavenging action on superoxide and hydroxyl radicals which could be part of the cellular metabolism of such enteropathogens. This is indicative of the pathophysiological role of these reactive oxygen species in gastrointestinal diseases and papaya's ability to counteract the oxidative stress. PMID:8412504

Osato, J A; Santiago, L A; Remo, G M; Cuadra, M S; Mori, A

1993-01-01

165

Analysis of ripening-related gene expression in papaya using an Arabidopsis-based microarray  

PubMed Central

Background Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a commercially important crop that produces climacteric fruits with a soft and sweet pulp that contain a wide range of health promoting phytochemicals. Despite its importance, little is known about transcriptional modifications during papaya fruit ripening and their control. In this study we report the analysis of ripe papaya transcriptome by using a cross-species (XSpecies) microarray technique based on the phylogenetic proximity between papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Papaya transcriptome analyses resulted in the identification of 414 ripening-related genes with some having their expression validated by qPCR. The transcription profile was compared with that from ripening tomato and grape. There were many similarities between papaya and tomato especially with respect to the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in primary metabolism, regulation of transcription, biotic and abiotic stress and cell wall metabolism. XSpecies microarray data indicated that transcription factors (TFs) of the MADS-box, NAC and AP2/ERF gene families were involved in the control of papaya ripening and revealed that cell wall-related gene expression in papaya had similarities to the expression profiles seen in Arabidopsis during hypocotyl development. Conclusion The cross-species array experiment identified a ripening-related set of genes in papaya allowing the comparison of transcription control between papaya and other fruit bearing taxa during the ripening process.

2012-01-01

166

[Anti-infective phytotherapies of the tree-savannah, Senegal (occidental Africa). III: A review of phytochemical substances and the antimicrobial activity of 43 species].  

PubMed

A review has been made of the ethnobotanical and pharmacological data of 43 medicinal plants of the tree-savannah used by the Diola against infectious diseases. The traditional use of ten plants can be explained by pharmacologically active principles: Adansonia digitata, Azadirachta indica, Carica papaya, Cassia tora, Fagara leprieurii, Guiera senegalensis, Khaya senegalensis, Mangifera indica, Psidium guajava and Voacanga africana. Four of these herbs are recommended for use in Primary Health Care. The therapeutic value of the other plants discussed is not absolutely clear. It is, however, obvious that herbal medicine has a large potential, which is still insufficiently explored, for utilization in Primary Health Care. PMID:2664354

Le Grand, A

1989-05-01

167

Growth and yield response of papaya to intercropping with vegetable crops in southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria, papaya trees were intercropped with okra, watermelon, sweet potato, bush greens, jews' mallow and Solanum gilo Raddi. The aim of the experiment was to select crops suitable for intercropping in the alleys of papaya plants in orchards. Sweet potato and Solanum gilo Raddi caused marked reduction in the yield of papaya. Land Equivalent Ration (LER) for

I. O. O. Aiyelaagbe; M. A. Jolaoso

1992-01-01

168

SOME CHEMICAL AND RESPIRATIONALCHANGES IN THE PAPAYA FRUITDURING RIPENING,AND THE EFFECTS OF COLD STORAGE ON THESE CHANGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya(Carica papaya)isaplantlong, established inHawaii, having beenbrought totheIslands before 1823.Ithasbeenunderstudybythe HawaiiAgricultural Experiment Station since 1902, butmostoftheinvesti- gations havebeenoncultural requirements andselection. Therapid rise in commercial importance ofthefruitinrecent yearsmakesitlnecessary to knowsomething ofthechanges occurring inthefruit during ripening, asa basis forharvesting, storage, andshipnment. Reviewofliterature THOMPSON(13)gives someoftheearly analyses ofthepapaya anid shows thatintheripefruit there isverylittle sucrose butahighpercentage of reducing sugars. Herstudywasofseveral different strains, namely: Trinidad, SouthAfrican, Honolulu,

WINSTON W. JONES; HISASHI KUBOTA

169

Ripening in papaya fruit is altered by ACC oxidase cosuppression.  

PubMed

Papaya (Carica papaya) is a very important crop in many tropical countries but it is highly susceptible to parasitic diseases, physiological disorders, mechanical damage and fruit overripening. Here we report a study on ACC oxidase cosuppression and its effects on papaya fruit ripening. Papaya ACC oxidase was isolated using PCR and embriogenic cells transformed by biolistic using the CaMV 35S promoter to drive the expression of the PCR fragment in sense orientation. Fifty transgenic lines were recovered and 20 of those were grown under field conditions. Southern analysis showed incorporation of the transgene in different copy numbers in the papaya genome. Fruits were evaluated in terms of texture (firmness), colour development, respiration and ethylene production. A sharp reduction in ethylene and CO2 production was detected, whereas softening and colour development of the peel were also altered. Overall, transgenic fruits showed a delay in ripening rate. A reduction in mRNA level for ACC oxidase in transgenic fruit was clearly detectable by northern blot. More studies are necessary before this technology can be used to extend the shelf life of papaya fruit. PMID:18612838

López-Gómez, Rodolfo; Cabrera-Ponce, Jose Luis; Saucedo-Arias, Luis Jorge; Carreto-Montoya, Lorena; Villanueva-Arce, Ramon; Díaz-Perez, Juan Carlos; Gómez-Lim, Miguel Angel; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

2009-02-01

170

Update on the development of virus-resistant papaya: virus-resistant transgenic papaya for people in rural communities of Thailand.  

PubMed

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the most important and preferred crops in rural communities in Thailand. Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a serious disease of papaya throughout Thailand. Efforts to control the virus by various methods either have not been successful or have not resulted in sustainable control. In 1995, collaborative research by the Department of Agriculture of Thailand and Cornell University to develop transgenic papaya resistant to PRSV was initiated. Two local Thai cultivars were transformed by microprojectile bombardment with the use of a nontranslatable coat protein gene of PRSV from Khon Kaen. Numerous kanamycin-resistantplants were regenerated and were inoculated with the PRSV Khon Kaen isolate for selection of resistant lines. Since 1997, promising RO transgenic lines have been transferred to the research station at Thapra for subsequent screenhouse tests and selection of the most PRSV-resistant lines. In selection set 1, three R3 lines initially derived from Khaknuan papaya showed excellent resistance to PRSV (97% to 100%) and had a yield of fruit 70 times higher than nontransgenic Khaknuan papaya. In selection set 2, one R3 line initially derived from Khakdam papaya showed 100% resistance. Safety assessments of these transgenic papayas have so far found no impact on the surrounding ecology. No natural crossing between transgenic and nonmodified papaya was observed beyond a distance of 10 m from the test plots. Analysis of the nutritional composition found no differences in nutrient levels in comparison with the nonmodified counterparts. Molecular characterization by Southern blotting revealed three copies of the transgene presented; however, no coat protein product was expressed. Data on additional topics, such as the effects offeeding the transgenic papaya to rats and the stability of the gene inserts, are currently being gathered. PMID:16465990

Sakuanrungsirikul, S; Sarindu, N; Prasartsee, V; Chaikiatiyos, S; Siriyan, R; Sriwatanakul, M; Lekananon, P; Kitprasert, C; Boonsong, P; Kosiyachinda, P; Fermin, G; Gonsalves, D

2005-12-01

171

Ficus carica L.: Metabolic and biological screening.  

PubMed

Ficus carica L. is one of the earliest cultivated fruit trees. In this work, metabolite profiling was performed on the leaves, pulps and peels of two Portuguese white varieties of F. carica (Pingo de Mel and Branca Tradicional). Phenolics and organic acids profiles were determined by HPLC/DAD and HPLC/UV, respectively. All samples presented a similar phenolic profile composed by 3-O- and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids, ferulic acid, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, psoralen and bergapten. 3-O-Caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin-3-O-glucoside are described for the first time in this species. Leaves' organic acids profile presented oxalic, citric, malic, quinic, shikimic and fumaric acids, while in pulps and peels quinic acid was absent. The antioxidant potential of the different plant parts was checked. All materials exhibited activity against DPPH and nitric oxide radicals in a concentration-dependent way. However, only the leaves presented capacity to scavenge superoxide radical. Leaves were always the most effective part, which seems to be related with phenolics compounds. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory capacity was evaluated, but no effect was observed. Antimicrobial potential was also assessed against several bacterial species, although no activity was noticed. This is the first study comparing the chemical composition and biological potential of F. carica pulps, peels and leaves. PMID:19747518

Oliveira, Andreia P; Valentão, Patrícia; Pereira, José A; Silva, Branca M; Tavares, Fernando; Andrade, Paula B

2009-11-01

172

Broad-Spectrum Resistance to Different Geographic Strains of Papaya ringspot virus in Coat Protein Gene Transgenic Papaya.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a major limiting factor for cultivation of papaya (Carica papaya) in tropical and subtropical areas throughout the world. Although the coat protein (CP) gene of PRSV has been transferred into papaya by particle bombardment and transgenic lines with high resistance to Hawaii strains have been obtained, they are susceptible to PRSV isolates outside of Hawaii. This strain-specific resistance limits the application of the transgenic lines in other areas of the world. In this investigation, the CP gene of a local strain isolated from Taiwan, designated PRSV YK, was transferred into papaya via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A total of 45 putative transgenic lines were obtained and the presence of the transgene in papaya was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction amplification. When the plants of transgenic lines were challenged with PRSV YK by mechanical inoculation, they showed different levels of resistance ranging from delay of symptom development to complete immunity. Molecular analysis of nine selected lines that exhibited different levels of resistance revealed that the expression level of the transgene is negatively correlated with the degree of resistance, suggesting that the resistance is manifested by a RNA-mediated mechanism. The segregation analysis showed that the transgene in the immune line 18-0-9 has an inheritance of two dominant loci and the other four highly resistant lines have a single dominant locus. Seven selected lines were tested further for resistance to three PRSV heterologous strains that originated in Hawaii, Thailand, and Mexico. Six of the seven lines showed varying degrees of resistance to the heterologous strains, and one line, 19-0-1, was immune not only to the homologous YK strain but also to the three heterologous strains. Thus, these CP-transgenic papaya lines with broad-spectrum resistance have great potential for use in Taiwan and other geographic areas to control PRSV. PMID:18944164

Bau, Huey-Jiunn; Cheng, Ying-Huey; Yu, Tsong-Ann; Yang, Jiu-Sherng; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

2003-01-01

173

Field performance evaluation and genetic integrity assessment of cryopreserved papaya clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the first report of field performance and evaluation of morphological traits following cryopreservation in four\\u000a genotypes of Carica papaya (Z6, 97, TS2 and 35). It also describes the successful establishment of in vitro plantlets following vitrification-based\\u000a cryopreservation of shoot tips and their acclimatisation through to field establishment. Cloned plants resulting from untreated\\u000a controls, as well as controls

Adam Kaity; S. E. Ashmore; R. A. Drew

2009-01-01

174

Recent advances in the development of transgenic papaya technology.  

PubMed

Papaya with resistance to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is the first genetically modified tree and fruit crop and also the first transgenic crop developed by a public institution that has been commercialized. This chapter reviews the different transformation systems used for papaya and recent advances in the use of transgenic technology to introduce important quality and horticultural traits in papaya. These include the development of the following traits in papaya: resistance to PRSV, mites and Phytophthora, delayed ripening trait or long shelf life by inhibiting ethylene production or reducing loss of firmness, and tolerance or resistance to herbicide and aluminum toxicity. The use of papaya to produce vaccine against tuberculosis and cysticercosis, an infectious animal disease, has also been explored. Because of the economic importance of papaya, there are several collaborative and independent efforts to develop PRSV transgenic papaya technology in 14 countries. This chapter further reviews the strategies and constraints in the adoption of the technology and biosafety to the environment and food safety. Constraints to adoption include public perception, strict and expensive regulatory procedures and intellectual property issues. PMID:18606373

Tecson Mendoza, Evelyn Mae; C Laurena, Antonio; Botella, José Ramón

2008-01-01

175

Papaya fruit softening, endoxylanase gene expression, protein and activity.  

PubMed

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) cell wall matrix polysaccharides are modified as the fruit starts to soften during ripening and an endoxylanase is expressed that may play a role in the softening process. Endoxylanase gene expression, protein amount and activity were determined in papaya cultivars that differ in softening pattern and in one cultivar where softening was modified by the ethylene receptor inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Antibodies to the endoxylanase catalytic domain were used to determine protein accumulation. The three papaya varieties used in the study, 'Line 8', 'Sunset', and 'Line 4-16', differed in softening pattern, respiration rate, ethylene production and showed similar parallel relationships during ripening and softening in endoxylanase expression, protein level and activity. When fruit of the three papaya varieties showed the respiratory climacteric and started to soften, the level of endoxylanase gene expression increased and this increase was related to the amount of endoxylanase protein at 32 kDa and its activity. Fruit when treated at less than 10% skin yellow stage with 1-MCP showed a significant delay in the respiratory climacteric and softening, and reduced ethylene production, and when ripe was firmer and had a 'rubbery' texture. The 1-MCP-treated fruit that had the 'rubbery' texture showed suppressed endoxylanase gene expression, protein and enzymatic activity. Little or no delay occurred between endoxylanase gene expression and the appearance of activity during posttranslational processing from 65 to 32 kDa. The close relationship between endoxylanase gene expression, protein accumulation and activity in different varieties and the failure of the 1-MCP-treated fruit to fully soften, supported de novo synthesis of endoxylanase, rapid posttranslation processing and a role in papaya fruit softening. PMID:18251885

Manenoi, Ashariya; Paull, Robert E

2007-11-01

176

Helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) protein of Papaya ringspot virus interacts with papaya calreticulin.  

PubMed

Potyviral helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) is a multifunctional protein involved in plant-virus interactions. In this study, we constructed a Carica papaya L. plant cDNA library to investigate the host factors interacting with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) HC-Pro using a Sos recruitment two-hybrid system (SRS). We confirmed that the full-length papaya calreticulin, designated PaCRT (GenBank accession no. FJ913889), interacts specifically with PRSV HC-Pro in yeast, in vitro and in plant cells using SRS, in vitro protein-binding assay and bimolecular fluorescent complementation assay, respectively. SRS analysis of the interaction between three PaCRT deletion mutants and PRSV HC-Pro demonstrated that the C-domain (residues 307-422), with a high Ca(2+)-binding capacity, was responsible for binding to PRSV HC-Pro. In addition, quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay showed that the expression of PaCRT mRNA was significantly upregulated in the primary stage of PRSV infection, and decreased to near-basal expression levels in noninoculated (healthy) papaya plants with virus accumulation inside host cells. PaCRT is a new calcium-binding protein that interacts with potyviral HC-Pro. It is proposed that the upregulated expression of PaCRT mRNA may be an early defence-related response to PRSV infection in the host plant, and that interaction between PRSV HC-Pro and PaCRT may be involved in plant calcium signalling pathways which could interfere with virus infection or host defence. PMID:20447282

Shen, Wentao; Yan, Pu; Gao, Le; Pan, Xueying; Wu, Jinyan; Zhou, Peng

2010-05-01

177

Quarantine System for Papaya.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A novel system to ensure that papaya are free of fruit flies so as to meet quarantine restrictions is described. Papaya are subjected to selection on the basis of color in combination with a two-stage heated fluid treatment wherein time and temperature of...

H. M. Couey C. F. Hayes

1985-01-01

178

Effect of packaging materials and storage environment on postharvest quality of papaya fruit.  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of packaging materials and storage environments on shelf life of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.). A factorial combination of five packaging materials and two storage environments using randomized complete block design with three replications were used. The papaya fruits were evaluated for weight loss, percentage marketability, firmness, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar and total sugar content. The packaged and cooled fruits remained firmer than unpackaged and evaporatively cooled fruits. Higher chemical compositions were recorded in the control fruits stored under ambient conditions during the earlier times of storage. Packaging and cooling maintained the chemical quality of papaya fruits better than the control sample fruits towards the end of storage periods. The evaporatively cooled storage combined with packaging improved the shelf life of papaya fruits by more than two fold. The polyethylene bag packaging combined with evaporatively cooled storage maintained the superior quality of papaya fruit for a period of 21 days. This integrated agro-technology is recommended for postharvest loss reduction biotechnology in hot regions. PMID:24876636

Azene, Mulualem; Workneh, Tilahun Seyoum; Woldetsadik, Kebede

2014-06-01

179

Molecular cloning and characterization of a ripening-induced polygalacturonase related to papaya fruit softening.  

PubMed

Pulp softening is one of the most remarkable changes during ripening of papaya (Carica papaya) fruit and it is a major cause for post-harvest losses. Although cell wall catabolism has a major influence on papaya fruit, quality information on the gene products involved in this process is limited. A full-length polygalacturonase cDNA (cpPG) was isolated from papaya pulp and used to study gene expression and enzyme activity during normal and ethylene-induced ripening and after exposure of the fruit to 1-MCP. Northern-blot analysis demonstrated that cpPG transcription was strongly induced during ripening and was highly ethylene-dependent. The accumulation of cpPG transcript was paralleled by enzyme activity, and inversely correlated to the pulp firmness. Preliminary in silico analysis of the cpPG genomic sequence revealed the occurrence of putative regulatory motifs in the promoter region that may help to explain the effects of plant hormones and non-abiotic stresses on papaya fruit firmness. This newly isolated cpPG is an important candidate for functional characterization and manipulation to control the process of pulp softening during papaya ripening. PMID:19703778

Fabi, João Paulo; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana; Seymour, Graham B; Lajolo, Franco M; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

2009-01-01

180

Draft Genome Sequence of Erwinia mallotivora BT-MARDI, Causative Agent of Papaya Dieback Disease  

PubMed Central

Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya trees infected with dieback disease, which were planted at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Malaysia. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of E. mallotivora BT-MARDI, which offers an important source of information for understanding pathogen and host interaction during papaya dieback development.

Abu Bakar, N.; Rozano, L.; Badrun, R.; Mat Amin, N.; Mohd Raih, M. F.

2014-01-01

181

Draft Genome Sequence of Erwinia mallotivora BT-MARDI, Causative Agent of Papaya Dieback Disease.  

PubMed

Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya trees infected with dieback disease, which were planted at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Malaysia. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of E. mallotivora BT-MARDI, which offers an important source of information for understanding pathogen and host interaction during papaya dieback development. PMID:24812220

Redzuan, R Ahmad; Abu Bakar, N; Rozano, L; Badrun, R; Mat Amin, N; Mohd Raih, M F

2014-01-01

182

High-efficiency vitrification protocols for cryopreservation of in vitro grown shoot tips of transgenic papaya lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro grown shoot tips of transgenic papaya lines (Carica papaya L.) were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification. Shoot tips were excised from stock shoots that were preconditioned\\u000a in vitro for 45–50-day-old and placed on hormone-free MS medium with 0.09 M sucrose. After loading for 60 min with a mixture\\u000a of 2 M glycerol and 0.4 M sucrose at 25°C, shoot tips were dehydrated with

Shu-Fen Tsai; Shyi-Dong Yeh; Chin-Feng Chan; Song-Iuan Liaw

2009-01-01

183

Industrializacion de la Papaya (Industrialization of the Papaya).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The origin, characteristics, types, maturation, storage, and zones of production of the papaya are presented and the preservation and utilization are described. Tables indicating the proportions of papaya to other fruits in canned production are given. An...

L. L. Orellana

1974-01-01

184

EFEITO DA ÉPOCA DE ESTAQUIA E DO AIB NO ENRAIZAMENTO DE ESTACAS DE FIGUEIRA (Ficus carica L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study conducted in greenhouse in the orchard of the Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), evaluated the influence of the grafting and of indolbutyric acid (IBA) upon fig tree Ficus carica L propagation. The cuttings removed from the year old branches of adult fig trees cultivar Roxo de Valinhos, were collected every fiftteen days fortnight in the period from April

PAULO MÁRCIO NORBERTO; NILTON NAGIB; JORGE CHALFUN; MOACIR PASQUAL; RUBEN DELLY VEIGA; GIULIANO ELIAS PEREIRA; JOSÉ HORTÊNCIO MOTA

185

Free radical scavenging activity of fermented papaya preparation and its effect on lipid peroxide level and superoxide dismutase activity in iron-induced epileptic foci of rats.  

PubMed

Fermented papaya preparation is a natural health food that has been commercially sold in Japan for 2 years. It is made by yeast fermentation of Carica Papaya Linn. We examined the antioxidant action of the fermented papaya preparation on free radicals and lipid peroxidation. Free radicals have been related with aging and diseases, such as cancer, diabetes and especially in neurological disorders, for example, Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease. A diet including variable antioxidant foods may therefore help to prevent these illnesses. The free radical scavenging activity of the fermented papaya preparation was examined using an electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer. Fermented papaya preparation (50 mg/ml) scavenged 80% of hydroxyl radicals (.OH) as spin adducts of spin trap, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) (5.27 x 10(15)spins/ml) generated by Fenton reagents. The value of IC50 was 12.5 mg/ml. The oral administration of the fermented papaya preparation for 4 weeks decreased the elevated of lipid peroxide levels in the ipsilateral 30 min after injection of iron solution by iron into the left cortex of rats. The fermented papaya preparation also increased superoxide dismutase activity in the cortex and hippocampus of them. These results suggest that the fermented papaya preparation has antioxidant actions and that it may be prophylactic food against the age related and neurological diseases associated with free radicals. PMID:9635126

Imao, K; Wang, H; Komatsu, M; Hiramatsu, M

1998-06-01

186

Characterization of the exogenous insert and development of event-specific PCR detection methods for genetically modified Huanong No. 1 papaya.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.), Huanong No. 1, was approved for commercialization in Guangdong province, China in 2006, and the development of the Huanong No. 1 papaya detection method is necessary for implementing genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling regulations. In this study, we reported the characterization of the exogenous integration of GM Huanong No. 1 papaya by means of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR strategies. The results suggested that one intact copy of the initial construction was integrated in the papaya genome and which probably resulted in one deletion (38 bp in size) of the host genomic DNA. Also, one unintended insertion of a 92 bp truncated NptII fragment was observed at the 5' end of the exogenous insert. Furthermore, we revealed its 5' and 3' flanking sequences between the insert DNA and the papaya genomic DNA, and developed the event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR assays for GM Huanong No. 1 papaya based on the 5' integration flanking sequence. The relative limit of detection (LOD) of the qualitative PCR assay was about 0.01% in 100 ng of total papaya genomic DNA, corresponding to about 25 copies of papaya haploid genome. In the quantitative PCR, the limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) were as low as 12.5 and 25 copies of papaya haploid genome, respectively. In practical sample quantification, the quantified biases between the test and true values of three samples ranged from 0.44% to 4.41%. Collectively, we proposed that all of these results are useful for the identification and quantification of Huanong No. 1 papaya and its derivates. PMID:19645503

Guo, Jinchao; Yang, Litao; Liu, Xin; Guan, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Lingxi; Zhang, Dabing

2009-08-26

187

Plant Regeneration and Somatic Embryogenesis from Immature Embryos Derived through Interspecific Hybridization among Different Carica Species.  

PubMed

Plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis through interspecific hybridization among different Carica species were studied for the development of a papaya ringspot virus-resistant variety. The maximum fruit sets were recorded from the cross of the native variety C. papaya cv. Shahi with the wild species C. cauliflora. The highest hybrid embryos were recorded at 90 days after pollination and the embryos were aborted at 150 days after pollination. The immature hybrid embryos were used for plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora showed the highest percentage of germination, as well as plant regeneration on growth regulators free culture medium after 7 days pre-incubation on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/L BAP, 0.5 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora produced maximum callus, as well as somatic embryos when cultured on half-strength MS medium containing 5 mg/L 2,4-D, 100 mg/L glutamine, 100 mg/L casein hydrolysate and 60 g/L sucrose. The somatic embryos were transferred into half-strength MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.2 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose for maturation. The highest number of regenerated plants per hybrid embryo (10.33) was recorded from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora. Isoenzyme and dendrogram cluster analysis using UPGMA of the regenerated F(1) plantlets confirmed the presence of the hybrid plantlets. PMID:23235330

Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md Golam; Amin, Latifah

2012-01-01

188

Phylogeography and molecular epidemiology of Papaya ringspot virus.  

PubMed

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is the most important virus affecting papaya and cucurbit plants in tropical and subtropical areas. PRSV isolates are divided into biotypes P and W: both the P and W types naturally infect plants in the family Cucurbitaceae, whereas the P type naturally infects papaya (Carica papaya). Understanding the origin and nature of the PRSV genetic diversity and evolution is critical for the implementation of control strategies based on cross-protection and the deployment of transgenic plants that show resistance to virus isolates highly similar to the transgene. The molecular epidemiology of PRSV was evaluated by analyzing the nucleotide sequence of the capsid protein (CP) and helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) genes of isolates from around the world, including newly characterized ones from Colombia and Venezuela, using a relaxed molecular clock-based approach and a phylogeographic study. Our results confirm previous estimates on the origin of PRSV around 400 years ago and suggest distinct dispersion events from the Indian Peninsula to the rest of Asia, via Thailand, and subsequently to the Americas. A historical reconstruction of the P- and W-type characters in the phylogenetic study supports the need to revise the hypothesis that PRSV-P derives from PRSV-W since our results suggest that the ancestral state could be either of the two biotypes. Moreover, estimates of epidemic growth predict an increasing genetic diversity of the virus over time that has direct implications for control strategies of PRSV based on cross-protection and the use of transgenic plants. PMID:21549774

Olarte Castillo, X A; Fermin, G; Tabima, J; Rojas, Y; Tennant, P F; Fuchs, M; Sierra, R; Bernal, A J; Restrepo, S

2011-08-01

189

First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee  

PubMed Central

Five mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) plant pest species: Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi), Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus tucumanus Granara de Willink, and Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius are recorded for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These are the first records of D. grassii in Brazil, from papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), and from coffee (Coffea canephora, Rubiaceae). Ferrisia malvastra is also newly recorded in Brazil, where it was found on Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae). Ferrisia virgata was collected from an unidentified weed and Phenacoccus tucumanus from Citrus sp. (Rutaceae). Plotococcus capixaba Kondo was found on pitanga (Eugenia cf. pitanga, Myrtaceae) and Pseudococcus elisae on Coffea canephora, which are new host records for these mealybugs.

Culik, Mark P.; dos Santos Martins, David; Gullan, Penny J.

2006-01-01

190

First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee.  

PubMed

Five mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) plant pest species: Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi), Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus tucumanus Granara de Willink, and Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius are recorded for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These are the first records of D. grassii in Brazil, from papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), and from coffee (Coffea canephora, Rubiaceae). Ferrisia malvastra is also newly recorded in Brazil, where it was found on Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae). Ferrisia virgata was collected from an unidentified weed and Phenacoccus tucumanus from Citrus sp. (Rutaceae). Plotococcus capixaba Kondo was found on pitanga ( Eugenia cf. pitanga, Myrtaceae) and Pseudococcus elisae on Coffea canephora , which are new host records for these mealybugs. PMID:19537975

Culik, Mark P; Martins, David dos Santos; Gullan, Penny J

2006-01-01

191

High-density linkage mapping revealed suppression of recombination at the sex determination locus in papaya.  

PubMed Central

A high-density genetic map of papaya (Carica papaya L.) was constructed using 54 F(2) plants derived from cultivars Kapoho and SunUp with 1501 markers, including 1498 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, the papaya ringspot virus coat protein marker, morphological sex type, and fruit flesh color. These markers were mapped into 12 linkage groups at a LOD score of 5.0 and recombination frequency of 0.25. The 12 major linkage groups covered a total length of 3294.2 cM, with an average distance of 2.2 cM between adjacent markers. This map revealed severe suppression of recombination around the sex determination locus with a total of 225 markers cosegregating with sex types. The cytosine bases were highly methylated in this region on the basis of the distribution of methylation-sensitive and -insensitive markers. This high-density genetic map is essential for cloning of specific genes of interest such as the sex determination gene and for the integration of genetic and physical maps of papaya.

Ma, Hao; Moore, Paul H; Liu, Zhiyong; Kim, Minna S; Yu, Qingyi; Fitch, Maureen M M; Sekioka, Terry; Paterson, Andrew H; Ming, Ray

2004-01-01

192

Benzyl isothiocyanate is the chief or sole anthelmintic in papaya seed extracts.  

PubMed

Papaya (Carica papaya) seeds were extracted in an aqueous buffer or in organic solvents, fractionated by chromatography on silica and aliquots tested for anthelmintic activity by viability assays using Caenorhabditis elegans. For all preparations and fractions tested, anthelmintic activity and benzyl isothiocyanate content correlated positively. Aqueous extracts prepared from heat-treated seeds had no anthelmintic activity or benzyl isothiocyanate content although both appeared when these extracts were incubated with a myrosinase-containing fraction prepared from papaya seeds. A 10 h incubation of crude seed extracts at room temperature led to a decrease in anthelmintic activity and fractionated samples showed a lower benzyl isothiocyanate content relative to non-incubated controls. Benzyl thiocyanate, benzyl cyanide, and benzonitrile were not detected in any preparations and cyanogenic glucosides. which were present, could not account for the anthelmintic activity detected. Thus, our results are best explained if benzyl isothiocyanate is the predominant or sole anthelmintic agent in papaya seed extracts regardless of how seeds are extracted. PMID:11393524

Kermanshai, R; McCarry, B E; Rosenfeld, J; Summers, P S; Weretilnyk, E A; Sorger, G J

2001-06-01

193

Use of morpho-agronomic traits and DNA profiling for classification of genetic diversity in papaya.  

PubMed

We examined the genetic diversity of papaya (Carica papaya) based on morpho-agronomic and molecular data. Twenty-seven genotypes grown in Brazil were analyzed with 11 AFLP primer combinations, 23 ISSR markers, 22 qualitative, and 30 quantitative descriptors. For the joint analyses, we used the Gower algorithm (Joint Gower) and the average value of the individual dissimilarity matrix for each type of data (Average-Joint Gower); 359 AFLP and 52 ISSR polymorphic bands were found. Approximately 29.2 and 7.7% of the AFLP and ISSR bands, respectively, were genotype-specific and may therefore be used for papaya variety protection. Although there was a significant correlation between the qualitative and quantitative descriptor dissimilarity matrices (r = 0.43), the morpho-agronomic data were not highly correlated with the molecular data. Moreover, correlation between AFLP and ISSR dissimilarity matrices was nearly null (r = -0.01). Joint Gower analysis of all data showed high correlations, especially for AFLP markers, most likely due to the larger number of bands, generating a strong bias in the diversity estimates. The Average-Joint Gower analysis allowed a better balance between the correlations for the continuous and the discrete variables. The results generated by clustering analysis distinguished 5 genetically distinct groups. While we found that papaya genotypes are significantly variable for many traits, we observed that Average-Joint Gower analysis allowed for genotype clustering based on the most widely used criterion for classifying papaya genotypes, which is fruit type ('Formosa' or 'Solo'). This information helps provide an accurate estimate of the genetic diversity and structure of papaya germplasm, which will be used for further breeding strategies. PMID:23546977

de Jesus, O N; de Freitas, J P X; Dantas, J L L; de Oliveira, E J

2013-01-01

194

Development of a codominant CAPS marker linked to PRSV-P resistance in highland papaya.  

PubMed

Development of resistant papaya varieties is widely considered the best strategy for long-term control of the papaya ringspot virus type P (PRSV-P). Several species of "highland papaya" from the related genus Vasconcellea exhibit complete resistance to PRSV-P, and present a valuable source of resistance genes with potential for application in Carica papaya. The objectives of this study were two fold; to identify molecular markers linked to a previously characterised PRSV-P resistance gene in V. cundinamarcensis (psrv-1), and to develop codominant marker based strategies for reliable selection of PRSV-P resistant genotypes. Using a bulked segregant analysis approach, dominant randomly amplified DNA fingerprint (RAF) markers linked to prsv-1 were revealed in the resistant DNA bulk, which comprised F2 progeny from a V. parviflora (susceptible) x V. cundinamarcensis (resistant) interspecific cross. One marker, Opk4_1r, mapped adjacent to the prsv-1 locus at 5.4 cM, while a second, Opa11_5r, collocated with it. Sequence characterisation of the Opk4_1r marker permitted its conversion into a codominant CAPS marker (PsiIk4), diagnostic for the resistant genotype based on digestion with the restriction endonuclease PsiI. This marker mapped within 2 cM of the prsv-1 locus. Psilk4 was shown to correctly identify resistant genotypes 99% of the time when applied to interspecific F2 progeny segregating for the resistant character, and has potential for application in breeding programs aimed to deliver the PRSV-P resistance gene from V. cundinamarcensis into C. papaya. PMID:16932884

Dillon, S; Ramage, C; Ashmore, S; Drew, R A

2006-10-01

195

Cloning of the papaya chromoplast-specific lycopene beta-cyclase, CpCYC-b, controlling fruit flesh color reveals conserved microsynteny and a recombination hot spot.  

PubMed

Carotenoid pigments in fruits are indicative of the ripening process and potential nutritional value. Papaya (Carica papaya) fruit flesh color is caused by the accumulation of lycopene or beta-carotenoids in chromoplasts. It is a distinct feature affecting nutritional composition, fruit quality, shelf life, and consumer preference. To uncover the molecular basis of papaya flesh color, we took map-based cloning and candidate gene approaches using integrated genetic and physical maps. A DNA marker tightly linked to flesh color colocalized on a contig of the physical map with a cDNA probe of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) chromoplast-specific lycopene beta-cyclase, CYC-b. Candidate gene sequences were obtained from amplified fragments and verified by sequencing two bacterial artificial chromosomes containing the two alleles. Sequence comparison revealed a 2-bp insertion in the coding region of the recessive red flesh allele resulting in a frame-shift mutation and a premature stop codon. A color complementation test in bacteria confirmed that the papaya CpCYC-b is the gene controlling fruit flesh color. Sequence analysis of wild and cultivated papaya accessions showed the presence of this frame-shift mutation in all red flesh accessions examined. Evaluation of DNA markers near CpCYC-b revealed a recombination hot spot, showing that CpCYC-b is located in a gene-rich region with a recombination rate at 3.7 kb per centimorgan, more than 100-fold higher than the genome average at 400 kb per centimorgan. Conserved microsynteny of the CpCYC-b region is indicated by colinearity of two to four genes between papaya, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), grape (Vitis vinifera), and tomato. Our results enhanced our understanding of papaya flesh color inheritance and generated new tools for papaya improvement. PMID:20181753

Blas, Andrea L; Ming, Ray; Liu, Zhiyong; Veatch, Olivia J; Paull, Robert E; Moore, Paul H; Yu, Qingyi

2010-04-01

196

RESISTANCE TO PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS IN TRANSGENIC PAPAYA BREEDING LINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resistance of transgenic papaya breeding lines to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was examined. Resistance was conferred by non-translatable transgenes derived from the coat protein (CP) gene of a PRSV isolate (H1K) from Florida. To render the CP gene non-translatable, either a stop-codon (D6 lines) or frame-shift (X17-2 lines) mutation had been intro- duced into the CP gene. Non-transgenic and

J. D AVIS; T HOMAS L. W HITE; J ONATHAN H. C RANE

197

Genetically engineered immunity to Papaya ringspot virus in Australian papaya cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), which has recently been identified inAustralia, is the major limiting factor in papaya production worldwide. In thispaper we report the development of two Australian papaya cultivars that areimmune to infection with PRSV. Papaya somatic embryos were transformed viamicroprojectile bombardment using a construct containing an untranslatable PRSVcoat protein coding region. Immunity was demonstrated by repeated inoculationinthe glasshouse

Rosemarie E. Lines; Denis Persley; James L. Dale; Roderick Drew; Marion F. Bateson

2002-01-01

198

Papaya beta-galactosidase/galactanase isoforms in differential cell wall hydrolysis and fruit softening during ripening.  

PubMed

The potential significance of the previously reported papaya (Carica papaya L.) beta-galactosidase/galactanase (beta-d-galactoside galactohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.23) isoforms, beta-gal I, II and III, as softening enzymes during ripening was evaluated for hydrolysis of pectins while still structurally attached to unripe fruit cell wall, and hemicelluloses that were already solubilized in 4 M alkali. The enzymes were capable of differentially hydrolyzing the cell wall as evidenced by increased pectin solubility, pectin depolymerization, and degradation of the alkali-soluble hemicelluloses (ASH). This enzyme catalyzed in vitro changes to the cell walls reflecting in part the changes that occur in situ during ripening. beta-Galactosidase II was most effective in hydrolyzing pectin, followed by beta-gal III and I. The reverse appeared to be true with respect to the hemicelluloses. Hemicellulose, which was already released from any architectural constraints, seemed to be hydrolyzed more extensively than the pectins. The ability of the beta-galactanases to markedly hydrolyze pectin and hemicellulose suggests that galactans provide a structural cross-linkage between the cell wall components. Collectively, the results support the case for a functional relevance of the papaya enzymes in softening related changes during ripening. PMID:15694277

Lazan, Hamid; Ng, Syu-Yih; Goh, Lee-Yin; Ali, Zainon Mohd

2004-12-01

199

Proteomic analysis of differentially accumulated proteins during ripening and in response to 1-MCP in papaya fruit.  

PubMed

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a climacteric fruit susceptible to postharvest losses due to the ethylene-induced ripening. The inhibitor of ethylene action, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), has been used worldwide as a safe postharvest non-toxic agent, but the physiological and biochemical modifications induced by 1-MCP are not well understood. Using the 2-DE analysis, we report the changes in the protein profiles after 6 and 18 days of postharvest and the effect of the effect of 1-MCP treatment on fruits. Twenty seven protein spots showing differences in abundance during ripening were successfully identified by nano-LC-ESI/MS/MS. Some spots corresponded to the cell wall degrading enzymes related to fruit ripening; others were involved in oxidative damage protection, protein folding, and cell growth and survival that were induced by 1-MCP. This is the first proteomic report analyzing the effect of 1-MCP in papaya ripening. The present data will help to shed light on papaya fruit ripening process. PMID:22285629

Huerta-Ocampo, José Ángel; Osuna-Castro, Juan Alberto; Lino-López, Gisela Jareth; Barrera-Pacheco, Alberto; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; De León-Rodríguez, Antonio; Barba de la Rosa, Ana Paulina

2012-04-01

200

Comparison of safety and efficacy of papaya dressing with hydrogen peroxide solution on wound bed preparation in patients with wound gape  

PubMed Central

Objective: Indian papaya or Carica papaya is known to have de-sloughing and wound-healing properties due to the presence of protease enzymes. The present study was done to compare the efficacy and safety of papaya dressing with hydrogen peroxide solution for preparation of wound bed in patients of postoperative wound gape. Materials and Methods: A randomized, open-labeled interventional study was carried out over a period of 8 months at a tertiary care hospital on post-caesarean section patients with wound gape. The efficacy parameters studied were duration of time required to induce development of healthy granulation tissue and total duration of hospitalization. Safety parameters studied were adverse effects reported by patients and development of hypersensitivity reaction. Results: A total of 64 patients were enrolled, of which 32 patients received hydrogen peroxide dressing and 31 patients received papaya dressing (one patient withdrew after randomization). Time required to induce the development of healthy granulation tissue and total duration of hospitalization were 6.2 ± 1.6 days vs 2.5 ± 0.5 days and 19.2 ± 5.8 days vs 12.92 ± 4.6 days in papaya and hydrogen peroxide dressing groups, respectively. Both primary efficacy parameters were significantly shorter in papaya dressing group. The incidence of adverse effects like local irritation and itching were comparable in both groups and the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Papaya dressing is more efficacious and equally safe as compared to hydrogen peroxide dressing when used for wound bed preparation in patients with postoperative wound gape.

Murthy, Mangala B.; Murthy, Bhasker K.; Bhave, Sanjay

2012-01-01

201

Chymopapain induced allergic reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chymopapain (CP) is a proteolytic enzyme with a molecular weight of 27,000 daltons. This enzyme is derived from the uncrystallized latex fraction of the tropical tree, Carica papaya. CP is more soluble and has greater proteolytic activity than papain, another related papaya derived enzyme. Papain and papaya have enjoyed widespread commercial usage in products such as meat tenderizers, soft contact

David I. Bernstein; I. Leonard Bernstein

1986-01-01

202

Papaya Extract to Treat Dengue: A Novel Therapeutic Option?  

PubMed Central

Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The search was done independently by the two authors using PubMed, Google and the library database and included relevant articles of the last 10 years. A total of 7 studies were included in this review, which were one animal study, one case report, three case series and two randomized controlled trials. Although many of the studies and case reports published in literature lack adequate information, some of the studies do raise the possibility that this treatment could be an important option in the future. Further large-scale studies could establish the usefulness or ineffectiveness of this natural product in the treatment of dengue.

Sarala, N; Paknikar, SS

2014-01-01

203

Papaya extract to treat dengue: a novel therapeutic option?  

PubMed

Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The search was done independently by the two authors using PubMed, Google and the library database and included relevant articles of the last 10 years. A total of 7 studies were included in this review, which were one animal study, one case report, three case series and two randomized controlled trials. Although many of the studies and case reports published in literature lack adequate information, some of the studies do raise the possibility that this treatment could be an important option in the future. Further large-scale studies could establish the usefulness or ineffectiveness of this natural product in the treatment of dengue. PMID:24971201

Sarala, N; Paknikar, Ss

2014-05-01

204

Effects of papaya leaves on thrombocyte counts in dengue--a case report.  

PubMed

Dengue fever is on the rise in developing nations like India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. There is no antiviral chemotherapy or vaccine for dengue virus and management of the disease is done on supportive measures. The decline in the thrombocyte count leads to dengue haemorrhagic fever accounting for complications and mortality. Oral administration of Carica papaya leaves extract is said to have a positive impact on thrombocyte count. A 23-year-old man was administered a calculated dose for five days. Blood samples were tested for complete blood count before and after the administration of the juice. Thrombocyte count had increased from 28000/micro liter to 138000/micro liter at the end of five days. We present our experience here. PMID:24864622

Siddique, Osama; Sundus, Ayesha; Ibrahim, Mohammad Faisal

2014-03-01

205

Development of molecular tools for characterization and genetic diversity analysis in Tunisian fig (Ficus carica) cultivars.  

PubMed

Fig, Ficus carica L., is a useful genetic resource for commercial cultivation. In this study, RAPD (60), ISSR (48), RAMPO (63), and SSR (34) markers were compared to detect polymorphism and to establish genetic relationships among Tunisian fig tree cultivars. The statistical procedures conducted on the combined data show considerable genetic diversity, and the tested markers discriminated all fig genotypes studied. The identification key established on the basis of SSR permitted the unambiguous discrimination of cultivars and confirmed the reliability of SSR for fingerprinting fig genotypes. The study findings are discussed in relation to the establishment of a national reference collection that will aid in the conservation of Tunisian fig resources. PMID:20628809

Chatti, Khaled; Baraket, Ghada; Ben Abdelkrim, Ahmed; Saddoud, Olfa; Mars, Messaoud; Trifi, Mokhtar; Salhi Hannachi, Amel

2010-10-01

206

Cloning of the Papaya Chromoplast-Specific Lycopene ?-Cyclase, CpCYC-b, Controlling Fruit Flesh Color Reveals Conserved Microsynteny and a Recombination Hot Spot1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Carotenoid pigments in fruits are indicative of the ripening process and potential nutritional value. Papaya (Carica papaya) fruit flesh color is caused by the accumulation of lycopene or ?-carotenoids in chromoplasts. It is a distinct feature affecting nutritional composition, fruit quality, shelf life, and consumer preference. To uncover the molecular basis of papaya flesh color, we took map-based cloning and candidate gene approaches using integrated genetic and physical maps. A DNA marker tightly linked to flesh color colocalized on a contig of the physical map with a cDNA probe of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) chromoplast-specific lycopene ?-cyclase, CYC-b. Candidate gene sequences were obtained from amplified fragments and verified by sequencing two bacterial artificial chromosomes containing the two alleles. Sequence comparison revealed a 2-bp insertion in the coding region of the recessive red flesh allele resulting in a frame-shift mutation and a premature stop codon. A color complementation test in bacteria confirmed that the papaya CpCYC-b is the gene controlling fruit flesh color. Sequence analysis of wild and cultivated papaya accessions showed the presence of this frame-shift mutation in all red flesh accessions examined. Evaluation of DNA markers near CpCYC-b revealed a recombination hot spot, showing that CpCYC-b is located in a gene-rich region with a recombination rate at 3.7 kb per centimorgan, more than 100-fold higher than the genome average at 400 kb per centimorgan. Conserved microsynteny of the CpCYC-b region is indicated by colinearity of two to four genes between papaya, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), grape (Vitis vinifera), and tomato. Our results enhanced our understanding of papaya flesh color inheritance and generated new tools for papaya improvement.

Blas, Andrea L.; Ming, Ray; Liu, Zhiyong; Veatch, Olivia J.; Paull, Robert E.; Moore, Paul H.; Yu, Qingyi

2010-01-01

207

DNA methylation and heterochromatinization in the male-specific region of the primitive Y chromosome of papaya  

PubMed Central

Sex chromosomes evolved from autosomes. Recombination suppression in the sex-determining region and accumulation of deleterious mutations lead to degeneration of the Y chromosomes in many species with heteromorphic X/Y chromosomes. However, how the recombination suppressed domain expands from the sex-determining locus to the entire Y chromosome remains elusive. The Y chromosome of papaya (Carica papaya) diverged from the X chromosome approximately 2–3 million years ago and represents one of the most recently emerged Y chromosomes. Here, we report that the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) spans ?13% of the papaya Y chromosome. Interestingly, the centromere of the Y chromosome is embedded in the MSY. The centromeric domain within the MSY has accumulated significantly more DNA than the corresponding X chromosomal domain, which leads to abnormal chromosome pairing. We observed four knob-like heterochromatin structures specific to the MSY. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence assay revealed that the DNA sequences associated with the heterochromatic knobs are highly divergent and heavily methylated compared with the sequences in the corresponding X chromosomal domains. These results suggest that DNA methylation and heterochromatinization play an important role in the early stage of sex chromosome evolution.

Zhang, Wenli; Wang, Xiue; Yu, Qingyi; Ming, Ray; Jiang, Jiming

2008-01-01

208

Molecular characterization of a severe isolate of papaya ringspot virus in Mexico and its relationship with other isolates.  

PubMed

The virus most often reported in papaya (Carica papaya L.) is papaya ringspot (PRSV). The aim of this work was the molecular genomic characterization of a Mexican severe isolate of PRSV-P "Mex-VrPO" (isolate from the State of Veracruz in Paso de Ovejas) as well as its comparison with other isolates from other world regions. The linear, assembled, single-strand positive sense RNA genome of PRSV-P Mex-VrPO was 10320 nt in length (excluding the poly(A) tail) and contained a single large predicted ORF with 3344 aa. The comparative analysis of our PRSV isolates and five others reported before, showed the most variable proteins were P1, P3, 6 K and CP with 13-33%, 5-7%, 6-9% and 5-9% divergence respectively. The most conserved ones were CI, NIb and HC-Pro (2-3%, 3-5% and 4-5%). The phylogenetic analysis showed a close relation between the Mexican (Mex-VrPO) and Hawaiian (PRSV-P HA) isolates. This work provided the first opportunity to establish the foundation for (1) understanding whole genome and polyprotein variability between Asian and American PRSV isolates, and (2) elucidating major trends in the relative evolution of viral cistrons as deduced from in silico recombination analyses. PMID:17082995

Noa-Carrazana, Juan Carlos; González-de-León, Diego; Silva-Rosales, Laura

2007-08-01

209

Construction of a Sequence-Tagged High-Density Genetic Map of Papaya for Comparative Structural and Evolutionary Genomics in Brassicales  

PubMed Central

A high-density genetic map of papaya (Carica papaya L.) was constructed using microsatellite markers derived from BAC end sequences and whole-genome shot gun sequences. Fifty-four F2 plants derived from varieties AU9 and SunUp were used for linkage mapping. A total of 707 markers, including 706 microsatellite loci and the morphological marker fruit flesh color, were mapped into nine major and three minor linkage groups. The resulting map spanned 1069.9 cM with an average distance of 1.5 cM between adjacent markers. This sequence-based microsatellite map resolved the very large linkage group 2 (LG 2) of the previous high-density map using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. The nine major LGs of our map represent papaya's haploid nine chromosomes with LG 1 of the sex chromosome being the largest. This map validates the suppression of recombination at the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) mapped on LG 1 and at potential centromeric regions of other LGs. Segregation distortion was detected in a large region on LG 1 surrounding the MSY region due to the abortion of the YY genotype and in a region of LG6 due to an unknown cause. This high-density sequence-tagged genetic map is being used to integrate genetic and physical maps and to assign genome sequence scaffolds to papaya chromosomes. It provides a framework for comparative structural and evolutional genomic research in the order Brassicales.

Chen, Cuixia; Yu, Qingyi; Hou, Shaobin; Li, Yingjun; Eustice, Moriah; Skelton, Rachel L.; Veatch, Olivia; Herdes, Rachel E.; Diebold, Lauren; Saw, Jimmy; Feng, Yun; Qian, Wubin; Bynum, Lee; Wang, Lei; Moore, Paul H.; Paull, Robert E.; Alam, Maqsudul; Ming, Ray

2007-01-01

210

A set of host proteins interacting with papaya ringspot virus NIa-Pro protein identified in a yeast two-hybrid system.  

PubMed

The protein-protein interactions between viral and host proteins play an essential role in plant virus infection and host defense. The potyviral nuclear inclusion protein a protease (NIa-Pro) is involved in various steps of viral infection. In this study, the host proteins interacting with papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) NIa-Pro were screened in a Carica papaya L. plant cDNA library using a Sos recruitment two-hybrid system (SRS). We con?rmed that the full-length EIF3G, FBPA1, FK506BP, GTPBP, MSRB1, and MTL from papaya can interact speci?cally with PRSV NIa-Pro in yeast, respectively. These proteins fufill important functions in plant protein translation, biotic and abiotic stress, energy metabolism and signal transduction. In this paper, we discuss possible functions of interactions between these host proteins and NIa-Pro in PRSV infection and their role in host defense. Keywords: Sos recruitment two-hybrid system; papaya ringspot virus; NIa-Pro; protein-protein interaction. PMID:22404606

Gao, L; Shen, W T; Yan, P; Tuo, D C; Li, X Y; Zhou, P

2012-01-01

211

Cancer chemopreventive effects of the flavonoid-rich fraction isolated from papaya seeds.  

PubMed

Intervention to decelerate, arrest, or reverse the process of carcinogenesis by the use of either natural or synthetic agents individually or in combination has emerged as a promising and pragmatic medical approach to reduce cancer risk. In the present study, we examined the cancer chemopreventive potential of a flavonoid-rich fraction isolated from the seeds of Carica papaya, a plant traditionally referred to as papaw. The flavonoid-enriched benzene fraction of the aqueous extract exerted its anticancer properties in vitro through cytoprotection, antioxidative and antiinflammatory mechanisms and genoprotection in response to isocyanate-induced carcinogenicity. Medium-term anticarcinogenicity and 2-stage skin papillomagenesis studies conducted in benzopyrene-induced lung carcinogenesis and 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene-mediated skin papillomagenesis mouse models further validated our in vitro observations. This is the first demonstration of chemopreventive activities of papaya seed products, however, further studies to understand the subtle targets of intracellular signaling pathways, pharmacological profile and toxicological safety of this bioactive fraction are essential to pave the way for successful clinical translation. Our study supports the inverse association between dietary flavonoid intake and cancer risk. PMID:24820939

Pathak, Neelam; Khan, Saba; Bhargava, Arpit; Raghuram, Gorantla V; Jain, Deepika; Panwar, Hariom; Samarth, Ravindra M; Jain, Subodh K; Maudar, Kewal K; Mishra, Dinesh K; Mishra, Pradyumna K

2014-07-01

212

Effects of papaya seeds extract on the sperm characteristics of dogs.  

PubMed

The effect of chloroform extracts from seeds of the papaya plant (Carica papaya) on the spermatic characteristics of dogs was evaluated at doses of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg, Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Structural and ultrastructural changes in sperm cells and testicular parenchyma were also evaluated, and possible side effects were noted. Significant reductions in sperm concentration and motility were observed starting from Days 60 and 75, respectively, in all treated groups (P<0.05), but no azoospermia was noted. A mild osmotic diarrhea occurred in dogs from Group 3 (150 mg/kg), although blood variables were within the normal range of a clinically healthy dog. Arrested spermatogenesis was observed in the seminiferous tubules of all treated groups, and vacuolization and signs of Sertoli cell degeneration were detected in all treated groups, particularly in Group 3 (150 mg/kg). Selective damage to Sertoli cells induced by the extract occurred in all treated groups independently of the extract concentration. Alteration of the epididymal environment may reduce the motility of sperm cells, considering that their structure was normal. Sperm characteristics in treated animals were considered to be similar to those of sub-fertile dogs. However, these effects may be temporary, and dogs may recover normal sperm characteristics when the extract is withdrawn. PMID:22030338

Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Jimenez-Coello, Matilde; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia; Gutierrez-Blanco, Eduardo; Luna-Flores, Wendy S; Zavala-Sanchez, Miguel A; Gonzalez-Robles, Arturo; Perez-Gutierrez, Maria S

2011-11-01

213

Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Safety Evaluation of Papain (Carica papaya L.) Using In Vitro Assays  

PubMed Central

Papain, a phytotherapeutic agent, has been used in the treatment of eschars and as a debriding chemical agent to remove damaged or necrotic tissue of pressure ulcers and gangrene. Its benefits in these treatments are deemed effective, since more than 5000 patients, at the public university hospital at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, have undergone papain treatment and presented satisfactory results. Despite its extensive use, there is little information about toxic and mutagenic properties of papain. This work evaluated the toxic and mutagenic potential of papain and its potential antioxidant activity against induced-H2O2 oxidative stress in Escherichia coli strains. Cytotoxicity assay, Growth inhibition test, WP2-Mutoxitest and Plasmid-DNA treatment, and agarose gel electrophoresis were used to investigate if papain would present any toxic or mutagenic potential as well as if papain would display antioxidant properties. Papain exhibited negative results for all tests. This agent presented an activity protecting cells against H2O2-induced mutagenesis.

da Silva, Claudia R.; Oliveira, Marcia B. N.; Motta, Ellen S.; de Almeida, Gabriella S.; Varanda, Leandro L.; de Padula, Marcelo; Leitao, Alvaro C.; Caldeira-de-Araujo, Adriano

2010-01-01

214

Corynespora cassiicola leaf spot of pawpaw (Carica papaya L.) in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Leaf spot of pawpaw is hereby reported for the first time in Nigeria. The symptom is characterized by a papery center surrounded by a yellow halo. The causal organism is Corynespora cassiicola. Ripe fruits and abaxial surfaces of the leaves were significantly more susceptible to infection than unripe fruits and adaxial surfaces of leaves. Growth and sporulation of the fungus on several media was investigated. The organism grew faster on malt-extract agar (MEA) derived media and slowest on potato-dextrose agar (PDA) supplemented with thiamine. Sporulation was highest on Czapek-dox agar (CDA) plus biotin and lowest on PDA and PDA + thiamine. Reasons for increased susceptibility of ripe fruit are discussed. PMID:10560625

Oluma, H O; Amuta, E U

1999-01-01

215

Ambient temperature perception in papaya for papaya ringspot virus interaction.  

PubMed

Temperature dramatically affects the host-virus interaction. Outbreaks of viral diseases are frequently associated with the ambient temperature required for host development. Using papaya as a host and Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) as a pathogen, we studied the effect of temperature on the intensity of disease symptoms and virus accumulation. The phenotypic expression of symptoms and viral accumulation were found to be maximum at ambient temperature (26-31 degrees C) of papaya cultivation. However, there was a drastic difference, 10 degrees C above and below the ambient temperature. The underlying mechanism of these well-known observations are not yet understood completely; however, these observations might help find answers in RNA silencing mechanism of plants. Since viral-derived silencing suppressor proteins play a significant role in RNA silencing mechanism, here we show that PRSV-derived Helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) protein has an affinity for small RNAs in a temperature-dependent manner. This suggested the probable role of HC-Pro in the temperature-regulated host-virus relationship. PMID:19247826

Mangrauthia, Satendra K; Singh Shakya, Viplendra P; Jain, R K; Praveen, Shelly

2009-06-01

216

Potential threat of a new pathotype of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus infecting transgenic papaya resistant to Papaya ringspot virus.  

PubMed

A virus identified as a new pathotype of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV, P-TW-WF) was isolated from diseased papaya in an isolated test-field in central Taiwan, where transgenic papaya lines resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) were evaluated. The infected plants displayed severe mosaic, distortion and shoe-stringing on leaves; stunting in apex; and water-soaking on petioles and stems. This virus, which did not react in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the antiserum to the PRSV coat protein, infected only papaya, but not the other 18 plant species tested. Virions studied under electron microscope exhibited morphology and dimensions of potyvirus particles. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction conducted using potyvirus-specific primers generated a 1,927-nucleotide product corresponding to the 3' region of a potyvirus, showing high sequence identity to the CP gene and 3' noncoding region of PLDMV. Search for similar isolates with the antiserum against CP of P-TW-WF revealed scattered occurrence of PLDMV in Taiwan. Phylogenetic analysis of PLDMV isolates of Taiwan and Japan indicated that the Taiwan isolates belong to a separate genetic cluster. Since all the Taiwan isolates infected only papaya, unlike the cucurbit-infecting Japanese P type isolates, the Taiwan isolates are considered a new pathotype of PLDMV. Susceptibility of all our PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya lines to PLDMV indicates that the virus is an emerging threat for the application of PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in Taiwan and elsewhere. PMID:18943262

Bau, H-J; Kung, Y-J; Raja, J A J; Chan, S-J; Chen, K-C; Chen, Y-K; Wu, H-W; Yeh, S-D

2008-07-01

217

Applications and bioefficacy of the functional food supplement fermented papaya preparation.  

PubMed

Fermented papaya preparation (FPP) (a product of yeast fermentation of Carica papaya Linn) is a food supplement. Studies in chronic and degenerative disease conditions (such as thalassemia, cirrhosis, diabetes and aging) and performance sports show that FPP favorably modulates immunological, hematological, inflammatory, vascular and oxidative stress damage parameters. Neuroprotective potential evaluated in an Alzheimer's disease cell model showed that the toxicity of the ?-amyloid can be significantly modulated by FPP. Oxidative stress trigger apoptotic pathways such as the c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) are preferentially activated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress resulting in cell differentiation and apoptosis. FPP modulated the H?O?-induced ERK, Akt and p38 activation with the reduction of p38 phosphorylation induced by H?O?. FPP reduces the extent of the H?O?-induced DNA damage, an outcome corroborated by similar effects obtained in the benzo[a]pyrene treated cells. No genotoxic effect was observed in experiments with FPP exposed to HepG2 cells nor was FPP toxic to the PC12 cells. Oxidative stress-induced cell damage and inflammation are implicated in a variety of cancers, diabetes, arthritis, cardiovascular dysfunctions, neurodegenerative disorders (such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease), exercise physiology (including performance sports) and aging. These conditions could potentially benefit from functional nutraceutical/food supplements (as illustrated here with fermented papaya preparation) exhibiting anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunostimulatory (at the level of the mucus membrane) and induction of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:20870007

Aruoma, Okezie I; Hayashi, Yuki; Marotta, Francesco; Mantello, Pierre; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer; Montagnier, Luc

2010-11-28

218

Ancient and modern occurrences of common fig (Ficus carica L.) in the British isles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the reproductive biology of the common fig ( Ficus carica) is essential for the interpretation of present and past occurrences of pips from archaeological layers as well as for understanding the status of trees, cultivated or wild. Only parthenocarpic varieties ripen figs in Britain and these cannot produce fertile pips. Common figs growing wild in Britain all come from pips from imported figs, often figs that had been eaten and the pips evacuated. There are many discoveries of pips from Roman and later urban and military sites in Britain. These pips too were derived from imported figs and not from locally cultivated trees. There is no proof that the Romans grew common fig in Britain and the earliest documentary evidence of cultivation is as late as the 15th century A.D.

Dickson, James H.; Dickson, Camilla

219

Development of Mild Strains of Papaya Ringspot Virus-Papaya Strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt was made with BARI papaya-1 to develop the mild strains of Papaya ringspot virus- papaya strain (PRSV-P) to use in cross protection. Three mutagents (viz. nitrous acid, sodium azide and UV radiation) with different concentrations and exposure time were used in this experiment. Mutagenic treatments of extraction of PRSV-P infected sap with 0.075M nitrous acid, 2% sodium azide,

S. MOWLICK; A. M. AKANDA; A. H. M. A. RAHMAN

2007-01-01

220

Inhibition of the Host Proteasome Facilitates Papaya Ringspot Virus Accumulation and Proteosomal Catalytic Activity Is Modulated by Viral Factor HcPro  

PubMed Central

The ubiquitin/26S proteasome system plays an essential role not only in maintaining protein turnover, but also in regulating many other plant responses, including plant–pathogen interactions. Previous studies highlighted different roles of the 20S proteasome in plant defense during virus infection, either indirectly through viral suppressor-mediated degradation of Argonaute proteins, affecting the RNA interference pathway, or directly through modulation of the proteolytic and RNase activity of the 20S proteasome, a component of the 20S proteasome, by viral proteins, affecting the levels of viral proteins and RNAs. Here we show that MG132, a cell permeable proteasomal inhibitor, caused an increase in papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) accumulation in its natural host papaya (Carica papaya). We also show that the PRSV HcPro interacts with the papaya homologue of the Arabidopsis PAA (?1 subunit of the 20S proteasome), but not with the papaya homologue of Arabidopsis PAE (?5 subunit of the 20S proteasome), associated with the RNase activity, although the two 20S proteasome subunits interacted with each other. Mutated forms of PRSV HcPro showed that the conserved KITC54 motif in the N-terminal domain of HcPro was necessary for its binding to PAA. Co-agroinfiltration assays demonstrated that HcPro expression mimicked the action of MG132, and facilitated the accumulation of bothtotal ubiquitinated proteins and viral/non-viral exogenous RNA in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. These effects were not observed by using an HcPro mutant (KITS54), which impaired the HcPro – PAA interaction. Thus, the PRSV HcPro interacts with a proteasomal subunit, inhibiting the action of the 20S proteasome, suggesting that HcPro might be crucial for modulating its catalytic activities in support of virus accumulation.

Sahana, Nandita; Kaur, Harpreet; Basavaraj; Tena, Fatima; Jain, Rakesh Kumar; Palukaitis, Peter; Canto, Tomas; Praveen, Shelly

2012-01-01

221

Inhibition of the host proteasome facilitates papaya ringspot virus accumulation and proteosomal catalytic activity is modulated by viral factor HcPro.  

PubMed

The ubiquitin/26S proteasome system plays an essential role not only in maintaining protein turnover, but also in regulating many other plant responses, including plant-pathogen interactions. Previous studies highlighted different roles of the 20S proteasome in plant defense during virus infection, either indirectly through viral suppressor-mediated degradation of Argonaute proteins, affecting the RNA interference pathway, or directly through modulation of the proteolytic and RNase activity of the 20S proteasome, a component of the 20S proteasome, by viral proteins, affecting the levels of viral proteins and RNAs. Here we show that MG132, a cell permeable proteasomal inhibitor, caused an increase in papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) accumulation in its natural host papaya (Carica papaya). We also show that the PRSV HcPro interacts with the papaya homologue of the Arabidopsis PAA (?1 subunit of the 20S proteasome), but not with the papaya homologue of Arabidopsis PAE (?5 subunit of the 20S proteasome), associated with the RNase activity, although the two 20S proteasome subunits interacted with each other. Mutated forms of PRSV HcPro showed that the conserved KITC54 motif in the N-terminal domain of HcPro was necessary for its binding to PAA. Co-agroinfiltration assays demonstrated that HcPro expression mimicked the action of MG132, and facilitated the accumulation of bothtotal ubiquitinated proteins and viral/non-viral exogenous RNA in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. These effects were not observed by using an HcPro mutant (KITS54), which impaired the HcPro - PAA interaction. Thus, the PRSV HcPro interacts with a proteasomal subunit, inhibiting the action of the 20S proteasome, suggesting that HcPro might be crucial for modulating its catalytic activities in support of virus accumulation. PMID:23300704

Sahana, Nandita; Kaur, Harpreet; Basavaraj; Tena, Fatima; Jain, Rakesh Kumar; Palukaitis, Peter; Canto, Tomas; Praveen, Shelly

2012-01-01

222

Changes in cell wall composition associated to the softening of ripening papaya: evidence of extensive solubilization of large molecular mass galactouronides.  

PubMed

Papaya (Carica papaya) is a climacteric fruit that undergoes dramatic pulp softening. Fruits sampled at three different conditions (natural ripening or after exposition to ethylene or 1-methylcyclopropene) were used for the isolation of cell wall polymers to find changes in their degradation pattern. Polymers were separated according to their solubility in water, CDTA, and 4 M alkali, and their monosaccharide compositions were determined. Water-soluble polymers were further characterized, and their increased yields in control and ethylene-treated fruit, in contrast to those that were treated with 1-MCP, indicated a strong association between fruit softening and changes in the cell wall water-soluble polysaccharide fraction. The results indicate that the extensive softening in the pulp of ripening papayas is a consequence of solubilization of large molecular mass galacturonans from the pectin fraction of the cell wall. This process seems to be dependent on the levels of ethylene, and it is likely that the releasing of galacturonan chains results from an endo acting polygalacturonase. PMID:19588990

Shiga, Tânia Misuzu; Fabi, João Paulo; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira; Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira; Vriesmann, Lúcia Cristina; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

2009-08-12

223

Comparative resonance Raman spectroscopic and kinetic studies of acyl-enzymes involving papain, actinidin and papaya peptidase II.  

PubMed Central

Resonance Raman spectra are reported for a series of dithioacyl-enzymes involving actinidin (EC 3.4.22.14) and papaya peptidase II (the more basic monothiol cysteine proteinase of Carica papaya). The acyl groups are N-benzoylglycine and N-(beta-phenylpropionyl)glycine containing C = S or 13C = S at the ester function. Comparison of the data with those for the corresponding papain (EC 3.4.22.2) analogues [Storer, Lee & Carey (1983) Biochemistry 22, 4789-4796] allows us to define the conformation of the dithioacyl group in the catalytic site. In each case the dithioacyl group is bound in a single conformation known as conformer B, in which the glycinic nitrogen atom comes into close contact with the sulphur atom of the catalytic-site cysteine residue. For the N-(beta-phenylpropionyl)glycine dithioacyl-enzymes the torsional angles of the NH-CH2-C(= S) bonds assume values typical of an essentially relaxed non-strained state. However, for the N-benzoylglycine dithioacyl-enzymes there is evidence for a slightly perturbed conformer B, and the perturbation is most pronounced for N-benzoylglycine dithioacyl-actinidin. Values of k+2/Ks and k+3 for the reactions of papain, actinidin and papaya peptidase II with N-benzoylglycine and N-(beta-phenylpropionyl)glycine methyl thionoesters were obtained by a pre-steady-state kinetic study. Wide variation was found in k+2/Ks, but the values of k+3 are all similar. This general picture is supported by the results from a steady-state kinetic study of the reactions of the three enzymes with N-benzoyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide and with N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine p-nitrophenyl ester. The similarity of the values of k+3, together with the invariance of conformer B geometry at the P1 site, suggests that the chemistry of the deacylation process is highly conserved among these three cysteine proteinases.

Brocklehurst, K; Carey, P R; Lee, H H; Salih, E; Storer, A C

1984-01-01

224

Tocolytic and toxic activity of papaya seed extract on isolated rat uterus.  

PubMed

Carica papaya L. seeds extracted with 80% ethanol (EEPS) caused concentration-dependent tocolysis of uterine strips isolated from gravid and non-gravid rats. Prostaglandin F2alpha and oxytocin-induced contractions of the isolated rat uterus were also inhibited in a concentration-dependent fashion by EEPS. Recoveries of the uterine activity after EEPS-induced uterine quiescence were very weak. Higher concentration of EEPS caused prompt uterine quiescence, which was also significantly irreversible. Pre-incubation of the rat uterus in Ringer Locke solution containing 10 mg/ml of EEPS for 1 hour prior to suspension in tissue baths led to significant depression of the spontaneous and KCl (60 mM)-induced uterine contractions relative to the solvent control (P<0.05). Cross sections of EEPS-pretreated non-gravid rat uterus (stained with hematoxyline and eosin) examined under light microscope revealed degeneration of the endometrium and myometrium with obvious cytoplasmic vacuolation indicating that EEPS could have direct toxic effect on the uterine tissues. Previous workers have reported benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) as the main bioactive and anthelmintic compound in different extracts of papaya seeds. Using electron impact ionization methods, the presence of BITC in EEPS was also shown in this study. Mass spectra of both EEPS and standard BITC showed a base peak of benzyl/tropylium ion at m/z 91 (indicative of an aromatic compound) and the molecular ion peak of BITC (m/z 149). Our earlier studies have demonstrated BITC-induced functional and morphological derangement of isolated uterus. We thus conclude that at high concentration, EEPS is capable of causing irreversible uterine tocolysis probably due to the damaging effect of BITC (its chief phytochemical) on the myometrium. PMID:14623029

Adebiyi, Adebowale; Ganesan Adaikan, P; Prasad, R N V

2003-12-19

225

Structure-function relationships in the cysteine proteinases actinidin, papain and papaya proteinase omega. Three-dimensional structure of papaya proteinase omega deduced by knowledge-based modelling and active-centre characteristics determined by two-hydronic-state reactivity probe kinetics and kinetics of catalysis.  

PubMed Central

1. A model of the three-dimensional structure of papaya proteinase omega, the most basic cysteine proteinase component of the latex of papaya (Carica papaya), was built from its amino acid sequence and the two currently known high-resolution crystal structures of the homologous enzymes papain (EC 3.4.22.2) and actinidin (EC 3.4.22.14). The method used a knowledge-based approach incorporated in the COMPOSER suite of programs and refinement by using the interactive graphics program FRODO on an Evans and Sutherland PS 390 and by energy minimization using the GROMOS program library. 2. Functional similarities and differences between the three cysteine proteinases revealed by analysis of pH-dependent kinetics of the acylation process of the catalytic act and of the reactions of the enzyme catalytic sites with substrate-derived 2-pyridyl disulphides as two-hydronic-state reactivity probes are reported and discussed in terms of the knowledge-based model. 3. To facilitate analysis of complex pH-dependent kinetic data, a multitasking application program (SKETCHER) for parameter estimation by interactive manipulation of calculated curves and a simple method of writing down pH-dependent kinetic equations for reactions involving any number of reactive hydronic states by using information matrices were developed. 4. Papaya proteinase omega differs from the other two enzymes in the ionization characteristics of the common (Cys)-SH/(His)-Im+H catalytic-site system and of the other acid/base groups that modulate thiol reactivity towards substrate-derived inhibitors and the acylation process of the catalytic act. The most marked difference in the Cys/His system is that the pKa for the loss of the ion-pair state to form -S-/-Im is 8.1-8.3 for papaya proteinase omega, whereas it is 9.5 for both actinidin and papain. Papaya proteinase omega is similar to actinidin in that it lacks the second catalytically influential group with pKa approx. 4 present in papain and possesses a catalytically influential group with pKa 5.5-6.0. 5. Papaya proteinase omega occupies an intermediate position between actinidin and papain in the sensitivity with which hydrophobic interaction in the S2 subsite is transmitted to produce changes in transition-state geometry in the catalytic site, a fact that may be linked with differences in specificity in P2-S2 interaction exhibited by the three enzymes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Topham, C M; Salih, E; Frazao, C; Kowlessur, D; Overington, J P; Thomas, M; Brocklehurst, S M; Patel, M; Thomas, E W; Brocklehurst, K

1991-01-01

226

Carbon allocation to volatiles and other reproductive components in male Ficus carica (Moraceae).  

PubMed

Volatile compounds are often mediators of plant-pollinator interactions. Their emission is presumed to be costly, but this cost has seldom been quantified. Figs of Ficus carica (a dioecious species) release volatile compounds when receptive, thus attracting the agaonid wasp Blastophaga psenes. In dioecious fig species, wasps lay eggs inside male figs and pollinate female ones. For a male tree, we estimated carbon allocation to reproduction using the annual growth module (AGM) as the unit of measurement. Over the growing season, leaf and fig carbon exchange and construction costs were measured, as well as carbon investment in stamens, provisioning pollinators, and biosynthesis and release of volatile compounds. Representativity of the tree studied was evaluated by measuring some of these parameters on seven other male fig trees. The results show that 7.6-16.4% of the carbon assimilated by leaves and figs was invested in reproduction. Of the carbon invested in reproduction, pollinator attraction and feeding represented only 0.08-0.12% and 1.84-2.33%, respectively, while pollinator sheltering (fig construction and respiration) represented 97.6-98.0%. In this strict and coevolved plant-pollinator association, the main male reproductive investment was thus in the structures sheltering the associated pollinators. PMID:21669654

Grison-Pigé, L; Salager, J L; Hossaert-McKey, M; Roy, J

2001-12-01

227

Development of genetically engineered resistant papaya for papaya ringspot virus in a timely manner: a comprehensive and successful approach.  

PubMed

Papaya orchards throughout most of the world are severely damaged by the destructive disease caused by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). PRSV-resistant papaya expressing the coat protein gene (CP) of PRSV have been used in Hawaii to control PRSV since 1998. This chapter presents the experimental steps involved in the development of transgenic papaya, including transgene construction, transformation, and analysis for virus resistance of the transformed papaya. We also describe the important factors that enabled deregulation, commercialization, and adoption of transgenic papaya to occur in Hawaii in a timely manner. Transfer of this technology to other countries with the similar goal and the development of transgenic papaya in other regions of the world also are described. PMID:17172756

Tripathi, Savarni; Suzuki, Jon; Gonsalves, Dennis

2007-01-01

228

7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319...Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may be imported into the...

2010-01-01

229

7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319...Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may be imported into the...

2009-01-01

230

Caracterizacion, Manejo y Almacenamiento de Papaya (The Papaya: Characteristics, Handling, and Storage).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Papaya were studied during maturation at normal temperatures. The results obtained: the pepsins content increased, changes in protopectina and soluble peptina were less noticeable; acid content increased until a maximum and then decreased, the content of ...

M. C. de Arriola J. F. Menchu C. Rolz

1976-01-01

231

Effects of the Papaya meleira virus on papaya latex structure and composition.  

PubMed

Spontaneous latex exudation is the main symptom of papaya sticky (meleira) disease caused by the Papaya meleira virus (PMeV), a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus. This paper describes different effects of PMeV on papaya latex. Latex samples were subjected to different histochemical tests to evaluate their chemical composition. Additionally, the integrity of the latex particles was assessed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy analysis. Biochemical and micro- and macro-element measurements were performed. PMeV dsRNA extraction was performed to evaluate the interaction of the virus with the latex particles. Sticky diseased latex was positive for alkaloid biosynthesis and showed an accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals. PMeV also increased H(2)O(2) synthesis within sticky diseased laticifers. The protein, sugar and water levels were altered, probably due to chemical changes. The morphology of the latex particles was further altered; PMeV particles seemed to be bound to the latex particles. The alkaloid and H(2)O(2) biosynthesis in the papaya laticifers indicate a papaya defense response against PMeV. However, such efforts failed, as the virus affected the plant latex. The effects described here suggest some advantages of the infection process, including facilitating the movement of the virus within the papaya plant. PMID:19194708

Rodrigues, Silas P; Da Cunha, Maura; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

2009-05-01

232

Host susceptibility of the papaya mosaic virus in Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

75 plant species from 11 families were tested in Sri Lanka for their susceptibility to transferring the papaya mosaic virus. After inoculation with this virus, six species, Cucurbita pepo, Cucumis sativus, Nicotiana tabacum, Chenopodium amaranticolor, Gomphrena globosa and Lycopersicum esculentum, developed such symptoms, and after re-isolation from the host plant the virus again infected papaya plants. Thus these species are possible alternate hosts of papaya mosaic virus in Sri Lanka. PMID:7342959

Rajapakse, R H; Herath, H M

1981-01-01

233

First records of the papaya strain of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-P) in French Polynesia and the Cook Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The papaya strain ofPapaya ringspot virus (PRSV-P), the cause of papaya ringspot disease, was confirmed in French Polynesia and the Cook Islands by double antibody\\u000a sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). In French Polynesia, the virus has probably been on the islands of\\u000a Tahiti and Moorea for several years, but appears not to have spread to eight other islands. In

R. I. DavisA; L. Mu; N. Maireroa; W. J. Wigmore; M. Grison; M. F. Bateson; J. E. Thomas

2005-01-01

234

First records of the papaya strain of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-P) in French Polynesia and the Cook Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The papaya strain of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-P), the cause of papaya ringspot disease, was confirmed in French Polynesia and the Cook Islands by double antibody sandwich enzyme,linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). In French Polynesia, the virus has probably been on the islands of Tahiti and Moorea for several years, but appears not to have spread to eight other islands.

R. I. Davis; L. Mu; N. Maireroa; W. J. Wigmore; M. Grisoni; M. F. Bateson; J. E. Thomas

2005-01-01

235

Finding and Comparing Syntenic Regions among Arabidopsis and the Outgroups Papaya, Poplar, and Grape: CoGe with Rosids1[W  

PubMed Central

In addition to the genomes of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and poplar (Populus trichocarpa), two near-complete rosid genome sequences, grape (Vitis vinifera) and papaya (Carica papaya), have been recently released. The phylogenetic relationship among these four genomes and the placement of their three independent, fractionated tetraploidies sum to a powerful comparative genomic system. CoGe, a platform of multiple whole or near-complete genome sequences, provides an integrative Web-based system to find and align syntenic chromosomal regions and visualize the output in an intuitive and interactive manner. CoGe has been customized to specifically support comparisons among the rosids. Crucial facts and definitions are presented to clearly describe the sorts of biological questions that might be answered in part using CoGe, including patterns of DNA conservation, accuracy of annotation, transposability of individual genes, subfunctionalization and/or fractionation of syntenic gene sets, and conserved noncoding sequence content. This précis of an online tutorial, CoGe with Rosids (http://tinyurl.com/4a23pk), presents sample results graphically.

Lyons, Eric; Pedersen, Brent; Kane, Josh; Alam, Maqsudul; Ming, Ray; Tang, Haibao; Wang, Xiyin; Bowers, John; Paterson, Andrew; Lisch, Damon; Freeling, Michael

2008-01-01

236

Improved Function of Diabetic Wound-Site Macrophages and Accelerated Wound Closure in Response to Oral Supplementation of a Fermented Papaya Preparation  

PubMed Central

Abstract Carica papaya Linn is widely known as a medicinal fruit. We sought to study a standardized fermented papaya preparation (FPP) for its effects on wound healing in adult obese diabetic (db/db) mice. FPP blunted the gain in blood glucose and improved the lipid profile after 8 weeks of oral supplementation. However, FPP did not influence weight gain during the supplementation period. FPP (0.2?g/kg body weight) supplementation for 8 weeks before wounding was effective in correcting wound closure. Studies on viable macrophages isolated from the wound site demonstrated that FPP supplementation improved respiratory-burst function as well as inducible NO production. Reactive oxygen species support numerous aspects of wound healing; NO availability in diabetic wounds is known to be compromised. Diabetic mice supplemented with FPP showed a higher abundance of CD68 as well as CD31 at the wound site, suggesting effective recruitment of monocytes and an improved proangiogenic response. This work provides the first evidence that diabetic-wound outcomes may benefit from FPP supplementation by specifically influencing the response of wound-site macrophages and the subsequent angiogenic response. Given that FPP has a long track record of safe human consumption, testing of the beneficial effects of FPP on diabetic wound–related outcomes in a clinical setting is warranted. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 13, 599–606.

Collard, Eric

2010-01-01

237

Tissue differential expression of lycopene ?-cyclase gene in papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotene pigments in flowers and fruits are distinct features related to fitness advantages such as attracting insects for pollination and birds for seed dispersal. In papaya, the flesh color of the fruit is considered a quality trait that correlates with nutritional value and is linked to shelf-life of the fruit. To elucidate the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in papaya, we took

Rachel L Skelton; Qingyi Yu; Rajeswari Srinivasan; Richard Manshardt; Paul H Moore; Ray Ming

2006-01-01

238

Papaya Fruit Quality Management during the Postharvest Supply Chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papayas are popular in tropical and subtropical regions and are being exported in large volumes to Europe, the U.S. and Japan. The fruit has a sweet, exotic flavor and is rich in vitamins A, C, and antioxidants. However, due to its highly perishable nature it has not emerged as a major traded fruit. Papayas are highly susceptible to qualitative and

Dharini Sivakumar; Marisa M. Wall

2012-01-01

239

Novel System for Monitoring and Controlling the Papaya Fruit Fly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method and apparatus for monitoring and controlling the papaya fruit fly are described. The novel system is a combination of the male papaya fruit fly sex pheromone, 2-methyl-6-vinyl-pyrazine, and a fruit mimic. Chemical synthesis of the phenomena is de...

P. J. Landolt R. R. Heath H. R. Agee

1988-01-01

240

A single amino acid of niapro of papaya ringspot virus determines host specificity for infection of papaya.  

PubMed

Most strains of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) belong to type W, causing severe loss on cucurbits worldwide, or type P, devastating papaya in tropical areas. While the host range of PRSV W is limited to plants of the families Chenopodiaceae and Cucuribitaceae, PRSV P, in addition, infects plants of the family Caricaceae (papaya family). To investigate one or more viral genetic determinants for papaya infection, recombinant viruses were constructed between PRSV P-YK and PRSV W-CI. Host reactions to recombinant viruses indicated that the viral genomic region covering the C-terminal region (142 residues) of NIaVPg, full NIaPro, and N-terminal region (18 residues) of NIb, is critical for papaya infection. Sequence analysis of this region revealed residue variations at position 176 of NIaVPg and positions 27 and 205 of NIaPro between type P and W viruses. Host reactions to the constructed mutants indicated that the amino acid Lys27 of NIaPro determines the host-specificity of PRSV for papaya infection. Predicted three-dimensional structures of NIaPros of parental viruses suggested that Lys27 does not affect the protease activity of NIaPro. Recovery of the infected plants from certain papaya-infecting mutants implied involvement of other viral factors for enhancing virulence and adaptation of PRSV on papaya. PMID:18616401

Chen, Kuan-Chun; Chiang, Chu-Hui; Raja, Joseph A J; Liu, Fang-Lin; Tai, Chun-Hsi; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

2008-08-01

241

Purification and autolysis of the ficin isoforms from fig (Ficus carica cv. Sabz) latex  

PubMed Central

Ficin (EC 3.4.22.3), a cysteine endoproteolytic protease in fig trees’ latex, has multiple isoforms. Until now, no data on autolysis of individual ficins (ficin isoforms) are available. Following purification, ficins’ autolysis was determined by HPLC chromatogram changes and ultrafiltrations at different temperatures and storage times. These results showed that the number of HPLC peaks in latex proteins purification of Ficus carica cv. Sabz varied from previous fig varieties or cultivars. Proteolytic activity of ficins was inhibited by specific cysteine protease inhibitors, confirming the participation of the cysteine residue in the active site. The zeta potential of the first two eluted peaks (I and II) was negative, while that of other peaks were positive. All ficins were susceptible to autolysis when stored at high temperatures. In contrast, only the last two ficins (B, C) were prone to autolysis at cold temperature after long storage period. The rate of degradation of the ficins was significantly increased with the increased storage time. The ficin (A) related to peak (III) had the highest and the lowest surface hydrophobic patches and ratio of autolytic to proteolytic activity, respectively.

Zare, Hamid; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Salami, Maryam; Mirzaei, Morteza; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Sheibani, Nader

2013-01-01

242

77 FR 31294 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Papaya...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection; Importation of Papaya From Colombia and Ecuador AGENCY: Animal...importation of commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador into the continental...importation of commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador, contact...

2012-05-25

243

ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K). Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the ?-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

Kikuchi, Masahiro; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

2011-05-01

244

Complete genome sequence of an isolate of papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus from commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in China.  

PubMed

Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus is highly destructive to commercial papaya production. Here, the complete genome sequence was determined for an isolate of papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus, designated PLDMV-DF, infecting the commercialized papaya ringspot virus (PRSV)-resistant transgenic papaya from China. Excluding the 3'-poly (A) tail, the sequence shares high sequence identity to several PLDMV isolates from Taiwan and Japan and is phylogenetically most closely related to the isolate from Japan. Infection of PLDMV-DF in transgenic PRSV-resistant papaya may indicate emergence of this disease in genetically engineered plants. The reported sequence for this isolate may help generate bi-transgenic papaya resistant to PRSV and PLDMV. PMID:24294960

Tuo, D; Shen, W; Yan, P; Li, Ch; Gao, L; Li, X; Li, H; Zhou, P

2013-01-01

245

A marked gradation in active-centre properties in the cysteine proteinases revealed by neutral and anionic reactivity probes. Reactivity characteristics of the thiol groups of actinidin, ficin, papain and papaya peptidase A towards 4,4'-dipyridyl disulphide and 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoate) dianion.  

PubMed Central

1. The kinetics of the reactions of the catalytic-site thiol groups of actinidin (the cysteine proteinase from Actinidia chinensis), ficin (EC 3.4.22.3), papain (EC 3.4.22.2) and papaya peptidase A (the other monothiol cysteine proteinase component of Carica papaya) with 4,4'-dipyridyl disulphide (4-Py-S-S-4-Py) and with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoate) dianion (Nbs22-) were studied in the pH range approx. 6-10. These studies provided the pH-independent second-order rate constants (k) for the reactions of the two probe reagents with the catalytic-site thiolate anions each in the environment of a neutral histidine side chain where an active-centre carboxy group would be ionized. 2. The ratio R equal to kNbs22-/k4-Py-S-S-4-Py provides an index of the catalytic-site solvation properties of the four cysteine proteinases and varies markedly from one enzyme to another, being 0.80 for papaya peptidase A (0.86 for the model thiol, 2-mercaptoethanol), 29 for actinidin, 0.18 for ficin and 0.015 for papain. These differences appear to derive mainly from the response of the enzyme to the negative charge on Nbs22-. 3. Possible implications of these results for (a) mechanisms of cysteine proteinase catalysis and (b) the possibility of using series of functionally related enzymes in the study of mechanism are discussed.

Brocklehurst, K; Mushiri, S M; Patel, G; Willenbrock, F

1983-01-01

246

NIa-pro of Papaya ringspot virus interacts with papaya methionine sulfoxide reductase B1.  

PubMed

A chloroplast-localized papaya methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (PaMsrB1) interacting with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) NIa-Pro was identified using a Sos recruitment two-hybrid system (SRS). SRS analysis of several deletion mutants of PRSV NIa-Pro and PaMsrB1 demonstrated that the C-terminal (residues 133-239) fragment of PRSV NIa-Pro and residues 112-175 of PaMsrB1 were necessary for this interaction between PRSV NIa-Pro and PaMsrB1. MsrB1 can repair Met-oxidized proteins damaged by reactive oxygen species (ROS). We confirmed that PRSV infection leads to ROS accumulation and a slight upregulation of level PaMsrB1 mRNA in papaya. This interaction between PaMsrB1 with PRSV NIa-Pro may disturb the import of PaMsrB1 into the chloroplasts. These results suggest that this specific interaction could interfere with PaMsrB1 into the chloroplasts to scavenge ROS caused by PRSV infection. This may be a novel mechanism of PRSV towards the host defense. PMID:23040510

Gao, Le; Shen, Wentao; Yan, Pu; Tuo, Decai; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

2012-12-01

247

Transgene-specific and event-specific molecular markers for characterization of transgenic papaya lines resistant to Papaya ringspot virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercially valuable transgenic papaya lines carrying the coat protein (CP) gene of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and conferring virus resistance have been developed in Hawaii and Taiwan in the past decade. Prompt and sensitive\\u000a protocols for transgene-specific and event-specific detections are essential for traceability of these lines to fulfill regulatory\\u000a requirement in EU and some Asian countries. Here, based

Ming-Jen Fan; Shu Chen; Yi-Jung Kung; Ying-Huey Cheng; Huey-Jiunn Bau; Tien-Tsai Su; Shyi-Dong Yeh

2009-01-01

248

Field Released Transgenic Papaya Affects Microbial Communities and Enzyme Activities in Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil properties, microbial communities, and enzyme activities were studied in soil planted with transgenic or nontransgenic papaya under field conditions. The transgenic papaya contained a replicase (RP) mutant gene of the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), which conferred resistance to the virus, the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II) marker gene, which conferred Km resistance, and a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter

X. D. Wei; H. L. Zou; L. M. Chu; B. Liao; C. M. Ye; C. Y. Lan

2006-01-01

249

First report of anaphylactic reaction after fig (Ficus carica) ingestion.  

PubMed

We report an anaphylactic reaction which occurred very shortly after ingestion of a fresh fig. The IgE-dependent mechanism was demonstrated on the basis of positivity of the prick test performed with fresh fig (Ficus carica) extract. In addition, we were able to detect specific IgE to the same extract in the serum. The patient did not demonstrate sensitization to other common allergens involved in respiratory and food allergies. However, detection of specific IgE to F. benjamina indicated a sensitization to weeping fig. The CAP F. benjamina was partially inhibited by preincubation of the serum with fig extract, suggesting that these two species of Ficus share some common allergens. In this context, the assumption can be made that weeping fig was responsible for the initial sensitization in this patient. PMID:7573846

Dechamp, C; Bessot, J C; Pauli, G; Deviller, P

1995-06-01

250

Crystal structure of papaya glutaminyl cyclase, an archetype for plant and bacterial glutaminyl cyclases.  

PubMed

Glutaminyl cyclases (QCs) (EC 2.3.2.5) catalyze the intramolecular cyclization of protein N-terminal glutamine residues into pyroglutamic acid with the concomitant liberation of ammonia. QCs may be classified in two groups containing, respectively, the mammalian enzymes, and the enzymes from plants, bacteria, and parasites. The crystal structure of the QC from the latex of Carica papaya (PQC) has been determined at 1.7A resolution. The structure was solved by the single wavelength anomalous diffraction technique using sulfur and zinc as anomalous scatterers. The enzyme folds into a five-bladed beta-propeller, with two additional alpha-helices and one beta hairpin. The propeller closure is achieved via an original molecular velcro, which links the last two blades into a large eight stranded beta-sheet. The zinc ion present in the PQC is bound via an octahedral coordination into an elongated cavity located along the pseudo 5-fold axis of the beta-propeller fold. This zinc ion presumably plays a structural role and may contribute to the exceptional stability of PQC, along with an extended hydrophobic packing, the absence of long loops, the three-joint molecular velcro and the overall folding itself. Multiple sequence alignments combined with structural analyses have allowed us to tentatively locate the active site, which is filled in the crystal structure either by a Tris molecule or an acetate ion. These analyses are further supported by the experimental evidence that Tris is a competitive inhibitor of PQC. The active site is located at the C-terminal entrance of the PQC central tunnel. W83, W110, W169, Q24, E69, N155, K225, F22 and F67 are highly conserved residues in the C-terminal entrance, and their putative role in catalysis is discussed. The PQC structure is representative of the plants, bacterial and parasite enzymes and contrasts with that of mammalian enzymes, that may possibly share a conserved scaffold of the bacterial aminopeptidase. PMID:16438985

Wintjens, René; Belrhali, Hassan; Clantin, Bernard; Azarkan, Mohamed; Bompard, Coralie; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle; Looze, Yvan; Villeret, Vincent

2006-03-24

251

Odour-active compounds in papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol.  

PubMed

Application of solid-phase microextraction and simultaneous distillation-extraction combined with GC-FID, GC-MS, aroma extract dilution analysis, and odour activity value were used to analyse volatile compounds from papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol and to estimate the most odour-active compounds. The analyses led to the identification of 137 compounds; 118 of them were positively identified. Twenty-five odorants were considered as odour-active compounds and contribute to the typical papaya aroma, from which ethyl butanoate, benzyl isothiocyanate, 1-hexen-3-one, (E)-?-ionone, and methyl benzoate were the most odour-active compounds. PMID:24176322

Pino, Jorge A

2014-03-01

252

A new highly effective anticysticercosis vaccine expressed in transgenic papaya.  

PubMed

The use of transgenic plants as new antigen-delivery systems for subunit vaccines has been increasingly explored. We herein report progress toward a papaya-based vaccine against cysticercosis. Synthetic peptides (KETc1, KETc12, KETc7) were successfully expressed in 19 different transgenic papaya clones and found to be immunogenic. Complete protection against cysticercosis was induced with the soluble extract of the clones that expressed the higher levels of transcripts in up to 90% of the immunized mice. This study represents a key step towards the development of a more effective, sustainable and affordable oral subunit vaccine against human and pig cysticercosis. PMID:17399859

Hernández, Marisela; Cabrera-Ponce, José Luis; Fragoso, Gladis; López-Casillas, Fernando; Guevara-García, Arturo; Rosas, Gabriela; León-Ramírez, Claudia; Juárez, Patricia; Sánchez-García, Guadalupe; Cervantes, Jaquelynne; Acero, Gonzalo; Toledo, Andrea; Cruz, Carmen; Bojalil, Rafael; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Sciutto, Edda

2007-05-22

253

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Ficus carica Linn. leaves.  

PubMed

Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) is commonly known as edible fig. The leaves, roots, fruits and latex of the plant are medicinally used in different diseases. The leaves are claimed to be effective in various inflammatory conditions like painful or swollen piles, insect sting and bites. However, there has been no report on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Our study validated the traditional claim with pharmacological data. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the drug could be due to the presence of steroids and flavanoids, respectively, which are reported to be present in the drug. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug could be due to its free radical scavenging activity. Further work is also required to isolate and characterise the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:21644169

Ali, B; Mujeeb, M; Aeri, V; Mir, S R; Faiyazuddin, M; Shakeel, F

2012-01-01

254

Ficus carica; isolation and quantification of the photoactive components.  

PubMed

The presence and levels of furocoumarins in several parts of Ficus carica including the milky sap, were investigated. The results show that psoralen and bergapten are the only significant photoactive compounds, and are present in appreciable quantities in the leaf and shoot sap but are not detected in the fruit or its sap. These compounds are more concentrated in the leaf sap compared to the shoot sap. The psoralen levels are several times higher than those of bergapten. Lower concentrations of both compounds are present in autumn compared to spring and summer. These findings suggest that the reaction is induced primarily by psoralen. The response can follow contact with the leaf and shoot sap but not with the fruit sap, and is expected to occur more frequently from exposure to the leaf sap. The higher content of both photoactive compounds in spring and summer is partly responsible for the increased incidence of fig dermatitis during these seasons. Ingestion of the fruit does not cause photosensitization and the absence of photoactive furocoumarins in the fruit and its sap remains unexplained. PMID:6744838

Zaynoun, S T; Aftimos, B G; Abi Ali, L; Tenekjian, K K; Khalidi, U; Kurban, A K

1984-07-01

255

75 FR 22207 - Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...include requirements for field sanitation, hot water treatment, and fruit fly trapping...fruit fly trapping, field sanitation, and hot water treatment be employed to remove pests...require the treatment of papayas with a hot water dip. The dip requires that...

2010-04-28

256

Analysis on virus resistance and fruit quality for T4 generation of transgenic papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular biological characterization, fruit characters, and nutrients were analyzed for T4 generation of transgenic papaya.\\u000a All transgenic papaya plants with the mutated replicase (RP) gene from papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) showed high resistance\\u000a or immunity against PRSV in the field. The RP transgene can be steadily inherited to, and expressed at RNA level, the progenies.\\u000a The growth characteristics of transgenic

Xiangdong Wei; Congyu Lan; Zhijing Lu; Changming Ye

2007-01-01

257

Central nervous system activity of an aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica L. in mice  

PubMed Central

Background: Ficus carica Linn. is reported to possess variety of activities, but its potential in CNS disorders is still to be explored. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the CNS depressant activity of aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica Linn on different models in mice. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of the plant Ficus carica L. were extracted with aqueous acetone and the solvent was removed by rotary vacuum evaporator under reduced pressure. A crude extract was given orally and its effects were tested on ketamine-induced sleeping time, muscle-coordination, anxiety (elevated-plus maze and Staircase test), convulsions [maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures], and nociception. In addition, we determined the levels of neurotransmitters, norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Results: Results from the experimental models tested showed: (1) a delay on onset and prolongation of sleep of ketamine-induced sleeping time; (2) significant muscle relaxant activity; (3) a significant attenuation in the anxiety-response (4) a delay in the onset of seizures and reduction in duration of seizures and mortality induced by MES and PTZ; (5) a reduction in the licking time in nociception test and (6) increased levels of NE and 5-HT. Conclusion: This suggests that Ficus carica L. exerts its CNS depressive effect by modulating the neurotransmitters NE and 5-HT in the brain.

Bhanushali, Mittal M.; Makhija, Dinesh T.; Joshi, Yadunath M.

2014-01-01

258

Volatile profiling of Ficus carica varieties by HS-SPME and GC–IT-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aroma is one of the essential parameters for the evaluation of fruit quality, with volatile components being determinant for this characteristic. During this work, the volatile profile of fresh fruits (pulp and peel) and leaves of Portuguese Ficus carica L. white (“Pingo de Mel” and “Branca Tradicional”) and dark (“Borrasota Tradicional”, “Verbera Preta” and “Preta Tradicional”) varieties were characterised by

Andreia P. Oliveira; Luís R. Silva; Paula Guedes de Pinho; Angel Gil-Izquierdo; Patrícia Valentão; Branca M. Silva; José A. Pereira; Paula B. Andrade

2010-01-01

259

Efficient transformation and regeneration of fig (Ficus carica L.) via somatic embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Fig is one of the most important fruit trees in Egypt. It used to constitute the major source of income for the inhabitants of the western north coast of Egypt. Since 1993 fig cultivations were threatened by a number of factors including virus, insect and mite infections. An efficient system for regeneration and transformation of the common fig Ficus carica L. cultivar Sultani (fresh consumption) was required to conserve fig cultivation in the area. The effect of different combinations of BA and NAA/2,4-D and kinetin on callus formation from leaf segments were studied. Results showed that the best medium for callus formation was MS supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D and 0.2 mg/l kinetin. The best plantlet differentiation was obtained at concentrations of 30 mg/l 2iP and 7 mg/l TDZ with 0.25 mg/l NAA (with a regeneration efficiency of 83 and 79%, respectively). On the other hand, the obtained callus failed to induce organogenesis on media containing a combination of BA and kinetin. The highest shoot formation percentage (89%) was obtained when using 2 mg/l TDZ and 4 mg/l 2iP. The highest percentage of shoots forming roots (95%) was obtained when using MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l IBA. Explants were transformed using Agrobacterium and microprojectile bombardment using the plasmid pISV2678 which harbors the gus-intron and bar genes. Results showed that the highest transformation efficiency using the Agrobacterium (17.5%) was obtained when explants were co-cultivated with the bacteria for 30 min. The highest transformation efficiency recorded using the microprojectile bombardment (12%) was obtained with 2.0 ?g DNA per shot at 1,100 psi and a distance of 6 cm repeated twice. The transgenic nature of regenerated plants was confirmed by PCR analysis, histochemical GUS assay and leaf painting assay. PMID:21912211

Soliman, Hemaid Ibrahim; Gabr, Mahdia; Abdallah, Naglaa A

2010-01-01

260

Transgene-specific and event-specific molecular markers for characterization of transgenic papaya lines resistant to Papaya ringspot virus.  

PubMed

The commercially valuable transgenic papaya lines carrying the coat protein (CP) gene of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and conferring virus resistance have been developed in Hawaii and Taiwan in the past decade. Prompt and sensitive protocols for transgene-specific and event-specific detections are essential for traceability of these lines to fulfill regulatory requirement in EU and some Asian countries. Here, based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approaches, we demonstrated different detection protocols for characterization of PRSV CP-transgenic papaya lines. Transgene-specific products were amplified using different specific primer pairs targeting the sequences of the promoter, the terminator, the selection marker, and the transgene, and the region across the promoter and transgene. Moreover, after cloning and sequencing the DNA fragments amplified by adaptor ligation-PCR, the junctions between plant genomic DNA and the T-DNA insert were elucidated. The event-specific method targeting the flanking sequences and the transgene was developed for identification of a specific transgenic line. The PCR patterns using primers designed from the left or the right flanking DNA sequence of the transgene insert in three selected transgenic papaya lines were specific and reproducible. Our results also verified that PRSV CP transgene is integrated into transgenic papaya genome in different loci. The copy number of inserted T-DNA was further confirmed by real-time PCR. The event-specific molecular markers developed in this investigation are crucial for regulatory requirement in some countries and intellectual protection. Also, these markers are helpful for prompt screening of a homozygote-transgenic progeny in the breeding program. PMID:19526355

Fan, Ming-Jen; Chen, Shu; Kung, Yi-Jung; Cheng, Ying-Huey; Bau, Huey-Jiunn; Su, Tien-Tsai; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

2009-12-01

261

Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Papaya ringspot virus.  

PubMed

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), which causes disease symptoms similar to PRSV, threaten commercial production of both non-transgenic-papaya and PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in China. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay to detect PLDMV was developed previously. In this study, the development of another RT-LAMP assay to distinguish among transgenic, PRSV-infected and PLDMV-infected papaya by detection of PRSV is reported. A set of four RT-LAMP primers was designed based on the highly conserved region of the P3 gene of PRSV. The RT-LAMP method was specific and sensitive in detecting PRSV, with a detection limit of 1.15×10(-6)?g of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR. Field application of the RT-LAMP assay demonstrated that samples positive for PRSV were detected only in non-transgenic papaya, whereas samples positive for PLDMV were detected only in commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya. This suggests that PRSV remains the major limiting factor for non-transgenic-papaya production, and the emergence of PLDMV threatens the commercial transgenic cultivar in China. However, this study, combined with the earlier development of an RT-LAMP assay for PLDMV, will provide a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective diagnostic power to distinguish virus infections in papaya. PMID:24769198

Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Yang, Yong; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

2014-08-01

262

40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement...tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the...

2009-07-01

263

40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement...tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the...

2010-07-01

264

40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the requirement of...

2013-07-01

265

Increasing the shelf- life of papaya through vacuum packing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study was to increase the shelf life of fruits through vacuum packing. Papaya fruits were pretreated\\u000a with waxing, oil application, purafil packets, tissue paper wrapping given along with control and were packed in 150 gauge\\u000a thickness polyethylene film bags under vacuum and another set of these samples under without vacuum. The fruits were then\\u000a stored

Geetha Padmanaban; Kanchana Singaravelu; Susheela Thirumaran Annavi

266

Fruit-specific expression of papaya subtilase gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subtilisin-like serine proteases (EC 3.4.21) consist of a widespread family of enzymes that is involved in various processes including in plants. The full-length cDNA (CpSUB1) and the corresponding genomic DNA for papaya subtilase have been obtained using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACEs) and PCR primer walking techniques, respectively. The cDNA clone contains an open reading frame of 2316bp encoding

Roohaida Othman; Azimi Nuraziyan

2010-01-01

267

Influence of ethylene on carotenoid biosynthesis during papaya postharvesting ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carotenoid composition was evaluated during ripening of papaya cv. ‘Golden’ under untreated (control) conditions and treated with ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). At the end of the experiments, the total carotenoid content in the control group (2194.4?g\\/100g) was twice as high as that found in ethylene (1018.1?g\\/100g) and 1-MCP (654.5?g\\/100g) gas-treated samples. Separation of 21 carotenoids by HPLC connected to

Gisela P. M. Barreto; João P. Fabi; Veridiana V. De Rosso; Beatriz R. Cordenunsi; Franco M. Lajolo; João R. O. do Nascimento; Adriana Z. Mercadante

2011-01-01

268

Genome-Wide Comparative Analyses of Microsatellites in Papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), are highly polymorphic and universally distributed in eukaryotes. SSRs\\u000a have been used extensively as sequence tagged markers in genetic studies. Recently, the functional and evolutionary importance\\u000a of SSRs has received considerable attention. Here we report the mining and characterization of the SSRs in papaya genome.\\u000a We analyzed SSRs from 277.4 Mb of whole genome shotgun

Jianping Wang; Cuixia Chen; Jong-Kuk Na; Qingyi Yu; Shaobin Hou; Robert E. Paull; Paul H. Moore; Maqsudul Alam; Ray Ming

2008-01-01

269

Removal of Methyl Orange From Aqueous Solution Using Activated Papaya Leaf  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation describes the potential of acid activated papaya leaf for the adsorption of methyl orange (MO) dye from aqueous solution. The FT-IR analysis indicated the presence of a wide variety of functional groups on the surface of the activated papaya leaf. Scanning electron microscopy and Electron dispersion X-ray techniques indicated the morphological behavior of adsorption onto the adsorbent,

M. Ahmaruzzaman

2012-01-01

270

Treatment with 1-MCP and the role of ethylene in aroma development of mountain papaya fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain or highland papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens) is a climacteric fruit which develops a strong and characteristic aroma during ripening. The dynamics of aroma volatile production during ripening of whole papaya fruit were analysed by headspace-SPME. The main compounds produced by the fruit were esters (aliphatic and branched) and alcohols: the most abundant esters were ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, methyl butanoate

Cristian Balbontín; Carlos Gaete-Eastman; Mireya Vergara; Raúl Herrera; María Alejandra Moya-León

2007-01-01

271

Detection of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus by reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.  

PubMed

Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) can infect transgenic papaya resistant to a related pathogen, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), posing a substantial threat to papaya production in China. Current detection methods, however, are unable to be used for rapid detection in the field. Here, a reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of PLDMV, using a set of four RT-LAMP primers designed based on the conserved sequence of PLDMV CP. The RT-LAMP method detected specifically PLDMV and was highly sensitive, with a detection limit of 1.32×10(-6) ?g of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR, while also requiring significantly less time and equipment. The effectiveness of RT-LAMP and one-step RT-PCR in detecting the virus were compared using 90 field samples of non-transgenic papaya and 90 field samples of commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya from Hainan Island. None of the non-transgenic papaya tested positive for PLDMV using either method. In contrast, 19 of the commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya samples tested positive by RT-LAMP assay, and 6 of those tested negative by RT-PCR. Therefore, the PLDMV-specific RT-LAMP is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective tool in the field diagnosis and control of PLDMV. PMID:24100065

Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

2014-01-01

272

CURRENT STATUS OF TRANSGENIC APPROACH FOR THE CONTROL OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of papaya has been limited in many areas of the world due to the disease caused by the Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). The coat protein (CP) gene-mediated transgenic resistance has become the most effective method to prevent crops from this virus infection. In the late 1980s, the group of Gonsalves at Cornell University and Hawaii started a research project

Shyi-Dong Yeh

273

Biological and molecular characterisation of Coimbatore isolate of Papaya ringspot virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed investigation was carried out on the Coimbatore isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) with regard to its transmission, host range and physical properties. Molecular diagnostic tools were also used to detect the virus. Symptoms of papaya ringspot disease included mottling, chlorophyll lobing, filiformity and oily streaks on stem which appeared within 18–22 days of mechanical inoculation. The dilution

S. Dhanam; K. Saveetha; A. Sankaralingam; R. Kannan; R. P. Pant

2011-01-01

274

Tree Squirrels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter tree squirrels are divided into three groups: large tree squirrels, pine squirrels, and flying squirrels. Large tree squirrels include fox (Sciurus niger), eastern gray (Sciurus carolinensis), western gray (Sciurus griseus), and tassel-eared (Sciurus aberti) squirrels. Fox squirrels (Fig. 1) measure 18 to 27 inches (46 to 69 cm) from nose to tip of tail. They weigh about

Jeffrey J. Jackson

1994-01-01

275

Fruit-specific expression of papaya subtilase gene.  

PubMed

Subtilisin-like serine proteases (EC 3.4.21) consist of a widespread family of enzymes that is involved in various processes including in plants. The full-length cDNA (CpSUB1) and the corresponding genomic DNA for papaya subtilase have been obtained using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACEs) and PCR primer walking techniques, respectively. The cDNA clone contains an open reading frame of 2316bp encoding 772 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 82.6kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.97. The CpSUB1 gene is composed of nine exons and eight introns. The amino acid sequence encoded by CpSUB1 shared high identity (>60%) with the amino acid sequence of other plant subtilisin-like proteases. Sequence analysis of CpSUB1 revealed the presence of a possible signal peptide (25 amino acid residues) and an NH(2)-terminal prosequence (88 amino acid residues). In addition, papaya subtilase possesses the characteristic subtilisin catalytic triad amino acids namely Asp, His and Ser, together with the substrate-binding site, Asn. DNA hybridization analysis showed that subtilase gene exists as a single copy in the papaya genome. RNA hybridization analyses showed that expression of the subtilase transcripts was only detected in mesocarp but not in non-fruit tissues. Gene expression in fruit tissues reached the highest level during the ripening stage at which the fruits undergo dramatic softening process. Subsequently, pro-subtilase ( approximately 80kDa) was expressed as recombinant pro-enzyme ( approximately 97kDa), which was used to generate antiserum against papaya subtilase, anti-sub. Protein gel blot analysis using anti-sub towards total protein extracted from all ripening stages revealed that a protein with a molecular mass of approximately 70kDa reacted with the antiserum. Hence both RNA hybridization and protein gel blot analyses confirmed the presence of subtilase during papaya fruit ripening, pointing to its possible involvement in this important process. PMID:19729222

Othman, Roohaida; Nuraziyan, Azimi

2010-01-15

276

Comparative reactions of recombinant papaya ringspot viruses with chimeric coat protein (CP) genes and wild-type viruses on CP-transgenic papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic papaya cultivars SunUp and Rainbow express the coat protein (CP) gene of the mild mutant of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) HA. Both cultivars are resistant to PRSV HA and other Hawaii isolates through homology-dependent resistance via post-transcriptional gene silencing. However, Rainbow, which is hemizygous for the CP gene, is susceptible to PRSV isolates from outside Hawaii, while the CP-homozygous

Chu-Hui Chiang; Ju-Jung Wang; Fuh-Jyh Jan; Shyi-Dong Yeh; Dennis Gonsalves

2001-01-01

277

Phospholipid Profile of the Stomach and Duodenum of Normal Rabbits Fed with Supplements of Unripe Pawpaw (Carica papaya) and Unripe Plantain (Musa sapientum) Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the effect of unripe pawpaw and\\/or unripe plantain extracts on the phospholipid profile of the stomach and duodenum of normal rabbits. Supplementation of chow with unripe pawpaw or plantain extract significantly reduced (p< 0.05) the weight gained by rabbits compared with the control. The total phospholipids content in the stomach and duodenum were significantly increased (p< 0.05)

G. E. Eriyamremu; S. O. Asagba; V. E. Osagie; S. I. Ojeaburu; O. Lolodi

2007-01-01

278

Phospholipid Profile of the Stomach and Duodenum of Normal Rabbits Fed with Supplements of Unripe Pawpaw (Carica papaya) and Unripe Plantain (Musa sapientum) Extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reports the effect of unripe pawpaw and/or unripe plantain extracts on the phospholipid profile of the stomach and duodenum of normal rabbits. Supplementation of chow with unripe pawpaw or plantain extract significantly reduced (p< 0.05) the weight gained by rabbits compared with the control. The total phospholipids content in the stomach and duodenum were significantly increased (p< 0.05) in the test groups compared to the control. In the stomach and duodenum, phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and sphingomyelin (SGM) were significantly increased (p< 0.05) in the test groups compared to the control. Pawpaw occasioned a decrease in the PE/PC ratio in both tissues as against an increase observed in the SGM/PC ratio. The results presented suggests that unripe pawpaw meal and unripe plantain extract alter the phospholipid profile of the stomach and duodenum in ways which may affect membrane fluidity of these tissues and would have profound effect on the gastro-duodenal mucosa and thus have implication(s) for gastric and duodenal ulcers in rabbits.

Eriyamremu, G. E.; Asagba, S. O.; Osagie, V. E.; Ojeaburu, S. I.; Lolodi, O.

279

Activation and inactivation of human factor X by proteases derived from Ficus carica.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of proteases derived from Ficus carica (common fig) on human blood coagulation. The milky sap (latex) of several Ficus (F.) species contain ficin, which is a mixture of proteases. Ficin derived from Ficus carica shortened the activated partial thromboplastin time and the prothrombin time of normal plasmas and plasmas deficient in coagulation factors, except plasma deficient in factor X (FX) and generated activated FX (FXa) in defibrinated plasma. Chromatographic separation of ficin from Ficus carica yielded six proteolytic fractions with a different specificity towards FX. We isolated two factor X activators with molecular masses of 23.2 and 23.5 kDa, and studied their action on purified human FX. Factor X was converted to activated FXbeta by consecutive proteolytic cleavage in the heavy chain between Leu178 and Asp179, Arg187 and Gly188, and Arg194and Ile195 (FX numbering system) with concomitant release of a carboxy-terminal peptide. The cleavage pattern of FXa degradation products in the light chain was influenced by Ca2+ and Mn2+. These data suggest the haemostatic potency of Ficus proteases is based on activation of human coagulation factor X. PMID:12472586

Richter, Günter; Schwarz, Hans Peter; Dorner, Friedrich; Turecek, Peter L

2002-12-01

280

Hepatoprotective Effect of Ficus carica Leaf Extract on Mice Intoxicated with Carbon Tetrachloride  

PubMed Central

Protective action of Ficus carica leaf ethanolic extract (obtained by maceration) was evaluated in an animal model of hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Male albino mice were divided into six groups. group I was normal control group; group II received olive oil (CCl4 solvent), groups III-VI received CCl4. After inducing hepatic damage, group III served as control for CCl4; and groups IV- VI received different doses of Ficus carica ethanol extract (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) prior to intoxication with CCl4. Liver marker enzymes were assayed in serum. Sections of livers were observed under microscope for the histopathological changes. Levels of marker enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were increased significantly in CCl4 treated mice (group III). In groups IV, V and VI, pre-treated with the plant extract and intoxicated with CCl4, decreased activities of these two enzymes were observed. Also, pre-treatment with the extract in these groups resulted in less pronounced destruction of the liver architecture with no fibrosis and moderate inflammation was observed compared with group III. The present observations suggested that the treatment with Ficus carica leaf extract in dose of 200 mg/kg enhanced protection against CCl4 induced hepatic damage.

Aghel, Nasrin; Kalantari, Heibatollah; Rezazadeh, Shohreh

2011-01-01

281

Genetic variation of papaya ringspot virus in Venezuela.  

PubMed

The genetic variation of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) in Venezuela was estimated by single strand conformation and nucleotide sequence analyses of two genomic regions of twenty-six isolates. These analyses showed that mutation, virus movement, selection, mixed infections and recombination contributed to shape the genetic variation observed. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Venezuelan isolates were within a clade composed of isolates from the Americas and Australia. The genetic diversity of these isolates was sufficiently large that it must be taken into account when designing control strategies such as transgenic resistance and cross-protection. PMID:18030545

Fernández-Rodríguez, T; Rubio, L; Carballo, O; Marys, E

2008-01-01

282

The ability of Papaya ringspot virus strains overcoming the transgenic resistance of papaya conferred by the coat protein gene is not correlated with higher degrees of sequence divergence from the transgene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coat protein (CP) gene mediated transgenic resistance is found to be the best approach for protecting papaya plants against the destructive disease caused by Papaya ringspot viruses(PRSV). In order to study the variability of PRSV and the potential threat to the CP-transgenic resistance, five virus isolates were collected from transgenic plants of papaya line 16-0-1, which carry the CP

Savarni Tripathi; Huey-jiunn Bau; Li-fang Chen; Shyi-dong Yeh

2004-01-01

283

Increasing the shelf- life of papaya through vacuum packing.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to increase the shelf life of fruits through vacuum packing. Papaya fruits were pretreated with waxing, oil application, purafil packets, tissue paper wrapping given along with control and were packed in 150 gauge thickness polyethylene film bags under vacuum and another set of these samples under without vacuum. The fruits were then stored at room and refrigerated temperature and analyzed for chemical changes. Results showed that the shelf life of the fruits increased under vacuum packing with room and refrigeration temperatures for one and four weeks respectively. The fruits packed without any pretreatment in 150 gauge polyethylene bags maintained the quality with minimum changes followed by waxing, purafil and oil application. During storage moisture, acidity, Vitamin C and total sugar decreased whereas reducing sugar and total soluble solids (TSS) increased during storage. The sensory qualities declined with the period of storage and temperature differences. The study concluded that vacuum packaging and refrigeration conditions increased the shelf life of the papaya fruits. PMID:24426064

Padmanaban, Geetha; Singaravelu, Kanchana; Annavi, Susheela Thirumaran

2014-01-01

284

Industrial Hygiene Report, Walk-Through Survey, Papaya Packing/Shipping Facilities, Hilo, Hawaii, July 1983,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Worker exposure to ethylene-dibromide (EDB) was investigated at three papaya packing and shipping facilities (SIC-0723) in Hilo, Hawaii. Breathing zone samples were collected in the three facilities over a three day period. Blind spikes were submitted as ...

D. Clapp

1983-01-01

285

A novel papaya ACC oxidase gene ( CP-ACO2) associated with late stage fruit ripening and leaf senescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase cDNA clone (CP-ACO2, 1485 bp) was isolated from papaya for the first time. The deduced amino acid sequence shares 77% identity with the previously reported papaya CP-ACO1. Genomic Southern analysis with gene specific probes showed that CP-ACO2 is single copy in papaya genome. It was also identified to be ethylene and wounding inducible, an observation

Yu-Ting Chen; Yi-Ru Lee; Chih-Yuan Yang; Yuh-Tai Wang; Shang-Fa Yang; Jei-Fu Shaw

2003-01-01

286

Characterization of Insertion Sites in Rainbow Papaya, the First Commercialized Transgenic Fruit Crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inserts and insert sites in transgenic, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV)-resistant commercial papaya Rainbow and SunUp, were characterized\\u000a as part of a petition to Japan to allow import of fresh fruit of these cultivars from the U.S. and to provide data for a larger\\u000a study aimed at understanding the global impact of DNA transformation on whole genome structure. The number and

Jon Y. Suzuki; Savarni Tripathi; Gustavo A. Fermín; Fuh-Jyh Jan; Shaobin Hou; Jimmy H. Saw; Christine M. Ackerman; Qingyi Yu; Michael C. Schatz; Karen Y. Pitz; Marcela Yépes; Maureen M. M. Fitch; Richard M. Manshardt; Jerry L. Slightom; Stephen A. Ferreira; Steven L. Salzberg; Maqsudul Alam; Ray Ming; Paul H. Moore; Dennis Gonsalves

2008-01-01

287

Effects of chitosan coating on mass transfer during osmotic dehydration of papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of chitosan coatings in the osmotic dehydration of scalded cut papaya var. Red Maradol in two ripening stages (green and ripped). Papaya cubic cuts (1cm3) were divided into three groups depending on the treatments: without chitosan coatings; with chitosan coatings at 1% (w\\/v) in lactic acid 1% (v\\/v) and Tween

M. García; R. Díaz; Y. Martínez; A. Casariego

2010-01-01

288

Ethylene action blockade and cold storage affect ripening of ‘Golden’ papaya fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effects of ethylene action blockade and cold storage on the ripening of ‘Golden’\\u000a papaya fruit. Papayas harvested at maturity stage 1 (up to 15% yellow skin) were evaluated. Half of the fruits, whether treated\\u000a or not treated with 100 nL L?1 of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), were stored at 23°C, while the other half were

Ilana Urbano Bron; Angelo Pedro Jacomino

2009-01-01

289

Genomics of Helper Component Proteinase Reveals Effective Strategy for Papaya Ringspot Virus Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) causes severe economic losses in both cucurbits and papaya throughout the tropics and subtropics. Development of PRSV-resistant\\u000a transgenic plants faces a major hurdle in achieving resistance against geographically distinct isolates. One of the major\\u000a reasons of failing to achieve the broad-spectrum PRSV resistance is the involvement of silencing suppressor proteins of viral\\u000a origin. Here, based on

Satendra K. Mangrauthia; Priyanka Singh; Shelly Praveen

2010-01-01

290

Role of Genetic Recombination in the Molecular Architecture of Papaya ringspot virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) has a single-stranded RNA genome and causes severe economic losses both in cucurbits and papaya worldwide. The extent\\u000a to which the genome of PRSV is shaped by recombination provides an understanding of the molecular evolution of PRSV and helps\\u000a in studying features such as host specificity, geographic distribution, and its emergence as new epidemics. The PRSV-P-Indian

Satendra K. Mangrauthia; B. Parameswari; R. K. Jain; Shelly Praveen

2008-01-01

291

The first record of papaya ringspot virus-type P from Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya ringspot virus-type P (PRSV-P) has been identified on papaya (papaw) in Australia for the first time. Outbreaks of\\u000a the disease were recorded in south-east Queensland at Wamuran, Dayboro and Morayfield in the vicinity of Caboolture, in suburban\\u000a Brisbane and at Beaudesert and Bundaberg during February and March 1991. Infected plants showed typical symptoms reported\\u000a from other countries, including the

J. E. ThomasA; R. L. DodmanB

1993-01-01

292

Tree frog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tree frog can be found living in jungles and forests. Two reasons why the common frog is considered to be an amphibian are because it lays eggs in water and its spawn goes through metamorphosis to reach adulthood.

Hans Hillewaert (None;)

2008-04-20

293

Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus  

PubMed Central

Background The cysteine proteinases in papaya latex have been shown to have potent anthelmintic properties in monogastric hosts such as rodents, pigs and humans, but this has not been demonstrated in ruminants. Methods In two experiments, sheep were infected concurrently with 5,000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 10,000 infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and were then treated with the supernatant from a suspension of papaya latex from day 28 to day 32 post-infection. Faecal egg counts were monitored from a week before treatment until the end of the experiment and worm burdens were assessed on day 35 post-infection. Results We found that the soluble fraction of papaya latex had a potent in vivo effect on the abomasal nematode H. contortus, but not on the small intestinal nematode T. colubriformis. This effect was dose-dependent and at tolerated levels of gavage with papaya latex (117 ?mol of active papaya latex supernatant for 4 days), the H. contortus worm burdens were reduced by 98%. Repeated treatment, daily for 4 days, was more effective than a single dose, but efficacy was not enhanced by concurrent treatment with the antacid cimetidine. Conclusions Our results provide support for the idea that cysteine proteinases derived from papaya latex may be developed into novel anthelmintics for the treatment of lumenal stages of gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep, particularly those parasitizing the abomasum.

2011-01-01

294

Power, progress and prevarication: local knowledge and GE papaya in Thailand.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered (GE) papaya was developed in the 1990s to improve the livelihoods of small scale farmers in Thailand. Yet these farmers have been excluded from the discourse around its deregulation and deployment. While elite stakeholders continue to debate in Bangkok, little is known about small scale farmers' understanding of biotechnology, their perceptions of the technology and whether or not they are likely to be adopters if it became available. In this case study, I report on farmer knowledge of agricultural biotechnology and genetically engineered papaya in northeast Thailand. Forty farmers in four villages were surveyed with regard to their knowledge and perceptions of GE papaya. A qualitative grounded theory approach was employed to understand their responses, from which three themes emerged: progress, power and prevarication. From these themes, the decision-making process of farmers seems to be dominated by their existing local knowledge and their interest in progressing their economic status. The responses of small-scale Isaan farmers provide a new perspective on the debate over GE virus-resistant papaya in Thailand. Based on the results of this study, we can conclude that this small subset of Thai papaya growers perceive GE virus-resistant papaya as a compatible innovation that is likely to be adopted by Thai farmers if it becomes available. PMID:22538228

Davidson, Sarah N

2012-01-01

295

Comparative development and impact of transgenic papayas in Hawaii, Jamaica, and Venezuela.  

PubMed

We present data concerning the creation of transgenic papayas resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and their adoption by three different countries: the United States (e.g., Hawaii), Jamaica, and Venezuela. Although the three sets of transgenic papayas showed effective resistance to PRSV, the adoption rate in each country has varied from full utilization in Hawaii to aggressive testing but delay in deregulating of the product in Jamaica to rejection at an early stage in Venezuela. Factors that contributed to the rapid adoption in Hawaii include a timely development of the transgenic product, PRSV causing severe damage to the papaya industry, close collaboration between researchers and the industry, and the existence of procedures for deregulating a transgenic product. In Jamaica, the technology for developing the initial field-testing of the product progressed rather rapidly, but the process of deregulation has been slowed down owing to the lack of sustained governmental efforts to complete the regulatory procedures for transgenic crops. In Venezuela, the technology to develop and greenhouse test the transgenic papaya has moved abreast with the Jamaica project, but the field testing of the transgenic papaya within the country was stopped very early on by actions by people opposed to transgenic products. The three cases are discussed in an effort to provide information on factors, other than technology, that can influence the adoption of a transgenic product. PMID:15310936

Fermín, Gustavo; Tennant, Paula; Gonsalves, Carol; Lee, David; Gonsalves, Dennis

2005-01-01

296

Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

2004-09-01

297

Development and characterization of mucoadhesive in situ nasal gel of midazolam prepared with Ficus carica mucilage.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to prepare mucoadhesive in situ nasal gels with mucilage isolated from fig fruits (Ficus carica, family: Moraceae) containing midazolam hydrochloride. Nasal gels of midazolam were prepared using three different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% w/v) of F. carica mucilage (FCM) and synthetic polymers (hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose and Carbopol 934). Evaluation of FCM showed that it was as safe as the synthetic polymers for nasal administration. In situ gels were prepared with mixture Pluronic F127 and mucoadhesive agents. Evaluation of the prepared gels was carried out, including determination of viscosity, texture profile analysis and mucoadhesive strength. In vitro drug permeation study was conducted with the gels prepared with and without permeation enhancer (0.5% w/v sodium taurocholate) using excised goat nasal mucosa. In vitro permeation profiles were evaluated, and histological study of nasal mucosae before and after permeation study was also conducted to determine histological change, if any. In vivo experiments conducted in rabbits further confirmed that in situ nasal gels provided better bioavailability of midazolam than the gels prepared from synthetic mucoadhesive polymers. It was observed that the nasal gel containing 0.5% FCM and 0.5% sodium taurocholate exhibited appropriate rheological, mechanical and mucoadhesive properties and showed better drug release profiles. Moreover, this formulation produced no damage to the nasal mucosa that was used for the permeation study, and absolute bioavailability was also higher compared to gels prepared from synthetic polymers. PMID:20683687

Basu, Shyamoshree; Bandyopadhyay, Amal Kumar

2010-09-01

298

Christmas Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last year, the front page of the Christmas Day New York Times talked about how you could do `finger xmastree@cygnus.com' to find out the current state of the Christmas tree in the offices of Cygnus Support. Well, it's back again this year. But, we wouldn't want you to be bored! "Oh, ho hum, that same boring thing all over again...been there, saw that." So to follow the example of a few million enthusiasts, the increasingly-popular World Wide Web is now toting its very own Christmas tree, which is so interactive it's almost like it's in your home. (Well, not quite. But if you'd like to send some wrapped gifts, I'm sure we wouldn't be upset.) Along with getting to look at a small photo of the tree when you first connect to it, you may: choose to see a full-size version of that picture -- they are updated every two minutes; choose to watch an MPEG movie of the tree which is 20 frames long, so you can watch the lights blink, etc. This is updated every fifteen minutes; vote on the different features of the tree, and every fifteen minutes the system will do the vote count and change the tree accordingly; send any one of ten random cards to a given email address; find out the technical details of how it was done, if you're really that interested. If you have any comments, suggestions, or complaints (come to think of it, you can keep the complaints), write to

299

Trees, Soil and Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Trees, soil and water: Journey to Forever - health care for mountains, trees for deserts, trees for people, forest, forestry, deforestation, erosion, soil conservation, water conservation, desertification.

Addison, Keith

2010-01-01

300

Greenhouse trees  

SciTech Connect

Michigan State University has been conducting research on growth control of woody plants with emphasis on commercial plantations. The objective was to develop the optimum levels for the major factors that affect tree seedling growth and development so that high quality plants can be produced for a specific use. This article describes the accelerated-optimal-growth (AOG) concept, describes precautions to take in its application, and shows ways to maximize the potential of AOG for producing ornamental trees. Factors considered were container growing system; protective culture including light, temperature, mineral nutrients, water, carbon dioxide, growth regulators, mycorrhizae, growing media, competition, and pests; size of seedlings; and acclamation. 1 table. (DP)

Hanover, J.W.; Hart, J.W.

1980-05-09

301

Influence of chromoplast morphology on carotenoid bioaccessibility of carrot, mango, papaya, and tomato.  

PubMed

Based on the observation of outstanding dissimilarities of the morphology of pigment-containing chromoplasts in nutritionally important carotenoid sources, the bioaccessibility (BA) of carotenoids from edible portions of carrot, mango, papaya, and tomato was compared using an in vitro digestion model. While carrot and tomato contained large carotenoid crystals clearly visible by light microscopy, mango and papaya contained different types of carotenoid-bearing structures. Particularly, ?-carotene is deposited in globular and tubular elements in papaya and mango chromoplasts, where carotenoids accumulate in a lipid-dissolved and liquid-crystalline form, respectively. The highest BA of ?-carotene was found for mango (10.1%), followed by papaya (5.3%), tomato (3.1%), and carrot (0.5%). In our digestion model, differences between total lycopene BA from papaya and tomato were insignificant, possibly since both pigments occur in a solid crystalline deposition form in both fruits. Furthermore, the BA of lutein, ?-cryptoxanthin, and ?-cryptoxanthin esters was shown to be superior to that of the carotenes from the respective food sources. The effect of lipid addition to the different food sources was studied. Although BA was enhanced for most carotenoids, the above-mentioned ranking of BAs of ?-carotene remained unchanged after lipid addition. Consequently, the physical form of carotenoid deposition in plant chromoplasts is suggested to have major impact on their liberation efficiency from the food matrices. PMID:22980866

Schweiggert, Ralf M; Mezger, Dominik; Schimpf, Franziska; Steingass, Christof B; Carle, Reinhold

2012-12-15

302

Reading trees.  

PubMed

Are birds dinosaurs? Answers to this question yield various responses, depending on a particular viewpoint. From the perspective of a common understanding of recent theories of the origin of birds and their potential precursor (ancestral) animals, then, yes, birds are a kind of dinosaur, having evolved from one or another non-avian dinosaur (Bostwick 2003). From the perspective of public understanding of science (how to inform the general public of biology's latest findings), then, yes, birds are dinosaurs, at least they are a kind of dinosaur, one that young children can actually hold in their hands (e.g., Maugh 2012). These two perspectives, largely derived from phylogenetic reasoning, contrast with the perspective from classification, which asks different questions: What are birds; what are dinosaurs; and how are they related to one another? Addressing these questions raises the issue of trees in classification (phylogenetic or otherwise) and how to read them. This is not as easy a task as is often suggested in the recent literature on tree-reading and tree-thinking (first noted long ago by O'Hara 1988, see Baum and Smith 2012 for a first book-length treatment).                      The role of tree-thinking in classification is applied after a tree has been constructed and natural groups established. For instance, it would seem premature to infer phylogenies on poorly classified taxa, such as invertebrates, reptiles and so on, as these groupings are artificial. Doing so would only result in erroneous hypotheses that cannot be substantiated. The role of classification, however, is to make sure that the natural groups are justified, and in order to do this it is vital that those groups are understood. Birds represent a monophyletic group, which has series of unique characteristics that it shares with other theropods (i.e., bipedal saurischian dinosaurs). Dinosaurs, as usually conceived, are a group of non-monophyletic organisms that variously share closer characteristics (i.e., relationships) with other taxa rather than uniquely among themselves. In the case of dinosaurs (as Dinosauria) and classification, what is at stake is a taxonomic name, rather than a unique group of character traits. Below we outline and compare two contrasting ways of reading trees, one way, concerned with classification, yielding the view that, no, birds are not dinosaurs. PMID:24943430

Ebach, Malte C; Williams, David M

2014-01-01

303

Therapeutic effects of fig tree latex on bovine papillomatosis.  

PubMed

The effects of fig tree latex in treating teat papillomatosis in cow in comparison with salicylic acid were evaluated. For this purpose, 12 cows of 1-3 years of age (average 2.25) affected by teat papillomatosis were divided into three groups. In group A, four cows were treated by fig tree (Ficus carica) latex; in group B, four cows were treated with 10% salicylic acid solution and in group C, four cows were kept as control animals receiving no treatment. Animals in each treatment group received their treatment once every 5 days. In groups A and B, de-epithelialization and shrinking of the warts began from the fifth day of treatment and all the warts disappeared within 30 days. However, in the control group no changes in the number of warts were observed until day 15 but thereafter a number of warts disappeared spontaneously in some of the animals. Both salicylic acid and fig tree latex were evaluated as having similar therapeutic effects in treating teat papillomatosis in cow. PMID:14720183

Hemmatzadeh, F; Fatemi, A; Amini, F

2003-12-01

304

Genetic characterization of fig tree mutants with molecular markers.  

PubMed

The fig (Ficus carica L.) is a fruit tree of great world importance and, therefore, the genetic improvement becomes an important field of research for better crops, being necessary to gather information on this species, mainly regarding its genetic variability so that appropriate propagation projects and management are made. The improvement programs of fig trees using conventional procedures in order to obtain new cultivars are rare in many countries, such as Brazil, especially due to the little genetic variability and to the difficulties in obtaining plants from gamete fusion once the wasp Blastophaga psenes, responsible for the natural pollinating, is not found in Brazil. In this way, the mutagenic genetic improvement becomes a solution of it. For this reason, in an experiment conducted earlier, fig plants formed by cuttings treated with gamma ray were selected based on their agronomic characteristics of interest. We determined the genetic variability in these fig tree selections, using RAPD and AFLP molecular markers, comparing them to each other and to the Roxo-de-Valinhos, used as the standard. For the reactions of DNA amplification, 140 RAPD primers and 12 primer combinations for AFLP analysis were used. The selections did not differ genetically between themselves and between them and the Roxo-de-Valinhos cultivar. Techniques that can detect polymorphism between treatments, such as DNA sequencing, must be tested. The phenotypic variation of plants may be due to epigenetic variation, necessitating the use of techniques with methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes. PMID:22911583

Rodrigues, M G F; Martins, A B G; Desidério, J A; Bertoni, B W; Alves, M C

2012-01-01

305

Dynamic transposable element accumulation in the nascent sex chromosomes of papaya  

PubMed Central

From their inception, Y chromosomes in plants and animals are subjected to the powerful effects of Müller’s ratchet, a process spurred by suppression of recombination that results in a rapid accumulation of mutations and repetitive elements. These mutations eventually lead to gene loss and degeneration of the Y chromosome. Y chromosomes in mammals are ancient, whereas most sex chromosomes in plants and many in insects and fish evolved recently. Sex type in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes that evolved around 7 million years ago. The papaya X and Yh were recently sequenced, providing valuable insight into the early stages of sex chromosome evolution. Here we discuss the fruits of this work with a focus on the repeat accumulation, gene trafficking and promiscuous DNA sequences found in the slowly degenerating Yh chromosome of papaya.

VanBuren, Robert; Ming, Ray

2013-01-01

306

Dynamic transposable element accumulation in the nascent sex chromosomes of papaya.  

PubMed

From their inception, Y chromosomes in plants and animals are subjected to the powerful effects of Müller's ratchet, a process spurred by suppression of recombination that results in a rapid accumulation of mutations and repetitive elements. These mutations eventually lead to gene loss and degeneration of the Y chromosome. Y chromosomes in mammals are ancient, whereas most sex chromosomes in plants and many in insects and fish evolved recently. Sex type in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes that evolved around 7 million years ago. The papaya X and Y(h) were recently sequenced, providing valuable insight into the early stages of sex chromosome evolution. Here we discuss the fruits of this work with a focus on the repeat accumulation, gene trafficking and promiscuous DNA sequences found in the slowly degenerating Y(h) chromosome of papaya. PMID:23734293

Vanburen, Robert; Ming, Ray

2013-01-01

307

Papaya fruit ripening: response to ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP).  

PubMed

Ripening affects the quality and nutritional contents of fleshy fruits, and papayas are climacteric fruits very susceptible to postharvest losses due to the fast softening caused by ethylene. This paper reports the changes in respiration, ethylene production, and pulp color and firmness, along with the contents of soluble sugars and major carotenoids, during ripening of 'Golden' papaya, an important Brazilian cultivar that has been exported to North American and European markets. The results obtained for nontreated and ethylene- or 1-MCP-treated papaya suggest that 1-MCP can decrease the quality of treated fruit and that even the use of ethylene for triggering or inducing homogeneous ripening can result in lower quality when compared to that of fruit allowed to ripe naturally. PMID:17602654

Fabi, João Paulo; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana; de Mattos Barreto, Gisela P; Mercadante, Adriana Z; Lajolo, Franco M; Oliveira do Nascimento, João Roberto

2007-07-25

308

Chemical assessment and in vitro antioxidant capacity of Ficus carica latex.  

PubMed

Ficus species possess latex-like material within their vasculatures, affording protection and self-healing from physical attacks. In this work, metabolite profiling was performed on Ficus carica latex. Volatiles profile was determined by HS-SPME/GC-IT-MS, with 34 compounds being identified, distributed by distinct chemical classes: 5 aldehydes, 7 alcohols, 1 ketone, 9 monoterpenes, 9 sesquiterpenes and 3 other compounds. Sesquiterpenes constituted the most abundant class in latex (ca. 91% of total identified compounds). Organic acids composition was also characterized, by HPLC-UV, and oxalic, citric, malic, quinic, shikimic and fumaric acids were determined. Malic and shikimic acids were present in higher amounts (ca. 26%, each). The antioxidant potential of this material was checked by distinct in vitro chemical assays. A concentration-dependent activity was noticed against DPPH, nitric oxide and superoxide radicals. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory capacity was evaluated, but a weak effect was found. PMID:20158255

Oliveira, Andreia P; Silva, Luís R; Ferreres, Federico; Guedes de Pinho, Paula; Valentão, Patrícia; Silva, Branca M; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B

2010-03-24

309

Antioxidant activity of bovine casein hydrolysates produced by Ficus carica L.-derived proteinase.  

PubMed

A Ficus carica L. latex proteinase preparation was investigated for its ability to produce antioxidant hydrolysates/peptides from bovine casein (CN). The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) values for NaCN and ?-CN hydrolysates ranged from 0.06 to 0.18, and from 0.51 to 1.19?mol Trolox equivalents/mg freeze-dried sample, respectively. Gel permeation HPLC showed that the ?-CN hydrolysate with a degree of hydrolysis of 21% had 65% of peptide material with a molecular mass <500Da. The RP-UPLC profiles also indicated that ?-CN was substantially hydrolysed during the early stages of hydrolysis. Analysis of the 4h ?-CN hydrolysate by LC-ESI-MS/MS allowed identification of 8 peptide sequences with potential antioxidant properties. PMID:24629973

Di Pierro, Giovanna; O'Keeffe, Martina B; Poyarkov, Alexey; Lomolino, Giovanna; FitzGerald, Richard J

2014-08-01

310

Effects of papaya seed extract and benzyl isothiocyanate on vascular contraction.  

PubMed

To investigate their potentially toxic effects on mammalian vascular smooth muscle, pentane extracts of papaya seeds and the chief active ingredient in the extracts, benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), were tested for their effects on the contraction of strips of dog carotid artery. BITC and the papaya seed extract caused relaxation when added to tissue strips that had been pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE). Incubation of the tissue with papaya seed extract or BITC caused inhibition of contraction when the strips were subsequently contracted with KCl or PE. This relaxation and inhibition of contraction did not appear to be endothelium-dependent, as endothelium-denuded rings showed the same degree of relaxation or inhibition of contraction in response to the preparations/drugs as those with the endothelium intact. The effects of both BITC and the extract were irreversible, i.e., the tissue did not recover to normal contractile ability after extensive washing. Exposure of the tissue to the papaya seed extract caused slower relaxation of the tissue, compared to controls, both after contraction with PE and subsequent addition of carbachol (CCh), and after contraction with KCl and then washing. Calcium imaging studies using cultured endothelial cells showed strong influxes of Ca2+ into the cells in response to addition of the papaya seed extract. We conclude that these extracts, when present in high concentration, are cytotoxic by increasing the membrane permeability to Ca2+, and that the vascular effects of papaya seed extracts are consistent with the notion that BITC is the chief bio-active ingredient. PMID:12052434

Wilson, Ruth K; Kwan, Tony K; Kwan, Chiu-Yin; Sorger, George J

2002-06-21

311

ISOLATION AND PUNRIFICATION OF PSORALEN AND BERGAPTEN FROM FICUS CARICA L LEAVES BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY  

PubMed Central

High-speed countercurrent chromatography was successfully applied for the first time for the separation of psoralen and bergapten from Ficus carica L leaves. The crudeextract obtained by light petroleum (b.p.: 60°C-90°C) from the dried leaves of Ficus carica L. was separated with a two-phase solvent system of n-Hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:1:1:1, v/v). Each peak fraction was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The method yielded 4.4 mg of psoralen at 99.1% purity and 2.1 mg of bergapten at 98.2% purity from 400 mg of the crude extract in a single run. The two compounds were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS.

Chunyan, Chi; Bo, Shi; Ping, Liang; Jingmei, Li; Ito, Yoichiro

2009-01-01

312

Accumulation and long-term decline of radiocaesium contamination in tropical fruit trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accumulation of 137Cs, 40K and NH 4+ in several organs of tropical plants species were studied through measurements of its concentrations from mango, avocado, guava, papaya, banana and chili pepper trees. Our goal was to infer their differences in the uptake and translocation of such ions to the aboveground plant parts and to establish the suitability of using radiocaesium as a tracer for the plant uptake of nutrients. The results indicate Cs + is better tracer for K + as it is for NH 4+.

Anjos, R. M.; Mosquera, B.; Carvalho, C.; Sanches, N.; Bastos, J.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Macario, K.

2007-09-01

313

Identification of natural rubber and characterization of rubber biosynthetic activity in fig tree.  

PubMed

Natural rubber was extracted from the fig tree (Ficus carica) cultivated in Korea as part of a survey of rubber producing plants. Fourier transform infrared and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of samples prepared by successive extraction with acetone and benzene confirmed that the benzene-soluble residues are natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene. The rubber content in the latex of fig tree was about 4%, whereas the rubber content in the bark, leaf, and fruit was 0.3%, 0.1%, and 0.1%, respectively. Gel-permeation chromatography revealed that the molecular size of the natural rubber from fig tree is about 190 kD. Similar to rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray), rubber biosynthesis in fig tree is tightly associated with rubber particles. The rubber transferase in rubber particles exhibited a higher affinity for farnesyl pyrophosphate than for isopentenyl pyrophosphate, with apparent K(m) values of 2.8 and 228 microM, respectively. Examination of latex serum from fig tree by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed major proteins of 25 and 48 kD in size, and several proteins with molecular mass below 20 and above 100 kD. Partial N-terminal amino acid sequencing and immunochemical analyses revealed that the 25- and 48-kD proteins were novel and not related to any other suggested rubber transferases. The effect of EDTA and Mg(2+) ion on in vitro rubber biosynthesis in fig tree and rubber tree suggested that divalent metal ion present in the latex serum is an important factor in determining the different rubber biosynthetic activities in fig tree and rubber tree. PMID:10889262

Kang, H; Kang, M Y; Han, K H

2000-07-01

314

Identification of Natural Rubber and Characterization of Rubber Biosynthetic Activity in Fig Tree1  

PubMed Central

Natural rubber was extracted from the fig tree (Ficus carica) cultivated in Korea as part of a survey of rubber producing plants. Fourier transform infrared and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of samples prepared by successive extraction with acetone and benzene confirmed that the benzene-soluble residues are natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene. The rubber content in the latex of fig tree was about 4%, whereas the rubber content in the bark, leaf, and fruit was 0.3%, 0.1%, and 0.1%, respectively. Gel-permeation chromatography revealed that the molecular size of the natural rubber from fig tree is about 190 kD. Similar to rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray), rubber biosynthesis in fig tree is tightly associated with rubber particles. The rubber transferase in rubber particles exhibited a higher affinity for farnesyl pyrophosphate than for isopentenyl pyrophosphate, with apparent Km values of 2.8 and 228 ?m, respectively. Examination of latex serum from fig tree by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed major proteins of 25 and 48 kD in size, and several proteins with molecular mass below 20 and above 100 kD. Partial N-terminal amino acid sequencing and immunochemical analyses revealed that the 25- and 48-kD proteins were novel and not related to any other suggested rubber transferases. The effect of EDTA and Mg2+ ion on in vitro rubber biosynthesis in fig tree and rubber tree suggested that divalent metal ion present in the latex serum is an important factor in determining the different rubber biosynthetic activities in fig tree and rubber tree.

Kang, Hunseung; Kang, Min Young; Han, Kyung-Hwan

2000-01-01

315

The Tree-to-Tree Correction Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tree-to-tree correctmn problem Is to determine, for two labeled ordered trees T and T', the distance from T to T' as measured by the mlmmum cost sequence of edit operaUons needed to transform T into T' The edit operations investigated allow changing one node of a tree into another node, deleting one node from a tree, or inserting a

Kuo-Chung Tai

1979-01-01

316

[Antimutagenic activity of plant extracts from Armoracia rusticana, Ficus carica and Zea mays and peroxidase in eukaryotic cells].  

PubMed

Antimutagene activity and high efficiency of antimutagene action of plant extracts from horseradish roots (Armoracia rusticana), fig brunches (Ficus carica) and mays seedlings (Zea mays) and their ability to decrease the frequency of spontaneous and induced by gamma-rays chromosome aberrations in meristematic cells of Vicia faba and marrow cells of mice have been shown. Comparative assessment of genoprotective properties of peroxidase and the studied extracts has revealed higher efficiency of antimutagene action of peroxidase. PMID:15131968

Agabe?li, R A; Kasimova, T E; Alekperov, U K

2004-01-01

317

Tree Troubles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores some of the diseases and other threats that certain trees must contend with to remain healthy and vital. The first website (1), from the USDA Forest Service-St. Paul Field Office, contains a collection of archived publications designed to help people diagnose, control, and identify various threats to different types of trees. Examples of these publications include: How to Control Sapstreak Disease of Sugar Maple; How to Differentiate Dutch Elm Disease From Elm Phloem Necrosis; How to Identify and Manage Needlecast Diseases on Balsam Fir; and How to Manage Eastern White Pine to Minimize Damage from Blister Rust and White Pine Weevil, to name few. The second (2) site, Forest & Shade Tree Pathology, is an online textbook that was developed by Dr. James J. Worrall, a plant pathologist for the USDA Forest Service, and former professor at the College of Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of New York. Dr. Worrall's site contains information about rusts, foliage and root diseases, parasitic plants, cankers, abiotic diseases, and wilts as well as disease profiles for Swiss Needle Cast; Oak Wilt, Chestnut Blight, Armillaria Root Disease, and more. The third (3) site, Oak Wilt: A Threat to Red Oaks & White Oaks Species, was created by Dr. David L. Roberts at Michigan State University Extension. Dr. Robert's concise site contains brief sections addressing oak wilt distribution, field diagnosis, management, disease cycle, and more. The fourth (4) site, from the California Oak Mortality Task Force, contains images, publications, maps, and information about Sudden Oak Death-related research, management recommendations, nursery issues, and regulations. The final three websites come from the USDA Forest Service and contain information about different insect threats. The fifth (5) site offers information about the emerald ash borer. The sixth (6) site provides information about the gypsy moth, and the final (7) site contains information about the Asian longhorned beetle.

318

Carotenoids are more bioavailable from papaya than from tomato and carrot in humans: a randomised cross-over study  

PubMed Central

Carrot, tomato and papaya represent important dietary sources of ?-carotene and lycopene. The main objective of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of carotenoids from these food sources in healthy human subjects. A total of sixteen participants were recruited for a randomised cross-over study. Test meals containing raw carrots, tomatoes and papayas were adjusted to deliver an equal amount of ?-carotene and lycopene. For the evaluation of bioavailability, TAG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions containing newly absorbed carotenoids were analysed over 9.5 h after test meal consumption. The bioavailability of ?-carotene from papayas was approximately three times higher than that from carrots and tomatoes, whereas differences in the bioavailability of ?-carotene from carrots and tomatoes were insignificant. Retinyl esters appeared in the TRL fractions at a significantly higher concentration after the consumption of the papaya test meal. Similarly, lycopene was approximately 2.6 times more bioavailable from papayas than from tomatoes. Furthermore, the bioavailability of ?-cryptoxanthin from papayas was shown to be 2.9 and 2.3 times higher than that of the other papaya carotenoids ?-carotene and lycopene, respectively. The morphology of chromoplasts and the physical deposition form of carotenoids were hypothesised to play a major role in the differences observed in the bioavailability of carotenoids from the foods investigated. Particularly, the liquid-crystalline deposition of ?-carotene and the storage of lycopene in very small crystalloids in papayas were found to be associated with their high bioavailability. In conclusion, papaya was shown to provide highly bioavailable ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin and lycopene and may represent a readily available dietary source of provitamin A for reducing the incidence of vitamin A deficiencies in many subtropical and tropical developing countries.

Schweiggert, Ralf M.; Kopec, Rachel E.; Villalobos-Gutierrez, Maria G.; Hogel, Josef; Quesada, Silvia; Esquivel, Patricia; Schwartz, Steven J.; Carle, Reinhold

2014-01-01

319

Carotenoids are more bioavailable from papaya than from tomato and carrot in humans: a randomised cross-over study.  

PubMed

Carrot, tomato and papaya represent important dietary sources of ?-carotene and lycopene. The main objective of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of carotenoids from these food sources in healthy human subjects. A total of sixteen participants were recruited for a randomised cross-over study. Test meals containing raw carrots, tomatoes and papayas were adjusted to deliver an equal amount of ?-carotene and lycopene. For the evaluation of bioavailability, TAG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions containing newly absorbed carotenoids were analysed over 9·5 h after test meal consumption. The bioavailability of ?-carotene from papayas was approximately three times higher than that from carrots and tomatoes, whereas differences in the bioavailability of ?-carotene from carrots and tomatoes were insignificant. Retinyl esters appeared in the TRL fractions at a significantly higher concentration after the consumption of the papaya test meal. Similarly, lycopene was approximately 2·6 times more bioavailable from papayas than from tomatoes. Furthermore, the bioavailability of ?-cryptoxanthin from papayas was shown to be 2·9 and 2·3 times higher than that of the other papaya carotenoids ?-carotene and lycopene, respectively. The morphology of chromoplasts and the physical deposition form of carotenoids were hypothesised to play a major role in the differences observed in the bioavailability of carotenoids from the foods investigated. Particularly, the liquid-crystalline deposition of ?-carotene and the storage of lycopene in very small crystalloids in papayas were found to be associated with their high bioavailability. In conclusion, papaya was shown to provide highly bioavailable ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin and lycopene and may represent a readily available dietary source of provitamin A for reducing the incidence of vitamin A deficiencies in many subtropical and tropical developing countries. PMID:23931131

Schweiggert, Ralf M; Kopec, Rachel E; Villalobos-Gutierrez, Maria G; Högel, Josef; Quesada, Silvia; Esquivel, Patricia; Schwartz, Steven J; Carle, Reinhold

2014-02-01

320

Trees in the Landscape.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strategies for using trees in classroom instruction are provided. Includes: (1) activities (such as tree identification, mapping, measuring tree height/width); (2) list of asthetic, architectural, engineering, climate, and wildlife functions of trees; (3) tree discussion questions; and (4) references. (JN)

Webb, Richard; Forbatha, Ann

1982-01-01

321

21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...No. 9001-73-4) is a proteolytic enzyme derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya...aqueous solution of latex. The resulting enzyme preparation may be used in a liquid...

2013-04-01

322

Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan  

PubMed Central

A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked.

Qasem, Jamal R.

2012-01-01

323

Nucleotide sequence comparison of the 3?-terminal regions of severe, mild, and non-papaya infecting strains of papaya ringspot virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The 3'-terminal 2,561 nucleotide residues of the severe HA strain of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was determined. Comparison with the published sequence of the mild strain PRSV HA 5-1 showed that they shared a 99.4% identity in their 3'-terminal 2,235 residues. There were ten residues different at the NIb gene, resulting in five amino acid changes, and two residues

C.-H. Wang; S.-D. Yeh

1992-01-01

324

Comparative reactions of recombinant papaya ringspot viruses with chimeric coat protein (CP) genes and wild-type viruses on CP-transgenic papaya.  

PubMed

Transgenic papaya cultivars SunUp and Rainbow express the coat protein (CP) gene of the mild mutant of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) HA. Both cultivars are resistant to PRSV HA and other Hawaii isolates through homology-dependent resistance via post-transcriptional gene silencing. However, Rainbow, which is hemizygous for the CP gene, is susceptible to PRSV isolates from outside Hawaii, while the CP-homozygous SunUp is resistant to most isolates but susceptible to the YK isolate from Taiwan. To investigate the role of CP sequence similarity in overcoming the resistance of Rainbow, PRSV HA recombinants with various CP segments of the YK isolate were constructed and evaluated on Rainbow, SunUp and non-transgenic papaya. Non-transgenic papaya were severely infected by all recombinants, but Rainbow plants developed a variety of symptoms. On Rainbow, a recombinant with the entire CP gene of YK caused severe symptoms, while recombinants with only partial YK CP sequences produced a range of milder symptoms. Interestingly, a recombinant with a YK segment from the 5' region of the CP gene caused very mild, transient symptoms, whereas recombinants with YK segments from the middle and 3' parts of the CP gene caused prominent and lasting symptoms. SunUp was resistant to all but two recombinants, which contained the entire CP gene or the central and 3'-end regions of the CP gene and the 3' non-coding region of YK, and the resulting symptoms were mild. It is concluded that the position of the heterologous sequences in the recombinants influences their pathogenicity on Rainbow. PMID:11602796

Chiang, C H; Wang, J J; Jan, F J; Yeh, S D; Gonsalves, D

2001-11-01

325

Anthelmintic activity of papaya seeds on Hymenolepis diminuta infections in rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to see the anthelmintic activity potential of papaya seeds against Hymenolepis diminuta in rats. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the effectiveness of papaya seeds on helminths especially H. diminuta in rats and (2) to determine the effective dose level on helminths in rats. Thirty six male rats from strain Sprague-Dawley were chosen as samples in this experiment. Two types of dose level were used for papaya seeds treatments such as 0.6 g kg-1 and 1.2 g kg-1. The geometric mean (GEM) was used to calculate mean for eggs per gram (EPG) before and after the treatment to be included in the reduction percentage calculation. After 21 days post treatment, necropsies were done to get the worm count and the GEM was used to calculate the efficacy percentage for the treatment. Results from this study showed that the reduction percentages in EPG for papaya seeds treatment for both doses level were very high which is 96.8% for 0.6g kg-1 dose level and 96.2% for 1.2 g kg-1 dose level. Whereas the efficacy percentage based on the worm counts for both doses level were also very high that was 90.77% for 0.6 g kg-1 dose level and 93.85% for 1.2 g kg-1. PMID:23202594

Sapaat, A; Satrija, F; Mahsol, H H; Ahmad, A H

2012-12-01

326

Tissue differential expression of lycopene beta-cyclase gene in papaya.  

PubMed

Carotene pigments in flowers and fruits are distinct features related to fitness advantages such as attracting insects for pollination and birds for seed dispersal. In papaya, the flesh color of the fruit is considered a quality trait that correlates with nutritional value and is linked to shelf-life of the fruit. To elucidate the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in papaya, we took a candidate gene approach to clone the lycopene beta-cyclase gene, LCY-B. A papaya LCY-B ortholog, cpLCY-B, was successfully identified from both cDNA and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries and complete genomic sequence was obtained from the positive BAC including the promoter region. This cpLCY-B shared 80% amino acid identity with citrus LCY-B. However, full genomic sequences from both yellow- and red-fleshed papaya were identical. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) revealed similar levels of expression at six different maturing stages of fruits for both yellow- and red-fleshed genotypes. Further expression analyses of cpLCY-B showed that its expression levels were seven- and three-fold higher in leaves and, respectively, flowers than in fruits, suggesting that cpLCY-B is down-regulated during the fruit ripening process. PMID:16801954

Skelton, Rachel L; Yu, Qingyi; Srinivasan, Rajeswari; Manshardt, Richard; Moore, Paul H; Ming, Ray

2006-08-01

327

Hybrid 'Sinta' papaya exhibits unique ACC synthase 1 cDNA isoforms.  

PubMed

Five ripening-related ACC synthase cDNA isoforms were cloned from 80% ripe papaya cv. 'Sinta' by reverse transcription-PCR using gene-specific primers. Clone 2 had the longest transcript and contained all common exons and three alternative exons. Clones 3 and 4 contained common exons and one alternative exon each, while clone 1, the most common transcript, contained only the common exons. Clone 5 could be due to cloning artifacts and might not be a unique cDNA fragment. Thus, there are only four isoforms of ACC synthase mRNA. Southern blot analysis indicates that all five clones came from only one gene existing as a single copy in the 'Sinta' papaya genome. Multiple sequence alignment indicates that the four isoforms arise from a single gene, possibly through alternative splicing mechanisms. All the putative alternative exons were present at the 5'-end of the gene comprising the N-terminal region of the protein. 'Sinta' ACC synthase cDNAs were of the capacs 1 type and are most closely related to a 1.4 kb capacs 1-type DNA (AJ277160) from Eksotika papaya. No capacs 2-type cDNAs were cloned from 'Sinta' by RT-PCR. This is the first report of possible alternative splicing mechanism in ripening-related ACC synthase genes in hybrid papaya, possibly to modulate or fine-tune gene expression relevant to fruit ripening. PMID:15943908

Hidalgo, Marie-Sol P; Tecson-Mendoza, Evelyn Mae; Laurena, Antonio C; Botella, Jose Ramon

2005-05-31

328

Proteomic analysis of papaya fruit ripening using 2DE-DIGE.  

PubMed

Papayas have a very short green life as a result of their rapid pulp softening as well as their susceptibility to physical injury and mold growth. The ripening-related changes take place very quickly, and there is a continued interest in the reduction of postharvest losses. Proteins have a central role in biological processes, and differential proteomics enables the discrimination of proteins affected during papaya ripening. A comparative analysis of the proteomes of climacteric and pre-climacteric papayas was performed using 2DE-DIGE. Third seven proteins corresponding to spots with significant differences in abundance during ripening were submitted to MS analysis, and 27 proteins were identified and classified into six main categories related to the metabolic changes occurring during ripening. Proteins from the cell wall (alpha-galactosidase and invertase), ethylene biosynthesis (methionine synthase), climacteric respiratory burst, stress response, synthesis of carotenoid precursors (hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase, GcpE), and chromoplast differentiation (fibrillin) were identified. There was some correspondence between the identified proteins and the data from previous transcript profiling of papaya fruit, but new, accumulated proteins were identified, which reinforces the importance of differential proteomics as a tool to investigate ripening and provides potentially useful information for maintaining fruit quality and minimizing postharvest losses. PMID:22134357

Nogueira, Silvia Beserra; Labate, Carlos Alberto; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Oliveira do Nascimento, João Roberto

2012-02-01

329

Molecular and Clinical Effects of Green Tea and Fermented Papaya Preparation on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Assess the Effect of Green Tea on Diabetes; Assess the Effect of Fermented Papaya Pretration on Diabetes; Effects of Green Tea and FPP on C-reactive Proteins; Effects of Green Tea and FPP of Lipid Profiles in Diabetes; Effect of Green Tea and FPP on Atheroma Formation

2010-11-24

330

Transmission efficiency of Papaya ringspot virus by three aphid species.  

PubMed

The transmission efficiency of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) by three aphid vectors (i.e., Aphis gossypii, A. craccivora, and Myzus persicae) was studied. Efficiency was measured by single-aphid inoculation, group inoculation (using five aphids), duration of virus retention, and the number of plants following a single acquisition access period (AAP) to which the aphids could successfully transmit the virus. Single-aphid inoculation studies indicated that M. persicae (56%) and A. gossypii (53%) were significantly more efficient in transmitting PRSV than A. craccivora (38%). Further, in the former two species, the time required for initiation of the first probe on the inoculation test plant was significantly shorter compared to A. craccivora. PRSV transmission efficiency was 100% in all three species when a group of five aphids were used per plant. There was a perceptible decline in transmission efficiency as the sequestration period increased, although M. persicae successfully transmitted PRSV after 30 min of sequestration. A simple leaf-disk assay technique was employed for evaluating the transmission efficiency of three species of aphids. The results of leaf-disk assays also indicated that A. gossypii (48%) and M. persicae (56%) were more efficient PRSV vectors than A. craccivora. Using leaf-disk assays, the ability of individual aphids to inoculate PRSV serially to a number of plants was studied. Following a single AAP on an infected leaf, M. persicae was more efficient than the other two species with 52.5% transmission after the first inoculation access period (IAP). However, its inoculation efficiency significantly decreased with the second and subsequent IAPs. A. gossypii was able to transmit PRSV sequentially up to four successive leaf disks, but with significantly declining efficiency. Since A. gossypii is reported to be the numerically dominant vector in south India in addition to being a more efficient vector capable of inoculating PRSV to multiple plants, it should be the target vector for control strategies. PMID:18943221

Kalleshwaraswamy, C M; Kumar, N K Krishna

2008-05-01

331

Trees and Air Quality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students describe the positive effects that trees have on air quality and determine how to landscape a home with trees to decrease energy use. Students will draw a map of their yard or school site showing the location of trees and check a leaf of each tree for particulates. They will then make observations on several different days to determine which trees save energy and draw on their map where more trees should be planted to save energy.

332

A physical map of the papaya genome with integrated genetic map and genome sequence  

PubMed Central

Background Papaya is a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide and has primitive sex chromosomes controlling sex determination in this trioecious species. The papaya genome was recently sequenced because of its agricultural importance, unique biological features, and successful application of transgenic papaya for resistance to papaya ringspot virus. As a part of the genome sequencing project, we constructed a BAC-based physical map using a high information-content fingerprinting approach to assist whole genome shotgun sequence assembly. Results The physical map consists of 963 contigs, representing 9.4× genome equivalents, and was integrated with the genetic map and genome sequence using BAC end sequences and a sequence-tagged high-density genetic map. The estimated genome coverage of the physical map is about 95.8%, while 72.4% of the genome was aligned to the genetic map. A total of 1,181 high quality overgo (overlapping oligonucleotide) probes representing conserved sequences in Arabidopsis and genetically mapped loci in Brassica were anchored on the physical map, which provides a foundation for comparative genomics in the Brassicales. The integrated genetic and physical map aligned with the genome sequence revealed recombination hotspots as well as regions suppressed for recombination across the genome, particularly on the recently evolved sex chromosomes. Suppression of recombination spread to the adjacent region of the male specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY), and recombination rates were recovered gradually and then exceeded the genome average. Recombination hotspots were observed at about 10 Mb away on both sides of the MSY, showing 7-fold increase compared with the genome wide average, demonstrating the dynamics of recombination of the sex chromosomes. Conclusion A BAC-based physical map of papaya was constructed and integrated with the genetic map and genome sequence. The integrated map facilitated the draft genome assembly, and is a valuable resource for comparative genomics and map-based cloning of agronomically and economically important genes and for sex chromosome research.

2009-01-01

333

The Complete Nucleotide Sequence and Biotype Variability of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) was determined. The viral RNA genome of strain LDM (leaf distortion mosaic) comprised 10,153 nucleotides, excluding the poly(A) tail, and contained one long open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3,269 amino acids (molecular weight 373,347). The polyprotein contained nine putative proteolytic cleavage sites and some motifs conserved in other potyviral polyproteins with 44 to 50% identities, indicating that PLDMV is a distinct species in the genus Potyvirus. Like the W biotype of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), the non-papaya-infecting biotype of PLDMV (PLDMV-C) was found in plants of the family Cucurbitaceae. The coat protein (CP) sequence of PLDMV-C in naturally infected-Trichosanthes bracteata was compared with those of three strains of the P biotype (PLDMV-P), LDM and two additional strains M (mosaic) and YM (yellow mosaic), which are biologically different from each other. The CP sequences of three strains of PLDMV-P share high identities of 95 to 97%, while they share lower identities of 88 to 89% with that of PLDMV-C. Significant changes in hydrophobicity and a deletion of two amino acids at the N-terminal region of the CP of PLDMV-C were observed. The finding of two biotypes of PLDMV implies the possibility that the papaya-infecting biotype evolved from the cucurbitaceae-infecting potyvirus, as has been previously suggested for PRSV. In addition, a similar evolutionary event acquiring infectivity to papaya may arise frequently in viruses in the family Cucurbitaceae. PMID:18943981

Maoka, Tetsuo; Hataya, Tatsuji

2005-02-01

334

Two-Year Chronic Oral-Toxicity Study with Low-Dose-Irradiated Papayas in Swiss White Mice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A two-year and three-generation reproduction study using Swiss white mice subjected to chronic oral administration of low-dose-irradiated papayas was conducted. There were no statistical differences in growth, body weight, food consumption, mortality, beh...

1971-01-01

335

Three-Generation Reproduction Study with Low Dose Irradiated Papayas in Albino Rats: Results of All Three Generations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A two year and three generation reproduction study employing albino rats subjected to chronic oral administration of low dose irradiated papayas was conducted. The results of the reproduction portion of the study are summarized. (ERA citation 08:001079)

P. S. Smith

1971-01-01

336

Fatty acids, coumarins and polyphenolic compounds of Ficus carica L. cv. Dottato: variation of bioactive compounds and biological activity of aerial parts.  

PubMed

Leaves, bark and woody part of Ficus carica L. cultivar Dottato collected in different months were examined to assess their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and phototoxicity on C32 human melanoma cells after UVA irradiation. The phytochemical investigation revealed different composition in the coumarin, fatty acid, polyphenol and flavonoid content. The second harvest of leaves and the first harvest of the bark possessed the highest antiradical activity with IC50 values of 64.00 ± 0.59 and 67.00 ± 1.09 ?g/mL, respectively. Harvest III of leaves showed the best inhibition of lipid peroxidation (IC50 = 1.48 ± 0.04 ?g/mL). Leaf samples of F. carica showed also the best antiproliferative activity in comparison with bark and woody part of F. carica. PMID:24087937

Marrelli, Mariangela; Statti, Giancarlo A; Tundis, Rosa; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

2014-01-01

337

Estimating species trees from unrooted gene trees.  

PubMed

In this study, we develop a distance method for inferring unrooted species trees from a collection of unrooted gene trees. The species tree is estimated by the neighbor joining (NJ) tree built from a distance matrix in which the distance between two species is defined as the average number of internodes between two species across gene trees, that is, average gene-tree internode distance. The distance method is named NJ(st) to distinguish it from the original NJ method. Under the coalescent model, we show that if gene trees are known or estimated correctly, the NJ(st) method is statistically consistent in estimating unrooted species trees. The simulation results suggest that NJ(st) and STAR (another coalescence-based method for inferring species trees) perform almost equally well in estimating topologies of species trees, whereas the Bayesian coalescence-based method, BEST, outperforms both NJ(st) and STAR. Unlike BEST and STAR, the NJ(st) method can take unrooted gene trees to infer species trees without using an outgroup. In addition, the NJ(st) method can handle missing data and is thus useful in phylogenomic studies in which data sets often contain missing loci for some individuals. PMID:21447481

Liu, Liang; Yu, Lili

2011-10-01

338

Papaya Ringspot Virus Resistance of Transgenic Rainbow and SunUp is Affected by Gene Dosage, Plant Development, and Coat Protein Homology  

Microsoft Academic Search

R1 plants of the transgenic papaya line 55-1, which expresses a single coat protein (CP) gene of the mild strain of the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) HA from Hawaii, were previously shown to be resistant only to PRSV isolates from Hawaii. Two transgenic papaya cultivars were subsequently derived from line 55-1. UH SunUp (SunUp) is homozygous for the CP gene

Paula Tennant; G. Fermin; M. M. Fitch; R. M. Manshardt; J. L. Slightom; D. Gonsalves

2001-01-01

339

N-terminal of Papaya ringspot virus type-W (PRSV-W) helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) is essential for PRSV systemic infection in zucchini  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is one of the limiting factors affecting papaya and cucurbits production worldwide. PRSV belongs to the potyvirus\\u000a genus which consists of 30% of known plant viruses. Two serological closely related strains, namely type-P and -W, have been\\u000a reported. PRSV type-P infects both papaya and cucurbits, while type-W infects only cucurbits. The genome of PRSV Thailand

Yun-Kiam Yap; Janejira Duangjit; Sakol Panyim

2009-01-01

340

Cell wall modification in 1-methylcyclopropene-treated post-climacteric fresh-cut and intact papaya fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya is a climacteric fruit in which ripening is greatly regulated by ethylene often associated with stress responses such\\u000a as wounding. The changes in cell wall compositions in papaya fruit at an advanced stage of ripening under stress conditions\\u000a including chilling temperature of 5°C and wounding employed as fresh-cut and how these changes were affected by an ethylene\\u000a action inhibitor

Muharrem Ergun; Yasar Karakurt; Donald J. Huber

341

Etiologia e estratégias de controle de viroses do mamoeiro no brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Etiology and control strategies of papaya virus diseases in Brazil The major disease problems affecting papaya (Carica papaya) throughout the world are caused by viruses. These diseases cause serious reductions in fruit production, even totally destroying affected orchards. Although more than ten different viruses have been registered in papaya world- wide, only three have been identified to date that naturally

ROBERTO C. A. LIMA; J. ALBERSIO A. LIMA; MANOEL T. SOUZA JR.; GILVAN PIO-RIBEIRO; GENIRA P. ANDRADE

2001-01-01

342

Growth and Respiratory Response of Fig (Ficus carica L. cv. Mission) Fruits to Ethylene.  

PubMed

Growth in diameter of the fig (Ficus carica L. cv. Mission) fruit takes place in three distinct periods; two periods (I and III) of rapid growth are separated by a period (II) of slow growth. With respect to exposure to ethylene, the fruit exhibits a two phase response. Ethylene inhibits fruit growth in phase A (period I), the period of cell division, stimulates growth in early phase B (early period II), and stimulates both growth and ripening during the remainder of phase B (late period II and period III). The adverse effect of exogenous ethylene on fruits during phase A is thought to be due to inhibition of cell division. The gradual transition occurring in the response of fruits during phase B was interpreted in terms of carbohydrate level in the fruits.The onset of period III and a respiratory climacteric rise was preceded by or concomitant with a sudden burst of endogenous ethylene synthesis. This, together with the fact that exogenous ethylene applied at the proper stage of fruit growth triggers both ripening and the climacteric rise, leads to the conclusion that ethylene is the causal agent. In other words, the data support the concept that ethylene is a growth hormone that initiates a chain of metabolic and physiological events leading to fig fruit ripening. PMID:16657774

Marei, N; Crane, J C

1971-09-01

343

Wound-healing activity of a proteolytic fraction from Carica candamarcensis on experimentally induced burn.  

PubMed

Carica candamarcensis is a species from the Caricaceae family whose immature fruit contains latex with large amounts of cysteine proteinases. In prior studies, we isolated two of these enzymes displaying mitogenic activity when incubated with L929 fibroblastic cells. One of the fractions containing these enzymes (P1G10) was shown to enhance wound healing of skin and to accelerate healing of chemically induced gastric ulcer. In this study we evaluate the effect of P1G10 on heat-induced, third-degree burn using a rodent model. The results show that 0.1% P1G10 accelerates epithelisation while the effect of 1% or 0.01% P1G10 is not significantly different to 1% silver sulphadiazine, 2% papain or the hydrosoluble vehicle used as control. In a double-blind randomised experiment comparing the healing response of 0.1%, 1% and the vehicle alone, we confirmed the enhanced healing property of P1G10. Histological analysis of burn-tissue sections following treatment with P1G10 support these observations. These results extend the healing properties of these groups of enzymes to a different type of trauma and open the way to future clinical applications. PMID:19577373

Gomes, Flávia S L; Spínola, Cássia de V; Ribeiro, Henrique A; Lopes, Miriam T P; Cassali, Geovanni D; Salas, Carlos E

2010-03-01

344

Multiscale hierarchical assembly strategy and mechanical prowess in conch shells (Busycon carica).  

PubMed

Seashells are natural body armors with superior mechanical strength and ultra-high toughness compared with their major constituent counterparts. What building blocks and architecture render seashells such mechanical prowess? In this study, micro/nanoscale structural and mechanical characterization of conch shells (Busycon carica) has been carried out. Here we show direct evidence that the previously claimed single-crystal third-order lamellae--the basic building blocks in conch shells are essentially assembled with aragonite nanoparticles of the size ranging from 20 to 45 nm. The nanoparticle-constructed third-order lamellae are not brittle, but ductile. The three-order crossed-lamellar architecture interlocks cracks via crack deflection along the interfaces in a three-dimensional manner, thus confining the damage in a small region. The findings advance the understanding of the mystery of conch shell's mechanical robustness, provide additional design guidelines for developing bioinspired nanomaterials, and lay a constitutive foundation for modeling the deformation behavior of seashells. PMID:24184467

Li, Haoze; Xu, Zhi-Hui; Li, Xiaodong

2013-12-01

345

Color and antioxidant characteristics of some fresh fig (Ficus carica L.) genotypes from northeastern Turkey.  

PubMed

Fruit skin color, total phenolics, total anthocyanins, soluble solids content, titratable acidity and total antioxidant capacity in fresh fruits of a number of local and well-known fig (Ficus carica L.) genotypes and cultivars grown in northeastern Turkey were determined. TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) assays were used to determine total antioxidant capacity. Fruit skin color of genotypes were found to be very diverse, i.e., light green, light purple, purple, dark purple and black. The content of total phenolics, soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity greatly varied in the range from 24 to 237 mg of gallic acid equivalent per 100 g fresh weight, 18.60 to 26.30 % and 0.16 to 0.47 % in local genotypes and studied cultivars. In general, total antioxidant capacities determined by two methods expressed higher values in the local fig genotypes compared with the cultivars. The results suggested that genotype is the main factor that determines difference in the composition of bioactive compounds in figs and provide information on putative health benefits locally grown genotypes. PMID:22618081

Ercisli, Sezai; Tosun, Murat; Karlidag, Huseyin; Dzubur, Ahmed; Hadziabulic, Semina; Aliman, Yasmina

2012-09-01

346

In vitro cytotoxic and antiviral activities of Ficus carica latex extracts.  

PubMed

The latex of fig fruit (Ficus carica) is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of skin infections such as warts and also diseases of possible viral origin. Five extracts (methanolic, hexanic, ethyl acetate, hexane-ethyl acetate (v/v) and chloroformic) of this species were investigated in vitro for their antiviral potential activity against herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1), echovirus type 11 (ECV-11) and adenovirus (ADV). To evaluate the capacity of the extracts to inhibit the replication of viruses, the following assays were performed: adsorption and penetration, intracellular inhibition and virucidal activity. Observation of cytopathic effects was used to determine the antiviral action. The hexanic and hexane-ethyl acetate (v/v) extracts inhibited multiplication of viruses by tested techniques at concentrations of 78 µg mL(-1). These two extracts were possible candidates as herbal medicines for herpes virus, echovirus and adenovirus infectious diseases. All extracts had no cytotoxic effect on Vero cells at all tested concentrations. PMID:21294043

Lazreg Aref, Houda; Gaaliche, Badii; Fekih, Abdelwaheb; Mars, Massoud; Aouni, Mahjoub; Pierre Chaumon, Jean; Said, Khaled

2011-02-01

347

Growth and Respiratory Response of Fig (Ficus carica L. cv. Mission) Fruits to Ethylene 1  

PubMed Central

Growth in diameter of the fig (Ficus carica L. cv. Mission) fruit takes place in three distinct periods; two periods (I and III) of rapid growth are separated by a period (II) of slow growth. With respect to exposure to ethylene, the fruit exhibits a two phase response. Ethylene inhibits fruit growth in phase A (period I), the period of cell division, stimulates growth in early phase B (early period II), and stimulates both growth and ripening during the remainder of phase B (late period II and period III). The adverse effect of exogenous ethylene on fruits during phase A is thought to be due to inhibition of cell division. The gradual transition occurring in the response of fruits during phase B was interpreted in terms of carbohydrate level in the fruits. The onset of period III and a respiratory climacteric rise was preceded by or concomitant with a sudden burst of endogenous ethylene synthesis. This, together with the fact that exogenous ethylene applied at the proper stage of fruit growth triggers both ripening and the climacteric rise, leads to the conclusion that ethylene is the causal agent. In other words, the data support the concept that ethylene is a growth hormone that initiates a chain of metabolic and physiological events leading to fig fruit ripening.

Marei, Nasr; Crane, Julian C.

1971-01-01

348

Categorizing ideas about trees: a tree of trees.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to explore whether matrices and MP trees used to produce systematic categories of organisms could be useful to produce categories of ideas in history of science. We study the history of the use of trees in systematics to represent the diversity of life from 1766 to 1991. We apply to those ideas a method inspired from coding homologous parts of organisms. We discretize conceptual parts of ideas, writings and drawings about trees contained in 41 main writings; we detect shared parts among authors and code them into a 91-characters matrix and use a tree representation to show who shares what with whom. In other words, we propose a hierarchical representation of the shared ideas about trees among authors: this produces a "tree of trees." Then, we categorize schools of tree-representations. Classical schools like "cladists" and "pheneticists" are recovered but others are not: "gradists" are separated into two blocks, one of them being called here "grade theoreticians." We propose new interesting categories like the "buffonian school," the "metaphoricians," and those using "strictly genealogical classifications." We consider that networks are not useful to represent shared ideas at the present step of the study. A cladogram is made for showing who is sharing what with whom, but also heterobathmy and homoplasy of characters. The present cladogram is not modelling processes of transmission of ideas about trees, and here it is mostly used to test for proximity of ideas of the same age and for categorization. PMID:23950877

Fisler, Marie; Lecointre, Guillaume

2013-01-01

349

Categorizing Ideas about Trees: A Tree of Trees  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to explore whether matrices and MP trees used to produce systematic categories of organisms could be useful to produce categories of ideas in history of science. We study the history of the use of trees in systematics to represent the diversity of life from 1766 to 1991. We apply to those ideas a method inspired from coding homologous parts of organisms. We discretize conceptual parts of ideas, writings and drawings about trees contained in 41 main writings; we detect shared parts among authors and code them into a 91-characters matrix and use a tree representation to show who shares what with whom. In other words, we propose a hierarchical representation of the shared ideas about trees among authors: this produces a “tree of trees.” Then, we categorize schools of tree-representations. Classical schools like “cladists” and “pheneticists” are recovered but others are not: “gradists” are separated into two blocks, one of them being called here “grade theoreticians.” We propose new interesting categories like the “buffonian school,” the “metaphoricians,” and those using “strictly genealogical classifications.” We consider that networks are not useful to represent shared ideas at the present step of the study. A cladogram is made for showing who is sharing what with whom, but also heterobathmy and homoplasy of characters. The present cladogram is not modelling processes of transmission of ideas about trees, and here it is mostly used to test for proximity of ideas of the same age and for categorization.

Fisler, Marie; Lecointre, Guillaume

2013-01-01

350

Additive similarity trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Similarity data can be represented by additive trees. In this model, objects are represented by the external nodes of a tree, and the dissimilarity between objects is the length of the path joining them. The additive tree is less restrictive than the ultrametric tree, commonly known as the hierarchical clustering scheme. The two representations are characterized and compared. A computer

Shmuel Sattath; Amos Tversky

1977-01-01

351

Asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular small RNA population of papaya  

PubMed Central

Background The small RNAs (sRNA) are a regulatory class of RNA mainly represented by the 21 and 24-nucleotide size classes. The cellular sRNAs are processed by RNase III family enzyme dicer (Dicer like in plant) from a self-complementary hairpin loop or other type of RNA duplexes. The papaya genome has been sequenced, but its microRNAs and other regulatory RNAs are yet to be analyzed. Results We analyzed the genomic features of the papaya sRNA population from three sRNA deep sequencing libraries made from leaves, flowers, and leaves infected with Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV). We also used the deep sequencing data to annotate the micro RNA (miRNA) in papaya. We identified 60 miRNAs, 24 of which were conserved in other species, and 36 of which were novel miRNAs specific to papaya. In contrast to the Chargaff’s purine-pyrimidine equilibrium, cellular sRNA was significantly biased towards a purine rich population. Of the two purine bases, higher frequency of adenine was present in 23nt or longer sRNAs, while 22nt or shorter sRNAs were over represented by guanine bases. However, this bias was not observed in the annotated miRNAs in plants. The 21nt species were expressed from fewer loci but expressed at higher levels relative to the 24nt species. The highly expressed 21nt species were clustered in a few isolated locations of the genome. The PRSV infected leaves showed higher accumulation of 21 and 22nt sRNA compared to uninfected leaves. We observed higher accumulation of miRNA* of seven annotated miRNAs in virus-infected tissue, indicating the potential function of miRNA* under stressed conditions. Conclusions We have identified 60 miRNAs in papaya. Our study revealed the asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular sRNA population. The 21nt species of sRNAs have higher expression levels than 24nt sRNA. The miRNA* of some miRNAs shows higher accumulation in PRSV infected tissues, suggesting that these strands are not totally functionally redundant. The findings open a new avenue for further investigation of the sRNA silencing pathway in plants.

2012-01-01

352

Tree Tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nature often replicates her processes at different scales of space and time in differing media. Here a tree-trunk cross section I am preparing for a dendrochronological display at the Battle Creek Cypress Swamp Nature Sanctuary (Calvert County, Maryland) dried and cracked in a way that replicates practically all the planform features found along the Mid-Oceanic Ridge (see Figure 1). The left-lateral offset of saw marks, contrasting with the right-lateral ``rift'' offset, even illustrates the distinction between transcurrent (strike-slip) and transform faults, the latter only recognized as a geologic feature, by J. Tuzo Wilson, in 1965. However, wood cracking is but one of many examples of natural processes that replicate one or several elements of lithospheric plate tectonics. Many of these examples occur in everyday venues and thus make great teaching aids, ``teachable'' from primary school to university levels. Plate tectonics, the dominant process of Earth geology, also occurs in miniature on the surface of some lava lakes, and as ``ice plate tectonics'' on our frozen seas and lakes. Ice tectonics also happens at larger spatial and temporal scales on the Jovian moons Europa and perhaps Ganymede. Tabletop plate tectonics, in which a molten-paraffin ``asthenosphere'' is surfaced by a skin of congealing wax ``plates,'' first replicated Mid-Oceanic Ridge type seafloor spreading more than three decades ago. A seismologist (J. Brune, personal communication, 2004) discovered wax plate tectonics by casually and serendipitously pulling a stick across a container of molten wax his wife and daughters had used in making candles. Brune and his student D. Oldenburg followed up and mirabile dictu published the results in Science (178, 301-304).

Vogt, Peter R.

2004-09-01

353

Use of papaya seeds as a biosorbent of methylene blue from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

In this study papaya seeds were used to remove methylene blue dye from aqueous solution. Papaya seeds were characterized as possessing a macro/mesoporous texture and large pore size. Studies were carried out in batches to evaluate the effect of contact time and pH (2-12) on the removal of dye. It was observed that the adsorption of dye was better in the basic region (pH 12). The equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Raduschkevich, Tempkin, Jovanovich, Redlich-Peterson, Sips, Toth and Radke-Prausnitz isotherms. The equilibrium data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm with a maximum adsorption capacity of 637.29 mg g(-1). Adsorption kinetic data were fitted using the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption kinetic is very fast and was best described by the pseudo-second-order model. PMID:23863440

Paz, Diego S; Baiotto, Alexandre; Schwaab, Marcio; Mazutti, Marcio A; Bassaco, Mariana M; Bertuol, Daniel A; Foletto, Edson L; Meili, Lucas

2013-01-01

354

Effect of the potassium permanganate during papaya fruit ripening: Ethylene production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on the ripening process of papaya fruits by monitoring the ethylene emission rates is reported. The ethylene emission was monitored by a photoacoustic spectrometer. Two experimental conditions were applied, being one of them just putting the fruit alone inside the sampling chamber and the second, modifying the atmosphere by the presence of KMnO4. The use of the ethylene absorber reduces the autocatalytic process of ethylene during papaya fruit ripening. For 20 g of KMnO4 the maximal intensity of the ethylene emission decreases by a factor two. Using the same amount of KMnO4, a reduction of about 2.2% in the concentration of ethylene for a mixture of 1ppmv of ethylene in synthetic air was observed.

Corrêa, S. F.; Filho, M. B.; da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Aroucha, E. M. M.; Silva, R. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

2005-06-01

355

Variability in the coat protein gene of Papaya ringspot virus isolates from multiple locations in India.  

PubMed

The coat protein (CP) sequences of eleven Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolates originating from different locations in India were determined, analysed and compared with the sequences of other isolates of PRSV. The virus isolates from India exhibited considerable heterogeneity in the CP sequences. The CP-coding region varied in size from 840-858 nucleotides, encoding protein of 280-286 amino acids. Comparative sequence analysis revealed that the PRSV isolates originating from India were divergent up to 11%. Though the PRSV isolates were differentiated in to two clusters, yet the sequence variation could not be correlated with the geographical origin of the isolates. Implication of the sequence variation in the coat protein derived transgenic resistance in papaya is discussed. PMID:15338325

Jain, R K; Sharma, J; Sivakumar, A S; Sharma, P K; Byadgi, A S; Verma, A K; Varma, A

2004-12-01

356

Genomics of helper component proteinase reveals effective strategy for papaya ringspot virus resistance.  

PubMed

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) causes severe economic losses in both cucurbits and papaya throughout the tropics and subtropics. Development of PRSV-resistant transgenic plants faces a major hurdle in achieving resistance against geographically distinct isolates. One of the major reasons of failing to achieve the broad-spectrum PRSV resistance is the involvement of silencing suppressor proteins of viral origin. Here, based on sequence profile of silencing suppressor protein, HcPro, we show that PRSV-HcPro, acts as a suppressor of RNA silencing through micro RNA binding in a dose- dependent manner. In planta expression of PRSV-HcPro affects developmental biology of plants, suggesting the interference of suppressor protein in micro RNA-directed regulatory pathways of plants. Besides facilitating the establishment of PRSV, it showed strong positive synergism with other heterologous viruses as well. This study provides a strategy to develop effective and stable PRSV-resistant transgenic plants. PMID:19672730

Mangrauthia, Satendra K; Singh, Priyanka; Praveen, Shelly

2010-01-01

357

Mode of action of chitosan coating on anthracnose disease control in papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a chitosan coating on antifungal activity and rate of respiration, chitinase and ?, 1-3 glucanase activities\\u000a with reference to papaya variety ‘Rathna’ was investigated. One percent chitosan, extracted from locally available prawn waste,\\u000a was selected as the effective concentration to inhibit spore germination via a series of experiments on potato dextrose agar.\\u000a Rate of respiration and the

Ilmi Ganga Namali Hewajulige; Yasmina Sultanbawa; R. Shanthi Wilson Wijeratnam; Ravindra L. C. Wijesundara

2009-01-01

358

Phenol induced by irradiation does not impair sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of radiation processing on the sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya exposed to doses in the range of 2.5-10 kGy and 100 Gy-2.5 kGy respectively was investigated. Despite an increase in the content of phenol in the volatile oil of these food products overall sensory quality of the irradiated and control samples was not significantly affected by radiation processing.

Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

2013-11-01

359

Hybrid 'Sinta' Papaya Exhibits Unique ACC Synthase 1 cDNA Isoforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five ripening-related ACC synthase cDNA isoforms were cloned from 80% ripe papaya cv. 'Sinta' by reverse transcription-PCR using gene-specific primers. Clone 2 had the longest transcript and contained all common exons and three alternative exons. Clones 3 and 4 contained common exons and one alternative exon each, while clone 1, the most common transcript, contained only the common exons. Clone

Marie-Sol P. Hidalgo; Evelyn Mae Tecson-Mendoza; Antonio C. Lauren; Jose Ramon Botella

2005-01-01

360

Effect of the potassium permanganate during papaya fruit ripening: Ethylene production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on the ripening process of papaya fruits by monitoring the ethylene emission rates is reported. The ethylene emission was monitored by a photoacoustic spectrometer. Two experimental conditions were applied, being one of them just putting the fruit alone inside the sampling chamber and the second, modifying the atmosphere by the presence of KMnO4. The

S. F. Corrêa; M. B. Filho; M. G. da Silva; J. G. Oliveira; E. M. M. Aroucha; R. F. Silva; M. G. Pereira; H. Vargas

2005-01-01

361

Benzylglucosinolate, benzylisothiocyanate, and myrosinase activity in papaya fruit during development and ripening.  

PubMed

Papaya is a climacteric fruit that has high amounts of benzylglucosinolates (BG) and benzylisothiocyanates (BITC), but information regarding levels of BG or BITC during fruit development and ripening is limited. Because BG and BITC are compounds of importance from both a nutritional and a crop yield standpoint, the aim of this work was to access data on the distribution and changes of BG and BITC levels during fruit development and ripening. BG and BITC levels were quantified in peel, pulp, and seeds of papaya fruit. Volatile BITC was also verified in the internal cavity of the fruit during ripening. The influence of the ethylene in BG and BITC levels and mirosinase activity was tested by exposing mature green fruits to ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). The highest BG levels were detected in seeds, followed by the peel and pulp being decreased in all tissues during fruit development. Similarly, the levels of BITC were much higher in the seeds than the peel and pulp. The levels of BG for control and ethylene-treated fruit were very similar, increasing in the pulp and peel during late ripening but not changing significantly in seeds. On the other hand, fruit exposed to 1-MCP showed a decrease in BG amount in the pulp and accumulation in seed. The treatments did not result in clear differences regarding the amount of BITC in the pulp and peel of the fruit. According to the results, ethylene does not have a clear effect on BITC accumulation in ripening papaya fruit. The fact that BG levels in the pulp did not decrease during ripening, regardless of the treatment employed, and that papaya is consumed mainly as fresh fruit, speaks in favor of this fruit as a good dietary source for glucosinolate and isothiocyanates. PMID:18826320

Rossetto, Maria Rosecler Miranda; Oliveira do Nascimento, João Roberto; Purgatto, Eduardo; Fabi, João Paulo; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

2008-10-22

362

Ripening of mountain papaya ( Vasconcellea pubescens) and ethylene dependence of some ripening events  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first noticeable event during the ripening of mountain papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens) is the rapid degreening of the skin, followed by climacteric ethylene and flesh softening. When ethylene perception is blocked by 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, 0.3?ll?1 for 16h at 20°C), the increase in ethylene evolution is avoided, and softening and color development are partially delayed. This indicates that ethylene perception is

Mar??a Alejandra Moya-León; Mario Moya; Raúl Herrera

2004-01-01

363

Characterization of benzyl isothiocyanate and phenyl acetonitrile from papayas by mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Two unidentified analytical responses in a papaya extract were structurally determined by mass spectrometry to be benzyl isothiocyanate and phenyl acetonitrile. Both these compounds have previously been shown to result from degradation of benzylglucosinolate that occurs naturally in the seeds of the fruit. Characterization by mass spectrometry has now provided a convenient mechanism to detect both these degradation compounds in extracts resulting from routine pesticide residue analysis. PMID:3391960

Cairns, T; Siegmund, E G; Stamp, J J; Jacobs, R M

1988-01-01

364

Line 63-1: A New Virus-resistant Transgenic Papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disease resistance of a transgenic line expressing the coat protein (CP) gene of the mild strain of the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) from Hawaii was further analyzed against PRSV isolates from Hawaii and other geographical regions. Line 63-1 originated from the same transformation experiment that resulted in line 55-1 from which the transgenic commercial cultivars, `Rainbow' and `SunUp', were

P. Tennant; M. T. Souza; M. M. Fitch; R. Manshardt; J. L. Slightom; D. Gonsalves

2005-01-01

365

Generation of transgenic watermelon resistant to Zucchini yellow mosaic virus and Papaya ringspot virus type W  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV W) are major limiting factors for production of watermelon worldwide. For the effective control of these two\\u000a viruses by transgenic resistance, an untranslatable chimeric construct containing truncated ZYMV coat protein (CP) and PRSV\\u000a W CP genes was transferred to commercial watermelon cultivars by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Using our protocol,

Tsong-Ann Yu; Chu-Hui Chiang; Hui-Wen Wu; Chin-Mei Li; Ching-Fu Yang; Jun-Han Chen; Yu-Wen Chen; Shyi-Dong Yeh

2011-01-01

366

Methods for screening watermelon for resistance to papaya ringspot virus type-W  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) affects all agriculturally important species of the Cucurbitaceae, and is of economic interest because of its destructiveness. The objective of this study was to develop a consistent and reliable method to screen watermelon for resistance to PRSV-W. PRSV-W isolates 1637, 1870, 2030, 2038, 2040, 2052, 2169, 2201, 2207, and W-1A were maintained in ‘Gray Zucchini’

Nihat Guner; E. Bruton Strange; Todd C. Wehner; Zvezdana Pesic-VanEsbroeck

2002-01-01

367

Variability in the coat protein gene of Papaya ringspot virus isolates from multiple locations in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The coat protein (CP) sequences of eleven Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolates originating from different locations in India were determined, analysed and compared with the sequences of other isolates of PRSV. The virus isolates from India exhibited considerable heterogeneity in the CP sequences. The CP-coding region varied in size from 840–858 nucleotides, encoding protein of 280–286 amino acids. Comparative

R. K. Jain; J. Sharma; A. S. Sivakumar; P. K. Sharma; A. S. Byadgi; A. K. Verma; A. Varma

2004-01-01

368

Sequencing papaya X and Yh chromosomes reveals molecular basis of incipient sex chromosome evolution  

PubMed Central

Sex determination in papaya is controlled by a recently evolved XY chromosome pair, with two slightly different Y chromosomes controlling the development of males (Y) and hermaphrodites (Yh). To study the events of early sex chromosome evolution, we sequenced the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome (HSY) and its X counterpart, yielding an 8.1-megabase (Mb) HSY pseudomolecule, and a 3.5-Mb sequence for the corresponding X region. The HSY is larger than the X region, mostly due to retrotransposon insertions. The papaya HSY differs from the X region by two large-scale inversions, the first of which likely caused the recombination suppression between the X and Yh chromosomes, followed by numerous additional chromosomal rearrangements. Altogether, including the X and/or HSY regions, 124 transcription units were annotated, including 50 functional pairs present in both the X and HSY. Ten HSY genes had functional homologs elsewhere in the papaya autosomal regions, suggesting movement of genes onto the HSY, whereas the X region had none. Sequence divergence between 70 transcripts shared by the X and HSY revealed two evolutionary strata in the X chromosome, corresponding to the two inversions on the HSY, the older of which evolved about 7.0 million years ago. Gene content differences between the HSY and X are greatest in the older stratum, whereas the gene content and order of the collinear regions are identical. Our findings support theoretical models of early sex chromosome evolution.

Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Yu, Qingyi; Gschwend, Andrea R.; Han, Jennifer; Zeng, Fanchang; Aryal, Rishi; VanBuren, Robert; Murray, Jan E.; Zhang, Wenli; Navajas-Perez, Rafael; Feltus, F. Alex; Lemke, Cornelia; Tong, Eric J.; Chen, Cuixia; Man Wai, Ching; Singh, Ratnesh; Wang, Ming-Li; Min, Xiang Jia; Alam, Maqsudul; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H.; Jiang, Jiming; Paterson, Andrew H.; Ming, Ray

2012-01-01

369

PAPAyA: a platform for breast cancer biomarker signature discovery, evaluation and assessment  

PubMed Central

Background The decision environment for cancer care is becoming increasingly complex due to the discovery and development of novel genomic tests that offer information regarding therapy response, prognosis and monitoring, in addition to traditional histopathology. There is, therefore, a need for translational clinical tools based on molecular bioinformatics, particularly in current cancer care, that can acquire, analyze the data, and interpret and present information from multiple diagnostic modalities to help the clinician make effective decisions. Results We present a platform for molecular signature discovery and clinical decision support that relies on genomic and epigenomic measurement modalities as well as clinical parameters such as histopathological results and survival information. Our Physician Accessible Preclinical Analytics Application (PAPAyA) integrates a powerful set of statistical and machine learning tools that leverage the connections among the different modalities. It is easily extendable and reconfigurable to support integration of existing research methods and tools into powerful data analysis and interpretation pipelines. A current configuration of PAPAyA with examples of its performance on breast cancer molecular profiles is used to present the platform in action. Conclusion PAPAyA enables analysis of data from (pre)clinical studies, formulation of new clinical hypotheses, and facilitates clinical decision support by abstracting molecular profiles for clinicians.

Janevski, Angel; Kamalakaran, Sitharthan; Banerjee, Nilanjana; Varadan, Vinay; Dimitrova, Nevenka

2009-01-01

370

Complete genome of Hainan papaya ringspot virus using small RNA deep sequencing.  

PubMed

Small RNA deep sequencing allows for virus identification, virus genome assembly, and strain differentiation. In this study, papaya plants with virus-like symptoms collected in Hainan province were used for deep sequencing and small RNA library construction. After in silicon subtraction of the papaya sRNAs, small RNA reads were used to in the viral genome assembly using a reference-guided, iterative assembly approach. A nearly complete genome was assembled for a Hainan isolate of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-HN-2). The complete PRSV-HN-2 genome (accession no.: KF734962) was obtained after a 15-nucleotide gap was filled by direct sequencing of the amplified genomic region. Direct sequencing of several random genomic regions of the PRSV isolate did not find any sequence discrepancy with the sRNA-assembled genome. The newly sequenced PRSV-HN-2 genome shared a nucleotide identity of 96 and 94 % to that of the PRSV-HN (EF183499) and PRSV-HN-1 (HQ424465) isolates, and together with these two isolates formed a new PRSV clade. These data demonstrate that the small RNA deep sequencing technology provides a viable and rapid mean to assemble complete viral genomes in plants. PMID:24510356

Zhang, Yuliang; Yu, Naitong; Huang, Qixing; Yin, Guohua; Guo, Anping; Wang, Xiangfeng; Xiong, Zhongguo; Liu, Zhixin

2014-06-01

371

Engineered Mild Strains of Papaya ringspot virus for Broader Cross Protection in Cucurbits.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) HA5-1, a mild mutant of type P Hawaii severe strain (PRSV P-HA), has been widely used for the control of PRSV type P strains in papaya, but did not provide practical protection against PRSV type W strains in cucurbits. In order to widen the protection effectiveness against W strains, chimeric mild strains were constructed from HA5-1 to carry the heterologous 3' genomic region of a type W strain W-CI. Virus accumulation of recombinants and their crossprotection effectiveness against W-CI and P-HA were investigated. In horn melon and squash plants, the recombinant carrying both the heterologous coat protein (CP) coding region and the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR), but not the heterologous CP coding region alone, significantly enhanced the protection against W-CI. The heterologous 3'UTR alone is critical for the enhancement of the protection against W-CI in horn melon, but not in zucchini squash. In papaya, the heterologous CP coding region or 3'UTR alone, but not both together, significantly reduced the effectiveness of cross protection against P-HA. Our recombinants provide broader protection against both type W and P strains in cucurbits; however, the protective effectiveness is also affected by virus accumulation, the organization of the 3' genomic region, and host factors. PMID:18943319

You, Bang-Jau; Chiang, Chu-Hui; Chen, Li-Fang; Su, Wei-Chih; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

2005-05-01

372

Effects of ozone exposure on ‘Golden’ papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of ‘Golden’ papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring

Leonardo Mota; Luisa Brito Paiva; Fla´vio Mota do Couto; Marcelo Gomes da Silva; Marcelo Silva Sthel; Helion Vargas; Andra´s Miklo´s

2011-01-01

373

Effects of ozone exposure on `Golden' papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of `Golden' papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring

Savio Figueira Corrêa; Leonardo Mota; Luisa Brito Paiva; Flávio Mota Do Couto; Marcelo Gomes Da Silva; Jurandi Gonçalves De Oliveira; Marcelo Silva Sthel; Helion Vargas; András Miklós

2011-01-01

374

AMADURECIMENTO DE MAMÃO FORMOSA COM REVESTIMENTO COMESTÍVEL À BASE DE FÉCULA DE MANDIOCA Formosa papaya ripening with edible coating of cassava starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya is a perishable fruit, of short shelf-life. New technologies of conservation of horticultural products with the possibility of being used in organic systems have been developed, such as the edible coatings that can be eaten with the product. In this work it was evaluated Tainung 1 Formosa type papaya ripening at room temperature and coated with edible cassava starch

Márcio Eduardo; Canto Pereira; Aurivan Santana da Silva; Aline Simões da Rocha Bispo; Djalma Barbosa; Silvia Barbosa; Vânia Jesus dos Santos

375

Sequence similarity between the cp gene and the transgene in transgenic papayas = Similaridade de seqüência entre o gene cp do vírus e do transgene presente em mamoeiros transgênicos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) coat protein transgene present in 'Rainbow' and 'SunUp' papayas disclose high sequence similarity (>89%) to the cp gene from PRSV BR and TH. Despite this, both isolates are able to break down the resistance in 'Rainbow', while only the latter is able to do so in 'SunUp'. The objective of this work was to evaluate

M. T. Souza; M. Teixeira; D. Gonsalves

2005-01-01

376

Protective Role of Ficus carica Stem Extract against Hepatic Oxidative Damage Induced by Methanol in Male Wistar Rats  

PubMed Central

The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of Ficus carica stem extract (FE) in methanol-induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into two batches: 16 control rats (C) drinking tap water and 16 treated rats drinking Ficus carica stem extract for six weeks. Then, each group was divided into two subgroups, and one of them was intraperitoneally injected (i.p.) daily methanol at a dose of 2.37?g/kg body weight i.p. for 30 days, for four weeks. The results showed that FE was found to contain large amounts of polyphenols and carotenoids. The treatment with methanol exhibited a significant increase of serum hepatic biochemical parameters (ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH) and hepatic lipid peroxidation. Hepatic antioxidant enzymes, namely, SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px, were significantly decreased in methanol-treated animals. FE treatment prior to methanol intoxication has significant role in protecting animals from methanol-induced hepatic oxidative damage.

Saoudi, Mongi; El Feki, Abdelfattah

2012-01-01

377

DNA extraction method using a silica-base resin type kit for the detection of genetically modified papaya.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) papaya has not yet been approved for importation into, or cultivation in the European Union (EU) and Japan. A DNA extraction method using the Qiagen DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (PM method) and a method using a buffer containing cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB method) have been adopted as the official Japanese methods for detecting GM foods. However, the amounts of DNA extracted from papaya by these methods are very low. Therefore, we investigated an extraction method to obtain a high yield of DNA from raw or freeze-dried fresh papaya using the Promega Wizard DNA Clean-Up Resin System (WCR). The incubation for the extraction was carried out at 58 degrees C without proteinase K for 15 min. The extract was applied to a mini-column, then the column was washed with 80% isopropyl alcohol, and genomic DNA adsorbed on the column was eluted with TE buffer. The WCR method gave a higher yield of genomic DNA, and was simpler and faster than the PM method or CTAB method. In addition, it could be used to extract genomic DNA from fresh papaya at various stages of ripeness. Based on these results, we propose that the present method using WCR is the most practical and useful way to extract genomic DNA for the purpose of detecting GM papaya. PMID:18503240

Ohmori, Kiyomi; Tsuchiya, Hisayo; Watanabe, Takahiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio; Yamada, Toshiharu; Hirayama, Kuni; Satoh, Shuji

2008-04-01

378

Visibility Representations of Trees.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Trees are among the most common structures in computing and many algorithms for drawing trees have been developed in the last years. Such algorithms usually adopt different drawing conventions and attempt to solve several optimization problems. The aim of...

G. Kant G. Liotta R. Tamassia I. G. Tollis

1996-01-01

379

Chem-Is-Tree.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides details on the chemical composition of trees including a definition of wood. Also includes an activity on anthocyanins as well as a discussion of the resistance of wood to solvents and chemicals. Lists interesting products from trees. (DDR)

Barry, Dana M.

1997-01-01

380

Tropical Tree Seed Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Tropical Tree Seed Manual is a one-volume reference manual for students, technicians, and scientists that provides comprehensive internationally compiled data about tropical trees. The emphasis is on species of the Americas; however, a number of tropi...

J. A. Vozzo

2002-01-01

381

Evolution of tree nutrition.  

PubMed

Using a broad definition of trees, the evolutionary origins of trees in a nutritional context is considered using data from the fossil record and molecular phylogeny. Trees are first known from the Late Devonian about 380 million years ago, originated polyphyletically at the pteridophyte grade of organization; the earliest gymnosperms were trees, and trees are polyphyletic in the angiosperms. Nutrient transporters, assimilatory pathways, homoiohydry (cuticle, intercellular gas spaces, stomata, endohydric water transport systems including xylem and phloem-like tissue) and arbuscular mycorrhizas preceded the origin of trees. Nutritional innovations that began uniquely in trees were the seed habit and, certainly (but not necessarily uniquely) in trees, ectomycorrhizas, cyanobacterial, actinorhizal and rhizobial (Parasponia, some legumes) diazotrophic symbioses and cluster roots. PMID:20581011

Raven, John A; Andrews, Mitchell

2010-09-01

382

Tea tree oil  

MedlinePLUS

... of the nail (onychomycosis), lice, scabies, athlete’s foot (tinea pedis), and ringworm. It is also used topically as ... TEA TREE OIL are as follows:Athlete’s foot (tinea pedis). Topical application of a 10% tea tree oil ...

383

Pine tree forest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The pine tree demonstrates the differences among gymnosperms and bryophytes and seedless vascular plants. Pine trees have separate cones with pollen and ovulates. Wind blows the pollen onto the ovulate cone and seeds are produced.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-13

384

Directed TreeWidth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We generalize the concept of tree-width to directed graphs and prove that every directed graph with no “haven” of large order has small tree-width. Conversely, a digraph with a large haven has large tree-width. We also show that the Hamilton cycle problem and other NP-hard problems can be solved in polynomial time when restricted to digraphs of bounded tree-width.

Thor Johnson; Neil Robertson; Paul D. Seymour; Robin Thomas

2001-01-01

385

Build a Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on pages 13-18) has learners build a model tree and then figure out how to make their tree stand up by itself. This illustrates how the tall rain forest trees adapt to support a huge trunk and heavy branches, while also sending their roots out instead of down. Trees built in this activity can be used for the Rain Forest in Your Room activity that is also part of the Wonderwise Rain Forest Ecologist Activity Book.

Museum, University O.; Nebraska Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development

2001-01-01

386

Graded Brauer Tree Algebras  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we construct non-negative gradings on a basic Brauer tree algebra $A_{\\\\Gamma}$ corresponding to an arbitrary Brauer tree $\\\\Gamma$ of type $(m,e)$. We do this by transferring gradings via derived equivalence from a basic Brauer tree algebra $A_S$, whose tree is a star with the exceptional vertex in the middle, to $A_{\\\\Gamma}$. The grading on $A_S$ comes from

Dusko Bogdanic

2008-01-01

387

Diary of a Tree.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an activity to develop students' skills of observation and recordkeeping by studying the growth of a tree's leaves during the spring. Children monitor the growth of 11 tress over a 2-month period, draw pictures of the tree at different stages of growth, and write diaries of the tree's growth. (MDH)

Srulowitz, Frances

1992-01-01

388

Structural Equation Model Trees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree

Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

2013-01-01

389

Nectarine tree, "Kam Red"  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A new and distinct nectarine tree denominated varietally as "Kam Red" and generally resembling the Flamekist nectarine tree (unpatented) but bearing a freestone fruit which is mature for harvesting and shipment approximately five to six days earlier than that of the Flamekist nectarine tree in the San Joaquin Valley of Central California.

1989-06-20

390

Macro Tree Transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macro tree transducers are a combination of top-down tree transducers and macro grammars. They serve as a model for syntax-directed semantics in which context information can be handled. In this paper the formal model of macro tree transducers is studied by investigating typical automata theoretical topics like composition, decomposition, domains, and ranges of the induced translation classes. The extension with

Joost Engelfriet; Heiko Vogler

1985-01-01

391

RC trees revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

RC tree approximation is a computationally simple method for calculating the signal delay of MOS circuits with several states of fanout. The author derives a formal solution of RC tree equations. Based on this solution, it is shown that even though waveforms found using RC tree approximation are inaccurate, delays are exact. The author derives the dependence of the delays

Mehinet A. Cirit

1988-01-01

392

Detection of platypus-type L/D-peptide isomerase activity in aqueous extracts of papaya fruit.  

PubMed

Peptide isomerase catalyses the post-translational isomerisation of the L: - to the D: -form of an amino acid residue around the N/C-termini of substrate peptides. To date, some peptide isomerases have been found in a limited number of animal secretions and cells. We show here that papaya extracts have weak peptide isomerase activity. The activity was detected in each 30-100 kDa fraction of the flesh and the seed extracts of unripe and ripe papaya fruit. The definitive activity was confirmed in the ripe papaya extracts, but even then it was much less active than that of the other peptide isomerases previously reported. The activity was markedly inhibited by methanol, and partly so by amastatin and diethyl pyrocarbonate. This is the first report of peptide isomerase activity in a plant and suggests that perhaps every living organism may have some peptide isomerase activity. PMID:22648682

Arakawa, Kensuke; Koh, Jennifer M S; Crossett, Ben; Torres, Allan M; Kuchel, Philip W

2012-09-01

393

STRESS MANAGEMENT FOR TREES1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive stress is a common cause of tree mor- tality in the urban environment. People must take positive steps to minimize and avoid stress on trees if urban shade trees are to survive and grow. Stress kills trees. However, stress is also part of the environment of all trees and a stress-free con- dition for a tree can only exist

Terry A. Tattar

1983-01-01

394

Growth of a Pine Tree  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

Rollinson, Susan Wells

2012-01-01

395

Reversible adaptive trees.  

PubMed

We describe reversible adaptive trees, a class of stochastic algorithms modified from the formerly described adaptive trees. They evolve in time a finite subset of an ambient Euclidean space of any dimension, starting from a seed point and, accreting points to the evolving set, they grow branches towards a target set which can depend on time. In contrast with plain adaptive trees, which were formerly proven to have strong convergence properties to a static target, the points of reversible adaptive trees are removed from the tree when they have not been used recently enough in a path from the root to an accreted point. This, together with a straightening process performed on the branches, permits the tree to follow some moving targets and still remain adapted to it. We then discuss in what way one can see such reversible trees as a model for a qualitative property of resilience, which leads us to discuss qualitative modeling. PMID:23934230

Kergosien, Yannick L

2013-09-01

396

Evaluation of new reference genes in papaya for accurate transcript normalization under different experimental conditions.  

PubMed

Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) is a preferred method for rapid and accurate quantification of gene expression studies. Appropriate application of RT-qPCR requires accurate normalization though the use of reference genes. As no single reference gene is universally suitable for all experiments, thus reference gene(s) validation under different experimental conditions is crucial for RT-qPCR analysis. To date, only a few studies on reference genes have been done in other plants but none in papaya. In the present work, we selected 21 candidate reference genes, and evaluated their expression stability in 246 papaya fruit samples using three algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder. The samples consisted of 13 sets collected under different experimental conditions, including various tissues, different storage temperatures, different cultivars, developmental stages, postharvest ripening, modified atmosphere packaging, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment, hot water treatment, biotic stress and hormone treatment. Our results demonstrated that expression stability varied greatly between reference genes and that different suitable reference gene(s) or combination of reference genes for normalization should be validated according to the experimental conditions. In general, the internal reference genes EIF (Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A), TBP1 (TATA binding protein 1) and TBP2 (TATA binding protein 2) genes had a good performance under most experimental conditions, whereas the most widely present used reference genes, ACTIN (Actin 2), 18S rRNA (18S ribosomal RNA) and GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) were not suitable in many experimental conditions. In addition, two commonly used programs, geNorm and Normfinder, were proved sufficient for the validation. This work provides the first systematic analysis for the selection of superior reference genes for accurate transcript normalization in papaya under different experimental conditions. PMID:22952972

Zhu, Xiaoyang; Li, Xueping; Chen, Weixin; Chen, Jianye; Lu, Wangjin; Chen, Lei; Fu, Danwen

2012-01-01

397

Survival of SA11 rotavirus in fresh fruit juices of pineapple, papaya, and honeydew melon.  

PubMed

Survival of rotavirus in fresh fruit juices of papaya (Caraca papaya L.), honeydew melon (Cucumis melo L.), and pineapple (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr.) was studied. Clarified juices were prepared from pulps of ripe fruits and sterilized by ultrafiltration. One milliliter of juice from each fruit was inoculated with 20 microl of 1 x 10(6) PFU of SA11 rotavirus and sampled immediately (0-h exposure) and 1 and 3 h later at 28 degrees C. Mean viral titers in juices of papaya (pH 5.1) and honeydew melon (pH 6.3) at 1 and 3 h were not significantly different from titers at 0-h exposure. Mean viral titers in juices from pineapples with ripening color indices of 3 (pH 3.6) and 6 (pH 3.7) at 1-h exposure (color index 3: 4.0 +/- 1.7 x 10(4); color index 6: 2.3 +/- 0.3 x 10(5)) and 3-h exposure (color index 3: 1.1 +/- 0.4 x 10(4); color index 6:1.3 +/- 0.6 x 10(5)) were significantly lower than titers at 0-h exposure (color index 3: 5.7 +/- 2.9 x 10(5); color index 6: 7.4 +/- 1.3 x 10(5)). Virus titers in pineapple juices of color index 3 were significantly lower than titers of the virus in juices of index 6. In cell culture medium (pH 7.4), SA11 titer remained stable over 3 h at 28 degrees C. However, at pH 3.6, the virus titer was reduced to a level not significantly different from that of the virus in pineapple juice of color index 6 (pH 3.7). In conclusion, papaya and honeydew melon juices, in contrast to pineapple juice, have the potential to transmit rotavirus. Inactivation of SA11 virus in pineapple juice can be possibly attributed to low pH and constituent(s) in the juice. PMID:18522042

Leong, Yap Kok; Xui, Ong Chiaw; Chia, Ong Kien

2008-05-01

398

Holiday Factor Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To review the idea of factor trees and prime factorization I have the students make Holiday Factor Trees. I created a template that looks like a Christmas tree that the students can trace out. We use green paper for the top of the tree and brown paper for the trunk of the tree. Each student then picks a number to find the prime factorization for. It might be helpful to assign each student a number; therefore, they do not all end up doing the same number. I then have the students make a star for the top of their tree which they write their assigned number on. Next, they cut out construction paper bulbs that become the factors on their factor tree. (Pre cut stars and bulbs may be helpful for this as well). You can choose to do any color bulbs, but one thing that I had my student do was to use the same color for the prime numbers at the bottom of the tree therefore prime factors stand out and look unified. On the trunk of the tree the students also wrote the final prime factorization using exponents. Example:1 Yellow Star: 644 multicolored Bulbs: 8, 8,4,46 Red Prime Factors Bulbs: 2,2,2,2,2,2,

2011-12-06

399

Chem-Is-Tree  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trees are woody plants that contain chemicals and undergo chemical reactions. They consist of cellulose, volatile oils, fatty acids, and more. Wood is obtained from the stems, roots, and branches of trees. It is not a homogeneous material with a uniform structure but instead a tissue of different kinds of cells which perform specific functions in the living plant. Trees are of great importance. They provide oxygen which results from photosynthesis taking place in their leaves. In addition, trees supply us with interesting products such as vanilla flavoring and natural-rubber used in cements, adhesives, vehicle tires and shoes.

Barry, Dana M.

1997-10-01

400

Construction of Papaya Male and Female BAC Libraries and Application in Physical Mapping of the Sex Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Papaya is a major fruit crop in the tropics and has recently evolved sex chromosomes. Towards sequencing the papaya sex chromosomes, two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries were constructed from papaya male and female genomic DNA. The female BAC library was constructed using restriction enzyme BstY I and consists of 36,864 clones with an average insert size of 104?kb, providing 10.3x genome equivalents. The male BAC library was constructed using restriction enzyme EcoR I and consists of 55,296 clones with an average insert size of 101?kb, providing 15.0x genome equivalents. The male BAC library was used in constructing the physical map of the male-specific region of the male Y chromosome (MSY) and in filling gaps and extending the physical map of the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome (HSY) and the X chromosome physical map. The female BAC library was used to extend the X physical map gap. The MSY, HSY, and X physical maps offer a unique opportunity to study chromosomal rearrangements, Y chromosome degeneration, and dosage compensation of the papaya nascent sex chromosomes.

Gschwend, Andrea R.; Yu, Qingyi; Moore, Paul; Saski, Christopher; Chen, Cuixia; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Ming, Ray

2011-01-01

401

A matrix solid-phase dispersion method for the extraction of seven pesticides from mango and papaya.  

PubMed

A simple and effective extraction method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion was developed to determine trichlorfon, pyrimethanil, methyl parathion, tetraconazole, thiabendazole, imazalil, and tebuconazole in papaya and mango using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring. Different parameters of the method were evaluated, such as type of solid-phase (silica-gel, neutral alumina, and Florisil), the amount of solid-phase, and eluent [dichloromethane, ethyl acetate-dichloromethane (4:1, 1:4, 1:1, 2:3, v/v)]. The best results were obtained using 2.0 g of mango or papaya, 3.0 g of silica as dispersant sorbent, and ethyl acetate-dichloromethane (1:1, v/v) as eluting solvent. The method was validated using mango and papaya samples fortified with pesticides at different concentration levels (0.05, 0.10, and 1.0 mg/kg). Average recoveries (4 replicates) ranged from 80% to 146%, with relative standard deviations between 1.0% and 28%. Detection and quantification limits for mango and papaya ranged from 0.01 to 0.03 mg/kg and 0.05 to 0.10 mg/kg, respectively. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of these compounds in commercial fruit samples from a local market (Aracaju/SE, Brazil), and residues of the pesticides were not detected on the samples. PMID:20875237

Navickiene, Sandro; Aquino, Adriano; Bezerra, Débora Santos Silva

2010-10-01

402

Effects of Ozone in Combination with Hydrothermal Treatment and Wax on Physical and Chemical Properties of Papayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effects of ozone in combination with hydrothermal treatment and wax on physical and chemical properties of papayas. The ozone concentrations used in this study were 2 and 4 mg\\/L. Heat treatments were applied with a hot water brushing system at temperatures of 45, 55 and 65 °C. No mold was observed under the wax film of

Carolina Pereira Kechinski; Cândida Raquel Sherrer Montero; Caciano Pelajo Zapata Noreña; Isabel Cristina Tessaro; Lígia Damasceno Ferreira Marczak; Renar João Bender

2012-01-01

403

Effect of ozone pre-conditioning on quality and antioxidant capacity of papaya fruit during ambient storage.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the physico-chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of ozone-treated papaya fruit and untreated fruit. Freshly harvested papaya fruit were exposed continuously to ozone fumigation (0, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 5ppm) for 96h prior to ambient storage at 25±3°C and 70±5% relative humidity (RH) for up to 14days. The fruit exposed to 2.5ppm ozone had higher levels of total soluble solids (25.0%), ascorbic acid content (12.4%), ?-carotene content (19.6%), lycopene content (52.1%), and antioxidant activity (30.9%), and also reduced weight loss (11.5%) at day 10 compared to the control. The sensory attributes of papaya treated with 2.5ppm ozone was superior in sweetness and overall acceptability. These results support the application of ozone as a non-thermal and safe food preservation technique for papaya which can benefit both the producers and consumers. PMID:24001808

Ali, Asgar; Ong, Mei Kying; Forney, Charles F

2014-01-01

404

National Register of Big Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most trees can outlive us. Even so, it's not unusual for trees to succumb to disease, insects, over development and drought. So it's especially meaningful when a tree reaches a good old age. Here you'll find out all about the oldest trees on earth, as well as have the opportunity to nominate a old tree you might know.

Forests, American

405

Subsite differences between the active centres of papaya peptidase A and papain as revealed by affinity chromatography. Purification of papaya peptidase A by ionic-strength-dependent affinity adsorption on an immobilized peptide inhibitor of papain.  

PubMed Central

An affinity column consisting of the specific peptide inhibitor of papain, Gly-Gly (O-benzyl)Tyr-Arg, attached to Sepharose was found to bind the active thiol proteinase papaya peptidase A specifically, but only at an ionic strength significantly higher than the one at which papain is bound. When a mixture of active papaya peptidase A and its irreversibly oxidized contaminant was applied to the column, the active enzyme was bound whereas the inactive material was not. The bound enzyme was released by deionized water and found to contain 1 mol of SH group/mol of protein. The different conditions required for the binding of the two enzymes to the immobilized peptide was shown to reflect different ionic-strength-dependences of the affinity of the two enzymes for the peptide in solution. Whereas the affinity of papain for the inhibitor appears to be insensitive to ionic strength over the range studied, that of papaya peptidase A is ionic-strength-dependent and always lower than that of papain. A rate assay is devised for papaya peptidase A with N-benzyloxycarbonylglycine p-nitrophenyl ester as the substrate at pH 5.5. After calibration against an active-site titration the assay yields the thiol-group concentration without interference from inactive contaminants. For the papaya peptidase A-catalysed hydrolysis of N-benzyloxycarbonylglycine p-nitrophenyl ester at pH 5.5 kcat. was found to be 16.7s-1, which is about 3 times the value found for the same reaction catalysed by papain.

Schack, P; Kaarsholm, N C

1984-01-01

406

Fig latex (Ficus carica L. cultivar Dottato) in combination with UV irradiation decreases the viability of A375 melanoma cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers are among the most prevalent cancers in the human population. In the present work latex of Ficus carica cultivar Dottato from Italy collected from fruits and leaves was examined to assess its free radical-scavenging activity with 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and its phototoxicity on A375 human melanoma cells. The latex obtained from the fruits of Ficus carica cv. Dottato showed the best antiradical activity with an IC50 value of 0.05 mg/ml while the latex obtained from the leaves showed the best antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 1.5 ?g/ml on the human tumor cell line A375 (melanoma) after irradiation at a specific UVA dose (1.08 J/cm2). Control experiments with UVA light or drugs alone were carried out without significant cytotoxic effects. Polyphenolic content of the samples was also evaluated. This is the first study comparing F. carica latex of leaves and fruits. Plant derived natural products have long been and will continue to be an important source for anticancer drug development. PMID:22339064

Menichini, Giulio; Alfano, Carmine; Provenzano, Eugenio; Marrelli, Mariangela; Statti, Giancarlo A; Somma, Francesco; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

2012-10-01

407

Molecular characterization and infectivity of Papaya leaf curl China virus infecting tomato in China*  

PubMed Central

Papaya leaf curl China virus (PaLCuCNV) was previously reported as a distinct begomovirus infecting papaya in southern China. Based on molecular diagnostic survey, 13 PaLCuCNV isolates were obtained from tomato plants showing leaf curl symptoms in Henan and Guangxi Provinces of China. Complete nucleotide sequences of 5 representative isolates (AJ558116, AJ558117, AJ704604, FN256260, and FN297834) were determined to be 2738–2751 nucleotides, which share 91.7%–97.9% sequence identities with PaLCuCNV isolate G2 (AJ558123). DNA-? was not found to be associated with PaLCuCNV isolates. To investigate the infectivity of PaLCuCNV, an infectious clone of PaLCuCNV-[CN:HeNZM1] was constructed and agro-inoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum Samsun, N. glutinosa, Solanum lycopersicum and Petunia hybrida plants, which induced severe leaf curling and crinkling symptoms in these plants. Southern blot analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated a systemic infection of test plants by the agro-infectious clone.

Zhang, Hui; Ma, Xin-ying; Qian, Ya-juan; Zhou, Xue-ping

2010-01-01

408

High-yield production of a low-temperature-active polygalacturonase for papaya juice clarification.  

PubMed

A novel endo-polygalacturonase (endo-PG I) from Achaetomium sp. Xz8 was identified, overexpressed in Pichia pastoris, and characterized in this report. Recombinant endo-PG I is distinguished from other enzyme counterparts by its high activity towards polygalacturonic acid (49,934 U/ml) and high yield in the 15-l fermentor (2.13 g/l). It exhibits optimal activity at 45 °C and remained active over a broad temperature range of 0-80 °C. Distinct from most fungal polygalacturonases that have acidic pH optima, endo-PG I is optimally active at pH 6, similar to the pH of fresh papaya juice (5.7). Endo-PG I alone reduced the viscosity of papaya juice by 17.6%, and increased its transmittance by 59.1%. When combined with a commercial pectin methylesterase, it showed much higher efficiency with a synergy degree of more than 1.25. All these favourable enzymatic properties make endo-PG I attractive for potential applications in the juice industry. PMID:23871048

Tu, Tao; Meng, Kun; Bai, Yingguo; Shi, Pengjun; Luo, Huiying; Wang, Yaru; Yang, Peilong; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhang, Wei; Yao, Bin

2013-12-01

409

On the evolution and molecular epidemiology of the potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus.  

PubMed

The potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is found throughout the tropics and subtropics. Its P biotype is a devastating pathogen of papaya crops and its W biotype of cucurbits. PRSV-P is thought to arise by mutation from PRSV-W. However, the relative impact of mutation and movement on the structure of PRSV populations is not well characterized. To investigate this, we have determined the coat protein sequences of isolates of both biotypes of PRSV from Vietnam (50), Thailand (13), India (1) and the Philippines (1), and analysed them together with 28 PRSV sequences already published, so that we can better understand the molecular epidemiology and evolution of PRSV. In Thailand, variation was greater among PRSV-W isolates (mean nucleotide divergence 7.6%) than PRSV-P isolates (mean 2.6%), but in Vietnamese populations the P and W biotypes were more but similarly diverse. Phylogenetic analyses of PRSV also involving its closest known relative, Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus, indicate that PRSV may have originated in Asia, particularly in the Indian subcontinent, as PRSV populations there are most diverse and hence have probably been present longest. Our analyses show that mutation, together with local and long-distance movement, contributes to population variation, and also confirms an earlier conclusion that populations of the PRSV-P biotype have evolved on several occasions from PRSV-W populations. PMID:12237441

Bateson, Marion F; Lines, Rosemarie E; Revill, Peter; Chaleeprom, Worawan; Ha, Cuong V; Gibbs, Adrian J; Dale, James L

2002-10-01

410

Role of genetic recombination in the molecular architecture of Papaya ringspot virus.  

PubMed

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) has a single-stranded RNA genome and causes severe economic losses both in cucurbits and papaya worldwide. The extent to which the genome of PRSV is shaped by recombination provides an understanding of the molecular evolution of PRSV and helps in studying features such as host specificity, geographic distribution, and its emergence as new epidemics. The PRSV-P-Indian isolate was completely sequenced and compared with 14 other isolates reported from the rest of the world for their phylogenetic survey of recombination events. Cistron-by-cistron sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis based on full-genome polyprotein showed two distinct groupings of Asian and American isolates, although PRSV-P and W-India clustered along with the American isolates. Recombination sites were found throughout the genomes, except in the small 6K1 protein gene. A significant proportion of recombination hotspots was found in the P1 gene, followed by P3, cylindrical inclusion (CI), and helper component proteinase (HcPro). Correlations between the presence of recombination sites, geographic distribution, and phylogenetic relationship provide an opportunity to establish the molecular evolution and geographic route of PRSV. PMID:18807167

Mangrauthia, Satendra K; Parameswari, B; Jain, R K; Praveen, Shelly

2008-12-01

411

Tree Projects for Schools.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Trees have an enormous educational potential when used as a subject for class projects. This book consists of projects which follow a general theme. The study of a single tree in the school grounds leads on to an examination of basic ecological principles...

R. Webb

1984-01-01

412

Trees From Helicopters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This story is aimed at promoting not only inquiry into the germination of tree seeds but seeing trees as typical flowering plants, also known as angiosperms. There is also ample opportunity to take an excursion into fruits and seeds and the germination of

Konicek-Moran, Richard

2008-04-01

413

Trees From Helicopters, Continued  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maples are very interesting trees with lots of variation in form. They provide us with a view of diversity in plants as well as a chance to look at natural phenomena that is very common to anyone who has had a maple tree near them. The main purpose is to

Konicek-Moran, Richard

2009-04-01

414

Survival of Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video a scientist explains how DNA extracted from ancient tree remains provides insights about how trees/plants have adapted, over time, to changes in CO2 in the atmosphere. Her lab research investigates changes in plant genotypes under experimental conditions that simulate potential changes in CO2 levels in the future.

Foundation, National S.; Learn, Nbc; Science 360 Network

415

Boosting Lazy Decision Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the problem of how to construct lazy decision tree ensembles. We present and empirically evaluate a relevance- based boosting-style algorithm that builds a lazy decision tree ensemble customized for each test instance. From the experimental results, we conclude that our boosting-style algorithm signicantly improves the perfor- mance of the base learner. An empirical comparison to boosted regular

Xiaoli Zhang Fern; Carla E. Brodley

2003-01-01

416

Tree Pattern Rewriting Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical verification often uses abstraction when dealing with data. On the other hand, dynamic XML-based applications have become pervasive, for instance with the ever growing importance of web services. We define here Tree Pattern Rewriting Systems (TPRS) as an abstract model of dynamic XML-based documents. TPRS systems gener- ate infinite transition systems, where states are unranked and unordered trees (hence

Blaise Genest; Anca Muscholl; Olivier Serre; Marc Zeitoun

2008-01-01

417

Biodiversity and Evolutionary Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity, learners analyze seashells to explore phylogeny and evolution. Learners identify similar and dissimilar seashells to create a phylogenetic tree. The Teacher Guide includes pre-activity video clip suggestions and a pre-activity sorting exercise. The Teacher Guide also includes instructions on how learners can draw a phylogenetic tree instead of using the online interactive.

Institute, Howard H.

2010-01-01

418

Fault tree handbook  

Microsoft Academic Search

This handbook describes a methodology for reliability analysis of complex systems such as those which comprise the engineered safety features of nuclear power generating stations. After an initial overview of the available system analysis approaches, the handbook focuses on a description of the deductive method known as fault tree analysis. The following aspects of fault tree analysis are covered: basic

D. F. Haasl; N. H. Roberts; W. E. Vesely; F. F. Goldberg

1981-01-01

419

The Flame Tree  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lewis's own experiences living in Indonesia are fertile ground for telling "a ripping good story," one found in "The Flame Tree." He hopes people will enjoy the tale and appreciate the differences of an unfamiliar culture. The excerpt from "The Flame Tree" will reel readers in quickly.

Lewis, Richard

2004-01-01

420

Doenças fúngicas pós-colheita em mamões e laranjas comercializados na Central de Abastecimento do Recife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post harvest fungal diseases in papaya and orange marketed in the Distribution Centre of Recife Fungal diseases constitute one of the main causes of losses during commercialization of tropical fruits. Papaya (Carica papaya) and orange (Citrus spp.) fruits were analyzed in relation to the disease incidence and frequency of the pathogenic species for six months, in the Distribution Centre of

Suzana A. F. Dantas; Sônia M. A. Oliveira; Sami J. Michereff; Luciana C. Nascimento; Luciana M. S. Gurgel; Wagner R. L. S. Pessoa

2003-01-01

421

Phylogenetic trees in bioinformatics  

SciTech Connect

Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding the best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.

Burr, Tom L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

422

Global Trees Campaign  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Along with increasing concerns about the extinction of different animal species, there has been increased interest in monitoring the fate of plant species, particularly those of various trees. Drawing on a partnership between Flora & Fauna International and the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, the Global Trees Campaign Web site serves as an online conduit for information about endangered tree species. First-time visitors will want to read the various tree profiles along the right-hand side of the homepage. Some of the species covered here include the African blackwood, Honduras rosewood, and the monkey puzzle tree, which grows naturally in Chile and Argentina. The resources section of the site is also worth a look, as it contains a database with information on close to 7,300 tree species, and list of suggested readings -- including several that are available as PDF files. For those interested in the projects initiated by the Global Trees Campaign, a section detailing their various initiatives around the globe is also available for consultation.

423

Evolutionary tree reconstruction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is described how Minimum Description Length (MDL) can be applied to the problem of DNA and protein evolutionary tree reconstruction. If there is a set of mutations that transform a common ancestor into a set of the known sequences, and this description is shorter than the information to encode the known sequences directly, then strong evidence for an evolutionary relationship has been found. A heuristic algorithm is described that searches for the simplest tree (smallest MDL) that finds close to optimal trees on the test data. Various ways of extending the MDL theory to more complex evolutionary relationships are discussed.

Cheeseman, Peter; Kanefsky, Bob

1990-01-01

424

Learning classification trees  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Algorithms for learning classification trees have had successes in artificial intelligence and statistics over many years. How a tree learning algorithm can be derived from Bayesian decision theory is outlined. This introduces Bayesian techniques for splitting, smoothing, and tree averaging. The splitting rule turns out to be similar to Quinlan's information gain splitting rule, while smoothing and averaging replace pruning. Comparative experiments with reimplementations of a minimum encoding approach, Quinlan's C4 and Breiman et al. Cart show the full Bayesian algorithm is consistently as good, or more accurate than these other approaches though at a computational price.

Buntine, Wray

1991-01-01

425

Trees of trees: an approach to comparing multiple alternative phylogenies.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analysis very commonly produces several alternative trees for a given fixed set of taxa. For example, different sets of orthologous genes may be analyzed, or the analysis may sample from a distribution of probable trees. This article describes an approach to comparing and visualizing multiple alternative phylogenies via the idea of a "tree of trees" or "meta-tree." A meta-tree clusters phylogenies with similar topologies together in the same way that a phylogeny clusters species with similar DNA sequences. Leaf nodes on a meta-tree correspond to the original set of phylogenies given by some analysis, whereas interior nodes correspond to certain consensus topologies. The construction of meta-trees is motivated by analogy with construction of a most parsimonious tree for DNA data, but instead of using DNA letters, in a meta-tree the characters are partitions or splits of the set of taxa. An efficient algorithm for meta-tree construction is described that makes use of a known relationship between the majority consensus and parsimony in terms of gain and loss of splits. To illustrate these ideas meta-trees are constructed for two datasets: a set of gene trees for species of yeast and trees from a bootstrap analysis of a set of gene trees in ray-finned fish. A software tool for constructing meta-trees and comparing alternative phylogenies is available online, and the source code can be obtained from the author. PMID:18853364

Nye, Tom M W

2008-10-01

426

Generalized constructive tree weights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

Rivasseau, Vincent; Tanasa, Adrian

2014-04-01

427

The Tree of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes how interdisciplinary, thematic lessons about plants, animals, and the environment were introduced with children's literature. First-grade students created a display of the African baobab tree and its inhabitants, focusing on their interdependence.

Plummer, Donna M.; Macshara, Jeannie; Brown, Skila K.

2003-03-01

428

Encoding Voxel Trees.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents an analysis based on geometric probability for obtaining a better understanding of the space efficiency of representing three dimensional pictures using voxel trees. It is shown that asymptotically, as resolution is increased with respe...

W. de Jonge A. Schijf E. Wattel

1991-01-01

429

Trees as energy crops  

SciTech Connect

A report is presented of studies on the energy production of forest trees in California. The volume yield of the fastest growing species (Eucalyptus) was 23 cubic metres per hectare and energy yield 20 million kcal per hectare per annum.

Standiford, R.B.; Donaldson, D.R.

1982-01-01

430

Tea Tree Oil  

MedlinePLUS

... resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, large, well-designed clinical trials on tea tree oil are lacking, and ... strains of bacteria in people. Some smaller-scale clinical studies have had positive results for treating athlete's ...