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1

PAR  

E-print Network

La diffusion de cette thèse se fait dans le respect des droits de son auteur, qui a signé le formulaire Autorisation de reproduire et de diffuser un travail de recherche de cycles supérieurs (SDU-522- Rév.01-2006). Cette autorisation stipule que «conformément à l'article 11 du Règlement no 8 des études de cycles supérieurs, [l'auteur] concède à l'Université du Québec à Montréal une licence non exclusive d'utilisation et de publication de la totalité ou d'une partie importante de [son] travail de recherche pour des fins pédagogiques et non commerciales. Plus précisément, [l'auteur] autorise l'Université du Québec à Montréal à reproduire, diffuser, prêter, distribuer ou vendre des copies de [son] travail de recherche à des fins non commerciales sur quelque support que ce soit, y compris l'Internet. Cette licence et cette autorisation n'entraînent pas une renonciation de [la] part [de l'auteur] à [ses] droits moraux ni à [ses] droits de propriété intellectuelle. Sauf entente contraire, [l'auteur] conserve la liberté de diffuser et de commercialiser ou non ce travail dont [il] possède un exemplaire. » REMERCIEMENTS Je tiens tout d'abord à offrir mes plus sincères remerciements à ma directrice de thèse, Isabelle Rouleau, qui de par son soutien, sa générosité et son style d'encadrement

Université Du Québec À Montréal; Rôle De; La Neuropsychologie; Dans Les; Études Génétiques; Du Doctorat; En Psychologie; Geneviève Sénéchal; Juillet Il; Université Du; Québec À Montréal; Service Des Bibliothèques

2

Identification of immunoreactive FSH and LH cells in the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus during the ontogeny and sexual differentiation.  

PubMed

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) expressing cells were detected in pituitary, brain and ovary of the Perciform cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus. This detection was carried out by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot techniques using antisera of the Cyprinodontiform Fundulus heteroclitus raised against the conservative region of the teleost betaFSH and the betaLH subunits. The estimated molecular weights were 24 kDa for LH and 19 and 15 kDa for FSH. In the adult pituitary, both cell types were distributed along mid and ventral zones of the proximal pars distalis (PPD, mid-immunoreactive cells), and along the ventral and dorsal external border of the pars intermedia (PI, high-immunoreactive cells). Double IHC showed that FSH and LH are mainly expressed in different pituitary cells. FSH cells were detected in the pituitary around day 21 after hatching (ah) (prior to sex differentiation), while LH cells were detected by day 60 ah (during the sexual differentiation period). A correlation between gonadal sex differentiation and FSH was demonstrated in a 15 days organ culture system. FSH and LH neurons were localized in the nucleus lateralis tuberis and their fibers project through the ventral hypothalamus, preoptic area and neurohypophysis. FSH neurons differentiated on day 21 ah, while LH neurons appeared on day 15 ah. In the ovary, the immunoreactivity for both FSH and LH was restricted to the cytoplasm of previtellogenic and early vitellogenic oocytes. PMID:16676202

Pandolfi, Matías; Lo Nostro, Fabiana L; Shimizu, Akio; Pozzi, Andrea G; Meijide, Fernando J; Vazquez, Graciela Rey; Maggese, M Cristina

2006-10-01

3

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test  

MedlinePLUS

... blood. FSH is a hormone released by the pituitary gland , located on the underside of the brain. ... Due to certain types of tumor in the pituitary gland Due to Turner syndrome Low FSH levels in ...

4

FSH in the treatment of oligozoospermia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to individuate parameters able to distinguish oligozoospermic subjects who will respond to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) therapy. A group of 135 oligozoospermic subjects was divided in three groups considering basal FSH and inhibin B concentrations: group A (normal FSH and inhibin B) characterized by moderate hypospermatogenesis sometimes associated to partial spermatidic arrest; group B (high

C Foresta; A Bettella; M Merico; A Garolla; M Plebani; A Ferlin; M Rossato

2000-01-01

5

FSH-Receptor Isoforms and FSH-dependent Gene Transcription in Human Monocytes and Osteoclasts  

PubMed Central

Cells of the monocyte series respond to follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) by poorly characterized mechanisms. We studied FSH-receptors (FSH-R) and FSH response in nontransformed human monocytes and in osteoclasts differentiated from these cells. Western blot and PCR confirmed FSH-R expression on monocytes or osteoclasts, although at low levels relative to ovarian controls. Monocyte and osteoclast FSH-Rs differed from FSH-R from ovarian cells, reflecting variable splicing in exons 8–10. Monocytes produced no cAMP, the major signal in ovarian cells, in response to FSH. However, monocytes or osteoclasts transcribed TNF? in response to the FSH. No relation of expression of osteoclast FSH-R to the sex of cell donors or to exposure to sex hormones was apparent. Controls for FSH purity and endotoxin contamination were negative. Unamplified cRNA screening in adherent CD14 cells after 2 hours in 25 ng/ml FSH showed increased transcription of RANKL signalling proteins. Transcription of key proteins that stimulate bone turnover, TNF? and TSG-6, increased 2–3 fold after FSH treatment. Smaller but significant changes occurred in transcripts of selected signalling, adhesion, and cytoskeletal proteins. We conclude that monocyte and osteoclast FSH response diverges from that of ovarian cells, reflecting, at least in part, varying FSH-R isoforms. PMID:20171950

Robinson, Lisa J; Tourkova, Irina; Wang, Yujuan; Sharrow, Allison C; Landau, Michael S; Yaroslavskiy, Beatrice B; Li, Sun; Zaidi, Mone; Blair, Harry C

2010-01-01

6

Efficacy of Highly Purified Urinary FSH versus Recombinant FSH in Chinese Women over 37 Years Undergoing Assisted Reproductive Techniques  

PubMed Central

Background Urine derived follicle-stimulating hormone (uFSH) contains a higher proportion of acidic isoforms, whereas recombinant FSH (rFSH) contains a higher proportion of less-acidic isoforms. Less-acidic isoforms have a faster clearance, and thus a shorter half-life than the acidic FSH isoforms. The slow clearance of the acidic isoforms has a longer half-life and higher biological activity. This study was designed to determine whether uFSH or rFSH is more effective in older Chinese women undergoing assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Materials and Methods This is a prospective, randomized, controlled cohort study. A total of 508 Chinese women over 37 years were randomized into two following study groups for their in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles: i. group A (n=254) were treated with rFSH, and ii. group B (n=254) were treated with uFSH. Both groups were suppressed with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue using a long down-regulation protocol. The main outcomes for comparison were days of stimulation, estradiol (E2) on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration, number of oocytes collected, amount of FSH used, quantity of FSH/oocyte, endometrial thickness at hCG day, M ? oocyte rate, 2PN zygote rate, grade ? embryo rate, number of embryos cryopreserved, pregnancy rate, implantation rate, abortion rate and the rate of no transferable embryos. Results Twenty two cycles including 16 cycles with poor ovarian response and six cycles with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome were cancelled. There were 243 cycles left in each group. The patients treated with uFSH had a significantly higher 2PN zygote rate (87.4 vs. 76.6%, p<0.001), grade ? embryo rate (49.8 vs. 40.8%, p<0.001) and endometrial thickness on day of hCG (11.8 mm vs. 11.2 mm, respectively, p=0.006) and a lower rate of no transferable embryos (1.2 vs. 5.3%, p=0.019) than women treated with rFSH. The other measures evaluated showed no statistically significant differences between groups (p>0.05). Conclusion This study showed that uFSH produced a significantly higher proportion of grade ? embryos than rFSH in older Chinese women and there was a significantly lower chance of no transferable embryos in uFSH cycles. The clinical efficacy of the two gonadotropins was equivalent. PMID:25780520

Liu, Xuemei; Hao, Cuifang; Wang, Jinfang

2015-01-01

7

Avian LH and FSH: comparison of several radioimmunoassays  

SciTech Connect

Comparisons were made between various LH and FSH radioimmunoassays currently being used to measure avian hormones. The two LH assays were the homologous chicken system of Follett et al. (1972) and the turkey assay of Burke et al. (1979). These assays were also used in heterologous arrangement by interchanging the iodinated LH fractions and antisera. Five FSH assays were analyzed: two homologous chicken systems (Scanes et al., 1977; Sakai and Ishii, 1980) an assay based on mammalian materials (rat FSH and anti-ovine FSH antiserum, and one using labelled turkey FSH (Burke et al., 1979) with an anti-chicken FSH antiserum. The potencies of purified chicken and turkey gonadotrophin preparations and of a range of plasma samples from Japanese quail were measured in each assay. The two LH systems showed some degree of species specificity, such that chicken LH was more active than turkey LH in the chicken assay, whereas the reverse was true in the turkey LH assay. The potency estimates of the purified hormones in the various FSH assays were very consistent. The qualitative changes in plasma hormone levels were similar in all assays, although there were some differences in the magnitude of the responses.

Goldsmith, A.R.; Follett, B.K.

1983-04-01

8

Production, purification, and characterization of recombinant hFSH glycoforms for functional studies.  

PubMed

Previously, our laboratory demonstrated the existence of a ?-subunit glycosylation-deficient human FSH glycoform, hFSH(21). A third variant, hFSH(18), has recently been detected in FSH glycoforms isolated from purified pituitary hLH preparations. Human FSH(21) abundance in individual female pituitaries progressively decreased with increasing age. Hypo-glycosylated glycoform preparations are significantly more active than fully-glycosylated hFSH preparations. The purpose of this study was to produce, purify and chemically characterize both glycoform variants expressed by a mammalian cell line. Recombinant hFSH was expressed in a stable GH3 cell line and isolated from serum-free cell culture medium by sequential, hydrophobic and immunoaffinity chromatography. FSH glycoform fractions were separated by Superdex 75 gel-filtration. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of both hFSH(18) and hFSH(21) glycoforms in the low molecular weight fraction, however, their electrophoretic mobilities differed from those associated with the corresponding pituitary hFSH variants. Edman degradation of FSH(21/18)-derived ?-subunit before and after peptide-N-glycanase F digestion confirmed that it possessed a mixture of both mono-glycosylated FSH? subunits, as both Asn(7) and Asn(24) were partially glycosylated. FSH receptor-binding assays confirmed our previous observations that hFSH(21/18) exhibits greater receptor-binding affinity and occupies more FSH binding sites when compared to fully-glycosylated hFSH(24). Thus, the age-related reduction in hypo-glycosylated hFSH significantly reduces circulating levels of FSH biological activity that may further compromise reproductive function. Taken together, the ability to express and isolate recombinant hFSH glycoforms opens the way to study functional differences between them both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:25661536

Butnev, Viktor Y; Butnev, Vladimir Y; May, Jeffrey V; Shuai, Bin; Tran, Patrick; White, William K; Brown, Alan; Smalter Hall, Aaron; Harvey, David J; Bousfield, George R

2015-04-15

9

Primate FSH-receptor promoter nucleotide sequence heterogeneity affects FSH-receptor transcription.  

PubMed

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is essential for primate reproduction and acts via the FSH-receptor (FSHR). Although the FSHR expression is highly cell-specific, knowledge of the FSHR promoter and its transcriptional regulation is very limited. We applied a comparative genomic approach of important primate lineages to characterize the FSHR core promoter region. The core promoter sequences of the human and different primate species display significant variations in species-specific promoter activities shown by relative luciferase activity (RLA), ranging from 0.7-fold in the bonobo up to 3.5-fold in the chimpanzee compared to human. Comparison of the core promoter sequences revealed only very few interspecies nucleotide mismatches. Sequence homology ranged between 88% in the marmoset to 98% in chimpanzee compared to human FSHR. Mutagenesis of a single nucleotide next to a putative E-twenty-six (ETS) binding site caused a significant increase for human and a decrease for chimpanzee in RLA. An accompanying change in the pattern of protein binding to mutated human and chimpanzee ETS binding sites was demonstrated by EMSA, confirming a hitherto unknown role for this ETS binding site in FSHR promoter activity. Although the FSHR promoter displays a great sequence homology among primates, single nucleotide changes have significant impact on FSHR promoter activity. Thus promoter studies of closely related species could yield important insights into different regulatory promoter elements caused by nucleotide substitutions. PMID:20034540

Brune, Maik; Adams, Christian; Gromoll, Jörg

2010-04-12

10

Spermatid count as a predictor of response to FSH therapy.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the predictive power of spermatid count and cytology for assisted reproduction outcome after FSH therapy. A total of 174 men with severe oligozoospermia and normal plasma FSH concentration underwent semen analysis including spermatid count, TUNEL test, FISH analysis for sperm aneuploidies and testicular fine-needle aspiration cytology. Ninety-two men with hypospermatogenesis received FSH therapy for 3 months and 82 patients with maturative disturbance or partial obstruction served as controls. Semen was analysed at baseline, after FSH therapy and after 3- and 9-month follow up, and pregnancies were recorded. Subjects not reaching pregnancy at 3-month follow up were recommended assisted reproduction treatment. Spermatid count was related to testicular cytology: spermatid concentrations <0.01, 0.01-0.3 and >0.3 × 10(6)/ml were predictive of partial obstruction, hypospermatogenesis and maturative disturbance. FSH therapy patients showed increases in sperm number and motility (both P < 0.001), allowing some couples to undergo intrauterine insemination instead of IVF. Cumulative pregnancy rate after 12 months was higher with FSH therapy (44.6%) than without (22.0%; P = 0.002). FSH therapy improved pregnancy rate and sometimes allowed less invasive assisted reproduction treatment in well-selected patients. Spermatid count could represent a new parameter to predict response to FSH therapy. One-hundred seventy-four patients with severe reduction of sperm count and normal sex hormones plasma levels underwent semen analysis with spermatid count, and testicular fine needle aspiration cytologiy (FNAC). Ninety-two men infertile men with reduced sperm production (hypospermatogenesis) were treated with highly purified urofollitropin and 82 patients with sperm maturative defects or partial obstruction of the seminal tract served as controls. After treatment and after the following 3 and 9 months all subjects performed a new semen analysis and pregnancies were recorded. Subjects who had not reached spontaneous pregnancy were suggested to undergo assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs). Spermatid count was strongly related to testicular cytology: spermatid concentrations were predictive of partial obstruction, hypospermatogenesis and maturative disturbance respectively. Treated patients showed significant increase in sperm number and motility allowing some couples to undergo easier and less invasive assisted reproductive techniques. The number of pregnancies was significantly higher among treated (44.6%) than untreated couples (22.0%). Our data confirmed that FSH treatment can induce a significant improvemet of pergnancy rate and sometimes allows less invasive ARTs use in well selected severe oligozoospermic patients. Moreover, we suggest that spermatid count can be useful to define tubular status and could represent a new parameter to predict response to FSH therapy. PMID:24816256

Garolla, Andrea; Selice, Riccardo; Engl, Bruno; Bertoldo, Alessandro; Menegazzo, Massimo; Finos, Livio; Lenzi, Andrea; Foresta, Carlo

2014-07-01

11

Impairing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) signaling in vivo: targeted disruption of the FSH receptor leads to aberrant gametogenesis and hormonal imbalance.  

PubMed

Pituitary gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone stimulate the gonads by regulating germ cell proliferation and differentiation. FSH receptors (FSH-Rs) are localized to testicular Sertoli cells and ovarian granulosa cells and are coupled to activation of the adenylyl cyclase and other signaling pathways. Activation of FSH-Rs is considered essential for folliculogenesis in the female and spermatogenesis in the male. We have generated mice lacking FSH-R by homologous recombination. FSH-R-deficient males are fertile but display small testes and partial spermatogenic failure. Thus, although FSH signaling is not essential for initiating spermatogenesis, it appears to be required for adequate viability and motility of the sperms. FSH-R-deficient females display thin uteri and small ovaries and are sterile because of a block in folliculogenesis before antral follicle formation. Although the expression of marker genes is only moderately altered in FSH-R -/- mice, drastic sex-specific changes are observed in the levels of various hormones. The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland in females is enlarged and reveals a larger number of FSH- and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-positive cells. The phenotype of FSH-R -/- mice is reminiscent of human hypergonadotropic ovarian dysgenesis and infertility. PMID:9811848

Dierich, A; Sairam, M R; Monaco, L; Fimia, G M; Gansmuller, A; LeMeur, M; Sassone-Corsi, P

1998-11-10

12

Superovulation of holstein heifers by a single subcutaneous injection of FSH dissolved in polyvinylpyrrolidone  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to determine whether a single injection of porcine FSH (pFSH) would induce a superovulatory response in cattle. Holstein heifers were given a single injection of pFSH (30mg, sc) dissolved in saline (Group 1, n = 5); 50% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP; Group 2, n = 5); or 25% PVP (Group 3, n = 4). Group-4 heifers (n =

T. Takedomi; Y. Aoyagi; M. Konishi; H. Kishi; K. Taya; G. Watanabe; S. Sasamoto

1995-01-01

13

Polymorphism of Exon 2 of FSh? Gene and Its Relationship with Reproduction Performance in Two Goat Breeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the present study were to detect the polymorphism in follicle stimulating hormone beta (FSH?) gene and investigate the relationship between FSH? gene and high prolificacy in goats. According to the sequence of ovine FSH? gene, two pairs of primers were designed to detect single nucleotide polymorphism of exon 2 of FSH? gene in two goat breeds, Xinong

Xiao-peng AN; Dan HAN; Jin-xing HOU; Guang LI; Ya-na WANG; Ling LI; Guang-qin ZHU; Jian-gang WANG; Yu-xuan SONG; Bin-yun CAO

2010-01-01

14

Some chemical modifications of human follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).  

PubMed

Details are presented of a study of the effects of a range of chemical reactions on the biological activity of pituitary FSH. The chemical modifications included acetylation, succinylation, guanidination, alkylation, and esterification. Both the acetylation and the succinylation reactions caused complete loss of FSH biological activity which could not be restored by de-O-acetylation with hydroxylamine. More than 50% of the activity was retained after guanidination with O-methylisourea. Carbamylation by the use of K carbon-14 NO caused no loss of activity. Alkylation either with iodoacetamide or acrylonitrile did not effect the activity, 90% of which was retained when disulphide groups were reduced and this followed by alkylation. The use of 8 M urea to alter the tertiary structure of the glycoprotein, followed by cleavage and alkylation of disulphide linkages, resulted in estensive loss of activity. Treatment with 8 M urea alone under similar conditions diminished the activity by 35%. Almost complete loss of activity was also observed on esterification of FSH. It is suggested that the last effect may have been caused by the modification of N-acetyl neuraminic acid residues, known to be essential for the complete manifestation of the biological activity. The authors complete manifestation of the biological activity . The authors suggest that, as the chemical reagents used for the modification of glycoproteins frequently suffer from the disadvantages of being non-specific, further chemical and conformational characterization will be required before the exact nature of the structural changes taking place in FSH molecule and their effect on biological activity can be fully established. PMID:12305951

Amir, S M; Jenkins, J F

1971-01-01

15

Fsh controls gene expression in fish both independently of and through steroid mediation.  

PubMed

The mechanisms and the mediators relaying Fsh action on testicular functions are poorly understood. Unlike in mammals, in fish both gonadotropins (Fsh and Lh) are able to efficiently stimulate steroidogenesis, likely through a direct interaction with their cognate receptors present on the Leydig cells. In this context, it is crucial to understand if Fsh effects are mediated through the production of steroids. To address this issue we performed transcriptome studies after in vitro incubations of rainbow trout testis explants in the presence of Fsh alone or in combination with trilostane, an inhibitor of ?4- steroidogenesis. Trilostane significantly reduced or suppressed the response of many genes to Fsh (like wisp1, testis gapdhs, cldn11, inha, vt1 or dmrt1) showing that, in fish, important aspects of Fsh action follow indirect pathways and require the production of ?4-steroids. What is more, most of the genes regulated by Fsh through steroid mediation were similarly regulated by Lh (and/or androgens). In contrast, the response to Fsh of other genes was not suppressed in the presence of trilostane. These latter included genes encoding for anti-mullerian hormone, midkine a (pleiotrophin related), angiopoietine-related protein, cyclins E1 and G1, hepatocyte growth factor activator, insulin-like growth factor 1b/3. A majority of those genes were preferentially regulated by Fsh, when compared to Lh, suggesting that specific regulatory effects of Fsh did not depend on steroid production. Finally, antagonistic effects between Fsh and steroids were found, in particular for genes encoding key factors of steroidogenesis (star, hsd3b1, cyp11b2-2) or for genes of the Igf system (igf1b/3). Our study provides the first clear evidence that, in fish, Fsh exerts ?4-steroid-independent regulatory functions on many genes which are highly relevant for the onset of spermatogenesis. PMID:24194844

Sambroni, Elisabeth; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques; Le Gac, Florence

2013-01-01

16

Hypersecretion of FSH in Infant Boys and Girls Born Small for Gestational Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal growth restraint, as reflected in a low birthweight for gestational age, is a risk factor for postpubertal FSH hy- persecretion and for reduced gonadal size. The ontogeny of the low-birthweight effect on the FSH-inhibin B feedback loop is unknown. Infancy is an episode of choice to study the pos- sibility of an early low-birthweight effect on the FSH-inhibin B

LOURDES IBANEZ; CARME VALLS; MARIA COLS; ANGELA FERRER; MARIA VICTORIA MARCOS

17

Percentage change of FSH value: new variable to predict the seminal outcome after varicocelectomy.  

PubMed

In the literature, there is no good agreement with variables to predict seminal outcome after varicocelectomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the FSH percentage change (?% FSH) as a predictor of the seminal outcome after varicocelectomy together with other known predictors. We evaluated 118 patients who underwent varicocelectomy. We assessed factors that could be predictors of the improvement of semen characteristics: LH, FSH, total and free testosterone before operation, testis volume, age, testicular pain, body mass index (BMI), ?% FSH, varicocele Doppler ultrasound grade using regression analysis. Mean sperm concentration increased from 27 ± 12 to 52 ± 15 million per ml post-operatively (P < 0.003), mean sperm motility increased from 31 ± 12 to 40 ± 13 million per ml following the operation (P < 0.02), also mean FSH value changed from 10.2 ± 8.3 to 6.7 ± 7.2 UI/L (P < 0.01). In unvaried regression analysis, ?% FSH, BMI and age were predictors of the improvement of semen characteristics. In multiple regression analysis, only ?% FSH and age were predictors. Negative correlation with age and positive correlation with ?% FSH were observed. Our findings suggest that ?% FSH (before and after varicocelectomy) and age are significant factors predicting the improvement of semen characteristics. PMID:24698207

Cantoro, U; Catanzariti, F; Lacetera, V; Quaresima, L; Giovanni, M; Polito, M

2014-04-01

18

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Dosage Based on Body Weight Enhances Ovulatory Responses and Subsequent Embryo Production in Goats  

PubMed Central

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of porcine follicle stimulating hormone (pFSH) dosage based on body weight (BW) on ovarian responses of crossbred does. Thirty donor does were divided into 3 groups getting pFSH dosages of 3, 5, and 8 mg pFSH per kg BW, respectively, and were named as pFSH-3, pFSH-5 and pFSH-8, respectively. Estrus was synchronized by inserting a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device and a single injection of prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?). The pFSH treatments were administered twice a day through 6 decreasing dosages (25, 25, 15, 15, 10, and 10% of total pFSH amount; decreasing daily). Ovarian responses were evaluated on Day 7 after CIDR removal. After CIDR removal, estrus was observed 3 times in a day and pFSH treatments were initiated at 2 days before the CIDR removal. All does in pFSH-5 and pFSH-8 showed estrus signs while half of the does in pFSH-3 showed estrus signs. No differences (p>0.05) were observed on the corpus luteum and total ovarian stimulation among the treatment groups, while total and transferable embryos were higher (p<0.05) in pFSH-5 (7.00 and 6.71) than pFSH-3 (3.00 and 2.80) and pFSH-8 (2.00 and 1.50), respectively. In conclusion, 5 mg pFSH per kg BW dosage gave a higher number of embryos than 3 and 8 mg pFSH per kg BW dosages. The results indicated that the dosage of pFSH based on BW is an important consideration for superovulation in goats. PMID:25178370

Rahman, M. R.; Rahman, M. M.; Wan Khadijah, W. E.; Abdullah, R. B.

2014-01-01

19

mRNA-selective translation induced by FSH in primary Sertoli cells.  

PubMed

FSH is a key hormonal regulator of Sertoli cell secretory activity, required to optimize sperm production. To fulfil its biological function, FSH binds a G protein-coupled receptor, the FSH-R. The FSH-R-transduced signaling network ultimately leads to the transcription or down-regulation of numerous genes. In addition, recent evidence has suggested that FSH might also regulate protein translation. However, this point has never been demonstrated conclusively yet. Here we have addressed this issue in primary rat Sertoli cells endogenously expressing physiological levels of FSH-R. We observed that, within 90 min of stimulation, FSH not only enhanced overall protein synthesis in a mammalian target of rapamycin-dependent manner but also increased the recruitment of mRNA to polysomes. m(7)GTP pull-down experiments revealed the functional recruitment of mammalian target of rapamycin and p70 S6 kinase to the 5'cap, further supported by the enhanced phosphorylation of one of p70 S6 kinase targets, the eukaryotic initiation factor 4B. Importantly, the scaffolding eukaryotic initiation factor 4G was also recruited, whereas eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein, the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E generic inhibitor, appeared to play a minor role in translational regulations induced by FSH, in contrast to what is generally observed in response to anabolic factors. This particular regulation of the translational machinery by FSH stimulation might support mRNA-selective translation, as shown here by quantitative RT-PCR amplification of the c-fos and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA but not of all FSH target mRNA, in polysomal fractions. These findings add a new level of complexity to FSH biological roles in its natural target cells, which has been underappreciated so far. PMID:22383463

Musnier, Astrid; León, Kelly; Morales, Julia; Reiter, Eric; Boulo, Thomas; Costache, Vlad; Vourc'h, Patrick; Heitzler, Domitille; Oulhen, Nathalie; Poupon, Anne; Boulben, Sandrine; Cormier, Patrick; Crépieux, Pascale

2012-04-01

20

Immunization with FSH? fusion protein antigen prevents bone loss in a rat ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis model  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •A GST-FSH fusion protein was successfully expressed in E. coli. •Immunization with GST-FSH antigen can raise high-titer anti-FSH polyclonal sera. •Anti-FSH polyclonal sera can neutralize osteoclastogenic effect of FSH in vitro. •FSH immunization can prevent bone loss in a rat osteoporosis model. -- Abstract: Osteoporosis, a metabolic bone disease, threatens postmenopausal women globally. Hormone replacement therapy (HTR), especially estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), is used widely in the clinic because it has been generally accepted that postmenopausal osteoporosis is caused by estrogen deficiency. However, hypogonadal ? and ? estrogen receptor null mice were only mildly osteopenic, and mice with either receptor deleted had normal bone mass, indicating that estrogen may not be the only mediator that induces osteoporosis. Recently, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), the serum concentration of which increases from the very beginning of menopause, has been found to play a key role in postmenopausal osteoporosis by promoting osteoclastogenesis. In this article, we confirmed that exogenous FSH can enhance osteoclast differentiation in vitro and that this effect can be neutralized by either an anti-FSH monoclonal antibody or anti-FSH polyclonal sera raised by immunizing animals with a recombinant GST-FSH? fusion protein antigen. Moreover, immunizing ovariectomized rats with the GST-FSH? antigen does significantly prevent trabecular bone loss and thereby enhance the bone strength, indicating that a FSH-based vaccine may be a promising therapeutic strategy to slow down bone loss in postmenopausal women.

Geng, Wenxin; Yan, Xingrong; Du, Huicong; Cui, Jihong; Li, Liwen, E-mail: liven@nwu.edu.cn; Chen, Fulin, E-mail: chenfl@nwu.edu.cn

2013-05-03

21

Recombinant versus highly-purified, urinary follicle-stimulating hormone (r-FSH vs. HP-uFSH) in ovulation induction: a prospective, randomized study with cost-minimization analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Both recombinant FSH (r-FSH) and highly-purified, urinary FSH (HP-uFSH) are frequently used in ovulation induction associated with timed sexual intercourse. Their effectiveness is reported to be similar, and therefore the costs of treatment represent a major issue to be considered. Although several studies about costs in IVF have been published, data obtained in low-technology infertility treatments are still scarce.

Alberto Revelli; Francesca Poso; Gianluca Gennarelli; Federica Moffa; Giuseppina Grassi; Marco Massobrio

2006-01-01

22

Fasting lowers gastrin-releasing peptide and Fsh mRNA in the ovine anterior pituitary gland  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Estrogen receptor beta (ER-ß), LH, and FSH are important mediators of reproduction. FSH stimulates follicle recruitment and development. During anorexia, serum concentrations of FSH and LH decrease. Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), neuromedin B (NMB), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma...

23

Fasting lowers gastrin-releasing peptide and FSH mRNA in the ovine anterior pituitary gland  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Estrogen receptor beta (ER-ß), LH, and FSH are important mediators of reproduction. FSH stimulates follicle recruitment and development. During anorexia, serum concentrations of FSH and LH decrease. Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), neuromedin B (NMB), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma...

24

Hypersecretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) after ovariectomy of hypophysectomized, pituitary-grafted rats: implications for local regulatory control of FSH.  

PubMed

Previous observations have shown that a portion of the acute (less than 12 h) FSH hypersecretion after ovariectomy (OVX) is LHRH independent, thereby suggesting that mechanisms governing the acute FSH hypersecretory response to OVX may reside largely within the anterior pituitary gland. Accordingly, the present studies were conducted to determine whether acute OVX-induced FSH hypersecretion can be elicited in an animal model in which the anterior pituitary gland is isolated from diencephalic chemical signals, and if so, whether the hypersecretion could be abated by the FSH-suppressing protein, follistatin. Adult female rats hypophysectomized (H) 1 week earlier received anterior pituitary grafts (H/G) (one to three glands per rat) under the kidney capsule. In order to increase ovarian secretion of negative feedback effectors substances (i.e. estrogen, inhibin), some H/G rats were injected sc with 30 IU PMSG 4-6 days after receiving pituitary transplants, whereas other rats were given the saline vehicle. Two days later (0830 h), a blood sample was obtained via an indwelling atrial catheter inserted the previous day. H/G rats given saline or PMSG then were further subdivided and either castrated or sham castrated. Additional blood samples were obtained from the catheter, and trunk blood was collected from decapitated rats 24 h after OVX for measurement of serum estradiol and PRL levels. For comparison, H rats not receiving renal pituitary transplants were subdivided into similar experimental groups as the H/G rats. Blood samples were also obtained after sham OVX or OVX of pituitary-intact, 4-day cycling rats on diestrous day 1. Ovariectomy of PMSG-treated H rats receiving either one or three pituitary allografts resulted in a significant (P less than 0.01) increase in serum FSH levels by 12 h after OVX followed by a 2- to 3-fold increase in FSH levels by 24 h relative to either the pre-OVX FSH levels measured in this group or the FSH levels measured in PMSG-treated H/G rats 24 h after sham OVX. In contrast, OVX of saline-treated H/G rats failed to elicit FSH hypersecretion. Similarly, FSH hypersecretion was not observed after OVX of saline- or PMSG-treated H rats. Whereas serum LH levels were increased 24 h after OVX of diestrous rats, no such increases were detected 24 h after OVX of any H or H/G rats. In an additional experiment, H rats receiving two pituitary allografts were treated with PMSG and subsequently castrated. Twenty-four hours later, rats were injected iv with either 60 micrograms purified porcine follistatin or saline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1900775

DePaolo, L V

1991-04-01

25

Impaired fertility and FSH synthesis in gonadotrope-specific Foxl2 knockout mice.  

PubMed

Impairments in pituitary FSH synthesis or action cause infertility. However, causes of FSH dysregulation are poorly described, in part because of our incomplete understanding of mechanisms controlling FSH synthesis. Previously, we discovered a critical role for forkhead protein L2 (FOXL2) in activin-stimulated FSH ?-subunit (Fshb) transcription in immortalized cells in vitro. Here, we tested the hypothesis that FOXL2 is required for FSH synthesis in vivo. Using a Cre/lox approach, we selectively ablated Foxl2 in murine anterior pituitary gonadotrope cells. Conditional knockout (cKO) mice developed overtly normally but were subfertile in adulthood. Testis size and spermatogenesis were significantly impaired in cKO males. cKO females exhibited reduced ovarian weight and ovulated fewer oocytes in natural estrous cycles compared with controls. In contrast, ovaries of juvenile cKO females showed normal responses to exogenous gonadotropin stimulation. Both male and female cKO mice were FSH deficient, secondary to diminished pituitary Fshb mRNA production. Basal and activin-stimulated Fshb expression was similarly impaired in Foxl2 depleted primary pituitary cultures. Collectively, these data definitively establish FOXL2 as the first identified gonadotrope-restricted transcription factor required for selective FSH synthesis in vivo. PMID:23340250

Tran, Stella; Zhou, Xiang; Lafleur, Christine; Calderon, Michael J; Ellsworth, Buffy S; Kimmins, Sarah; Boehm, Ulrich; Treier, Mathias; Boerboom, Derek; Bernard, Daniel J

2013-03-01

26

Single nucleotide polymorphism of FSH? gene associated with reproductive traits in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Follicle stimulating hormone ? (FSH?) of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) plays a key role in the regulation of gonadal development. This study aimed to investigate molecular genetic characteristics of the FSH? gene and elucidate the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FSH? on reproductive traits in Japanese flounder. We used polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and sequencing of the FSH? gene in 60 individuals. We identified only an SNP (T/C) in the coding region of exon3 of FSH?. The SNP (T/C) did not lead to amino acid changes at the position 340 bp of FSH? gene. Statistical analysis showed that the SNP was significantly associated with testosterone (T) level and gonadosomatic index (GSI) ( P < 0.05). Individuals with genotype TC of the SNP had significantly higher serum T levels and GSI ( P < 0.05) than that of genotype CC. Therefore, FSH? gene could be a useful molecular marker in selection for prominent reproductive trait in Japanese Flounder.

He, Feng; Wen, Haishen; Yu, Dahui; Li, Jifang; Shi, Bao; Chen, Caifang; Zhang, Jiaren; Jin, Guoxiong; Chen, Xiaoyan; Shi, Dan; Yang, Yanping

2010-12-01

27

INFLUENCE OF LH-RF ON LH AND FSH RELEASES IN DOMESTIC MAMMALS  

E-print Network

-RF varies during the estrous cycle according to the plasma 173-oestradiolfprogesterone ratio, maximum LH,H-RF effect on I,H and FSH releases in sheep, cattle and pig, with frequent reference to other well

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

28

Biological activities of recombinant Manchurian trout FSH and LH: their receptor specificity, steroidogenic and vitellogenic potencies.  

PubMed

Gonadotropins (GTHs), FSH and LH, play central roles in vertebrate reproduction. Here, we report the production of biologically-active recombinant FSH (r-mtFSH) and LH (r-mtLH) of an endangered salmon species, Manchurian trout (Brachymystax lenok), by baculovirus in silkworm (Bombyx mori) larvae. The biological activities of the recombinant hormones were analyzed using COS-7 cell line transiently expressing either amago salmon FSH or LH receptor. The steroidogenic potency of the r-mtFSH and r-mtLH was examined by a culture system using rainbow trout follicles in vitro. In vivo, bioactivity was assessed by measuring ovarian weight, oocyte diameter, and plasma steroid hormone levels in female rainbow trout. Moreover, inducing potency of milt production were examined in vivo using goldfish. Our results demonstrated that the r-mtFSH and r-mtLH were successfully produced in the baculovirus-silkworm system and recognized by their cognate receptors specifically in vitro. The production of estradiol-17beta (E2) and testosterone (T) was stimulated by the r-mtFSH and r-mtLH respectively, from the full-grown follicles of rainbow trout, whereas both E2 and T were increased by relatively higher doses of the recombinant hormones from the follicles of the maturing stage. In in vivo assay, injection of the r-mtFSH but not r-mtLH increased ovarian weight, oocyte diameter, and plasma E2 levels in immature rainbow trout. Injection of both r-mtFSH and r-mtLH induced milt production in male goldfish. In conclusion, the present study strongly suggests that the r-mtFSH and r-mtLH have distinct biological properties, such as a specific responsiveness for the cognate receptor, steroidogenic, and vitellogenic activities for ovarian follicles in salmonids. These recombinant FSH and LH may be applied for future studies on the gonadal development and maturation in fishes as well as the endangered salmon species. PMID:17242173

Ko, Hyeyeon; Park, WooDong; Kim, Dae-Jung; Kobayashi, Makito; Sohn, Young Chang

2007-02-01

29

Hypersecretion of FSH in infant boys and girls born small for gestational age.  

PubMed

Prenatal growth restraint, as reflected in a low birthweight for gestational age, is a risk factor for postpubertal FSH hypersecretion and for reduced gonadal size. The ontogeny of the low-birthweight effect on the FSH-inhibin B feedback loop is unknown. Infancy is an episode of choice to study the possibility of an early low-birthweight effect on the FSH-inhibin B loop because this phase is characterized by high activity within the gonadal axis. We assessed serum concentrations of FSH and inhibin B in 46 infants [26 girls and 20 boys; mean age, 4 months; range, 3-6 months; 17 appropriate for gestational age (AGA), 29 small for gestational age (SGA); mean birthweight, 3.2 kg for AGA vs. 2.3 kg for SGA], together with circulating levels of LH, E2, and free androgen index. In SGA girls and boys, serum FSH levels were 2- and 4-fold higher (P < 0.001), respectively, than in AGA controls of the same gender (7.3 +/- 0.9 vs. 3.8 +/- 0.4 IU/ml and 2.9 +/- 0.5 vs. 0.7 +/- 0.2 IU/ml). Serum LH, inhibin B, and free androgen index/E2 concentrations were similar in AGA and SGA infants. In conclusion, prenatal growth restraint was found to be followed by elevated serum FSH concentrations in infant girls and boys. SGA infants seem to need an augmented FSH drive to fulfill inhibin B requirements on the afferent side of the feedback loop. The late-endocrine correlates of early growth restraint are herewith extended to include the main axis of reproduction in both genders. It remains to be studied whether FSH hypersecretion in infancy is a marker of subsequent subfertility. PMID:11994329

Ibáñez, Lourdes; Valls, Carme; Cols, Maria; Ferrer, Angela; Marcos, Maria Victoria; De Zegher, Francis

2002-05-01

30

Evaluation of FSH, LH and testosterone levels in different subgroups of infertile males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gonadotropins (FSH, LH) and testosterone are the prime regulators of germ cell development. Abnormal spermatogenesis is often\\u000a associated with altered serum gonadotropins and testosterone. FSH, LH and testosterone levels were estimated in 96 infertile\\u000a men of whom 35 were azoospermic, 35 were oligozoospermic, 11 were with varicocele and 15 were with histopathological abnormalities\\u000a like hypospermatogenesis, spermatid arrest and sertoli-cell only

S. Ramesh Babu; M. D. Sadhnani; M. Swarna; P. Padmavathi; P. P. Reddy

2004-01-01

31

Development and Validation of a Sensitive Radioimmunoassay Procedure for Estimating FSH in Mithun (Bos frontalis) Plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to develop and validate a simple and sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedure to estimate FSH in mithun (Bos frontalis) plasma. The assay was carried out in 100 µL of mithun plasma. The bovine FSH standards (10 to 5000 pg\\/100 µL\\/tube) in hormone?free plasma were used in the assay. The sensitivity of the assay was 20 pg\\/100 µL\\/tube, which corresponded to 0.20 ng\\/mL

A. Dhali; D. P. Mishra; A. Mech; K. Khate; C. Rajkhowa; M. Karunakaran

2007-01-01

32

Redirecting intracellular trafficking and the secretion pattern of FSH dramatically enhances ovarian function in mice  

PubMed Central

FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH) are secreted constitutively or in pulses, respectively, from pituitary gonadotropes in many vertebrates, and regulate ovarian function. The molecular basis for this evolutionarily conserved gonadotropin-specific secretion pattern is not understood. Here, we show that the carboxyterminal heptapeptide in LH is a gonadotropin-sorting determinant in vivo that directs pulsatile secretion. FSH containing this heptapeptide enters the regulated pathway in gonadotropes of transgenic mice, and is released in response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone, similar to LH. FSH released from the LH secretory pathway rescued ovarian defects in Fshb-null mice as efficiently as constitutively secreted FSH. Interestingly, the rerouted FSH enhanced ovarian follicle survival, caused a dramatic increase in number of ovulations, and prolonged female reproductive lifespan. Furthermore, the rerouted FSH vastly improved the in vivo fertilization competency of eggs, their subsequent development in vitro and when transplanted, the ability to produce offspring. Our study demonstrates the feasibility to fine-tune the target tissue responses by modifying the intracellular trafficking and secretory fate of a pituitary trophic hormone. The approach to interconvert the secretory fate of proteins in vivo has pathophysiological significance, and could explain the etiology of several hormone hyperstimulation and resistance syndromes. PMID:24706813

Wang, Huizhen; Larson, Melissa; Jablonka-Shariff, Albina; Pearl, Christopher A.; Miller, William L.; Conn, P. Michael; Boime, Irving; Kumar, T. Rajendra

2014-01-01

33

Frequency modulation of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) during the luteal-follicular transition: evidence for FSH control of inhibin B in normal women.  

PubMed

To isolate the impact of GnRH pulse frequency on FSH secretion and to examine the effect of differing levels of FSH on inhibin B secretion during the luteal-follicular transition, exogenous GnRH was administered to GnRH-deficient women using one of two regimens, and the results were compared to those in normal women. In the GnRH-deficient women, the GnRH pulse frequency was increased from every 4 h in the late luteal phase to every 90 min on the day of menses to mimic normal cycling women (physiological frequency transition; n = 8 studies) or the GnRH pulse frequency was kept constant at a late luteal phase frequency of every 4 h through the first 6 days of the subsequent early follicular phase of cycle 2 (slow frequency transition; n = 6 studies). The differential rise in FSH secretion induced in these studies allowed us to examine the subsequent contribution of varying levels of FSH to inhibin B secretion. A physiological regimen of GnRH during the luteal-follicular transition resulted in a rise in FSH and inhibin B levels that did not differ from that in normal cycling women and a normal follicular phase length. On the other hand, maintaining a luteal frequency of GnRH for 6 days into the subsequent early follicular phase produced FSH levels significantly lower than those in the physiological transition (P < 0.05), with the greatest difference seen on the day after menses (9.1 +/- 1.0 vs. 16.4 +/- 1.4 IU/L for the slow and physiological transition groups, respectively; P < 0.005), but no difference in LH. This slower rise of FSH secretion in the slow frequency group was associated with significantly lower inhibin B levels (43.3 +/- 21.5 vs. 140.0 +/- 24.4 pg/mL, mean days 1, 3, and 5; P < 0.02), a later doubling of estradiol from baseline (day 9.6 +/- 0.9 vs. day 5.6 +/- 0.1; P < 0.02), and a longer follicular phase length (16.0 +/- 1.4 vs. 11.6 +/- 0.9 days; P < 0.05) compared with those in the physiological transition group. In conclusion, during the luteal-follicular transition, the GnRH pulse frequency contributes to but is not solely responsible for the FSH rise that initiates folliculogenesis. Alteration of FSH dynamics induced by changes in GnRH pulse frequency in GnRH-deficient women provides evidence that FSH stimulates inhibin B production in the human. Timely follicular development indicated by both estradiol and inhibin B secretion appears to be dependent on the pattern of increase in FSH during the luteal-follicular transition. PMID:9253348

Welt, C K; Martin, K A; Taylor, A E; Lambert-Messerlian, G M; Crowley, W F; Smith, J A; Schoenfeld, D A; Hall, J E

1997-08-01

34

Regulation and Regulatory Role of WNT Signaling in Potentiating FSH Action during Bovine Dominant Follicle Selection  

PubMed Central

Follicular development occurs in wave like patterns in monotocous species such as cattle and humans and is regulated by a complex interaction of gonadotropins with local intrafollicular regulatory molecules. To further elucidate potential mechanisms controlling dominant follicle selection, granulosa cell RNA harvested from F1 (largest) and F2 (second largest) follicles isolated at predeviation (PD) and onset of diameter deviation (OD) stages of the first follicular wave was subjected to preliminary RNA transcriptome analysis. Expression of numerous WNT system components was observed. Hence experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that WNT signaling modulates FSH action on granulosa cells during follicular waves. Abundance of mRNA for WNT pathway members was evaluated in granulosa cells harvested from follicles at emergence (EM), PD, OD and early dominance (ED) stages of the first follicular wave. In F1 follicles, abundance of CTNNB1 and DVL1 mRNAs was higher and AXIN2 mRNA was lower at ED versus EM stages and DVL1 and FZD6 mRNAs were higher and AXIN2 mRNA was lower in F1 versus F2 follicle at the ED stage. Bovine granulosa cells were treated in vitro with increasing doses of the WNT inhibitor IWR-1+/? maximal stimulatory dose of FSH. IWR-1 treatment blocked the FSH-induced increase in granulosa cell numbers and reduced the FSH-induced increase in estradiol. Granulosa cells were also cultured in the presence or absence of FSH +/? IWR-1 and hormonal regulation of mRNA for WNT pathway members and known FSH targets determined. FSH treatment increased CYP19A1, CCND2, CTNNB1, AXIN2 and FZD6 mRNAs and the stimulatory effect on CYP19A1 mRNA was reduced by IWR-1. In contrast, FSH reduced CARTPT mRNA and IWR-1 partially reversed the inhibitory effect of FSH. Results support temporal and hormonal regulation and a potential role for WNT signaling in potentiating FSH action during dominant follicle selection. PMID:24936794

Gupta, P. S. P.; Folger, Joseph K.; Rajput, Sandeep K.; Lv, Lihua; Yao, Jianbo; Ireland, James J.; Smith, George W.

2014-01-01

35

Premature Luteinization in In Vitro Fertilization Cycles Using Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist (GnRH-a) and Recombinant Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and GnRH-a and Urinary FSH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine if premature luteinization can occur in GnRH agonist (GnRH-a) and FSH (recombinant FSH and human urinary FSH) IVF cycles and whether premature luteinization affects IVF and clinical outcome.Design: Retrospective evaluation of 171 IVF-ET cycles. The cycles were divided into two groups according to the P level on the day of hCG: group I (serum P ? 0.9

Filippo Ubaldi; Michel Camus; Johan Smitz; Herjan J. T Coelingh Bennink; André Van Steirteghem; Paul Devroey

1998-01-01

36

Estrogen and leptin have differential effects on FSH and LH release in female rats.  

PubMed

Prior experiments have shown that the adipocyte hormone leptin can advance puberty in mice. We hypothesized that it would also stimulate gonadotrophin secretion in adults. Since the secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) is drastically affected by estrogen, we hypothesized that leptin might have different actions dependent on the dose of estrogen. Consequently in these experiments, we tested the effect of injection of leptin into the third cerebral ventricle of ovariectomized animals injected with either the oil diluent, 10 microg or 50 microg of estradiol benzoate 72 hr prior to the experiment. The animals were ovariectomized 3-4 weeks prior to implantation of a cannula into the third ventricle 1 week before the experiments. The day after implantation of an external jugular catheter, blood samples (0. 3 ml) were collected just before and every 10 min for 2 hr after 3V injection of 5 microl of diluent or 10 microg of leptin. Both doses of estradiol benzoate equally decreased plasma LH concentrations and pulse amplitude, but there was a graded decrease in pulse frequency. In contrast, only the 50-microg dose of estradiol benzoate significantly decreased mean plasma FSH concentrations without significantly changing other parameters of FSH release. The number of LH pulses alone and pulses of both hormones together decreased as the dose of estrogen was increased, whereas the number of pulses of FSH alone significantly increased with the higher dose of estradiol benzoate, demonstrating differential control of LH and FSH secretion by estrogen, consistent with alterations in release of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) and the putative FSH-releasing factor (FSHRF), respectively. The effects of intraventricularly injected leptin were drastically altered by increasing doses of estradiol benzoate. There was no significant effect of intraventricular injection of leptin (10 microg) on the various parameters of either FSH or LH secretion in ovariectomized, oil-injected rats, whereas in those injected with 10 microg of estradiol benzoate there was an increase in the first hr in mean plasma concentration, area under the curve, pulse amplitude, and maximum increase of LH above the starting value (Deltamax) on comparison with the results in the diluent-injected animals in which there was no alteration of these parameters during the 2 hr following injection. The pattern of FSH release was opposite to that of LH and had a different time-course. In the diluent-injected animals, probably because of the stress of injection and frequent blood sampling, there was an initial significant decline in plasma FSH at 20 min after injection, followed by a progressive increase with a significant elevation above the control values at 110 and 120 min. In the leptin-injected animals, mean plasma FSH was nearly constant during the entire experiment, coupled with a significant decrease below values in diluent-injected rats, beginning at 30 min after injection and progressing to a maximal difference at 120 min. Area under the curve, pulse amplitude, and Deltamax of FSH was also decreased in the second hour compared to values in diluent-injected rats. In contrast to the stimulatory effects of intraventricular injection of leptin on pulsatile LH release manifest during the first hour after injection, there was a diametrically opposite, delayed significant decrease in pulsatile FSH release. This differential effect of leptin on FSH and LH release was consistent with differential effects of leptin on LHRH and FSHRF release. Finally, the higher dose of E2 (50 microg) suppressed release of both FSH and LH, but there was little effect of leptin under these conditions, the only effect being a slight (P < 0.04) increase in pulse amplitude of LH in this group of rats. The results indicate that the central effects of leptin on gonadotropin release are strongly dependent on plasma estradiol levels. These effects are consistent w PMID:10564542

Walczewska, A; Yu, W H; Karanth, S; McCann, S M

1999-11-01

37

The Immunoexpression of FSH-R in the Ductuli Efferentes and the Epididymis of Men and Rat: Effect of FSH on the Morphology and Steroidogenic Activity of Rat Epididymal Epithelial Cells In Vitro  

PubMed Central

The Sertoli cells were regarded as the only target for FSH in male reproductive system. The expression of FSH receptor (FSH-R) was detected also in epithelial cells of the caput epididymis of rat and monkey. We showed in the immunohistochemistry study the expression of FSH-R in rat and human ductuli efferentes and the caput, corpus, and cauda epididymis, moreover, by Western blot analysis in the caput and cauda epididymis of rat. Additionally, we presented that the morphology of rat epididymal epithelial cells in vitro was affected by FSH, and FSH stimulation resulted in the increase of 17?-estradiol synthesis by rat caput epididymal cells in dose-depended manner. In conclusion, the identification of FSH receptors in human and rat epididymides supports our results that the epididymis is a target organ not only for LH but additionally for FSH. On the basis of the results we showed for the first time that morphology of epididymal epithelial cells and epididymal steroidogenesis can be regulated by FSH. PMID:20467586

?wider-Al-Amawi, Ma?gorzata; Kolasa, Agnieszka; Sikorski, Andrzej; Marchlewicz, Mariola; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Wiszniewska, Barbara

2010-01-01

38

Reproductive outcome of polycystic ovarian syndrome patients treated with GnRH antagonists and recombinant FSH for IVF\\/ICSI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the reproductive outcome of patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) treated by in-vitro fertilization (IVF)\\/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with recombinant FSH (rFSH) and gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists. One hundred and ten patients were evaluated. The starting dose of rFSH was 100 IU in 67 women with body mass index (BMI)

Efstratios Kolibianakis; Kostantinos Zikopoulos; Carola Albano; Michel Camus; Herman Tournaye; Andre Van Steirteghem; Paul Devroey

2003-01-01

39

Pars Stress Fracture (Lumbar Spondylolysis)  

MedlinePLUS

... Neck and Back) > Pars Stress Fracture Pars Stress Fracture Page Content Pars stress fractures occur in young athletes involved in repetitive bending ... an episode of low back pain Pars stress fracture, also called lumbar spondylolysis, is one of the ...

40

Addition of low dose hCG to rFSh benefits older women during ovarian stimulation for IVF  

PubMed Central

Background To compare the outcome of IVF cycles in women receiving controlled ovarian stimulation with recFSH or recFSH plus low dose hCG. Methods A retrospective case control study, performed at a private practice affiliated with an academic institute. Patients were infertile women who were treated with IVF/ICSI and controlled ovarian stimulation in a long GnRH agonist protocol using either low dose hCG in addition to recFSH [N?=?88] or recFSH alone [N?=?99]. Primary outcomes were mean FSH dose, number of mature eggs, number of fertilized eggs, and serum levels of estradiol. Secondary outcomes were endometrial thickness, cycle cancellations and pregnancy rates. Results A significant increase in number of mature and fertilized eggs was observed in women over 40?years of age using low dose hCG in addition to recFSH. The estradiol level was significantly higher on the day of hCG administration and the serum level of FSH on cycle day 7 and on the day of hCG administration were lower. Conclusion Addition of low dose hCG to recFSH compared with recFSH alone significantly modified cycle characteristics in patients >/= 40?years and could be of potential benefit for IVF cycles in older infertile women. PMID:22866896

2012-01-01

41

Exogenous administration of recombinant human FSH does not improve germ cell survival in human prepubertal xenografts.  

PubMed

In a previous study, meiotic activity was observed in human intratesticular xenografts from peripubertal patients. However, full spermatogenesis could not be established. The present study aimed to evaluate whether the administration of recombinant human FSH could improve the spermatogonial survival and the establishment of full spermatogenesis in intratesticular human xenografts. Human testicular tissue was obtained from six boys (aged 2.5-12.5years). The testicular biopsy was fragmented and one fragment of 1.5-3.0mm(3) was transplanted to the testis of immunodeficient nude mice. Transplanted mice were assigned to different experimental groups to enable evaluation of the effects of FSH administration and freezing. The structural integrity of the seminiferous tubules, the spermatogonial survival and the presence of differentiated cells were evaluated by histology and immunohistochemistry. Freezing or administration of FSH did not influence tubule integrity and germ cell survival in human xenografts. Meiotic germ cells were observed in the xenografts. More tubules containing only Sertoli cells were observed in frozen-thawed grafts, and more tubules with meiotic cells were present in fresh grafts. There was no clear influence of FSH treatment on meiotic differentiation. Administration of FSH did not improve the establishment of full spermatogenesis after intratesticular tissue grafting. PMID:23352099

Van Saen, Dorien; Goossens, Ellen; Haentjens, Patrick; Baert, Yoni; Tournaye, Herman

2013-03-01

42

Androgen and FSH synergistically stimulate lipoprotein degradation and utilization by ovary granulosa cells  

SciTech Connect

Androgen can directly modulate the induction of steroidogenic enzymes by FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) in ovary granulosa cells. In studies of its mechanism of action, the authors examined the androgen effect on granulosa cell interaction with lipoproteins, the physiologic source of cholesterol. After granulosa cells were cultured for 48 hours with and without androgen and/or FSH, the cells were incubated for 24 hours with /sup 125/I-lipoproteins (human high density lipoprotein (HDL), rat HDL, or human low density lipoprotein (LDL)). The media were then analyzed for lipoprotein protein coat degradation products (mainly /sup 125/I-monoiodotyrosine) and progestin (mainly 20 alpha-dihydroprogesterone (20 alpha-DHP)). In the absence of FSH and androgen, 2 X 10(5) granulosa cells degraded basal levels of all three lipoproteins, but produced no measurable 20 alpha-DHP. The addition of 10(-7) M androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), or 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) had no effect on lipoprotein protein degradation or 20 alpha-DHP production. FSH alone stimulated lipoprotein protein degradation by 50 to 300% while the addition of androgen synergistically augmented the FSH-stimulated 20 alpha-DHP production as well as protein coat degradation of all three lipoproteins. DHT and T were both effective, indicating that androgens themselves, and not estrogen products, were responsible for the effect on lipoprotein protein degradation and 20 alpha-DHP production.

Schreiber, J.R.; Nakamura, K.; Schmit, V.; Weinstein, D.B.

1984-01-01

43

Use of a single injection of long-acting recombinant bovine FSH to superovulate Holstein heifers: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

Our objective was to compare several experimental preparations of a single injection of long-acting recombinant bovine FSH (rbFSH; types A and B) to a porcine pituitary-derived FSH (Folltropin) to superovulate Holstein dairy heifers. Nonlactating, nonpregnant virgin Holstein heifers (n = 56) aged 12 to 15 months were randomly assigned to one of four superstimulatory treatments. Beginning at a random stage of the estrous cycle, all follicles greater than 5 mm were aspirated. Thirty-six hours later, heifers received an intravaginal P4 device and superstimulatory treatments were initiated. Treatments were (1) 300 mg of pituitary-derived FSH (Folltropin) administered in eight decreasing doses over a period of 3.5 days; (2) a single injection of 50 ?g of A-rbFSH; (3) a single injection of 100 ?g of A-rbFSH; and (4) a single injection of 50 ?g of B-rbFSH. All heifers received 25 mg PGF2? at 48 and 72 hours after the insertion of P4 device. At 84 hours after insertion, P4 devices were removed, and ovulation was induced 24 hours later with hCG (2500 IU). Heifers were inseminated at 12 and 24 hours after hCG treatment. The number of ovulatory follicles was greatest for heifers treated with Folltropin and B50-rbFSH, least for heifers treated with A50-rbFSH, and was intermediate for heifers treated with A100-rbFSH (25.7 ± 3.2, 18.9 ± 3.2, 5.9 ± 0.9, and 16.6 ± 3.1, respectively; P < 0.001). The number of corpora lutea was greatest for heifers treated with Folltropin, B50-rbFSH, and A100-rbFSH, and least for heifers treated with A50-rbFSH (19.1 ± 2.4, 16.1 ± 3.0, 15.9 ± 2.9, and 2.6 ± 0.9, respectively; P < 0.001). The number of good-quality embryos differed among treatments and was greatest for heifers treated with B50-rbFSH, Folltropin, and A100-rbFSH and least for heifers treated with A50-rbFSH (7.6 ± 2.4, 6.5 ± 1.7, 4.3 ± 1.5, and 0.8 ± 0.5, respectively; P < 0.001). In conclusion, a single injection of a preparation of long-acting rbFSH (either 100 ?g of A-rbFSH or 50 ?g of B-rbFSH but not 50 ?g of A-rbFSH) produced similar superovulatory responses resulting in the production of good-quality embryos when compared with a pituitary-derived FSH preparation administered twice daily for 4 days. More studies using different types of cattle and different doses of rbFSH are needed to confirm the findings reported in this preliminary study. PMID:24938802

Carvalho, Paulo D; Hackbart, Katherine S; Bender, Robb W; Baez, Giovanni M; Dresch, Ana R; Guenther, Jerry N; Souza, Alex H; Fricke, Paul M

2014-08-01

44

Pubertal Onset in Girls is Strongly Influenced by Genetic Variation Affecting FSH Action  

PubMed Central

Age at pubertal onset varies substantially in healthy girls. Although genetic factors are responsible for more than half of the phenotypic variation, only a small part has been attributed to specific genetic polymorphisms identified so far. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates ovarian follicle maturation and estradiol synthesis which is responsible for breast development. We assessed the effect of three polymorphisms influencing FSH action on age at breast deveopment in a population-based cohort of 964 healthy girls. Girls homozygous for FSHR -29AA (reduced FSH receptor expression) entered puberty 7.4 (2.5–12.4) months later than carriers of the common variants FSHR -29GG+GA, p = 0.003. To our knowledge, this is the strongest genetic effect on age at pubertal onset in girls published to date. PMID:25231187

Hagen, Casper P.; Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Mouritsen, Annette; Mieritz, Mikkel G.; Tinggaard, Jeanette; Wohlfart-Veje, Christine; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Main, Katharina M.; Meyts, Ewa Rajpert-De; Almstrup, Kristian; Juul, Anders

2014-01-01

45

Ultrastructure of Sheep Primordial Follicles Cultured in the Presence of Indol Acetic Acid, EGF, and FSH  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural characteristics of primordial follicles after culturing of sheep ovarian cortical slices in the presence of indol acetic acid (IAA), Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), and FSH. To evaluate ultrastructure of primordial follicles cultured in MEM (control) or in MEM containing IAA, EGF, and FSH, fragments of cultured tissue were processes for transmission electron microscopy. Except in the control, primordial follicles cultured in supplemented media for 6?d were ultrastructurally normal. They had oocyte with intact nucleus and the cytoplasm contained heterogeneous-sized lipid droplets and numerous round or elongated mitochondria with intact parallel cristae were observed. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) was rarely found. The granulosa cells cytoplasm contained a great number of mitochondria and abundant RER. In conclusion, the presence of IAA, EGF, and FSH helped to maintain ultrastructural integrity of sheep primordial follicles cultured in vitro. PMID:21188166

Andrade, Evelyn Rabelo; Maddox-Hyttel, Poul; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda Da Cruz; Viana Silva, José Roberto; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Seneda, Marcelo Marcondes; Figueiredo, José Ricardo; Toniolli, Ricardo

2011-01-01

46

Serum Inhibin B in Combination with Serum Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Is a More Sensitive Marker Than Serum FSH Alone for Impaired Spermatogenesis in Men, But Cannot Predict the Presence of Sperm in Testicular Tissue Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of serum FSH is useful in the diagnostic workup of the infertile male, but fails to predict the presence of sperm in testicular tissue. We investigated whether inhibin B reflects testic- ular morphology and the presence of sperm more accurately than FSH. Serum inhibin B and gonadotropin levels were determined in 91 infertile men undergoing diagnostic bilateral testicular

SIGRID VON ECKARDSTEIN; MANUELA SIMONI; MARTIN BERGMANN; GERHARD F. WEINBAUER; PAUL GASSNER; ANDREAS G. SCHEPERS; EBERHARD NIESCHLAG

47

Characterization and seasonal changes in LH? and FSH? mRNA of Rhinella arenarum (Amphibia, Anura).  

PubMed

In anurans, two types of gonadotropins were described in several species of Ranidae and Pipidae families but only in one of the Bufonidae family. Rhinella arenarum is a bufonid that have the lowest concentration of plasma androgens during the breeding. The objective of this paper was to characterize the cDNA sequence of ? subunit of LH and FSH from toad pituitary and study seasonal variation in gonadotropins mRNA using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The LH? cDNA is a 636 bp sequence containing an open reading frame (ORF), 45 bp of 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and 174 bp of 3'-UTR. The ORF encodes for a signal peptide of 26 amino acids and a mature protein of 113 amino acids with one N-glycosylation site at the 34th position. The FSH? cDNA sequence is a 535 bp fragment containing an ORF, 8 bp of 5'-UTR and 152 bp of 3'-UTR. The ORF encodes for a signal peptide of 20 amino acids and a mature protein of 104 amino acids with two N-glycosylation sites at 25th and 42nd positions. Multiple alignments of aminoacid deduced sequences of LH? and FSH? (teleosts, amphibians, birds, mammals) showed that all the tetrapods studied conserve 12 cysteins and one (LH) or two (FSH) N-Glycosylation sites. LH? is closer to teleosts than to mammals and birds while FSH? is closer to mammals. The analysis of seasonal changes in LH? and FSH? mRNA indicates that transcript levels have seasonal variations and that the profile of androgens is opposite to that of the gonadotropins mRNA. PMID:23619187

Volonteri, M Clara; Regueira, Eleonora; Scaia, M Florencia; Ceballos, Nora R

2013-06-15

48

The BET protein FSH functionally interacts with ASH1 to orchestrate global gene activity in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Background The question of how cells re-establish gene expression states after cell division is still poorly understood. Genetic and molecular analyses have indicated that Trithorax group (TrxG) proteins are critical for the long-term maintenance of active gene expression states in many organisms. A generally accepted model suggests that TrxG proteins contribute to maintenance of transcription by protecting genes from inappropriate Polycomb group (PcG)-mediated silencing, instead of directly promoting transcription. Results and discussion Here we report a physical and functional interaction in Drosophila between two members of the TrxG, the histone methyltransferase ASH1 and the bromodomain and extraterminal family protein FSH. We investigated this interface at the genome level, uncovering a widespread co-localization of both proteins at promoters and PcG-bound intergenic elements. Our integrative analysis of chromatin maps and gene expression profiles revealed that the observed ASH1-FSH binding pattern at promoters is a hallmark of active genes. Inhibition of FSH-binding to chromatin resulted in global down-regulation of transcription. In addition, we found that genes displaying marks of robust PcG-mediated repression also have ASH1 and FSH bound to their promoters. Conclusions Our data strongly favor a global coactivator function of ASH1 and FSH during transcription, as opposed to the notion that TrxG proteins impede inappropriate PcG-mediated silencing, but are dispensable elsewhere. Instead, our results suggest that PcG repression needs to overcome the transcription-promoting function of ASH1 and FSH in order to silence genes. PMID:23442797

2013-01-01

49

Development and validation of a sensitive radioimmunoassay procedure for estimating FSH in mithun (Bos frontalis) plasma.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to develop and validate a simple and sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedure to estimate FSH in mithun (Bosfrontalis) plasma. The assay was carried out in 100 [L of mithun plasma. The bovine FSH standards (10 to 5000 pg/100 microL/tube) in hormone-free plasma were used in the assay. The sensitivity of the assay was 20 pg/100 microL/tube, which corresponded to 0.20 ng/mL plasma. The 50% relative binding sensitivity of the assay was 80 pg/100 microL/tube, which corresponded to 0.80 ng/mL plasma. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 4.6% and 12.4%, respectively. The biological validation of the assay was carried out in plasma samples that were collected during different stages of the estrous cycle. In the entire estrous cycle, plasma FSH concentration (p < 0.01) attained two peaks (on day 3 to 4 before estrus 5.1 +/- 0.3 ng/mL and on the day of estrus 6.9 +/- 0.2 ng/mL). FSH concentration remained at basal level (1.3 +/- 0.1 to 1.6 +/- 0.2 ng/mL) during day 4 to 16 of the estrous cycle. The concentration of plasma FSH was found to be significantly (p < 0.05) higher (4.9 +/- 0.3 to 6.8 +/- 0.5 ng/mL) until 48 h following the estrus onset. In conclusion, the RIA procedure that was developed in the current study is sufficiently reliable and sensitive to estimate different physiological levels of FSH in mithun plasma. PMID:17424829

Dhali, A; Mishra, D P; Mech, A; Khate, K; Rajkhowa, C; Karunakaran, M

2007-01-01

50

The FSH-inhibin axis in prader-willi syndrome: heterogeneity of gonadal dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Background We characterized the spectrum and etiology of hypogonadism in a cohort of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) adolescents and adults. Methods Reproductive hormonal profiles and physical examination were performed on 19 males and 16 females ages 16–34?years with PWS. Gonadotropins, sex-steroids, inhibin B (INB) and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) were measured. We defined 4 groups according to the relative contribution of central and gonadal dysfunction based on FSH and INB levels: Group A: primary hypogonadism (FSH >15?IU/l and undetectable INB (<10?pg/ml); Group B: central hypogonadism (FSH <0.5?IU/l, INB <10?pg/ml); Group C: partial gonadal & central dysfunction (FSH 1.5–15?IU/l, INB >20?pg/ml); Group D: mild central and severe gonadal dysfunction (FSH 1.5–15?IU/l, INB?FSH and inhibin B revealed four distinct phenotypes ranging from primary gonadal to central hypogonadism. Primary gonadal dysfunction was common, while severe gonadotropin deficiency was rare. Longitudinal studies are needed to verify whether the individual phenotypes are consistent. PMID:22559970

2012-01-01

51

Expression Profiles of Fsh-Regulated Ovarian Genes during Oogenesis in Coho Salmon  

PubMed Central

The function of follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) during oogenesis in fishes is poorly understood. Using coho salmon as a fish model, we recently identified a suite of genes regulated by Fsh in vitro and involved in ovarian processes mostly unexplored in fishes, like cell proliferation, differentiation, survival or extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. To better understand the role of these Fsh-regulated genes during oocyte growth in fishes, we characterized their mRNA levels at discrete stages of the ovarian development in coho salmon. While most of the transcripts were expressed at low levels during primary growth (perinucleolus stage), high expression of genes associated with cell proliferation (pim1, pcna, and mcm4) and survival (ddit4l) was found in follicles at this stage. The transition to secondary oocyte growth (cortical alveolus and lipid droplet stage ovarian follicles) was characterized by a marked increase in the expression of genes related to cell survival (clu1, clu2 and ivns1abpa). Expression of genes associated with cell differentiation and growth (wt2l and adh8l), growth factor signaling (inha), steroidogenesis (cyp19a1a) and the ECM (col1a1, col1a2 and dcn) peaked in vitellogenic follicles, showing a strong and positive correlation with transcripts for fshr. Other genes regulated by Fsh and associated with ECM function (ctgf, wapl and fn1) and growth factor signaling (bmp16 and smad5l) peaked in maturing follicles, along with increases in steroidogenesis-related gene transcripts. In conclusion, ovarian genes regulated by Fsh showed marked differences in their expression patterns during oogenesis in coho salmon. Our results suggest that Fsh regulates different ovarian processes at specific stages of development, likely through interaction with other intra- or extra-ovarian factors. PMID:25485989

Guzmán, José M.; Luckenbach, J. Adam; Yamamoto, Yoji; Swanson, Penny

2014-01-01

52

Comparison of highly purified urinary versus recombinant FSH: Effect on ART outcomes in polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of ovulatory disorders and infertility with high LH to FSH ratio. In order to prevent further increase of LH and follicle atresia, different regimens for ovulation induction have been recommended using FSH alone. Objective: This study was performed in PCOS patients to compare ART outcomes in cycles induced by FSH alone, using either recombinant or urinary products. Materials and Methods: In a randomized trial, from 623 patients who underwent down regulation with GnRH analogue in a long protocol, 160 PCOS patients were randomly divided into two groups of 80. Group A received 150 IU/d recombinant FSH (Gonal-F) and group B 150 IU/d urinary FSH (Fostimon). Results: 33 cases (41.2%) in group A and 36 (45%) in group B achieved clinical pregnancy, which was not significantly different (p=0.67). Total number of oocytes retrieved (13.03±5.56 vs. 14.17±4.89, p=0.17), quality and number of embryos (7.42±3.35 vs. 7.63±3.28, p=0.68) and OHSS rate were similar in group A compared to group B. Endometrial thickness which was 9.66±1.67 mm in group A and 10.36±1.35 mm in group B, showed a significant difference (p=0.004). Conclusion: It seems that in PCOS patients, both pure FSH products used for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation have similar effects on ART outcome and can be used according to availability and patient acceptance without significant difference. PMID:25242998

Sohrabvand, Farnaz; Sheikhhassani, Shahrzad; Bagheri, Maryam; Haghollahi, Fedyeh; Shabihkhani, Maryam; Shariat, Mamak; Nasr Esfahani, Manijeh

2012-01-01

53

Successful use of aromatase inhibitor letrozole in NOA with an elevated FSH level: a case report.  

PubMed

Aromatase inhibitors inhibit the conversion of testosterone to oestrogens and could reduce serum oestradiol concentrations. Letrozole is one of aromatase inhibitors frequently used in treatment of men with oligospermia. We present the case of an infertile man with small testes and an elevated FSH level, which was diagnosed as NOA, hypospermatogenesis proven by testicular biopsy. After taking letrozole for 3 months, semen analyses by computer-aided sperm analysis present that this man had normal spermatogenesis. This is the first case report of the activation of spermatogenesis, in man who was NOA with elevated FSH level, resulting from the use of the one of aromatase inhibitors. PMID:23803162

Zhao, D; Pan, L; Zhang, F; Pan, F; Ma, J; Zhang, X; Liu, Y

2014-05-01

54

FSH and TSH in the Regulation of Bone Mass: The Pituitary/Immune/Bone Axis  

PubMed Central

Recent evidences have highlighted that the pituitary hormones have profound effects on bone, so that the pituitary-bone axis is now becoming an important issue in the skeletal biology. Here, we discuss the topical evidence about the dysfunction of the pituitary-bone axis that leads to osteoporotic bone loss. We will explore the context of FSH and TSH hormones arguing their direct or indirect role in bone loss. In addition, we will focus on the knowledge that both FSH and TSH have influence on proinflammatory and proosteoclastogenic cytokine expression, such as TNF? and IL-1, underlining the correlation of pituitary-bone axis to the immune system. PMID:23818914

Cuscito, Concetta; Colucci, Silvia

2013-01-01

55

Molecular Analysis of a Mutated FSH Receptor Detected in a Patient with Spontaneous Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (sOHSS) is a rare event that may result from a FSH-producing pituitary adenoma (FSHoma), activating mutations of the FSH receptor (FSHR), and cross-reactivity of the FSHR to elevated hCG and TSH in the setting of pregnancy or hypothyroidism. The objective of this study was to investigate whether an aberrant FSHR was present in a woman with sOHSS and a non-surgically diagnosed FSHoma whose serum FSH levels and FSH bioactivity were nearly normal. Sequencing of the patient’s FSHR gene revealed a heterozygous novel missense mutation c. 1536G>A resulting in an amino acid substitution M512I. We asked whether this mutant FSHR affected FSHR-mediated signaling pathways involving cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA), phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) and v-src sarcoma (Schmidt-Ruppin A-2) viral oncogene homolog kinase (SRC)/ p42/p44 extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2). Thus, 293T cells expressing wild-type (FSHRwt), the mutant FSHR (FSHRmt), or both (FSHRwt/mt) were treated with FSH and subjected to measurements of intracellular cAMP, cAMP-induced CRE (cAMP response element)-mediated luciferase assays and immunoblot analyses of phosphorylated PI3K and ERK1/2. There were no differences in luciferase activities or phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 among FSHRwt, FSHRmt cells and FSHwt/mt cells. However, FSHRmt cells showed a significant reduction in both cAMP production and PI3K phosphorylation levels with unchanged phosphorylation of ERK1/2 upon FSH stimulation in comparison to FSHwt cells. Also, FSH treatment did not provoke PI3K phosphorylation in FSHwt/mt cells. These results indicate that the novel missense M512I FSHR mutation identified herein did not participate in hyperactivation of FSHR-mediated signaling pathways but rather in hypoactivation of the FSH-mediated PI3K/AKT pathway. Thus, this study demonstrates a new functional property of this novel mutatnt FSHR, which, however, might not be involved in the pathogenesis of sOHSS in this FSHoma patient. PMID:24058690

Uchida, Sayaka; Uchida, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Tetsuo; Kajitani, Takashi; Oda, Hideyuki; Miyazaki, Kaoru; Kagami, Maki; Yoshimura, Yasunori

2013-01-01

56

Alterations in Sperm Characteristics of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)-Immunized Men Are Similar to Those of FSH-Deprived Infertile Male Bonnet Monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of sperm ejaculated by bonnet monkeys and normal, healthy proven fertile volunteer men, both actively im- munized with ovine follicle-stimulating hormone (oFSH), was ex- amined at different times of study for chromatin packaging and ac- rosomal glycoprotein concentration by flow cytometry. Susceptibility of sperm nuclear DNA to dithiothreitol (DTT)-induced decondensa- tion, as measured by ethidium bromide binding, was

HANUMANTHAPPA KRISHNAMURTHY; K. M. PRASANNA KUMAR; CHIRAG V. JOSHI; HEGGANAHALLI N. KRISHNAMURTHY; RAGHUVEER N. MOUDGAL; M. RAM SAIRAM

57

A Naturally Occurring Basically Charged Human Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Variant Inhibits FSH-Induced Androgen Aromatization and Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator Enzyme Activity in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that deglycosylation of gonadotropins by enzymatic or chemical procedures or by deletion of sites for N-linked glycosylation produces antagonistic analogs which are able to interact strongly with the receptor and to inhibit binding of the wild-type hormone. In the present study, we analyzed the antagonistic properties of a naturally occurring basic follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) charge isoform

Carlos M. Timossi; Jorgelina Barrios de Tomasi; Elena Zambrano; Roberto González; Alfredo Ulloa-Aguirre

1998-01-01

58

Synthetic releasing hormones LH/FSH-RH and LH-RH : effect of intracerebral and intramuscular injections on female carp  

E-print Network

Synthetic releasing hormones LH/FSH-RH and LH-RH : effect of intracerebral and intramuscular extract as well as that of synthetic releasing hormones stimulates the release of gonadotropin from fish in this study as well as intra- muscular injections of synthetic releasing hormones LH/FSH-RH for comparison

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

59

A comparison of the changes in LH, FSH and testosterone in spring-born ram lambs of two different breeds.  

E-print Network

A comparison of the changes in LH, FSH and testosterone in spring-born ram lambs of two different, Station de Zootechnie, I.N.R.A., 97170 Petit-Bourg, Guadeloupe. Summary. LH, FSH and testosterone and testosterone pulses per hour was higher in Romanov than in Ile-de-France lambs. The mean plasma testosterone

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

60

RGD-mediated adhesion of porcine granulosa cells modulates their differentiation response to FSH in vitro.  

PubMed

Porcine granulosa cells cultured in serum-free medium undergo metabolic and morphologic changes after follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulation. Under these conditions, granulosa cells differentiate and tend to round up and their links with the plastic support are reduced. Coating of culture substratum with PepTite-2000, an integrin-binding synthetic peptide containing RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) sequences enhanced the plating of granulosa cells. Whether the peptide be present or not, cells cultivated in basal synthetic medium (without FSH) were flattened and attached to the substratum by stress fibers at focal contacts where integrin beta 1, extracellular fibronectin, and urokinase plasminogen activator colocalized. After FSH stimulation, part of the cells rounded up and F-actin took a more uniform, cortical localization. Correlatively, extracellular fibronectin aggregated in a clump, while integrin beta 1 and urokinase plasminogen activator spread over rounded cells. These morphological changes elicited by FSH were little affected by the presence of PepTite-2000, yet a larger number of cells remained flattened. However, concerning steroidogenesis, increasing concentrations of peptide seemed to favor progesterone rather than estrogen production, and to restrain luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor expression, suggesting a premature commitment of cells towards luteinization rather than completion of follicular preovulatory differentiation. PMID:7549912

Goxe, B; Flechon, J E; Delasalle, S; Salesse, R

1995-01-01

61

Effects of estradiol and FSH on leptin levels in women with suppressed pituitary  

PubMed Central

Background Female fertility depends on adequate nutrition and energy reserves, suggesting a correlation between the metabolic reserve and reproductive capacity. Leptin regulates body weight and energy homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether estradiol or FSH alone has a direct effect on the production of leptin. Methods A total of 64 patients submitted to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with recombinant FSH for assisted reproduction and 20 patients using estradiol valerate for endometrial preparation for oocyte donation treatment were included in the study. All patients used GnRH analogues before starting treatment to achieve pituitary suppression. Blood samples for hormonal measurements were collected before starting and after completing the respective treatments. Data were analyzed statistically by the chi-square test, Student’s?t-test and Pearson’s correlation test. Results We observed an elevation of serum leptin levels secondary to the increase in estradiol, in the absence of influence of any other ovarian or pituitary hormone. The rising rate of leptin levels was higher in women treated with recombinant FSH, which also had higher levels of estradiol, than in those treated with estradiol valerate. Conclusions This study demonstrates a correlation between serum levels of estradiol and leptin, suggesting that estradiol is an important regulator of leptin production and that its effects can be amplified by its association with FSH. PMID:22703959

2012-01-01

62

Progesterone, estrogen, LH, FSH and PRL concentrations in plasma during the estrous cycle in goat  

E-print Network

in female pygmy goats. The present experiment was conducted to determine progesterone, estrogen, LH, FSH in a rabbit to 11a-hydroxyprogesterone-hemisuccinate-BSA, was used at a dilution at 1:12 000. Cross by RIA as described by Seren, Leopold and BoleHi-- (1974). The antiserum was raised in a rabbit

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

63

A FSH-Secreting Pituitary Macroadenoma Causing A Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome  

PubMed Central

FSH-secreting pituitary adenomas can affect sexual and reproductive function. In this article, we have reported the case of a 32-year-old male with secondary infertility. The patient had sexual and reproductive disturbances. The test results of the blood samples indicated obviously decreased testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) levels. Based on previous hormonal results, the patient received pituitary stimulation and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) tests. Both follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) showed low response during the pituitary stimulation test. The results of the hCG test indicated that T/E2 could recover to a normal level. In addition, this patient was diagnosed with pituitary macroadenoma, which was supported by the pituitary MRI. The man’s sexual and reproductive functions recovered following surgery. The pathological results confirmed that the tumor tissue was an FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma by immunohistochemical staining. The purpose of this report was to review the relative literature and discuss the influence of FSH-secreting pituitary adenomas on hormones through the hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis. PMID:24696774

Wang, Xiong; Ge, Li; Cui, Yuanqing; Lang, Cuihong; Hao, Cuifang

2014-01-01

64

Fsh Controls Gene Expression in Fish both Independently of and through Steroid Mediation  

E-print Network

was not suppressed in the presence of trilostane. These latter included genes encoding for anti-mullerian hormone factor activator, insulin-like growth factor 1b/3. A majority of those genes were preferentiallyFsh Controls Gene Expression in Fish both Independently of and through Steroid Mediation Elisabeth

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

65

Weak evidence of bright light effects on human LH and FSH  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Most mammals are seasonal breeders whose gonads grow to anticipate reproduction in the spring and summer. As day length increases, secretion increases for two gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). This response is largely controlled by light. Light effects on gonadotropins are mediated through effects on the suprachiasmatic nucleus and responses of the circadian system. There

Daniel F Kripke; Jeffrey A Elliott; Shawn D Youngstedt; Barbara L Parry; Richard L Hauger; Katharine M Rex

2010-01-01

66

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase p110? mediates estrogen- and FSH-stimulated ovarian follicle growth.  

PubMed

In the mammalian ovary, primordial follicles are generated early in life and remain dormant for prolonged periods. Their growth resumes via primordial follicle activation, and they continue to grow until the preovulatory stage under the regulation of hormones and growth factors, such as estrogen, FSH, and IGF-1. Both FSH and IGF-1 activate the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt (acute transforming retrovirus thymoma protein kinase) signaling pathway in granulosa cells (GCs), yet it remains inconclusive whether the PI3K pathway is crucial for follicle growth. In this study, we investigated the p110? isoform (encoded by the Pik3cd gene) of PI3K catalytic subunit expression in the mouse ovary and its function in fertility. Pik3cd-null females were subfertile, exhibited fewer growing follicles and more atretic antral follicles in the ovary, and responded poorly to exogenous gonadotropins compared with controls. Ovary transplantation showed that Pik3cd-null ovaries responded poorly to FSH stimulation in vitro; this confirmed that the follicle growth defect was intrinsically ovarian. In addition, estradiol (E2)-stimulated follicle growth and GC proliferation in preantral follicles was impaired in Pik3cd-null ovaries. FSH and E2 substantially activated the PI3K/Akt pathway in GCs of control mice but not in those of Pik3cd-null mice. However, primordial follicle activation and oocyte meiotic maturation were not affected by Pik3cd knockout. Taken together, our findings indicate that the p110? isoform of the PI3K catalytic subunit is a key component of the PI3K pathway for both FSH and E2-stimulated follicle growth in ovarian GCs; however, it is not required for primordial follicle activation and oocyte development. PMID:23820902

Li, Qian; He, Hui; Zhang, Yin-Li; Li, Xiao-Meng; Guo, Xuejiang; Huo, Ran; Bi, Ye; Li, Jing; Fan, Heng-Yu; Sha, Jiahao

2013-09-01

67

Low Levels of G?s and Ric8b in Testicular Sertoli Cells May Underlie Restricted FSH Action During Infancy in Primates.  

PubMed

FSH acts via testicular Sertoli cells (Sc) bearing FSH receptor (FSH-R) for regulating male fertility. Despite an adult-like FSH milieu in infant boys and monkeys, spermatogenesis is not initiated until the onset of puberty. We used infant and pubertal monkey Sc to reveal the molecular basis underlying developmental differences of FSH-R signaling in them. Unlike pubertal Sc, increasing doses of FSH failed to augment cAMP production by infant Sc. The expression of G?s subunit and Ric8b, which collectively activate adenylyl cyclase (AC) for augmenting cAMP production and gene transcription, were significantly low in infant Sc. However, forskolin, which acts directly on AC bypassing FSH-R, augmented cAMP production and gene transcription uniformly in both infant and pubertal Sc. FSH-induced G?s mRNA expression was higher in pubertal Sc. However, G?i-2 expression was down-regulated by FSH in pubertal Sc, unlike infant Sc. FSH failed, but forskolin or 8-Bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate treatment to infant Sc significantly augmented the expression of transferrin, androgen binding protein, inhibin-?-B, stem cell factor, and glial-derived neurotropic factor, which are usually up-regulated by FSH in pubertal Sc during spermatogenic onset. This suggested that lack of FSH mediated down-regulation of G?i-2 expression and limited expression of G?s subunit as well as Ric8b may underlie limited FSH responsiveness of Sc during infancy. This study also divulged that intracellular signaling events downstream of FSH-R are in place and can be activated exogenously in infant Sc. Additionally, this information may help in the proper diagnosis and treatment of infertile individuals having abnormal G protein-coupled FSH-R. PMID:25549048

Bhattacharya, Indrashis; Basu, Sayon; Sarda, Kanchan; Gautam, Mukkesh; Nagarajan, Perumal; Pradhan, Bhola Shankar; Sarkar, Hironmoy; Devi, Yendrembam Sangeeta; Majumdar, Subeer S

2015-03-01

68

Recombinant versus highly-purified, urinary follicle-stimulating hormone (r-FSH vs. HP-uFSH) in ovulation induction: a prospective, randomized study with cost-minimization analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Both recombinant FSH (r-FSH) and highly-purified, urinary FSH (HP-uFSH) are frequently used in ovulation induction associated with timed sexual intercourse. Their effectiveness is reported to be similar, and therefore the costs of treatment represent a major issue to be considered. Although several studies about costs in IVF have been published, data obtained in low-technology infertility treatments are still scarce. Methods Two hundred and sixty infertile women (184 with unexplained infertility, 76 with CC-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome) at their first treatment cycle were randomized and included in the study. Ovulation induction was accomplished by daily administration of rFSH or HP-uFSH according to a low-dose, step-up regimen aimed to obtain a monofollicular ovulation. A bi- or tri-follicular ovulation was anyway accepted, whereas hCG was withdrawn and the cycle cancelled when more than three follicles greater than or equal to 18 mm diameter were seen at ultrasound. The primary outcome measure was the cost of therapy per delivered baby, estimated according to a cost-minimization analysis. Secondary outcomes were the following: monofollicular ovulation rate, total FSH dose, cycle cancellation rate, length of the follicular phase, number of developing follicles (>12 mm diameter), endometrial thickness at hCG, incidence of twinning and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, delivery rate. Results The overall FSH dose needed to achieve ovulation was significantly lower with r-FSH, whereas all the other studied variables did not significantly differ with either treatments. However, a trend toward a higher delivery rate with r-FSH was observed in the whole group and also when results were considered subgrouping patients according to the indication to treatment. Conclusion Considering the significantly lower number of vials/patient and the slight (although non-significant) increase in the delivery rate with r-FSH, the cost-minimization analysis showed a 9.4% reduction in the overall therapy cost per born baby in favor of r-FSH. PMID:16848893

Revelli, Alberto; Poso, Francesca; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Moffa, Federica; Grassi, Giuseppina; Massobrio, Marco

2006-01-01

69

Recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) plus recombinant luteinizing hormone versus r-hFSH alone for ovarian stimulation during assisted reproductive technology: systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The potential benefit of adding recombinant human luteinizing hormone (r-hLH) to recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) during ovarian stimulation is a subject of debate, although there is evidence that it may benefit certain subpopulations, e.g. poor responders. Methods A systematic review and a meta-analysis were performed. Three databases (MEDLINE, Embase and CENTRAL) were searched (from 1990 to 2011). Prospective, parallel-, comparative-group randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in women aged 18–45 years undergoing in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection or both, treated with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues and r-hFSH plus r-hLH or r-hFSH alone were included. The co-primary endpoints were number of oocytes retrieved and clinical pregnancy rate. Analyses were conducted for the overall population and for prospectively identified patient subgroups, including patients with poor ovarian response (POR). Results In total, 40 RCTs (6443 patients) were included in the analysis. Data on the number of oocytes retrieved were reported in 41 studies and imputed in two studies. Therefore, data were available from 43 studies (r-hFSH plus r-hLH, n?=?3113; r-hFSH, n?=?3228) in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population (all randomly allocated patients, including imputed data). Overall, no significant difference in the number of oocytes retrieved was found between the r-hFSH plus r-hLH and r-hFSH groups (weighted mean difference ?0.03; 95% confidence interval [CI] ?0.41 to 0.34). However, in poor responders, significantly more oocytes were retrieved with r-hFSH plus r-hLH versus r-hFSH alone (n?=?1077; weighted mean difference +0.75 oocytes; 95% CI 0.14–1.36). Significantly higher clinical pregnancy rates were observed with r-hFSH plus r-hLH versus r-hFSH alone in the overall population analysed in this review (risk ratio [RR] 1.09; 95% CI 1.01–1.18) and in poor responders (n?=?1179; RR 1.30; 95% CI 1.01–1.67; ITT population); the observed difference was more pronounced in poor responders. Conclusions These data suggest that there is a relative increase in the clinical pregnancy rates of 9% in the overall population and 30% in poor responders. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that the addition of r-hLH to r-hFSH may be beneficial for women with POR. PMID:24555766

2014-01-01

70

Testosterone, LH and FSH episodic secretory patterns in GnRH-immunized bulls.  

PubMed

The objective was to determine: (i) the secretory patterns of LH, FSH and testosterone in bulls, and the temporal relationships between the pulses of these hormones; and (ii) the effect of GnRH immunization on these parameters. Friesian bulls (n = 72) were given a primary immunization on day 0 (10-week-old) and a booster immunization on either day 28 (n = 36) or day 56 (n = 36) against either a GnRH-human serum albumin (HSA) conjugate (n = 48) or HSA (n = 24; control). On the basis of GnRH antibody titres at a plasma dilution of 1:160, 1 week after booster immunization, 12 GnRH-immunized and six control bulls from each booster-immunized group were selected and allocated to one of three groups: control bulls and bulls with medium and high antibody titres (0.3, 32 and 51% binding, respectively; pooled SED 4.3%). Blood samples were taken from these animals (n = 36) every 15 min for 8 h on three occasions: (i) 2 weeks after booster immunization when bulls were 4-5 months of age (prepubertal); (ii) at 7 months of age (peripubertal); and (iii) at 11 months of age (post-pubertal). Data were analysed by PULSAR, ANOVA and chi-squared test. The mean antibody titre of the high antibody titre group was greater (P < 0.05) than that of the medium antibody titre group in prepubertal bulls only, but the mean antibody titres of both antibody titre groups were greater (P < 0.05) than that of the control bulls at all times. The frequency and amplitude of LH and FSH pulses in the control bulls were greater (P < 0.05) during prepuberty than after puberty. The frequency, amplitude and duration of LH pulses were greater (P < 0.05) in control bulls than those in medium and high antibody titre bulls at prepuberty. The mean and basal concentrations of FSH and the amplitude and duration of FSH pulses were greater (P < 0.05) in the control bulls than in the high antibody titre bulls at prepuberty. The frequency of testosterone pulses was greater (P < 0.05) in the control bulls than in the medium and high antibody titre bulls at peripuberty. The mean and basal concentrations and pulse amplitude of testosterone were greater (P < 0.05) in high antibody titre bulls than in control bulls after puberty. There was a close temporal relationship between LH and FSH (62.5% of LH pulses were followed by FSH pulses within 75 min) at prepuberty in the control bulls but there was no relationship after puberty. The opposite trend occurred in the high antibody titre bulls, that is, there was no relationship between LH and FSH at prepuberty but there was a close temporal relationship after puberty. The temporal relationship between LH and testosterone was closest at peripuberty (86.7%) in the control bulls, but increased in the high antibody titre bulls from 0% at prepuberty to 57.1% after puberty. In summary, there was an age-related decrease in LH and FSH pulse frequency and amplitude and also in the temporal relationships between these hormones in control bulls. Prepubertal GnRH immunization had a suppressing effect on the pulsatile release of LH, FSH and testosterone before but not after puberty. The presence of high amplitude testosterone pulses in the GnRH-immunized bulls after puberty indicates that the long-term tonic release of LH may be sufficient to initiate a late pubertal-type increase in testosterone concentrations. PMID:9875159

Finnerty, M; Enright, W J; Roche, J F

1998-09-01

71

Synchronization of endogenous and exogenous FSH stimuli in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH).  

PubMed

We have previously observed that exogenous oestradiol can delay the intercycle increase in plasma follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). The increase in plasma FSH that follows discontinuation of exogenous oestradiol peaks after 3 days. We have now studied the possibility of using exogenous oestradiol to synchronize the increase in endogenous FSH with the onset of human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG) treatment in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH). A total of 30 women aged 35.1+/-6.3 years (mean+/-SD) undergoing ovarian stimulation received 2 mg of oestradiol valerate twice daily starting on day 25 of the previous menstrual cycle until the first Tuesday following menses. Ovarian stimulation was initiated 3 days later. On the last day of oestradiol treatment, plasma oestradiol, FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH) (mean+/-SEM) were 566+/-53 (pmol/l), 3.8+/-0.4 (IU/l) and 5.5+/-0.8 (IU/l) respectively. After 3 days, the FSH and LH (mean+/-SEM) had increased to 6.7+/-0.7 and 6.9+/-0.7 (IU/l) respectively while oestradiol decreased to 251+/-29 (pmol/l). The mean number (+/-SEM) of HMG ampoules used was 25.1+/-2.7 and treatment lasted 11.3+/-0.9 days. Five women became pregnant for a pregnancy rate (ongoing) of 19 (15)%. If all women aged >40 years (six women who did not become pregnant) were excluded from analysis the pregnancy rate (ongoing) was 24 (19%). These results indicate that exogenous oestradiol can safely be used for the synchronization of endogenous and exogenous FSH stimuli in COH. This approach provides the practical advantage of permitting an advanced timing of the onset of COH treatments when gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists are not used, which improves treatment convenience for patients and team members alike. Further development of this model may enable control of the onset of natural cycles which may find practical applications for timing assisted reproductive techniques (intrauterine insemination or in-vitro fertilization) in the natural cycle. PMID:9572410

de Ziegler, D; Jääskeläinen, A S; Brioschi, P A; Fanchin, R; Bulletti, C

1998-03-01

72

Par Pond water balance  

SciTech Connect

A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs.

Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

1996-06-01

73

Effects of leptin on FSH cells in the pituitary gland of Podarcis siculus.  

PubMed

Leptin is the hormone synthesised by adipocytes, which plays an important role in regulating appetite and metabolism. In mammals, this pleiotropic hormone also plays a key role in controlling gonadotropin secretion by stimulatory hypothalamic and pituitary actions. However, little is known about leptin in lower vertebrates and particularly few studies are available on reptiles. In the present work, we analysed the action of recombinant human leptin on FSH cells in the pituitary gland of Podarcis siculus female lizards exposed to four different concentrations of the hormone. FSH cells showed a dose-dependent reaction. The data are indicative of the role played by leptin in modulating the cellular activity of such cells in the pituitary gland of P. siculus, similar to what was already reported in mammals. A functional receptor is evidently able to respond to leptin in this lizard, but further comparative studies are needed to understand the role of this hormone in ectothermic vertebrates. PMID:25617161

Ferrandino, Ida; Monaco, Antonio; Grimaldi, Maria Consiglio

2015-03-01

74

Serum LH and FSH Responses to Synthetic LH-RH in Normal Infants, Children and Patients With Turner's Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effects of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) on LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) release were studied in 26 normal children and six patients (from 1-to 14-years-old) with Turner's syndrome. (Author)

Suwa, Seizo; And Others

1974-01-01

75

Polymorphism of follicle stimulating hormone beta (FSH?) subunit gene and its association with litter traits in giant panda.  

PubMed

The different SSCP patterns of the follicle stimulating hormone beta (FSH?) gene amplified by three pairs of primers were sequenced. Comparisons among the three nucleotide sequences of three genotypes indicated that three base substitutions (A213T, A91G, and A89C) were detected in FSH? gene, which A213T substitution led to one amino acids mutation (Lys > Met), and the other two substitutions were synonymous mutations. The AA, AB and BB genotypes patterns obtained by FSH? primer1 had evident relation with the litter traits, but the SSCP genotypes patterns obtained by FSH? primer2 and primer3 had no evident relation with the litter traits in giant panda. The giant panda with AA and AB genotype had the largest litter size and multiparity rate compared with the BB genotypes (P < 0.05). We speculated that the giant pandas with the A allele have better litter traits than those with the B allele. PMID:24057246

Huang, Xiaoyu; Li, Desheng; Wang, Jiwen; Huang, Yan; Han, Chunchun; Zhang, Guiquan; Huang, Zhi; Wu, Honglin; Wei, Ming; Wang, Guosong; Hu, Haiping; Deng, Tao; He, Tao; Zhou, Yingming; Song, Shixian; Luo, Bo; Zhang, Heming

2013-11-01

76

The effect of pure FSH administration in non-obstructive azoospermic men on testicular sperm retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In cases of azoospermia due to impaired spermatogenesis, spermatozoa can be retrieved by sperm extraction (TESE) from testicular biopsy. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of pure follicle-stimulating hormone (pFSH) on sperm recovery, and measure the predictive value of testicular histology. Study design: In all, 108 patients were studied. These included those with Sertoli cell-only (n=16), focal spermatogenesis (n=36), maturation

Kaan Aydos; Cihat Ünlü; L. Cem Demirel; Oya Evirgen; Özden Tolunay

2003-01-01

77

Purification and characterization of an FSH releasing protein from porcine ovarian follicular fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of hypophysiotropic peptides or proteins have been reported to be present in mammalian gonads. Inhibin, a hormone that under most circumstances selectively suppresses the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) but not luteinizing hormone (LH), has been isolated from the gonadal fluids of several species1-5 and characterized as a heterodimeric protein consisting of alpha- and beta-polypeptides associated by disulphide

Wylie Vale; Jean Rivier; Joan Vaughan; Richard McClintock; Anne Corrigan; Wilson Woo; David Karr; Joachim Spiess

1986-01-01

78

Regulation of Germ Cell and Sertoli Cell Development by Activin, Follistatin, and FSH  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have demonstrated a role for activin A, follistatin, and FSH in male germ cell differentiation at the time when spermatogonial stem cells and committed spermatogonia first appear in the developing testis. Testis fragments from 3-day-old rats were cultured for 1 or 3 days with various combinations of these factors, incubated with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label proliferating cells, and then

Terri Meehan; Stefan Schlatt; Moira K. O'Bryan; David M. de Kretser; Kate Lakoski Loveland

2000-01-01

79

?-catenin stabilization in gonadotropes impairs FSH synthesis in male mice in vivo.  

PubMed

Although classically considered a WNT signaling intermediary, ?-catenin (CTNNB1) can also mediate GnRH induction of gonadotropin ?-subunit (Fshb and Lhb) transcription in the murine gonadotrope-like cell line L?T2. Here, we assessed CTNNB1's role in gonadotropin synthesis in vivo. We used a Cre/lox approach to introduce both gain- and loss-of-function mutations in the murine Ctnnb1 gene in gonadotrope cells. Gonadotropin production and fertility were normal in Ctnnb1 knockout mice. Similarly, females harboring a deletion of exon 3 of Ctnnb1, which stabilizes the resulting CTNNB1 protein, showed normal fertility and gonadotropin synthesis. Interestingly, males with the activating CTNNB1-?exon 3 mutation exhibited 50% reductions in FSH synthesis and secretion, without a corresponding change in LH. This selective regulation of FSH suggested an alteration in the activin/inhibin/follistatin system. Indeed, CTNNB1-?exon 3 males showed a 60% increase in serum inhibin B levels, and in culture, their pituitaries exhibited a greater sensitivity to exogenous inhibin than controls. At the same time, pituitary, but not testicular, follistatin (Fst) expression was increased significantly in these mice. Castration normalized FSH levels in CTNNB1-?exon 3 males to those seen in castrated controls. Paradoxically, pituitaries from CTNNB1-?exon 3 males exhibited greater basal and activin-stimulated FSH synthesis in vitro. Similarly, CTNNB1-?exon 3 overexpression potentiated activin A-induced murine Fshb promoter activity in L?T2 cells. Together, these results indicate that CTNNB1 is dispensable for gonadotropin synthesis in vivo. However, sustained CTNNB1 signaling potentiates activin-induced Fshb expression in gonadotropes, but this effect is overcome in vivo by enhanced inhibin feedback sensitivity and Fst expression. PMID:25343272

Boerboom, Derek; Kumar, Vikas; Boyer, Alexandre; Wang, Ying; Lambrot, Romain; Zhou, Xiang; Rico, Charlène; Boehm, Ulrich; Paquet, Marilène; Céleste, Christophe; Kimmins, Sarah; Bernard, Daniel J

2015-01-01

80

Human Menopausal Gonadotropin versus Recombinant FSH in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization  

PubMed Central

Background: We aimed to compare human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) and recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (r FSH) with respect to clinical outcomes and the development of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) for patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) treated with in vitro fertilization (IVF). Materials and Methods: This prospective randomized controlled trial included a total of 80 women with PCOS. Of these, 38 were randomized to receive treatment with hMG and 42 with rFSH using a long gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue protocol. Outcome measures were cycle characteristics, pregnancy rates, the need for coasting, and OHSS rates. Results: In the hMG group we observed a significantly lower peak estradiol (E2) level (p=0.02), fewer intermediate-sized follicles (p=0.001), lower number of oocytes retrieved (p=0.002) and metaphase II (MII) oocytes (p=0.003). However, there were no significant differences between the groups in the number of fertilized oocytes, fertilization rates, top quality embryo counts, and the number of transferred embryos. There was no difference in pregnancy rates between the groups. OHSS occurred in 11.9% of the rFSH group patients, whereas no OHSS developed in the hMG group. Coasting requirements were lower in the hMG group (19.2% vs. 48.9%, p=0.013). Conclusion: Ovarian stimulation with hMG and rFSH provides similar clinical pregnancy rates in PCOS patients treated with a long GnRH agonist protocol in IVF cycles. hMG stimulation appears to be associated with a lower rate of OHSS and decreased coasting requirements (Registration Number: NCT01365936). PMID:24520446

Figen Turkcapar, Ayse; Seckin, Berna; Onalan, Gogsen; Ozdener, Tulin; Batioglu, Sertac

2013-01-01

81

Effects of Haloperidol on Serum and Pituitary Prolactin, LH and FSH, and Hypothalamic PIF and LRF  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single s.c. injection of haloperidol into ratson the morning of proestrus produced up to a 22-fold increase in serum prolactin and a significant increase in pituitary prolactin concentration. There was a significant decrease in serum LH and FSH levels and a complete block of spontaneous ovulation. Haloperidol significantly reduced hypothalamic PIF and LRF activities. The anti-ovulatory effect of haloperidol

S. Dickerman; G. Kledzik; M. Gelato; H. J. Chen; J. Meites

1974-01-01

82

Identification of immunoreactive FSH and LH cells in the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus during the ontogeny and sexual differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) expressing cells were detected in pituitary, brain and ovary\\u000a of the Perciform cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus. This detection was carried out by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot techniques using antisera of the Cyprinodontiform\\u000a Fundulus heteroclitus raised against the conservative region of the teleost ?FSH and the ?LH subunits. The estimated molecular weights were

Matías Pandolfi; Fabiana L. Lo Nostro; Akio Shimizu; Andrea G. Pozzi; Fernando J. Meijide; Graciela Rey Vazquez; M. Cristina Maggese

2006-01-01

83

Immunoreactive changes in pituitary FSH and LH cells during seasonal reproductive and spawning cycles of female chub mackerel Scomber japonicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological functions of pituitary gonadotropins (GtHs) are well established in higher vertebrates, whereas those in\\u000a teleosts are still poorly understood. To describe the role of GtHs during gonadal development of female chub mackerel Scomber japonicus, changes in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) cells were investigated immunohistochemically\\u000a during the seasonal reproductive and spawning cycles. FSH and LH cells

Mitsuo Nyuji; Tetsuro Shiraishi; Sethu Selvaraj; Vu Van In; Hajime Kitano; Akihiko Yamaguchi; Kumiko Okamoto; Shizumasa Onoue; Akio Shimizu; Michiya Matsuyama

84

PKC? and ? Possibly Mediate FSH-Induced Mouse Oocyte Maturation via NOX-ROS-TACE Cascade Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

In mammals, gonadotropins stimulate oocyte maturation via the epidermal growth factor (EGF) network, and the protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway mediates this process. Tumor necrosis factor-? converting enzyme (TACE) is an important protein responding to PKC activation. However, the detailed signaling cascade between PKC and TACE in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced oocyte maturation in vitro remains unclear. In this study, we found that rottlerin (mallotoxin, MTX), the inhibitor of PKC ? and ?, blocked FSH-induced maturation of mouse cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in vitro. We further clarified the relationship between two molecules downstream of PKC ? and ? and TACE in COCs: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) and its products, reactive oxygen species (ROS). We proved that the respective inhibitors of NOX, ROS and TACE could block FSH-stimulated oocyte maturation dose-dependently, but these inhibitory effects could be reversed partially by amphiregulin (Areg), an EGF family member. Notably, inhibition of PKC ? and ? prevented FSH-induced translocation of two cytosolic components of NOX, p47phox and p67phox, to the plasma membrane in cumulus cells. Moreover, FSH-induced TACE activity in cumulus cells was decreased markedly by inhibition of NOX and ROS. In conclusion, PKC ? and ? possibly mediate FSH-induced meiotic resumption in mouse COCs via NOX-ROS-TACE signaling pathway. PMID:25350560

Ran, Hao; Feng, Lizhao; Yan, Hao; Mu, Xinyi; Han, Yingying; Liu, Wei; Xia, Guoliang; Wang, Chao

2014-01-01

85

Effect of melatonin implantation on the seasonal variation of FSH secretion in the male blue fox (Alopex lagopus).  

PubMed

A heterologous radioimmunoassay system developed for the sheep was shown to measure FSH in the plasma of the blue fox. FSH concentrations throughout the year showed a circannual rhythm with the highest values (61.6 +/- 14.8 ng/ml) occurring shortly before or at the onset of the mating season, a pattern similar to that of LH. The concentration of FSH then declined when androgen concentrations and testicular development were maximal at the time of the mating season (March to May). Thereafter, concentrations remained low (25.2 +/- 4.1 ng/ml) in contrast to those of LH. Implantation of melatonin in August and in February maintained high plasma values of FSH after the mating season (142.3 +/- 16.5 ng/ml) in association with a maintenance of testicular development and of the winter coat. The spring rise of prolactin was suppressed by melatonin treatment. The release of FSH after LHRH injection was also increased during this post-mating period in melatonin-treated animals, in contrast to the response of the control animals which remained low or undetectable. These results suggest that changes both in the secretions of FSH and prolactin may be involved in the prolongation of testicular activity and in the suppression of the spring moult after melatonin administration. PMID:3135390

Mondain-Monval, M; Smith, A J; Simon, P; Møller, O M; Scholler, R; McNeilly, A S

1988-05-01

86

Trisomic pregnancy and elevated FSH: implications for the oocyte pool hypothesis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Some studies, but not all, support the hypothesis that trisomy frequency is related to the size of the oocyte pool, with the risk increased for women with fewer oocytes (older ovarian age). We tested this hypothesis by comparing hormonal indicators of ovarian age among women who had trisomic pregnancy losses with indicators among women with non-trisomic losses or chromosomally normal births. The three primary indicators of advanced ovarian age were low level of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), high level of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and low level of inhibin B. METHODS The analysis drew on data from two hospital-based case–control studies. Data were analyzed separately and the evidence from the two sites was combined. We compared 159 women with trisomic pregnancy losses to three comparison groups: 60 women with other chromosomally abnormal losses, 79 women with chromosomally normal losses and 344 women with live births (LBs) age-matched to women with losses. We analyzed the hormone measures as continuous and as categorical variables. All analyses adjust for age in single years, day of blood draw, interval in storage and site. RESULTS AMH and inhibin B did not differ between women with trisomic losses and any of the three comparison groups. Mean ln(FSH) was 0.137 units (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.055, 0.219) higher for trisomy cases compared with LB controls; it was also higher, though not significantly so, for trisomy cases compared with women with other chromosomally abnormal losses or chromosomally normal losses. The adjusted odds ratio in relation to high FSH (?10 mIU/ml) was significantly increased for trisomy cases versus LB controls (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 3.8, 95% CI: 1.6, 8.9). CONCLUSIONS The association of trisomy with elevated FSH is compatible with the oocyte pool hypothesis, whereas the absence of an association with AMH is not. Alternative interpretations are considered, including the possibility that elevated FSH may disrupt meiotic processes or allow recruitment of abnormal follicles. PMID:21467203

Kline, J.K.; Kinney, A.M.; Levin, B.; Kelly, A.C.; Ferin, M.; Warburton, D.

2011-01-01

87

Protease-activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) and PAR4 Heterodimers Are Required for PAR1-enhanced Cleavage of PAR4 by ?-Thrombin*  

PubMed Central

Thrombin is a potent platelet agonist that activates platelets and other cells of the cardiovascular system by cleaving its G-protein-coupled receptors, protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), PAR4, or both. We now show that cleaving PAR1 and PAR4 with ?-thrombin induces heterodimer formation. PAR1-PAR4 heterodimers were not detected when unstimulated; however, when the cells were stimulated with 10 nm ?-thrombin, we were able to detect a strong interaction between PAR1 and PAR4 by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer. In contrast, activating the receptors without cleavage using PAR1 and PAR4 agonist peptides (TFLLRN and AYPGKF, respectively) did not enhance heterodimer formation. Preventing PAR1 or PAR4 cleavage with point mutations or hirugen also prevented the induction of heterodimers. To further characterize the PAR1-PAR4 interactions, we mapped the heterodimer interface by introducing point mutations in transmembrane helix 4 of PAR1 or PAR4 that prevented heterodimer formation. Finally, we show that mutations in PAR1 or PAR4 at the heterodimer interface prevented PAR1-assisted cleavage of PAR4. These data demonstrate that PAR1 and PAR4 require allosteric changes induced via receptor cleavage by ?-thrombin to mediate heterodimer formation, and we have determined the PAR1-PAR4 heterodimer interface. Our findings show that PAR1 and PAR4 have dynamic interactions on the cell surface that should be taken into account when developing and characterizing PAR antagonists. PMID:24097976

Arachiche, Amal; Mumaw, Michele M.; de la Fuente, María; Nieman, Marvin T.

2013-01-01

88

Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) and PAR4 heterodimers are required for PAR1-enhanced cleavage of PAR4 by ?-thrombin.  

PubMed

Thrombin is a potent platelet agonist that activates platelets and other cells of the cardiovascular system by cleaving its G-protein-coupled receptors, protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), PAR4, or both. We now show that cleaving PAR1 and PAR4 with ?-thrombin induces heterodimer formation. PAR1-PAR4 heterodimers were not detected when unstimulated; however, when the cells were stimulated with 10 nm ?-thrombin, we were able to detect a strong interaction between PAR1 and PAR4 by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer. In contrast, activating the receptors without cleavage using PAR1 and PAR4 agonist peptides (TFLLRN and AYPGKF, respectively) did not enhance heterodimer formation. Preventing PAR1 or PAR4 cleavage with point mutations or hirugen also prevented the induction of heterodimers. To further characterize the PAR1-PAR4 interactions, we mapped the heterodimer interface by introducing point mutations in transmembrane helix 4 of PAR1 or PAR4 that prevented heterodimer formation. Finally, we show that mutations in PAR1 or PAR4 at the heterodimer interface prevented PAR1-assisted cleavage of PAR4. These data demonstrate that PAR1 and PAR4 require allosteric changes induced via receptor cleavage by ?-thrombin to mediate heterodimer formation, and we have determined the PAR1-PAR4 heterodimer interface. Our findings show that PAR1 and PAR4 have dynamic interactions on the cell surface that should be taken into account when developing and characterizing PAR antagonists. PMID:24097976

Arachiche, Amal; Mumaw, Michele M; de la Fuente, María; Nieman, Marvin T

2013-11-01

89

Changes in plasma concentrations of LH, FSH, estradiol 17-beta and progesterone during oestrus in mithun (Bos frontalis).  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to establish the changes in plasma concentrations of LH, FSH, estradiol 17-beta (E2) and progesterone (P4), as well as to understand their temporal relationships during oestrus in mithun (Bos frontalis). The experiment was conducted on 11 mithuns during third or fourth postpartum oestrous cycle. Since oestrus onset the jugular vein blood samples were collected every 2 h for 72 and 96 h, respectively from the animals without and with standing heat. The LH, FSH, E2 and P4 concentrations were estimated in plasma. The P4 concentration was fluctuated throughout the oestrus period and the average P4 concentration was found significantly (p<0.05) lower on the day of oestrus onset. The multiple rises in LH and FSH concentrations above the basal level in spike like fashion were observed throughout the oestrus period irrespective of the occurrence of standing heat. A significant (p<0.01) gradual increase in the average daily E2 concentration was observed till day 2 following oestrus onset irrespective of the occurrence of standing heat. A significant (p<0.05) simultaneous increase in LH, FSH and E2 concentrations and a transient increase in P4 concentration at approximately the time of standing heat onset were observed. During investigation a definite temporal coupling between LH and FSH rises was absent throughout the oestrus period. The results suggest that (1) the multiple short-duration low-amplitude LH and FSH surges during oestrus may be crucial for the final maturation of ovulatory follicle and subsequent ovulation in mithun; (2) a differential mechanism for controlling LH and FSH secretions probably exists in mithun. PMID:16519723

Dhali, A; Mishra, D P; Mech, A; Karunakaran, M; Choudhury, H; Khate, K; Rajkhowa, C

2006-04-01

90

Molecular characterization of the Chinese alligator follicle-stimulating hormone ? subunit (FSH?) and its expression during the female reproductive cycle.  

PubMed

The Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis is an endangered species endemic to China, it has a highly specialized reproductive pattern with low fecundity. Up to date, little is known about the regulation of its female reproductive cycle. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a glycoprotein hormone, plays a key role in stimulating and regulating ovarian follicular development and egg production. In this study, the complete FSH? cDNA from the ovary of the Chinese alligator was obtained for the first time, it consists of 843-bp nucleotides, including 120-bp nucleotides of the 5'-untranslated region (UTR), 396-bp of the open reading frame, and 3'-UTR of 327-bp nucleotides. It encodes a 131-amino acid precursor molecule of FSH? with a signal peptide of 18 amino acids followed by a mature protein of 113 amino acids. Its deduced amino acid sequence shares high identities with the American alligator (100%) and birds (89-92%). Phylogenetic tree analysis of the FSH? amino acid sequence indicated that alligators cluster into the bird branch. Tissue distribution analyses indicated that FSH? mRNA is expressed in ovary, intestine and liver with the highest level in the ovary, while not in stomach, pancreas, heart, thymus and thyroid. Expression of FSH? in ovary increases in May (breeding prophase) and peaks in July (breeding period), it is maintained at high levels through September, then decreases significantly in November (post-reproductive period) and remains relatively low from January to March (hibernating period). These temporal changes of FSH? expression implicated that it might play an important role in promoting ovarian development during the female reproductive cycle. PMID:25626184

Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Shengzhou; Zhu, Xue; Zhou, Yongkang; Wu, Xiaobing

2015-05-01

91

Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) forms an incoherent feed-forward loop modulating follicle-stimulating hormone ?-subunit (FSH?) gene expression.  

PubMed

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is secreted in brief pulses from the hypothalamus and regulates follicle-stimulating hormone ?-subunit (FSH?) gene expression in pituitary gonadotropes in a frequency-sensitive manner. The mechanisms underlying its preferential and paradoxical induction of FSH? by low frequency GnRH pulses are incompletely understood. Here, we identify growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) as a GnRH-suppressed autocrine inducer of FSH? gene expression. GDF9 gene transcription and expression were preferentially decreased by high frequency GnRH pulses. GnRH regulation of GDF9 was concentration-dependent and involved ERK and PKA. GDF9 knockdown or immunoneutralization reduced FSH? mRNA expression. Conversely, exogenous GDF9 induced FSH? expression in immortalized gonadotropes and in mouse primary pituitary cells. GDF9 exposure increased FSH secretion in rat primary pituitary cells. GDF9 induced Smad2/3 phosphorylation, which was impeded by ALK5 knockdown and by activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) receptor inhibitor SB-505124, which also suppressed FSH? expression. Smad2/3 knockdown indicated that FSH? induction by GDF9 involved Smad2 and Smad3. FSH? mRNA induction by GDF9 and GnRH was synergistic. We hypothesized that GDF9 contributes to a regulatory loop that tunes the GnRH frequency-response characteristics of the FSH? gene. To test this, we determined the effects of GDF9 knockdown on FSH? induction at different GnRH pulse frequencies using a parallel perifusion system. Reduction of GDF9 shifted the characteristic pattern of GnRH pulse frequency sensitivity. These results identify GDF9 as contributing to an incoherent feed-forward loop, comprising both intracellular and secreted components, that regulates FSH? expression in response to activation of cell surface GnRH receptors. PMID:24778184

Choi, Soon Gang; Wang, Qian; Jia, Jingjing; Pincas, Hanna; Turgeon, Judith L; Sealfon, Stuart C

2014-06-01

92

Correlation between testicular sperm extraction outcomes and clinical, endocrine and testicular histology parameters in 120 azoospermic men with normal serum FSH levels.  

PubMed

We retrospectively evaluated the clinical and hormonal profiles, sperm extraction outcomes and testicular histology parameters in 120 azoospermic men with normal serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level. Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA) and testicular sperm extraction (TESE) were performed in 33 and 87 cases, respectively. Sperm were successfully retrieved in all the MESA procedures and in 65 of the TESE procedures. The mean serum FSH and inhibin B levels and the testicular volume differed significantly according to whether or not sperm were retrieved. The threshold serum inhibin B value for predicting successful TESE was 123.5pg/mL (sensitivity: 69.7%; specificity: 66.7%). The 13 patients with Sertoli cell only syndrome (SCOS) had a higher mean serum FSH level and a lower mean serum inhibin B level than the other phenotypes. TESE was negative for 11 of the 13 SCOS men. The mean±SD inhibin B level was significantly lower in patients with 5-10IU/L of FSH than those with 2-5IU/L of FSH (108.30±53.86 vs. 175.23±70.17pg/mL, respectively). The sperm retrieval rates were 71.42% for the group with 5-10IU/L of FSH and 87.32% for the group with 2-5IU/L of FSH. Ten of the 13 SCOS men had a FSH level between 5 and 10IU/L. The clinical pregnancy rate was significantly lower (p=0.04) in the group with 5-10IU/L (50%) of FSH than in the group with 2-5IU/L (77.5%) of FSH. In conclusion, there is no FSH value below which spermatogenesis is always found. Inhibin B assays and clinical assessments are thus of particular value in men with normal serum FSH levels. PMID:20695924

Mitchell, V; Robin, G; Boitrelle, F; Massart, P; Marchetti, C; Marcelli, F; Rigot, J-M

2011-08-01

93

Effects of alcohol on pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion in the adult male rat  

SciTech Connect

To determine possible hypothalamic actions of alcohol on hormone secretion, the effects of acute intragastric alcohol on plasma LH and FSH pulsations were studied. One jugular and one intragastric cannula were surgically implanted into adult male Sprague Dawley rats. Eight days later, rats were bilaterally castrated at 1400 h and infused intragastrically with either saline or 3 g/kg ethanol between 0700 h 0800 h the next days. Blood samples (300 microliters) were collected every 5 min for 3 h (starting at 0800 h), centrifuged and the plasma was frozen for LH and FSH radioimmunoassay. The blood cells were resuspended in saline and returned to the animal immediately following the next sample collection. While the mean plasma LH or FSH concentration did not vary significantly between the alcohol-treated and saline-treated rats, the mean LH (but not FSH) pulse frequency was lower in ethanol-treated rats (3.3 {plus minus} 0.25 pulses/3 h) than saline-treated controls (7.2 {plus minus} 0.3 pulses/3 h). In addition, mean area under the OH pulses were significantly greater in ethanol-treated than saline controls. These data suggest that: (1) ethanol acts to reduce the frequency of LHRH release for the hypothalamus and increase the area under each LH pulse; and (2) LH and FSH secretion are differentially regulated.

Badger, T.M.; Abdallah, M.M.; Hayden, J.B. (Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (USA))

1989-02-09

94

FSH regulates fat accumulation and redistribution in aging through the G?i/Ca(2+) /CREB pathway.  

PubMed

Increased fat mass and fat redistribution are commonly observed in aging populations worldwide. Although decreased circulating levels of sex hormones, androgens and oestrogens have been observed, the exact mechanism of fat accumulation and redistribution during aging remains obscure. In this study, the receptor of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a gonadotropin that increases sharply and persistently with aging in both males and females, is functionally expressed in human and mouse fat tissues and adipocytes. Follicle-stimulating hormone was found to promote lipid biosynthesis and lipid droplet formation; FSH could also alter the secretion of leptin and adiponectin, but not hyperplasia, in vitro and in vivo. The effects of FSH are mediated by FSH receptors coupled to the G?i protein; as a result, Ca(2+) influx is stimulated, cAMP-response-element-binding protein is phosphorylated, and an array of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis is activated. The present findings depict the potential of FSH receptor-mediated lipodystrophy of adipose tissues in aging. Our results also reveal the mechanism of fat accumulation and redistribution during aging of males and females. PMID:25754247

Liu, Xin-Mei; Chan, Hsiao Chang; Ding, Guo-Lian; Cai, Jie; Song, Yang; Wang, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Dan; Chen, Hui; Yu, Mei Kuen; Wu, Yan-Ting; Qu, Fan; Liu, Ye; Lu, Yong-Chao; Adashi, Eli Y; Sheng, Jian-Zhong; Huang, He-Feng

2015-06-01

95

Effects of FSH extracted from in vitro cultured anterior pituitary cells of male buffalo calves on body and testes weight, serum FSH and total cholesterol and hematological variables in male rabbits.  

PubMed

In this study, anterior pituitary glands were collected from 12 young male buffalo calves after slaughter, cultured with gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and estrogen stimulus and the extract obtained. Adult male rabbits (n = 15) were divided into three equal groups. Rabbits of Group A served as control; those of Groups B and C were given extract containing 4 and 8 mIU of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), respectively twice daily for 3 weeks. Body weight of rabbits was recorded before and after treatment; blood samples were collected after treatment and analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC) count, white blood cell (WBC) count, packed cell volume (PCV), platelet counts, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), while serum samples were analyzed for FSH and total cholesterol. Then, all rabbits were slaughtered, and weight of paired testes was recorded. Results showed that the values for weight gain, RBC count, WBC count, PCV and MCH did not differ among rabbits of three groups. Blood Hb was greater (P < 0.05) in rabbits of Group B than Group C. Testis weight, serum FSH, total cholesterol and blood platelets count were greater in rabbits of Groups B and C, while MCV was less in rabbits of Group C, compared to the control (P < 0.05). In conclusion, in vitro cultured cells of adenohypophysis from male buffalo calves showed FSH activity. This FSH increased testes size, serum FSH, total cholesterol and blood platelets counts and decreased MCV in rabbits. However, it had no effect on weight gain, RBC counts, WBC counts, PCV and MCH. PMID:25306383

Naveed, Muhammad Riaz; Ahmad, Nazir; Ahmad, Ijaz; Akhtar, Nafees; Ali, Shujait; Zubair, Muhammad; Murtaza, Saeed

2014-11-30

96

Spondylolisthésis par lyse isthmique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spondylolisthesis refers to a permanent forward slippage of the vertebral body, in most cases L5, more rarely L4 or higher lumbar vertebrae. Spondylolisthesis by isthmic spondylolysis or fractures of the pars interarticularis - acquired most of the time by repeated microtrauma during childhood – differ from congenital spondylolisthesis in which developmental abnormalities of the posterior arch are often associated to

J.-M. Vital; M. Pedram

2005-01-01

97

FSH different regimes affect the developmental capacity and cryotolerance of embryos derived from oocytes collected by ovum pick-up in donor sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to compare the developmental capacity of sheep oocytes obtained by OPU after two different ovarian stimulations, and cryotolerance to vitrification procedures of in vitro derived embryos after in vitro maturation, fertilisation and culture of these oocytes. Sheep were divided into three groups: (A) no treatment (control); (B) constant doses of FSH (FSH-c); (C)

F. Berlinguer; G. Leoni; L. Bogliolo; P. P. Pintus; I. Rosati; S. Ledda; S. Naitana

2004-01-01

98

presentee par Arthur GOETSCHY  

E-print Network

TH`ESE pr´esent´ee par Arthur GOETSCHY pour obtenir le grade de Docteur de l'Universit´e Joseph les trois ann´ees o`u j'ai pu y travailler. Qu'on me pardonne ici un brin de grandiloquence. Le LPMMC souhaite ici remercier les personnes que j'ai pu c^otoy´ees au LPMMC pour avoir su faire vivre ces deux

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

99

Fertility and blood progesterone levels following LHRH-induced superovulation in FSH-treated anestrous goats.  

PubMed

Twenty mature, mixed-breed, seasonally anestrous female goats were used to study the effects of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) on ovulation rate, fertility, and blood progesterone levels following norgestomet-induced estrus and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) treatments. Each goat received 6 mg norgestomet by subcutaneous (sc) implant and 3 mg intramuscularly, along with an intramuscular (im) injection of 5 mg estradiol valerate. Four injections of FSH were given for 2 d in divided doses of 10, 10, 5 and 5 mg im every 12 h, starting at 24 h before implant removal. The goats were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 equal treatment groups, and were treated with 2 intravenous (iv) injections of either 0.9% saline (control) or 300 ug LHRH at 24 and 48 h after the removal of the implants. All the goats exhibited estrus within 24 or 36 h of implant withdrawal and were mated to bucks of proven fertility. At laparotomy on Day 7 or 8 after the removal of the implants, the mean number of unovulated follicles was higher (P<0.05) in Group I than in Group II. The mean number of corpora lutea (ovulation rate), the total number of embryos and the number of normal embryos recovered were higher (P<0.05) in LHRH-treated does than in the controls. Treatment with LHRH resulted in 72.14% fertility (mean number of CL = 14) as compared with the controls with 64.29% fertility (mean number of CL = 2.8). The embryos obtained from goats in Group II were of more uniform developmental age regardless of the day of embryo collection, as compared with those of the controls. Plasma progesterone levels were significantly increased on Days 4 to 6 in both treatment groups. The results of this study have demonstrated that the FSH and LHRH treatment regimen increased follicular development, ovulation rate and blood progesterone levels in norgestomet-treated anestrous goats. Moreover, LHRH treatment enhanced fertility, and improved embryo quality as indicated by the significantly higher total number of embryos as well as the higher (P<0.05) number of normal recoverable embryos. PMID:16727371

Akinlosotu, B A; Wilder, C D

1993-11-01

100

nergie rayonne par le radium1 Par J. PRECHT,  

E-print Network

359 �nergie rayonnée par le radium1 Par J. PRECHT, Professeurà l'�cole technique de Hanovre. 'AI jusqu'ici irrésolue de savoir si l'éner- gie des particules chargée émises par le radium repré- sente inilli- grammes de bromure de radium débarrassé d'eau de cristallisation et abandonné à lui-même depuis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

101

Effects of injections and/or subcutaneous implants of melatonin on pituitary and plasma levels of LH, FSH and PRL  

E-print Network

Effects of injections and/or subcutaneous implants of melatonin on pituitary and plasma levels unchanged. The daily afternoon injection of melatonin (25 ¡Lg subcuta- neously) further increased the accumulation of LH and FSH within the pituitary. These responses to daily melatonin injections were prevented

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

102

Effects and interactions of tachykinins and dynorphin on FSH and LH secretion in developing and adult rats.  

PubMed

Kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) neurons, which coexpress kisspeptins (Kps), neurokinin B (NKB), and dynorphin (Dyn), regulate gonadotropin secretion. The KNDy model proposes that NKB (a stimulator, through NK3R) and Dyn (an inhibitor, through ?-opioid receptor) shape Kp secretion onto GnRH neurons. However, some aspects of this paradigm remain ill defined. Here we aimed to characterize the following: 1) the effects of NKB signaling on FSH secretion and 2) the role of Dyn in gonadotropin secretion after NK3R activation; 3) additionally, we explored the roles of other tachykinin receptors, NK1R and NK2R, on gonadotropin release. Thus, the effects of the NK3R agonist, senktide, on FSH release were explored across postnatal development in male and female rats; gonadotropin responses to agonists of NK1R substance P and NK2R [neurokinin A (NKA)] were also monitored. Moreover, the effects of senktide on gonadotropin secretion were assessed after antagonizing Dyn actions by nor-binaltorphimine didydrochloride. Before puberty, rats of both sexes showed increased FSH secretion to senktide (and Kp-10). Conversely, adult female rats were irresponsive to senktide in terms of FSH, despite proven LH responses, whereas the adult males did not display FSH or LH responses to senktide, even at high doses. In turn, substance P and NKA stimulated gonadotropin secretion in prepubertal rats, whereas in adults modest gonadotropin responses to NKA were detected. By pretreatment with a Dyn antagonist, adult males became responsive to senktide in terms of LH secretion and displayed elevated basal LH and FSH levels; nor-binaltorphimine didydrochloride treatment uncovered FSH responses to senktide in adult females. Furthermore, the expression of Pdyn and Opkr1 (encoding Dyn and ?-opioid receptor, respectively) in the mediobasal hypothalamus was greater in males than in females at prepubertal ages. Overall, our data contribute to refining our understanding on how the elements of the KNDy node and related factors (ie, other tachykinins) differentially participate in the control of gonadotropins at different stages of rat postnatal maturation. PMID:25490143

Ruiz-Pino, F; Garcia-Galiano, D; Manfredi-Lozano, M; Leon, S; Sánchez-Garrido, M A; Roa, J; Pinilla, L; Navarro, V M; Tena-Sempere, M

2015-02-01

103

Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer Is Associated With Reduced Serum Testosterone and Increased FSH and LH  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: It is known that scattered radiation to the testes during pelvic radiotherapy can affect fertility, but there is little knowledge on its effects on male sex hormones. The aim of this study was to determine whether radiotherapy for rectal cancer affects testosterone production. Methods and Materials: All male patients who had received adjuvant radiotherapy for rectal cancer from 1993 to 2003 were identified from the Norwegian Rectal Cancer Registry. Patients treated with surgery alone were randomly selected from the same registry as control subjects. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were analyzed, and free testosterone was calculated (N = 290). Information about the radiotherapy treatment was collected from the patient hospital charts. Results: Serum FSH was 3 times higher in the radiotherapy group than in the control group (median, 18.8 vs. 6.3 IU/L, p <0.001), and serum LH was 1.7 times higher (median, 7.5 vs. 4.5 IU/l, p <0.001). In the radiotherapy group, 27% of patients had testosterone levels below the reference range (8-35 nmol/L), compared with 10% of the nonirradiated patients (p <0.001). Irradiated patients had lower serum testosterone (mean, 11.1 vs. 13.4 nmol/L, p <0.001) and lower calculated free testosterone (mean, 214 vs. 235 pmol/L, p <0.05) than control subjects. Total testosterone, calculated free testosterone, and gonadotropins were related to the distance from the bony pelvic structures to the caudal field edge. Conclusions: Increased serum levels of gonadotropins and subnormal serum levels of testosterone indicate that curative radiotherapy for rectal cancer can result in permanent testicular dysfunction.

Bruheim, Kjersti [Cancer Center, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo (Norway)], E-mail: Kjersti.Bruheim@medisin.uio.no; Svartberg, Johan [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tromso, Tromso (Norway); Department of Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromso (Norway); Carlsen, Erik [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Dueland, Svein [Department of Oncology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Haug, Egil [Hormone Laboratory, Aker University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Skovlund, Eva [School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Tveit, Kjell Magne; Guren, Marianne G. [Cancer Center, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo (Norway)

2008-03-01

104

UNIVERSITE OUVERTE Voyage accompagn par  

E-print Network

l'empereur Auguste. Fin de la visite par les remparts (pas de promenade sur les remparts cela est'architecture religieuse de Catalogne. Il fut fondé par Raimond Bérenger IV, comte de Barcelone, qui le céda à l'ordre de

Jeanjean, Louis

105

Control of FSH, follicular development and estrus synchronization in the mare with steroid-free follicular fluid.  

PubMed

Twenty-two pony mares were used in a project designed to determine the effectiveness of different treatments in controlling FSH, follicular development and synchronization of estrus and ovulation. Mares in Group 1 (n=8) received daily oral altrenogest (0.044 mg/kg); those in Group 2 (n=7) received daily altrenogest (0.044 g/kg) and, during the last 4 days of treatment they received steroid-free follicular fluid, (15 cc) intravenously (I.V.) two times a day; Mares in Group 3 (n=7) received daily intramuscular (I.M.) injections of progesterone (80 mg) and estradiol valerate (7 mg). All treatments lasted for 10 days, at the end of which prostaglandin (PgF(2)alpha, 10 mg) was administered. Sexual behavior, follicular development and FSH concentrations were monitor daily. Concentrations of FSH in Group 2 mares, were not significantly different (P>0.05) from those of Group 1 until the mares in Group 2 were treated with follicular fluid (P<0.05). Concentrations of FSH in Group 3 mares, were significantly lower than those of Groups 1 and 2 (P<0.05) until the mares in Group 2 were treated with steroid-free follicular fluid. At this point there was no significant difference between groups 2 and 3 (P>0.05). Steroid-free follicular fluid appears to induce atresia in larger follicles (>11 mm), and the initiation of new follicular wave. The combination of progesterone and estradiol valerate appears to delay follicular growth and not to induce atresia, since larger follicles (>11 mm) continued to grow after treatment. Both treatments (groups 2 and 3) resulted in ovulations within 5 days period. The treatment in Group 1 did not have any effect on FSH or follicular development and ovulations were dispersed through a 9-day period. We concluded that steroid-free follicular fluid offers a new possibility to synchronize ovulation in the mare by controlling FSH and follicular development. PMID:16727082

Plata-Madrid, H; Loch, W E; Youngquist, R S; Thompson, D L; Bennett-Wimbush, K G; Wilkerson, C; Bouchard, G; Smith, M F; Braun, W F; Aveiro, J J

1992-04-01

106

Changes in circulatory FSH of Barbari goats following treatment with high molecular weight inhibin isolated from buffalo follicular fluid.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to isolate and purify high MW inhibin (? 129 kDa) from buffalo ovarian follicular fluid (buFF) and to investigate its biological activity. Throughout the process of purification, the inhibin fractions were evaluated for bioactivity by a specific, sensitive and uniformly reproducible bioassay in mice. The final biological activity of this preparation was tested in normal cycling adult female Barbari goats. Eight animals, randomly divided into two groups, were synchronized for estrus by administering PGF2? twice at an interval of ten days. Following synchronization, the treatment group (n=4) received (i.m.) 0.4 ml (240 ?g protein total dose) of purified inhibin (MW ? 129 kDa) of buFF in the morning at 08.00 h for the four consecutive days of follicular phase, while the control group (n=4) received only saline (0.4 ml). Blood samples were collected from jugular vein immediately before the first injection and subsequent collections were made daily in the afternoon until day 8 of the experiment including four days (0, 1, 2, & 3 days) of the next cycle. FSH was assayed in all the samples by ELISA. The peripheral FSH concentration sharply declined from 1.854±0.137 to 0.979 ± 0.02 u/l, 8h after the administration of inhibin on the first day. The value in controls was 2.004 ± 0.132 u/l. For the duration of treatment of four consecutive days, the FSH level in experimental group remained significantly low (p<0.05) compared to control group. After cessation of treatment, the FSH level remained low on day 0 and 1 of the next cycle in the experimental and control animals. However, a significant rebound increase in plasma FSH levels occurred on day 2 & 3 (2.73 ± 0.179 & 1.849 ± 0.128 u/l) only in the experimental group compared to control animals (P<0.05). This increment might be caused by the rebound surge of FSH from anterior pituitary which further corroborates the effect of inhibin in treated animals. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the high MW form of inhibin (? 129 kDa) isolated from buFF has comparable biological activity as revealed by 31-32 kDa inhibin from other species. PMID:23602073

Ganguly, Anita; Meur, Sanat K; Ganguly, Indrajit

2013-10-01

107

Synthetic peptides corresponding to residues 551 to 555 and 650 to 653 of the rat testicular follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor are sufficient for post-receptor modulation of Sertoli cell responsiveness to FSH stimulation.  

PubMed

We have recently demonstrated that synthetic peptides corresponding to the third cytoplasmic (3i) loop (residues 533 to 555) and a region in the carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic tail (residues 645 to 653) of the rat testicular follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) affected signal transduction in rat testis membranes and cultured rat Sertoli cells. In order to define more precisely the peptide domains involved, we synthesized truncated peptide amides corresponding to FSHR residues 551-555 (KIAKR) and 650-653 (RKSH), respectively. These two regions were chosen since they contained a minimal structural motif present in G protein activator regions of several other G protein-coupled receptors (i.e., B-X-X-B-B or B-B-X-B, B representing a basic amino acid). Neither peptide inhibited binding of FSH to testis membrane receptors. Each peptide significantly reduced FSH-stimulated estradiol biosynthesis by intact cultured rat Sertoli cells. The same results were obtained with streptolysin O-permeabilized Sertoli cells. No effect was noted on forskolin-induced steroidogenesis, indicating that the peptide effects were not due to interaction with adenylyl cyclase. Each peptide amide, however, induced concentration-dependent increases in guanine nucleotide exchange in rat testis membranes. Our results indicate that interaction of FSH receptor with its associated G protein may involve relatively restricted peptide sequences, and include residues 551-555 (KIAKR) in the third cytoplasmic loop, and residues 650-653 (RKSH) in the carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic tail of the FSH receptor. PMID:8746544

Grasso, P; Deziel, M R; Reichert, L E

1995-12-14

108

Does day-3 LH/FSH ratio influence in vitro fertilization outcome in PCOS patients undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with different GnRH-analogue?  

PubMed

In an attempt to evaluate whether high basal day-3 luteinizing hormone/follicle-stimulating hormone (LH/FSH) ratio affects IVF cycle outcome in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients undergoing ovarian stimulation with either GnRH-agonist (n = 47) or antagonist (n = 104), we studied 151 IVF cycles: 119 in patients with basal LH/FSH <2 and 32 in patients with LH/FSH ? 2. The PCOS with high LH/FSH ratio achieved a non-significantly higher pregnancy rate using the GnRH-agonist (50% vs 17.9%, p = 0.2; respectively), as compared to the GnRH-antagonist protocols, probably due to the ability of the long GnRH-agonist protocol to induce a prolong and sustained reduction of the high basal LH milieu and avert its detrimental effect on oocyte quality and implantation potential. PMID:22578028

Orvieto, Raoul; Meltcer, Simion; Liberty, Gad; Rabinson, Jacob; Anteby, Eyal Y; Nahum, Ravit

2012-06-01

109

Spontaneous luteinizing hormone (LH) surges are associated with more rapidly increasing estradiol (E 2 ) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a retrospective analysis of 64 patients stimulated with human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) and\\/or pure follicle stimulating hormone (FSH); 35 cycles with spontaneous luteinizing hormone (LH) surges were compared with 29 control cycles with respect to serum FSH and estradiol (E2) levels drawn on the day prior to and the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), approximately 16 hr after

David Kreiner; Kathleen Droesch; Joseph Itskovitz; Hung-Ching Liu; Daniel Navot; Zev Rosenwaks

1988-01-01

110

The gonadotropin receptors FSH-R and LH-R of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus)--2. Differential follicle expression and asynchronous oogenesis.  

PubMed

The biological activity and spatio-temporal expression patterns of the gonadotropin receptors FSH-R and LH-R were examined in the repetitive spawner Atlantic halibut to elucidate the gonadotropic regulation of the asynchronous follicle development. The cloned receptors were expressed in mammalian COS-7 cells, and stimulation with sea bass FSH and LH increased the cAMP production. The halibut FSH-R and LH-R genes were shown to be highly expressed in the gonads of sexually mature fish, but the transcripts were also found in extra-gonadal tissues such as pituitary and brain. Different expression patterns of FSH-R and LH-R in the developing follicles were documented by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Abundant FSH-R mRNA was found in the small follicles during primary growth and vitellogenesis, and the signals were localized to the granulosa cells by in situ hybridization. In contrast, follicular LH-R mRNA was hardly detectable during the early stages. Conversely, in follicles during final maturation FSH-R mRNA levels tended to decrease, while the expression of LH-R was highly upregulated. Whereas the pituitary FSH and LH are asynchronously expressed in annual spawners, both gonadotropins were expressed in the female halibut pituitary throughout the reproductive cycle, except in the prespawning females. Hence, the sequential gonadotropic activation of ovarian follicle growth and maturation in repetitive spawners is probably regulated by modulating the temporal expression of FSH-R and LH-R in the follicle membrane. PMID:18377904

Kobayashi, Tamae; Pakarinen, Pirjo; Torgersen, Jacob; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Andersen, Øivind

2008-05-01

111

Cost-effectiveness analysis on the use of rFSH + rLH for the treatment of anovulation in hypogonadotropic hypogonadal women  

PubMed Central

Background Hypogonadotropic hypogonadal women are characterized by ovarian functionality deficiency, caused by low concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). To recover reproduction functionality, recommended therapies for ovarian induction involve injections of FSH and LH medications. Objective Since important differences exist between recombinant and urinary gonadotropin therapies in terms of efficacy and cost, the objective of this study was to develop a cost-effectiveness model to compare recombinant FSH (rFSH) + recombinant LH (rLH) and highly purified human menopausal gonadotropin (HP-HMG). Methods A Markov model was developed, considering three cycles of therapy; probability of pregnancy and miscarriage were considered, and the efficacy was evaluated in terms of pregnancy occurrence. The perspective of the model was that of the Italian Health Service, so only direct cost (drugs, specialist visits, patient examinations, and hospitalizations) were included. Results rFSH + rLH is associated with a higher total cost (€3,453.50) and higher efficacy (0.87) compared with HP-HMG (€2,719.70 and 0.50). rFSH + rLH generated an incremental cost effectiveness ratio equal to €2,007.30 compared to HP-HMG; the average cost per pregnancy is estimated to be €3,990.00 for recombinant strategy and €5,439.80 for urinary strategy. Results of probabilistic sensitivity analysis were consistent with the abovementioned findings. Conclusion Despite the higher acquisition cost in comparison to HP-HMG, rFSH + rLH resulted in a higher pregnancy rate, which makes it the recommended choice when considering cost-effectiveness of LH in supporting FSH-induced follicular gonadotropins in hypogonadotropic hypogonadal women. PMID:25028553

Papaleo, Enrico; Alviggi, Carlo; Colombo, Giorgio Lorenzo; Pisanelli, Claudio; Ripellino, Claudio; Longobardi, Salvatore; Canonico, Pier Luigi

2014-01-01

112

Relationship between peripheral plasma inhibin and FSH concentrations in Sahiwal cows ( Bos indicus ) and Murrah buffaloes ( Bubalus bubalis ) during estrous cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation was undertaken to study the relationship between circulating inhibin and FSH concentrations during\\u000a the estrous cycle in buffaloes and Sahiwal cattle. The pattern of inhibin concentrations was similar, with peak concentrations\\u000a on Day -2 (Day 0?=?day of estrus) and minimum concentrations on Days 12 and 11 in buffaloes and cattle, respectively. Circulating\\u000a FSH concentrations were the highest

S. Mondal; B. S. Prakash; P. Palta

2008-01-01

113

Pueraria tuberosa DC Extract Improves Androgenesis and Sexual Behavior via FSH LH Cascade  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanolic extract of Pueraria tuberosa (PT) on sexual behaviour and androgenic activity. Male albino rats were divided into four groups of six animals each: control group 1 (2% acacia solution), PT-treated group 2 (50?mg/Kg), PT-treated group 3 (100?mg/Kg), and PT-treated group 4 (150?mg/Kg). Sexual behavior of male rats in the presence of a female rat was recorded. The treated groups were evaluated for sexual parameters. The extract was characterized using LC-MS. The effect of treatment on anabolic and weight of secondary sexual organs was determined. The histological changes in section of testis and epididymis after treatment were observed. Sperm count in epididymis and fructose content in seminal vesicles were also measured. Levels of hormones like FSH, LH, and T were determined. A dose-dependent increase in sexual behaviors was evidenced in the animals of extract treated groups. Increase in testis weight was recorded in PT. At the highest dose PT also affects the hormones level. The four compounds namely puerarin, daidzein, biochanin-A and formononetin were identified in ethanolic extract using LC-MS. It concluded that PT extract possesses androgenic effect and it significantly increased the sexual behaviour and hormones level. PMID:24489512

Chauhan, Nagendra Singh; Sharma, Vikas; Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya, Alexandra; Dixit, V. K.

2013-01-01

114

Inhibition of LHRH-induced LH and FSH release by gonadotrophin surge-attenuating factor (GnSAF) from human follicular fluid.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that in superovulated women the endogenous LH surge is attenuated by a non-steroidal factor, called gonadotrophin surge-attenuating factor (GnSAF), which reduces gonadotrophin secretion in response to LHRH. To determine whether human follicular fluid (hFF) from superovulated women contains GnSAF activity, the secretion of LH and FSH by cultured sheep pituitaries was studied. After charcoal extraction of steroids, hFF was treated by heparin/Sepharose chromatography, which reversibly binds inhibin. The effects of whole hFF and the bound and unbound fractions on basal and LHRH-induced gonadotrophin secretion were then assessed. Steroid-free hFF significantly reduced basal FSH, but not basal LH, secretion, and significantly attenuated the LH and FSH responses to LHRH. The bound (inhibin) fraction significantly decreased both basal and LHRH-induced FSH secretion but did not affect LH release. The unbound fraction had no effect on basal LH or FSH secretion, but significantly attenuated LHRH-induced secretion of both LH and FSH. We conclude that the unbound fraction of hFF from superovulated women contains GnSAF. It has been demonstrated that GnSAF is a non-steroidal factor and its activity is distinct from that of inhibin. PMID:2123501

Fowler, P A; Messinis, I E; Templeton, A A

1990-11-01

115

The ParPar System: A Software MPP  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionTo place ParPar1. in context, we must first review the different modes of operationcommon on clusters. Probably the most common approach is to view the clusteras a Network Of Workstations (NOW). With this approach, each node is owned bya certain individual, and is usually also physically located in his work area. Theowner uses his workstation for administrative work, such as

Anat Batat; Avi Kavas; David Er-el; Dror G. Feitelson; Gabriel Benhanokh; Marc A. Volovic; Tomer Klainer; Yoav Etsion

1999-01-01

116

Transactivation of the PAR1-PAR2 Heterodimer by Thrombin Elicits ?-Arrestin-mediated Endosomal Signaling*  

PubMed Central

Thrombin cleaves the N terminus of PAR1, generating a new N-terminal domain that functions as a tethered ligand that binds intermolecularly to activate PAR2 in trans. The mechanisms that regulate PAR1-PAR2 heterodimer signaling and trafficking are not known. We now report that PAR1 and PAR2 form a heterodimer that exhibits unique trafficking and signaling behaviors compared with receptor protomers. Using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, immunofluorescence microscopy, co-immunoprecipitation, and cells expressing receptors exogenously and endogenously, we show that PAR1 and PAR2 specifically interact and form stable dimers. Intriguingly, the PAR1-PAR2 heterodimer displays constitutive internalization that is driven by PAR1 C-terminal tail sorting motifs and is a process that enhances dimer formation. Upon thrombin activation, PAR1-PAR2 dimers co-internalize and recruit ?-arrestins to endosomes. Remarkably, PAR1-PAR2 heterodimers appear to utilize a distinct interface for ?-arrestin interaction compared with receptor protomers. Moreover, thrombin-activated PAR1-PAR2 heterodimers enhance ?-arrestin-mediated ERK1/2 activation in the cytoplasm, whereas activated ERK1/2 induced by the thrombin-activated PAR1 protomer redistributes to the nucleus. Thus, the formation of PAR1-PAR2 heterodimers provides additional modes of thrombin-stimulated signaling responses that appear to be distinctly regulated compared with the receptor protomer. PMID:23476015

Lin, Huilan; Trejo, JoAnn

2013-01-01

117

Par Pond vegetation status 1996  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1996-12-01

118

par Section PR / MCF HDR  

E-print Network

Nom Prénom Discipline par Section CNU Qualité PR / MCF HDR DR / CR HDR Unité de Recherche BARABE IODE DESGORCES Richard 36 PU2 IODE Listes des HDR #12;Nom Prénom Discipline par Section CNU Qualité PR / MCF HDR DR / CR HDR Unité de Recherche DHOMMEAUX Jean 36 PEM IODE FEUILLET LIGER Brigitte 36 PUEX IODE

Rennes, Université de

119

Estrus response and follicular development in Boer does synchronized with flugestone acetate and PGF2? or their combination with eCG or FSH.  

PubMed

The effects of different estrus synchronization techniques on follicular development and estrus response were studied in 81 nulliparous Boer does. The does were divided into nine groups. Eight of the nine groups were synchronized with prostaglandin F2-alpha (PGF(2?)) or flugestone acetate (FGA) or their combinations, and the ninth group was a control group. In addition to the above combinations, four of the eight synchronized groups were given 5 mg follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and the remaining four groups were administered 300 IU equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG). Posttreatment follicular development was monitored until ovulation occurred using a real-time B-mode ultrasound scanner (Aloka, 500 SSD, Japan), with a 7.5-MHz transrectal linear probe. All the does from the synchronized groups that were given eCG exhibited oestrus while only 88.9% of the does synchronized with FSH showed estrus. The estrus response was observed to be the least among the does synchronized with PGF(2?) + FSH (33.3%) combination followed closely by the FGA + FSH (42.9%) combinations. It was observed that the combinations of FGA + PGF(2?) + FSH resulted in increased percentage of estrus response, duration of estrus, and ovulation. The number of follicles was higher (P < 0.05) in FSH-synchronized groups than the eCG-synchronized groups. It was concluded that the best estrus synchronization protocol in goats is the FGA + eCG with or without PGF(2?). However, the PGF(2?) + FGA + FSH method of estrus synchronization is the most promising combination for further development as a better alternative to estrus synchronization with eCG in does. PMID:22461200

Bukar, Muhammad Modu; Yusoff, Rosnina; Haron, Abd Wahid; Dhaliwal, Gurmeet Kaur; Khan, Mohd Azam Goriman; Omar, Mohammed Ariff

2012-10-01

120

Involvement of ERK1/2 signaling pathway in atrazine action on FSH-stimulated LHR and CYP19A1 expression in rat granulosa cells  

SciTech Connect

Worldwide used herbicide atrazine is linked to reproductive dysfunction in females. In this study, we investigated the effects and the mechanism of atrazine action in the ovary using a primary culture of immature granulosa cells. In granulosa cells, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) activates both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) cascades, with cAMP pathway being more important for luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA expression. We report that 48 h after atrazine exposure the FSH-stimulated LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA expression and estradiol synthesis were decreased, with LHR mRNA being more sensitive to atrazine than CYP19A1 mRNA. Inadequate acquisition of LHR in the FSH-stimulated and atrazine-exposed granulosa cells renders human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) ineffective to stimulate amphiregulin (Areg), epiregulin (Ereg), and progesterone receptor (Pgr) mRNA expression, suggesting anti-ovulatory effect of atrazine. To dissect the signaling cascade involved in atrazine action in granulosa cells, we used U0126, a pharmacological inhibitor of ERK1/2. U0126 prevents atrazine-induced decrease in LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA levels and estradiol production in the FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. ERK1/2 inactivation restores the ability of hCG to induce expression of the ovulatory genes in atrazine-exposed granulosa cells. Cell-based ELISA assay revealed that atrazine does not change the FSH-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in granulosa cells. The results from this study reveal that atrazine does not affect but requires ERK1/2 phosphorylation to cause decrease in the FSH-induced LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA levels and estradiol production in immature granulosa cells, thus compromising ovulation and female fertility. - Highlights: • Atrazine inhibits estradiol production in FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. • Atrazine inhibits LHR and Cyp19a1 mRNA expression in FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. • Atrazine prevents hCG-induced expression of the ovulatory genes. • ERK1/2 activation is required for atrazine action in granulosa cells. • Atrazine does not interfere with FSH-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation.

Fa, Svetlana; Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Samardzija, Dragana; Glisic, Branka; Kaisarevic, Sonja; Kovacevic, Radmila; Andric, Nebojsa, E-mail: nebojsa.andric@dbe.uns.ac.rs

2013-07-01

121

Calcineurin and CRTC2 mediate FSH and TGF?1 upregulation of Cyp19a1 and Nr5a in ovary granulosa cells.  

PubMed

Estrogens are essential for female reproduction and overall well-being, and estrogens in the circulation are largely synthesized in ovarian granulosa cells. Using primary cultures of ovarian granulosa cells from gonadotropin-primed immature rats, we have recently discovered that pituitary FSH and ovarian cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF?1) induce calcineurin-mediated dephosphorylation-activation of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB)-regulated transcription coactivator (CRTC2) to modulate the expression of Star, Cyp11a1, and Hsd3b leading to increased production of progesterone. This study explored the role of calcineurin and CRTC2 in FSH and TGF?1 regulation of Cyp19a1 expression in granulosa cells. Ovarian granulosa cells treated with FSH displayed increased aromatase protein at 24 ?h post-treatment, which subsided by 48 ?h, while TGF?1 acting through its type 1 receptor augmented the action of FSH with a greater and longer effects. It is known that the ovary-specific Cyp19a1 PII-promoter contains crucial response elements for CREB and nuclear receptor NR5A subfamily liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH1/NR5A2) and steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1/NR5A1), and that the Nr5a2 promoter also has a potential CREB-binding site. Herein, we demonstrate that FSH+TGF?1 increased LRH1 and SF1 protein levels, and their binding to the Cyp19a1 PII-promoter evidenced, determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. Moreover, pretreatment with calcineurin auto-inhibitory peptide (CNI) abolished the FSH+TGF?1-upregulated but not FSH-upregulated aromatase activity at 48 ?h, and the corresponding mRNA changes in Cyp19a1, and Nr5a2 and Nr5a1 at 24 ?h. In addition, FSH and TGF?1 increased CRTC2 binding to the Cyp19a1 PII-promoter and Nr5a2 promoter at 24? h, with CREB bound constitutively. In summary, the results of this study indicate that calcineurin and CRTC2 have important roles in mediating FSH and TGF?1 collateral upregulation of Cyp19a1 expression together with its transcription regulators Nr5a2 and Nr5a1 in ovarian granulosa cells. PMID:25057110

Lai, Wei-An; Yeh, Yi-Ting; Fang, Wei-Ling; Wu, Leang-Shin; Harada, Nobuhiro; Wang, Peng-Hui; Ke, Ferng-Chun; Lee, Wen-Ling; Hwang, Jiuan-Jiuan

2014-10-01

122

FoxO1 is a negative regulator of FSH? gene expression in basal and GnRH-stimulated conditions in female.  

PubMed

The importance of forkhead box class O (FoxO) proteins in reproductive endocrinology has been confirmed by age-dependent infertility in females in a FoxO3a-knockout mouse model. In this study, FoxO1 was detected in gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary. Overexpression of FoxO1 in primary pituitary cells decreased FSH? gene expression in both basal and GnRH-stimulated conditions, and this result was replicated by the human FSH? promoter activity. Although direct binding of FoxO1 to FoxO-binding element (FBE) (at -124 to -119 bp of the human FSH? promoter) was not detected in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, a DNA pull-down assay and transfection study using the mutant FBE reporter vector revealed that FBE is necessary in FSH? suppression by FoxO1, suggestive of other cofactor requirements. GnRH stimulated the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway, which induced posttranslational modification of FoxO1 and retained it in the cytoplasm. We also confirmed this result in primary cell cultures; most of the FoxO1 was detected in the cytoplasm when treated with GnRH but in the nucleus when the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway was inhibited. These findings suggest that FoxO1 is regulated by the GnRH signaling pathway and functions as a negative regulator of FSH? gene expression. PMID:24437485

Choi, Young-Suk; Lee, Hyeon Jeong; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Cho, Yoon Hee; Seo, Mi Ran; Lee, Yoo Jeoung; Lee, Eun Jig

2014-06-01

123

Universite Pierre et Marie CURIE Presentee par  

E-print Network

´electronique et de dynamique de r´eseau par ondes planes, principalement ´ecrits par Stefano BARONIcd , Paolo GIANNOZZIe et Stefano de GIRONCOLIc . Les effets n´ecessaires `a l'´etude infrarouge y ont ´et´e inclus en

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

124

Production of recombinant orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in single-chain form and dimer form by Pichia pastoris and their biological activities.  

PubMed

FSH is a key regulator of steroidogenesis and gonadal growth in teleosts. However, function of FSH is elusive in grouper due to the lack of purified and native FSH. In the present study, we reported production of bioactive orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) FSH in dimer form and single-chain form by Pichia pastoris. Dimer form of recombinant grouper FSH (rgFSHba) was accomplished by co-expressing mature FSHb-subunit and a-subunit genes. Fusion of mature FSHb-subunit and a-subunit genes together linking with a polypeptide (4×(Gly-Ser)-Gly-Thr) gene generated single-chain form of recombinant grouper FSH (rgFSHb-a). Recombinant grouper common ?-subunit (rgCga) and FSHb-subunit (rgFSHb) were also separately produced. Recombinant proteins were verified by Western blot and mass spectrometry assays, and characterized by deglycosylation analysis. Deglycosylation assay suggested that glycosylation of recombinant FSH mainly occurred on common a-subunit. Bioactivities of recombinant proteins were initially evaluated by activating grouper FSH receptor, and further demonstrated by incubating ovarian fragments of adult grouper and intraperitoneal injection in juvenile female grouper. Two forms of recombinant FSH presented similar biological activities of activating FSH receptor and stimulating in vitro testosterone (T) and estradiol-17? (E2) secretion, though the dimer form functioned slightly weaker than the single-chain form. However, injections of rgFSHb-a or rgFSHba could significantly increase serum T and E2 levels, induce early ovarian development, reduce hypothalamic gnrh1 mRNA level, and increase hypothalamic cyp19a1b mRNA level. Data in this study suggested that recombinant gonadotropin could be produced in dimer form or single-chain form by P. pastoris, and FSH could regulate steroidogenesis and early ovarian development in juvenile grouper. PMID:22684083

Chen, Jun; Zhang, Yanhong; Tang, Zhiguo; Mao, Jiewei; Kuang, Zhonglei; Qin, Chaobin; Li, Wensheng

2012-09-01

125

Reconnaissance de formules mathmatiques Arabes par un systme dirig par la syntaxe  

E-print Network

Reconnaissance de formules mathématiques Arabes par un système dirigé par la syntaxe Afef Kacem'objet de cette contribution est de présenter un système dirigé par la syntaxe qui reconnaît des formules ambigus ou en confusion. Ce système de reconnaissance, dirigé par la syntaxe, a été démontré avec succès

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

126

DSEXCITATION DE NOYAUX DE DYSPROSIUM OBTENUS PAR BOMBARDEMENT DE TERBIUM PAR DES PROTONS  

E-print Network

833 D�SEXCITATION DE NOYAUX DE DYSPROSIUM OBTENUS PAR BOMBARDEMENT DE TERBIUM PAR DES PROTONS Par M (p, 9n) (p, 10n) induites sur le terbium-159. La comparaison avec un calcul fondé sur les Simonoff [6] ont récemment exa- miné la désexcitation de noyaux de terbium et de dysprosium obtenus par

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

127

MESURES COMPARATIVES D'INDICES PAR LE PRISME ET LA RFLEXION PAR M. H. DUFET.  

E-print Network

I63 MESURES COMPARATIVES D'INDICES PAR LE PRISME ET LA RÉFLEXION TOTALE; PAR M. H. DUFET corps biréfringents, de tels avan tages, qu'elle tend à se substituer à la méthode du prisme. Elle mesures les plus soignées par le prisme. Une objection cependant persiste, formulée par divers physi

Boyer, Edmond

128

RENFORCEMENT DE LA LUMINESCENCE DES SCINTILLATIONS 03B1 PAR LES CHAMPS LECTRIQUES Par JOSEPH MATTLER,  

E-print Network

758 RENFORCEMENT DE LA LUMINESCENCE DES SCINTILLATIONS 03B1 PAR LES CHAMPS ÉLECTRIQUES Par JOSEPH MATTLER, Laboratoire de Luminescence, Faculté des Sciences, Paris. LE JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE ET LE RADIUM de luminescence lorsqu'on les excite par des rayons X et à une extinction lorsqu'on les excite par la

Boyer, Edmond

129

Seasonal variations of LH, prolactin, androstenedione, testosterone and testicular FSH binding in the male blue fox (Alopex lagopus).  

PubMed

The seasonal changes in testicular weight in the blue fox were associated with considerable variations in plasma concentrations of LH, prolactin, androstenedione and testosterone and in FSH-binding capacity of the testis. An increase in LH secretion and a 5-fold increase in FSH-binding capacity were observed during December and January, as testis weight increased rapidly. LH levels fell during March when testicular weight was maximal. Plasma androgen concentrations reached their peak values in the second half of March (androstenedione: 0.9 +/- 0.1 ng/ml: testosterone: 3.6 +/- 0.6 ng/ml). A small temporary increase in LH was seen in May and June after the breeding season as testicular weight declined rapidly before levels returned to the basal state (0.5-7 ng/ml) that lasted until December. There were clear seasonal variations in the androgenic response of the testis to LH challenge. Plasma prolactin concentrations (2-3 ng/ml) were basal from August until the end of March when levels rose steadily to reach peak values (up to 13 ng/ml) in May and June just before maximum daylength and temperature. The circannual variations in plasma prolactin after castration were indistinguishable from those in intact animals, but LH concentrations were higher than normal for at least 1 year after castration. PMID:3930711

Smith, A J; Mondain-Monval, M; Møller, O M; Scholler, R; Hansson, V

1985-07-01

130

Hormonal therapy (hCG and rhFSH) for infertile men with adult-onset idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.  

PubMed

Adult-onset idiopathic male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IMHH) is a very rare but treatable disease. This study was conducted to examine the efficacy and safety of a combination of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (rhFSH) for inducing spermatogenesis in men with adult-onset IMHH. Seven men (34-45 years of age) with azoospermia and/or sexual dysfunction, with a low serum testosterone concentration, and apulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone, were referred to our hospital for infertility. All had normal secondary sexual characteristics. Thorough endocrinologic examination and magnetic resonance imaging revealed no identifiable cause of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Adult-onset IMHH was diagnosed in all cases and treatment was started with 150?IU rhFSH and 5,000?IU hCG, both administered two times per week. Spermatogenesis was restored in five of the seven patients. During treatment one patient achieved spontaneous pregnancy with his wife, and spermatozoa recovered from the other four patients were frozen for future use in intracytoplasmic sperm injection. PMID:25518839

Kobori, Yoshitomo; Suzuki, Keisuke; Iwahata, Toshiyuki; Shin, Takeshi; Sato, Ryo; Nishio, Kojiro; Yagi, Hiroshi; Arai, Gaku; Soh, Shigehiro; Okada, Hiroshi

2015-04-01

131

par Section PR / MCF HDR  

E-print Network

Nom Prénom Discipline par Section CNU Qualité PR / MCF HDR DR / CR HDR Unité de Recherche Equipe Mobilisations, citoyennetés, vie politique Sciences Po Rennes LONCLE Patricia 4 EC/HDR UMR 6051 Mobilisations UMR 6051 Journalisme, espace public, mouvements sociaux Sciences Po Rennes Listes des HDR #12;Nom

Rennes, Université de

132

Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.

1996-06-01

133

A common polymorphic allele of the LH beta-subunit gene is associated with higher exogenous FSH consumption during controlled ovarian stimulation for assisted reproductive technology  

PubMed Central

Background V-betaLH is a common genetic variant of LH caused by two polymorphic base changes in the beta subunit gene, altering the amino acid sequence (Trp8Arg and Ile15Thr). In a previous-preliminary trial performed in women undergoing IVF, it was demonstrated that carriers of v-betaLH show sub-optimal ovarian response to a standard long GnRH-agonist down -regulation protocol when stimulated with pure recombinant FSH (r-hFSH). The aim of this study was to confirm the hypothesis that women with v-betaLH display hypo-sensitivity to exogenous FSH in a larger IVF population and to explore the frequency of this variant in a Danish female population. Methods In the present study, the effect of v-betaLH was retrospectively investigated in a larger series of women undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) and, for the first time, in a Danish IVF population. A total of 220 normogonadotrophic women following a long GnRH-agonist down-regulation protocol received an individualized dose of r-hFSH (100 IU and 375 IU s.c. daily) according to antral follicle count, baseline FSH, body mass index and age. The LH genotype was assessed in all patients by immunofluorometric assay. Results V-betaLH was present in 11% of patients, whereas the allelic frequency was 12%. The study population was divided into two groups according to their LH genotype. Group A consisted of 196 wt/wt women. Group B included 24 individuals with v-betaLH (21 heterozygous and 3 homozygous). No statistically significant differences in the mean number of oocytes retrieved, fertilization rate and pregnancy rate per cycle were observed between groups. However, Group B received a significantly higher cumulative-dose of r-hFSH than Group A (2435.86 +/? 932.8 IU versus 1959.8 +/? 736.45 p?=?0.048). When one-way ANOVA in a within design was applied, the LH genotype had a statistically significant effect (p?FSH, showing a progressive increase from wt/wt (1959.8 +/? 736.45 IU) to v-betaLH hetero- (2267.5 +/? 824.3) and homozygotic women (3558.3 +/? 970.9). Conclusions These results confirm that carriers exhibit hypo-sensitivity to exogenous FSH during COS, documenting that the frequency of v-betaLH in Denmark is similar to a number of European countries. PMID:23725475

2013-01-01

134

Data-derived reference profiles with corepresentation of progesterone, estradiol, LH, and FSH dynamics during the bovine estrous cycle.  

PubMed

Subfertility in cows is often associated with alterations in the hormonal patterns involved in the regulation of the estrous cycle. Reference profiles are needed to ground modeling projects aimed at describing these alterations and to develop tools for detecting abnormal dynamics. Various schematic views of LH, FSH, progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) patterns have been published but with no clear indication of the extent to which they are derived from real data. The objective of this study was to generate standard profiles for the main reproductive hormones that can be proposed as reliable references to represent the normal dynamics of these hormones over the estrous cycle. A database of hormonal profiles was compiled with 40, 23, 33, and 34 profiles for LH, FSH, E2, and P4, respectively, derived from publications in which changes over time of at least three of these four hormones, including LH, were reported. These profiles were digitalized and standardized over the time throughout the estrous cycle, considering the interval between two successive LH surges to be 21 days. After this standardization on the x-axis, a transformation on the y-axis was performed to center the profiles around their common dynamics. For each hormone, the reference profile was then considered to be the median of the adjusted profiles. Quartiles were reported to account for the time evolution of the variability around each reference profile. The reference profiles obtained showed that the procedure used was satisfactory for extracting the overall changes over time of LH, P4, and E2. Results were less satisfactory for FSH, because of a higher variability observed between the original profiles in our database. The corepresentation of the reference profiles, i.e., when depicted together on the same scale, emphasizes the interplay between these hormones more precisely than most of the schematic views available in literature. These data-derived profiles can be considered to be generic and useful for benchmarking the normal dynamics of gonadotrophins and steroid hormones over the estrous cycle in cow. PMID:23149413

Martin, O; Friggens, N C; Dupont, J; Salvetti, P; Freret, S; Rame, C; Elis, S; Gatien, J; Disenhaus, C; Blanc, F

2013-01-15

135

Follicle numbers are highly repeatable within individual animals but are inversely correlated with FSH concentrations and the proportion of good-quality embryos after ovarian stimulation in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The significance of the high variation in numbers of follicles produced during reproductive cycles in humans and cattle is unknown. METHODS: We selected beef heifers with high (? 25) or low (? 15) numbers of ovarian follicles and determined the association with alterations in FSH and estradiol concentrations, as well as responsiveness to superstimulation and embryo quality. The variation

J. J. Ireland; F. Ward; F. Jimenez-Krassel; J. L. H. Ireland; G. W. Smith; P. Lonergan; A. C. O. Evans

2007-01-01

136

Basal serum levels of FSH and estradiol in ovulatory and anovulatory women undergoing treatment by in-vitro maturation of immature oocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The study aim was to establish whether basal serum levels of FSH and estradiol are predictive of outcome in women undergoing treatment by in-vitro maturation (IVM) of immature oocytes. METHODS: Data were obtained from 123 unstimulated IVM cycles. Serum was taken between cycle days 2-4 for analysis. Patients received 10 000 IU of HCG 36 h before immature oocyte

Tim J. Child; Camille Sylvestre; Imran Pirwany; Seang Lin Tan

137

Acute follicular response to FSH in heifers downregulated long term with a GnRH agonist and with suppressed ovarian follicular growth.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to (1) ascertain ovarian follicular status in heifers where the pituitary gonadotrope cells producing LH and FSH were downregulated by long-term treatment with a GnRH agonist and (2) characterize the acute superstimulation of follicular growth in response to FSH in heifers where the pituitary was downregulated with a GnRH agonist. At the start of the study, heifers (3 year old) were implanted with GnRH agonist (n = 20) or received no treatment (control, n = 5). After 6 months, follicular growth in heifers implanted with GnRH agonist was restricted to early antral follicles (2-4 mm). At this time, these heifers were allocated to four groups and follicular development was superstimulated with FSH as follows: group 1 (n = 5) and group 2 (n = 5), a conventional FSH protocol with injections over 4 days (Days 0-3) with Group 2 receiving two times the normal dose of FSH; group 3 (n = 5), a single injection of FSH in saline on Day 0; group 4 (n = 5), a single injection of FSH in slow-release polyvinylpyrrolidone on Day 0. Follicular growth in the control heifers (n = 5) was superstimulated using the conventional 4-day FSH protocol. On Day 5, heifers in groups 1 and 2 had similar (P > 0.05) numbers of follicles in the size categories 6 to 7 mm (12.8 ± 3.0 follicles) and 8 to 9 mm (6.5 ± 1.0) as control heifers (6-7 mm, 14.6 ± 2.2; 8-9 mm, 6.2 ± 2.2) and six of the former heifers had follicles 10 mm (3.2 ± 1.4). Also on Day 5, follicular growth for heifers in group 3 was restricted to 4 to 5 mm (11.6 ± 3.0) and 6 to 7 mm (7.6 ± 3.7), whereas four out of five heifers in group 4 had follicles of 6 to 7 mm (8.2 ± 2.3) and three heifers had follicles of 8 to 9 mm (4.6 ± 2.2) and 10 mm (2.2 ± 0.9). Injection of exogenous LH on Day 5 induced ovulation in 9 out of 10 heifers in groups 1 and 2, no heifers in group 3, and 2 of 5 heifers in group 4. Plasma concentrations of progesterone 6 days after ovulation were the same (P > 0.05) for heifers in groups 1 and 2 (8.9 ± 0.9 ng/mL) and control heifers (10.0 ± 0.9 ng/mL). This study has shown that heifers treated chronically with a GnRH agonist have suppressed ovarian follicular growth but are able to respond to acute superstimulation with FSH. Furthermore, follicles in heifers treated with a GnRH agonist undergo morphologically normal growth in response to FSH and can ovulate and develop into a CL. The long-term GnRH agonist-treated heifer provides a practical model for repeated ovarian follicular superstimulation, multiple ovulation, and embryo transfer, without the need to control stage of the estrous cycle. PMID:23998741

D'Occhio, M J; Cremonesi, F; Trigg, T E; Aspden, W J; Baruselli, P S

2013-12-01

138

ParB spreading requires DNA bridging  

PubMed Central

The parABS system is a widely employed mechanism for plasmid partitioning and chromosome segregation in bacteria. ParB binds to parS sites on plasmids and chromosomes and associates with broad regions of adjacent DNA, a phenomenon known as spreading. Although essential for ParB function, the mechanism of spreading remains poorly understood. Using single-molecule approaches, we discovered that Bacillus subtilis ParB (Spo0J) is able to trap DNA loops. Point mutants in Spo0J that disrupt DNA bridging are defective in spreading and recruitment of structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) condensin complexes in vivo. DNA bridging helps to explain how a limited number of Spo0J molecules per parS site (?20) can spread over many kilobases and suggests a mechanism by which ParB proteins could facilitate the loading of SMC complexes. We show that DNA bridging is a property of diverse ParB homologs, suggesting broad evolutionary conservation. PMID:24829297

Graham, Thomas G.W.; Wang, Xindan; Song, Dan; Etson, Candice M.; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Rudner, David Z.; Loparo, Joseph J.

2014-01-01

139

POMPE A MERCURE AUTOMATIQUE : Par M. KLEIN.  

E-print Network

293 POMPE A MERCURE AUTOMATIQUE : Par M. KLEIN. Cette pompe à mercure est actionnéepar une trompe à reliée à une trompe à eau et, au lieu que les déplacements du mercure soient produits par les alternativement et automatiquement avec l'atmosphère et avec la trompe à eau par le jeu d'un dispositif convenable

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

140

Elaborating polarity: PAR proteins and the cytoskeleton  

PubMed Central

Cell polarity is essential for cells to divide asymmetrically, form spatially restricted subcellular structures and participate in three-dimensional multicellular organization. PAR proteins are conserved polarity regulators that function by generating cortical landmarks that establish dynamic asymmetries in the distribution of effector proteins. Here, we review recent findings on the role of PAR proteins in cell polarity in C. elegans and Drosophila, and emphasize the links that exist between PAR networks and cytoskeletal proteins that both regulate PAR protein localization and act as downstream effectors to elaborate polarity within the cell. PMID:21303844

Nance, Jeremy; Zallen, Jennifer A.

2011-01-01

141

PAR-1 antagonists: current state of evidence.  

PubMed

Vorapaxar (SCH 530348) and atopaxar (E5555) are oral protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) antagonists with high bioavailability. They inhibits thrombin induced platelet aggregation by competitively inhibiting PAR-1. We systematically evaluated the evidence for the efficacy and safety of all PAR-1 antagonists as well as for the individual drugs vorapaxar and atopaxar in different databases-PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and Cochrane register of Controlled Clinical Trials (CENTRAL).We selected randomized controlled trials of PAR-1 antagonists that reported on cardiovascular mortality as a clinical outcome. The random-effects Mantel-Haenszel model was used to evaluate the effect of PAR-1 antagonists on cardiovascular mortality. Seven trials were selected (N = 42,355) for analysis. PAR-1 antagonists as a class, as well as individually, were associated with a non-significant numerically lower risk of cardiovascular mortality than that seen with agents used in the control group; RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.83-1.04; P = 0.20). No heterogeneity was noted. However, PAR-1 antagonists also appeared to increase the risk of bleeding significantly. PAR-1 antagonists appear to be associated with some reduction in the risk of cardiovascular mortality; however the significantly higher bleeding risk noted with PAR-1 antagonists appear to mandate a very careful selection of patients that may benefit without a substantially increased risk of bleeds. PMID:22644721

Chatterjee, Saurav; Sharma, Abhishek; Mukherjee, Debabrata

2013-01-01

142

Elaborating polarity: PAR proteins and the cytoskeleton.  

PubMed

Cell polarity is essential for cells to divide asymmetrically, form spatially restricted subcellular structures and participate in three-dimensional multicellular organization. PAR proteins are conserved polarity regulators that function by generating cortical landmarks that establish dynamic asymmetries in the distribution of effector proteins. Here, we review recent findings on the role of PAR proteins in cell polarity in C. elegans and Drosophila, and emphasize the links that exist between PAR networks and cytoskeletal proteins that both regulate PAR protein localization and act as downstream effectors to elaborate polarity within the cell. PMID:21303844

Nance, Jeremy; Zallen, Jennifer A

2011-03-01

143

PHOTOLUMINESCENCE DU MTAANTIMONIATE DE CALCIUM ACTIV PAR LE BISMUTH Par ROGER BERNARD et JOSEPH JANIN,  

E-print Network

616. PHOTOLUMINESCENCE DU M�TAANTIMONIATE DE CALCIUM ACTIV� PAR LE BISMUTH Par ROGER BERNARD et différentes concentrations en bismuth ; les courbes corres- pondantes sont reproduites sur la figure 1. FiG. 1 concentrations en activateur. présentent pas de modification par addition de bismuth. Il semble plus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

144

PAR  

E-print Network

La diffusion de cette thèse se fait dans le respect des droits de son auteur, qui a signé le formulaire Autorisation de reproduire et de diffuser un travail de recherche de cycles supérieurs (SDU-522- Rév.01-2006). Cette autorisation stipule que «conformément à l'article 11 du Règlement no 8 des études de cycles supérieurs, [l'auteur] concède à l'Université du Québec à Montréal une licence non · exclusive d'utilisation et de publication de la totalité ou d'une partie importante de [son] travail de recherche pour des fins pédagogiques et non commerciales. Plus précisément, [l'auteur] autorise l'Université du Québec à Montréal à reproduire, diffuser, prêter, distribuer ou vendre des copies de [son] travail de recherche à des fins non commerciales sur quelque support que ce soit, y compris l'lnternE?t. Cette licence et cette autorisation n'entraînent pas une renonciation de [la] part [de l'auteur] à [ses] droits moraux ni à [ses] droits de propriété intellectuelle. Sauf entente contraire, [l'auteur] conserve la liberté de diffuser et de commercialiser ou non ce travail dont [il] possède un exemplaire. » REMERCIEMENTS Je tiens tout d'abord à remercier mon directeur de thèse, Jérôme Claverie, qui a toujours été très présent au cours de ces quatre années. Il a su me motiver dans ce

Université Du Québec À Montréal; Base De; Palladium Et; De Ruthénium; Pour La Polymérisation; Du Doctorat; En Chimie; Laurence Piché; Novembre Université; Du Québec; À Montréal; Service Des Bibliothèques

145

PAR  

E-print Network

La diffusion de cette thèse se fait dans le respect des droits de son auteur, qui a signé le formulaire Autorisation de reproduire et de diffuser un travail de recherche de cycles supérieurs (SDU-522- Rév.01-200G). Cette autorisation stipule que «conformément à l'article 11 du Règlement no 8 des études de cycles supérieurs, [l'auteur] concède à l'Université du Québec à Montréal une licence non exclusive d'utilisation et de publication de la totalité ou d'une partie importante de [son] travail de recherche pour des fins pédagogiques et non commerciales. Plus précisément, [l'auteur] autorise l'Université du Québec à Montréal à reproduire, diffuser, prêter, distribuer ou vendre des copies de [son] travail de recherche à des fins non commerciales sur quelque support que ce soit, y compris l'Internet. Cette licence et cette autorisation n'entraînent pas une renonciation de [la] part [de l'auteur] à [ses] droits moraux ni à [ses] droits de propriété intellectuelle. Sauf entente contraire, [l'auteur] conserve la liberté de diffuser et de commercialiser ou non ce travail dont [il] possède un exemplaire. » REMERCIEMENTS La réalisation d'une thèse de doctorat est certes un long chemin, très difficile à parcourir sans le support et l'appui de riches collaborateurs. Merci au professeur

Des Difficultés; Du Doctorat; En Psychologie; Véronique Parent; Mars Université; Du Québec; À Montréal; Service Des Bibliothèques

146

PAR  

E-print Network

La diffusion de cette thèse se fait dans le respect des droits de son auteur, qui a signé le formulaire Autorisation de reproduire et de diffuser un travail de recherche de cycles supérieurs (SDU-522- Rév.01-2006). Cette autorisation stipule que «conformément à l'article 11 du Règlement no 8 des études de cycles supérieurs, [l'auteur] concède à l'Université du Québec à Montréal une licence non exclusive d'utilisation et de publication de la totalité ou d'une partie importante de [son] travail de recherche pour des fins pédagogiques et non commerciales. Plus précisément, [l'auteur] autorise l'Université du Québec à Montréal à reproduire, diffuser, prêter, distribuer ou vendre des copies de [son] travail de recherche à des fins non commerciales sur quelque support que ce soit, y compris l'lntern~t. Cette licence et cette autorisation n'entraînent pas une renonciation de [la] part [de l'auteur] à [ses] droits moraux ni à [ses] droits de propriété intellectuelle. Sauf entente contraire, [l'auteur] conserve la liberté de diffuser et de commercialiser ou non ce travail dont [il] possède un exemplaire.)) · REMERCIEMENTS Merci à ma directrice de thèse, Marie-Claude Guay, d'avoir cru en moi bien avant mon admission au doctorat. Merci pour la latitude personnelle et professionnelle que

Du Traitement; Des Troubles; Anxieux Sur; Les Comportements; Et Les; Déficits Cognitifs; Associés Au; Trouble Déficitaire De; Du Doctorat; En Psychologie; Isabelle Denis; Juin Université; Du Québec; À Montréal; Service Des Bibliothèques

147

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1996-01-01

148

Ablation de matériaux par laser femtoseconde  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L'ablation de métaux par laser impulsionnel ultrabref (femtoseconde) est étudiée en analysant les cratères par microscopie optique. La profondeur du cratère a été mesurée en fonction du nombre d'impulsions et de la fluence. Les résultats sont comparés à un modèle analytique décrivant l'interaction laser-matière en régime femtoseconde.

Bruneau, S.; Hermann, J.; Itina, T.; Sentis, M.; Semerok, A.; Marine, W.

2003-06-01

149

Segrosome assembly at the pliable parH centromere  

PubMed Central

The segrosome of multiresistance plasmid TP228 comprises ParF, which is a member of the ParA ATPase superfamily, and the ParG ribbon–helix–helix factor that assemble jointly on the parH centromere. Here we demonstrate that the distinctive parH site (?100-bp) consists of an array of degenerate tetramer boxes interspersed by AT-rich spacers. Although numerous consecutive AT-steps are suggestive of inherent curvature, parH lacks an intrinsic bend. Sequential deletion of parH tetramers progressively reduced centromere function. Nevertheless, the variant subsites could be rearranged in different geometries that accommodated centromere activity effectively revealing that the site is highly elastic in vivo. ParG cooperatively coated parH: proper centromere binding necessitated the protein's N-terminal flexible tails which modulate the centromere binding affinity of ParG. Interaction of the ParG ribbon–helix–helix domain with major groove bases in the tetramer boxes likely provides direct readout of the centromere. In contrast, the AT-rich spacers may be implicated in indirect readout that mediates cooperativity between ParG dimers assembled on adjacent boxes. ParF alone does not bind parH but instead loads into the segrosome interactively with ParG, thereby subtly altering centromere conformation. Assembly of ParF into the complex requires the N-terminal flexible tails in ParG that are contacted by ParF. PMID:21378121

Wu, Meiyi; Zampini, Massimiliano; Bussiek, Malte; Hoischen, Christian; Diekmann, Stephan; Hayes, Finbarr

2011-01-01

150

Trans-resveratrol inhibits phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and represses FSH? gene expression by a SirT1-independent pathway in L?T2 gonadotrope cells.  

PubMed

Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenol found in red wine, has multiple beneficial activities that are similar to caloric restriction. In this study, we analyzed the effect of resveratrol on the gonadotropin genes, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH?) and luteinizing hormone (LH?) in L?T2 immortalized mouse gonadotrope cells. Resveratrol specifically inhibited activin-induced FSH? mRNA and protein expression, and reduced activin-stimulated Smad2/3 phosphorylation. Knockdown of SirT1 gene expression or SirT1 inhibition did not block repression of FSH? expression or suppression of Smad2/3 phosphorylation, but did increase p53 acetylation. Taken together, our results suggest that resveratrol down-regulates Smad2/3 phosphorylation and suppresses FSH? expression via a SirT1-independent pathway. PMID:21679764

Lan, Debin; Lu, Min; Sharma, Shweta; Mellon, Pamela L; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Webster, Nicholas J G

2011-07-01

151

Serum anti-Müllerian hormone is a better predictor of ovarian response than FSH and age in IVF patients with endometriosis  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the ability of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), FSH, and age to clinically predict ovarian response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) in IVF patients with endometriosis. Methods We evaluated 91 COH cycles, including 43 cycles with endometriosis (group I) and 48 cycles with male factor infertility (group II) from January to December, 2010. Patients were classified into study groups based on their surgical history of endometriosis-group Ia (without surgical history, n=16), group Ib (with a surgical history, n=27). Results The mean age was not significantly different between group I and group II. However, AMH and FSH were significantly different between group I and group II (1.9±1.9 ng/mL vs. 4.1±2.9 ng/mL, p<0.01; 13.1±7.2 mIU/mL vs. 8.6±3.3 mIU/mL, p<0.01). Furthermore, the number of retrieved oocytes and the number of matured oocytes were significantly lower in group I than in group II. In group II, AMH and FSH as well as age were significant predictors of retrieved oocytes on univariate analysis. Only the serum AMH level was a significant predictor of poor ovarian response in women with endometriosis. Conclusion Serum AMH may be a better predictor of the ovarian response of COH in patients with endometriosis than basal FSH or age. AMH level can be considered a useful clinical predictor of poor ovarian response in endometriosis patients. PMID:22384446

Yoo, Ji Hee; Cha, Sun Hwa; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Jin Young; Yang, Kwang Moon; Song, In Ok; Koong, Mi Kyoung; Kang, Inn Soo

2011-01-01

152

Oocytes lacking O-glycans alter follicle development and increase fertility by increasing follicle FSH sensitivity, decreasing apoptosis, and modifying GDF9:BMP15 expression.  

PubMed

The number of eggs ovulated varies within and between species and is influenced by many variables. However, the regulatory mechanisms remain poorly understood. We previously demonstrated a key role for the oocyte because mice generating oocytes deficient in core 1-derived O-glycans ovulate ?40-50% more eggs than Controls. Here we analyze the basis of this phenotype using Mutant [core 1 ?1,3-galactosyltransferase 1 (C1galt1)(FF):zona pellucida glycoprotein 3 Cre (ZP3Cre)] and Control (C1galt1(FF)) female mice. In culture, Mutant follicles exhibited delayed antrum formation [indicative of follicle stimulant hormone (FSH) dependence] and increased sensitivity to FSH. Although the Mutant estrous cycle was extended, comprehensive endocrine changes were not observed; rather FSH, LH, inhibin B, and anti-Mullerian hormone were temporally altered, revealing estrous cycle stage-specific modifications to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. At proestrus, when FSH levels were decreased in Mutants, ovaries contained more, smaller, preantral follicles. Mutant follicles exhibited reduced levels of apoptosis, and both B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and BCL-2-associated X protein (Bax) were altered compared with Controls. Mutant ovaries also had an increase in the expression ratio of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9):bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) at diestrus. On the basis of these data, we propose that modified oocyte glycoproteins alter GDF9:BMP15 expression modifying follicle development resulting in the generation of more follicles. Thus, the oocyte is a key regulator of follicle development and has a crucial role in determining ovulation rate. PMID:25416550

Grasa, Patricia; Ploutarchou, Panayiota; Williams, Suzannah A

2015-02-01

153

Immunocytochemical applications of specific antisera raised against synthetic fragment peptides of mummichog GtH subunits: examining seasonal variations of gonadotrophs (FSH cells and LH cells) in the mummichog and applications to other acanthopterygian fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two distinct types of gonadotrophs, FSH (GtH I) cells and LH (GtH II) cells, were immunocytochemically identified from mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus; Cyprinodontiformes, Acanthopterygii) pituitary using antisera raised against synthetic fragment peptides of FSH? and LH?. Both cell types were abundant during the spawning period (spring and early summer) and decreased in number during the post-spawning immature period. The number of

Akio Shimizu; Hideki Tanaka; Hirohiko Kagawa

2003-01-01

154

Expression and regulation of SNAP-25 and synaptotagmin VII in developing mouse ovarian follicles via the FSH receptor.  

PubMed

Soluble-NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins play a role in vesicle fusion, exocytosis, and intracellular trafficking in neuronal cells as well as in fertilization and embryogenesis. We investigated the expression patterns of two SNARE proteins, SNAP-25 and synaptotagmin VII (SytVII), and their regulation by pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) during mouse ovarian follicular development. Ovaries were obtained at 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h post-PMSG injection of immature mice. SNAP-25 and SytVII mRNA expression levels increased gradually in a time-dependant manner. However, protein levels revealed different patterns of expression, suggesting different translational regulation following PMSG stimulation. SNAP-25 and SytVII expression was closely associated with thickening of the granulosa cell (GC) layer and follicle morphological changes from a flattened to a cuboidal shape. To explore follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR)-mediated regulation of their expression, GCs from preantral follicles were cultured to examine the effects of FSHR siRNA knockdown. FSHR siRNA abolished upregulation of the SNAREs in both PMSG and FSH-stimulated GCs. This abolished gene expression was rescued by adding dibutyryl cyclic AMP to the cultures. These results suggest that SNAP-25 and SytVII expression is regulated via the FSHR-cAMP pathway during follicular development. PMID:23207584

Choi, Sung Sik; Jung, Joo Young; Lee, Dong Ho; Kang, Ji Yoon; Lee, Sang Ho

2013-02-01

155

Serum FSH level below 10 mIU/mL at twelve years old is an index of spontaneous and cyclical menstruation in Turner syndrome.  

PubMed

The gonadal function of patients with Turner syndrome (TS) is variable. Individuals with mosaicism characterized by 45,X/46,XX or 45,X/47,XXX are more likely to experience spontaneous menarche compared with other karyotypes. Prepubertal gonadotropins of TS patients with spontaneous menarche are reportedly normal or significantly lower than those of patients with induced menarche. The present study investigated an index of spontaneous and cyclical menstruation at 10-12 years old in TS. Subjects comprised 50 patients with TS, divided into three groups: Group A (n=7), with spontaneous menarche before 16 years old and regular menstruation for at least 1 year and 6 months; Group B (n=6), with irregular menstruation since menarche leading to secondary amenorrhea despite spontaneous menarche before 16 years old; and Group C (n=37), without spontaneous breast budding before 14 years old or without spontaneous menarche before 16 years old. Karyotype, LH and FSH concentrations at 10 and 12 years old were analyzed retrospectively. Spontaneous and cyclical menstruation was more frequently observed in TS with mosaicism characterized by 45,X/46,XX or 45,X/47,XXX than in TS with other karyotypes, as previously described. Spontaneous and cyclical menstruation in TS was observed when serum FSH level was <10 mIU/mL at 12 years old, suggesting this FSH level as an index of spontaneous and cyclical menstruation in TS. PMID:20798475

Aso, Keiko; Koto, Shinobu; Higuchi, Asako; Ariyasu, Daisuke; Izawa, Masako; Miyamoto Igaki, Junko; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

2010-01-01

156

Mild IVF using GnRH agonist long protocol is possible: Comparing stimulations with 100 IU vs. 150 IU recombinant FSH as starting dose  

PubMed Central

Purpose To test the possibility of stimulating ovaries with a mild IVF approach using a GnRH agonist long protocol. Methods Retrospective study of 142 first IVF cycles of women aged 30 to 35 who had undergone stimulation with 100 IU or 150 IU of rFSH. Results The mean dose of rFSH used was smaller in the low dose compared with the high dose group (999 vs. 1343 IU; p?FSH and fewer transferred embryos allow for lower costs and risks of IVF without compromising the pregnancy rate. PMID:19151931

Pérez Esturo, Nuria; Cercas Duque, Rosa; Pons Mallol, Isabel

2009-01-01

157

Matrix metalloproteases and PAR1 activation  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular diseases, including atherothrombosis, are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, Europe, and the developed world. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) have recently emerged as important mediators of platelet and endothelial function, and atherothrombotic disease. Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is classically activated through cleavage of the N-terminal exodomain by the serine protease thrombin. Most recently, 2 MMPs have been discovered to have agonist activity for PAR1. Unexpectedly, MMP-1 and MMP-13 cleave the N-terminal exodomain of PAR1 at noncanonical sites, which result in distinct tethered ligands that activate G-protein signaling pathways. PAR1 exhibits metalloprotease-specific signaling patterns, known as biased agonism, that produce distinct functional outputs by the cell. Here we contrast the mechanisms of canonical (thrombin) and noncanonical (MMP) PAR1 activation, the contribution of MMP-PAR1 signaling to diseases of the vasculature, and the therapeutic potential of inhibiting MMP-PAR1 signaling with MMP inhibitors, including atherothrombotic disease, in-stent restenosis, heart failure, and sepsis. PMID:23086754

Austin, Karyn M.; Covic, Lidija

2013-01-01

158

[Pars plana lensectomy in pediatric cataract].  

PubMed

The pars plana approach to cataract extraction in the pediatric age has several advantages. We report of 9 eyes with congenital cataract and discuss the advantages of the pars plana technic. In all cases a single surgical approach was sufficient. There were no complications postoperatively which made either surgical or medical treatment necessary. Postoperatively aphakia was corrected with contact lenses. During pars plana-lensectomie the central part of the anterior and posterior capsule is removed and an anterior vitrectomie is performed. With this procedure secondary cataract formation could always be prevented. PMID:1614122

Kain, H L; Osusky, R

1992-05-01

159

Proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) and PAR2 mediate relaxation of guinea pig internal anal sphincter.  

PubMed

Activation of proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) and PAR2 stimulates contraction of the rat but relaxation of the guinea pig colon. The aim of the present study was to investigate PAR effects on internal anal sphincter (IAS) motility. We measured relaxation of isolated muscle strips from the guinea pig IAS caused by PAR agonists using isometric transducers. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to determine the existence of PAR. In the IAS, thrombin and PAR1 peptide agonists TFLLR-NH2 and SFLLRN-NH2 evoked moderate to marked relaxation in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, trypsin and PAR2 peptide agonists 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2, SLIGRL-NH2 and SLIGKV-NH2 produced relaxation. In contrast, both PAR1 and PAR2 inactive control peptides did not elicit relaxation. Furthermore, the selective PAR1 antagonist vorapaxar and PAR2 antagonist GB 83 specifically inhibited thrombin and trypsin-induced relaxations, respectively. RT-PCR revealed the presence of PAR1 and PAR2 in the IAS. This indicates that PAR1 and PAR2 mediate the IAS relaxation. The relaxant responses of TFLLR-NH2 and trypsin were attenuated by N(omega)-Nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), indicating involvement of NO. These responses were not affected by tetrodotoxin, implying that the PAR effects are not neurally mediated. On the other hand, PAR4 agonists GYPGKF-NH2, GYPGQV-NH2 and AYPGKF-NH2 did not cause relaxation or contraction, suggesting that PAR4 is not involved in the sphincter motility. Taken together, these results demonstrate that both PAR1 and PAR2 mediate relaxation of the guinea pig IAS through the NO pathway. PAR1 and PAR2 may regulate IAS tone and might be potential therapeutic targets for anal motility disorders. PMID:24631471

Huang, Shih-Che

2014-02-10

160

RECHERCHES SUR LES RAYONS n (1) ; Par M. R. BLONDLOT.  

E-print Network

121 RECHERCHES SUR LES RAYONS n (1) ; (Suite) Par M. R. BLONDLOT. 1 . Ren forcement de.s impressions lumineuses, par les rayons n (2). - En étudiant l'emmagasinement des rayons n par différents corps yeux les rayons émis par une brique ou un caillou préalablement isolés, il voit le cadran blanchir

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

161

COLLIMATION DU RAYONNEMENT GAMMA PAR UN CANAL CYLINDRIQUE CIRCULAIRE Par C. KELLERSHOHN et P. PELLERIN,  

E-print Network

81 A COLLIMATION DU RAYONNEMENT GAMMA PAR UN CANAL CYLINDRIQUE CIRCULAIRE Par C. KELLERSHOHN et P'apprécier le degré de collimation d'un rayonnement gamma par un canal cylindrique dans un matériau absorbant. Application au cas de la raie 364 KeV de 131I et d'un canal à parois de plomb. LE JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE ET LE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

162

Comparative cactus architecture and par interception  

SciTech Connect

Because CO{sup 2} uptake by cacti can be limited by low levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and because plant form affects PAR interception, various cactus forms were studied using a computer model, field measurements, and laboratory phototropic studies. Model predictions indicated that CO{sub 2} uptake by individual stems at an equinox was greatest when the stem were vertical, but at the summer and the winter solstice CO{sub 2} uptake was greatest for stems titled 30{degree} away from the equator. Stem tilting depended on form and taxonomic group. Not only can the shape of cacti be affected by PAR, but also shape influences PAR interception and hence CO{sub 2} uptake.

Geller, G.N.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

1987-07-01

163

Structural analysis of the ParR/parC plasmid partition complex  

PubMed Central

Accurate DNA partition at cell division is vital to all living organisms. In bacteria, this process can involve partition loci, which are found on both chromosomes and plasmids. The initial step in Escherichia coli plasmid R1 partition involves the formation of a partition complex between the DNA-binding protein ParR and its cognate centromere site parC on the DNA. The partition complex is recognized by a second partition protein, the actin-like ATPase ParM, which forms filaments required for the active bidirectional movement of DNA replicates. Here, we present the 2.8 Å crystal structure of ParR from E. coli plasmid pB171. ParR forms a tight dimer resembling a large family of dimeric ribbon–helix–helix (RHH)2 site-specific DNA-binding proteins. Crystallographic and electron microscopic data further indicate that ParR dimers assemble into a helix structure with DNA-binding sites facing outward. Genetic and biochemical experiments support a structural arrangement in which the centromere-like parC DNA is wrapped around a ParR protein scaffold. This structure holds implications for how ParM polymerization drives active DNA transport during plasmid partition. PMID:17898804

Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ringgaard, Simon; Mercogliano, Christopher P; Gerdes, Kenn; Löwe, Jan

2007-01-01

164

Techniques for measuring intercepted and absorbed PAR in corn canopies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The quantity of radiation potentially available for photosynthesis that is captured by the crop is best described as absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Absorbed PAR (APAR) is the difference between descending and ascending fluxes. The four components of APAR were measured above and within two planting densities of corn (Zea mays L.) and several methods of measuring and estimating APAR were examined. A line quantum sensor that spatially averages the photosynthetic photon flux density provided a rapid and portable method of measuring APAR. PAR reflectance from the soil (Typic Argiaquoll) surface decreased from 10% to less than 1% of the incoming PAR as the canopy cover increased. PAR reflectance from the canopy decreased to less than 3% at maximum vegetative cover. Intercepted PAR (1 - transmitted PAR) generally overestimated absorbed PAR by less than 4% throughout most of the growing season. Thus intercepted PAR appears to be a reasonable estimate of absorbed PAR.

Gallo, K. P.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

1984-01-01

165

The FSHB -211G>T variant attenuates serum FSH levels in the supraphysiological gonadotropin setting of Klinefelter syndrome.  

PubMed

Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) is the most frequent genetic cause of male infertility and individuals share the endocrine hallmark of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms located within the FSHB/FSHR gene were recently shown to impact serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and other reproductive parameters in men. The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of FSHB-211G>T (c.-280G>T, rs10835638) as well as FSHR c.2039G>A (rs6166) and FSHR c.-29G>A (rs1394205) on endocrine and reproductive parameters in untreated and testosterone-treated Klinefelter patients. Patients were retrospectively selected from the clientele attending a university-based andrology centre. A total of 309 non-mosaic Klinefelter individuals between 18 and 65 years were included and genotyped for the variants by TaqMan assays. The untreated group comprised 248 men, in which the FSHB -211G>T allele was significantly associated with the reduced serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels (-6.5?U/l per T allele, P=1.3 × 10(-3)). Testosterone treatment (n=150) abolished the observed association. When analysing patients before and under testosterone treatment (n=89), gonadotropin levels were similarly suppressed independently of the FSHB genotype. The FSHR polymorphisms did not exhibit any significant influence in any group, neither on the endocrine nor reproductive parameters. In conclusion, a hypergonadotropic setting such as Klinefelter syndrome does not mask the FSHB -211G>T genotype effects on the follicle-stimulating hormone serum levels. The impact was indeed more pronounced compared with normal or infertile men, whereas gonadotropin suppression under testosterone treatment seems to be independent of the genotype. Thus, the FSHB -211G>T genotype is a key determinant in the regulation of gonadotropins in different reproductive-endocrine pathopyhsiologies. PMID:25052309

Busch, Alexander S; Tüttelmann, Frank; Zitzmann, Michael; Kliesch, Sabine; Gromoll, Jörg

2015-05-01

166

par Elias Sanbar Ambassadeur de Palestine  

E-print Network

par Elias Sanbar Ambassadeur de Palestine auprès de l'UNESCO l'église de la Nativité au PatrimoiNe moNdial Portée et enjeux Eglise de la Nativité, Palestine. Photo: DR Le patrimoine culturel de l PatrimoiNe moNdial Portée et enjeux par Elias Sanbar Ambassadeur de Palestine auprès de l'UNESCO Considérée

Citi, Sandra

167

Radioecological implications of the Par Pond drawdown  

SciTech Connect

The drawdown of the Par Pond reservoir created dramatic alterations in this formerly stable lentic ecosystem. In addition, the radiation environment at Par Pond has changed significantly because of the exposure of Cesium 137-contaminated sediments and the appearance of new transport pathways to the terrestrial environment. In response to this situation, SREL was asked to study the radioecological implications of the reservoir drawdown. This report contains the objectives, methods, and results of the SREL study.

Hickey, H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Whicker, F.W. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

1991-12-05

168

Par reduction in OFDM through convex programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high peak-to-average power ratio (PAR) encountered in OFDM system has been a major obstacle in the implementation of power efficient transmitter. In this paper, we present a new active constellation extension (ACE) based convex optimization algorithm which reduces PAR through convex programming. In comparison with previous convex programming method, our method greatly reduces the complexity and keeps the bit-error-rate

Chao Wang; Shu Hung Leung

2008-01-01

169

Protease-Activated Receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4 Differentially Regulate Factor V Expression from Human Platelets  

PubMed Central

With the recent interest of protease-activated receptors (PAR) 1 and PAR4 as possible targets for the treatment of thrombotic disorders, we compared the efficacy of protease-activated receptor (PAR)1 and PAR4 in the generation of procoagulant phenotypes on platelet membranes. PAR4-activating peptide (AP)–stimulated platelets promoted thrombin generation in plasma up to 5 minutes earlier than PAR1-AP–stimulated platelets. PAR4-AP–mediated factor V (FV) association with the platelet surface was 1.6-fold greater than for PAR1-AP. Moreover, PAR4 stimulation resulted in a 3-fold greater release of microparticles, compared with PAR1 stimulation. More robust FV secretion and microparticle generation with PAR4-AP was attributable to stronger and more sustained phosphorylation of myosin light chain at serine 19 and threonine 18. Inhibition of Rho-kinase reduced PAR4-AP–mediated FV secretion and microparticle generation to PAR1-AP–mediated levels. Thrombin generation assays measuring prothrombinase complex activity demonstrated 1.5-fold higher peak thrombin levels on PAR4-AP–stimulated platelets, compared with PAR1-AP–stimulated platelets. Rho-kinase inhibition reduced PAR4-AP–mediated peak thrombin generation by 25% but had no significant effect on PAR1-AP–mediated thrombin generation. In conclusion, stimulation of PAR4 on platelets leads to faster and more robust thrombin generation, compared with PAR1 stimulation. The greater procoagulant potential is related to more efficient FV release from intracellular stores and microparticle production driven by stronger and more sustained myosin light chain phosphorylation. These data have implications about the role of PAR4 during hemostasis and are clinically relevant in light of recent efforts to develop PAR antagonists to treat thrombotic disorders. PMID:23307185

Duvernay, Matthew; Young, Summer; Gailani, David; Schoenecker, Jonathan

2013-01-01

170

Simulink/PARS Integration Support  

SciTech Connect

The state of the art for signal processor hardware has far out-paced the development tools for placing applications on that hardware. In addition, signal processors are available in a variety of architectures, each uniquely capable of handling specific types of signal processing efficiently. With these processors becoming smaller and demanding less power, it has become possible to group multiple processors, a heterogeneous set of processors, into single systems. Different portions of the desired problem set can be assigned to different processor types as appropriate. As software development tools do not keep pace with these processors, especially when multiple processors of different types are used, a method is needed to enable software code portability among multiple processors and multiple types of processors along with their respective software environments. Sundance DSP, Inc. has developed a software toolkit called “PARS”, whose objective is to provide a framework that uses suites of tools provided by different vendors, along with modeling tools and a real time operating system, to build an application that spans different processor types. The software language used to express the behavior of the system is a very high level modeling language, “Simulink”, a MathWorks product. ORNL has used this toolkit to effectively implement several deliverables. This CRADA describes this collaboration between ORNL and Sundance DSP, Inc.

Vacaliuc, B. [ORNL] [ORNL; Nakhaee, N. [Sundance DSP, Inc.] [Sundance DSP, Inc.

2013-12-18

171

SUR LES BASES PHYSIQUES DE L'ANALYSE PONCTUELLE PAR SPECTROGRAPHIE X Par RAYMOND CASTAING,  

E-print Network

304 SUR LES BASES PHYSIQUES DE L'ANALYSE PONCTUELLE PAR SPECTROGRAPHIE X Par RAYMOND CASTAING ralentissement de l'électron la loi de Williams [2] {3 = v/c n'étant fonction que de l'énergie ,E de l'élec- tron

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

172

LE FILTRAGE MATHMATIQUE DANS LA SPECTROSCOPIE PAR TRANSFORMATION DE FOURIER Par J. CONNES (*) et V. NOZAL,  

E-print Network

359. LE FILTRAGE MATHÉMATIQUE DANS LA SPECTROSCOPIE PAR TRANSFORMATION DE FOURIER Par J. CONNES (*) et V. NOZAL, Laboratoire Aimé-Cotton, Bellevue. Résumé. 2014 On est conduit pour obtenir le rapport the Fourier transform of the new interferogram with a smaller number of points ; the computing time is thus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

173

Ozonisation de l'oxygne par les rayons 03B1 Par S. C. LIND  

E-print Network

104 Ozonisation de l'oxygène par les rayons 03B1 Par S. C. LIND [Institut du Radium de Vienne'ozone lorsclu'une quantité notable de rayons (J. pénè- trent dans l'air à trayeurs une lame mince de verrue ou de niica. Quand la paroi est assez épaisse pour arrè- ter tous les rayons a, le phénomène ne se

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

174

TUDE DES RAYONS DE RECUL RADIOACTIFS PAR LA MTHODE DES DTENTES DE WILSON Par F. JOLIOT.  

E-print Network

ÉTUDE DES RAYONS DE RECUL RADIOACTIFS PAR LA MÉTHODE DES DÉTENTES DE WILSON Par F. JOLIOT. Institut'atomes radioactifs et les trajectoires des rayons de recul. Le parcours des rayons de recul de An et AeA a été mesuré diminue tandis que son pouvoir ionisant augmente. Le rayon de recul lors d'un choc subit une déviation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

175

TRANSFORMATIONS DES RAYONS X PAR LA MATIRE; Par M. G. SAGNAC.  

E-print Network

65 TRANSFORMATIONS DES RAYONS X PAR LA MATIÈRE; Par M. G. SAGNAC. Un faisceau de rayons X traverse faisceau émet en tous sens ce que j'ai appelé des rayons secon- daires 8; les rayons secondaiz°es se disséminent à leur tour sur la matière en donnant naissance à des rayons tertiaires T. Les dénomi- nations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

176

Pars plana vitrectomy with pars plana tube implantation in eyes with intractable glaucoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMSIntractable glaucoma is glaucoma resistant to medical therapy and conventional surgical procedures. In this study, a planned surgical technique is discussed for controlling the increased intraocular pressure in selected cases with intractable glaucoma.METHODSTotal pars plana vitrectomy with pars plana tube implantation was performed in 17 eyes of 17 cases with intractable glaucoma. Patients with neovascular glaucoma were not included in

Suleyman Kaynak; Nalan Fatma Tekin; Ismet Durak; Ayse Tulin Berk; Ali Osman Saatci; Meltem Fatma Soylev

1998-01-01

177

LRF and TRF test during long-term danazol treatment: increase of the LH and FSH responses but decrease of the prolactin and TSH responses.  

PubMed

Seven patients suffering from severe endometriosis were treated with danazol 200 mg X 3 daily for 6 months. Clinical symptoms were alleviated and menses disappeared in response to the treatment. After cessation of the treatment the menstrual bleedings returned in 1-3 months. Blood samples for determination of gonadotrophins, prolactin (Prl), oestradiol (E2), progesterone, thyroid hormones and thyrotrophin in radioimmunoassays were taken and a combined TRF and LRF test carried out in the follicular phase before treatment, at the 6th month of treatment and after reappearance of the first menses. There were no statistically significant changes in the basal levels of serum FSH, LH or TSH during the danazol treatment. Neither was there any change in episodic secretions of FSH, LH or Prl, as determined by the mean coefficients of variation of the hormone levels in seven consecutive samples taken at 20 min intervals. On the other hand, serum E2, Prl and thyroid hormone levels were significantly decreased in the 6th month of treatment. In the TRF-LRF test the responses of serum FSH and LH were significantly higher and those of serum Prl and TSH significantly lower during danazol treatment than before. Prl responses remained lowered after the treatment. It appears that low serum oestrogen levels, induced by the danazol treatment, sensitize the pituitary gonadotrophs to exogenous LRF, but make the sensitivity of thyrotrophs and lactotrophs lower to exogenous TRF. These results thus indicate that danazol does not make the pituitary gonadotrophs insensitive to LRF, but danazol may rather inhibit the secretion of hypothalamic LRF. PMID:6414205

Leppäluoto, J; Rönnberg, L; Ylöstalo, P

1983-09-01

178

Caractérisation par ellipsométrie spectroscopique de films minces de tellurure de bismuth obtenus par voie électrochimique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Des films de tellurure de bismuth (Bi2Te3) d’épaisseur proche de 1 mm ont été développés par voie électrochimique. Leurs indices optiques ont été déterminés par ellipsométrie spectroscopique (SE). Le domaine spectral des indices optiques s’étend de 400 nm à 1300 nm. L’ellipsométrie spectroscopique à angle d’incidence variable (VASE) a été utilisée pour corréler les données SE. Cette partie a été complétée par des analyses par microscopie à force atomique (AFM) qui ont permis de déterminer la rugosité des films. A partir de ces résultats et en associant l’absorption fondamentale des films de Bi2Te3 à une transition indirecte, l’énergie de bande interdite a été évaluée à 0,3 eV. Par ailleurs des mesures associant ellipsométrie spectroscopique à temps réel et électrochimie ont pu être réalisées. Ainsi les premiers instants de croissance ont été observés.

Zimmer, A.; Stein, N.; Boulanger, C.; Johann, L.

2004-12-01

179

ERK2-mediated phosphorylation of Par3 regulates neuronal polarization.  

PubMed

Axon formation is one of the most important events in neuronal polarization and is regulated by signaling molecules involved in cytoskeletal rearrangement and protein transport. We previously found that Partition-defective 3 (Par3) is associated with KIF3A (kinesin-2) and is transported into the nascent axon in a KIF3A-dependent fashion. Par3 interacts with the Rac-specific guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs) Tiam1/2, which activate Rac1, and participates in axon formation in cultured hippocampal neurons. However, the regulatory mechanism of the Par3-KIF3A interaction is poorly understood, and the role of Par3 in neuronal polarization in vivo remains elusive. Here, we found that extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) directly interacts with Par3, that ERK2 phosphorylates Par3 at Ser-1116, and that the phosphorylated Par3 accumulates at the axonal tips in a manner dependent upon ERK2 activity. The phosphorylation of Par3 by ERK2 inhibited the interaction of Par3 with KIF3A but not with the other Par3 partners, including Par6 and aPKC. The phosphomimic mutant of Par3 (Par3-S1116D) showed less binding activity with the KIF3s and slower transport in the axons. The knockdown of Par3 by RNA interference impaired neuronal polarization, which was rescued with RNAi-resistant Par3, but not with the phosphomimic Par3 mutant, in cultured rat hippocampal neurons and mouse cortical projection neurons in vivo. These results suggest that ERK2 phosphorylates Par3 and inhibits its binding with KIF3A, thereby controlling Par3 transport and neuronal polarity. PMID:23946386

Funahashi, Yasuhiro; Namba, Takashi; Fujisue, Shin; Itoh, Norimichi; Nakamuta, Shinichi; Kato, Katsuhiro; Shimada, Akiko; Xu, Chundi; Shan, Wei; Nishioka, Tomoki; Kaibuchi, Kozo

2013-08-14

180

Par-4: A New Activator of Myosin Phosphatase  

PubMed Central

Myosin phosphatase (MP) is a key regulator of myosin light chain (LC20) phosphorylation, a process essential for motility, apoptosis, and smooth muscle contractility. Although MP inhibition is well studied, little is known about MP activation. We have recently demonstrated that prostate apoptosis response (Par)-4 modulates vascular smooth muscle contractility. Here, we test the hypothesis that Par-4 regulates MP activity directly. We show, by proximity ligation assays, surface plasmon resonance and coimmunoprecipitation, that Par-4 interacts with the targeting subunit of MP, MYPT1. Binding is mediated by the leucine zippers of MYPT1 and Par-4 and reduced by Par-4 phosphorylation. Overexpression of Par-4 leads to increased phosphatase activity of immunoprecipitated MP, whereas small interfering RNA knockdown of endogenous Par-4 significantly decreases MP activity and increases MYPT1 phosphorylation. LC20 phosphorylation assays demonstrate that overexpression of Par-4 reduces LC20 phosphorylation. In contrast, a phosphorylation site mutant, but not wild-type Par-4, interferes with zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK)-mediated MP inhibition. We conclude from our results Par-4 operates through a “padlock” model in which binding of Par-4 to MYPT1 activates MP by blocking access to the inhibitory phosphorylation sites, and inhibitory phosphorylation of MYPT1 by ZIPK requires “unlocking” of Par-4 by phosphorylation and displacement of Par-4 from the MP complex. PMID:20130087

Vetterkind, Susanne; Lee, Eunhee; Sundberg, Eric; Poythress, Ransom H.; Tao, Terence C.; Preuss, Ute

2010-01-01

181

Par-4: a new activator of myosin phosphatase.  

PubMed

Myosin phosphatase (MP) is a key regulator of myosin light chain (LC20) phosphorylation, a process essential for motility, apoptosis, and smooth muscle contractility. Although MP inhibition is well studied, little is known about MP activation. We have recently demonstrated that prostate apoptosis response (Par)-4 modulates vascular smooth muscle contractility. Here, we test the hypothesis that Par-4 regulates MP activity directly. We show, by proximity ligation assays, surface plasmon resonance and coimmunoprecipitation, that Par-4 interacts with the targeting subunit of MP, MYPT1. Binding is mediated by the leucine zippers of MYPT1 and Par-4 and reduced by Par-4 phosphorylation. Overexpression of Par-4 leads to increased phosphatase activity of immunoprecipitated MP, whereas small interfering RNA knockdown of endogenous Par-4 significantly decreases MP activity and increases MYPT1 phosphorylation. LC20 phosphorylation assays demonstrate that overexpression of Par-4 reduces LC20 phosphorylation. In contrast, a phosphorylation site mutant, but not wild-type Par-4, interferes with zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK)-mediated MP inhibition. We conclude from our results Par-4 operates through a "padlock" model in which binding of Par-4 to MYPT1 activates MP by blocking access to the inhibitory phosphorylation sites, and inhibitory phosphorylation of MYPT1 by ZIPK requires "unlocking" of Par-4 by phosphorylation and displacement of Par-4 from the MP complex. PMID:20130087

Vetterkind, Susanne; Lee, Eunhee; Sundberg, Eric; Poythress, Ransom H; Tao, Terence C; Preuss, Ute; Morgan, Kathleen G

2010-04-01

182

Les Brulures Chimiques Par Le Laurier Rose  

PubMed Central

Summary Le laurier rose ou Nerium oleander est un arbuste qui pousse naturellement dans les régions méditerranéennes. Au Maroc on le trouve dans les lieux humides. Il est réputé par ses risques de toxicité systémique en cas d'empoisonnement à cause de la présence de deux alcaloïdes, surtout l'oléandrine. La littérature illustre des cas d'utilisation locale des feuilles de cette plante contre la gale, les hémorroïdes et les furoncles. Nous rapportons deux cas de brûlures chimiques par le laurier rose de gravité différente. Cela doit aboutir à une information élargie de la population, ainsi qu'une réglementation stricte de sa commercialisation. PMID:21991211

Bakkali, H.; Ababou, M.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Moussaoui, A.; Ennouhi, A.; Fouadi, F.Z.; Siah, S.; Ihrai, H.

2010-01-01

183

An essential role for insulin and IGF1 receptors in regulating sertoli cell proliferation, testis size, and FSH action in mice.  

PubMed

Testis size and sperm production are directly correlated to the total number of adult Sertoli cells (SCs). Although the establishment of an adequate number of SCs is crucial for future male fertility, the identification and characterization of the factors regulating SC survival, proliferation, and maturation remain incomplete. To investigate whether the IGF system is required for germ cell (GC) and SC development and function, we inactivated the insulin receptor (Insr), the IGF1 receptor (Igf1r), or both receptors specifically in the GC lineage or in SCs. Whereas ablation of insulin/IGF signaling appears dispensable for GCs and spermatogenesis, adult testes of mice lacking both Insr and Igf1r in SCs (SC-Insr;Igf1r) displayed a 75% reduction in testis size and daily sperm production as a result of a reduced proliferation rate of immature SCs during the late fetal and early neonatal testicular period. In addition, in vivo analyses revealed that FSH requires the insulin/IGF signaling pathway to mediate its proliferative effects on immature SCs. Collectively, these results emphasize the essential role played by growth factors of the insulin family in regulating the final number of SCs, testis size, and daily sperm output. They also indicate that the insulin/IGF signaling pathway is required for FSH-mediated SC proliferation. PMID:23518924

Pitetti, Jean-Luc; Calvel, Pierre; Zimmermann, Céline; Conne, Béatrice; Papaioannou, Marilena D; Aubry, Florence; Cederroth, Christopher R; Urner, Françoise; Fumel, Betty; Crausaz, Michel; Docquier, Mylène; Herrera, Pedro Luis; Pralong, François; Germond, Marc; Guillou, Florian; Jégou, Bernard; Nef, Serge

2013-05-01

184

View from west to east of PAR site resident engineer's ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View from west to east of PAR site resident engineer's office building (REOB) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Resident Engineers Office Building, Southeast of intersection of PAR Access Road & Fourth Avenue, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

185

Kallikrein 6 signals through PAR1 and PAR2 to promote neuron injury and exacerbate glutamate neurotoxicity.  

PubMed

CNS trauma generates a proteolytic imbalance contributing to secondary injury, including axonopathy and neuron degeneration. Kallikrein 6 (Klk6) is a serine protease implicated in neurodegeneration, and here we investigate the role of protease-activated receptors 1 (PAR1) and PAR2 in mediating these effects. First, we demonstrate Klk6 and the prototypical activator of PAR1, thrombin, as well as PAR1 and PAR2, are each elevated in murine experimental traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) at acute or subacute time points. Recombinant Klk6 triggered extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) signaling in cerebellar granule neurons and in the NSC34 spinal cord motoneuron cell line, in a phosphoinositide 3-kinae and MEK-dependent fashion. Importantly, lipopeptide inhibitors of PAR1 or PAR2, and PAR1 genetic deletion, each reduced Klk6-ERK1/2 activation. In addition, Klk6 and thrombin promoted degeneration of cerebellar neurons and exacerbated glutamate neurotoxicity. Moreover, genetic deletion of PAR1 blocked thrombin-mediated cerebellar neurotoxicity and reduced the neurotoxic effects of Klk6. Klk6 also increased glutamate-mediated Bim signaling, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage and lactate dehydrogenase release in NSC34 motoneurons and these effects were blocked by PAR1 and PAR2 lipopeptide inhibitors. Taken together, these data point to a novel Klk6-signaling axis in CNS neurons that is mediated by PAR1 and PAR2 and is positioned to contribute to neurodegeneration. PMID:23647384

Yoon, Hyesook; Radulovic, Maja; Wu, Jianmin; Blaber, Sachiko I; Blaber, Michael; Fehlings, Michael G; Scarisbrick, Isobel A

2013-10-01

186

Kallikrein 6 Signals through PAR1 and PAR2 to Promote Neuron Injury and Exacerbate Glutamate Neurotoxicity  

PubMed Central

CNS trauma generates a proteolytic imbalance contributing to secondary injury, including axonopathy and neuron degeneration. Kallikrein 6 (Klk6) is a serine protease implicated in neurodegeneration and here we investigate the role of protease activated receptors 1 (PAR1) and PAR2 in mediating these effects. First we demonstrate Klk6 and the prototypical activator of PAR1, thrombin, as well as PAR1 and PAR2, are each elevated in murine experimental traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) at acute or subacute time points. Recombinant Klk6 triggered ERK1/2 signaling in cerebellar granule neurons and in the NSC34 spinal cord motoneuron cell line, in a PI3K and MEK-dependent fashion. Importantly, lipopeptide inhibitors of PAR1 or PAR2, and PAR1 genetic deletion, each reduced Klk6-ERK1/2 activation. In addition, Klk6 and thrombin promoted degeneration of cerebellar neurons and exacerbated glutamate neurotoxicity. Moreover, genetic deletion of PAR1 blocked thrombin-mediated cerebellar neurotoxicity and reduced the neurotoxic effects of Klk6. Klk6 also increased glutamate-mediated Bim signaling, PARP cleavage and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in NSC34 motoneurons and these effects were blocked by PAR1 and PAR2 lipopeptide inhibitors. Taken together these data point to a novel Klk6-signaling axis in CNS neurons that is mediated by PAR1 and PAR2 and is positioned to contribute to neurodegeneration. PMID:23647384

Yoon, Hyesook; Radulovic, Maja; Wu, Jianmin; Blaber, Sachiko I.; Blaber, Michael; Fehlings, Michael G.; Scarisbrick, Isobel A.

2014-01-01

187

A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition Assembly  

SciTech Connect

Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

B Chaudhuri; S Gupta; V Urban; M Chance; R DMello; L Smith; K Lyons; J Gee

2011-12-31

188

A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition  

SciTech Connect

Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

Chaudhuri, Barnali [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York; Gupta, Sayan [Case Western Reserve University; Urban, Volker S [ORNL; Chance, Mark [Case Western Reserve University; D'Mello, Rhijuta [Case Western Reserve University; Smith, Lauren [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York; Lyons, Kelly [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York; Gee, Jessica [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York

2010-01-01

189

La répartition des emplois par sexe : capital humain ou discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] La répartition des emplois par sexe: capital humain ou discrimination? . par Catherine Sofer.. . Cet article étudie l'impact de la répartition des emplois par sexe sur le différentiel moyen de salaire hommes\\/femmes. Les principales explications théoriques de cette situation sont, pour l'essentiel, de deux ordres: la théorie du capital humain, complétée par l'hypothèse d'atrophie, selon laquelle les emplois

Catherine Sofer

1990-01-01

190

“Platelet-associated regulatory system (PARS)” with particular reference to female reproduction  

PubMed Central

Background Blood platelets play an essential role in hemostasis, thrombosis and coagulation of blood. Beyond these classic functions their involvement in inflammatory, neoplastic and immune processes was also investigated. It is well known, that platelets have an armament of soluble molecules, factors, mediators, chemokines, cytokines and neurotransmitters in their granules, and have multiple adhesion molecules and receptors on their surface. Methods Selected relevant literature and own views and experiences as clinical observations have been used. Results Considering that platelets are indispensable in numerous homeostatic endocrine functions, it is reasonable to suppose that a platelet-associated regulatory system (PARS) may exist; internal or external triggers and/or stimuli may complement and connect regulatory pathways aimed towards target tissues and/or cells. The signal (PAF, or other tissue/cell specific factors) comes from the stimulated (by the e.g., hypophyseal hormones, bacteria, external factors, etc.) organs or cells, and activates platelets. Platelet activation means their aggregation, sludge formation, furthermore the release of the for-mentioned biologically very powerful factors, which can locally amplify and deepen the tissue specific cell reactions. If this process is impaired or inhibited for any reason, the specifically stimulated organ shows hypofunction. When PARS is upregulated, organ hyperfunction may occur that culminate in severe diseases. Conclusion Based on clinical and experimental evidences we propose that platelets modulate the function of hypothalamo-hypophyseal-ovarian system. Specifically, hypothalamic GnRH releases FSH from the anterior pituitary, which induces and stimulates follicular and oocyte maturation and steroid hormone secretion in the ovary. At the same time follicular cells enhance PAF production. Through these pathways activated platelets are accumulated in the follicular vessels surrounding the follicle and due to its released soluble molecules (factors, mediators, chemokines, cytokines, neurotransmitters) locally increase oocyte maturation and hormone secretion. Therefore we suggest that platelets are not only a small participant but may be the conductor or active mediator of this complex regulatory system which has several unrevealed mechanisms. In other words platelets are corpuscular messengers, or are more than a member of the family providing hemostasis. PMID:24883111

2014-01-01

191

Par(-4)oxysm in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Summary Women suffering from breast cancer often succumb to incurable recurrent disease resulting from therapy-resistant cancer cells. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Alvarez and colleagues identify downregulation of the tumor suppressor Par-4 as the key determinant in apoptosis evasion that leads to tumor recurrence in breast cancer. PMID:23845436

Shrestha-Bhattarai, Tripti; Hebbar, Nikhil; Rangnekar, Vivek M.

2013-01-01

192

LE CONTRLE EXTERNE DES ASSOCIATIONS PAR LES  

E-print Network

LE CONTR�LE EXTERNE DES ASSOCIATIONS PAR LES ORGANISMES DE FINANCEMENT Evelyne LANDE Professeur IAE bailleur de fonds publics peut mettre en place un contrôle externe qui lui permette de s'assurer de la contrôle externe via la constitution de TBG qui serviront également de base à l'évaluation de la politique

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

193

Intramural Sports Par 3 Golf League  

E-print Network

Intramural Sports Par 3 Golf League Summer 2014 Intramural Sports Calendar of Events Summer 2014 Sports and Special Programs Office 111 Dixon Recreation Center (541)737-4083 Summer Office Hours: 1:00pm to 4:00pm M-F http://oregonstate.edu/recsports/intramural-sports Oregon State University

Escher, Christine

194

Prsente par HO, Chia-Chun  

E-print Network

THESIS Présentée par HO, Chia-Chun Pour obtenir le titre de Docteur de L'UNIVERSITE JOSEPH FOURIER,version1-21Nov2008 #12;II graduate years. I have to express my utmost gratitude to my wonderful wife, Chun

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

195

NOUVEAU SYSTME TLGRAPHIQUE; PAR M. ESTIENNE.  

E-print Network

conformément au code Morse. Le trait peut occuper, en hauteur, la largeur du ruban de papier, quelle que soit volume du Morse. L'avan- cement du papier se produit par un mécanisme analogue à celui de ce dernier

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

196

suPAR and Team Nephrology  

PubMed Central

Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) accounts for nearly 10 % of patients who require renal replacement therapy. Elevated circulating levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) have been identified as a biomarker to discriminate primary FSGS from other glomerulopathies. Subsequent reports have questioned the diagnostic utility of this test. In a study in BMC Medicine, Huang et al. demonstrate that urinary soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) excretion assists in distinguishing primary FSGS from other glomerular diseases, and that high plasma suPAR concentrations are not directly linked to a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This observation suggests that further investigation of suPAR is warranted in patients with FSGS. It should be interpreted in light of a recent report that B7-1 is expressed in the podocytes of a subset of patients with FSGS, and that blocking this molecule may represent the first successful targeted intervention for this disease. These advances highlight the rapid pace of scientific progress in the field of nephrology. Nephrologists should work together, share resources, and expedite the design of protocols to evaluate these novel biomarkers in a comprehensive and scientifically valid manner. Please see related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/81. PMID:24885021

2014-01-01

197

suPAR and Team Nephrology.  

PubMed

Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) accounts for nearly 10 % of patients who require renal replacement therapy. Elevated circulating levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) have been identified as a biomarker to discriminate primary FSGS from other glomerulopathies. Subsequent reports have questioned the diagnostic utility of this test. In a study in BMC Medicine, Huang et al. demonstrate that urinary soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) excretion assists in distinguishing primary FSGS from other glomerular diseases, and that high plasma suPAR concentrations are not directly linked to a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This observation suggests that further investigation of suPAR is warranted in patients with FSGS. It should be interpreted in light of a recent report that B7-1 is expressed in the podocytes of a subset of patients with FSGS, and that blocking this molecule may represent the first successful targeted intervention for this disease. These advances highlight the rapid pace of scientific progress in the field of nephrology. Nephrologists should work together, share resources, and expedite the design of protocols to evaluate these novel biomarkers in a comprehensive and scientifically valid manner. PMID:24885021

Trachtman, Howard

2014-01-01

198

DU CONTROLE SOCIAL AU CONTROLE PAR LE MARCHE  

E-print Network

remplacé par le contrôle par le marché. Dicté par la rationalisation des coûts des clients, ce changement il n'apporte pas la preuve de sa performance. Mots clés : contrôle inter-organisationnel ­ modes de changement a certes conduit à la diminution des prix, mais la performance globale de l'achat pour les clients

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

199

A novel PAR reduction approach for OFDM system  

Microsoft Academic Search

OFDM (orthogonal frequency multiplexing) is one of the key techniques of next generation high rate communications system. High PAR (peak-to-average power ratio) of the transmitted signal is a principle drawback of the OFDM systems. This letter presents a novel PAR reduction method, called IPR (interleaving and phase rotation) that achieves significant PAR reduction. The IPR approach uses V-1 interleavers to

Liu Sheng-mei; Zhao Chun-ming; Li Can-wei

2004-01-01

200

RAYONS ATOMIQUES ET MOLCULAIRES Par M. V. POSEJPAL.  

E-print Network

RAYONS ATOMIQUES ET MOLÉCULAIRES Par M. V. POSEJPAL. Université Charles IV, Praha-II, u Karlova 5 atomes (et aux molécules) qu'on peut représenter par le rayon atomique (moléculaire) dont la valeur atomes et entraîné par eux sert à l'auteur à la définition de ce rayon. Il a déduit dans ses travaux

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

201

Contrle de drones et robots par reconnaissance de mouvements complexes  

E-print Network

Contrôle de drones et robots par reconnaissance de mouvements complexes Anaïs Finzi, Bastien Tauran contexte du pilotage de drones et de robots par des mouvements de l'opérateur détectés par des applied to complex gesture recognition in the context of drones and robots control, when the human

Boyer, Edmond

202

INFLUENCE DE L'IMMUNIT PASSIVE TRANSMISE PAR LE COLOSTRUM  

E-print Network

INFLUENCE DE L'IMMUNITÉ PASSIVE TRANSMISE PAR LE COLOSTRUM SUR L'ÉVOLUTION DE LA PESTE PORCINE transmise par le colostrum a permis de mettre en évidence chez r8 porcelets, de 20 à 25 kg, issus de truies transmise par le colostrum. Les applications qu'entraînent ces observations font l'objet de la discussion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

203

PAR Corneal Topography System (PAR CTS): the clinical application of close-range photogrammetry.  

PubMed

The PAR Corneal Topography System (CTS) is a computer-driven corneal imaging system which uses close-range photogrammetry (rasterphotogrammetry) to measure and produce a topographic map of the corneal surface. The PAR CTS makes direct point-by-point measurements of surface elevation using a stereo-triangulation technique. The CTS uses a grid pattern composed of horizontal and vertical lines spaced about 0.2 mm (200 microns) apart. Each grid intersection comprises a surface feature which can be located in multiple images and used to generate an (x,y,z) coordinate. Unlike placido disc-based videokeratoscopes, the PAR CTS requires neither a smooth reflective surface nor precise spatial alignment for accurate imaging. In addition to surface elevation, the PAR CTS computes axial and tangential curvatures and refractive power. Difference maps are available in all curvatures, refractive power, and in absolute elevation. PMID:8587772

Belin, M W; Cambier, J L; Nabors, J R; Ratliff, C D

1995-11-01

204

Amlioration de l'utilisation par les bovins des chaumes de Sorghum bicolor par le hachage et la complmentation  

E-print Network

Amélioration de l'utilisation par les bovins des chaumes de Sorghum bicolor par le hachage et la and Leng, 1986 ILCA/Addis Ababa). Un essai d'amélioration de pailles de Sorghum bicolor complémenté à l

Boyer, Edmond

205

L'ABSORPTION DES ULTRASONS PAR CERTAINES CTONES Par S. PARTHASARATHY et V. NARASIMHAN,  

E-print Network

957. L'ABSORPTION DES ULTRASONS PAR CERTAINES C�TONES Par S. PARTHASARATHY et V. NARASIMHAN coefficient d'absorption ont été mesurés dans plusieurs cétones à différentes températures et les résultats variation de l'absorption avec la température était positif dans l'intervalle considéré dans ce travail

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

206

Prsente par le Mouvement des Prsente par la Confdration tudiants (MET) tudiantes  

E-print Network

�tudiants Soutenue par BDE Polytech' Clermont - Soutenue par la Confédération �tudiante (EDS), Collectif pour la liberté d'étudier 42, en Sciences (AFNEUS), la Fédération des Sénégalais, le BDE Histoire-Géographie, Ferrand, BDE APSYS, Biohazar, PDE (la Cé), le FEDER, l'Union des �tudiants Fédération des �tudiants

Sart, Remi

207

Using multicast to pre-load jobs on the ParPar cluster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ParPar system is a high-performance cluster environment supporting a multiuser parallel workload. Its design follows a master-nodes structure, where the master controls all aspects of system activity using a dedicated control network. As nearly all control messages are multicast to a set of nodes, we implemented a reliable multicast protocol for this network based on UDP. This was then

Avi Kavas; David Er-el; Dror G. Feitelson

2001-01-01

208

Phosphorylation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB Participates in Regulating the ParABS Chromosome Segregation System  

PubMed Central

Here, we present for the first time that Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB is phosphorylated by several mycobacterial Ser/Thr protein kinases in vitro. ParB and ParA are the key components of bacterial chromosome segregation apparatus. ParB is a cytosolic conserved protein that binds specifically to centromere-like DNA parS sequences and interacts with ParA, a weak ATPase required for its proper localization. Mass spectrometry identified the presence of ten phosphate groups, thus indicating that ParB is phosphorylated on eight threonines, Thr32, Thr41, Thr53, Thr110, Thr195, and Thr254, Thr300, Thr303 as well as on two serines, Ser5 and Ser239. The phosphorylation sites were further substituted either by alanine to prevent phosphorylation or aspartate to mimic constitutive phosphorylation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a drastic inhibition of DNA-binding by ParB phosphomimetic mutant compared to wild type. In addition, bacterial two-hybrid experiments showed a loss of ParA-ParB interaction with the phosphomimetic mutant, indicating that phosphorylation is regulating the recruitment of the partitioning complex. Moreover, fluorescence microscopy experiments performed in the surrogate Mycobacterium smegmatis ?parB strain revealed that in contrast to wild type Mtb ParB, which formed subpolar foci similar to M. smegmatis ParB, phoshomimetic Mtb ParB was delocalized. Thus, our findings highlight a novel regulatory role of the different isoforms of ParB representing a molecular switch in localization and functioning of partitioning protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:25807382

Baronian, Grégory; Ginda, Katarzyna; Berry, Laurence; Cohen-Gonsaud, Martin; Zakrzewska-Czerwi?ska, Jolanta; Jakimowicz, Dagmara; Molle, Virginie

2015-01-01

209

A Single parS Sequence from the Cluster of Four Sites Closest to oriC Is Necessary and Sufficient for Proper Chromosome Segregation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Among the mechanisms that control chromosome segregation in bacteria are highly-conserved partitioning systems comprising three components: ParA protein (a deviant Walker-type ATPase), ParB protein (a DNA-binding element) and multiple cis-acting palindromic centromere-like sequences, designated parS. Ten putative parS sites have been identified in the P. aeruginosa PAO1 genome, four localized in close proximity of oriC and six, diverged by more than one nucleotide from a perfect palindromic sequence, dispersed along the chromosome. Here, we constructed and analyzed P. aeruginosa mutants deprived of each single parS sequence and their different combinations. The analysis included evaluation of a set of phenotypic features, chromosome segregation, and ParB localization in the cells. It was found that ParB binds specifically to all ten parS sites, although with different affinities. The P. aeruginosa parS mutant with all ten parS sites modified (parSnull) is viable however it demonstrates the phenotype characteristic for parAnull or parBnull mutants: slightly slower growth rate, high frequency of anucleate cells, and defects in motility. The genomic position and sequence of parS determine its role in P. aeruginosa biology. It transpired that any one of the four parS sites proximal to oriC (parS1 to parS4), which are bound by ParB with the highest affinity, is necessary and sufficient for the parABS role in chromosome partitioning. When all these four sites are mutated simultaneously, the strain shows the parSnull phenotype, which indicates that none of the remaining six parS sites can substitute for these four oriC-proximal sites in this function. A single ectopic parS2 (inserted opposite oriC in the parSnull mutant) facilitates ParB organization into regularly spaced condensed foci and reverses some of the mutant phenotypes but is not sufficient for accurate chromosome segregation. PMID:25794281

Jecz, Paulina; Bartosik, Aneta A.; Glabski, Krzysztof; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

2015-01-01

210

The PAR Proteins: Fundamental Players in Animal Cell Polarization  

PubMed Central

The par genes were discovered in genetic screens for regulators of cytoplasmic partitioning in the early embryo of C. elegans, and encode six different proteins required for asymmetric cell division by the worm zygote. Some of the PAR proteins are localized asymmetrically and form physical complexes with one another. Strikingly, the PAR proteins have been found to regulate cell polarization in many different contexts in diverse animals, suggesting they form part of an ancient and fundamental mechanism for cell polarization. Although the picture of how the PAR proteins function remains incomplete, cell biology and biochemistry are beginning to explain how PAR proteins polarize cells. PMID:17981131

Goldstein, Bob; Macara, Ian G.

2010-01-01

211

Both PHYTOCHROME RAPIDLY REGULATED1 (PAR1) and PAR2 promote seedling photomorphogenesis in multiple light signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings undergo photomorphogenesis in the light and etiolation in the dark. Light-activated photoreceptors transduce the light signals through a series of photomorphogenesis promoting or repressing factors to modulate many developmental processes in plants, such as photomorphogenesis and shade avoidance. CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1) is a conserved RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase, which mediates degradation of several photomorphogenesis promoting factors, including ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) and LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR-RED1 (HFR1), through a 26S proteasome-dependent pathway. PHYTOCHROME RAPIDLY REGULATED1 (PAR1) was first detected as an early repressed gene in both phytochrome A (phyA)-mediated far-red and phyB-mediated red signaling pathways, and subsequent studies showed that both PAR1 and PAR2 are negative factors of shade avoidance in Arabidopsis. However, the role of PAR1 and PAR2 in seedling deetiolation, and their relationships with other photomorphogenesis promoting and repressing factors are largely unknown. Here, we confirmed that both PAR1 and PAR2 redundantly enhance seedling deetiolation in multiple photoreceptor signaling pathways. Their transcript abundances are repressed by phyA, phyB, and cryptochrome1 under far-red, red, and blue light conditions, respectively. Both PAR1 and PAR2 act downstream of COP1, and COP1 mediates the degradation of PAR1 and PAR2 through the 26S proteasome pathway. Both PAR1 and PAR2 act in a separate pathway from HY5 and HFR1 under different light conditions, except for sharing in the same pathway with HFR1 under far-red light. Together, our results substantiate that PAR1 and PAR2 are positive factors functioning in multiple photoreceptor signaling pathways during seedling deetiolation. PMID:24335334

Zhou, Peng; Song, Meifang; Yang, Qinghua; Su, Liang; Hou, Pei; Guo, Lin; Zheng, Xu; Xi, Yulin; Meng, Fanhua; Xiao, Yang; Yang, Li; Yang, Jianping

2014-02-01

212

PAR1 antagonists inhibit thrombin-induced platelet activation whilst leaving the PAR4-mediated response intact.  

PubMed

Thrombin-induced platelet activation is initiated by PAR1 and PAR4 receptors. Vorapaxar, a PAR1 antagonist, has been assessed in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and stable atherosclerotic disease in addition to standard-of-care treatment. In clinical trials, vorapaxar has been observed to reduce the frequency of ischaemic events in some subgroups though in others has increased the frequency of bleeding events. Among patients undergoing CABG surgery, which is associated with excess thrombin generation, bleeding was not increased. The aim of these studies was to investigate the effects of selective PAR1 antagonism on thrombin-induced platelet activation in patients receiving vorapaxar or placebo in the TRACER trial and to explore the roles of PAR1 and PAR4 in thrombin-induced platelet activation in healthy volunteers. ACS patients receiving vorapaxar or placebo in the TRACER trial were studied at baseline and 4 hours, 1 and 4 months during drug administration. Thrombin-induced calcium mobilisation in platelet-rich plasma was assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro studies were performed in healthy volunteers using the PAR1 antagonist SCH79797 or PAR4 receptor desensitisation. Vorapaxar treatment significantly inhibited thrombin-induced calcium mobilisation, leaving a residual, delayed response. These findings were consistent with calcium mobilisation mediated via the PAR4 receptor and were reproduced in vitro using SCH79797. PAR4 receptor desensitization, in combination with SCH79797, completely inhibited thrombin-induced calcium mobilisation confirming that the residual calcium mobilisation was mediated via PAR4. In conclusion vorapaxar selectively antagonises the PAR1-mediated component of thrombin-induced platelet activation, leaving the PAR4-mediated response intact, which may explain why vorapaxar is well tolerated in patients undergoing CABG surgery since higher thrombin levels in this setting may override the effects of PAR1 antagonism through PAR4 activation, thus preserving haemostasis. Further assessment may be warranted. PMID:24750101

Judge, Heather M; Jennings, Lisa K; Moliterno, David J; Hord, Edward; Ecob, Rosemary; Tricoci, Pierluigi; Rorick, Tyrus; Kotha, Jayaprakash; Storey, Robert F

2015-01-01

213

Immunocytochemical applications of specific antisera raised against synthetic fragment peptides of mummichog GtH subunits: examining seasonal variations of gonadotrophs (FSH cells and LH cells) in the mummichog and applications to other acanthopterygian fishes.  

PubMed

Two distinct types of gonadotrophs, FSH (GtH I) cells and LH (GtH II) cells, were immunocytochemically identified from mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus; Cyprinodontiformes, Acanthopterygii) pituitary using antisera raised against synthetic fragment peptides of FSHbeta and LHbeta. Both cell types were abundant during the spawning period (spring and early summer) and decreased in number during the post-spawning immature period. The number of FSH cells increased again during the early phases of gonadal development (cortical alveoli accumulation in the oocytes and basal spermatogenesis) in early winter, whereas the number of LH cells did not. Only FSH cells were abundant during the latter phases of gonadal development (vitellogenesis and active spermatogenesis) in early spring. These observations suggest that both GtHs have important yet different roles for reproduction in this species. Antisera against the conservative region of the FSHbeta and the LHbeta subunits immunostained FSH cells and LH cells, respectively, also in red seabream (Pagrus major; Perciformes, Acanthopterygii) and small mouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu; Perciformes, Acanthopterygii), suggesting the possibility of their use for other acanthopterygian fishes. PMID:12765642

Shimizu, Akio; Tanaka, Hideki; Kagawa, Hirohiko

2003-06-01

214

Reproductive physiology in young men is cumulatively affected by FSH-action modulating genetic variants: FSHR -29G/A and c.2039 A/G, FSHB -211G/T.  

PubMed

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) -29G/A polymorphism (rs1394205) was reported to modulate gene expression and reproductive parameters in women, but data in men is limited. We aimed to bring evidence to the effect of FSHR -29G/A variants in men. In Baltic young male cohort (n = 982; Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians; aged 20.2 ± 2.0 years), the FSHR -29 A-allele was significantly associated with higher serum FSH (linear regression: effect 0.27 IU/L; P = 0.0019, resistant to Bonferroni correction for multiple testing) and showed a non-significant trend for association with higher LH (0.19 IU/L) and total testosterone (0.93 nmol/L), but reduced Inhibin B (-7.84 pg/mL) and total testes volume (effect -1.00 mL). Next, we extended the study and tested the effect of FSHR gene haplotypes determined by the allelic combination of FSHR -29G/A and a well-studied variant c.2039 A/G (Asn680Ser, exon 10). Among the FSHR -29A/2039G haplotype carriers (A-Ser; haplotype-based linear regression), this genetic effect was enhanced for FSH (effect 0.40 IU/L), Inhibin B (-16.57 pg/mL) and total testes volume (-2.34 mL). Finally, we estimated the total contribution of three known FSH-action modulating SNPs (FSHB -211G/T; FSHR -29G/A, c.2039 A/G) to phenotypic variance in reproductive parameters among young men. The major FSH-action modulating SNPs explained together 2.3%, 1.4%, 1.0 and 1.1% of the measured variance in serum FSH, Inhibin B, testosterone and total testes volume, respectively. In contrast to the young male cohort, neither FSHR -29G/A nor FSHR haplotypes appeared to systematically modulate the reproductive physiology of oligozoospermic idiopathic infertile patients (n = 641, Estonians; aged 31.5 ± 6.0 years). In summary, this is the first study showing the significant effect of FSHR -29G/A on male serum FSH level. To account for the genetic effect of known common polymorphisms modulating FSH-action, we suggest haplotype-based analysis of FSHR SNPs (FSHR -29G/A, c.2039 A/G) in combination with FSHB -211G/T testing. PMID:24718625

Grigorova, Marina; Punab, Margus; Punab, Anna Maria; Poolamets, Olev; Vihljajev, Vladimir; Zilaitien?, Birut?; Erenpreiss, Juris; Matulevi?ius, Valentinas; Laan, Maris

2014-01-01

215

Bone morphogenetic protein 2 stimulates noncanonical SMAD2/3 signaling via the BMP type 1A receptor in gonadotrope-like cells: implications for FSH synthesis.  

PubMed

FSH is an essential regulator of mammalian reproduction. Its synthesis by pituitary gonadotrope cells is regulated by multiple endocrine and paracrine factors, including TGF? superfamily ligands, such as the activins and inhibins. Activins stimulate FSH synthesis via transcriptional regulation of its ?-subunit gene (Fshb). More recently, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) were shown to stimulate murine Fshb transcription alone and in synergy with activins. BMP2 signals via its canonical type I receptor, BMPR1A (or activin receptor-like kinase 3 [ALK3]), and SMAD1 and SMAD5 to stimulate transcription of inhibitor of DNA binding proteins. Inhibitor of DNA binding proteins then potentiate the actions of activin-stimulated SMAD3 to regulate the Fshb gene in the gonadotrope-like L?T2 cell line. Here, we report the unexpected observation that BMP2 also stimulates the SMAD2/3 pathway in these cells and that it does so directly via ALK3. Indeed, this novel, noncanonical ALK3 activity is completely independent of ALK4, ALK5, and ALK7, the type I receptors most often associated with SMAD2/3 pathway activation. Induction of the SMAD2/3 pathway by ALK3 is dependent upon its own previous activation by associated type II receptors, which phosphorylate conserved serine and threonine residues in the ALK3 juxtamembrane glycine-serine-rich domain. ALK3 signaling via SMAD3 is necessary for the receptor to stimulate Fshb transcription, whereas its activation of the SMAD1/5/8 pathway alone is insufficient. These data challenge current dogma that ALK3 and other BMP type I receptors signal via SMAD1, SMAD5, and SMAD8 and not SMAD2 or SMAD3. Moreover, they suggest that BMPs and activins may use similar intracellular signaling mechanisms to activate the murine Fshb promoter in immortalized gonadotrope-like cells. PMID:24601881

Wang, Ying; Ho, Catherine C; Bang, EunJin; Rejon, Carlis A; Libasci, Vanessa; Pertchenko, Pavel; Hébert, Terence E; Bernard, Daniel J

2014-05-01

216

Discovery of Octahydroindenes as PAR1 Antagonists.  

PubMed

Octahydroindene was identified as a novel scaffold for protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) antagonists. Herein, the 2-position (C2) was explored for structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies. Compounds 14, 19, and 23b showed IC50 values of 1.3, 8.6, and 2.7 nM in a PAR1 radioligand binding assay, respectively, and their inhibitory activities on platelet activation were comparable to that of vorapaxar in a platelet rich plasma (PRP) aggregation assay. This series of compounds showed high potency and no significant cytotoxicity; however, the compounds were metabolically unstable in both human and rat liver microsomes. Current research efforts are focused on optimizing the compounds to improve metabolic stability and physicochemical properties as well as potency. PMID:24900604

Lee, Sunkyung; Song, Jong-Hwan; Park, Chul Min; Kim, Jin-Seok; Jeong, Ji-Hye; Cho, Woo-Young; Lim, Dong-Chul

2013-11-14

217

Discovery of Octahydroindenes as PAR1 Antagonists  

PubMed Central

Octahydroindene was identified as a novel scaffold for protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) antagonists. Herein, the 2-position (C2) was explored for structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies. Compounds 14, 19, and 23b showed IC50 values of 1.3, 8.6, and 2.7 nM in a PAR1 radioligand binding assay, respectively, and their inhibitory activities on platelet activation were comparable to that of vorapaxar in a platelet rich plasma (PRP) aggregation assay. This series of compounds showed high potency and no significant cytotoxicity; however, the compounds were metabolically unstable in both human and rat liver microsomes. Current research efforts are focused on optimizing the compounds to improve metabolic stability and physicochemical properties as well as potency. PMID:24900604

2013-01-01

218

Par-4 prevents breast cancer recurrence  

PubMed Central

Therapy resistance and disease recurrence are two of the most challenging aspects in breast cancer treatment. A recent article in Cancer Cell makes a significant contribution toward a better understanding of this therapeutic problem by establishing downregulation of the tumor suppressor Par-4 as the primary determinant of breast cancer recurrence. This viewpoint brings forth the importance of their findings and its implications on future research and therapy. PMID:24164776

2013-01-01

219

PAR1 contributes to influenza A virus pathogenicity in mice  

PubMed Central

Influenza causes substantial morbidity and mortality, and highly pathogenic and drug-resistant strains are likely to emerge in the future. Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is a thrombin-activated receptor that contributes to inflammatory responses at mucosal surfaces. The role of PAR1 in pathogenesis of virus infections is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that PAR1 contributed to the deleterious inflammatory response after influenza virus infection in mice. Activating PAR1 by administering the agonist TFLLR-NH2 decreased survival and increased lung inflammation after influenza infection. Importantly, both administration of a PAR1 antagonist and PAR1 deficiency protected mice from infection with influenza A viruses (IAVs). Treatment with the PAR1 agonist did not alter survival of mice deficient in plasminogen (PLG), which suggests that PLG permits and/or interacts with a PAR1 function in this model. PAR1 antagonists are in human trials for other indications. Our findings suggest that PAR1 antagonism might be explored as a treatment for influenza, including that caused by highly pathogenic H5N1 and oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 viruses. PMID:23202729

Khoufache, Khaled; Berri, Fatma; Nacken, Wolfgang; Vogel, Annette B.; Delenne, Marie; Camerer, Eric; Coughlin, Shaun R.; Carmeliet, Peter; Lina, Bruno; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Planz, Oliver; Ludwig, Stephan; Riteau, Béatrice

2012-01-01

220

Review of PAR parameterizations in ocean ecosystem models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commonly-used empirical equations for calculating downward 'photosynthetically available radiation' or PAR were reviewed in order to identify a more theoretically-sound parameterization for application to ocean biogeochemical models. Three different forms of broadband PAR parameterization are currently employed in biogeochemical models, each of them originating from the downward irradiance formulations normally applied to ocean circulation models, which produce poor attenuation estimates for PAR. Two of the PAR formulations, a single-exponential function and a double-exponential function, are parameterized by multiplying surface irradiance by a coefficient determining the portion of underwater PAR. The third formulation uses the second term of the double-exponential function. After elucidating the theoretical problems of modeling PAR using these parameterizations, we suggest an improved, R-modified double-exponential PAR formulation, including Paulson and Simpson's (1977) parameter values. We also newly estimate PAR penetration via least-squares fitting of values digitized from Jerlov's (1976) observations in different oceanic water types, and compare this PAR-observation derived parameterization with our new, theoretical, R-modified parameterization. Finally, we discuss a universal limitation inherent in current theoretical approaches to PAR parameterization.

Byun, Do-Seong; Wang, Xiao Hua; Hart, Deirdre E.; Zavatarelli, Marco

2014-12-01

221

Mapping photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) using multiple remote sensing data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incident Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) is an important parameter for terrestrial ecosystem models. Presently, deriving PAR using remotely sensed data is the only practical approach to meet the needs for large scale ecosystem modeling. The usefulness of the currently available PAR products is constricted by their limited spatial and temporal resolution. In addition, the applicability of the existing algorithms for deriving PAR using remotely sensed data are limited by their requirements for external atmospheric information. This study develops new algorithms to estimate incident PAR using remotely sensed data from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite), and AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer). The new PAR algorithms differ from existing algorithms in that the new algorithms derive surface properties and atmospheric optical properties using time-series of at-sensor radiance without external atmospheric information. First, a new PAR algorithm is developed for MODIS visible band data. The validity of the algorithm's underpinning theoretical basis is examined and associated errors are analyzed in light of their impact on PAR estimation accuracy. Second, the MODIS PAR algorithm is adapted to AVHRR in order to take advantage of the long data acquisition record of AVHRR. In addition, the scaling of remote sensing derived instantaneous PAR to daily PAR is addressed. Last, the new algorithm is extended to GOES visible band data. Two major improvements of GOES PAR algorithm over that of MODIS and AVHRR are the inclusion of the bi-directional reflectance distribution function for deriving surface reflectance, and the procedure for excluding cloud-shadowed pixels in searching for observations made under clear skies. Furthermore, the topographic impact on PAR is accessed and corrected. To assess the effectiveness of the newly developed PAR algorithms, validation efforts have been made using ground measurements made at FLUXNET sites. The validations indicate that the new PAR algorithms for MODIS, GOES, and AVHRR are capable of reaching reasonably high accuracy with no need for external atmospheric information. This work is the first attempt to develop a unified PAR estimation algorithm for both polar-orbiting and geostationary satellite data. The new algorithms developed in this study have been used to produce incident PAR over North America routinely to support the North America Carbon Program.

Zheng, Tao

222

A new model for estimating boreal forest fPAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life on Earth is continuously sustained by the extraterrestrial flux of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) from the sun. This flux is converted to biomass by chloroplasts in green vegetation. Thus, the fraction of absorbed PAR (fPAR) is a key parameter used in carbon balance studies, and is listed as one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV). Temporal courses of fPAR for boreal forests are difficult to measure, because of the complex 3D structures. Thus, they are most often estimated based on models which quantify the dependency of absorbed radiation on canopy structure. In this study, we adapted a physically-based canopy radiation model into a fPAR model, and compared modeled and measured fPAR in structurally different boreal forest stands. The model is based on the spectral invariants theory, and uses leaf area index (LAI), canopy gap fractions and spectra of foliage and understory as input data. The model differs from previously developed more detailed fPAR models in that the complex 3D structure of coniferous forests is described using an aggregated canopy parameter - photon recollision probability p. The strength of the model is that all model inputs are measurable or available through other simple models. First, the model was validated with measurements of instantaneous fPAR obtained with the TRAC instrument in nine Scots pine, Norway spruce and Silver birch stands in a boreal forest in southern Finland. Good agreement was found between modeled and measured fPAR. Next, we applied the model to predict temporal courses of fPAR using data on incoming radiation from a nearby flux tower and sky irradiance models. Application of the model to simulate diurnal and seasonal values of fPAR indicated that the ratio of direct-to-total incident radiation and leaf area index are the key factors behind the magnitude and variation of stand-level fPAR values.

Majasalmi, Titta; Rautiainen, Miina; Stenberg, Pauline

2014-05-01

223

DMT PAR-reduction by weighted cancellation waveforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

DMT (discrete multitone) signals have a high peak-to- average power ratio (PAR). In the transmitters, the PAR governs the necessary resolution of the digital- to-analog converter (DAC) and is an important factor for the power consumption of the line-driver. In a recent paper, we presented a low complexity PAR-reduction method for DMT-transmitters. Here we improve a central part of this

Hans G. Feichtinger; Norbert Kaiblinger; Lars-Erik Perssonc

224

DSINTGRATION DU TERBIUM 164 Par E. MONNAND et A. MOUSSA,  

E-print Network

D�SINT�GRATION DU TERBIUM 164 Par E. MONNAND et A. MOUSSA, Laboratoire de Chimie Nucléaire, Centre terbium 164 produit par la réaction nucléaire 164Dy(n, p)164Tb avec des neutrons de 14 MeV. L'isotope 164 du terbium n'a 6t6 signal6 jusqu'ici que par Alstad et Pappas [1] qui l'ont obtenu a partir de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

225

Mechanism of DNA Segregation in Prokaryotes: Replicon Pairing by parC of Plasmid R1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prokaryotic chromosomes and plasmids encode partitioning systems that are required for DNA segregation at cell division. The systems are thought to be functionally analogous to eukaryotic centromeres and to play a general role in DNA segregation. The parA system of plasmid R1 encodes two proteins ParM and ParR, and a cis-acting centromere-like site denoted parC. The ParR protein binds to parC in vivo and in vitro. The ParM protein is an ATPase that interacts with ParR specifically bound to parC. Using electron microscopy, we show here that parC mediates efficient pairing of plasmid molecules. The pairing requires binding of ParR to parC and is stimulated by the ParM ATPase. The ParM mediated stimulation of plasmid pairing is dependent on ATP hydrolysis by ParM. Using a ligation kinetics assay, we find that ParR stimulates ligation of parC-containing DNA fragments. The rate-of-ligation was increased by wild type ParM protein but not by mutant ParM protein deficient in the ATPase activity. Thus, two independent assays show that parC mediates pairing of plasmid molecules in vitro. These results are consistent with the proposal that replicon pairing is part of the mechanism of DNA segregation in prokaryotes.

Jensen, Rasmus Bugge; Lurz, Rudi; Gerdes, Kenn

1998-07-01

226

2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

227

Modlisation de rseaux de rgulation de gnes par processus dterministes par morceaux  

E-print Network

Cook et modèle du phage Lambda). Mots-clés. Réseau de gènes, Processus déterministes par morceaux networks (Cook's model and Lambda-phage model). Keywords. Gene networks, Piecewise deterministic processes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

228

NOMBRE DE RAYONS 03B1 MIS PAR UNE PRPARATION DE DPOT ACTIF DU THORIUM MESURE PAR SON RAYONNEMENT PNTRANT  

E-print Network

NOMBRE DE RAYONS 03B1 �MIS PAR UNE PR�PARATION DE D�POT ACTIF DU THORIUM MESUR�E PAR SON cm de Pb. Résultats. 1. But du travail. - Le Radiothorium, le Thorium X et le dépôt actif du Thorium sont généralement dosés par leur rayonnement y provenant de Thorium (C + Cfl). A cet effet, à l

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

229

A New Sex-Specific Genetic Map of the Human Pseudoautosomal Regions (PAR1 and PAR2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Accurate sex-specific genetic maps are essential for gene mapping projects when using multipoint methods, especially for the pseudoautosomal regions (PARs). This paper describes a new sex-specific genetic map for the human PARs. Methods: We used multipoint linkage analysis, three-generation pedigrees and to date, the largest set of genetic markers to estimate recombination events in the PARs. The new map

Antònia Flaquer; Christine Fischer; Thomas F. Wienker

2009-01-01

230

Similar requirements for CDC-42 and the PAR-3/PAR-6/PKC-3 complex in diverse cell types  

PubMed Central

During animal development, a complex of Par3, Par6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) plays a central role in cell polarisation. The small G protein Cdc42 also functions in cell polarity and has been shown in some cases to act by regulating the Par3 complex. However, it is not yet known whether Cdc42 and the Par3 complex widely function together in development or whether they have independent functions. For example, many studies have implicated Cdc42 in cell migrations, but the Par3 complex has only been little studied, with conflicting results. Here we examine the requirements for CDC-42 and the PAR-3/PAR-6/PKC-3 complex in a range of different developmental events. We found similar requirements in all tissues examined, including polarised growth of vulval precursors and seam cells, migrations of neuroblasts and axons, and the development of the somatic gonad. We also propose a novel role for primordial germ cells in mediating coalescence of the C. elegans gonad. These results indicate that CDC-42 and the PAR-3/PAR-6/aPKC complex function together in diverse cell types. PMID:17383625

Welchman, David P; Mathies, Laura; Ahringer, Julie

2012-01-01

231

Gene expression analysis of bovine oocytes at optimal coasting time combined with GnRH antagonist during the no-FSH period.  

PubMed

Ovarian stimulation with FSH combined with an appropriate period of FSH withdrawal (coasting) before ovum pick-up now appears to be a successful way to obtain oocytes with high developmental competence in bovine. Recent results showed that extending follicular growth by only 24 hours has a detrimental effect on oocyte quality as shown by the reduced blastocyst formation rate. Although these treatments are initiated during the luteal phase with low LH level, the small LH pulsatility present at that time could potentially impact follicular development as well as oocyte quality. In this study, a GnRH antagonist (Cetrotide) was used to suppress LH secretion during follicular differentiation to get a better insight into the physiological importance of the LH support during that period. Oocytes were collected by ovum pick-up, and quality was assessed by measuring the blastocyst formation rate obtained after IVM-IVF. The oocyte transcriptome from GnRH antagonist-treated animals was also compared with that from a control group (coasting duration of 68 hours) to detect possible alterations at the messenger RNA (mRNA) level. The oocyte quality was not statistically affected by the treatment as shown by the blastocyst formation rate obtained. However, microarray analysis showed that a total of 226 genes had a significant difference (fold change > 2; P < 0.05) at the mRNA level, with the majority being in overabundance in the treated group. Many genes related to RNA posttranscriptional modifications presented different abundance at the mRNA level significant differences in the control group (68 hours), whereas translation function appeared to be affected, with many genes related to structural constituents of the ribosome presenting a overabundance in the GnRH antagonist-treated group. Specific mRNAs with crucial roles in chromosome segregation control also showed significant difference at the mRNA level after Cetrotide treatment. The results presented here indicated that the suppression of the LH secretion in an optimal stimulated context would have an impact on the oocyte, with the possible alteration of critical functions related to translation capacity and chromosome segregation control. PMID:24581583

Labrecque, Rémi; Vigneault, Christian; Blondin, Patrick; Sirard, Marc-André

2014-05-01

232

Condensation and localization of the partitioning protein ParB on the bacterial chromosome  

PubMed Central

The ParABS system mediates chromosome segregation and plasmid partitioning in many bacteria. As part of the partitioning mechanism, ParB proteins form a nucleoprotein complex at parS sites. The biophysical basis underlying ParB–DNA complex formation and localization remains elusive. Specifically, it is unclear whether ParB spreads in 1D along DNA or assembles into a 3D protein–DNA complex. We show that a combination of 1D spreading bonds and a single 3D bridging bond between ParB proteins constitutes a minimal model for a condensed ParB–DNA complex. This model implies a scaling behavior for ParB-mediated silencing of parS-flanking genes, which we confirm to be satisfied by experimental data from P1 plasmids. Furthermore, this model is consistent with experiments on the effects of DNA roadblocks on ParB localization. Finally, we show experimentally that a single parS site is necessary and sufficient for ParB–DNA complex formation in vivo. Together with our model, this suggests that ParB binding to parS triggers a conformational switch in ParB that overcomes a nucleation barrier. Conceptually, the combination of spreading and bridging bonds in our model provides a surface tension ensuring the condensation of the ParB–DNA complex, with analogies to liquid-like compartments such as nucleoli in eukaryotes. PMID:24927534

Broedersz, Chase P.; Wang, Xindan; Meir, Yigal; Loparo, Joseph J.; Rudner, David Z.; Wingreen, Ned S.

2014-01-01

233

Condensation and localization of the partitioning protein ParB on the bacterial chromosome.  

PubMed

The ParABS system mediates chromosome segregation and plasmid partitioning in many bacteria. As part of the partitioning mechanism, ParB proteins form a nucleoprotein complex at parS sites. The biophysical basis underlying ParB-DNA complex formation and localization remains elusive. Specifically, it is unclear whether ParB spreads in 1D along DNA or assembles into a 3D protein-DNA complex. We show that a combination of 1D spreading bonds and a single 3D bridging bond between ParB proteins constitutes a minimal model for a condensed ParB-DNA complex. This model implies a scaling behavior for ParB-mediated silencing of parS-flanking genes, which we confirm to be satisfied by experimental data from P1 plasmids. Furthermore, this model is consistent with experiments on the effects of DNA roadblocks on ParB localization. Finally, we show experimentally that a single parS site is necessary and sufficient for ParB-DNA complex formation in vivo. Together with our model, this suggests that ParB binding to parS triggers a conformational switch in ParB that overcomes a nucleation barrier. Conceptually, the combination of spreading and bridging bonds in our model provides a surface tension ensuring the condensation of the ParB-DNA complex, with analogies to liquid-like compartments such as nucleoli in eukaryotes. PMID:24927534

Broedersz, Chase P; Wang, Xindan; Meir, Yigal; Loparo, Joseph J; Rudner, David Z; Wingreen, Ned S

2014-06-17

234

Developmental Cell A Casein Kinase 1 and PAR Proteins  

E-print Network

Developmental Cell Article A Casein Kinase 1 and PAR Proteins Regulate Asymmetry of a PIP2 cortical asymmetry of Ga regulators GPR-1/2. Here, we es- tablish that the casein kinase 1 gamma CSNK-1 and a PIP2 synthesis enzyme (PPK-1) transduce PAR polarity to asymmetric Ga regulation. PPK-1 is posteriorly

Ahringe, Julie

235

Endophthalmitis following pars plana vitrectomy for vitreous floaters  

PubMed Central

A case of Staphylococcus caprae endophthalmitis in a young patient following pars plana vitrectomy for symptomatic vitreous floaters is reported here. Recent literature suggests that there is an increasing trend of performing pars plana vitrectomy for symptomatic floaters. Although rare, the potential risk of endophthalmitis should be explicitly discussed with patients considering surgical intervention for vitreous floaters. PMID:25210434

Henry, Christopher R; Schwartz, Stephen G; Flynn, Harry W

2014-01-01

236

STRUCTURE DES COUCHES DE NIOBIUM PRPARES PAR PULVRISATION TRIODE  

E-print Network

415 STRUCTURE DES COUCHES DE NIOBIUM PR�PAR�ES PAR PULV�RISATION TRIODE EXISTENCE D'UNE PHASE, Bellevue Résumé. 2014 Par pulvérisation cathodique, le niobium, normalement cubique centré (a = 3,29 �. Abstract. 2014 Sputtering of normally b. c. c. Niobium (a = 3.29 �) on Sodium Chloride gives amorphous

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

237

Actes JFPC 2009 Decidabilite de contraintes du premier ordre par  

E-print Network

Introduction La programmation par contraintes (PPC) est une discipline au carrefour de l'intelligence contrainte et intelligence artificielle. L'id´ee est simple : ayant une th´eorie T mod´elis´ee par un. Abstract Satisfiability modulo theories (SMT) is a discipline that comes from formal verification and has

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

238

Dtermination indirecte des limites d'Atterberg par gravimtrie dynamique  

E-print Network

Détermination indirecte des limites d'Atterberg par gravimétrie dynamique Determination of Atterberg limits by dynamic gravimetry. Chantal Prousta, Agnès Jullienb, and Lydie Le Forestiera, a ISTO présente une nouvelle méthode de mesure des limites d'Atterberg par dessiccation dynamique. En effet, pour

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

239

Clinical and immunopathological studies of pars planitis in a family  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined a family in which two brothers with identical HLA typing have pars planitis with snowbanking. Immunopathological studies of one of their eyes showed that in the area of snowbanking over the pars plana there was mild to moderate inflammatory cell infiltration, consisting of mostly Pan T (Leu 4+) lymphocytes. The ratio of T helper\\/inducer to T suppressor\\/cytotoxic cells

R P Wetzig; C C Chan; R B Nussenblatt; A G Palestine; D O Mazur; K K Mittal

1988-01-01

240

MMOIRES ORIGINAUX 37 Dtermination des sucres par chromatographie  

E-print Network

MÉMOIRES ORIGINAUX 37 Détermination des sucres par chromatographie en phase gazeuse. Applications à séparation de la fraction glucidique par voie chromatographique. Une technique de chromatographie semble bien adaptée à ce type de détermination: la chromatographie en phase gazeuse. En premier lieu, il convenait de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

241

Optimal constellation distortion for PAR reduction in OFDM systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high peak-to-average-power ratio (PAR) of Or- thogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) transmission systems significantly reduces the power efficiency or performance of such systems, and many techniques have been proposed to deal with this problem. Recently, the Active Constellation Extension (ACE) algorithm has received much attention, where the main idea is to reduce the PAR by introducing a perturbation of

Moshe Malkin; Brian S. Krongold; John M. Cioffi

2008-01-01

242

Source Jazz hot internet n614 Sign par Frank STEIGER  

E-print Network

Source Jazz hot internet n°614 Date 2004 Signé par Frank STEIGER Commençons par être reconnaissant quelques musiciens étaient sans le savoir en train de poser les fondations de ce qui allait devenir le jazz

243

Recherches sur les rayons secondaires du radium Par H. STARKE  

E-print Network

35 Recherches sur les rayons secondaires du radium Par H. STARKE [Faculté des Sciences de Paris, laboratoire de Mme Curie.] 1. - Expériences pour rechercher la formation des rayons y par l'action des rayons p sur les corps solides. §1. On a généralement considéré les rayons y qui sont très pénétrants et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

244

Diffusion des rayons X par un corps de structure  

E-print Network

Diffusion des rayons X par un corps de structure quelconque · Notion de cohérence · Approximation) · Approximation statique · Fréquences des rayons X : 1018 Hz · Fréquences des vibrations atomiques : 1012 Hz (THz système isotrope : mesurable par diffusion des rayons X ou des neutrons ( ) = = 1 + ( - 1) = 1 + - 1 sin

Paris-Sud 11, Université de

245

MMOIRES TRADUITS Sur la vitesse des rayons cathodiques mis par  

E-print Network

83 MÉMOIRES TRADUITS Sur la vitesse des rayons cathodiques émis par les substances exposées aux rayons 03B3 du radium Par R. D. KLEEMAN [Université de Cambridge. 2014 Laboratoire de M. J. J. THOMSON]. 1 La radiation secondaire cathodique d'une substance exposée aux rayons y du radium, comprend en

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

246

Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily

H. E. Jr. Mackey; R. S. Riley

1995-01-01

247

La simulation pour les systmes pilots par le produit  

E-print Network

systèmes (par linitiative de « fabrication flexible », par exemple), mais les processus de prise de, telles les technologies Auto-Id, la biométrie, la vision, etc. Aujourdhui les technologies RFID (Radio logiciels et de technologies infotroniques (telles les RFID) doivent permettre dobtenir plus de réactivité

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

248

Modlisation d'une srie financire par mouvement Brownien  

E-print Network

Brownien frac- tionnaire fBm (fractional Brownian motion) qui est caractérisé par son in- dice de Hurst HModélisation d'une série financière par mouvement Brownien multi-fractionnaire parcimonieux Pierre In this work we introduce sparse modelling for fractal like pro- cesses. We recall the stream which has leaded

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

249

[Plasma suPAR level in patients with multiple myeloma].  

PubMed

To investigate the changes of plasma suPAR level in patients with multiple myeloma, ELISA was used to detect plasma suPAR level, and routine examination was performed for other clinical indexes in 26 multiple myeloma patients. The results showed that plasma suPAR level in patients was 4.31+/-1.67 ng/ml, which was obviously higher than that in control group (1.87+/-0.27 ng/ml) (p<0.01). Plasma suPAR level in IgM subtype patients was 6.18+/-3.61 ng/ml, which was highest among all the subtypes; the plasma suPAR levels in non-secretion subtype, IgG and IgA subtype were 4.43+/-1.55 ng/ml, 4.00+/-0.95 ng/ml and 3.50+/-1.60 ng/ml respectively. The plasma suPAR levels in all subtypes were higher than that in control group, but there was no differences between these subtypes. SuPAR level was correlated with the blood sedimentation rate, creatinine level and hemoglobin level, plasma cell ratio and M protein level. It is concluded that the change of plasma suPAR level in multiple myeloma contributes to predict the development and prognosis of the disease. PMID:18315930

Wang, Wei; Wang, Hong-Yi; Cui, Zhong-Guang; Wang, Jing

2008-02-01

250

Dissection of the region of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ParA that is important for dimerization and interactions with its partner ParB  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa ParA belongs to a large subfamily of Walker-type ATPases acting as partitioning proteins in bacteria. ParA has the ability to both self-associate and interact with its partner ParB. Analysis of the deletion mutants defined the part of the protein involved in dimerization and interactions with ParB. Here, a set of ParA alanine substitution mutants in the region between E67 and L85 was created and analysed in vivo and in vitro. All mutants impaired in dimerization (substitutions at positions M74, H79, Y82 and L84) were also defective in interactions with ParB, suggesting that ParA–ParB interactions depend on the ability of ParA to dimerize. Mutants with alanine substitutions at positions E67, C68, L70, E72, F76, Q83 and L85 were not impaired in dimerization, but were defective in interactions with ParB. The dimerization interface partly overlapped the pseudo-hairpin, involved in interactions with ParB. ParA mutant derivatives tested in vitro showed no defects in ATPase activity. Two parA alleles (parA84, whose product can neither self-interact nor interact with ParB, and parA67, whose product is impaired in interactions with ParB, but not in dimerization) were introduced into the P. aeruginosa chromosome by homologous gene exchange. Both mutants showed defective separation of ParB foci, but to different extents. Only PAO1161 parA84 was visibly impaired in terms of chromosome segregation, growth rate and motility, similar to a parA-null mutant. PMID:25139949

Bartosik, Aneta A.; Glabski, Krzysztof; Jecz, Paulina; Lasocki, Krzysztof; Mikosa, Malgorzata; Plochocka, Danuta; Thomas, Christopher M.

2014-01-01

251

Cancer-selective apoptosis by tumor suppressor par-4.  

PubMed

Tumor suppressor genes play an important role in preventing neoplastic transformation and maintaining normal tissue homeostasis. Par-4 is one such tumor suppressor which is unique in its ability to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells while leaving the normal cells unaffected. The cancer cell specific activity of Par-4 is elicited through intracellular as well as extracellular mechanisms. Intracellularly Par-4 acts through the inhibition of pro-survival pathways and activation of Fas mediated apoptosis whereas extracellular (secreted Par-4) acts by binding to cell surface GRP78 leading to activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Many studies have highlighted the importance of Par-4 not only in preventing cancer development/recurrence but also as a promising anticancer therapeutic agent. PMID:25001535

Hebbar, Nikhil; Shrestha-Bhattarai, Tripti; Rangnekar, Vivek M

2014-01-01

252

Recombination in the Human Pseudoautosomal Region PAR1  

PubMed Central

The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is a short region of homology between the mammalian X and Y chromosomes, which has undergone rapid evolution. A crossover in the PAR is essential for the proper disjunction of X and Y chromosomes in male meiosis, and PAR deletion results in male sterility. This leads the human PAR with the obligatory crossover, PAR1, to having an exceptionally high male crossover rate, which is 17-fold higher than the genome-wide average. However, the mechanism by which this obligatory crossover occurs remains unknown, as does the fine-scale positioning of crossovers across this region. Recent research in mice has suggested that crossovers in PAR may be mediated independently of the protein PRDM9, which localises virtually all crossovers in the autosomes. To investigate recombination in this region, we construct the most fine-scale genetic map containing directly observed crossovers to date using African-American pedigrees. We leverage recombination rates inferred from the breakdown of linkage disequilibrium in human populations and investigate the signatures of DNA evolution due to recombination. Further, we identify direct PRDM9 binding sites using ChIP-seq in human cells. Using these independent lines of evidence, we show that, in contrast with mouse, PRDM9 does localise peaks of recombination in the human PAR1. We find that recombination is a far more rapid and intense driver of sequence evolution in PAR1 than it is on the autosomes. We also show that PAR1 hotspot activities differ significantly among human populations. Finally, we find evidence that PAR1 hotspot positions have changed between human and chimpanzee, with no evidence of sharing among the hottest hotspots. We anticipate that the genetic maps built and validated in this work will aid research on this vital and fascinating region of the genome. PMID:25033397

Hinch, Anjali G.; Altemose, Nicolas; Noor, Nudrat; Donnelly, Peter; Myers, Simon R.

2014-01-01

253

SPECTROGRAPHIE PAR DIFFRACTION DES RAYONS 03B3 DE LA FAMILLE DE L'ACTINIUM Par M. MARCEL FRILLEY,  

E-print Network

SPECTROGRAPHIE PAR DIFFRACTION DES RAYONS 03B3 DE LA FAMILLE DE L'ACTINIUM Par M. MARCEL FRILLEY de raies correspondant à des rayonnements 03B3 nucléaires, ou à des rayons X de fluorescence sont en accord avec les mesures effectuées sur les rayons X caractéristiques des éléments lourds. Le

Boyer, Edmond

254

SPRY1 promotes the degradation of uPAR and inhibits uPAR-mediated cell adhesion and proliferation  

PubMed Central

Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a GPI anchored cell surface protein that is closely associated with invasion, migration, and metastasis of cancer cells. Many functional extracellular proteins and transmembrane receptors interact with uPAR. However, few studies have examined the association of uPAR with cytoplasm proteins. We previously used yeast two-hybrid screening to isolate several novel uPAR-interacting cytoplasmic proteins, including Sprouty1 (SPRY1), an inhibitor of the (Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase) MAPK pathway. In this study, we show that SPRY1 interacts with uPAR and directs it toward lysosomal-mediated degradation. Overexpression of SPRY1 decreased the cell surface and cytoplasmic uPAR protein level. Moreover, SPRY1 overexpression augmented uPAR-induced cell adhesion to vitronectin as well as proliferation of cancer cells. Our results also further support the critical role of SPRY1 contribution to tumor growth. In a subcutaneous tumor model, overexpression of SPRY1 in HCT116 or A549 xenograft in athymic nude mice led to great suppression of tumor growth. These results show that SPRY1 may affect tumor cell function through direct interaction with uPAR and promote its lysosomal degradation. PMID:25520860

Liu, Xiufeng; Lan, Yan; Zhang, Di; Wang, Kai; Wang, Yao; Hua, Zi-Chun

2014-01-01

255

Taare Zameen Par and dyslexic savants  

PubMed Central

The film Taare Zameen Par (Stars upon the Ground) portrays the tormented life at school and at home of a child with dyslexia and his eventual success after his artistic talents are discovered by his art teacher at the boarding school. The film hints at a curious neurocognitive phenomenon of creativity in the midst of language disability, as exemplified in the lives of people like Leonardo da Vinci and Albert Einstein, both of whom demonstrated extraordinary creativity even though they were probably affected with developmental learning disorders. It has been hypothesized that a developmental delay in the dominant hemisphere most likely ‘disinhibits’ the nondominant parietal lobe, unmasking talents—artistic or otherwise—in some such individuals. It has been suggested that, in remedial training, children with learning disorders be encouraged to develop such hidden talents to full capacity, rather than be subjected to the usual overemphasis on the correction of the disturbed coded symbol operations. PMID:20142854

Chakravarty, Ambar

2009-01-01

256

CHALEUR D'ADSORPTION DES GAZ PAR LE CHARBON A BASSE TEMPERATURE (-183) Par REN LEPOINTE.  

E-print Network

vide pour purger le charbon com- prend : 10 Une trompe à eau T donnant environ 12 mrn de mercure. 20 Uii grand ballon V de 15 il 20 1, dans la trompe fait le vide de [2 mm au début t de la purge. Par la- tiooner la trompe T. ;Jo Une nompe à diffusion P11 fonctionnant sur ce vide primaire de 12 mm et donnant

Boyer, Edmond

257

Novel Role for Proteinase-activated Receptor 2 (PAR2) in Membrane Trafficking of Proteinase-activated Receptor 4 (PAR4)*  

PubMed Central

Proteinase-activated receptors 4 (PAR4) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) recognized through the ability of serine proteases such as thrombin and trypsin to mediate receptor activation. Due to the irreversible nature of activation, a fresh supply of receptor is required to be mobilized to the cell surface for responsiveness to agonist to be sustained. Unlike other PAR subtypes, the mechanisms regulating receptor trafficking of PAR4 remain unknown. Here, we report novel features of the intracellular trafficking of PAR4 to the plasma membrane. PAR4 was poorly expressed at the plasma membrane and largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a complex with the COPI protein subunit ?-COP1. Analysis of the PAR4 protein sequence identified an arginine-based (RXR) ER retention sequence located within intracellular loop-2 (R183AR ? A183AA), mutation of which allowed efficient membrane delivery of PAR4. Interestingly, co-expression with PAR2 facilitated plasma membrane delivery of PAR4, an effect produced through disruption of ?-COP1 binding and facilitation of interaction with the chaperone protein 14-3-3?. Intermolecular FRET studies confirmed heterodimerization between PAR2 and PAR4. PAR2 also enhanced glycosylation of PAR4 and activation of PAR4 signaling. Our results identify a novel regulatory role for PAR2 in the anterograde traffic of PAR4. PAR2 was shown to both facilitate and abrogate protein interactions with PAR4, impacting upon receptor localization and cell signal transduction. This work is likely to impact markedly upon the understanding of the receptor pharmacology of PAR4 in normal physiology and disease. PMID:22411985

Cunningham, Margaret R.; McIntosh, Kathryn A.; Pediani, John D.; Robben, Joris; Cooke, Alexandra E.; Nilsson, Mary; Gould, Gwyn W.; Mundell, Stuart; Milligan, Graeme; Plevin, Robin

2012-01-01

258

Étude par microscopie acoustique de couches minces de Ag2S déposées par spray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver sulfide Ag2S thin films have been prepared on pyrex glass substrates by the spray pyrolysis technique at 250 °C. We have analyzed by acoustic microscopy and particularly by acoustic signature V(z) these films with various thickness (0.4 2 ?m). The acoustic signature, performed at 50, 130 and 570 MHz allow us to reach elastic properties of Ag2S material and specially Young modulus. Its value, of the order of 180 GPa, is consistent with the relative low linkage of Ag^+ in the structure and the character of fast-ion conductor of Ag2S. Besides elastic properties and using MEB and AFM investigations, we have shown that the V(z) signature gives valuable information about the bulk defects in the material. Finally, the experimental results have been discussed related to the dispersion curves of velocity of the first mode of Ag2S/pyrex system. Des couches minces de sulfure d'argent Ag2S sont préparées sur substrat de pyrex, à la température de 250 °C, par la technique de pulvérisation chimique réactive en phase liquide ou “spray". Ces dépôts, d'épaisseur variable (0,4 2 ?m), sont analysés par microscopie acoustique et, plus particulièrement, par la méthode de relevé de la signature acoustique V(z). Cette signature, effectuée à différentes fréquences (50, 130, 570 MHz), a permis de caractériser les propriétés élastiques du matériau Ag2S. La valeur du module d'Young, de l'ordre de 180 GPa, est en accord avec la faible cohésion de la liaison Ag-S et le caractère de conducteur ionique rapide de Ag2S. Les observations par MEB et AFM permettent d'expliquer l'allure des courbes V(z) par les défauts de compacité liés à la méthode de préparation. Les résultats expérimentaux sont discutés en liaison avec la courbe de dispersion de vitesses du premier mode du système Ag2S/pyrex.

Amlouk, M.; Brunet, N.; Cros, B.; Belgacem, S.; Barjon, D.

1997-09-01

259

Limnological database for Par Pond: 1959 to 1980  

SciTech Connect

A limnological database for Par Pond, a cooling reservoir for hot reactor effluent water at the Savannah River Plant, is described. The data are derived from a combination of research and monitoring efforts on Par Pond since 1959. The approximately 24,000-byte database provides water quality, primary productivity, and flow data from a number of different stations, depths, and times during the 22-year history of the Par Pond impoundment. The data have been organized to permit an interpretation of the effects of twenty years of cooling system operations on the structure and function of an aquatic ecosystem.

Tilly, L.J.

1981-03-01

260

Par j 1 and Par j 2, the two major allergens in Parietaria judaica, bind preferentially to monoacylated negative lipids.  

PubMed

Par j 1 and Par j 2 proteins are the two major allergens in Parietaria judaica pollen, one of the main causes of allergic diseases in the Mediterranean area. Each of them contains eight cysteine residues organized in a pattern identical to that found in plant nonspecific lipid transfer proteins. The 139- and 102-residue recombinant allergens, corresponding respectively to Par j 1 and Par j 2, refold properly to fully functional forms, whose immunological properties resemble those of the molecules purified from the natural source. Molecular modeling shows that, despite the lack of extensive primary structure homology with nonspecific lipid transfer proteins, both allergens contain a hydrophobic cavity suited to accommodate a lipid ligand. In the present study, we present novel evidence for the formation of complexes of these natural and recombinant proteins from Parietaria pollen with lipidic molecules. The dissociation constant of oleyl-lyso-phosphatidylcholine is 9.1 +/- 1.2 microm for recombinant Par j 1, whereas pyrenedodecanoic acid shows a much higher affinity, with a dissociation constant of approximately 1 microm for both recombinant proteins, as well as for the natural mixture. Lipid binding does not alter the secondary structure content of the protein but is very efficient in protecting disulfide bonds from reduction by dithiothreitol. We show that Par j 1 and Par j 2 not only bind lipids from micellar dispersions, but also are able to extract and transfer negative phospholipids from bilayers. PMID:19236482

González-Rioja, Roberto; Asturias, Juan A; Martínez, Alberto; Goñi, Félix M; Viguera, Ana Rosa

2009-03-01

261

SUR LA DIFFRACTION DES RAYONS X PAR DES LIQUIDES (Deuxime communication).  

E-print Network

SUR LA DIFFRACTION DES RAYONS X PAR DES LIQUIDES (Deuxième communication). Par M. W. H. KEESOM et M. J. de SMEDT I. Introduction. - Toutes les expériences sur la diffraction des rayons X, décrites dans'interférence de rayons dispersés par chaque atome dans la molécule, n'a été observé. Dans le cas de l'oxygène, par

Boyer, Edmond

262

Contact : alice.desclaux@ird.fr Financement : Les perceptions des lipodystrophies par les personnes atteintes Dakar  

E-print Network

51 Contact : alice.desclaux@ird.fr Financement : Les perceptions des lipodystrophies par les.desclaux@ird.fr 2. CRCF, Dakar, Sénégal Introduction et objectifs Les lipodystrophies sont définies par la médecine lipodystrophies cliniques (perçues par le médecin ou par elles-mêmes) (Diouf 2011). Les lipodystrophies se

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

263

APPORTS DE LA COMPTABILITE PAR ACTIVITES A LA  

E-print Network

APPORTS DE LA COMPTABILITE PAR ACTIVITES A LA DIVERSIFICATION DU RISQUE GLOBAL BANCAIRE Christophe défaut aux équipes dirigeantes des banques françaises. The emergence of news risks in bank's firm give

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

264

Un lymphangiome kystique rétropéritonéal révélé par des coliques néphrétiques  

PubMed Central

Résumé Le lymphangiome kystique (LK) est une tumeur rare des voies lymphatiques caractérisée par son évolution bénigne. La fréquence de la localisation rétropéritonéale est controversée. La découverte se fait le plus souvent dès l’enfance. L’évolution de la maladie peut être marquée par des complications graves, notamment compressives. Nous faisons état de l’observation médicale d’une femme de 30 ans chez qui l’on a découvert, à la suite de l’apparition de coliques néphrétiques récidivantes, un LK énorme occupant tout l’espace rétropéritonéal droit. Le diagnostic a été évoqué par l’urotomodensitométrie et confirmé par l’histologie. L’évolution après exérèse chirurgicale de la masse a été favorable, avec la disparition des coliques néphrétiques. PMID:25844099

El anzaoui, Jihad; Ghoundale, Omar; Touiti, Driss; El barni, Rachid; Mejdane, Abdelhadi; Fihri, Jawad Fassi; Lahkim, Mohammed; Achour, Abdsamad

2015-01-01

265

Developing PAR1 antagonists: minding the endothelial gap.  

PubMed

Proteinase Activated Receptors (PARs) are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that were discovered in the early 1990's. They are unusual among GPCRs in being activated through proteolytic cleavage of the receptor N-terminus by serine proteinases such as thrombin. Over the last two decades major advances have been made in our understanding of how these receptors function and the roles they play in (patho)physiology. They have also emerged as drug targets for a number of conditions, most notably thrombosis. Recently two different drugs targeting PAR1 have entered clinical trials as anti-platelet agents. This review provides an overview of the proteinase activated receptor family and focuses on the role of PAR1 in regulating the endothelial barrier integrity and its implication on developing PAR antagonists for anti-platelet therapy. PMID:22742648

Ramachandran, Rithwik

2012-06-01

266

PAUL HALMOS -EXPOSITOR PAR EXCELLENCE V.S. SUNDER  

E-print Network

PAUL HALMOS - EXPOSITOR PAR EXCELLENCE V.S. SUNDER Paul Richard Halmos, one of the best expositors to be a Mathematician are classic books that reflect his clar- ity, conciseness, and color. He edited the American

Sunder, V S

267

INSTITUT POLYTECHNIQUE DE GRENOBLE N attribu par la bibliothque  

E-print Network

) et revêtements TiO2 Directeur de thèse : Michel LANGLET JURY M. Michel PONS Président M. Jean Fonctionnalisation de surface par chimie douce en solution liquide Nanoparticules métalliques (platine, or, argent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

268

Reconstruction d’une Carbonisation du Pouce par Lambeau Chinois  

PubMed Central

Summary La main en tant qu’organe majeur de la préhension peut être le siège de brûlures graves qui compromettent sa fonction. Bien qu’elle ne représente que 2% de la surface corporelle la brûlure de la main est grave et difficile à traiter, vu la vulnérabilité et la complexité de son appareil locomoteur. Nous rapportons dans ce travail le cas d’un patient victime d’une carbonisation de la main. Huit mois après le parage et la couverture par lambeau inguinal, le patient bénéficie d’une reconstruction du pouce par lambeau chinois associé à une greffe osseuse. Le résultat s’est avéré satisfaisant. Le lambeau chinois prouve par son apport vasculaire et par sa facilité technique qu’il est un moyen très intéressant dans la reconstruction du pouce - ou des doigts en général - surtout dans un contexte de brûlure. PMID:21991226

Khales, A.; Achbouk, J.A.; Moussaoui, A.; Belmir, R.; Tourabi, K.; Oufkir, A.; Ihrai, H.

2010-01-01

269

View from northeast to southwest of PAR site sentry station; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View from northeast to southwest of PAR site sentry station; formerly the bachelor's enlisted men's quarter (BEQ) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Sentry Station, North of Second Avenue & West of Electrical Switch Station No. 2, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

270

View from southeast to northwest of PAR site bachelor officers' ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View from southeast to northwest of PAR site bachelor officers' quarters - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Bachelor Officers' Quarters, North of Second Avenue; South of Metal & Woodworking Shop No. 706, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

271

Par reduction in ofdm via active constellation extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high peak-to-average power ratio (PAR) in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation systems can significantly reduce power efficiency and performance. Methods exist which alter or introduce new signal constellations to combat large signal peaks. We present a new PAR-reduction method that dynamically extends outer constellation points in active (data-carrying) channels, within margin-preserving constraints, in order to minimize the peak

Brian Scott Krongold; Douglas L. Jones

2003-01-01

272

Another application for trellis shaping: PAR reduction for DMT (OFDM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bound for the possible reduction of the peak-to-average ratio (PAR) dependent on the rate as well as possible practical procedures are presented. The idea of trellis shaping, originally used to minimize average transmit power in single-carrier systems, is applied to the problem of PAR reduction in multicarrier transmission. Its impact, as a function of code rate, as well as

Werner Henkel; Björn Wagner

2000-01-01

273

Regulation of Protease-Activated Receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4 Signaling in Human Platelets by Compartmentalized Cyclic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrombin potently regulates human platelets by the G protein- coupled receptors protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4. Platelet activation by thrombin and other agonists is broadly inhibited by prostacyclin and nitric oxide acting through adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases to elevate cAMP and cGMP levels, respectively. Using forskolin and YC-1 (3-(5-hydroxy- methyl-2-furyl)-1-benzylindazole) to selectively activate the adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases, respectively,

Matthew L. Bilodeau; Heidi E. Hamm

274

Croissance epitaxiale de GaAs sur substrats de Ge par epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La situation energetique et les enjeux environnementaux auxquels la societe est confrontee entrainent un interet grandissant pour la production d'electricite a partir de l'energie solaire. Parmi les technologies actuellement disponibles, la filiere du photovoltaique a concentrateur solaire (CPV pour concentrator photovoltaics) possede un rendement superieur et mi potentiel interessant a condition que ses couts de production soient competitifs. La methode d'epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques (CBE pour chemical beam epitaxy) possede plusieurs caracteristiques qui la rendent interessante pour la production a grande echelle de cellules photovoltaiques a jonctions multiples a base de semi-conducteurs III-V. Ce type de cellule possede la meilleure efficacite atteinte a ce jour et est utilise sur les satellites et les systemes photovoltaiques a concentrateur solaire (CPV) les plus efficaces. Une des principales forces de la technique CBE se trouve dans son potentiel d'efficacite d'utilisation des materiaux source qui est superieur a celui de la technique d'epitaxie qui est couramment utilisee pour la production a grande echelle de ces cellules. Ce memoire de maitrise presente les travaux effectues dans le but d'evaluer le potentiel de la technique CBE pour realiser la croissance de couches de GaAs sur des substrats de Ge. Cette croissance constitue la premiere etape de fabrication de nombreux modeles de cellules solaires a haute performance decrites plus haut. La realisation de ce projet a necessite le developpement d'un procede de preparation de surface pour les substrats de germanium, la realisation de nombreuses sceances de croissance epitaxiale et la caracterisation des materiaux obtenus par microscopie optique, microscopie a force atomique (AFM), diffraction des rayons-X a haute resolution (HRXRD), microscopie electronique a transmission (TEM), photoluminescence a basse temperature (LTPL) et spectrometrie de masse des ions secondaires (SIMS). Les experiences ont permis de confirmer l'efficacite du procede de preparation de surface et d'identifier les conditions de croissance optimales. Les resultats de caracterisation indiquent que les materiaux obtenus presentent une tres faible rugosite de surface, une bonne qualite cristalline et un dopage residuel relativement important. De plus, l'interface GaAs/Ge possede une faible densite de defauts. Finalement, la diffusion d'arsenic dans le substrat de germanium est comparable aux valeurs trouvees dans la litterature pour la croissance a basse temperature avec les autres procedes d'epitaxie courants. Ces resultats confirment que la technique d'epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques (CBE) permet de produire des couches de GaAs sur Ge de qualite adequate pour la fabrication de cellules solaires a haute performance. L'apport a la communaute scientifique a ete maximise par le biais de la redaction d'un article soumis a la revue Journal of Crystal Growth et la presentation des travaux a la conference Photovoltaics Canada 2010 . Mots-cles : Epitaxie par jets chimiques, Chemical beam epitaxy, CBE, MOMBE, Germanium, GaAs, Ge

Belanger, Simon

275

PAR Reduction in OFDM Through ConvexPAR Reduction in OFDM Through Convex Programming Based On Active Constellation ExtensionProgramming Based On Active Constellation Extension  

E-print Network

On Active Constellation ExtensionProgramming Based On Active Constellation Extension CHAO WANG and S. H the PAR through convex programming while keeping the minimum distance of constellation points, which 2 ( / ) 0 1 ( ) N j k n JN n k k x x n t c e N - = = kc nx PAR Definition The PAR of an OFDM

Zhang, Shuzhong

276

ACCLRATEUR DE 340 KV DESTIN A TUDIER LES RACTIONS INDUITES PAR TRITONS Par Mme D. MAGNAC-VALETTE, MM. M. SUFFERT, M. LIESS et P. CER,  

E-print Network

88. ACC�L�RATEUR DE 340 KV DESTIN� A �TUDIER LES R�ACTIONS INDUITES PAR TRITONS Par Mme D. MAGNAC électrostatique et spécialement construit pour étudier les réactions induites par tritons. Il donne un faisceau working with an electrostatic high tension is described. It is specially designed for triton acceleration

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

277

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-06-01

278

Bacillus subtilis Soj (ParA): The involvement of DNA binding and dynamic localization in plasmid partitioning  

E-print Network

The ParA family of ATPases encompasses proteins with a wide variety of functions. The prototype of this family is the ParA ATPase from the P1 prophage plasmid, which, along with ParB and the parS binding site, is required for the faithful...

Hester, Christina Marie

2008-05-08

279

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- October survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this late October survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maiden cane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-11-01

280

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- September survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this mid-September survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys during the late growing seasons of 1995, and throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-09-01

281

PAR-1 phosphorylates Mind bomb to promote vertebrate neurogenesis  

PubMed Central

Summary Generation of neurons in the vertebrate central nervous system requires complex transcriptional regulatory network and signaling processes in polarized neuroepithelial progenitor cells. Here we demonstrate that neurogenesis in the Xenopus neural plate in vivo and mammalian neural progenitors in vitro involves intrinsic antagonistic activities of the polarity proteins PAR-1 and aPKC. Furthermore, we show that Mind bomb (Mib), a ubiquitin ligase that promotes Notch ligand trafficking and activity, is a crucial molecular substrate for PAR-1. The phosphorylation of Mib by PAR-1 results in Mib degradation, repression of Notch signaling and stimulation of neuronal differentiation. These observations suggest a conserved mechanism for neuronal fate determination that might operate during asymmetric divisions of polarized neural progenitor cells. PMID:19686683

Ossipova, Olga; Ezan, Jerome; Sokol, Sergei Y.

2010-01-01

282

suPAR as a prognostic biomarker in sepsis  

PubMed Central

Sepsis is the clinical syndrome derived from the host response to an infection and severe sepsis is the leading cause of death in critically ill patients. Several biomarkers have been tested for use in diagnosis and prognostication in patients with sepsis. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) levels are increased in various infectious diseases, in the blood and also in other tissues. However, the diagnostic value of suPAR in sepsis has not been well defined, especially compared to other more established biomarkers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT). On the other hand, suPAR levels have been shown to predict outcome in various kinds of bacteremia and recent data suggest they may have predictive value, similar to that of severity scores, in critically ill patients. This narrative review provides a descriptive overview of the clinical value of this biomarker in the diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic guidance of sepsis. PMID:22221662

2012-01-01

283

Competing ParA structures space bacterial plasmids equally over the nucleoid.  

PubMed

Low copy number plasmids in bacteria require segregation for stable inheritance through cell division. This is often achieved by a parABC locus, comprising an ATPase ParA, DNA-binding protein ParB and a parC region, encoding ParB-binding sites. These minimal components space plasmids equally over the nucleoid, yet the underlying mechanism is not understood. Here we investigate a model where ParA-ATP can dynamically associate to the nucleoid and is hydrolyzed by plasmid-associated ParB, thereby creating nucleoid-bound, self-organizing ParA concentration gradients. We show mathematically that differences between competing ParA concentrations on either side of a plasmid can specify regular plasmid positioning. Such positioning can be achieved regardless of the exact mechanism of plasmid movement, including plasmid diffusion with ParA-mediated immobilization or directed plasmid motion induced by ParB/parC-stimulated ParA structure disassembly. However, we find experimentally that parABC from Escherichia coli plasmid pB171 increases plasmid mobility, inconsistent with diffusion/immobilization. Instead our observations favor directed plasmid motion. Our model predicts less oscillatory ParA dynamics than previously believed, a prediction we verify experimentally. We also show that ParA localization and plasmid positioning depend on the underlying nucleoid morphology, indicating that the chromosomal architecture constrains ParA structure formation. Our directed motion model unifies previously contradictory models for plasmid segregation and provides a robust mechanistic basis for self-organized plasmid spacing that may be widely applicable. PMID:25521716

Ietswaart, Robert; Szardenings, Florian; Gerdes, Kenn; Howard, Martin

2014-12-01

284

Tumor-associated soluble uPAR-directed endothelial cell motility and tumor angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

The expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) receptor (uPAR) correlates with the malignant phenotype of various cancers. The soluble form of uPAR (s-uPAR) is present in the circulation of cancer patients, but the role of s-uPAR in endothelial cell migration is poorly understood. Therefore, we examined the role of tumor-associated s-uPAR on endothelial cell motility and angiogenesis. Here, we present evidence that tumor-associated s-uPAR augments the migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). When grown on tumor-conditioned medium, the membrane fraction of HUVECs had increased localization of s-uPAR onto its cell membrane. Colocalization studies for GM1 ganglioside receptor and uPAR further demonstrated s-uPAR recruitment onto lipid rafts of HUVECs. Immunoblot analysis for uPAR in lipid raft fractions confirmed s-uPAR recruiting onto HUVECs' membrane. Further, s-uPAR induced Rac1-mediated cell migration while either function-blocking uPAR antibodies or dominant-negative mutant Rac1 expression in HUVECs-mitigated s-uPAR-enhanced cell migration. In addition, orthotopic implantation of uPAR-overexpressing cells resulted in a significant increase in circulating s-uPAR in blood serum and invasive nature of tumor and tumor vasculature in mice. Collectively, this data provide insight into tumor-associated s-uPAR-directed migration of endothelial cells and its subsequent influence on tumor angiogenesis. PMID:23797476

Rao, J S; Gujrati, M; Chetty, C

2013-01-01

285

Modelling the Establishment of PAR Protein Polarity in the One-Cell C. elegans Embryo  

E-print Network

At the one-cell stage, the C. elegans embryo becomes polarized along the anterior-posterior axis. The PAR proteins form complementary anterior and posterior domains in a dynamic process driven by cytoskeletal rearrangement. Initially, the PAR proteins are uniformly distributed throughout the embryo. Following a cue from fertilization, cortical actomyosin contracts towards the anterior pole. PAR-3/PAR-6/PKC-3 (the anterior PAR proteins) become restricted to the anterior cortex. PAR-1 and PAR-2 (the posterior PAR proteins) become enriched in the posterior cortical region. We present a mathematical model of this polarity establishment process, in which we take a novel approach to combine reaction-diffusion dynamics of the PAR proteins coupled to a simple model of actomyosin contraction. We show that known interactions between the PAR proteins are sufficient to explain many aspects of the observed cortical PAR dynamics in both wild-type and mutant embryos. However, cytoplasmic PAR protein polarity, which is vital for generating daughter cells with distinct molecular components, cannot be properly explained within such a framework. We therefore consider additional mechanisms that can reproduce the proper cytoplasmic polarity. In particular we predict that cytoskeletal asymmetry in the cytoplasm, in addition to the cortical actomyosin asymmetry, is a critical determinant of PAR protein localization.

Filipe Tostevin; Martin Howard

2008-11-20

286

Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAR) reduction for acoustic OFDM systems  

E-print Network

A major drawback of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is its large peak-to-average power ratio (PAR). Techniques for PAR reduction have been extensively studied for radio communication systems. While these ...

Rojo Garrave, Guillem

287

A doxycycline-inducible urokinase receptor (uPAR) upregulates uPAR activities including resistance to anoikis in human prostate cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background The urokinase receptor (uPAR) mediates a diverse array of cellular processes including several events involved in prostate cancer metastasis. Many of these activities are initiated or enhanced by uPAR binding to its proteolytic ligand, urokinase (uPA). Our objective in this study was to generate and test an inducible lentiviral system capable of expressing uPAR and DsRed fluorescent protein in human prostate cancer cell lines. Results A DsRed-uPAR fusion construct was inserted into a lentiviral vector. Transduction of human prostate cancer cell lines with this virus and with a virus containing a reverse-tetracycline transactivator (rt-TA) resulted in a stable transgene which induced both uPAR and DsRed proteins in a dose-responsive fashion upon stimulation with doxycycline. Immunoblots and immunofluorescence studies indicated no detectable uPAR expression in non-induced prostate cancer cell lines. Cells with induced-uPAR demonstrated increased cellular adhesion to the matrix substrate vitronectin and increased net cell proliferation compared to uninduced cells. Finally, induced uPAR-expressing prostate cancer cells were resistant to anoikis over an extended time period when grown in suspension. Conclusion This doxycycline-inducible lentivirus system produces titerable levels of biologically active uPAR in vitro. This tool can be used to dissect cellular events following induction of uPAR in prostate cancer cells. PMID:17509140

Hasanuzzaman, Mohammad; Kutner, Robert; Agha-Mohammadi, Siamak; Reiser, Jakob; Sehgal, Inder

2007-01-01

288

EXAMEN DES GAZ OCCLUS OU DGAGS PAR LE BROMURE DE RADIUM; Par MM. DEWAR et CURIE (1).  

E-print Network

193 EXAMEN DES GAZ OCCLUS OU D�GAG�S PAR LE BROMURE DE RADIUM; Par MM. DEWAR et CURIE (1). Un échantillon de 09",4 de bromure de radium pur desséché a été laissé pendant trois mois dans une ampoule de-ci a été décomposée peu à peu sous l'influence du radium (Giesel). Le même échantillon de bromure de radium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

289

Arylquins target vimentin to trigger Par-4 secretion for tumor cell apoptosis.  

PubMed

The tumor suppressor protein prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4), which is secreted by normal cells, selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells. We identified a 3-arylquinoline derivative, designated Arylquin 1, as a potent Par-4 secretagogue in cell cultures and mice. Mechanistically, Arylquin 1 binds vimentin, displaces Par-4 from vimentin for secretion and triggers the efficient paracrine apoptosis of diverse cancer cells. Thus, targeting vimentin with Par-4 secretagogues efficiently induces paracrine apoptosis of tumor cells. PMID:25218743

Burikhanov, Ravshan; Sviripa, Vitaliy M; Hebbar, Nikhil; Zhang, Wen; Layton, W John; Hamza, Adel; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Watt, David S; Liu, Chunming; Rangnekar, Vivek M

2014-11-01

290

Sur quelques proprits des rayons 03B1 mis par le radium  

E-print Network

Sur quelques propriétés des rayons 03B1 émis par le radium et par les corps activés par l'émanation du radium. Par M. Henri BECQUEREL, Professeur au Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle. L y a quelques mois'anciennes expériences sur les rayons du radium. J'avais fait disposer, en particulier, une expé- rience différentielle

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

291

COPRODUCTION DE LA QUALITE Colloque organis par le LERASS Toulouse  

E-print Network

changements organisationnels. Les conceptions de l'organisation, des relations client-fournisseur, des systèmes de régulation qui sous-tendent ces changements sont plurielles voire antagonistes. Dans ce-après constituent les préceptes d'une réflexion sur l'impact organisationnel de la mise en oeuvre du management par

Boyer, Edmond

292

INSTITUT POLYTECHNIQUE DE GRENOBLE attribu par la bibliothque  

E-print Network

#12;5 Abstract We address the problem of safe design of distributed embedded systems. We show, la structure fonctionnelle du système peut entrer en conflit avec la structure de son architecture. L'approche traditionnelle de conception par raffinement de cette architecture compromet alors la modularité fonctionnelle du

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

293

INFECTION EXPRIMENTALE DU BLIER PAR SALMONELLA ABORTUS OVIS  

E-print Network

in antibody titers without detectable genital excretion of salmonella. The conjunctival or preputial challengeINFECTION EXPÉRIMENTALE DU BÉLIER PAR SALMONELLA ABORTUS OVIS R. SANCHIS P. PARDON2 Georgette, France Summary EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF RAM WITH SALMONELLA ABORTUS OVIS. - The susceptibility of rams

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

294

BOREAS RSS-10 TOMS Circumpolar One-Degree PAR Images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-10 team investigated the magnitude of daily, seasonal, and yearly variations of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) from ground and satellite observations. This data set contains satellite estimates of surface-incident PAR (400-700 nm, MJ/sq m) at one-degree spatial resolution. The spatial coverage is circumpolar from latitudes of 41 to 66 degrees north. The temporal coverage is from May through September for years 1979 through 1989. Eleven-year statistics are also provided: (1) mean, (2) standard deviation, and (3) coefficient of variation for 1979-89. The PAR estimates were derived from the global gridded ultraviolet reflectivity data product (average of 360, 380 nm) from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Image mask data are provided for identifying the boreal forest zone, and ocean/land and snow/ice-covered areas. The data are available as binary image format data files. The PAR data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

Dye, Dennis G.; Holben, Brent; Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

295

LE PHONOGRAPHE D'EDISON; PAR M. A. NIAUDET.  

E-print Network

I09 LE PHONOGRAPHE D'EDISON; PAR M. A. NIAUDET. L'enregistrement des sons n'est pas chose nouvelle ; Thomas Young le premier fit écrire sur un cylindre les vibrations d'me verge métallique ; Duhamel (1 des différentes consonnes ou groupes de consonnes. Si donc M. Edison n'avait fait qu'un instrument

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

296

LA SYNTAXE CONNECTIVE EN TCHETCHENE par Franoise GUERIN  

E-print Network

1 LA SYNTAXE CONNECTIVE EN TCHETCHENE par Françoise GUERIN Université Paris Sorbonne Whatever syntactically by the nature of their head. Connective syntax comprises verbal and nonverbal head sentences, which, identify, present an entity or which qualify in the broad sense of the term. Connective syntax

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

297

AIMANTATION SPONTANE DES FERRITES Par REN PAUTHENET et L. BOCHIROL.  

E-print Network

également étudié la variation thermique de l'aimantation spontanée des ferrites de nickel, de cobalt et deAIMANTATION SPONTANÉE DES FERRITES Par RENÉ PAUTHENET et L. BOCHIROL. Sommaire. 2014 Les auteurs ont étudié les variations de l'aimantation à saturation des ferrites de magnésium et de cuivre en

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

298

ANOMALIE DE LONGUEUR DES FERRITES Par LOUIS WEIL.  

E-print Network

ferrites de cuivre, de nickel, de cobalt, de zinc et de magnésium, entre la température ordinaire et 900° CANOMALIE DE LONGUEUR DES FERRITES Par LOUIS WEIL. Sommaire. - L'auteur a étudié la dilatation des étudié au dilatomètre Chevenard divers ferrites. Lorsqu'on fait varier la température assez lentement

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

299

INSTITUT NATIONAL POLYTECHNIQUE DE GRENOBLE N attribu par la bibliothque  

E-print Network

Réacteurs à Sel Fondu Exploration du champ des Paramètres et des Contraintes définissant le "Thorium Molten Salt Reactor" Directeur de thèse : Daniel HEUER JURY : Claude Renault rapporteur Jean-Claude Steckmeyer présentée et soutenue publiquement par Ludovic MATHIEU le 26 Septembre 2005 Titre : Cycle Thorium et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

300

PAR reduction for OFDM signals based on deep Clipping  

Microsoft Academic Search

One problem of clipping and filtering (CAF) is peak regrowth due to the filtering for the clipped signal. This paper proposes a deep clipping method to suppress the peak regrowth and to reduce the Peak-to-Average power Ratio (PAR) of OFDM signals without iteration. In this paper, the mechanism of peak regrowth is described and the deep clipping method is proposed

Satoshi Kimura; Takashi Nakamura; Masato Saito; Minoru Okada

2008-01-01

301

Optimal Clipping Value for PAR Reduction of OFDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clipping and filtering (CF) is a simple but effective technique for peak-to-average ratio (PAR) reduction of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals. This paper determines the optimal clipping value for the CF method in order to maximize the power efficiency of the high power amplifier (HPA). A transmission spectral mask is placed on the output of the HPA as a

T. Nechiporenko; Ha H. Nguyen

2007-01-01

302

Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily (Nymphaea odorata), and watershield (Brasenia schreberi) are now extensive and well established. In addition, within isolated coves, extensive beds of water lilies and spike-rush (Eleocharis sp.) are common. Cattail occurrence has increased since refill, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Invasion of willow (Salix sp.) and red maple (Acer rubrum) occurred along the lake shoreline during drawdown. The red maples along the present shoreline are beginning to show evidence of stress and mortality from flooding over the past four months. Some of the willows appear to be stressed as well. The loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), which were flooded in all but the shallow shoreline areas, are now dead. Future surveys are planned for the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data for mapping the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-07-01

303

Pars plana vitrectomy in the management of ghost cell glaucoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report we describe, herewith, 5 cases of ghost cell glaucoma that followed spontaneous vitreous hemorrhage complicating branch retinal vein occlusion in a phakic eye (one case), and traumatic vitreous hemorrhage (4 cases). Because intraocular pressure was uncontrolled, pars plana vitrectomy was performed to remove the reservoir of ghost cells. Vitrectomy resulted in successful control of intraocular pressure without

Ahmed M. Abu El-Asrar; Saleh A. Al-Obeidan

1995-01-01

304

The Pars Triangularis in Dyslexia and ADHD: A Comprehensive Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Limited research has been conducted on the structure of the pars triangularis (PT) in dyslexia despite functional neuroimaging research finding it may play a role in phonological processing. Furthermore, research to date has not examined PT size in ADHD even though the right inferior frontal region has been implicated in the disorder. Hence, one…

Kibby, Michelle Y.; Kroese, Judith M.; Krebbs, Hillery; Hill, Crystal E.; Hynd, George W.

2009-01-01

305

Sur l'mission des rayons cathodiques Par J. MALASSEZ  

E-print Network

67 Sur l'émission des rayons cathodiques Par J. MALASSEZ [Faculté des Sciences de Paris l'hypothèse que les rayons cathodiques u'étaient pas émis sous la dilfé- rence de potentiel existant trajectoire, on a la relation II étant l'intensité du champ magnétique et p le rayon de courbure au point de

Boyer, Edmond

306

SUR UNE NOUVELLE ESPCE DE RAYONS (1) Par M. RONTGEN.  

E-print Network

189 SUR UNE NOUVELLE ESPÈCE DE RAYONS (1) (Suite) Par M. RONTGEN. Obligé d'interrompre mes travaux ma première publication, je savais que les rayons X possèdent la propriété de décharger les corps électrisés, et je suppose que c'est aux rayons X et non aux rayons cathodiques, qui, dans les expériences de

Boyer, Edmond

307

L'APIPA, par Mbolatiana Razafimanantsoa Directeur Technique  

E-print Network

DRAINAGE · Canal Andriantany amont (14 km), canal C3 (10 km) et station de pom- page : Le canal Andriantany canaux s'écoulent soit gravitairement, soit par pompage quand les vannes de sécurité du polder sont 18 stations de mesure automatique de pluie et / ou de débit dans le bassin versant de l'Ikopa en

308

ParFlow User's Manual GMWI 2010-01  

E-print Network

. Smith3 , Carol S. Woodward4 , Robert D. Falgout5 , Ian M. Ferguson6 , Chuck Baldwin, William J. Bosl 7.M. Ferguson, C. Baldwin, W.J. Bosl, R. Hornung, S. Ashby, ParFlow User's Manual. International Ground Water. Kollet, Ian M. Ferguson, Steven G. Smith, Carol S. Woodward. Permission is granted to copy, distribute

309

Quelle agentivit par l'thique du sport ?  

E-print Network

tous les domaines du sport : dopage sur le Tour de France, violence dans le football, harcèlement1-17Jan2010 Author manuscript, published in "International Review on Sport & Violence (2010) p. 43Quelle agentivité par l'éthique du sport ? Bernard Andrieu Philosophe Pr Epistemology of body

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

310

cole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures de Paris prsente par  

E-print Network

par Ordinateur Sujet : De la segmentation au moyen de graphes d'images de muscles striés squelettiques in MRI, all related to the popular graph-based Random Walker (RW) segmentation algorithm. The strength. This allows us to employ the latent Support Vector Machine (latent SVM) formulation for parameter esti- mation

311

cole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures de Paris prsente par  

E-print Network

par Ordinateur Sujet : De la segmentation au moyen de graphes d'images de muscles striés squelettiques in MRI, all related to the popular graph-based Random Walker (RW) seg- mentation algorithm. The strength. This allows us to employ the latent Support Vector Machine (latent SVM) formulation for parameter estimation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

312

INSTITUT NATIONAL POLYTECHNIQUE DE GRENOBLE N attribu par la bibliothque  

E-print Network

, Directeur de thèse Pr. Jean-Louis COULOMB , Co-directeur de thèse #12;#12;AA mmeess ppaarreennttss eett mmaa'Electrotechnique de Grenoble, j'ai eu la chance d'être entouré par des personnes formidables. Je veux adresser tous

Boyer, Edmond

313

SUR LES PRISMES A DVIATION CONSTANTE; Par M. EUGNE BLOCH.  

E-print Network

145 SUR LES PRISMES A DÉVIATION CONSTANTE; Par M. EUGÈNE BLOCH. 1. MM. Pellin et Broca (') ont signalé les premiers les intéres- santes propriétés d'un prisme à déviation constante, dans lequel les'angle A du prisme (fig. 1) est de 90°, FIG. 1. l'angle B de -;5°; les angles A' et B' sont respectivement de

Boyer, Edmond

314

CONTAMINATION ALIMENTAIRE PAR LE PENICILLIUM CYCLOPIUM WESTLING1  

E-print Network

CONTAMINATION ALIMENTAIRE PAR LE PENICILLIUM CYCLOPIUM WESTLING1 FREQUENCE DE SOUCHES PRODUCTRICES chemin de Tournefeuille, 31300 Toulouse, France. Summary FEEDSTUFFS CONTAMINATION BY PENICILLIUM CYCLOPl conditions. Le Penicillium cyclopium est une moisissure fréquente des aliments du bétail. Pohland et Mislivec

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

315

Villes et urbanismes du Sahara Par Eric Verdeil  

E-print Network

Villes et urbanismes du Sahara Par Eric Verdeil (paru dans Géocarrefour, revue de géographie de Lyon, 2003/4, pp.322, 336) Note de lecture sur : Olivier Pliez, Villes du Sahara. Urbanisation et Côte Taoufik Souami, Aménageurs de villes et territoires d'habitants. Un siècle dans le Sud du Sahara

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

316

LUMINESCENCE DANS LES SOLIDES LECTRONIQUEMENT ACTIFS Par HUMBOLDT W. LEVERENZ,  

E-print Network

612. LUMINESCENCE DANS LES SOLIDES ÉLECTRONIQUEMENT ACTIFS Par HUMBOLDT W. LEVERENZ, R. C. A of solids and of luminescence. LI JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE ET LE RADIUM TOME 17, AOUT-SEPTEMBRE 1956, PAGE 612 luminescence. 1. L'orientation des spins des atomes voisins,' parallèles ou antiparallèles, provoque le ferro

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

317

Signaling crosstalk between TGF? and Dishevelled/Par1b.  

PubMed

Crosstalk of signaling pathways is critical during metazoan development and adult tissue homeostasis. Even though the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF?) transduction cascade is rather simple, in vivo responsiveness to TGF? ligands is tightly regulated at several steps. As such, TGF? represents a paradigm for how the activity of one signaling system is modulated by others. Here, we report an unsuspected regulatory step involving Dishevelled (Dvl) and Par1b (also known as MARK2). Dvl and Par1b cooperate to enable TGF?/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in Xenopus mesoderm development and TGF? responsiveness in mammalian cells. Mechanistically, the assembly of the Par1b/Dvl3/Smad4 complex is fostered by Wnt5a. The association of Smad4 to Dvl/Par1 prevents its inhibitory ubiquitination by ectodermin (also known as transcriptional intermediary factor 1 gamma or tripartite motif protein 33). We propose that this crosstalk is relevant to coordinate TGF? responses with Wnt-noncanonical and polarity pathways. PMID:22576663

Mamidi, A; Inui, M; Manfrin, A; Soligo, S; Enzo, E; Aragona, M; Cordenonsi, M; Wessely, O; Dupont, S; Piccolo, S

2012-10-01

318

Signaling crosstalk between TGF? and Dishevelled/Par1b  

PubMed Central

Crosstalk of signaling pathways is critical during metazoan development and adult tissue homeostasis. Even though the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF?) transduction cascade is rather simple, in vivo responsiveness to TGF? ligands is tightly regulated at several steps. As such, TGF? represents a paradigm for how the activity of one signaling system is modulated by others. Here, we report an unsuspected regulatory step involving Dishevelled (Dvl) and Par1b (also known as MARK2). Dvl and Par1b cooperate to enable TGF?/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in Xenopus mesoderm development and TGF? responsiveness in mammalian cells. Mechanistically, the assembly of the Par1b/Dvl3/Smad4 complex is fostered by Wnt5a. The association of Smad4 to Dvl/Par1 prevents its inhibitory ubiquitination by ectodermin (also known as transcriptional intermediary factor 1 gamma or tripartite motif protein 33). We propose that this crosstalk is relevant to coordinate TGF? responses with Wnt-noncanonical and polarity pathways. PMID:22576663

Mamidi, A; Inui, M; Manfrin, A; Soligo, S; Enzo, E; Aragona, M; Cordenonsi, M; Wessely, O; Dupont, S; Piccolo, S

2012-01-01

319

L E T T E R S Microtubules induce self-organization of polarized PAR  

E-print Network

L E T T E R S Microtubules induce self-organization of polarized PAR domains in Caenorhabditis and Geraldine Seydoux1,2 A hallmark of polarized cells is the segregation of the PAR polarity regulators, atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and PAR-1, have been implicated in polarity maintenance1

Seydoux, Geraldine

320

Pars Plana Vitrectomy in Eyes Containing a Treated Posterior Uveal Melanoma  

E-print Network

Pars Plana Vitrectomy in Eyes Containing a Treated Posterior Uveal Melanoma WILLIAM J. FOSTER, MD PURPOSE: To determine the safety of pars plana vitrec- tomy in eyes containing a treated posterior uveal with posterior uveal melanoma who underwent pars plana vitrectomy. Complications, vitreous cytology, local tu

Foster, William

321

TUDE OPTIQUE ET LECTRIQUE SUR LE TELLURURE DE BISMUTH Bi2Te3 Par J. LAGRENAUDIE,  

E-print Network

39 A �TUDE OPTIQUE ET �LECTRIQUE SUR LE TELLURURE DE BISMUTH Bi2Te3 Par J. LAGRENAUDIE, C. N. E. T, PAGE Le tellurure de bismuth Bi2 Te 3 a été préparé par cofusion des éléments, vers 600 °C, et purifié

Boyer, Edmond

322

A New Method for PAR Reduction of OFDM Signal Based on Chaotic Encoder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose using chaotic digital filter to encode the time domain signal xn to reduce peak-to-average power ratio (PAR) in OFDM system. The xn may have high PAR value, which is a main drawback of OFDM system. The time domain signal becomes chaotically distributed by chaotic encoding, so the PAR value can be reduced. Simulations are done

Yong Guo; Liang Huang

2010-01-01

323

Is There an "F" in Your PAR? Understanding, Teaching and Doing Action Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participatory Action Research (PAR) is increasingly recognized within academic research and pedagogy. What are the benefits of including feminism within participatory action research and teaching? In responding to this question, we discuss the similarities and salient differences between PAR and feminist informed PAR (FPAR). There are eight themes…

Lorenzetti, Liza; Walsh, Christine Ann

2014-01-01

324

LE JOURNAL. DE PHYSIQUE RECHERCHES SUR LA LUMINESCENCE PAR LES RAYONS DE RONTGEN  

E-print Network

LE JOURNAL. DE PHYSIQUE BT , LE RADIUM RECHERCHES SUR LA LUMINESCENCE PAR LES RAYONS DE RONTGEN Par sur la luminescence par les rayons de Rüntgcn. Ces expériences étaient en cours au moment de la guerre Brüninghaus (') et j'ai obtenu avec les rayons X des spectres de luminescence composés de raies et de bandes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

325

APPLICATION DE LA TOPOGRAPHIE PAR DIFFRACTION DES RAYONS X A L'TUDE DES MTAUX  

E-print Network

311. APPLICATION DE LA TOPOGRAPHIE PAR DIFFRACTION DES RAYONS X A L'ÉTUDE DES MÉTAUX Par G On rappelle le principe des différentes méthodes de topographie par diffraction des rayons X : méthode de Berg améliorations à apporter dans le cadre de l'appareillage : tubes à rayons X plus puissants, intensificateurs d

Boyer, Edmond

326

ParA resolvase catalyzes site-specific excision of DNA from the Arabidopsis genome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The small serine resolvase ParA from bacterial plasmids RK2 and RP4 catalyzes the recombination of two identical 133 bp recombination sites known as MRS. Previously, we reported that ParA is active in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this work, the parA recombinase gene was placed un...

327

Detection of suPAR in the Saliva of Healthy Young Adults: Comparison with Plasma Levels.  

PubMed

The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has been detected in blood, plasma, serum, urine, ovarian cystic fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid. Elevated suPAR levels in plasma have been associated with negative outcomes in various diseases, such as bacteremia, sepsis, SIRS, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and tuberculosis. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether suPAR can be detected in saliva from healthy individuals and thus, if saliva suPAR can be related to plasma suPAR, CRP, BMI, or gender. Blood and unstimulated whole saliva was collected from 20 healthy individuals (10 female and 10 male, median age of 28 years; range 21-41). CRP and suPAR were measured with ELISA in saliva and serum/plasma. suPAR was detected in all saliva samples in the 5.2-28.1 ng/mL range, with a median value of 17.1 ng/mL. Saliva suPAR was significantly higher (P < 0.001) but not correlated to plasma suPAR in healthy young adults with normal plasma suPAR levels. suPAR and CRP levels were correlated in blood but not in saliva. No correlation was found between BMI, age, or gender and suPAR in saliva. PMID:22084570

Gustafsson, Anna; Ajeti, Vjosa; Ljunggren, Lennart

2011-01-01

328

par genes in Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium smegmatis are arranged in an operon transcribed from "SigGC" promoters  

PubMed Central

Background The ParA/Soj and ParB/Spo0J proteins, and the cis-acting parS site, participate actively in chromosome segregation and cell cycle progression. Genes homologous to parA and parB, and two putative parS copies, have been identified in the Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Mycobacterium smegmatis chromosomes. As in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the parA and parB genes in these two non-pathogenic mycobacteria are located near the chromosomal origin of replication. The present work focused on the determination of the transcriptional organisation of the ~6 Kb orf60K-parB region of M. bovis BCG and M. smegmatis by primer extension, transcriptional fusions to the green fluorescence protein (GFP) and quantitative RT-PCR. Results The parAB genes were arranged in an operon. However, we also found promoters upstream of each one of these genes. Seven putative promoter sequences were identified in the orf60K-parB region of M. bovis BCG, whilst four were identified in the homologous region of M. smegmatis, one upstream of each open reading frame (ORF). Real-time PCR assays showed that in M. smegmatis, mRNA-parA and mRNA-parB levels decreased between the exponential and stationary phases. In M. bovis BCG, mRNA-parA levels also decreased between the exponential and stationary phases. However, parB expression was higher than parA expression and remained almost unchanged along the growth curve. Conclusion The majority of the proposed promoter regions had features characteristic of Mycobacterium promoters previously denoted as Group D. The -10 hexamer of a strong E. coli ?70-like promoter, located upstream of gidB of M. bovis BCG, overlapped with a putative parS sequence, suggesting that the transcription from this promoter might be regulated by the binding of ParB to parS. PMID:18371202

Casart, Yveth; Gamero, Elida; Rivera-Gutierrez, Sandra; González-y-Merchand, Jorge A; Salazar, Leiria

2008-01-01

329

The pattern of cervical penetration and the effect of topical treatment with prostaglandin and/or FSH and oxytocin on the depth of cervical penetration in the ewe during the peri-ovulatory period.  

PubMed

Artificial insemination in sheep has two major limiting factors: the poor quality of frozen-thawed ram semen and the convoluted anatomy of the sheep cervix that does not allow transcervical passage of an inseminating catheter. It has been demonstrated that in the ewe during estrus, there is a degree of cervical relaxation mediated by ovarian and possibly gonadotrohic hormones, and we set out to investigate factors that might enhance cervical relaxation. Five experiments were conducted on ewes of different breeds to determine: 1) the pattern of cervical penetration during the periovulatory period in ewes of several breeds (Welsh Mountain, Île-de-France, Vendéenne, Romanov and Sarda); 2) the effect of the "ram effect" a socio-sexual stimulus, on cervical penetration; and 3) the effects of the intracervical administration of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), oxytocin and a prostaglandin E agonist (misoprostol) on the depth of cervical penetration during the periovulatory period. The results showed that during the periovulatory period in all breeds examined, there was increased penetration of the cervical canal (P<0.05) by an inseminating catheter. Cervical penetration increased to a maximum 54 h after the removal of progestagen sponges and then gradually declined. Furthermore, the depth of cervical penetration but not its pattern, was affected (P<0.05) by the breed of ewe. The maximum depth of cervical penetration was lower (P<0.05) in the Vendéenne breed compared to the Île-de-France and Romanov breeds, which did not differ from one another. In the presence of rams, the depth of cervical penetration was increased at 48 and 54 h after removal of sponges (P<0.05) and reduced at 72 h (P<0.05). The local administration of hormones FSH, misoprostol (a PGE agonist) and oxytocin alone and in various combinations did not have any significant effect on the depth of cervical penetration during the periovulatory period. In conclusion, the natural relaxation of the cervix observed in ewes of several breeds occurs at a time during estrus, 54 h after the removal of progestagen sponges, which is the most suitable for artificial insemination. The effect was enhanced by the presence of a ram but not by the local intracervical administration of FSH, misoprostol and oxytocin even though oxytocin and PGE2 are involved in cervical function. The time of maximum cervical penetration in the preovulatory period (54 h) coincides with high LH and estradiol concentrations suggesting they might be responsible for the relaxation of the cervix probably through an oxytocin-PGE mediated pathway. PMID:22537999

Falchi, L; Taema, M; La Clanche, S; Scaramuzzi, R J

2012-07-15

330

La projection par plasma : une revue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality of a plasma sprayed coating depends on numerous parameters that start to be understood due to the recent progresses in modelling and measurement techniques for plasma jets, momentum, heat and mass transfers between plasma and particles, the way the particules splat and cool down upon impact on the substrate or the previously deposited layers. In this paper, first are recalled the used measurement techniques and their limitations both for plasma jets and particles in flight. Then are underlined the importance of the different phenomena envolved in the transfers between plasma and particles such as steep temperature and chemical species density gradients around the particles, heat propagation phenomenon especially for ceramic particles and the connected evaporation effect, rarefaction effect which occurs even at atmospheric pressure. The problems related to the size and injection velocity distributions which determine the trajectory distributions and the heat treatments undergone by the particles are treated. The study of plasma generation shows on one hand for d.c. arc plasma torches the drastic influence on the plasma jets lengths and diameters of the gas injection chamber design, the gas nature, the design of the arc chamber and nozzle, the surrounding atmosphere (especially air pumping which cools down very fast the plasma) and on the other hand for RF plasmas the importance of the particle injection design to avoid the coupling between the RF discharge and the carrier gas with the particles. All these points are illustrated with examples of coatings of alumina, zirconia carbide and nickel particles. The way the particles splat is then studied with the chemical reactions in flight, the fast quenching of the particles and the resulting cristalline structures, the coating adhesion and also the residual stesses and their control through that of the temperature gradients into the coatings during spraying. At last a few actual and potential applications are presented in the fields of aeronautics and mechanics. La qualité d'un dépôt projete par plasma dépend de nombreux paramètres que l'on commence à mieux appréhender du fait des progrès de la modélisation et de la métrologie tant des écoulements plasmas que des transferts plasma-particules ou que des conditions d'écrasement et de refroidissement des particules lors de leur impact sur le substrat ou les couches déjà déposées. Les techniques de mesure utilisdes et leurs limitations sont d'abord rappelées tant pour les jets de plasma que pour les particules en vol et l'importance des différents phénomènes intervenant dans les transferts plasma-particules est soulignée : gradients de température et de concentration d'espèces chimiques très élevés autour des particules, effets de propagation de la chaleur, notamment pour les particules céramiques, effet d'évaporation, effet de raréfaction sensible dès la pression atmosphérique. Les problèmes de distribution de taille et de vitesse d'injection des particules sont également abordés car ils conditionnent les distributions de trajectoires et donc le traitement des particules dans le jet de plasma. La génération du plasma montre d'une part 1'influence considérable de l'injection du gaz, de sa nature, du dessin de la chambre d'arc et de la tuyère ainsi que du pompage de l'air ambiant sur la longueur des jets de plasma d'arc et d'autre part les problèmes d'injection pour éviter le couplage avec la décharge dans les jets de plasmas R.E Tout ceci est illustré avec des exemples de dépôt d'alumine, de zircone, de cermet carbure et de nickel. L'écrasement des particules est ensuite abordé avec les problèmes de réactions chimiques, de trempe ultra-rapide et donc de structure cristalline des dépôts, d'adhdsion mais aussi de containtes résiduelles et de leur contrôle via les gradients de température dans les dépôts pendant le tir. Enfin quelques applications actuelles sont présentées notamment pour l'aéronautique et la mécanique.

Fauchais, P.; Grimaud, A.; Vardelle, A.; Vardelle, M.

331

Inverse correlation between baseline inhibin B and FSH after stimulation with GnRH: a study of serum levels of inhibin A and B, pro alpha-C and activin A in women with ovulatory disturbances before and after stimulation with GnRH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Interest has focused recently on the influences of the polypeptide factors inhibin and activin on the selective regulation of the pituitary secretion of gonadotropins. Design: Measurement of the concentrations of inhibin-related proteins in relation to the changes in pituitary gonadotropin (FSH, LH) parameters, after GnRH stimulation with a bolus injection of 100 mg gonadorelin, in 19 women with ovulatory

Fritz W Casper; Rudolf J Seufert; Kunhard Pollow

2000-01-01

332

DTERMINATION PRCISE DE L'NERGIE DES RAYONS 03B1 EMIS PAR LE THORIUM Par M. GEORGES PHILBERT, Mme JEANNINE GNIN et M. LOPOLD VIGNERON,  

E-print Network

16 D�TERMINATION PR�CISE DE L'�NERGIE DES RAYONS 03B1 EMIS PAR LE THORIUM Par M. GEORGES PHILBERT. Sommaire. 2014 Du thorium, de l'ionium et du polonium ont été introduits ensemble dans une émulsion, les et autres nous ont permis de ne pas être gênés par les dérivés radioactifs du thorium. L

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

333

PRODUCTION DE TRITIUM DANS LE THORIUM PAR DES PROTONS DE 135 MeV Par M. LEFORT, G. SIMONOFF et X. TARRAGO  

E-print Network

959 PRODUCTION DE TRITIUM DANS LE THORIUM PAR DES PROTONS DE 135 MeV Par M. LEFORT, G. SIMONOFF et thorium par des protons de 135 MeV accélérés au synchro-cyclotron d'Orsay. Le tritium était extrait des measured the cross-section of tritium production by bombardement of thorium by 135 MeV protons in the Orsay

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

334

The physical association of the P2Y12 receptor with PAR4 regulates arrestin-mediated Akt activation.  

PubMed

It is now well accepted that protease activated receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4 have differential roles in platelet activation. PAR4, a low-affinity thrombin receptor in human platelets, participates in sustained platelet activation in a P2Y12-dependent manner; however, the mechanisms are not defined. Our previous studies demonstrated that thrombin induces the association of PAR4 with P2Y12, together with arrestin recruitment to the complex. Here we show that PAR4 and P2Y12 directly interact to coregulate Akt signaling after PAR4 activation. We observed direct and specific interaction of P2Y12 with PAR4 but not PAR1 by bioluminescent resonance energy transfer when the receptors were coexpressed in human embryonic kidney 293T cells. PAR4-P2Y12 dimerization was promoted by PAR4-AP and inhibited by P2Y12 antagonist. By using sequence comparison of the transmembrane domains of PAR1 and PAR4, we designed a mutant form of PAR4, "PAR4SFT," by replacing LGL194-196 at the base of transmembrane domain 4 with the corresponding aligned PAR1 residues SFT 220-222. PAR4SFT supported only 8.74% of PAR4-P2Y12 interaction, abolishing P2Y12-dependent arrestin recruitment to PAR4 and Akt activation. Nonetheless, PAR4SFT still supported homodimerization with PAR4. PAR4SFT failed to induce a calcium flux when expressed independently; however, coexpression of increasing concentrations of PAR4SFT, together with PAR4 potentiated PAR4-mediated calcium flux, suggested that PAR4 act as homodimers to signal to Gq-coupled calcium responses. In conclusion, PAR4 LGL (194-196) governs agonist-dependent association of PAR4 with P2Y12 and contributes to Gq-coupled calcium responses. PAR4-P2Y12 association supports arrestin-mediated sustained signaling to Akt. Hence, PAR4-P2Y12 dimerization is likely to be important for the PAR4-P2Y12 dependent stabilization of platelet thrombi. PMID:24723492

Khan, Aasma; Li, Dongjun; Ibrahim, Salam; Smyth, Emer; Woulfe, Donna S

2014-07-01

335

Brulure par Plaque de Bistouri Electrique: a Propos de Quatre Cas  

PubMed Central

Summary La brûlure par plaque de bistouri électrique est un accident rare mais grave par la profondeur de la lésion et par sa localisation, surtout quand qu’elle survient dans un contexte chirurgical dont le vécu reste difficile de la part du malade et du chirurgien. Cette brûlure bien que imprévisible reste grave par la profondeur et la localisation de la brûlure et par sa survenue dans un contexte opératoire, chez des patients malades. La prise en charge de la brûlure doit se faire en milieu spécialisé. La prévention reste le seul moyen d’éviter ce type d’accident. PMID:21991216

Khales, A.; Achbouk, A.; Belmir, R.; Cherkab, L.; Ennouhi, M.A.; Ababou, K.; Ihrai, H.

2010-01-01

336

Sexual development in the immature male blue fox (Alopex lagopus), investigated by testicular histology, DNA flow cytometry and measurement of plasma FSH, LH, testosterone and soluble testicular Mn2+-dependent adenylate cyclase activity.  

PubMed

Testicular weight in young male blue foxes increased steadily from 12 weeks of age (0.4-0.7 g) to reach peak values at the time of the mating season in March-April (5.2-6.6 g), before declining rapidly during May to low values in August at 63 weeks of age (1.3-1.6 g). Primary spermatocytes were found in the spermatogenic epithelium at 20 weeks of age and by late December (29 weeks of age) elongated spermatids were seen. There was a good correlation between the seasonal variations in the presence of germ cell types assessed by quantitative analysis of testicular histology and the variations in numbers of haploid, diploid and tetraploid cells measured by DNA flow cytometry: no haploid cells were found before the end of November and peak numbers were observed in March. Plasma FSH concentrations were increased from December onwards (with the exception of April). There were no clearcut seasonal variations in plasma LH concentrations although values were consistently lower in April. Testosterone concentrations were low for most of the year but increased from the end of January to the middle of April. There was no detectable seasonal variation in LH release in response to LHRH injection, and no typical pattern in plasma FSH concentrations during the first 100 min after injection. Plasma testosterone concentrations after LHRH injection rose gradually during testicular development. There were large seasonal variations in soluble Mn2+-dependent adenylate cyclase activity in the testis, that paralleled the changes in testicular weight and haploid cell content. Values were low until December and reached a peak at the time of the mating season before falling to basal levels again by June. The results suggest that immature male blue foxes reach full testicular development (indistinguishable from that of older animals) by the first mating season after birth at, an age of about 40 weeks. PMID:3123658

Smith, A J; Mondain-Monval, M; Andersen Berg, K; Gordeladze, J O; Clausen, O P; Simon, P; Scholler, R

1987-11-01

337

Follicular-phase concentrations of progesterone, estradiol-17?, LH, FSH, and a PGF2? metabolite and daily clustering of prolactin pulses, based on hourly blood sampling and hourly detection of ovulation in heifers.  

PubMed

Circulating concentrations of hormones were determined each hour in 13 heifers from the end of the luteolytic period to ovulation (follicular phase, 3.5 days). Diameter of the preovulatory follicle was determined every 8 hours, and the time of ovulation was determined hourly. The diameter of the preovulatory follicle decreased 0.8 ± 0.1 mm/h in heifers when there was 1 to 3 hours between the last two diameter measurements before ovulation. The concentration of progesterone (P4) after the end of the luteolytic period (P4 < 1 ng/mL) changed (P < 0.0001), as shown by a continued decrease until Hour -57 (Hour 0 = ovulation), then was maintained at approximately 0.2 ng/mL until 2 hours before the peak of the LH surge at Hour -26, and then a decrease to 0.1 ng/mL along with a decrease in estradiol-17?. Concentrations of LH gradually increased (P < 0.007) and concentrations of FSH gradually decreased (P < 0.0001) after the end of luteolysis until the beginning nadirs of the respective preovulatory surges. A cluster of prolactin (PRL) pulses occurred (P < 0.0001) each day with approximately 24 hours between the maximum value of successive clusters. Hourly concentrations of a PGF2? metabolite decreased (P < 0.007) until Hour -40, but did not differ among hours thereafter. Novel observations included the gradual increase in LH and decrease in FSH until the beginning of the preovulatory surges and follicle diameter decrease a few hours before ovulation. Results supported the following hypotheses: (1) change in the low circulating P4 concentrations during the follicular phase are temporally associated with change in LH concentrations; and (2) PRL pulses occur in a cluster each day during the follicular phase of the estrous cycle. PMID:23434204

Ginther, O J; Pinaffi, F L V; Khan, F A; Duarte, L F; Beg, M A

2013-04-01

338

Proteinase-Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) regulates leukemic stem cell functions.  

PubMed

External signals that are mediated by specific receptors determine stem cell fate. The thrombin receptor PAR1 plays an important role in haemostasis, thrombosis and vascular biology, but also in tumor biology and angiogenesis. Its expression and function in hematopoietic stem cells is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed expression and function of PAR1 in primary hematopoietic cells and their leukemic counterparts. AML patients' blast cells expressed much lower levels of PAR1 mRNA and protein than CD34+ progenitor cells. Constitutive Par1-deficiency in adult mice did not affect engraftment or stem cell potential of hematopoietic cells. To model an AML with Par1-deficiency, we retrovirally introduced the oncogene MLL-AF9 in wild type and Par1-/- hematopoietic progenitor cells. Par1-deficiency did not alter initial leukemia development. However, the loss of Par1 enhanced leukemic stem cell function in vitro and in vivo. Re-expression of PAR1 in Par1-/- leukemic stem cells delayed leukemogenesis in vivo. These data indicate that Par1 contributes to leukemic stem cell maintenance. PMID:24740120

Bäumer, Nicole; Krause, Annika; Köhler, Gabriele; Lettermann, Stephanie; Evers, Georg; Hascher, Antje; Bäumer, Sebastian; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Tickenbrock, Lara

2014-01-01

339

Specific and non-specific interactions of ParB with DNA: implications for chromosome segregation  

PubMed Central

The segregation of many bacterial chromosomes is dependent on the interactions of ParB proteins with centromere-like DNA sequences called parS that are located close to the origin of replication. In this work, we have investigated the binding of Bacillus subtilis ParB to DNA in vitro using a variety of biochemical and biophysical techniques. We observe tight and specific binding of a ParB homodimer to the parS sequence. Binding of ParB to non-specific DNA is more complex and displays apparent positive co-operativity that is associated with the formation of larger, poorly defined, nucleoprotein complexes. Experiments with magnetic tweezers demonstrate that non-specific binding leads to DNA condensation that is reversible by protein unbinding or force. The condensed DNA structure is not well ordered and we infer that it is formed by many looping interactions between neighbouring DNA segments. Consistent with this view, ParB is also able to stabilize writhe in single supercoiled DNA molecules and to bridge segments from two different DNA molecules in trans. The experiments provide no evidence for the promotion of non-specific DNA binding and/or condensation events by the presence of parS sequences. The implications of these observations for chromosome segregation are discussed. PMID:25572315

Taylor, James A.; Pastrana, Cesar L.; Butterer, Annika; Pernstich, Christian; Gwynn, Emma J.; Sobott, Frank; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando; Dillingham, Mark S.

2015-01-01

340

Par3 functions in the biogenesis of the primary cilium in polarized epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Par3 is a PDZ protein important for the formation of junctional complexes in epithelial cells. We have identified an additional role for Par3 in membrane biogenesis. Although Par3 was not required for maintaining polarized apical or basolateral membrane domains, at the apical surface, Par3 was absolutely essential for the growth and elongation of the primary cilium. The activity reflected its ability to interact with kinesin-2, the microtubule motor responsible for anterograde transport of intraflagellar transport particles to the tip of the growing cilium. The Par3 binding partners Par6 and atypical protein kinase C interacted with the ciliary membrane component Crumbs3 and we show that the PDZ binding motif of Crumbs3 was necessary for its targeting to the ciliary membrane. Thus, the Par complex likely serves as an adaptor that couples the vectorial movement of at least a subset of membrane proteins to microtubule-dependent transport during ciliogenesis. PMID:18070914

Sfakianos, Jeff; Togawa, Akashi; Maday, Sandra; Hull, Mike; Pypaert, Marc; Cantley, Lloyd; Toomre, Derek; Mellman, Ira

2007-12-17

341

A New Scheme to Mitigate the OFDM High PAR Problem by Minimizing the Signal's Nonlinear Distortion Caused by HPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

How to mitigate the negative impact of high PAR in OFDM systems is an important issue. Most of recent works have focused on minimizing the PAR of OFDM signal to enhance performance. However, after relating this issue with the specific characteristics of HPA, we propose a new scheme to mitigate the high PAR problem. Rather than minimizing OFDM signal's PAR,

Qi Lu; Lin Gui; Xiang-Zhong Fang

2006-01-01

342

Intraoperative raster photogrammetry--the PAR Corneal Topography System.  

PubMed

The PAR Corneal Topography System (CTS) is a computer-driven corneal imaging system that uses close-range raster photogrammetry to measure and produce a topographic map of the corneal surface. The CTS determines distortion in a projected two-dimensional grid. Unlike Placido-disc-based videokeratoscopes, the PAR CTS produces a true topographic map (elevation map) and requires neither a smooth reflective surface nor precise spatial alignment for accurate imaging. Because the system uses two noncoaxial optical paths, it can be integrated into other optical devices. A modified CTS was integrated into an experimental erbium: YAG photoablative laser. The CTS successfully imaged corneas before, after, and during laser photoablation. Its ability to image nonreflective surfaces and to be integrated into other optical systems may make it suitable for intraoperative refractive monitoring. PMID:8450443

Belin, M W

1993-01-01

343

Réfraction des ondes sonores émises par une torche à plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the existence of a silence cone which takes place downstream from an arc plasma jet described by the wavelet transform applied to the torch's sound emission recordings. After a description of the dynamical behaviour of the electric arc, a model of refraction of the sound rays by the flow velocity gradients at the exit of the torch explaining the silence cone observations is proposed. Dans cette publication est rapportée l'existence d'un phénomène de cône de silence dans l'axe du jet d'une torche à plasma d'arc qui est mis en évidence par l'application de la transformation en ondelettes sur les enregistrements de l'émission sonore de la torche. Après une description du comportement dynamique de l'arc électrique, cette observation est justifiée par la réfraction des rayons sonores sous l'action des gradients de la vitesse d'écoulement du gaz en sortie de torche.

Pauvit, R.; de Izarra, Ch.; Vallée, O.

1997-07-01

344

Habitat et dveloppement durable LES PERSPECTIVES OFFERTES PAR LE SOLAIRE  

E-print Network

C L I P Habitat et développement durable LES PERSPECTIVES OFFERTES PAR LE SOLAIRE THERMIQUE'ING�NIERIE PROSPECTIVE ENERGIE ET ENVIRONNEMENT N U M � R O 1 6 S E P T E M B R E 2 0 0 4 Emissions de particules ETUDE besoins de chauffage 13 Prospective des besoins en eau chaude sanitaire 23 La contribution du solaire au

Boyer, Edmond

345

Reducing the PAR In OFDM Systems by Clipping Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals suffer from a large peak-to-average-power-ratio, which requires large power back-offs in the transmitter and receiver. This paper studies a digital post-processing method that mitigates clipping by the analog-to-digital converter in the receiver. The peak to average power ratio (PAR) is baneful in OFDM systems. The clipping signal scheme, which is a useful and simple

L. J. Wu; Y. W. Li

2007-01-01

346

Insuffisance hpatique chez le mouton par intoxication exprimentale  

E-print Network

ammonia and bilirubin. It is assumed that the important augmentation of conjugated bilirubin concentration plasmati- que pendant 1 h (prélèvements à 2, 5, 8, 20, 30, 45 min). La bilirubine est dosée par la utilisation d'un étalon (sérum de boeuf enrichi en fractions libre et conjuguée «bilirubine C et T », Biotrol

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

347

LES PROPRITS NOUVELLES DU RADIUM (1). Chaleur par le --  

E-print Network

545 LES PROPRI�T�S NOUVELLES DU RADIUM (1). Chaleur par le -- Spontanément le radium dégage de la quantité de ' bromure de radium pur qui renferme 1 gramme de l'élément radium dégage environ 100 petites de radium pur dans un calorimètre à glace de Bunsen et observant le déplacement du ménisque de

Boyer, Edmond

348

Activation des cellules Natural Killer par les endocannabinodes  

E-print Network

Activation des cellules Natural Killer par les endocannabinoïdes Anandamide et 2-Arachidonoyl Abréviations 6 Introduction 8 1. Les cellules Natural Killer 8 1.1. Les différents types de cellules NK : CD56bright / CD56dim 8 1.2. Développement des cellules NK dans la moelle osseuse 9 1.2.1. Les 5 stades de

349

INSTITUT POLYTECHNIQUE DE GRENOBLE N attribu par la bibliothque  

E-print Network

´e par la forte latence des m´emoires externes de type SDRAM, la meilleure Ad´e- quation Algorithme´erielle, parall´elisme, FPGA, SoPC, GPU, prefetching, cache m´emoire iii tel-00330365,version1-14Oct2008 #12;tel successfully the limitations due to the latency of the external memory SDRAM like. It has been implemented

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

350

The Epic of Pabuji ki par in Performance  

E-print Network

for online viewing and download. Dr Mark Turin World Oral Literature Project University of Cambridge October 2010 The epic of Pabuji ki par in performance?1 moving lips. Who was singing? Finally, when the husband responded with an audibly enthusiastic... . ‘Cultural’ scenes including exotic animals and bovines, humans and the more familiar hunting encounters have been found on the walls of rock caves dating to the Paleolithic and Mesolithic periods. 18?I am grateful to my colleague Vimal Gopa of Jaisalmer...

Wickett, Elizabeth

2010-10-19

351

SUR LA POSITION DE LA ZONE AURORALE Par DANIEL BARBIER  

E-print Network

aurores polaires peuvent être observées semble bien nécessiter que les par- ticules électrisées produisant les aurores polaires atteignent l'ionosphère avec des vitesses supérieures à 10"lcm. sec-1. J charge positive qui accélérerait les électrons, de manière à ce qu'ils atteignent l'ionosphère avec la

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

352

APPLICATION DES PALIERS A GAZ AUX GYROSCOPES Par G. GOBERT,  

E-print Network

43 APPLICATION DES PALIERS A GAZ AUX GYROSCOPES Par G. GOBERT, Centre d'�tudes Nucléaires de Saclay gyroscope dont le rotor de 4 cm de diamètre pesant plusieurs centaines de grammes tourne à une vitesse to the construction of a gyroscope. The rotor is 4 cm in diameter and runs at 180 000 r. p. m. Its weight is 500 g. LE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

353

Two cases of malignant glaucoma unresolved by pars plana vitrectomy  

PubMed Central

Malignant glaucoma, which is characterized by a shallow or flat anterior chamber with high intraocular pressure, can usually be resolved by pars plana vitrectomy with anterior hyaloidectomy. We describe two cases in which malignant glaucoma was refractory to conventional treatment and complete vitrectomy. Case one an 88-year-old woman with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma underwent trabeculotomy and subsequently developed malignant glaucoma. Four months after transient recovery by pars plana vitrectomy, the malignant glaucoma recurred. She underwent peripheral iridectomy and local zonulectomy with successful control of her intraocular pressure. In case two, an 85-year-old man had a history of pseudoexfoliation glaucoma. Seven months after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation, he developed malignant glaucoma that was refractory to pars plana vitrectomy. He underwent peripheral iridectomy, goniosynechialysis and trabectome surgery resulting in the successful control of his intraocular pressure. In rare cases of malignant glaucoma refractive to vitrectomy, peripheral iridectomy with or without local zonulectomy is a reasonable and minimally invasive surgical procedure. PMID:24729683

Hosoda, Yoshikatsu; Akagi, Tadamichi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

2014-01-01

354

Accuracy of the PAR corneal topography system with spatial misalignment.  

PubMed

The PAR Corneal Topography System is a computerized corneal imaging system which uses close-range raster photogrammetry to measure and produce a topographic map of the corneal surface. Raster photogrammetry is a standard method of extracting object information by projecting a known pattern onto an object and recording the distortion when viewed from an oblique angle. Unlike placido disc based videokeratoscopes, the PAR system requires neither a smooth reflective surface nor precise spatial alignment for accurate imaging. We studied both the accuracy of the system with purposeful misalignment (defocusing) of the test object and determined the ability to image freshly deepithelialized, keratectomized, and photoablated corneas. The PAR system was both accurate and reproducible in imaging calibrated spheres within a defined zone in space. Whole cadaver eyes were imaged both before and immediately after removal of the epithelium, lamellar keratectomy, and laser photoablation. The system demonstrated the ability to image irregular, deepithelialized, and keratectomized corneas. The ability to maintain accuracy without precise alignment and the facility to image freshly deepithelialized and keratectomized corneas may make the system suitable for intraoperative refractive monitoring. PMID:8453756

Belin, M W; Zloty, P

1993-01-01

355

Release of Pro-Opiomelanocortin-Derived Peptides from the Pars intermedia and Pars distalis of the Rat Pituitary: Effect of Corticotrophin-Releasing Factor and Somatostatin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parenchymal cells of the pars intermedia (PI) and corticotrophs of the pars distalis (PD) synthesize pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), which, through posttranslational processing, gives rise to a group of structurally related peptides, including MSHs, ACTH, CLIP, LPHs and endorphins. We investigated the control of release of these peptides using an in vitro system. We perifused either intact neurointermediate lobes (NI) or

Jacob Kraicer; Timothy C. Gajewski; Bruce C. Moor

1985-01-01

356

Expression of three proopiomelanocortin subtype genes and mass spectrometric identification of POMC-derived peptides in pars distalis and pars intermedia of barfin flounder pituitary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is a common precursor of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), melanophore-stimulating hormone (MSH), and endorphin (END). In pituitary gland, POMC receives posttranslational processing by which different peptides are generated in the pars distalis (PD) and pars intermedia (PI). Recently, we cloned three subtypes of the POMC gene in pituitary gland of barfin flounder. The present study was undertaken to elucidate

Akiyoshi Takahashi; Masafumi Amano; Noriko Amiya; Takeshi Yamanome; Kunio Yamamori; Hiroshi Kawauchi

2006-01-01

357

On dsigne par trochode la courbe dcrite par un point li un disque de rayon R roulant sans glisser sur une droite  

E-print Network

On désigne par trochoïde la courbe décrite par un point lié à un disque de rayon R roulant sans, puisque la source lumineuse est attachée sur un des rayons de la roue. 1) Prenez une vingtaine de points'échelle est telle que le rayon de la roue est 1. Tracez ces points dans le nouveau référentiel dans un second

Hoepffner, Jérôme

358

Platelet Specific Promoters Are Insufficient to Express Protease Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) Transgene in Mouse Platelets  

PubMed Central

The in vivo study of protease activated receptors (PARs) in platelets is complicated due to species specific expression profiles. Human platelets express PAR1 and PAR4 whereas mouse platelets express PAR3 and PAR4. Further, PAR subtypes interact with one another to influence activation and signaling. The goal of the current study was to generate mice expressing PAR1 on their platelets using transgenic approaches to mimic PAR expression found in human platelets. This system would allow us to examine specific signaling from PAR1 and the PAR1-PAR4 heterodimer in vivo. Our first approach used the mouse GPIb? promoter to drive expression of mouse PAR1 in platelets (GPIb?-Tg-mPAR1). We obtained the expected frequency of founders carrying the transgene and had the expected Mendelian distribution of the transgene in multiple founders. However, we did not observe expression or a functional response of PAR1. As a second approach, we targeted human PAR1 with the same promoter (GPIb?-Tg-hPAR1). Once again we observed the expected frequency and distributing of the transgene. Human PAR1 expression was detected in platelets from the GPIb?-Tg-hPAR1 mice by flow cytometry, however, at a lower level than for human platelets. Despite a low level of PAR1 expression, platelets from the GPIb?-Tg-hPAR1 mice did not respond to the PAR1 agonist peptide (SFLLRN). In addition, they did not respond to thrombin when crossed to the PAR4?/? mice. Finally, we used an alternative platelet specific promoter, human ?IIb, to express human PAR1 (?IIb-Tg-hPAR1). Similar to our previous attempts, we obtained the expected number of founders but did not detect PAR1 expression or response in platelets from ?IIb-Tg-hPAR1 mice. Although unsuccessful, the experiments described in this report provide a resource for future efforts in generating mice expressing PAR1 on their platelets. We provide an experimental framework and offer considerations that will save time and research funds. PMID:24830314

Arachiche, Amal; de la Fuente, María; Nieman, Marvin T.

2014-01-01

359

A model for the condensation of the bacterial chromosome by the partitioning protein ParB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molecular machinery responsible for faithful segregation of the chromosome in bacteria such as Caulobacter crescentus and Bacillus subtilis includes the ParABS a.k.a. Spo0J/Soj partitioning system. In Caulobacter, prior to division, hundreds of ParB proteins bind to the DNA near the origin of replication, and localize to one pole of the cell. Subsequently, the ParB-DNA complex is translocated to the far pole by the binding and retraction of the ParA spindle-like apparatus. Remarkably, the localization of ParB proteins to specific regions of the chromosome appears to be controlled by only a few centromeric parS binding sites. Although lateral interactions between DNA-bound ParB are likely to be important for their localization, the long-range order of ParB domains on the chromosome appears to be inconsistent with a picture in which protein-protein interactions are limited to neighboring DNA-bound proteins. We developed a coarse-grained Brownian dynamics model that allows for lateral and 3D protein-protein interactions among bound ParB proteins. Our model shows how such interactions can condense and organize the DNA spatially, and can control the localization and the long-range order of the DNA-bound proteins.

Broedersz, Chase; Wingreen, Ned

2013-03-01

360

PAR-1 contributes to the innate immune response during viral infection  

PubMed Central

Coagulation is a host defense system that limits the spread of pathogens. Coagulation proteases, such as thrombin, also activate cells by cleaving PARs. In this study, we analyzed the role of PAR-1 in coxsackievirus B3–induced (CVB3-induced) myocarditis and influenza A infection. CVB3-infected Par1–/– mice expressed reduced levels of IFN-? and CXCL10 during the early phase of infection compared with Par1+/+ mice that resulted in higher viral loads and cardiac injury at day 8 after infection. Inhibition of either tissue factor or thrombin in WT mice also significantly increased CVB3 levels in the heart and cardiac injury compared with controls. BM transplantation experiments demonstrated that PAR-1 in nonhematopoietic cells protected mice from CVB3 infection. Transgenic mice overexpressing PAR-1 in cardiomyocytes had reduced CVB3-induced myocarditis. We found that cooperative signaling between PAR-1 and TLR3 in mouse cardiac fibroblasts enhanced activation of p38 and induction of IFN-? and CXCL10 expression. Par1–/– mice also had decreased CXCL10 expression and increased viral levels in the lung after influenza A infection compared with Par1+/+ mice. Our results indicate that the tissue factor/thrombin/PAR-1 pathway enhances IFN-? expression and contributes to the innate immune response during single-stranded RNA viral infection. PMID:23391721

Antoniak, Silvio; Owens, A. Phillip; Baunacke, Martin; Williams, Julie C.; Lee, Rebecca D.; Weithäuser, Alice; Sheridan, Patricia A.; Malz, Ronny; Luyendyk, James P.; Esserman, Denise A.; Trejo, JoAnn; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Blaxall, Burns C.; Pawlinski, Rafal; Beck, Melinda A.; Rauch, Ursula; Mackman, Nigel

2013-01-01

361

Transcriptional Profiling of ParA and ParB Mutants in Actively Dividing Cells of an Opportunistic Human Pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Accurate chromosome segregation to progeny cells is a fundamental process ensuring proper inheritance of genetic material. In bacteria with simple cell cycle, chromosome segregation follows replication initiation since duplicated oriC domains start segregating to opposite halves of the cell soon after they are made. ParA and ParB proteins together with specific DNA sequences are parts of the segregation machinery. ParA and ParB proteins in Pseudomonas aeruginosa are important for optimal growth, nucleoid segregation, cell division and motility. Comparative transcriptome analysis of parAnull and parBnull mutants versus parental P. aeruginosa PAO1161 strain demonstrated global changes in gene expression pattern in logarithmically growing planktonic cultures. The set of genes similarly affected in both mutant strains is designated Par regulon and comprises 536 genes. The Par regulon includes genes controlled by two sigma factors (RpoN and PvdS) as well as known and putative transcriptional regulators. In the absence of Par proteins, a large number of genes from RpoS regulon is induced, reflecting the need for slowing down the cell growth rate and decelerating the metabolic processes. Changes in the expression profiles of genes involved in c-di-GMP turnover point out the role of this effector in such signal transmission. Microarray data for chosen genes were confirmed by RT-qPCR analysis. The promoter regions of selected genes were cloned upstream of the promoter-less lacZ gene and analyzed in the heterologous host E. coli?lac. Regulation by ParA and ParB of P. aeruginosa was confirmed for some of the tested promoters. Our data demonstrate that ParA and ParB besides their role in accurate chromosome segregation may act as modulators of genes expression. Directly or indirectly, Par proteins are part of the wider regulatory network in P. aeruginosa linking the process of chromosome segregation with the cell growth, division and motility. PMID:24498062

Bartosik, Aneta A.; Glabski, Krzysztof; Jecz, Paulina; Mikulska, Sylwia; Fogtman, Anna; Koblowska, Marta; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

2014-01-01

362

The Role of Neurosecretory Neurons in the Pars Intercerebralis and Pars Lateralis in Reproductive Diapause of the Blowfly, Protophormia terraenovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microlesions of the brain were made to examine the role of neurosecretory neurons in the pars intercerebralis (PI) and pars lateralis (PL) in the induction of reproductive diapause of the female blowfly Protophormia terraenovae. Under both diapause-inducing (LD 12 : 12, 20° C) and diapause-averting conditions (LD 18 : 6, 25° C), the ovaries invariably failed to develop when the PI was removed. When the PL was removed bilaterally, the ovaries developed in most of the females, irrespective of the rearing conditions. Removal of the PL prevented females from entering reproductive diapause. These results show that certain neurosecretory neurons in the PI are necessary for vitellogenesis, and that the PL contains inhibitory neurons which suppress vitellogenesis during reproductive diapause.

Shiga, S.; Numata, H.

363

Paracrine Apoptotic Effect of p53 Mediated by Tumor Suppressor Par-4  

PubMed Central

Summary The guardian of the genome, p53, is often mutated in cancer and may contribute to therapeutic resistance. As p53 is intact and functional in normal tissues, we harnessed its potential to inhibit the growth of p53-deficient cancer cells. Specific activation of p53 in normal fibroblasts selectively induced apoptosis in p53-deficient cancer cells. This paracrine effect was mediated by p53-dependent secretion of the tumor suppressor Par-4. Accordingly, activation of p53 in normal mice, but not in p53?/? or Par-4?/? mice, caused systemic elevation of Par-4 that induced apoptosis of p53-deficient tumor cells. Mechanistically, p53 induced Par-4 secretion by suppressing the expression of UACA, which sequesters Par-4. Thus, normal cells can be empowered by p53 activation to induce Par-4 secretion for inhibition of therapy-resistant tumors. PMID:24412360

Burikhanov, Ravshan; Shrestha-Bhattarai, Tripti; Hebbar, Nikhil; Qiu, Shirley; Zhao, Yanming; Zambetti, Gerard P.; Rangnekar, Vivek M.

2014-01-01

364

PAR3D: a server to predict protein active site residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

PAR-3D (http:\\/\\/sunserver.cdfd.org.in:8080\\/protease \\/PAR_3D\\/index.html) is a web-based tool that exploits the fact that relative juxtaposition of active site residues is a conserved feature in functionally related protein families. The server uses previously calculated and stored values of geometrical parameters of a set of known proteins (training set) for prediction of active site residues in a query protein structure. PAR-3D stores motifs

Kshama Goyal; Debasisa Mohanty; Shekhar C. Mande

2007-01-01

365

Biased signalling and proteinase-activated receptors (PARs): targeting inflammatory disease  

PubMed Central

Although it has been known since the 1960s that trypsin and chymotrypsin can mimic hormone action in tissues, it took until the 1990s to discover that serine proteinases can regulate cells by cleaving and activating a unique four-member family of GPCRs known as proteinase-activated receptors (PARs). PAR activation involves the proteolytic exposure of its N-terminal receptor sequence that folds back to function as a ‘tethered’ receptor-activating ligand (TL). A key N-terminal arginine in each of PARs 1 to 4 has been singled out as a target for cleavage by thrombin (PARs 1, 3 and 4), trypsin (PARs 2 and 4) or other proteases to unmask the TL that activates signalling via Gq, Gi or G12/13. Similarly, synthetic receptor-activating peptides, corresponding to the exposed ‘TL sequences’ (e.g. SFLLRN—, for PAR1 or SLIGRL— for PAR2) can, like proteinase activation, also drive signalling via Gq, Gi and G12/13, without requiring receptor cleavage. Recent data show, however, that distinct proteinase-revealed ‘non-canonical’ PAR tethered-ligand sequences and PAR-activating agonist and antagonist peptide analogues can induce ‘biased’ PAR signalling, for example, via G12/13-MAPKinase instead of Gq-calcium. This overview summarizes implications of this ‘biased’ signalling by PAR agonists and antagonists for the recognized roles the PARs play in inflammatory settings. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Molecular Pharmacology of GPCRs. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-5 PMID:24354792

Hollenberg, M D; Mihara, K; Polley, D; Suen, J Y; Han, A; Fairlie, D P; Ramachandran, R

2014-01-01

366

A low-complexity PAR-reduction method for DMT-VDSL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract DMT-VDSL signals have a high peak-to-average power ratio (PAR). In the transmitters, the PAR governs the necessary resolution of the digital-to-analog converter (DAC) and is an important factor for the power consumption of the line-driver. Aiming at implementation in a specific system, we propose a low complexity PAR-reduction method based on the iterative algorithm derived in [5, 20, 24,

Per Ola B Orjesson; Hans G. Feichtinger; Niklas Grip; Mikael Isaksson; Norbert Kaiblinger; Per Odling; Lars-erik Persson

367

PAR reduction in space-time coded OFDM via modified active constellation extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

High peak-to-average ratio (PAR) is one of the main problems in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. This problem becomes more complicated when space-time codes (STC) are employed as any PAR reduction method should not destroy the relationships among STC encoded OFDM symbols. There are existing PAR reduction methods for STC-OFDM systems. However, these methods do not provide sufficient performance

K. T. G. Pradeep; Moh Lim Sim

2008-01-01

368

Asymptotic performance analysis and successive selected mapping for PAR reduction in OFDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

One major drawback of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems is the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAR) of the transmit signal. In order to overcome this problem, selected mapping (SLM) is a well known method for PAR reduction. In this paper, asymptotic performance analysis of SLM is carried out and a bound on the maximum tolerable PAR values is derived. Starting

Christian Siegl; Robert F. H. Fischer

2010-01-01

369

A Novel PAR Reduction Scheme Based on IEEE802.16a System  

Microsoft Academic Search

OFDM (orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing) is one of the key techniques of the next generation high rate communications system. One of the major drawbacks in OFDM systems is high PAR (peak-to-average power ratio) of the transmitted signal. This paper presents a novel PAR reduction method, called IPR (interleaving and phase rotation), which achieves significant PAR reduction. And also this method is

Liu Sheng-Mei; Pan Su; Meng Qing-Ming

2008-01-01

370

Asymptotic Performance Analysis and Successive Selected Mapping for PAR Reduction in OFDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

One major drawback of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems is the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAR) of the transmit signal. In order to overcome this problem, selected mapping (SLM) is a well known method for PAR reduction. In this paper, asymptotic performance analysis of SLM is carried out and a bound on the maximum tolerable PAR values is derived. Starting

Christian Siegl; Robert F. H. Fischer

2009-01-01

371

SPALLATION (1) DU TERBIUM PAR DES PROTONS DE 170 MEV. PREMIRE PARTIE QUALITATIVE  

E-print Network

549. SPALLATION (1) DU TERBIUM PAR DES PROTONS DE 170 MEV. PREMI�RE PARTIE QUALITATIVE Par J le terbium pour plusieurs raisons : 1) c'est un mono-isotope ; 2) les isotopes très déficients en- TIONS. - Les cibles, constituées par de l'oxyde de terbium très pur (Johnson-Matthey), étaient irra

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

372

MMOIRES ORIGINAUX Dosage du radium par la mesure de l'manation dgage  

E-print Network

M�MOIRES ORIGINAUX Dosage du radium par la mesure de l'émanation dégagée Par Mme P. CURIE [Faculté des Science de Paris.] Le dosage du radium par l'émanation qu'il dégage en un temps donné a été une solution de radium, et à transportercette émanation dans un appareil demesuras. J'ai tout

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

373

Pars intermedia of the pituitary gland and integumentary colour changes in the garden lizard Calotes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The effect of light and of colour of the background on the secretory activity of the pars intermedia of the garden lizard has been investigated.2.Absence of light, as well as black illuminated background, produces increased acticity of the pars intermedia, proportional to the duration of the experiment.3.Pale illuminated background has no effect on the secretory activity of the pars intermedia.4.The

Shanta Nayar; K. R. Pandalai

1963-01-01

374

Common variants in the human platelet PAR4 thrombin receptor alter platelet function and differ by race  

PubMed Central

Human platelets express 2 thrombin receptors: protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR4. Recently, we reported 3.7-fold increased PAR4-mediated aggregation kinetics in platelets from black subjects compared with white subjects. We now show that platelets from blacks (n = 70) express 14% more PAR4 protein than those from whites (n = 84), but this difference is not associated with platelet PAR4 function. Quantitative trait locus analysis identified 3 common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PAR4 gene (F2RL3) associated with PAR4-induced platelet aggregation. Among these single nucleotide polymorphisms, rs773902 determines whether residue 120 in transmembrane domain 2 is an alanine (Ala) or threonine (Thr). Compared with the Ala120 variant, Thr120 was more common in black subjects than in white subjects (63% vs 19%), was associated with higher PAR4-induced human platelet aggregation and Ca2+ flux, and generated greater inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate in transfected cells. A second, less frequent F2RL3 variant, Phe296Val, was only observed in blacks and abolished the enhanced PAR4-induced platelet aggregation and 1,4,5-triphosphate generation associated with PAR4-Thr120. PAR4 genotype did not affect vorapaxar inhibition of platelet PAR1 function, but a strong pharmacogenetic effect was observed with the PAR4-specific antagonist YD-3 [1-benzyl-3(ethoxycarbonylphenyl)-indazole]. These findings may have an important pharmacogenetic effect on the development of new PAR antagonists. PMID:25293779

Edelstein, Leonard C.; Simon, Lukas M.; Lindsay, Cory R.; Kong, Xianguo; Teruel-Montoya, Raúl; Tourdot, Benjamin E.; Chen, Edward S.; Ma, Lin; Coughlin, Shaun; Nieman, Marvin; Holinstat, Michael; Shaw, Chad A.

2014-01-01

375

Common variants in the human platelet PAR4 thrombin receptor alter platelet function and differ by race.  

PubMed

Human platelets express 2 thrombin receptors: protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR4. Recently, we reported 3.7-fold increased PAR4-mediated aggregation kinetics in platelets from black subjects compared with white subjects. We now show that platelets from blacks (n = 70) express 14% more PAR4 protein than those from whites (n = 84), but this difference is not associated with platelet PAR4 function. Quantitative trait locus analysis identified 3 common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PAR4 gene (F2RL3) associated with PAR4-induced platelet aggregation. Among these single nucleotide polymorphisms, rs773902 determines whether residue 120 in transmembrane domain 2 is an alanine (Ala) or threonine (Thr). Compared with the Ala120 variant, Thr120 was more common in black subjects than in white subjects (63% vs 19%), was associated with higher PAR4-induced human platelet aggregation and Ca2+ flux, and generated greater inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate in transfected cells. A second, less frequent F2RL3 variant, Phe296Val, was only observed in blacks and abolished the enhanced PAR4-induced platelet aggregation and 1,4,5-triphosphate generation associated with PAR4-Thr120. PAR4 genotype did not affect vorapaxar inhibition of platelet PAR1 function, but a strong pharmacogenetic effect was observed with the PAR4-specific antagonist YD-3 [1-benzyl-3(ethoxycarbonylphenyl)-indazole]. These findings may have an important pharmacogenetic effect on the development of new PAR antagonists. PMID:25293779

Edelstein, Leonard C; Simon, Lukas M; Lindsay, Cory R; Kong, Xianguo; Teruel-Montoya, Raúl; Tourdot, Benjamin E; Chen, Edward S; Ma, Lin; Coughlin, Shaun; Nieman, Marvin; Holinstat, Michael; Shaw, Chad A; Bray, Paul F

2014-11-27

376

Activation of protease-activated receptors (PARs)-1 and -2 promotes alpha-smooth muscle actin expression and release of cytokines from human lung fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that protease-activated receptors (PARs) play an important role in various physiological processes. In the present investigation, we determined the expression of PARs on human lung fibroblasts (HLF-1) and whether they were involved in cellular differentiation and pro-inflammatory cytokine and prostaglandin (PGE2) secretion. PAR-1, PAR-2, PAR-3, and PAR-4 were detected in fibroblasts using RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry. Increased expression of PAR-4, but not other PARs, was observed in fibroblasts stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate. The archetypical activators of PARs, namely, thrombin and trypsin, as well as PAR-1 and PAR-2 agonist peptides, stimulated transient increases in intracellular Ca2+, and promoted increased ?-smooth muscle actin expression. The proteolytic and peptidic PAR activators also stimulated the release of IL-6 and IL-8, as well as PGE2, with a rank order of potency of PAR-1 > PAR-2. The combined stimulation of PAR-1 and PAR-2 resulted in an additive release of both IL-6 and IL-8. In contrast, PAR-3 and PAR-4 agonist peptides, as well as all the PAR control peptides examined, were inactive. These results suggest an important role for PARs associated with fibroblasts in the modulation of inflammation and remodeling in the airway. PMID:25663523

Asokananthan, Nithiananthan; Lan, Rommel S; Graham, Peter T; Bakker, Anthony J; Tokanovi?, Ana; Stewart, Geoffrey A

2015-01-01

377

Activation of protease-activated receptors (PARs)-1 and -2 promotes alpha-smooth muscle actin expression and release of cytokines from human lung fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that protease-activated receptors (PARs) play an important role in various physiological processes. In the present investigation, we determined the expression of PARs on human lung fibroblasts (HLF-1) and whether they were involved in cellular differentiation and pro-inflammatory cytokine and prostaglandin (PGE2) secretion. PAR-1, PAR-2, PAR-3, and PAR-4 were detected in fibroblasts using RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry. Increased expression of PAR-4, but not other PARs, was observed in fibroblasts stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate. The archetypical activators of PARs, namely, thrombin and trypsin, as well as PAR-1 and PAR-2 agonist peptides, stimulated transient increases in intracellular Ca(2+), and promoted increased ?-smooth muscle actin expression. The proteolytic and peptidic PAR activators also stimulated the release of IL-6 and IL-8, as well as PGE2, with a rank order of potency of PAR-1 > PAR-2. The combined stimulation of PAR-1 and PAR-2 resulted in an additive release of both IL-6 and IL-8. In contrast, PAR-3 and PAR-4 agonist peptides, as well as all the PAR control peptides examined, were inactive. These results suggest an important role for PARs associated with fibroblasts in the modulation of inflammation and remodeling in the airway. PMID:25663523

Asokananthan, Nithiananthan; Lan, Rommel S; Graham, Peter T; Bakker, Anthony J; Tokanovi?, Ana; Stewart, Geoffrey A

2015-02-01

378

Isolation and characterization of par1(+) and par2(+): two Schizosaccharomyces pombe genes encoding B' subunits of protein phosphatase 2A.  

PubMed Central

Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is one of the major serine/threonine phosphatases found in eukaryotic cells. We cloned two genes, par1(+) and par2(+), encoding distinct B' subunits of PP2A in fission yeast. They share 52% identity at the amino acid sequence level. Neither gene is essential but together they are required for normal septum positioning and cytokinesis, for growth at both high and low temperature, and for growth under a number of stressful conditions. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that Par2p has a cell-cycle-related localization pattern, being localized at cell ends during interphase and forming a medial ring in cells that are undergoing septation and cytokinesis. Our analyses also indicate that Par1p is more abundant than Par2p in the cell. Cross-organism studies showed that both par1(+) and par2(+) could complement the rts1Delta allele in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, albeit to different extents, in spite of the fact that neither contains a serine/threonine-rich N-terminal domain like that found in the S. cerevisiae homolog Rts1p. Thus, while Schizosaccharomyces pombe is more similar to higher eukaryotes with respect to its complement of B'-encoding genes, the function of those proteins is conserved relative to that of Rts1p. PMID:10757751

Jiang, W; Hallberg, R L

2000-01-01

379

Tryptase-PAR2 axis in experimental autoimmune prostatitis, a model for chronic pelvic pain syndrome.  

PubMed

Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) affects up to 15% of the male population and is characterized by pelvic pain. Mast cells are implicated in the murine experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) model as key to chronic pelvic pain development. The mast cell mediator tryptase-? and its cognate receptor protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) are involved in mediating pain in other visceral disease models. Prostatic secretions and urines from CP/CPPS patients were examined for the presence of mast cell degranulation products. Tryptase-? and PAR2 expression were examined in murine EAP. Pelvic pain and inflammation were assessed in the presence or absence of PAR2 expression and upon PAR2 neutralization. Tryptase-? and carboxypeptidase A3 were elevated in CP/CPPS compared to healthy volunteers. Tryptase-? was capable of inducing pelvic pain and was increased in EAP along with its receptor PAR2. PAR2 was required for the development of chronic pelvic pain in EAP. PAR2 signaling in dorsal root ganglia led to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 phosphorylation and calcium influx. PAR2 neutralization using antibodies attenuated chronic pelvic pain in EAP. The tryptase-PAR2 axis is an important mediator of pelvic pain in EAP and may play a role in the pathogenesis of CP/CPPS. PMID:24726923

Roman, Kenny; Done, Joseph D; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Murphy, Stephen F; Thumbikat, Praveen

2014-07-01

380

Subpopulations of uPAR(+) contribute to vasculogenic mimicry and metastasis in large cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is closely associated with poor prognosis in various aggressive cancers including large-cell lung cancer (LCLC). Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) refers to the unique capability of aggressive tumor cells to mimic the pattern of embryonic vasculogenic networks involving the blood supply in early tumor formation. We demonstrate the statistically positive correlation of uPAR expression with VM formation, metastasis, and poor prognosis of LCLC patients. uPAR(+) cells sorted from the LCLC H460 cell line show higher invasion, migration capacity, and tube structure formation capability on Matrigel compared with uPAR(-) cells. uPAR(+) tumor cells highly expressed vimentin and VE-cadherin; the epithelial marker E-cadherin was low expressed. Higher EMT-regulated protein twist and snail expressions were also observed in these cells. uPAR(+) cells injected subcutaneously into nude mice markedly increased tumor growth, induced VM formation and liver metastasis; by contrast, uPAR(-) cells did not. The data suggest that uPAR expression may predict VM formation, tumor metastasis and poorer prognosis of LCLC patients. The uPAR gene may be used as a novel therapeutic target for inhibiting angiogenesis and metastasis in LCLC. PMID:25661888

Li, Yanlei; Sun, Baocun; Zhao, Xiulan; Zhang, Danfang; Wang, Xudong; Zhu, Dongwang; Yang, Zhihong; Qiu, Zhiqiang; Ban, Xinchao

2015-04-01

381

Noncanonical PAR3 activation by factor Xa identifies a novel pathway for Tie2 activation and stabilization of vascular integrity.  

PubMed

Endothelial barrier protective effects of activated protein C (APC) require the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1, and PAR3. In contrast, PAR1 and PAR3 activation by thrombin results in barrier disruption. Noncanonical PAR1 and PAR3 activation by APC vs canonical activation by thrombin provides an explanation for the functional selectivity of these proteases. Here we found that factor Xa (FXa) activated PAR1 at canonical Arg41 similar to thrombin but cleaved PAR3 at noncanonical Arg41 similar to APC. This unique PAR1-PAR3 activation profile permitted the identification of noncanonical PAR3 activation as a novel activation pathway for barrier protective tunica intima endothelial receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (Tie2). APC, FXa, and the noncanonical PAR3 tethered-ligand peptide induced prolonged activation of Tie2, whereas thrombin and the canonical PAR3 tethered-ligand peptide did not. Tie2 activation by FXa required PAR3 and EPCR. FXa and the noncanonical PAR3 tethered-ligand peptide induced Tie2- and PAR3-dependent upregulation of tight-junction-associated protein zona occludens 1 (ZO-1), translocation of ZO-1 to cell-cell borders, and the formation of typical ZO-1 honeycomb patterns that are indicative of tight-junction stabilization. These data provide intriguing novel insights into the diversification of functional selectivity of protease signaling achievable by canonical and noncanonical PAR activation, such as the activation of vascular-protective Tie2 by noncanonical PAR3 activation. PMID:25320242

Stavenuiter, Fabian; Mosnier, Laurent O

2014-11-27

382

BOREAS TE-12 Incoming PAR Through the Forest Canopy Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-12 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on shoot geometry, leaf optical properties, leaf water potential, and leaf gas exchange. The data were collected at the Southern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) site from 04-Jul-1996 to 25-Jul-1996. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Mesarch, Mark A.

2000-01-01

383

Inflammation and Macular Oedema after Pars Plana Vitrectomy  

PubMed Central

Cystoid macular oedema (CMO) is a major cause of reduced vision following intraocular surgery. Although the aetiology of CMO is not completely clarified, intraocular inflammation is known to play a major role in its development. The macula may develop cytotoxic oedema when the primary lesion and fluid accumulation occur in the parenchymatous cells (intracellular oedema) or vasogenic oedema when the primary defect occurs in the blood-retinal barrier and leads to extracellular fluid accumulation (extracellular oedema). We report on the mechanisms of CMO formation after pars plana vitrectomy and associated surgical procedures and discuss possible therapeutic approaches. PMID:24288446

Romano, Vito; Angi, Martina; del Grosso, Renata; Romano, Davide; Vinciguerra, Paolo; Romano, Mario R.

2013-01-01

384

Le syndrome de Cowden: premier cas exploré par capsule vidéoendoscopique  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Résumé  Le syndrome de Cowden est une maladie génétique rare, caractérisée par l’association de signes cutanéo-muqueux: trichilemmomes\\u000a faciaux, acrokératoses et papillomatoses, et de manifestations viscérales. Elle prédispose à l’apparition de cancers viscéraux\\u000a multiples (thyroïde, Scins et endomètre). L’atteinte digestive s’observe dans 70 à 85% des cas documentés. Ce syndrome est\\u000a lié à une mutation du gène PTEN (gène suppresseur de tumeurs).

Rabia Bencheqroun; Nathalie Meary; L. Laroche; F. Caux; C. Florent

2005-01-01

385

neur en radium a t dtermine par une mthode, qui diffre des prcdentes par 1e fait (I-ui*elle permet  

E-print Network

166 neur en radium a été déterminée par une méthode, qui diffère des précédentes par 1e fait (I-ui*elle permet de séparer le radium du minéral el de le doser à part. Voici en quoi consiste la méthode : On met sulfates des baryum et de radium, éventuellement du plomb, est sépare par filtration, et une nouvelle

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

386

Differential effects of the N-methyl- d-aspartate and non- N-methyl- d-aspartate receptors of the excitatory amino acids system on LH and FSH secretion. Its effects on the hypothalamic luteinizing hormone releasing hormone during maturation in male rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experiments describe the effect of NMDA and kainate agonists of the NMDA and non-NMDA subtype of receptors respectively of the excitatory amino acids (EAAs) system in prepubertal (16 days of age) and peripubertal (30-day-old rats) male rats on the in vitro hypothalamic release of GnRH, and on the in vivo LH and FSH levels as well as the

Silvia Carbone; Berta Szwarcfarb; Dora Rondina; Carlos Feleder; Jaime A. Moguilevsky

1996-01-01

387

Modulation of expression of innate immunity markers CXCL5/ENA-78 and CCL20/MIP3? by protease-activated receptors (PARs) in human gingival epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are G-protein-coupled receptors with an active role in host defense. The two most highly expressed members of the PAR family in gingival epithelial cells (GECs) are PAR1 and PAR2. The major virulence factors of periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis are its proteases which can activate PAR2. However, little is known about the function of PARs in GECs when they are activated by their endogenous agonist enzymes. The purpose of this study was to characterize how the expression of innate immune markers is modulated when PAR1 and PAR2 are activated by their agonist enzymes, thrombin and trypsin, respectively. Here, we report that activation of PAR1 and PAR2 induces cell proliferation at low concentration. Activation of PAR via proteolytic activity of thrombin and trypsin induces expression of CXCL5/ENA-78 and CCL20/MIP3? in a concentration-dependent manner. Induction of CXCL5 via PAR1 was inhibited in the presence of PAR1 cleavage blocking antibodies and by PAR1 siRNA. The induction of CXCL5 and CCL20 via PAR2 was inhibited by PAR2 siRNA. These findings indicate an active role in innate immune responses by PAR1 and PAR2 in GECs. Modulation of innate immunity by PARs may contribute to co-ordinated and balanced immunosurveillance in GECs. PMID:19567485

Rohani, Maryam G.; Beyer, Richard P.; Hacker, Beth M.; Dommisch, Henrik; Dale, Beverly A.; Chung, Whasun O.

2010-01-01

388

Effects of superovulation with oFSH and norgestomet/GnRH-controlled release of the LH surge on hormone concentrations, and yield of oocytes and embryos at specific developmental stages.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate a new superovulation procedure with oFSH after temporary suppression of the endogenous LH surge by norgestomet followed by administration of GnRH, to collect bovine oocytes and embryos at specific developmental stages. Since 1999, our research group applies this superovulation procedure with controlled release of the endogenous LH surge. The objective of this study is to verify if this procedure is reliable for collection of oocytes and embryos at specific time points of development and if it produces a sufficient number of both oocytes and embryos of good quality. This procedure was validated regarding to hormonal characteristics, superovulatory response and both oocyte and embryo yield at different times of in vivo development. The results demonstrate that the procedure used to control the occurrence of the pre-ovulatory LH surge was effective in 92% of the animals (n = 238) and even in 99% of the animals the oocytes and embryos were collected at the intended stage of development. The superovulatory response and both oocyte, embryo yield and quality were similar to the average yield in Europe reported by Association Européenne de transfert embryonnaire (AETE). In conclusion, this superovulation procedure provides a valid tool to collect oocytes and embryos at specific time points of development. PMID:19090826

Knijn, H M; Fokker, W; van der Weijden, G C; Dieleman, S J; Vos, P L A M

2012-04-01

389

Troubles psychotiques précipités par le mariage : étude de trois observations  

PubMed Central

Le mariage est un évènement très investi dans notre culture arabo-musulmane. Il présente une situation à grande charge émotionnelle et ayant un vécu stressant. C'est ainsi qu'il peut être à l'origine de la décompensation de certains troubles psychiatriques. Ce moment particulier de déclenchement de la pathologie peut altérer significativement l'adaptation familiale et sociale du patient en question, le rendant dépendant en partie ou en totalité à une institution. Dans ce travail, nous proposons d’étudier certains facteurs psychiques, sociaux et culturels pouvant aboutir à la précipitation des manifestations psychotiques par le mariage. Il s'agit de l’étude de trois observations cliniques, deux hommes et une femme, hospitalisés dans le service de psychiatrie A du CHU Hédi Chaker de Sfax et qui ont développés des manifestations psychotiques de façon concomitante à leur mariage. La durée moyenne de survenue des crises a été de vingt ans, le diagnostic retenu a été celui de trouble bipolaire dans deux cas et d'une schizophrénie indifférenciée chez le troisième patient. L’évolution s'est faite vers une chronicisation de deux malades et une dépendance institutionnelle dans le troisième cas. La précipitation des troubles psychotiques par le mariage, reste un phénomène en relation intime avec les composantes culturelles, elles-mêmes sont déterminantes dans la prise en charge ultérieure de ces patients. PMID:23785551

Jaweher, Masmoudi; Kammoun, Mohamed Faouzi; Inès, Feki; Imen, Baati; Rim, Sallami; Abdelaziz, Jaoua

2013-01-01

390

Promises of PAR-1 inhibition in acute coronary syndrome.  

PubMed

Platelet activation is a key process in the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Of the many triggers involved in this process, three are presumed to be critical: thromboxane A(2) (TBXA(2)) via the TBXA(2) receptor, adenosine diphosphate via the P2Y(12) receptor, and thrombin via the protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1. Despite the effective inhibition of the first two pathways with aspirin and an expanding family of P2Y(12) inhibitors, the incidence of recurrent ischemic events remains high after ACS. PAR-1 inhibitors are a novel class of antiplatelet agents that inhibit thrombin-mediated platelet activation. Preclinical data and phase 2 clinical trials in patients with stable and unstable coronary disease support the potential of these compounds to improve clinical outcome. In this review we discuss the rationale for developing this novel class of agents with a focus on the two compounds in most advanced clinical development, vorapaxar (SCH 530348) and atopaxar (E5555). PMID:22160877

Leonardi, Sergio; Tricoci, Pierluigi; Mahaffey, Kenneth W

2012-02-01

391

Croissance de Si3N4 sur GaAs et InP par pulvrisation ractive par faisceau d'ions  

E-print Network

1305- Croissance de Si3N4 sur GaAs et InP par pulvérisation réactive par faisceau d'ions A nettoyage ionique de substrats d'InP puis le mode de croissance et les propriétés d'encapsulation de Si3N4 gallium pour GaAs et de l'indium pour InP lors du dépôt de Si3N4 indique une altération de la composition

Boyer, Edmond

392

Activation of protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 by frog trefoil factor (TFF) 2 and PAR4 by human TFF2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trefoil factors (TFFs) promote epithelial cell migration to reseal superficial wounds after mucosal injury, but their receptors\\u000a and the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. In this study, we showed that frog TFF2 activates\\u000a protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 to induce human platelet aggregation. Based on this result, we further tested the involvement\\u000a of PARs in human TFF2 (hTFF2)-promoted

Yong Zhang; Guoyu Yu; Yanjie Wang; Yang Xiang; Qian Gao; Ping Jiang; Jie Zhang; Wenhui Lee; Yun Zhang

393

Rsultats obtenus chez la truite Arc-en-ciel concernant l'absorption du glycocolle par l'intestin moyen et par l'intestin  

E-print Network

Résultats obtenus chez la truite Arc-en-ciel concernant l'absorption du glycocolle par l'intestin moyen et par l'intestin postérieur : rôle du sodium dans les différences observées G. BOG�, A. RIGAL, G and distal intestinal absorption of glycocolle in trout. Role of sodium in the differences observed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

394

EFFETS DES DGNRESCENCES ZEEMAN SUR LA FLUORESCENCE DE RSONANCE INDUITE PAR UN LASER INTENSE  

E-print Network

irradie a angle droit par un faisceau laser intense. Jusqu'a present, les etudes aussi bien theoriques [1 fluorescence, monochromatique comme le faisceau laser incident aux faibles intensites (diffusion elastique), seL-173 EFFETS DES DÉGÉNÉRESCENCES ZEEMAN SUR LA FLUORESCENCE DE RÉSONANCE INDUITE PAR UN LASER

Boyer, Edmond

395

PAR--A Theoretic Model for Self-Assessment and Practice toward Multicultural Counseling Competence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and refinement of the Preservation, Accommodation, and Repatterning model (PAR) took place over a 10-year period. This paper presents a discussion of the evolution of PAR. The paper describes the observations and the line of empirical research findings that guided conceptualization and evaluation of the model. The model was…

Steward, Robbie J.

396

Mesure par thermographie infrarouge de la conductivit thermique longitudinale de plaques minces homognes ou composites  

E-print Network

621 Mesure par thermographie infrarouge de la conductivité thermique longitudinale de plaques thermographie infrarouge sont confrontés à une théorie de « barre semi- infinie » et donnent la valeur de la température est fait (*) E.R.A. CNRS No 663. par thermographie infrarouge ce qui supprime l'im- plantation de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

397

Ultrastructure of the pituitary gland (pars distalis) in sockeye salmon ( Oncorhynchus nerka ) during gonad maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fine structure of the various hormone-producing cell types (with the exclusion of the prolactin cells) in the pituitary gland (pars distalis) of migratory sockeye salmon is described. All fish were in an advanced stage of sexual maturation. In the proximal pars distalis five cell types were distinguished: growth hormone cells, ACTH cells, gonadotrops, “vesicular cells”, and “chromophobe cells”. Gonadotrops

H. Cook; A. P. van Overbeeke

1972-01-01

398

Qualit dilectrique de couches minces isolantes de GaN obtenues par pulvrisation cathodique ractive  

E-print Network

489 Qualité diélectrique de couches minces isolantes de GaN obtenues par pulvérisation cathodique de GaN, obtenues à 150 °C par pulvérisation cathodique réactive, sont analysées à température'emploi de GaN comme isolant dans des structures MIS. Abstract. 2014 The dielectric properties of GaN

Boyer, Edmond

399

REMARQUES SUR LE TRAVAIL DE MM. NAGAOKA ET HONDA ; Par M. CH.-D. GUILLAUME  

E-print Network

633 REMARQUES SUR LE TRAVAIL DE MM. NAGAOKA ET HONDA ; Par M. CH.-�D. GUILLAUME Les recherches de MM. Nagaolia et Honda sur la inagnéto- striction donnent lieu à deux genres de remarques : les unes que pour une proportion insignifiante dans les résultats énoncés par MM. Nagaoka et Honda, et que les

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

400

PAR reduction in OFDM systems based on clipped power re-allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major drawbacks in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is its high peak-to-average power ratio (PAR). Clipping and filtering is the simplest and most effective method to reduce PAR for OFDM. But clipping and filtering gives rise to serious distortion which seriously degrades the bit error rate (BER) performance. Mitigating the disadvantages while inheriting the advantages of clipping

Wenchao Xu; Shuyang Yu

2009-01-01

401

Peak-to-average power ratio (PAR) reduction for acoustic OFDM systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major drawback of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is its large peak-to-average power ratio (PAR). Techniques for PAR reduction have been extensively studied for radio communication systems. While these techniques are applicable to acoustic systems, we take a different approach that aims to capitalize on the fundamental differences between the acoustic and radio systems, namely the fact that acoustic

Guillem Rojo; Milica Stojanovic

2009-01-01

402

Dtection srologique des virus du court-nou de la vigne par le test ELISA.  

E-print Network

A cause de sa grande sensibilité, la technique ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) s'est révéléeDétection sérologique des virus du court-noué de la vigne par le test ELISA. Bernard WALTER André mosaïque de l'arabis (AMV) et du « fanleaf» de la vigne (GFV) est réalisée par les méthodes ELISA sandwich

Boyer, Edmond

403

Purification par chromatographie liquide de haute pression (HPLC) de l'hormone crbrale  

E-print Network

Purification par chromatographie liquide de haute pression (HPLC) de l'hormone cérébrale chez of the brain hormone of Nereis diversicolor and Perinereis cultrifera (Annelida : Polychaeta) by high développement somatique ainsi que la gamétogenèse, par l'intermédiaire d'une hormone libérée au niveau des

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

404

Simplified atmospheric radiative transfer modelling for estimating incident PAR using MODIS atmosphere products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is an important parameter in the estimation of vegetation growth. A method is presented with which instantaneous PAR can be calculated with high accuracy from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) atmosphere data products. The method, PARcalc, is based on a simplification of the general radiative transfer equations, whereby the atmosphere is modelled in a few layers

Patrick E. Van Laake; G. Arturo Sanchez-Azofeifa

2004-01-01

405

RECHERCHES SUR LA MATERIALISATION DE L'NERGIE DES RAYONS 03B2 Par M. MONADJEMI.  

E-print Network

RECHERCHES SUR LA MATERIALISATION DE L'ÉNERGIE DES RAYONS 03B2 Par M. MONADJEMI. Sommaire. 2014 Expériences sur la matérialisation de l'énergie des rayons 03B2 effectuées en concentrant les électrons par la méthode de la trochoïde. Les résultats sur la matérialisation de l'énergie des rayons 03B2, ainsi que la

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

406

PARCOURS ET STRUCTURE FINE DES RAYONS 03B1 DU PROTACTINIUM [*] Par TSIEN SAN-TSIANG.  

E-print Network

PARCOURS ET STRUCTURE FINE DES RAYONS 03B1 DU PROTACTINIUM [*] Par TSIEN SAN-TSIANG. Laboratoire de Radium. Sommaire. 2014 On détermine, au moyen d'un amplificateur proportionnel, les parcours des rayons 03B1 du protactinium par différence avec celui des rayons 03B1 du polonium. Le spectre des rayons 03B

Boyer, Edmond

407

La nature des rayons 03B3 et des rayons X Par W. H. BRAGG  

E-print Network

213 La nature des rayons 03B3 et des rayons X Par W. H. BRAGG Université d'Adélaïde. 2014 faites par le Dr Mad- sen et moi, sur lus propriétés des rayons secondaires dus aux rayons y. Un travail travers de la matière, il apparaît des rayons B qui se meuvent d'abord dans la même direction que les

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

408

RECHERCHES SUR L'ABSORPTION DES RAYONS ULTRA-VIOLETS PAR DIVERSES SUBSTANCES;  

E-print Network

I45 RECHERCHES SUR L'ABSORPTION DES RAYONS ULTRA-VIOLETS PAR DIVERSES SUBSTANCES; PAR M. J travaux sur l'absorption de ces rayons. L'emploi du spectroscope à oculaire fluorescent que j'ai précé rayons invisibles. On sait que la partie directement visible du spectre comprend des radiations dont les

Boyer, Edmond

409

SUR LA POLARISATION DES RAYONS X ; Par M. R. BLONDLOT (1).  

E-print Network

169 SUR LA POLARISATION DES RAYONS X ; Par M. R. BLONDLOT (1). Les tentatives faites jusqu'ici pour polariser les rayons X sont demeurées infructueuses. Je me suis demandé si les rayons X émis par un tube considérant que les conditions de dissymétrie nécessaires pour que ces rayons puissent être polarisés sont

Boyer, Edmond

410

Sur l'nergie des rayons Rntgen Par R. T. BEATTY  

E-print Network

9 Sur l'énergie des rayons Röntgen Par R. T. BEATTY [Emmanuel College. Cambridge]. Ce mémoire est l forme de rayons Rontgen quand des ranons catholiques homogenes d'une vitesse dé- terminée tombent sur suivie daus un travail antérieur sur Il la pro- duction directe de rayons Rontgen par des particules

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

411

FRACTIONNEMENT LECTROLYTIQUE DE L'OXYDE DE TANTALE PROTACTINIFRE Par M. G. BOUISSIRES.  

E-print Network

protactinium (élément 91) en couche mince par électrolyse de solutions fluoammoniacales de titane protactinifère riche en protactinium, l'enrichissement lui-même pouvant être obtenu par hydrolyse électrolytique. Nous nous sommes proposé d'étendre les résultats de ces auteurs aux autres entraîneurs du protactinium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

412

Relationship between woody biomass and PAR conversion efficiency for estimating net primary production from NDVI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial net primary production (NPP) may be determined from remotely-sensed vegetation indices by estimating the amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by vegetation. Studies from the literature were used to determine the upper limit of the PAR conversion efficiency (?) as a function of woody biomass for forest vegetation. Without climatic or other limitations, the upper limit was about

E. RAYMOND HUNT JR

1994-01-01

413

Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS): latent subgroups detected by k-means clustering analysis  

E-print Network

1 Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS): latent subgroups detected by k-means clustering.antonius@nyumc.org #12;2 Abstract Background: Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS) has been proposed as a subgroup of schizophrenia with distinct etiology, pathophysiology and symptoms. This study uses a k-means clustering

Ahn, Hongshik

414

Diffrence de Potentiel Induite par un Champ Electrique sur la Membrane d'une Cellule Biologique  

E-print Network

Différence de Potentiel Induite par un Champ Electrique sur la Membrane d'une Cellule Biologique C présente un modèle électrique simple de cellule biologique permettant de calculer la tension transmembranaire d'une cellule soumise à un champ électrique extérieur. Dans un premier temps, l'approximation par

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

415

12 CFR 925.19 - Par value and price of stock.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Par value and price of stock. 925.19 Section 925.19 Banks and...HOUSING ASSOCIATES MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.19 Par value and price of stock. The capital stock of each Bank shall...

2010-01-01

416

MAKING POOR LESS IMPOVERISHED THROUGH FINANCE \\/ RENDRE MOINS PAUVRES LES PAUVRES PAR UNE POLITIQUE DE CREDIT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Les petits exploitants agricoles, les artisans ruraux et en général les plus pauvres opérateurs des zones rurales des P.V.D., dont la production est caractérisée par de nombreuses contraintes et par des risques élevés, sont restés en marge du développement économique de leur pays. La mécanisation, les innovations technologiques, les « révolutions vertes » et de façon générale l'ensemble des politiques

K. P. Padmanbhan

1984-01-01

417

LED Lighting Flicker and Potential Health Concerns: IEEE Standard PAR1789 Update  

E-print Network

LED Lighting Flicker and Potential Health Concerns: IEEE Standard PAR1789 Update Arnold Wilkins Working Group, IEEE PAR1789 "Recommending practices for modulating current in High Brightness LEDsStar and other standards groups about the emerging concern of flicker in LED lighting. This paper introduces

Lehman, Brad

418

Adsorption du mthanol par la montmorillonite (1) Faza ANNABI-BERGAYA  

E-print Network

'une microporosité importante qui avait déjà été Méthanol, observée par PROST (1975) pour l'adsorption de l'eau par l'hectorite, as Microporosity. already observed by PROST (1975) for the adsorption of water by hectorite. ! Y' 2. The number

Boyer, Edmond

419

LUMINESCENCE DU SULFURE DE CADMIUM EXCIT PAR LASER (*) R. LEVY, A. BIVAS et J. B. GRUN  

E-print Network

507 LUMINESCENCE DU SULFURE DE CADMIUM EXCITÉ PAR LASER (*) R. LEVY, A. BIVAS et J. B. GRUN 12 février 1970)] Résumé. 2014 La luminescence excitonique du Sulfure de Cadmium excité par des sources intenses (lasers) a été étudiée. La raie la plus intense du spectre de luminescence obtenue dans

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

420

Questioning Our Questions: Assessing Question Asking Practices to Evaluate a yPAR Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to examine question asking practices in a youth participatory action research (yPAR) after school program housed at an elementary school. The research question was: In which ways did the adult question asking practices in a yPAR setting challenge and/or reproduce conventional models of power in educational…

Grace, Sarah; Langhout, Regina Day

2014-01-01

421

Par-4 inhibits Akt and suppresses Ras-induced lung tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

The atypical PKC-interacting protein, Par-4, inhibits cell survival and tumorigenesis in vitro, and its genetic inactivation in mice leads to reduced lifespan, enhanced benign tumour development and low-frequency carcinogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that Par-4 is highly expressed in normal lung but reduced in human lung cancer samples. We show, in a mouse model of lung tumours, that the lack of Par-4 dramatically enhances Ras-induced lung carcinoma formation in vivo, acting as a negative regulator of Akt activation. We also demonstrate in cell culture, in vivo, and in biochemical experiments that Akt regulation by Par-4 is mediated by PKC?, establishing a new paradigm for Akt regulation and, likely, for Ras-induced lung carcinogenesis, wherein Par-4 is a novel tumour suppressor. PMID:18650932

Joshi, Jayashree; Fernandez-Marcos, Pablo J; Galvez, Anita; Amanchy, Ramars; Linares, Juan F; Duran, Angeles; Pathrose, Peterson; Leitges, Michael; Cañamero, Marta; Collado, Manuel; Salas, Clara; Serrano, Manuel; Moscat, Jorge; Diaz-Meco, Maria T

2008-01-01

422

Kallikrein-related peptidase 4 (KLK4) initiates intracellular signaling via protease-activated receptors (PARs). KLK4 and PAR-2 are co-expressed during prostate cancer progression.  

PubMed

Kallikrein-related peptidase 4 (KLK4) is one of the 15 members of the human KLK family and a trypsin-like, prostate cancer-associated serine protease. Signaling initiated by trypsin-like serine proteases are transduced across the plasma membrane primarily by members of the protease-activated receptor (PAR) family of G protein-coupled receptors. Here we show, using Ca(2+) flux assays, that KLK4 signals via both PAR-1 and PAR-2 but not via PAR-4. Dose-response analysis over the enzyme concentration range 0.1-1000 nM indicated that KLK4-induced Ca(2+) mobilization via PAR-1 is more potent than via PAR-2, whereas KLK4 displayed greater efficacy via the latter PAR. We confirmed the specificity of KLK4 signaling via PAR-2 using in vitro protease cleavage assays and anti-phospho-ERK1/2/total ERK1/2 Western blot analysis of PAR-2-overexpressing and small interfering RNA-mediated receptor knockdown cell lines. Consistently, confocal microscopy analyses indicated that KLK4 initiates loss of PAR-2 from the cell surface and receptor internalization. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated the co-expression of agonist and PAR-2 in primary prostate cancer and bone metastases, suggesting that KLK4 signaling via this receptor will have pathological relevance. These data provide insight into KLK4-mediated cell signaling and suggest that signals induced by this enzyme via PARs may be important in prostate cancer. PMID:18308730

Ramsay, Andrew J; Dong, Ying; Hunt, Melanie L; Linn, MayLa; Samaratunga, Hemamali; Clements, Judith A; Hooper, John D

2008-05-01

423

Profiling Gene Expression Induced by Protease-Activated Receptor 2 (PAR2) Activation in Human Kidney Cells  

PubMed Central

Protease-Activated Receptor-2 (PAR2) has been implicated through genetic knockout mice with cytokine regulation and arthritis development. Many studies have associated PAR2 with inflammatory conditions (arthritis, airways inflammation, IBD) and key events in tumor progression (angiogenesis, metastasis), but they have relied heavily on the use of single agonists to identify physiological roles for PAR2. However such probes are now known not to be highly selective for PAR2, and thus precisely what PAR2 does and what mechanisms of downstream regulation are truly affected remain obscure. Effects of PAR2 activation on gene expression in Human Embryonic Kidney cells (HEK293), a commonly studied cell line in PAR2 research, were investigated here by comparing 19,000 human genes for intersecting up- or down-regulation by both trypsin (an endogenous protease that activates PAR2) and a PAR2 activating hexapeptide (2f-LIGRLO-NH2). Among 2,500 human genes regulated similarly by both agonists, there were clear associations between PAR2 activation and cellular metabolism (1,000 genes), the cell cycle, the MAPK pathway, HDAC and sirtuin enzymes, inflammatory cytokines, and anti-complement function. PAR-2 activation up-regulated four genes more than 5 fold (DUSP6, WWOX, AREG, SERPINB2) and down-regulated another six genes more than 3 fold (TXNIP, RARG, ITGB4, CTSD, MSC and TM4SF15). Both PAR2 and PAR1 activation resulted in up-regulated expression of several genes (CD44, FOSL1, TNFRSF12A, RAB3A, COPEB, CORO1C, THBS1, SDC4) known to be important in cancer. This is the first widespread profiling of specific activation of PAR2 and provides a valuable platform for better understanding key mechanistic roles of PAR2 in human physiology. Results clearly support the development of both antagonists and agonists of human PAR2 as potential disease modifying therapeutic agents. PMID:21072196

Suen, Jacky Y.; Gardiner, Brooke; Grimmond, Sean; Fairlie, David P.

2010-01-01

424

SUR LES RAYONS 03B1 I E LONG PARCOURS MIS PAR LE DEPOT ACTIF DE L'ACTINIUM  

E-print Network

SUR LES RAYONS 03B1 I E LONG PARCOURS ÉMIS PAR LE DEPOT ACTIF DE L'ACTINIUM Par Mme PIERRE CURIE et de rayons 03B1, par unité de temps, que 5 à 8 millicuries de RaC'. ont été utilisées pour rechercher, par la méthode des scintillations, les rayons 03B1 de long parcours. Il est pro- bable que des rayons

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

425

Proteinase-Activated Receptor-1 and Immunomodulatory Effects of a PAR1-Activating Peptide in a Mouse Model of Prostatitis  

PubMed Central

Background. Nonbacterial prostatitis has no established etiology. We hypothesized that proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) can play a role in prostatitis. We therefore investigated the effects of PAR1 stimulation in the context of a new model of murine nonbacterial prostatitis. Methods. Using a hapten (ethanol-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (DNBS-)) induced prostatitis model with both wild-type and PAR1-null mice, we examined (1) the location of PAR1 in the mouse prostate and (2) the impact of a PAR1-activating peptide (TFLLR-NH2: PAR1-TF) on ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation. Results. Ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation was maximal at 2 days. In the tissue, PAR1 was expressed predominantly along the apical acini of prostatic epithelium. Although PAR1-TF on its own did not cause inflammation, its coadministration with ethanol-DNBS reduced all indices of acute prostatitis. Further, PAR1-TF administration doubled the prostatic production of interleukin-10 (IL-10) compared with ethanol-DNBS treatment alone. This enhanced IL-10 was not observed in PAR1-null mice and was not caused by the reverse-sequence receptor-inactive peptide, RLLFT-NH2. Surprisingly, PAR1-TF, also diminished ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation in PAR1-null mice. Conclusions. PAR1 is expressed in the mouse prostate and its activation by PAR1-TF elicits immunomodulatory effects during ethanol-DNBS-induced prostatitis. However, PAR1-TF also diminishes ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation via a non-PAR1 mechanism by activating an as-yet unknown receptor. PMID:24459330

Stanton, M. Mark; Nelson, Lisa K.; Benediktsson, Hallgrimur; Hollenberg, Morley D.; Buret, Andre G.; Ceri, Howard

2013-01-01

426

Alternaria alternata serine proteases induce lung inflammation and airway epithelial cell activation via PAR2  

PubMed Central

Allergens are diverse proteins from mammals, birds, arthropods, plants, and fungi. Allergens associated with asthma (asthmagens) share a common protease activity that may directly impact respiratory epithelial biology and lead to symptoms of asthma. Alternaria alternata is a strong asthmagen in semiarid regions. We examined the impact of proteases from A. alternata on lung inflammation in vivo and on cleaving protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) in vitro. A. alternata filtrate applied to the airway in nonsensitized Balb/c mice induced a protease-dependent lung inflammation. Moreover, A. alternata filtrate applied to human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o-) induced changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), consistent with PAR2 activation. These effects were blocked by heat inactivation or by serine protease inhibition of A. alternata filtrates, and mimicked by PAR2 specific ligands SLIGRL-NH2 or 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2, but not the PAR1-specific ligand TFLLR-NH2. Desensitization of PAR2 in 16HBE14o- cells with 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 or trypsin prevented A. alternata-induced [Ca2+]i changes while desensitization of PAR1, PAR3, and PAR4 with thrombin had no effect on A. alternata-induced Ca2+ responses. Furthermore, the Ca2+ response to A. alternata filtrates was dependent on PAR2 expression in stably transfected HeLa cell models. These data demonstrate that A. alternata proteases act through PAR2 to induce rapid increases in human airway epithelial [Ca2+]i in vitro and cell recruitment in vivo. These responses are likely critical early steps in the development of allergic asthma. PMID:21296894

Flynn, Andrea N.; Sherwood, Cara L.; Schulz, Stephanie M.; Hoffman, Justin; Gruzinova, Irina; Daines, Michael O.

2011-01-01

427

TUDE PAR L'EFFET RAMAN DE MONOCRISTAUX DE SULFATES ACIDES DE POTASSIUM ET D'AMMONIUM  

E-print Network

�TUDE PAR L'EFFET RAMAN DE MONOCRISTAUX DE SULFATES ACIDES DE POTASSIUM ET D'AMMONIUM Par LUCIENNE atomique. Elle a permis, dans le cas du sulfate acide de potassium, de mettre en évidence les deux familles d'ions sulfate de la maille, et de montrer, par comparaison avec les sulfates acides en solution, qu

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

428

COMPTITION FISSION-SPALLATION DANS LES CIBLES DE THORIUM BOMBARDES PAR PROTONS DE 155 MeV  

E-print Network

338. COMPÃ?TITION FISSION-SPALLATION DANS LES CIBLES DE THORIUM BOMBARDÃ?ES PAR PROTONS DE 155 Me isotopes du thorium et de l'actinium, par bombardement de Th 232 par des protons de 155 MeV. Ces sections were made on the formation of several isotopes of thorium, and actinium, by bombarding Th 232 by 155 Me

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

429

SUR LA COLORATION ET LA LUMINESCENCE PRODUITES PAR LE RAYONNEMENT DU RADIUM DANS LES DIVERSES VARITS DE QUARTZ  

E-print Network

SUR LA COLORATION ET LA LUMINESCENCE PRODUITES PAR LE RAYONNEMENT DU RADIUM DANS LES DIVERSES VARI�T�S DE QUARTZ Par CHOONG SHIN-PIAW. Institut du Radium de l'Académie nationale de Peiping et de l concernant les phénomènes de coloration et de luminescence produits par le rayonnement du radium dans les

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

430

Estimation of aerosol direct radiative effects on surface PAR radiation at Xianghe, Northern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In northern China, anthropogenic activities cause emissions of large amount of aerosol particles to the atmosphere. Such particles could alter the radiation balance directly by scattering and absorbing incident solar radiation, thus decrease the amount of light reaching the surface and increase the fraction of diffuse radiation. By using the aerosol data obtained from both the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), aerosol effects on surface photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) are explored in this study. PAR is quantitatively estimated using the NCAR Tropospheric Ultraviolet-Visible (TUV) radiation transfer model, with the influence of clouds taken into account through sunshine-duration data and the diffuse PAR calculated with diffuse radiation empirical models. This method is examined against the observations of PAR under all-sky conditions at Xianghe, northern China, and a significant linear correlation between the measured and estimated PAR is obtained with R of 0.96 and relative error of 8.47%. Aerosol effects on PAR are thus evaluated with this method. Compared with the background aerosol loading (defined as aerosol optical depth = 0.05), the monthly average PAR under present aerosol level for May, June, July and August decreases 20.65, 26.17, 17.38 and 17.84 W/m2 respectively, while the diffuse PAR for the four months increases 14.03, 21.39, 7.29, and 5.44 W/m2 respectively. The mean ratios of global and diffuse PAR under present aerosol level to that under background aerosol loading for this period are 82.9% and 130% respectively. It is found that the diffuse PAR is determined predominantly by clouds and to a lesser extent by aerosol loading. For days with high cloud transmittance, aerosols could significantly increase the diffuse PAR. In contrast, clouds with very low transmittance causes high ratio of diffuse to global PAR, and aerosols could even decrease both global and diffuse PAR. The effects of such changes induced by aerosols on plant productivity would be further studied.

Shao, Siya; Zhang, Jing

2014-05-01

431

Endogenous EPCR/aPC-PAR1 signaling prevents inflammation-induced vascular leakage and lethality  

PubMed Central

Protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) signaling can play opposing roles in sepsis, either promoting dendritic cell (DC)–dependent coagulation and inflammation or reducing sepsis lethality due to activated protein C (aPC) therapy. To further define this PAR1 paradox, we focused on the vascular effects of PAR1 signaling. Pharmacological perturbations of the intravascular coagulant balance were combined with genetic mouse models to dissect the roles of endogenously generated thrombin and aPC during escalating systemic inflammation. Acute blockade of the aPC pathway with a potent inhibitory antibody revealed that thrombin-PAR1 signaling increases inflammation-induced vascular hyperpermeability. Conversely, aPC-PAR1 signaling and the endothelial cell PC receptor (EPCR) prevented vascular leakage, and pharmacologic or genetic blockade of this pathway sensitized mice to LPS-induced lethality. Signaling-selective aPC variants rescued mice with defective PC activation from vascular leakage and lethality. Defects in the aPC pathway were fully compensated by sphingosine 1 phosphate receptor 3 (S1P3) deficiency or by selective agonists of the S1P receptor 1 (S1P1), indicating that PAR1 signaling contributes to setting the tone for the vascular S1P1/S1P3 balance. Thus, the activating proteases and selectivity in coupling to S1P receptor subtypes determine vascular PAR1 signaling specificity in systemic inflammatory response syndromes in vivo. PMID:19141861

Niessen, Frank; Furlan-Freguia, Christian; Fernández, José A.; Mosnier, Laurent O.; Castellino, Francis J.; Weiler, Hartmut; Rosen, Hugh; Griffin, John H.

2009-01-01

432

Evidence for a DNA-relay mechanism in ParABS-mediated chromosome segregation  

PubMed Central

The widely conserved ParABS system plays a major role in bacterial chromosome segregation. How the components of this system work together to generate translocation force and directional motion remains uncertain. Here, we combine biochemical approaches, quantitative imaging and mathematical modeling to examine the mechanism by which ParA drives the translocation of the ParB/parS partition complex in Caulobacter crescentus. Our experiments, together with simulations grounded on experimentally-determined biochemical and cellular parameters, suggest a novel 'DNA-relay' mechanism in which the chromosome plays a mechanical function. In this model, DNA-bound ParA-ATP dimers serve as transient tethers that harness the elastic dynamics of the chromosome to relay the partition complex from one DNA region to another across a ParA-ATP dimer gradient. Since ParA-like proteins are implicated in the partitioning of various cytoplasmic cargos, the conservation of their DNA-binding activity suggests that the DNA-relay mechanism may be a general form of intracellular transport in bacteria. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02758.001 PMID:24859756

Lim, Hoong Chuin; Surovtsev, Ivan Vladimirovich; Beltran, Bruno Gabriel; Huang, Fang; Bewersdorf, Jörg; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

2014-01-01

433

CERCLA interim action at the Par Pond unit: A case study  

SciTech Connect

The Par Pond unit designated under CERCLA consists of sediments within a Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling water reservoir. The sediments are contaminated with radionuclides and nonradioactive constituents from nuclear production reactor operations. The mercury in Par Pond is believed to have originated from the Savannah River. Because of Par Pond Dam safety Issues, the water level of the reservoir was drawn down, exposing more than 1300 acres of contaminated sediments and triggering the need for CERCLA interim remedial action. This paper presents the interim action approach taken with Par Pond as a case study. The approach considered the complexity of the Par Pond ecosystem, the large size of Par Pond, the volume of contaminated sediments, and the institutional controls existing at SRS. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers units with large volumes of low-concentration wastes, as is the case with Par Pond, to be {open_quotes}special sites.{close_quotes} Accordingly, EPA guidance establishes that the range of alternatives developed focus primarily on containment options and other remedial approaches that mitigate potential risks associated with the {open_quotes}special site.{close_quotes} The remedial alternatives, according to EPA, are not to be prohibitively expensive or difficult to implement. This case study also is representative of the types of issues that will need to be addressed within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex as nuclear facilities are transitioned to inactive status and corrective/remedial actions are warranted.

Hickey, H.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Matthews, S.S.; Neal, L.W. [Rust Environment and Infrastructure, Inc., Greenville, SC (United States); Weiss, W.R. [Rust Environment and Infrastructure, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States)

1993-11-01

434

Élaboration de films minces de tellurure de bismuth par voie chimique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La miniaturisation de modules Peltier passe par la recherche de techniques de synthèse appropriées pour l’élaboration de film minces d’alliages de matériaux thermoélectriques. Les procédés de synthèse couramment rencontrés sont basés sur différents principes présentant de nombreux inconvénients techniques. Une technique plus simple d’élaboration par déposition chimique de ces matériaux de type Bi2Te3 sous forme de films minces a été étudiée. Les dépôts ont été effectués à partir de solutions de TeIV et BiIII dissous en milieu nitrique à température ambiante. La réduction de ces cations a été envisagée selon deux voies. D’une part par l’utilisation de différents réducteurs solubles et d’autre part par action de métaux purs. L’influence de la concentration en cations métalliques et le rapport BiIII/TeIV des solutions ont été étudiés. Les produits de synthèse ont été identifiés par diffraction des rayons X, l’aspect des films a été observé par microscopie électronique à balayage. Enfin, la cinétique de croissance d’un film thermoélectrique a été étudiée par suivi gravimétrique pour des temps de déposition assez longs (>30 min) et sur microbalance à quartz pour des temps de déposition courts (< 30 min).

Scidone, L.; Boulanger, C.; Lecuire, J. M.; Diliberto, S.

2004-12-01

435

Cathepsin S Signals via PAR2 and Generates a Novel Tethered Ligand Receptor Agonist  

PubMed Central

Protease-activated receptor-2 is widely expressed in mammalian epithelial, immune and neural tissues. Cleavage of PAR2 by serine proteases leads to self-activation of the receptor by the tethered ligand SLIGRL. The contribution of other classes of proteases to PAR activation has not been studied in detail. Cathepsin S is a widely expressed cysteine protease that is upregulated in inflammatory conditions. It has been suggested that cathepsin S activates PAR2. However, cathepsin S activation of PAR2 has not been demonstrated directly nor has the potential mechanism of activation been identified. We show that cathepsin S cleaves near the N-terminus of PAR2 to expose a novel tethered ligand, KVDGTS. The hexapeptide KVDGTS generates downstream signaling events specific to PAR2 but is weaker than SLIGRL. Mutation of the cathepsin S cleavage site prevents receptor activation by the protease while KVDGTS retains activity. In conclusion, the range of actions previously ascribed to cysteine cathepsins in general, and cathepsin S in particular, should be expanded to include molecular signaling. Such signaling may link together observations that had been attributed previously to PAR2 or cathepsin S individually. These interactions may contribute to inflammation. PMID:24964046

Lerner, Ethan A.

2014-01-01

436

Diagnostic and prognostic significance of CA IX and suPAR in gastric cancer.  

PubMed

This study was intended to evaluate the prognostic and diagnostic significance of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) levels in gastric cancer patients. CA IX and suPAR were analyzed from serum and plasma samples of gastric cancer patients. Fifty patients and 34 controls were enrolled. CA IX and suPAR levels were statistically significantly higher in the patient group (patient; 182.5 ± 212.4, control; 47.3 ± 32, P = 0.0001 and patient; 5.74 ± 5.3, control; 2.27 ± 0.77, P = 0.0001, respectively). CA IX and suPAR levels were higher in metastatic subjects (metastatic; 227.1 ± 273.5, non-metastatic; 147.4 ± 144.1, P > 0.05). Prognosis was worse in the patient group with elevated suPAR. CA IX and especially suPAR are correlated with the presence and stage of the disease. High suPAR levels indicate a poorer prognosis in gastric cancer patients. PMID:23512428

Fidan, Evren; Mentese, Ahmet; Ozdemir, Feyyaz; Deger, Orhan; Kavgaci, Halil; Caner Karahan, S; Aydin, Fazil

2013-06-01

437

Urine suPAR levels compared with plasma suPAR levels as predictors of post-consultation mortality risk among individuals assumed to be TB-negative: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Plasma levels of the inflammatory biomarker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator (suPAR) have been shown to carry prognostic information in various infectious and inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to compare the prognostic value of urine suPAR (U-suPAR) to that of plasma suPAR (P-suPAR), thereby exploring the possibility of replacing the blood sample with an easy obtainable urine sample. We enrolled 1,007 adults, older than 15 years of age, with a negative TB diagnosis between April 2004 and December 2006. Levels of U-suPAR and P-suPAR were available in 863 individuals. U-suPAR was measured using a commercial ELISA (suPARnostic®). We found that U-suPAR carried significant prognostic information on mortality for HIV-infected subjects with an area under the ROC curve of 0.75. For HIV-negative individuals, little or no prognostic effect was observed. However, in both HIV positives and negatives, the predictive effect of U-suPAR was found to be inferior to that of P-suPAR. PMID:20229356

Rabna, Paulo; Andersen, Andreas; Wejse, Christian; Oliveira, Ines; Francisco Gomes, Victor; Bonde Haaland, Maya; Aaby, Peter; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

2010-12-01

438

Small caliber arterial endothelial cells calcium signals elicited by PAR2 are preserved from endothelial dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Endothelial cell (EC)-dependent vasodilation by proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is preserved in small caliber arteries in disease states where vasodilation by muscarinic receptors is decreased. In this study, we identified and characterized the PAR2-mediated intracellular calcium (Ca2+)-release mechanisms in EC from small caliber arteries in healthy and diseased states. Mesenteric arterial EC were isolated from PAR2 wild-type (WT) and null mice, after saline (controls) or angiotensin II (AngII) infusion, for imaging intracellular calcium and characterizing the calcium-release system by immunofluorescence. EC Ca2+ signals comprised two forms of Ca2+-release events that had distinct spatial-temporal properties and occurred near either the plasmalemma (peripheral) or center of EC. In healthy EC, PAR2-dependent increases in the densities and firing rates of both forms of Ca2+-release were abolished by inositol 1,4,5- trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) inhibitor, but partially reduced by transient potential vanilloid channels inhibitor ruthenium red (RR). Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced less overall Ca2+-release than PAR2 activation, but enhanced selectively the incidence of central events. PAR2-dependent Ca2+-activity, inhibitors sensitivities, IP3R, small- and intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channels expressions were unchanged in EC from AngII WT. However, the same cells exhibited decreases in ACh-induced Ca2+-release, RR sensitivity, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression, indicating AngII-induced dysfunction was differentiated by receptor, Ca2+-release, and downstream targets of EC activation. We conclude that PAR2 and muscarinic receptors selectively elicit two elementary Ca2+ signals in single EC. PAR2-selective IP3R-dependent peripheral Ca2+-release mechanisms are identical between healthy and diseased states. Further study of PAR2-selective Ca2+-release for eliciting pathological and/or normal EC functions is warranted. PMID:25729579

Hennessey, John C; Stuyvers, Bruno D; McGuire, John J

2015-01-01

439

Astrocytes Secrete Exosomes Enriched with Proapoptotic Ceramide and Prostate Apoptosis Response 4 (PAR-4)  

PubMed Central

Amyloid protein is well known to induce neuronal cell death, whereas only little is known about its effect on astrocytes. We found that amyloid peptides activated caspase 3 and induced apoptosis in primary cultured astrocytes, which was prevented by caspase 3 inhibition. Apoptosis was also prevented by shRNA-mediated down-regulation of PAR-4, a protein sensitizing cells to the sphingolipid ceramide. Consistent with a potentially proapoptotic effect of PAR-4 and ceramide, astrocytes surrounding amyloid plaques in brain sections of the 5xFAD mouse (and Alzheimer disease patient brain) showed caspase 3 activation and were apoptotic when co-expressing PAR-4 and ceramide. Apoptosis was not observed in astrocytes with deficient neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2), indicating that ceramide generated by nSMase2 is critical for amyloid-induced apoptosis. Antibodies against PAR-4 and ceramide prevented amyloid-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that apoptosis was mediated by exogenous PAR-4 and ceramide, potentially associated with secreted lipid vesicles. This was confirmed by the analysis of lipid vesicles from conditioned medium showing that amyloid peptide induced the secretion of PAR-4 and C18 ceramide-enriched exosomes. Exosomes were not secreted by nSMase2-deficient astrocytes, indicating that ceramide generated by nSMase2 is critical for exosome secretion. Consistent with the ceramide composition in amyloid-induced exosomes, exogenously added C18 ceramide restored PAR-4-containing exosome secretion in nSMase2-deficient astrocytes. Moreover, isolated PAR-4/ceramide-enriched exosomes were taken up by astrocytes and induced apoptosis in the absence of amyloid peptide. Taken together, we report a novel mechanism of apoptosis induction by PAR-4/ceramide-enriched exosomes, which may critically contribute to Alzheimer disease. PMID:22532571

Wang, Guanghu; Dinkins, Michael; He, Qian; Zhu, Gu; Poirier, Christophe; Campbell, Andrew; Mayer-Proschel, Margot; Bieberich, Erhard

2012-01-01

440

Small caliber arterial endothelial cells calcium signals elicited by PAR2 are preserved from endothelial dysfunction.  

PubMed

Endothelial cell (EC)-dependent vasodilation by proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is preserved in small caliber arteries in disease states where vasodilation by muscarinic receptors is decreased. In this study, we identified and characterized the PAR2-mediated intracellular calcium (Ca(2+))-release mechanisms in EC from small caliber arteries in healthy and diseased states. Mesenteric arterial EC were isolated from PAR2 wild-type (WT) and null mice, after saline (controls) or angiotensin II (AngII) infusion, for imaging intracellular calcium and characterizing the calcium-release system by immunofluorescence. EC Ca(2+) signals comprised two forms of Ca(2+)-release events that had distinct spatial-temporal properties and occurred near either the plasmalemma (peripheral) or center of EC. In healthy EC, PAR2-dependent increases in the densities and firing rates of both forms of Ca(2+)-release were abolished by inositol 1,4,5- trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) inhibitor, but partially reduced by transient potential vanilloid channels inhibitor ruthenium red (RR). Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced less overall Ca(2+)-release than PAR2 activation, but enhanced selectively the incidence of central events. PAR2-dependent Ca(2+)-activity, inhibitors sensitivities, IP3R, small- and intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels expressions were unchanged in EC from AngII WT. However, the same cells exhibited decreases in ACh-induced Ca(2+)-release, RR sensitivity, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression, indicating AngII-induced dysfunction was differentiated by receptor, Ca(2+)-release, and downstream targets of EC activation. We conclude that PAR2 and muscarinic receptors selectively elicit two elementary Ca(2+) signals in single EC. PAR2-selective IP3R-dependent peripheral Ca(2+)-release mechanisms are identical between healthy and diseased states. Further study of PAR2-selective Ca(2+)-release for eliciting pathological and/or normal EC functions is warranted. PMID:25729579

Hennessey, John C; Stuyvers, Bruno D; McGuire, John J

2015-03-01