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1

The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3× draft genome sequence of `SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance

Ray Ming; Shaobin Hou; Yun Feng; Qingyi Yu; Alexandre Dionne-Laporte; Jimmy H. Saw; Pavel Senin; Wei Wang; Benjamin V. Ly; Kanako L. T. Lewis; Lu Feng; Meghan R. Jones; Rachel L. Skelton; Jan E. Murray; Cuixia Chen; Wubin Qian; Junguo Shen; Peng Du; Moriah Eustice; Eric Tong; Haibao Tang; Eric Lyons; Robert E. Paull; Todd P. Michael; Kerr Wall; Danny W. Rice; Henrik Albert; Ming-Li Wang; Yun J. Zhu; Michael Schatz; Niranjan Nagarajan; Ricelle A. Acob; Peizhu Guan; Andrea Blas; Ching Man Wai; Christine M. Ackerman; Yan Ren; Chao Liu; Jianmei Wang; Jianping Wang; Jong-Kuk Na; Eugene V. Shakirov; Brian Haas; Jyothi Thimmapuram; David Nelson; Xiyin Wang; John E. Bowers; Andrea R. Gschwend; Arthur L. Delcher; Ratnesh Singh; Jon Y. Suzuki; Savarni Tripathi; Kabi Neupane; Hairong Wei; Beth Irikura; Maya Paidi; Ning Jiang; Wenli Zhang; Gernot Presting; Aaron Windsor; Rafael Navajas-Pérez; Manuel J. Torres; F. Alex Feltus; Brad Porter; Yingjun Li; A. Max Burroughs; Ming-Cheng Luo; Lei Liu; David A. Christopher; Stephen M. Mount; Paul H. Moore; Tak Sugimura; Jiming Jiang; Mary A. Schuler; Vikki Friedman; Thomas Mitchell-Olds; Dorothy E. Shippen; Claude W. Depamphilis; Jeffrey D. Palmer; Michael Freeling; Andrew H. Paterson; Dennis Gonsalves; Lei Wang; Maqsudul Alam

2008-01-01

2

Comparative seed ecophysiology of wild and cultivated Carica papaya trees from a tropical rain forest region in Mexico.  

PubMed

To ascertain the effects of centuries of cultivation practices on seed behavior and dormancy mechanisms, we compared seed size and germination characteristics of wild and cultivated (domesticated) populations of Carica papaya L. Germination experiments were carried out under various conditions of temperature, light, seed soaking and gibberellic acid treatments. Wild papaya seeds showed responses to treatment that are characteristic of seeds of many rain forest pioneer trees. Seeds were small and light sensitive, whereas cultivated papaya seeds were 33% larger and their light responses as well as other physiological traits indicated that cultivation had resulted in a lessening in the importance of specific environmental conditions for dormancy breaking and germination. PMID:12651383

Paz, Leoncio; Vázquez-Yanes, Carlos

1998-04-01

3

Post-irradiation identification of papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impact of radiation processing on the volatile essential oil profile of papaya (Carica papaya) was investigated. Gamma-radiation processing resulted in the appearance of a new peak in the GLC profile that was identified as phenol. The observed dose dependent increase in phenol content suggested possible use of this compound as a marker for radiation processed papaya.

Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

2012-03-01

4

MOLECULAR MARKERS FOR SEX DETERMINATION IN PAPAYA (CARICA PAPAYA L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Molecular markers tightly linked to Sex1, the gene that determines plant sex in papaya (Carica papaya L.), were developed. Three RAPD products have been cloned and a portion of their DNA sequenced. Based on these sequences SCAR primers were synthesized. SCAR T12 and SCAR W11 produce products in h...

5

Anticancer activity of Carica papaya: a review.  

PubMed

Carica papaya is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries and is used as food as well as traditional medicine to treat a range of diseases. Increasing anecdotal reports of its effects in cancer treatment and prevention, with many successful cases, have warranted that these pharmacological properties be scientifically validated. A bibliographic search was conducted using the key words "papaya", "anticancer", and "antitumor" along with cross-referencing. No clinical or animal cancer studies were identified and only seven in vitro cell-culture-based studies were reported; these indicate that C. papaya extracts may alter the growth of several types of cancer cell lines. However, many studies focused on specific compounds in papaya and reported bioactivity including anticancer effects. This review summarizes the results of extract-based or specific compound-based investigations and emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to explore the bioactives in C. papaya for their anticancer activities. PMID:23212988

Nguyen, Thao T T; Shaw, Paul N; Parat, Marie-Odile; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

2012-12-05

6

MAPPING PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS IN CARICA PAPAYA USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Different varieties of papaya (Carica papaya L.) vary in the phenotypic expression of agronomically important traits. Genetic loci responsible for these differences can be mapped using DNA markers to genotype a segregating progeny population derived from a controlled cross between parents having dif...

7

Analysis Of Papaya BAC End Sequences: Insights Into The Organization Of A Tree Fruit Genome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a major tree fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions with an estimated genome size of 372 Mbp. We present the analysis of 4.7% of the papaya genome based on BAC end sequences (BESs) representing 17 million high-quality bases. Microsatellites discovered in 5,452 BE...

8

Analysis of papaya BAC end sequences reveals first insights into the organization of a fruit tree genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a major tree fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions with an estimated genome size of 372 Mbp. We present the analysis of 4.7% of the papaya genome based on BAC end sequences (BESs) representing 17 million high-quality bases. Microsatellites discovered in 5,452 BESs and flanking primer sequences are available to papaya breeding programs at http:\\/\\/www.genomics.hawaii.edu\\/papaya\\/BES. Sixteen

Chun Wan J. Lai; Qingyi Yu; Shaobin Hou; Rachel L. Skelton; Meghan R. Jones; Kanako L. T. Lewis; Jan Murray; Moriah Eustice; Peizhu Guan; Ricelle Agbayani; Paul H. Moore; Ray Ming; Gernot G. Presting

2006-01-01

9

A male and hermaphrodite specific RAPD marker for papaya ( Carica papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to determine the sex of a dioecious species, Carica papaya L., with three sex types, male, female and hermaphrodite. A 450 bp marker fragment, named PSDM(Papaya Sex Determination Marker),\\u000a exists in all male and hermaphrodite plants but not in the female plants so far analyzed. The DNA sequence of PSDM exhibited

N. Urasaki; M. Tokumoto; K. Tarora; Y. Ban; T. Kayano; H. Tanaka; H. Oku; I. Chinen; R. Terauchi

2002-01-01

10

Carica papaya latex-catalyzed synthesis of structured triacylglycerols  

Microsoft Academic Search

One impediment to the industrial use of enzymes in fat and oil transformations is the higher cost often associated with an\\u000a enzymatic process compared with the corresponding chemical process. Processes that utilize plant enzymes, however, may have\\u000a advantages because of their lower cost and ready availability. One example of such a plant-derived enzyme is Carica papaya latex (CPL), the principal

T. A. Foglia; P. Villeneuve

1997-01-01

11

Ozone Applications in the PostHarvest of Papaya (Carica papaya L.): An Alternative to Amistar Fungicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article was to evaluate ozone applications in the post-harvest of papaya (Carica papaya L) as an alternative to Amistar fungicide, taking into account the effect on the control of fungal pathogens growth, shelf-life, seed germination percentage and soluble solids content. Ozone doses were applied in vitro to strains of seven fungi species, which cause rot of

Mayra Bataller; José E. González; Eliet Veliz; Lidia A. Fernández

2012-01-01

12

Novel thigmomorphogenetic responses in Carica papaya: touch decreases anthocyanin levels and stimulates petiole cork outgrowths  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Because of its rapid growth rate, relative ease of transformation, sequenced genome and low gene number relative to Arabidopsis, the tropical fruit tree, Carica papaya, can serve as a complementary genetic model for complex traits. Here, new phenotypes and touch-regulated gene homologues have been identified that can be used to advance the understanding of thigmomorphogenesis, a multigenic response involving mechanoreception and morphological change. Methods Morphological alterations were quantified, and microscopy of tissue was conducted. Assays for hypocotyl anthocyanins, lignin and chlorophyll were performed, and predicted genes from C. papaya were compared with Arabidopsis touch-inducible (TCH) and Mechanosensitive channel of Small conductance-like genes (MscS-like or MSL). In addition, the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues was characterized. Key Results On the abaxial side of petioles, treated plants were found to have novel, hypertrophic outgrowths associated with periderm and suberin. Touched plants also had higher lignin, dramatically less hypocotyl anthocyanins and chlorophyll, increased hypocotyl diameter, and decreased leaf width, stem length and root fresh weight. Papaya was found to have fewer MSL genes than Arabidopsis, and four touch-regulated genes in Arabidopsis had no counterparts in papaya. Water-spray treatment was found to enhance the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues whereas induction following touch was only slightly correlated. Conclusions The novel petiole outgrowths caused by non-wounding, mechanical perturbation may be the result of hardening mechanisms, including added lignin, providing resistance against petiole movement. Inhibition of anthocyanin accumulation following touch, a new phenotypic association, may be caused by diversion of p-coumaroyl CoA away from chalcone synthase for lignin synthesis. The absence of MSL and touch-gene homologues indicates that papaya may have a smaller set of touch-regulated genes. The genes and novel touch-regulated phenotypes identified here will contribute to a more comprehensive view of thigmomorphogenesis in plants.

Porter, Brad W.; Zhu, Yun J.; Webb, David T.; Christopher, David A.

2009-01-01

13

Cyanogenic allosides and glucosides from Passiflora edulis and Carica papaya.  

PubMed

Leaf and stem material of Passiflora edulis (Passifloraceae) contains the new cyanogenic glycosides (2R)-beta-D-allopyranosyloxy-2-phenylacetonitrile (1a) and (2S)-beta-D-allopyranosyloxy-2-phenylacetonitrile (1b), along with smaller amounts of (2R)-prunasin (2a), sambunigrin (2b), and the alloside of benzyl alcohol (4); the major cyanogens of the fruits are (2R)-prunasin (2a) and (2S)-sambunigrin (2b). The major cyanogenic glycoside of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) is 2a; only small amounts of 2b also are present. We were not able to confirm the presence of a cyclopentenoid cyanogenic glycoside, tetraphyllin B, in Carica papaya leaf and stem materials. In detailed 1H NMR studies of 1a/b and 2a/b, differences in higher order effects in glucosides and allosides proved to be valuable for assignment of structures in this series. The diagnostic chemical shifts of cyanogenic methine and anomeric protons in 1a/b are sensitive to anisotropic environmental effects. The assignment of C-2 stereochemistry of 1a/b was made in analogy to previous assignments in the glucoside series and was supported by GLC analysis of the TMS ethers. PMID:12150815

Seigler, David S; Pauli, Guido F; Nahrstedt, Adolf; Leen, Rosemary

2002-08-01

14

Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain\\u000a bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic\\u000a solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest

Pedro Chávez-Quintal; Tania González-Flores; Ingrid Rodríguez-Buenfil; Santiago Gallegos-Tintoré

2011-01-01

15

Specificity of Carica papaya latex in lipase-catalyzed interesterification reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymatic interesterification of the chiral triacylglycerol, 1-butyroyl-2-stearoyl-3-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol (sn-BSP) with trimyristin indicated that the lipase present in Carica papaya latex exhibits an sn3 stereoselectivity. Other interesterification experiments with homogeneous triacylglycerols of varying chain length with tricaprylin showed that this enzyme also has a typoselectivity for short chain fatty acids.

P. Villeneuve; M. Pina; A. Skarbek; J. Graille; T. A. Foglia

1997-01-01

16

Synthesis of Cocoa Butter Equivalent from Palm Oil by Carica papaya Lipase-Catalyzed Interesterification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa butter equivalent could be synthesized by lipase-catalyzed interesterification of oil. The objective of this research was to investigate the synthesis of cocoa butter equivalent from interesterification of palm oil catalyzed by Carica papaya lipase. The study showed that the compositions of cocoa butter equivalent were affected by acyl donor sources, substrate ratio, initial water of enzyme, reaction time, reaction

Porntippa Pinyaphong

2009-01-01

17

[Contribution to food microscopy of Anacardium occidentale L, Carica papaya L and Myrciaria cauliflora (Martius) Berg].  

PubMed

With a view towards food microscopy the authors present an anatomical study of the pseudofruit of Anacardium occidentale L., the fruit of Carica papaya L., and the fruit of Myrciaria cauliflora (Martius) Berg. Drawings illustrate the text to facilitate identification of the corresponding hystologic elements found in industrialized products. PMID:1233593

de Oliveira, F; Akisue, G; Akisue, M K

18

An evaluation of street-vended sliced papaya ( Carica papaya) for bacteria and indicator micro-organisms of public health significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty samples of ripe papaya (Carica papaya) slices, collected in Calcutta from the itinerant roadside vendors were collected over a 3-month period. The papaya were tested for total aerobic plate count (TPC), coliform and fecal coliform counts, and various foodborne pathogens. TPCs ranged from 3·3 to 6·52 log cfu g?1 (average=5·96 log cfu g?1). Eleven samples had counts >6 log

R. Mukhopadhyay; A. Mitra; R. Roy; A. K. Guha

2002-01-01

19

Wound-healing potential of an ethanol extract of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) seeds.  

PubMed

Carica papaya L. (Linn) (Caricaceae) is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment for various wounds, particularly burns. This study evaluated the wound-healing and antimicrobial activity of C. papaya seed extract. Ethanol extract of C. papaya seed (50 mg/kg/day) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity in Sprague-Dawley rats using excision wound model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each (group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with papaya seed extract, group 3 treated with a standard drug mupirocin and papaya seed extract (1:1 ratio) and group 4 treated with a mupirocin ointment. Rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content were determined to assess the wound-healing activity of the seed extract. The group 2 animals showed a significant decrease in wound area of 89% over 13 days when compared with groups 1 (82%), 3 (86%) and 4 (84%) respectively. The hydroxyproline content was significantly higher with the granulation tissue obtained from group 2 animals which were treated with C. papaya seed extract. Histological analysis of granulation tissue of the group 2 animals showed the deposition of well-organized collagen. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that C. papaya promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation for this activity in humans is suggested. PMID:22296524

Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramdeen, Ria; Adogwa, Andrew; Ramsubhag, Adash; Marshall, Julien Rhodney

2012-02-01

20

Contrasting patterns of X/Y polymorphism distinguish Carica papaya from other sex chromosome systems.  

PubMed

The sex chromosomes of the tropical crop papaya (Carica papaya) are evolutionarily young and consequently allow for the examination of evolutionary mechanisms that drive early sex chromosome divergence. We conducted a molecular population genetic analysis of four X/Y gene pairs from a collection of 45 wild papaya accessions. These population genetic analyses reveal striking differences in the patterns of polymorphism between the X and Y chromosomes that distinguish them from other sex chromosome systems. In most sex chromosome systems, the Y chromosome displays significantly reduced polymorphism levels, whereas the X chromosome maintains a level of polymorphism that is comparable to autosomal loci. However, the four papaya sex-linked loci that we examined display diversity patterns that are opposite this trend: the papaya X alleles exhibit significantly reduced polymorphism levels, whereas the papaya Y alleles maintain greater than expected levels of diversity. Our analyses suggest that selective sweeps in the regions of the X have contributed to this pattern while also revealing geographically restricted haplogroups on the Y. We discuss the possible role sexual selection and/or genomic conflict have played in shaping the contrasting patterns of polymorphism found for the papaya X and Y chromosomes. PMID:22855536

Weingartner, Laura A; Moore, Richard C

2012-08-01

21

Different arbuscular mycorrhizal interactions in male and female plants of wild Carica papaya L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The different resource demands on male and female plants of dioecious species can lead to secondary sexual dimorphisms. Male\\u000a and female plants might also interact differently with antagonists and mutualists. We used a repeated measures natural experiment\\u000a in five subpopulations to investigate secondary sexual dimorphism in Carica papaya including interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Male and female plants did not

Rocío Vega-Frutis; Roger Guevara

2009-01-01

22

Preservation of hermaphrodite and female papaya fruits (Carica papaya L?., Cv Sunrise, Solo group) by freezing: physical, physico-chemical and sensorial aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical, physico-chemical and sensorial changes that occur during the freezing and frozen storage of hermaphrodite and\\u000a female papaya slices (Carica papaya L., cv Sunrise, Solo group) were studied. Samples were evaluated by panellists throughout a 1-year period of storage at –24°C;\\u000a the panellists described the fruit in terms of physico-chemical measurements of texture (firnmess and total pectins content),\\u000a colour

M. Gloria Lobo; M. Pilar Cano

1998-01-01

23

Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional plant treatment for diabetes has shown a surging interest in the last few decades. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves in diabetic rats. Several studies have reported that some parts of the C. papaya plant exert hypoglycemic effects in both animals and humans. Methods Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ). The aqueous extract of C. papaya was administered in three different doses (0.75, 1.5 and 3 g/100 mL) as drinking water to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals during 4 weeks. Results The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (0.75 g and 1.5 g/100 mL) significantly decreased blood glucose levels (p<0.05) in diabetic rats. It also decreased cholesterol, triacylglycerol and amino-transferases blood levels. Low plasma insulin levels did not change after treatment in diabetic rats, but they significantly increased in non-diabetic animals. Pancreatic islet cells were normal in non-diabetic treated animals, whereas in diabetic treated rats, C. papaya could help islet regeneration manifested as preservation of cell size. In the liver of diabetic treated rats, C. papaya prevented hepatocyte disruption, as well as accumulation of glycogen and lipids. Finally, an antioxidant effect of C. papaya extract was also detected in diabetic rats. Conclusions This study showed that the aqueous extract of C. papaya exerted a hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect; it also improved the lipid profile in diabetic rats. In addition, the leaf extract positively affected integrity and function of both liver and pancreas.

2012-01-01

24

Effectiveness of dried Carica papaya seeds against human intestinal parasitosis: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The tropical fruit Carica papaya and its seeds have proven antihelminthic and anti-amoebic activities. To determine the effectiveness of air-dried C. papaya seeds on human intestinal parasitosis, 60 asymptomatic Nigerian children with stool microscopic evidence of intestinal parasites received immediate doses (20 mL) of either an elixir composed with air-dried C. papaya seeds and honey (CPH) or honey alone (placebo) in two randomized treatment groups. Repeat stool microscopic examinations were conducted 7 days postintervention for intestinal parasites. Significantly more subjects given CPH elixir than those given honey had their stools cleared of parasites [23 of 30 (76.7%) vs. five of 30 (16.7%); z = 4.40, P = .0000109]. There were no harmful effects. The stool clearance rate for the various types of parasites encountered was between 71.4% and 100% following CPH elixir treatment compared with 0-15.4% with honey. Thus, air-dried C. papaya seeds are efficacious in treating human intestinal parasites and without significant side effects. Their consumption offers a cheap, natural, harmless, readily available monotherapy and preventive strategy against intestinal parasitosis, especially in tropical communities. Further and large-scale intervention studies to compare C. papaya with standard antiparasitic preparation are desirous. PMID:17472487

Okeniyi, John A O; Ogunlesi, Tinuade A; Oyelami, Oyeku A; Adeyemi, Lateef A

2007-03-01

25

Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds.  

PubMed

Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC(50) for the leaf extract was 0.625 mg ml(-1) for Fusarium spp. and >10 mg ml(-1) for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties. PMID:22282629

Chávez-Quintal, Pedro; González-Flores, Tania; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintoré, Santiago

2011-01-30

26

Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract.  

PubMed

Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) following lead acetate administration and pre-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) followed by lead acetate administration. The substances were administered for 14 days. The effects were evaluated by measuring protein carbonyl content (PCC) and glutathione content (GC) in the bone marrow. Histological changes in the bone marrow were also observed. The results showed that Carica papaya induced a significant reduction in the PCC activity and significantly increased the GC in the bone marrow. Carica papaya also improved the histology of the bone marrow compared with that of the lead acetate-treated group. In summary, Carica papaya was effective against the oxidative damage caused by lead acetate in the bone marrow and had a stimulatory effect on haemopoiesis. PMID:23403524

Tham, Ching S; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Haleagrahara, Nagaraja; DE Alwis, Ranjit

2012-12-05

27

Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract  

PubMed Central

Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) following lead acetate administration and pre-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) followed by lead acetate administration. The substances were administered for 14 days. The effects were evaluated by measuring protein carbonyl content (PCC) and glutathione content (GC) in the bone marrow. Histological changes in the bone marrow were also observed. The results showed that Carica papaya induced a significant reduction in the PCC activity and significantly increased the GC in the bone marrow. Carica papaya also improved the histology of the bone marrow compared with that of the lead acetate-treated group. In summary, Carica papaya was effective against the oxidative damage caused by lead acetate in the bone marrow and had a stimulatory effect on haemopoiesis.

THAM, CHING S.; CHAKRAVARTHI, SRIKUMAR; HALEAGRAHARA, NAGARAJA; DE ALWIS, RANJIT

2013-01-01

28

Assessment of the Anti-Protozoal Activity of Crude Carica papaya Seed Extract against Trypanosoma cruzi.  

PubMed

In order to determine the in vivo activity against the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, two doses (50 and 75 mg/kg) of a chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds were evaluated compared with a control group of allopurinol. The activity of a mixture of the three main compounds (oleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a proportion of 45.9% of oleic acid, 24.1% of palmitic and 8.52% of stearic acid previously identified in the crude extract of C. papaya was evaluated at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Both doses of the extracts were orally administered for 28 days. A significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the number of blood trypomastigotes was observed in animals treated with the evaluated doses of the C. papaya extract in comparison with the positive control group (allopurinol 8.5 mg/kg). Parasitemia in animals treated with the fatty acids mixture was also significantly reduced (p < 0.05), compared to negative control animals. These results demonstrate that the fatty acids identified in the seed extracts of C. papaya (from ripe fruit) are able to reduce the number of parasites from both parasite stages, blood trypomastigote and amastigote (intracellular stage). PMID:24126379

Jiménez-Coello, Matilde; Guzman-Marín, Eugenia; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Perez-Gutiérrez, Salud; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y

2013-10-11

29

Complete nucleotide sequence of a monopartite Begomovirus and associated satellites infecting Carica papaya in Nepal.  

PubMed

Carica papaya (papaya) is a fruit crop that is cultivated mostly in kitchen gardens throughout Nepal. Leaf samples of C. papaya plants with leaf curling, vein darkening, vein thickening, and a reduction in leaf size were collected from a garden in Darai village, Rampur, Nepal in 2010. Full-length clones of a monopartite Begomovirus, a betasatellite and an alphasatellite were isolated. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Begomovirus showed the arrangement of genes typical of Old World begomoviruses with the highest nucleotide sequence identity (>99 %) to an isolate of Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV), confirming it as an isolate of AYVV. The complete nucleotide sequence of betasatellite showed greater than 89 % nucleotide sequence identity to an isolate of Tomato leaf curl Java betasatellite originating from Indonesian. The sequence of the alphasatellite displayed 92 % nucleotide sequence identity to Sida yellow vein China alphasatellite. This is the first identification of these components in Nepal and the first time they have been identified in papaya. PMID:23397078

Shahid, M S; Yoshida, S; Khatri-Chhetri, G B; Briddon, R W; Natsuaki, K T

2013-02-09

30

DEVELOPING TRANSGENIC RESISTANCE TO FUNGAL DISEASES IN PAPAYA (CARICA PAPAYA L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya, an important tropical fruit crop, is susceptible to more than a dozen fungal pathogens and displays limited genetic resistance among cultivars. The major fungal pathogens of this crop include: Phytophthora root and fruit rot (Phytophthora palmivora), anthracnose (Colletotricum gloeosporioide...

31

Effects of Coadministration of Extract of Carica papaya Linn (family Cariaceae) on Activity of Two Oral Hypoglycemic Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To investigate the interacting effects of co-administration of Carica papaya leaf extract on the hypoglycemic activity of metformin and glimepiride in an animal model. Method: Experimental factorial design was used to evaluate the individual and interaction influence of three variables ie nature (N), dose administered (C) and duration of administration (D), in a 23(=8) employed at two levels -

T Oladipupo; Y Ogunremi

32

Carica papaya lipase: a naturally immobilized enzyme with interesting biochemical properties.  

PubMed

Triacylglycerol (TAG) lipases have been thoroughly characterized in mammals and microorganisms, whereas very little is known about plant TAG lipases. The lipolytic activity occurring in all the laticies is known to be associated with sedimentable particles, and all attempts to solubilize the lipolytic activity of Carica papaya latex have been unsuccessful so far. However, some of the biochemical properties of the lipase from Carica papaya latex (CPL) were determined from the insoluble fraction of the latex. The activity was optimum at a temperature of 37°C and a pH of 9.0, and the specific activities of CPL were found to be 2,000?±?185 and 256?±?8 U/g when tributyrin and olive oil were used as substrates, respectively. CPL was found to be active in the absence of any detergent, whereas many lipases require detergent to prevent the occurrence of interfacial denaturation. CPL was inactive in the presence of micellar concentrations of Triton X-100, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and tetradecyl trimethylammonium bromide (TTAB), and still showed high levels of activity in the presence of sodium taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC) and the zwitterionic Chaps detergent. The effects of various proteases on the lipolytic activity of CPL were studied, and CPL was found to be resistant to treatment with various enzymes, except in the presence of trypsin. All these properties suggest that CPL may be a good candidate for various biotechnological applications. PMID:21267783

Abdelkafi, Slim; Barouh, Nathalie; Fouquet, Benjamin; Fendri, Imen; Pina, Michel; Scheirlinckx, Frantz; Villeneuve, Pierre; Carrière, Frédéric

2011-03-01

33

Reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage by Carica papaya leaf extract  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the in vitro antioxidant potential of Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract and its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage assessed by haemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Methods Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, hydrogen ion scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and the ferrous ion reducing ability were assessed as antioxidant indices. In the other experiment, human erythrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide to induce erythrocyte damage. The extract (at various concentrations) was subsequently incubated with the erythrocytes and later analysed for haemolysis and lipid peroxidation as indices for erythrocyte damage. Results Preliminary investigation of the extract showed that the leaf possessed significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities using in vitro models in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). The extract also reduced hydrogen peroxide induced erythrocyte haemolysis and lipid peroxidation significantly when compared with ascorbic acid (P<0.05). The IC50 values were 7.33 mg/mL and 1.58 mg/mL for inhibition of haemolysis and lipid peroxidation, respectively. In all cases, ascorbic acid (the reference antioxidant) possessed higher activity than the extract. Conclusions The findings show that C. papaya leaves possess significant bioactive potential which is attributed to the phytochemicals which act in synergy. Thus, the leaves can be exploited for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes.

Okoko, Tebekeme; Ere, Diepreye

2012-01-01

34

Phytophotodermatitis caused by contact with a fig tree (Ficus carica).  

PubMed

Two arborists presented acutely with blistering eruptions affecting their forearms, hands, and fingers. The previous day, both men had pruned branches from a large fig tree, Ficus carica, which had sustained damaged during a storm. The following morning, both complained of a burning discomfort which rapidly evolved into erythema and bullae on skin that had been in direct contact with the tree branches. These symptoms gradually resolved over 4 to 6 weeks. Although phytophotodermatitis from Ficus carica has been reported, it is often poorly recognised and there is a need to raise awareness amongst arborists, orchardists, forestry workers, gardeners, and health professionals. PMID:17721568

Derraik, José G B; Rademaker, Marius

2007-08-10

35

Folate Levels and Polyglutamylation Profiles of Papaya ( Carica papaya cv. Maradol) during Fruit Development and Ripening.  

PubMed

Folates are essential micronutrients for humans, and their deficiency causes several detrimental effects on human health. Papaya fruit is an important natural source of some micronutrients. This paper presents a first complete characterization of folate derivatives accumulated in cv. Maradol papaya during fruit development and ripening processes. During postharvest ripening, the fruit accumulated up to 24.5% of the daily folate recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for an adult in a 1 cup (145 g) portion. Tetrahydrofolate (THF) and 5-methyl-THF were the predominant folate classes observed. Surprisingly, an unusually long polyglutamylation profile of tentatively up to 17 glutamates linked to 5-methyl-THF was detected; to the authors' knowledge, this very long polyglutamyl tail has not been reported for any organism, and it is probably characteristic of this plant species. This polyglutamylation degree changed throughout fruit development and ripening, showing the largest differences at the onset of ripening. This work raises questions about the functional role of folate derivatives in fruit development. PMID:23574547

Ramos-Parra, Perla A; García-Salinas, Carolina; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; Díaz de la Garza, Rocío I

2013-04-11

36

Carica papaya Glutamine Cyclotransferase Belongs to a Novel Plant Enzyme Subfamily: Cloning and Characterization of the Recombinant Enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-length cDNA encoding Carica papaya glutamine cyclotransferase was cloned by RT-PCR on the basis of results from amino acid sequencing of tryptic fragments of the native enzyme. The cDNA of 1036 nucleotides encodes a typical 22-residue signal peptide and a mature protein of 266 residues with a calculated molecular mass of 30,923 Da. Five plant ESTs encoding putative QCs

Søren W. Dahl; Clive Slaughter; Conni Lauritzen; Robert C. Bateman; Ian Connerton; John Pedersen

2000-01-01

37

Identification of miRNAs and miRNA-mediated regulatory pathways in Carica papaya.  

PubMed

Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) post-transcriptionally regulate target gene expression to modulate growth and development and biotic and abiotic stress responses. By analyzing small RNA deep sequencing data in combination with the genome sequence, we identified 75 conserved miRNAs and 11 novel miRNAs. Their target genes were also predicted. For most conserved miRNAs, the miRNA-target pairs were conserved across plant species. In addition to these conserved miRNA-target pairs, we also identified some papaya-specific miRNA-target regulatory pathways. Both miR168 and miR530 target the Argonaute 1 gene, indicating a second autoregulatory mechanism for miRNA regulation. A non-conserved miRNA was mapped within an intron of Dicer-like 1 (DCL1), suggesting a conserved homeostatic autoregulatory mechanism for DCL1 expression. A 21-nt miRNA triggers secondary siRNA production from its target genes, nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat protein genes. Certain phased-miRNAs were processed from their conserved miRNA precursors, indicating a putative miRNA evolution mechanism. In addition, we identified a Carica papaya-specific miRNA that targets an ethylene receptor gene, implying its function in the ethylene signaling pathway. This work will also advance our understanding of miRNA functions and evolution in plants. PMID:23851604

Liang, Gang; Li, Yang; He, Hua; Wang, Fang; Yu, Diqiu

2013-07-13

38

Repeated dose 28-days oral toxicity study of Carica papaya L. leaf extract in Sprague Dawley rats.  

PubMed

Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from 'Sekaki' C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and histopathology changes. A total of twelve compounds consisting of one piperidine alkaloid, two organic acids, six malic acid derivatives, and four flavonol glycosides were characterized or tentatively identified in the C. papaya leaf extract. In the sub-acute study, the C. papaya extract did not cause mortality nor were treatment-related changes in body weight, food intake, water level, and hematological parameters observed between treatment and control groups. Some biochemical parameters such as the total protein, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP were elevated in a non-dose dependent manner. Histopathological examination of all organs including liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Other parameters showed non-significant differences between treatment and control groups. The present results suggest that C. papaya leaf extract at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine in Malaysia could be considered safe as a medicinal agent. PMID:22491681

Afzan, Adlin; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Halim, Siti Zaleha; Rashid, Badrul Amini; Semail, Raja Hazlini Raja; Abdullah, Noordini; Jantan, Ibrahim; Muhammad, Hussin; Ismail, Zakiah

2012-04-10

39

In situ Carica papaya stem matrix and Fusarium oxysporum (NCBT-156) mediated bioremediation of chromium.  

PubMed

Removal of heavy metal chromium was carried out using the fungus Fusarium oxysporum NCBT-156 strain isolated from soil of leather tanning effluent in in situ condition using potassium dichromate solution with 10 per cent Czapek-dox liquid medium. Biosorbent matrix was developed using Carica papaya plant dry stem to colonize the fungal strain to facilitate bioabsorption process. Bioabsorption of chromium was by metabolically mediated intracellular accumulation process. Maximum efficiency of chromium removal by biosorption upto 90 per cent was achieved at the end of 5th day of incubation (120 h of contact time) for 100 and 200 ppm concentration, upto 80 per cent for 300 and 400 ppm, and upto 65 per cent for 500 ppm to 1000 ppm concentrations with pH ranging from 5.8, 5.6, 5.5, 5.4 and 5.2, respectively for 100, 200, 300, 400, 500-1000 ppm concentration. SDS-PAGE protein profile showed significant difference in 34 kDa protein band after chromium absorption by the fungus. FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed that the main functional groups involved in the uptake of chromium by F. oxysporium strain were carbonyl, carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl groups. PMID:22403866

Amatussalam, A; Abubacker, M N; Rajendran, R Babu

2011-12-01

40

DNA sequence analysis supports the association of phytoplasmas with papaya ( Carica papaya ) dieback, yellow crinkle and mosaic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers that hybridise to regions within and adjacent to the\\u000a 16S rRNA gene have indicated that Australian papaya dieback, papaya mosaic and papaya yellow crinkle are associated with phytoplasmas\\u000a (formerly called mycoplasma-like organisms). In this study, DNA sequence analysis of PCR products obtained from affected plant\\u000a tissue has confirmed that the

D. T. White; S. J. Billington; K. B. Walsh; P. T. Scott

1997-01-01

41

PAPAYA GENOMICS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Because of its relatively small genome (372Mb/1C) and ability to produce ripe fruit 9 to 12 months after planting, papaya (Carica papaya L.) can be a model for studying genes that affect fruit characters. We are developing papaya genomics to understand germplasm diversity, construct a high density g...

42

The component of Carica papaya seed toxic to A. aegypti and the identification of tegupain, the enzyme that generates it.  

PubMed

As Aedes aegypti transmits the etiologic agents of both yellow and dengue fever; vector control is considered essential to minimise their incidence. The aim of this work was to identify the component of Carica papaya seed toxic to A. aegypti, and the identification of tegupain, the enzyme that generates it. Aqueous extracts (1%, w/v) of the seed tegument and cotyledon of C. papaya are not larvicidal isolately. However, a mixture of 17?gmL(-1) tegument extract and 27?gmL(-1) cotyledon extract caused 100% larval mortality in a bioassay. The mixture was no longer larvicidal after the tegument extract was pre-treated at 100°C for 10min. The enzyme tegupain efficiently hydrolysed the substrate Z-Phe-Arg-pNan (Km 58.8?M, Kcat 28020s(-1), Kcat/Km 5×10(8)M(-1) s(-1)), and its activity increased with 2mM dithiothreitol (DTT), at 37°C, pH 5.0. The chelating agent EDTA did not modify the enzyme activity. Inhibition of tegupain by cystatin (Kiapp 2.43nM), E64 (3.64nM, 83% inhibition), and the propeptide N-terminal sequence indicate that the toxic activity is due to a novel cysteine proteinase-like enzyme, rendered active upon the hydrolysis of a cotyledon component of C. papaya seeds. PMID:23402920

Nunes, Natalia N dos S; Santana, Lucimeire A; Sampaio, Misako U; Lemos, Francisco J A; Oliva, Maria Luiza

2013-02-10

43

Effects of crude extracts of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) and Carica papaya (Caricaceae) against the protozoan fish parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis.  

PubMed

The ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is among the most pathogenic parasites of fish maintained in captivity. In the present study, the effects of the crude methanolic extract of leaves of Mucuna pruriens and the petroleum-ether extract of seeds of Carica papaya against I. multifiliis were investigated under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) infected with the parasites were immersed for 72 h in baths with M. pruriens extract, and for 96 h in baths with C. papaya extract. There was a 90% reduction in numbers of I. multifiliis on fish after treatment in baths of each plant extract at 200 mg l(-1 )compared to untreated controls. Consequently, parasite-induced fish mortality was reduced significantly. A complete interruption of trophont recruitment was achieved by immersion in the M. pruriens extract. In vitro tests led to a 100% mortality of I. multifiliis in 150 mg/l M. pruriens extract, and in 200 mg/l of C. papaya extract after 6 h. Although the active constituents of the medicinal plant extracts are still unknown, we have demonstrated that they have potential for effective control of I. multifiliis. PMID:14735356

Ekanem, A P; Obiekezie, A; Kloas, W; Knopf, K

2004-01-21

44

Antihyperglycaemic effects of ethanol extracts of Carica papaya and Pandanus amaryfollius leaf in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is a global disease that is increasing in an alarming rate. The present study was undertaken to study the antidiabetic effect of the ethanol extracts of Carica papaya and Pandanus amaryfollius on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. The results of the present study indicated that there was no significant difference in the body weight of the treated groups when compared to diabetic control. Whereas, there was significant (P?papaya and P. amaryfollius. The antidiabetic effect of C. papaya and P. amaryfollius observed in the present study may be due to the presence of these phytochemicals. PMID:21707251

Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Sumathi, Vello; Jegathambigai, Naidu Rameshwar; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga

2011-06-27

45

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a family 19 glycosyl hydrolase from Carica papaya latex  

PubMed Central

A chitinase isolated from the latex of the tropical species Carica papaya has been purified to homogeneity and crystallized. This enzyme belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 19 and exhibits exceptional resistance to proteolysis. The initially observed crystals, which diffracted to a resolution of 2.0?Å, were improved through modification of the crystallization protocol. Well ordered crystals were subsequently obtained using N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, the mono­mer resulting from the hydrolysis of chitin, as an additive to the crystallization solution. Here, the characterization of a chitinase crystal that belongs to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 69.08, b = 44.79, c = 76.73?Å, ? = 95.33° and two molecules per asymmetric unit, is reported. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.8?Å. Structure refinement is currently in progress.

Huet, Joelle; Azarkan, Mohamed; Looze, Yvan; Villeret, Vincent; Wintjens, Rene

2008-01-01

46

Investigation of lipases from various Carica papaya varieties for hydrolysis of olive oil and kinetic resolution of ( R, S)-profen 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl thioesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

With olive oil hydrolysis in aqueous solutions and hydrolytic resolution of (R,S)-profen 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl thioesters in water-saturated isooctane as the model systems, the lipolysis and enantioselective hydrolysis activities of four partially purified Carica papaya lipases of different plant variety and geography location of cultures were compared to select pCPL-Indo from Indonesia as the best lipase preparation. For lipolysis, an optimal pH

I-Son Ng; Shau-Wei Tsai

2006-01-01

47

Does Carica papaya leaf-extract increase the platelet count? An experimental study in a murine model  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the potential role of fresh Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract on haematological and biochemical parameters and toxicological changes in a murine model. Methods In total 36 mice were used for the trial. Fresh C. papaya leaf extract [0.2 mL (2 g)/mouse] was given only to the test group (18 mice). General behavior, clinical signs and feeding patterns were recorded. Blood and tissue samples were collected at intervals. Haematological parameters including platelet, red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), packed cell volume (PCV), serum biochemistry including serum creatinine, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) were determined. Organs for possible histopathological changes were examined. Results Neither group exhibited alteration of behavior or reduction in food and water intake. Similarly, no significant changes in SGOT, SGPT and serum creatinine levels were detected in the test group. Histopathological organ changes were not observed in either group of mice except in three liver samples of the test group which had a mild focal necrosis. The platelet count (11.33±0.35)×105/µL (P=0.000?04) and the RBC count (7.97±0.61)×106/µL (P=0.000?03) were significantly increased in the test group compared to that of the controls. However, WBC count and PCV (%) values were not changed significantly in the test group. The platelet count in the test group started to increase significantly from Day 3 (3.4±0.18×105/µL), reaching almost a fourfold higher at Day 21 (11.3×105/µL), while it was 3.8×105/µL and 5.5×105/µL at Day 3 and Day 21 respectively in the control. Likewise, the RBC count in the test group increased from 6×106/µL to 9×106/ µL at Day 21 while it remained near constant in the control group (6×106/µL). Conclusions Fresh C. papaya leaf extract significantly increased the platelet and RBC counts in the test group as compared to controls. Therefore, it is very important to identify those chemicals of C. papaya leaves as it can be recommended to be used as a medication to boost thrombopoiesis and erythropoiesis in humans and in animals in which these cell lineages have been compromised.

Dharmarathna, Sinhalagoda Lekamlage Chandi Asoka; Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Waduge, Roshitha Nilmini; Rajapakse, Rajapakse Peramune Veddikkarage Jayanthe; Kularatne, Senanayake Abeysinghe Mudiyanselage

2013-01-01

48

PAPAYA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya has been improved through biotechnology, for example, through the development of in vitro culture methods and genetic transformation. In the last 6 years, commercialized transgenic papaya resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) has been cited as a significant example of the advantages provi...

49

Improved Carica papaya Tolerance to Carmine Spider Mite by the Expression of Manduca sexta chitinase Transgene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya plants producing the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) chitinase protein were obtained following microprojectile bombardment of embryogenic calli derived from the hypocotyls of\\u000a the cultivar Kapoho. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out to confirm the presence of the transgene. RT-PCR and\\u000a a quantitative chitinase assay showed increased levels of chitinase activity in every selected transgenic line. Insect bioassays\\u000a in

Heather R. K. McCafferty; Paul H. Moore; Yun J. Zhu

2006-01-01

50

Discovery of genes associated with fruit ripening in Carica papaya using expressed sequence tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify genes involved in papaya fruit ripening, a total of 1171 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated from randomly selected clones of two independent fruit cDNA libraries derived from yellow and red-fleshed fruit varieties. The most abundant sequences encoded: chitinase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase, catalase and methionine synthase, respectively. DNA sequence comparisons identified ESTs with significant similarity to genes

Luke C. Devitt; Tim Sawbridge; Timothy A. Holton; Keith Mitchelson; Ralf G. Dietzgen

2006-01-01

51

Genetic differentiation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum associated with Anthracnose disease of papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsium annuum L.) based on ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting.  

PubMed

Members of the genus Colletotrichum include some of the most economically important fungal pathogens in the world. Accurate diagnosis is critical to devising disease management strategies. Two species, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum, are responsible for anthracnose disease in papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Trinidad. The ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of 48 Colletotrichum isolates was sequenced, and the ITS PCR products were analyzed by PCR-RFLP analysis. Restriction site polymorphisms generated from 11 restriction enzymes enabled the identification of specific enzymes that were successful in distinguishing between C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates. Species-specific restriction fragment length polymorphisms generated by the enzymes AluI, HaeIII, PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were used to consistently resolve C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates from papaya. AluI, ApaI, PvuII, RsaI, and SmaI reliably separated isolates of C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum from bell pepper. PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were also capable of distinguishing among the C. gloeosporioides isolates from papaya based on the different restriction patterns that were obtained as a result of intra-specific variation in restriction enzyme recognition sites in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region. Of all the isolates tested, C. gloeosporioides from papaya also had the highest number of PCR-RFLP haplotypes. Cluster analysis of sequence and PCR-RFLP data demonstrated that all C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates clustered separately into species-specific clades regardless of host species. Phylograms also revealed consistent topologies which suggested that the genetic distances for PCR-RFLP-generated data were comparable to that of ITS sequence data. ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting is a rapid and reliable method to identify and differentiate between Colletotrichum species. PMID:21720933

Maharaj, Ariana; Rampersad, Sephra N

2012-03-01

52

Long-chain ethers as solvents can amplify the enantioselectivity of the Carica papaya lipase-catalyzed transesterification of 2-(substituted phenoxy)propanoic acid esters.  

PubMed

The enantioselectivity of the transesterification of the 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl esters of 2-(substituted phenoxy)propanoic acids, as catalyzed by the lipase from Carica papaya, was greatly improved by using long-chain ethers, such as di-n-hexyl ether, as solvents instead of the conventional diisopropyl ether. Thus, for example, the E value was enhanced from 21 [in diisopropyl ether (0.8 ml)] to 57 [in di-n-hexyl ether (0.8 ml)] in the reaction of 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl(RS)-2-phenoxypropanoate (0.1 mmol) with methanol (0.4 mmol) in the presence of the plant lipase preparation (10 mg); it was also improved from 13 (in diisopropyl ether) to 44 (in di-n-hexyl ether) in the reaction of 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl(RS)-2-(2-chlorophenoxy)propanoate with methanol under the same reaction conditions. PMID:23801111

Miyazawa, Toshifumi; Iguchi, Wakana

2013-06-26

53

Analysis of Carica papaya Telomeres and Telomere-Associated Proteins: Insights into the Evolution of Telomere Maintenance in Brassicales  

PubMed Central

Telomeres are terminal regions of linear eukaryotic chromosomes that are critical for genome stability and continued cell proliferation. The draft assembly of the papaya genome provides an opportunity to analyze and compare the evolution of telomeric DNA sequence composition and telomere maintenance machinery in this and other organisms of the Brassicales Order, which includes Arabidopsis. Here we investigate telomere size and sequence variation at papaya chromosome ends. As with most other plant species, papaya telomeres consist of TTTAGGG repeats. However, in contrast to members of the closely related Brassicaceae family, telomeres in papaya are ~10-fold longer. Sequence analysis reveals that many centromereproximal telomere repeats in papaya harbor nucleotide substitutions and insertions of Gs and Ts. In contrast, we found very few N-to-C substitutions, and even fewer instances of nucleotide deletion, suggesting that a six-nucleotide telomere repeat is not well tolerated. The papaya genome encodes single-copy sequence homologues of several genes involved in telomere maintenance and chromosome end protection, including the Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT) and Protection Of Telomeres (POT1). Notably, unlike Arabidopsis, which encodes six Telomere Repeat binding Factor-like (TRFL) proteins that bind double-stranded telomere DNA, papaya appears to encode only two such proteins. Thus, the more streamlined genome of papaya will provide an excellent resource for comparative and functional analysis of telomeres in plants.

Shakirov, E. V.; Salzberg, S. L.; Alam, M.

2010-01-01

54

Maternal inheritance of cytoplasmic organelles in intergeneric hybrids of Carica papaya L. and Vasconcellea spp. (Caricaceae Dumort., Brassicales)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mode of inheritance of chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA has been determined in intergeneric hybrids between C. papaya and four different Vasconcellea species by employing a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a PCR-amplified chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA region. Artificial F1 hybrids were produced between a female specimen of C. papaya and male specimens of either V. parviflora, V. goudotiana,

B. Van Droogenbroeck; I. Maertens; A. Haegeman; T. Kyndt; C. O’Brien; R. A. Drew; G. Gheysen

2005-01-01

56

Sperm characteristics and ultrastructure of testes of rats after long-term treatment with the methanol subfraction of Carica papaya seeds  

PubMed Central

The contraceptive efficacy of Carica papaya seeds after short-term evaluation has been well established. We have examined the safety and mechanism of contraception in rats after long-term treatment with the methanol subfraction (MSF) of C. papaya seeds. The test substance was administered orally to the male albino rats (n = 40) at 50 mg per kg body weight each day for 360 days. Control animals (n = 40) received olive oil as a vehicle. Recovery was assessed up to 120 days after treatment withdrawal. Sperm parameters, serum testosterone levels, fertility, histology and ultrastructure of the testis, haematology and serum clinical chemistry were evaluated to establish the safety and efficacy of the test substance. Safety of long-term treatment was evidenced by unaltered health status, organ weight, haematology and clinical chemistry, and by an increase in body weight. The mechanism of contraception was shown by reduction in nuclear and cytoplasmic volume, normal nuclear characteristics and vacuolization in the cytoplasmic organelles of the Sertoli cells, as well as nuclear degeneration in spermatocytes and spermatids indicating disturbed spermatogenesis. Leydig cells were normal. Initial effects were observed in Sertoli cells at 60 days of treatment. Spermatocytes and spermatids were affected after 120–240 days of treatment. A significant decline in sperm count and viability, total inhibition of sperm motility, increased numbers of sperm abnormalities, normal serum testosterone levels and 100% sterility were evident after 60 days of treatment. All the altered parameters, including percent fertility, were restored to control level 120 days after treatment withdrawal. It is concluded that the MSF is safe for long-term treatment and the mechanism of contraception is shown by its effect on spermatid differentiation in the testis, possibly mediated by the Sertoli cell factors.

Manivannan, Boomi; Mittal, Ruchi; Goyal, Shipra; Ansari, Abdul S.; Lohiya, Nirmal K.

2009-01-01

57

Characterization of a novel ?-thioglucosidase CpTGG1 in Carica papaya and its substrate-dependent and ascorbic acid-independent O-?-glucosidase activity.  

PubMed

Plant thioglucosidases are the only known S-glycosidases in the large superfamily of glycosidases. These enzymes evolved more recently and are distributed mainly in Brassicales. Thioglucosidase research has focused mainly on the cruciferous crops due to their economic importance and cancer preventive benefits. In this study, we cloned a novel myrosinase gene, CpTGG1, from Carica papaya Linnaeus. and showed that it was expressed in the aboveground tissues in planta. The recombinant CpTGG1 expressed in Pichia pastoris catalyzed the hydrolysis of both sinigrin and glucotropaeolin (the only thioglucoside present in papaya), showing that CpTGG1 was indeed a functional myrosinase gene. Sequence alignment analysis indicated that CpTGG1 contained all the motifs conserved in functional myrosinases from crucifers, except for two aglycon-binding motifs, suggesting substrate priority variation of the non-cruciferous myrosinases. Using sinigrin as substrate, the apparent K(m) and V(max) values of recombinant CpTGG1 were 2.82 mM and 59.9 ?mol min?¹ mg protein?¹ , respectively. The K(cat) /K(m) value was 23 s?¹ mM?¹ . O-?-glucosidase activity towards a variety of substrates were tested, CpTGG1 displayed substrate-dependent and ascorbic acid-independent O-?-glucosidase activity towards 2-nitrophenyl-?-D-glucopyranoside and 4-nitrophenyl-?-D-glucopyranoside, but was inactive towards glucovanillin and n-octyl-?-D-glucopyranoside. Phylogenetic analysis indicated CpTGG1 belongs to the MYR II subfamily of myrosinases. PMID:20883440

Nong, Han; Zhang, Jia-Ming; Li, Ding-Qin; Wang, Meng; Sun, Xue-Piao; Zhu, Yun Judy; Meijer, Johan; Wang, Qin-Huang

2010-10-01

58

Carica papaya Leaves Juice Significantly Accelerates the Rate of Increase in Platelet Count among Patients with Dengue Fever and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to investigate the platelet increasing property of Carica papaya leaves juice (CPLJ) in patients with dengue fever (DF). An open labeled randomized controlled trial was carried out on 228 patients with DF and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Approximately half the patients received the juice, for 3 consecutive days while the others remained as controls and received the standard management. Their full blood count was monitored 8 hours for 48 hours. Gene expression studies were conducted on the ALOX 12 and PTAFR genes. The mean increase in platelet counts were compared in both groups using repeated measure ANCOVA. There was a significant increase in mean platelet count observed in the intervention group (P < 0.001) but not in the control group 40 hours since the first dose of CPLJ. Comparison of mean platelet count between intervention and control group showed that mean platelet count in intervention group was significantly higher than control group after 40 and 48 hours of admission (P < 0.01). The ALOX 12 (FC??=??15.00) and PTAFR (FC??=??13.42) genes were highly expressed among those on the juice. It was concluded that CPLJ does significantly increase the platelet count in patients with DF and DHF. PMID:23662145

Subenthiran, Soobitha; Choon, Tan Chwee; Cheong, Kee Chee; Thayan, Ravindran; Teck, Mok Boon; Muniandy, Prem Kumar; Afzan, Adlin; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Ismail, Zakiah

2013-04-11

59

Nutritional composition of Rainbow papaya, the first commercialized transgenic fruit crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainbow papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a genetically engineered (GE) cultivar with resistance to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This cultivar currently accounts for about 70% of Hawaii's papaya acreage. The nutritional composition of Rainbow papaya and a non-transgenic control were analyzed to address GE food safety concerns regarding the potential for altered nutritional composition and altered expression of inherent allergens

Savarni Tripathi; Jon Y. Suzuki; James B. Carr; Grant T. McQuate; Stephen A. Ferreira; Richard M. Manshardt; Karen Y. Pitz; Marisa M. Wall; Dennis Gonsalves

2011-01-01

60

Solenostemon monostachyus, Ipomoea involucrata and Carica papaya seed oil versus Glutathione, or Vernonia amygdalina: Methanolic extracts of novel plants for the management of sickle cell anemia disease  

PubMed Central

Background Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disease caused by an individual inheriting an allele for sickle cell hemoglobin from both parents and is associated with unusually large numbers of immature blood cells, containing many long, thin, crescent-shaped erythrocytes. It is a disease prevalent throughout many populations. The use of medicinal plants and nutrition in managing SCD is gaining increasing attention. Methods The antisickling effects of Solenostemon monostachyus (SolMon), Carica papaya seed oil (Cari-oil) and Ipomoea involucrata (Ipocrata) in male (HbSSM) and female (HbSSF) human sickle cell blood was examined in vitro and compared with controls, or cells treated with glutathione or an antisickling plant (Vernonia amygdalina; VerMyg). Results Levels of sickle blood cells were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in all the plant-extract treated SCD patients’ blood compared with that of untreated SCD patients. RBCs in SolMon, Ipocrata, and Cari-oil treated samples were significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with VerMyg-treated samples. The Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in all plant extract-treated HbSSM samples compared with controls. Hemoglobin concentration was significantly increased (P < 0.05) by SolMon treatment in HbSSF compared with VerMyg. Sickle cell polymerization inhibition exhibited by SolMon was significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with that of VerMyg in HbSSF blood. Sickle cell polymerization inhibition in SolMon and Ipocrata were significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with VerMyg in HbSSM blood. All plant extracts significantly reduced (P < 0.05) lactate dehydrogenase activity in both HbSSM and HbSSF-treated blood. Catalase activity was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in HbSSF blood treated with Ipocrata compared with glutathione. Cari-oil treated HbSSM and HbSSF blood had significantly increased (P < 0.05) peroxidase activity compared with controls. Conclusions Methanolic extracts from S. monostachyus, C. papaya seed oil and I. involucrata exhibited particular antisickling properties coupled with the potential to reduce stress in sickle cell patients. Each plant individually or in combination may be useful for the management of sickle cell disease.

2012-01-01

61

Characterisation of an acidic peroxidase from papaya (Carica papaya L. cv Tainung No. 2) latex and its application in the determination of micromolar hydrogen peroxide in milk.  

PubMed

An acidic peroxidase isoform, POD-A, with a molecular mass of 69.4 kDa and an isoelectric point of 3.5 was purified from papaya latex. Using o-phenylenediamine (OPD) as a hydrogen donor (citrate-phosphate as pH buffer), the optimum pH for the function of POD-A was 4.6, and the optimum temperature was 50°C. The peroxidase activity of POD-A toward hydrogen donors was both pH- and concentration-dependent. Under optimal conditions, POD-A catalysed the oxidation of OPD at higher rates than pyrogallol, catechol, quercetin and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). The chemical modification reagents N-bromosuccinimide and sodium azide significantly inhibited POD-A activity. The results of kinetic studies indicated that POD-A followed a ping-pong mechanism and had a K(m) value of 2.8mM for OPD. Using CPC silica-immobilised POD-A for the determination of micromolar H(2)O(2) in milk, the lower limit of determination was 0.1 ?M, and the recoveries of added H(2)O(2) were 96-109%. PMID:22980838

Chen, Li-Chun; Chung, Yun-Chin; Chang, Chen-Tien

2012-07-14

62

Update on the development of virus-resistant papaya: Virus-resistant transgenic papaya for people in rural communities of Thailand  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the most important and preferred crops in rural communities in Thailand. Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a serious disease of papaya throughout Thailand. Efforts to control the virus by various methods either have not been successful or have not resulted in sustai...

63

In vitro plant regeneration of fig (Ficus carica L. cv. gular) using apical buds from mature trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reliable procedure for multiple-shoot induction and plantlet regeneration was developed with apical buds collected from\\u000a 7- to 8-year-old trees of Ficus carica L. using Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with 2.0 mg\\/l 6-benzylaminopurine and 0.2 mg\\/l 1-naphthaleneacetic\\u000a acid. The in-vitro-regenerated shoots were further multiplied on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg\\/l 6-benzylaminopurine\\u000a and 0.2 mg\\/l 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and

V. Kumar; A. Radha; S. Kumar Chitta

1998-01-01

64

Whole-photosynthesis and transpiration in field-grown papaya plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of papaya response to environmental factors provides a scientific basis to develop management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. In papaya, the photosynthetic capacity also influ...

65

Photoacoustic study of the influence of the cooling temperature on the CO2 emission rate by Carica papaya L. in modified atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monitoring of trace gas emitted by papaya fruits and assessments of its mass loss can contribute to improve the conditions for their storage and transport. The C02 emission rate by the papaya fruits, monitored by a commercial infrared-based gas analyzer, was influenced by the temperature and storage time. The fruits stored at temperature of 13 °C accumulated more CO2

D. U. Schramm; M. S. Sthel; M. G. da Silva; L. O. Carneiro; H. R. F. Silva; M. L. L. Martins; E. D. Resende; L. Vitorazi; H. Vargas

2005-01-01

66

A dated phylogeny of the papaya family (Caricaceae) reveals the crop's closest relatives and the family's biogeographic history.  

PubMed

Papaya (Carica papaya) is a crop of great economic importance, and the species was among the first plants to have its genome sequenced. However, there has never been a complete species-level phylogeny for the Caricaceae, and the crop's closest relatives are therefore unknown. We investigated the evolution of the Caricaceae based on sequences from all species and genera, the monospecific Carica, African Cylicomorpha with two species, South American Jacaratia and Vasconcellea with together c. 28 species, and Mexican/Guatemalan Jarilla and Horovitzia with four species. Most Caricaceae are trees or shrubs; the species of Jarilla, however, are herbaceous. We generated a matrix of 4711 nuclear and plastid DNA characters and used maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analysis to infer species relationships, rooting trees on the Moringaceae. Divergence times were estimated under relaxed and strict molecular clocks, using different subsets of the data. Ancestral area reconstruction relied on a ML approach. The deepest split in the Caricaceae occurred during the Late Eocene, when the ancestor of the Neotropical clade arrived from Africa. In South America, major diversification events coincide with the Miocene northern Andean uplift and the initial phase of the tectonic collision between South America and Panama resulting in the Panamanian land bridge. Carica papaya is sister to Jarilla/Horovitzia, and all three diverged from South American Caricaceae in the Oligocene, 27 (22-33) Ma ago, coincident with the early stages of the formation of the Panamanian Isthmus. The discovery that C. papaya is closest to a clade of herbaceous or thin-stemmed species has implications for plant breeders who have so far tried to cross papaya only with woody highland papayas (Vasconcellea). PMID:22659516

Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; Renner, Susanne S

2012-05-31

67

Ripening in papaya fruit is altered by ACC oxidase cosuppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya) is a very important crop in many tropical countries but it is highly susceptible to parasitic diseases, physiological disorders,\\u000a mechanical damage and fruit overripening. Here we report a study on ACC oxidase cosuppression and its effects on papaya fruit\\u000a ripening. Papaya ACC oxidase was isolated using PCR and embriogenic cells transformed by biolistic using the CaMV 35S

Rodolfo López-Gómez; Jose Luis Cabrera-Ponce; Luis Jorge Saucedo-Arias; Lorena Carreto-Montoya; Ramon Villanueva-Arce; Juan Carlos Díaz-Perez; Miguel Angel Gómez-Lim; Luis Herrera-Estrella

2009-01-01

68

Development of transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) = Desenvolvimento de mamoeiros transgênicos resistentes a vírus expressando o gene da capa protéica de um isolado brasileiro de Papaya ringspot virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya). The biolistic system was used to transform secondary somatic embryo cultures derived from immature zygotic embryos. Fifty-four transgenic lines, 26 translatable and

M. T. Souza; O. Níckel; D. Gonsalves

2005-01-01

69

Photoacoustic study of the influence of the cooling temperature on the CO2 emission rate by Carica papaya L. in modified atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monitoring of trace gas emitted by papaya fruits and assessments of its mass loss can contribute to improve the conditions for their storage and transport. The C02 emission rate by the papaya fruits, monitored by a commercial infrared-based gas analyzer, was influenced by the temperature and storage time. The fruits stored at temperature of 13 °C accumulated more CO2 inside the PEBD bags than those fruits stored at 6 °C. The loss of mass of the fruits progressively increased with storage time for both temperatures until the saturation of the moisture inside the PEBD bag, been more pronounced at 13 ºC.

Schramm, D. U.; Sthel, M. S.; da Silva, M. G.; Carneiro, L. O.; Silva, H. R. F.; Martins, M. L. L.; Resende, E. D.; Vitorazi, L.; Vargas, H.

2005-06-01

70

Ex vivo and in vivo investigations of the effects of extracts of Vernonia amygdalina, Carica papaya and Tapinanthus sessilifolius on digoxin transport and pharmacokinetics: assessing the significance on rat intestinal P-glycoprotein efflux.  

PubMed

Vernonia amygdalina (VA), Carica papaya (CP), and Tapinanthus sessilifolius (ML) are widely used in some countries as medicinal herbs to treat ailments including malaria, cancer, and diabetes. We previously reported the inhibitory effects of these herbs on permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) in Caco-2 cell monolayers. This study used ex vivo and in vivo models to investigate the likelihood of P-gp-mediated herb-drug interactions occurring. The study utilized excised rat intestinal tissues mounted in Ussing chambers to predict changes in drug absorption and an in vivo study in rats using digoxin as the P-gp substrate. Apparent permeability values and pharmacokinetic parameters of digoxin were compared to determine if co-administration of digoxin with ML, CP, or VA modulated the activity of P-gp. When VA was co-administered, the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve was significantly higher (2.1-fold) than when digoxin was administered alone. Co-administration of ML, VA, and CP significantly increased the mean digoxin apparent permeability in the mucosal-to-serosal direction by 7.8, 43.3, and 54.5%, respectively, in comparison to when digoxin was administered alone. These findings suggest that VA increases intestinal absorption of digoxin in vivo by inhibiting P-gp and may also modulate the pharmacokinetic disposition of other p-gp substrate drugs. PMID:23291634

Oga, Enoche Florence; Sekine, Shuichi; Horie, Toshiharu

2013-01-01

71

Papaya Fruit Softening: Role of Hydrolases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivars show a wide variation in fruit softening rates, a character that determines fruit quality and shelf life, and\\u000a thought to be the result of cell wall degradation. The activity of pectin methylesterase, ?-galactosidase, endoglucanase,\\u000a endoxylanase and xylosidase were correlated with normal softening, though no relationship was found between polygalacturonase\\u000a activity and softening. When softening was

Siwaporn Thumdee; Ashariya Manenoi; Nancy J. Chen; Robert E. Paull

2010-01-01

72

Papaya proteinase IV amino acid sequence.  

PubMed

The amino acid sequence of papaya proteinase IV (PPIV), a major proteinase from the latex of Carica papaya [(1989) Biochem. J. 261, 469-476] is described. The enzyme has a high degree of sequence identity with papaya proteinase III, chymopapain and papain (81, 70 and 67%, respectively), and is clearly a member of the papain superfamily of cysteine proteinases. Nevertheless, the sequence shows substitution of certain residues conserved in all other known members of the superfamily. It is suggested that some of these substitutions may account for the unusual specificity of PPIV. PMID:2591528

Ritonja, A; Buttle, D J; Rawlings, N D; Turk, V; Barrett, A J

1989-11-20

73

Analysis of genetic diversity of southern Spain fig tree (Ficus carica L.) and reference materials as a tool for breeding and conservation.  

PubMed

The common fig tree (Ficus carica L.) is a Mediterranean crop with problematic cultivar identification. The recovery and conservation of possible local varieties for ecological production requires the previous genetic characterization of the available germplasm. In this context, 42 lines corresponding to 12 local varieties and two caprifigs, in addition to 15 reference samples have been fingerprinted using 21 SSR markers. A total of 77 alleles were revealed, detecting a useful level of genetic variability within the local germplasm pools. UPGMA clustering analysis has revealed the genetic structure and relationships among the local and reference germplasm. Eleven of the local varieties could be identified and defined as obtained clusters, showing that SSR analysis is an efficient method to evaluate the Andalusian fig tree diversity for on-farm conservation. PMID:22804343

Perez-Jiménez, M; López, B; Dorado, G; Pujadas-Salvá, A; Guzmán, G; Hernandez, P

2012-07-04

74

Rapid divergence and expansion of the X chromosome in papaya  

PubMed Central

X chromosomes have long been thought to conserve the structure and gene content of the ancestral autosome from which the sex chromosomes evolved. We compared the recently evolved papaya sex chromosomes with a homologous autosome of a close relative, the monoecious Vasconcellea monoica, to infer changes since recombination stopped between the papaya sex chromosomes. We sequenced 12 V. monoica bacterial artificial chromosomes, 11 corresponding to the papaya X-specific region, and 1 to a papaya autosomal region. The combined V. monoica X-orthologous sequences are much shorter (1.10 Mb) than the corresponding papaya region (2.56 Mb). Given that the V. monoica genome is 41% larger than that of papaya, this finding suggests considerable expansion of the papaya X; expansion is supported by a higher repetitive sequence content of the X compared with the papaya autosomal sequence. The alignable regions include 27 transcript-encoding sequences, only 6 of which are functional X/V. monoica gene pairs. Sequence divergence from the V. monoica orthologs is almost identical for papaya X and Y alleles; the Carica-Vasconcellea split therefore occurred before the papaya sex chromosomes stopped recombining, making V. monoica a suitable outgroup for inferring changes in papaya sex chromosomes. The papaya X and the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome and V. monoica have all gained and lost genes, including a surprising amount of changes in the X.

Gschwend, Andrea R.; Yu, Qingyi; Tong, Eric J.; Zeng, Fanchang; Han, Jennifer; VanBuren, Robert; Aryal, Rishi; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H.; Paterson, Andrew H.; Ming, Ray

2012-01-01

75

Inconspicuous endophytic bacteria mimicking latex exudates in shoot-tip cultures of papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoot-tip cultures of papaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. Surya were initiated from field-grown plants after extensive surface sterilization for their use in micropropagation and to assess endophytic bacterial associations with apparently clean cultures. Out of 150 explants cultured, 40% of them displayed microbial contamination with obvious colony growth on tissue culture medium during the first in vitro passage of 1

P. Thomas; S. Kumari

2010-01-01

76

Iron Deficiency Induced Changes in Iron Reductase Activity in Papaya Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivars were cultured aeroponically or in perlite to determine the magnitude, timing, and root locality of Fe reductase induced by Fe deficiency. Five soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) lines with a known range of Fe-deficiency chlorosis scores were cultured in perlite for comparison. Speed of inducement of Fe reductase activity was determined in plants cultured

Thomas E. Marler; Andrea L. Blas

2002-01-01

77

SYSTEMIC AQUIRED RESISTANCE INDUCED BY BTH IN PAPAYA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Systemic aquired resistance in Carica papaya L. is induced by benzothiadiazole (BTH). The response is manifested by increased tolerance to infection by the virulent pathogen Phytophthora palmivora, by increased B-1,3-glucanase and chitinase activities, and by increased accumulation of a PR1 mRNA. In...

78

IDENTIFICATION AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF BTH INDUCED GENES IN PAPAYA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to produce a Carica papaya L. cDNA library enriched for benzothiadiazole (BTH) induced genes. From this library 360 clones were screened by reverse-northern dot blot. ESTs found to be BTH-induced by this method were confirmed by northern blot and ...

79

Development of Transgenic Papaya through Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation.  

PubMed

Transgenic papaya plants were regenerated from hypocotyls and immature zygotic embryo after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as the selectable marker and ?-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene. The explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens on regeneration medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime for one week. The cocultivated explants were transferred into the final selection medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime?+?50?mg/L kanamycin for callus induction as well as plant regeneration. The callus derived from the hypocotyls of Carica papaya cv. Shahi showed the highest positive GUS activities compared to Carica papaya cv. Ranchi. The transformed callus grew vigorously and formed embryos followed by transgenic plantlets successfully. The result of this study showed that the hypocotyls of C. papaya cv. Shahi and C. papaya cv. Ranchi are better explants for genetic transformation compared to immature embryos. The transformed C. papaya cv. Shahi also showed the maximum number of plant regeneration compared to that of C. papaya cv. Ranchi. PMID:24066284

Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md Golam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

2013-08-28

80

Development of Transgenic Papaya through Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation  

PubMed Central

Transgenic papaya plants were regenerated from hypocotyls and immature zygotic embryo after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as the selectable marker and ?-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene. The explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens on regeneration medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime for one week. The cocultivated explants were transferred into the final selection medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime?+?50?mg/L kanamycin for callus induction as well as plant regeneration. The callus derived from the hypocotyls of Carica papaya cv. Shahi showed the highest positive GUS activities compared to Carica papaya cv. Ranchi. The transformed callus grew vigorously and formed embryos followed by transgenic plantlets successfully. The result of this study showed that the hypocotyls of C. papaya cv. Shahi and C. papaya cv. Ranchi are better explants for genetic transformation compared to immature embryos. The transformed C. papaya cv. Shahi also showed the maximum number of plant regeneration compared to that of C. papaya cv. Ranchi.

Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md. Golam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

2013-01-01

81

Feasibility of using papaya skin extract for digestion of swamp eel viscera for harvesting infective stage larva of Gnathostoma spp.  

PubMed

In this study, we reported the feasibility of using papaya skin extract (Carica papaya L.) as an alternative to enzyme pepsin in harvesting Gnathostoma spinigerum third-stage larvae. From experimental digestion, we found that the different numbers of recovered larvae between papaya skin extract and pepsin were not statistically significant (p >0.05). When the derived larvae from pepsin and papaya skin extract digestion were cultivated in BME medium for 7 days, the survival rates were not significantly different either (p >0.05). Thus, papaya skin extract might be another choice for recovering Gnathostoma spinigerum third-stage larvae. PMID:16438187

Soogarun, Suphan; Lertlum, Thamaporn; Suwansaksri, Jamsai; Wiwanitkit, Viroj

2005-01-01

82

Analysis of ripening-related gene expression in papaya using an Arabidopsis-based microarray  

PubMed Central

Background Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a commercially important crop that produces climacteric fruits with a soft and sweet pulp that contain a wide range of health promoting phytochemicals. Despite its importance, little is known about transcriptional modifications during papaya fruit ripening and their control. In this study we report the analysis of ripe papaya transcriptome by using a cross-species (XSpecies) microarray technique based on the phylogenetic proximity between papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Papaya transcriptome analyses resulted in the identification of 414 ripening-related genes with some having their expression validated by qPCR. The transcription profile was compared with that from ripening tomato and grape. There were many similarities between papaya and tomato especially with respect to the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in primary metabolism, regulation of transcription, biotic and abiotic stress and cell wall metabolism. XSpecies microarray data indicated that transcription factors (TFs) of the MADS-box, NAC and AP2/ERF gene families were involved in the control of papaya ripening and revealed that cell wall-related gene expression in papaya had similarities to the expression profiles seen in Arabidopsis during hypocotyl development. Conclusion The cross-species array experiment identified a ripening-related set of genes in papaya allowing the comparison of transcription control between papaya and other fruit bearing taxa during the ripening process.

2012-01-01

83

Effect of ethylene and culture environment on development of papaya nodal cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) nodal cultures modified the atmosphere of the headspace of the vessel used for culture maintenance\\u000a by producing ethylene. Under culture maintenance nodal cultures grew poorly and leaves senesced. Incubating nodal cultures\\u000a under a range of ethylene concentrations suggested that this poor performance was caused in part, by the production of ethylene\\u000a and its accumulation in the

Pablito M. Magdalita; Ian D. Godwin; Roderick a. Drew; Stephen W. Adkins

1997-01-01

84

Effect of ammonium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate on anthracnose of papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is the causal organism of anthracnose inCarica papaya L. (papaya, papaw). The effect of ammonium carbonate (3%) or sodium bicarbonate (2%) in aqueous solution or when incorporated\\u000a into a wax formulation on anthracnose severity in inoculated or naturally infected fruits was examined. Both salts had significant\\u000a effects, but that of ammonium carbonate was greater than that of sodium

D. Sivakumar; N. K. Hewarathgamagae; R. S. Wilson Wijeratnam; R. L. C. Wijesundera

2002-01-01

85

Regeneration of transgenic papaya plants via somatic embryogenesis induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

AnAgrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated procedure for transformation of papaya (Carica papaya) was developed. Transgenic plants were obtained from somatic embryos that spontaneously formed at the base of transformed\\u000a roots, induced from leaf discs infected withA. rhizogenes. Transformation was monitored by autonomous growth of roots and somatic embryos, resistance to kanamycin, ?-glucuronidase\\u000a activity (GUS), and Southern hybridization analysis. Over one-third of the infected

José Luis Cabrera-Ponce; Ariadne Vegas-Garcia; Luis Herrera-Estrella

1996-01-01

86

[Anti-infective phytotherapies of the tree-savannah, Senegal (occidental Africa). III: A review of phytochemical substances and the antimicrobial activity of 43 species].  

PubMed

A review has been made of the ethnobotanical and pharmacological data of 43 medicinal plants of the tree-savannah used by the Diola against infectious diseases. The traditional use of ten plants can be explained by pharmacologically active principles: Adansonia digitata, Azadirachta indica, Carica papaya, Cassia tora, Fagara leprieurii, Guiera senegalensis, Khaya senegalensis, Mangifera indica, Psidium guajava and Voacanga africana. Four of these herbs are recommended for use in Primary Health Care. The therapeutic value of the other plants discussed is not absolutely clear. It is, however, obvious that herbal medicine has a large potential, which is still insufficiently explored, for utilization in Primary Health Care. PMID:2664354

Le Grand, A

1989-05-01

87

Papaya Ringspot Virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The term papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was coined by Jensen in 1949, to describe a papaya disease in Hawaii. Later work showed that diseases such as papaya mosaic and watermelon mosaic virus-1 were caused by PRSV. The primary host range of PRSV is papaya and cucurbits, with Chenopium amaranticolor ...

88

Papaya nutritional analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papayas are sweet, flavorful tropical fruit, rich in vitamin C and carotenoids. Multiple interactions among preharvest environmental conditions, genetics, and physiology determine papaya nutritional composition at harvest. Selecting a cultivar with the genetic potential for high nutrient content and...

89

Antifungal Activity of Leaf and Stem Extracts from Various Plant Species on the Incidence of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides of Papaya and Mango Fruit After Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bautista-Baños, S., Barrera-Necha, L.L., Bravo-Luna, L., and Bermudez-Torres, K. 2002. Antifungal activity of leaf and stem extracts from various plant species on the incidence of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides of papaya and mango fruit after storage. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatología 20:8-12. Aqueous extracts of leaves and stems of Achras sapota, Annona reticulata, Bromelia hemisphaerica, Carica papaya, Citrus limon, Chrysophylum cainito, Dyospiros ebenaster,

Silvia Bautista-Baños; Laura Leticia Barrera-Necha; Leticia Bravo-Luna

2002-01-01

90

Ficus carica L.: Metabolic and biological screening.  

PubMed

Ficus carica L. is one of the earliest cultivated fruit trees. In this work, metabolite profiling was performed on the leaves, pulps and peels of two Portuguese white varieties of F. carica (Pingo de Mel and Branca Tradicional). Phenolics and organic acids profiles were determined by HPLC/DAD and HPLC/UV, respectively. All samples presented a similar phenolic profile composed by 3-O- and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids, ferulic acid, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, psoralen and bergapten. 3-O-Caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin-3-O-glucoside are described for the first time in this species. Leaves' organic acids profile presented oxalic, citric, malic, quinic, shikimic and fumaric acids, while in pulps and peels quinic acid was absent. The antioxidant potential of the different plant parts was checked. All materials exhibited activity against DPPH and nitric oxide radicals in a concentration-dependent way. However, only the leaves presented capacity to scavenge superoxide radical. Leaves were always the most effective part, which seems to be related with phenolics compounds. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory capacity was evaluated, but no effect was observed. Antimicrobial potential was also assessed against several bacterial species, although no activity was noticed. This is the first study comparing the chemical composition and biological potential of F. carica pulps, peels and leaves. PMID:19747518

Oliveira, Andreia P; Valentão, Patrícia; Pereira, José A; Silva, Branca M; Tavares, Fernando; Andrade, Paula B

2009-09-09

91

Strategies of leaf expansion in Ficus carica under semiarid conditions.  

PubMed

Leaf area expansion, thickness and inclination, gas exchange parameters and relative chlorophyll content were analysed in field-grown fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves over time, from emergence until after full leaf expansion (FLE). Ficus carica leaves showed a subtle change in shape during the early stages of development, and FLE was reached within ca. 30 days after emergence. Changes in leaf thickness and inclination after FLE demonstrated good adaptation to environmental conditions during summer in areas with a Mediterranean climate. Changes in gas exchange parameters and relative chlorophyll content showed that F. carica is a delayed-greening species, reaching maximum values 20 days after FLE. Correlation analysis of datasets collected during leaf expansion, confirmed dependence among structural and functional traits in F. carica. Pn was directly correlated with stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration (E), leaf area (LA) and relative chlorophyll content up to FLE. The effect of pruning on leaf expansion, a cultural technique commonly applied in this fruit tree, was also evaluated. Although leaf development in pruned branches gave a significantly higher relative leaf area growth rate (RGR(l)) and higher LA than non-pruned branches, no significant differences were found in other morphological and physiological traits, indicating no pruning effect on leaf development. All studied morphological and physiological characteristics indicate that F. carica is well adapted to semiarid conditions. The delayed greening strategy of this species is discussed. PMID:20522183

González-Rodríguez, A M; Peters, J

2010-05-01

92

DEVELOPING PAPAYA TO CONTROL PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS BY TRANSGENIC RESISTANCE, INTERGENERIC HYBRIDIZATION, AND TOLERANCE BREEDING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya ringspot virus causes the most important viral disease of papaya worldwide. The three major efforts to control virus through breeding are: development of virus resistant transgenic papaya, resistant transgenic papaya, intergeneric hybridization to incorporate resistant genes into papaya, and...

93

Field performance evaluation and genetic integrity assessment of cryopreserved papaya clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the first report of field performance and evaluation of morphological traits following cryopreservation in four\\u000a genotypes of Carica papaya (Z6, 97, TS2 and 35). It also describes the successful establishment of in vitro plantlets following vitrification-based\\u000a cryopreservation of shoot tips and their acclimatisation through to field establishment. Cloned plants resulting from untreated\\u000a controls, as well as controls

Adam Kaity; S. E. Ashmore; R. A. Drew

2009-01-01

94

Quarantine System for Papaya.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A novel system to ensure that papaya are free of fruit flies so as to meet quarantine restrictions is described. Papaya are subjected to selection on the basis of color in combination with a two-stage heated fluid treatment wherein time and temperature of...

H. M. Couey C. F. Hayes

1985-01-01

95

AFLP analysis of genetic relationships among papaya and its wild relatives (Caricaceae) from Ecuador.  

PubMed

The AFLP technique was used to assess the genetic relationships among the cultivated papaya ( Carica papaya L.) and related species native to Ecuador. Genetic distances based on AFLP data were estimated for 95 accessions belonging to three genera including C. papaya, at least eight Vasconcella species and two Jacaratia species. Cluster analysis using different methods and principal co-ordinate analysis (PCO), based on the AFLP data from 496 polymorphic bands generated with five primer combinations, was performed. The resulted grouping of accessions of each species corresponds largely with their taxonomic classifications and were found to be consistent with other studies based on RAPD, isozyme and cpDNA data. The AFLP analysis supports the recent rehabilitation of the Vasconcella group as a genus; until recently Vasconcella was considered as a section within the genus Carica. Both cluster and PCO analysis clearly separated the species of the three genera and illustrated the large genetic distance between C. papaya accessions and the Vasconcella group. The specific clustering of the highly diverse group of Vasconcella x heilbornii accessions also suggests that these genotypes may be the result of bi-directional introgression events between Vasconcella stipulata and Vasconcella cundinamarcensis. PMID:12582531

Van Droogenbroeck, B.; Breyne, P.; Goetghebeur, P.; Romeijn-Peeters, E.; Kyndt, T.; Gheysen, G.

2002-06-21

96

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF GENES INVOLVED IN PAPAYA (CARICA PAPAYA L.) SYSTEMIC ACQUIRED RESISTANCE.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) of plants is the result of activation of latent resistance mechanisms that are expressed upon challenge inoculation with a pathogen or a signal chemical such as Salicylic acid (SA), 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA), or benzo(1,2,3) thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid...

97

Characterization of the exogenous insert and development of event-specific PCR detection methods for genetically modified Huanong No. 1 papaya.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.), Huanong No. 1, was approved for commercialization in Guangdong province, China in 2006, and the development of the Huanong No. 1 papaya detection method is necessary for implementing genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling regulations. In this study, we reported the characterization of the exogenous integration of GM Huanong No. 1 papaya by means of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR strategies. The results suggested that one intact copy of the initial construction was integrated in the papaya genome and which probably resulted in one deletion (38 bp in size) of the host genomic DNA. Also, one unintended insertion of a 92 bp truncated NptII fragment was observed at the 5' end of the exogenous insert. Furthermore, we revealed its 5' and 3' flanking sequences between the insert DNA and the papaya genomic DNA, and developed the event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR assays for GM Huanong No. 1 papaya based on the 5' integration flanking sequence. The relative limit of detection (LOD) of the qualitative PCR assay was about 0.01% in 100 ng of total papaya genomic DNA, corresponding to about 25 copies of papaya haploid genome. In the quantitative PCR, the limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) were as low as 12.5 and 25 copies of papaya haploid genome, respectively. In practical sample quantification, the quantified biases between the test and true values of three samples ranged from 0.44% to 4.41%. Collectively, we proposed that all of these results are useful for the identification and quantification of Huanong No. 1 papaya and its derivates. PMID:19645503

Guo, Jinchao; Yang, Litao; Liu, Xin; Guan, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Lingxi; Zhang, Dabing

2009-08-26

98

Recombinant pro-regions from papain and papaya proteinase IV-are selective high affinity inhibitors of the mature papaya enzymes.  

PubMed

Proteolytic enzymes require the presence of their pro-regions for correct folding. Of the four proteolytic enzymes from Carica papaya, papain and papaya proteinase IV (PPIV) have 68% sequence identity. We find that their pro-regions are even more similar, exhibiting 73.6% identity. cDNAs encoding the pro-regions of these two proteinases have been expressed in Escherichia coli independently from their mature enzymes. The recombinant pro-regions of papain and PPIV have been shown to be high affinity inhibitors of all four of the mature native papaya cysteine proteinases. Their inhibition constants are in the range 10(-6) - 10(-9) M. PPIV was inhibited two to three orders of magnitude less effectively than papain, chymopapain and caricain. The pro-region of PPIV, however, inhibited its own mature enzyme more effectively than did the pro-region of papain. Alignment of the sequences of the four papaya enzymes shows that there is a highly variable section towards the C-terminal of the pro-region. This region may therefore confer selectivity to the pro-regions for the individual proteolytic enzymes. PMID:7770454

Taylor, M A; Baker, K C; Briggs, G S; Connerton, I F; Cummings, N J; Pratt, K A; Revell, D F; Freedman, R B; Goodenough, P W

1995-01-01

99

Papaya ringspot virus (Potyviridae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya ringspot virus, a member of the family Potyviridae, is single stranded RNA plant virus with a monocistronic genome of about 10,326 nucleotides that is expressed via a large polyprotein subsequently cleaved into functional proteins. It causes severe damage on cucurbit crops such as squash and...

100

Plant Regeneration and Somatic Embryogenesis from Immature Embryos Derived through Interspecific Hybridization among Different Carica Species  

PubMed Central

Plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis through interspecific hybridization among different Carica species were studied for the development of a papaya ringspot virus-resistant variety. The maximum fruit sets were recorded from the cross of the native variety C. papaya cv. Shahi with the wild species C. cauliflora. The highest hybrid embryos were recorded at 90 days after pollination and the embryos were aborted at 150 days after pollination. The immature hybrid embryos were used for plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora showed the highest percentage of germination, as well as plant regeneration on growth regulators free culture medium after 7 days pre-incubation on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/L BAP, 0.5 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora produced maximum callus, as well as somatic embryos when cultured on half-strength MS medium containing 5 mg/L 2,4-D, 100 mg/L glutamine, 100 mg/L casein hydrolysate and 60 g/L sucrose. The somatic embryos were transferred into half-strength MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.2 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose for maturation. The highest number of regenerated plants per hybrid embryo (10.33) was recorded from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora. Isoenzyme and dendrogram cluster analysis using UPGMA of the regenerated F1 plantlets confirmed the presence of the hybrid plantlets.

Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md. Golam; Amin, Latifah

2012-01-01

101

Plant Regeneration and Somatic Embryogenesis from Immature Embryos Derived through Interspecific Hybridization among Different Carica Species.  

PubMed

Plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis through interspecific hybridization among different Carica species were studied for the development of a papaya ringspot virus-resistant variety. The maximum fruit sets were recorded from the cross of the native variety C. papaya cv. Shahi with the wild species C. cauliflora. The highest hybrid embryos were recorded at 90 days after pollination and the embryos were aborted at 150 days after pollination. The immature hybrid embryos were used for plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora showed the highest percentage of germination, as well as plant regeneration on growth regulators free culture medium after 7 days pre-incubation on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/L BAP, 0.5 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora produced maximum callus, as well as somatic embryos when cultured on half-strength MS medium containing 5 mg/L 2,4-D, 100 mg/L glutamine, 100 mg/L casein hydrolysate and 60 g/L sucrose. The somatic embryos were transferred into half-strength MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.2 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose for maturation. The highest number of regenerated plants per hybrid embryo (10.33) was recorded from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora. Isoenzyme and dendrogram cluster analysis using UPGMA of the regenerated F(1) plantlets confirmed the presence of the hybrid plantlets. PMID:23235330

Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md Golam; Amin, Latifah

2012-12-12

102

Development and application of microsatellite markers for genomic analysis of papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya has a relatively small genome, displays high levels of phenotypic diversity, and is amenable to transformation, making\\u000a it attractive as a fruit tree model system. The high level of phenotypic diversity seen among papaya cultivars in the field\\u000a does not correlate with the low levels of genotypic polymorphism thus far elucidated. The highly mutable nature of microsatellites\\u000a or simple

Moriah Eustice; Qingyi Yu; Chun Wan Lai; Shaobin Hou; Jyothi Thimmapuram; Lei Liu; Maqsudul Alam; Paul H. Moore; Gernot G. Presting; Ray Ming

2008-01-01

103

High-density linkage mapping revealed suppression of recombination at the sex determination locus in papaya.  

PubMed Central

A high-density genetic map of papaya (Carica papaya L.) was constructed using 54 F(2) plants derived from cultivars Kapoho and SunUp with 1501 markers, including 1498 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, the papaya ringspot virus coat protein marker, morphological sex type, and fruit flesh color. These markers were mapped into 12 linkage groups at a LOD score of 5.0 and recombination frequency of 0.25. The 12 major linkage groups covered a total length of 3294.2 cM, with an average distance of 2.2 cM between adjacent markers. This map revealed severe suppression of recombination around the sex determination locus with a total of 225 markers cosegregating with sex types. The cytosine bases were highly methylated in this region on the basis of the distribution of methylation-sensitive and -insensitive markers. This high-density genetic map is essential for cloning of specific genes of interest such as the sex determination gene and for the integration of genetic and physical maps of papaya.

Ma, Hao; Moore, Paul H; Liu, Zhiyong; Kim, Minna S; Yu, Qingyi; Fitch, Maureen M M; Sekioka, Terry; Paterson, Andrew H; Ming, Ray

2004-01-01

104

TRANSGENIC PAPAYA IN HAWAII AND BEYOND  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is often a limiting factor in the production of papaya worldwide. In 1992, PRSV was discovered in the district of Puna on Hawaii island where 95% of Hawaii's papaya was grown. Within two years, PRSV was widespread and causing severe damage to the papaya in that area. ...

105

Cloning of the papaya chromoplast-specific lycopene beta-cyclase, CpCYC-b, controlling fruit flesh color reveals conserved microsynteny and a recombination hot spot.  

PubMed

Carotenoid pigments in fruits are indicative of the ripening process and potential nutritional value. Papaya (Carica papaya) fruit flesh color is caused by the accumulation of lycopene or beta-carotenoids in chromoplasts. It is a distinct feature affecting nutritional composition, fruit quality, shelf life, and consumer preference. To uncover the molecular basis of papaya flesh color, we took map-based cloning and candidate gene approaches using integrated genetic and physical maps. A DNA marker tightly linked to flesh color colocalized on a contig of the physical map with a cDNA probe of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) chromoplast-specific lycopene beta-cyclase, CYC-b. Candidate gene sequences were obtained from amplified fragments and verified by sequencing two bacterial artificial chromosomes containing the two alleles. Sequence comparison revealed a 2-bp insertion in the coding region of the recessive red flesh allele resulting in a frame-shift mutation and a premature stop codon. A color complementation test in bacteria confirmed that the papaya CpCYC-b is the gene controlling fruit flesh color. Sequence analysis of wild and cultivated papaya accessions showed the presence of this frame-shift mutation in all red flesh accessions examined. Evaluation of DNA markers near CpCYC-b revealed a recombination hot spot, showing that CpCYC-b is located in a gene-rich region with a recombination rate at 3.7 kb per centimorgan, more than 100-fold higher than the genome average at 400 kb per centimorgan. Conserved microsynteny of the CpCYC-b region is indicated by colinearity of two to four genes between papaya, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), grape (Vitis vinifera), and tomato. Our results enhanced our understanding of papaya flesh color inheritance and generated new tools for papaya improvement. PMID:20181753

Blas, Andrea L; Ming, Ray; Liu, Zhiyong; Veatch, Olivia J; Paull, Robert E; Moore, Paul H; Yu, Qingyi

2010-02-24

106

Designing of putative siRNA against geminiviral suppressors of RNAi to develop geminivirus-resistant papaya crop.  

PubMed

Geminiviruses are single-stranded circular DNA viruses causing leaf curl disease in papaya crop. Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing (PTGS), also known as RNAi, acts as a natural antiviral defence mechanism and plays a role in genome maintenance and development in plants. PTGS suppression by viruses makes the plant RNA silencing machinery inefficient. Three geminiviral genes namely AV2, AC2 and AC4 are found to play the role in suppression of RNA silencing. siRNA degrades the target mRNA in a homology-dependent manner. In-silico designing of siRNA against these three genes of geminiviruses infecting Carica papaya was done using bioinformatics tools. This strategy may provide PTGS by specifically targeting the viral genes involved in suppression of plant RNA silencing machinery. PMID:23207994

Saxena, Sangeeta; Kesharwani, Rupesh K; Singh, Vinayak; Singh, Sarita

2013-01-01

107

Managing papaya ringspot virus: Impact of grass barriers on alate aphid immigration into papaya orchards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya ringspot virus, transmitted by alate aphids, is the most limiting factor of papaya production in the Caribbean region. Although there are transgenic papaya varieties that provide protection from this virus, these varieties are effective only in certain regions against certain strains of the v...

108

DNA methylation and heterochromatinization in the male-specific region of the primitive Y chromosome of papaya  

PubMed Central

Sex chromosomes evolved from autosomes. Recombination suppression in the sex-determining region and accumulation of deleterious mutations lead to degeneration of the Y chromosomes in many species with heteromorphic X/Y chromosomes. However, how the recombination suppressed domain expands from the sex-determining locus to the entire Y chromosome remains elusive. The Y chromosome of papaya (Carica papaya) diverged from the X chromosome approximately 2–3 million years ago and represents one of the most recently emerged Y chromosomes. Here, we report that the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) spans ?13% of the papaya Y chromosome. Interestingly, the centromere of the Y chromosome is embedded in the MSY. The centromeric domain within the MSY has accumulated significantly more DNA than the corresponding X chromosomal domain, which leads to abnormal chromosome pairing. We observed four knob-like heterochromatin structures specific to the MSY. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence assay revealed that the DNA sequences associated with the heterochromatic knobs are highly divergent and heavily methylated compared with the sequences in the corresponding X chromosomal domains. These results suggest that DNA methylation and heterochromatinization play an important role in the early stage of sex chromosome evolution.

Zhang, Wenli; Wang, Xiue; Yu, Qingyi; Ming, Ray; Jiang, Jiming

2008-01-01

109

PREMIER PAPAYA PLANTATIONS RESCUED THROUGH SCIENCE AND TEAMWORK  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This 'Forum' article in ARS/USDA Agriculture Research magazine provides a recap of the papaya work in Hawaii that helped the Hawaiian papaya industry recover from severe effects of the papaya ringspot virus. This virus is the most important problem of papaya worldwide, and caused major damage to t...

110

Presence of triploid cytotypes in the common fig (Ficus carica L.).  

PubMed

Ficus carica (2n = 26) is one of the oldest fruit trees of the Mediterranean basin. Recently there has been increasing interest in this species, in particular for questions related to germplasm such as genetic diversity and cultivar identification. This study was undertaken to gain more knowledge of F. carica cytogenetics and provide data useful for the characterization of its germplasm. Karyomorphological analysis and physical mapping of 18S-25S and 5S rRNA genes by the FISH technique contributed to defining the basic traits of the chromosome complement of F. carica. However, the most interesting result was the discovery of triploid (2n = 39) cytotypes of the cultivated common fig. This result demonstrates the importance of cytogenetic investigations in studies of fig germplasm and emphasizes the role of cross-fertilization as a source of variability not only in wild populations but also in cultivated forms. The results of pollen analysis suggest spontaneous sexual polyploidization as a possible origin of triploid cytotypes. Further studies are necessary to clarify the origin and effective spreading of polyploidy, the presence of other ploidy levels, and their distribution in wild and cultivated forms. PMID:19935916

Falistocco, E

2009-11-01

111

Development of molecular tools for characterization and genetic diversity analysis in Tunisian fig (Ficus carica) cultivars.  

PubMed

Fig, Ficus carica L., is a useful genetic resource for commercial cultivation. In this study, RAPD (60), ISSR (48), RAMPO (63), and SSR (34) markers were compared to detect polymorphism and to establish genetic relationships among Tunisian fig tree cultivars. The statistical procedures conducted on the combined data show considerable genetic diversity, and the tested markers discriminated all fig genotypes studied. The identification key established on the basis of SSR permitted the unambiguous discrimination of cultivars and confirmed the reliability of SSR for fingerprinting fig genotypes. The study findings are discussed in relation to the establishment of a national reference collection that will aid in the conservation of Tunisian fig resources. PMID:20628809

Chatti, Khaled; Baraket, Ghada; Ben Abdelkrim, Ahmed; Saddoud, Olfa; Mars, Messaoud; Trifi, Mokhtar; Salhi Hannachi, Amel

2010-07-14

112

Phylogenetic analysis of the highland papayas ( Vasconcellea) and allied genera (Caricaceae) using PCR-RFLP.  

PubMed

The chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA diversity of 61 genotypes belonging to 18 Vasconcellea species, the so-called highland papayas, was studied by PCR-RFLP analysis of two non-coding cpDNA regions ( trnM- rbcL and trnK1- trnK2) and one non-coding mtDNA region ( nad4/1- nad4/2). This sample set was supplemented with six genotypes belonging to three other Caricaceae genera: the monotypic genus Carica, including only the cultivated papaya, and the genera Jacaratia and Cylicomorpha. Moringa ovalifolia was added as an outgroup species. The PCR-amplified cpDNA regions were digested with 18 restriction endonucleases, the mtDNA region with 11. A total of 22 point mutations and four insertion/deletions were scored in the sample. A higher level of interspecific variation was detected in the two cpDNA regions in comparison to the analysis of the mtDNA. Wagner parsimony and Neighbor-Joining analysis resulted in dendrograms with similar topologies. PCR-RFLP analysis supported the monophyly of Caricaceae, but among the 26 mutations scored, an insufficient number of markers discriminated between the different Caricaceae genera included in this study. Hence the inference of the intergeneric relationships within Caricaceae was impossible. However, some conclusions can be noted at a lower taxonomic level. The Caricaceae species were divided into two lineages. One group included only Vasconcellea spp., whereas the second included the remaining Vasconcellea spp., together with the papaya genotypes and those from the other Caricaceae genera. This may indicate a higher level of inter-fertility for the Vasconcellea species from the latter clade in interspecific crossings with papaya. The putative progenitors of the natural sterile hybrid V. x heilbornii, i.e. V. stipulata and V. cundinamarcensis, were only distantly related to V. x heilbornii. This indicates that probably none of these species was involved as the maternal progenitor in the origin of V. x heilbornii. Surprisingly, V. x heilbornii had organellar genome patterns identical with V. weberbaueri, suggesting a possible involvement of this species in the origin of V. x heilbornii. On the basis of discrepancy between morphological traits and the cpDNA profiles of some pairs of Vasconcellea species, we believe that besides V. x heilbornii, some other species have originated through interspecific hybridization. A reticulate evolution for Vasconcellea has therefore been suggested. Finally, intraspecific cpDNA variation was detected in V. microcarpa, thus providing molecular evidence for the high diversity previously indicated by morphological observations. PMID:14752605

Van Droogenbroeck, B; Kyndt, T; Maertens, I; Romeijn-Peeters, E; Scheldeman, X; Romero-Motochi, J P; Van Damme, P; Goetghebeur, P; Gheysen, G

2004-01-30

113

Toxicity assessment of transgenic papaya ringspot virus of 823-2210 line papaya fruits.  

PubMed

The transgenic papaya is a valuable strategy for creating plants resistant to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) infection and increasing production. This study was further performed to evaluate the comparative toxicity effects of the newly developed transgenic line of the fruits of two backcross transgenic papaya lines (2210 and 823) and one hybrid line (823-2210) and compare to their parent non-transgenic (TN-2) counterparts. The stability analysis of coat protein (CP) of PRSV was investigated using the digestion stability assays in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), and bile salts to detect the CP fragments. Results revealed that the CP fragments were rapidly hydrolyzed in SGF and were undetectable in organs and gastrointestinal contents in rats. For the genotoxicity, three in vitro assays were conducted and exhibited that non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits were negative. Moreover, a repeated animal feeding study was conducted by feeding 2 g/kg of body weight (bw) of non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits for 28 days in rats. There were no biological or toxicological significances between non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits in rats. The results demonstrated that the backcross transgenic papaya fruit can be recognized as an equivalent substitution for traditional papaya in food safety. PMID:23350793

Lin, Hsin-Tang; Yen, Gow-Chin; Huang, Ting-Tzu; Chan, Lit-Fu; Cheng, Ying-Huey; Wu, Jhaol-Huei; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Liao, Jiunn-Wang

2013-02-07

114

High-resolution structure of a papaya plant-defence barwin-like protein solved by in-house sulfur-SAD phasing.  

PubMed

The first crystal structure of a barwin-like protein, named carwin, has been determined at high resolution by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) phasing using the six intrinsic S atoms present in the protein. The barwin-like protein was purified from Carica papaya latex and crystallized in the orthorhombic space group P212121. Using in-house Cu?K? X-ray radiation, 16 cumulative diffraction data sets were acquired to increase the signal-to-noise level and thereby the anomalous scattering signal. A sequence-database search on the papaya genome identified two carwin isoforms of 122 residues in length, both containing six S atoms that yield an estimated Bijvoet ratio of 0.93% at 1.54?Å wavelength. A systematic analysis of data quality and redundancy was performed to assess the capacity to locate the S atoms and to phase the data. It was observed that the crystal decay was low during data collection and that successful S-SAD phasing could be obtained with a relatively low data multiplicity of about 7. Using a synchrotron source, high-resolution data (1?Å) were collected from two different crystal forms of the papaya latex carwin. The refined structures showed a central ?-barrel of six strands surrounded by several ?-helices and loops. The ?-barrel of carwin appears to be a common structural module that is shared within several other unrelated proteins. Finally, the possible biological function of the protein is discussed. PMID:24100320

Huet, Joëlle; Teinkela Mbosso, Emmanuel Jean; Soror, Sameh; Meyer, Franck; Looze, Yvan; Wintjens, René; Wohlkönig, Alexandre

2013-09-20

115

Transgenic Papaya: Can We Proceed Beyond the Hawaiian Experience?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The story of the development, deregulation, and commercialization of the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) resistant transgenic SunUp and Rainbow papaya for Hawaii is quite well known at least among plant virologist and knowledgeable people in the field of papaya. Thus, the story will be only briefly r...

116

Caracterizacion, Manejo y Almacenamiento de Papaya (The Papaya: Characteristics, Handling, and Storage).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Papaya were studied during maturation at normal temperatures. The results obtained: the pepsins content increased, changes in protopectina and soluble peptina were less noticeable; acid content increased until a maximum and then decreased, the content of ...

M. C. de Arriola J. F. Menchu C. Rolz

1976-01-01

117

Environmental Regulation of Tree Biotechnology for Wood and Bioenergy: Effect of USDA and EPA Regulations on Research, Breeding, and Commercial Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite great hope for tree biotechnology to contribute toward improved economic and environmental sustainability of tree farms for wood, fiber, and energy products, there have to date been no releases of any genetically engineered (GE)1 forest trees. In contrast, GE varieties account for a majority of the soy and cotton crop is the USA, and fruit from GE papaya trees

Steven H. Strauss; Roger A. Sedjo

118

Propagation Experiments with Avocado, Mango, and Papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past year several different investigations relative to the propagation of the avocado, mango and papaya have been conducted in Florida. In this preliminary report, the results of a few of the different experiments will be described. Germination media:—Avocado seeds of Gottfried (Mex.) during the summer season, and Shooter (Mex.) during the fall season; and Apple Mango seeds during

HAMILTON P. TRAUB; E. C. AUCHTER

119

Comparative ecological risks of pesticides used in plantation production of papaya: application of the SYNOPS indicator.  

PubMed

Pesticides are used intensively for crop protection in tropical fruit plantations. Assessments of the relative risks posed by pesticides are needed to assist in the development of management plans that minimize ecological impacts. In this study, the risk indicator SYNOPS_2 was used to compare risks to aquatic ecosystems by pesticides commonly used in papaya plantations. Plant interception and spray drift were measured during six applications of three pesticides (chlorothalonil, chloropyrifos, and malathion) using a turbo fan driven sprayer. Plant interception was estimated to be higher (42.6+/-12.7%; p=0.04) in late (8-14 months old) than in early (4 months old) trees (20.1+/-25.3%). Chlorothalonil concentrations of up to 11.0 microg L(-1) were found in water from an adjacent ditch after field application. Concentrations of this pesticide (7.4+/-4.1 microg L(-1)) in runoff water were also significantly (p<0.01) higher than those of malathion (2.4+/-1.9 microg L(-1)) and chlorpyrifos (0.8+/-0.5 microg L(-1)). Good correlation between measured and predicted values (r2=0.56-0.85, p<0.01) showed that SYNOPS_2 is able to describe trends in runoff pollution in papaya plantations. Linear equations were obtained in order to correct numerical disagreement between measured and calculated runoff concentrations. An independent test showed a reasonable agreement between measured chlorothalonil concentrations and the predicted values using the proposed equations. Fifteen pesticides used in papaya cultivation were ranked according to their calculated chronic biological risk index. Pesticides with the highest risk index for non-target organisms were: chlorothalonil for algae, lambda cyahalotrin for Daphnia and fish, and malathion for earthworms. Chlorothalonil was the pesticide with the highest exposure level in water and therefore represents a high risk for aquatic life. Results show that SYNOPS_2 can be used as a pesticide risk indicator on papaya and possibly other tropical fruit plantations. PMID:17482661

Hernández-Hernández, Carlos N A; Valle-Mora, Javier; Santiesteban-Hernández, Antonio; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo

2007-05-07

120

KURSUS SINGKAT DAN PELATIHAN PEMANFAATAN PEPAYA (Carisa papaya L.) MENJADI MANISAN KERING BUAH PEPAYA DI DESA TIMUHUN, KECAMATAN BANJARANGKAN, KABUPATEN KLUNGKUNG I Made Nada  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Desa Timuhun, eventhough papaya is not primary fruit product, but usually papaya is planted among the other plants and easily to grow. Papaya has good potency to be processed to become food product. Matured papaya fruit is usually fresh served for desk fruit. On the other hand, for papaya which is not mature yet, usually used for vegetable. Papaya

Ni Nyoman Sulastri; I Putu Gede Budisanjaya; Gede Ard

121

Ficus carica L. (Moraceae): Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Biological Activities  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the botanical features of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), its wide variety of chemical constituents, its use in traditional medicine as remedies for many health problems, and its biological activities. The plant has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer. Phytochemical studies on the leaves and fruits of the plant have shown that they are rich in phenolics, organic acids, and volatile compounds. However, there is little information on the phytochemicals present in the stem and root. Reports on the biological activities of the plant are mainly on its crude extracts which have been proven to possess many biological activities. Some of the most interesting therapeutic effects include anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial activities. Thus, studies related to identification of the bioactive compounds and correlating them to their biological activities are very useful for further research to explore the potential of F. carica as a source of therapeutic agents.

Mawa, Shukranul; Husain, Khairana; Jantan, Ibrahim

2013-01-01

122

CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FLORAL HOMEOTIC GENES IN PAPAYA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Instability of papaya flowers, revealed by environmentally influenced sex reversal and stamen carpellody, results in unmarketable malformed fruit. Based on knowledge of flower development in the model plants Antirrhirum and Arabidopsis, we characterized homologous genes associated with carpel develo...

123

Control of phytoplasma diseases of papaya in Australia using netting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of netting material (coarse, medium and fine mesh) were evaluated for exclusion of insects and thus control of\\u000a phytoplasma diseases (especially dieback disease) of papaya. Disease incidence and yield parameters were recorded for a population\\u000a of papaya plants grown inside netted enclosures, each 20 m long by 12 m wide by 5 m high, containing 78 planting positions.

K. B. Walsh; J. N. Guthrie; D. T. White

2006-01-01

124

ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K).Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the ?-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

Kikuchi, Masahiro; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

2011-05-01

125

Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in melon, watermelon and papaya pulps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in low-acid fruits (melon, watermelon and papaya) at different times of incubation and at temperatures of 10, 20 and 30 °C was studied. Fruit pulp portions with an average pH of 5.87, 5.50 and 4.87 for melon, watermelon and papaya, respectively, were obtained aseptically, homogenized, weighed and inoculated with suspensions (approximately 102 CFU\\/g) of L. monocytogenes.

Ana L. Penteado; Mauro F. F. Leitão

2004-01-01

126

NIa-pro of Papaya ringspot virus interacts with papaya methionine sulfoxide reductase B1.  

PubMed

A chloroplast-localized papaya methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (PaMsrB1) interacting with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) NIa-Pro was identified using a Sos recruitment two-hybrid system (SRS). SRS analysis of several deletion mutants of PRSV NIa-Pro and PaMsrB1 demonstrated that the C-terminal (residues 133-239) fragment of PRSV NIa-Pro and residues 112-175 of PaMsrB1 were necessary for this interaction between PRSV NIa-Pro and PaMsrB1. MsrB1 can repair Met-oxidized proteins damaged by reactive oxygen species (ROS). We confirmed that PRSV infection leads to ROS accumulation and a slight upregulation of level PaMsrB1 mRNA in papaya. This interaction between PaMsrB1 with PRSV NIa-Pro may disturb the import of PaMsrB1 into the chloroplasts. These results suggest that this specific interaction could interfere with PaMsrB1 into the chloroplasts to scavenge ROS caused by PRSV infection. This may be a novel mechanism of PRSV towards the host defense. PMID:23040510

Gao, Le; Shen, Wentao; Yan, Pu; Tuo, Decai; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

2012-10-05

127

Interactions of papaya proteinase IV with inhibitors.  

PubMed

Papaya proteinase IV (PPIV) is not inhibited by chicken cystatin, or human cystatins A or C, unlike most other proteinases of the papain superfamily. The enzyme inactivates chicken cystatin and human cystatin C by limited proteolysis of the glycyl bond previously shown to be involved in the inhibitory inactivity of the cystatins, but has no action on cystatin A. Contamination of commercial crystalline papain with PPIV accounts for the limited proteolysis of cystatins by 'papain' reported previously. PPIV is slowly bound by human alpha 2-macroglobulin. The enzyme is irreversibly inactivated by E-64, and by peptidyl diazomethanes containing glycine in P1 and a hydrophobic side-chain in P2. The reaction of PPIV with iodoacetate is extremely slow. PPIV is inhibited by peptide aldehydes despite the presence of bulky sidechains in P1, suggesting that these reversible inhibitors do not bind as substrate analogues. PMID:1690669

Buttle, D J; Ritonja, A; Dando, P M; Abrahamson, M; Shaw, E N; Wikstrom, P; Turk, V; Barrett, A J

1990-03-12

128

Purification and autolysis of the ficin isoforms from fig (Ficus carica cv. Sabz) latex.  

PubMed

Ficin (EC 3.4.22.3), a cysteine endoproteolytic protease in fig trees' latex, has multiple isoforms. Until now, no data on autolysis of individual ficins (ficin isoforms) are available. Following purification, ficins' autolysis was determined by HPLC chromatogram changes and ultrafiltrations at different temperatures and storage times. These results showed that the number of HPLC peaks in latex proteins purification of Ficus carica cv. Sabz varied from previous fig varieties or cultivars. Proteolytic activity of ficins was inhibited by specific cysteine protease inhibitors, confirming the participation of the cysteine residue in the active site. The zeta potential of the first two eluted peaks (I and II) was negative, while that of other peaks were positive. All ficins were susceptible to autolysis when stored at high temperatures. In contrast, only the last two ficins (B, C) were prone to autolysis at cold temperature after long storage period. The rate of degradation of the ficins was significantly increased with the increased storage time. The ficin (A) related to peak (III) had the highest and the lowest surface hydrophobic patches and ratio of autolytic to proteolytic activity, respectively. PMID:23312458

Zare, Hamid; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Salami, Maryam; Mirzaei, Morteza; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Sheibani, Nader

2013-01-10

129

Purification, characterization, and solvent-induced thermal stabilization of ficin from Ficus carica.  

PubMed

Ficin (EC 3.4.22.3), a cysteine proteinase isolated from the latex of a Ficus tree, is known to occur in multiple forms. Although crude ficin is of considerable commercial importance, ficin as such has not been fully characterized. A major ficin from the commercial crude proteinase mixture preparation of Ficus carica was purified and characterized. The purified enzyme was homogeneous in both sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and gel-filtration chromatography and is a single polypeptide chain protein with a molecular mass of 23 100 +/- 300 Da as determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF). The enzyme was active in the pH range of 6.5-8.5, and maximum activity was observed at pH 7.0. The N-terminal core sequence of ficin has homology with N-terminal sequences of plant cysteine proteinases. The enzyme contains three disulfide bonds and a single free cysteine residue at the active site. The effect of co-solvents, such as sorbitol, trehalose, sucrose, and xylitol, on the thermal stability of ficin was determined by activity measurements, fluorescence, and thermal denaturation studies. The apparent thermal denaturation temperature (T(m)) of ficin was significantly increased from the control value of 72 +/- 1 degrees C in the presence of all co-solvents. However, the maximum stabilization effect was observed in terms of thermal stabilization by the co-solvent trehalose. PMID:18991449

Devaraj, Kamsagara Basavarajappa; Kumar, Parigi Ramesh; Prakash, Vishweshwaraiah

2008-12-10

130

CHROMOSOMAL LOCATION AND GENE PAUCITY IN THE MALE SPECIFIC REGION ON PAPAYA Y CHROMOSOME  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sex chromosomes in flowering plants evolved recently and many of them remain homomorphic, including those in papaya. We investigated the chromosomal location of papaya’s small male specific region of the hermaphrodite Y (Yh) chromosome (MSY) and its genomic features. We conducted chromosome fluoresc...

131

7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319.56-25 Section 319.56-25...56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may be...one of the following locations: (1) Brazil: State of Espirito...

2010-01-01

132

7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319.56-25 Section 319.56-25...56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may be...one of the following locations: (1) Brazil: State of Espirito...

2009-01-01

133

PCR and ELISA-based virus surveys of banana, papaya and cucurbit crops in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1998 and 2002, we conducted PCR-based plant virus disease surveys throughout Vietnam, on banana, papaya, and several cucurbit crops, namely pumpkin, cucumber, gourds and loofa. Banana bunchy top virus in banana and Papaya ringspot virus in both papaya and cucurbits were widespread. Squash leaf curl virus-Vietnam and Cucumber mosaic virus were also widespread, predominantly infecting pumpkin and cucumber respectively.

P. A. Revill; C. V. Ha; R. E. Lines; K. E. Bell; M. T. Vu; J. L. Dale

2004-01-01

134

Further Insight into the Latex Metabolite Profile of Ficus carica.  

PubMed

Latex is a sticky emulsion that exudes upon damage from specialized canals from several plants. It contains several biologically active compounds, such as phytosterols, fatty acids, and amino acids. In plants, these compounds are involved in the interaction between plants, insects, and the environment. Despite its chemical, biological, and ecological importance, Ficus carica latex is still poorly studied. To improve the knowledge on the metabolite profile of this matrix, a targeted metabolite analysis was performed in a representative sample from F. carica latex. Seven phytosterols were determined by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-ITMS) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), with ?-sitosterol and lupeol being the compounds present in higher concentrations (ca. 54 and 14%, respectively). A total of 18 fatty acids were characterized by GC-ITMS, being essentially represented by saturated fatty acids (ca. 86.4% of total fatty acids). A total of 13 free amino acids were also identified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (HPLC/UV-vis), and cysteine and tyrosine were the major ones (ca. 38.7 and 31.4%, respectively). In humans, phytosterols and some polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid, are known for their anticarcinogenic properties. With regard to amino acids, some of them, such as glycine, are neurotransmitters. Our results reveal the presence of a wide diversity of compounds, from distinct classes, in F. carica latex, possessing various potential pharmacological activities; thus, its biological potential appears to be worth further exploring. PMID:20923221

Oliveira, Andreia P; Silva, Lui?s R; Andrade, Paula B; Valenta?o, Patri?cia; Silva, Branca M; Gonc?alves, Rui F; Pereira, Jose? A; Guedes de Pinho, Paula

2010-10-01

135

Carica candicans Gray (Mito), an alimentary resource from Peruvian flora.  

PubMed

In addition to some histological observations, the chemical composition of Carica candicans Gray (Caricaceae) fruit and seeds, a plant common in Peruvian nutritional habits, was determined. The fruit contains high amounts of total proteins (8.2% on dry weight basis) and carbohydrates (70.1%) and appreciable contents of vitamin C and minerals. The oil extracted from seeds is in high amount (41. 6%). The fatty acid composition, with a prevalence of oleic, palmitic, and linoleic acids, suggests a possible use of this oil in alimentation. PMID:10552704

De Feo, V; De Simone, F; Arroyo, G A; Senatore, F

1999-09-01

136

Immunotoxicity activity of natural furocoumarins from milky sap of Ficus carica L. against Aedes aegypti L.  

PubMed

Ficus carica L., its fruits are delicious and can be eaten by human. Its leaves are commonly used to cure hemorrhoid and clear away heart ache. The milky sap of F. carica have a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an lethal concentration (LC(50)) value of 10.2??g/ml and an LC(90) value of 42.3??g/ml. Two natural furocoumarins, 5-methoxypsoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen were isolated from the milky sap of F. carica. The LC(50) value of 5-methoxypsoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen were 9.4 and 56.3??g/ml, respectively. The above indicates that major compounds may play a more important role in the toxicity of the milky sap of F. carica. PMID:21214422

Chung, Iii-Min; Kim, Sun-Jin; Yeo, Min-A; Park, Se-Won; Moon, Hyung-In

2011-01-10

137

Consumer in-store response to irradiated papayas  

SciTech Connect

In this study, purchase behavior of California consumers in response to irradiated papayas is described. The papayas were shipped from Hawaii and irradiated in California under a permit by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and approved by the California Department of Food and Agriculture. Results show that the superior appearance of the irradiated fruit appealed to consumers and that two-thirds or more of the people queried indicated that they would buy irradiated produce. It is noted that this marketing took place in a supportive environment with no protestors present. Informational material was available.

Bruhn, C.M.; Noell, J.W.

1987-09-01

138

Odour-active compounds in papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol.  

PubMed

Application of solid-phase microextraction and simultaneous distillation-extraction combined with GC-FID, GC-MS, aroma extract dilution analysis, and odour activity value were used to analyse volatile compounds from papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol and to estimate the most odour-active compounds. The analyses led to the identification of 137 compounds; 118 of them were positively identified. Twenty-five odorants were considered as odour-active compounds and contribute to the typical papaya aroma, from which ethyl butanoate, benzyl isothiocyanate, 1-hexen-3-one, (E)-?-ionone, and methyl benzoate were the most odour-active compounds. PMID:24176322

Pino, Jorge A

2013-09-13

139

Crystal structure of papaya glutaminyl cyclase, an archetype for plant and bacterial glutaminyl cyclases.  

PubMed

Glutaminyl cyclases (QCs) (EC 2.3.2.5) catalyze the intramolecular cyclization of protein N-terminal glutamine residues into pyroglutamic acid with the concomitant liberation of ammonia. QCs may be classified in two groups containing, respectively, the mammalian enzymes, and the enzymes from plants, bacteria, and parasites. The crystal structure of the QC from the latex of Carica papaya (PQC) has been determined at 1.7A resolution. The structure was solved by the single wavelength anomalous diffraction technique using sulfur and zinc as anomalous scatterers. The enzyme folds into a five-bladed beta-propeller, with two additional alpha-helices and one beta hairpin. The propeller closure is achieved via an original molecular velcro, which links the last two blades into a large eight stranded beta-sheet. The zinc ion present in the PQC is bound via an octahedral coordination into an elongated cavity located along the pseudo 5-fold axis of the beta-propeller fold. This zinc ion presumably plays a structural role and may contribute to the exceptional stability of PQC, along with an extended hydrophobic packing, the absence of long loops, the three-joint molecular velcro and the overall folding itself. Multiple sequence alignments combined with structural analyses have allowed us to tentatively locate the active site, which is filled in the crystal structure either by a Tris molecule or an acetate ion. These analyses are further supported by the experimental evidence that Tris is a competitive inhibitor of PQC. The active site is located at the C-terminal entrance of the PQC central tunnel. W83, W110, W169, Q24, E69, N155, K225, F22 and F67 are highly conserved residues in the C-terminal entrance, and their putative role in catalysis is discussed. The PQC structure is representative of the plants, bacterial and parasite enzymes and contrasts with that of mammalian enzymes, that may possibly share a conserved scaffold of the bacterial aminopeptidase. PMID:16438985

Wintjens, René; Belrhali, Hassan; Clantin, Bernard; Azarkan, Mohamed; Bompard, Coralie; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle; Looze, Yvan; Villeret, Vincent

2006-01-04

140

X-ray structure of papaya chitinase reveals the substrate binding mode of glycosyl hydrolase family 19 chitinases.  

PubMed

The crystal structure of a chitinase from Carica papaya has been solved by the molecular replacement method and is reported to a resolution of 1.5 A. This enzyme belongs to family 19 of the glycosyl hydrolases. Crystals have been obtained in the presence of N-acetyl- d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) in the crystallization solution and two well-defined GlcNAc molecules have been identified in the catalytic cleft of the enzyme, at subsites -2 and +1. These GlcNAc moieties bind to the protein via an extensive network of interactions which also involves many hydrogen bonds mediated by water molecules, underlying their role in the catalytic mechanism. A complex of the enzyme with a tetra-GlcNAc molecule has been elaborated, using the experimental interactions observed for the bound GlcNAc saccharides. This model allows to define four major substrate interacting regions in the enzyme, comprising residues located around the catalytic Glu67 (His66 and Thr69), the short segment E89-R90 containing the second catalytic residue Glu89, the region 120-124 (residues Ser120, Trp121, Tyr123, and Asn124), and the alpha-helical segment 198-202 (residues Ile198, Asn199, Gly201, and Leu202). Water molecules from the crystal structure were introduced during the modeling procedure, allowing to pinpoint several additional residues involved in ligand binding that were not previously reported in studies of poly-GlcNAc/family 19 chitinase complexes. This work underlines the role played by water-mediated hydrogen bonding in substrate binding as well as in the catalytic mechanism of the GH family 19 chitinases. Finally, a new sequence motif for family 19 chitinases has been identified between residues Tyr111 and Tyr125. PMID:18636748

Huet, Joëlle; Rucktooa, Prakash; Clantin, Bernard; Azarkan, Mohamed; Looze, Yvan; Villeret, Vincent; Wintjens, René

2008-07-18

141

DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF PAPAYA PROTEIN PROFILE USING PROTEOMIC TOOLS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of our project is to evaluate the potential for using proteomic approaches to discover the basis for differential susceptibility of Hawaii papaya cultivars to the root rot pathogen Phytophthora palmivora. Based on previous studies showing that Kapoho was the most resistance cultivar an...

142

Semen Study of Papaya Workers Exposed to Ethylene Dibromide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A cross sectional semen and cytogenetic study was performed on male workers exposed to ethylene-dibromide (106934) (EDB) in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii. Semen analyses were conducted on 46 men in six fumigation facilities with an average leng...

J. M. Ratcliffe S. M. Schrader K. Steenland D. Clapp T. Turner

1984-01-01

143

PHOTOAUTOTROPHIC ROOTING AND GROWTH OF PAPAYAS IN VITRO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya plants micropropagated on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 3% sucrose, 1 µM benzyladenine, and 1µM naphthalene acetic acid, became contaminated by slow-growing bacteria. Shoot growth was not inhibited on the proliferation medium, but subsequent root development in half-strength MS mediu...

144

Development of Flavor Descriptors for Pawpaw Fruit Puree: A Step Toward the Establishment of a Native Tree Fruit Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pawpaw (Asimina triloba) is a native tree fruit with potential as a high-value niche crop for farmers in fresh-market and processing ventures. With a flavor resembling a combination of banana, mango, and pineapple, this fruit could compete with exported specialty fruits in the United States such as mango and papaya. The study objective was to develop a descriptive language

Melani W. Duffrin; Kirk W. Pomper

2006-01-01

145

Chromosomal location and gene paucity of the male specific region on papaya Y chromosome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex chromosomes in flowering plants evolved recently and many of them remain homomorphic, including those in papaya. We investigated\\u000a the chromosomal location of papaya’s small male specific region of the hermaphrodite Y (Yh) chromosome (MSY) and its genomic features. We conducted chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of Yh-specific bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and placed the MSY near the centromere

Qingyi Yu; Shaobin Hou; Roman Hobza; F. Alex Feltus; Xiue Wang; Weiwei Jin; Rachel L. Skelton; Andrea Blas; Cornelia Lemke; Jimmy H. Saw; Paul H. Moore; Maqsudul Alam; Jiming Jiang; Andrew H. Paterson; Boris Vyskot; Ray Ming

2007-01-01

146

Comparative effects of dietary administered transgenic and conventional papaya on selected intestinal parameters in rat models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformation of agricultural crops with novel genes has significantly advanced disease-resistance breeding, including virus\\u000a resistance through the expression of virus sequences. In this study, the effects of long-term, repeated exposure to transgenic\\u000a papayas carrying the coat protein gene of Papaya ringspot virus and conventional non-transgenic papaya on the histology and selected biochemical parameters of the intestinal tract were\\u000a compared. For

Melissa Powell; Andrew O. Wheatley; Felix Omoruyi; Helen N. Asemota; Nadia P. Williams; Paula F. Tennant

2010-01-01

147

77 FR 31294 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Papaya...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Importation of Papaya From Colombia and Ecuador AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador into the continental United States. DATES...shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador, contact Ms. Dorothy Wayson,...

2012-05-25

148

40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the requirement of...

2013-07-01

149

40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement...tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the...

2009-07-01

150

40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement...tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the...

2010-07-01

151

Development and Application of SCAR Marker for the Detection of Papaya Seed Adulteration in Traded Black Pepper Powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports the development of a specific, sensitive, and reproducible Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) marker to detect papaya seed powder adulteration in traded black pepper powder. A putative RAPD marker (449 bp) specific to papaya seed was identified, cloned, and sequenced to design the SCAR primers. This specific SCAR marker could detect the presence of papaya seed

K. Dhanya; S. Syamkumar; B. Sasikumar

2009-01-01

152

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Ficus carica Linn. leaves.  

PubMed

Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) is commonly known as edible fig. The leaves, roots, fruits and latex of the plant are medicinally used in different diseases. The leaves are claimed to be effective in various inflammatory conditions like painful or swollen piles, insect sting and bites. However, there has been no report on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Our study validated the traditional claim with pharmacological data. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the drug could be due to the presence of steroids and flavanoids, respectively, which are reported to be present in the drug. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug could be due to its free radical scavenging activity. Further work is also required to isolate and characterise the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:21644169

Ali, B; Mujeeb, M; Aeri, V; Mir, S R; Faiyazuddin, M; Shakeel, F

2011-06-12

153

Assessment of genetic and epigenetic changes following cryopreservation in papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vitrification based cryopreservation technique for storage of in vitro shoot tips of papaya has been tested to ensure applicability\\u000a across a range of genotypes and to assess the stability of both genotype and phenotype of such clonal material following cryopreservation.\\u000a Shoot tips of 12 genotypes were cryopreserved, recovery rates were determined and resultant plants were screened for genetic\\u000a and

A. Kaity; S. E. Ashmore; R. A. Drew; M. E. Dulloo

2008-01-01

154

Organelle DNA accumulation in the recently evolved papaya sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

Sex chromosomes are a pair of specialized chromosomes containing a sex determination region that is suppressed for recombination. Without recombination, Y chromosomes are thought to accumulate repetitive DNA sequences which contribute to their degeneration. A pair of primitive sex chromosomes controls sex type in papaya with male and hermaphrodite determined by the slightly different male-specific region of the Y (MSY) and hermaphrodite-specific region of Y(h) (HSY) chromosomes, respectively. Here, we show that the papaya HSY and MSY in the absence of recombination have accumulated nearly 12 times the amount of chloroplast-derived DNA than the corresponding region of the X chromosome and 4 times the papaya genome-wide average. Furthermore, a chloroplast genome fragment containing the rsp15 gene has been amplified 23 times in the HSY, evidence of retrotransposon-mediated duplication. Surprisingly, mitochondria-derived sequences are less abundant in the X and HSY compared to the whole genome. Shared organelle integrations are sparse between X and HSY, with only 11 % of chloroplast and 12 % of mitochondria fragments conserved, respectively, suggesting that the accelerated accumulation of organelle DNA occurred after the HSY was suppressed for recombination. Most of the organelle-derived sequences have divergence times of <7 MYA, reinforcing this notion. The accumulated chloroplast DNA is evidence of the slow degeneration of the HSY. PMID:23636354

VanBuren, Robert; Ming, Ray

2013-05-01

155

GLOBAL EXPRESSION PROFILING OF PATHOGEN-DEFENSE RELATED GENES FROM PAPAYA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya has been shown to respond to pathogen challenge and benzothiadiazole (BTH) treatment with an increase in ß-glucanase and chitinase enzyme activities [1]. To allow global analysis of defense related gene regulation, we have isolated a set of papaya genes which are up-regulated in response to ...

156

Removal of Methyl Orange From Aqueous Solution Using Activated Papaya Leaf  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation describes the potential of acid activated papaya leaf for the adsorption of methyl orange (MO) dye from aqueous solution. The FT-IR analysis indicated the presence of a wide variety of functional groups on the surface of the activated papaya leaf. Scanning electron microscopy and Electron dispersion X-ray techniques indicated the morphological behavior of adsorption onto the adsorbent,

M. Ahmaruzzaman

2012-01-01

157

On the evolution and molecular epidemiology of the potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is found throughout the tropics and subtropics. Its P biotype is a devastating pathogen of papaya crops and its W biotype of cucurbits. PRSV-P is thought to arise by mutation from PRSV-W. However, the relative impact of mutation and movement on the structure of PRSV populations is not well characterized. To investigate this, we

Marion F. Bateson; Rosemarie E. Lines; Peter Revill; Worawan Chaleeprom; Cuong V. Ha; Adrian J. Gibbs; James L. Dale

2002-01-01

158

CURRENT STATUS OF TRANSGENIC APPROACH FOR THE CONTROL OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of papaya has been limited in many areas of the world due to the disease caused by the Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). The coat protein (CP) gene-mediated transgenic resistance has become the most effective method to prevent crops from this virus infection. In the late 1980s, the group of Gonsalves at Cornell University and Hawaii started a research project

Shyi-Dong Yeh

159

In vitro antimicrobial activity of four Ficus carica latex fractions against resistant human pathogens (antimicrobial activity of Ficus carica latex).  

PubMed

Methanolic, hexanoïc, chloroformic and ethyl acetate extracts of Ficus carica latex were investigated for their in vitro antimicrobial proprieties against five bacteria species and seven strains of fungi. The green fruit latex was collected from Chott Mariam Souse, Middle East coast of Tunisia. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was evaluated and based respectively on the inhibition zone using the disc-diffusion assay, minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) for bacterial testing and the method by calculating inhibition percentage (I%) for fungi-inhibiting activities. The methanolic extract had no effect against bacteria except for Proteus mirabilis while the ethyl acetate extract had inhibition effect on the multiplication of five bacteria species (Enterococcus fecalis, Citobacter freundei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Echerchia coli and Proteus mirabilis). For the opportunist pathogenic yeasts, ethyl acetate and chlorophormic fractions showed a very strong inhibition (100%); methanolic fraction had a total inhibition against Candida albicans (100%) at a concentration of 500 microg/ml and a negative effect against Cryptococcus neoformans. Microsporum canis was strongly inhibited with methanolic extract (75%) and totally with ethyl acetate extract at a concentration of 750 microg/ml. Hexanoïc extract showed medium results. PMID:20067867

Aref, Houda Lazreg; Salah, Karima Bel Hadj; Chaumont, Jean Pierre; Fekih, Abdelwaheb; Aouni, Mahjoub; Said, Khaled

2010-01-01

160

Efficient transformation and regeneration of fig (Ficus carica L.) via somatic embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Fig is one of the most important fruit trees in Egypt. It used to constitute the major source of income for the inhabitants of the western north coast of Egypt. Since 1993 fig cultivations were threatened by a number of factors including virus, insect and mite infections. An efficient system for regeneration and transformation of the common fig Ficus carica L. cultivar Sultani (fresh consumption) was required to conserve fig cultivation in the area. The effect of different combinations of BA and NAA/2,4-D and kinetin on callus formation from leaf segments were studied. Results showed that the best medium for callus formation was MS supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D and 0.2 mg/l kinetin. The best plantlet differentiation was obtained at concentrations of 30 mg/l 2iP and 7 mg/l TDZ with 0.25 mg/l NAA (with a regeneration efficiency of 83 and 79%, respectively). On the other hand, the obtained callus failed to induce organogenesis on media containing a combination of BA and kinetin. The highest shoot formation percentage (89%) was obtained when using 2 mg/l TDZ and 4 mg/l 2iP. The highest percentage of shoots forming roots (95%) was obtained when using MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l IBA. Explants were transformed using Agrobacterium and microprojectile bombardment using the plasmid pISV2678 which harbors the gus-intron and bar genes. Results showed that the highest transformation efficiency using the Agrobacterium (17.5%) was obtained when explants were co-cultivated with the bacteria for 30 min. The highest transformation efficiency recorded using the microprojectile bombardment (12%) was obtained with 2.0 ?g DNA per shot at 1,100 psi and a distance of 6 cm repeated twice. The transgenic nature of regenerated plants was confirmed by PCR analysis, histochemical GUS assay and leaf painting assay. PMID:21912211

Soliman, Hemaid Ibrahim; Gabr, Mahdia; Abdallah, Naglaa A

161

In Vitro Regeneration and Improvement in Tropical Fruit Trees: An Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro regeneration protocol has been developed for many tropical fruit trees by using juvenile as well as mature explants. Regeneration\\u000a via somatic embryogenesis have been obtained in a number of cases e.g., while in citrus, sugar apple and papaya, etc. induction\\u000a of androgenic haploids are successful, in guava and feijoa only callus results in anther cultures. Somaclones have helped

Madhulika Singh; Uma Jaiswal; V. S. Jaiswal

162

Tree Squirrels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter tree squirrels are divided into three groups: large tree squirrels, pine squirrels, and flying squirrels. Large tree squirrels include fox (Sciurus niger), eastern gray (Sciurus carolinensis), western gray (Sciurus griseus), and tassel-eared (Sciurus aberti) squirrels. Fox squirrels (Fig. 1) measure 18 to 27 inches (46 to 69 cm) from nose to tip of tail. They weigh about

Jeffrey J. Jackson

1994-01-01

163

Phospholipid Profile of the Stomach and Duodenum of Normal Rabbits Fed with Supplements of Unripe Pawpaw (Carica papaya) and Unripe Plantain (Musa sapientum) Extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reports the effect of unripe pawpaw and/or unripe plantain extracts on the phospholipid profile of the stomach and duodenum of normal rabbits. Supplementation of chow with unripe pawpaw or plantain extract significantly reduced (p< 0.05) the weight gained by rabbits compared with the control. The total phospholipids content in the stomach and duodenum were significantly increased (p< 0.05) in the test groups compared to the control. In the stomach and duodenum, phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and sphingomyelin (SGM) were significantly increased (p< 0.05) in the test groups compared to the control. Pawpaw occasioned a decrease in the PE/PC ratio in both tissues as against an increase observed in the SGM/PC ratio. The results presented suggests that unripe pawpaw meal and unripe plantain extract alter the phospholipid profile of the stomach and duodenum in ways which may affect membrane fluidity of these tissues and would have profound effect on the gastro-duodenal mucosa and thus have implication(s) for gastric and duodenal ulcers in rabbits.

Eriyamremu, G. E.; Asagba, S. O.; Osagie, V. E.; Ojeaburu, S. I.; Lolodi, O.

164

Industrial Hygiene Report, Walk-Through Survey, Papaya Packing/Shipping Facilities, Hilo, Hawaii, July 1983,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Worker exposure to ethylene-dibromide (EDB) was investigated at three papaya packing and shipping facilities (SIC-0723) in Hilo, Hawaii. Breathing zone samples were collected in the three facilities over a three day period. Blind spikes were submitted as ...

D. Clapp

1983-01-01

165

Industrial Hygiene In-Depth Survey Report, Papaya Packing/Shipping Facilities, Hilo, Hawaii.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An industrial hygiene survey was conducted at the Papaya Packing/Shipping facilities (SIC-4581), Hilo, Hawaii to investigate worker exposure to ethylene-dibromide (106934)(EDB) used for pest control in fruit packing plants.

D. E. Clapp

1986-01-01

166

Genetic analysis of an attenuated Papaya ringspot virus strain applied for cross-protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) HA 5-1, a nitrous acid-induced mild mutant of severe strain HA, widely applied for control of PRSV by cross-protection,\\u000a was used to study the genetic basis of attenuation. Using infectious clones, a series of recombinants was generated between\\u000a HA 5-1 and HA and their infectivity was analyzed on the systemic host papaya and the local lesion

Chu-Hui Chiang; Chun-Yee Lee; Ching-Hsien Wang; Fuh-Jyh Jan; Shih-Shun Lin; Tsung-Chi Chen; Joseph A. J. Raja; Shyi-Dong Yeh

2007-01-01

167

Characterization of Insertion Sites in Rainbow Papaya, the First Commercialized Transgenic Fruit Crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inserts and insert sites in transgenic, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV)-resistant commercial papaya Rainbow and SunUp, were characterized\\u000a as part of a petition to Japan to allow import of fresh fruit of these cultivars from the U.S. and to provide data for a larger\\u000a study aimed at understanding the global impact of DNA transformation on whole genome structure. The number and

Jon Y. Suzuki; Savarni Tripathi; Gustavo A. Fermín; Fuh-Jyh Jan; Shaobin Hou; Jimmy H. Saw; Christine M. Ackerman; Qingyi Yu; Michael C. Schatz; Karen Y. Pitz; Marcela Yépes; Maureen M. M. Fitch; Richard M. Manshardt; Jerry L. Slightom; Stephen A. Ferreira; Steven L. Salzberg; Maqsudul Alam; Ray Ming; Paul H. Moore; Dennis Gonsalves

2008-01-01

168

Removal and recovery of heavy metals from aqueous solution using papaya wood as a new biosorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya wood was evaluated as a new biosorbent of heavy metals. On contacting 10mgl?l copper(II), cadmium(II) and zinc(II) solutions with 5gl?1 papaya wood, during shake flask contact time of 60min, the respective metal removal was noted to be 97.8, 94.9 and 66.8%. Sorption was most efficient at pH 5. Metal ion biosorption increased as the ratio of metal solution to

Asma Saeed; M. Waheed Akhter; Muhammed Iqbal

2005-01-01

169

Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus  

PubMed Central

Background The cysteine proteinases in papaya latex have been shown to have potent anthelmintic properties in monogastric hosts such as rodents, pigs and humans, but this has not been demonstrated in ruminants. Methods In two experiments, sheep were infected concurrently with 5,000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 10,000 infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and were then treated with the supernatant from a suspension of papaya latex from day 28 to day 32 post-infection. Faecal egg counts were monitored from a week before treatment until the end of the experiment and worm burdens were assessed on day 35 post-infection. Results We found that the soluble fraction of papaya latex had a potent in vivo effect on the abomasal nematode H. contortus, but not on the small intestinal nematode T. colubriformis. This effect was dose-dependent and at tolerated levels of gavage with papaya latex (117 ?mol of active papaya latex supernatant for 4 days), the H. contortus worm burdens were reduced by 98%. Repeated treatment, daily for 4 days, was more effective than a single dose, but efficacy was not enhanced by concurrent treatment with the antacid cimetidine. Conclusions Our results provide support for the idea that cysteine proteinases derived from papaya latex may be developed into novel anthelmintics for the treatment of lumenal stages of gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep, particularly those parasitizing the abomasum.

2011-01-01

170

Efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and recovery of transgenic fig ( Ficus carica L.) plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient and reproducible system for regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the common fig (Ficus carica L.) cultivars Brown Turkey (fresh consumption) and Smyrna (dry consumption) was developed. Optimal shoot regeneration (up to 100%) was obtained on MS basal salt mixture supplemented with 100mgl?1 myo-inositol, 1mgl?1 thiamine HCl and addition of 2.0mgl?1 thidiazuron (TDZ), 2mgl?1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 4% sucrose

Svetla D. Yancheva; Sara Golubowicz; Zeev Yablowicz; Avi Perl; Moshe A. Flaishman

2005-01-01

171

New furanocoumarins and other chemical constituents from Ficus carica root heartwood.  

PubMed

Two new furanocoumarins, 5-(1",1"-dimethylallyl)-8-methyl psoralen (1) and 2"-O-acetyl oxypeucedanin hydrate-3"-methyl ether (2), were isolated from the root heartwood of Ficus carica Linn. together with three known furanocoumarins, two triterpenoids, two long-chain compounds, and a steroid. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (IR, HR-ESI-MS, and NMR) and by comparison of their NMR spectral data with those of related compounds. PMID:23659166

Jain, Renuka; Jain, Satish C; Bhagchandani, Teena; Yadav, Namita

172

Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

2004-09-01

173

Selective cleavage of glycyl bonds by papaya proteinase IV.  

PubMed

The specificity of papaya proteinase IV (PPIV) has been examined with small substrates and a protein. With both classes of substrate, the enzyme shows a marked selectivity for cleaving glycyl bonds. Boc-Ala-Ala-Gly-NHPhNO2 is a convenient substrate for routine assays that discriminate well against chymopapain, the most common contaminant of PPIV. Sixteen cleavage points in beta-trypsin were identified, of which 13 are glycyl bonds. Tentative suggestions are made as to the reasons for lack of cleavage of some other glycyl bonds. The structure of PPIV has been modelled on that of papain, and we suggest that the replacement of the highly conserved residues Gly-65 and Gly-23 by arginine and glutamic acid, respectively, can account for the specificity of PPIV. PMID:2404797

Buttle, D J; Ritonja, A; Pearl, L H; Turk, V; Barrett, A J

1990-01-29

174

Talking Trees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students love outdoor activities and will love them even more when they build confidence in their tree identification and measurement skills. Through these activities, students will learn to identify the major characteristics of trees and discover how the pace--a nonstandard measuring unit--can be used to estimate not only distances but also the…

Tolman, Marvin

2005-01-01

175

Growing Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Includes RedBlackTrees, BinarySearchTrees, and SplayTrees. It allows the user to create randomly generated input data or to insert user's own input data for a splay tree in different formats such as integer, double, and character. Users can construct a splay tree by directly inserting, deleting, and splaying tree nodes to the top. The user can also select different tree operations such as in, pre- and post-order traversals. It provides a number of flexible user controls including the speed control, stop, forward, backward steps, etc. Text-based descriptions are displayed for each algorithm step. The textual descriptions include miscellaneous information about the tree including the size, number of elements and depth. This text information can define a history of the algorithm. One of the best AVs for the splay tree. It provides interaction-oriented operations and adjustable spatial layout with intuitive animations. This AV includes almost all necessary features for the splay tree. Randomly generated input data offered many advantages for a beginner to start with some input. It also allows constructing the splay tree with user's own input dataset. The graphic representation and animation for the splay tree is intuitive and helpful for understanding each algorithm step. A small text window lists algorithm steps that are performed. The AV has a simple, intuitive interface. For new users, it can be difficult to get started, though, since there is no help facility or introduction to the AV. The user can select a node by clicking it. A context menu then appears which allows double rotation, splay to the top, and delete. Controls at the top allow nodes to be inserted. There are some weaknesses.The layout is spacious but the number representation seems sometimes misleading during the animation and transformation. There is a problem with scalability of nodes in representation of the tree. When the number of elements in the tree grows beyond 10, the nodes become too small for the user to read. There is no quiz or exercise mode to encourage self-evaluation. Some controls ambiguous . For example, although those controls present on the interface menu, backwards and forwards steps of the animation don't seem to do anything. The history window is too small. Recommended as lecture aide, standalone, self-study suppliment to tutorial or lecture.

Sedgewick, Bob; Wayne, Kevin; Sanders, Corey

176

ESTABLISHMENT OF CELLULAR REDUCING CONDITIONS WITH SAR INDUCTION IN PAPAYA, PLANT, ANIMAL & MICROBE GENOMES X11. ABSTRACT.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

BTH induces elevated hydrolytic enzyme activity, expression of two members of the PR1 gene family, and resistance to Phytophthora palmivora in papaya. Twenty five additional papaya genes showing elevated systematic expression three days after BTH treatment have now been identified by suppression su...

177

Production of Internal Yellowing Symptoms on Resistant and Susceptible Papaya Cultivars by Enterobacter cloacae at Varying Inoculum Concentrations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Internal yellowing (IY) is a bacterial disease of ripening papaya flesh caused by Enterobacter cloacae and characterized by yellow softening tissue. IY restricts food safety of value-added products like fresh or frozen papaya cubes. The incidence of E. cloacae presumably differs in resistant (R) a...

178

Hepatoprotective Activity of Ficus carica Leaf Extract on Rifampicin-Induced Hepatic Damage in Rats.  

PubMed

Shade dried leaves of Ficus carica were extracted using petroleum ether (60-80 degrees ) and tested for antihepatotoxic activity on rats treated with 50 mg/kg of rifampicin orally. The parameters assessed were serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, bilirubin and histological changes in liver. Liver weights and pentobarbitione sleeping time as a functional parameter were also monitored. There was significant reversal of biochemical, histological and functional changes induced by rifampicin treatment in rats by petroleum ether extract treatment, indicating promising hepatoprotective activity. PMID:20046747

Gond, N Y; Khadabadi, S S

179

Audubon Tree Study Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included are an illustrated student reader, "The Story of Trees," a leaders' guide, and a large tree chart with 37 colored pictures. The student reader reviews several aspects of trees: a definition of a tree; where and how trees grow; flowers, pollination and seed production; how trees make their food; how to recognize trees; seasonal changes;…

National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

180

Papaya epicarp extract protects against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity.  

PubMed

In a previous study, we demonstrated the ability of papaya epicarp extract (PEE) to protect against oxidative stress-induced insult in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells in a mechanism that appeared to be by means of PEE potent antioxidant properties. To further understand this relationship, we examined the effect of PEE intervention on aluminum (Al)-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. The results indicated that PEE was effective in protecting against Al-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. PEE restored the Al-induced inhibition of folate-dependent methionine synthase activity and the antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidases and superoxide dismutase). PEE ameliorated the Al-induced impairment of intracellular glutathione and total antioxidant capacity. Together, these findings indicate that PEE supplementation can play a neuroprotective role in ameliorating the changes in redox status of SH-SY5Y cells exposed to Al, a well-known environmental toxin that is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:22956622

Waly, Mostafa I; Guizani, Nejib; Ali, Amanat; Rahman, Mohammad Shafiur

2012-09-06

181

Trees, Soil and Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Trees, soil and water: Journey to Forever - health care for mountains, trees for deserts, trees for people, forest, forestry, deforestation, erosion, soil conservation, water conservation, desertification.

Addison, Keith

2010-01-01

182

Greenhouse trees  

SciTech Connect

Michigan State University has been conducting research on growth control of woody plants with emphasis on commercial plantations. The objective was to develop the optimum levels for the major factors that affect tree seedling growth and development so that high quality plants can be produced for a specific use. This article describes the accelerated-optimal-growth (AOG) concept, describes precautions to take in its application, and shows ways to maximize the potential of AOG for producing ornamental trees. Factors considered were container growing system; protective culture including light, temperature, mineral nutrients, water, carbon dioxide, growth regulators, mycorrhizae, growing media, competition, and pests; size of seedlings; and acclamation. 1 table. (DP)

Hanover, J.W.; Hart, J.W.

1980-05-09

183

Development and characterization of mucoadhesive in situ nasal gel of midazolam prepared with Ficus carica mucilage.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to prepare mucoadhesive in situ nasal gels with mucilage isolated from fig fruits (Ficus carica, family: Moraceae) containing midazolam hydrochloride. Nasal gels of midazolam were prepared using three different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% w/v) of F. carica mucilage (FCM) and synthetic polymers (hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose and Carbopol 934). Evaluation of FCM showed that it was as safe as the synthetic polymers for nasal administration. In situ gels were prepared with mixture Pluronic F127 and mucoadhesive agents. Evaluation of the prepared gels was carried out, including determination of viscosity, texture profile analysis and mucoadhesive strength. In vitro drug permeation study was conducted with the gels prepared with and without permeation enhancer (0.5% w/v sodium taurocholate) using excised goat nasal mucosa. In vitro permeation profiles were evaluated, and histological study of nasal mucosae before and after permeation study was also conducted to determine histological change, if any. In vivo experiments conducted in rabbits further confirmed that in situ nasal gels provided better bioavailability of midazolam than the gels prepared from synthetic mucoadhesive polymers. It was observed that the nasal gel containing 0.5% FCM and 0.5% sodium taurocholate exhibited appropriate rheological, mechanical and mucoadhesive properties and showed better drug release profiles. Moreover, this formulation produced no damage to the nasal mucosa that was used for the permeation study, and absolute bioavailability was also higher compared to gels prepared from synthetic polymers. PMID:20683687

Basu, Shyamoshree; Bandyopadhyay, Amal Kumar

2010-08-04

184

Test tree  

SciTech Connect

A subsurface test tree so compact in its vertical dimension that the entire tree can be positioned below the blind rams in a blowout preventer stack. When the stinger is removed the remaining valve section of the tree will be below the blind rams in any conventional blowout preventer stack. The valve operators are split, one carried by the stinger and one carried in the valve housing with the arrangement of operator and valve in the housing providing an extremely small vertical dimension. A dome charge is effective on a piston to drive a ball valve to closed position to cut a line extending through the ball valve and to provide sequential operation between the ball valve on bottom and the valve thereabove which may be a flapper valve so that the lower valve closes and the line is cut before the upper valve closes. In one form the invention includes a subsurface safety valve below the test tree operated by one of control or balance pressure fluid.

Schwendemann, K. L.

1985-01-22

185

HPLC Quantitation of Major Carotenoids of Fresh and Processed Guava, Mango and Papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major carotenoids in 52 samples of guava, mango, papaya and some of their processed products were quantitated by HPLC, using both external standardisation and standard addition calibration techniques. The results, submitted to theFandttests, demonstrated that the precision and the means obtained by the two calibration procedures were not significantly different. The concentrations of ?-carotene and lycopene in guava, ?-carotene

Viktor C. Wilberg; Delia B. Rodriguez-Amaya

1995-01-01

186

Effect of Combined Processes of Osmotic Dehydration and Freezing on Papaya Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of combined processes of osmotic dehydration and freezing on papaya pieces preservation was evaluated. Sucrose solutions were used as osmotic medium. Two multifactorial experimental designs, in two levels, were conducted consecutively to quantify the effect of the following factors: temperature, osmotic dehydration time, concentration of the osmotic medium and freezing rate. The response variables considered were: sensory evaluation,

P. C. Moyano; R. E. Vega; A. Bunger; J. Garretón; F. A. Osorio

2002-01-01

187

Effect of Immersion Time in Osmosis and Ultrasound on Papaya Cell Structure during Dehydration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ultrasound-assisted osmotic dehydration applied at atmospheric pressure for different lengths of time on papaya tissue structure was evaluated. Ultrasound induced the loss of cellular adhesion, formation of large cell interspaces, and light rupture of the cell walls. The changes in the tissue structure caused by ultrasound application increased sugar loss, water loss, and effective water diffusivity. Ultrasound-assisted

Sueli Rodrigues; Francisca I. P. Oliveira; Maria Izabel Gallão; Fabiano A. N. Fernandes

2009-01-01

188

Classification for the Ripeness of Papayas Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Threshold Rule  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this project is developing the technique to classify the ripeness of papaya into 3 categories, which is immature, mature and over mature systematically based on their mean RGB value components. This system involved the process of collecting samples with different level of ripeness, image processing and image classification by using artificial neural network and threshold rule.

H. Saad; A. Hussain

2006-01-01

189

Anthelmintic activity of papaya seeds on Hymenolepis diminuta infections in rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to see the anthelmintic activity potential of papaya seeds against Hymenolepis diminuta in rats. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the effectiveness of papaya seeds on helminths especially H. diminuta in rats and (2) to determine the effective dose level on helminths in rats. Thirty six male rats from strain Sprague-Dawley were chosen as samples in this experiment. Two types of dose level were used for papaya seeds treatments such as 0.6 g kg-1 and 1.2 g kg-1. The geometric mean (GEM) was used to calculate mean for eggs per gram (EPG) before and after the treatment to be included in the reduction percentage calculation. After 21 days post treatment, necropsies were done to get the worm count and the GEM was used to calculate the efficacy percentage for the treatment. Results from this study showed that the reduction percentages in EPG for papaya seeds treatment for both doses level were very high which is 96.8% for 0.6g kg-1 dose level and 96.2% for 1.2 g kg-1 dose level. Whereas the efficacy percentage based on the worm counts for both doses level were also very high that was 90.77% for 0.6 g kg-1 dose level and 93.85% for 1.2 g kg-1. PMID:23202594

Sapaat, A; Satrija, F; Mahsol, H H; Ahmad, A H

2012-12-01

190

A highly reliable sex diagnostic PCR assay for mass screening of papaya seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female plants of several dioecious angiosperms are commercially valued for production of fruits or seeds, viz. papaya, nutmeg, pistachio, kiwi fruit and jojoba. To make the cultivation profitable it is necessary to grow more female than male plants. To discriminate between male and female plants, sex-specific molecular markers have been identified in a few dioecious species such as Silene and

A. S. Parasnis; V. S. Gupta; S. A. Tamhankar; P. K. Ranjekar

2000-01-01

191

Herbivorous mites as ecological engineers: indirect effects on arthropods inhabiting papaya foliage  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the potential of a leaf roller to indirectly influence a community of arthropods. Two mite species are the key herbivores on papaya leaves in Hawaii: a spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisduval, and an eriophyid mite, Calacarus flagelliseta, which induces upward curling of the leaf margin at the end of the summer when populations reach high densities. A survey

Valérie Fournier; Jay A. Rosenheim; Jacques Brodeur; Lee O. Laney; Marshall W. Johnson

2003-01-01

192

Technical Tree Climbing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Tree climbing offers a safe, inexpensive adventure sport that can be performed almost anywhere. Using standard procedures practiced in tree surgery or rock climbing, almost any tree can be climbed. Tree climbing provides challenge and adventure as well as a vigorous upper-body workout. Tree Climbers International classifies trees using a system…

Jenkins, Peter

193

Genetic characterization of fig tree mutants with molecular markers.  

PubMed

The fig (Ficus carica L.) is a fruit tree of great world importance and, therefore, the genetic improvement becomes an important field of research for better crops, being necessary to gather information on this species, mainly regarding its genetic variability so that appropriate propagation projects and management are made. The improvement programs of fig trees using conventional procedures in order to obtain new cultivars are rare in many countries, such as Brazil, especially due to the little genetic variability and to the difficulties in obtaining plants from gamete fusion once the wasp Blastophaga psenes, responsible for the natural pollinating, is not found in Brazil. In this way, the mutagenic genetic improvement becomes a solution of it. For this reason, in an experiment conducted earlier, fig plants formed by cuttings treated with gamma ray were selected based on their agronomic characteristics of interest. We determined the genetic variability in these fig tree selections, using RAPD and AFLP molecular markers, comparing them to each other and to the Roxo-de-Valinhos, used as the standard. For the reactions of DNA amplification, 140 RAPD primers and 12 primer combinations for AFLP analysis were used. The selections did not differ genetically between themselves and between them and the Roxo-de-Valinhos cultivar. Techniques that can detect polymorphism between treatments, such as DNA sequencing, must be tested. The phenotypic variation of plants may be due to epigenetic variation, necessitating the use of techniques with methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes. PMID:22911583

Rodrigues, M G F; Martins, A B G; Desidério, J A; Bertoni, B W; Alves, M C

2012-08-06

194

Murderous Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

400 million years ago, in the early Devonian era, over half of all the creatures in the ocean were suddenly killed. This radio broadcast explains how millenia later, one scientist has finally found the possible culprit: trees and plants that evolved to produce soil excessive in nutrients. This soil washed into the sea, producing algae plumes and ultimately, low oxygen conditions that killed many marine organisms. The clip is 2 minutes in length.

195

21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...No. 9001-73-4) is a proteolytic enzyme derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya...aqueous solution of latex. The resulting enzyme preparation may be used in a liquid...

2013-04-01

196

Questions and Answers about FDA's Enforcement Action ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... 2. What is papain? Papain is a protein-cleaving enzyme derived from papaya fruit (Carica papaya) and certain other plants. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/enforcementactivitiesbyfda

197

Identification of natural rubber and characterization of rubber biosynthetic activity in fig tree.  

PubMed

Natural rubber was extracted from the fig tree (Ficus carica) cultivated in Korea as part of a survey of rubber producing plants. Fourier transform infrared and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of samples prepared by successive extraction with acetone and benzene confirmed that the benzene-soluble residues are natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene. The rubber content in the latex of fig tree was about 4%, whereas the rubber content in the bark, leaf, and fruit was 0.3%, 0.1%, and 0.1%, respectively. Gel-permeation chromatography revealed that the molecular size of the natural rubber from fig tree is about 190 kD. Similar to rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray), rubber biosynthesis in fig tree is tightly associated with rubber particles. The rubber transferase in rubber particles exhibited a higher affinity for farnesyl pyrophosphate than for isopentenyl pyrophosphate, with apparent K(m) values of 2.8 and 228 microM, respectively. Examination of latex serum from fig tree by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed major proteins of 25 and 48 kD in size, and several proteins with molecular mass below 20 and above 100 kD. Partial N-terminal amino acid sequencing and immunochemical analyses revealed that the 25- and 48-kD proteins were novel and not related to any other suggested rubber transferases. The effect of EDTA and Mg(2+) ion on in vitro rubber biosynthesis in fig tree and rubber tree suggested that divalent metal ion present in the latex serum is an important factor in determining the different rubber biosynthetic activities in fig tree and rubber tree. PMID:10889262

Kang, H; Kang, M Y; Han, K H

2000-07-01

198

Identification of Natural Rubber and Characterization of Rubber Biosynthetic Activity in Fig Tree1  

PubMed Central

Natural rubber was extracted from the fig tree (Ficus carica) cultivated in Korea as part of a survey of rubber producing plants. Fourier transform infrared and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of samples prepared by successive extraction with acetone and benzene confirmed that the benzene-soluble residues are natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene. The rubber content in the latex of fig tree was about 4%, whereas the rubber content in the bark, leaf, and fruit was 0.3%, 0.1%, and 0.1%, respectively. Gel-permeation chromatography revealed that the molecular size of the natural rubber from fig tree is about 190 kD. Similar to rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray), rubber biosynthesis in fig tree is tightly associated with rubber particles. The rubber transferase in rubber particles exhibited a higher affinity for farnesyl pyrophosphate than for isopentenyl pyrophosphate, with apparent Km values of 2.8 and 228 ?m, respectively. Examination of latex serum from fig tree by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed major proteins of 25 and 48 kD in size, and several proteins with molecular mass below 20 and above 100 kD. Partial N-terminal amino acid sequencing and immunochemical analyses revealed that the 25- and 48-kD proteins were novel and not related to any other suggested rubber transferases. The effect of EDTA and Mg2+ ion on in vitro rubber biosynthesis in fig tree and rubber tree suggested that divalent metal ion present in the latex serum is an important factor in determining the different rubber biosynthetic activities in fig tree and rubber tree.

Kang, Hunseung; Kang, Min Young; Han, Kyung-Hwan

2000-01-01

199

Chemical assessment and in vitro antioxidant capacity of Ficus carica latex.  

PubMed

Ficus species possess latex-like material within their vasculatures, affording protection and self-healing from physical attacks. In this work, metabolite profiling was performed on Ficus carica latex. Volatiles profile was determined by HS-SPME/GC-IT-MS, with 34 compounds being identified, distributed by distinct chemical classes: 5 aldehydes, 7 alcohols, 1 ketone, 9 monoterpenes, 9 sesquiterpenes and 3 other compounds. Sesquiterpenes constituted the most abundant class in latex (ca. 91% of total identified compounds). Organic acids composition was also characterized, by HPLC-UV, and oxalic, citric, malic, quinic, shikimic and fumaric acids were determined. Malic and shikimic acids were present in higher amounts (ca. 26%, each). The antioxidant potential of this material was checked by distinct in vitro chemical assays. A concentration-dependent activity was noticed against DPPH, nitric oxide and superoxide radicals. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory capacity was evaluated, but a weak effect was found. PMID:20158255

Oliveira, Andreia P; Silva, Luís R; Ferreres, Federico; Guedes de Pinho, Paula; Valentão, Patrícia; Silva, Branca M; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B

2010-03-24

200

Tree Troubles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores some of the diseases and other threats that certain trees must contend with to remain healthy and vital. The first website (1), from the USDA Forest Service-St. Paul Field Office, contains a collection of archived publications designed to help people diagnose, control, and identify various threats to different types of trees. Examples of these publications include: How to Control Sapstreak Disease of Sugar Maple; How to Differentiate Dutch Elm Disease From Elm Phloem Necrosis; How to Identify and Manage Needlecast Diseases on Balsam Fir; and How to Manage Eastern White Pine to Minimize Damage from Blister Rust and White Pine Weevil, to name few. The second (2) site, Forest & Shade Tree Pathology, is an online textbook that was developed by Dr. James J. Worrall, a plant pathologist for the USDA Forest Service, and former professor at the College of Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of New York. Dr. Worrall's site contains information about rusts, foliage and root diseases, parasitic plants, cankers, abiotic diseases, and wilts as well as disease profiles for Swiss Needle Cast; Oak Wilt, Chestnut Blight, Armillaria Root Disease, and more. The third (3) site, Oak Wilt: A Threat to Red Oaks & White Oaks Species, was created by Dr. David L. Roberts at Michigan State University Extension. Dr. Robert's concise site contains brief sections addressing oak wilt distribution, field diagnosis, management, disease cycle, and more. The fourth (4) site, from the California Oak Mortality Task Force, contains images, publications, maps, and information about Sudden Oak Death-related research, management recommendations, nursery issues, and regulations. The final three websites come from the USDA Forest Service and contain information about different insect threats. The fifth (5) site offers information about the emerald ash borer. The sixth (6) site provides information about the gypsy moth, and the final (7) site contains information about the Asian longhorned beetle.

201

ISOLATION AND PUNRIFICATION OF PSORALEN AND BERGAPTEN FROM FICUS CARICA L LEAVES BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY.  

PubMed

High-speed countercurrent chromatography was successfully applied for the first time for the separation of psoralen and bergapten from Ficus carica L leaves. The crudeextract obtained by light petroleum (b.p.: 60°C-90°C) from the dried leaves of Ficus carica L. was separated with a two-phase solvent system of n-Hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:1:1:1, v/v). Each peak fraction was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The method yielded 4.4 mg of psoralen at 99.1% purity and 2.1 mg of bergapten at 98.2% purity from 400 mg of the crude extract in a single run. The two compounds were identified by (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and MS. PMID:20351802

Chunyan, Chi; Bo, Shi; Ping, Liang; Jingmei, Li; Ito, Yoichiro

2009-01-01

202

Etiologia e estratégias de controle de viroses do mamoeiro no brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Etiology and control strategies of papaya virus diseases in Brazil The major disease problems affecting papaya (Carica papaya) throughout the world are caused by viruses. These diseases cause serious reductions in fruit production, even totally destroying affected orchards. Although more than ten different viruses have been registered in papaya world- wide, only three have been identified to date that naturally

ROBERTO C. A. LIMA; J. ALBERSIO A. LIMA; MANOEL T. SOUZA JR.; GILVAN PIO-RIBEIRO; GENIRA P. ANDRADE

2001-01-01

203

Use of papaya seeds as a biosorbent of methylene blue from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

In this study papaya seeds were used to remove methylene blue dye from aqueous solution. Papaya seeds were characterized as possessing a macro/mesoporous texture and large pore size. Studies were carried out in batches to evaluate the effect of contact time and pH (2-12) on the removal of dye. It was observed that the adsorption of dye was better in the basic region (pH 12). The equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Raduschkevich, Tempkin, Jovanovich, Redlich-Peterson, Sips, Toth and Radke-Prausnitz isotherms. The equilibrium data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm with a maximum adsorption capacity of 637.29 mg g(-1). Adsorption kinetic data were fitted using the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption kinetic is very fast and was best described by the pseudo-second-order model. PMID:23863440

Paz, Diego S; Baiotto, Alexandre; Schwaab, Marcio; Mazutti, Marcio A; Bassaco, Mariana M; Bertuol, Daniel A; Foletto, Edson L; Meili, Lucas

2013-01-01

204

Phenol induced by irradiation does not impair sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of radiation processing on the sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya exposed to doses in the range of 2.5-10 kGy and 100 Gy-2.5 kGy respectively was investigated. Despite an increase in the content of phenol in the volatile oil of these food products overall sensory quality of the irradiated and control samples was not significantly affected by radiation processing.

Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

2013-11-01

205

Studies on moisture sorption isotherms for osmotically dehydrated papaya cubes and verification of selected models.  

PubMed

The water desorption properties of osmotically dehydrated papaya cubes at various temperatures were studied by fitting experimental isotherms in Henderson, Oswin, Chen and Clayton and Kuhn equations having 2 parameters and Henderson and Oswin equations were modified to describe the temperature dependence of isotherm data. Oswin equation was useful to predict the equilibrium moisture content values for use in determining the effective moisture diffusion coefficient during subsequent air drying process. PMID:23572650

Jain, S K; Verma, R C; Sharma, G P; Jain, H K

2010-07-29

206

Spatial and temporal diversity of begomoviral complexes in papayas with leaf curl disease.  

PubMed

Old World, monopartite begomoviruses associated with satellite DNA ? were observed in papaya showing symptoms of leaf curl disease sampled randomly over five years from within a radius of 250 km in north-central India. Three groups of DNA A sequences were evident. One group resembled chili leaf curl virus infecting tomatoes (ChiLCuV). Another group resembled tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCuNDV). The third group was novel (tentatively named papaya leaf crumple virus, PaLCrV), with less than 89% identity to known begomovirus sequences in the GenBank database. At least seven DNA A sequences were putative recombinants. The AC4-encoding regions exhibited highest numbers of non-synonymous substitutions. Most DNA ? sequences resembled tomato leaf curl virus-associated DNA ?s. A few DNA ? sequences were similar to that of croton yellow vein mosaic virus-associated DNA ? (CroYVMV?). One DNA ? sequence was novel and showed <65% similarity to its counterparts. Mixed infections and sequence diversity among 25 cloned av1 genes indicated that papayas grown in plantations, kitchen gardens and feral patches in the region are vulnerable to disease outbreak. No geographic or temporal patterns were discernable in the distribution of these viruses. PMID:22437254

Singh-Pant, P; Pant, P; Mukherjee, S K; Mazumdar-Leighton, S

2012-03-22

207

Random trees and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss several connections between discrete and continuous random trees. In the discrete setting, we focus on Galton-Watson trees under various conditionings. In particular, we present a simple approach to Aldous’ theorem giving the convergence in distribution of the contour process of conditioned Galton-Watson trees towards the normalized Brownian excursion. We also briefly discuss applications to combinatorial trees. In the

Jean-François Le Gall

2005-01-01

208

The Needs of Trees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tree rings can be used not only to look at plant growth, but also to make connections between plant growth and resource availability. In this lesson, students in 2nd-4th grades use role-play to become familiar with basic requirements of trees and how availability of those resources is related to tree ring sizes and tree growth. These concepts can…

Boyd, Amy E.; Cooper, Jim

2004-01-01

209

A dynamic fault tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fault tree analysis is a widely used method for evaluation of systems reliability and nuclear power plants safety. This paper presents a new method, which represents extension of the classic fault tree with the time requirements. The dynamic fault tree offers a range of risk informed applications. The results show that application of dynamic fault tree may reduce the

Marko ?epin; Borut Mavko

2002-01-01

210

The Needs of Trees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Tree rings can be used not only to look at plant growth, but also to make connections between plant growth and resource availability. In this lesson, students in 2nd-4th grades use role-play to become familiar with basic requirements of trees and how availability of those resources is related to tree ring sizes and tree growth. These concepts can…

Boyd, Amy E.; Cooper, Jim

2004-01-01

211

Tree Tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nature often replicates her processes at different scales of space and time in differing media. Here a tree-trunk cross section I am preparing for a dendrochronological display at the Battle Creek Cypress Swamp Nature Sanctuary (Calvert County, Maryland) dried and cracked in a way that replicates practically all the planform features found along the Mid-Oceanic Ridge (see Figure 1). The left-lateral offset of saw marks, contrasting with the right-lateral ``rift'' offset, even illustrates the distinction between transcurrent (strike-slip) and transform faults, the latter only recognized as a geologic feature, by J. Tuzo Wilson, in 1965. However, wood cracking is but one of many examples of natural processes that replicate one or several elements of lithospheric plate tectonics. Many of these examples occur in everyday venues and thus make great teaching aids, ``teachable'' from primary school to university levels. Plate tectonics, the dominant process of Earth geology, also occurs in miniature on the surface of some lava lakes, and as ``ice plate tectonics'' on our frozen seas and lakes. Ice tectonics also happens at larger spatial and temporal scales on the Jovian moons Europa and perhaps Ganymede. Tabletop plate tectonics, in which a molten-paraffin ``asthenosphere'' is surfaced by a skin of congealing wax ``plates,'' first replicated Mid-Oceanic Ridge type seafloor spreading more than three decades ago. A seismologist (J. Brune, personal communication, 2004) discovered wax plate tectonics by casually and serendipitously pulling a stick across a container of molten wax his wife and daughters had used in making candles. Brune and his student D. Oldenburg followed up and mirabile dictu published the results in Science (178, 301-304).

Vogt, Peter R.

2004-09-01

212

Growth of Lévy trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We construct random locally compact real trees called Lévy trees that are the genealogical trees associated with continuous-state\\u000a branching processes. More precisely, we define a growing family of discrete Galton–Watson trees with i.i.d. exponential branch\\u000a lengths that is consistent under Bernoulli percolation on leaves; we define the Lévy tree as the limit of this growing family\\u000a with respect to the

Thomas Duquesne; Matthias Winkel

2007-01-01

213

Random real trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We survey recent developments about random real trees, whose prototype is the\\u000aContinuum Random Tree (CRT) introduced by Aldous in 1991. We briefly explain\\u000athe formalism of real trees, which yields a neat presentation of the theory and\\u000ain particular of the relations between discrete Galton-Watson trees and\\u000acontinuous random trees. We then discuss the particular class of self-similar\\u000arandom

Jean-Francois Le Gall

2006-01-01

214

Detection of platypus-type L/D-peptide isomerase activity in aqueous extracts of papaya fruit.  

PubMed

Peptide isomerase catalyses the post-translational isomerisation of the L: - to the D: -form of an amino acid residue around the N/C-termini of substrate peptides. To date, some peptide isomerases have been found in a limited number of animal secretions and cells. We show here that papaya extracts have weak peptide isomerase activity. The activity was detected in each 30-100 kDa fraction of the flesh and the seed extracts of unripe and ripe papaya fruit. The definitive activity was confirmed in the ripe papaya extracts, but even then it was much less active than that of the other peptide isomerases previously reported. The activity was markedly inhibited by methanol, and partly so by amastatin and diethyl pyrocarbonate. This is the first report of peptide isomerase activity in a plant and suggests that perhaps every living organism may have some peptide isomerase activity. PMID:22648682

Arakawa, Kensuke; Koh, Jennifer M S; Crossett, Ben; Torres, Allan M; Kuchel, Philip W

2012-05-22

215

Genetic sex determination, gender identification and pseudohermaphroditism in the knobbed whelk, Busycon carica (Mollusca: Melongenidae).  

PubMed Central

We report perhaps the first genic-level molecular documentation of a mammalian-like 'X-linked' mode of sex determination in molluscs. From family inheritance data and observed associations between sex-phenotyped adults and genotypes in Busycon carica, we deduce that a polymorphic microsatellite locus (bc2.2) is diploid and usually heterozygous in females, hemizygous in males, and that its alleles are transmitted from mothers to sons and daughters but from fathers to daughters only. We also employ bc2.2 to estimate near-conception sex ratio in whelk embryos, where gender is indeterminable by visual inspection. Statistical corrections are suggested at both family and population levels to accommodate the presence of homozygous bc2.2 females that could otherwise be genetically mistaken for hemizygous males. Knobbed whelks were thought to be sequential hermaphrodites, but our evidence for genetic dioecy supports an earlier hypothesis that whelks are pseudohermaphroditic (falsely appear to switch functional sex when environmental conditions induce changes in sexual phenotype). These findings highlight the distinction between gender in a genetic versus phenotypic sense.

Avise, John C; Power, Alan J; Walker, DeEtte

2004-01-01

216

Color and antioxidant characteristics of some fresh fig (Ficus carica L.) genotypes from northeastern Turkey.  

PubMed

Fruit skin color, total phenolics, total anthocyanins, soluble solids content, titratable acidity and total antioxidant capacity in fresh fruits of a number of local and well-known fig (Ficus carica L.) genotypes and cultivars grown in northeastern Turkey were determined. TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) assays were used to determine total antioxidant capacity. Fruit skin color of genotypes were found to be very diverse, i.e., light green, light purple, purple, dark purple and black. The content of total phenolics, soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity greatly varied in the range from 24 to 237 mg of gallic acid equivalent per 100 g fresh weight, 18.60 to 26.30 % and 0.16 to 0.47 % in local genotypes and studied cultivars. In general, total antioxidant capacities determined by two methods expressed higher values in the local fig genotypes compared with the cultivars. The results suggested that genotype is the main factor that determines difference in the composition of bioactive compounds in figs and provide information on putative health benefits locally grown genotypes. PMID:22618081

Ercisli, Sezai; Tosun, Murat; Karlidag, Huseyin; Dzubur, Ahmed; Hadziabulic, Semina; Aliman, Yasmina

2012-09-01

217

Antioxidant and immunity activity of water extract and crude polysaccharide from Ficus carica L. fruit.  

PubMed

The antioxidative activities of water extract (WE) and crude hot-water soluble polysaccharide (PS) from Ficus carica L. fruit were investigated using various assays in vitro, including scavenging abilities on DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals and reducing power. The immunity activities of PS were evaluated using the carbon clearance test and serum hemolysin analysis in mice. In addition, total phenolics and flavonoids contents were also determined. Both WE and PS have notable scavenging activities on DPPH with the EC(50) values of 0.72 and 0.61 mg/ml, respectively. The PS showed higher scavenging activity than WE on superoxide radical (EC(50), 0.95 mg/ml) and hydroxyl anion radical (scavenging rate 43.4% at concentration of 4 mg/ml). The PS (500 mg/kg) also has a significant increase in the clearance rate of carbon particles and serum hemolysin level of normal mice. The results indicate that both WE and PS might be applicable in healthy medicine and food industry. PMID:19466553

Yang, Xiao-Ming; Yu, Wei; Ou, Zhong-Ping; Ma, Hai-le; Liu, Wei-Ming; Ji, Xue-Lin

2009-06-01

218

In vitro cytotoxic and antiviral activities of Ficus carica latex extracts.  

PubMed

The latex of fig fruit (Ficus carica) is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of skin infections such as warts and also diseases of possible viral origin. Five extracts (methanolic, hexanic, ethyl acetate, hexane-ethyl acetate (v/v) and chloroformic) of this species were investigated in vitro for their antiviral potential activity against herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1), echovirus type 11 (ECV-11) and adenovirus (ADV). To evaluate the capacity of the extracts to inhibit the replication of viruses, the following assays were performed: adsorption and penetration, intracellular inhibition and virucidal activity. Observation of cytopathic effects was used to determine the antiviral action. The hexanic and hexane-ethyl acetate (v/v) extracts inhibited multiplication of viruses by tested techniques at concentrations of 78 µg mL(-1). These two extracts were possible candidates as herbal medicines for herpes virus, echovirus and adenovirus infectious diseases. All extracts had no cytotoxic effect on Vero cells at all tested concentrations. PMID:21294043

Lazreg Aref, Houda; Gaaliche, Badii; Fekih, Abdelwaheb; Mars, Massoud; Aouni, Mahjoub; Pierre Chaumon, Jean; Said, Khaled

2011-02-01

219

Fault tree handbook  

SciTech Connect

This handbook describes a methodology for reliability analysis of complex systems such as those which comprise the engineered safety features of nuclear power generating stations. After an initial overview of the available system analysis approaches, the handbook focuses on a description of the deductive method known as fault tree analysis. The following aspects of fault tree analysis are covered: basic concepts for fault tree analysis; basic elements of a fault tree; fault tree construction; probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra for the fault tree analyst; qualitative and quantitative fault tree evaluation techniques; and computer codes for fault tree evaluation. Also discussed are several example problems illustrating the basic concepts of fault tree construction and evaluation.

Haasl, D.F.; Roberts, N.H.; Vesely, W.E.; Goldberg, F.F.

1981-01-01

220

Evaluation of New Reference Genes in Papaya for Accurate Transcript Normalization under Different Experimental Conditions  

PubMed Central

Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) is a preferred method for rapid and accurate quantification of gene expression studies. Appropriate application of RT-qPCR requires accurate normalization though the use of reference genes. As no single reference gene is universally suitable for all experiments, thus reference gene(s) validation under different experimental conditions is crucial for RT-qPCR analysis. To date, only a few studies on reference genes have been done in other plants but none in papaya. In the present work, we selected 21 candidate reference genes, and evaluated their expression stability in 246 papaya fruit samples using three algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder. The samples consisted of 13 sets collected under different experimental conditions, including various tissues, different storage temperatures, different cultivars, developmental stages, postharvest ripening, modified atmosphere packaging, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment, hot water treatment, biotic stress and hormone treatment. Our results demonstrated that expression stability varied greatly between reference genes and that different suitable reference gene(s) or combination of reference genes for normalization should be validated according to the experimental conditions. In general, the internal reference genes EIF (Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A), TBP1 (TATA binding protein 1) and TBP2 (TATA binding protein 2) genes had a good performance under most experimental conditions, whereas the most widely present used reference genes, ACTIN (Actin 2), 18S rRNA (18S ribosomal RNA) and GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) were not suitable in many experimental conditions. In addition, two commonly used programs, geNorm and Normfinder, were proved sufficient for the validation. This work provides the first systematic analysis for the selection of superior reference genes for accurate transcript normalization in papaya under different experimental conditions.

Chen, Weixin; Chen, Jianye; Lu, Wangjin; Chen, Lei; Fu, Danwen

2012-01-01

221

Tropical Tree Seed Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Tropical Tree Seed Manual is a one-volume reference manual for students, technicians, and scientists that provides comprehensive internationally compiled data about tropical trees. The emphasis is on species of the Americas; however, a number of tropi...

J. A. Vozzo

2002-01-01

222

Energy savings with trees  

Treesearch

Description: In conventional buildings, trees increase, decrease, or have little effect on energy use depending on general climate, building type, tree species, ... walls and roofs and wind protection from the direction of prevailing winter winds.

223

On Random Binary Trees.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Binary trees are examined combinatorially with the view of providing information useful in analyzing algorithms based on this widely used storage structure. Exact and asymptotic results are given for equally likely trees and those grown by binary insertio...

G. G. Brown B. O. Shubert

1976-01-01

224

Build a Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on pages 13-18) has learners build a model tree and then figure out how to make their tree stand up by itself. This illustrates how the tall rain forest trees adapt to support a huge trunk and heavy branches, while also sending their roots out instead of down. Trees built in this activity can be used for the Rain Forest in Your Room activity that is also part of the Wonderwise Rain Forest Ecologist Activity Book.

Museum, University O.; Nebraska Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development

2001-01-01

225

Protective Role of Ficus carica Stem Extract against Hepatic Oxidative Damage Induced by Methanol in Male Wistar Rats  

PubMed Central

The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of Ficus carica stem extract (FE) in methanol-induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into two batches: 16 control rats (C) drinking tap water and 16 treated rats drinking Ficus carica stem extract for six weeks. Then, each group was divided into two subgroups, and one of them was intraperitoneally injected (i.p.) daily methanol at a dose of 2.37?g/kg body weight i.p. for 30 days, for four weeks. The results showed that FE was found to contain large amounts of polyphenols and carotenoids. The treatment with methanol exhibited a significant increase of serum hepatic biochemical parameters (ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH) and hepatic lipid peroxidation. Hepatic antioxidant enzymes, namely, SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px, were significantly decreased in methanol-treated animals. FE treatment prior to methanol intoxication has significant role in protecting animals from methanol-induced hepatic oxidative damage.

Saoudi, Mongi; El Feki, Abdelfattah

2012-01-01

226

High-performance thin layer chromatographic quantification of bioactive psoralen and daidzein in leaves of Ficus carica L.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to quantify psoralen and daidzein by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). The methanolic extract of 10 mg mL(-1) concentration solution was prepared for HPTLC quantification of psoralen and daidzein. HPTLC aluminium-backed plates coated with 0.2 mm layers of silica gel 60 F(254) were used as the stationary phase. The working standard solution of psoralen and daidzein was applied along with the test sample solution by means of Camag Linomat IV sample applicator. R (f) values of psoralen and daidzein were found to be 0.60 and 0.88, whilst as their percentage values in methanolic extract were found to be 3.02% and 5.64% (w/w), respectively. A simple quantitative estimation method of psoralen and daidzein by HPTLC is reported that can be used for the quality control of marketed preparations containing Ficus carica. However, further study is warranted to isolate and quantify active constituents present in the leaves of F. carica by sophisticated techniques. PMID:21714728

Ali, B; Mujeeb, M; Aeri, V; Mir, S R; Ahmad, S; Siddique, N A; Faiyazuddin, M; Shakeel, F

2011-06-30

227

Protective Role of Ficus carica Stem Extract against Hepatic Oxidative Damage Induced by Methanol in Male Wistar Rats.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of Ficus carica stem extract (FE) in methanol-induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into two batches: 16 control rats (C) drinking tap water and 16 treated rats drinking Ficus carica stem extract for six weeks. Then, each group was divided into two subgroups, and one of them was intraperitoneally injected (i.p.) daily methanol at a dose of 2.37?g/kg body weight i.p. for 30 days, for four weeks. The results showed that FE was found to contain large amounts of polyphenols and carotenoids. The treatment with methanol exhibited a significant increase of serum hepatic biochemical parameters (ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH) and hepatic lipid peroxidation. Hepatic antioxidant enzymes, namely, SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px, were significantly decreased in methanol-treated animals. FE treatment prior to methanol intoxication has significant role in protecting animals from methanol-induced hepatic oxidative damage. PMID:22203864

Saoudi, Mongi; El Feki, Abdelfattah

2011-11-17

228

Effects of chitosan-based coatings containing peppermint essential oil on the quality of post-harvest papaya fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Edible coatings comprised of antimicrobial polymers based on chitosan are promising technologies to preserve post-harvest fruit quality. In this study, we investigated the potential utility of a coating made from chitosan modified by N-acylation with fatty acid to preserve post-harvest papaya qualit...

229

Effects of Ozone in Combination with Hydrothermal Treatment and Wax on Physical and Chemical Properties of Papayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effects of ozone in combination with hydrothermal treatment and wax on physical and chemical properties of papayas. The ozone concentrations used in this study were 2 and 4 mg\\/L. Heat treatments were applied with a hot water brushing system at temperatures of 45, 55 and 65 °C. No mold was observed under the wax film of

Carolina Pereira Kechinski; Cândida Raquel Sherrer Montero; Caciano Pelajo Zapata Noreña; Isabel Cristina Tessaro; Lígia Damasceno Ferreira Marczak; Renar João Bender

2012-01-01

230

Effect of ozone pre-conditioning on quality and antioxidant capacity of papaya fruit during ambient storage.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the physico-chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of ozone-treated papaya fruit and untreated fruit. Freshly harvested papaya fruit were exposed continuously to ozone fumigation (0, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 5ppm) for 96h prior to ambient storage at 25±3°C and 70±5% relative humidity (RH) for up to 14days. The fruit exposed to 2.5ppm ozone had higher levels of total soluble solids (25.0%), ascorbic acid content (12.4%), ?-carotene content (19.6%), lycopene content (52.1%), and antioxidant activity (30.9%), and also reduced weight loss (11.5%) at day 10 compared to the control. The sensory attributes of papaya treated with 2.5ppm ozone was superior in sweetness and overall acceptability. These results support the application of ozone as a non-thermal and safe food preservation technique for papaya which can benefit both the producers and consumers. PMID:24001808

Ali, Asgar; Ong, Mei Kying; Forney, Charles F

2013-07-17

231

Omnivariate decision trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Univariate decision trees at each decision node consider the value of only one feature leading to axis-aligned splits. In a linear multivariate decision tree, each decision node divides the input space into two with a hyperplane. In a nonlinear multivariate tree, a multilayer perceptron at each node divides the input space arbitrarily, at the expense of increased complexity and higher

C. T. Yildiz; Ethem Alpaydin

2001-01-01

232

Tree Pattern Relaxation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Tree patterns are fundamental to querying tree-structureddata like XML. Because of the heterogeneity of XML data, it is oftenmore appropriate to permit approximate query matching and returnranked answers, in the spirit of Information Retrieval, than to return onlyexact answers. In this paper, we study the problem of approximate XMLquery matching, based on tree pattern relaxations, and devise efficientalgorithms to

Sihem Amer-yahia; Sungran Cho; Divesh Srivastava

2002-01-01

233

Everglades: Mangrove Tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pictured is a mangrove tree situated in the marsh of the Everglades. This tree is especially adapted to survive in this environment as they can survive in salt water and fresh water environments. There are three species of mangrove trees that can be found in the Everglades. These include: the red mangrove, the black mangrove, and the white mangrove. These

Chet Smolski

1978-01-01

234

Structural Equation Model Trees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree

Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

2013-01-01

235

Diary of a Tree.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an activity to develop students' skills of observation and recordkeeping by studying the growth of a tree's leaves during the spring. Children monitor the growth of 11 tress over a 2-month period, draw pictures of the tree at different stages of growth, and write diaries of the tree's growth. (MDH)

Srulowitz, Frances

1992-01-01

236

Chem-Is-Tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trees are woody plants that contain chemicals and undergo chemical reactions. They consist of cellulose, volatile oils, fatty acids, and more. Wood is obtained from the stems, roots, and branches of trees. It is not a homogeneous material with a uniform structure but instead a tissue of different kinds of cells which perform specific functions in the living plant. Trees

Dana M. Barry

1997-01-01

237

Winter Birch Trees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…

Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy

2011-01-01

238

Complexity of Tree Homomorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a fixed oriented tree T, we consider the complexity of deciding whether or not a given digraph G is homomorphic to T. It was shown by Gutjahr, Woeginger and Welzl that there exist trees T for which this homomorphism problem is NP-complete. However, it seems difficult to decide just which trees T yield NP-complete homomorphism problems. In this paper,

Pavol Hell; Jaroslav Nesetril; Xuding Zhu

1996-01-01

239

Logistic Model Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree induction methods and linear models are popular techniques for supervised learning tasks, both for the prediction of nominal classes and numeric values. For predicting numeric quantities, there has been work on combining these two schemes into ‘model trees’, i.e. trees that contain linear regression functions at the leaves. In this paper, we present an algorithm that adapts this idea

Niels Landwehr; Mark Hall; Eibe Frank

2005-01-01

240

Logistic Model Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree induction methods and linear models are popular techniques for supervised learning tasks, both for the prediction of nominal classes and numeric values. For predicting numeric quantities, there has been work on combining these two schemes into 'model trees', i.e. trees that contain linear regression functions at the leaves. In this paper, we present an algorithm that adapts this idea

Niels Landwehr; Mark Hall; Eibe Frank

2003-01-01

241

Minnesota's Forest Trees. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin describes 46 of the more common trees found in Minnesota's forests and windbreaks. The bulletin contains two tree keys, a summer key and a winter key, to help the reader identify these trees. Besides the two keys, the bulletin includes an introduction, instructions for key use, illustrations of leaf characteristics and twig…

Miles, William R.; Fuller, Bruce L.

242

Overprvning Large Decision Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents empirical evidence for five hypotheses about learning from large noisy domains: that trees built from very large training sets are larger and more accurate than trees built from even large subsets; that this increased accuracy is only in part due to the extra size of the trees; and that the extra training instances allow both better choices

Jason Catlett

1991-01-01

243

Molecular characterization and infectivity of Papaya leaf curl China virus infecting tomato in China*  

PubMed Central

Papaya leaf curl China virus (PaLCuCNV) was previously reported as a distinct begomovirus infecting papaya in southern China. Based on molecular diagnostic survey, 13 PaLCuCNV isolates were obtained from tomato plants showing leaf curl symptoms in Henan and Guangxi Provinces of China. Complete nucleotide sequences of 5 representative isolates (AJ558116, AJ558117, AJ704604, FN256260, and FN297834) were determined to be 2738–2751 nucleotides, which share 91.7%–97.9% sequence identities with PaLCuCNV isolate G2 (AJ558123). DNA-? was not found to be associated with PaLCuCNV isolates. To investigate the infectivity of PaLCuCNV, an infectious clone of PaLCuCNV-[CN:HeNZM1] was constructed and agro-inoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum Samsun, N. glutinosa, Solanum lycopersicum and Petunia hybrida plants, which induced severe leaf curling and crinkling symptoms in these plants. Southern blot analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated a systemic infection of test plants by the agro-infectious clone.

Zhang, Hui; Ma, Xin-ying; Qian, Ya-juan; Zhou, Xue-ping

2010-01-01

244

Growth of a Pine Tree  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of…

Rollinson, Susan Wells

2012-01-01

245

Cavitation in trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sap is transported under tension (i.e. negative pressure) in trees, according to the tension-cohesion theory. Since water is physically instable under negative pressure, a risk of cavitation is possible. Techniques have been developed during the past two decennia to study cavitation in trees. Trees appear remarkably immune to cavitation events. Cavities form only when extreme water stresses occur or when sap freezes. Nucleation is heterogeneous in trees, presumably caused by the aspiration of air bubbles through conduit walls. Threshold xylem pressures for cavitation vary greatly between species, in concordance with the great functional and ecological diversity of trees. To cite this article: H. Cochard, C. R. Physique 7 (2006).

Cochard, Hervé

2006-11-01

246

Food Security in Bangladesh: Improving Wheat, Maize and Papaya Production, and Impacts of Arsenic Contamination. Final Program Performance Report For the Period July 2002 to June 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The USAID funded project Food Security in Bangladesh: Improving Wheat, Maize and Papaya Production, and Impacts of Arsenic Contamination was designed to enhance food production through agronomic research and extension to improve the efficiency and profita...

2007-01-01

247

Tree Owner's Manual for the Northeastern Midwestern United States  

Treesearch

Uncontrolled Keywords: tree owners manual, prune trees, tree care, planting trees, ... tree health, tree maintenance, Midwest trees, northeastern trees, tree crown, tree dripline, NA-FR-04-07 ... Resource Type: Management Plans and Reports.

248

Reversible adaptive trees.  

PubMed

We describe reversible adaptive trees, a class of stochastic algorithms modified from the formerly described adaptive trees. They evolve in time a finite subset of an ambient Euclidean space of any dimension, starting from a seed point and, accreting points to the evolving set, they grow branches towards a target set which can depend on time. In contrast with plain adaptive trees, which were formerly proven to have strong convergence properties to a static target, the points of reversible adaptive trees are removed from the tree when they have not been used recently enough in a path from the root to an accreted point. This, together with a straightening process performed on the branches, permits the tree to follow some moving targets and still remain adapted to it. We then discuss in what way one can see such reversible trees as a model for a qualitative property of resilience, which leads us to discuss qualitative modeling. PMID:23934230

Kergosien, Yannick L

2013-08-10

249

Behavioral responses of female oriental fruit flies to the odor of papayas at three ripeness stages in a laboratory flight tunnel (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral responses of adult female oriental fruit flies, Dacus dorsalisHendel, to the odor of papayas from three ripeness classes were studied using a threechoice flight tunnel bioassay. Laboratoryreared flies were allowed to respond freely to any of three papaya odors (mature green, colorbreak to one-fourth ripe, and one-half to full ripe) emanating from identical (spherical) fruit models. Five behaviors were

Eric B. Jang; Douglas M. Light

1991-01-01

250

Removal of Cr(VI) onto Ficus carica biosorbent from water.  

PubMed

The utilization of sustainable and biodegradable lignocellulosic fiber to detoxify the noxious Cr(VI) from wastewater is considered a versatile approach to clean up a contaminated aquatic environment. The aim of the present research is to assess the proficiency and mechanism of biosorption on Ficus carica bast fiber via isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Harkin's-Jura, and Dubinin-Radushkevich), kinetic models, and thermodynamic parameters. The biomass extracted from fig plant was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. To optimize the maximum removal efficiency, different parameters like effect of initial concentration, effect of temperature, pH, and contact time were studied by batch method. The equilibrium data were best represented by the Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) onto biosorbent was found to be 19.68 mg/g. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model adequately described the kinetic data. The calculated values of thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy change (?H(0)), entropy change (?S(0)), and free energy change (?G(0)) were 21.55 kJ/mol, 76.24 J/mol K, and -1.55 kJ/mol, respectively, at 30 °C which accounted for spontaneous and endothermic processes. The study of adsorbent capacity for Cr(VI) removal in the presence of Na(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), SO 4 (2-) , HCO 3 (-) and Cl(-) illustrated that the removal of Cr(VI) increased in the presence of HCO(3-) ions; the presence of Na(+), SO 4 (2-) or Cl(-) showed no significant influence on Cr(VI) adsorption, while Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions led to an insignificant decrease in Cr(VI) adsorption. Further, the desorption studies illustrated that 31.10% of metal ions can be removed from an aqueous system, out of which 26.63% of metal ions can be recovered by desorption in first cycle and the adsorbent can be reused. The results of the scale-up study show that the ecofriendly detoxification of Cr(VI) from aqueous systems was technologically feasible. PMID:22983603

Gupta, V K; Pathania, Deepak; Agarwal, Shilpi; Sharma, Shikha

2012-09-15

251

The Tree of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Tree of Life website introduces students to diagrams called cladograms, which show how species are related through a common ancestor. The site explains how to read a cladogram and how to understand the family tree for all species on Earth. An interactive cladogram explains what species have in common at a branch in the tree. There is also a pie diagram illustrating the relative amounts of species and separate sections for each group of species showing fast facts and photos.

252

Tree Growth Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (located on page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into tree growth rates. Groups of learners will count tree rings to determine each treeâs age. A thorough sample of other measurements will then be taken to calculate the treesâ fastest, slowest, and overall average growth rate. Presenting the results in a table allows learners to compare data for different types of trees. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Temperate Rainforest.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2007-01-01

253

Recursively Imputed Survival Trees.  

PubMed

We propose recursively imputed survival tree (RIST) regression for right-censored data. This new nonparametric regression procedure uses a novel recursive imputation approach combined with extremely randomized trees that allows significantly better use of censored data than previous tree based methods, yielding improved model fit and reduced prediction error. The proposed method can also be viewed as a type of Monte Carlo EM algorithm which generates extra diversity in the tree-based fitting process. Simulation studies and data analyses demonstrate the superior performance of RIST compared to previous methods. PMID:23125470

Zhu, Ruoqing; Kosorok, Michael R

2011-12-01

254

Recursively Imputed Survival Trees  

PubMed Central

We propose recursively imputed survival tree (RIST) regression for right-censored data. This new nonparametric regression procedure uses a novel recursive imputation approach combined with extremely randomized trees that allows significantly better use of censored data than previous tree based methods, yielding improved model fit and reduced prediction error. The proposed method can also be viewed as a type of Monte Carlo EM algorithm which generates extra diversity in the tree-based fitting process. Simulation studies and data analyses demonstrate the superior performance of RIST compared to previous methods.

Zhu, Ruoqing; Kosorok, Michael R.

2011-01-01

255

Chem-Is-Tree  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trees are woody plants that contain chemicals and undergo chemical reactions. They consist of cellulose, volatile oils, fatty acids, and more. Wood is obtained from the stems, roots, and branches of trees. It is not a homogeneous material with a uniform structure but instead a tissue of different kinds of cells which perform specific functions in the living plant. Trees are of great importance. They provide oxygen which results from photosynthesis taking place in their leaves. In addition, trees supply us with interesting products such as vanilla flavoring and natural-rubber used in cements, adhesives, vehicle tires and shoes.

Barry, Dana M.

1997-10-01

256

Flavonoid content in leaf extracts of the fig (Ficus carica L.), carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and pistachio (Pistacia lentiscus L.).  

PubMed

The total flavonoid content of leaf extracts (70% ethanol) from fig (Ficus carica L.), carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and pistachio (Pistacia lentiscus L.) plants were determined by using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-and analyzed by UV/VIS array and electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS) detectors. As a base for comparison, flavonoid type and level were also determined in extracts from soybeans and grape seeds. It was found that the major flavonoids in Ficus are quercetin and luteolin, with a total of 631 and 681 mg/kg extract, respectively. In Ceratonia leaves, nine different flavonoids were detected. The major one was myricetin (1486 mg/kg extract), with a similar level in Pistacia (1331 mg/kg extract, myricetin). The present study is the first to report the presence of the isoflavone genistein in the Pistacia leaf, which was discovered to consist of about a third of the genistein level detected in soybean. PMID:17473377

Vaya, Jacob; Mahmood, Saeed

2006-01-01

257

Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of CMS1MS2: a cysteine proteinase from Carica candamarcensis latex  

PubMed Central

Cysteine proteinases from the latex of plants of the family Caricaceae are widely used industrially as well as in pharmaceutical preparations. In the present work, a 23?kDa cysteine proteinase from Carica candamarcensis latex (designated CMS1MS2) was purified for crystallization using three chromatography steps. The enzyme shows about fourfold higher activity than papain with BAPNA as substrate. Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction experiments were obtained by the hanging-drop method in the presence of PEG and ammonium sulfate as precipitants. The crystals are monoclinic (space group P21), with unit-cell parameters a = 53.26, b = 75.71, c = 53.23?Å, ? = 96.81°, and diffract X-rays to 1.8?Å resolution.

Gomes, Marco Tulio Ribeiro; Teixeira, Raphael Dias; Ribeiro, Henrique de Assis Lopes; Turchetti, Andreia Pereira; Junqueira, Caroline Furtado; Lopes, Miriam Tereza Paz; Salas, Carlos Edmundo; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto

2008-01-01

258

Tree nut oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The major tree nuts include almonds, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachio nuts, and walnuts. Tree nut oils are appreciated in food applications because of their flavors and are generally more expensive than other gourmet oils. Research during the last de...

259

Medians and Steiner Trees.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The theory of Steiner trees deals with the problem of designing a network connecting a set of points and minimizing the total connection length. We consider this problem in median metric spaces. It is shown that Steiner trees exist and can be found in a f...

M. van de Vel E. Verheul

1993-01-01

260

Causal Trees: Interleaving + Causality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Causal Trees are a variant of Milner's Synchronization Trees with enriched action labels which supply indication of the observable causes of observable actions, thus providing us with an interleaving description of concurrent systems which faithfully expresses causality. This model borrows from the interleaving models most of their mathematical simplicity and enhances their descriptive power. Actually, Labelled Event Structures can be

Philippe Darondeau; Pierpaolo Degano

1990-01-01

261

PERCEPTION OF TREE CANOPY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deciduous tree canopy was investigated in relation to perception of fecundity and visual attractiveness. Canopy having deliquescent shape was defined by season (in leaf or in branch), fullness (amount of leaf and amount of branch) and, in the case of summer trees, combinations of leaf and branch (balance of leaf to branch). Applying the Gestalt principle of closure or completeness,

THOMAS NELSON; THOMAS JOHNSON; MICHAEL STRONG; GAIL RUDAKEWICH

2001-01-01

262

Tree-adjoining grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper, we will describe a tree generating system called tree-adjoining grammar (TAG) and state some of the recent results about TAGs. The work on TAGs is motivated by linguistic considerations. However, a number of formal results have been established for TAGs, which we believe, would be of interest to researchers in formal languages and automata, including those interested in

Aravind Joshi; Yves Schabes

1997-01-01

263

Trees in Our Lives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides: (1) background information on how trees have influenced human history and how trees affect people today; (2) four activities dealing with these topics; and (3) a ready-to-copy page related to paper and plastics. Activities include an objective, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. (JN)|

NatureScope, 1986

1986-01-01

264

Fault tree handbook  

Microsoft Academic Search

This handbook describes a methodology for reliability analysis of complex systems such as those which comprise the engineered safety features of nuclear power generating stations. After an initial overview of the available system analysis approaches, the handbook focuses on a description of the deductive method known as fault tree analysis. The following aspects of fault tree analysis are covered: basic

D. F. Haasl; N. H. Roberts; W. E. Vesely; F. F. Goldberg

1981-01-01

265

CSI for Trees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The circles and patterns in a tree's stem tell a story, but that story can be a mystery. Interpreting the story of tree rings provides a way to heighten the natural curiosity of students and help them gain insight into the interaction of elements in the environment. It also represents a wonderful opportunity to incorporate the nature of science.…

Rubino, Darrin L.; Hanson, Deborah

2009-01-01

266

Trees Are Terrific!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. Contents are organized into the following sections: (1) "What Makes a Tree a Tree?," including…

Braus, Judy, Ed.

1992-01-01

267

Trees From Helicopters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This story is aimed at promoting not only inquiry into the germination of tree seeds but seeing trees as typical flowering plants, also known as angiosperms. There is also ample opportunity to take an excursion into fruits and seeds and the germination of

Konicek-Moran, Richard

2008-04-01

268

Approximate Tree Pattern Matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

this article proceeds on the assumption that this question has a negative response.In particular, we discuss the best known algorithms for tree editing and several variations having todo with subtree removal, variable length don't cares, and alignment. We discuss both sequentialand parallel algorithms. We present negative results having to do with unordered trees (treeswhose sibling order is arbitrary) and a

Dennis Shasha; Kaizhong Zhang

1997-01-01

269

Postharvest application of gum arabic and essential oils for controlling anthracnose and quality of banana and papaya during cold storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp. is the most important issue for the tropical fruit industry because of resulting financial losses. Antifungal effects of gum arabic (GA) (10%), lemongrass oil (LG) (0.05%), cinnamon oil (CM) (0.4%), and their combinations were investigated in vitro and in vivo for controlling postharvest anthracnose of banana and papaya. LG at 0.05% and 0.4%

Mehdi Maqbool; Asgar Ali; Peter G. Alderson; Mahmud Tengku Muda Mohamed; Yasmeen Siddiqui; Noosheen Zahid

2011-01-01

270

The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene and 3? untranslated region of papaya ringspot virus type W (Aust)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The nucleotide sequence of the 3' terminal region of the Australian isolate of papaya ringspot virus type W [PRSV-W (Aust)] was determined. An open reading frame (864 bp), encoding the putative coat protein gene, occurs upstream of the putative 3' untranslated region (206 bp) and poly(A) tail. A 23 amino acid sequence was obtained from N-terminal analysis of the

M. Bateson; J. Dale

1992-01-01

271

The effect of antifungal hot-water treatments on papaya postharvest quality and activity of pectinmethylesterase and polygalacturonase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of antifungal hot-water treatments (AHWT) at 55 °C for 0, 3, 6 and 9 min on quality attributes and cell-wall enzymatic\\u000a activity during storage at 25 °C was investigated in papaya fruit. The total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity\\u000a (TA), firmness and fresh weight loss were not affected, whereas color on skin was negatively affected by the treatments of\\u000a 6-

Ignacio Chávez-Sánchez; Armando Carrillo-López; Misael Vega-García; Elhadi M. Yahia

272

[Parasitism in Trialeurodes variabilis (Quaintance) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) by Encarsia hispida De Santis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), in papaya, in Brazil].  

PubMed

Infestation of Trialeurodes variabilis (Quaintance) was observed in October 2004, in papaya plants of cultivar Sunrise Solo, under screenhouse conditions, in Cruz das Almas, State of Bahia, Brazil. In infested leaves, around 20% of parasitism on nymphs was verified. Leaves with parasitized nymphs were kept in laboratory until emergence of the parasitoid, identified as Encarsia hispida De Santis. This is the first time that this parasitoid was detected on T. variabilis nymphs in Brazil. PMID:17420874

Lourenção, André L; Fancelli, Marilene; Costa, Valmir A; Ribeiro, Nicolle C

273

Fig latex (Ficus carica L. cultivar Dottato) in combination with UV irradiation decreases the viability of A375 melanoma cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers are among the most prevalent cancers in the human population. In the present work latex of Ficus carica cultivar Dottato from Italy collected from fruits and leaves was examined to assess its free radical-scavenging activity with 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and its phototoxicity on A375 human melanoma cells. The latex obtained from the fruits of Ficus carica cv. Dottato showed the best antiradical activity with an IC50 value of 0.05 mg/ml while the latex obtained from the leaves showed the best antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 1.5 ?g/ml on the human tumor cell line A375 (melanoma) after irradiation at a specific UVA dose (1.08 J/cm2). Control experiments with UVA light or drugs alone were carried out without significant cytotoxic effects. Polyphenolic content of the samples was also evaluated. This is the first study comparing F. carica latex of leaves and fruits. Plant derived natural products have long been and will continue to be an important source for anticancer drug development. PMID:22339064

Menichini, Giulio; Alfano, Carmine; Provenzano, Eugenio; Marrelli, Mariangela; Statti, Giancarlo A; Somma, Francesco; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

2012-10-01

274

The P-tree algebra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Peano Count Tree (P-tree) is a quadrant-based lossless tree representation of the original spatial data. The idea of P-tree is to recursively divide the entire spatial data, such as Remotely Sensed Imagery data, into quadrants and record the count of 1-bits for each quadrant, thus forming a quadrant count tree. Using P-tree structure, all the count information can be

Qin Ding; Maleq Khan; Amalendu Roy; William Perrizo

2002-01-01

275

Profile of volatile compounds during papaya juice fermentation by a mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Williopsis saturnus.  

PubMed

This study investigated the formation and utilization of volatile compounds during papaya juice fermentation by a mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Williopsis saturnus. Time-course papaya juice fermentations were carried out using pure cultures of S. cerevisiae var. bayanus R2 and W. saturnus var. mrakii NCYC2251 and a mixed culture of the two yeasts at a ratio of 1:1000 (R2:NCYC2251). Changes in S. cerevisiae cell population, Brix, sugar consumption and pH were similar in the mixed culture and in the S. cerevisiae monoculture. There was an early growth arrest of W. saturnus in the mixed culture fermentation. A range of volatile compounds were produced during fermentation including fatty acids, alcohols, aldehydes and esters and some volatile compounds including those initially present in the juice were utilized. The mixed culture fermentation of S. cerevisiae and W. saturnus benefited from the presence of both yeasts, with more esters being produced than the S. cerevisiae monoculture and more alcohols being formed than the W. saturnus monoculture. The study suggests that papaya juice fermentation with a mixed culture of S. cerevisiae and W. saturnus may be able to result in the formation of more complex aroma compounds and higher ethanol level than those using single yeasts. PMID:20688226

Lee, P-R; Ong, Y-L; Yu, B; Curran, P; Liu, S-Q

2010-05-15

276

Tree pattern mining with tree automata constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most work on pattern mining focuses on simple data structures such as itemsets and sequences of itemsets. However, a lot of recent applications dealing with complex data like chemical compounds, protein structures, XML and Web log databases and social networks, require much more sophisticated data structures such as trees and graphs. In these contexts, interesting patterns involve not only frequent

Sandra de Amo; Nyara A. Silva; Ronaldo P. Silva; Fabiola S. F. Pereira

2010-01-01

277

Language trees not equal gene trees.  

PubMed

Darwin saw similarities between the evolution of species and the evolution of languages, and it is now widely accepted that similarities between related languages can often be interpreted in terms of a bifurcating descent history ('phylogenesis'). Such interpretations are supported when the distributions of shared and unshared traits (for example, in terms of etymological roots for elements of basic vocabulary) are analysed using tree-building techniques and found to be well-explained by a phylogenetic model. In this article, we question the demographic assumption which is sometimes made when a tree-building approach has been taken to a set of cultures or languages, namely that the resulting tree is also representative of a bifurcating population history. Using historical census data relating to Gaelic- and English-speaking inhabitants of Sutherland (Highland Scotland), we have explored the dynamics of language death due to language shift, representing the extreme case of lack of congruence between the genetic and the culture-historical processes. Such cases highlight the important role of selective cultural migration (or shifting between branches) in determining the extinction rates of different languages on such trees. PMID:20532998

Steele, James; Kandler, Anne

2010-06-09

278

Tw o-Way Comparison Search Trees AG eneralization of Binary Search Trees and Split Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ag eneralization of binary search trees and binary split trees is developed that takes advantage of two-way key comparisons — the two-way comparison tree. The two-way comparison tree is shown to have little use for dynamic situations, but to be an improvement over the optimal binary sear ch tree and the opti- mal binary split tree for static data sets.

David Spuler

279

Wounded forests, starving trees  

SciTech Connect

Acid rain, insects, and fungi are real problems that can kill trees. Wounded and starving trees are also realities and part of the total picture. Forest decline is a many-sided problem, yet recent attention has focused on only a few visible factors. The blame for diebacks and declines can not always be placed on well-publicized short-term agents. Forestry practices may also play an important part in today's current tree problems. This paper examined past forestry practices to see if they could have predisposed forests to stress and therefore been a major factor in current forest problems. 8 references, 10 figures.

Shigo, A.L.

1985-11-01

280

What Tree Is It?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online tree-identification tool was created by the Ohio Public Library Information Network (OPLIN) and the Ohio Historical Society (OHS). Users work their way through qualities of leaves and fruits, selecting images that more closely resemble their sample. Fact pages provide instruction on fruit and leaf structures and terminology, close-up photographs of seeds, fruits, bark, leaves, or other plant parts useful in identifying the tree, as well as a picture of the full tree and information about its habitat, history, and structure.

281

Discordance of Species Trees with Their Most Likely Gene Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the stochastic way in which lineages sort during speciation, gene trees may differ in topology from each other and from species trees. Surprisingly, assuming that genetic lineages follow a coalescent model of within-species evolution, we find that for any species tree topology with five or more species, there exist branch lengths for which gene tree discordance is so

James H. Degnan; Noah A. Rosenberg

2006-01-01

282

Leonardo's Tree Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a series of activities exploring Leonardo da Vinci's tree theory that are designed to strengthen 8th grade students' data collection and problem solving skills in physical science classes. (KHR)|

Werner, Suzanne K.

2003-01-01

283

Tea tree oil.  

PubMed

Tea tree oil is an increasingly popular ingredient in a variety of household and cosmetic products, including shampoos, massage oils, skin and nail creams, and laundry detergents. Known for its potential antiseptic properties, it has been shown to be active against a variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and mites. The oil is extracted from the leaves of the tea tree via steam distillation. This essential oil possesses a sharp camphoraceous odor followed by a menthol-like cooling sensation. Most commonly an ingredient in topical products, it is used at a concentration of 5% to 10%. Even at this concentration, it has been reported to induce contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis reactions. In 1999, tea tree oil was added to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group screening panel. The latest prevalence rates suggest that 1.4% of patients referred for patch testing had a positive reaction to tea tree oil. PMID:22653070

Larson, David; Jacob, Sharon E

284

Tree of Hexagons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students use measuring skills and follow directions to make a three-dimensional ornament. Learners construct hexagons of graduated sizes from circles and assemble them into a tree. Complete instructions are provided.

2011-01-01

285

Individual tree control - Treesearch  

Treesearch

... differ considerably in value and within species individual trees differ in quality. Individual stem control is a mechanical or chemical weeding operation that ... The risk of bodily injury is an inherent safety problem with mechanical methods.

286

The Tree of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes how interdisciplinary, thematic lessons about plants, animals, and the environment were introduced with children's literature. First-grade students created a display of the African baobab tree and its inhabitants, focusing on their interdependence.

Plummer, Donna M.; Macshara, Jeannie; Brown, Skila K.

2003-03-01

287

Trees as environmental sentinels.  

PubMed

Trees are reliable indicators of the long-term effects of atmospheric pollution. As the botanical big game of the planet they are also standing guard and may be providing a warning signal about our own future. PMID:11153123

Dickinson, N M

2000-09-01

288

The Average Height of Binary Trees and Other Simple Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average height of a binary tree with n internal nodes is shown to be asymptotic to 2 6. This represents the average stack height of the simplest recursive tree traversal algorithm. The method used in this estimation is also applicable to the analysis of traversal algorithms of unary-binary trees, unbalanced 2-3 trees, t-ary trees for any t, and other

Philippe Flajolet; Andrew M. Odlyzko

1982-01-01

289

Functional Trees for Regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present and evaluate a new algorithm for supervised learning regression problems. The algorithm combines\\u000a a univariate regression tree with a linear regression function by means of constructive induction. When growing the tree,\\u000a at each internal node, a linear-regression function creates one new attribute. This new attribute is the instantiation of\\u000a the regression function for each example

Joao Gama

2001-01-01

290

PGPR in Coniferous Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Coniferous trees are widely distributed in the world and have tremendous environmental and economic importance. Large numbers\\u000a of bacteria live in the rhizosphere or rhizoplane of their roots, and some of these may promote tree growth through a variety\\u000a of mechanisms. Known as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), such bacteria can promote growth either directly, by\\u000a liberating growth-regulating substances and increasing

Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira Cardoso; Rafael Leandro de Figueiredo Vasconcellos; Carlos Marcelo Ribeiro; Marina Yumi Horta Miyauchi

291

Piecewise Testable Tree Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—This paper,presents a decidable,characterization,of tree languages,that can,be defined,by a boolean,combination of ! 1 formulas. This is a tree extension of the Simon theorem, which,says that a string language,can be defined by a boolean combination,of ! 1 formulas,if and,only if its syntactic monoid is J-trivial.

Mikolaj Bojanczyk; Luc Segoufin; Howard Straubing

2008-01-01

292

Trees for reclamation  

SciTech Connect

Land reclamation programs sponsored by several state forestry organizations are summarized in these presentations. The use of trees as a preferred specie for revegetation of surface mined lands is addressed. Modern methods of forestry can be used to make land economically and aesthetically acceptable. Tree planting techniques are presented and the role of Mycorrhizae is discussed. There are 30 papers included in this proceedings. States represented include: Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Virginia, Iowa, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia.

Not Available

1980-01-01

293

ENERGY SAVINGS WITH TREES1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In conventional buildings, trees increase, decrease, or have little effect on energy use depending on general climate, building type, tree species, and tree location. Tree arrangements that save energy provide shade primarily for east and west walls and roofs and wind protection from the direction of prevailing winter winds. Particularly for buildings specially designed to use solar energy and those

Gordon M. Heisler

1986-01-01

294

Quantum computation and decision trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many interesting computational problems can be reformulated in terms of decision trees. A natural classical algorithm is to then run a random walk on the tree, starting at the root, to see if the tree contains a node n level from the root. We devise a quantum-mechanical algorithm that evolves a state, initially localized at the root, through the tree.

Edward Farhi; Sam Gutmann

1998-01-01

295

Effects of ozone exposure on `Golden' papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of `Golden' papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring on the fruit during ripening when exposed to ozone. In addition, one has performed real time studies of fluorescence parameters and the emission rates of carbon dioxide and ethylene. Finally, the amount of pigments and the changes in waxy cuticle have been monitored. Results indicate that a fruit deliberately subjected to ozone at a level of 6 ppmv underwent ripening sooner (at least 24-48 h) than a fruit stored at ambient conditions. Moreover, ozone caused a reduction in the maximum quantum yield of photosynthetic apparatus located within the skin of papaya fruit.

Corrêa, Savio Figueira; Mota, Leonardo; Paiva, Luisa Brito; Couto, Flávio Mota Do; Silva, Marcelo Gomes Da; Oliveira, Jurandi Gonçalves De; Sthel, Marcelo Silva; Vargas, Helion; Miklós, András

2011-06-01

296

Generation of hermaphrodite transgenic papaya lines with virus resistance via transformation of somatic embryos derived from adventitious roots of in vitro shoots.  

PubMed

Papaya production is seriously limited by Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) worldwide and Papaya leaf-distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) in Eastern Asia. An efficient transformation method for developing papaya lines with transgenic resistance to these viruses and commercially desirable traits, such as hermaphroditism, is crucial to shorten the breeding program for this fruit crop. In this investigation, an untranslatable chimeric construct pYP08 containing truncated PRSV coat protein (CP) and PLDMV CP genes coupled with the 3' untranslational region of PLDMV, was generated. Root segments from different portions of adventitious roots of in vitro multiple shoots of hermaphroditic plants of papaya cultivars 'Tainung No. 2', 'Sunrise', and 'Thailand' were cultured on induction medium for regeneration into somatic embryos. The highest frequency of somatic embryogenesis was from the root-tip segments of adventitious roots developed 2-4 weeks after rooting in perlite medium. After proliferation, embryogenic tissues derived from somatic embryos were wounded in liquid-phase by carborundum and transformed by Agrobacterium carrying pYP08. Similarly, another construct pBG-PLDMVstop containing untranslatable CP gene of PLDMV was also transferred to 'Sunrise' and 'Thailand', the parental cultivars of 'Tainung No. 2'. Among 107 transgenic lines regenerated from 349 root-tip segments, nine lines of Tainung No. 2 carrying YP08 were highly resistant to PRSV and PLDMV, and 9 lines (8 'Sunrise' and 1 'Thailand') carrying PLDMV CP highly resistant to PLDMV, by a mechanism of post-transcriptional gene silencing. The hermaphroditic characteristics of the transgenic lines were confirmed by PCR with sex-linked primers and phenotypes of flower and fruit. Our approach has generated transgenic resistance to both PRSV and PLDMV with commercially desirable characters and can significantly shorten the time-consuming breeding programs for the generation of elite cultivars of papaya hybrids. PMID:19943109

Kung, Yi-Jung; Yu, Tsong-Ann; Huang, Chiung-Huei; Wang, Hui-Chin; Wang, Shin-Lan; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

2009-11-27

297

Unordered Tree Matching and Strict Unordered Tree Matching: The Evaluation of Tree Pattern Queries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider two kinds of unordered tree matchings for evaluating tree pattern queries in XML databases. For the first kind of unordered tree matching, we propose a new algorithm, which runs in O(|D||Q|) time, where Q is a tree pattern and D is a largest data stream associated with a node of Q. It can also be

Yangjun Chen; Donovan Cooke

2010-01-01

298

Analysis of the full-length genome sequence of papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV), determined by deep sequencing, confirms its classification in the genus Sobemovirus.  

PubMed

Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) causes an economically important disease in papayas in northeastern Brazil. Based on biological and molecular properties, PLYV has been tentatively assigned to the genus Sobemovirus. We report the sequence of the full-length genome of a PLYV isolate from Brazil, determined by deep sequencing. The PLYV genome is 4,145 nt long and contains four ORFs, with an arrangement identical to that of sobemoviruses. The polyprotein and CP display significant sequence identity with the corresponding proteins of other sobemoviruses. Pairwise comparisons and phylogenetic analysis based on complete nucleotide sequences confirm the classification of PLYV in the genus Sobemovirus. PMID:22743825

Pereira, Alvaro J; Alfenas-Zerbini, Poliane; Cascardo, Renan S; Andrade, Eduardo C; Murilo Zerbini, F

2012-06-29

299

The proregion of papaya proteinase IV inhibits Colorado potato beetle digestive cysteine proteinases.  

PubMed

Three distinct digestive protease systems were induced in larvae of the herbivorous pest, Colorado potato beetle (CPB; Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say), and used as a model to assess the ability of the proregion of papaya proteinase IV (PPIV; glycyl endopeptidase, EC 3.4.22.25) to act as an inhibitor of insect digestive cysteine proteinases. As shown by gelatin/PAGE and complementary inhibition assays, a recombinant form of the proregion produced in Escherichia coli inhibited a fraction of the insect proteases also inhibited by the well-characterized inhibitor of cysteine proteinases, oryzacystatin I (OCI). In contrast with OCI, the inhibitory potency of the proregion was affected by an increase of the temperature, suggesting a certain alteration of its structural integrity by the insect non-target proteases. This apparent susceptibility to proteolysis was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, after challenging the proregion with the different insect extracts. As seen on gel, selective inhibition of the insect aspartate proteinase, cathepsin D, with the inhibitor pepstatin A preserved the activity of the proregion against cysteine proteinases by preventing its hydrolysis. Taken together, these observations suggest the potential of plant protease proregions as regulators of cysteine proteinases in biotechnological systems, and show the ability of protease inhibitors to preserve the integrity of 'companion' defense-related proteins from the action of insensitive proteases in target pests. PMID:9742962

Visal, S; Taylor, M A; Michaud, D

1998-09-01

300

Effects of Ficus carica paste on constipation induced by a high-protein feed and movement restriction in beagles.  

PubMed

Constipation is one of the most common functional digestive complaints worldwide. We investigated the laxative effects of figs (Ficus carica L) in a beagle model of constipation induced by high protein diet and movement restriction. The experiments were consecutively conducted over 9 weeks divided into 3 periods of 3 weeks each. All 15 beagles were subjected to a non-treatment (control) period, a constipation induction period, and a fig paste treatment period. We administered fig paste (12 g/kg daily, by gavage) for 3 weeks following a 3-week period of constipation induction in dogs. Segmental colonic transit time (CTT) was measured by counting radiopaque markers (Kolomark) using a radiograph performed every 6 h after feeding Kolomark capsules, until capsules were no longer observed. Fig paste significantly increased fecal quantity in constipated dogs, and segmental CTT was also reduced following fig paste administration. There were no significant differences in feed intake, water intake, body weight, or blood test results, between the constipation and fig paste administration periods. Our results demonstrate that fig is an effective treatment for constipation in beagles. Specifically, stool weight increased and segmental CTT decreased. Fig pastes may be useful as a complementary medicine in humans suffering from chronic constipation. PMID:22232635

Oh, Hong-Geun; Lee, Hak-Yong; Seo, Min-Young; Kang, Young-Rye; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Park, Jung-Woo; Kim, Ok-Jin; Back, Hyang-Im; Kim, Sun-Young; Oh, Mi-Ra; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Min-Gul; Jeon, Ji-Young; Hwang, Min-Ho; Shin, Sook-Jeong; Chae, Soo-Wan

2011-12-19

301

Predictive Classification Trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CART (Breiman et al., Classification and Regression Trees, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1984) and (exhaustive) CHAID (Kass, Appl Stat 29:119-127, 1980) figure prominently among the procedures actually used in data based management, etc. CART is a well-established procedure that produces binary trees. CHAID, in contrast, admits multiple splittings, a feature that allows to exploit the splitting variable more extensively. On the other hand, that procedure depends on premises that are questionable in practical applications. This can be put down to the fact that CHAID relies on simultaneous Chi-Square- resp. F-tests. The null-distribution of the second test statistic, for instance, relies on the normality assumption that is not plausible in a data mining context. Moreover, none of these procedures - as implemented in SPSS, for instance - take ordinal dependent variables into account. In the paper we suggest an alternative tree-algorithm that: Requires explanatory categorical variables

Dlugosz, Stephan; Müller-Funk, Ulrich

302

cDNA cloning of a novel gene codifying for the enzyme lycopene ?-cyclase from Ficus carica and its expression in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Lycopene beta-cyclase (?-LCY) is the key enzyme that modifies the linear lycopene molecule into cyclic ?-carotene, an indispensable carotenoid of the photosynthetic apparatus and an important source of vitamin A in human and animal nutrition. Owing to its antioxidant activity, it is commercially used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries, as well as an additive in foodstuffs. Therefore, ?-carotene has a large share of the carotenoidic market. In this study, we used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR to obtain and clone a cDNA copy of the gene Lyc-? from Ficus carica (Lyc-? Fc), which codes for the enzyme lycopene ?-cyclase (?-LCY). Expression of this gene in Escherichia coli produced a single polypeptide of 56 kDa of weight, containing 496 amino acids, that was able to cycle both ends of the lycopene chain. Amino acid analysis revealed that the protein contained several conserved plant cyclase motifs. ?-LCY activity was revealed by heterologous complementation analysis, with lycopene being converted to ?-carotene as a result of the enzyme's action. The ?-LCY activity of the expressed protein was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) identification of the ?-carotene. The lycopene to ?-carotene conversion rate was 90%. The experiments carried out in this work showed that ?-LYC is the enzyme responsible for converting lycopene, an acyclic carotene, to ?-carotene, a bicyclic carotene in F. carica. Therefore, by cloning and expressing ?-LCY in E. coli, we have obtained a new gene for ?-carotene production or as part of the biosynthetic pathway of astaxanthin. So far, this is the first and only gene of the carotenoid pathway identified in F. carica. PMID:21792589

Araya-Garay, José Miguel; Feijoo-Siota, Lucía; Veiga-Crespo, Patricia; Villa, Tomás González

2011-07-27

303

How to Count Trees?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new topological invariant of unlabeled trees of N nodes. The invariant is a set of N×2 matrices of integers, with ?j kdi, j and vi as the matrix elements, where di, j are the elements of the distance matrix and vi denotes ith node's degree and k??. To compare the invariant calculated for possibly different graphs, the matrix rows are ordered with respect to the first column, and, if necessary, with respect to the second one. We use the new invariant to evaluate from below the number of topologically different unlabeled trees up to N =17. The results slightly exceed the asymptotic evaluation of Otter.

Piec, Sebastian; Malarz, Krzysztof; Ku?akowski, Krzysztof

304

Forest & Shade Tree Pathology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forest & Shade Tree Pathology is a site created by Jim Worrall, a former professor at the College of Environmental Science and Forestry. The major focus of this resource is the study of tree diseases, "their causes (etiology), factors that affect their spread (epidemiology), ecological and economic impacts, and management." The site is divided into four sections: "Main Topics" such as fungi, root diseases and wilts; "General Topics," which includes quizzes, references, and links to other forest health sites; "Disease Profiles," which includes information on specific diseases like chestnut blight and armillaria root disease; and "Disease Notes," which contains news and updates on specific diseases.

2008-02-01

305

Lava trees and tree molds ("cannon stones") of Mt. Etna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unique volcanic structures, known in the literature as "lava trees" and "tree molds", have formed at several sites on Mt. Etna volcano (northeastern Sicily, Italy). They form when a fluid lava flow runs over a tree, wraps around it and, while the wood burns off, solidifies forming a hollow cast of the tree. The inhabitants of the Etna area call these formations "pietre cannone" ("cannon stones") because of their cylindrical shape. The first documentation of lava trees is from Hawaii, but the first eye-witnessed accounts of their formation are, to our knowledge, from Etna's 1865 eruption. Although many of the literature examples of lava trees and tree molds formed in pahoehoe, many of those reported in this work formed in a'a. The sites where we have found the lava tree molds are located within the territory of the Etna Regional Park; most occur next to walking trails and have a high potential for geotourism.

Carveni, Pietro; Mele, Giuliana; Benfatto, Santo; Imposa, Sebastiano; Salleo Puntillo, Maria

2011-08-01

306

The Probability of Topological Concordance of Gene Trees and Species Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concordance of gene trees and species trees is reconsidered in detail, allowing for samples of arbitrary size to be taken from the species. A sense of concordance for gene tree and species tree topologies is clarified, such that if the “collapsed gene tree” produced by a gene tree has the same topology as the species tree, the gene tree

Noah A. Rosenberg

2002-01-01

307

Hardware-based Reliability Tree (HRT) for fault tree analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability analysis of critical systems is performed using fault trees. Fault trees are then converted to their equivalent Binary Decision Diagram, Cut Set, Markov Chain or Bayesian Network. These approaches however are complex and time consuming if a continuous time reliability curve is aimed, particularly for large systems. This paper introduces Hardware-based Reliability Tree (HRT). The HRT can be implemented

Amir Rajabzadeh; Mohammad S. Jahangiry

2010-01-01

308

TREE LILAC CULTIVARS TESTED AS STREET TREES: INITIAL RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three Japanese tree lilac (Syringa reticulata) culti- vars, 2 each in 11 communities, were planted for evaluation as street trees. Cooperators in the Municipal Tree Restora- tion Program using standardized methods measured them annually for 3 years, and periodically afterwards. 'Ivory Silk', 'Regent', and 'Summer Snow' performed well at all locations. All 3 cultivars grew slowly initially, and their foli-

Henry D. Gerhold

1999-01-01

309

Tree Spanners for Subgraphs and Related Tree Covering Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

For any fixed parameter k ¸ 1, a tree k-spanner of a graph G is a spanning tree T in G such that the distance between every pair of vertices in T is at most k times their distance in G. In this paper, we generalize on this very restrictive concept, and introduce Steiner tree k-spanners: We are given an

Dagmar Handke; Guy Kortsarz

2000-01-01

310

The suffix binary search tree and suffix AVL tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suffix trees and suffix arrays are classical data structures that are used to represent the set of suffixes of a given string, and thereby facilitate the efficient solution of various string processing problems—in particular on-line string searching. Here we investigate the potential of suitably adapted binary search trees as competitors in this context. The suffix binary search tree (SBST) and

Robert W. Irving; Lorna Love

2003-01-01

311

Tree reconstruction from partial orders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of constructing trees given a matrix of interleaf distances is motivated by applications in computational evolutionary biology and linguistics. The general problem is to find an edge-weighted tree which most closely approximates the distance m...

S. K. Kannan T. J. Warnow

1993-01-01

312

A Universal Phylogenetic Tree.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a universal phylogenetic tree suitable for use in high school and college-level biology classrooms. Illustrates the antiquity of life and that all life is related, even if it dates back 3.5 billion years. Reflects important evolutionary relationships and provides an exciting way to learn about the history of life. (SAH)|

Offner, Susan

2001-01-01

313

Multiquarks and Steiner trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief review review is presented of models tentatively leading to stable multiquarks. A new attempt is presented, based on a Steiner-tree model of confinement, which is inspired by by QCD. It leads to more attraction than the empirical colour-additive model used in earlier multiquark calculations, and predict several multiquark states in configurations with different flavours.

Richard, Jean-Marc

2010-10-01

314

Oblique Linear Tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present system Ltree for proposicional supervised learning. Ltree is able to define decision surfaces both orthogonal and oblique to the axes defined by the attributes of the input space. This is done c ombining a decision tree with a linear discriminant by means of constructive induction. At each decision n ode Ltree defines a new instance

Joao Gama

1997-01-01

315

Starting Trees from Cuttings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a procedure for starting tree cuttings from woody plants, explaining "lag time," recommending materials, and giving step-by-step instructions for rooting and planting. Points out species which are likely candidates for cuttings and provides tips for teachers for developing a unit. (JM)|

Kramer, David C.

1983-01-01

316

Trees for bees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversy over the origins and evolution of social behaviour in the major groups of social bees (the corbiculate bees) has fuelled arguments over different approaches for building evolutionary trees. However, the application of different analytical methodologies does not explain why molecular and morphological data suggest strikingly different hypotheses for the evolution of eusociality in bees. Determining the phylogenetic root is

Peter J. Lockhart; Sydney A. Cameron

2001-01-01

317

Christmas Tree Category Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Pests and diseases of christmas tree plantations are identified and discussed. Section one deals with weeds and woody plants and the application, formulation and effects of herbicides in controlling them. Section two discusses specific diseases…

Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

318

Phylogenics & Tree-Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Phylogenetic trees, which are depictions of the inferred evolutionary relationships among a set of species, now permeate almost all branches of biology and are appearing in increasing numbers in biology textbooks. While few state standards explicitly require knowledge of phylogenetics, most require some knowledge of evolutionary biology, and many…

Baum, David A.; Offner, Susan

2008-01-01

319

Digging Deeper with Trees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes hands-on science areas that focus on trees. A project on leaf pigmentation involves putting crushed leaves in a test tube with solvent acetone to dissolve pigment. In another project, students learn taxonomy by sorting and classifying leaves based on observable characteristics. Includes a language arts connection. (PVD)|

Growing Ideas, 2001

2001-01-01

320

Arbutus unedo, Strawberry Tree  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Encylopedia of Fruit and Nuts is designed as a research reference source on temperate and tropical fruit and nut crops. Strawberry tree or madrone is native to the Mediterranean region of southern Europe (Arbutus unedo L., Ericaceae) with a relict population in Ireland, as well as in North Ameri...

321

Tree-Ties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Created to help students understand how plants were used for food, for medicine, and for arts and crafts among the Ojibwe (Chippewa) Indians, the game Tree-Ties combines earth and social sciences within a specific culture. The game requires mutual respect, understanding, and agreement to succeed. Sounding like the word "treaties", the title is a…

Gresczyk, Rick

322

Formal Fault Tree Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In train control systems, more and more (electro-)mechanical devices are substituted by software based devices. To sustain the high level safety standards for these embedded systems, we propose the integration of fault tree analysis and formal methods. This combines two important safety analysis methods from the involved domains of engineering and software development. Our approach proposes to build a formal

Gerhard Schellhorn; Andreas Thums; Wolfgang Reif Lehrstuhl

2002-01-01

323

Pear tree--`Elliot`  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A new and distinct variety of pear tree primarily characterized by its tolerance to the fire-blight organism. (Erwinia amylovora), and further characterized by a blooming habit concurrent with `Bartlett`; skin with firm and buttery texture, and fruit with a flavor which is excellent to good. The keeping quality of the fruit is good to excellent.

1988-12-06

324

The death of trees  

SciTech Connect

Every month, an area of tropical forest the size of Wales is felled. Species are becoming extinct, aboriginal peoples are being destroyed, and soil erosion is causing deserts where forests have stood. The Death of Trees looks at the dangers facing forests world wide - tropical, sub-tropical and temperate.

Dudley, N.

1985-01-01

325

PEACH TREE NAMED GULFCREST  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The invention relates to a new and distinct variety of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) tree which is named Gulfcrest. This new variety produces highly colored, clingstone, non-melting yellow flesh fruit which are suitable for the fresh market. Gulfcrest matures a few days after Flordacrest, app...

326

PEACH TREE NAMED GULFKING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The invention relates to a new distinct variety of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] tree which is named Gulfking. This new variety produces highly colored clingstone, non-melting yellow flesh fruit which are suitable for the fresh market. Gulfking matures with Flordaking peach in early May in so...

327

Hug a Tree!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methods for teaching pupils to use their senses to explore colors, shapes, textures, and sounds of the great outdoors are described. Ideas include: (1) having children hug their own special tree; (2) looking for geometric shapes in nature; (3) taking nocturnal nature walks; (4) building a track for racing insects; and (5) collecting objects with…

Rockwell, Robert E.; And Others

1983-01-01

328

Giant Sequoia Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students' ideas about transformation of matter. The probe is designed to reveal whether students recognize that a gas from the air (carbon dioxide) is combined with water and transformed into the new material that makes up most of the matter of the tree.

Eberle, Francis; Tugel, Joyce; Keeley, Page

2007-01-01

329

Food Security in Bangladesh: Improving Wheat, Maize and Papaya Production, and Impacts of Arsenic Contamination. Fifth Year Quarterly Activity Report No. 2, October to December 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The period July 2006 to June 2007 is the last year of the five year project Food Security in Bangladesh: Improving Wheat, Maize and Papaya Production and Impacts of Arsenic Contamination. This project is financed by USAID Grant No. 388-G-00-02-00070-00. A...

2007-01-01

330

Food Security in Bangladesh: Improving Wheat, Maize and Papaya Production, and Impacts of Arsenic Contamination. Fifth Year Quarterly Activity Report No. 1, July - September, 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The period July 2006 to June 2007 is the last year of the five year project Food Security in Bangladesh: Improving Wheat, Maize and Papaya Production and Impacts of Arsenic Contamination. This project is financed by USAID Grant No. 388-G-00-02-00070-00. A...

2006-01-01

331

THE EXPRESSION OF THE GENE FOR LYCOPENE ¿-CYCLASE IS ELEVATED IN LEAVES AND FLOWERS AND DOWN-REGULATED IN BOTH YELLOW- AND RED- FLESHED PAPAYA FRUITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carotene pigments in flowers and fruits are distinct features related to fitness advantages such as attracting insects for pollination and birds for seeds disposal. In papaya, the flesh color of fruit is considered a quality trait that varies in nutritional values and is linked to shelf life of the ...

332

Proteasome-Independent Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Cross-Presentation Mediated by Papaya Mosaic Virus-Like Particles Leads to Expansion of Specific Human T Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of versatile vaccine platforms is a priority that is recognized by health authorities worldwide; such platforms should induce both arms of the immune system, the humoral and cytotoxic-T- lymphocyte responses. In this study, we have established that a vaccine platform based on the coat protein of papaya mosaic virus (PapMV CP), previously shown to induce a humoral response,

Denis Leclerc; Diane Beauseigle; Jerome Denis; Helene Morin; Christine Pare; Alain Lamarre; Rejean Lapointe

2007-01-01

333

Our Air: Unfit for Trees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To help urban, suburban, and rural tree owners know about air pollution's effects on trees and their tolerance and intolerance to pollutants, the USDA Forest Service has prepared this booklet. It answers the following questions about atmospheric pollution: Where does it come from? What can it do to trees? and What can we do about it? In addition,…

Dochinger, Leon S.

334

New Life From Dead Trees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There are numerous bird species that will nest only in dead or dying trees. Current forestry practices include clearing forests of these snags, or dead trees. This practice is driving many species out of the forests. An illustrated example of bird succession in and on a tree is given. (MA)|

DeGraaf, Richard M.

1978-01-01

335

Christmas trees and air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the mountainous Appalachian regions of Maryland and West Virginia commercial Christmas tree growers have been experiencing increasing air pollution injury in their plantations, especially to pines. Types of injuries included chlorosis and necrotic spotting of needles, as well as loss of needles and tree buds. Chronic needle injury generally follows long-term, low-level exposure to the pollutants. Damaged trees have

Dochinger

1973-01-01

336

Flow around a Living Tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow around a living tree was investigated as basic research of a windbreak forest. A type of conifer, which is named ``goldcrest, '' was used as the test piece in a wind tunnel experiment. The drag coefficient of the living tree was measured in the range of a mean flow velocity of 5˜15m\\/s. The drag coefficient of the living tree

Hitoshi Ishikawa; Suguru Amano; Kenta Yakushiji

2006-01-01

337

The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

Nyhuis, Jane

338

The limits to tree height  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trees grow tall where resources are abundant, stresses are minor, and competition for light places a premium on height growth. The height to which trees can grow and the biophysical determinants of maximum height are poorly understood. Some models predict heights of up to 120m in the absence of mechanical damage, but there are historical accounts of taller trees. Current

George W. Koch; Stephen C. Sillett; Gregory M. Jennings; Stephen D. Davis

2004-01-01

339

The Tree Worker's Manual. [Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual acquaints readers with the general operations of the tree care industry. The manual covers subjects important to a tree worker and serves as a training aid for workers at the entry level as tree care professionals. Each chapter begins with a set of objectives and may include figures, tables, and photographs. Ten chapters are included:…

Lilly, S. J.

340

Relighting Photographs of Tree Canopies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an image-based approach to relighting photographs of tree canopies. Our goal is to minimize capture overhead; thus the only input required is a set of photographs of the tree taken at a single time of day, while allowing relighting at any other time. We first analyze lighting in a tree canopy both theoretically and using simulations. From this

Marcio Cabral; Nicolas Bonneel; Sylvain Lefebvre; George Drettakis

2011-01-01

341

Decidable Properties of Tree Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The first part of the thesis concerns problems related to the question: "when can a regular tree language be defined in first-order logic?" Characterizations in terms of automata of first-order logic and the related chain logic are presented. A decidable property of tree automata called confusion is introduced; it is conjectured that a regular tree language can be defined

Mikolaj Bojanczyk

2004-01-01

342

Indexing and Mining Free Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree structures are used extensively in domains such as computational biology, pattern recognition, computer net- works, and so on. In this paper, we present an indexing tech- nique for free trees and apply this indexing technique to the problem of mining frequent subtrees. We first define a novel representation, the canonical form, for rooted trees and ex- tend the definition

Yun Chi; Yirong Yang; Richard R. Muntz

2003-01-01

343

Generating functions for generating trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain families of combinatorial objects admit recursive descriptions in terms of gen- erating trees: each node of the tree corresponds to an object, and the branch leading to the node encodes the choices made in the construction of the object. Generating trees lead to a fast computation of enumeration sequences (sometimes, to explicit formulae as well) and provide efficient random

Cyril Banderier; Mireille Bousquet-mélou; Alain Denise; Philippe Flajolet; Danièle Gardy; Dominique Gouyou-beauchamps

2002-01-01

344

Random Trees, Heights, and Large Deviations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here a general framework to devise a law of large numbers for the height of random trees. Our model unifies the treatment of many examples of the literature such as binary search trees, median-of-(2k + 1) trees, random recursive trees, plane oriented trees, digital search trees, scale-free trees, and all polynomial families of increasing trees, among others. The

Nicolas Broutin

345

Changes in the phenolic and lipophilic composition, in the enzyme inhibition and antiproliferative activity of Ficus carica L. cultivar Dottato fruits during maturation.  

PubMed

Fruits of Ficus carica cultivar Dottato from Italy were examined to assess how the stage of ripeness influences their chemical composition, antioxidant activity, pancreatic lipase inhibition and antiproliferative properties on C32 melanoma cells. Fruits of the first harvest (June) showed a major content in furanocoumarins and pyranocoumarins whereas the fruits collected in September showed the highest polyphenolic content (11.9 mg/g of dried material). The total 70% ethanol extracts were portioned between methanol/water and n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate, successively. Coumarins and fatty acid esters were the most abundant components of the n-hexane fractions. The dichloromethane fractions showed as major components 2 furanocoumarins (rutarenin and pimpinellin). The total extracts of F. carica cv. Dottato exhibited a significant dose-dependent antiradical and inhibition of lipid peroxidation activity, particularly fruits of the first harvest (June) that showed the highest activity with IC50 of 1.64 mg/mL and 0.004 mg/mL, respectively. Among single fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction from the second harvest (July) showed the highest antiradical activity with an IC50 value of 0.05 mg/mL while the dichloromethane fraction showed the best inhibition of lipid peroxidation with an IC50 value of 0.02 mg/mL. Dichloromethane fractions showed the highest photodynamic cytotoxicity with an IC50<5 ?g/mL. PMID:22222929

Marrelli, Mariangela; Menichini, Federica; Statti, Giancarlo A; Bonesi, Marco; Duez, Pierre; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

2011-12-29

346

Ficus carica Leaf Extract Modulates the Lipid Profile of Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet through an Increase of HDL-C.  

PubMed

Ficus carica has been traditionally used for the treatment of several metabolic syndrome-related health problems. It was the objective of this study to investigate the preventive effects of a Ficus carica (FC) leaf extract on hyperlipidemia in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese male rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (180 - 200 g) were fed with a regular diet, HFD or a HFD?+?oral treatment of either 50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg of FC or 30 mg/kg pioglitazone for six weeks. A range of parameters was evaluated including body weight development, plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), adiponectin, leptin, glucose, insulin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), atherogenic index (AI) and the coronary risk index (CRI). FC significantly lowered TG and IL-6 levels and elevated HDL cholesterol (p?

Joerin, Lorenz; Kauschka, Michaela; Bonnländer, Bernd; Pischel, Ivo; Benedek, Birgit; Butterweck, Veronika

2013-04-22

347

Estimation of cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant effects of the leaf extracts of Anatolian Ficus carica var. domestica and their total phenol and flavonoid contents.  

PubMed

Ficus carica var. domestica Tsch. & Rav. (common fig) is widely grown in Turkey and exported for its edible fruits. In this study, the n-hexane, chloroform, acetone, methanol, n-butanol, and water extracts of the leaves of F. carica var. domestica were screened for their cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Cholinesterase inhibition against acetyl- (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) was measured by the spectrophotometric method of Ellman at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 microg/mL., while antioxidant activity was tested using three in vitro methods; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, metal-chelation capacity, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. Our results revealed that the n-hexane and acetone extracts exerted a notable inhibition against both AChE (62.9 +/- 0.9% and 50.8 +/- 2.1%, respectively) and BChE (76.9 +/- 2.2% and 45.6 +/- 1.3%, respectively). However, they had low activity in the antioxidant tests. The chloroform extract was found to be the richest in total flavonoid content (252.5 +/- 1.1 mg/g quercetin equivalent), while the n-butanol extract had the highest total phenol amount (85.9 +/- 3.2 mg/g extract gallic acid equivalent). PMID:21485278

Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Ustün, Osman; Sener, Bilge

2011-03-01

348

The roots of trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The root of a tree develops the twofold function of absorbing water mixed with mineral salts, and anchoring the plant to the substrate. The former activity is the more important in determining the spreading of a root. If, however, the root is regarded only as a bundle of stiffeners implanted in a semi-infinite elastic medium and we want to optimize its shape, then the problem can be reduced to an optimization problem in elasticity.

Villaggio, Piero

349

Create a Mangrove Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this group activity, learners will explore the characteristics, functions and uniqueness of the mangrove tree. One learner dresses as a red mangrove while the group discusses and simulates high and low tide, salinity levels, salt balance, root systems, habitat, propagules (structures for reproduction), and dispersal. This demonstration works best as a review activity. If some materials (mangrove leaves, propagules, figurines of crabs and small fish) are not readily available, pictures or drawings can be substituted.

Aquarium, The F.

2010-01-01

350

Insert tree completion system  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the overall project for development and installation of a low-profile, caisson-installed subsea Christmas tree. After various design studies and laboratory and field tests of key components, a system for installation inside a 30-in. conductor was ordered in July 1978 from Cameron Iron Works Inc. The system is designed to have all critical-pressure-containing components below the mudline and, with the reduced profile (height) above seabed, provides for improved safety of satellite underwater wells from damage by anchors, trawl boards, and even icebergs. In addition to the innovative nature of the tree design, the completion includes improved 3 1/2-in. through flowline (TFL) pumpdown completion equipment with deep set safety valves and a dual detachable packer head for simplified workover capability. The all-hydraulic control system incorporates a new design of sequencing valve for both Christmas tree control and remote flowline connection. A semisubmersible drilling rig was used to initiate the first end flowline connection at the wellhead for subsequent tie-in to the prelaid, surface-towed, all-welded subsea pipeline bundle.

Brands, K.W.; Ball, I.G.; Cegielski, E.J.; Gresham, J.S.; Saunders, D.N.

1982-09-01

351

From event-labeled gene trees to species trees  

PubMed Central

Background Tree reconciliation problems have long been studied in phylogenetics. A particular variant of the reconciliation problem for a gene tree T and a species tree S assumes that for each interior vertex x of T it is known whether x represents a speciation or a duplication. This problem appears in the context of analyzing orthology data. Results We show that S is a species tree for T if and only if S displays all rooted triples of T that have three distinct species as their leaves and are rooted in a speciation vertex. A valid reconciliation map can then be found in polynomial time. Simulated data shows that the event-labeled gene trees convey a large amount of information on underlying species trees, even for a large percentage of losses. Conclusions The knowledge of event labels in a gene tree strongly constrains the possible species tree and, for a given species tree, also the possible reconciliation maps. Nevertheless, many degrees of freedom remain in the space of feasible solutions. In order to disambiguate the alternative solutions additional external constraints as well as optimization criteria could be employed.

2012-01-01

352

Integrated fault tree development environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques are utilized in the nuclear industry to perform safety analyses of complex defense-in-depth systems. A major effort in PRA development is fault tree construction. The Integrated Fault Tree Environment (IFTREE) is an interactive, graphics-based tool for fault tree design. IFTREE provides integrated building, editing, and analysis features on a personal workstation. The design philosophy of

1986-01-01

353

Compositional Temporal Fault Tree Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

HiP-HOPS (Hierarchically-Performed Hazard Origin and Propaga- tion Studies) is a recent technique that partly automates Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) by constructing fault trees from system topologies annotated with component-level failure specifications. HiP-HOPS has hitherto created only classical combinatorial fault trees that fail to capture the often significant temporal ordering of failure events. In this paper, we propose temporal extensions to

Martin Walker; Leonardo Bottaci; Yiannis Papadopoulos

2007-01-01

354

Collapse of loaded fractal trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mandelbrot1 has argued that a wide range of natural objects and phenomena are fractals; examples of fractal trees include actual trees, plants such as a cauliflower, river systems and the cardiovascular system. Here we apply the renormalization group approach2 to the collapse of fractal trees, which may be applicable to a variety of problems including cardiac arrest, failure of bronchial systems, failure of electrical distribution systems and the instability resulting in earthquakes.

Turcotte, D. L.; Smalley, R. F.; Solla, Sara A.

1985-02-01

355

Efficient Historical R-trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Historical R-tree is a spatio-temporal access method aimed at the retrieval of window queries in the past. The concept behind the method is to keep an R-tree for each timestamp in history, but allow consecutive trees to share branches when the underlying objects do not change. New branches are only created to accommodate updates from the previous timestamp. Although

Yufei Tao; Dimitris Papadias

2001-01-01

356

Fault trees and sequence dependencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the frequency cited shortcomings of fault-tree models, their inability to model so-called sequence dependencies, is discussed. Several sources of such sequence dependencies are discussed, and new fault-tree gates to capture this behavior are defined. These complex behaviors can be included in present fault-tree models because they utilize a Markov solution. The utility of the new gates is demonstrated

Joanne Bechta Dugan; Salvatore J. Bavuso; Mark A. Boyd

1990-01-01

357

Harvesting small trees for biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated precommercial, full-tree thinning of saplings and small poletimber (1-8 inches depth breadth and height) using chainsaws and modified farm tractors for skidders. To facilitate cutting large numbers of small trees (1-5 inches), the chainsaw was fitted with a felling frame. The cutter felled and manually bunched up to 145 trees\\/2.7 tons per productive manhour. Average production, assuming

Hoffman

1986-01-01

358

Barking up the Right Tree  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is a childhood saying about a confused dog who thinks he sees a possum in a tree. The problem is that the possum is actually in a different tree so the dog barks up the wrong tree. American education is constantly playing both dog and possum. Sometimes they are the prey, and sometimes they are just confused about what and where the prey is.…

Houston, Paul D.

2006-01-01

359

Project Learning Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Project Learning Tree is a national environmental education program containing a series of learning modules with inquiry-oriented activities for K-12 students and educators that address current environmental topics and issues. These topics range from forests, wildlife and water to community planning, waste management and energy. The materials correlate with the national environmental education performance standards. The curriculum is available for a fee; materials must be ordered or obtained by attending a professional development workshop. The newsletter and an environmental action project guide are free.

360

Redrawing Humanity's Family Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This New York Times article details two skulls, one from central Africa and the other from the Black Sea republic of Georgia, that "have shaken the human family tree to its roots, sending scientists scrambling to see if their favorite theories are among the fallen fruit." The article discusses how the two skulls have caused scientists to rethink not only how we conceive of human evolution and its chain of events, but even the geography of evolution and migration patterns of very early humans.

Wilford, John N.

1969-12-31

361

Human decision error (HUMDEE) trees  

SciTech Connect

Graphical presentations of human actions in incident and accident sequences have been used for many years. However, for the most part, human decision making has been underrepresented in these trees. This paper presents a method of incorporating the human decision process into graphical presentations of incident/accident sequences. This presentation is in the form of logic trees. These trees are called Human Decision Error Trees or HUMDEE for short. The primary benefit of HUMDEE trees is that they graphically illustrate what else the individuals involved in the event could have done to prevent either the initiation or continuation of the event. HUMDEE trees also present the alternate paths available at the operator decision points in the incident/accident sequence. This is different from the Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP) event trees. There are many uses of these trees. They can be used for incident/accident investigations to show what other courses of actions were available and for training operators. The trees also have a consequence component so that not only the decision can be explored, also the consequence of that decision.

Ostrom, L.T.

1993-08-01

362

Gelatin hydrolysate from blacktip shark skin prepared using papaya latex enzyme: Antioxidant activity and its potential in model systems.  

PubMed

Antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates from blacktip shark skin prepared using papaya latex enzyme with different degrees of hydrolysis (DHs: 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%) were evaluated. All antioxidant activity indices of hydrolysates increased with increasing DH (P<0.05). When gelatin hydrolysate with 40%DH was determined for its pH and thermal stability, ORAC and chelating activity remained constant or slightly increased in a wide pH range (1-9) and during heating (100°C) for 240min. It was also stable in simulated gastrointestinal tract model system. Moreover, gelatin hydrolysate at a level of 500 and 1000ppm could inhibit lipid oxidation in both ?-carotene linoleate and cooked comminuted pork model systems. Therefore, gelatin hydrolysate from blacktip shark skin (40%DH) can potentially be used as an alternative source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22953833

Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Shahidi, Fereidoon

2012-05-28

363

Genetic diversity in the 3'-terminal region of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W) isolates from watermelon in Oklahoma.  

PubMed

The 3'-terminal region (1191 nt) containing part of the NIb gene, complete coat protein (CP) and poly-A tail of 64 papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W) isolates collected during 2008-2009 from watermelon in commercial fields of four different counties of Oklahoma were cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities ranged from 95.2-100% and 97.1-100%, respectively, among the Oklahoman PRSV-W isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PRSW-W isolates clustered according to the locations where they were collected within Oklahoma, and each cluster contained two subgroups. All subgroups of Oklahoman PRSV-W isolates were on separate branches when compared to 35 known isolates originating from other parts of the world, including the one reported previously from the USA. This study helps in our understanding about the genetic diversity of PRSV-W isolates infecting cucurbits in Oklahoma. PMID:22160129

Abdalla, Osama A; Ali, Akhtar

2011-12-09

364

Autocatalytic processing of pro-papaya proteinase IV is prevented by crowding of the active-site cleft.  

PubMed

The DNA coding for pro-papaya proteinase IV (PPIV) has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Heterologous expression of the protein, followed by refolding in vitro, yields an enzymatically active pro-enzyme which fails to autodigest to form the mature protein. Mutagenesis of the active site of papain to simulate that of PPIV yields a proenzyme which also fails to autoactivate. Complementary mutagenesis of the pro-region/mature boundary of PPIV, to introduce its own substrate recognition sequence, has, however, produced a pro-enzyme that will autocatalytically cleave. This is the first report of enzymatic activity in a recombinant pro-cysteine proteinase, and the first time that such a protein has been shown to fail to autocatalytically cleave because of its stringent substrate specificity. PMID:8862553

Baker, K C; Taylor, M A; Cummings, N J; Tuñón, M A; Worboys, K A; Connerton, I F

1996-06-01

365

A Novel Approach for Compressing Phylogenetic Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Phylogenetic trees are tree structures that depict relationships between organisms. Popular analysis techniques often produce\\u000a large collections of candidate trees, which are expensive to store. We introduce TreeZip, a novel algorithm to compress phylogenetic\\u000a trees based on their shared evolutionary relationships. We evaluate TreeZip’s performance on fourteen tree collections ranging\\u000a from 2,505 trees on 328 taxa to 150,000 trees on

Suzanne J. Matthews; Seung-Jin Sul; Tiffani L. Williams

2010-01-01

366

Tree Stabilization: Current Products and Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Products and systems used to stabilize trees at transplant should be prescribed based on site conditions, tree charac- teristics, and planting and maintenance practices. Alternatives to traditional aboveground trunk staking and guying methods exist, generally consisting of products that anchor tree rootballs rather than supporting tree trunks. When assessing the need for tree stabilization at transplant, several factors should be

Bonnie L. Appleton; Carolyn M. Cannella; P. Eric Wiseman; Alexis A. Alvey

2008-01-01

367

Resistance angle sensor based tree diameter gauge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate measurement of the tree diameter is important for the production and scientific research of forestry. The paper developed a resistance angle sensor based on tree diameter gauge, which provided a resolution to some difficulties in tree diameter measuring, such as big trees and trees with spine. The height measuring module based on ultrasonic sensor made it easy to find

Feng Zhi-hui; Chen Wei-mian; Shen Jin-feng; Fang Yi-ming

2010-01-01

368

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF URBAN TREE REPLACEMENT DECISIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical decision facing urban foresters, arborists, and planners involves deciding when an existing tree should be removed and replaced with a new plant- ing. Tree removal decisions are often based on an evaluation of the tree's health and condition as well as safety concerns. A tree may be retained, but nor- mally this requires a tree maintenance program and

Jessie L. Scott; David R. Betters

2000-01-01

369

Metasearch with Ordered Tree Structured Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the rapid growth of tree structured data such as Web documents, ecient learn- ing from tree structured data becomes more and more important. We have proposed ordered tree structured patterns with internal structured variables, called ordered term trees, in order to represent structural features common to such tree structured data. In this paper, we propose a method for

Kazuhide Aikou; Yusuke Suzuki; Takayoshi Shoudai; Tetsuhiro Miyaharay

370

Edge version of the matrix tree theorem for trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a combinatorial description of all the minors of the edge version of the Laplacian matrix of a mixed tree. The description involves the common SDR's for the forests obtained by deleting from the tree the edge sets corresponding to the row and column indices of the minor.

Ravindra B. Bapat; Jerrold W. Grossman; Devadatta M. Kulkarni

2000-01-01

371

DIF Trees: Using Classification Trees to Detect Differential Item Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A nonparametric tree classification procedure is used to detect differential item functioning for items that are dichotomously scored. Classification trees are shown to be an alternative procedure to detect differential item functioning other than the use of traditional Mantel-Haenszel and logistic regression analysis. A nonparametric…

Vaughn, Brandon K.; Wang, Qiu

2010-01-01

372

Growth-dependent tree mortality models based on tree rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortality is a crucial element of population dynamics. However, tree mortality is not well understood, par- ticularly at the individual level. The objectives of this study were to (i) determine growth patterns (growth levels and growth trends) over different time windows that can be used to discriminate between dead and living Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees, (ii) optimize

Christof Bigler; Harald Bugmann

2003-01-01

373

A forest beyond the trees: Tree cutting in rural Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I examine the complexity of human forces involved in tree cutting in a Ghanaian forest region. I provide evidence to link the indiscriminate tree-cutting activities of some local communities to the gradual loss of communal control over land and the replacement of kin group control with state property regimes. I point to the interrelated factors of the

George J. S. Dei

1992-01-01

374

CartograTree: connecting tree genomes, phenotypes and environment.  

PubMed

Today, researchers spend a tremendous amount of time gathering, formatting, filtering and visualizing data collected from disparate sources. Under the umbrella of forest tree biology, we seek to provide a platform and leverage modern technologies to connect biotic and abiotic data. Our goal is to provide an integrated web-based workspace that connects environmental, genomic and phenotypic data via geo-referenced coordinates. Here, we connect the genomic query web-based workspace, DiversiTree and a novel geographical interface called CartograTree to data housed on the TreeGenes database. To accomplish this goal, we implemented Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol to enable the primary genomics database, TreeGenes, to communicate with semantic web services regardless of platform or back-end technologies. The novelty of CartograTree lies in the interactive workspace that allows for geographical visualization and engagement of high performance computing (HPC) resources. The application provides a unique tool set to facilitate research on the ecology, physiology and evolution of forest tree species. CartograTree can be accessed at: http://dendrome.ucdavis.edu/cartogratree. PMID:23433187

Vasquez-Gross, Hans A; Yu, John J; Figueroa, Ben; Gessler, Damian D G; Neale, David B; Wegrzyn, Jill L

2013-02-25

375

Water transport in trees—an artificial laboratory tree  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water transport in tall trees is an everyday phenomenon, seldom noticed and not completely understood even by scientists. As a topic of current research in plant physiology it has several advantages for presentation within school physics lectures: it is interdisciplinary and clearly shows the connection between physics and biology; the construction of an artificial tree is an ideal laboratory project, which enables detailed studies of several phenomena related to water transport in an artificial tree model; it also clearly shows the failures of widespread ideas about the origins of the upward water flow. We present the construction of the laboratory tree, suggest measurements that illustrate water transport and present a few additional experiments which clearly show why water transport in trees higher than 10 m is still an ongoing debate amongst plant physiologists.

Susman, K.; Razpet, N.; ?epi?, M.

2011-05-01

376

Evolution of Multiple Tree Structured Patterns from Tree-Structured Data Using Clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new genetic programming approach to extraction of multiple tree structured patterns from tree-structured data\\u000a using clustering. As a combined pattern we use a set of tree structured patterns, called tag tree patterns. A structured variable\\u000a in a tag tree pattern can be substituted by an arbitrary tree. A set of tag tree patterns matches a tree, if

Masatoshi Nagamine; Tetsuhiro Miyahara; Tetsuji Kuboyama; Hiroaki Ueda; Kenichi Takahashi

2008-01-01

377

Hexane-Soluble Fraction of the Common Fig, Ficus carica, Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation in Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages and RAW 264.7 Cells.  

PubMed

Osteoclasts, derived from multipotent myeloid progenitor cells, play homeostatic roles in skeletal modeling and remodeling, but may also destroy bone in pathological conditions such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoclast development depends critically on a differentiation factor, the receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL). In this study, we found that the hexane soluble fraction of the common fig Ficus carica (HF6-FC) is a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis in RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). HF6-FC exerts its inhibitory effects by suppression of p38 and NF-kappaB but activation of ERK. In addition, HF6-FC significantly decreased the expression of NFATc1 and c-Fos, the master regulator of osteoclast differentiation. The data indicate that components of HF6-FC may have therapeutic effects on bone-destructive processes such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontal bone resorption. PMID:20054486

Park, Young Ran; Eun, Jae Soon; Choi, Hwa Jung; Nepal, Manoj; Kim, Dae Keun; Seo, Seung-Yong; Li, Rihua; Moon, Woo Sung; Cho, Nam-Pyo; Cho, Sung-Dae; Bae, Tae Sung; Kim, Byung Il; Soh, Yunjo

2009-12-31

378

Quad-Trees, Oct-Trees, and K-Trees: A Generalized Approach to Recursive Decomposition of Euclidean Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

K-trees are developed as a K-dimensional analog of quad-trees and oct-trees. K-trees can be used for modeling K-dimensional data. A fast algorithm is given for finding the boundary size of a K-dimensional object represented by a K-tree. For K considered as con-stant; the algorithm provides a method for computing the perimeter of a quad-tree encoded image or the surface area

Chris L. Jackins; Steven L. Tanimoto

1983-01-01

379

Molecular evidence that zucchini yellow fleck virus is a distinct and variable potyvirus related to papaya ringspot virus and Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  Zucchini yellow fleck virus (ZYFV, genus Potyvirus) infects cultivated or wild cucurbits in the Mediterranean basin and occasionally causes severe damage in crops. Biological\\u000a and serological data tend to indicate that ZYFV is related to other cucurbit-infecting potyviruses, mainly papaya ringspot\\u000a virus (PRSV) and Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV). In order to establish unambiguously the taxonomic status of ZYFV,\\u000a the

C. Desbiez; I. Justafre; H. Lecoq

2007-01-01

380

Discordance of Species Trees with Their Most Likely Gene Trees: The Case of Five Taxa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under a coalescent model for within-species evolution, gene trees may differ from species trees to such an extent that the gene tree topology most likely to evolve along the branches of a species tree can disagree with the species tree topology. Gene tree topologies that are more likely to be produced than the topology that matches that of the species

NOAH A. ROSENBERG; RANDA TAO

2008-01-01

381

Tree Hydraulics: How Sap Rises  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Trees transport water from roots to crown--a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by…

Denny, Mark

2012-01-01

382

Geometric group actions on trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

W e def inegeometric group actions on -trees, as dual to a measured foliation on a 2- complex with some finiteness and injectivity properties. We prove that an action is nongeometric if and only if it is a nontrivial strong limit in the sense of Gillet-Shalen. We give a simple new construction of the Bass-Serre tree of a graph of

Gilbert Levitt; Frederic Paulin

1997-01-01

383

New water tree monitoring technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design philosophy is given for producing image currents depicting water motion during water treeing. A diagnostic for water treeing in polyethylene (PE) is being developed from a successful one for prebreakdown studies in liquids. The basic technique is to stress a dielectric between two electrodes and observe image currents in the ground electrode. Direct measurement of motion appears to

M. O. Pace; F. F. Dyer; T. V. Blalock; B. E. Williams; S. W. Milam; I. Alexeff; T. J. Rodenbaugh

1990-01-01

384

Neural trees for image segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report the application of neural trees for image segmentation of magnetic resonance (MR) images. The network, built up during training, effectively partitions the feature space into subregions and each final subregion is assigned a class label according to the data routed to it. As the tree grows, the number of training data for each node decreases,

Iren Valova; Yukio Kosugi

1997-01-01

385

Uncertainties in Fault Tree Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault tree analysis is one kind of the probabilistic safety analysis method. After constructing a fault tree, many basic events which can happen theoretically have never occurred so far or have occurred so infrequently that their reasonable data are not available. However, the use of fuzzy probability can describe the failure probability and its uncertainty of each basic event ,

Yue-Lung Cheng

386

Mixtures of (Constrained) Ultrametric Trees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a method for the estimation of ultrametric trees calibrated on subjects' pairwise proximity judgments of stimuli, capturing subject heterogeneity using a finite mixture formulation. An empirical example from published data shows the ability to deal with external constraints on the tree topology. (Author/SLD)

Wedel, Michel; DeSarbo, Wayne S.

1998-01-01

387

Spatial Joins Using Seeded Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing methods for spatial joins assume the existence of indices for the participating data sets. This assumption is not realistic for applications involving multiple map layer overlays or for queries involving non-spatial selections. In this paper, we explore a spatiaJ join method that dynamically constructs index trees called seeded trees at join time. This method uses knowledge of thedata sets

Ming-Ling Lo; Chinya V. Ravishankar

1994-01-01

388

Genome Trees from Conservation Profiles  

PubMed Central

The concept of the genome tree depends on the potential evolutionary significance in the clustering of species according to similarities in the gene content of their genomes. In this respect, genome trees have often been identified with species trees. With the rapid expansion of genome sequence data it becomes of increasing importance to develop accurate methods for grasping global trends for the phylogenetic signals that mutually link the various genomes. We therefore derive here the methodological concept of genome trees based on protein conservation profiles in multiple species. The basic idea in this derivation is that the multi-component “presence-absence” protein conservation profiles permit tracking of common evolutionary histories of genes across multiple genomes. We show that a significant reduction in informational redundancy is achieved by considering only the subset of distinct conservation profiles. Beyond these basic ideas, we point out various pitfalls and limitations associated with the data handling, paving the way for further improvements. As an illustration for the methods, we analyze a genome tree based on the above principles, along with a series of other trees derived from the same data and based on pair-wise comparisons (ancestral duplication-conservation and shared orthologs). In all trees we observe a sharp discrimination between the three primary domains of life: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. The new genome tree, based on conservation profiles, displays a significant correspondence with classically recognized taxonomical groupings, along with a series of departures from such conventional clusterings.

Tekaia, Fredj; Yeramian, Edouard

2005-01-01

389

Vulnerability of Tasmanian giant trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Tasmania's giant trees are among the world's tallest flowering plants and Australia's greatest eucalypts. However, they are not well protected in National Parks or extensive reserves. Of the 69 known trees that meet the official criteria for protection as giants, almost 90% are in State forests managed for wood harvesting. Several of the giants are within coupes that were

Walter Herrmann

390

The limits to tree height.  

PubMed

Trees grow tall where resources are abundant, stresses are minor, and competition for light places a premium on height growth. The height to which trees can grow and the biophysical determinants of maximum height are poorly understood. Some models predict heights of up to 120 m in the absence of mechanical damage, but there are historical accounts of taller trees. Current hypotheses of height limitation focus on increasing water transport constraints in taller trees and the resulting reductions in leaf photosynthesis. We studied redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens), including the tallest known tree on Earth (112.7 m), in wet temperate forests of northern California. Our regression analyses of height gradients in leaf functional characteristics estimate a maximum tree height of 122-130 m barring mechanical damage, similar to the tallest recorded trees of the past. As trees grow taller, increasing leaf water stress due to gravity and path length resistance may ultimately limit leaf expansion and photosynthesis for further height growth, even with ample soil moisture. PMID:15103376

Koch, George W; Sillett, Stephen C; Jennings, Gregory M; Davis, Stephen D

2004-04-22

391

On the Count of Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regular tree grammars and regular path expressions constitute core constructs widely used in programming languages and type systems. Nevertheless, there has been little research so far on frameworks for reasoning about path expressions where node cardinality constraints occur along a path in a tree. We present a logic capable of expressing deep counting along paths which may include arbitrary recursive

Everardo Barcenas; Pierre Geneves; Nabil Layaida; Alan Schmitt

2010-01-01

392

Counting in Trees for Free  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In [22], it was shown that MSO logic for ordered unranked trees becomes undecidable if Presburger constraints are allowed at children of nodes We now show that a decidable logic is obtained if we use a a modal ?xpoint logic instead We present an automata theoretic characterization of this logic by means of deterministic Pres - burger tree automata

Helmut Seidl; Thomas Schwentick; Anca Muscholl; Peter Habermehl

2004-01-01

393

The tree of one percent  

PubMed Central

Two significant evolutionary processes are fundamentally not tree-like in nature - lateral gene transfer among prokaryotes and endosymbiotic gene transfer (from organelles) among eukaryotes. To incorporate such processes into the bigger picture of early evolution, biologists need to depart from the preconceived notion that all genomes are related by a single bifurcating tree.

Dagan, Tal; Martin, William

2006-01-01

394

TREES MODIFY THE URBAN MICROCLIMATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A person's feeling of thermal comfort is affected by en- vironmental conditions, including solar radiation, air tempera- ture, wind, humidity, longwave radiation, and precipitation. Trees modify all of these variables and therefore affect indivi- dual thermal comfort. Shade and wind protection are well- recognized efforts. But trees and other vegetation also con- tribute to cooling the air by the evaporative

C. A. Federer

395

Carbon14 in tree rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate how reliably the carbon 14 content of tree rings reflects that of atmospheric carbon dioxide, two types of determinations were carried out: (1) carbon 14 determinations in annual rings from the beginning of this century until 1974 and (2) carbon 14 determinations in synchronous wood from the North American bristlecone pine and from European oak trees,

William F. Cain; Hans E. Suess

1976-01-01

396

Carbon 14 in tree rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate how reliably the carbon 14 content of tree rings reflects that of atmospheric carbon dioxide, two types of determinations were carried out: (1) carbon 14 determinations in annual rings from the beginning of this century until 1974 and (2) carbon 14 determinations in synchronous wood from the North American bristlecone pine and from European oak trees,

William F. Cain; Hans E. Suess

1976-01-01

397

Larvicidal activities of three plants against filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal properties of crude extracts of three plants, viz. Carica papaya, Murraya paniculata and Cleistanthus collinus against Culex quinquefasciatus as target species. The relative efficacy of the plant extracts in vector control was as follows: C. papaya seed extract > M. paniculata fruit extract > M. paniculata leaf extract > C.

Anjali Rawani; Koyel Mallick Haldar; Anupam Ghosh; Goutam Chandra

2009-01-01

398

21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Papain (CAS Reg. No. 9001-73-4) is a proteolytic enzyme derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya. The food-grade product is obtained by repeated filtration of the crude...

2009-04-01

399

A comparative survey of genetic diversity among a set of Caricaceae accessions using microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

A preliminary survey of genetic diversity among 34 commercially popular Carica papaya cultivars from India and abroad, 6 accessions of Vasconcellea species and 1 accession of Jacaratia spinosa, was done using 20 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The SSR profiles were used to find out total number of alleles, null and rare alleles, Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) values and to calculate similarity matrix using Jaccard's coefficient. The subsequent dendrogram was made by unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic average (UPGMA) and neighbor-joining method. Based on these parameters a comparison was made between the Indian papaya cultivars and the rest of the accessions. All the markers showed polymorphism and a total of 140 alleles were identified. The average number of alleles was 7 alleles/locus. Categorically the Vasconcellea and Jacaratia species had 54 alleles, the 7 non-Indian Carica papaya accessions had 70 and the 27 Indian accessions had 102 alleles. The average PIC value was 0.735 per marker. A total of 37 rare alleles were identified. Jacaratia spinosa had 17 rare alleles. Nineteen null alleles were detected among the Carica papaya accessions. A Carica papaya accession from South Africa, Hortus Gold had 5 null alleles. The genetic similarity among the accessions ranged from 7% to 67%. In the dendrogram, the Vasconcellea and Jacaratia spinosa accessions separated as a distinct cluster from the rest of the Carica papaya accessions. The study indicated that the accessions of Indian Carica papaya cultivars included in this survey are genetically more diverse than the non-Indian Carica papaya cultivars. PMID:23961410

Sengupta, Samik; Das, Basabdatta; Prasad, Manoj; Acharyya, Pinaki; Ghose, Tapas Kumar

2013-07-26

400

7 CFR 1214.3 - Christmas tree.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Christmas tree. 1214.3 Section 1214.3 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information...

2013-01-01

401

Schoolyard Trees: Planning and Planting for Survival.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Considers factors that affect the fate of schoolyard trees and focuses on the importance of what is considered during tree selection. Includes of list of characteristics of tree projects that have a low survival rate. (DDR)|

Coffey, Ann

2001-01-01

402

Subsea tree cap well choke system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus useful in subsea well completions requiring a subsea choke. It comprises: a wellhead connector; a tree flow passage; a tree annulus passage; a tree cap; a choke; and a production line.

Bednar, J.M.

1991-04-30

403

The P-tree Algebra1, 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Peano Count Tree (P-tree) is a quadrant-based lossless tree representation of the original spatial data. The idea of P-tree is to recursively divide the entire spatial data, such as Remotely Sensed Imagery data, into quadrants and record the count of 1-bits for each quadrant, thus forming a quadrant count tree. Using P-tree structure, all the count information can be

Qin Ding; Maleq Khan; Amalendu Roy; William Perrizo

404

Packing and Hausdorff Measures of Stable Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper we discuss Hausdorff and packing measures of random continuous trees called stable trees. Stable trees form\\u000a a specific class of Lévy trees (introduced by Le Gall and Le Jan in [33]) that contains Aldous’s continuum random tree which\\u000a corresponds to the Brownian case. We provide results for the whole stable trees and for their level sets that

Thomas Duquesne

2010-01-01

405

Relighting photographs of tree canopies.  

PubMed

We present an image-based approach to relighting photographs of tree canopies. Our goal is to minimize capture overhead; thus the only input required is a set of photographs of the tree taken at a single time of day, while allowing relighting at any other time. We first analyze lighting in a tree canopy both theoretically and using simulations. From this analysis, we observe that tree canopy lighting is similar to volumetric illumination. We assume a single-scattering volumetric lighting model for tree canopies, and diffuse leaf reflectance; we validate our assumptions with synthetic renderings. We create a volumetric representation of the tree from 10-12 images taken at a single time of day and use a single-scattering participating media lighting model. An analytical sun and sky illumination model provides consistent representation of lighting for the captured input and unknown target times. We relight the input image by applying a ratio of the target and input time lighting representations. We compute this representation efficiently by simultaneously coding transmittance from the sky and to the eye in spherical harmonics. We validate our method by relighting images of synthetic trees and comparing to path-traced solutions. We also present results for photographs, validating with time-lapse ground truth sequences. PMID:21041884

Cabral, Marcio; Bonneel, Nicolas; Lefebvre, Sylvain; Drettakis, George

2011-10-01

406

Terrestrial apes and phylogenetic trees  

PubMed Central

The image that best expresses Darwin’s thinking is the tree of life. However, Darwin’s human evolutionary tree lacked almost everything because only the Neanderthals were known at the time and they were considered one extreme expression of our own species. Darwin believed that the root of the human tree was very deep and in Africa. It was not until 1962 that the root was shown to be much more recent in time and definitively in Africa. On the other hand, some neo-Darwinians believed that our family tree was not a tree, because there were no branches, but, rather, a straight stem. The recent years have witnessed spectacular discoveries in Africa that take us close to the origin of the human tree and in Spain at Atapuerca that help us better understand the origin of the Neanderthals as well as our own species. The final form of the tree, and the number of branches, remains an object of passionate debate.

Arsuaga, Juan Luis

2010-01-01

407

Through bore subsea christmas trees  

SciTech Connect

The workovers of subsea completed wells are expensive and time consuming as even the most routine tasks must be carried out by a semi-submersible. This paper describes the economic, safety and operational advantages which led to the development and successful first installation of 'through bore' subsea production trees. The conventional wet subsea trees have proved to be very reliable over the past ten years of operation in the Argyll, Duncan and Innes fields, however the completion strings require pulling on the average about once every three to five years. The conventional subsea tree/tubing hanger set up design requires the tree to be tripped and a rig BOP stack run to pull the tubing. This operation is time consuming, very weather sensitive and leaves the well temporarily without a well control stack on the wellhead. The 7 1/16'' 'through bore' subsea tree was developed to minimize the tubing pulling workover time and several trees have been run successfully since the latter part of 1984. The time saving on a tubing pulling workover is three days. In addition, the design considerably reduces the hazards and equipment damage risk inherent in the conventional design. Hamilton Brothers and National Supply Company in Aberdeen designed the equipment which must be considered a new generation of subsea production trees.

Huber, D.S.; Simmers, G.F.C.; Johnson, C.S.

1985-01-01

408

How Monkeys Use Energy to Leap from Tree to Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is a diagram with accompanying text, showing conversions as energy goes from the sun (electromagnetic) to the tree (chemical) to the monkey; describes how the monkey converts chemical energy into motion and heat.

Watson, David E.

409

Urban Tree Planting: Soil 101  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ever wondered how trees live amidst city sidewalks? This two-minute radio program from the show Pulse of the Planet focuses on the below-ground challenge that urban trees face--city soil. In the program, which is provided here in audio and text formats, a horticulturalist describes the importance of soil and the soil quality and quantity problems often found in cities. She then talks about a mixture that she and fellow researchers at Cornell University have developed called structural soil, which is intended to prolong urban trees' lives. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Planet, Pulse O.

2007-11-28

410

Sentiment Classification Based on Syntax Tree Pruning and Tree Kernel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sentiment classification is a way to analyze the subjective information in the text and then mine the opinion. We focus on the sentence-level sentiment classification. On the systematically analyzing the importance and difficulties of the sentence-level sentiment classification, this paper proposes a syntax tree pruning and tree kernel-based approach to sentiment classification. In our method, the convolution kernel of SVM

Zhang Wei; Li Peifeng; Zhu Qiaoming

2010-01-01

411

A Characterization of Attributed Tree Transformations by a Subclass of Macro Tree Transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

.    We present a characterization of the class of tree transformations computed by (noncircular) attributed tree transducers,\\u000a in terms of a subclass of macro tree transducers, called attributed-like macro tree transducers. In fact, we prove formally\\u000a that attributed tree transducers and attributed-like macro tree transducers generate the same class of tree transformations.\\u000a Moreover, we prove that it is decidable

Zoltán Fülöp; Heiko Vogler

1999-01-01

412

Community Tree Planting Guide - Treesearch  

Treesearch

As a volunteer or professional, you are important to the health and well being of your community. ... It begins by assessing your planning site and concludes with long term care for your trees. ... Resource Type: Management Plans and Reports.

413

MicroRNAs in trees.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 20-24 nucleotide long molecules processed from a specific class of RNA polymerase II transcripts that mainly regulate the stability of mRNAs containing a complementary sequence by targeted degradation in plants. Many features of tree biology are regulated by miRNAs affecting development, metabolism, adaptation and evolution. MiRNAs may be modified and harnessed for controlled suppression of specific genes to learn about gene function, or for practical applications through genetic engineering. Modified (artificial) miRNAs act as dominant suppressors and are particularly useful in tree genetics because they bypass the generations of inbreeding needed for fixation of recessive mutations. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current status of information on miRNAs in trees and to guide future studies on the role of miRNAs in the biology of woody perennials and to illustrate their utility in directed genetic modification of trees. PMID:22161564

Sun, Ying-Hsuan; Shi, Rui; Zhang, Xing-Hai; Chiang, Vincent L; Sederoff, Ronald R

2011-12-08

414

Topic in Depth - Tree Troubles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores some of the diseases and other threats, such as gypsy moths, emerald ash borers, and Asian longhorned beetles that certain trees must contend with to remain healthy and vital.

2010-09-14

415

Evaluation of the probiotic potential and effect of encapsulation on survival for Lactobacillus plantarum ST16Pa isolated from papaya.  

PubMed

Capability to produce antilisterial bacteriocins by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can be explored by the food industry as a tool to increase the safety of foods. Furthermore, probiotic activity of bacteriogenic LAB brings extra advantages to these strains, as they can confer health benefits to the consumer. Beneficial effects depend on the ability of the probiotic strains to maintain viability in the food during shelf-life and to survive the natural defenses of the host and multiply in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This study evaluated the probiotic potential of a bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus plantarum strain (Lb. plantarum ST16Pa) isolated from papaya fruit and studied the effect of encapsulation in alginate on survival in conditions simulating the human GIT. Good growth of Lb. plantarum ST16Pa was recorded in MRS broth with initial pH values between 5.0 and 9.0 and good capability to survive in pH 4.0, 11.0 and 13.0. Lb. plantarum ST16Pa grew well in the presence of oxbile at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 3.0%. The level of auto-aggregation was 37%, and various degrees of co-aggregation were observed with different strains of Lb. plantarum, Enterococcus spp., Lb. sakei and Listeria, which are important features for probiotic activity. Growth was affected negatively by several medicaments used for human therapy, mainly anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics. Adhesion to Caco-2 cells was within the range reported for other probiotic strains, and PCR analysis indicated that the strain harbored the adhesion genes mapA, mub and EF-Tu. Encapsulation in 2, 3 and 4% alginate protected the cells from exposure to 1 or 2% oxbile added to MRS broth. Studies in a model simulating the transit through the GIT indicated that encapsulated cells were protected from the acidic conditions in the stomach but were less resistant when in conditions simulating the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and first section of the colon. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a bacteriocinogenic LAB isolated from papaya that presents application in food biopreservation and may be beneficial to the consumer health due to its potential probiotic characteristics. PMID:22805818

Todorov, Svetoslav D; Leblanc, Jean Guy; Franco, Bernadette D G M

2011-09-25

416

Performance Evaluation of Main-Memory R-tree Variants  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been several techniques proposed for improving the per- formance of main-memory spatial indexes, but there has not been a comparative study of their performance. In this paper we compare the performance of six main-memory R-tree variants: R-tree, R*-tree, Hilbert R-tree, CR-tree, CR*- tree, and Hilbert CR-tree. CR*-trees and Hilbert CR-trees are respectively a natural extension of R*-trees and

Sangyong Hwang; Keunjoo Kwon; Sang Kyun Cha; Byung Suk Lee

2003-01-01

417

Scalable Visualisations with Ownership Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ownership trees are a simple yet powerful method of extracting an object-oriented program's implicit aggregation structure from its object graph. The topology of a program's ownership tree is independent of scale object-oriented programs are constructed from objects, and the relationship between a whole system and its top-level components is the same as the relationship between a low-level data structure and

Trent Hill; James Noble; John Potter

2000-01-01

418

Limit theorems for random trees.  

PubMed Central

This paper is concerned with random rooted trees and studies the distribution of the vertices according to their altitude. If the trees are chosen at random with an increasing number of vertices, then, by a suitable normalization, the distribution function of the number of vertices at a given altitude and the distribution function of the total height approach specific limits. Explicit formulas are given for these limit distribution functions and their moments.

Takacs, L

1992-01-01

419

On the Count of Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regular tree grammars and regular path expressions constitute core constructs\\u000awidely used in programming languages and type systems. Nevertheless, there has\\u000abeen little research so far on frameworks for reasoning about path expressions\\u000awhere node cardinality constraints occur along a path in a tree. We present a\\u000alogic capable of expressing deep counting along paths which may include\\u000aarbitrary recursive

Everardo Barcenas; Pierre Geneves; Nabil Layaida; Alan Schmitt

2010-01-01

420

Hierarchical buffered routing tree generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a solution to the problem of per- formance-driven buffered routing tree generation for VLSI cir- cuits. Using a novel bottom-up construction algorithm and a local neighborhood search strategy, our polynomial time algorithm finds the optimum solution in an exponential-size solution sub- space. The final output is a buffered rectilinear Steiner routing tree that connects the driver of

Amir H. Salek; Jinan Lou; Massoud Pedram

2002-01-01

421

On packing R-trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose new R-tree packing techniques for static databases. Given a collection of rectangles, we sort them and build the R-tree bottom-up. There are several ways to sort the rectangles; the innovation of this work is the use of fractals, and specifically the hilbert curve, to achieve better ordering of the rectangles and eventually better pack- ing. We proposed and

Ibrahim Kamel; Christos Faloutsos

1993-01-01

422

MODELING AND RENDERING REALISTIC TREES  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This thesis presents a shape grammar,for the procedural modeling of trees that faithfully reproduces the botanical characteristics visible in nature. The shape grammar allows for modeling of the trunk and higher-level branches, as well as the details of compound,leaves without resorting to image-based approximation strate- gies. The prioritized grammar,rules illustrate the development of hierarchical and detailed tree models. This

Deepali Bhagvat

2008-01-01

423

Growing a Forest for the Trees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a tree studies program in a fourth-grade classroom. Students collected local tree seeds and seeds from supermarket fruits, researched growing conditions, and grew seeds under various conditions. Students kept journals on local trees, observing seed dispersal mechanisms and examining rings on trunk slices. Inquiry-based tree studies…

Growing Ideas, 2001

2001-01-01

424

Exploring Multiple Trees through DAG Representations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a Directed Acyclic Graph visualisation designed to allow interaction with a set of multiple classification trees, specifically to find overlaps and differences between groups of trees and individual trees. The work is motivated by the need to find a representation for multiple trees that has the space-saving property of a general graph representation and the intuitive parent-child direction

Martin Graham; Jessie B. Kennedy

2007-01-01

425

Sensitivity analysis of modular dynamic fault trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic fault tree analysis, as currently supported by the Galileo software package, provides an effective means for assessing the reliability of embedded computer-based systems. Dynamic fault trees extend traditional fault trees by defining special gates to capture sequential and functional dependency characteristics. A modular approach to the solution of dynamic fault trees effectively applies Binary Decision Diagram (BOD) and Markov

Yong Ou; Joanne Bechta Dugan

2000-01-01

426

Decidability of MSO Theories of Tree Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we provide an automaton-based solution to the decision problem for a large set of monadic second-order theories of deterministic tree structures. We achieve it in two steps: flrst, we reduce the considered problem to the problem of determining, for any Rabin tree automaton, whether it accepts a given tree; then, we exploit a suitable notion of tree

Angelo Montanari; Gabriele Puppis

2004-01-01

427

FIELD GUIDE FOR VISUAL TREE ASSESSMENT (VTA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The VTA-Method (VISUAL TREE ASSESSMENT) consists in three steps. Visual control of the tree in order to find external symptoms of internal defects. If the constant stress distribution in a tree is disturbed due to the presence of a defect the tree attaches more wood at the overloaded spot. So bulges or dents are formed near decayed hollows and ribs

Clous Mattheck; Helge Breloer

1994-01-01

428

How To Select and Plant a Tree.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This bulletin furnishes information about selecting and planting trees. The tree selection process includes being aware of the physical characteristics of bare root seedlings, containerized seedlings, balled and burlapped, or potted trees and determining the proper size and root ball proportions. The section on tree planting discusses how to: (1)…

Fazio, James R., Ed.

1991-01-01

429

THE FACTOR STRUCTURE OF STREET TREE ATTRIBUTES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A factor analysis of 816 householder evaluations of street trees showed a general benefits factor and discrete annoyance factors in such areas as ground disturbance, disease, reduced visibility, and debris from fallen tree parts. Benefits were more highly related than annoyances to overall satisfaction with the street tree. The findings have implications for management of street trees and for future

Robert Sommer; Barbara A. Sommer

1989-01-01

430

ICE STORM DAMAGE TO URBAN TREES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A damage survey of parkway trees in Urbana, Illinois was made to determine critical removal and repair needs of trees immediately following a severe ice storm. Siberian elm, honeylocust, Bradford pear, common Hackberry, pin oak, sycamore, green ash, and tuliptree were among the 25 major parkway tree species that sustained considerable ice damage. Larger diameter trees with broader crowns incurred

Richard J. Hauer; Weishen Wang; Jeffrey O. Dawson

1993-01-01

431

Decision tree pruning using backpropagation neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural networks have been widely applied to various tasks, such as handwritten character recognition, autonomous robot driving, determining the consensus base in DNA sequences. We describe the use of backpropagation neural networks for pruning decision trees. Decision tree pruning is indispensable for making the overfitting trees more accurate in classifying unseen data. In decision trees, the overfitting can occur when

BOONSERM KIJSIRIKUL; KONGSAK CHONGKASEMWONGSE

2001-01-01

432

Constructing Big Trees from Short Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construction of evolutionary trees is a fundamental problem in biology, and yet methods for reconstructing evolutionary trees are not reliable when it comes to inferring accurate topologies of large divergent evolutionary trees from realistic length sequences. We address this problem and present a new polynomial time algorithm for recon- structing evolutionary trees called the Short Quartets Method which is

L. ErdSs; Michael A. Steel; A. Sz

433

Progress in the biotechnology of trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing world population and rise in demand for tree products, especially wood, has increased the need to produce more timber through planting more forest with improved quality stock. Superior trees are likely to arise from several sources. Firstly, forest trees can be selected from wild populations and cloned using macropropagation techniques already being investigated for fruit tree rootstocks. Alternatively,

N. Hammatt

1992-01-01

434

Exploring Within-tree Architectural Development of Two Apple Tree Cultivars Over 6 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study addresses the prediction of apple tree development, taking into account both the number and within-tree position of tree components. The architectural development of two trees per scion cultivar, 'Fuji' and 'Braeburn', was studied by describing all shoots over 6 years. Flowering and fruiting were observed over 3 years. The description included different scales (entire trees, axes, growth

E. C OSTES; H. S INOQUET; J. J. K EL N E R; C. G ODIN

2003-01-01

435

36 CFR 223.4 - Exchange of trees or portions of trees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exchange of trees or portions of trees. 223.4 Section 223.4 Parks, Forests...PRODUCTS General Provisions § 223.4 Exchange of trees or portions of trees. Trees or portions of...

2013-07-01

436

FEP 4.16. Fault-tree, Event tree, & P&ID Editors  

Microsoft Academic Search

FEP4.16 is a program developed to provide a common access to a suite of graphical tools developed for performing Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). These tools include the graphical event tree, fault tree, and P and ID editors. The event tree editor allows the analyst to construct and modify graphical event trees. The fault tree editor allows the user to construct

1994-01-01

437

Spectrum of Variable-Random Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we show that a continuous spectrum of randomisation exists, in which most ex- isting tree randomisations are only operating around the two ends of the spectrum. That leaves a huge part of the spectrum largely unexplored. We propose a base learner VR-Tree which generates trees with variable-randomness. VR-Trees are able to span from the conventional deterministic trees

Fei Tony Liu; Kai Ming Ting; Yang Yu; Zhi-hua Zhou

2008-01-01

438

Variable Tree Automata over Infinite Ranked Alphabets  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We introduce variable tree automata with infinite input ranked alphabets. Our model is based on an underlying bottom-up tree\\u000a automaton over a finite ranked alphabet containing variable symbols. The underlying tree automaton computes its tree language,\\u000a and then replaces the variable symbols with symbols from the infinite alphabet following certain rules. We show that the class\\u000a of recognizable tree languages

Irini-Eleftheria Mens; George Rahonis

439

R-trees with Update Memos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of frequently updating multi-dimensional indexes arises in many location-dependent applications. While the R-tree and its variants are one of the dominant choices for indexing multi-dimensional objects, the R-tree exhibits inferior performance in the presence of frequent up- dates. In this paper, we present an R-tree variant, termed the RUM-tree (stands for R-tree with Update Memo) that minimizes the

Xiaopeng Xiong; Walid G. Aref

2006-01-01

440

A System for Approximate Tree Matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ordered, labeled trees are trees in which each node has a label and the left-to-right order of its children (if it has any) is fixed. Such trees have many applications in vision, pattern recognition, molecular biology, programming compilation, and natural language processing. Many of the applications involve comparing trees or retrieving\\/extracting information from a repository of trees. Examples include classification

Jason Tsong-li Wang; Kaizhong Zhang; Karpjoo Jeong; Dennis Shasha

1994-01-01

441

B-class MADS-box genes in trioecious papaya: two paleoAP3 paralogs, CpTM6-1 and CpTM6-2 , and a PI ortholog CpPI  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the ABC model of flower development, B function organ-identity genes act in the second and third whorls of the flower to\\u000a control petal and stamen identity. The trioecious papaya has male, female, and hermaphrodite flowers and is an ideal system\\u000a for testing the B-class gene expression patterns in trioecious plants. We cloned papaya B-class genes, CpTM6-1, CpTM6-2, and CpPI,

Christine M. Ackerman; Qingyi Yu; Sangtae Kim; Robert E. Paull; Paul H. Moore; Ray Ming

2008-01-01

442

Sussing Merger Trees: The Merger Trees Comparison Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Merger trees follow the growth and merger of dark-matter haloes over cosmic history. As well as giving important insights into the growth of cosmic structure in their own right, they provide an essential backbone to semi-analytic models of galaxy formation. This paper is the first in a series to arise from the Sussing Merger Trees Workshop in which 10 different tree-building algorithms were applied to the same set of halo catalogues and their results compared. Although many of these codes were similar in nature, all algorithms produced distinct results. Our main conclusions are that a useful merger-tree code should possess the following features: (i) the use of particle IDs to match haloes between snapshots; (ii) the ability to skip at least one, and preferably more, snapshots in order to recover subhaloes that are temporarily lost during merging; (iii) the ability to cope with (and ideally smooth out) large, temporary fluctuations in halo mass. Finally, to enable different groups to communicate effectively, we defined a common terminology that we used when discussing merger trees and we encourage others to adopt the same language. We also specified a minimal output format to record the results.

Srisawat, Chaichalit; Knebe, Alexander; Pearce, Frazer R.; Schneider, Aurel; Thomas, Peter A.; Behroozi, Peter; Dolag, Klaus; Elahi, Pascal J.; Han, Jiaxin; Helly, John; Jing, Yipeng; Jung, Intae; Lee, Jaehyun; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Onions, Julian; Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; Tweed, Dylan; Yi, Sukyoung K.

2013-10-01

443

Sussing Merger Trees: The Merger Trees Comparison Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Merger trees follow the growth and merger of dark-matter haloes over cosmic history. As well as giving important insights into the growth of cosmic structure in their own right, they provide an essential backbone to semi-analytic models of galaxy formation. This paper is the first in a series to arise from the Sussing Merger Trees Workshop in which 10 different tree-building algorithms were applied to the same set of halo catalogues and their results compared. Although many of these codes were similar in nature, all algorithms produced distinct results. Our main conclusions are that a useful merger-tree code should possess the following features: (i) the use of particle IDs to match haloes between snapshots; (ii) the ability to skip at least one, and preferably more, snapshots in order to recover subhaloes that are temporarily lost during merging; (iii) the ability to cope with (and ideally smooth out) large, temporary fluctuations in halo mass. Finally, to enable different groups to communicate effectively, we defined a common terminology that we used when discussing merger trees and we encourage others to adopt the same language. We also specified a minimal output format to record the results.

Srisawat, Chaichalit; Knebe, Alexander; Pearce, Frazer R.; Schneider, Aurel; Thomas, Peter A.; Behroozi, Peter; Dolag, Klaus; Elahi, Pascal J.; Han, Jiaxin; Helly, John; Jing, Yipeng; Jung, Intae; Lee, Jaehyun; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Onions, Julian; Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; Tweed, Dylan; Yi, Sukyoung K.

2013-11-01

444

A characterization of the set of species trees that produce anomalous ranked gene trees.  

PubMed

Ranked gene trees, which consider both the gene tree topology and the sequence in which gene lineages separate, can potentially provide a new source of information for use in modeling genealogies and performing inference of species trees. Recently,we have calculated the probability distribution of ranked gene trees under the standard multispecies coalescent model for the evolution of gene lineages along the branches of a fixed species tree, demonstrating the existence of anomalous ranked gene trees (ARGTs), in which a ranked gene tree that does not match the ranked species tree can have greater probability under the model than the matching ranked gene tree. Here, we fully characterize the set of unranked species tree topologies that give rise to ARGTs, showing that this set contains all species tree topologies with five or more taxa, with the exceptions of caterpillars and pseudocaterpillars. The results have implications for the use of ranked gene trees in phylogenetic inference. PMID:22868677

Degnan, James H; Rosenberg, Noah A; Stadler, Tanja

445

Nitrogen nutrition of poplar trees.  

PubMed

Many forest ecosystems have evolved at sites with growth-limiting nitrogen (N) availability, low N input from external sources and high ecosystem internal cycling of N. By contrast, many poplar species are frequent constituents of floodplain forests where they are exposed to a significant ecosystem external supply of N, mainly nitrate, in the moving water table. Therefore, nitrate is much more important for N nutrition of these poplar species than for many other tree species. We summarise current knowledge of nitrate uptake and its regulation by tree internal signals, as well as acquisition of ammonium and organic N from the soil. Unlike herbaceous plants, N nutrition of trees is sustained by seasonal, tree internal cycling. Recent advances in the understanding of seasonal storage and mobilisation in poplar bark and regulation of these processes by temperature and daylength are addressed. To explore consequences of global climate change on N nutrition of poplar trees, responses of N uptake and metabolism to increased atmospheric CO(2) and O(3) concentrations, increased air and soil temperatures, drought and salt stress are highlighted. PMID:20398235

Rennenberg, H; Wildhagen, H; Ehlting, B

2010-03-01

446

A purposeful classification of tree decay detection tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree management professionals face a daunting task in assessing tree health given large tree populations, high diversity of tree species and numerous types of tree diseases. Fortunately, there are now a variety of tree decay detection tools available. To be effective, tree management professionals will need to select the appropriate tool(s) often within a limited budget. The objective of this

Eng-Choon Leong; Daniel C. Burcham; Yok-King Fong

2012-01-01

447

Evolution of multiple tree structured patterns using soft clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new genetic programming (GP) approach to extracting multiple tree structured patterns from tree structured data using soft clustering. We use a set of multiple tree structured patterns, called tag tree patterns, as a combined pattern. A structured variable in a tag tree pattern can be substituted by an arbitrary tree. A set of multiple tag tree patterns

Kengo Yoshida; Tetsuhiro Miyahara; Tetsuji Kuboyama

2010-01-01

448

Splay trees: a reweighing lemma and a proof of competitiveness vs. dynamic balanced trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a new lemma (dynamic reweighing) about splay trees and we define a class of dynamically self-adjusted trees (parametrically balanced) wide enough to include BB(?), AVL, rank-balanced and B-trees. Using our lemma we prove that splay trees are competitive to any such class of dynamic trees—noticing that so far splay trees had been proven competitive only w.r.t. static structures

George F. Georgakopoulos

2004-01-01

449

Foraging on and consumption of two species of papaya pest mites, Tetranychus kanzawai and Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae), by Mallada basalis (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).  

PubMed

Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Panonychus citri (McGregor) are two major acarine pests of the principal papaya variety in Taiwan, and they often co-occur in the same papaya screenhouses. This study measured prey acceptability, foraging schedule, short-term consumption rate, and handling time of larvae of a domesticated line of the green lacewing, Mallada basalis (Walker), in no-choice tests with different life stages of these two mite pests. After a period of prey deprivation, all three larval instars of M. basalis exhibited a high rate of acceptance of all life stages of both T. kanzawai and P. citri. In 2-h trials, second- and third-instar predators foraged actively most of the time, whereas first instars spent approximately 40% of the time at rest. Consumption increased and prey handling time decreased as predator life stage advanced and prey stage decreased. Third-instar lacewings consumed an average of 311.4 T. kanzawai eggs (handling time: 6.7 s/egg) and 68.2 adults (handling time: 58.8 s/adult), whereas first instars consumed 19.6 eggs (handling time: 23.6 s/egg) and 4.0 adults (handling time: 633.4 s/adult). M. basalis generally consumed more P. citri than T. kanzawai. Except for prey eggs, handling times of T. kanzawai were generally longer than those of P. citri by all M. basalis instars. Handling times were shorter, and consumption were greater, at the higher P. citri density than at the lower one, whereas there were generally no significant differences in prey acceptability and foraging time between those two densities. This study suggests that M. basalis larvae may have high potential for augmentative biological control of mites on papayas. PMID:19508780

Cheng, Ling Lan; Nechols, James R; Margolies, David C; Campbell, James F; Yang, Ping Shih; Chen, Chien Chung; Lu, Chiu Tung

2009-06-01

450

Integrated fault tree development environment  

SciTech Connect

Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques are utilized in the nuclear industry to perform safety analyses of complex defense-in-depth systems. A major effort in PRA development is fault tree construction. The Integrated Fault Tree Environment (IFTREE) is an interactive, graphics-based tool for fault tree design. IFTREE provides integrated building, editing, and analysis features on a personal workstation. The design philosophy of IFTREE is presented, and the interface is described. IFTREE utilizes a unique rule-based solution algorithm founded in artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. The impact of the AI approach on the program design is stressed. IFTREE has been developed to handle the design and maintenance of full-size living PRAs and is currently in use.

Dixon, B.W.

1986-01-01

451

Attention trees and semantic paths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few decades several techniques for image content extraction, often based on segmentation, have been proposed. It has been suggested that under the assumption of very general image content, segmentation becomes unstable and classification becomes unreliable. According to recent psychological theories, certain image regions attract the attention of human observers more than others and, generally, the image main meaning appears concentrated in those regions. Initially, regions attracting our attention are perceived as a whole and hypotheses on their content are formulated; successively the components of those regions are carefully analyzed and a more precise interpretation is reached. It is interesting to observe that an image decomposition process performed according to these psychological visual attention theories might present advantages with respect to a traditional segmentation approach. In this paper we propose an automatic procedure generating image decomposition based on the detection of visual attention regions. A new clustering algorithm taking advantage of the Delaunay- Voronoi diagrams for achieving the decomposition target is proposed. By applying that algorithm recursively, starting from the whole image, a transformation of the image into a tree of related meaningful regions is obtained (Attention Tree). Successively, a semantic interpretation of the leaf nodes is carried out by using a structure of Neural Networks (Neural Tree) assisted by a knowledge base (Ontology Net). Starting from leaf nodes, paths toward the root node across the Attention Tree are attempted. The task of the path consists in relating the semantics of each child-parent node pair and, consequently, in merging the corresponding image regions. The relationship detected in this way between two tree nodes generates, as a result, the extension of the interpreted image area through each step of the path. The construction of several Attention Trees has been performed and partial results will be shown.

Giusti, Christian; Pieroni, Goffredo G.; Pieroni, Laura

2007-03-01

452

Transport of Methane in Trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although overall methane (CH4) emissions for croplands, wetlands, and forests have been measured, the exact dynamics of CH4 transport through trees is not well understood. What roles transport mechanisms play in emission rates has been thoroughly investigated for rice, but is fairly unknown for trees. Better defined plant transport mechanisms yield more accurate determination of greenhouse gas flux and its variations, contributing to a comprehensive theory quantifying greenhouse gas emissions globally. CH4 emissions from the common wetland tree species black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) native to the Pacific Northwest have been measured under hydroponic conditions in order to separate plant transport processes from the influence of soil processes. Canopy emissions of CH4 have been measured via canopy enclosure. Measurements of CH4 flux from each of 16 trees have indicated that emissions are normally constant over the half-hour sampling period. Samples for stable carbon isotope composition have been taken during these experiments and measured on a mass spectrometer. Compared to the isotopic composition of root water CH4, canopy CH4 is depleted in 13C; this indicates that CH4 moving through the tree is not following a bulk flow pathway (where no depletion would occur), but instead moves either diffusively or through other cell or tissue barriers. No correlation was found to exist between leaf area and CH4 emission; this is vital to upscaling tree-level emissions to the global scale since leaf area index (LAI) cannot be treated as an appropriate parameter to upscale flux. Correctly informing global-scale CH4 fluxes from plants requires an association between the role plant physiology plays in the production and transport of CH4 and magnitudes of flux. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U. S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-08ER64515. Supported in part through NASA / Oregon Space Grant Consortium, grant NNG05GJ85H.

Kutschera, E.; Khalil, A. K.; Shearer, M. J.; Rosenstiel, T.; Rice, A. L.

2011-12-01

453

Properties of Consensus Methods for Inferring Species Trees from Gene Trees  

PubMed Central

Consensus methods provide a useful strategy for summarizing information from a collection of gene trees. An important application of consensus methods is to combine gene trees to estimate a species tree. To investigate the theoretical properties of consensus trees that would be obtained from large numbers of loci evolving according to a basic evolutionary model, we construct consensus trees from rooted gene trees that occur in proportion to gene-tree probabilities derived from coalescent theory. We consider majority-rule, rooted triple (R*), and greedy consensus trees obtained from known, rooted gene trees, both in the asymptotic case as numbers of gene trees approach infinity and for finite numbers of genes. Our results show that for some combinations of species-tree branch lengths, increasing the number of independent loci can make the rooted majority-rule consensus tree more likely to be at least partially unresolved. However, the probability that the R* consensus tree has the species-tree topology approaches 1 as the number of gene trees approaches ?. Although the greedy consensus algorithm can be the quickest to converge on the correct species-tree topology when increasing the number of gene trees, it can also be positively misleading. The majority-rule consensus tree is not a misleading estimator of the species-tree topology, and the R* consensus tree is a statistically consistent estimator of the species-tree topology. Our results therefore suggest a method for using multiple loci to infer the species-tree topology, even when it is discordant with the most likely gene tree.

Degnan, James H.; DeGiorgio, Michael; Bryant, David; Rosenberg, Noah A.

2009-01-01

454

Tree hydraulics: how sap rises  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trees transport water from roots to crown—a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by transpiration or capillary action; we investigate the effectiveness of both these forces for the two conduit architectures considered. The level of analysis is appropriate for undergraduates. The subject is of broad interest because it provides a naturally-occurring example of an unusual metastable state of matter: liquid under tension.

Denny, Mark

2012-01-01

455

Water Transport in Trees--An Artificial Laboratory Tree  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Water transport in tall trees is an everyday phenomenon, seldom noticed and not completely understood even by scientists. As a topic of current research in plant physiology it has several advantages for presentation within school physics lectures: it is interdisciplinary and clearly shows the connection between physics and biology; the…

Susman, K.; Razpet, N.; Cepic, M.

2011-01-01

456

CONTEXT-TREE WEIGHTING FOR EXTENDED TREE SOURCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the ISIT'95 Suzuki (1) presented a context weighting algorithm that covered a more general class of sources than the context-tree weighting method, at the cost of some extra complexity. Here his algorithm will be compared to an algorithm, that covers the same model class. Most modern universal source coding algorithms are based on statistical tech- niques. These algorithms consist

Paul A. J. Volf; Frans M. J. Willems

457

Scanning electron microscopy of the interaction between Cryptococcus magnus and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on papaya fruit = Microscopia eletrônica de varredura da interação entre Cryptococcus magnus e Colletotrichum gloeosporioides em frutos de mamão  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to investigate possible modes of action of the yeast Cryptococcus magnus in controlling anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) on post harvested papaya fruits. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the effect of the yeast on inoculations done after harvest. Results showed that C. magnus is able to colonize wound surfaces much faster than the pathogen,

G. Capdeville; M. T. Souza; J. R. P. Santos; S. P. Miranda; A. R. Caetano; R. Falcao; A. C. M. M. Gomes

2007-01-01

458

(1R,2S,6R)-2-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-dimethyl-3-oxabicyclo[4.2.0]octane, a new volatile released by males of the papaya borer Pseudopiazurus obesus (Col.: Curculionidae).  

PubMed

Sex-specific volatiles produced by males of the papaya beetle Pseudopiazurus obesus are (1R,2S)-grandisal (1), (1R,2S)-grandisol (2), and the new (1R,2S,6R)-2-hydroxymethyl-2,6-dimethyl-3-oxabicyclo[4.2.0]octane (3) termed papayanol. PMID:20465270

Zarbin, Paulo H G; Moreira, Marcos A B; Haftmann, Jenny; Tröger, Armin; Franke, Stephan; Kopf, Jürgen; Mori, Kenji; Francke, Wittko

2010-06-01

459

Whole tree harvesting systems for wood fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Whole tree harvesting systems for wood fuel, including both integrated harvesting and whole tree comminution systems, have been investigated in a series of harvesting trials. Integrated harvesting, which is applicable to both thinning and clearfell operat...

C. P. Mitchell J. B. Hudson P. G. S. Storry M. J. Brown

1993-01-01

460

Generating Functions for Multi-labeled Trees.  

PubMed

Multi-labeled trees are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that are used, for example, in the study of gene versus species evolution and as the basis for phylogenetic network construction. Unlike phylogenetic trees, in a leaf-multi-labeled tree it is possible to label more than one leaf by the same element of the underlying label set. In this paper we derive formulae for generating functions of leaf-multi-labeled trees and use these to derive recursions for counting such trees. In particular, we prove results which generalize previous theorems by Harding on so-called tree-shapes, and by Otter on relating the number of rooted and unrooted phylogenetic trees. PMID:23175592

Czabarka, E; Erd?s, P L; Johnson, V; Moulton, V

2012-09-01

461

Adaptive significance of root grafting in trees.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Root grafting has long been observed in forest trees but the adaptive significance of this trait has not been fully explained. Various authors have proposed that root grafting between trees contributes to mechanical support by linking adjacent root system...

C. Loehle R. Jones

1988-01-01

462

Value Tree Analysis of Energy Supply Alternatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examined the use of value trees in multiattribute evaluations of energy supply alternatives. A value tree relating general values and concerns to specific value relevant attributes was constructed to compare three energy options: nuclear, coal,...

W. G. Stillwell D. Winterfeldt R. S. John

1981-01-01

463

Human Reliability Analysis Using Event Trees.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Operator behavior in a technologically complex situation such as a nuclear power plant shutdown is analyzed by making a human reliability analysis event tree (HRA event tree) of each action, breaking down each action into small elementary steps. The appli...

G. Heslinga

1983-01-01

464

Conservation of Germplasm in Forest Trees - Treesearch  

Treesearch

In themselves, trees contribute taxonomic diversity through a wealth of species, from rare to ... The actual approach to forest-tree conservation and the methods used jointly depend on ... Resource Type: Management Plans and Reports. Format ...

465

The Umdhlebe Tree of Zululand  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE word ``umdhlebe'' does not, I think, appear in Döhne's ``Zulu-Kaffir Dictionary.'' I presume it to be a derivative from the root hlaba, which Döhne interprets as denoting, among other things, the giving of pain. Some native tales of the tree will he found in part iv. of Bishop Callaway's ``Religious System of the Amazulu,'' in which it is asserted

C. H. M

1882-01-01

466

Cylindrical trees of pin fins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we extend the constructal optimization method to cylindrical assemblies of pin fins. The assembly is arranged as a tree with one stem and many radial branches. The optimization consists of maximizing the global conductance subject to fixed total volume and amount of fin material. The length scale of the spacing between adjacent elemental fins is selected based

M. Almogbel; A. Bejan

2000-01-01

467

Transport on randomly evolving trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time process of transport on randomly evolving trees is investigated. By introducing the notions of living and dead nodes, a model of random tree evolution is constructed which describes the spreading in time of objects corresponding to nodes. It is assumed that at t=0 the tree consists of a single living node (root), from which the evolution may begin. At a certain time instant ??0 , the root produces ??0 living nodes connected by lines to the root which becomes dead at the moment of the offspring production. In the evolution process each of the new living nodes evolves further like a root independently of the others. By using the methods of the age-dependent branching processes we derive the joint distribution function of the numbers of living and dead nodes, and determine the correlation between these node numbers as a function of time. It is proved that the correlation function converges to 3/2 independently of the distributions of ? and ? when q1?1 and t?? . Also analyzed are the stochastic properties of the end nodes; and the correlation between the numbers of living and dead end nodes is shown to change its character suddenly at the very beginning of the evolution process. The survival probability of random trees is investigated and expressions are derived for this probability.

Pál, L.

2005-11-01

468

Stable isotopes in tree rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable isotopes in tree rings could provide palaeoclimate reconstructions with perfect annual resolution and statistically defined confidence limits. Recent advances make the approach viable for non-specialist laboratories. The relevant literature is, however, spread across several disciplines, with common problems approached in different ways. Here we provide the first overview of isotope dendroclimatology, explaining the underlying theory and describing the steps

Danny McCarroll; Neil J. Loader

2004-01-01

469

Key for Trees of Iowa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This key is designed to help identify the most common trees found in Iowa. It is based on vegetative characteristics such as leaves, fruits, and bark and is illustrated with black and white line drawings. Since vegetative characteristics vary due to climate, age, soil fertility, and other conditions, the numerical sizes listed, such as length and…

Coder, Kim D.; Wray, Paul H.

470

The Gift of the Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A piece of children's literature can be a powerful tool for teaching and learning science; however, it takes more than reading about a topic to qualify as "doing science." Inspired by the book, The Gift of the Tree , the author developed an in-dep

Jones, Marla W.

2009-09-01

471

The Education of Little Tree.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First published in 1976, this autobiography contains Forrest Carter's--Little Tree's--remembrances of life with his Eastern Cherokee Hill country grandparents in the 1930s. There are 21 chapters, recounting humorous and serious episodes from a 5-year period and dealing with the themes of growing up, Indian life and values, family relationships,…

Carter, Forrest

472

Max-Min Tree Partitioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The max-rain k-partition algorithm may be formulated as follows: Given a tree T with n edges and a nonnegative weight associated with each vertex, assign a cut to each of k distinct edges of T so as to maximize the weight of the lightest resulting connected subtree. An algorithm for this problem is presented which initially assigns all k cuts

Yehoshua Perl; Stephen R. Schach

1981-01-01

473

A Software Fault Tree Metric  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of software fault trees exposes hardware and software failure events that lead to unsafe system states, and provides insight on improving safety throughout each phase of the software lifecycle. Software product lines have emerged as an effort to achieve reuse, en- hance quality, and reduce development costs of safety- critical systems. Safety-critical product lines amplify the need for improved

D. Needham; S. Jones

2006-01-01

474

Diagnosing Tree-Decomposable Circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a diagnosis algorithm called structure-based abduction (SAB) which was developed in the framework of constraint networks (12). The algorithm exploits the structure of the constraint network and is most efficient for near-tree problem domains. By analyzing the structure of the problem do­ main, the performance of such algorithms can be bounded in advance. We present empir­ ical

Yousri El Fattah; Rina Dechter

1995-01-01

475

Can Children Read Evolutionary Trees?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Representations of the "tree of life" such as cladograms show the history of lineages and their relationships. They are increasingly found in formal and informal learning settings. Unfortunately, there is evidence that these representations can be challenging to interpret correctly. This study explored the question of whether children aged 7-11…

Ainsworth, Shaaron; Saffer, Jessica

2013-01-01

476

Not Just a Fall Tree  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Trees burst with color in the northern states. Autumn leaves dust the ground. Painting the fall landscape is nothing new. Teachers have been doing it in classrooms for decades. The approach, however, can make the difference between whether the fall landscape is simply painting for fun, or a real learning experience. Students learn best when they…

Miller-Hewes, Kathy A.

2004-01-01

477

Dynamic LCA queries on trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show how to maintain a data structure on trees which allows for the following operations, all in worst-case constant time: 1. insertion of leaves and internal nodes, 2. deletion of leaves, 3. deletion of internal nodes with only one child, 4. determining the least common ancestor of any two nodes. We also generalize the Dietz-Sleator \\

Richard Cole; Ramesh Hariharanl

1999-01-01

478

Boron translocation in coffee trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron deficiency in coffee trees (Coffea arabica) is widespread, however, responses to B fertilizer have been erratic, depending on the year, method, and time of application. A better understanding of B uptake, distribution, and remobilization within the plant is important in developing a rational fertilization program. Field\\u000a and greenhouse experiments were conducted to study B distribution and remobilization in coffee

Vagner M. Leite; Patrick H. Brown; Ciro A. Rosolem

2007-01-01

479

The Tree of Animal Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author describes a short activity which introduces third- to fifth-grade students to animal classification. The Tree of Animal Life activity is a simple, sorting exercise that can help them see a bigger picture. The activity sets the stage for learning about animal taxonomy and introduces the characteristics of various animal…

Braude, Stan

2007-01-01

480

Estimating tree diameter class frequencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of estimating stand tables in stands with few sample points is considered. The usual point sampling estimate of trees per hectare by diameter class is examined, along with two alternative estimators: a precision-weighted composite estimator and a pseudo-Bayes estimator. Stand tables are estimated for a subject stand with each of the three estimators in a simulation experiment. Both

Edwin J. Green; Michael Clutter

2002-01-01

481

The Gift of the Tree  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A piece of children's literature can be a powerful tool for teaching and learning science; however, it takes more than reading about a topic to qualify as "doing science." Inspired by the book, "The Gift of the Tree", the author developed an in-depth interdisciplinary lesson for her sixth-grade students without diluting the science. Through this…

Jones, Marla Wagner

2009-01-01

482

Mycotoxins in edible tree nuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree nuts (almonds, pistachios, and walnuts) are an exceptionally valuable crop, especially in California, with an aggregate value approaching $3.5 billion. Much of this economic value comes from overseas markets, with up to 60% of the crop being exported. The product can be contaminated with aflatoxins or ochratoxins, with the former being of special concern because of the strict regulatory levels

Russell J. Molyneux; Noreen Mahoney; Jong H. Kim; Bruce C. Campbell

2007-01-01

483

The Education of Little Tree.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|First published in 1976, this autobiography contains Forrest Carter's--Little Tree's--remembrances of life with his Eastern Cherokee Hill country grandparents in the 1930s. There are 21 chapters, recounting humorous and serious episodes from a 5-year period and dealing with the themes of growing up, Indian life and values, family relationships,…

Carter, Forrest

484

Fault trees and imperfect coverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new algorithm is presented for solving the fault tree. The algorithm includes the dynamic behavior of the fault\\/error handling model but obviates the need for the Markov chain solution. As the state space is expanded in a breadth-first search (the same is done in the conversion to a Markov chain), the state's contribution to each future state is calculated

Joanne Bechta Dugan

1989-01-01

485

Finding modules in fault trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for identifying all possible modules is presented. There are two kinds of modules: (1) those whose output events are expressed by gate events, and (2) those whose output events are not expressed by gate events. The latter are logical OR or AND combinations of basic events and modules. The method requires as input only fault-tree structure data

Takehisa Kohda; Ernest J. Henley; Koichi Inoue

1989-01-01

486

Compartmentalization of Decay in Trees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Unlike animals, which heal, trees compartmentalize by setting boundaries that resist the spread of invading microorganisms. Discusses the creation of new walls by anatomical and chemical means in response to death of a branch or pruning. Points out that genetic control of compartmentalization has resulted from evolution of resistant species. (DH)|

Shigo, Alex L.

1985-01-01

487

Conversion modelling: simulating tree stems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Profit in a competitive environment requires information to support efficient resource use in all endeavours including the forest and wood industry. The capacity to estimate value of a stand by modelling trees and simulating conversion along the whole value chain offers the potential to maximise efficiency, by enabling virtual trials of different production, processing and utilisation scenarios. Such a system

Graeme Palmer

2010-01-01

488

Transgenic Temperate Fruit Tree Rootstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperate fruit trees of the genus Malus (apple), Pyrus (pear) and Prunus (almond, apricot, sweet and sour cherry, peach, and plum) used for commercial fruit production and for backyard growers are usually grafted on clonal (asexually propagated) rootstocks. Rootstocks are used to propagate the fruiting scion onto a rooting system, to gain uniformity and precocity in fruiting portion compared to

SERGEY V DOLGOV; M-viola Hanke

489

TREE FERTILIZATION TRIALS IN ILLINOIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of mineral elements to soil to stimulate the growth of established trees has been a mainstay of arborists for years. Scientific studies to justify these practices are few in number. In the past 10 years some data have become available, mostly from van de Werken in Tennessee (6, 7), Smith in Ohio (4, 5), Whitcomb in Oklahoma (3,

Dan Neely

490

Harvesting small trees for biomass  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluated precommercial, full-tree thinning of saplings and small poletimber (1-8 inches depth breadth and height) using chainsaws and modified farm tractors for skidders. To facilitate cutting large numbers of small trees (1-5 inches), the chainsaw was fitted with a felling frame. The cutter felled and manually bunched up to 145 trees/2.7 tons per productive manhour. Average production, assuming 73% efficiency, was 90 trees/1.8 tons per scheduled hour at a cost of $6.22/ton. Skidding was done by a two-wheel drive grapple skidder and a four-wheel drive farm tractor with double-drum winch. The grapple skidder produced 3.8 tons per scheduled hour at a cost of $8.25 per ton, assuming a 75% utilization rate. The cable skidder produced 4 tons per scheduled hour at a cost of $7.00/ton; preset chokers increased production to 4.7 tons/hour at a cost of $5.96. The key to production was a modified herringbone pattern of corridors which facilitated skidder access to the wood. The weakest link in the operation was the difficult, labor-intensive work of felling and bunching. 14 references.

Hoffman, B.F.

1986-02-01

491

Tree spanners on chordal graphs: complexity andalgorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tree t-spanner T in a graph G is a spanning tree of G such that the distance in T between every pair of vertices is at most t times their distance in G. The TREE t-SPANNER problem asks whether a graph admits a tree t-spanner, given t. We substantially strengthen the hardness result of Cai andCorneil (SIAM J. Discrete

Andreas Brandst; Feodor F. Dragan; Bang Le

492

Wavelet tree quantization for copyright protection watermarking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a wavelet-tree-based blind watermarking scheme for copyright protection. The wavelet coefficients of the host image are grouped into so-called super trees. The watermark is embedded by quantizing super trees. The trees are so quantized that they exhibit a large enough statistical difference, which will later be used for watermark extraction. Each watermark bit is embedded in perceptually

Shih-hao Wang; Yuan-pei Lin

2004-01-01

493

Diversity of Endophytic Bacteria in Forest Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A group of studies on the diversity of endophytic bacteria in forest trees is presented in terms of host plant species variety\\u000a and the number of reports. Many host tree species are underrepresented in these studies: Trees in the tropics as well as some\\u000a important temperate tree species, such as those belonging to the genera of Alnus and Fagus, have

Hironari Izumi

494

A Bayes Evaluation Criterion for Decision Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present a new evaluation criterion for the induction of decision trees. We exploit a parameter-free Bayesian approach and\\u000a propose an analytic formula for the evaluation of the posterior probability of a decision tree given the data. We thus transform\\u000a the training problem into an optimization problem in the space of decision tree models, and search for the best tree,

Nicolas Voisine; Marc Boullé; Carine Hue

2009-01-01

495

Isoprene emission from Indian trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isoprene is the most dominant non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emitted by plants. NMVOCs play an important role in regulating the composition of atmospheric trace gases including global concentration of tropospheric ozone. Our present knowledge about NMVOCs emission is mainly from studies on temperate tree species. So far information on biogenic NMVOCs emission from tropical tree species is limited. In this study, isoprene emission rates from 40 tropical Indian tree species belonging to 33 genera and 17 families were measured for the first time using a dynamic flow through enclosure chamber technique. The isoprene emission rate from plants (30°C and PAR 1000 ?molm-2s-1) ranged from undetectable to 81.5 ?g g-1 h-1 and values were found to be comparable with other studies on tropical tree species. Tree species screened for isoprene emission in the present study may be grouped into the four categories, proposed by [2001], namely, 18 species were negligible or BDL isoprene emitting (<1 ?g g-1 h-1), 6 species were low emitting (1 ? to <10 ?g g-1 h-1), 5 species were moderate emitting (10? to <25 ?g g-1 h-1), and 11 species were high isoprene emitting (?25 ?g g-1 h-1). Maximum isoprene emission rate (81.5 ?g g-1 h-1) was observed in the case of Dalbergia sissoo Linn. It was interesting to find that Citrus limon Linn., Citrus reticulata Linn., Citrus sinensis Linn., Grevillea robusta A. Cunn., and Morus alba Linn., which were earlier reported as BDL or non isoprene emitters in US [, 1998; , 2001] were found to be appreciably high isoprene emitters (0.61-21.60 ?g g-1 h-1) in the present study.

Varshney, C. K.; Singh, Abhai Pratap

2003-12-01