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  1. Glycosylation Effects on FSH-FSHR Interaction Dynamics: A Case Study of Different FSH Glycoforms by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Meher, Biswa Ranjan; Dixit, Anshuman; Bousfield, George R.; Lushington, Gerald H.

    2015-01-01

    The gonadotropin known as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) plays a key role in regulating reproductive processes. Physiologically active FSH is a glycoprotein that can accommodate glycans on up to four asparagine residues, including two sites in the FSH? subunit that are critical for biochemical function, plus two sites in the ? subunit, whose differential glycosylation states appear to correspond to physiologically distinct functions. Some degree of FSH? hypo-glycosylation seems to confer advantages toward reproductive fertility of child-bearing females. In order to identify possible mechanistic underpinnings for this physiological difference we have pursued computationally intensive molecular dynamics simulations on complexes between the high affinity site of the gonadal FSH receptor (FSHR) and several FSH glycoforms including fully-glycosylated (FSH24), hypo-glycosylated (e.g., FSH15), and completely deglycosylated FSH (dgFSH). These simulations suggest that deviations in FSH/FSHR binding profile as a function of glycosylation state are modest when FSH is adorned with only small glycans, such as single N-acetylglucosamine residues. However, substantial qualitative differences emerge between FSH15 and FSH24 when FSH is decorated with a much larger, tetra-antennary glycan. Specifically, the FSHR complex with hypo-glycosylated FSH15 is observed to undergo a significant conformational shift after 5–10 ns of simulation, indicating that FSH15 has greater conformational flexibility than FSH24 which may explain the more favorable FSH15 kinetic profile. FSH15 also exhibits a stronger binding free energy, due in large part to formation of closer and more persistent salt-bridges with FSHR. PMID:26402790

  2. FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone) Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... FSH and LH may be ordered when a boy or girl does not appear to be entering puberty at ... hair Growth of the testicles and penis in boys Beginning of menstruation in girls ^ Back to top What does the test result ...

  3. Breed differences in clearance of porcine FSH in hypophysectomized rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extracts of anterior pituitary (AP) glands were infused iv into hypophysectomized male rats followed by sequential sampling of blood for 120 min. Determination of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations established that FSH from Chinese Meishan males decreased in the circulation of rats mo...

  4. FSH stimulates IRS-2 expression in human granulosa cells through cAMP/SP1, an inoperative FSH action in PCOS patients.

    PubMed

    Anjali, G; Kaur, Surleen; Lakra, Ruchi; Taneja, Jyoti; Kalsey, Gaganjot S; Nagendra, Anjali; Shrivastav, T G; Gouri Devi, M; Malhotra, Neena; Kriplani, Alka; Singh, Rita

    2015-12-01

    Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) plays a central role in growth and differentiation of ovarian follicles. A plethora of information exists on molecular aspects of FSH responses but little is known about the mechanisms involved in its cross-talk with insulin/IGF-1 pathways implicated in the coordination of energy homeostasis in preovulatory granulosa cells (GCs). In this study, we hypothesized that FSH may regulate IRS-2 expression and thereby maintain the energy balance in GCs. We demonstrate here that FSH specifically increases IRS-2 expression in human and rat GCs. FSH-stimulated IRS-2 expression was inhibited by actinomycin D or cycloheximide. Furthermore, FSH decreases IRS-2 mRNA degradation indicating post-transcriptional stabilization. Herein, we demonstrate a role of cAMP pathway in the activation of IRS-2 expression by FSH. Scan and activity analysis of IRS-2 promoter demonstrated that FSH regulates IRS-2 expression through SP1 binding sites. FSH stimulates SP1 translocation into nucleus and its binding to IRS-2 promoter. These results are corroborated by the fact that siRNA mediated knockdown of IRS-2 decreased the FSH-stimulated PI3K activity, p-Akt levels, GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake. However, FSH was not able to increase IRS-2 expression in GCs from PCOS women undergoing IVF. Interestingly, IRS-2 mRNA expression was downregulated in GCs from the PCOS rat model. Taken together, our findings establish that FSH induces IRS-2 expression and thereby activates PI3K, Akt and glucose uptake. Crucially, our data confirms a molecular defect in FSH action in PCOS GCs which may cause deceleration of metabolism and follicular growth leading to infertility. These results lend support for a therapeutic potential of IRS-2 in the management of PCOS. PMID:26388164

  5. Fsh controls gene expression in fish both independently of and through steroid mediation.

    PubMed

    Sambroni, Elisabeth; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques; Le Gac, Florence

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms and the mediators relaying Fsh action on testicular functions are poorly understood. Unlike in mammals, in fish both gonadotropins (Fsh and Lh) are able to efficiently stimulate steroidogenesis, likely through a direct interaction with their cognate receptors present on the Leydig cells. In this context, it is crucial to understand if Fsh effects are mediated through the production of steroids. To address this issue we performed transcriptome studies after in vitro incubations of rainbow trout testis explants in the presence of Fsh alone or in combination with trilostane, an inhibitor of ?4- steroidogenesis. Trilostane significantly reduced or suppressed the response of many genes to Fsh (like wisp1, testis gapdhs, cldn11, inha, vt1 or dmrt1) showing that, in fish, important aspects of Fsh action follow indirect pathways and require the production of ?4-steroids. What is more, most of the genes regulated by Fsh through steroid mediation were similarly regulated by Lh (and/or androgens). In contrast, the response to Fsh of other genes was not suppressed in the presence of trilostane. These latter included genes encoding for anti-mullerian hormone, midkine a (pleiotrophin related), angiopoietine-related protein, cyclins E1 and G1, hepatocyte growth factor activator, insulin-like growth factor 1b/3. A majority of those genes were preferentially regulated by Fsh, when compared to Lh, suggesting that specific regulatory effects of Fsh did not depend on steroid production. Finally, antagonistic effects between Fsh and steroids were found, in particular for genes encoding key factors of steroidogenesis (star, hsd3b1, cyp11b2-2) or for genes of the Igf system (igf1b/3). Our study provides the first clear evidence that, in fish, Fsh exerts ?4-steroid-independent regulatory functions on many genes which are highly relevant for the onset of spermatogenesis. PMID:24194844

  6. FSH treatment of male idiopathic infertility improves pregnancy rate: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Santi, D; Granata, A R M; Simoni, M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study is to comprehensively evaluate whether FSH administration to the male partner of infertile couples improves pregnancy rate, spontaneously and/or after assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Methods Meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials in which FSH was administered for male idiopathic infertility, compared with placebo or no treatment. Randomization was not considered as an inclusion criterion. Results We found 15 controlled clinical studies (614 men treated with FSH and 661 treated with placebo or untreated). Concerning the type of FSH, eight studies used recombinant FSH, whereas seven studies used purified FSH. Nine studies evaluated spontaneous pregnancy rate, resulting in an overall odds ratio (OR) of about 4.5 (CI: 2.17–9.33). Eight studies evaluated pregnancy rate after ART, showing a significant OR of 1.60 (CI: 1.08–2.37). Sub-dividing studies according to the FSH preparations (purified/recombinant), pregnancy rate improvement remained significant for each preparation. Eleven studies considered sperm quality after FSH treatment, finding a significant improvement of sperm concentration (2.66×106/ml, CI: 0.47–4.84), but not of concentration of sperm with progressive motility (1.22×106/ml, CI: ?0.07 to 2.52). Three trials evaluated testicular volume, showing a non-significant increase in men treated (1.35?ml, CI: ?0.44 to 3.14). Conclusion The results of controlled clinical trials available in the literature indicate an improvement of pregnancy rate after FSH administration to the male partner of infertile couples, both spontaneously and after ART. However, the heterogeneity of studies, the high risk of bias and the lack of precise criteria to guide FSH administration limit the strength of these results. Future studies should be designed to identify the markers of FSH response which are helpful in the decision-making process. Meanwhile, the use of FSH in the treatment of male infertility should be cautious. PMID:26113521

  7. Serum FSH bioactivity and inhibin levels in patients with gonadotropin secreting and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Borgato, S; Persani, L; Romoli, R; Cortelazzi, D; Spada, A; Beck-Peccoz, P

    1998-06-01

    It has been reported that serum FSH bioactivity and inhibin levels can be used as markers of the presence of true gonadotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma (Gn-oma). To verify this hypothesis, we have investigated the bioactivity of FSH and serum inhibin alpha-alpha and alpha-beta A levels in a series of patients with either Gn-oma or nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA). Nine patients with Gn-oma (6 men and 3 women), 21 with NFPA (9 men and 12 women) and 30 normal subjects were included in the study. We studied FSH biological activity (FSH-B) by using Sertoli cell aromatase bioassay (SAB) and alpha-alpha and alpha-beta A inhibin levels by two noncompetitive immunometric assays (IEMA). In male patients with Gn-oma, serum immunoreactive FSH (FSH-I) and FSH-B levels ranged from 5.1 to 35.5 U/L and from 8.3 to 48 U/L, respectively, FSH B/I ratio being elevated in 2 (2.5 and 4.1; normal male range: 0.3-1.5), while female patients with Gn-oma had serum FSH-I and FSH-B levels ranging from 43.2 to 162 U/L and from 41.2 to 112.8 U/l, respectively, with a normal FSH B/I ratio. In male patients with NFPA, FSH-I and FSH-B levels ranged from 2.7 to 10.7 U/l and from 2.4 to 11.4 U/l while in females they ranged from 3.4 to 67.9 and from 4.6 to 60.8 U/l, respectively. FSH B/I ratio was elevated in 1 male (3.3) and normal in the remaining patients with NFPA. Serum alpha-alpha inhibin levels were normal or low in patients with Gn-oma and NFPA, while alpha-beta A inhibin concentrations were slightly elevated in 1 of 6 postmenopausal women (0.9; normal range < 0.7 U/ml). The present study confirms and extends previous reports indicating that male patients with Gn-oma may secrete FSH molecules with increased bioactivity. However, this abnormality was also observed in one male patient with NFPA. Moreover, the measurement of inhibin levels does not appear to be a reliable in vivo marker of pituitary tumors of gonadotroph origin, as it was normal or low in almost all patients with either Gn-oma or NFPA. PMID:9699129

  8. Characterization of FSH signalling networks in bovine cumulus cells: a perspective on oocyte competence acquisition.

    PubMed

    Khan, D R; Guillemette, C; Sirard, M A; Richard, F J

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the mechanisms regulating oocyte developmental competence is essential to enhance the clinical efficiency of assisted reproduction. FSH orchestrates the acquisition of oocyte competence, both in vivo and in vitro. Multiple pathways are implicated in FSH signalling; however, their precise coordination remains unresolved. A robust system to investigate FSH signalling is oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) and we have previously demonstrated better bovine embryo development after FSH addition for the first 6 h during IVM. Using this model, we investigated FSH signalling in cumulus through transcriptomic and pharmacological tools. We demonstrate modulation of cumulus transcriptome by FSH mainly through protein kinase A (PKA) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) pathways. Differentially expressed transcripts were implicated in cumulus expansion, steroidogenesis, cell metabolism and oocyte competence. FSH required rouse-sarcoma oncogene (SRC) for EGF receptor transactivation. PKA and EGF pathway crosstalk was investigated using extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) phosphorylation as the functional end-point. FSH enhanced ERK1/2 activation by the EGF pathway with a simultaneous diminution through PKA. More specifically, FSH increased dual specific phosphatase (DUSP1) transcripts via PKA although DUSP1 protein did not change since EGF was required to prevent degradation. Our findings implicate FSH in PKA and EGF pathway activation, which interact to maintain appropriate levels of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and eventually cumulus expansion, metabolism and steroidogenesis. Moreover, considering the implication of the EGF pathway in GDF9 and BMP15 actions, our findings suggest that FSH may have a role in modulation of the cumulus response to oocyte-secreted factors. This information has implications for improvement of IVM and hence oocyte developmental competence. PMID:26113519

  9. Development of a flatfish-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Fsh using a recombinant chimeric gonadotropin.

    PubMed

    Chauvigné, François; Verdura, Sara; Mazón, María José; Boj, Mónica; Zanuy, Silvia; Gómez, Ana; Cerdà, Joan

    2015-09-15

    In flatfishes with asynchronous and semicystic spermatogenesis, such as the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis), the specific roles of the pituitary gonadotropins during germ cell development, particularly of the follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh), are still largely unknown in part due to the lack of homologous immunoassays for this hormone. In this study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Senegalese sole Fsh was developed by generating a rabbit antiserum against a recombinant chimeric single-chain Fsh molecule (rFsh-C) produced by the yeast Pichia pastoris. The rFsh-C N- and C-termini were formed by the mature sole Fsh ? subunit (Fsh?) and the chicken glycoprotein hormone common ? subunit (CGA), respectively. Depletion of the antiserum to remove anti-CGA antibodies further enriched the sole Fsh?-specific antibodies, which were used to develop the ELISA using the rFsh-C for the standard curve. The sensitivity of the assay was 10 and 50pg/ml for Fsh measurement in plasma and pituitary, respectively, and the cross-reactivity with a homologous recombinant single-chain luteinizing hormone was 1%. The standard curve for rFsh-C paralleled those of serially diluted plasma and pituitary extracts of other flatfishes, such as the Atlantic halibut, common sole and turbot. In Senegalese sole males, the highest plasma Fsh levels were found during early spermatogenesis but declined during enhanced spermiation, as found in teleosts with cystic spermatogenesis. In pubertal males, however, the circulating Fsh levels were as high as in adult spermiating fish, but interestingly the Fsh receptor in the developing testis containing only spermatogonia was expressed in Leydig cells but not in the primordial Sertoli cells. These results indicate that a recombinant chimeric Fsh can be used to generate specific antibodies against the Fsh? subunit and to develop a highly sensitive ELISA for Fsh measurements in diverse flatfishes. PMID:25449660

  10. Immunization with FSH? fusion protein antigen prevents bone loss in a rat ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis model

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Wenxin; Yan, Xingrong; Du, Huicong; Cui, Jihong; Li, Liwen Chen, Fulin

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •A GST-FSH fusion protein was successfully expressed in E. coli. •Immunization with GST-FSH antigen can raise high-titer anti-FSH polyclonal sera. •Anti-FSH polyclonal sera can neutralize osteoclastogenic effect of FSH in vitro. •FSH immunization can prevent bone loss in a rat osteoporosis model. -- Abstract: Osteoporosis, a metabolic bone disease, threatens postmenopausal women globally. Hormone replacement therapy (HTR), especially estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), is used widely in the clinic because it has been generally accepted that postmenopausal osteoporosis is caused by estrogen deficiency. However, hypogonadal ? and ? estrogen receptor null mice were only mildly osteopenic, and mice with either receptor deleted had normal bone mass, indicating that estrogen may not be the only mediator that induces osteoporosis. Recently, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), the serum concentration of which increases from the very beginning of menopause, has been found to play a key role in postmenopausal osteoporosis by promoting osteoclastogenesis. In this article, we confirmed that exogenous FSH can enhance osteoclast differentiation in vitro and that this effect can be neutralized by either an anti-FSH monoclonal antibody or anti-FSH polyclonal sera raised by immunizing animals with a recombinant GST-FSH? fusion protein antigen. Moreover, immunizing ovariectomized rats with the GST-FSH? antigen does significantly prevent trabecular bone loss and thereby enhance the bone strength, indicating that a FSH-based vaccine may be a promising therapeutic strategy to slow down bone loss in postmenopausal women.

  11. Fasting lowers gastrin-releasing peptide and Fsh mRNA in the ovine anterior pituitary gland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estrogen receptor beta (ER-ß), LH, and FSH are important mediators of reproduction. FSH stimulates follicle recruitment and development. During anorexia, serum concentrations of FSH and LH decrease. Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), neuromedin B (NMB), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma...

  12. Fasting lowers gastrin-releasing peptide and FSH mRNA in the ovine anterior pituitary gland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estrogen receptor beta (ER-ß), LH, and FSH are important mediators of reproduction. FSH stimulates follicle recruitment and development. During anorexia, serum concentrations of FSH and LH decrease. Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), neuromedin B (NMB), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma...

  13. Impaired Fertility and FSH Synthesis in Gonadotrope-Specific Foxl2 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Stella; Zhou, Xiang; Lafleur, Christine; Calderon, Michael J.; Ellsworth, Buffy S.; Kimmins, Sarah; Boehm, Ulrich; Treier, Mathias; Boerboom, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Impairments in pituitary FSH synthesis or action cause infertility. However, causes of FSH dysregulation are poorly described, in part because of our incomplete understanding of mechanisms controlling FSH synthesis. Previously, we discovered a critical role for forkhead protein L2 (FOXL2) in activin-stimulated FSH ?-subunit (Fshb) transcription in immortalized cells in vitro. Here, we tested the hypothesis that FOXL2 is required for FSH synthesis in vivo. Using a Cre/lox approach, we selectively ablated Foxl2 in murine anterior pituitary gonadotrope cells. Conditional knockout (cKO) mice developed overtly normally but were subfertile in adulthood. Testis size and spermatogenesis were significantly impaired in cKO males. cKO females exhibited reduced ovarian weight and ovulated fewer oocytes in natural estrous cycles compared with controls. In contrast, ovaries of juvenile cKO females showed normal responses to exogenous gonadotropin stimulation. Both male and female cKO mice were FSH deficient, secondary to diminished pituitary Fshb mRNA production. Basal and activin-stimulated Fshb expression was similarly impaired in Foxl2 depleted primary pituitary cultures. Collectively, these data definitively establish FOXL2 as the first identified gonadotrope-restricted transcription factor required for selective FSH synthesis in vivo. PMID:23340250

  14. Single nucleotide polymorphism of FSH? gene associated with reproductive traits in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Feng; Wen, Haishen; Yu, Dahui; Li, Jifang; Shi, Bao; Chen, Caifang; Zhang, Jiaren; Jin, Guoxiong; Chen, Xiaoyan; Shi, Dan; Yang, Yanping

    2010-12-01

    Follicle stimulating hormone ? (FSH?) of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) plays a key role in the regulation of gonadal development. This study aimed to investigate molecular genetic characteristics of the FSH? gene and elucidate the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FSH? on reproductive traits in Japanese flounder. We used polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and sequencing of the FSH? gene in 60 individuals. We identified only an SNP (T/C) in the coding region of exon3 of FSH?. The SNP (T/C) did not lead to amino acid changes at the position 340 bp of FSH? gene. Statistical analysis showed that the SNP was significantly associated with testosterone (T) level and gonadosomatic index (GSI) ( P < 0.05). Individuals with genotype TC of the SNP had significantly higher serum T levels and GSI ( P < 0.05) than that of genotype CC. Therefore, FSH? gene could be a useful molecular marker in selection for prominent reproductive trait in Japanese Flounder.

  15. FSH RESIDENT MANUAL 2015-16 University of California Santa Cruz

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    will lose the privilege for one year. Contact FSH Office for complete guidelines on this policy. Alcohol Alcohol use and consumption is allowed in accordance with university policy. Alcohol consumption and open

  16. Dynamic changes in glycosylation and glycan composition of serum FSH and LH during natural ovarian stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Background Glycosylation and glycan composition are of fundamental importance for the biological properties of FSH and LH. The aim of this study was to determine the glycosylation, sialylation, and sulfonation of serum FSH and LH throughout the normal menstrual cycle. Methods Serum samples were collected from 79 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles. The mean numbers of anionic monosaccharide (AMS), sialic acid (SA), and sulfonated N-acetylgalactosamine (SU) residues per FSH and LH molecule were estimated for all sera with methods based on electrophoreses, neuraminidase treatments, and fluoroimmunoassays of the gonadotrophins. Results Di-glycosylated glycoforms (FSHdi, LHdi) were detected in serum in addition to tetra-glycosylated FSH (FSHtetra) and tri-glycosylated LH (LHtri). FSHdi exhibited two peaks: one on day 5 to 7 and one, more pronounced, at midcycle. FSHtetra plateaued at a high concentration from day 5 to 15, without a midcycle peak. There were lower concentrations of LHdi than LHtri, except at midcycle when the opposite occurred. The mean numbers of SA and SU residues per molecule of FSH and LH in serum showed four different patterns during the cycle, all with highly significant (P < 0.0001) differences between levels at different phases of the cycle. The pattern of SA residues on FSH was ‘M’-shaped, and that of SU on LH ‘V’-shaped. Conclusion Serum FSH and LH governing the natural ovarian stimulation process exhibited dynamic changes of glycosylation and glycan composition. This new information on the FSH and LH molecular structures may lead to more successful mono-ovulatory treatment regimens for ovulation induction in anovulatory women. PMID:23527482

  17. Greater amberjack Fsh, Lh, and their receptors: Plasma and mRNA profiles during ovarian development.

    PubMed

    Nyuji, Mitsuo; Kazeto, Yukinori; Izumida, Daisuke; Tani, Kosuke; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Hamada, Kazuhisa; Mekuchi, Miyuki; Gen, Koichiro; Soyano, Kiyoshi; Okuzawa, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    To understand the endocrine regulation of ovarian development in a multiple spawning fish, the relationship between gonadotropins (Gths; follicle-stimulating hormone [Fsh] and luteinizing hormone [Lh]) and their receptors (Gthrs; Fshr and Lhr) were investigated in greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili). cDNAs encoding the Gth subunits (Fsh?, Lh?, and glycoprotein ? [Gp?]) and Gthrs were cloned. The in vitro reporter gene assay using recombinant hormones revealed that greater amberjack Fshr and Lhr responded strongly to their own ligands. Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were developed for measuring greater amberjack Fsh and Lh. Anti-Fsh and anti-Lh antibodies were raised against recombinant chimeric single-chain Gths consisting of greater amberjack Fsh? (or Lh?) with rabbit GP?. The validation study showed that the ELISAs were precise (intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variation, <10%) and sensitive (detection limit of 0.2ng/ml for Fsh and 0.8ng/ml for Lh) with low cross-reactivity. A good parallelism between the standard curve and serial dilutions of greater amberjack plasma and pituitary extract were obtained. In female greater amberjack, pituitary fshb, ovarian fshr, and plasma E2 gradually increased during ovarian development, and plasma Fsh significantly increased during the post-spawning period. This suggests that Fsh plays a role throughout ovarian development and during the post-spawning period. Pituitary lhb, ovarian lhr, and plasma Lh were high during the spawning period, suggesting that the synthesis and secretion of Lh, and Lhr expression are upregulated to induce final oocyte maturation and ovulation. PMID:26519759

  18. Redirecting intracellular trafficking and the secretion pattern of FSH dramatically enhances ovarian function in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huizhen; Larson, Melissa; Jablonka-Shariff, Albina; Pearl, Christopher A.; Miller, William L.; Conn, P. Michael; Boime, Irving; Kumar, T. Rajendra

    2014-01-01

    FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH) are secreted constitutively or in pulses, respectively, from pituitary gonadotropes in many vertebrates, and regulate ovarian function. The molecular basis for this evolutionarily conserved gonadotropin-specific secretion pattern is not understood. Here, we show that the carboxyterminal heptapeptide in LH is a gonadotropin-sorting determinant in vivo that directs pulsatile secretion. FSH containing this heptapeptide enters the regulated pathway in gonadotropes of transgenic mice, and is released in response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone, similar to LH. FSH released from the LH secretory pathway rescued ovarian defects in Fshb-null mice as efficiently as constitutively secreted FSH. Interestingly, the rerouted FSH enhanced ovarian follicle survival, caused a dramatic increase in number of ovulations, and prolonged female reproductive lifespan. Furthermore, the rerouted FSH vastly improved the in vivo fertilization competency of eggs, their subsequent development in vitro and when transplanted, the ability to produce offspring. Our study demonstrates the feasibility to fine-tune the target tissue responses by modifying the intracellular trafficking and secretory fate of a pituitary trophic hormone. The approach to interconvert the secretory fate of proteins in vivo has pathophysiological significance, and could explain the etiology of several hormone hyperstimulation and resistance syndromes. PMID:24706813

  19. In vivo oocyte recovery and in vitro embryo production from bovine oocyte donors treated with progestagen, oestradiol and FSH.

    PubMed

    Goodhand, K L; Staines, M E; Hutchinson, J S; Broadbent, P J

    2000-11-01

    The effect of treatment of donor cattle with progestagen and oestradiol or FSH on in vivo oocyte recovery and in vitro embryo production was studied. Forty-eight beefxFriesian cows formed eight replicates of six treatments in a 2 (no steroid versus steroid)x3 (none, single or multiple dose(s) of FSH) factorial design in which follicles were aspirated once weekly for 3 weeks. Oocytes were graded, washed, matured for 20-24h and then inseminated with frozen/thawed semen from a single sire followed by coculture on granulosa cell monolayers. Treatment with steroid had no significant effect on any follicular, oocyte or embryo production variate other than to reduce the number (P<0.05) and the diameter of large follicles>10mm (P<0.01) present at aspiration. FSH increased numbers of medium (6-10mm) and large follicles (P<0.01) and there was a corresponding decrease in the number of small follicles (2-5mm; P<0. 01). The total number of follicles at aspiration increased from 17. 7+/-1.60 for animals not treated with FSH to 23.6+/-1.97 following multiple dose treatment with FSH (P<0.05). Significantly, more follicles were aspirated following FSH treatment (no FSH 9.7+/-1.09, single dose FSH 13.6+/-1.30, multiple dose FSH 17.3+/-1.52; P<0.05) and numbers of oocytes recovered per cow per week increased (no FSH 4.1+/-0.76, single dose FSH 5.3+/-0.87, multiple dose FSH 5.9+/-0. 94) but the differences were not significant. Significantly, more good oocytes (Category 1) were recovered from animals treated with FSH (P<0.05). There was no overall significant effect of FSH on embryo production rate or the total number of transferable embryos produced but the number of transferable embryos was highest following administration of multiple doses of FSH. In conclusion, progestagen plus oestradiol 17beta treatment did not affect follicle, oocyte and embryo production of oocyte donors aspirated once per week. FSH treatment, however, significantly increased the number of follicles aspirated and Category 1 oocytes recovered. Multiple dose administration of FSH resulted in the production of the highest number of transferable embryos but this effect was not significant. PMID:10989225

  20. BERKELEY PAR LABBERKELEY PAR LAB Where we ended up

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    BERKELEY PAR LABBERKELEY PAR LAB Par Lab: Where we ended up Krste Asanovic, Ras Bodik, Jim Demmel, David Wessel, and Kathy Yelick UC Berkeley Par Lab End-of-Project Party May 30, 2013 #12;BERKELEY PAR LAB Par Lab Timeline 2 Initial Meetings "Berkeley View" Techreport Win UPCRC Competition UPCRC Phase

  1. Differential thermal stability of human, bovine and ovine Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) quaternary structures.

    PubMed

    Haj Hassan, Maya; Cahoreau, Claire; Jégot, Gwenhael; Jouanny, Camille; Mariot, Julie; Lecompte, François; Klett, Danièle; Combarnous, Yves

    2015-02-01

    Quaternary structure of human, bovine and ovine Follicle-Stimulating Hormones (hFSH, bFSH and oFSH) and Luteinizing Hormone was assessed in sandwich ELISAs using monoclonal anti-oFSH? or anti-oLH? antibodies, respectively, for capture and a biotinylated anti-hFSH? (?4 epitope) for detection. Neither free subunit gave any signal in this assay so that it was possible to measure the residual heterodimeric fraction after thermal treatment of the gonadotropins under study. The hormones were subjected to 5-min heating between 37 and 90 °C before rapid cooling in melting ice before ELISA. The data show half-dissociation of natural and recombinant human and ovine FSH preparations between 68 and 74 °C whereas bovine FSH preparations exhibited lower stability in these conditions with half-dissociation between 61 and 64 °C. Moreover, whereas all human and bovine as well as most ovine FSH preparations were fully dissociated at temperatures above 80 °C, one natural oFSH and one recombinant hLH preparations contained an important fraction that resisted dissociation even at 93 °C and retained in vitro bioactivity. This suggests the existence of gonadotropin ?? heterodimer with covalently linked subunits. Similarly, about 20% of the recombinant hLH preparation was also found withstand heat denaturation and also probably to have cross-linked subunits. The origin and chemical nature of these inter-subunit bonds remain to be determined. PMID:24732063

  2. Contribution of FSH and triiodothyronine to the development of circadian clocks during granulosa cell maturation.

    PubMed

    Chu, Guiyan; Misawa, Izumi; Chen, Huatao; Yamauchi, Nobuhiko; Shigeyoshi, Yasufumi; Hashimoto, Seiichi; Hattori, Masa-Aki

    2012-03-15

    The involvement of FSH and triiodothyronine (T(3)) in circadian clocks was investigated using immature granulosa cells of ovaries during the progress of cell maturation. Granulosa cells were prepared from preantral follicles of mouse Period2 (Per2)-dLuc reporter gene transgenic rats injected subcutaneously with the synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen diethylstilbestrol. Analysis of the cellular clock of the immature granulosa cells was performed partly using a serum-free culture system. Several bioluminescence oscillations of Per2-dLuc promoter activity were generated in the presence of FSH + fetal bovine serum, but not in the presence of either FSH or serum. As revealed by bioluminescence recording and analysis of clock gene expression, the granulosa cells lack the functional cellular clock at the immature stage, although Lhr was greatly expressed during the period of cell maturation. The granulosa cells gained a strong circadian rhythm of bioluminescence during stimulation with FSH, whereas LH reset the cellular clock of matured granulosa cells. During strong circadian rhythms of clock genes, the Star gene showed significant expression in matured granulosa cells. In contrast, T(3) showed an inhibitory effect on the development of the functional cellular clock during the period of cell maturation. These results indicate that FSH provides a cue for the development of the functional cellular clock of the immature granulosa cells, and T(3) blocks the development of the cellular clock. PMID:22205630

  3. FSH in vitro versus LH in vivo: similar genomic effects on the cumulus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The use of gonadotropins to trigger oocyte maturation both in vivo and in vitro has provided precious and powerful knowledge that has significantly increased our understanding of the ovarian function. Moreover, the efficacy of most assisted reproductive technologies (ART) used in both humans and livestock species relies on gonadotropin input, mainly FSH and LH. Despite the significant progress achieved and the huge impact of gonadotropins, the exact molecular pathways of the two pituitary hormones, FSH and LH, still remain poorly understood. Moreover, these pathways may not be the same when moving from the in vivo to the in vitro context. This misunderstanding of the intricate synergy between these two hormones leads to a lack of consensus about their use mainly in vitro or in ovulation induction schedules in vivo. In order to optimize their use, additional work is thus required with a special focus on comparing the in vitro versus the in vivo effects. In this context, this overview will briefly summarize the downstream gene expression pathways induced by both FSH in vitro and LH in vivo in the cumulus compartment. Based on recent microarray comparative analysis, we are reporting that in vitro FSH stimulation on cumulus cells appears to achieve at least part of the gene expression activity after in vivo LH stimulation. We are then proposing that the in vitro FSH-response of cumulus cells have similitudes with the in vivo LH-response. PMID:24066945

  4. Pubertal Onset in Girls is Strongly Influenced by Genetic Variation Affecting FSH Action

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Casper P.; Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Mouritsen, Annette; Mieritz, Mikkel G.; Tinggaard, Jeanette; Wohlfart-Veje, Christine; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Main, Katharina M.; Meyts, Ewa Rajpert-De; Almstrup, Kristian; Juul, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Age at pubertal onset varies substantially in healthy girls. Although genetic factors are responsible for more than half of the phenotypic variation, only a small part has been attributed to specific genetic polymorphisms identified so far. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates ovarian follicle maturation and estradiol synthesis which is responsible for breast development. We assessed the effect of three polymorphisms influencing FSH action on age at breast deveopment in a population-based cohort of 964 healthy girls. Girls homozygous for FSHR -29AA (reduced FSH receptor expression) entered puberty 7.4 (2.5–12.4) months later than carriers of the common variants FSHR -29GG+GA, p = 0.003. To our knowledge, this is the strongest genetic effect on age at pubertal onset in girls published to date. PMID:25231187

  5. Pubertal onset in girls is strongly influenced by genetic variation affecting FSH action.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Casper P; Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Mouritsen, Annette; Mieritz, Mikkel G; Tinggaard, Jeanette; Wohlfart-Veje, Christine; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Main, Katharina M; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Almstrup, Kristian; Juul, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Age at pubertal onset varies substantially in healthy girls. Although genetic factors are responsible for more than half of the phenotypic variation, only a small part has been attributed to specific genetic polymorphisms identified so far. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates ovarian follicle maturation and estradiol synthesis which is responsible for breast development. We assessed the effect of three polymorphisms influencing FSH action on age at breast deveopment in a population-based cohort of 964 healthy girls. Girls homozygous for FSHR -29AA (reduced FSH receptor expression) entered puberty 7.4 (2.5-12.4) months later than carriers of the common variants FSHR -29GG+GA, p = 0.003. To our knowledge, this is the strongest genetic effect on age at pubertal onset in girls published to date. PMID:25231187

  6. Expression Profiles of Fsh-Regulated Ovarian Genes during Oogenesis in Coho Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, José M.; Luckenbach, J. Adam; Yamamoto, Yoji; Swanson, Penny

    2014-01-01

    The function of follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) during oogenesis in fishes is poorly understood. Using coho salmon as a fish model, we recently identified a suite of genes regulated by Fsh in vitro and involved in ovarian processes mostly unexplored in fishes, like cell proliferation, differentiation, survival or extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. To better understand the role of these Fsh-regulated genes during oocyte growth in fishes, we characterized their mRNA levels at discrete stages of the ovarian development in coho salmon. While most of the transcripts were expressed at low levels during primary growth (perinucleolus stage), high expression of genes associated with cell proliferation (pim1, pcna, and mcm4) and survival (ddit4l) was found in follicles at this stage. The transition to secondary oocyte growth (cortical alveolus and lipid droplet stage ovarian follicles) was characterized by a marked increase in the expression of genes related to cell survival (clu1, clu2 and ivns1abpa). Expression of genes associated with cell differentiation and growth (wt2l and adh8l), growth factor signaling (inha), steroidogenesis (cyp19a1a) and the ECM (col1a1, col1a2 and dcn) peaked in vitellogenic follicles, showing a strong and positive correlation with transcripts for fshr. Other genes regulated by Fsh and associated with ECM function (ctgf, wapl and fn1) and growth factor signaling (bmp16 and smad5l) peaked in maturing follicles, along with increases in steroidogenesis-related gene transcripts. In conclusion, ovarian genes regulated by Fsh showed marked differences in their expression patterns during oogenesis in coho salmon. Our results suggest that Fsh regulates different ovarian processes at specific stages of development, likely through interaction with other intra- or extra-ovarian factors. PMID:25485989

  7. Fsh and Lh direct conserved and specific pathways during flatfish semicystic spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chauvigné, François; Zapater, Cinta; Crespo, Diego; Planas, Josep V; Cerdà, Joan

    2014-10-01

    The current view of the control of spermatogenesis by Fsh and Lh in non-mammalian vertebrates is largely based on studies carried out in teleosts with cystic and cyclic spermatogenesis. Much less is known concerning the specific actions of gonadotropins during semicystic germ cell development, a type of spermatogenesis in which germ cells are released into the tubular lumen where they transform into spermatozoa. In this study, using homologous gonadotropins and a candidate gene approach, for which the genes' testicular cell-type-specific expression was established, we investigated the regulatory effects of Fsh and Lh on gene expression during spermatogenesis in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis), a flatfish with asynchronous and semicystic germ cell development. During early spermatogenesis, Fsh and Lh upregulated steroidogenesis-related genes and nuclear steroid receptors, expressed in both somatic and germ cells, through steroid-dependent pathways, although Lh preferentially stimulated the expression of downstream genes involved in androgen and progestin syntheses. In addition, Lh specifically promoted the expression of spermatid-specific genes encoding spermatozoan flagellar proteins through direct interaction with the Lh receptor in these cells. Interestingly, at this spermatogenic stage, Fsh primarily regulated genes encoding Sertoli cell growth factors with potentially antagonistic effects on germ cell proliferation and differentiation through steroid mediation. During late spermatogenesis, fewer genes were regulated by Fsh or Lh, which was associated with a translational and posttranslational downregulation of the Fsh receptor in different testicular compartments. These results reveal that conserved and specialized gonadotropic pathways regulate semicystic spermatogenesis in flatfish, which may spatially adjust cell germ development to maintain a continuous reservoir of spermatids in the testis. PMID:25024405

  8. Expression profiles of Fsh-regulated ovarian genes during oogenesis in coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, José M; Luckenbach, J Adam; Yamamoto, Yoji; Swanson, Penny

    2014-01-01

    The function of follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) during oogenesis in fishes is poorly understood. Using coho salmon as a fish model, we recently identified a suite of genes regulated by Fsh in vitro and involved in ovarian processes mostly unexplored in fishes, like cell proliferation, differentiation, survival or extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. To better understand the role of these Fsh-regulated genes during oocyte growth in fishes, we characterized their mRNA levels at discrete stages of the ovarian development in coho salmon. While most of the transcripts were expressed at low levels during primary growth (perinucleolus stage), high expression of genes associated with cell proliferation (pim1, pcna, and mcm4) and survival (ddit4l) was found in follicles at this stage. The transition to secondary oocyte growth (cortical alveolus and lipid droplet stage ovarian follicles) was characterized by a marked increase in the expression of genes related to cell survival (clu1, clu2 and ivns1abpa). Expression of genes associated with cell differentiation and growth (wt2l and adh8l), growth factor signaling (inha), steroidogenesis (cyp19a1a) and the ECM (col1a1, col1a2 and dcn) peaked in vitellogenic follicles, showing a strong and positive correlation with transcripts for fshr. Other genes regulated by Fsh and associated with ECM function (ctgf, wapl and fn1) and growth factor signaling (bmp16 and smad5l) peaked in maturing follicles, along with increases in steroidogenesis-related gene transcripts. In conclusion, ovarian genes regulated by Fsh showed marked differences in their expression patterns during oogenesis in coho salmon. Our results suggest that Fsh regulates different ovarian processes at specific stages of development, likely through interaction with other intra- or extra-ovarian factors. PMID:25485989

  9. Nonconsecutive Pars Interarticularis Defects.

    PubMed

    Elgafy, Hossein; Hart, Ryan C; Tanios, Mina

    2015-12-01

    Lumbar spondylolysis is a well-recognized condition occurring in adolescents because of repetitive overuse in sports. Nonconsecutive spondylolysis involving the lumbar spine is rare. In contrast to single-level pars defects that respond well to conservative treatment, there is no consensus about the management of multiple-level pars fractures; a few reports indicated that conservative management is successful, and the majority acknowledged that surgery is often required. The current study presents a rare case of pars fracture involving nonconsecutive segments and discusses the management options. In this case report, we review the patient's history, clinical examination, radiologic findings, and management, as well as the relevant literature. An 18-year-old man presented to the clinic with worsening lower back pain related to nonconsecutive pars fractures at L2 and L5. After 6 months of conservative management, diagnostic computed tomography-guided pars block was used to localize the symptomatic level at L2, which was treated surgically; the L5 asymptomatic pars fracture did not require surgery. At the last follow-up 2 years after surgery, the patient was playing baseball and basketball, and denied any back pain. This article reports a case of rare nonconsecutive pars fractures. Conservative management for at least 6 months is recommended. Successful management depends on the choice of appropriate treatment for each level. Single-photon emission computed tomography scan, and computed tomography-guided pars block are valuable preoperative tools to identify the symptomatic level in such a case. PMID:26665257

  10. presentee par Pierre SARAMITO

    E-print Network

    Saramito, Pierre

    TH`ESE pr´esent´ee par Pierre SARAMITO Ing´enieur ENSIMAG 1986 Pour obtenir le titre de DOCTEUR DE;TH`ESE pr´esent´ee par Pierre SARAMITO Ing´enieur ENSIMAG 1986 Pour obtenir le titre de DOCTEUR DE L

  11. presentee par Pierre SARAMITO

    E-print Network

    Saramito, Pierre

    TH â?? ESE prâ??esentâ??ee par Pierre SARAMITO Ingâ??enieur ENSIMAG 1986 Pour obtenir le titre de DOCTEUR; TH â?? ESE prâ??esentâ??ee par Pierre SARAMITO Ingâ??enieur ENSIMAG 1986 Pour obtenir le titre de DOCTEUR DE

  12. FSH withdrawal improves developmental competence of oocytes in the bovine model.

    PubMed

    Nivet, Anne-Laure; Bunel, Audrey; Labrecque, Rémi; Belanger, Josée; Vigneault, Christian; Blondin, Patrick; Sirard, Marc-André

    2012-02-01

    Combinations of genetic, environmental, and management factors are suspected to explain the loss in fertility observed for over 20 years in dairy cows. In some cases, IVF is used. When compared with in vivo embryo production, IVF resulted in low success rates until the FSH coasting process (FSH starvation after superstimulation) was introduced in 2002. Increased competence associated with FSH withdrawal of aspirated oocyte for in vitro maturation and IVF has not been optimized nor explained yet. The goal here was to determine and characterize the optimal oocyte competence acquisition window during the coasting period by determining blastocyst rates and follicular cohort development. Commercial milking cycling cows (n=6) were stimulated with 3 days of FSH (6×40?mg NIH Folltropin-V given at 12?h intervals) followed by a coasting period of 20, 44, 68, or 92?h. Each animal was exposed to the four conditions and served as its own control. At the scheduled time, transvaginal aspirations of immature oocytes were performed followed by IVF of half the oocytes. The outcomes were as follows: i) FSH coasting was optimal at a defined period: between 44 and 68?h of coasting; ii) The best estimated coasting duration was ?54±7?h; iii) Under these conditions, the best statistical blastocyst rate estimation was ?70%; iv) Between 44 and 68?h of coasting, follicle size group proportions were similar; v) Follicle diameter was not linearly associated with competence. In conclusion, coasting duration is critical to harvest the oocytes at the right moment of follicular differentiation. PMID:22080141

  13. Recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) plus recombinant luteinizing hormone versus r-hFSH alone for ovarian stimulation during assisted reproductive technology: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The potential benefit of adding recombinant human luteinizing hormone (r-hLH) to recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) during ovarian stimulation is a subject of debate, although there is evidence that it may benefit certain subpopulations, e.g. poor responders. Methods A systematic review and a meta-analysis were performed. Three databases (MEDLINE, Embase and CENTRAL) were searched (from 1990 to 2011). Prospective, parallel-, comparative-group randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in women aged 18–45 years undergoing in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection or both, treated with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues and r-hFSH plus r-hLH or r-hFSH alone were included. The co-primary endpoints were number of oocytes retrieved and clinical pregnancy rate. Analyses were conducted for the overall population and for prospectively identified patient subgroups, including patients with poor ovarian response (POR). Results In total, 40 RCTs (6443 patients) were included in the analysis. Data on the number of oocytes retrieved were reported in 41 studies and imputed in two studies. Therefore, data were available from 43 studies (r-hFSH plus r-hLH, n?=?3113; r-hFSH, n?=?3228) in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population (all randomly allocated patients, including imputed data). Overall, no significant difference in the number of oocytes retrieved was found between the r-hFSH plus r-hLH and r-hFSH groups (weighted mean difference ?0.03; 95% confidence interval [CI] ?0.41 to 0.34). However, in poor responders, significantly more oocytes were retrieved with r-hFSH plus r-hLH versus r-hFSH alone (n?=?1077; weighted mean difference +0.75 oocytes; 95% CI 0.14–1.36). Significantly higher clinical pregnancy rates were observed with r-hFSH plus r-hLH versus r-hFSH alone in the overall population analysed in this review (risk ratio [RR] 1.09; 95% CI 1.01–1.18) and in poor responders (n?=?1179; RR 1.30; 95% CI 1.01–1.67; ITT population); the observed difference was more pronounced in poor responders. Conclusions These data suggest that there is a relative increase in the clinical pregnancy rates of 9% in the overall population and 30% in poor responders. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that the addition of r-hLH to r-hFSH may be beneficial for women with POR. PMID:24555766

  14. Low levels of G?s and Ric8b in testicular sertoli cells may underlie restricted FSH action during infancy in primates.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Indrashis; Basu, Sayon; Sarda, Kanchan; Gautam, Mukkesh; Nagarajan, Perumal; Pradhan, Bhola Shankar; Sarkar, Hironmoy; Devi, Yendrembam Sangeeta; Majumdar, Subeer S

    2015-03-01

    FSH acts via testicular Sertoli cells (Sc) bearing FSH receptor (FSH-R) for regulating male fertility. Despite an adult-like FSH milieu in infant boys and monkeys, spermatogenesis is not initiated until the onset of puberty. We used infant and pubertal monkey Sc to reveal the molecular basis underlying developmental differences of FSH-R signaling in them. Unlike pubertal Sc, increasing doses of FSH failed to augment cAMP production by infant Sc. The expression of G?s subunit and Ric8b, which collectively activate adenylyl cyclase (AC) for augmenting cAMP production and gene transcription, were significantly low in infant Sc. However, forskolin, which acts directly on AC bypassing FSH-R, augmented cAMP production and gene transcription uniformly in both infant and pubertal Sc. FSH-induced G?s mRNA expression was higher in pubertal Sc. However, G?i-2 expression was down-regulated by FSH in pubertal Sc, unlike infant Sc. FSH failed, but forskolin or 8-Bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate treatment to infant Sc significantly augmented the expression of transferrin, androgen binding protein, inhibin-?-B, stem cell factor, and glial-derived neurotropic factor, which are usually up-regulated by FSH in pubertal Sc during spermatogenic onset. This suggested that lack of FSH mediated down-regulation of G?i-2 expression and limited expression of G?s subunit as well as Ric8b may underlie limited FSH responsiveness of Sc during infancy. This study also divulged that intracellular signaling events downstream of FSH-R are in place and can be activated exogenously in infant Sc. Additionally, this information may help in the proper diagnosis and treatment of infertile individuals having abnormal G protein-coupled FSH-R. PMID:25549048

  15. Is there a place for different isoforms of FSH in clinical medicine? IV. The clinician's point of view.

    PubMed

    Baird, D T

    2001-07-01

    Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) plays an important role in gametogenesis in both men and women. In men it is required for the establishment and probably maintenance of spermatogenesis. In women it stimulates the growth of ovarian follicles and fluctuations in its secretion are involved in the selection of the ovulatory follicle. It is now possible by recombinant DNA technology to synthesize a range of isoforms of FSH with differing biological action and half-life which would provide a greater degree of flexibility in the treatment of women with anovulatory infertility. Longer acting isoforms of FSH would find clinical application in the treatment of hypogonadotrophic men. PMID:11425805

  16. BERKELEY PAR LABBERKELEY PAR LAB Three Challenges and Three

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    BERKELEY PAR LABBERKELEY PAR LAB Three Challenges and Three Solutions for Exascale Computing Amir Kamil and Katherine Yelick UC Berkeley/LBNL June 28, 2012 #12;BERKELEY PAR LAB Three Challenges Compiler/runtime infrastructure Domain-specific libraries, languages, and specializers 2 #12;BERKELEY PAR

  17. prsente par Franois Brard

    E-print Network

    Nigay, Laurence

    TH�SE présentée par François Bérard pour obtenir le titre de DOCTEUR de L'UNIVERSITE JOSEPH Beaudouin­Lafon Jury : Mr. Jean­Pierre Verjus Mr. Michael J. Black Mr. Giorgio Faconti Thèse préparée au Université Joseph Fourier ­ Grenoble I #12; #12; à mes parents... #12; #12; Remerciements L'environnement que

  18. prsente par Franois Brard

    E-print Network

    Nigay, Laurence

    TH�SE présentée par François Bérard pour obtenir le titre de DOCTEUR de L'UNIVERSITE JOSEPH Beaudouin-Lafon Jury : Mr. Jean-Pierre Verjus Mr. Michael J. Black Mr. Giorgio Faconti Thèse préparée au Université Joseph Fourier - Grenoble I #12;#12;à mes parents... #12;#12;Remerciements L'environnement que

  19. Serum LH and FSH Responses to Synthetic LH-RH in Normal Infants, Children and Patients With Turner's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suwa, Seizo; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Effects of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) on LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) release were studied in 26 normal children and six patients (from 1-to 14-years-old) with Turner's syndrome. (Author)

  20. ?-catenin stabilization in gonadotropes impairs FSH synthesis in male mice in vivo.

    PubMed

    Boerboom, Derek; Kumar, Vikas; Boyer, Alexandre; Wang, Ying; Lambrot, Romain; Zhou, Xiang; Rico, Charlène; Boehm, Ulrich; Paquet, Marilène; Céleste, Christophe; Kimmins, Sarah; Bernard, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Although classically considered a WNT signaling intermediary, ?-catenin (CTNNB1) can also mediate GnRH induction of gonadotropin ?-subunit (Fshb and Lhb) transcription in the murine gonadotrope-like cell line L?T2. Here, we assessed CTNNB1's role in gonadotropin synthesis in vivo. We used a Cre/lox approach to introduce both gain- and loss-of-function mutations in the murine Ctnnb1 gene in gonadotrope cells. Gonadotropin production and fertility were normal in Ctnnb1 knockout mice. Similarly, females harboring a deletion of exon 3 of Ctnnb1, which stabilizes the resulting CTNNB1 protein, showed normal fertility and gonadotropin synthesis. Interestingly, males with the activating CTNNB1-?exon 3 mutation exhibited 50% reductions in FSH synthesis and secretion, without a corresponding change in LH. This selective regulation of FSH suggested an alteration in the activin/inhibin/follistatin system. Indeed, CTNNB1-?exon 3 males showed a 60% increase in serum inhibin B levels, and in culture, their pituitaries exhibited a greater sensitivity to exogenous inhibin than controls. At the same time, pituitary, but not testicular, follistatin (Fst) expression was increased significantly in these mice. Castration normalized FSH levels in CTNNB1-?exon 3 males to those seen in castrated controls. Paradoxically, pituitaries from CTNNB1-?exon 3 males exhibited greater basal and activin-stimulated FSH synthesis in vitro. Similarly, CTNNB1-?exon 3 overexpression potentiated activin A-induced murine Fshb promoter activity in L?T2 cells. Together, these results indicate that CTNNB1 is dispensable for gonadotropin synthesis in vivo. However, sustained CTNNB1 signaling potentiates activin-induced Fshb expression in gonadotropes, but this effect is overcome in vivo by enhanced inhibin feedback sensitivity and Fst expression. PMID:25343272

  1. Usability and utility of the CONSORT calculator for FSH starting doses: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Pouly, Jean Luc; Olivennes, François; Massin, Nathalie; Celle, Médéric; Caizergues, Natacha; Contard, Francis

    2015-09-01

    This prospective, multicentre, observational study assessed usability and utility (co-primary endpoints) of the consistency in r-hFSH starting doses for individualized treatment (CONSORT) calculator in French routine clinical practice. Physicians first planned their recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) starting dose. The CONSORT calculator was then used to recommend a starting dose. Data were collected for 197 women aged 18-35 years undergoing ovarian stimulation. The usability rate was high: 44/45 (97.8%) physicians found CONSORT user-friendly and easy to use for ?75% of patients. Utility data showed that physicians followed the CONSORT recommendation for 89/197 (45.2%) patients. Reasons given for not following the CONSORT-calculated dose (N = 108) included: the CONSORT-calculated dose was too divergent from the planned dose (48.1%; 52/108) and/or the CONSORT-calculated dose did not correspond to the patient profile (46.3%; 50/108). The mean ± SD starting dose of r-hFSH planned by physicians was 163.9 ± 51.2 IU; the mean (SD) starting dose recommended by the CONSORT calculator was 119.7 ± 20.9 IU and the mean (SD) dose actually prescribed to patients was 151.7 ± 51.1 IU. Despite low physician-reported utility in this study, post-hoc analyses suggest the CONSORT calculator has potential for use in routine clinical practice. PMID:26194881

  2. Corifollitropin alfa compared to daily FSH in controlled ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fensore, Stefania; Di Marzio, Marco; Tiboni, Gian Mario

    2015-01-01

    The present study offers a meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles using corifollitropin alfa for controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) in comparison with daily recombinant FSH (rFSH). The study examined seven RCTs including 2138 patients receiving corifollitropin alfa and 1788 women receiving daily rFSH for COS. As a novel aspect, this meta-analysis included two specific subpopulations of IVF patients, i.e. egg donors and poor responders. There were no significant differences between corifollitropin alfa and rFSH with respect to the majority of the clinical parameters considered, and comparable were the outcomes in terms of live birth rate, ongoing pregnancy rate, and clinical pregnancy rate. Women receiving corifollitropin alfa had a significantly higher number of metaphase II oocytes at ovum pick-up, and number of formed embryos, in comparison to rFSH. The risk of cycle cancellation due to overstimulation was significantly higher in the corifollitropin alfa group. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) incidence was statistically comparable between patients receiving long lasting or daily rFSH. Nevertheless, in view of the fact that corifollitropin alfa resulted in a higher number of metaphase II oocytes collected and a higher number of cycles cancelled due to overstimulation, corifollitropin alfa should be cautiously considered in women with the potential of being hyper responders. PMID:26036214

  3. La pelade par plaques

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, l’histologie et l’approche clinique au diagnostic de la pelade par plaques. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant la pathogenèse, le diagnostic et le pronostic de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme de perte pileuse auto-immune dont la prévalence durant une vie est d’environ 2 %. Des antécédents personnels ou familiaux de troubles auto-immuns concomitants, comme le vitiligo ou une maladie de la thyroïde, peuvent être observés dans un petit sous-groupe de patients. Le diagnostic peut souvent être posé de manière clinique en se fondant sur la perte de cheveux non cicatricielle et circulaire caractéristique, accompagnée de cheveux en « point d’exclamation » en périphérie chez ceux dont le problème en est aux premiers stades. Le diagnostic des cas plus complexes ou des présentations inhabituelles peut être facilité par une biopsie et un examen histologique. Le pronostic varie largement et de mauvais résultats sont associés à une apparition à un âge précoce, une perte importante, la variante ophiasis, des changements aux ongles, des antécédents familiaux ou des troubles auto-immuns concomitants. Conclusion La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte de cheveux périodiquement observée en soins primaires. Les médecins de famille sont bien placés pour identifier la pelade par plaques, déterminer la gravité de la maladie et poser le diagnostic différentiel approprié. De plus, ils sont en mesure de renseigner leurs patients à propos de l’évolution clinique de la maladie ainsi que du pronostic général selon le sous-type de patients.

  4. Molecular characterization of the Chinese alligator follicle-stimulating hormone ? subunit (FSH?) and its expression during the female reproductive cycle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Shengzhou; Zhu, Xue; Zhou, Yongkang; Wu, Xiaobing

    2015-05-01

    The Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis is an endangered species endemic to China, it has a highly specialized reproductive pattern with low fecundity. Up to date, little is known about the regulation of its female reproductive cycle. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a glycoprotein hormone, plays a key role in stimulating and regulating ovarian follicular development and egg production. In this study, the complete FSH? cDNA from the ovary of the Chinese alligator was obtained for the first time, it consists of 843-bp nucleotides, including 120-bp nucleotides of the 5'-untranslated region (UTR), 396-bp of the open reading frame, and 3'-UTR of 327-bp nucleotides. It encodes a 131-amino acid precursor molecule of FSH? with a signal peptide of 18 amino acids followed by a mature protein of 113 amino acids. Its deduced amino acid sequence shares high identities with the American alligator (100%) and birds (89-92%). Phylogenetic tree analysis of the FSH? amino acid sequence indicated that alligators cluster into the bird branch. Tissue distribution analyses indicated that FSH? mRNA is expressed in ovary, intestine and liver with the highest level in the ovary, while not in stomach, pancreas, heart, thymus and thyroid. Expression of FSH? in ovary increases in May (breeding prophase) and peaks in July (breeding period), it is maintained at high levels through September, then decreases significantly in November (post-reproductive period) and remains relatively low from January to March (hibernating period). These temporal changes of FSH? expression implicated that it might play an important role in promoting ovarian development during the female reproductive cycle. PMID:25626184

  5. La pelade par plaques

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre les schémas thérapeutiques et les résultats des traitements pour la pelade par plaques, de même que les aider à identifier les patients pour qui une demande de consultation en dermatologie pourrait s’imposer. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant le traitement de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte pileuse qui touche à la fois les enfants et les adultes. Même s’il n’y a pas de mortalité associée à la maladie, la morbidité découlant des effets psychologiques de la perte des cheveux peut être dévastatrice. Lorsque la pelade par plaques et le sous-type de la maladie sont identifiés, un schéma thérapeutique approprié peut être amorcé pour aider à arrêter la chute des cheveux et possiblement faire commencer la repousse. Les traitements de première intention sont la triamcinolone intralésionnelle avec des corticostéroïdes topiques ou du minoxidil ou les 2. Les médecins de famille peuvent prescrire ces traitements en toute sécurité et amorcer ces thérapies. Les cas plus avancés ou réfractaires pourraient avoir besoin de diphénylcyclopropénone topique ou d’anthraline topique. On peut traiter la perte de cils avec des analogues de la prostaglandine. Les personnes ayant subi une perte de cheveux abondante peuvent recourir à des options de camouflage ou à des prothèses capillaires. Il est important de surveiller les troubles psychiatriques en raison des effets psychologiques profonds de la perte de cheveux. Conclusion Les médecins de famille verront de nombreux patients qui perdent leurs cheveux. La reconnaissance de la pelade par plaques et la compréhension du processus pathologique sous-jacent permettent d’amorcer un schéma thérapeutique approprié. Les cas plus graves ou réfractaires doivent être identifiés pour qu’une demande de consultation en dermatologie soit demandée au besoin.

  6. In vivo oocyte recovery and in vitro embryo production from bovine donors aspirated at different frequencies or following FSH treatment.

    PubMed

    Goodhand, K L; Watt, R G; Staines, M E; Hutchinson, J S; Broadbent, P J

    1999-04-01

    The effects of frequency of follicular aspiration and treatment of donor cattle with FSH on in vivo oocyte recovery and in vitro embryo production were studied. Simmental heifers (n = 24) formed 8 replicates of 3 treatments in which oocyte donors were aspirated 1) once a week, 2) twice a week, or 3) once a week following treatment with FSH for 3 d prior to aspiration. Oocytes were graded, washed, matured for 20 to 24 h and then inseminated with frozen/thawed semen from a single sire, followed by co-culture on granulosa cell layers. Embryo development was observed until Day 7 after insemination. Significantly fewer follicles per heifer per week were counted (14.7+/-2.3 vs. 27.4+/-3.1 vs. 23.1+/-2.8) and aspirated (12.0+/-2.0 vs. 21.8+/-2.7 vs. 20.1+/-2.6) in heifers on the once-weekly than twice-weekly aspiration treatment (P<0.01) or on the once-weekly aspiration after FSH treatment (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between treatments in the total number of oocytes recovered per week (5.6+/-1.2 vs. 8.9+/-1.5 vs. 6.1+/-1.2), but significantly more oocytes per heifer per week recovered from animals treated with FSH were graded Category 1 (2.8+/-0.4), i.e., >4 layers good cumulus with a clear, even cytoplasm, than from animals aspirated once (0.9+/-0.2; P<0.01) or twice a week (1.5+/-0.3; P<0.05). The number of transferable morulae plus blastocysts produced per heifer per week was higher from animals aspirated twice a week (2.4+/-0.4; P<0.05) or once a week following FSH treatment (2.1+/-0.4; P<0.05) than from animals aspirated once a week without FSH treatment (1.0+/-0.3). In conclusion, FSH treatment of bovine oocyte donors aspirated once a week enabled a similar number of transferable embryos to be produced per donor week as aspiration twice a week without FSH treatment. These 2 treatments produced twice as many transferable embryos per donor week as aspiration once a week without FSH treatment. PMID:10729017

  7. CRTC2 and Nedd4 ligase involvement in FSH and TGF?1 upregulation of connexin43 gap junction.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei-Ling; Lai, Si-Yi; Lai, Wei-An; Lee, Ming-Ting; Liao, Ching-Fong; Ke, Ferng-Chun; Hwang, Jiuan-Jiuan

    2015-12-01

    The major mission of the ovarian follicle is the timely production of the mature fertilizable oocyte, and this is achieved by gonadotropin-regulated, gap junction-mediated cell-cell communication between the oocyte and surrounding nurturing granulosa cells. We have demonstrated that FSH and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF?1) stimulate Gja1 gene-encoded connexin43 (Cx43) gap junction formation/function in rat ovarian granulosa cells is important for their induction of steroidogenesis; additionally, cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA)- and calcium-calcineurin-sensitive cAMP response element-binding (CREB) coactivator CRTC2 plays a crucial role during steroidogenesis. This study was to explore the potential molecular mechanism whereby FSH and TGF?1 regulate Cx43 synthesis and degradation, particularly the involvement of CRTC2 and ubiquitin ligase Nedd4. Primary culture of granulosa cells from ovarian antral follicles of gonadotropin-primed immature rats was used. At 48?h post-treatment, FSH plus TGF?1 increased Cx43 level and gap junction function in a PKA- and calcineurin-dependent manner, and TGF?1 acting through its type I receptor modulated FSH action. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation analysis reveals FSH induced an early-phase (45?min) and FSH+TGF?1 further elicited a late-phase (24?h) increase in CRTC2, CREB and CBP binding to the Gja1 promoter. Additionally, FSH+TGF?1 increased the half-life of hyper-phosphorylated Cx43 (Cx43-P2). Also, the proteasome inhibitor MG132 prevented the brefeldin A (blocker of protein transport through Golgi)-reduced Cx43-P2 level and membrane Cx43 gap junction plaque. This is associated with FSH+TGF?1-attenuated Cx43 interaction with Nedd4 and Cx43 ubiquitination. In all, this study uncovers that FSH and TGF?1 upregulation of Cx43 gap junctions in ovarian granulosa cells critically involves enhancing CRTC2/CREB/CBP-mediated Cx43 expression and attenuating ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-mediated proteosomal degradation of Cx43 protein. PMID:26508620

  8. FSH regulates fat accumulation and redistribution in aging through the G?i/Ca2+/CREB pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin-Mei; Chan, Hsiao Chang; Ding, Guo-Lian; Cai, Jie; Song, Yang; Wang, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Dan; Chen, Hui; Yu, Mei Kuen; Wu, Yan-Ting; Qu, Fan; Liu, Ye; Lu, Yong-Chao; Adashi, Eli Y; Sheng, Jian-Zhong; Huang, He-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Increased fat mass and fat redistribution are commonly observed in aging populations worldwide. Although decreased circulating levels of sex hormones, androgens and oestrogens have been observed, the exact mechanism of fat accumulation and redistribution during aging remains obscure. In this study, the receptor of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a gonadotropin that increases sharply and persistently with aging in both males and females, is functionally expressed in human and mouse fat tissues and adipocytes. Follicle-stimulating hormone was found to promote lipid biosynthesis and lipid droplet formation; FSH could also alter the secretion of leptin and adiponectin, but not hyperplasia, in vitro and in vivo. The effects of FSH are mediated by FSH receptors coupled to the G?i protein; as a result, Ca2+ influx is stimulated, cAMP-response-element-binding protein is phosphorylated, and an array of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis is activated. The present findings depict the potential of FSH receptor-mediated lipodystrophy of adipose tissues in aging. Our results also reveal the mechanism of fat accumulation and redistribution during aging of males and females. PMID:25754247

  9. Molecular Anatomy of ParA-ParA and ParA-ParB Interactions during Plasmid Partitioning.

    PubMed

    Volante, Andrea; Alonso, Juan C

    2015-07-24

    Firmicutes multidrug resistance inc18 plasmids encode parS sites and two small homodimeric ParA-like (?2) and ParB-like (?2) proteins to ensure faithful segregation. Protein ?2 binds to parS DNA, forming a short left-handed helix wrapped around the full parS, and interacts with ?2. Protein ?2 interacts with ?2 and, in the ATP-bound form, binds to nonspecific DNA (nsDNA), forming small clusters. Here, we have mapped the ?2·?2 and ?2·?2 interacting domains in the ?2 that are adjacent to but distinct from each other. The ?2 nsDNA binding domain is essential for stimulation of ?2·parS-mediated ATP hydrolysis. From the data presented here, we propose that ?2 interacts with ATP, nsDNA, and with ?2 bound to parS at near equimolar concentrations, facilitating a ?2 structural transition. This ?2 "activated" state overcomes its impediment in ATP hydrolysis, with the subsequent release of both of the proteins from nsDNA (plasmid unpairing). PMID:26055701

  10. Blocking antibody to the beta-subunit of FSH prevents bone loss by inhibiting bone resorption and stimulating bone synthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low estrogen levels undoubtedly underlie menopausal bone thinning. However, rapid and profuse bone loss begins three years prior to the last menstrual period, when serum estrogen is relatively normal. We have shown that the pituitary hormone FSH, the levels of which are high during the late peri-men...

  11. Expression of GH, TSH beta, LH beta and FSH beta genes during fetal pituitary development in the pig.

    PubMed

    Ma, E; Klempt, N; Grossmann, R; Ivell, R; Kato, Y; Ellendorff, F

    1996-01-01

    The development of the anterior pituitary gland involves the proliferation and differentiation of ectodermal cells in Rathke's pouch to generate distinct cell types, each of which produces its corresponding trophic hormone. Studying pituitary development will therefore reveal novel aspects of organogenesis. In the present study, we examined by in situ hybridization the expression of genes for anterior pituitary hormones during development of the fetal pig pituitary. We found that the beta-subunit gene of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH beta) was first expressed at E40, (E = day of embryonal/fetal life), growth hormone (GH) mRNA appeared between E40 and E50, and the gonadotrophin genes (LH beta and FSH beta) were expressed at E50. The transcripts for TSH beta, LH beta and FSH beta were abundantly expressed at about E80, while GH mRNA continued to be richly expressed until after birth. The GH gene was first expressed in the mantle layer of the anterior lobe, while the TSH beta and gonadotrophin (LH beta and FSH beta) mRNAs were found in the central and the basal regions of the anterior lobe, respectively. All of these mRNAs (GH, TSH beta, LH beta, and FSH beta) remained concentrated until the end of gestation in the area where they first appeared. The distinctive pattern of developmental expression of these hormone genes in the fetal pig anterior pituitary makes this tissue an excellent system in which to study tissue-specific gene activation and regulation. PMID:9021348

  12. Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer Is Associated With Reduced Serum Testosterone and Increased FSH and LH

    SciTech Connect

    Bruheim, Kjersti Svartberg, Johan; Carlsen, Erik; Dueland, Svein; Haug, Egil; Skovlund, Eva; Tveit, Kjell Magne; Guren, Marianne G.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: It is known that scattered radiation to the testes during pelvic radiotherapy can affect fertility, but there is little knowledge on its effects on male sex hormones. The aim of this study was to determine whether radiotherapy for rectal cancer affects testosterone production. Methods and Materials: All male patients who had received adjuvant radiotherapy for rectal cancer from 1993 to 2003 were identified from the Norwegian Rectal Cancer Registry. Patients treated with surgery alone were randomly selected from the same registry as control subjects. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were analyzed, and free testosterone was calculated (N = 290). Information about the radiotherapy treatment was collected from the patient hospital charts. Results: Serum FSH was 3 times higher in the radiotherapy group than in the control group (median, 18.8 vs. 6.3 IU/L, p <0.001), and serum LH was 1.7 times higher (median, 7.5 vs. 4.5 IU/l, p <0.001). In the radiotherapy group, 27% of patients had testosterone levels below the reference range (8-35 nmol/L), compared with 10% of the nonirradiated patients (p <0.001). Irradiated patients had lower serum testosterone (mean, 11.1 vs. 13.4 nmol/L, p <0.001) and lower calculated free testosterone (mean, 214 vs. 235 pmol/L, p <0.05) than control subjects. Total testosterone, calculated free testosterone, and gonadotropins were related to the distance from the bony pelvic structures to the caudal field edge. Conclusions: Increased serum levels of gonadotropins and subnormal serum levels of testosterone indicate that curative radiotherapy for rectal cancer can result in permanent testicular dysfunction.

  13. TNF-? Suppressed FSH-Induced LH Receptor Expression Through Transcriptional Regulation in Rat Granulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Kohshiro; Kishi, Hiroshi; Imai, Fumiharu; Suwa, Hiroto; Hirakawa, Takashi; Minegishi, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    Several inflammatory cytokines regulate ovarian function. TNF-? is produced in granulosa cells under physiological conditions and has a reciprocal action on follicle development. In contrast, in pelvic inflammatory diseases, TNF-? is excessively produced in the pelvic cavity and has an adverse effect on reproductive functions. The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of action of TNF-? on the expression of LH receptor (LHR) in immature rat granulosa cells. TNF-? suppressed FSH-induced LHR mRNA and protein expression and was not associated with cAMP accumulation. By using a luciferase assay, the construct containing base pairs -1389 to -1 of the rat Lhcgr promoter revealed that TNF-? decreased FSH-induced promoter activity. In response to TNF-?, nuclear factor (NF)-?B p65 was translocated to the nucleus, and the suppressive effect of TNF-? on LHR mRNA expression was abrogated by an NF-?B inhibitor. In a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, TNF-? induced the association of NF-?B p65 with the rat Lhcgr transcriptional promoter region. NF-?B p65 and histone deacetylase (HDAC) interact to mediate expression of several genes at a transcriptional level. HDAC activity is thought to induce tight connections within local chromatin structures and repress gene transcription. Furthermore, the TNF-?-induced suppression of LHR mRNA expression was blocked by an HDAC inhibitor. Taken together, these results suggest that the interaction of NF-?B p65 with HDAC in the promoter region of rat Lhcgr might be responsible for TNF-? action on the regulation of LHR. PMID:26125466

  14. Brulures par Diluant

    PubMed Central

    Benbrahim, A.; Jerrah, H.; Diouri, M.; Bahechar, N.; Boukind, E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary La flamme de diluant est une cause non rare de brûlure dans le contexte marocain. Nous avons jugé intéressant de faire une étude épidémiologique sur la brûlure par flamme de diluant (BFD) au centre national des brûlés (CNB) du CHU Ibn-Rochd de Casablanca. Ce travail a été réalisé sur une période de 10 mois (septembre 2007/juin 2008). Le but du travail est de montrer les caractéristiques de ce type de brûlures pour les prévenir et ce par l'information sur le diluant, produit causant ces brûlures, et ses différents dangers, la brûlure notamment. Durant cette période, nous avons colligé 17 cas de BFD sur un total de 356 patients admis au CNB pour brûlures aiguës toute étiologie confondue. La moyenne d'age des patients concernés est de 32 ans. Ils sont presque tous de sexe masculin (16 hommes/1 femme) et ont des antécédents de toxicomanie et/ou de délinquance. Tous nos patients sont de bas niveau socio-économique et habitent dans des bidonvilles pour la plupart. La brûlure est souvent secondaire à une agression dans la rue (92% des cas). Concernant les caractéristiques de la brûlure, la surface cutanée brûlée moyenne est de 23%; elle est souvent profonde et siège surtout au niveau des membres supérieurs et du tronc. PMID:21991179

  15. Adiponectin expression in the porcine pituitary during the estrous cycle and its effect on LH and FSH secretion.

    PubMed

    Kiezun, Marta; Smolinska, Nina; Maleszka, Anna; Dobrzyn, Kamil; Szeszko, Karol; Kaminski, Tadeusz

    2014-12-01

    Female reproductive success is closely associated with nutritional status and energy balance. In this context, adiponectin appears to be a key hormone connecting reproductive system function and metabolism regulation. It is hypothesized that adiponectin expression in the pituitary depends on the phase of the estrous cycle. The effect of adiponectin on luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion is also postulated. Changes in the adiponectin gene and protein expression in the porcine anterior (AP) and posterior (NP) pituitaries as well as the effect of in vitro administration of adiponectin on basal and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)- and/or insulin-stimulated LH and FSH secretion were investigated on days 2-3, 10-12, 14-16, and 17-19 of the estrous cycle. Adiponectin gene was more pronounced on days 2-3 in AP but on days 10-12 in NP. Protein concentration in AP was the highest on days 10-12 and in NP on days 10-12 and 17-19 of the cycle. In vitro, adiponectin did not affect basal LH secretion but increased FSH release by AP cells. Adiponectin administration affected GnRH- and/or insulin-induced LH and FSH output in a manner dependent on the phase of the estrous cycle. In this study we indicated for the first time adiponectin expression in the porcine AP and NP that was dependent on the phase of the estrous cycle. In vitro studies indicated that adiponectin may affect gonadotropin secretion. The above suggests that the studied adipokine may influence female reproductive functions via its effect on LH and FSH secretion by gonadotrophs, but the cellular mechanism of its action remains unknown. PMID:25315693

  16. Pueraria tuberosa DC Extract Improves Androgenesis and Sexual Behavior via FSH LH Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Nagendra Singh; Sharma, Vikas; Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya, Alexandra; Dixit, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanolic extract of Pueraria tuberosa (PT) on sexual behaviour and androgenic activity. Male albino rats were divided into four groups of six animals each: control group 1 (2% acacia solution), PT-treated group 2 (50?mg/Kg), PT-treated group 3 (100?mg/Kg), and PT-treated group 4 (150?mg/Kg). Sexual behavior of male rats in the presence of a female rat was recorded. The treated groups were evaluated for sexual parameters. The extract was characterized using LC-MS. The effect of treatment on anabolic and weight of secondary sexual organs was determined. The histological changes in section of testis and epididymis after treatment were observed. Sperm count in epididymis and fructose content in seminal vesicles were also measured. Levels of hormones like FSH, LH, and T were determined. A dose-dependent increase in sexual behaviors was evidenced in the animals of extract treated groups. Increase in testis weight was recorded in PT. At the highest dose PT also affects the hormones level. The four compounds namely puerarin, daidzein, biochanin-A and formononetin were identified in ethanolic extract using LC-MS. It concluded that PT extract possesses androgenic effect and it significantly increased the sexual behaviour and hormones level. PMID:24489512

  17. Pueraria tuberosa DC extract improves androgenesis and sexual behavior via FSH LH cascade.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Nagendra Singh; Sharma, Vikas; Thakur, Mayank; Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya, Alexandra; Dixit, V K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanolic extract of Pueraria tuberosa (PT) on sexual behaviour and androgenic activity. Male albino rats were divided into four groups of six animals each: control group 1 (2% acacia solution), PT-treated group 2 (50 mg/Kg), PT-treated group 3 (100?mg/Kg), and PT-treated group 4 (150?mg/Kg). Sexual behavior of male rats in the presence of a female rat was recorded. The treated groups were evaluated for sexual parameters. The extract was characterized using LC-MS. The effect of treatment on anabolic and weight of secondary sexual organs was determined. The histological changes in section of testis and epididymis after treatment were observed. Sperm count in epididymis and fructose content in seminal vesicles were also measured. Levels of hormones like FSH, LH, and T were determined. A dose-dependent increase in sexual behaviors was evidenced in the animals of extract treated groups. Increase in testis weight was recorded in PT. At the highest dose PT also affects the hormones level. The four compounds namely puerarin, daidzein, biochanin-A and formononetin were identified in ethanolic extract using LC-MS. It concluded that PT extract possesses androgenic effect and it significantly increased the sexual behaviour and hormones level. PMID:24489512

  18. Pars Stress Fracture (Lumbar Spondylolysis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... his or her sport. Studies Show: 30% of adolescents involved in sports will have an episode of low back pain Pars stress fracture, also called lumbar spondylolysis, is one of the causes of low back pain in this age group ...

  19. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) block FSH-induced proteolysis of IGF-binding protein-5 (BP-5) in cultured rat granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Fielder, P J; Pham, H; Adashi, E Y; Rosenfeld, R G

    1993-07-01

    Rat granulosa cells (GC), in vitro, express IGFBPs under the influence of both FSH and IGF-I. The major IGFBP produced by GC is a 28-29 K IGFBP, presumed to be IGFBP-5. When GC-conditioned medium (GC-CM) was assessed by Western Ligand Blotting (WLB), FSH appeared to decrease IGFBP-5, whereas IGF-I appeared to increase IGFBP-5 and to partially block the effects of FSH treatment. When GC-CM from FSH-treated cells was incubated with pure IGFBP-4 and IGFBP-5, the amount of IGFBP-5 (measurable by WLB) was decreased. Similarly, when GC-CM from FSH-treated cells was incubated with iodinated IGFBP-4 and IGFBP-5, IGFBP-5 (but not IGFBP-4) was proteolyzed into fragments of approximately 18 and 14 K. The ability of FSH-treated GC-CM to proteolyze IGFBP-5 was reduced by the addition of IGF-I to the reaction mixture. When the IGFBPs in GC-CM were evaluated by affinity crosslinking, GC-CM from control cultures contained one band with an apparent M(r) of approximately 34 K, whereas GC-CM from FSH-treated cultures displayed a decrease in the intensity of the 34 K band, as well as a new band of approximately 24 K. These data suggest that rat GC cells produce an FSH-inducible IGFBP-5 protease activity, and reveal that the ability of this protease to cleave IGFBP-5 is blocked by IGFs. PMID:7686483

  20. Par Pond vegetation status 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  1. Exploration of locomotion in the ParA/ParB system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindal, Lavisha; Emberly, Eldon

    2015-03-01

    In many bacteria the ParA/ParB system is responsible for actively segregating DNA during replication. ParB precessively moves by hydrolyzing DNA bound ParA-ATP forming a depleted ParA region in its wake. Recent in-vitro experiments have shown that a ParB covered bead can traverse a ParA bound DNA substrate. It has been suggested that the formation of a gradient in ParA leads to diffusion-ratchet like motion of the ParB bead but its origin and potential consequences requires investigation. We have developed a deterministic model for the in-vitro ParA/ParB system and show that any amount of spatial noise in ParA can lead to the spontaneous formation of its gradient. The velocity of the bead is independent of this noise but depends on the scale over which ParA exerts a force on the bead and the scale over which ParB hydrolyzes ParA from the substrate. There is a particular ratio of these scales at which the velocity is a maximum. We also explore the effects of cooperative vs independent rebinding of ParA to the substrate. Our model shows how the driving force for ParB originates and highlights necessary conditions for directed motion in the in-vitro system that may provide insight into the in-vivo behaviour of the ParA/ParB system.

  2. Superovulatory response to gonadotrophin FSH/LH treatment and effect of progestin supplement to recipients on survival of transferred vitrified embryos in goats.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Angela Gabriella; Martemucci, Giovanni

    2016-01-15

    Two experiments were carried out in goats to evaluate the effects of the FSH/LH ratio during treatment on ovarian response and embryo production (experiment 1) and the efficiency of progestin supplementation on pregnancy and the survival of vitrified embryos (experiment 2). In experiment 1, 30 goats were synchronized and allocated to 2 groups (n = 15) corresponding to the following superovulatory treatments with p-FSH (250 IU, over 3 days) having different doses of purified FSH and LH: (group A) control, FSH/LH ratio of 1, kept constant during treatment; (group B) FSH/LH ratio of 2 and daily FSH/LH ratio of 5.0:1.0:0.3 for the first, second, and third days of treatment, respectively. Ovarian response and embryo production were assessed 7.5 days after estrus. In experiment 2, 46 vitrified blastocysts from p-FSH-superovulated donors were transferred to 26 recipients (2 blastocysts per goat) 7.5 days after estrus. The recipients were synchronized with donors and allocated to 2 experimental groups (n = 13). Group C received progestin supplement as fluorgestone acetate (FGA) inserted into the vagina at the time of embryo transfer, replaced with a new one 16 days later, and maintained until the 45th day of pregnancy; group D, no treatment (control). Pregnancy was diagnosed by transrectal ultrasound scanning on Days 30 and 45 after estrus and followed to term. The results indicated that the increase in FSH/LH ratio from 1 to 2 with decreasing daily FSH/LH (treatment B) did not improve the superovulatory response. Superovulatory treatment A (control) advanced (P < 0.05) the onset of estrus and showed a higher ovulation rate compared to group B (14.9 vs. 10.9; P < 0.05). Fertilization rate, embryo yield, and mean number of transferable embryos in group A (7.5) were higher (P < 0.05) than those in group B (3.2). Recipient goats receiving progestin supplementation (group C) showed a higher (P < 0.05) pregnancy rate and embryo survival (kids born per embryos transferred; 69.3% and 73.1%) than the controls (group D; 23.3% and 19.2%). In conclusion, regimen A with FSH/LH ratio of 1 kept constant during the treatment gave the best ovarian response and embryo production. The progestin supplementation as FGA-pessary administered at embryo transfer time to the 45th day of pregnancy improved the pregnancy rate, kidding rate, and embryo survival of transferred vitrified embryos. Intravaginal progestin supplement has the potential to reduce the incidence of pregnancy losses during early pregnancy. PMID:26483311

  3. The ParB-parS Chromosome Segregation System Modulates Competence Development in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Attaiech, Laetitia; Minnen, Anita; Kjos, Morten; Gruber, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT ParB proteins bind centromere-like DNA sequences called parS sites and are involved in plasmid and chromosome segregation in bacteria. We previously showed that the opportunistic human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae contains four parS sequences located close to the origin of replication which are bound by ParB. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we found here that ParB spreads out from one of these parS sites, parS(?1.6°), for more than 5 kb and occupies the nearby comCDE operon, which drives competence development. Competence allows S. pneumoniae to take up DNA from its environment, thereby mediating horizontal gene transfer, and is also employed as a general stress response. Mutating parS(?1.6°) or deleting parB resulted in transcriptional up-regulation of comCDE and ssbB (a gene belonging to the competence regulon), demonstrating that ParB acts as a repressor of competence. However, genome-wide transcription analysis showed that ParB is not a global transcriptional regulator. Different factors, such as the composition of the growth medium and antibiotic-induced stress, can trigger the sensitive switch driving competence. This work shows that the ParB-parS chromosome segregation machinery also influences this developmental process. PMID:26126852

  4. Effects of paint thinner exposure on serum LH, FSH and testosterone levels and hypothalamic catecholamine contents in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, B; Kutlu, S; Canpolat, S; Sandal, S; Ayar, A; Mogulkoc, R; Kelestimur, H

    2001-02-01

    We have investigated the effects of thinner inhalation on serum LH, FSH and testosterone levels together with changes in hypothalamic catecholaminergic system in the male rat. A control group inhaled normal air ventilation. The remaining animals were divided into two groups and exposed to paint thinner in a glassy cage for 15 or 30 d. Toluene concentration (the largest constituent in thinner, 66%) was set at 3000 ppm in the inhalation air. At the end, all animals were decapitated and blood samples obtained. Serum LH and FSH levels were measured by RIA and testosterone by enzyme immunoassay. Following removal of brains on dry ice, medial preoptic area, suprachiasmatic nucleus, median eminence and arcuate nucleus were isolated by micropunch technique. Noradrenaline, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) and dopamine concentrations of these hypothalamic areas were determined by HPLC-ECD. Fifteen-day thinner inhalation significantly suppressed serum LH and testosterone levels in parallel (p<0.001) compared to control group values (LH: 0.77+/-0.07; testosterone: 2.67+/-0.39). Thirty-day exposure markedly decreased LH levels (p<0.001), but surprisingly had no significant effect on testosterone. Serum FSH levels were not significantly altered in either group. Thinner inhalation for 15 or 30 d did not cause any significant change in noradrenaline, DHPG or dopamine concentrations in the hypothalamic regions examined (except in the arcuate nucleus). These results suggest that paint thinner has an anti-gonadotropic effect and may cause long-term endocrine disturbances in the male. It is thought that the hypothalamic catecholaminergic system is not involved in thinner inhibition of LH and testosterone secretion. PMID:11217085

  5. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) alternative skipping of exon 2 or 3 affects ovarian response to FSH.

    PubMed

    Karakaya, Cengiz; Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Ozlem; Hobbs, Rebecca J; Gerasimova, Tsilya; Uyar, Asli; Erdem, Mehmet; Oktem, Mesut; Erdem, Ahmet; Gumuslu, Seyhan; Ercan, Deniz; Sakkas, Denny; Comizzoli, Pierre; Seli, Emre; Lalioti, Maria D

    2014-07-01

    Genes critical for fertility are highly conserved in mammals. Interspecies DNA sequence variation, resulting in amino acid substitutions and post-transcriptional modifications, including alternative splicing, are a result of evolution and speciation. The mammalian follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene encodes distinct species-specific forms by alternative splicing. Skipping of exon 2 of the human FSHR was reported in women of North American origin and correlated with low response to ovarian stimulation with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). To determine whether this variant correlated with low response in women of different genetic backgrounds, we performed a blinded retrospective observational study in a Turkish cohort. Ovarian response was determined as low, intermediate or high according to retrieved oocyte numbers after classifying patients in four age groups (<35, 35-37, 38-40, >40). Cumulus cells collected from 96 women undergoing IVF/ICSI following controlled ovarian hyperstimulation revealed four alternatively spliced FSHR products in seven patients (8%): exon 2 deletion in four patients; exon 3 and exons 2 + 3 deletion in one patient each, and a retention of an intron 1 fragment in one patient. In all others (92%) splicing was intact. Alternative skipping of exons 2, 3 or 2 + 3 were exclusive to low responders and was independent of the use of agonist or antagonist. Interestingly, skipping of exon 3 occurs naturally in the ovaries of domestic cats--a good comparative model for human fertility. We tested the signaling potential of human and cat variants after transfection in HEK293 cells and FSH stimulation. None of the splicing variants initiated cAMP signaling despite high FSH doses, unlike full-length proteins. These data substantiate the occurrence of FSHR exon skipping in a subgroup of low responders and suggest that species-specific regulation of FSHR splicing plays diverse roles in mammalian ovarian function. PMID:24670307

  6. Involvement of ERK1/2 signaling pathway in atrazine action on FSH-stimulated LHR and CYP19A1 expression in rat granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fa, Svetlana; Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Samardzija, Dragana; Glisic, Branka; Kaisarevic, Sonja; Kovacevic, Radmila; Andric, Nebojsa

    2013-07-01

    Worldwide used herbicide atrazine is linked to reproductive dysfunction in females. In this study, we investigated the effects and the mechanism of atrazine action in the ovary using a primary culture of immature granulosa cells. In granulosa cells, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) activates both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) cascades, with cAMP pathway being more important for luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA expression. We report that 48 h after atrazine exposure the FSH-stimulated LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA expression and estradiol synthesis were decreased, with LHR mRNA being more sensitive to atrazine than CYP19A1 mRNA. Inadequate acquisition of LHR in the FSH-stimulated and atrazine-exposed granulosa cells renders human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) ineffective to stimulate amphiregulin (Areg), epiregulin (Ereg), and progesterone receptor (Pgr) mRNA expression, suggesting anti-ovulatory effect of atrazine. To dissect the signaling cascade involved in atrazine action in granulosa cells, we used U0126, a pharmacological inhibitor of ERK1/2. U0126 prevents atrazine-induced decrease in LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA levels and estradiol production in the FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. ERK1/2 inactivation restores the ability of hCG to induce expression of the ovulatory genes in atrazine-exposed granulosa cells. Cell-based ELISA assay revealed that atrazine does not change the FSH-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in granulosa cells. The results from this study reveal that atrazine does not affect but requires ERK1/2 phosphorylation to cause decrease in the FSH-induced LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA levels and estradiol production in immature granulosa cells, thus compromising ovulation and female fertility. - Highlights: • Atrazine inhibits estradiol production in FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. • Atrazine inhibits LHR and Cyp19a1 mRNA expression in FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. • Atrazine prevents hCG-induced expression of the ovulatory genes. • ERK1/2 activation is required for atrazine action in granulosa cells. • Atrazine does not interfere with FSH-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation.

  7. ECOLE CENTRALE PARIS presentee par

    E-print Network

    Devincre, Benoit

    ECOLE CENTRALE PARIS 2006 - 24 Th`ese pr´esent´ee par Sidonie LEFEBVRE pour obtenir le grade de DOCTEUR de l'Ecole Centrale Paris Sp´ecialit´e : M´ecanique et mat´eriaux Etude exp´erimentale et sein du Laboratoire de M´ecanique, Sols, Structures et Mat´eriaux (UMR 8579), Ecole Centrale Paris #12

  8. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

  9. Novel Action of FSH on Stem Cells in Adult Mammalian Ovary Induces Postnatal Oogenesis and Primordial Follicle Assembly.

    PubMed

    Bhartiya, Deepa; Parte, Seema; Patel, Hiren; Sriraman, Kalpana; Zaveri, Kusum; Hinduja, Indira

    2016-01-01

    Adult mammalian ovary has been under the scanner for more than a decade now since it was proposed to harbor stem cells that undergo postnatal oogenesis during reproductive period like spermatogenesis in testis. Stem cells are located in the ovary surface epithelium and exist in adult and menopausal ovary as well as in ovary with premature failure. Stem cells comprise two distinct populations including spherical, very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs which express nuclear OCT-4 and other pluripotent and primordial germ cells specific markers) and slightly bigger ovarian germ stem cells (OGSCs with cytoplasmic OCT-4 which are equivalent to spermatogonial stem cells in the testes). These stem cells have the ability to spontaneously differentiate into oocyte-like structures in vitro and on exposure to a younger healthy niche. Bone marrow may be an alternative source of these stem cells. The stem cells express FSHR and respond to FSH by undergoing self-renewal, clonal expansion, and initiating neo-oogenesis and primordial follicle assembly. VSELs are relatively quiescent and were recently reported to survive chemotherapy and initiate oogenesis in mice when exposed to FSH. This emerging understanding and further research in the field will help evolving novel strategies to manage ovarian pathologies and also towards oncofertility. PMID:26635884

  10. Novel Action of FSH on Stem Cells in Adult Mammalian Ovary Induces Postnatal Oogenesis and Primordial Follicle Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Bhartiya, Deepa; Parte, Seema; Patel, Hiren; Sriraman, Kalpana; Zaveri, Kusum; Hinduja, Indira

    2016-01-01

    Adult mammalian ovary has been under the scanner for more than a decade now since it was proposed to harbor stem cells that undergo postnatal oogenesis during reproductive period like spermatogenesis in testis. Stem cells are located in the ovary surface epithelium and exist in adult and menopausal ovary as well as in ovary with premature failure. Stem cells comprise two distinct populations including spherical, very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs which express nuclear OCT-4 and other pluripotent and primordial germ cells specific markers) and slightly bigger ovarian germ stem cells (OGSCs with cytoplasmic OCT-4 which are equivalent to spermatogonial stem cells in the testes). These stem cells have the ability to spontaneously differentiate into oocyte-like structures in vitro and on exposure to a younger healthy niche. Bone marrow may be an alternative source of these stem cells. The stem cells express FSHR and respond to FSH by undergoing self-renewal, clonal expansion, and initiating neo-oogenesis and primordial follicle assembly. VSELs are relatively quiescent and were recently reported to survive chemotherapy and initiate oogenesis in mice when exposed to FSH. This emerging understanding and further research in the field will help evolving novel strategies to manage ovarian pathologies and also towards oncofertility. PMID:26635884

  11. Effects of growth differentiation factor-9 and FSH on in vitro development, viability and mRNA expression in bovine preantral follicles.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, G L; Saraiva, M V A; Costa, J J N; Passos, M J; Silva, A W B; Rossi, R O D S; Portela, A M L R; Duarte, A B G; Magalhães-Padilha, D M; Campelo, C C; Figueiredo, J R; van den Hurk, R; Silva, J R V

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of growth differentiation factor (GDF)-9 and FSH, alone or in combination, on the growth, viability and mRNA expression of FSH receptor, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and proteoglycan-related factors (i.e., hyaluronan synthase (HAS) 1, HAS2, versican, perlecan) in bovine secondary follicles before and after in vitro culture. After 12 days culture, sequential FSH (100 ng mL?¹) from Days 0 to 6 and 500 ng mL?¹ from Days 7 to 12) increased follicular diameter and resulted in increased antrum formation (P<0.05). Alone, 200 ng mL?¹ GDF-9 significantly reduced HAS1 mRNA levels, but increased versican and perlecan mRNA levels in whole follicles, which included the oocyte, theca and granulosa cells. Together, FSH and GDF-9 increased HAS2 and versican (VCAN) mRNA levels, but decreased PCNA mRNA expression, compared with levels in follicles cultured in ?-minimum essential medium supplemented with 3.0 mg mL?¹ bovine serum albumin, 10 µg mL?¹ insulin, 5.5 µg mL?¹ transferrin, 5 ng mL?¹ selenium, 2 mM glutamine, 2mM hypoxanthine and 50 ?g mL?¹ ascorbic acid (?-MEM?). Comparisons of uncultured (0.2 mm) and ?-MEM? cultured follicles revealed that HAS1 mRNA expression was higher, whereas VCAN expression was lower, in cultured follicles (P<0.05). Expression of HAS1, VCAN and perlecan (HSPG2) was higher in cultured than in vivo-grown (0.3 mm) follicles. In conclusion, FSH and/or GDF-9 promote follicular growth and antrum formation. Moreover, GDF-9 stimulates expression of versican and perlecan and interacts positively with FSH to increase HAS2 expression. PMID:23241220

  12. Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-06-30

    The parallel analysis toolkit (ParCAT) provides parallel statistical processing of large climate model simulation datasets. ParCAT provides parallel point-wise average calculations, frequency distributions, sum/differences of two datasets, and difference-of-average and average-of-difference for two datasets for arbitrary subsets of simulation time. ParCAT is a command-line utility that can be easily integrated in scripts or embedded in other application. ParCAT supports CMIP5 post-processed datasets as well as non-CMIP5 post-processed datasets. ParCAT reads and writes standard netCDF files.

  13. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C; Liu, Jian

    2015-12-22

    The segregation of DNA before cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of low-copy number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and its stimulator protein ParB. The ParA/ParB system drives directed and persistent movement of DNA cargo both in vivo and in vitro. Filament-based models akin to actin/microtubule-driven motility were proposed for plasmid segregation mediated by ParA. Recent experiments challenge this view and suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. Here, we develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA-nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB-bound cargo. Paradoxically, this resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work thus sheds light on an emergent phenomenon in which nonmotor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos-an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria. PMID:26647183

  14. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C.; Liu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The segregation of DNA before cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of low-copy number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and its stimulator protein ParB. The ParA/ParB system drives directed and persistent movement of DNA cargo both in vivo and in vitro. Filament-based models akin to actin/microtubule-driven motility were proposed for plasmid segregation mediated by ParA. Recent experiments challenge this view and suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. Here, we develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA–nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB-bound cargo. Paradoxically, this resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work thus sheds light on an emergent phenomenon in which nonmotor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos—an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria. PMID:26647183

  15. Décontamination nucléaire par laser UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaporte, Ph.; Gastaud, M.; Marine, W.; Sentis, M.; Uteza, O.; Thouvenot, P.; Alcaraz, J. L.; Le Samedy, J. M.; Blin, D.

    2003-06-01

    Le développement et l'utilisation de procédés propres pour le nettoyage ou la préparation de surfaces est l'une des priorités du milieu industriel. Cet intérêt est d'autant plus grand dans le domaine du nucléaire pour lequel la réduction des déchets est un axe de recherche important. Un dispositif de décontamination nucléaire par laser UV impulsionnel a été développé et testé. Il est composé. d'un laser à excimères de 1kW, d'un faisceau de fibres optiques et d'un dispositif de récupération des particules. Les essais réalisés en milieu actif ont démontré sa capacité à nettoyer des surfaces métalliques polluées par différents radioéléments avec des facteurs de décontamination généralement supérieurs à 10. Ce dispositif permet de décontaminer de grandes surfaces de géométrie simple en réduisant fortement la génération de déchets secondaires. Il est, à ce jour et dans ces conditions d'utilisations, le procédé de décontamination par voie sèche le plus efficace.

  16. Role of PAR-4 in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meynier, Sonia; Kramer, Marianne; Ribaux, Pascale; Tille, Jean-Christophe; Delie, Florence; Petignat, Patrick; Cohen, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Prostate apoptosis response-4 (PAR-4) is considered as a tumour suppressor due to its ability to selectively induce cell apoptosis in most cancer cells. However little is known about the role of PAR-4 in ovarian cancer. In this study, we investigated for the first time the role of PAR-4 in ovarian carcinogenesis. We showed that PAR-4 mRNA level is not significantly different between healthy and cancer ovarian cells. Immunohistochemistry on ovarian tissue showed that ovarian cancer cells are positive for PAR-4 nuclear and cytoplasmic staining whereas ovarian healthy cells are negative for PAR-4 nuclear staining. We then studied the role of PAR-4 in cell apoptosis. We determined that PAR-4 induces cell apoptosis in response to stimuli, in vitro, but is also involved in the relocation of GRP78 from endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface of ovarian cancer cell line (SKOV-3 cells). In ovo, PAR-4 decreases ovarian tumour development and increases the response to taxol treatment. These observations suggest that PAR-4 is a very interesting therapeutic target against ovarian carcinogenesis. PMID:26246468

  17. ParAB Partition Dynamics in Firmicutes: Nucleoid Bound ParA Captures and Tethers ParB-Plasmid Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Lioy, Virginia S.; Volante, Andrea; Soberón, Nora E.; Lurz, Rudi; Ayora, Silvia; Alonso, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    In Firmicutes, small homodimeric ParA-like (?2) and ParB-like (?2) proteins, in concert with cis-acting plasmid-borne parS and the host chromosome, secure stable plasmid inheritance in a growing bacterial population. This study shows that (?:YFP)2 binding to parS facilitates plasmid clustering in the cytosol. (?:GFP)2 requires ATP binding but not hydrolysis to localize onto the cell’s nucleoid as a fluorescent cloud. The interaction of (?:CFP)2 or ?2 bound to the nucleoid with (?:YFP)2 foci facilitates plasmid capture, from a very broad distribution, towards the nucleoid and plasmid pairing. parS-bound ?2 promotes redistribution of (?:GFP)2, leading to the dynamic release of (?:GFP)2 from the nucleoid, in a process favored by ATP hydrolysis and protein-protein interaction. (?D60A:GFP)2, which binds but cannot hydrolyze ATP, also forms unstable complexes on the nucleoid. In the presence of ?2, (?D60A:GFP)2 accumulates foci or patched structures on the nucleoid. We propose that (?:GFP)2 binding to different nucleoid regions and to ?2-parS might generate (?:GFP)2 gradients that could direct plasmid movement. The iterative pairing and unpairing cycles may tether plasmids equidistantly on the nucleoid to ensure faithful plasmid segregation by a mechanism compatible with the diffusion-ratchet mechanism as proposed from in vitro reconstituted systems. PMID:26161642

  18. On the mechanism of action of lead in the testis: in vitro suppression of FSH receptors, cyclic AMP and steroidogenesis. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Wiebe, J.P.; Salhanick, A.I.; Myers, K.I.

    1983-04-25

    The purpose of the present study was to determine by in vitro methods, if Pb acts by interfering directly with hormone binding, cyclic AMP production and steroidogenic enzyme activity. Sertoli cells were isolated from testes of prepubertal rats and cultured in the presence of 2.64 x 10/sup -4/ M of either NaAc (control) or PbAc for 1, 4, 24, 48, 96 or 144 hr. There was no reduction in FSH binding and in FSH-induced cyclic AMP after a 1-4 hr exposure to Pb. After a 24-hr exposure to Pb, the cells exhibited a 10-20% decrease in FSH binding and cyclic AMP production and after 96 hr there was a 75% decrease in these 2 parameters. The inhibition was greater in cells from 16 day old than from 20 day old rats, so that in the former, after a 144 hr exposure the FSH-induced cyclic AMP of the Pb exposed cells was only 3% of the amount produced by the NaAc exposed cells (i.e. a 97% inhibition). After in vitro exposure to Pb for 48 hr, the steroidogenic activity (progesterone conversion to steroid metabolites) of Sertoli cells was significantly reduced and their steroidogenesis was no longer stimulated by FSH. A crude testicular enzyme preparation containing 3..beta..-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3..beta..-HSD) exhibited approximately 25% reduction in activity if the assay buffer contained PbCl/sub 2/ instead of the equivalent in NaCl. Prolonged in vivo exposure to Pb resulted in approximately 50% reduction in 3..beta..-HSD activity. This is the first indication that in the testis Pb may act directly (immediate effect) by suppressing enzyme activities, and indirectly (long term effect) by reducing gonadotropin-receptor binding and the resultant cyclic AMP production.

  19. PAR for the Course: A Congruent Pedagogical Approach for a PAR Methods Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Joyce D.; Hicks, Maria; Kalman, Rowenn; Miller, Jason

    2005-01-01

    In the past two years, three graduate students and a senior faculty member have co-taught a participatory action research (PAR) course to undergraduate and graduate students. In this article the co-teachers advocate a set of pedagogical principles and practices in a PAR-oriented classroom that establishes congruency with community PAR projects in…

  20. PERSPECTIVE Bacterial Actin Homolog ParM: Arguments for an

    E-print Network

    Erickson, Harold P.

    and biochemically the best characterized bacterial actin. ParM is encoded by several low-copy plasmids, the mostPERSPECTIVE Bacterial Actin Homolog ParM: Arguments for an Apolar, Antiparallel Double Helix Harold 2012 Edited by R. Craig Keywords: actin; parM; ParRC; cryoEM The bacterial actin homolog ParM has

  1. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  2. Time course and role of LH and FSH in the expansion of the Leydig cell population at the time of puberty in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Verhagen, I.; Ramaswamy, S.; Teerds, K.J.; Keijer, J.; Plant, T. M.

    2014-01-01

    In higher primates development of the adult population of Leydig cells has received little attention. Here, the emergence of 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B) positive cells in the testis of the rhesus monkey was examined during spontaneous puberty, and correlated with S-phase labeling in the interstitium at this critical stage of development. In addition, the relative role of LH and FSH in initiating the pubertal expansion of Leydig cells was studied by precociously stimulating the juvenile testis in vivo with pulsatile 11-day infusions of recombinant LH and FSH, either alone or in combination. At the time of castration, testes were immersion fixed in Bouin’s, embedded in paraffin and sectioned at 5 ?m. Leydig cells/testis were enumerated using HSD3B as a Leydig cell marker. Leydig cell number per testis increased progressively during puberty to reach values in the adult approximately 10 fold greater than in early pubertal animals. The rise in cell number was associated with an increase in nuclear diameter. That the pubertal expansion of Leydig cell number was driven primarily by the increase in LH secretion at this stage of development was suggested by the finding that precocious stimulation of mid juvenile monkeys with LH, either alone or in combination with that of FSH, resulted in a 20 to 30 fold increase in the number of HSD3B positive cells. Interestingly, precocious FSH stimulation, alone, also resulted in appearance of Leydig cells as indicated by the occasional HSD3B positive cell in the interstitium. The nuclear diameter of these Leydig cells, however was less than that of those generated in response to LH. PMID:25269763

  3. A truncated, activin-induced Smad3 isoform acts as a transcriptional repressor of FSH? expression in mouse pituitary.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Youn; Zhu, Jie; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2011-08-01

    The receptor-regulated protein Smad3 is key player in the signaling cascade stimulated by the binding of activin to its cell surface receptor. Upon phosphorylation, Smad3 forms a heterocomplex with Smad2 and Smad4, translocates to the nucleus and acts as a transcriptional co-activator. We have identified a unique isoform of Smad3 that is expressed in mature pituitary gonadotropes. 5' RACE revealed that this truncated Smad3 isoform is transcribed from an ATG site within exon 4 and consists of 7 exons encoding half of the linker region and the MH2 region. In pituitary cells, the truncated Smad3 isoform was phosphorylated upon activin treatment, in a manner that was temporally distinct from the phosphorylation of full-length Smad3. Activin-induced phosphorylation of Smad3 and the truncated Smad3 isoform was blocked by both follistatin and siRNA-mediated knockdown of Smad3. The truncated Smad3 isoform antagonized Smad3-mediated, activin-responsive promoter activity. We propose that the pituitary gonadotrope contains an ultra-short, activin-responsive feedback loop utilizing two different isoforms of Smad3, one which acts as an agonist (Smad3) and another that acts as an intracrine antagonist (truncated Smad3 isoform) to regulate FSH? production. PMID:21664424

  4. Cadmium exposure differentially modifies the circadian patterns of norepinephrine at the median eminence and plasma LH, FSH and testosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Lafuente, A; González-Carracedo, A; Romero, A; Cano, P; Esquifino, A I

    2004-01-15

    This work was designed to analyze the cadmium effects on time-of-day variations of norepinephrine (NE) content in median eminence and on plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone in adult male rats. Rats were given cadmium at a dose of 25 ppm of cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) in the drinking water for 1 month. Significant 24-h changes of NE content in the median eminence, plasma LH and testosterone levels occurred in control animals. Cadmium exposure induced a phase advance of the nocturnal peak of NE content that was described in the control group, to 12h and increased its amplitude. However, the mean NE content was not changed by cadmium. Metal exposure abolished the daily pattern of plasma LH levels, although the mean levels of the hormone were not modified by cadmium. For testosterone, the metal increased the amplitude of its nocturnal peak and induced the appearance of another peak during the light phase at 12h, thus increasing the mean plasma levels of this hormone. An interaction between the metal and time for NE and plasma testosterone levels was observed. These data suggest that cadmium exerts differential effects at the median eminence, the pituitary and the testes, that may explain the changes in the 24-h pattern of plasma testosterone levels. PMID:14643969

  5. Secretion of transferrin in ovine seminiferous tubule cell cultures in response to FSH: influence of breed, season of birth and age of lambs.

    PubMed

    Monet-Kuntz, C; Fontaine, I

    1993-01-01

    The response of lamb Sertoli cells to follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) was investigated by measuring transferrin secretion in seminiferous tubule cell cultures throughout the non-pubertal and the prepubertal periods. Cells could be cultured from birth until they attained a testicular weight of 19 g. The characteristics of individual dose-response curves were compared according to the breed, season of birth and testicular weight of the lambs. At the same season of birth and within a given testis weight range, dose-response curves of Romanov and Ile-de-France lambs were similar. Within a given testis weight range, spring-born animals exhibited a higher maximal transferrin secretion than autumn-born lambs, but the ED50 was similar. The main factor of variation of the dose-response curve parameters was the testicular weight of the lambs: the amplitude of FSH response increased 3-fold from a testicular weight of 6 g onwards, i.e. from the appearance of spermatogonia in seminiferous tubules. The ED50 increased 5-fold from 11 g onwards, i.e. from the beginning of the prepubertal period. Thus, Sertoli cells become less sensitive to FSH as spermatogenesis develops in seminiferous tubules. This phenomenon is largely the result of higher phosphodiesterase activity and is greatly reduced by 1-methyl-3-isobutyl-xanthine (MIX). PMID:7694324

  6. Simulink/PARS Integration Support

    SciTech Connect

    Vacaliuc, B.; Nakhaee, N.

    2013-12-18

    The state of the art for signal processor hardware has far out-paced the development tools for placing applications on that hardware. In addition, signal processors are available in a variety of architectures, each uniquely capable of handling specific types of signal processing efficiently. With these processors becoming smaller and demanding less power, it has become possible to group multiple processors, a heterogeneous set of processors, into single systems. Different portions of the desired problem set can be assigned to different processor types as appropriate. As software development tools do not keep pace with these processors, especially when multiple processors of different types are used, a method is needed to enable software code portability among multiple processors and multiple types of processors along with their respective software environments. Sundance DSP, Inc. has developed a software toolkit called “PARS”, whose objective is to provide a framework that uses suites of tools provided by different vendors, along with modeling tools and a real time operating system, to build an application that spans different processor types. The software language used to express the behavior of the system is a very high level modeling language, “Simulink”, a MathWorks product. ORNL has used this toolkit to effectively implement several deliverables. This CRADA describes this collaboration between ORNL and Sundance DSP, Inc.

  7. Effect of addition of FSH, LH and proteasome inhibitor MG132 to in vitro maturation medium on the developmental competence of yak (Bos grunniens) oocytes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The competence for embryonic development after IVF is low in the yak, therefore, we investigated the effects of supplementation of FSH, LH and the proteasome inhibitor MG132 in IVM media on yak oocyte competence for development after IVF. Methods In Experiment 1, yak cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were in vitro matured (IVM) in TCM-199 with 20% fetal calf serum (FCS), 1 microg/mL estradiol-17beta, and different combinations of LH (50 or 100 IU/mL) and FSH (0, 1, 5, 10 microg/mL) at 38.6 degrees C, 5% CO2 in air for 24 h. Matured oocytes were exposed to frozen–thawed, heparin-capacitated yak sperm. Presumptive zygotes were cultured in SOF medium containing 6 mg/ml BSA, 0.5 mg/mL myoinositol, 3% (v/v) essential amino acids, 1% nonessential amino acids and 100 ?g/mL L-glutamine (48 h, 38.5 degrees C, 5% CO2, 5% O2, and 90% N2). In Experiment 2, cumulus cells were collected at the end of IVM to determine FSHR and LHR mRNA expression by real-time PCR. In Experiment 3 and 4, COCs were cultured in the presence or absence of the proteasomal inhibitor MG132 from either 0–6 h or 18–24 h after initiation of maturation. Results The optimum concentration of FSH and LH in IVM media was 5 microg/mL FSH and 50 IU/mL LH which resulted in the greatest cleavage (79.1%) and blastocyst rates (16.1%). Both FSHR and LHR mRNA were detected in yak cumulus cells after IVM. Treatment with MG132 early in maturation reduced (P?FSH and LH in IVM medium, and treatment with MG132 late in maturation can improve yak oocytes competence for development after IVF. PMID:24754924

  8. Comparative cactus architecture and par interception

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, G.N.; Nobel, P.S. )

    1987-07-01

    Because CO{sup 2} uptake by cacti can be limited by low levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and because plant form affects PAR interception, various cactus forms were studied using a computer model, field measurements, and laboratory phototropic studies. Model predictions indicated that CO{sub 2} uptake by individual stems at an equinox was greatest when the stem were vertical, but at the summer and the winter solstice CO{sub 2} uptake was greatest for stems titled 30{degree} away from the equator. Stem tilting depended on form and taxonomic group. Not only can the shape of cacti be affected by PAR, but also shape influences PAR interception and hence CO{sub 2} uptake.

  9. Specific activation, signalling and secretion profiles of human platelets following PAR-1 and PAR-4 stimulation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kim Anh; Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind; Laradi, Sandrine; Pozzetto, Bruno; Garraud, Olivier; Cognasse, Fabrice

    2015-12-01

    Blood platelets play a central haemostatic function; however, they also play a role in inflammation and are capable of secreting various cytokines, chemokines and related products. The purpose of this study was to identify subtle variations in platelet physiology using proteomics. We compared the levels of membrane proteins (n?=?3), ? and ? granule proteins (n?=?18), and signalling proteins (n?=?30) from unstimulated platelets with those of protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1- and PAR-4-stimulated platelets (n?=?10). The vast majority of these proteins responded similarly to PAR-1 or PAR-4 engagement. However, differences were observed within membrane CD40L expressed, and ? granule GRO-? and MDC secreted proteins. PMID:26083907

  10. Techniques for measuring intercepted and absorbed PAR in corn canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, K. P.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1984-01-01

    The quantity of radiation potentially available for photosynthesis that is captured by the crop is best described as absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Absorbed PAR (APAR) is the difference between descending and ascending fluxes. The four components of APAR were measured above and within two planting densities of corn (Zea mays L.) and several methods of measuring and estimating APAR were examined. A line quantum sensor that spatially averages the photosynthetic photon flux density provided a rapid and portable method of measuring APAR. PAR reflectance from the soil (Typic Argiaquoll) surface decreased from 10% to less than 1% of the incoming PAR as the canopy cover increased. PAR reflectance from the canopy decreased to less than 3% at maximum vegetative cover. Intercepted PAR (1 - transmitted PAR) generally overestimated absorbed PAR by less than 4% throughout most of the growing season. Thus intercepted PAR appears to be a reasonable estimate of absorbed PAR.

  11. The horse pseudoautosomal region (PAR): characterization and comparison with the human, chimp and mouse PARs.

    PubMed

    Raudsepp, T; Chowdhary, B P

    2008-01-01

    The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is a genomic segment on mammalian sex chromosomes where sequence homology mimics that seen between autosomal homologues. The region is essential for pairing and proper segregation of sex chromosomes during male meiosis. As yet, only human/chimp and mouse PARs have been characterized. The two groups of species differ dramatically in gene content and size of the PAR and therefore do not provide clues about the likely evolution and constitution of PAR among mammals. Here we characterize the equine PAR by i) isolating and arranging 71 BACs containing 129 markers (110 STS and 19 genes) into two contigs spanning the region, ii) precisely localizing the pseudoautosomal boundary (PAB), and iii) describing part of the contiguous X- and Y-specific regions. We also report the discovery of an approximately 200 kb region in the middle of the PAR that is present in the male-specific region of the Y (MSY) as well. Such duplication is a novel observation in mammals. Further, comparison of the equine PAR with the human counterpart shows that despite containing orthologs from an additional 1 Mb region beyond the human PAR1, the equine PAR is around 0.9 Mb smaller than the size of the human PAR. We theorize that the PAR varies in size and gene content across evolutionarily closely as well as distantly related mammals. Although striking differences like those observed between human and mouse may be rare, variations similar to those seen between horse and human may be prevalent among mammals. PMID:18544933

  12. Élaboration de films de molécules organiques par ablation par laser UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Perez, M. A.; Garapon, C.; Champeaux, C.; Coleman, A. W.

    2006-12-01

    Les potentialités des méthodes de dépôt par ablation laser (PLD) pour la préparation de films minces de matériaux organiques sont illustrées par un bref rappel bibliographique et par des résultats expérimentaux concernant des molécules d'intérêt biologique (acides aminés, calix-arènes, protéines). Les films sont préparés par PLD avec un laser KrF sans dégradation de la structure chimique des molécules dans une gamme de fluences de quelques dizaines à quelques centaines de mJ/cm2. Les propriétés structurales et optiques des films sont étudiées en fonction de la fluence du laser et mettent en évidence des arrangements moléculaires particuliers induits par cette méthode de dépôt. Le guidage optique a été obtenu pour des films de toutes ces molécules.

  13. ParCAT: Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brian E.; Steed, Chad A.; Shipman, Galen M.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Thornton, Peter E.; Wehner, Michael; Williams, Dean N.

    2013-01-01

    Climate science is employing increasingly complex models and simulations to analyze the past and predict the future of Earth s climate. This growth in complexity is creating a widening gap between the data being produced and the ability to analyze the datasets. Parallel computing tools are necessary to analyze, compare, and interpret the simulation data. The Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT) provides basic tools to efficiently use parallel computing techniques to make analysis of these datasets manageable. The toolkit provides the ability to compute spatio-temporal means, differences between runs or differences between averages of runs, and histograms of the values in a data set. ParCAT is implemented as a command-line utility written in C. This allows for easy integration in other tools and allows for use in scripts. This also makes it possible to run ParCAT on many platforms from laptops to supercomputers. ParCAT outputs NetCDF files so it is compatible with existing utilities such as Panoply and UV-CDAT. This paper describes ParCAT and presents results from some example runs on the Titan system at ORNL.

  14. The effect of PCB126, 77, and 153 on the intracellular mobilization of Ca+2 in bovine granulosa and luteal cells after FSH and LH surge in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mlynarczuk, J; Kowalik, M

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of persistent environmental pollutants that impair cattle reproduction. Among other effects, PCBs can disturb the intracellular mobilization of Ca(+2) in several cell types. Hence, it is possible that they disrupt the transduction of intracellular signals generated from gonadotropin (FSH/LH) receptors. In steroidogenic ovarian cells, a defect in Ca(+2) mobilization may have a detrimental influence on two important processes: the secretion of steroids (E2 or/and P4) and their morphological and functional differentiation. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of PCBs: 126 (dioxin-like) 77 (ambivalent) and 153 (estrogen-like) and a mixture of PCBs (Aroclor 1248) on these processes. Bovine granulosa and luteal cells were incubated for 72 hrs with PCBs (100 ng/ml), followed by Fura 2AM dye, and the fluctuations in intracellular Ca(+2) mobilization after FSH/LH treatment were determined using an inverted microscope coupled with a CCD camera. The intensity and area of fluorescence excited by UV light were detected in the green spectrum of visible light. Aroclor 1248 and PCBs 153 and 77 significantly decreased (P < 0.01-0.001) the effect of FSH on intracellular Ca(+2) mobilization in granulosa cells. In luteal cells, the most effective PCB on this process was PCB 77. The results revealed adverse effects of PCBs on the mobilization of intracellular Ca(+2). Moreover, the estrogen-like congeners were found to more effectively disturb this process than the dioxin-like PCB 126. Hence, it is possible for PCBs to have a negative influence on reproductive processes by affecting calcium mobilization. PMID:24195274

  15. East Bank 127 1425 University -YMCA Basement Par Level/Microfiber 1 Wednesday East Bank 066 Amundson 119A Par Level 1 Friday

    E-print Network

    East Bank 127 1425 University - YMCA Basement Par Level/Microfiber 1 Wednesday East Bank 066 Amundson 119A Par Level 1 Friday East Bank 037 Appleby Hall 37 Par Level 1 Friday East Bank 167 Aquatic Center 75 Par Level 1 Friday East Bank 011 Armory 101-A Par Level 2 Tuesday East Bank 011 Armory 8A Par

  16. Les Brulures Chimiques Par Le Laurier Rose

    PubMed Central

    Bakkali, H.; Ababou, M.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Moussaoui, A.; Ennouhi, A.; Fouadi, F.Z.; Siah, S.; Ihrai, H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Le laurier rose ou Nerium oleander est un arbuste qui pousse naturellement dans les régions méditerranéennes. Au Maroc on le trouve dans les lieux humides. Il est réputé par ses risques de toxicité systémique en cas d'empoisonnement à cause de la présence de deux alcaloïdes, surtout l'oléandrine. La littérature illustre des cas d'utilisation locale des feuilles de cette plante contre la gale, les hémorroïdes et les furoncles. Nous rapportons deux cas de brûlures chimiques par le laurier rose de gravité différente. Cela doit aboutir à une information élargie de la population, ainsi qu'une réglementation stricte de sa commercialisation. PMID:21991211

  17. suPAR and Team Nephrology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) accounts for nearly 10 % of patients who require renal replacement therapy. Elevated circulating levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) have been identified as a biomarker to discriminate primary FSGS from other glomerulopathies. Subsequent reports have questioned the diagnostic utility of this test. In a study in BMC Medicine, Huang et al. demonstrate that urinary soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) excretion assists in distinguishing primary FSGS from other glomerular diseases, and that high plasma suPAR concentrations are not directly linked to a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This observation suggests that further investigation of suPAR is warranted in patients with FSGS. It should be interpreted in light of a recent report that B7-1 is expressed in the podocytes of a subset of patients with FSGS, and that blocking this molecule may represent the first successful targeted intervention for this disease. These advances highlight the rapid pace of scientific progress in the field of nephrology. Nephrologists should work together, share resources, and expedite the design of protocols to evaluate these novel biomarkers in a comprehensive and scientifically valid manner. Please see related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/81. PMID:24885021

  18. A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    B Chaudhuri; S Gupta; V Urban; M Chance; R DMello; L Smith; K Lyons; J Gee

    2011-12-31

    Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

  19. A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, Barnali; Gupta, Sayan; Urban, Volker S; Chance, Mark; D'Mello, Rhijuta; Smith, Lauren; Lyons, Kelly; Gee, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

  20. Estompage assist par ordinateur Autor(en): Jenny, B.

    E-print Network

    Jenny, Bernhard

    Estompage assisté par ordinateur Autor(en): Jenny, B. Objekttyp: Article Zeitschrift: Vermessung://retro.seals.ch #12;Cartographie Estompage assisté par ordinateur L'estompage est un moyen de visualisation du relief. Dans le cadre d'un travail de diplôme, un prototype d'un logiciel pour l'estompage assisté par ordi

  1. Berkeley ParLab Ten Ways to Waste a Parallel

    E-print Network

    Moreno Maza, Marc

    Berkeley ParLab Ten Ways to Waste a Parallel Computer Kathy Yelick NERSC Director, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory EECS Department, UC Berkleey #12;Berkeley ParLab Moore's Law is Alive and Well, Chris Batten, and Krste Asanoviç #12;Berkeley ParLab But Clock Frequency Scaling Has Been Replaced

  2. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Mediates PAR-Induced Bladder Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kouzoukas, Dimitrios E.; Meyer-Siegler, Katherine L.; Ma, Fei; Westlund, Karin N.; Hunt, David E.; Vera, Pedro L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is constitutively expressed in urothelial cells that also express protease-activated receptors (PAR). Urothelial PAR1 receptors were shown to mediate bladder inflammation. We showed that PAR1 and PAR4 activator, thrombin, also mediates urothelial MIF release. We hypothesized that stimulation of urothelial PAR1 or PAR4 receptors elicits release of urothelial MIF that acts on MIF receptors in the urothelium to mediate bladder inflammation and pain. Thus, we examined the effect of activation of specific bladder PAR receptors on MIF release, bladder pain, micturition and histological changes. Methods MIF release was measured in vitro after exposing immortalized human urothelial cells (UROtsa) to PAR1 or PAR4 activating peptides (AP). Female C57BL/6 mice received intravesical PAR1- or PAR4-AP for one hour to determine: 1) bladder MIF release in vivo within one hour; 2) abdominal hypersensitivity (allodynia) to von Frey filament stimulation 24 hours after treatment; 3) micturition parameters 24 hours after treatment; 4) histological changes in the bladder as a result of treatment; 5) changes in expression of bladder MIF and MIF receptors using real-time RT-PCR; 6) changes in urothelial MIF and MIF receptor, CXCR4, protein levels using quantitative immunofluorescence; 7) effect of MIF or CXCR4 antagonism. Results PAR1- or PAR4-AP triggered MIF release from both human urothelial cells in vitro and mouse urothelium in vivo. Twenty-four hours after intravesical PAR1- or PAR4-AP, we observed abdominal hypersensitivity in mice without changes in micturition or bladder histology. PAR4-AP was more effective and also increased expression of bladder MIF and urothelium MIF receptor, CXCR4. Bladder CXCR4 localized to the urothelium. Antagonizing MIF with ISO-1 eliminated PAR4- and reduced PAR1-induced hypersensitivity, while antagonizing CXCR4 with AMD3100 only partially prevented PAR4-induced hypersensitivity. Conclusions Bladder PAR activation elicits urothelial MIF release and urothelial MIF receptor signaling at least partly through CXCR4 to result in abdominal hypersensitivity without overt bladder inflammation. PAR-induced bladder pain may represent an interesting pre-clinical model of Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome (IC/PBS) where pain occurs without apparent bladder injury or pathology. MIF is potentially a novel therapeutic target for bladder pain in IC/PBS patients. PMID:26020638

  3. Phosphorylation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB Participates in Regulating the ParABS Chromosome Segregation System

    PubMed Central

    Baronian, Grégory; Ginda, Katarzyna; Berry, Laurence; Cohen-Gonsaud, Martin; Zakrzewska-Czerwi?ska, Jolanta; Jakimowicz, Dagmara; Molle, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present for the first time that Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB is phosphorylated by several mycobacterial Ser/Thr protein kinases in vitro. ParB and ParA are the key components of bacterial chromosome segregation apparatus. ParB is a cytosolic conserved protein that binds specifically to centromere-like DNA parS sequences and interacts with ParA, a weak ATPase required for its proper localization. Mass spectrometry identified the presence of ten phosphate groups, thus indicating that ParB is phosphorylated on eight threonines, Thr32, Thr41, Thr53, Thr110, Thr195, and Thr254, Thr300, Thr303 as well as on two serines, Ser5 and Ser239. The phosphorylation sites were further substituted either by alanine to prevent phosphorylation or aspartate to mimic constitutive phosphorylation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a drastic inhibition of DNA-binding by ParB phosphomimetic mutant compared to wild type. In addition, bacterial two-hybrid experiments showed a loss of ParA-ParB interaction with the phosphomimetic mutant, indicating that phosphorylation is regulating the recruitment of the partitioning complex. Moreover, fluorescence microscopy experiments performed in the surrogate Mycobacterium smegmatis ?parB strain revealed that in contrast to wild type Mtb ParB, which formed subpolar foci similar to M. smegmatis ParB, phoshomimetic Mtb ParB was delocalized. Thus, our findings highlight a novel regulatory role of the different isoforms of ParB representing a molecular switch in localization and functioning of partitioning protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:25807382

  4. Synthèse de polymères conjugués par voie organométallique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouachrine, M.; Lère-Porte, J.-P.; Moreau, J. J. E.; Torreilles, C.

    1998-06-01

    Two synthetic approches based on organometalic chemistry for a controlled synthesis of polythiophenes derivatives are discussed: (i) activation of oxidativecoupling by SiMe3 groups (ii) organometallic coupling of stannyl derivatives and bromo compounds catalyzed by Pdcirc complexes. Deux approches basées sur la chimie organométallique permettant de contrôler la régularité des enchaînements en série thiophénique sont analysés : (i) le couplage organométallique catalysé par un complexe de Pdcirc d'un dérivé de l'étain et d'un halogénure aromatique.

  5. Par Pond refill water quality sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column.

  6. La modélisation par Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGreevy, R. L.

    2003-09-01

    La technique de modélisation par Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) est une méthode générale de modélisation structurale à partir d'un ensemble de données expérimentales. Cette méthode étant très souple, elle peut s'appliquer à de nombreux types de données. Jusqu'à présent ces applications comprennent : la diffraction des neutrons (y compris la substitution isotopique), la diffraction des rayons X (y compris la diffusion anomale), la diffraction des électrons, la RMN (les techniques d'angle magique et de 2ème moment) et l'EXAFS. Les systèmes étudiés sont également d'une grande variété : liquides, verres, polymères, cristaux et matériaux magnétiques, par exemple. Ce cours présente les bases de la méthode RMC en signalant certaines des idées fausses répandues. L'accent sera mis sur le fait que les modèles structuraux obtenus par RMC ne sont ni'uniques' ni 'exacts' ; cependant ils sont souvent utiles à la compréhension soit de la structure du système, soit des relations entre structure et autres propriétés physiques.

  7. Stabilisation par champ magnétique de la convection en cavité cylindrique chauffée par le bas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touihri, R.; Benhadid, H.; Henry, D.

    1999-06-01

    We consider the convection in a cylindrical cavity with aspect ratio A (A= height/diameter), heated from below (Rayleigh-Bénard situation) and submitted to a horizontal, uniform and constant magnetic field. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are discretized using the spectral element method, and solved either by time stepping or by Newton method. By a continuation technique, we have obtained stability diagrams giving the thresholds for the onset of convection, and bifurcation diagrams giving the evolution of solutions beyond the thresholds. This study gives information about the stabilisation by a magnetic field, but also affords an example of dynamical system interesting by its symmetry properties and by the selection and evolution of the convective modes. On considère la convection dans une cavité cylindrique, de rapport de forme A (A = hauteur/diamètre), chauffée par le bas (Rayleigh-Bénard) et soumise à un champ magnétique horizontal, uniforme et constant. Les équations tridimensionnelles de Navier-Stokes, discrétisées à l'aide de la méthode des éléments spectraux isoparamétriques, sont résolues par intégration temporelle ou méthode de Newton. L'utilisation d'une technique de continuation nous permet de tracer des diagrammes de stabilité donnant les seuils d'apparition de la convection et des diagrammes de bifurcation donnant son évolution au delà de ces seuils. Outre des informations sur la stabilisation par champ magnétique, cette étude nous donne un exemple de système dynamique intéressant par ses propriétés de symétrie et par sélection et l'évolution des modes convectifs.

  8. FSH-induced p38-MAPK-mediated dephosphorylation at serine 727 of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 decreases Cyp1b1 expression in mouse granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Xue-Hai; Zhou, Xiao-Long; Cao, Rui; Xiao, Peng; Teng, Yun; Ning, Cai-Bo; Liu, Hong-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Most mammalian follicles undergo atresia at various stages before ovulation, and granulosa cell apoptosis is a major cause of antral follicular atresia. Estradiol is an essential mitogen for granulosa cell proliferation in vivo and inhibition of apoptosis. The estradiol-producing capacity and metabolism levels are important for follicle health, and sufficient estradiol is necessary for follicle development and ovulation. Cyp1b1, a member of the cytochrome P450 1 subfamily, is responsible for the metabolism of a wide variety of halogenated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in diverse tissues. In mouse follicles, Cyp1b1 converts estradiol to 4-hydroxyestradiol. We investigated mouse granulosa cells (MGCs) in vivo and in vitro and found that Cyp1b1 played a crucial role in estradiol metabolism in dominant follicles. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) decreased estrogen metabolism by reducing Cyp1b1 mRNA and protein levels in MGCs. Furthermore, FSH regulated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), a significant transcription factor of Cyp1b1, by mediating the dephosphorylation of STAT1 on serine 727 (Ser(727)) in MGCs. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) may be involved in the FSH-induced dephosphorylation of STAT1 on Ser(727) in MGCs. These results suggested that FSH functions via p38 MAPK-induced dephosphorylation at Ser(727) of STAT1 to downregulate Cyp1b1 expression and maintain the estradiol levels in mouse dominant follicles. PMID:25315223

  9. Comparisons of mRNA expression for aromatase, FSH receptor, and IGF-I in the granulosa of small ovarian follicles between cattle selected and unselected for twin ovulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term selection of cattle for the production of twin ovulations and births has enhanced the development of preantral and antral ovarian follicles and increased the frequency of twin or triplet ovulations to greater than 60%. However, these differences have not been linked to differences in FSH s...

  10. Reproductive Physiology in Young Men Is Cumulatively Affected by FSH-Action Modulating Genetic Variants: FSHR -29G/A and c.2039 A/G, FSHB -211G/T

    PubMed Central

    Grigorova, Marina; Punab, Margus; Punab, Anna Maria; Poolamets, Olev; Vihljajev, Vladimir; Žilaitien?, Birut?; Erenpreiss, Juris; Matulevi?ius, Valentinas; Laan, Maris

    2014-01-01

    Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) -29G/A polymorphism (rs1394205) was reported to modulate gene expression and reproductive parameters in women, but data in men is limited. We aimed to bring evidence to the effect of FSHR -29G/A variants in men. In Baltic young male cohort (n?=?982; Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians; aged 20.2±2.0 years), the FSHR -29 A-allele was significantly associated with higher serum FSH (linear regression: effect 0.27 IU/L; P?=?0.0019, resistant to Bonferroni correction for multiple testing) and showed a non-significant trend for association with higher LH (0.19 IU/L) and total testosterone (0.93 nmol/L), but reduced Inhibin B (?7.84 pg/mL) and total testes volume (effect ?1.00 mL). Next, we extended the study and tested the effect of FSHR gene haplotypes determined by the allelic combination of FSHR -29G/A and a well-studied variant c.2039 A/G (Asn680Ser, exon 10). Among the FSHR -29A/2039G haplotype carriers (A-Ser; haplotype-based linear regression), this genetic effect was enhanced for FSH (effect 0.40 IU/L), Inhibin B (?16.57 pg/mL) and total testes volume (?2.34 mL). Finally, we estimated the total contribution of three known FSH-action modulating SNPs (FSHB -211G/T; FSHR -29G/A, c.2039 A/G) to phenotypic variance in reproductive parameters among young men. The major FSH-action modulating SNPs explained together 2.3%, 1.4%, 1.0 and 1.1% of the measured variance in serum FSH, Inhibin B, testosterone and total testes volume, respectively. In contrast to the young male cohort, neither FSHR -29G/A nor FSHR haplotypes appeared to systematically modulate the reproductive physiology of oligozoospermic idiopathic infertile patients (n?=?641, Estonians; aged 31.5±6.0 years). In summary, this is the first study showing the significant effect of FSHR -29G/A on male serum FSH level. To account for the genetic effect of known common polymorphisms modulating FSH-action, we suggest haplotype-based analysis of FSHR SNPs (FSHR -29G/A, c.2039 A/G) in combination with FSHB -211G/T testing. PMID:24718625

  11. PAR1 contributes to influenza A virus pathogenicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Khoufache, Khaled; Berri, Fatma; Nacken, Wolfgang; Vogel, Annette B.; Delenne, Marie; Camerer, Eric; Coughlin, Shaun R.; Carmeliet, Peter; Lina, Bruno; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Planz, Oliver; Ludwig, Stephan; Riteau, Béatrice

    2012-01-01

    Influenza causes substantial morbidity and mortality, and highly pathogenic and drug-resistant strains are likely to emerge in the future. Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is a thrombin-activated receptor that contributes to inflammatory responses at mucosal surfaces. The role of PAR1 in pathogenesis of virus infections is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that PAR1 contributed to the deleterious inflammatory response after influenza virus infection in mice. Activating PAR1 by administering the agonist TFLLR-NH2 decreased survival and increased lung inflammation after influenza infection. Importantly, both administration of a PAR1 antagonist and PAR1 deficiency protected mice from infection with influenza A viruses (IAVs). Treatment with the PAR1 agonist did not alter survival of mice deficient in plasminogen (PLG), which suggests that PLG permits and/or interacts with a PAR1 function in this model. PAR1 antagonists are in human trials for other indications. Our findings suggest that PAR1 antagonism might be explored as a treatment for influenza, including that caused by highly pathogenic H5N1 and oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 viruses. PMID:23202729

  12. Review of PAR parameterizations in ocean ecosystem models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Do-Seong; Wang, Xiao Hua; Hart, Deirdre E.; Zavatarelli, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Commonly-used empirical equations for calculating downward 'photosynthetically available radiation' or PAR were reviewed in order to identify a more theoretically-sound parameterization for application to ocean biogeochemical models. Three different forms of broadband PAR parameterization are currently employed in biogeochemical models, each of them originating from the downward irradiance formulations normally applied to ocean circulation models, which produce poor attenuation estimates for PAR. Two of the PAR formulations, a single-exponential function and a double-exponential function, are parameterized by multiplying surface irradiance by a coefficient determining the portion of underwater PAR. The third formulation uses the second term of the double-exponential function. After elucidating the theoretical problems of modeling PAR using these parameterizations, we suggest an improved, R-modified double-exponential PAR formulation, including Paulson and Simpson's (1977) parameter values. We also newly estimate PAR penetration via least-squares fitting of values digitized from Jerlov's (1976) observations in different oceanic water types, and compare this PAR-observation derived parameterization with our new, theoretical, R-modified parameterization. Finally, we discuss a universal limitation inherent in current theoretical approaches to PAR parameterization.

  13. A Conserved Mode of Protein Recognition and Binding in a ParD?ParE Toxin?Antitoxin Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, Kevin M.; Crosson, Sean

    2010-05-06

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems form a ubiquitous class of prokaryotic proteins with functional roles in plasmid inheritance, environmental stress response, and cell development. ParDE family TA systems are broadly conserved on plasmids and bacterial chromosomes and have been well characterized as genetic elements that promote stable plasmid inheritance. We present a crystal structure of a chromosomally encoded ParD-ParE complex from Caulobacter crescentus at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution. This TA system forms an {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 2} heterotetramer in the crystal and in solution. The toxin-antitoxin binding interface reveals extensive polar and hydrophobic contacts of ParD antitoxin helices with a conserved recognition and binding groove on the ParE toxin. A cross-species comparison of this complex structure with related toxin structures identified an antitoxin recognition and binding subdomain that is conserved between distantly related members of the RelE/ParE toxin superfamily despite a low level of overall primary sequence identity. We further demonstrate that ParD antitoxin is dimeric, stably folded, and largely helical when not bound to ParE toxin. Thus, the paradigmatic model in which antitoxin undergoes a disorder-to-order transition upon toxin binding does not apply to this chromosomal ParD-ParE TA system.

  14. Apoptosis and Tumor Resistance Conferred by Par-4

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanming; Rangnekar, Vivek M.

    2009-01-01

    Par-4 is a tumor suppressor protein with a pro-apoptotic function. Epigenetic silencing of Par-4 is seen in diverse tumors, and Par-4 knockout mice develop spontaneous tumors in various tissues. Endogenous Par-4 is essential for sensitization of cells to diverse apoptotic stimuli, whereas ectopic expression of Par-4 can selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells. The cancer-specific pro-apoptotic action of Par-4 resides in its centrally located SAC domain. This chapter reviews a novel mouse model with ubiquitous expression of the SAC domain. These SAC transgenic mice display normal development and life span, and, most importantly, are resistant to spontaneous, as well as oncogene-induced, autochthonous tumors. The tumor resistant phenotype and undetectable toxicity of SAC in vivo suggests the SAC domain possesses tremendous therapeutic potential. PMID:18836307

  15. Modelisation par elements finis du muscle strie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Mathieu

    Ce present projet de recherche a permis. de creer un modele par elements finis du muscle strie humain dans le but d'etudier les mecanismes engendrant les lesions musculaires traumatiques. Ce modele constitue une plate-forme numerique capable de discerner l'influence des proprietes mecaniques des fascias et de la cellule musculaire sur le comportement dynamique du muscle lors d'une contraction excentrique, notamment le module de Young et le module de cisaillement de la couche de tissu conjonctif, l'orientation des fibres de collagene de cette membrane et le coefficient de poisson du muscle. La caracterisation experimentale in vitro de ces parametres pour des vitesses de deformation elevees a partir de muscles stries humains actifs est essentielle pour l'etude de lesions musculaires traumatiques. Le modele numerique developpe est capable de modeliser la contraction musculaire comme une transition de phase de la cellule musculaire par un changement de raideur et de volume a l'aide des lois de comportement de materiau predefinies dans le logiciel LS-DYNA (v971, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Livermore, CA, USA). Le present projet de recherche introduit donc un phenomene physiologique qui pourrait expliquer des blessures musculaires courantes (crampes, courbatures, claquages, etc.), mais aussi des maladies ou desordres touchant le tissu conjonctif comme les collagenoses et la dystrophie musculaire. La predominance de blessures musculaires lors de contractions excentriques est egalement exposee. Le modele developpe dans ce projet de recherche met ainsi a l'avant-scene le concept de transition de phase ouvrant la porte au developpement de nouvelles technologies pour l'activation musculaire chez les personnes atteintes de paraplegie ou de muscles artificiels compacts pour l'elaboration de protheses ou d'exosquelettes. Mots-cles Muscle strie, lesion musculaire, fascia, contraction excentrique, modele par elements finis, transition de phase

  16. Métrologie d'indice par interférométrie EUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rossi, S.; Joyeux, D.; Delmotte, F.; Ea-Kim, B.

    2006-12-01

    Nous décrivons la détermination directe des indices de matériaux en fonction de la longueur d'onde par interférométrie dans la gamme spectrale EUV (10-50 nm). L'interféromètre de type division de front d'onde est un bimiroir de Fresnel. Le principe consiste à mesurer le décalage des franges entre le côté de l'interférogramme qui a vu l'échantillon et le côté référence sans échantillon. Une analyse de Fourier permet d'extraire l'épaisseur optique du matériau. Nous présentons les premiers résultats de la mesure d'indice du molybdène avec l'instrument réalisé.

  17. A new model for estimating boreal forest fPAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majasalmi, Titta; Rautiainen, Miina; Stenberg, Pauline

    2014-05-01

    Life on Earth is continuously sustained by the extraterrestrial flux of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) from the sun. This flux is converted to biomass by chloroplasts in green vegetation. Thus, the fraction of absorbed PAR (fPAR) is a key parameter used in carbon balance studies, and is listed as one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV). Temporal courses of fPAR for boreal forests are difficult to measure, because of the complex 3D structures. Thus, they are most often estimated based on models which quantify the dependency of absorbed radiation on canopy structure. In this study, we adapted a physically-based canopy radiation model into a fPAR model, and compared modeled and measured fPAR in structurally different boreal forest stands. The model is based on the spectral invariants theory, and uses leaf area index (LAI), canopy gap fractions and spectra of foliage and understory as input data. The model differs from previously developed more detailed fPAR models in that the complex 3D structure of coniferous forests is described using an aggregated canopy parameter - photon recollision probability p. The strength of the model is that all model inputs are measurable or available through other simple models. First, the model was validated with measurements of instantaneous fPAR obtained with the TRAC instrument in nine Scots pine, Norway spruce and Silver birch stands in a boreal forest in southern Finland. Good agreement was found between modeled and measured fPAR. Next, we applied the model to predict temporal courses of fPAR using data on incoming radiation from a nearby flux tower and sky irradiance models. Application of the model to simulate diurnal and seasonal values of fPAR indicated that the ratio of direct-to-total incident radiation and leaf area index are the key factors behind the magnitude and variation of stand-level fPAR values.

  18. 2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

  19. Traitement des fractures des plateaux externes par vissage percutané assisté par arthroscopie

    PubMed Central

    Abouchane, Merouane; Belmoubarik, Amine; Benameur, Hamza; Haddoun, Ahmed Reda; Nechad, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Le but de notre étude est d'évaluer les résultats de fractures des plateaux tibiaux externes traitées par ostéosynthèse percutanée assistée par arthroscopie. Dix patients (8 hommes et 2 femmes) de 32 ans en moyenne ont subi cette intervention afin de réparer des fractures des plateaux tibiaux Schatzker I-III. Après avoir appliqué un garrot pneumatique, nous avons réduit et fixé la fracture au moyen de vis cannelées souschondrales. Lésions associées retrouvent deux lésions partielles du ménisque externe ont été retrouvé, traitées par résection partielle. Une orthèse de genou été de mise à but antalgique et protectrice pendant six semaines avec béquillage et interdiction de l'appui pour une durée de douze semaines avec reprise d'appui partiel au delà. La durée d'hospitalisation été d'une moyenne de cinq jours. La rééducation passive a été commence le lendemain de l'intervention et continuait dans chez un kinésithérapeute à la sortie du patient du service. Le suivi été à J7, J15, 1mois, 3mois, 6 mois puis tous les 6 mois. Neuf de nos patients ont été revu régulièrement sauf un perdu de vue. Le recul moyen de notre série été de 16 mois (10 et 24 mois). Le score de Lysholm a été utilisé pour évaluer les résultats cliniques chez nos neuf patients: excellent chez trois patients bons chez trois moyen chez un seul et mauvais chez deux patients. Tous nos neuf patients ont consolidé (figure 10 contrôle scopique d un article). Aucune gonarthrose n'a été note chez nos neuf patients due essentiellement au recul moyen faible de 16 mois. Le traitement des fractures des plateaux tibiaux externes assisté par arthroscopie produit des résultats satisfaisants et peut être accepté comme solution de rechange efficace au traitement des fractures des plateaux tibiaux causées par un choc de faible énergie. PMID:26587137

  20. Entérite lupique récidivante améliorée par Azathioprine

    PubMed Central

    Marzouk, Sameh; Garbaa, Saida; Cherif, Yosra; Jallouli, Moez; Bahri, Fathi; Bahloul, Zouhir

    2015-01-01

    Les manifestations gastro-intestinales observées au cours du lupus érythémateux systémique sont fréquentes et peuvent intéresser n'importe quel segment du tractus digestif. L'entérite lupique constitue l'une des manifestations responsable de douleurs abdominales. Son traitement est basé essentiellement sur les corticoïdes. Le recours aux immunosuppresseurs est réservé aux formes récidivantes ou en cas d’échec des corticoïdes. Nous rapportons une nouvelle observation d'entérite lupique récidivante améliorée par azathioprine. Il s'agissait d'une femme âgée de 30 ans chez laquelle le diagnostic du lupus a été retenu en 2004. Un an après, elle a présenté des douleurs abdominales, des vomissements et des diarrhées. Les explorations ont conclu à une entérite lupique après élimination de toute autre cause notamment infectieuse. Elle a été traitée par des corticoïdes à forte dose. Cependant à chaque tentative de dégression, elle présentait la même symptomatologie. En 2010 l'azathioprine a été associé permettant de juguler la maladie et de diminuer la corticothérapie. PMID:26113946

  1. Movement and equipositioning of plasmids by ParA filament disassembly

    E-print Network

    Ringgaard, Simon

    Bacterial plasmids encode partitioning (par) loci that confer stable plasmid inheritance. We showed previously that, in the presence of ParB and parC encoded by the par2 locus of plasmid pB171, ParA formed cytoskeletal-like ...

  2. Taare Zameen Par and dyslexic savants

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Ambar

    2009-01-01

    The film Taare Zameen Par (Stars upon the Ground) portrays the tormented life at school and at home of a child with dyslexia and his eventual success after his artistic talents are discovered by his art teacher at the boarding school. The film hints at a curious neurocognitive phenomenon of creativity in the midst of language disability, as exemplified in the lives of people like Leonardo da Vinci and Albert Einstein, both of whom demonstrated extraordinary creativity even though they were probably affected with developmental learning disorders. It has been hypothesized that a developmental delay in the dominant hemisphere most likely ‘disinhibits’ the nondominant parietal lobe, unmasking talents—artistic or otherwise—in some such individuals. It has been suggested that, in remedial training, children with learning disorders be encouraged to develop such hidden talents to full capacity, rather than be subjected to the usual overemphasis on the correction of the disturbed coded symbol operations. PMID:20142854

  3. Pars Orbital Method for Excited States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polansky, Oskar E.; Fabian, Walter M. F.

    1989-09-01

    Based on a projection operator formalism the pars orbital method is reformulated for the general case that both the molecule M as well as the reference molecule L-are described by a CI-expansion of the wave function. Some numerical examples in which the method is used for the interpretation of the ultraviolet spectra of simple organic molecules (butadiene, aniline, benzonitrile, o-, m-, and p-aminobenzonitrile, 2,5-diamino-p-benzoquinone) in terms of the various states (ground as well as excited) of the respective reference molecules are discussed in some detail to illustrate the scope and limitations of the proposed formalism. The results of these calculations are in addition compared to results obtained by two other methods (configuration analysis and specific measures of partial distances) designed to allow an analysis of molecules in terms of the constituent fragments.

  4. Circulating suPAR in Two Cohorts of Primary FSGS

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Changli; Trachtman, Howard; Li, Jing; Dong, Chuanhui; Friedman, Aaron L.; Gassman, Jennifer J.; McMahan, June L.; Radeva, Milena; Heil, Karsten M.; Trautmann, Agnes; Anarat, Ali; Emre, Sevinc; Ghiggeri, Gian M.; Ozaltin, Fatih; Haffner, Dieter; Gipson, Debbie S.; Kaskel, Frederick; Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane; Schaefer, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Overexpression of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) causes pathology in animal models similar to primary FSGS, and one recent study demonstrated elevated levels of serum suPAR in patients with the disease. Here, we analyzed circulating suPAR levels in two cohorts of children and adults with biopsy-proven primary FSGS: 70 patients from the North America–based FSGS clinical trial (CT) and 94 patients from PodoNet, the Europe-based consortium studying steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Circulating suPAR levels were elevated in 84.3% and 55.3% of patients with FSGS patients in the CT and PodoNet cohorts, respectively, compared with 6% of controls (P<0.0001); inflammation did not account for this difference. Multiple regression analysis suggested that lower suPAR levels associated with higher estimated GFR, male sex, and treatment with mycophenolate mofetil. In the CT cohort, there was a positive association between the relative reduction of suPAR after 26 weeks of treatment and reduction of proteinuria, with higher odds for complete remission (P=0.04). In the PodoNet cohort, patients with an NPHS2 mutation had higher suPAR levels than those without a mutation. In conclusion, suPAR levels are elevated in geographically and ethnically diverse patients with FSGS and do not reflect a nonspecific proinflammatory milieu. The associations between a change in circulating suPAR with different therapeutic regimens and with remission support the role of suPAR in the pathogenesis of FSGS. PMID:23138488

  5. Recombination in the human Pseudoautosomal region PAR1.

    PubMed

    Hinch, Anjali G; Altemose, Nicolas; Noor, Nudrat; Donnelly, Peter; Myers, Simon R

    2014-07-01

    The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is a short region of homology between the mammalian X and Y chromosomes, which has undergone rapid evolution. A crossover in the PAR is essential for the proper disjunction of X and Y chromosomes in male meiosis, and PAR deletion results in male sterility. This leads the human PAR with the obligatory crossover, PAR1, to having an exceptionally high male crossover rate, which is 17-fold higher than the genome-wide average. However, the mechanism by which this obligatory crossover occurs remains unknown, as does the fine-scale positioning of crossovers across this region. Recent research in mice has suggested that crossovers in PAR may be mediated independently of the protein PRDM9, which localises virtually all crossovers in the autosomes. To investigate recombination in this region, we construct the most fine-scale genetic map containing directly observed crossovers to date using African-American pedigrees. We leverage recombination rates inferred from the breakdown of linkage disequilibrium in human populations and investigate the signatures of DNA evolution due to recombination. Further, we identify direct PRDM9 binding sites using ChIP-seq in human cells. Using these independent lines of evidence, we show that, in contrast with mouse, PRDM9 does localise peaks of recombination in the human PAR1. We find that recombination is a far more rapid and intense driver of sequence evolution in PAR1 than it is on the autosomes. We also show that PAR1 hotspot activities differ significantly among human populations. Finally, we find evidence that PAR1 hotspot positions have changed between human and chimpanzee, with no evidence of sharing among the hottest hotspots. We anticipate that the genetic maps built and validated in this work will aid research on this vital and fascinating region of the genome. PMID:25033397

  6. Proteases in agricultural dust induce lung inflammation through PAR-1 and PAR-2 activation.

    PubMed

    Romberger, Debra J; Heires, Art J; Nordgren, Tara M; Souder, Chelsea P; West, William; Liu, Xiang-de; Poole, Jill A; Toews, Myron L; Wyatt, Todd A

    2015-08-15

    Workers exposed to aerosolized dust present in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are susceptible to inflammatory lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Extracts of dust collected from hog CAFOs [hog dust extract (HDE)] are potent stimulators of lung inflammatory responses in several model systems. The observation that HDE contains active proteases prompted the present study, which evaluated the role of CAFO dust proteases in lung inflammatory processes and tested whether protease-activated receptors (PARs) are involved in the signaling pathway for these events. We hypothesized that the damaging proinflammatory effect of HDE is due, in part, to the proteolytic activation of PARs, and inhibiting the proteases in HDE or disrupting PAR activation would attenuate HDE-mediated inflammatory indexes in bronchial epithelial cells (BECs), in mouse lung slices in vitro, and in a murine in vivo exposure model. Human BECs and mouse lung slice cultures stimulated with 5% HDE released significantly more of each of the cytokines measured (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-?, keratinocyte-derived chemokine/CXC chemokine ligand 1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2/CXC chemokine ligand 2) than controls, and these effects were markedly diminished by protease inhibition. Inhibition of PARs also blunted the HDE-induced cytokine release from BECs. In addition, protease depletion inhibited HDE-induced BEC intracellular PKC? and PKC? activation. C57BL/6J mice administered 12.5% HDE intranasally, either once or daily for 3 wk, exhibited increased total cellular and neutrophil influx, bronchial alveolar fluid inflammatory cytokines, lung histopathology, and inflammatory scores compared with mice receiving protease-depleted HDE. These data suggest that proteases in dust from CAFOs are important mediators of lung inflammation, and these proteases and their receptors may provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention in CAFO dust-induced airways disease. PMID:26092994

  7. The effect of androgens on ovarian follicle maturation: Dihydrotestosterone suppress FSH-stimulated granulosa cell proliferation by upregulating PPAR?-dependent PTEN expression.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mei-Jou; Chou, Chia-Hung; Chen, Shee-Uan; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Yang, Yu-Shih; Ho, Hong-Nerng

    2015-01-01

    Intraovarian hyperandrogenism is one of the determining factors of follicular arrest in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Using androgenized rat models, we investigated the effects of androgens on metabolism, as well as on factors involved in follicular arrest and the reduced number of estrus cycles. The dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated rats had fewer estrus cycles, higher numbers of large arrested follicles and an increased in body weight gain compared with the dehydroepiandrostenedione (DHEA)- and placebo-treated rats. In cultured rat granulosa cells, DHT suppressed follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced granulosa cell proliferation and increased the accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase. DHT decreased phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and cyclin D1 levels through increasing PTEN. DHT-promoted PTEN expression was regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) in granulosa cells. Meanwhile, in the large follicles of the DHT-treated rats, the expressions of PPAR? and PTEN were higher, but the expression of p-Akt and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were lower. Conclusively, DHT and DHEA produced differential effects on metabolism in prepubertal female rats like clinical manifestations of women with PCOS. DHT treatment may affect ovarian follicular maturation by altering granulosa cell proliferation through the regulation of enhancing PPAR? dependent PTEN/p-Akt expression in the granulosa cells. PMID:26674985

  8. The effect of orally administered melatonin on the seasonality of deer pelage exchange, antler development, LH, FSH, prolactin, testosterone, T3, T4, cortisol and alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Bubenik, G A; Smith, P S; Schams, D

    1986-01-01

    Five milligrams of melatonin (M) per day was administered orally to four male white-tailed deer on a schedule that mimicked first decreasing and then increasing lengths of natural photoperiod. The following seasonal phenotypic and hormonal responses were observed: Pelage exchange, antler mineralization, velvet shedding, and rutting behavior of experimental animals were advanced by 50-55 days. Prolactin (PRL) levels exhibited a bimodal curve with peaks in May and August, as compared to a monomodal curve of controls (peak in June). Peak FSH levels of M-fed deer were advanced 2 months as compared to controls (June vs August). LH concentrations of both groups reached maxima in July; however, in the experimental group, LH levels declined much faster than in controls and then rose again in October-November. Testosterone (T) concentrations of M-fed bucks were elevated 2 months ahead of controls. Melatonin treatment had no significant effect on seasonal variation of T3, or T4. No seasonal rhythm of cortisol was seen in either group and no detectable effect of M was evident. No statistical differences in levels of alkaline phosphatase were seen between groups, although concentrations in experimental bucks sharply dropped to basal levels two months ahead of controls. PMID:3783416

  9. Collabora$ve Data Explora$on Interfaces From Par'cipatory Sensing to Par'cipatory Sensemaking

    E-print Network

    Roe, Paul

    Collabora$ve Data Explora$on Interfaces From Par'cipatory Sensing to Par basic interac'on, exploratory analysis requires itera've refinement with fluid is not automa'c genera'on, as oversimplifica'on may be counterproduc've to diligent

  10. SPRY1 promotes the degradation of uPAR and inhibits uPAR-mediated cell adhesion and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiufeng; Lan, Yan; Zhang, Di; Wang, Kai; Wang, Yao; Hua, Zi-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a GPI anchored cell surface protein that is closely associated with invasion, migration, and metastasis of cancer cells. Many functional extracellular proteins and transmembrane receptors interact with uPAR. However, few studies have examined the association of uPAR with cytoplasm proteins. We previously used yeast two-hybrid screening to isolate several novel uPAR-interacting cytoplasmic proteins, including Sprouty1 (SPRY1), an inhibitor of the (Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase) MAPK pathway. In this study, we show that SPRY1 interacts with uPAR and directs it toward lysosomal-mediated degradation. Overexpression of SPRY1 decreased the cell surface and cytoplasmic uPAR protein level. Moreover, SPRY1 overexpression augmented uPAR-induced cell adhesion to vitronectin as well as proliferation of cancer cells. Our results also further support the critical role of SPRY1 contribution to tumor growth. In a subcutaneous tumor model, overexpression of SPRY1 in HCT116 or A549 xenograft in athymic nude mice led to great suppression of tumor growth. These results show that SPRY1 may affect tumor cell function through direct interaction with uPAR and promote its lysosomal degradation. PMID:25520860

  11. Fundamental philosophy of PAR-WIG design at USA-DTNSRDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Shigenori

    Problems with the first-generation WIG (wing-in-ground) are discussed. The PAR (power augmented ram) technology is classified into three types: (1) wing PAR cushion; (2) fuselage PAR cushion; and (3) LEX/TEX PAR cushion. IGE (in-ground-effect) and OGE (off-ground-effect) improvements are addressed. Three types PAR-WIG designs are presented, and a PAR-WIG water impact design methodology is described.

  12. Paraplégie compliquant une plaie abdominale antérieure par arme blanche

    PubMed Central

    Elahmadi, Brahim; Awab, Almahdi; El Moussaoui, Rachid; El Hijri, Ahmed; Azzouzi, Abderrahim; Alilou, Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    Les traumatismes médullaires sont des complications rares des plaies abdominales antérieures par arme blanche. Son diagnostic est difficile parfois retardé. L'imagerie par résonance magnétique reste l'examen de choix. Le traitement dépend du tableau clinique et de la gravité de la souffrance médullaire. Le pronostic est corrélé à l’étendue et à la nature de la lésion médullaire. Nous rapportons un cas exceptionnel d'un traumatisme médullaire chez une patiente victime d'une plaie abdominale antérieure par arme blanche. PMID:25995808

  13. Parli-Pro: A Fun Guide for Learning Parliamentary Procedures 

    E-print Network

    Davis, Brad

    2007-07-23

    - tion.? Then John asked, ?Are the members ready for the question?? ................37 Mission: Parli-Pro/A Fun Guide for Learning Parliamentary Procedure Oral Vote Since no one seemed unready to vote, he said, ?All those in favor of the motion... Parliamentary Procedure 4-H COM 11.010 08/07 Mission: Parli-Pro/A Fun Guide for Learning Parliamentary Procedure Parli-Pro A Fun Guide for Learning Parliamentary Procedure Authors Brad Davis formerly Extension Program Specialist ? 4-H, The Texas A...

  14. Limnological database for Par Pond: 1959 to 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Tilly, L.J.

    1981-03-01

    A limnological database for Par Pond, a cooling reservoir for hot reactor effluent water at the Savannah River Plant, is described. The data are derived from a combination of research and monitoring efforts on Par Pond since 1959. The approximately 24,000-byte database provides water quality, primary productivity, and flow data from a number of different stations, depths, and times during the 22-year history of the Par Pond impoundment. The data have been organized to permit an interpretation of the effects of twenty years of cooling system operations on the structure and function of an aquatic ecosystem.

  15. Reconstruction d’une Carbonisation du Pouce par Lambeau Chinois

    PubMed Central

    Khales, A.; Achbouk, J.A.; Moussaoui, A.; Belmir, R.; Tourabi, K.; Oufkir, A.; Ihrai, H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary La main en tant qu’organe majeur de la préhension peut être le siège de brûlures graves qui compromettent sa fonction. Bien qu’elle ne représente que 2% de la surface corporelle la brûlure de la main est grave et difficile à traiter, vu la vulnérabilité et la complexité de son appareil locomoteur. Nous rapportons dans ce travail le cas d’un patient victime d’une carbonisation de la main. Huit mois après le parage et la couverture par lambeau inguinal, le patient bénéficie d’une reconstruction du pouce par lambeau chinois associé à une greffe osseuse. Le résultat s’est avéré satisfaisant. Le lambeau chinois prouve par son apport vasculaire et par sa facilité technique qu’il est un moyen très intéressant dans la reconstruction du pouce - ou des doigts en général - surtout dans un contexte de brûlure. PMID:21991226

  16. 1 Cours de M.RUMIN rcrit par J.KULCSAR Chapitre IV

    E-print Network

    Rumin, Michel

    1 Cours de M.RUMIN réécrit par J.KULCSAR Chapitre IV Bases et dimension d'un espace vectoriel. Démonstration : () : est génératrice par hypothèse. est elle libre ? Soient tels que . #12;2 Cours de M.RUMIN vecteurs. #12;3 Cours de M.RUMIN réécrit par J.KULCSAR - Base d'un plan de défini par une équation

  17. Movement and equipositioning of plasmids by ParA filament disassembly

    E-print Network

    Higgins, Darren

    Movement and equipositioning of plasmids by ParA filament disassembly Simon Ringgaarda,b , Jeroen, and approved September 25, 2009 (received for review July 27, 2009) Bacterial plasmids encode partitioning (par) loci that confer stable plasmid inheritance. We showed previously that, in the presence of ParB and par

  18. Prostate Apoptosis Response 4 (Par-4), a Novel Substrate of Caspase-3 during Apoptosis Activation

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Parvesh; Singh, Mohan; Parent, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Prostate apoptosis response 4 (Par-4) is a ubiquitously expressed proapoptotic tumor suppressor protein. Here, we show for the first time, that Par-4 is a novel substrate of caspase-3 during apoptosis. We found that Par-4 is cleaved during cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human normal and cancer cell lines. Par-4 cleavage generates a C-terminal fragment of ?25 kDa, and the cleavage of Par-4 is completely inhibited by a caspase-3 inhibitor, suggesting that caspase-3 is directly involved in the cleavage of Par-4. Caspase-3-deficient MCF-7 cells do not show Par-4 cleavage in response to cisplatin treatment, and restoration of caspase-3 in MCF-7 cells produces a decrease in Par-4 levels, with the appearance of a cleaved fragment. Additionally, knockdown of Par-4 reduces caspase-3 activation and apoptosis induction. Site-directed mutagenesis reveals that Par-4 cleavage by caspase-3 occurs at an unconventional site, EEPD131?G. Interestingly, overexpression of wild-type Par-4 but not the Par-4 D131A mutant sensitizes cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Upon caspase-3 cleavage, the cleaved fragment of Par-4 accumulates in the nucleus and displays increased apoptotic activity. Overexpression of the cleaved fragment of Par-4 inhibits I?B? phosphorylation and blocks NF-?B nuclear translocation. We have identified a novel specific caspase-3 cleavage site in Par-4, and the cleaved fragment of Par-4 retains proapoptotic activity. PMID:22184067

  19. Potent Agonists of the Protease Activated Receptor 2 (PAR2)

    PubMed Central

    Boitano, Scott; Flynn, Andrea N.; Schulz, Stephanie M.; Hoffman, Justin; Price, Theodore J.; Vagner, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Novel peptidomimetic pharmacophores to PAR2 were designed based on the known activating peptide SLIGRL-NH2. A set of 15 analogues was evaluated with a model cell line (16HBE14o-) that highly expresses PAR2. Cells exposed to the PAR2 activating peptide with N-terminal 2-furoyl modification (2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2) initiated increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i EC50 = 0.84 ?M) and in vitro physiological responses as measured by the xCELLigence real time cell analyzer (RTCA EC50 = 138 nM). We discovered two selective PAR2 agonists with comparable potency: compound 1 (2-aminothiazol-4-yl; Ca2+ EC50 = 1.77 ?M, RTCA EC50 = 142 nM) and compound 2 (6-aminonicotinyl; Ca2+ EC50 = 2.60 ?M, RTCA EC50 = 311 nM). Unlike the previously described agonist, these novel agonists are devoid of the metabolically unstable 2-furoyl modification and thus provide potential advantages for PAR2 peptide design for in vitro and in vivo studies. The novel compounds described herein also serve as a starting point for structure–activity relationship (SAR) design and are, for the first time, evaluated via a unique high throughput in vitro physiological assay. Together these will lead to discovery of more potent agonists and antagonists of PAR2. PMID:21294569

  20. Croissance epitaxiale de GaAs sur substrats de Ge par epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belanger, Simon

    La situation energetique et les enjeux environnementaux auxquels la societe est confrontee entrainent un interet grandissant pour la production d'electricite a partir de l'energie solaire. Parmi les technologies actuellement disponibles, la filiere du photovoltaique a concentrateur solaire (CPV pour concentrator photovoltaics) possede un rendement superieur et mi potentiel interessant a condition que ses couts de production soient competitifs. La methode d'epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques (CBE pour chemical beam epitaxy) possede plusieurs caracteristiques qui la rendent interessante pour la production a grande echelle de cellules photovoltaiques a jonctions multiples a base de semi-conducteurs III-V. Ce type de cellule possede la meilleure efficacite atteinte a ce jour et est utilise sur les satellites et les systemes photovoltaiques a concentrateur solaire (CPV) les plus efficaces. Une des principales forces de la technique CBE se trouve dans son potentiel d'efficacite d'utilisation des materiaux source qui est superieur a celui de la technique d'epitaxie qui est couramment utilisee pour la production a grande echelle de ces cellules. Ce memoire de maitrise presente les travaux effectues dans le but d'evaluer le potentiel de la technique CBE pour realiser la croissance de couches de GaAs sur des substrats de Ge. Cette croissance constitue la premiere etape de fabrication de nombreux modeles de cellules solaires a haute performance decrites plus haut. La realisation de ce projet a necessite le developpement d'un procede de preparation de surface pour les substrats de germanium, la realisation de nombreuses sceances de croissance epitaxiale et la caracterisation des materiaux obtenus par microscopie optique, microscopie a force atomique (AFM), diffraction des rayons-X a haute resolution (HRXRD), microscopie electronique a transmission (TEM), photoluminescence a basse temperature (LTPL) et spectrometrie de masse des ions secondaires (SIMS). Les experiences ont permis de confirmer l'efficacite du procede de preparation de surface et d'identifier les conditions de croissance optimales. Les resultats de caracterisation indiquent que les materiaux obtenus presentent une tres faible rugosite de surface, une bonne qualite cristalline et un dopage residuel relativement important. De plus, l'interface GaAs/Ge possede une faible densite de defauts. Finalement, la diffusion d'arsenic dans le substrat de germanium est comparable aux valeurs trouvees dans la litterature pour la croissance a basse temperature avec les autres procedes d'epitaxie courants. Ces resultats confirment que la technique d'epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques (CBE) permet de produire des couches de GaAs sur Ge de qualite adequate pour la fabrication de cellules solaires a haute performance. L'apport a la communaute scientifique a ete maximise par le biais de la redaction d'un article soumis a la revue Journal of Crystal Growth et la presentation des travaux a la conference Photovoltaics Canada 2010 . Mots-cles : Epitaxie par jets chimiques, Chemical beam epitaxy, CBE, MOMBE, Germanium, GaAs, Ge

  1. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned.

  2. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- October survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-11-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this late October survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maiden cane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  3. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- September survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this mid-September survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys during the late growing seasons of 1995, and throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  4. Plasmid RK2 ParB Protein: Purification and Nuclease Properties

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Erik P.; Mincer, Tracy; Schwab, Helmut; Burgin, Alex B.; Helinski, Donald R.

    1999-01-01

    The parCBA operon of the 3.2-kb stabilization region of plasmid RK2 encodes three cotranslated proteins. ParA mediates site-specific recombination to resolve plasmid multimers, ParB has been shown to be a nuclease, and the function of ParC is unknown. In this study ParB was overexpressed by cotranslation with ParC in Escherichia coli by using a plasmid construct that contained the parC and parB genes under the control of the T7 promoter. Purification was achieved by treatment of extracts with Polymin P, followed by ammonium sulfate precipitation and heparin and ion-exchange chromatography. Sizing-column analysis indicated that ParB exists as a monomer in solution. Analysis of the enzymatic properties of purified ParB indicated that the protein preferentially cleaves single-stranded DNA. ParB also nicks supercoiled plasmid DNA preferably at sites with potential single-stranded character, like AT-rich regions and sequences that can form cruciform structures. ParB also exhibits 5??3? exonuclease activity. This ParB activity on a 5?-end-labeled, double-stranded DNA substrate produces a 3?,5?-phosphorylated dinucleotide which is further cleaved to a 3?,5?-phosphorylated mononucleotide. The role of the ParB endonuclease and exonuclease activities in plasmid RK2 stabilization remains to be determined. PMID:10498713

  5. Bacillus subtilis Soj (ParA): The involvement of DNA binding and dynamic localization in plasmid partitioning

    E-print Network

    Hester, Christina Marie

    2008-05-08

    The ParA family of ATPases encompasses proteins with a wide variety of functions. The prototype of this family is the ParA ATPase from the P1 prophage plasmid, which, along with ParB and the parS binding site, is required for the faithful...

  6. Manipulation quantique de la lumière par un amplificateur non linéaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symul, T.; Bencheikh, K.; Levenson, J. A.

    2002-06-01

    Nous proposons un dispositif original, appelé Amplificateur Non Linéaire (ANL), permettant la génération et la manipulation d'états quantiques de la lumière. Ce dispositif permet une compression du bruit quantique de la lumière en dessous de la limite quantique standard plus efficace que celle obtenue par interactions non linéaires du second ordre ou du troisième ordre. Il permet également d'inverser les fluctuations quantiques en intensité de la lumière, et de produire des photons jumeaux ayant des corrélations quantiques plus élevées et plus robustes que ceux produits par un amplificateur paramétrique seul.

  7. Gliome du nerf optique révélé par un strabisme divergent

    PubMed Central

    Handor, Hanan; Laghmari, Mina; Hafidi, Zouheir; Daoudi, Rajae

    2014-01-01

    Les gliomes des nerfs optiques sont des tumeurs rares qui s'observent essentiellement chez l'enfant. L'exophtalmie et le strabisme sont les principaux signes révélateurs de la maladie. La neuroimagerie et notamment l'imagerie par résonnance magnétique est d'un grand apport dans le diagnostic et le suivi de ces tumeurs. La prise en charge thérapeutique de ces gliomes fait appel à différents moyens: l'exérèse chirurgicale, la chimiothérapie, la radiothérapie ou l'abstention sous surveillance. Les indications doivent être discutées au cas par cas. PMID:25309656

  8. Competing ParA Structures Space Bacterial Plasmids Equally over the Nucleoid

    PubMed Central

    Gerdes, Kenn; Howard, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Low copy number plasmids in bacteria require segregation for stable inheritance through cell division. This is often achieved by a parABC locus, comprising an ATPase ParA, DNA-binding protein ParB and a parC region, encoding ParB-binding sites. These minimal components space plasmids equally over the nucleoid, yet the underlying mechanism is not understood. Here we investigate a model where ParA-ATP can dynamically associate to the nucleoid and is hydrolyzed by plasmid-associated ParB, thereby creating nucleoid-bound, self-organizing ParA concentration gradients. We show mathematically that differences between competing ParA concentrations on either side of a plasmid can specify regular plasmid positioning. Such positioning can be achieved regardless of the exact mechanism of plasmid movement, including plasmid diffusion with ParA-mediated immobilization or directed plasmid motion induced by ParB/parC-stimulated ParA structure disassembly. However, we find experimentally that parABC from Escherichia coli plasmid pB171 increases plasmid mobility, inconsistent with diffusion/immobilization. Instead our observations favor directed plasmid motion. Our model predicts less oscillatory ParA dynamics than previously believed, a prediction we verify experimentally. We also show that ParA localization and plasmid positioning depend on the underlying nucleoid morphology, indicating that the chromosomal architecture constrains ParA structure formation. Our directed motion model unifies previously contradictory models for plasmid segregation and provides a robust mechanistic basis for self-organized plasmid spacing that may be widely applicable. PMID:25521716

  9. PH motifs in PAR1&2 endow breast cancer growth

    PubMed Central

    Kancharla, A.; Maoz, M.; Jaber, M.; Agranovich, D.; Peretz, T.; Grisaru-Granovsky, S.; Uziely, B.; Bar-Shavit, R.

    2015-01-01

    Although emerging roles of protease-activated receptor1&2 (PAR1&2) in cancer are recognized, their underlying signalling events are poorly understood. Here we show signal-binding motifs in PAR1&2 that are critical for breast cancer growth. This occurs via the association of the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain with Akt/PKB as a key signalling event of PARs. Other PH-domain signal-proteins such as Etk/Bmx and Vav3 also associate with PAR1 and PAR2 through their PH domains. PAR1 and PAR2 bind with priority to Etk/Bmx. A point mutation in PAR2, H349A, but not in R352A, abrogates PH-protein association and is sufficient to markedly reduce PAR2-instigated breast tumour growth in vivo and placental extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion in vitro. Similarly, the PAR1 mutant hPar1-7A, which is unable to bind the PH domain, reduces mammary tumours and EVT invasion, endowing these motifs with physiological significance and underscoring the importance of these previously unknown PAR1 and PAR2 PH-domain-binding motifs in both pathological and physiological invasion processes. PMID:26600192

  10. Subcellular Localization and Characterization of the ParAB System from Corynebacterium glutamicum?

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Catriona; Schwaiger, Astrid; Krämer, Reinhard; Bramkamp, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Faithful segregation of chromosomes and plasmids is a vital prerequisite to produce viable and genetically identical progeny. Bacteria use a specialized segregation system composed of the partitioning proteins ParA and ParB to segregate certain plasmids. Strikingly, homologues of ParA and ParB are found to be encoded in many chromosomes. Although mutations in the chromosomal Par system have effects on segregation efficiency, the exact mechanism by which the chromosomes are segregated into the daughter cells is not fully understood. We describe the polar localization of the ParB origin nucleoprotein complex in the actinomycete Corynebacterium glutamicum. ParB and the origin of replication were found to be stably localized to the cell poles. After replication, the origins move toward the opposite pole. Purified ParB was able to bind to the parS consensus sequence in vitro. C. glutamicum possesses two ParA-like partitioning ATPase proteins. Both proteins interact with ParB but show a slightly different subcellular localization and phenotype. While ParA might be part of a conventional partitioning system, PldP seems to play a role in division site selection. PMID:20435732

  11. PH motifs in PAR1&2 endow breast cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Kancharla, A; Maoz, M; Jaber, M; Agranovich, D; Peretz, T; Grisaru-Granovsky, S; Uziely, B; Bar-Shavit, R

    2015-01-01

    Although emerging roles of protease-activated receptor1&2 (PAR1&2) in cancer are recognized, their underlying signalling events are poorly understood. Here we show signal-binding motifs in PAR1&2 that are critical for breast cancer growth. This occurs via the association of the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain with Akt/PKB as a key signalling event of PARs. Other PH-domain signal-proteins such as Etk/Bmx and Vav3 also associate with PAR1 and PAR2 through their PH domains. PAR1 and PAR2 bind with priority to Etk/Bmx. A point mutation in PAR2, H349A, but not in R352A, abrogates PH-protein association and is sufficient to markedly reduce PAR2-instigated breast tumour growth in vivo and placental extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion in vitro. Similarly, the PAR1 mutant hPar1-7A, which is unable to bind the PH domain, reduces mammary tumours and EVT invasion, endowing these motifs with physiological significance and underscoring the importance of these previously unknown PAR1 and PAR2 PH-domain-binding motifs in both pathological and physiological invasion processes. PMID:26600192

  12. ParA-mediated plasmid partition driven by protein pattern self-organization

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ling Chin; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G; Han, Yong-Woon; Mizuuchi, Michiyo; Harada, Yoshie; Funnell, Barbara E; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    DNA segregation ensures the stable inheritance of genetic material prior to cell division. Many bacterial chromosomes and low-copy plasmids, such as the plasmids P1 and F, employ a three-component system to partition replicated genomes: a partition site on the DNA target, typically called parS, a partition site binding protein, typically called ParB, and a Walker-type ATPase, typically called ParA, which also binds non-specific DNA. In vivo, the ParA family of ATPases forms dynamic patterns over the nucleoid, but how ATP-driven patterning is involved in partition is unknown. We reconstituted and visualized ParA-mediated plasmid partition inside a DNA-carpeted flowcell, which acts as an artificial nucleoid. ParA and ParB transiently bridged plasmid to the DNA carpet. ParB-stimulated ATP hydrolysis by ParA resulted in ParA disassembly from the bridging complex and from the surrounding DNA carpet, which led to plasmid detachment. Our results support a diffusion-ratchet model, where ParB on the plasmid chases and redistributes the ParA gradient on the nucleoid, which in turn mobilizes the plasmid. PMID:23443047

  13. Modelling the Establishment of PAR Protein Polarity in the One-Cell C. elegans Embryo

    E-print Network

    Filipe Tostevin; Martin Howard

    2008-11-20

    At the one-cell stage, the C. elegans embryo becomes polarized along the anterior-posterior axis. The PAR proteins form complementary anterior and posterior domains in a dynamic process driven by cytoskeletal rearrangement. Initially, the PAR proteins are uniformly distributed throughout the embryo. Following a cue from fertilization, cortical actomyosin contracts towards the anterior pole. PAR-3/PAR-6/PKC-3 (the anterior PAR proteins) become restricted to the anterior cortex. PAR-1 and PAR-2 (the posterior PAR proteins) become enriched in the posterior cortical region. We present a mathematical model of this polarity establishment process, in which we take a novel approach to combine reaction-diffusion dynamics of the PAR proteins coupled to a simple model of actomyosin contraction. We show that known interactions between the PAR proteins are sufficient to explain many aspects of the observed cortical PAR dynamics in both wild-type and mutant embryos. However, cytoplasmic PAR protein polarity, which is vital for generating daughter cells with distinct molecular components, cannot be properly explained within such a framework. We therefore consider additional mechanisms that can reproduce the proper cytoplasmic polarity. In particular we predict that cytoskeletal asymmetry in the cytoplasm, in addition to the cortical actomyosin asymmetry, is a critical determinant of PAR protein localization.

  14. La projection par plasma : une revue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauchais, P.; Grimaud, A.; Vardelle, A.; Vardelle, M.

    The quality of a plasma sprayed coating depends on numerous parameters that start to be understood due to the recent progresses in modelling and measurement techniques for plasma jets, momentum, heat and mass transfers between plasma and particles, the way the particules splat and cool down upon impact on the substrate or the previously deposited layers. In this paper, first are recalled the used measurement techniques and their limitations both for plasma jets and particles in flight. Then are underlined the importance of the different phenomena envolved in the transfers between plasma and particles such as steep temperature and chemical species density gradients around the particles, heat propagation phenomenon especially for ceramic particles and the connected evaporation effect, rarefaction effect which occurs even at atmospheric pressure. The problems related to the size and injection velocity distributions which determine the trajectory distributions and the heat treatments undergone by the particles are treated. The study of plasma generation shows on one hand for d.c. arc plasma torches the drastic influence on the plasma jets lengths and diameters of the gas injection chamber design, the gas nature, the design of the arc chamber and nozzle, the surrounding atmosphere (especially air pumping which cools down very fast the plasma) and on the other hand for RF plasmas the importance of the particle injection design to avoid the coupling between the RF discharge and the carrier gas with the particles. All these points are illustrated with examples of coatings of alumina, zirconia carbide and nickel particles. The way the particles splat is then studied with the chemical reactions in flight, the fast quenching of the particles and the resulting cristalline structures, the coating adhesion and also the residual stesses and their control through that of the temperature gradients into the coatings during spraying. At last a few actual and potential applications are presented in the fields of aeronautics and mechanics. La qualité d'un dépôt projete par plasma dépend de nombreux paramètres que l'on commence à mieux appréhender du fait des progrès de la modélisation et de la métrologie tant des écoulements plasmas que des transferts plasma-particules ou que des conditions d'écrasement et de refroidissement des particules lors de leur impact sur le substrat ou les couches déjà déposées. Les techniques de mesure utilisdes et leurs limitations sont d'abord rappelées tant pour les jets de plasma que pour les particules en vol et l'importance des différents phénomènes intervenant dans les transferts plasma-particules est soulignée : gradients de température et de concentration d'espèces chimiques très élevés autour des particules, effets de propagation de la chaleur, notamment pour les particules céramiques, effet d'évaporation, effet de raréfaction sensible dès la pression atmosphérique. Les problèmes de distribution de taille et de vitesse d'injection des particules sont également abordés car ils conditionnent les distributions de trajectoires et donc le traitement des particules dans le jet de plasma. La génération du plasma montre d'une part 1'influence considérable de l'injection du gaz, de sa nature, du dessin de la chambre d'arc et de la tuyère ainsi que du pompage de l'air ambiant sur la longueur des jets de plasma d'arc et d'autre part les problèmes d'injection pour éviter le couplage avec la décharge dans les jets de plasmas R.E Tout ceci est illustré avec des exemples de dépôt d'alumine, de zircone, de cermet carbure et de nickel. L'écrasement des particules est ensuite abordé avec les problèmes de réactions chimiques, de trempe ultra-rapide et donc de structure cristalline des dépôts, d'adhdsion mais aussi de containtes résiduelles et de leur contrôle via les gradients de température dans les dépôts pendant le tir. Enfin quelques applications actuelles sont présentées notamment pour l'aéronautique et la mécanique.

  15. The Pars Triangularis in Dyslexia and ADHD: A Comprehensive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibby, Michelle Y.; Kroese, Judith M.; Krebbs, Hillery; Hill, Crystal E.; Hynd, George W.

    2009-01-01

    Limited research has been conducted on the structure of the pars triangularis (PT) in dyslexia despite functional neuroimaging research finding it may play a role in phonological processing. Furthermore, research to date has not examined PT size in ADHD even though the right inferior frontal region has been implicated in the disorder. Hence, one…

  16. Leucémie aigüe myélomonocytaire à éosinophiles révélée par une pancréatite aigüe

    PubMed Central

    Touaoussa, Aziz; Elhmadi, Khalid; El Youssi, Hind; Moncef, Hichameddou; Hassani, Moncef Amrani

    2015-01-01

    La leucémie aigüe myélomonocytaire à composante éosinophile (LAM4eo) est une hémopathie maligne rare, caractérisée par une prolifération blastique myéloïde avec présence d'une composante monocytaire et des éosinophiles anormaux. Elle est associée à l'inversion du chromosome 16, parfois à sa variante la translocation (16;16). Nous rapportons un cas de LAM4eo chez un patient de sexe masculin âgé de 51 ans, découverte au décours d'un bilan paraclinique pour pancréatite aiguë (PA) confirmée par la TDM. L'hémogramme a montré une hyperleucocytose à 123G/l faite de 60% de blastes, une monocytose à 5 G/L ainsi qu'une lignée éosinophile dystrophique. Le myélogramme a objectivé l'infiltration de la moelle par une population blastique estimée à 61% d'expression hétérogène à la Cytométrie de flux: Des blastes très immatures exprimant fortement les marqueurs CD117 et CD34; des blastes prédominants qui expriment les antigènes CD33, CD13, CD65 (myéloblastes). Et une partie des blastes, était positive pour le CD14, CD4, CD11c (monoblastes). Après une exploration étiologique approfondie n'ayant pas pu trouver un lien de cause à effet, l'association entre les deux pathologies a été considérée comme fortuite et la pancréatite a été rattachée à la prise de paroxétine. Le patient a été mis alors en condition, et a été traité par chimiothérapie avec bonne évolution clinique et biologique. PMID:26090060

  17. Histoire(de(l'Astronomie( par(Thomas(Widemann((

    E-print Network

    Widemann, Thomas

    (ses(observations.(Dans(son(oeuvre,( "l'Almageste",(ainsi(dénommée(par(les( Arabes,(il(présente(son(système( géocentrique(du(centre(de(l'épicycle(est(uniforme.(( Almageste (grec, IXe siècle)! Almageste (latin, XIII-XIVe siècle)! L'astronomie(araboIislamique( ( Parmi

  18. Rcupration d'nergie vibratoire par transduction lectrostatique

    E-print Network

    Baudoin, Geneviève

    électricité. Les dispositifs doivent fournir une dizaine de µW pour permettre l'auto-alimentation de capteurs embarqué. Applications Les micro-sources d'énergie autonomes peuvent par exemple servir à l'alimentation de · Réaliser une électronique « intelligente » ultra-basse consommation qui adaptera le système aux variations

  19. L'analyse par activation de neutrons de réacteur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, G.

    2003-02-01

    Quand les neutrons traversent la matière, certains sont transmis sans interaction, les autres interagissent avec le milieu traversé par diffusion et par absorption. Ce phénomène d'absorption est utilisé pour se protéger des neutrons, mais aussi pour les détecter; il peut également être utilisé pour identifier les noyaux “absorbants" et ainsi analyser le milieu traversé. En effet par différentes réactions nucléaires (n,?), (n,p), (n,?), (n,fission), on obtient des noyaux résiduels qui sont souvent radioactifs; on dit que l'échantillon est “activé". Si l'on connaît le rendement d'activation et donc le pourcentage de noyaux ainsi “transmutés", les mesures de radioactivité induite vont permettre de déterminer la composition de l'échantillon irradié. Cette méthode dite d'analyse par activation neutronique est pratiquée depuis la découverte du neutron. Elle a permis grâce à sa sélectivité et à sa sensibilité d'avoir accès au domaine des traces et des ultra-traces dans des champs d'application très divers comme la métallurgie, l'archéologie, la biologie, la géochimie etc...

  20. Traumatismes Oculaires par Petards: Bilan sur Trois Annees

    PubMed Central

    Zouaoui-Kesraoui, N.; Derdour, A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Les accidents dus aux pétards sont des accidents graves. Leur recrudescence ces dernières années en Algérie, essentiellement durant les fêtes du Mawlid Ennabaoui (fête de la naissance du prophète), mérite à notre sens d'entreprendre des bilans exhaustifs dont celui-ci dans le but d'une sensibilisation de toutes les compétences concernées. Nous avons réuni sur trois années consécutives (2002, 2003, 2004) 60 dossiers de malades ayant subi des accidents oculaires par pétards. Nos patients sont répartis en 42 consultations pour blessures légères et 18 hospitalisations pour blessures graves. Parmi ces derniers, neuf ont présenté des complications et séquelles graves (cinq cas de cécité par atrophie du globe oculaire, trois cas de cécité cornéenne et un cas de cécité par trou maculaire). Dans tous ces cas l'incapacité permanente partielle est au minimum de 30%. Au vu de ces données nous proposons des mesures d'éducation sanitaire et une sensibilisation du grand public aux traumatismes oculaires, par le biais de mé dias appropriés: radio, télévision, affiches. PMID:21991157

  1. Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily (Nymphaea odorata), and watershield (Brasenia schreberi) are now extensive and well established. In addition, within isolated coves, extensive beds of water lilies and spike-rush (Eleocharis sp.) are common. Cattail occurrence has increased since refill, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Invasion of willow (Salix sp.) and red maple (Acer rubrum) occurred along the lake shoreline during drawdown. The red maples along the present shoreline are beginning to show evidence of stress and mortality from flooding over the past four months. Some of the willows appear to be stressed as well. The loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), which were flooded in all but the shallow shoreline areas, are now dead. Future surveys are planned for the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data for mapping the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond.

  2. PORTRAIT DES PERCEPTIONS RELATIVES L'ENVIRONNEMENT CONOMIQUE PAR

    E-print Network

    Asselin, Hugo

    PORTRAIT DES PERCEPTIONS RELATIVES À L'ENVIRONNEMENT ÉCONOMIQUE PAR LES COMMERÇANTS ET QUÉBEC EN ABITIBI-TÉMISCAMINGUE CHAIRE DESJARDINS EN DÉVELOPPEMENT DES PETITES COLLECTIVITÉS PORTRAIT DES;iii SOMMAIRE Cette enquête vise à tracer un portrait des perceptions relatives à l

  3. es algues constituent un monde diversifi : par leur forme (algues

    E-print Network

    -mêmes, avec des descen- dantsidentiquesauxparents.Ainsi,lorsdes marées vertes en Bretagne, des algues vertes/ouenphosphate, unphénomèneappeléeutrophisationdont les marées vertes ne sont qu'un exemple. Pour les algues unicellulaires, la croissanceL es algues constituent un monde diversifié : par leur forme (algues unicellulaires et

  4. BOREAS RSS-10 TOMS Circumpolar One-Degree PAR Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, Dennis G.; Holben, Brent; Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-10 team investigated the magnitude of daily, seasonal, and yearly variations of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) from ground and satellite observations. This data set contains satellite estimates of surface-incident PAR (400-700 nm, MJ/sq m) at one-degree spatial resolution. The spatial coverage is circumpolar from latitudes of 41 to 66 degrees north. The temporal coverage is from May through September for years 1979 through 1989. Eleven-year statistics are also provided: (1) mean, (2) standard deviation, and (3) coefficient of variation for 1979-89. The PAR estimates were derived from the global gridded ultraviolet reflectivity data product (average of 360, 380 nm) from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Image mask data are provided for identifying the boreal forest zone, and ocean/land and snow/ice-covered areas. The data are available as binary image format data files. The PAR data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  5. Arylquins Target Vimentin to Trigger Par-4 Secretion for Tumor Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Hebbar, Nikhil; Zhang, Wen; Layton, W. John; Hamza, Adel; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Watt, David S.; Liu, Chunming; Rangnekar, Vivek M.

    2014-01-01

    The tumor suppressor protein Par-4, which is secreted by normal cells, selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells. We identified a 3-arylquinoline derivative, designated Arylquin 1, as a potent Par-4 secretagogue in cell cultures and mice. Mechanistically, Arylquin 1 binds to vimentin, displaces Par-4 from vimentin for secretion and triggers the efficient paracrine apoptosis of diverse cancer cells. Thus, targeting vimentin with Par-4 secretagogues efficiently induces paracrine apoptosis of tumor cells. PMID:25218743

  6. Arylquins target vimentin to trigger Par-4 secretion for tumor cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Burikhanov, Ravshan; Sviripa, Vitaliy M; Hebbar, Nikhil; Zhang, Wen; Layton, W John; Hamza, Adel; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Watt, David S; Liu, Chunming; Rangnekar, Vivek M

    2014-11-01

    The tumor suppressor protein prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4), which is secreted by normal cells, selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells. We identified a 3-arylquinoline derivative, designated Arylquin 1, as a potent Par-4 secretagogue in cell cultures and mice. Mechanistically, Arylquin 1 binds vimentin, displaces Par-4 from vimentin for secretion and triggers the efficient paracrine apoptosis of diverse cancer cells. Thus, targeting vimentin with Par-4 secretagogues efficiently induces paracrine apoptosis of tumor cells. PMID:25218743

  7. Avances en Sciences de l'Information prsentes par leurs auteurs

    E-print Network

    Abry, Patrice

    Avancées en Sciences de l'Information présentées par leurs auteurs © Institut de France/FESSY G. Séance publique* consacrée à six avancées en sciences de l'information présentées par leurs auteurs Programme 14h 30 Introduction par François Baccelli, de l'Académie des sciences. 14h 35 Georges Gonthier

  8. Is There an "F" in Your PAR? Understanding, Teaching and Doing Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzetti, Liza; Walsh, Christine Ann

    2014-01-01

    Participatory Action Research (PAR) is increasingly recognized within academic research and pedagogy. What are the benefits of including feminism within participatory action research and teaching? In responding to this question, we discuss the similarities and salient differences between PAR and feminist informed PAR (FPAR). There are eight themes…

  9. Platelet Specific Promoters Are Insufficient to Express Protease Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) Transgene in

    E-print Network

    Platelet Specific Promoters Are Insufficient to Express Protease Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1 study of protease activated receptors (PARs) in platelets is complicated due to species specific to Express Protease Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) Transgene in Mouse Platelets. PLoS ONE 9(5): e97724. doi:10

  10. ParA resolvase catalyzes site-specific excision of DNA from the Arabidopsis genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small serine resolvase ParA from bacterial plasmids RK2 and RP4 catalyzes the recombination of two identical 133 bp recombination sites known as MRS. Previously, we reported that ParA is active in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this work, the parA recombinase gene was placed un...

  11. ParCAT: A Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugen, B.; Smith, B.; Steed, C.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Thornton, P. E.; Shipman, G.

    2012-12-01

    Climate science has employed increasingly complex models and simulations to analyze the past and predict the future of our climate. The size and dimensionality of climate simulation data has been growing with the complexity of the models. This growth in data is creating a widening gap between the data being produced and the tools necessary to analyze large, high dimensional data sets. With single run data sets increasing into 10's, 100's and even 1000's of gigabytes, parallel computing tools are becoming a necessity in order to analyze and compare climate simulation data. The Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT) provides basic tools that efficiently use parallel computing techniques to narrow the gap between data set size and analysis tools. ParCAT was created as a collaborative effort between climate scientists and computer scientists in order to provide efficient parallel implementations of the computing tools that are of use to climate scientists. Some of the basic functionalities included in the toolkit are the ability to compute spatio-temporal means and variances, differences between two runs and histograms of the values in a data set. ParCAT is designed to facilitate the "heavy lifting" that is required for large, multidimensional data sets. The toolkit does not focus on performing the final visualizations and presentation of results but rather, reducing large data sets to smaller, more manageable summaries. The output from ParCAT is provided in commonly used file formats (NetCDF, CSV, ASCII) to allow for simple integration with other tools. The toolkit is currently implemented as a command line utility, but will likely also provide a C library for developers interested in tighter software integration. Elements of the toolkit are already being incorporated into projects such as UV-CDAT and CMDX. There is also an effort underway to implement portions of the CCSM Land Model Diagnostics package using ParCAT in conjunction with Python and gnuplot. ParCAT is implemented in C to provide efficient file IO. The file IO operations in the toolkit use the parallel-netcdf library; this enables the code to use the parallel IO capabilities of modern HPC systems. Analysis that currently requires an estimated 12+ hours with the traditional CCSM Land Model Diagnostics Package can now be performed in as little as 30 minutes on a single desktop workstation and a few minutes for relatively small jobs completed on modern HPC systems such as ORNL's Jaguar.

  12. PAR Genes: Molecular Probes to Pathological Assessment in Breast Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Uziely, Beatrice; Turm, Hagit; Maoz, Myriam; Cohen, Irit; Maly, Bella; Bar-Shavit, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Taking the issue of tumor categorization a step forward and establish molecular imprints to accompany histopathological assessment is a challenging task. This is important since often patients with similar clinical and pathological tumors may respond differently to a given treatment. Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), is the first member of the mammalian PAR family consisting of four genes. PAR1 and PAR2 play a central role in breast cancer. The release of N-terminal peptides during activation and the exposure of a cryptic internal ligand in PARs, endow these receptors with the opportunity to serve as a “mirror-image” index reflecting the level of cell surface PAR1&2-in body fluids. It is possible to use the levels of PAR-released peptide in patients and accordingly determine the choice of treatment. We have both identified PAR1 C-tail as a scaffold site for the immobilization of signaling partners, and the critical minimal binding site. This binding region may be used for future therapeutic modalities in breast cancer, since abrogation of the binding inhibits PAR1 induced breast cancer. Altogether, both PAR1 and PAR2 may serve as molecular probes for breast cancer diagnosis and valuable targets for therapy. PMID:21318117

  13. Specific and non-specific interactions of ParB with DNA: implications for chromosome segregation

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, James A.; Pastrana, Cesar L.; Butterer, Annika; Pernstich, Christian; Gwynn, Emma J.; Sobott, Frank; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando; Dillingham, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    The segregation of many bacterial chromosomes is dependent on the interactions of ParB proteins with centromere-like DNA sequences called parS that are located close to the origin of replication. In this work, we have investigated the binding of Bacillus subtilis ParB to DNA in vitro using a variety of biochemical and biophysical techniques. We observe tight and specific binding of a ParB homodimer to the parS sequence. Binding of ParB to non-specific DNA is more complex and displays apparent positive co-operativity that is associated with the formation of larger, poorly defined, nucleoprotein complexes. Experiments with magnetic tweezers demonstrate that non-specific binding leads to DNA condensation that is reversible by protein unbinding or force. The condensed DNA structure is not well ordered and we infer that it is formed by many looping interactions between neighbouring DNA segments. Consistent with this view, ParB is also able to stabilize writhe in single supercoiled DNA molecules and to bridge segments from two different DNA molecules in trans. The experiments provide no evidence for the promotion of non-specific DNA binding and/or condensation events by the presence of parS sequences. The implications of these observations for chromosome segregation are discussed. PMID:25572315

  14. A Pipeline for PAR-CLIP Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jens, Marvin

    2016-01-01

    Photo-activatable ribonucleoside cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) is a method to detect binding sites of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) transcriptome-wide. This chapter covers the computational analysis of the high-throughput sequencing reads generated from PAR-CLIP experiments. It explains how the reads are mutated due to UV cross-linking and how to appropriately pre-process and align them to a reference sequence. Aligned reads are then aggregated into clusters which represent putative RBP-binding sites. Mapping artifacts are a source of false positives, which can be controlled by means of a mapping decoy and adaptive quality filtering of the read clusters. A step-by-step explanation of this procedure is given. All necessary tools are open source, including the scripts presented and used in this chapter. PMID:26463385

  15. A New Class of Orthosteric uPAR•uPA Small-Molecule Antagonists Are Allosteric Inhibitors of the uPAR•Vitronectin Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Degang; Zhou, Donghui; Wang, Bo; Knabe, William Eric; Meroueh, Samy O.

    2015-01-01

    The urokinase receptor (uPAR) is a GPI-anchored cell surface receptor that is at the center of an intricate network of protein-protein interactions. Its immediate binding partners are the serine proteinase urokinase (uPA), and vitronectin (VTN), a component of the extracellular matrix. uPA and VTN bind at distinct sites on uPAR to promote extracellular matrix degradation and integrin signaling, respectively. Here, we report the discovery of a new class of pyrrolone small-molecule inhibitors of the tight ?1 nM uPAR•uPA protein-protein interaction. These compounds were designed to bind to the uPA pocket on uPAR. The highest affinity compound, namely 7, displaced a fluorescently-labeled ?-helical peptide (AE147-FAM) with an inhibition constant Ki of 0.7 µM and inhibited the tight uPAR•uPAATF interaction with an IC50 of 18 µM. Biophysical studies with surface plasmon resonance showed that VTN binding is highly dependent on uPA. This cooperative binding was confirmed as 7, which binds at the uPAR•uPA interface, also inhibited the distal VTN•uPAR interaction. In cell culture, 7 blocked the uPAR•uPA interaction in uPAR-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells, and impaired cell adhesion to VTN, a process that is mediated by integrins. As a result, 7 inhibited integrin signaling in MDA-MB-231 cancer cells as evidenced by a decrease in focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation and Rac1 GTPase activation. Consistent with these results, 7 blocked breast MDA-MB-231 cancer cell invasion with IC50 values similar to those observed in ELISA and surface plasmon resonance competition studies. Explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations show that the cooperativity between uPA and VTN is attributed to stabilization of uPAR motion by uPA. In addition, free energy calculations revealed that uPA stabilizes the VTN•uPARSMB interaction through more favorable electrostatics and entropy. Disruption of the uPAR•VTNSMB interaction by 7 is consistent with the cooperative binding to uPAR by uPA and VTN. Interestingly, the VTNSMB•uPAR interaction was less favorable in the VTNSMB•uPAR•7 complex suggesting potential cooperativity between 7 and VTN. Compound 7 provides an excellent starting point for the development of more potent derivatives to explore uPAR biology. PMID:25671694

  16. Anterior PAR Proteins Function During Cytokinesis and Maintain DYN-1 at the Cleavage Furrow in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Pittman, Kelly J.; Skop, Ahna R.

    2013-01-01

    PAR proteins are key regulators of cellular polarity and have links to the endocytic machinery and the actin cytoskeleton. Our data suggest a unique role for PAR proteins in cytokinesis. We have found that at the onset of cytokinesis, anterior PAR-6 and posterior PAR-2 proteins are redistributed to the furrow membrane in a temporal and spatial manner. PAR-6 and PAR-2 localize to the furrow membrane during ingression but PAR-2-GFP is distinct in that it is excluded from the extreme tip of the furrow. Once the midbody has formed, PAR-2-GFP becomes restricted to the midbody region (the midbody plus the membrane flanking it). Depletion of both anterior PAR proteins, PAR-3 and PAR-6, led to an increase in multinucleate embryos, suggesting that the anterior PAR proteins are necessary during cytokinesis and that PAR-3 and PAR-6 function in cytokinesis may be partially redundant. Lastly, anterior PAR proteins play a role in the maintenance of DYN-1 in the cleavage furrow. Our data indicate that the PAR proteins are involved in the events that occur during cytokinesis and may play a role in promoting the membrane trafficking and remodeling events that occur during this time. PMID:22887994

  17. On dsigne par trochode la courbe dcrite par un point li un disque de rayon R roulant sans glisser sur une droite

    E-print Network

    Hoepffner, Jérôme

    On désigne par trochoïde la courbe décrite par un point lié à un disque de rayon R roulant sans, puisque la source lumineuse est attachée sur un des rayons de la roue. 1) Prenez une vingtaine de points'échelle est telle que le rayon de la roue est 1. Tracez ces points dans le nouveau référentiel dans un second

  18. Transcriptional profiling of ParA and ParB mutants in actively dividing cells of an opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Bartosik, Aneta A; Glabski, Krzysztof; Jecz, Paulina; Mikulska, Sylwia; Fogtman, Anna; Koblowska, Marta; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

    2014-01-01

    Accurate chromosome segregation to progeny cells is a fundamental process ensuring proper inheritance of genetic material. In bacteria with simple cell cycle, chromosome segregation follows replication initiation since duplicated oriC domains start segregating to opposite halves of the cell soon after they are made. ParA and ParB proteins together with specific DNA sequences are parts of the segregation machinery. ParA and ParB proteins in Pseudomonas aeruginosa are important for optimal growth, nucleoid segregation, cell division and motility. Comparative transcriptome analysis of parA null and parB null mutants versus parental P. aeruginosa PAO1161 strain demonstrated global changes in gene expression pattern in logarithmically growing planktonic cultures. The set of genes similarly affected in both mutant strains is designated Par regulon and comprises 536 genes. The Par regulon includes genes controlled by two sigma factors (RpoN and PvdS) as well as known and putative transcriptional regulators. In the absence of Par proteins, a large number of genes from RpoS regulon is induced, reflecting the need for slowing down the cell growth rate and decelerating the metabolic processes. Changes in the expression profiles of genes involved in c-di-GMP turnover point out the role of this effector in such signal transmission. Microarray data for chosen genes were confirmed by RT-qPCR analysis. The promoter regions of selected genes were cloned upstream of the promoter-less lacZ gene and analyzed in the heterologous host E. coli?lac. Regulation by ParA and ParB of P. aeruginosa was confirmed for some of the tested promoters. Our data demonstrate that ParA and ParB besides their role in accurate chromosome segregation may act as modulators of genes expression. Directly or indirectly, Par proteins are part of the wider regulatory network in P. aeruginosa linking the process of chromosome segregation with the cell growth, division and motility. PMID:24498062

  19. PAR proteins diffuse freely across the anterior-posterior boundary in polarized C. elegans embryos.

    PubMed

    Goehring, Nathan W; Hoege, Carsten; Grill, Stephan W; Hyman, Anthony A

    2011-05-01

    Polarization of cells by PAR proteins requires the segregation of antagonistic sets of proteins into two mutually exclusive membrane-associated domains. Understanding how nanometer scale interactions between individual PAR proteins allow spatial organization across cellular length scales requires determining the kinetic properties of PAR proteins and how they are modified in space. We find that PAR-2 and PAR-6, which localize to opposing PAR domains, undergo exchange between well mixed cytoplasmic populations and laterally diffusing membrane-associated states. Domain maintenance does not involve diffusion barriers, lateral sorting, or active transport. Rather, both PAR proteins are free to diffuse between domains, giving rise to a continuous boundary flux because of lateral diffusion of molecules down the concentration gradients that exist across the embryo. Our results suggest that the equalizing effects of lateral diffusion are countered by actin-independent differences in the effective membrane affinities of PAR proteins between the two domains, which likely depend on the ability of each PAR species to locally modulate the membrane affinity of opposing PAR species within its domain. We propose that the stably polarized embryo reflects a dynamic steady state in which molecules undergo continuous diffusion between regions of net association and dissociation. PMID:21518794

  20. Structures of actin-like ParM filaments show architecture of plasmid-segregating spindles.

    PubMed

    Bharat, Tanmay A M; Murshudov, Garib N; Sachse, Carsten; Löwe, Jan

    2015-07-01

    Active segregation of Escherichia coli low-copy-number plasmid R1 involves formation of a bipolar spindle made of left-handed double-helical actin-like ParM filaments. ParR links the filaments with centromeric parC plasmid DNA, while facilitating the addition of subunits to ParM filaments. Growing ParMRC spindles push sister plasmids to the cell poles. Here, using modern electron cryomicroscopy methods, we investigate the structures and arrangements of ParM filaments in vitro and in cells, revealing at near-atomic resolution how subunits and filaments come together to produce the simplest known mitotic machinery. To understand the mechanism of dynamic instability, we determine structures of ParM filaments in different nucleotide states. The structure of filaments bound to the ATP analogue AMPPNP is determined at 4.3 Å resolution and refined. The ParM filament structure shows strong longitudinal interfaces and weaker lateral interactions. Also using electron cryomicroscopy, we reconstruct ParM doublets forming antiparallel spindles. Finally, with whole-cell electron cryotomography, we show that doublets are abundant in bacterial cells containing low-copy-number plasmids with the ParMRC locus, leading to an asynchronous model of R1 plasmid segregation. PMID:25915019

  1. PAR1 is selectively over expressed in high grade breast cancer patients: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Norma A; Correa, Elma; Avila, Esther P; Vela, Teresa A; Pérez, Víctor M

    2009-01-01

    Background The protease-activated receptor (PAR1) expression is correlated with the degree of invasiveness in cell lines. Nevertheless it has never been directed involved in breast cancer patients progression. The aim of this study was to determine whether PAR1 expression could be used as predictor of metastases and mortality. Methods In a cohort of patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma studied longitudinally since 1996 and until 2007, PAR1 over-expression was assessed by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and flow citometry. Chi-square and log rank tests were used to determine whether there was a statistical association between PAR1 overexpression and metastases, mortality, and survival. Multivariate analysis was performed including HER1, stage, ER and nodes status to evaluate PAR1 as an independent prognostic factor. Results Follow up was 95 months (range: 2–130 months). We assayed PAR1 in a cohort of patients composed of 136 patients; we found PAR1 expression assayed by immunoblotting was selectively associated with high grade patients (50 cases of the study cohort; P = 0.001). Twenty-nine of 50 (58%) patients overexpressed PAR1, and 23 of these (46%) developed metastases. HER1, stage, ER and PAR1 overexpression were robustly correlated (Cox regression, P = 0.002, P = 0.024 and P = 0.002 respectively). Twenty-one of the 50 patients (42%) expressed both receptors (PAR1 and HER1 P = 0.0004). We also found a statistically significant correlation between PAR1 overexpression and increased mortality (P = 0.0001) and development of metastases (P = 0.0009). Conclusion Our data suggest PAR1 overexpression may be involved in the development of metastases in breast cancer patient and is associated with undifferentiated cellular progression of the tumor. Further studies are needed to understand PAR1 mechanism of action and in a near future assay its potential use as risk factor for metastasis development in high grade breast cancer patients. PMID:19538737

  2. DNA replication termination in Escherichia coli parB (a dnaG allele), parA, and gyrB mutants affected in DNA distribution.

    PubMed Central

    Norris, V; Alliotte, T; Jaffé, A; D'Ari, R

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the Escherichia coli mutants carrying the parB, parA, and gyrB mutations, all of which display faulty chromosome partitioning at the nonpermissive temperature, to see whether their phenotype reflected a defect in the termination of DNA replication. In the parB strain DNA synthesis slowed down at 42 degrees C and the SOS response was induced, whereas in the parA strain DNA synthesis continued normally for 120 min and there was no SOS induction. To see whether replication forks accumulated in the vicinity of terC at the nonpermissive temperature, the mutants were incubated for 60 min at 42 degrees C and then returned to low temperature and pulse-labeled with [3H]thymidine. In all cases the restriction pattern of the labeled DNA was incompatible with that of the terC region, suggesting that replication termination was normal. In the parA mutant no DNA sequences were preferentially labeled, whereas in the parB and gyrB strains there was specific labeling of sequences whose restriction pattern resembled that of oriC. In the case of parB this was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization with appropriate probes. This test further revealed that the parB mutant over initiates at oriC after the return to the permissive temperature. Like dna(Ts) strains, the parB mutant formed filaments at 42 degrees C in the absence of SOS-associated division inhibition, accompanied by the appearance of anucleate cells of nearly normal size (28% of the population after 3 h), as revealed by autoradiography. The DNA in the filaments was either centrally located or distributed throughout. The parB mutation lies at 67 min, and the ParB- phenotype is corrected by a cloned dnaG gene or by a plasmid primase, strongly suggesting that parB is an allele of dnaG, the structural gene of the E. coli primase. It is thus likely that the parB mutant possesses an altered primase which does not affect replication termination but causes a partial defect in replication initiation and elongation and in chromosome distribution. Images PMID:3536848

  3. BOREAS TE-12 Incoming PAR Through the Forest Canopy Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Mesarch, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-12 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on shoot geometry, leaf optical properties, leaf water potential, and leaf gas exchange. The data were collected at the Southern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) site from 04-Jul-1996 to 25-Jul-1996. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  4. 1 Cours de M.RUMIN rcrit par J.KULCSAR Chapitre III

    E-print Network

    Rumin, Michel

    1 Cours de M.RUMIN réécrit par J.KULCSAR Chapitre III Espaces vectoriels Dans ce cours, le symbole sur la droite , le plan et l'espace . #12;2 Cours de M.RUMIN réécrit par J.KULCSAR B - Les espaces;3 Cours de M.RUMIN réécrit par J.KULCSAR Dans le plan , il y a essentiellement 2 façons simples de définir

  5. 1 Cours de M.RUMIN rcrit par J.KULCSAR Chapitre VIII

    E-print Network

    Rumin, Michel

    1 Cours de M.RUMIN réécrit par J.KULCSAR Chapitre VIII Calcul matriciel Dans ce cours, désigne , ou coordonnées de chaque ( ) en colonne dans la matrice. #12;2 Cours de M.RUMIN réécrit par J.KULCSAR Définition. ( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) #12;3 Cours de M.RUMIN réécrit par J.KULCSAR On sait que ( ) est une base canonique de [ ] On a donc

  6. Cathepsin S Causes Inflammatory Pain via Biased Agonism of PAR2 and TRPV4*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Peishen; Lieu, TinaMarie; Barlow, Nicholas; Metcalf, Matthew; Veldhuis, Nicholas A.; Jensen, Dane D.; Kocan, Martina; Sostegni, Silvia; Haerteis, Silke; Baraznenok, Vera; Henderson, Ian; Lindström, Erik; Guerrero-Alba, Raquel; Valdez-Morales, Eduardo E.; Liedtke, Wolfgang; McIntyre, Peter; Vanner, Stephen J.; Korbmacher, Christoph; Bunnett, Nigel W.

    2014-01-01

    Serine proteases such as trypsin and mast cell tryptase cleave protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) at R36?S37 and reveal a tethered ligand that excites nociceptors, causing neurogenic inflammation and pain. Whether proteases that cleave PAR2 at distinct sites are biased agonists that also induce inflammation and pain is unexplored. Cathepsin S (Cat-S) is a lysosomal cysteine protease of antigen-presenting cells that is secreted during inflammation and which retains activity at extracellular pH. We observed that Cat-S cleaved PAR2 at E56?T57, which removed the canonical tethered ligand and prevented trypsin activation. In HEK and KNRK cell lines and in nociceptive neurons of mouse dorsal root ganglia, Cat-S and a decapeptide mimicking the Cat-S-revealed tethered ligand-stimulated PAR2 coupling to G?s and formation of cAMP. In contrast to trypsin, Cat-S did not mobilize intracellular Ca2+, activate ERK1/2, recruit ?-arrestins, or induce PAR2 endocytosis. Cat-S caused PAR2-dependent activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) in Xenopus laevis oocytes, HEK cells and nociceptive neurons, and stimulated neuronal hyperexcitability by adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A-dependent mechanisms. Intraplantar injection of Cat-S caused inflammation and hyperalgesia in mice that was attenuated by PAR2 or TRPV4 deletion and adenylyl cyclase inhibition. Cat-S and PAR2 antagonists suppressed formalin-induced inflammation and pain, which implicates endogenous Cat-S and PAR2 in inflammatory pain. Our results identify Cat-S as a biased agonist of PAR2 that causes PAR2- and TRPV4-dependent inflammation and pain. They expand the role of PAR2 as a mediator of protease-driven inflammatory pain. PMID:25118282

  7. PTEN expression in endothelial cells is down-regulated by uPAR to promote angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Unseld, M; Chilla, A; Pausz, C; Mawas, R; Breuss, J; Zielinski, C; Schabbauer, G; Prager, G W

    2015-08-01

    The tumour suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), mutated or lost in many human cancers, is a major regulator of angiogenesis. However, the cellular mechanism of PTEN regulation in endothelial cells so far remains elusive. Here, we characterise the urokinase receptor (uPAR, CD87) and its tumour-derived soluble form, suPAR, as a key molecule of regulating PTEN in endothelial cells. We observed uPAR-deficient endothelial cells to express enhanced PTEN mRNA- and protein levels. Consistently, uPAR expression in endogenous negative uPAR cells, down-regulated PTEN and activated the PI3K/Akt pathway. Additionally, we found that integrin adhesion receptors act as trans-membrane signaling partners for uPAR to repress PTEN transcription in a NF-?B-dependent manner. Functional in vitro assays with endothelial cells, derived from uPAR-deficient and PTEN heterozygous crossbred mice, demonstrated the impact of uPAR-dependent PTEN regulation on cell motility and survival. In an in vivo murine angiogenesis model uPAR-deficient PTEN heterozygous animals increased the impaired angiogenic phenotype of uPAR knockout mice and were able to reverse the high invasive potential of PTEN heterozygots. Our data provide first evidence that endogenous as well as exogenous soluble uPAR down-regulated PTEN in endothelial cells to support angiogenesis. The uPAR-induced PTEN regulation might represent a novel target for drug interference, and may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies in anti-angiogenic treatment. PMID:25925849

  8. Troubles psychotiques précipités par le mariage : étude de trois observations

    PubMed Central

    Jaweher, Masmoudi; Kammoun, Mohamed Faouzi; Inès, Feki; Imen, Baati; Rim, Sallami; Abdelaziz, Jaoua

    2013-01-01

    Le mariage est un évènement très investi dans notre culture arabo-musulmane. Il présente une situation à grande charge émotionnelle et ayant un vécu stressant. C'est ainsi qu'il peut être à l'origine de la décompensation de certains troubles psychiatriques. Ce moment particulier de déclenchement de la pathologie peut altérer significativement l'adaptation familiale et sociale du patient en question, le rendant dépendant en partie ou en totalité à une institution. Dans ce travail, nous proposons d’étudier certains facteurs psychiques, sociaux et culturels pouvant aboutir à la précipitation des manifestations psychotiques par le mariage. Il s'agit de l’étude de trois observations cliniques, deux hommes et une femme, hospitalisés dans le service de psychiatrie A du CHU Hédi Chaker de Sfax et qui ont développés des manifestations psychotiques de façon concomitante à leur mariage. La durée moyenne de survenue des crises a été de vingt ans, le diagnostic retenu a été celui de trouble bipolaire dans deux cas et d'une schizophrénie indifférenciée chez le troisième patient. L’évolution s'est faite vers une chronicisation de deux malades et une dépendance institutionnelle dans le troisième cas. La précipitation des troubles psychotiques par le mariage, reste un phénomène en relation intime avec les composantes culturelles, elles-mêmes sont déterminantes dans la prise en charge ultérieure de ces patients. PMID:23785551

  9. Traitement superficiel d'acier par laser excimère

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, A.; Cros, A.; Delaporte, Ph.; Marine, W.; Sentis, M.

    2003-06-01

    Motivée par des nécessités économiques et environnementales, l'industrie est amenée à développer de nouveaux procédés propres, notamment pour les applications concernant la préparation de surface (nettoyage, décapage...). Dans ce domaine, l'utilisation du laser excinière présente de nombreux avantages. En effet, en raison d'un temps d'interaction de courte durée (ns), suivi d'un échauffement et d'un refroidissement rapide de la zone irradiée sur une profondeur très fine (?m), il est possible de modifier localement les propriétés physico-chimiques d'une surface sans changer les propriétés intrinsèques du matériau. Le but de nos travaux a consisté en l'étude des effets d'un traitement par laser excimère (XeCI) sur les propriétés chimiques (XPS et AES), structurales (XRD et GIXRD) et morphologiques (MEB) de surface d'acier. Outre le nettoyage de la surface, les analyses chimiques réalisées sur de l'acier ont mis en évidence pour des densités d'énergie importantes la formation d'une couche de Fe2O3 au détriment de FeOOH. Les observations MEB ont révélé la création de structures sphériques nanométriques. Ce traitement permet notamment d'améliorer la tenue à la corrosion de la surface.

  10. The polarity protein Par6 is coupled to the microtubule network during molluscan early embryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Homma, Taihei; Shimizu, Miho; Kuroda, Reiko; Kuroda Chiromorphology Team, ERATO-SORST, JST, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902; Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} The cDNAs encoding Par6 and aPKC homologues were cloned from the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. {yields} L. stagnalis Par6 directly interacts with tubulin and microtubules and localizes to the microtubule cytoskeleton during the early embryogenesis. {yields} Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of body handedness. -- Abstract: Cell polarity, which directs the orientation of asymmetric cell division and segregation of fate determinants, is a fundamental feature of development and differentiation. Regulators of polarity have been extensively studied, and the critical importance of the Par (partitioning-defective) complex as the polarity machinery is now recognized in a wide range of eukaryotic systems. The Par polarity module is evolutionarily conserved, but its mechanism and cooperating factors vary among different systems. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of a pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis homologue of partitioning-defective 6 (Lspar6). The protein product LsPar6 shows high affinity for microtubules and localizes to the mitotic apparatus during embryonic cell division. In vitro assays revealed direct binding of LsPar6 to tubulin and microtubules, which is the first evidence of the direct interaction between the two proteins. The interaction is mediated by two distinct regions of LsPar6 both located in the N-terminal half. Atypical PKC, a functional partner of Par6, was also found to localize to the mitotic spindle. These results suggest that the L. stagnalis Par complex employs the microtubule network in cell polarity processes during the early embryogenesis. Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of handedness.

  11. Effects of the conserved proteins, Soj (ParA) and SpoOJ (ParB) on chromosome partitioning in Bacillus subtilis

    E-print Network

    Lee, Philina S. (Philina Sharlene), 1976-

    2004-01-01

    The Par system contributes to stable inheritance of plasmids and chromosomes in diverse bacterial species. Faithful chromosome partitioning is important to dividing cells because anucleate, or chromosomeless, cells are not ...

  12. Effects of superovulation with oFSH and norgestomet/GnRH-controlled release of the LH surge on hormone concentrations, and yield of oocytes and embryos at specific developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Knijn, H M; Fokker, W; van der Weijden, G C; Dieleman, S J; Vos, P L A M

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a new superovulation procedure with oFSH after temporary suppression of the endogenous LH surge by norgestomet followed by administration of GnRH, to collect bovine oocytes and embryos at specific developmental stages. Since 1999, our research group applies this superovulation procedure with controlled release of the endogenous LH surge. The objective of this study is to verify if this procedure is reliable for collection of oocytes and embryos at specific time points of development and if it produces a sufficient number of both oocytes and embryos of good quality. This procedure was validated regarding to hormonal characteristics, superovulatory response and both oocyte and embryo yield at different times of in vivo development. The results demonstrate that the procedure used to control the occurrence of the pre-ovulatory LH surge was effective in 92% of the animals (n = 238) and even in 99% of the animals the oocytes and embryos were collected at the intended stage of development. The superovulatory response and both oocyte, embryo yield and quality were similar to the average yield in Europe reported by Association Européenne de transfert embryonnaire (AETE). In conclusion, this superovulation procedure provides a valid tool to collect oocytes and embryos at specific time points of development. PMID:19090826

  13. Facteurs de risque de mortalité par tuberculose pulmonaire

    PubMed Central

    Janah, Hicham; Souhi, Hicham; Kouismi, Hatim; Mark, Karima; Zahraoui, Rachida; Benamor, Jouda; Soualhi, Mona; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    La tuberculose est une maladie infectieuse transmissible provoquée par myco-bacterium tuberculosis (bacille de Koch ou BK). Elle représente, selon les estimations del'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS), l'une des pathologies infectieuses causant le plus de décès au niveau mondial avec plus de 1 million de décès par an. Pour déterminer les facteurs de risque de mortalité au cours de la tuberculose pulmonaire à microscopie positive nous avons mené une étude rétrospective portant sur tous les cas de tuberculose pulmonaire à microscopie positive et qui étaient décédés au cours de leur hospitalisation. Cette étude a colligé 1803 cas de tuberculose sur une période de 2 ans et demi dont 46 sont décédés. La prévalence de décès est de 2,55%. La population se répartit en 32 hommes et 14 femmes. L’âge moyen était de 53ans ± 17 ans. Le tabagisme était retrouvé chez la moitié des cas. Une comorbidité était retrouvée dans 43%, avec 17% de diabète. Le délai de diagnostic avait une médiane de 60 jours avec percentile (30j; 105j). La symptomatologie clinique était dominée par la toux, la dyspnée et les expectorations soit respectivement: 97,8%, 69,6% et 67,4% des cas. Sur le plan radiologique les lésions étaient diffuses et bilatérales dans 76,1% des cas. Tous les patients étaient mis sous SRHZ. 11% avaient présenté une toxicité aux antibacillaires (de type hépatiques dans 3 cas et neurologiques dans 2 cas). Le délai médian de décès était de 8,5 jours (5j; 17j). Les causes de décès retrouvées étaient: Une hépatite fulminante (3 cas), une décompensation acido-cétosique (3 cas), un SDRA (2 cas), des hémoptysies foudroyantes (2 cas), et respectivement un cas secondaire à une décompensation de BPCO, une décompensation cardiaque, une hypoglycémie et un tableau d'anasarque. Cette étude suggère que le terrain, le retard diagnostique et les effets secondaires du traitement sont les principaux facteurs de risque de mortalité chez les patients hospitalisés pour tuberculose pulmonaire. PMID:25922636

  14. Solar PAR and UVR modify the community composition and photosynthetic activity of sea ice algae.

    PubMed

    Enberg, Sara; Piiparinen, Jonna; Majaneva, Markus; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Autio, Riitta; Rintala, Janne-Markus

    2015-10-01

    The effects of increased photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on species diversity, biomass and photosynthetic activity were studied in fast ice algal communities. The experimental set-up consisted of nine 1.44 m(2) squares with three treatments: untreated with natural snow cover (UNT), snow-free (PAR + UVR) and snow-free ice covered with a UV screen (PAR). The total algal biomass, dominated by diatoms and dinoflagellates, increased in all treatments during the experiment. However, the smaller biomass growth in the top 10-cm layer of the PAR + UVR treatment compared with the PAR treatment indicated the negative effect of UVR. Scrippsiella complex (mainly Scrippsiella hangoei, Biecheleria baltica and Gymnodinium corollarium) showed UV sensitivity in the top 5-cm layer, whereas Heterocapsa arctica ssp. frigida and green algae showed sensitivity to both PAR and UVR. The photosynthetic activity was highest in the top 5-cm layer of the PAR treatment, where the biomass of the pennate diatom Nitzschia frigida increased, indicating the UV sensitivity of this species. This study shows that UVR is one of the controlling factors of algal communities in Baltic Sea ice, and that increased availability of PAR together with UVR exclusion can cause changes in algal biomass, photosynthetic activity and community composition. PMID:26310455

  15. Vissage percutané du scaphoïde carpien par vis de Herbert - à propos de 10 cas

    PubMed Central

    Abbassi, Najib; Abdeljawad, Najib; Erraji, Moncef; Abdelillah, Rachid; Daoudi, Abdelkrim; Yacoubi, Hicham

    2013-01-01

    Les fractures du scaphoïde carpien sont de diagnostic et de traitement difficiles. Les auteurs rapportent les résultats du traitement de ces fractures par le vissage percutané par la vis de Herbert. Les résultats étaient intéressants vu la rapidité de consolidation et la qualité du résultat fonctionnel. PMID:23717726

  16. SIMULATION NUMERIQUE DU TSUNAMI GENERE PAR UN EBOULEMENT DU FLANC DU VOLCAN CUMBRE

    E-print Network

    Grilli, Stéphan T.

    SIMULATION NUMERIQUE DU TSUNAMI GENERE PAR UN EBOULEMENT DU FLANC DU VOLCAN CUMBRE VIEJA (LA PALMA, CANARIES), PAR UNE APPROCHE COUPLEE NAVIER-STOKES / BOUSSINESQ NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE TSUNAMI Vieja (CVV) sur l'^ile de La Palma (Iles Canaries) g´en´ererait un m´ega- tsunami qui pourrait

  17. The parA resolvase performs site-specific genomic excision in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have designed a site-specific excision detection system in Arabidopsis to study the in planta activity of the small serine recombinase ParA. Using a transient expression assay as well as stable transgenic plant lines, we show that the ParA recombinase is catalytically active and capable of perfo...

  18. 1 Cours de M.RUMIN rcrit par J.KULCSAR Chapitre II

    E-print Network

    Rumin, Michel

    1 Cours de M.RUMIN réécrit par J.KULCSAR Chapitre II Notion de structure de groupe I ­ Définitions ( ). Proposition : est un sous-groupe de ( ) si et seulement si : - l'élément neutre , - , - , #12;2 Cours de M.RUMIN #12;3 Cours de M.RUMIN réécrit par J.KULCSAR - ( ) ( ) ( ) sont des corps plus connus. 2. Exemple

  19. Questioning Our Questions: Assessing Question Asking Practices to Evaluate a yPAR Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Sarah; Langhout, Regina Day

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine question asking practices in a youth participatory action research (yPAR) after school program housed at an elementary school. The research question was: In which ways did the adult question asking practices in a yPAR setting challenge and/or reproduce conventional models of power in educational…

  20. ParCeL3: A Parallel Programming Language Based on Concurrent Cells and Multiple Clocks

    E-print Network

    Vialle, Stéphane

    of ultra­light processes, and on the definition of multiple clocks to manage the cells. It allows to useParCeL­3: A Parallel Programming Language Based on Concurrent Cells and Multiple Clocks S. Vialle language for mod­ ern MIMD parallel computers: ParCeL­3. Its computing model is based on cells, sort

  1. ETUDE DU CYCLE DE RESPIRATION A PARTIR DE DONNEES 4D GENEREES PAR UN SCANNER

    E-print Network

    Nebel, Jean-Christophe

    ETUDE DU CYCLE DE RESPIRATION A PARTIR DE DONNEES 4D GENEREES PAR UN SCANNER DYNAMIQUE 3D STUDY cycle de respiration à partir de données 4D générées par un scanner dynamique 3D Résumé Le laboratoire préliminaires sur l'étude du cycle de respiration de quelques individus. Cette recherche s'intéresse à l

  2. The loss of circadian PAR bZip transcription factors results in epilepsy

    E-print Network

    Halazonetis, Thanos

    The loss of circadian PAR bZip transcription factors results in epilepsy Frédéric Gachon,1 Philippe three PAR bZip proteins are highly susceptible to generalized spontaneous and audiogenic epilepsies reported to cause epilepsies in other systems. Hence, the expression of some clock-controlled genes

  3. Why Thrombin PAR1 Receptors Are Important to the Cardiac Surgical Patient

    PubMed Central

    Landis, Clive

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Targeting of the high-affinity thrombin receptor protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) on platelets represents an exciting strategy to curb the pro-thrombotic complications of cardiac surgery without interfering with the hemostatic benefits of thrombin in the coagulation cascade. The first dedicated PAR1 antagonist to complete safety trials this year has justified expectations, showing no increased risk of bleeding when added to standard anti-platelet therapy but halving major adverse cardiovascular events after percutaneous coronary intervention. In the setting of cardiothoracic surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, an FDA-approved drug already exists with anti-PAR1 properties: aprotinin has been shown to inhibit thrombin-induced platelet activation in vitro and clinically, through sparing of PAR1 receptor cleavage and activation. Because aprotinin also exerts anti-fibrinolytic effects through blockade of plasmin, this indicates a subtle clinical mechanism of action that is simultaneously anti-thrombotic yet hemostatic. PAR1 antagonists would also be expected to exert anti-inflammatory properties through targeting of PAR1 on endothelium, and this principle has been validated in vitro for aprotinin and newer peptidomimetric antagonists. PAR1 antagonism is likely to remain an active and exciting area of research in cardiac surgery, with newer generations of PAR1 antagonists and recombinant aprotinin variants entering clinical development. PMID:18293826

  4. 12 CFR 1263.19 - Par value and price of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Par value and price of stock. 1263.19 Section 1263.19 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 1263.19 Par value and price of stock. The capital stock of each Bank shall be...

  5. The ParA/MinD family puts things in their place

    PubMed Central

    Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria must segregate their DNA and position a septum to grow and divide. In many bacteria MinD is involved in spatial regulation of the cytokinetic Z ring and ParAs are involved in chromosome and plasmid segregation. The use of the MinD/ParA family to provide positional information for spatial organization continues to expand with the recognition that orphan ParAs are required for segregating cytoplasmic protein clusters and the polar localization of chemotaxis proteins, conjugative transfer machinery, type IV pili and cellulose synthesis. Also, some bacteria lacking MinD use orphan ParAs to regulate cell division. Positioning of MinD/ParA proteins is either due to self-organization on a surface or reliance on a landmark protein which functions as a molecular beacon. PMID:22672910

  6. The interaction of uPAR with VEGFR2 promotes VEGF-induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Herkenne, Stéphanie; Paques, Cécile; Nivelles, Olivier; Lion, Michelle; Bajou, Khalid; Pollenus, Thomas; Fontaine, Marie; Carmeliet, Peter; Martial, Joseph A; Nguyen, Ngoc-Quynh-Nhu; Struman, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    In endothelial cells, binding of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to the receptor VEGFR2 activates multiple signaling pathways that trigger processes such as proliferation, survival, and migration that are necessary for angiogenesis. VEGF-bound VEGFR2 becomes internalized, which is a key step in the proangiogenic signal. We showed that the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) interacted with VEGFR2 and described the mechanism by which this interaction mediated VEGF signaling and promoted angiogenesis. Knockdown of uPAR in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) impaired VEGFR2 signaling, and uPAR deficiency in mice prevented VEGF-induced angiogenesis. Upon exposure of HUVECs to VEGF, uPAR recruited the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) to VEGFR2, which induced VEGFR2 internalization. Thus, the uPAR-VEGFR2 interaction is crucial for VEGF signaling in endothelial cells. PMID:26577922

  7. Mécanismes d'éjection de particules par laser impulsionnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grojo, D.; Cros, A.; Delaporte, Ph.; Sentis, M.; Dubus, H.; Mionetto, R.

    2006-12-01

    L'enlèvement de particules de dimensions nanométriques est l'un des principaux challenges à relever pour atteindre les futurs objectifs de l'industrie microélectronique. Les procédés laser présentent, dans certains cas, des performances très intéressantes, mais les mécanismes d'éjection des particules polluant la surface restent cependant fort mal connus. L'étude de la dynamique d'éjection des particules, par une technique optique, a mis en évidence l'existence de deux mécanismes dont l'importance relative dépend de la fluence d'irradiation. A forte fluence l'ablation locale du substrat sous la particule prédomine, alors que pour les fluences plus faibles le mécanisme semble être lié à l'enlèvement de l'humidité résiduelle à l'interface particule substrat. Contrairement aux modèles précédemment proposés, la contribution de la force d'inertie s'exerçant sur la particule lors de l'expansion thermique rapide des matériaux est négligeable.

  8. La prévention des infections par le virus respiratoire syncytial

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, JL

    2011-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ L’infection par le virus respiratoire syncytial (VRS) est la principale cause d’infections des voies respiratoires inférieures chez les jeunes enfants. Le palivizumab, un anticorps monoclonal anti-VRS, réduit le taux d’hospitalisation des enfants à haut risque mais est très coûteux. Le présent document de principes remplace les trois précédents documents de principes de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie sur le sujet et est mis à jour principalement pour traiter des récentes modifications aux lignes directrices de l’American Academy of Pediatrics dans le contexte canadien. Il contient une analyse des publications ainsi que des recommandations au sujet de l’utilisation du palivizumab chez les enfants à haut risque

  9. Is day-1 postoperative review necessary after pars plana vitrectomy?

    PubMed

    Alexander, P; Michaels, L; Newsom, R

    2015-11-01

    PurposeThis study aimed to determine the proportion of patients requiring alteration in management based on the findings of the day-1 postoperative visit after pars plana vitrectomy, and to identify clinical characteristics that predict the need for unexpected intervention.Patients and methodsA retrospective case note review was conducted of all patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy and who then attended for review on the first postoperative day. All patients received routine prophylactic anti-glaucoma medication.ResultsTwo hundred and seventy-three patients examined on day 1 following vitrectomy were studied. Indications for surgery included retinal detachment, epiretinal membrane, macular hole, vitreous haemorrhage, diabetic eye disease, and floaters. Twenty-gauge (20G) vitrectomy was performed in 124 eyes (45%); 23-gauge (23G) vitrectomy was performed in 149 eyes (55%). Phacoemulsification was performed concurrently in 51/273 (19%) eyes. Ten patients (3.7%) required unexpected intervention on day 1 owing to intraocular pressure (IOP) >30 (2/273), IOP <6 (5/273), or unexpected return to theatre for anterior chamber washout (3/273). There was no difference in intervention rate or day-1 IOP between 20G and 23G cases. Hypotony was less common if gas tamponade was used (?(2)-test, P<0.001). Patients undergoing combined phacoemulsification and 20G vitrectomy were significantly more likely to require intervention on day 1 than patients undergoing 20G vitrectomy alone (15.0 vs 1.9%, P=0.029, Fisher's exact test) but this was not the case for patients undergoing 23G vitrectomy (0 vs 4.2%, Fisher's exact test, P=0.58).ConclusionsThe intervention rate on the first day after vitrectomy is low and day-1 postoperative review can be safely omitted in the majority of patients undergoing vitrectomy. PMID:26315702

  10. Dimerization controls the lipid raft partitioning of uPAR/CD87 and regulates its biological functions.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Orla; Andolfo, Annapaola; Santovito, Maria Lisa; Iuzzolino, Lucia; Blasi, Francesco; Sidenius, Nicolai

    2003-11-17

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR/CD87) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein with multiple functions in extracellular proteolysis, cell adhesion, cell migration and proliferation. We now report that cell surface uPAR dimerizes and that dimeric uPAR partitions preferentially to detergent-resistant lipid rafts. Dimerization of uPAR did not require raft partitioning as the lowering of membrane cholesterol failed to reduce dimerization and as a transmembrane uPAR chimera, which does not partition to lipid rafts, also dimerized efficiently. While uPA bound to uPAR independently of its membrane localization and dimerization status, uPA-induced uPAR cleavage was strongly accelerated in lipid rafts. In contrast to uPA, the binding of Vn occurred preferentially to raft- associated dimeric uPAR and was completely blocked by cholesterol depletion. PMID:14609946

  11. Dimerization controls the lipid raft partitioning of uPAR/CD87 and regulates its biological functions

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Orla; Andolfo, Annapaola; Santovito, Maria Lisa; Iuzzolino, Lucia; Blasi, Francesco; Sidenius, Nicolai

    2003-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR/CD87) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein with multiple functions in extracellular proteolysis, cell adhesion, cell migration and proliferation. We now report that cell surface uPAR dimerizes and that dimeric uPAR partitions preferentially to detergent-resistant lipid rafts. Dimerization of uPAR did not require raft partitioning as the lowering of membrane cholesterol failed to reduce dimerization and as a transmembrane uPAR chimera, which does not partition to lipid rafts, also dimerized efficiently. While uPA bound to uPAR independently of its membrane localization and dimerization status, uPA-induced uPAR cleavage was strongly accelerated in lipid rafts. In contrast to uPA, the binding of Vn occurred preferentially to raft- associated dimeric uPAR and was completely blocked by cholesterol depletion. PMID:14609946

  12. Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) – focus on receptor-receptor-interactions and their physiological and pathophysiological impact

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with four members, PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, playing critical functions in hemostasis, thrombosis, embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation and cancer progression. PARs are characterized by a unique activation mechanism involving receptor cleavage by different proteinases at specific sites within the extracellular amino-terminus and the exposure of amino-terminal “tethered ligand“ domains that bind to and activate the cleaved receptors. After activation, the PAR family members are able to stimulate complex intracellular signalling networks via classical G protein-mediated pathways and beta-arrestin signalling. In addition, different receptor crosstalk mechanisms critically contribute to a high diversity of PAR signal transduction and receptor-trafficking processes that result in multiple physiological effects. In this review, we summarize current information about PAR-initiated physical and functional receptor interactions and their physiological and pathological roles. We focus especially on PAR homo- and heterodimerization, transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and receptor serine/threonine kinases (RSTKs), communication with other GPCRs, toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors, ion channel receptors, and on PAR association with cargo receptors. In addition, we discuss the suitability of these receptor interaction mechanisms as targets for modulating PAR signalling in disease. PMID:24215724

  13. PAR-1, -4, and the mTOR Pathway Following Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lekic, Tim; Krafft, Paul R; Klebe, Damon; Flores, Jerry; Rolland, William B; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2016-01-01

    Germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) is the most common cause of neurological complications of prematurity and has lasting implications. PAR-1 and PAR-4 receptors are involved with upstream signaling pathways following brain hemorrhage in adult models of stroke, of which the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a potential downstream mediator. Therefore, we hypothesized a role for PAR-1, -4/ mTOR signaling following GMH brain injury. Postnatal day 7 Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to GMH through stereotactic infusion of collagenase into the right ganglionic eminence. Rodents were euthanized at 72 h (short term), or 4 weeks (long term). Short-term mTOR expression was evaluated by Western blot in the context of PAR-1 (SCH-79797) and PAR-4 (P4pal10) inhibition. Pups in the long-term group were administered the selective mTOR inhibitor (rapamycin) with neurobehavioral and brain pathological examinations performed at 4 weeks. Pharmacological PAR-1, -4 antagonism normalized the increased mTOR expression following GMH. Early inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin improved long-term outcomes in rats. Mammalian-TOR signaling plays an important role in brain injury following neonatal GMH, possibly involving upstream PAR-1, -4 mechanisms. PMID:26463951

  14. Protease-activated receptors (PARs)-biology and role in cancer invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wojtukiewicz, Marek Z; Hempel, Dominika; Sierko, Ewa; Tucker, Stephanie C; Honn, Kenneth V

    2015-12-01

    Although many studies have demonstrated that components of the hemostatic system may be involved in signaling leading to cancer progression, the potential mechanisms by which they contribute to cancer dissemination are not yet precisely understood. Among known coagulant factors, tissue factor (TF) and thrombin play a pivotal role in cancer invasion. They may be generated in the tumor microenvironment independently of blood coagulation and can induce cell signaling through activation of protease-activated receptors (PARs). PARs are transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are activated by a unique proteolytic mechanism. They play important roles in vascular physiology, neural tube closure, hemostasis, and inflammation. All of these agents (TF, thrombin, PARs-mainly PAR-1 and PAR-2) are thought to promote cancer invasion and metastasis at least in part by facilitating tumor cell migration, angiogenesis, and interactions with host vascular cells, including platelets, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells lining blood vessels. Here, we discuss the role of PARs and their activators in cancer progression, focusing on TF- and thrombin-mediated actions. Therapeutic options tailored specifically to inhibit PAR-induced signaling in cancer patients are presented as well. PMID:26573921

  15. Evidence for a DNA-relay mechanism in ParABS-mediated chromosome segregation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hoong Chuin; Surovtsev, Ivan Vladimirovich; Beltran, Bruno Gabriel; Huang, Fang; Bewersdorf, Jörg; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The widely conserved ParABS system plays a major role in bacterial chromosome segregation. How the components of this system work together to generate translocation force and directional motion remains uncertain. Here, we combine biochemical approaches, quantitative imaging and mathematical modeling to examine the mechanism by which ParA drives the translocation of the ParB/parS partition complex in Caulobacter crescentus. Our experiments, together with simulations grounded on experimentally-determined biochemical and cellular parameters, suggest a novel 'DNA-relay' mechanism in which the chromosome plays a mechanical function. In this model, DNA-bound ParA-ATP dimers serve as transient tethers that harness the elastic dynamics of the chromosome to relay the partition complex from one DNA region to another across a ParA-ATP dimer gradient. Since ParA-like proteins are implicated in the partitioning of various cytoplasmic cargos, the conservation of their DNA-binding activity suggests that the DNA-relay mechanism may be a general form of intracellular transport in bacteria. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02758.001 PMID:24859756

  16. CERCLA interim action at the Par Pond unit: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, H.M.; Matthews, S.S.; Neal, L.W.; Weiss, W.R.

    1993-11-01

    The Par Pond unit designated under CERCLA consists of sediments within a Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling water reservoir. The sediments are contaminated with radionuclides and nonradioactive constituents from nuclear production reactor operations. The mercury in Par Pond is believed to have originated from the Savannah River. Because of Par Pond Dam safety Issues, the water level of the reservoir was drawn down, exposing more than 1300 acres of contaminated sediments and triggering the need for CERCLA interim remedial action. This paper presents the interim action approach taken with Par Pond as a case study. The approach considered the complexity of the Par Pond ecosystem, the large size of Par Pond, the volume of contaminated sediments, and the institutional controls existing at SRS. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers units with large volumes of low-concentration wastes, as is the case with Par Pond, to be {open_quotes}special sites.{close_quotes} Accordingly, EPA guidance establishes that the range of alternatives developed focus primarily on containment options and other remedial approaches that mitigate potential risks associated with the {open_quotes}special site.{close_quotes} The remedial alternatives, according to EPA, are not to be prohibitively expensive or difficult to implement. This case study also is representative of the types of issues that will need to be addressed within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex as nuclear facilities are transitioned to inactive status and corrective/remedial actions are warranted.

  17. uPAR Expression Pattern in Patients with Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder – Possible Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Dohn, Line Hammer; Pappot, Helle; Iversen, Benedikte Richter; Illemann, Martin; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Thind, Peter; Salling, Lisbeth; von der Maase, Hans; Laerum, Ole Didrik

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to confirm the expression and localisation pattern of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) focusing on its possible clinical relevance in patients with urothelial neoplasia of the bladder. uPAR is a central molecule in tissue remodelling during cancer invasion and metastasis and is an established prognostic marker in various cancer diseases other than bladder cancer. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumour-tissue blocks from 186 patients treated with radical cystectomy were analysed. uPAR expression was scored as either negative or positive as well as by the actual score. Separate scores were obtained for cancer cells, macrophages and myofibroblasts at the invasive front and in tumour core. We were able to confirm, in an independent patient cohort, the tissue expression and localisation pattern of uPAR as investigated by Immunohistochemistry as well as a significant association between uPAR positivity and increasing tumour stage and tumour grade. This demonstrates the robustness of our previous and current findings. In addition the association between uPAR positive myofibroblasts and poor survival was reproduced. The highest hazard ratios for survival were seen for uPAR positive myofibroblasts both at the invasive front and in tumour core. Evaluating uPAR expression by the actual score showed a significant association between uPAR positive myofibroblasts in tumour core and an increased risk of cancer specific mortality. Our investigations have generated new and valuable biological information about the cell types being involved in tumour invasion and progression through the plasminogen activation system. PMID:26292086

  18. Refroidissement par évaporation d'un jet atomique guidé magnétiquement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahaye, T.

    2006-01-01

    This work deals with the experimental realization of an ultracold, magnetically guided atomic beam in the collisional regime. After a detailed description of the experimental setup developed for this purpose, a method to measure the beam temperature with radio-frequency spectroscopy is proposed theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. The variations in temperature, phase-space density and elastic collision rate of the beam during a cycle evaporation-rethermalization are calculated. Two-antenna radio-frequency evaporation experiments are then described. They allow one to demonstrate the occurrence of elastic collisions within the atomic beam. Two Hamiltonian methods allowing one to increase the elastic collision rate are then studied theoretically and investigated experimentally. The gain in the elastic collision rate obtained this way is then used in order to cool the beam by means of ten evaporation zones, thus increasing the beam's phase-space density by one order of magnitude. Finally, a detailed theoretical study of the evaporation kinetics shows that a ten-fold increase of the collision rate obtained so far should be sufficient to achieve quantum degeneracy. Cet ouvrage traite de la réalisation expérimentale d'un jet atomique ultrafroid guidé magnétiquement, dans le régime collisionnel. Après une description détaillée du dispositif expérimental développé à cette fin, une méthode de thermométrie par spectroscopie radio-fréquence est proposée et démontrée expérimentalement. Les variations de température, densité dans l'espace des phases et taux de collisions élastiques du jet au cours d'un cycle évaporation-rethermalisation sont calculées. Des expériences d'évaporation radio-fréquence à deux antennes sont ensuite présentées, qui permettent de prouver l'existence de collisions au sein du jet. Deux méthodes permettant d'augmenter le taux de collisions sont ensuite étudiées théoriquement, puis mises en œuvre. Le gain en taux de collisions ainsi obtenu est mis à profit pour refroidir le jet à l'aide d'une dizaine de zones d'évaporation, permettant d'en accroître la densité dans l'espace des phases par un ordre de grandeur. Enfin, une étude théorique détaillée de la cinétique d'évaporation montre qu'un gain d'un facteur dix sur le taux de collisions élastiques obtenu jusqu'à présent devrait permettre d'atteindre la dégénérescence quantique.

  19. Démonstration expérimentale d'une distribution quantique de clé par codage temporel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, W.; Debuisschert, T.

    2006-10-01

    Nous avons démontré expérimentalement la transmission quantique de clé par codage temporel. Alice envoie des impulsions cohérentes atténuées. La clé est codée dans l'instant de détection des photons chez Bob. Une mesure de la durée de cohérence par moyen interférométrique permet d'assurer un fonctionnement en régime quantique. Nous avons mesuré un taux d'erreur quantique de 3.3% et une chute relative de contraste de l'interféromètre de 8.4%. Ces valeurs permettent d'évaluer un avantage d'information de 0.49 bit/impulsion pour Alice et Bob par rapport à un espion éventuel.

  20. Arrêt cardiocirculatoire par accidents d’électrisations: intérêt du défibrillateur semi-automatique

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Fouadi, F.E.; Ababou, K.; Ihrai, I.; Drissi, N.K.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Les brûlures par accidents électriques sont graves car elles peuvent entraîner le décès par arrêt cardiocirculatoire. Les arrêts cardiocirculatoires induits par le courant de basse tension sont en règle générale dûs à une fibrillation ventriculaire, plutôt de bon pronostic si la chaîne des secours est efficace. Il faut donner la priorité à la défibrillation systématique d’emblée en utilisant un défibrillateur semi-automatique. La défibrillation électrique est susceptible de procurer immédiatement une restauration de l’activité circulatoire spontanée. PMID:21991238

  1. PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) conversion efficiencies of a tropical rain forest

    SciTech Connect

    Luxmoore, R.J.; Saldarriaga, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    The mean annual quantities of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed during various stage of regeneration of a tropical rain forest in the upper Rio Negro region of Colombia and Venezuela were estimated for the intervals between clearcut and 1, 3, 10, 20, 35, 60, 80, and 200 years of growth. The forest phytomass and litterfall at each storage were from previous studies, and the data were used to calculate the mean annual quantity of net dry matter production per unit of absorbed PAR, the PAR conversion efficiency. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Thrombin induces rapid PAR1-mediated non-classical FGF1 release

    SciTech Connect

    Duarte, Maria; Kolev, Vihren; Soldi, Raffaella; Kirov, Alexander; Graziani, Irene; Oliveira, Silvia Marta; Kacer, Doreen; Friesel, Robert; Maciag, Thomas; Prudovsky, Igor . E-mail: prudoi@mmc.org

    2006-11-24

    Thrombin induces cell proliferation and migration during vascular injury. We report that thrombin rapidly stimulated expression and release of the pro-angiogenic polypeptide fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1). Thrombin failed to induce FGF1 release from protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) null fibroblasts, indicating that this effect was dependent on PAR1. Similarly to thrombin, FGF1 expression and release were induced by TRAP, a specific oligopeptide agonist of PAR1. These results identify a novel aspect of the crosstalk between FGF and thrombin signaling pathways which both play important roles in tissue repair and angiogenesis.

  3. Functional characterization of rose phenylacetaldehyde reductase (PAR), an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the scent compound 2-phenylethanol.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Min; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Sakai, Miwa; Hirata, Hiroshi; Asai, Tatsuo; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Baldermann, Susanne; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2011-01-15

    2-Phenylethanol (2PE) is a prominent scent compound released from flowers of Damask roses (Rosa×damascena) and some hybrid roses (Rosa 'Hoh-Jun' and Rosa 'Yves Piaget'). 2PE is biosynthesized from l-phenylalanine (l-Phe) via the intermediate phenylacetaldehyde (PAld) by two key enzymes, aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) and phenylacetaldehyde reductase (PAR). Here we describe substrate specificity and cofactor preference in addition to molecular characterization of rose-PAR and recombinant PAR from R.×damascena. The deduced amino acid sequence of the full-length cDNA encoded a protein exhibiting 77% and 75% identity with Solanum lycopersicum PAR1 and 2, respectively. The transcripts of PAR were higher in petals than calyxes and leaves and peaking at the unfurling stage 4. Recombinant PAR and rose-PAR catalyzed reduction of PAld to 2PE using NADPH as the preferred cofactor. Reductase activity of rose-PAR and recombinant PAR were higher for aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes than for keto-carbonyl groups. Both PARs showed that (S)-[4-(2)H] NADPH was preferentially used over the (R)-[4-(2)H] isomer to give [1-(2)H]-2PE from PAld, indicating that PAR can be classified as short-chain dehydrogenase reductase (SDR). PMID:20650544

  4. Photometric monitoring of the young star Par 1724 in Orion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhäuser, R.; Koeltzsch, A.; Raetz, St.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Mugrauer, M.; Young, N.; Bertoldi, F.; Roell, T.; Eisenbeiss, T.; Hohle, M. M.; Va?ko, M.; Ginski, C.; Rammo, W.; Moualla, M.; Broeg, C.

    2009-05-01

    We report new photometric observations of the ˜ 200 000 year old naked weak-line run-away T Tauri star Par 1724, located north of the Trapezium cluster in Orion. We observed in the broad band filters B, V, R, and I using the 90 cm Dutch telescope on La Silla, the 80 cm Wendelstein telescope, and a 25 cm telescope of the University Observatory Jena in Großschwabhausen near Jena. The photometric data in V and R are consistent with a ˜ 5.7 day rotation period due to spots, as observed before between 1960ies and 2000. Also, for the first time, we present evidence for a long-term 9 or 17.5 year cycle in photometric data (V band) of such a young star, a cycle similar to that to of the Sun and other active stars. Based on observations obtained with telescopes of the University Observatory Jena, which is operated by the Astrophysical Institute of the Friedrich-Schiller-University; a telescope of the University Observatory Munich on Mount Wendelstein, the 0.9m ESO-Dutch telescope on La Silla, Chile, and with the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) project (www.astrouw.edu.pl/asas).

  5. Nostoc sphaeroides Kütz, a candidate producer par excellence for CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaohong; Hao, Zongjie; Liu, Yongding

    A lot of aquatic organisms could be regarded as suitable candidates par excellence in the establishment of CELSS, since they are relatively easy and fast to grow and resistant to changes in environmental condition as well as providing nutritious, protein-and vitamin-rich foods for the crew, which can fulfill the main functions of CELSS, including supplying oxygen, water and food, removing carbon dioxide and making daily life waste reusable. Our labotory has developed mass culture of Nostoc sphaeroides Kütz, which is one of traditional healthy food in China and. The oxygen evolution rate of the cyanobacterium is about 150 molO2.mg-1.h-1, and it usually grows into colony with size between 2-20mm, which is easy to be harvested. It also can be cultured with high density, which show that the productivity of the cyanobacterium in limited volume is higher than other microalgae. We had measured the nutrient content of the cyanobacterium and developed some Chinese Dishes and Soups with Nostoc sphaeroides Kütz, which showed that it was a good food for crew. Using remote sensing technique, we also investigated its growth in Closed System under microgravity by SHENZHOU-2 spacecraft in January 2001. We plan to develop suitable bioreactor with the cyanobacterium for supplying oxygen and food to crew in future.

  6. PAR Reimbursement (up to $200 per workshop) Virginia Tech Pesticide Safety Education Program

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    PAR Reimbursement (up to $200 per workshop) Virginia Tech Pesticide Safety to train and recertify pesticide applicators. Agents can request reimbursement (up they were associated with your pesticide applicator recertification session. We

  7. Model-driven acquisition / Acquisition conduite par le modle Computer-aided hepatic tumour ablation

    E-print Network

    Payan, Yohan

    utilisées sont une imagerie préopératoire (scanner X ou IRM) et l'imagerie échographique peropératoire. Pour assistée par ordinateur / recalage d'images / IRM / échographie *Correspondence and reprints. E

  8. LA CAT'EGORIE DE JOYAL EST UNE CAT'EGORIE TEST par

    E-print Network

    Maltsiniotis, Georges - Institut de Mathématiques de Jussieu, Université Paris 7

    ________________________________________________________________________ LA CAT'EGORIE DE JOYAL EST UNE CAT'EGORIE TEST par Denis but principal de cet article est de prouver que la cat'eg* *orie cellulaire de Joyal est une cat

  9. Molecular mechanism of bundle formation by the bacterial actin ParM

    SciTech Connect

    Popp, David; Narita, Akihiro; Iwasa, Mitsusada; Robinson, Robert C.

    2010-01-22

    The actin homolog ParM plays a microtubule-like role in segregating DNA prior to bacterial cell division. Fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy have shown that ParM forms filament bundles between separating DNA plasmids in vivo. Given the lack of ParM bundling proteins it remains unknown how ParM bundles form at the molecular level. Here we show using time-lapse TIRF microscopy, under in vitro molecular crowding conditions, that ParM-bundle formation consists of two distinct phases. At the onset of polymerization bundle thickness and shape are determined in the form of nuclei of short helically disordered filaments arranged in a liquid-like lattice. These nuclei then undergo an elongation phase whereby they rapidly increase in length. At steady state, ParM bundles fuse into one single large aggregate. This behavior had been predicted by theory but has not been observed for any other cytomotive biopolymer, including F-actin. We employed electron micrographs of ParM rafts, which are 2-D analogs of 3-D bundles, to identify the main molecular interfilament contacts within these suprastructures. The interface between filaments is similar for both parallel and anti-parallel orientations and the distribution of filament polarity is random within a bundle. We suggest that the interfilament interactions are not due to the interactions of specific residues but rather to long-range, counter ion mediated, electrostatic attractive forces. A randomly oriented bundle ensures that the assembly is rigid and that DNA may be captured with equal efficiency at both ends of the bundle via the ParR binding protein.

  10. IFT2015 Miklos Csuros 21 fevrier 2011 11 Tri par fusion

    E-print Network

    Csürös, Miklós

    IFT2015 Mikl´os Csur¨os 21 f´evrier 2011 11 Tri par fusion 11.1 Inversion d'une liste tri´ee Algo4 i i + 1; j j - 1 11.2 Fusion de deux tableaux tri´es. On peut fusionner deux listes (implant´ees comme tableaux ou listes cha^in´ees), par la r´ecurrence fusion(A, B) = B si A est vide A si B est

  11. Slmb antagonises the aPKC/Par-6 complex to control oocyte and epithelial polarity

    PubMed Central

    Morais-de-Sá, Eurico; Mukherjee, Avik; Lowe, Nick; St Johnston, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila anterior-posterior axis is specified when the posterior follicle cells signal to polarise the oocyte, leading to the anterior/lateral localisation of the Par-6/aPKC complex and the posterior recruitment of Par-1, which induces a microtubule reorganisation that localises bicoid and oskar mRNAs. Here we show that oocyte polarity requires Slmb, the substrate specificity subunit of the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets proteins for degradation. The Par-6/aPKC complex is ectopically localised to the posterior of slmb mutant oocytes, and Par-1 and oskar mRNA are mislocalised. Slmb appears to play a related role in epithelial follicle cells, as large slmb mutant clones disrupt epithelial organisation, whereas small clones show an expansion of the apical domain, with increased accumulation of apical polarity factors at the apical cortex. The levels of aPKC and Par-6 are significantly increased in slmb mutants, whereas Baz is slightly reduced. Thus, Slmb may induce the polarisation of the anterior-posterior axis of the oocyte by targeting the Par-6/aPKC complex for degradation at the oocyte posterior. Consistent with this, overexpression of the aPKC antagonist Lgl strongly rescues the polarity defects of slmb mutant germline clones. The role of Slmb in oocyte polarity raises an intriguing parallel with C. elegans axis formation, in which PAR-2 excludes the anterior PAR complex from the posterior cortex to induce polarity, but its function can be substituted by overexpressing Lgl. PMID:25053432

  12. Examining relational empowerment for elementary school students in a yPAR program.

    PubMed

    Langhout, Regina Day; Collins, Charles; Ellison, Erin Rose

    2014-06-01

    This paper joins relational empowerment, youth empowerment, and Bridging Multiple Worlds frameworks to examine forms of relational empowerment for children in two intermediary institutions-school and a youth participatory action research after-school program (yPAR ASP). Participants were twelve children, most of whom were Latina/o and from im/migrant families, enrolled in a yPAR ASP for 2 years. A mixed-method approach was utilized; we analyzed children's interviews, self-defined goals, and their social networks to examine their experiences of relational empowerment. We conclude that children experienced each of the five relational empowerment factors-collaborative competence, bridging social divisions, facilitating others' empowerment, mobilizing networks, and passing on a legacy-in the yPAR ASP setting, and some factors in school. These experiences, however, were more pronounced in the yPAR ASP setting. Additionally, social network analyses revealed that a small but meaningful percentage of actors bridged worlds, especially home and family, but by year 2, also school and the yPAR ASP. Finally, most helpers for school-based goals came from school, but a sizable number came from family, friends, and home worlds, and by year 2, also came from the yPAR ASP. Implications range from theoretical to methodological development, including the use of social network analysis as a tool to descriptively examine relational power in context. PMID:24356900

  13. Deficiency of PAR4 attenuates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yingying; Zhang, Ming; Tuma, Ronald F; Kunapuli, Satya P

    2010-01-01

    Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the USA. Antithrombotic therapy targeting platelet activation is one of the treatments for ischemic stroke. Here we investigate the role of one of the thrombin receptors, protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR4), in a mouse transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. After a 60?min MCAO and 23?h reperfusion, leukocyte and platelet rolling and adhesion on cerebral venules, blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability, and cerebral edema were compared in PAR4-deficient mice and wild-type mice. Cerebral infarction volume and neuronal death were also measured. PAR4?/? mice had more than an 80% reduction of infarct volume and significantly improved neurologic and motor function compared with wild-type mice after MCAO. Furthermore, deficiency of PAR4 significantly inhibits the rolling and adhesion of both platelets and leukocytes after MCAO. BBB disruption and cerebral edema were also attenuated in PAR4?/? mice compared with wild-type animals. The results of this investigation indicate that deficiency of PAR4 protects mice from cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, partially through inhibition of platelet activation and attenuation of microvascular inflammation. PMID:20087365

  14. Brief communication: Population variation in human maxillary premolar accessory ridges (MxPAR).

    PubMed

    Burnett, Scott E; Hawkey, Diane E; Turner, Christy G

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this brief communication is to report the results of an analysis of maxillary premolar accessory ridges (MxPAR), a common but understudied accessory ridge that may occur both mesial and distal to the central ridge of the buccal cusp of upper premolars. We developed a new five-grade scoring plaque to better categorize MxPAR variation. Subsequently, we conducted a population analysis of MxPAR frequency in 749 dental casts of South African Indian, American Chinese, Alaskan Eskimo, Tohono O'odham (Papago), Akimel O'odham (Pima), Solomon Islander, South African Bantu, and both American and South African Whites. Northeast Asian and Asian-derived populations exhibited the highest MxPAR frequencies while Indo-European samples (South African Indians, American and South African Whites) exhibited relatively low frequencies. The Solomon Islanders and South African Bantu samples exhibited intermediate frequencies. Our analysis indicates that statistically significant differences in MxPAR frequency exist between major geographic populations. As a result, the MxPAR plaque has now been added to the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System, an important contribution as maxillary premolar traits are underrepresented in analyses of dental morphology. PMID:19953530

  15. The role of the soluble urokinase plasminogen activator (suPAR) in children with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Wrotek, A; Jackowska, T

    2015-04-01

    Although pneumonia is one of the most important health problems in children, there is still no widely accepted disease severity score, the data on the correlation between the conventional inflammatory markers or chest X-ray and the disease severity remain disputable, and thus, there is an urgent need for a new pneumonia biomarker. The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator (suPAR) is a soluble form of the urokinase plasminogen activator that plays an important role in the innate host defense in the pulmonary tissue. suPAR levels have been associated with a general activation of the immune system rather than with a particular etiological factor. suPAR has a high prognostic value in critically ill patients, especially with sepsis, but there is a growing number of studies focusing on suPAR in respiratory diseases. The aim of this review is to summarize the knowledge on the role of the suPAR/uPAR in lung pathology and its possible use in pneumonia in children. PMID:25602915

  16. Par6b Regulates the Dynamics of Apicobasal Polarity during Development of the Stratified Xenopus Epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sha; Cha, Sang-Wook; Zorn, Aaron M.; Wylie, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    During early vertebrate development, epithelial cells establish and maintain apicobasal polarity, failure of which can cause developmental defects or cancer metastasis. This process has been mostly studied in simple epithelia that have only one layer of cells, but is poorly understood in stratified epithelia. In this paper we address the role of the polarity protein Partitioning defective-6 homolog beta (Par6b) in the developing stratified epidermis of Xenopus laevis. At the blastula stage, animal blastomeres divide perpendicularly to the apicobasal axis to generate partially polarized superficial cells and non-polarized deep cells. Both cell populations modify their apicobasal polarity during the gastrula stage, before differentiating into the superficial and deep layers of epidermis. Early differentiation of the epidermis is normal in Par6b-depleted embryos; however, epidermal cells dissociate and detach from embryos at the tailbud stage. Par6b-depleted epidermal cells exhibit a significant reduction in basolaterally localized E-cadherin. Examination of the apical marker Crumbs homolog 3 (Crb3) and the basolateral marker Lethal giant larvae 2 (Lgl2) after Par6b depletion reveals that Par6b cell-autonomously regulates the dynamics of apicobasal polarity in both superficial and deep epidermal layers. Par6b is required to maintain the “basolateral” state in both epidermal layers, which explains the reduction of basolateral adhesion complexes and epidermal cells shedding. PMID:24204686

  17. Exploration des mécanismes de repliement des protéines par dynamique moléculaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilquin, B.

    2005-11-01

    Comment se replient les protéines? Cette question est ancienne. En introduction nous rappellerons ce qu'est le paradoxe de Levinthal et comment on est passé de la notion de chemin de repliement à la notion de paysage énergétique. Les simulations de dynamique moléculaire ont permis d'aborder la compréhension du processus de repliement au niveau atomique. Cependant l'échelle de temps des processus de repliement (de l'ordre de la milliseconde) n'est pas accessible aux simulations numériques (de l'ordre de la nanoseconde). Plusieurs auteurs ont donc proposé de simuler le dépliement des protéines par dynamique moléculaire. En admettant le principe de micro-réversibilité l'étude du processus de dépliement renseigne sur celui de repliement. Cependant, il est nécessaire d'accélérer le dépliement en introduisant un biais afin que les états dépliées soient accessibles aux échelles de temps des simulations. Nous présenterons un exemple de ce qui a été réalise dans le cas de l'étude de protéines de petite taille suivant un repliement simple, globalement à deux états. Nous présenterons ensuite ce que nous avons réalisé dans le cas d'une protéine de taille plus importante et pour laquelle le processus de repliement est plus complexe car il existe un intermédiaire transitoire de repliement. C'est le cas du lysozyme pour lequel les simulations de dépliement permettent d'accéder au mécanisme atomique de repliement et de comprendre pourquoi des mutants de cette protéine se replient plus lentement et forment des fibres amyloïdiques. Ainsi les intermédiaires de repliement seraient à l'origine de formes pathogènes des protéines observées dans les maladies neuro-dégéneratives. Enfin nous montrerons comment à partir de plusieurs simulations longues de dynamique moléculaire, le paysage énergétique pour de petites protéines peut être calculé.

  18. Heat Stress-Induced Disruption of Endothelial Barrier Function Is via PAR1 Signaling and Suppressed by Xuebijing Injection

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qiulin; Liu, Jingxian; Wang, Zhenglian; Guo, Xiaohua; Zhou, Gengbiao; Liu, Yanan; Huang, Qiaobing; Su, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Increased vascular permeability leading to acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is central to the pathogenesis of heatstroke. Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), the receptor for thrombin, plays a key role in disruption of endothelial barrier function in response to extracellular stimuli. However, the role of PAR1 in heat stress-induced endothelial hyper-permeability is unknown. In this study, we measured PAR1 protein expression in heat-stressed human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs), investigated the influences of PAR1 on endothelial permeability, F-actin rearrangement, and moesin phosphorylation by inhibiting PAR1 with its siRNA, neutralizing antibody (anti-PAR1), specific inhibitor(RWJ56110), and Xuebijing injection (XBJ), a traditional Chinese medicine used for sepsis treatment, and evaluated the role of PAR1 in heatstroke-related ALI/ARDS in mice by suppressing PAR1 with RWJ56110, anti-PAR1and XBJ. We found that heat stress induced PAR1 protein expression 2h after heat stress in endothelial cells, caused the release of endothelial matrix metalloprotease 1, an activator of PAR1, after 60 or 120 min of heat stimulation, as well as promoted endothelial hyper-permeability and F-actin rearrangement, which were inhibited by suppressing PAR1 with RWJ56110, anti-PAR1 and siRNA. PAR1 mediated moesin phosphorylation, which caused F-actin rearrangement and disruption of endothelial barrier function. To corroborate findings from in vitro experiments, we found that RWJ56110 and the anti-PAR1 significantly decreased lung edema, pulmonary microvascular permeability, protein exudation, and leukocytes infiltrations in heatstroke mice. Additionally, XBJ was found to suppress PAR1-moesin signal pathway and confer protective effects on maintaining endothelial barrier function both in vitro and in vivo heat-stressed model, similar to those observed above with the inhibition of PAR1. These results suggest that PAR1 is a potential therapeutic target in heatstroke. PMID:25693178

  19. Estimation of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) from OCEANSAT-I OCM using a simple atmospheric radiative transfer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Madhumita; Raman, Mini; Chauhan, Prakash

    2015-10-01

    Photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) is an important variable for radiation budget, marine and terrestrial ecosystem models. OCEANSAT-1 Ocean Color Monitor (OCM) PAR was estimated using two different methods under both clear and cloudy sky conditions. In the first approach, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and cloud optical depth (COD) were estimated from OCEANSAT-1 OCM TOA (top-of-atmosphere) radiance data on a pixel by pixel basis and PAR was estimated from extraterrestrial solar flux for fifteen spectral bands using a radiative transfer model. The second approach used TOA radiances measured by OCM in the PAR spectral range to compute PAR. This approach also included surface albedo and cloud albedo as inputs. Comparison between OCEANSAT-1 OCM PAR at noon with in situ measured PAR shows that root mean square difference was 5.82% for the method I and 7.24% for the method II in daily time scales. Results indicate that methodology adopted to estimate PAR from OCEANSAT-1 OCM can produce reasonably accurate PAR estimates over the tropical Indian Ocean region. This approach can be extended to OCEANSAT-2 OCM and future OCEANSAT-3 OCM data for operational estimation of PAR for regional marine ecosystem applications.

  20. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 134.8 mIU/ml mIU/ml = milli international units per milliliter Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your doctor about the ...

  1. Targeting of peptide conjugated magnetic nanoparticles to urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expressing cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Line; Unmack Larsen, Esben Kjær; Nielsen, Erik Holm; Iversen, Frank; Liu, Zhuo; Thomsen, Karen; Pedersen, Michael; Skrydstrup, Troels; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Ploug, Michael; Kjems, Jørgen

    2013-08-01

    Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles are currently being used as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent in vivo, mainly by their passive accumulation in tissues of interest. However, a higher specificity can ideally be achieved when the nanoparticles are targeted towards cell specific receptors and this may also facilitate specific drug delivery by an enhanced target-mediated endocytosis. We report efficient peptide-mediated targeting of magnetic nanoparticles to cells expressing the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a surface biomarker for poor patient prognosis shared by several cancers including breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers. Conjugation of a uPAR specific targeting peptide onto polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated USPIO nanoparticles by click chemistry resulted in a five times higher uptake in vitro in a uPAR positive cell line compared to nanoparticles carrying a non-binding control peptide. In accordance with specific receptor-mediated recognition, a low uptake was observed in the presence of an excess of ATF, a natural ligand for uPAR. The uPAR specific magnetic nanoparticles can potentially provide a useful supplement for tumor patient management when combined with MRI and drug delivery.Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles are currently being used as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent in vivo, mainly by their passive accumulation in tissues of interest. However, a higher specificity can ideally be achieved when the nanoparticles are targeted towards cell specific receptors and this may also facilitate specific drug delivery by an enhanced target-mediated endocytosis. We report efficient peptide-mediated targeting of magnetic nanoparticles to cells expressing the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a surface biomarker for poor patient prognosis shared by several cancers including breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers. Conjugation of a uPAR specific targeting peptide onto polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated USPIO nanoparticles by click chemistry resulted in a five times higher uptake in vitro in a uPAR positive cell line compared to nanoparticles carrying a non-binding control peptide. In accordance with specific receptor-mediated recognition, a low uptake was observed in the presence of an excess of ATF, a natural ligand for uPAR. The uPAR specific magnetic nanoparticles can potentially provide a useful supplement for tumor patient management when combined with MRI and drug delivery. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr32922d

  2. An activated protein C analog stimulates neuronal production by human neural progenitor cells via a PAR1-PAR3-S1PR1-Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huang; Zhao, Zhen; Yang, Qi; Wang, Min; Bell, Robert D; Wang, Su; Chow, Nienwen; Davis, Thomas P; Griffin, John H; Goldman, Steven A; Zlokovic, Berislav V

    2013-04-01

    Activated protein C (APC) is a protease with anticoagulant and cell-signaling activities. In the CNS, APC and its analogs with reduced anticoagulant activity but preserved cell signaling activities, such as 3K3A-APC, exert neuroprotective, vasculoprotective, and anti-inflammatory effects. Murine APC promotes subependymal neurogenesis in rodents in vivo after ischemic and traumatic brain injury. Whether human APC can influence neuronal production from resident progenitor cells in humans is unknown. Here we show that 3K3A-APC, but not S360A-APC (an enzymatically inactive analog of APC), stimulates neuronal mitogenesis and differentiation from fetal human neural stem and progenitor cells (NPCs). The effects of 3K3A-APC on proliferation and differentiation were comparable to those obtained with fibroblast growth factor and brain-derived growth factor, respectively. Its promoting effect on neuronal differentiation was accompanied by inhibition of astroglial differentiation. In addition, 3K3A-APC exerted modest anti-apoptotic effects during neuronal production. These effects appeared to be mediated through specific protease activated receptors (PARs) and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs), in that siRNA-mediated inhibition of PARs 1-4 and S1PRs 1-5 revealed that PAR1, PAR3, and S1PR1 are required for the neurogenic effects of 3K3A-APC. 3K3A-APC activated Akt, a downstream target of S1PR1, which was inhibited by S1PR1, PAR1, and PAR3 silencing. Adenoviral transduction of NPCs with a kinase-defective Akt mutant abolished the effects of 3K3A-APC on NPCs, confirming a key role of Akt activation in 3K3A-APC-mediated neurogenesis. Therefore, APC and its pharmacological analogs, by influencing PAR and S1PR signals in resident neural progenitor cells, may be potent modulators of both development and repair in the human CNS. PMID:23554499

  3. A method for estimating the diffuse attenuation coefficient (KdPAR)from paired temperature sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Read, Jordan S.; Rose, Kevin C.; Winslow, Luke A.; Read, Emily Kara

    2015-01-01

    A new method for estimating the diffuse attenuation coefficient for photosynthetically active radiation (KdPAR) from paired temperature sensors was derived. We show that during cases where the attenuation of penetrating shortwave solar radiation is the dominant source of temperature changes, time series measurements of water temperatures at multiple depths (z1 and z2) are related to one another by a linear scaling factor (a). KdPAR can then be estimated by the simple equation KdPAR ln(a)/(z2/z1). A suggested workflow is presented that outlines procedures for calculating KdPAR according to this paired temperature sensor (PTS) method. This method is best suited for conditions when radiative temperature gains are large relative to physical noise. These conditions occur frequently on water bodies with low wind and/or high KdPARs but can be used for other types of lakes during time periods of low wind and/or where spatially redundant measurements of temperatures are available. The optimal vertical placement of temperature sensors according to a priori knowledge of KdPAR is also described. This information can be used to inform the design of future sensor deployments using the PTS method or for campaigns where characterizing sub-daily changes in temperatures is important. The PTS method provides a novel method to characterize light attenuation in aquatic ecosystems without expensive radiometric equipment or the user subjectivity inherent in Secchi depth measurements. This method also can enable the estimation of KdPAR at higher frequencies than many manual monitoring programs allow.

  4. Detecting Plant Photoprotective Response to Water Stress Through Variation In PAR Reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zygielbaum, A. I.; Arkebauer, T. J.; Walter-Shea, E.

    2012-12-01

    Published papers over several decades have shown increasing leaf-level optical reflectance with decreasing leaf water content. Our experimental results using maize and sorghum showed this increase consistently, caused by variation in optical absorption, in the visible (photosynthetically active radiation - PAR) and middle infrared (MIR) spectral regions. Relatively smaller response, driven by variation in optical scatter, was observed in near infrared (NIR). The concomitant increasing reflectance in the PAR and MIR regions is perplexing. PAR reflectance is dominated by chlorophyll absorption while MIR reflectance is dominated by water molecule absorption. However, changes in chlorophyll concentration, determined by chemical extraction, were too small to account for the variation in PAR reflectance. PAR and MIR reflectances were also influenced by the strength of incident light. Hence PAR reflectance appears to be modulated not only by pigment concentration, the classical description, but also by the strength of incident light and the severity of water deficit. We previously reported that these findings were consistent with chloroplast avoidance movement, a plant photoprotective response, which limits light absorption by pigments. We report here our continuing investigation of this phenomenon. In addition to reflectance measurements, time-lapse microscope images of leaves under increasing water deficit conditions were obtained. These show a brightening between veins which strongly supports our assertion that changes in PAR reflectance accompanying water deficit are caused primarily by chloroplast avoidance movement. Our results suggest that leaf, and possibly canopy, reflectance can therefore be used to detect and measure plant stress. These results also indicate that chloroplast avoidance movement may cause poor estimates of leaf chlorophyll content using techniques based on fluoresced, reflected or transmitted light.

  5. Douleurs induites par les soins: la réalité au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Befelatanana Antananarivo, Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Mahavivola, Ernestho-Ghoud Indretsy; Olivah, Razanaparany Miarisoa Mireille; Mihary, Dodo; Hendriniaina, Rakotoharivelo; Lalao, Randriamboavonjy Rado; Henintsoa, Rakotonirainy Oliva; Fahafahantsoa, Rapelanoro Rabenja

    2014-01-01

    La douleur induite par les soins correspond à la douleur survenant lors des actes à visé diagnostique et/ou thérapeutique. A notre connaissance, nous n'avons pas encore des données disponibles pour les douleurs induites par les soins à l'Hôpital de Befelatanana. Nos objectifs étaient de décrire le profil épidémiologique de la douleur induite par les soins, d'identifier les principaux facteurs influençant sur l'intensité de la douleur et leurs retentissements chez les patients. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective, transversale type un jour donné menée dans les douze services de Médecines au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Befelatanana en Novembre 2013. Cent deux patients ont été retenus dans l’étude et trois cent vingt trois actes douloureux étaient enregistrés. La fréquence de la douleur induite par les soins était de 69,86%. Le genre féminin prédominait dans 52% des cas (n = 53) avec un sex-ratio à 0,92. L’âge moyen était de 46 ans. Les ponctions vasculaires étaient l'acte prédominant dans 49,54% (n = 109) des cas. Les infirmiers réalisaient les soins dans 47,05% (n = 48) des cas. L'information verbale était la mesure préventive utilisée dans 57,84% des cas (n = 59). Le transport par marche à pied et au dos représentait 16,67% des cas (n = 17). Les patients naïfs des gestes étaient plus anxieux. Ces patients gardaient de mauvais souvenir dans 64,71% des cas (n = 66). La fréquence de douleur induite par les soins était trop élevée. Un effort important est nécessaire pour réduire la douleur induite par les soins PMID:25932071

  6. MARK/Par1 Kinase Is Activated Downstream of NMDA Receptors through a PKA-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Laura P.; Zhang, Huaye

    2015-01-01

    The Par1 kinases, also known as microtubule affinity-regulating kinases (MARKs), are important for the establishment of cell polarity from worms to mammals. Dysregulation of these kinases has been implicated in autism, Alzheimer’s disease and cancer. Despite their important function in health and disease, it has been unclear how the activity of MARK/Par1 is regulated by signals from cell surface receptors. Here we show that MARK/Par1 is activated downstream of NMDA receptors in primary hippocampal neurons. Further, we show that this activation is dependent on protein kinase A (PKA), through the phosphorylation of Ser431 of Par4/LKB1, the major upstream kinase of MARK/Par1. Together, our data reveal a novel mechanism by which MARK/Par1 is activated at the neuronal synapse. PMID:25932647

  7. Rassf5 and Ndr kinases regulate neuronal polarity through Par3 phosphorylation in a novel pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Kong, Eryan; Jin, Jing; Hergovich, Alexander; Püschel, Andreas W

    2014-08-15

    The morphology and polarized growth of cells depend on pathways that control the asymmetric distribution of regulatory factors. The evolutionarily conserved Ndr kinases play important roles in cell polarity and morphogenesis in yeast and invertebrates but it is unclear whether they perform a similar function in mammalian cells. Here, we analyze the function of mammalian Ndr1 and Ndr2 (also known as STK38 or STK38L, respectively) in the establishment of polarity in neurons. We show that they act downstream of the tumor suppressor Rassf5 and upstream of the polarity protein Par3 (also known as PARD3). Rassf5 and Ndr1 or Ndr2 are required during the polarization of hippocampal neurons to prevent the formation of supernumerary axons. Mechanistically, the Ndr kinases act by phosphorylating Par3 at Ser383 to inhibit its interaction with dynein, thereby polarizing the distribution of Par3 and reinforcing axon specification. Our results identify a novel Rassf5-Ndr-Par3 signaling cascade that regulates the transport of Par3 during the establishment of neuronal polarity. Their role in neuronal polarity suggests that Ndr kinases perform a conserved function as regulators of cell polarity. PMID:24928906

  8. Platelet Matrix Metalloprotease-1 Mediates Thrombogenesis By Activating PAR1 at a Cryptic Ligand Site

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Vishal; Boire, Adrienne; Tchernychev, Boris; Kaneider, Nicole C.; Leger, Andrew J.; O’Callaghan, Katie; Covic, Lidija; Kuliopulos, Athan

    2009-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) play many important roles in normal and pathological remodeling processes including atherothrombotic disease, inflammation, angiogenesis and cancer. Traditionally, MMPs have been viewed as matrix-degrading enzymes, but recent studies have shown that they possess direct signaling capabilities. Platelets harbor several MMPs that modulate hemostatic function and platelet survival, however their mode of action remains unknown. We demonstrated that platelet MMP-1 activates protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) on the surface of platelets. Exposure of platelets to fibrillar collagen converts the surface-bound proMMP-1 zymogen to active MMP-1 which promotes aggregation through PAR1. Unexpectedly, we found that MMP-1 cleaved PAR1 at a novel site which strongly activated Rho-GTP pathways, cell shape change and motility, and MAPK signaling. Blockade of MMP1-PAR1 greatly curtailed thrombogenesis under arterial flow conditions and inhibited thrombosis in animals. These studies provide a link between matrix-dependent activation of metalloproteases and platelet-G protein signaling and identify MMP1-PAR1 as a new target for the prevention of arterial thrombosis. PMID:19379698

  9. Rassf5 and Ndr kinases regulate neuronal polarity through Par3 phosphorylation in a novel pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rui; Kong, Eryan; Jin, Jing; Hergovich, Alexander; Püschel, Andreas W.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The morphology and polarized growth of cells depend on pathways that control the asymmetric distribution of regulatory factors. The evolutionarily conserved Ndr kinases play important roles in cell polarity and morphogenesis in yeast and invertebrates but it is unclear whether they perform a similar function in mammalian cells. Here, we analyze the function of mammalian Ndr1 and Ndr2 (also known as STK38 or STK38L, respectively) in the establishment of polarity in neurons. We show that they act downstream of the tumor suppressor Rassf5 and upstream of the polarity protein Par3 (also known as PARD3). Rassf5 and Ndr1 or Ndr2 are required during the polarization of hippocampal neurons to prevent the formation of supernumerary axons. Mechanistically, the Ndr kinases act by phosphorylating Par3 at Ser383 to inhibit its interaction with dynein, thereby polarizing the distribution of Par3 and reinforcing axon specification. Our results identify a novel Rassf5–Ndr–Par3 signaling cascade that regulates the transport of Par3 during the establishment of neuronal polarity. Their role in neuronal polarity suggests that Ndr kinases perform a conserved function as regulators of cell polarity. PMID:24928906

  10. Participatory Action Research (PAR) in Middle School: Opportunities, Constraints, and Key Processes

    PubMed Central

    Ritterman, Miranda L.; Wanis, Maggie G.

    2010-01-01

    Late childhood and early adolescence represent a critical transition in the developmental and academic trajectory of youth, a time in which there is an upsurge in academic disengagement and psychopathology. PAR projects that can promote youth’s sense of meaningful engagement in school and a sense of efficacy and mattering can be particularly powerful given the challenges of this developmental stage. In the present study, we draw on data from our own collaborative implementation of PAR projects in secondary schools to consider two central questions: (1) How do features of middle school settings and the developmental characteristics of the youth promote or inhibit the processes, outcomes, and sustainability of the PAR endeavor? and (2) How can the broad principles and concepts of PAR be effectively translated into specific intervention activities in schools, both within and outside of the classroom? In particular, we discuss a participatory research project conducted with 6th and 7th graders at an urban middle school as a means of highlighting the opportunities, constraints, and lessons learned in our efforts to contribute to the high-quality implementation and evaluation of PAR in diverse urban public schools. PMID:20676754

  11. 12-lipoxygenase activity plays an important role in PAR4 and GPVI-mediated platelet reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Jennifer; Apopa, Patrick L.; Vesci, Joanne; Stolla, Moritz; Rai, Ganesha; Simeonov, Anton; Jadhav, Ajit; Fernandez-Perez, Pilar; Maloney, David J.; Boutaud, Olivier; Holman, Theodore R.; Holinstat, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Summary Following initial platelet activation, arachidonic acid is metabolised by cyclooxygenase-1 and 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX). While the role of 12-LOX in the platelet is not well defined, recent evidence suggests that it may be important for regulation of platelet activity and is agonist-specific in the manner in which it regulates platelet function. Using small molecule inhibitors selective for 12-LOX and 12-LOX-deficient mice, the role of 12-LOX in regulation of human platelet activation and thrombosis was investigated. Pharmacologically inhibiting 12-LOX resulted in attenuation of platelet aggregation, selective in hibition of dense versus alpha granule secretion, and inhibition of platelet adhesion under flow for PAR4 and collagen. Additionally, 12-LOX-deficient mice showed attenuated integrin activity to PAR4-AP and convulxin compared to wild-type mice. Finally, platelet activation by PARs was shown to be differentially dependent on COX-1 and 12-LOX with PAR1 relying on COX-1 oxidation of arachi donic acid while PAR4 being more dependent on 12-LOX for normal platelet function. These studies demonstrate an important role for 12-LOX in regulating platelet activation and thrombosis. Furthermore, the data presented here provide a basis for potentially targeting 12-LOX as a means to attenuate unwanted platelet activation and clot formation. PMID:23784669

  12. A matrix metalloprotease-PAR1 system regulates vascular integrity, systemic inflammation and death in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Tressel, Sarah L; Kaneider, Nicole C; Kasuda, Shogo; Foley, Caitlin; Koukos, Georgios; Austin, Karyn; Agarwal, Anika; Covic, Lidija; Opal, Steven M; Kuliopulos, Athan

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis is a deadly disease characterized by the inability to regulate the inflammatory–coagulation response in which the endothelium plays a key role. The cause of this perturbation remains poorly understood and has hampered the development of effective therapeutics. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are involved in the host response to pathogens, but can also cause uncontrolled tissue damage and contribute to mortality. We found that human sepsis patients had markedly elevated plasma proMMP-1 and active MMP-1 levels, which correlated with death at 7 and 28 days after diagnosis. Likewise, septic mice had increased plasma levels of the MMP-1 ortholog, MMP-1a. We identified mouse MMP-1a as an agonist of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) on endothelial cells. MMP-1a was released from endothelial cells in septic mice. Blockade of MMP-1 activity suppressed endothelial barrier disruption, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), lung vascular permeability as well as the cytokine storm and improved survival, which was lost in PAR1-deficient mice. Infusion of human MMP-1 increased lung vascular permeability in normal wild-type mice but not in PAR1-deficient mice. These findings implicate MMP-1 as an important activator of PAR1 in sepsis and suggest that therapeutics that target MMP1-PAR1 may prove beneficial in the treatment of sepsis. PMID:21591259

  13. Interaction specificity, toxicity, and regulation of a paralogous set of ParE/RelE-family toxin-antitoxin systems

    PubMed Central

    Fiebig, Aretha; Rojas, Cyd Marie Castro; Siegal-Gaskins, Dan; Crosson, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Summary Toxin-antitoxin (TA) gene cassettes are widely distributed across bacteria, archaea, and bacteriophage. The chromosome of the ?-proteobacterium, Caulobacter crescentus, encodes eight ParE/RelE-superfamily toxins that are organized into operons with their cognate antitoxins. A systematic genetic analysis of these parDE and relBE TA operons demonstrates that seven encode functional toxins. The one exception highlights an example of a non-functional toxin pseudogene. Chromosomally-encoded ParD and RelB proteins function as antitoxins, inhibiting their adjacently-encoded ParE and RelE toxins. However, these antitoxins do not functionally complement each other, even when overexpressed. Transcription of these paralogous TA systems is differentially regulated under distinct environmental conditions. These data support a model in which multiple TA paralogs encoded by a single bacterial chromosome form independent functional units with insulated protein-protein interactions. Further characterization of the parDE1 system at the single-cell level reveals that ParE1 toxin functions to inhibit cell division but not cell growth; residues at the C-terminus of ParE1 are critical for its stability and toxicity. While continuous ParE1 overexpression results in a substantial loss in cell viability at the population level, a fraction of cells escape toxicity, providing evidence that ParE1 toxicity is not uniform within clonal cell populations. PMID:20487277

  14. Potential Ecological Effects of Contaminants in the Exposed Par Pond Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-08-01

    Sediment and small mammal samples were collected from the exposed sediments of Par Pond in early 1995, shortly before the reservoir was refilled after a 4-year drawdown. Sampling was confined to elevations between 58 and 61 meters (190 and 200 feet) above mean sea level, which includes the sediments likely to be exposed if the Par Pond water level is permitted to fluctuate naturally. Both soil and small mammal samples were analyzed for a number of radionuclides and metals. Some of the soil samples were also analyzed for organic contaminants. The objective of the study was to determine if contaminant levels in the Par Pond sediments were high enough to cause deleterious ecological effects.

  15. First-in-human uPAR PET: Imaging of Cancer Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Morten; Skovgaard, Dorthe; Brandt-Larsen, Malene; Christensen, Camilla; Madsen, Jacob; Nielsen, Carsten H.; Thurison, Tine; Klausen, Thomas Levin; Holm, Søren; Loft, Annika; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Ploug, Michael; Pappot, Helle; Brasso, Klaus; Kroman, Niels; Højgaard, Liselotte; Kjaer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A first-in-human clinical trial with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in patients with breast, prostate and bladder cancer, is described. uPAR is expressed in many types of human cancers and the expression is predictive of invasion, metastasis and indicates poor prognosis. uPAR PET imaging therefore holds promise to be a new and innovative method for improved cancer diagnosis, staging and individual risk stratification. The uPAR specific peptide AE105 was conjugated to the macrocyclic chelator DOTA and labeled with 64Cu for targeted molecular imaging with PET. The safety, pharmacokinetic, biodistribution profile and radiation dosimetry after a single intravenous dose of 64Cu-DOTA-AE105 were assessed by serial PET and computed tomography (CT) in 4 prostate, 3 breast and 3 bladder cancer patients. Safety assessment with laboratory blood screening tests was performed before and after PET ligand injection. In a subgroup of the patients, the in vivo stability of our targeted PET ligand was determined in collected blood and urine. No adverse or clinically detectable side effects in any of the 10 patients were found. The ligand exhibited good in vivo stability and fast clearance from plasma and tissue compartments by renal excretion. In addition, high uptake in both primary tumor lesions and lymph node metastases was seen and paralleled high uPAR expression in excised tumor tissue. Overall, this first-in-human study therefore provides promising evidence for safe use of 64Cu-DOTA-AE105 for uPAR PET imaging in cancer patients. PMID:26516369

  16. Factor Xa stimulates fibroblast procollagen production, proliferation, and calcium signaling via PAR{sub 1} activation

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc-Brude, Olivier P. . E-mail: olivier.blanc-brude@larib.inserm.fr; Archer, Fabienne; Leoni, Patricia; Derian, Claudia; Bolsover, Steven; Laurent, Geoffrey J.; Chambers, Rachel C.

    2005-03-10

    Fibroblast proliferation and procollagen production are central features of tissue repair and fibrosis. In addition to its role in blood clotting, the coagulation cascade proteinase thrombin can contribute to tissue repair by stimulating fibroblasts via proteolytic activation of proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR{sub 1}). During hemostasis, the coagulation cascade proteinase factor X is converted into factor Xa. We have previously shown that factor Xa upregulates fibroblast proliferation via production of autocrine PDGF. In this study, we further examined the effects of factor Xa on fibroblast function and aimed to identify its signaling receptor. We showed that factor Xa stimulates procollagen promoter activity and protein production by human and mouse fibroblasts. This effect was independent of PDGF and thrombin production, but dependent on factor Xa proteolytic activity. We also showed that PAR{sub 1}-deficient mouse fibroblasts did not upregulate procollagen production, mobilize cytosolic calcium, or proliferate in response to factor Xa. Desensitization techniques and PAR{sub 1}-specific agonists and inhibitors were used to demonstrate that PAR{sub 1} mediates factor Xa signaling in human fibroblasts. This is the first report that factor Xa stimulates extracellular matrix production. In contrast with endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts appear to be the only cell type in which the effects of factor Xa are mediated mainly via PAR{sub 1} and not PAR{sub 2}. These findings are critical for our understanding of tissue repair and fibrotic mechanisms, and for the design of novel approaches to inhibit the profibrotic effects of the coagulation cascade without compromising blood hemostasis.

  17. Linking the fPAR, forest albedo and biomass in the northern biomes of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukeš, Petr; Stenberg, Pauline; Manninen, Terhikki; Rautiainen, Miina; Mõttus, Matti

    2014-05-01

    Land surface albedo and the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR) absorbed by plant canopies are two of the essential climate variables controlling the planetary radiative energy budget. Albedo is directly related to the energy exchange between land and the atmosphere as it is the reflectivity of the surface - the higher the albedo, the more incoming solar radiation is reflected and the less absorbed by the surface. The fPAR is related to plant productivity, quantifying the amount of absorbed light available for photosynthesis. It is a key parameter in the modelling of net primary production (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystems. Global climate scenarios are very sensitive to albedo and fPAR estimates, and thus, the effect of changes in canopy structure and density (biomass) on these two variables needs to be quantified reliably. Both parameters are routinely retrieved from current Earth Observation sensors using specialized algorithms. To date, these satellite products have not been linked to extensive forest inventory data sets due to the lack of ground reference data. Data availability for Finland has significantly improved in December 2012, when National Forest Inventory (NFI) data became freely available to the public. The dataset covers the geographical area of Finland (26.1 million hectares) at a spatial resolution of 20 meters including several forest structural variables. In this study, we use the NFI data to study the links between forest albedo, fPAR and forest structure and density during the green vegetation season. More specifically, we investigated the seasonal trends in fPAR and albedo of different spectral regions of northern forests. Empirical relationships between forest albedo, fPAR and total aboveground biomass were established for selected days within the vegetation growing period and across a latitudinal transect of Finland.

  18. IFT2015 Miklos Csuros 29 fevrier 2012 11 Tris elementaires et tri par fusion

    E-print Network

    Csürös, Miklós

    IFT2015 Mikl´os Csur¨os 29 f´evrier 2012 11 Tris ´el´ementaires et tri par fusion 11.1 Tri On a un´ements. Tri externe : fichier stock´e partiellement ou enti`erement en m´emoire externe (disque) -- acc`es `a m´emoire externe est co^uteux. . . Tri interne : tout le fichier est en m´emoire (repr´esent´e par

  19. IFT2015 Miklos Csuros 26 novembre 2012 10 Tris elementaires et tri par fusion

    E-print Network

    Csürös, Miklós

    IFT2015 Mikl´os Csur¨os 26 novembre 2012 10 Tris ´el´ementaires et tri par fusion 10.1 Tri On a un´ements. Tri externe : fichier stock´e partiellement ou enti`erement en m´emoire externe (disque) -- acc`es `a m´emoire externe est co^uteux. . . Tri interne : tout le fichier est en m´emoire (repr´esent´e par

  20. Nécrolyse épidermique toxique induite par le phénobarbital chez un enfant Rwandais: à propos d'uncas

    PubMed Central

    Kaputu-Kalala-Malu, Célestin; Ntumba-Tshitenge, Olga; Misson, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Le syndrome de Lyell ou la nécrolyse épidermique toxique (TEN) est une des rares complications majeures du traitement par phénobarbital. Sa prise en charge n'est pas encore codifiée. Il requiert une intervention urgente, lourde et adaptée à chaque patient afin d'en réduire la mortalité. Nous décrivons un cas du syndrome de Lyell survenu une dizaine de jours après initiation du traitement antiépileptique par phénobarbital chez un enfant rwandais de deux ans. La complexité des lésions cutanéomuqueuses et leurs répercussions sur le plan général soulignent l'importance d'une prescription responsable et justifiée des médicaments antiépileptiques. PMID:25396028

  1. Une cryptococcose disséminée compliquant un traitement par prednisone et azathioprime d'un pemphigus vulgaire

    PubMed Central

    Wafa, Ammouri; Hicham, Harmouche; Yassir, Afifi; Zoubida, Tazi Mezalek; Mohamed, Adnaoui; Mohamed, Aouni; Amine, Hassani; Abdelaziz, Maaouni

    2011-01-01

    L'infection à cryptocoque est une complication redoutable chez les patients traités par immunosuppresseurs et dont l’évolution peut être rapidement fatal en cas de retard diagnostic. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente âgée de 70 ans, ayant des antécédents de pemphigus vulgaire traité par prednisone et azathioprime et admise dans le service de médecine Interne pour des nodules sous cutanés atypiques. Le diagnostic retenu était celui d'une cryptococcose disséminée. L’évolution était rapidement fatale malgré le traitement antifongique. PMID:22187617

  2. Racial Difference in Human Platelet PAR4 Reactivity Reflects Expression of PCTP and miR-376c

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, Leonard C.; Simon, Lukas M.; Montoya, Raúl Teruel; Holinstat, Michael; Chen, Edward S.; Bergeron, Angela; Kong, Xianguo; Nagalla, Srikanth; Mohandas, Narla; Cohen, David E.; Dong, Jing-fei; Shaw, Chad; Bray, Paul F.

    2013-01-01

    Racial differences in the pathophysiology of atherothrombosis are poorly understood. We explored the function and transcriptome of platelets in healthy black (n = 70) and white (n = 84) subjects. PAR4 thrombin receptor induced platelet aggregation and calcium mobilization were significantly greater in black subjects. Numerous differentially expressed (DE) RNAs were associated with both race and PAR4 reactivity, including phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PCTP), and platelets from blacks expressed higher levels of PC-TP protein. PC-TP inhibition or depletion blocked activation of platelets or megakaryocytic cell lines through PAR4 but not PAR1. MiR-376c levels were DE by race and PAR4 reactivity, and were inversely correlated with PCTP mRNA levels, PC-TP protein levels and PAR4 reactivity. MiR-376c regulated expression of PC-TP in human megakaryocytes. A disproportionately high number of miRNAs DE by race and PAR4 reactivity, including miR-376c, are encoded in the DLK1-DIO3 locus, and were lower in platelets from blacks. These results support PC-TP as a regulator of the racial difference in PAR4-mediated platelet activation, indicate a genomic contribution to platelet function that differs by race, and emphasize a need to consider race effects when developing anti-thrombotic drugs. PMID:24216752

  3. Apparent PS II absorption cross-section and estimation of mean PAR in optically thin and dense suspensions of Chlorella.

    PubMed

    Klughammer, Christof; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical prediction of effective mean PAR in optically dense samples is complicated by various optical effects, including light scattering and reflections. Direct information on the mean rate of photon absorption by PS II is provided by the kinetics of the fluorescence rise induced upon onset of strong actinic illumination (O-I1 rise). A recently introduced kinetic multi-color PAM fluorometer was applied to study the relationship between initial slope and cell density in the relatively simple model system of suspensions of Chlorella. Use of a curve fitting routine was made which was originally developed for assessment of the wavelength-dependent absorption cross-section of PS II, ? II(?), in dilute suspensions. The model underlying analysis of the O-I1 rise kinetics is outlined and data on the relationship between fitted values of ? II(?) and PAR in dilute samples are presented. With increasing cell density, lowering of apparent cross-section, (?), with respect to ? II(?), relates to a decrease of effective mean PAR, <PAR>(?), relative to incident PAR(?). When ML and AL are applied in the same direction, the decline of (?)/? II(?) with increasing optical density is less steep than that of the theoretically predicted <PAR>(?)/PAR(?). It approaches a value of 0.5 when the same colors of ML and AL are used, in agreement with theory. These observations open the way for estimating mean PAR in optically dense samples via measurements of (?)/? II(?)). PMID:25218266

  4. Structural mechanism of ATP-induced polymerization of the partition factor ParF: implications for DNA segregation.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Maria A; Ye, Qiaozhen; Barge, Madhuri T; Zampini, Massimiliano; Barillà, Daniela; Hayes, Finbarr

    2012-07-27

    Segregation of the bacterial multidrug resistance plasmid TP228 requires the centromere-binding protein ParG, the parH centromere, and the Walker box ATPase ParF. The cycling of ParF between ADP- and ATP-bound states drives TP228 partition; ATP binding stimulates ParF polymerization, which is essential for segregation, whereas ADP binding antagonizes polymerization and inhibits DNA partition. The molecular mechanism involved in this adenine nucleotide switch is unclear. Moreover, it is unknown how any Walker box protein polymerizes in an ATP-dependent manner. Here, we describe multiple ParF structures in ADP- and phosphomethylphosphonic acid adenylate ester (AMPPCP)-bound states. ParF-ADP is monomeric but dimerizes when complexed with AMPPCP. Strikingly, in ParF-AMPPCP structures, the dimers interact to create dimer-of-dimer "units" that generate a specific linear filament. Mutation of interface residues prevents both polymerization and DNA segregation in vivo. Thus, these data provide insight into a unique mechanism by which a Walker box protein forms polymers that involves the generation of ATP-induced dimer-of-dimer building blocks. PMID:22674577

  5. Plant-derived SAC domain of PAR-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4) exhibits growth inhibitory effects in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Shayan; Jain, Sumeet; Rai, Vineeta; Sahoo, Dipak K; Raha, Sumita; Suklabaidya, Sujit; Senapati, Shantibhusan; Rangnekar, Vivek M; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

    2015-01-01

    The gene Par-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4) was originally identified in prostate cancer cells undergoing apoptosis and its product Par-4 showed cancer specific pro-apoptotic activity. Particularly, the SAC domain of Par-4 (SAC-Par-4) selectively kills cancer cells leaving normal cells unaffected. The therapeutic significance of bioactive SAC-Par-4 is enormous in cancer biology; however, its large scale production is still a matter of concern. Here we report the production of SAC-Par-4-GFP fusion protein coupled to translational enhancer sequence (5' AMV) and apoplast signal peptide (aTP) in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN plants under the control of a unique recombinant promoter M24. Transgene integration was confirmed by genomic DNA PCR, Southern and Northern blotting, Real-time PCR, and Nuclear run-on assays. Results of Western blot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP protein and it was as high as 0.15% of total soluble protein. In addition, we found that targeting of plant recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP to the apoplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was essential for the stability of plant recombinant protein in comparison to the bacterial derived SAC-Par-4. Deglycosylation analysis demonstrated that ER-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP-SEKDEL undergoes O-linked glycosylation unlike apoplast-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP. Furthermore, various in vitro studies like mammalian cells proliferation assay (MTT), apoptosis induction assays, and NF-?B suppression suggested the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of plant-derived SAC-Par-4-GFP against multiple prostate cancer cell lines. Additionally, pre-treatment of MAT-LyLu prostate cancer cells with purified SAC-Par-4-GFP significantly delayed the onset of tumor in a syngeneic rat prostate cancer model. Taken altogether, we proclaim that plant made SAC-Par-4 may become a useful alternate therapy for effectively alleviating cancer in the new era. PMID:26500666

  6. Plant-derived SAC domain of PAR-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4) exhibits growth inhibitory effects in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Shayan; Jain, Sumeet; Rai, Vineeta; Sahoo, Dipak K.; Raha, Sumita; Suklabaidya, Sujit; Senapati, Shantibhusan; Rangnekar, Vivek M.; Maiti, Indu B.; Dey, Nrisingha

    2015-01-01

    The gene Par-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4) was originally identified in prostate cancer cells undergoing apoptosis and its product Par-4 showed cancer specific pro-apoptotic activity. Particularly, the SAC domain of Par-4 (SAC-Par-4) selectively kills cancer cells leaving normal cells unaffected. The therapeutic significance of bioactive SAC-Par-4 is enormous in cancer biology; however, its large scale production is still a matter of concern. Here we report the production of SAC-Par-4-GFP fusion protein coupled to translational enhancer sequence (5? AMV) and apoplast signal peptide (aTP) in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN plants under the control of a unique recombinant promoter M24. Transgene integration was confirmed by genomic DNA PCR, Southern and Northern blotting, Real-time PCR, and Nuclear run-on assays. Results of Western blot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP protein and it was as high as 0.15% of total soluble protein. In addition, we found that targeting of plant recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP to the apoplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was essential for the stability of plant recombinant protein in comparison to the bacterial derived SAC-Par-4. Deglycosylation analysis demonstrated that ER-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP-SEKDEL undergoes O-linked glycosylation unlike apoplast-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP. Furthermore, various in vitro studies like mammalian cells proliferation assay (MTT), apoptosis induction assays, and NF-?B suppression suggested the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of plant-derived SAC-Par-4-GFP against multiple prostate cancer cell lines. Additionally, pre-treatment of MAT-LyLu prostate cancer cells with purified SAC-Par-4-GFP significantly delayed the onset of tumor in a syngeneic rat prostate cancer model. Taken altogether, we proclaim that plant made SAC-Par-4 may become a useful alternate therapy for effectively alleviating cancer in the new era. PMID:26500666

  7. UNIVERSIT DE MONTRAL DVELOPPEMENT D'UNE MTHODE D'ACCLRATION PAR GRILLES

    E-print Network

    Meunier, Michel

    POUR L'ASSEMBLAGE DE MAILLAGES CHIMÈRES ALEXANDRE PIGEON DÉPARTEMENT DE GÉNIE MÉCANIQUE ÉCOLE (GÉNIE AÉROSPATIAL) MARS 2015 © Alexandre Pigeon, 2015. #12;UNIVERSITÉ DE MONTRÉAL ÉCOLE POLYTECHNIQUE DE POUR L'ASSEMBLAGE DE MAILLAGES CHIMÈRES présenté par : PIGEON Alexandre en vue de l'obtention du

  8. Document approuv par le LE COMIT D'ATTRIBUTION DES BOURSES du SPORT D'EXCELLENCE

    E-print Network

    Charette, André

    équipes hors-SIC : badminton, cheerleading, golf, ski alpin, tennis. 8. Les sports représentés dans chaqueDocument approuvé par le LE COMITÉ D'ATTRIBUTION DES BOURSES du SPORT D'EXCELLENCE Lors de sa hommes et est utilisé afin d'alléger le texte. PROGRAMME DE SPORT D'EXCELLENCE POLITIQUE D

  9. INHIBITION OF PS II PHOTOCHEMISTRY BY PAR AND UV RADIATION IN NATURAL PHYTOPLANKTON COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of PAR and UV radiation on PS II photochemistry were examined in natural phytoplankton communities from coastal waters off Rhode Island (USA) and the subtropical Pacific. he photochemical energy conversion efficiency, the functional absorption cross section and the ki...

  10. Protease Activated Receptor-1 (PAR-1) Mediated Platelet Aggregation is Dependant on Clopidogrel Response

    PubMed Central

    Kreutz, Rolf P.; Breall, Jeffrey A.; Kreutz, Yvonne; Owens, Janelle; Lu, Deshun; Bolad, Islam; von der Lohe, Elisabeth; Sinha, Anjan; Flockhart, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Clopidogrel inhibits ADP mediated platelet aggregation through inhibition of the P2Y12 receptor by its active metabolite. Thrombin induces platelet aggregation by binding to protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), and inhibition of PAR-1 has been evaluated in patients treated with clopidogrel to reduce ischemic events after acute coronary syndromes. Residual PAR-1 mediated platelet aggregation may be dependent on extent of clopidogrel response. Material and Methods Platelet aggregation was measured in 55 patients undergoing elective PCI at 16-24 hours after 600mg clopidogrel loading dose by light transmittance aggregometry using ADP 20?M and thrombin receptor agonist peptide (TRAP) at 15 ?M and 25 ?M as agonists. Genomic DNA was genotyped for common CYP2C19 variants. Results Increasing quartiles of 20 ?M ADP induced platelet aggregation after clopidogrel loading were associated with increasing levels of TRAP mediated platelet aggregation. Patients in the highest quartile (clopidogrel non-responders) of post treatment ADP aggregation had significantly higher TRAP mediated aggregation than the patients in the lowest quartile (clopidogrel responders) [TRAP 15 ?M: 79.6±5% vs. 69.5±8%, p<0.001]. Conclusions Non-responders to clopidogrel show increased residual platelet aggregation induced by TRAP, whereas clopidogrel responders exhibit attenuated response to TRAP. Addition of PAR-1 antiplatelet drugs may be most effective in patients with reduced clopidogrel response and high residual TRAP mediated platelet aggregation. PMID:22459907

  11. CALiPER Report 20.3: Robustness of LED PAR38 Lamps

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-12-30

    A small sample of each of the CALiPER Application Summary Report 20 PAR38 lamp types underwent stress testing that included substantial temperature and humidity changes, electrical variation, and vibration. The results do not directly address expected lifetime, but can be compared with one another, as well as with benchmark conventional products, to assess the relative robustness of the product designs.

  12. 36] thologie Pour la Science -n 420 -Octobre 2012 Les nids construits par les termites

    E-print Network

    Theraulaz, Guy

    36] Éthologie © Pour la Science - n° 420 - Octobre 2012 Les nids construits par les termites sont Picarougne et Christian Jost 1Les termites Trinervitermes gemina- tus (a plus de 500.Laterredunidestenrichieenargile que les termites prélèvent parfois à plu- sieurs mètres de

  13. Polythiophènes substitués par des motifs tétrathiafulvalènes : vers des matériaux électroactifs à conductivité mixte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huchet, L.; Roncali, J.

    1998-06-01

    Highly electroactive conjugated polymers have been synthesized by electropolymerisation of tetrathiafulvalene-derivatised bithiophenes. We report and discuss the electrochemical and optical properties of these new polymers. Des polymères conjugués fortement électroactifs ont été synthétisés par électropolymérisation de bithiophènes dérivés du tétrathiafulvalène. Nous présentons et discutons des caractéristiques électrochimiques et optiques de ces nouveaux polymères.

  14. UNIVERSIT DU QUBEC MONTRAL TRAAGE ISOTOPIQUE PAR L'OSMIUM DES MISSIONS

    E-print Network

    UNIVERSITÉ DU QUÉBEC À MONTRÉAL TRAÇAGE ISOTOPIQUE PAR L'OSMIUM DES ÉMISSIONS ATMOSPHÉRIQUES D Concentrations en osmium et rapport isotopique 187 Os/188 Os des blancs...................................................................47 C.3 Concentrations d'osmium et compositions isotopiques des échantillons provenant de l

  15. La fracture de Hahn Steinthal traitée par vissage d'Herbert: 3 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bienvenu, Bouhelo-Pam Kevin Parfait; Amine, El Rhazi; Khalid, Chmali; Mohamed, Azarkane; Mohamed, El Idrissi; Mohamed, Shimi; Abdelhalim, El Ibrahimi; Abdelmajid, El Mrini

    2015-01-01

    Les fractures du capitulum sont rares. Leur prise en charge initiale doit être précoce et efficace en raison des risques engendrés sur le coude: rigidité, instabilité, arthrose. De nombreux traitements ont été proposés. Notre étude décrit le vissage par vis d'Herbert pratiqué chez trois patientes recensées entre 2012 et 2013. Elles ont été inclues selon les critères de traumatisme du coude avec douleur exquise externe avec un trait de fracture radiologique frontal du condyle huméral externe emportant la joue externe de la trochlée. Le diagnostic a été orienté par l'examen clinique et confirmé à la radiographie de face, de profil et des ¾ internes. Les lésions ont été classées selon Bryan et Morrey. Les patients ont été opérés en urgence par abord postéro-latéral de Kocher, réduction à ciel ouvert puis stabilisation par vis de Herbert enfouies. Le recul moyen a été de un an. La récupération fonctionnelle totale moyenne a été de 3,6 mois. L’évaluation fonctionnelle a été jugée excellente selon le score MEPI (Mayo Elbow Performance Index) pour les trois patients. Il n'y a pas eu de démontage de matériel. La consolidation osseuse moyenne a été de 2,6 mois. PMID:26015850

  16. Un systme de traduction de verbes entre arabe standard et arabe dialectal par analyse morphologique profonde

    E-print Network

    morphologique, traitement automatique de l'arabe. KEYWORDS: dialects, Arabic NLP, morphological analysis. 1Un système de traduction de verbes entre arabe standard et arabe dialectal par analyse@ccls.columbia.edu RÉSUMÉ Le développement d'outils de TAL pour les dialectes de l'arabe se heurte à l'absence de ressources

  17. LED Lighting Flicker and Potential Health Concerns: IEEE Standard PAR1789 Update

    E-print Network

    Lehman, Brad

    LED Lighting Flicker and Potential Health Concerns: IEEE Standard PAR1789 Update Arnold WilkinsStar and other standards groups about the emerging concern of flicker in LED lighting. This paper introduces power electronic designers for LED lighting to health concerns relating to flicker, demonstrates

  18. Titre de la Th ese : Segmentation d'images SONAR par approche

    E-print Network

    Mignotte, Max

    1 Titre de la Th#12;ese : Segmentation d'images SONAR par approche markovienne hi erarchique non Le SONAR haute r esolution constitue un moyen e cace pour observer la tr#12;esgrande vari et ed'objets reposant sur les fonds marins. Ces derni#12;eres ann ees, de nombreuses am eliorations ont rendu ces SONAR

  19. Gochimie des olivines plantaires : une approche micro-analytique par EPMA et LA-ICPMS

    E-print Network

    Cattin, Rodolphe

    Géochimie des olivines planétaires : une approche micro-analytique par EPMA et LA-ICPMS Directeur-louis BODINIER(Géochimie, Modélisation, DR) + Andrea TOMMASI (texture et petrophysique), Claude MERLET (Sonde électronique et ionique, IR), Olivier BRUGUIER (LA-(HR)ICP-MS, IR) Thématique : Sciences de la Terre et des

  20. Soire des vinsPrsente par 33000$ de plus pour le Fonds Rouge et Or

    E-print Network

    Laval, Université

    Soirée des vinsPrésentée par 33000$ de plus pour le Fonds Rouge et Or Gilles Lépine, responsable du programme Rouge et Or, Christian Gagnon, directeur du Service des activités sportives de l'Université Laval, Hughes Ryan, du club de basketball, Josée Germain, vice-rectrice à l'administration et aux finances à l

  1. GreenPar: Scheduling Parallel High Performance Applications in Green Datacenters

    E-print Network

    Bianchini, Ricardo

    Par schedules the workload to maximize the green energy con- sumption and minimize the grid ("brown") energy-site gener- ation of renewable ("green") energy from sources such as wind and solar. For example, Apple datacenters mostly (or entirely) powered by wind and/or solar energy. Such "green" datacenters hold great

  2. Animations proposes par le Jardin Botanique en fonction des programmes scolaires

    E-print Network

    Jeanjean, Louis

    Animations proposées par le Jardin Botanique en fonction des programmes scolaires des 3 cycles de d'une espèce et ses propres besoins. Exemple d'animation : Activité « le petit explorateur, colorier des silhouettes, des modèles. Pour les GS, écriture des nouveaux mots de la thématique. Devenir

  3. A new method for constructing Williamson ma-Keywords: Hadamard matrix, Williamson type Hadamard matrices, Par-

    E-print Network

    Seberry, Jennifer

    Hadamard matrices, Par- titions Correspondent address: Tianbing Xia School of IT & CS University Williamson matrices #3; Mingyuan Xia Department of Mathematics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079, China Email: xiamy@ccnu.edu.cn Jennifer Seberry, Tianbing Xia School of IT & CS, University

  4. L'effet de serre: sa dcouverte, son analyse par la mthode des puissances nettes

    E-print Network

    Dufresne, Jean-Louis

    Samuel Langley (18341906) Développement du spectrobolomètre Mesure du spectre solaire Mesure du: Aborde le problème dans sa globalité Se base sur les travaux de Fourier, Pouillet, Tyndall et Langley Utilise les observations de Langley pour estimer l'absorption du rayonnement IR par l'atmosphère Propose

  5. Colon Cancer Growth and Dissemination Relies upon Thrombin, Stromal PAR-1, and Fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Adams, Gregory N; Rosenfeldt, Leah; Frederick, Malinda; Miller, Whitney; Waltz, Dusty; Kombrinck, Keith; McElhinney, Kathryn E; Flick, Matthew J; Monia, Brett P; Revenko, Alexey S; Palumbo, Joseph S

    2015-10-01

    Thrombin-mediated proteolysis is a major determinant of metastasis, but is not universally important for primary tumor growth. Here, we report that colorectal adenocarcinoma represents one important exception whereby thrombin-mediated functions support both primary tumor growth and metastasis. In contrast with studies of multiple nongastrointestinal cancers, we found that the growth of primary tumors formed by murine and human colon cancer cells was reduced in mice by genetic or pharmacologic reduction of circulating prothrombin. Reduced prothrombin expression was associated with lower mitotic indices and invasion of surrounding tissue. Mechanistic investigations revealed that thrombin-driven colonic adenocarcinoma growth relied upon at least two targets of thrombin-mediated proteolysis, protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) expressed by stromal cells and the extracellular matrix protein, fibrinogen. Colonic adenocarcinoma growth was reduced in PAR-1-deficient mice, implicating stromal cell-associated PAR-1 as one thrombin target important for tumor outgrowth. Furthermore, tumor growth was dramatically impeded in fibrinogen-deficient mice, offering the first direct evidence of a critical functional role for fibrinogen in malignant tumor growth. Tumors harvested from fibrinogen-deficient mice displayed a relative reduction in cell proliferative indices, as well as increased tumor necrosis and decreased tumor vascular density. Collectively, our findings established a functional role for thrombin and its targets PAR-1 and fibrinogen in the pathogenesis of colonic adenocarcinoma, supporting tumor growth as well as local invasion and metastasis. Cancer Res; 75(19); 4235-43. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26238780

  6. The Utility of Clinicians Ratings of Anxiety Using the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Keeton, Courtney P.; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Riddle, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Clinician ratings of anxiety hold the promise of clarifying discrepancies often found between child and parent reports of anxiety. The Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) is a clinician-administered instrument that assesses the frequency, severity, and impairment of common pediatric anxiety disorders and has been used as a primary outcome…

  7. The circadian PAR-domain basic leucine zipper transcription factors DBP, TEF, and HLF modulate

    E-print Network

    Halazonetis, Thanos

    basal and inducible xenobiotic detoxification Fre´ de´ ric Gachon,1,3 Fabienne Fleury Olela,1 Olivier, including liver and kidney. Mice devoid of all three of these proteins are born at ex- pected Mendelian and mortality of PAR bZip triple knockout mice, we compared the liver and kidney transcriptomes of these animals

  8. Mathematiques par del`a leurs fronti`eres Hic sunt leones

    E-print Network

    Longo, Giuseppe

    Math´ematiques par del`a leurs fronti`eres Hic sunt leones Les math´ematiques sont d leurs. Et tandis que les philosophes des math´ematiques dissertent `a profusion sur l'`existence' ou le statut des `objets math´ematiques', comme sur un certain `dilemme de Benacerraf', les math

  9. Cours ralis par Patrick Eustache et Robert Ferret ANF datacentres , Cargse septembre 2014

    E-print Network

    van Tiggelen, Bart

    Cours réalisé par Patrick Eustache et Robert Ferret ANF datacentres , Cargèse septembre 2014 1 #12;ANF datacentres 2014 2 Patrick Eustache , SIMSU Bernard Boutherin , lpsc.in2p3.fr Cours de génie'inductance symbole « L » ; (bobine ...) unité : henry « H » caractéristique : s'oppose aux causes qui lui donnent

  10. Formation en rsolution de problmes complexes aide par le Serious Game Rex Machine

    E-print Network

    Bordenave, Charles

    Formation en résolution de problèmes complexes aidée par le Serious Game « Rex Machine » Elisabeth Serious Game dédié expérimenter et évaluer plusieurs scénarios pédagogiques Processus de résolution de, L. Geneste Formation ResPro 19/05/2015 3 / 3 Aspects liés au Serious Game #12;

  11. UTILITY OF A WIDE SPECTRUM LIGHT METER AS AN UNDERWATER SENSOR OF PHOTOSYNTHETICALLY ACTIVE RADIATION (PAR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The strong attenuation of infra red wavelengths (>700 nm) in coastal waters is suggestive that some instruments with broad spectral responses might be useful, inexpensive substitutes for PAR sensors in studies of estuarine plant dynamics. Wide spectrum (350-1100 nm) light intensi...

  12. he gypsy moth (Lymantria dis-par) is probably the most de-

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    T he gypsy moth (Lymantria dis- par) is probably the most de- structive forest defoliator in the United States. More than 81 million acres of forests have been defoliated by the gypsy moth since 1924). During gypsy moth outbreaks, many species of hard- woods may be defoliated; repeated de- foliation causes

  13. dirigee par Patrick Rives preparee `a l'INRIA Sophia Antipolis

    E-print Network

    Mei, Christopher

    TH`ESE dirig´ee par Patrick Rives pr´epar´ee `a l'INRIA Sophia Antipolis au sein du projet ICARE et Mustapha MOUADDIB Rapporteur MM. Delphine DUFOURD Examinateur David FILLIAT Examinateur Patrick RIVES`ese. Mes remerciements vont tout particuli`erement `a Patrick Rives, mon directeur de th`ese, pour m

  14. Friction dependence of shallow granular flows from discrete par-ticle simulations

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    Friction dependence of shallow granular flows from discrete par- ticle simulations Anthony Thornton relation for the macroscopic bed friction or basal roughness obtained from micro-scale discrete particle simulations of steady flows. We systematically vary the bed friction by changing the contact friction

  15. ParCYCLIC: Finite Element Modeling of Earthquake Liquefaction Response on Parallel Computers

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    1 ParCYCLIC: Finite Element Modeling of Earthquake Liquefaction Response on Parallel Computers Jun based on an existing serial code CYCLIC for the analysis of cyclic seismically-induced liquefaction-fluid formulation. A constitutive model developed for simulating liquefaction-induced deformations is a main

  16. Participatory Action Research: Reflections on Critical Incidents in a PAR Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelli, Betsy; Singer, George H. S.; DiVenere, Nancy; Ginsberg, Connie; Powers, Laurie E.

    1998-01-01

    This article describes a participatory action research (PAR) project designed to evaluate Parent to Parent programs in five states. The process of developing a shared understanding of the program and of the purpose for evaluating them, along with an on-going willingness of parents and researchers to compromise, led to creative solutions to…

  17. LES GRAMi~AIRES DE CONSTITUANTS GENERAUX. par R. D. GuedJ.

    E-print Network

    LES GRAMi~AIRES DE CONSTITUANTS GENERAUX. par R. D. GuedJ. I1 est deux faits linguistiques d niveau de la composition. Tout d'abord un example choisi hors du domaine linguistique nous permettra de~Lo~ relative de ces mots, Dans le cas de mots non connexes il s'agit d'i~briquer les peignes qui repr

  18. A review of "La Rochefoucauld par quatre chemins. Les Maximes et leurs ambivalence" by Eric Turcat 

    E-print Network

    Grele, Denis D.

    2014-01-01

    chemins%22 by Turcat reviewer Grele.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 82 seventeenth-century news Eric Turcat. La Rochefoucauld par quatre chemins. Les Maximes et leurs ambivalence. Biblio 17, v. 206. Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag...

  19. Mise en correspondance par correlation avec prise en compte des occultations

    E-print Network

    Chambon, Sylvie

    Mise en correspondance par corr´elation avec prise en compte des occultations Occlusions handling cours de l'appariement, provient des occultations. C'est pourquoi le second objectif est de pr compte le probl`eme des occultations. Les r´esultats mettent en ´evidence la meilleure m´ethode qui

  20. Présentations de différentes régulations numériques de courant par la méthode de l'échantillonneur équivalent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, C.

    1991-03-01

    In this paper, we are showing how to take into account the non linear characteristics in the power converter described by states equations. This model gives the dynamical response of the set converter/machine around a steady state which value is obtained by a classical study (for example, a slide average method on the sampling period). To illustrate the utility of this tool, we are choosing two didactic examples. In a first part, we describe a set of static DC converter and DC motor. In a second part, we present a multivariable system deduced from the synchronous servomotor by the same method including the difficulties of the control in the real time. Nous montrons comment prendre en compte les non-linéarités des convertisseurs de puissance décrits par des équations d'état. Le modèle donne les performances dynamiques autour d'un point de fonctionnement qui est obtenu par une méthode plus classique comme par exemple " la moyenne glissante ". Pour illustrer la mise en ceuvre de ce modèle, nous avons choisi deux exemples didactiques. Dans une première partie, nous traitons un système monovariable, une association Hacheur moteur à courant continu. Dans une deuxième partie, nous présentons un système multivariable, illustré par une machine synchrone autopilotée associée à un onduleur. Le modèle inclut les difficultés dues au calcul " temps réel ".

  1. Selected basis for PAR reduction in multi-user downlink scenarios using lattice-reduction-aided precoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegl, Christian; Fischer, Robert FH

    2011-12-01

    The application of OFDM within a multi-user downlink scenario is considered. Thereby, two problems occur. First, due to OFDM, the transmit signal exhibits a large peak-to-average power ratio (PAR). Second, the multi-user interferences have to be equalized (or precoded) at the transmitter side. In this article, we address combined precoding and PAR reduction. As precoding schemes sorted Tomlinson-Harashima precoding (sTHP) and its lattice-reduction-aided variant (LRA-THP) are considered. In order to reduce the PAR, we review the scheme selected sorting (SLS), which is a combined approach of PAR reduction and precoding with sTHP. Based on this idea, the novel PAR reduction scheme selected basis (SLB) is introduced which combines PAR reduction with the precoding approach LRA-THP. It can be shown that SLB achieves very good PAR reduction performance and hardly influences the error performance. Both schemes, SLB and SLS, are compared with simplified selected mapping (sSLM), the only PAR reduction scheme from the SLM family, which can be applied in multi-user downlink scenarios. The comparison is done on the basis that the respective schemes exhibit the same computational complexity. In terms of PAR reduction performance, it turns out that sSLM outperforms SLS, whereas the performance of sSLM and SLB is similar. Noteworthy, the great benefit of SLB or SLS is that no side information has to be communicated to the receiver as it is necessary with sSLM. Moreover, using SLB, full diversity error rate performance is possible with only low-PAR transmit signals.

  2. Project Plan 7930 Cell G PaR Remote Handling System Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, Kathryn A

    2009-10-01

    For over 40 years the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have made Californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) available for a wide range of industries including medical, nuclear fuels, mining, military and national security. The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) located within the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) processes irradiated production targets from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Operations in Building 7930, Cell G provide over 70% of the world's demand for {sup 252}Cf. Building 7930 was constructed and equipped in the mid-1960s. Current operations for {sup 252}Cf processing in Building 7930, Cell G require use of through-the-wall manipulators and the PaR Remote Handling System. Maintenance and repairs for the manipulators is readily accomplished by removal of the manipulator and relocation to a repair shop where hands-on work can be performed in glove boxes. Contamination inside cell G does not currently allow manned entry and no provisions were created for a maintenance area inside the cell. There has been no maintenance of the PaR system or upgrades, leaving operations vulnerable should the system have a catastrophic failure. The Cell G PaR system is currently being operated in a run to failure mode. As the manipulator is now 40+ years old there is significant risk in this method of operation. In 2006 an assessment was completed that resulted in recommendations for replacing the manipulator operator control and power centers which are used to control and power the PaR manipulator in Cell G. In mid-2008 the chain for the bridge drive failed and subsequent examinations indicated several damaged links (see Figure 1). To continue operations the PaR manipulator arm is being used to push and pull the bridge as a workaround. A retrieval tool was fabricated, tested and staged inside Cell G that will allow positioning of the bridge and manipulator arm for removal from the cell should the PaR system completely fail. A fully functioning and reliable Par manipulator arm is necessary for uninterrupted {sup 252}Cf operations; a fully-functioning bridge is needed for the system to function as intended.

  3. La structure de l'eau liquide: Une etude thermique par spectroscopie infrarouge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larouche, Pascal

    Le probleme de la structure de l'eau liquide est important car l'eau est le liquide le plus present sur Terre, et complexe, la quete d'un modele precis pour decrire comment fonctionne ce liquide ayant debute des la fin du dix-neuvieme siecle. Cette etude aborde ce probleme en etudiant l'effet de l'augmentation de la temperature sur H2O et D 2O purs a l'aide de la spectroscopie infrarouge. L'intervalle de temperatures scrute est 29--93.1°C. Les spectres enregistres sont des spectres MIR-ATR entre 650 et 6000 cm-1 . L'analyse par facteurs de ces donnees permet de montrer que deux et seulement deux facteurs principaux sont necessaires pour decomposer tous les spectres experimentaux. Ces resultats sont confirmes grace a l'analyse par facteurs de spectres de la region FIR. Par la suite, la transformation en spectres de la partie reelle n et imaginaire k de l'indice de refraction permet de combiner les donnees des regions MIR et FIR. Une fois ce calcul termine, les spectres de transmission complets de H 2O et D2O entre 25 et 90°C sont connus. Ils sont ensuite utilises pour calculer par extrapolation le spectre des especes constituant l'eau liquide, puis leur abondance en fonction de la temperature. L'extrapolation de ces abondances montre que les especes correspondent a des temperatures limites de --18 et 122°C. Par la suite, la decomposition gaussienne des spectres d'especes met en evidence la riche structure de ces objets et permet de demontrer que l'apparent deplacement du massif d'absorption OH (OD) est produit par une variation de l'intensite des bandes et non pas de leur deplacement. L'examen attentif des spectres des especes prouve qu'il n'y a pas de OH libres crees par l'augmentation de la temperature: meme a 93.1°C, chaque molecule possede quatre liens-H. Ces conclusions sont de plus confirmees par une analyse thermodynamique du passage des molecules de la phase solide a la phase gazeuse. Pour diversifier la nature des resultats experimentaux utilises, des mesures de diffraction des rayons X ont aussi ete analysees. Les abondances tirees de l'analyse par facteurs des spectres infrarouges permettent de calculer les fonctions de distributions radiales des deux especes. Ces fonctions offrent la possibilite de connaitre les distances relatives entre les atomes. Avec ces distances en main, l'architecture des deux especes peut etre schematisee. Ces resultats originaux, combines a ceux issus de la spectroscopie infrarouge, permettent de montrer que la premiere espece est bien organisee, c'est-a-dire que le cube defini par un atome d'oxygene et les quatre autres atomes d'oxygene avec lesquels il est en liens-H est regulier, alors que pour l'espece chaude, les dimensions du cubes sont irregulieres. La comparaison entre les deux especes montre qu'elles etablissent toujours quatre liens-H et que leurs differences resident uniquement dans la geometrie des cubes. Finalement, deux hypotheses sont formulees comme fondement d'un modele de la structure de l'eau liquide. Premierement, l'empilement des cubes des deux especes permet de representer l'eau a toutes les temperatures, l'espece froide etant garante de la stabilite du liquide, alors que l'espece chaude a un effet destabilisant; et deuxiemement, le saut du proton stabilise les liens-H, de telle sorte que lorsque l'espece chaude devient trop abondante, ces defauts provoquent un arret des sauts de protons et les liens-H ainsi affaiblis se brisent et le liquide s'evapore.

  4. Fabrication et caracterisation de nanocristaux de silicium localises, realises par gravure electrochimique pour des applications nanoelectroniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayari-Kanoun, Asma

    Ce travail de these porte sur le developpement d'une nouvelle approche pour la localisation et l'organisation de nanocristaux de silicium realises par gravure electrochimique. Cette derniere represente une technique simple et peu couteuse par rapport aux autres techniques couramment utilisees pour la fabrication de nanocristaux de silicium. L'idee de ce travail a ete d'etudier la nanostructuration de minces couches de nitrure de silicium, d'environ 30 nm d'epaisseur pour permettre par la suite un arrangement periodique des nanocristaux de silicium. Cette pre-structuration est obtenue de facon artificielle en imposant un motif periodique via une technique de lithographie par faisceau d'electrons combinee avec une gravure plasma. Une optimisation des conditions de lithographie et de gravure plasma ont permis d'obtenir des reseaux de trous de 30 nm de diametre debouchant sur le silicium avec un bon controle de leur morphologie (taille, profondeur et forme). En ajustant les conditions de gravure electrochimique (concentration d'acide, temps de gravure et densite de courant), nous avons obtenu des reseaux -2D ordonnes de nanocristaux de silicium de 10 nm de diametre a travers ces masques de nanotrous avec le controle parfait de leur localisation, la distance entre les nanocristaux et leur orientation cristalline. Des etudes electriques preliminaires sur ces nanocristaux ont permis de mettre en evidence des effets de chargement. Ces resultats tres prometteurs confirment l'interet des nanocristaux de silicium realises par gravure electrochimique dans le futur pour la fabrication a grande echelle de dispositifs nanoelectroniques. Mots-cles : localisation, organisation, nanocristaux de silicium, gravure electrochimique, lithographie electronique, gravure plasma, nitrure de silicium.

  5. Effet getter dans des plaquettes de silicium multicristallin par diffusion de phosphore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perichaud, I.; Martinuzzi, S.

    1992-03-01

    The external gettering effect by phosphorus diffusion is used to improve the electrical properties of multicrystalline silicon wafers. After diffusion at 900 °C for 4 h it was found that the effective diffusion lengths L_n of minority carriers achieve or overpass the thickness of the wafers. After diffusion at 850 °C for 4 h the improvements are less marked and hydrogenation is needed to obtain the same increase of L_n. SIMS analysis indicates that the gettered impurities are essentially iron, copper and nickel. Some restricted regions of the wafers are only poorly improved. It was found after chemical etching that these regions contain a high density of subgrain boundaries. The mechanism of the gettering effect used in this work is proposed, taking in account dissolved impurities in the grains and impurities segregated by dislocations. The additivity of the hydrogenation effect might be understood by the neutralisation of the recombination centers related to oxygen atoms segregated by the dislocations. L'effet getter externe par diffusion de phosphore est utilisé pour améliorer les propriétés électriques de plaquettes de silicium multicristallin. Après 4h à 900°C les longueurs de diffusion des porteurs minoritaires atteignent ou dépassent l'épaisseur des plaquettes. Après 4h à 850°C, les augmentations sont moins spectaculaires et une hydrogénation du matériau est nécessaire pour obtenir un résultat comparable au précédent. Les analyses SIMS indiquent que les impuretés extraites sont surtout du fer, du cuivre et du nickel. Certaines régions du matériau, d'extension limitée, sont toutefois peu améliorées. Elles sont caractérisées par la présence d'un réseau très dense de sous-joints. Une interprétation du mécanisme de l'effet getter observé est proposée faisant intervenir les impuretés métalliques dissoutes et celles ségrégées par les dislocations. L'additivité de l'action de l'hydrogène s'expliquerait par la neutralisation des centres de recombinaison dus à l'oxygène ségrégé par ces défauts.

  6. This paper has been published in Proceedings of Radiovetenskap och kommunikation 99 (RVK 99), pages 303307, Karlskrona, Sweden, June 1999. 303 DMT PAR-reduction by weighted

    E-print Network

    Feichtinger, Hans Georg

    303­307, Karlskrona, Sweden, June 1999. 303 DMT PAR-reduction by weighted cancellation waveforms Per°a, Sweden. Abstract DMT (discrete multitone) signals have a high peak-to- average power ratio (PAR complexity PAR-reduction method for DMT-transmitters. Here we improve a central part of this method. Computer

  7. PAR1 participates in the ability of multidrug resistance and tumorigenesis by controlling Hippo-YAP pathway.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Daisuke; Ueda, Yuki; Hirono, Yasuo; Goi, Takanori; Yamaguchi, Akio

    2015-10-27

    The Hippo pathway significantly correlates with organ size control and tumorigenesis. The activity of YAP/TAZ, a transducer of the Hippo pathway, is required to sustain self-renewal and tumor-initiation capacities in cancer stem cells (CSCs). But, upstream signals that control the mammalian Hippo pathway have not been well understood. Here, we reveal a connection between the Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) signaling pathway and the Hippo-YAP pathway in gastric cancer stem-like cells. The selective PAR1 agonist TFLLR-NH2 induces an increase in the fraction of side population cells which is enriched in CSCs, and promotes tumorigenesis, multi cancer drug resistance, cell morphological change, and cell invasion which are characteristics of CSCs. In addition, PAR1 activation inhibits the Hippo-YAP pathway kinase Lats via Rho GTPase. Lats kinase inhibition in turn results in increased nuclear localization of dephosphorylated YAP. Furthermore, PAR1 activation confers CSCs related traits via the Hippo-YAP pathway, and the Hippo-YAP pathway correlates with epithelial mesenchymal transition which is induced by PAR1 activation. Our research suggests that the PAR1 signaling deeply participates in the ability of multi drug resistance and tumorigenesis through interactions with the Hippo-YAP pathway signaling in gastric cancer stem-like cells. We presume that inhibited YAP is a new therapeutic target in the treatment human gastric cancer invasion and metastasis by dysregulated PAR1 or its agonists. PMID:26431277

  8. RAB-5 Controls the Cortical Organization and Dynamics of PAR Proteins to Maintain C. elegans Early Embryonic Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Hyenne, Vincent; Tremblay-Boudreault, Thierry; Velmurugan, Ramraj; Grant, Barth D.; Loerke, Dinah; Labbé, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    In all organisms, cell polarity is fundamental for most aspects of cell physiology. In many species and cell types, it is controlled by the evolutionarily conserved PAR-3, PAR-6 and aPKC proteins, which are asymmetrically localized at the cell cortex where they define specific domains. While PAR proteins define the antero-posterior axis of the early C. elegans embryo, the mechanism controlling their asymmetric localization is not fully understood. Here we studied the role of endocytic regulators in embryonic polarization and asymmetric division. We found that depleting the early endosome regulator RAB-5 results in polarity-related phenotypes in the early embryo. Using Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, we observed that PAR-6 is localized at the cell cortex in highly dynamic puncta and depleting RAB-5 decreased PAR-6 cortical dynamics during the polarity maintenance phase. Depletion of RAB-5 also increased PAR-6 association with clathrin heavy chain (CHC-1) and this increase depended on the presence of the GTPase dynamin, an upstream regulator of endocytosis. Interestingly, further analysis indicated that loss of RAB-5 leads to a disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and that this occurs independently of dynamin activity. Our results indicate that RAB-5 promotes C. elegans embryonic polarity in both dynamin-dependent and -independent manners, by controlling PAR-6 localization and cortical dynamics through the regulation of its association with the cell cortex and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:22545101

  9. Etude par spectroscopie de Coulomb de points quantiques lateraux individuels et couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pioro-Ladriere, Michel

    Des points quantiques contenant un nombre discret et variable d'electrons sont formes dans un gaz bi-dimensionnel d'electrons a l'aide de grilles metalliques. Le transport electrique, le blocage de spin et la detection de charge sont employes comme outils spectroscopiques permettant de sonder les proprietes de ces nanostructures. Ces techniques permettent aussi de controler exactement le nombres d'electrons confines dans des points quantiques individuels et couples en utilisant un patron de grille judicieux. Une technique de refroidissement en tension est developpee afin de minimiser les effets parasites du bruit telegraphique. Ce type de bruit de charge deteriore la stabilite des nanostructures laterales par l'activation d'un minuscule courant de fuite entre les grilles et le gaz bi-dimensionnel. Un modele expliquant le role du refroidissement en tension sur le courant de fuite est presente. L'activation du courant de fuite est confirmee par detection de charge. Les effets des interactions entre les electrons pieges dans un point quantique sont ensuite etudies dans un regime ou il est possible de comparer les resulats experimentaux avec ceux obtenus par diagonalisation exacte. L'etude demontre que la phase associee au facteur de remplissage nu = 2 est instable au-dessus d'un nombre critique d'electrons. Cette instabilite est confirmee experimentalement par blocage de spin. On demontre aussi l'existence d'etats correles dans le regime des renversements de spin, associe au passage de la phase nu = 2 a nu = 1. Les etats correles sont identifies par spectroscopie en transport non lineaire. Cette caracterisation du diagramme de phase de points individuels permet de coupler deux points quantiques configures a nu = 2. Pour ce regime, la nanostructure se comporte comme un systeme a deux niveaux pouvant contenir entre un et quatre electrons de valence et ce, meme si le nombre total d'electrons est plus eleve. Les degres de liberte de charge et de spin des deux points quantiques sont caracterises en fonction du remplissage et du champ magnetique. On combine ensuite la detection de charge au transport electrique pour etudier les proprietes electroniques de deux points quantiques couples dans le regime des petits remplissages (dix electrons et moins). On caracterise l'etat a l'equilibre d'un seul electron isole dans les points quantiques par detection de charge. On montre que le detecteur perturbe peu l'etat en comparant les resultats a un modele ou la retroaction du detecteur est prise en compte explicitement. Un deuxieme electron est ajoute au systeme ou une redistribution non triviale de la charge est observee. Des configurations avec plus de deux electrons par point sont ensuite explorees par spectrocopie dans le regime non lineaire. Finalement, l'induction des courants de Foucault dans le gaz bi-dimensionnel d'electrons servant de reservoir pour les nanostructures laterales sont detectes electriquement. Ces courants persistent pour une longue duree en raison de la nature non dissipative du gaz bi-dimensionnel, associee a l'effet Hall quantique, et affectent les caracteristiques des nanostructures par l'apparition d'un potentiel de Hall hors-equilibre entre les regions interne et externe du gaz.

  10. Impacts of Light Use Efficiency and fPAR Parameterization on Gross Primary Production Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Yen-Ben; Zhang, Qingyuan; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of parameterization of two variables, light use efficiency (LUE) and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR or fAPAR), on gross primary production(GPP) modeling. Carbon sequestration by terrestrial plants is a key factor to a comprehensive under-standing of the carbon budget at global scale. In this context, accurate measurements and estimates of GPP will allow us to achieve improved carbon monitoring and to quantitatively assess impacts from cli-mate changes and human activities. Spaceborne remote sensing observations can provide a variety of land surface parameterizations for modeling photosynthetic activities at various spatial and temporal scales. This study utilizes a simple GPP model based on LUE concept and different land surface parameterizations to evaluate the model and monitor GPP. Two maize-soybean rotation fields in Nebraska, USA and the Bartlett Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA were selected for study. Tower-based eddy-covariance carbon exchange and PAR measurements were collected from the FLUXNET Synthesis Dataset. For the model parameterization, we utilized different values of LUE and the fPAR derived from various algorithms. We adapted the approach and parameters from the MODIS MOD17 Biome Properties Look-Up Table (BPLUT) to derive LUE. We also used a site-specific analytic approach with tower-based Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) and PAR to estimate maximum potential LUE (LUEmax) to derive LUE. For the fPAR parameter, the MODIS MOD15A2 fPAR product was used. We also utilized fAPAR chl, a parameter accounting for the fAPAR linked to the chlorophyll-containing canopy fraction. fAPAR chl was obtained by inversion of a radiative transfer model, which used the MODIS-based reflectances in bands 1-7 produced by Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm. fAPAR chl exhibited seasonal dynamics more similar with the flux tower based GPP than MOD15A2 fPAR, especially in the spring and fall at the agricultural sites. When using the MODIS MOD17-based parameters to estimate LUE, fAPAR chl generated better agreements with GPP (r2= 0.79-0.91) than MOD15A2 fPAR (r2= 0.57-0.84).However, underestimations of GPP were also observed, especially for the crop fields. When applying the site-specific LUE max value to estimate in situ LUE, the magnitude of estimated GPP was closer to in situ GPP; this method produced a slight overestimation for the MOD15A2 fPAR at the Bartlett forest. This study highlights the importance of accurate land surface parameterizations to achieve reliable carbon monitoring capabilities from remote sensing information.

  11. Ground validation of Dual Precipitation Radar (DPR) on GPM by rapid scan Phased Array weahter Radar (PAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Y.; Mega, T.; Shimamura, S.; Wu, T.; Kikuchi, H.; Ushio, T.; Yoshikawa, E.; Chandra, C. V.

    2014-12-01

    The core observatory satellite of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched on February 27th 2014. The Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) on the GPM core observatory is the succession of the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR). The DPR consists of a Ku-band precipitation radar and a Ka-band precipitation radar. The DPR is expected to be more sensitive than the PR especially in the measurement of light rainfall and snowfall in high latitude regions. Because of the difference of spatial and temporal resolutions, Space Radar (SR) and conventional type of Ground Radar (GR) are hard to compare.The SR observes each point of earth in short time, for example one footprint is an observation in some microseconds. Rain-gauge measurements have accurate rainfall rate, but rain-gage observes small area and accumulated rainfall in some minutes. The conventional GR can cover a wide area, however, a volume scan requires several minutes. The Phased Array weather Radar (PAR) is developed by Osaka University, Toshiba, and NICT. The PAR is a weather-radar on X-band within 100m range sampling. High spatial and temporal resolution is achieved by the PAR with pulse compression and the digital beam-forming technique. The PAR transmits a wide beam and receives narrow beams by using digital beam forming. Then, the PAR observes many elevation angles from a single pulse. The time of each volume scan is 10-30 seconds in operation, typically 30 seconds. The study shows comparisons between the DPR and the PAR by more similar spatial and temporal resolution. The rainfall region of DPR is similar to the one of PAR. Correlation coefficient of both radar reflectivity suggests more than 0.8 in the 20km range of PAR. As a result, it is considered that DPR can observe with high accuracy. We present the case study which DPR overpassed the PAR observation region in detail.

  12. Expression of protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) in central airways of smokers and non-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Miotto, D; Hollenberg, M; Bunnett, N; Papi, A; Braccioni, F; Boschetto, P; Rea, F; Zuin, A; Geppetti, P; Saetta, M; Maestrelli, P; Fabbri, L; Mapp, C

    2002-01-01

    Background: Protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is a transmembrane G protein coupled receptor preferentially activated by trypsin and tryptase. The protease activated receptors play an important role in most components of injury responses including cell proliferation, migration, matrix remodelling, and inflammation. Cigarette smoking causes an inflammatory process in the central airways, peripheral airways, lung parenchyma, and adventitia of pulmonary arteries. Methods: To quantify the expression of PAR-2 in the central airways of smokers and non-smokers, surgical specimens obtained from 30 subjects undergoing lung resection for localised pulmonary lesions (24 with a history of cigarette smoking and six non-smoking control subjects) were examined. Central airways were immunostained with an antiserum specific for PAR-2 and PAR-2 expression was quantified using light microscopy and image analysis. Results: PAR-2 expression was found in bronchial smooth muscle, epithelium, glands, and in the endothelium and smooth muscle of bronchial vessels. PAR-2 expression was similar in the central airways of smokers and non-smokers. When smokers were divided according to the presence of symptoms of chronic bronchitis and chronic airflow limitation, PAR-2 expression was increased in smooth muscle (median 3.8 (interquartile range 2.9–5.8) and 1.4 (1.07–3.4) respectively); glands (33.3 (18.2–43.8) and 16.2 (11.5–22.2), respectively); and bronchial vessels (54.2 (48.7–56.8) and 40.0 (36–40.4), respectively) of smokers with symptoms of chronic bronchitis with normal lung function compared with smokers with chronic airflow limitation (COPD), but the increase was statistically significant (p<0.005) only for bronchial vessels. Conclusions: PAR-2 is present in bronchial smooth muscle, glands, and bronchial vessels of both smokers and non-smokers. An increased expression of PAR-2 was found in bronchial vessels of patients with bronchitis compared with those with COPD. PMID:11828045

  13. Inferring total canopy APAR from PAR bidirectional reflectances and vegetation indices in tallgrass prairie. [Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    1992-01-01

    The fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by a vegetated canopy (APARc) or landscape (APARs) is a critical parameter in climate processes. A grassland study examined: 1) whether APARs can be estimated from PAR bidirectional exitance fractions; and 2) whether APARs is correlated with spectral vegetation indices (SVIs). Data were acquired with a high resolution continuous spectroradiometer at 4 sun angles on grassland sites. APARs was computed from the scattered surface PAR exitance fractions. The nadir APARs value was the most variable diurnally; it provided a good estimate of the average surface APARs at 95 percent. APARc was best represented by exitance factors between 30-60* forward.

  14. Étude comparative des techniques d'analyse par fluorescence X à dispersion d'énergie (ED-XRF) et à dispersion de longueur d'onde (WD-XRF), et par spectrométrie d'émission atomique à source plasma couplée par induction (ICP-AES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, A.; Benyaïch, F.; Bounakhla, M.; Bilal, E.; Moutte, J.; Gruffat, J. J.; Zahry, F.

    2004-11-01

    Dans ce travail, nous présentons une étude comparative des techniques d'analyse par fluorescence X à dispersion d'énergie (ED-XRF) et à dispersion de longueur d'onde (WD-XRF), et par spectrométrie d'émission atomique à source plasma couplée par induction (ICP-AES). Les résultats de la calibration des spectromètres à dispersion d'énergie, à excitation par sources radioactives (55Fe, 109Cd et 241Am) et à excitation secondaire (cible secondaire Mo et Cu) du Centre National pour l'Energie, les Sciences et les Techniques Nucléaires (CNESTEN, Rabat, Maroc) sur des échantillons étalons de références de l'Agence International de l'Energie Atomique (AIEA) et du Community Bureau of Référence (BCR) ont été comparés aux résultats d'analyse des mêmes échantillons étalons par la spectrométrie X à dispersion de longueur d'onde (WD-XRF) et par spectrométrie d'émission atomique à source plasma couplé par induction (ICP-AES) au département GENERIC du centre SPIN à l'Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne (France). Les trois techniques d'analyse utilisées donnent des résultats comparables pour le dosage des éléments majeurs, alors que pour les traces on note des déviations importantes à cause des effets de matrice qui sont difficiles à corriger dans le cas de la fluorescence X.

  15. Etk/Bmx Regulates Proteinase-Activated-Receptor1 (PAR1) in Breast Cancer Invasion: Signaling Partners, Hierarchy and Physiological Significance

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Irit; Maoz, Myriam; Turm, Hagit; Grisaru-Granovsky, Sorina; Maly, Bella; Uziely, Beatrice; Weiss, Einat; Abramovitch, Rinat; Gross, Eithan; Barzilay, Oded; Qiu, Yun; Bar-Shavit, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Background While protease-activated-receptor 1 (PAR1) plays a central role in tumor progression, little is known about the cell signaling involved. Methodology/Principal Findings We show here the impact of PAR1 cellular activities using both an orthotopic mouse mammary xenograft and a colorectal-liver metastasis model in vivo, with biochemical analyses in vitro. Large and highly vascularized tumors were generated by cells over-expressing wt hPar1, Y397Z hPar1, with persistent signaling, or Y381A hPar1 mutant constructs. In contrast, cells over-expressing the truncated form of hPar1, which lacks the cytoplasmic tail, developed small or no tumors, similar to cells expressing empty vector or control untreated cells. Antibody array membranes revealed essential hPar1 partners including Etk/Bmx and Shc. PAR1 activation induces Etk/Bmx and Shc binding to the receptor C-tail to form a complex. Y/A mutations in the PAR1 C-tail did not prevent Shc-PAR1 association, but enhanced the number of liver metastases compared with the already increased metastases obtained with wt hPar1. We found that Etk/Bmx first binds via the PH domain to a region of seven residues, located between C378-S384 in PAR1 C-tail, enabling subsequent Shc association. Importantly, expression of the hPar1-7A mutant form (substituted A, residues 378-384), which is incapable of binding Etk/Bmx, resulted in inhibition of invasion through Matrigel-coated membranes. Similarly, knocking down Etk/Bmx inhibited PAR1-induced MDA-MB-435 cell migration. In addition, intact spheroid morphogenesis of MCF10A cells is markedly disrupted by the ectopic expression of wt hPar1. In contrast, the forced expression of the hPar1-7A mutant results in normal ball-shaped spheroids. Thus, by preventing binding of Etk/Bmx to PAR1 -C-tail, hPar1 oncogenic properties are abrogated. Conclusions/Significance This is the first demonstration that a cytoplasmic portion of the PAR1 C-tail functions as a scaffold site. We identify here essential signaling partners, determine the hierarchy of binding and provide a platform for therapeutic vehicles via definition of the critical PAR1-associating region in the breast cancer signaling niche. PMID:20559570

  16. Control of Sporulation Gene Expression in Bacillus subtilis by the Chromosome Partitioning Proteins Soj (ParA) and Spo0J (ParB)

    PubMed Central

    Quisel, John D.; Grossman, Alan D.

    2000-01-01

    Two chromosome partitioning proteins, Soj (ParA) and Spo0J (ParB), regulate the initiation of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. In a spo0J null mutant, sporulation is inhibited by the action of Soj. Soj negatively regulates expression of several sporulation genes by binding to the promoter regions and inhibiting transcription. All of the genes known to be inhibited by Soj are also activated by the phosphorylated form of the transcription factor Spo0A (Spo0A?P). We found that, in a spo0J null mutant, Soj affected sporulation, in part, by decreasing the level of Spo0A protein. Soj negatively regulated transcription of spo0A and associated with the spo0A promoter region in vivo. Expression of spo0A from a heterologous promoter in a spo0J null mutant restored Spo0A levels and partly bypassed the sporulation and gene expression defects. Soj did not appear to significantly affect phosphorylation of Spo0A. Thus, in the absence of Spo0J, Soj inhibits sporulation and sporulation gene expression by inhibiting accumulation of the activator protein Spo0A and by acting downstream of Spo0A to inhibit gene expression directly. PMID:10852876

  17. A Genome-Wide RNAi Screen for Enhancers of par Mutants Reveals New Contributors to Early Embryonic Polarity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Diane G.; Hoose, Wendy A.; Kemphues, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    The par genes of Caenorhabditis elegans are essential for establishment and maintenance of early embryo polarity and their homologs in other organisms are crucial polarity regulators in diverse cell types. Forward genetic screens and simple RNAi depletion screens have identified additional conserved regulators of polarity in C. elegans; genes with redundant functions, however, will be missed by these approaches. To identify such genes, we have performed a genome-wide RNAi screen for enhancers of lethality in conditional par-1 and par-4 mutants. We have identified 18 genes for which depletion is synthetically lethal with par-1 or par-4, or both, but produces little embryo lethality in wild type. Fifteen of the 18 genes identified in our screen are not previously known to function in C. elegans embryo polarity and 11 of them also increase lethality in a par-2 mutant. Among the strongest synthetic lethal genes, polarity defects are more apparent in par-2 early embryos than in par-1 or par-4, except for strd-1(RNAi), which enhances early polarity phenotypes in all three mutants. One strong enhancer of par-1 and par-2 lethality, F25B5.2, corresponds to nop-1, a regulator of actomyosin contractility for which the molecular identity was previously unknown. Other putative polarity enhancers identified in our screen encode cytoskeletal and membrane proteins, kinases, chaperones, and sumoylation and deubiquitylation proteins. Further studies of these genes should give mechanistic insight into pathways regulating establishment and maintenance of cell polarity. PMID:22887819

  18. Hydraulic and hydrologic evaluation of PAR Pond Dam. Technical evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, M.; Wang, P.C.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Bezler, P.

    1993-10-01

    The PAR Pond Dam at Savannah River Plant was constructed in 1958--1959. Seepage, depressions, boils and spring flow were observed in varying locations on the dam in the last few years. Comprehensive geotechnical and hydraulic investigations pertaining to the effects of the above observations on the abilities of the dam to withstand future floods were made in 1991 and early 1993 where dam capacity to survive flooding and seismic events were evaluated. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was asked by the Department of Energy (EH) to carry out an independent review of the PAR Pond Dam response to future flooding and seismic events. This report addresses the studies made to evaluate the capacity of the dam to survive floods. A companion report will summarize the evaluations performed to assess the seismic capacity of the dam.

  19. Perianesthetic development of diaphragmatic hernia in a horse with equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID).

    PubMed

    Shepard, Molly K; Lee, Wesley L; Eggleston, Randy B

    2015-01-01

    A 21-year-old Thoroughbred gelding with a history of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) presented with priapism of 2 days' duration. The horse received a caudal morphine epidural and then underwent corpus cavernosum lavage and phallectomy under general anesthesia. The patient's recovery featured multiple unsuccessful attempts to stand and his respiratory distress persisted for several hours until he acutely developed severe colic and was euthanized. Necropsy findings revealed a pituitary adenoma of the pars intermedia, bilateral adrenal cortical hyperplasia, and diaphragmatic herniation. This report suggests that horses with PPID may present a greater risk for diaphragmatic hernia under general anesthesia or during procedures placing stress on the diaphragm, including anesthetic recovery. PMID:25565714

  20. Perianesthetic development of diaphragmatic hernia in a horse with equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID)

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Molly K.; Lee, Wesley L.; Eggleston, Randy B.

    2015-01-01

    A 21-year-old Thoroughbred gelding with a history of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) presented with priapism of 2 days’ duration. The horse received a caudal morphine epidural and then underwent corpus cavernosum lavage and phallectomy under general anesthesia. The patient’s recovery featured multiple unsuccessful attempts to stand and his respiratory distress persisted for several hours until he acutely developed severe colic and was euthanized. Necropsy findings revealed a pituitary adenoma of the pars intermedia, bilateral adrenal cortical hyperplasia, and diaphragmatic herniation. This report suggests that horses with PPID may present a greater risk for diaphragmatic hernia under general anesthesia or during procedures placing stress on the diaphragm, including anesthetic recovery. PMID:25565714

  1. Estimation of Downstream Cesium Concentrations Following a Postulated PAR Pond Dam Break

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.F.

    2002-07-08

    Following a postulated PAR Pond dam break, some of the PAR Pond sediment including the cesium could be eroded and be transported downstream to the Savannah River through the Lower Three Runs Creek. Studies showed that most of the eroded sediment including the cesium would deposit in the Lower Three Runs Creek and the remainder would discharge to the Savannah River from the mouth of Lower Three Runs Creek. A WASP5 model was developed to simulate the eroded sediment and cesium transport from the Lower Three Runs Creek mouth to the Atlantic coast. The dissolved cesium concentrations at the Highway 301 bridge and near the City of Savannah Industrial and Domestic Water Supply Plant are 30 and 27 pCi/l, respectively. The concentrations at both locations are less than the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standard of 200 pCi/l.

  2. Disrupting the right pars opercularis with electrical stimulation frees the song: case report.

    PubMed

    Herbet, Guillaume; Lafargue, Gilles; Almairac, Fabien; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Bonnetblanc, François; Duffau, Hugues

    2015-12-01

    The authors report the first case of a strikingly unusual speech impairment evoked by intraoperative electrostimulation in a 36-year-old right-handed patient, a well-trained singer, who underwent awake surgery for a right fronto-temporo-insular low-grade glioma. Functionally disrupting the pars opercularis of the right inferior frontal gyrus led the patient to automatically switch from a speaking to a singing mode of language production. Given the central role of the right pars opercularis in the inhibitory control network, the authors propose that this finding may be interpreted as possible evidence for a competitive and independent neurocognitive subnetwork devoted to the melodically intoned articulation of words (normal language-based vs singing-based) in subjects with high expertise. From a more clinical perspective, such data may have implications for awake neurosurgery, especially to preserve the quality of life for singers. PMID:26140496

  3. Evolution particulière de variants cytogénétiques complexes de leucémies myéloïdes chroniques traitées par l'Imatinib

    PubMed Central

    Sawadogo, Salifo; Hien, Francis Michel; Béogo, Rasmané; Toguyeni, Aboubacar; Ouédraogo, Georges Anicet

    2013-01-01

    Les variants cytogénétiques simples et complexes constituent 5 à 10% de tous les cas de leucémie myéloïde chronique. Le mécanisme de leur formation a été proposé par certains auteurs. Les aspects clinique, thérapeutique et pronostique ne sont pas différents des formes classiques à l'aire des anti-tyrosines kinases. Nous rapportons deux cas traités par Imatinib dont l'évolution cytogénétique a été particulière. Les deux patients ont été inclus dans le programme GIPAP après signature d'un consentement éclairé. Chaque patient a bénéficié d'un examen clinique, d'un hémogramme, d'un myélogramme, d'un caryotype et ou d'une hybridation intra-génique avec fluorescence avant inclusion dans le programme. Chaque patient après inclusion a été traité avec l'Imatinib à la dose quotidienne de 400mg. La surveillance clinique, hématologique et cytogénétique et moléculaire a été faite selon les recommandations de LeukemiaNet. PMID:24319522

  4. BOREAS TE-9 PAR and Leaf Nitrogen Data for NSA Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Dang, Qinglai; Margolis, Hank; Coyea, Marie

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-9 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected several data sets related to chemical and photosynthetic properties of leaves in boreal forest tree species. This data set describes the relationship between photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) levels and foliage nitrogen in samples from six sites in the BOREAS Northern Study Area (NSA) collected during the three 1994 intensive field campaigns (IFCs). This information is useful for modeling the vertical distribution of carbon fixation for these different forest types in the boreal forest. The data were collected to quantify the relationship between PAR and leaf nitrogen of black spruce, jack pine, and aspen. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  5. Génération de photons uniques monomodes par une boite quantique d'InAs en microcavité

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard, J. M.; Robert, I.; Moreau, E.; Abram, I.

    2002-06-01

    Nous présentons la première source solide monomode de photons uniques; constituée par une boîte quantique semiconductrice placée dans une microcavité optique. Cette source exploite la forte interaction coulombienne entre porteurs piégés pour contrôler le nombre de photons, et l'effet Purcell pour collecter et préparer dans un état donné (même mode spatial, même polarisation) les photons émis. Nous discutons plus particulièrement les performances et l'intérêt potentiel de cette nouvelle source dans le contexte de la distribution de clefs quantiques.

  6. IFT2015 Miklos Csuros 5 novembre 2013 12 Tris elementaires et le tri par fusion

    E-print Network

    Csürös, Miklós

    IFT2015 Mikl´os Csur¨os 5 novembre 2013 12 Tris ´el´ementaires et le tri par fusion 12.1 Tri´ements. Tri externe et interne. Un algorithme de tri externe sert `a ordonner les ´el´ements d'un fichier l'acc`es `a m´emoire externe. Le tri interne se fait sur un fichier stock´e enti`erement en m

  7. Enquete sur les aspects toxicologiques de la phytotherapie utilisee par un herboriste à Fes, Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Zeggwagh, Ali Amine; Lahlou, Younes; Bousliman, Yassir

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dans le but d'étudier l'aspect toxicologique des plantes médicinales utilisées en médecine traditionnelle, une étude ethnobotanique a été réalisée à la ville de Fès au centre du Maroc. Méthodes Ont été inclus dans l'étude tous les patients ayant bénéficié d'une prescription par l'herboriste de plantes à visée thérapeutique. La discussion de nos résultats s'est faite sur la base d'une revue de la littérature avec identification des principales plantes toxiques utilisées en phytothérapie au Maroc. L'approche bibliographique a permis de compléter les informations. Résultats L'âge moyen des patients traités par des plantes (38 femmes, 32 hommes) était de 35 ± 18 ans. L'enquête ethnobotanique à révélé que la majorité des plantes médicinales étaient utilisées contre les affections urinaires (21%), suivi des maladies de l'appareil digestif (19.6%) et des maladies rhumatologiques (18.2%). Le nombre de plantes prescrits par l'herboriste a été de 53 dont 5 sont potentiellement toxiques. L'identification taxonomique des plantes prescrites a recensé 30 familles dont les plus représentées sont les Lamiaceae (23.33%), les Apiaceae (13,33%) et les Asteraceae (10%). La prescription des plantes considérées comme toxiques a concerné 7,1% des consultants traités par les plantes médicinales. Aucune complication inhérente aux plantes prescrites n'a été déplorée. Conclusion Malgré les résultats encourageants de notre enquête sur le compte de la phytothérapie, la pratique de la phytothérapie est laissée à la vulgarisation et à l'oubli scientifique, législatif et universitaire. PMID:23734270

  8. Électrooxydation du mésoérythritol sur platine, modifié ou non par des adatomes, en milieu acide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherqaoui, A.; Chbihi, M. El M.; Takky, D.; Kokoh, K. B.; Leger, J.-M.; Lamy, C.

    1999-03-01

    The electrocatalytic oxidation of meso-erythritol has been studied in 0.1 M HClO4 on platinum and on adatoms modified platinum. Preliminary investigations by cyclic voltammetry showed that erythritol was not reactive on a Pt electrode. Underpotential deposition of lead or thallium adatoms at platinum allowed to increase significantly the current densities. Long-time electrolyses were carried out using a three potential plateau program with different values of the oxidation potentials. Chromatographic analyses showed that the oxidation of erythritol led mainly to erythrose, erythrulose and to erythronic acid. Otherwise, electrolysis of erythritol on a Pt-Tl modified electrode orientated selectively the distribution of the reaction products towards the formation of erythrulose. L'oxydation électrocatalytique du mésoérythrytol a été étudiée en milieu acide HClO4 0,1 M sur le platine modifié ou non par des adatomes métalliques. Les études préliminaires réalisées par voltammétrie cyclique montrent que l'érythritol est très peu réactif sur le platine seul. La modification de la surface de l'électrode par dépôt en sous-tension d'adatomes de plomb et de thallium permet d'augmenter les densités de courant. Les électrolyses prolongées sont réalisées à l'aide d'un programme à trois paliers de potentiel et pour différentes valeurs de potentiel d'oxydation. Les analyses chromatographiques montrent que les produits d'oxydation sont l'érythrose, l'érythrulose et l'acide érythronique. D'autre part l'oxydation de l'érythritol sur le platine modifié par des adatomes de thallium conduit à une production sélective d'érythrulose.

  9. Optimisation de structures par la me-thode des lignes de niveau

    E-print Network

    Jouve, François

    Optimisation de structures par la m´e- thode des lignes de niveau Gr´egoire Allaire -- Fr.Jouve@polytechnique.fr R ´ESUM ´E. Nous proposons une m´ethode num´erique d'optimisation de structures bas´ee sur la of structural optimization we propose a numerical method based on a combination of the classical shape

  10. Traitement de surface par explosif du cuivre polycristallin : caractérisation microstructurale et comportement en fatigue plastique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerland, M.; Dufour, J. P.; Presles, H. N.; Violan, P.; Mendez, J.

    1991-10-01

    A new surface treatment technique with a primary explosive deposited in thin layer was applied to a polycrystalline pure copper. After treatment, surface roughness remains of high quality especially when compared to shot peened surfaces. The treated zone extends over several hundreds microns in depth and the microhardness profile exhibits a significant increasing of hardness with a maximum reaching 100% at the surface. The transmission electron microscopy shows a microstructure which changes with depth : below the surface, there is a thin recrystallized layer with very small grains followed by a region with numerous mechanical twins the density of which decreases when depth increases. Tested in fatigue with a constant plastic strain amplitude, the treated copper specimens exhibit a strong hardening from the first cycles compared to the untreated specimen ; however this initial hardening erases after 2% of the fatigue life. The fatigue resistance is not modified by the treatment. Une nouvelle technique de traitement de surface à l'aide d'un explosif primaire déposé en couche mince a été utilisée sur du cuivre pur polycristallin. L'état de surface après traitement reste de très bonne qualité, surtout comparé aux surfaces grenaillées. La zone traitée s'étend sur une profondeur de quelques centaines de microns et le profil de microdureté montre une importante augmentation de dureté avec un maximum en surface pouvant atteindre 100%. La micrcrostructure, observée par microscopie électronique en transmission, est caractérisée par une fine recristallisation en surface, puis par un abondant maclage dont la densité décroît lorsque la profondeur augmente. Testé en fatigue à déformation plastique imposée, le cuivre traité présente un fort écrouissage initial dès les premiers cycles, mais qui s'efface progressivement au cours du cyclage après 2% de la durée de vie, cette dernière n'étant pas modifiée par le traitement.

  11. CALiPER Application Summary Report 20. LED PAR38 Lamps

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-11-01

    This report analyzes the independently tested photometric performance of 38 LED PAR38 lamps. The test results indicate substantial improvement versus earlier CALiPER testing of similar products, and performance comparable to recent data from LED Lighting Facts and ENERGY STAR. Additional testing that focuses on performance attributes beyond those covered by LM-79-08 is planned for this group of lamps, and will be presented in subsequent reports.

  12. Gestion de la douleur chronique par les infirmières des Groupes de médecine de famille

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Dave A; Bourgault, Patricia; Gallagher, Frances

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION : Des milliers de personnes souffrent actuellement de douleur chronique (DC) pour laquelle la prise en charge s’avère souvent inadéquate. Au Québec, les infirmières qui oeuvrent dans les Groupes de médecine de famille (GMF) jouent un rôle clé dans le suivi des personnes aux prises avec des problèmes de santé chroniques dont la DC. OBJECTIFS : Cette étude a pour objectifs de décrire les activités réalisées par les infirmières œuvrant en GMF en lien avec la gestion de la douleur chez la clientèle souffrant de DC, ainsi que les barrières à ces activités. MÉTHODE : Un dispositif descriptif corrélationnel transversal de type enquête postale a été utilisé. La population accessible à l’étude comprend les infirmières qui figurent sur la liste des membres de l’Ordre des infirmières et infirmiers du Québec travaillant en GMF. L’ensemble des infirmières figurant sur cette liste ayant consenti à être contactées à leur domicile pour des fins de recherche ont été contactées. Un questionnaire postal auto-administré (Pain Management Activities Questionnaire) a été complété par 53 infirmières travaillant en GMF. RÉSULTATS : Les trois activités le plus souvent réalisées par les infirmières sont d’établir une relation thérapeutique avec le client; de discuter avec le médecin de l’efficacité des mesures thérapeutiques et de faire un enseignement personnalisé au client. Les infirmières ont la perception qu’elles rencontrent en moyenne 2,68 personnes par semaine qui souffrent de DC. La méconnaissance des interventions possibles en douleur (71,7%) et la non-disponibilité de l’information sur la gestion de la douleur (52,8%) constituent les principales barrières selon les infirmières sondées. CONCLUSION : Les infirmières au sein des GMF font actuellement peu d’activités en gestion de la DC probablement en raison du manque de reconnaissance de la DC. PMID:25848847

  13. Prescription d’examens de santé préventifs par des résidents en médecine familiale

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Daisy; Schabort, Inge; MacLean, Catherine A.; Asrar, Farhan M.; Khory, Ayesha; Vandermeer, Ben; Michael Allan, G.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Déterminer quels sont les examens de dépistage prescrits par les résidents en médecine familiale dans le cadre des soins de santé préventifs. Conception Une enquête transversale. Contexte Alberta et Ontario. Participants Résidents en médecine familiale de première et de deuxième année à l’Université de l’Alberta à Edmonton, à l’Université de Calgary en Alberta et à l’Université McMaster à Hamilton en Ontario, durant l’année universitaire 2011–2012. Principaux paramètres d’évaluation Données démographiques, scores à l’échelle de Likert évaluant les habitudes de prescription et sélections parmi une liste de 38 examens pouvant être prescrits en soins préventifs à un échantillon de patients de sexe féminin et masculin de 38 et de 55 ans. Les statistiques descriptives et comparatives ont été calculées. Résultats Au total, 318 résidents sur 482 (66 %) ont répondu au sondage. Les examens recommandés ou appropriés ont été prescrits par 82 % (pour la cytologie cervicale) à 95 % (pour la glycémie à jeun) des résidents. Parmi les différents patients de l’échantillon, les résidents ont prescrit en moyenne 3,3 à 5,7 examens inappropriés par patient, et 58 à 92 % ont prescrit au moins 1 examen inapproprié par patient. Les coûts excédentaires moyens ont été estimés à 38,39 $ pour un homme de 38 ans et à 106,46 $ pour une femme de 55 ans. Le recours plus fréquent à une grille de référence des examens médicaux périodiques n’a pas amélioré la situation (p = 0,88). Conclusion En général, les résidents ont raisonnablement bien prescrit les examens médicaux préventifs appropriés, mais ils ont aussi prescrit en moyenne 3,3 à 5,7 examens inappropriés à chaque patient. Les programmes de formation doivent mieux préparer les étudiants à reconnaître le dépistage approprié et doivent s’efforcer d’inculquer des comportements de prescription exemplaires avant que les résidents commencent à pratiquer.

  14. Piqures massives par un essaim d'abeilles chez un enfant

    PubMed Central

    Berdai, Mohamed Adnane; Labib, Smael; El Balbal, Monia; Harandou, Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    Les piqûres multiples d'abeilles sont responsables d'envenimation sévère. Nous rapportons un cas d'une attaque massive par un essaim d'abeilles chez un enfant de sept ans. Sa gravité est liée à la localisation céphalique et au nombre important des piqûres qui était d'environ 270. Ses complications étaient l'insuffisance rénale, l'anémie et une conjonctivite. La prise en charge était symptomatique avec bonne évolution clinique et biologique. PMID:22187598

  15. A drug carrier targeting murine uPAR for photodynamic therapy and tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaolei; Zheng, Ke; Li, Rui; Chen, Zhuo; Yuan, Cai; Hu, Ping; Chen, Jincan; Xue, Jinping; Huang, Mingdong

    2015-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used as an effective therapeutical modality for tumors. In PDT, a photosensitizer was used to capture the light of specific wavelength, leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species and cytotoxicity surrounding the photosensitizer. Modifications of photosensitizers to enhance tumor specificity are common approaches to increase the efficacy and reduce the side effects of PDT. Previously, we developed a human serum albumin (HSA)-based drug carrier fused with the human amino-terminal fragment (hATF), which binds to a tumor surface marker (urokinase receptor, uPAR). However, hATF-HSA binds to murine uPAR much weaker (79-fold) than to human uPAR, and is not optimal for applications on murine tumor models. In this study, we developed a murine version of the drug carrier (mATF-HSA). A photosensitizer (mono-substituted ?-carboxy phthalocyanine zinc, CPZ) was loaded into this carrier, giving a rather stable macromolecule (mATF-HSA:CPZ) that was shown to bind to murine uPAR in vitro. In addition, we evaluated both the photodynamic therapy efficacy and tumor retention capability of the macromolecule (at a dose of 0.05mg CPZ/kg mouse body weight) on murine hepatoma-22 (H22) tumor bearing mouse model. mATF-HSA:CPZ showed more accumulation in tumors compared to its human counterpart (hATF-HSA:CPZ) measured by quantitative fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT). Besides, mATF-HSA:CPZ exhibited a higher tumor killing efficacy than hATF-HSA:CPZ. Together, the macromolecule mATF-HSA is a promising tumor-specific drug carrier on murine tumor models and is an useful tool to study tumor biology on murine tumor models. PMID:26004218

  16. Cortical geometry may influence placement of interface between Par protein domains in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Adriana T; Iron, David

    2013-09-21

    During polarization, proteins and other polarity determinants segregate to the opposite ends of the cell (the poles) creating biochemically and dynamically distinct regions. Embryos of the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) polarize shortly after fertilization, creating distinct regions of Par protein family members. These regions are maintained through to first cleavage when the embryo divides along the plane specified by the interface between regions, creating daughter cells with different protein content. In wild type single cell embryos the interface between these Par protein regions is reliably positioned at approximately 60% egg length, however, it is not known what mechanisms are responsible for specifying the position of the interface. In this investigation, we use two mathematical models to investigate the movement and positioning of the interface: a biologically based reaction-diffusion model of Par protein dynamics, and the analytically tractable perturbed Allen-Cahn equation. When we numerically simulate the models on a static 2D domain with constant thickness, both models exhibit a persistently moving interface that specifies the boundary between distinct regions. When we modify the simulation domain geometry, movement halts and the interface is stably positioned where the domain thickness increases. Using asymptotic analysis with the perturbed Allen-Cahn equation, we show that interface movement depends explicitly on domain geometry. Using a combination of analytic and numeric techniques, we demonstrate that domain geometry, a historically overlooked aspect of cellular simulations, may play a significant role in spatial protein patterning during polarization. PMID:23665289

  17. Repositioning of glaucoma tubes into the pars plana for refractory malignant glaucoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Malignant glaucoma occurs when the intraocular pressure elevates in the setting of a shallow anterior chamber and patent iridectomy. We describe a case in which malignant glaucoma that was refractory to conventional treatment and complete vitrectomy was successfully managed by rerouting the glaucoma tubes into the pars plana. Case presentation A 47-year-old Latino man had a history of neovascular glaucoma and subsequent peripheral anterior synechiae. He was status post-two glaucoma drainage devices. He developed pupillary block. Laser iridotomy was performed without complications. He subsequently developed malignant glaucoma that was refractory to yttrium aluminum garnet capsulohyaloidotomy of the anterior hyaloid. He underwent pars plana vitrectomy with successful control of his intraocular pressure. After 2 weeks, the malignant glaucoma recurred. He underwent repositioning of the tubes into the pars plana with successful control of his intraocular pressure. Conclusion In rare cases of malignant glaucoma refractive to yttrium aluminum garnet hyaloidotomy and vitrectomy, placement of glaucoma drainage devices is a reasonable alternative. PMID:23577950

  18. Infection par le virus de l’hépatite E durant la grossesse

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Shahnaz A.; Verma, Natasha; Koren, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question Plusieurs de mes patientes sont originaires de l’Asie du Sud-Est où le virus de l’hépatite E est assez commun. Quelles précautions puis-je leur suggérer de prendre avant de voyager dans cette région et quels sont les risques d’une infection par le VHE durant la grossesse? Réponse L’hépatite E est un pathogène présent dans l’eau qui se transmet par voie oro-fécale. Afin de réduire le risque de contracter le VHE lors de voyages dans des régions endémiques, il est important de maintenir des pratiques d’hygiène telles que se laver les mains avec de l’eau potable, particulièrement avant de manipuler de la nourriture, éviter de boire de l’eau ou d’utiliser des glaçons de pureté inconnue et ne pas manger de fruits ou de légumes non pelés. Actuellement, il n’existe aucun vaccin disponible au Canada pour le VHE. Une infection à l’hépatite E durant la grossesse, surtout durant le troisième trimestre, se caractérise par une infection plus sévère qui se transforme parfois en hépatite fulminante, augmentant ainsi les risques de mortalité et de morbidité maternelles et fœtales.

  19. On PAR with PARP: cellular stress signaling through poly(ADP-ribose) and PARP-1

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xin; Kraus, W. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Cellular stress responses are mediated through a series of regulatory processes that occur at the genomic, transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels. These responses require a complex network of sensors and effectors from multiple signaling pathways, including the abundant and ubiquitous nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). PARP-1 functions at the center of cellular stress responses, where it processes diverse signals and, in response, directs cells to specific fates (e.g., DNA repair vs. cell death) based on the type and strength of the stress stimulus. Many of PARP-1's functions in stress response pathways are mediated by its regulated synthesis of PAR, a negatively charged polymer, using NAD+ as a donor of ADP-ribose units. Thus, PARP-1's functions are intimately tied to nuclear NAD+ metabolism and the broader metabolic profile of the cell. Recent studies in cell and animal models have highlighted the roles of PARP-1 and PAR in the response to a wide variety of extrinsic and intrinsic stress signals, including those initiated by oxidative, nitrosative, genotoxic, oncogenic, thermal, inflammatory, and metabolic stresses. These responses underlie pathological conditions, including cancer, inflammation-related diseases, and metabolic dysregulation. The development of PARP inhibitors is being pursued as a therapeutic approach to these conditions. In this review, we highlight the newest findings about PARP-1's role in stress responses in the context of the historical data. PMID:22391446

  20. uPAR-targeted multimodal tracer for pre- and intraoperative imaging in cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    van Willigen, Danny M.; Stammes, Marieke A.; Prevoo, Hendrica A.J.M.; Tummers, Quirijn R.J.G.; Mazar, Andrew P.; Beekman, Freek J.; Kuppen, Peter J.K.; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; Löwik, Clemens W.G.M.; Frangioni, John V.; van Leeuwen, Fijs W.B.; Sier, Cornelis F.M.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.

    2015-01-01

    Pre- and intraoperative diagnostic techniques facilitating tumor staging are of paramount importance in colorectal cancer surgery. The urokinase receptor (uPAR) plays an important role in the development of cancer, tumor invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis and over-expression is found in the majority of carcinomas. This study aims to develop the first clinically relevant anti-uPAR antibody-based imaging agent that combines nuclear (111In) and real-time near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent imaging (ZW800-1). Conjugation and binding capacities were investigated and validated in vitro using spectrophotometry and cell-based assays. In vivo, three human colorectal xenograft models were used including an orthotopic peritoneal carcinomatosis model to image small tumors. Nuclear and NIR fluorescent signals showed clear tumor delineation between 24h and 72h post-injection, with highest tumor-to-background ratios of 5.0 ± 1.3 at 72h using fluorescence and 4.2 ± 0.1 at 24h with radioactivity. 1-2 mm sized tumors could be clearly recognized by their fluorescent rim. This study showed the feasibility of an uPAR-recognizing multimodal agent to visualize tumors during image-guided resections using NIR fluorescence, whereas its nuclear component assisted in the pre-operative non-invasive recognition of tumors using SPECT imaging. This strategy can assist in surgical planning and subsequent precision surgery to reduce the number of incomplete resections. PMID:25895028

  1. Monthly ratios of PAR to global solar radiation measured at northern Tibetan Plateau, China

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ren; Zhao, Lin; Xiao, Yao; Liu, Guangyue; Sun, Linchan; Ding, Yongjian; Wang, Sheng; Ji, Guoliang

    2010-06-15

    Using narrowband and broadband solar radiation measurements collected at Wudaoliang (WDL) site in northern Tibetan Plateau (NTP) from September 1993 to December 1998, the relationship between monthly photosynthetically active radiation (Q{sub P}) and global solar radiation (R{sub S}) values is analyzed. Temporal variability of the ratio (Q{sub P}/R{sub S}) and its further dependence on several meteorological variables are presented. The narrowband ratio exhibited diurnal and seasonal variability with high values during morning and afternoon hours and low values around noon in winter time, whereas during summer period the ratio was decreased from morning to afternoon. The ratio (Q{sub P}/R{sub S}) was correlated positively with several atmospheric parameters such as water vapor pressure and low-level cloud amount; in contrast, the ratio was negatively correlated with clearness index, relative sunshine duration and atmospheric turbidity. It was also found that both the relative sunshine duration and water vapor pressure are the most influential parameters on the estimations of the spectral PAR ratio. Finally, an empirically derived model is proposed for estimating monthly average PAR values over the northern Tibetan Plateau. Verification results further ensured that the proposed model predicts monthly global PAR values accurately. (author)

  2. Choriorétinite extensive bilatérale révélant une infection par le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH)

    PubMed Central

    El Yamouni, Oubaida; Tzili, Nazih; El Hassan, Abdallah; Slassi, Nadia; El Khaoua, Mahfoud; Jebbar, Zakaria; Berraho, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Au cours de l'infection par le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine(VIH), Les atteintes oculaires sont polymorphes, pouvant compromettre le pronostic fonctionnel. Nous rapportons l'observation d'un patient présentant une choriorétinite infectieuse sévère révélant une infection par le VIH. Patient âgé de 35 ans avec antécédent de tuberculose pulmonaire en 2007, consulte pour BAV bilatérale progressive depuis 6 mois. Une acuité visuelle à compte les doigts au niveau de l'oeil droit et à mouvement des doigts au niveau de l'oeil gauche, avec présence de foyers choriorétiniens diffus visualisés au fond d'oeil et à l'angiographie. Les sérologies VIH, toxoplasmose et CMV sont positives. Le patient a été mis sous traitement anti-toxoplasmose (Sulfadiazine et pyriméthamine) et anti-CMV (Ganciclovir per os). L’évolution sous traitement a été marquée par une régression de la hyalite avec la persistance des foyers choriorétiniens évolutifs et une acuité visuelle réduite à perception lumineuse. PMID:25709723

  3. Impacts of active urea secretion into pars recta on urine concentration and urea excretion rate

    PubMed Central

    Layton, Anita T; Bankir, Lise

    2013-01-01

    It has been observed experimentally that early distal tubular urea flow exceeds urea delivery by the proximal convoluted tubule to the pars recta and loop of Henle. Moreover, the fractional excretion of urea in the urine may exceed values compatible with the reabsorption known to occur in the proximal convoluted tubule in the cortex. A likely explanation for these observations is that urea may be actively secreted into the pars recta, as proposed in a few studies. However, this hypothesis has yet to be demonstrated experimentally. In this study, we used a mathematical model of the renal medulla of the rat kidney to investigate the impacts of active urea secretion in the intrarenal handling of urea and in the urine concentrating ability. The model represents only the outer and inner medullary zones, with the actions taking place in the cortex incorporated via boundary conditions. Blood flow in the model vasculature is divided into plasma and red blood cell compartments. We compared urea flow rates and other related model variables without and with the hypothetical active urea secretion in the pars recta. The simulation suggests that active urea secretion induces a “urea-selective” improvement in urine concentrating ability by enhancing the efficiency of urea excretion without requiring a higher urine flow rate, and with only modest changes in the excretion of other solutes. These results should encourage experimental studies in order to assess the existence of an active urea secretion in the rodent kidney. PMID:24058732

  4. Polycystin-1 binds Par3/aPKC and controls convergent extension during renal tubular morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Maddalena; Boca, Manila; Chiaravalli, Marco; Ramalingam, Harini; Rowe, Isaline; Distefano, Gianfranco; Carroll, Thomas; Boletta, Alessandra

    2013-10-01

    Several organs, including the lungs and kidneys, are formed by epithelial tubes whose proper morphogenesis ensures correct function. This is best exemplified by the kidney, where defective establishment or maintenance of tubular diameter results in polycystic kidney disease, a common genetic disorder. Most polycystic kidney disease cases result from loss-of-function mutations in the PKD1 gene, encoding Polycystin-1, a large receptor of unknown function. Here we demonstrate that PC-1 has an essential role in the establishment of correct tubular diameter during nephron development. Polycystin-1 associates with Par3 favouring the assembly of a pro-polarizing Par3/aPKC complex and it regulates a programme of cell polarity important for oriented cell migration and for a convergent extension-like process during tubular morphogenesis. Par3 inactivation in the developing kidney results in defective convergent extension and tubular morphogenesis, and in renal cyst formation. Our data define Polycystin-1 as central to cell polarization and to epithelial tube morphogenesis and homeostasis.

  5. Contr^ole d'un drone Parrot AR.Drone par gestes Sylvie Chambon, Jer^ome Ermont

    E-print Network

    Grigoras, .Romulus

    Contr^ole d'un drone Parrot AR.Drone par gestes Sylvie Chambon, J´er^ome Ermont IRIT'un robot par gestuelle. Nous cherchons `a pouvoir agir sur un drone AR.Drone Parrot en utilisant le suivi d op´eratrice indique au drone de la suivre. FIGURE 1 ­ Suis moi , l'op´eratrice demande au drone de le

  6. XV Congr`es Francais de Mecanique Nancy, 3-7 Septembre 2001 CONCEPTION DE MICROM ECANISMES PAR OPTIMISATION TOPOLOGIQUE

    E-print Network

    Jouve, François

    'optimisation topologique de forme en m´ecanique des structures bas´ee sur l'utilisation de techniques dXV Congr`es Franc¸ais de M´ecanique Nancy, 3-7 Septembre 2001 673 CONCEPTION DE MICROM ´ECANISMES rigidit´e d'une structure, mesur´ee par sa compliance (pour un ou plusieurs chargements) ou par sa ou ses

  7. Peroxynitrite-induced thymocyte apoptosis: the role of caspases and poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) activation.

    PubMed Central

    Virág, L; Scott, G S; Cuzzocrea, S; Marmer, D; Salzman, A L; Szabó, C

    1998-01-01

    The mechanisms by which immature thymocyte apoptosis is induced during negative selection are poorly defined. Reports demonstrated that cross-linking of T-cell receptor leads to stromal cell activation, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and, subsequently, to thymocyte apoptosis. Therefore we examined, whether NO directly or indirectly, through peroxynitrite formation, causes thymocyte apoptosis. Immuno-histochemical detection of nitrotyrosine revealed in vivo peroxynitrite formation in the thymi of naive mice. Nitrotyrosine, the footprint of peroxynitrite, was predominantly found in the corticomedullary junction and the medulla of naive mice. In the thymi of mice deficient in the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase, considerably less nitrotyrosine was found. Exposure of thymocytes in vitro to low concentrations (10 microM) of peroxynitrite led to apoptosis, whereas higher concentrations (50 microM) resulted in intense cell death with the characteristics of necrosis. We also investigated the effect of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) inhibition on thymocyte apoptosis. Using the PARS inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), or thymocytes from PARS-deficient animals, we established that PARS determines the fate of thymocyte death. Suppression of cellular ATP levels, and the cellular necrosis in response to peroxynitrite were prevented by PARS inhibition. Therefore, in the absence of PARS, cells are diverted towards the pathway of apoptotic cell death. Similar results were obtained with H2O2 treatment, while apoptosis induced by non-oxidative stimuli such as dexamethasone or anti-FAS antibody was unaffected by PARS inhibition. In conclusion, we propose that peroxynitrite-induced apoptosis may play a role in the process of thymocyte negative selection. Furthermore, we propose that the physiological role of PARS cleavage by apopain during apoptosis may serve as an energy-conserving step, enabling the cell to complete the process of apoptosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9767416

  8. Infection par le VIH chez les patientes atteintes de cancer du sein en Guinée (Afrique de l'Ouest)

    PubMed Central

    Traore, Bangaly; Diane, Solomana; Sow, Mamadou Saliou; Keita, Mamady; Conde, Mamoudou; Traore, Fodé Amara; Kourouma, Tidiane

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif était de déterminer la prévalence de l'infection à VIH chez les patientes atteintes de cancer du sein et de comparer les caractéristiques anatomocliques et thérapeutiques de ces cancers du sein par rapports aux patientes non infectées par le VIH. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective et analytique comparant les dossiers de patientes atteintes de cancers du sein histologiquement confirmés, infectées ou non par le VIH à l'unité de chirurgie oncologique de Donka, CHU de Conakry, de 2007 à 2012. Nous avons colligé 278 patientes présentant un cancer du sein dont 14 (5,0%) infectées par le VIH et 264 (95,0%) non infectées par le VIH. Les différences observées entre ces deux groupes de patientes étaient respectivement: âge médian (36,8 vs 49,0 ans), la ménopause (21,4% vs 53,4%), le nombre des patientes traitées (50,0% contre 77,1%) et la survenue de décès (78,6% vs 50,8%). Aucune différence n'a été notée dans la présentation clinique, histologique et le retard de consultation. Dans notre étude, la prévalence de l'infection à VIH chez les patients atteints de cancer du sein est élevée. L’âge jeune des patients, la faible accessibilité au traitement et la mortalité élevée doivent être confirmés par une étude sur un échantillon plus large. PMID:26523196

  9. Increased Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) Levels in Plasma of Suicide Attempters

    PubMed Central

    Ventorp, Filip; Gustafsson, Anna; Träskman-Bendz, Lil; Westrin, Åsa; Ljunggren, Lennart

    2015-01-01

    The soluble form of the urokinase receptor, suPAR, has been suggested as a novel biomarker of low-grade inflammation. Activation of the immune system has been proposed to contribute to the development of depression and suicidal behavior. In order to identify depressed and suicidal individuals who could benefit from an anti-inflammatory treatment, a reliable biomarker of low-grade inflammation is vital. This study evaluates plasma suPAR levels as a biomarker of low-grade inflammation in patients with major depressive disorder and in patients who recently attempted suicide. The plasma suPAR and an established biomarker, C reactive protein (CRP) of suicide attempters (n = 54), depressed patients (n = 19) and healthy controls (n = 19) was analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The biomarker attributes of sensitivity and sensibility were evaluated using ROC curve analysis. Both the depressed patients and suicide attempters had increased plasma suPAR. The levels of suPAR discriminated better between controls and suicide attempters than did CRP. In the future, plasma suPAR might be a superior prognosticator regarding outcome of treatment applying conventional antidepressants in conjunction with anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:26451727

  10. Effet de la composition des materiaux composites sur la caracterisation et detection par ondes de Lamb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostiguy, Pierre-Claude

    Les matériaux composites sont de plus en plus utilisés en aéronautique. Leurs excellentes propriétés mécaniques et leur faible poids leur procurent un avantage certain par rapport aux matériaux métalliques. Ceux-ci étant soumis à diverses conditions de chargement et environnementales, ils sont suceptibles de subir plusieurs types d'endommagements, compromettant leur intégrité. Des méthodes fiables d'inspection sont donc nécessaires pour évaluer leur intégrité. Néanmoins, peu d'approches non destructives, embarquées et efficaces sont présentement utilisées. Ce travail de recherche se penche sur l'étude de l'effet de la composition des matériaux composites sur la détection et la caractérisation par ondes guidées. L'objectif du projet est de développer une approche de caractérisation mécanique embarquée permettant d'améliorer la performance d'une approche d'imagerie par antenne piézoélectriques sur des structures composite et métalliques. La contribution de ce projet est de proposer une approche embarquée de caractérisation mécanique par ultrasons qui ne requiert pas une mesure sur une multitude d'échantillons et qui est non destructive. Ce mémoire par articles est divisé en quatre parties, dont les parties deux A quatre présentant les articles publiés et soumis. La première partie présente l'état des connaissances dans la matière nécessaires à l'acomplissement de ce projet de maîtrise. Les principaux sujets traités portent sur les matériaux composites, propagation d'ondes, la modélisation des ondes guidées, la caractérisation par ondes guidées et la surveillance embarquée des structures. La deuxième partie présente une étude de l'effet des propriétés mécaniques sur la performance de l'algorithme d'imagerie Excitelet. L'étude est faite sur une structure isotrope. Les résultats ont démontré que l'algorithme est sensible à l'exactitude des propriétés mécaniques utilisées dans le modèle. Cette sensibilité a également été explorée afin de développer une méthode embarquée permettant d'évaluer les propriétés mécaniques d'une structure. La troisième partie porte sur une étude plus rigoureuse des performances de la méthode de caractérisation mécanique embarquée. La précision, la répétabilité et la robustesse de la méthode sont validés à l'aide d'un simulateur par FEM. Les propriétés estimées avec l'approche de caractérisation sont à moins de 1% des propriétés utilisées dans le modèle, ce qui rivalise avec l'incertitude des méthodes ASTM. L'analyse expérimentale s'est avérée précise et répétable pour des fréquences sous les 200 kHz, permettant d'estimer les propriétés mécaniques à moins de 1% des propriétés du fournisseur. La quatrième partie a démontrée la capacité de l'approche de caractérisation à identifier les propriétés mécaniques d'une plaques composite orthotrope. Les résultats estimés expérimentalement sont inclus dans les barres d'incertitude des propriétés estimées à l'aide des tests ASTM. Finalement, une simulation FEM a démontré la précision de l'approche avec des propriétés mécaniques à moins de 4 % des propriétés du modèle simulé. Mots-clés : Inspection non destructive, composites, caractérisation mécanique, ultrasons, imagerie, SHM, ondes guidées.

  11. Structure par RMN d'un complexe AlcR(1-60)-ADN: Reconnaissance du petit sillon par la partie N-terminale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahuzac, B.; Félenbok, B.; Guittet, E.

    1999-10-01

    Aspergillus nidulans is a filamentous fungus able to use ethanol as sole energy source. The activation of the ethanol regulon genes expression is mediated by the AlcR protein. Its DNA-binding domain is located in the N-terminus (residues 1 to 60), and its NMR solution structure shows a global zinc binuclear cluster fold, with two helices in addition to the basic binuclear motif. A small number of crystallographic structures of DNA complexes of binuclear cluster proteins is yet known, and points out the major groove and the first helix as the principal sites of interaction on the DNA and the protein respectively. In this article we show evidences that the N-terminus of the protein is involved in binding to the minor groove. Aspergillus nidulans est un champignon filamenteux capable d'utiliser l'éthanol comme source unique d'énergie. La protéine AlcR est responsable de l'activation de l'expression des gènes du régulon éthanol. Le domaine de liaison à l'ADN est situé dans la partie N-terminale de la protéine (a.a. 1 à 60), et sa structure déterminée par RMN en solution montre un repliement global en bouquet binucléaire à zinc, avec deux hélices supplémentaires par rapport au motif de base. Alors que les structures déjà connues de complexes ADN - bouquets binucléaires permettent de situer dans le grand sillon la quasi-totalité des interactions, nous montrons dans la présente étude l'implication du début de la séquence dans la reconnaissance du petit sillon de l'ADN (a.a. 5 et 6).

  12. CDK-1 and Two B-Type Cyclins Promote PAR-6 Stabilization during Polarization of the Early C. elegans Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Rabilotta, Alexia; Desrosiers, Marianne; Labbé, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    In the C. elegans embryo, formation of an antero-posterior axis of polarity relies on signaling by the conserved PAR proteins, which localize asymmetrically in two mutually exclusive groups at the embryonic cortex. Depletion of any PAR protein causes a loss of polarity and embryonic lethality. A genome-wide RNAi screen previously identified two B-type cyclins, cyb-2.1 and cyb-2.2, as suppressors of par-2(it5ts) lethality. We found that the loss of cyb-2.1 or cyb-2.2 suppressed the lethality and polarity defects of par-2(it5ts) mutants and that these cyclins act in cell polarity with their cyclin-dependent kinase partner, CDK-1. Interestingly, cyb-2.1; cyb-2.2 double mutants did not show defects in cell cycle progression or timing of polarity establishment, suggesting that they regulate polarity independently of their typical role in cell cycle progression. Loss of both cyclin genes or of cdk-1 resulted in a decrease in PAR-6 levels in the embryo. Furthermore, the activity of the cullin CUL-2 was required to achieve suppression of par-2 lethality when both cyclins were absent. Our results support a model in which CYB-2.1/2/CDK-1 antagonize CUL-2 activity to promote stabilization of PAR-6 levels during polarization of the early C. elegans embryo. They also suggest that CYB-2.1 and CYB-2.2 contribute to the coupling of cell cycle progression and asymmetric segregation of cell fate determinants. PMID:25658117

  13. Pars Plana Ahmed Implantation Combined with 23-gauge Vitrectomy for Refractory Neovascular Glaucoma in Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hoon Seok; Nam, Dong Heun; Paik, Hae Jung

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a pars plana Ahmed valve implantation combined with 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy in the treatment of patients with medically uncontrolled neovascular glaucoma (NVG) in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Methods The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 11 consecutive patients with refractory NVG in PDR who underwent a 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy combined with pars plana placement of an Ahmed valve implant. Control of intraocular pressure (IOP), pre- and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity and the development of intra- and postoperative complications were evaluated during the follow-up. Results The mean follow-up was 12.2 months (range, 8 to 25 months). Mean preoperative IOP was 35.9 ± 6.3 mmHg and mean postoperative IOP at the last visit was 13.3 ± 3.2 mmHg. Control of IOP (8 to 18 mmHg) was achieved in all patients, but 91% (10 of 11 patients) needed antiglaucoma medication (mean number of medications, 1.2 ± 0.6). Postoperative visual acuity improved in 11 eyes, and the logarithmically to the minimum angle of resolution mean visual acuity in these eyes improved from 1.67 ± 0.61 to 0.96 ± 0.67. The complications that occurred were transient hypotony in one case, transitory hypertension in two cases, and postoperative vitreous hemorrhage which spontaneously cleared in two cases. Conclusions We suggest the combination of 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy and Ahmed valve implantation is safe and effective in PDR patients with refractory NVG. PMID:22511834

  14. Bazooka/PAR3 is dispensable for polarity in Drosophila follicular epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Shahab, Jaffer; Tiwari, Manu D.; Honemann-Capito, Mona; Krahn, Michael P.; Wodarz, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Apico-basal polarity is the defining characteristic of epithelial cells. In Drosophila, apical membrane identity is established and regulated through interactions between the highly conserved Par complex (Bazooka/Par3, atypical protein kinase C and Par6), and the Crumbs complex (Crumbs, Stardust and PATJ). It has been proposed that Bazooka operates at the top of a genetic hierarchy in the establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity. However, there is still ambiguity over the correct sequence of events and cross-talk with other pathways during this process. In this study, we reassess this issue by comparing the phenotypes of the commonly used baz4 and baz815-8 alleles with those of the so far uncharacterized bazXR11 and bazEH747 null alleles in different Drosophila epithelia. While all these baz alleles display identical phenotypes during embryonic epithelial development, we observe strong discrepancies in the severity and penetrance of polarity defects in the follicular epithelium: polarity is mostly normal in bazEH747 and bazXR11 while baz4 and baz815-8 show loss of polarity, severe multilayering and loss of epithelial integrity throughout the clones. Further analysis reveals that the chromosomes carrying the baz4 and baz815-8 alleles may contain additional mutations that enhance the true baz loss-of-function phenotype in the follicular epithelium. This study clearly shows that Baz is dispensable for the regulation of polarity in the follicular epithelium, and that the requirement for key regulators of cell polarity is highly dependent on developmental context and cell type. PMID:25770183

  15. Bazooka/PAR3 is dispensable for polarity in Drosophila follicular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shahab, Jaffer; Tiwari, Manu D; Honemann-Capito, Mona; Krahn, Michael P; Wodarz, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Apico-basal polarity is the defining characteristic of epithelial cells. In Drosophila, apical membrane identity is established and regulated through interactions between the highly conserved Par complex (Bazooka/Par3, atypical protein kinase C and Par6), and the Crumbs complex (Crumbs, Stardust and PATJ). It has been proposed that Bazooka operates at the top of a genetic hierarchy in the establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity. However, there is still ambiguity over the correct sequence of events and cross-talk with other pathways during this process. In this study, we reassess this issue by comparing the phenotypes of the commonly used baz(4) and baz(815-8) alleles with those of the so far uncharacterized baz(XR11) and baz(EH747) null alleles in different Drosophila epithelia. While all these baz alleles display identical phenotypes during embryonic epithelial development, we observe strong discrepancies in the severity and penetrance of polarity defects in the follicular epithelium: polarity is mostly normal in baz(EH747) and baz(XR11) while baz(4) and baz(815) (-8) show loss of polarity, severe multilayering and loss of epithelial integrity throughout the clones. Further analysis reveals that the chromosomes carrying the baz(4) and baz(815-8) alleles may contain additional mutations that enhance the true baz loss-of-function phenotype in the follicular epithelium. This study clearly shows that Baz is dispensable for the regulation of polarity in the follicular epithelium, and that the requirement for key regulators of cell polarity is highly dependent on developmental context and cell type. PMID:25770183

  16. Conversion du methanol en ethanol par carbonylation suivie d'hydrogenolyse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaucher, Melissa

    Ce projet de maîtrise s'inscrit dans le cadre des nouvelles filières énergétiques renouvelables et s'effectue au sein de la Chaire de recherche industrielle sur l'éthanol cellulosique créée par trois partenaires industriels (Enerkem, CRB et Ethanol Greenfield) et le gouvernement du Québec en collaboration avec l'Université de Sherbrooke. La stratégie d'un des partenaires, Enerkem, est de convertir par gazéification des résidus de biomasse non homogène en Syngas, ce gaz est ensuite converti en méthanol puis en éthanol. L'objectif principal de ce projet est la conversion catalytique de l'acétate en alcool. Un catalyseur commercial, composé de cuivre et de chrome, a permis l'obtention des conversions de plus de 95 % et une sélectivité pour l'éthanol de plus de 50 % avec l'acétate de méthyle, de 99 % avec l'acétate d'éthyle et de 50 % avec l'acétate de butyle. Les conditions optimales trouvées impliquent une température de 215 °C, une pression de 350 psig, une vitesse spatiale de 1800 h -1 H2 STP et un ratio H2 : Acétate de 7. Un catalyseur alternatif, à base de cuivre et de zinc, a aussi été testé. L'objectif secondaire est la carbonylation du méthanol en acétate. Cette étape a été réalisée en phase gazeuse où des rendements très élevés, soit plus de 2000 kg d'acétate de méthyle par kg de métal précieux à l'heure (kg AM/ kg métal précieux/h), ont été obtenus. Les conditions d'opérations testées impliquent une température variant entre 200-240 °C, une pression entre 250-600 psig, des ratios McOH : CO de 1 à 2,5. Mots clés: Carbonylation, Éthanol, Hydrogénolyse, Catalyse hétérogène.

  17. Analyse du comportement thermique du sol d'une serre agricole par simulation dynamique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteil, C.; Amouroux, M.

    1997-02-01

    The overall energetical behaviour of a greenhouse is significantly affected by diurnal storage and nocturnal release of energy inside the soil, which is the only element with high thermal capacitance. Its specific part is analysed with a pre-existing dynamic simulation model. The first part of this paper studies the effects of 4kinds of heating exchangers along each month of an entire cultivation period: hot air convector, aerial metallic pipes with hot water circulation, radiant mulch or buried pipes with warm water circulation. The second part develops the hourly behaviour of both greenhouse and soil during a cold standard-day with each of the 4exchangers. The third part is a sensibility study to various classes of factors in the case of hot air convector exchanger: climatic environment, control policy, intrinsic properties of the greenhouse (soil characteristics, crop density, cover transparency). Le comportement énergétique global d'une serre agricole est influencé de manière parfois importante par le stockage diurne et la restitution nocturne d'énergie au sein de son sol, seul élément à grande capacité thermique. Le rôle spécifique joué par le sol est analysé en appliquant un modèle de simulation dynamique déjà existant. Une première partie compare les effets de 4types d'échangeurs de chauffage sur chaque mois d'une période de culture : aérotherme, tubes aériens à circulation d'eau chaude, paillage radiant ou tubes enterrés à circulation d'eau tiède. Une seconde partie développe le comportement horaire de la serre et du sol pour une journée-type froide en présence de chacun des échangeurs. Une troisième partie précise la sensibilité du bilan thermique de la serre et du sol à différents types de facteurs dans le cas d'un échangeur par aérotherme: environnement climatique, politique de contrôle de la serre, propriétés intrinsèques de la serre (caractéristiques du sol, densité de culture, transparence de la couverture).

  18. Kyste hydatique pulmonaire chez l'enfant traité par thoracoscopie: huit ans d'expérience

    PubMed Central

    Khattala, Khalid; Elmadi, Aziz; Rami, Mohamed; Bouamama, Hanan; Bouabdallah, Youssef

    2013-01-01

    L’échinococcose kystique est une pathologie fréquente en zone d'endémie: pourtour méditerranéen, Afrique de l'est et l'Amérique du Sud. L'hydatidose reste à l'heure actuelle un problème majeur de santé publique. Notre travail consiste en une étude rétrospective de 27 malades opérés pour kyste hydatique pulmonaire (KHP) par thoracoscopie, au service de chirurgie pédiatrique du centre hospitalier universitaire HASSAN II à Fès, sur une période de huit ans allant de janvier 2004 au décembre 2011. PMID:24198890

  19. PAR-CLIP: A Method for Transcriptome-Wide Identification of RNA Binding Protein Interaction Sites.

    PubMed

    Danan, Charles; Manickavel, Sudhir; Hafner, Markus

    2016-01-01

    During post-transcriptional gene regulation (PTGR), RNA binding proteins (RBPs) interact with all classes of RNA to control RNA maturation, stability, transport, and translation. Here, we describe Photoactivatable-Ribonucleoside-Enhanced Crosslinking and Immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP), a transcriptome-scale method for identifying RBP binding sites on target RNAs with nucleotide-level resolution. This method is readily applicable to any protein directly contacting RNA, including RBPs that are predicted to bind in a sequence- or structure-dependent manner at discrete RNA recognition elements (RREs), and those that are thought to bind transiently, such as RNA polymerases or helicases. PMID:26463383

  20. Neurocysticercose révélée par une épilepsie réfractaire: à propos d'une observation

    PubMed Central

    Bugeme, Marcellin; Mukuku, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Nous rapportons une observation de neurocysticercose parenchymateuse chez un homme de 38 ans, consommant régulièrement la viande de porc, qui a présenté une épilepsie réfractaire. Le diagnostic de NCC était basé sur la présence de lésions kystiques montrant le scolex sur les images du scanner cérébrale, la présence de signes cliniques évocateurs de NCC (épilepsie faite des crises convulsives focales évoluant vers des crises bilatérales), la réponse clinique au traitement à l'albendazole et le fait que notre patient vit dans une zone reconnue endémique à la cysticercose. Après un traitement fait d'albendazole et de prednisolone, l’évolution est marquée par la disparition complète des crises épileptiques. PMID:26090052

  1. Un diverticule géant para urétéral chez l’enfant révélé par une masse pelvienne

    PubMed Central

    Kassogué, Amadou; Diarra, Alkadri; Benzekri, Younes; Doumbia, Aliou; Bouabdallah, Youssef; Traoré, Zacharia; Tizniti, Siham; Mellas, Soufiane; Tazi, Mohammed Fald; Ammari, Jalal Eddine El; Khallouk, Abdelhak; Fassi, Mohammed Jamal El; Farih, My Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Nous rapportons un cas de diverticule géant para-urétéral chez un enfant de 18 mois, du point de vue des aspects cliniques, diagnostiques et thérapeutiques. Aucune anomalie associée n’a été relevée. Le patient était un enfant de sexe masculin, et la symptomatologie était dominée par la rétention aiguë d’urine et la présence d’une infection urinaire. La chirurgie a consisté en une diverticulectomie laparoscopique avec réimplantation urétéro-vésicale. L’évolution a été favorable avec disparition des signes urinaires. PMID:24940473

  2. Hémangiome vertébrale géant révélé par un traumatisme lombaire: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Mouhsine, Abdelilah; Essanhaji, Adil; Atmane, El Mehdi; Rokhssi, Radouane; Kadiri, B Ouchaib; Mahfoudi, Mbark; El Fikri, Abdelghani

    2014-01-01

    L'hémangiome vertebral est une tumeur bénigne fréquente, c'est une lésion bénigne habituellement asymptomatique. Les formes évolutives résponsables de compression médullaire sont beaucoup plus rares, une surveillance clinique et radiologique est conseillé. Nous mettons en exergue à travers ce cas revelé par des signes de compression médullaire suite à une chute, l'intérêt de l'imagerie en coupes dans le diagnostic positif; pour déceler les formes compliquées, et pour orienter l'attitude thérapeutique. Les formes neurologiques nécessitent une prise en charge neurochirurgicale. PMID:25574327

  3. TABLe of conTenTs 2 PrePArATion And checkLisT

    E-print Network

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    be part of other illnesses, such as bipolar (or manic-depressive) disorder, which is characterized TABLe of conTenTs 2 PrePArATion And checkLisT 3 scenArio 3 sYMPTons of cLinicAL dePression 3 signsTudenT seek MedicAL ATTenTion 7 furTher resources A guide for fAcuLTY And sTAff dePression And suicidAL Beh

  4. Genome-wide protein QTL mapping identifies human plasma kallikrein as a post-translational regulator of serum uPAR levels

    PubMed Central

    Portelli, Michael A.; Siedlinski, Mateusz; Stewart, Ceri E.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Nieuwenhuis, Maartje A.; Vonk, Judith M.; Nurnberg, Peter; Altmuller, Janine; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Wardlaw, Andrew J.; Parker, Stuart G.; Connolly, Martin J.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Sayers, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The soluble cleaved urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (scuPAR) is a circulating protein detected in multiple diseases, including various cancers, cardiovascular disease, and kidney disease, where elevated levels of scuPAR have been associated with worsening prognosis and increased disease aggressiveness. We aimed to identify novel genetic and biomolecular mechanisms regulating scuPAR levels. Elevated serum scuPAR levels were identified in asthma (n=514) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n=219) cohorts when compared to controls (n=96). In these cohorts, a genome-wide association study of serum scuPAR levels identified a human plasma kallikrein gene (KLKB1) promoter polymorphism (rs4253238) associated with serum scuPAR levels in a control/asthma population (P=1.17×10?7), which was also observed in a COPD population (combined P=5.04×10?12). Using a fluorescent assay, we demonstrated that serum KLKB1 enzymatic activity was driven by rs4253238 and is inverse to scuPAR levels. Biochemical analysis identified that KLKB1 cleaves scuPAR and negates scuPAR's effects on primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) in vitro. Chymotrypsin was used as a proproteolytic control, while basal HBECs were used as a control to define scuPAR-driven effects. In summary, we reveal a novel post-translational regulatory mechanism for scuPAR using a hypothesis-free approach with implications for multiple human diseases.—Portelli, M. A., Siedlinski, M., Stewart, C. E., Postma, D. S., Nieuwenhuis, M. A., Vonk, J. M., Nurnberg, P., Altmuller, J., Moffatt, M. F., Wardlaw, A. J., Parker, S. G., Connolly, M. J., Koppelman, G. H., Sayers, I. Genome-wide protein QTL mapping identifies human plasma kallikrein as a post-translational regulator of serum uPAR levels. PMID:24249636

  5. Approximation d'un nombre r'eel par des nombres alg'ebriques de degr'e donn'e

    E-print Network

    Bugeaud, Yann

    Approximation d'un nombre r'eel par des nombres alg'ebriques de degr'e donn'e Yann Bugeaud'eressons `a l'approximation des nombres r'eels par des nombres alg'ebriques, et en parti­ culier par des entier et ¸ un nombre complexe. On note w n (¸) la borne sup'erieure des nombres r'eels w pour lesquels

  6. Usefulness of suPAR in the risk stratification of patients with sepsis admitted to the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Casagranda, Ivo; Vendramin, Chiara; Callegari, Tiziana; Vidali, Matteo; Calabresi, Alessandra; Ferrandu, Giovanna; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Cavazza, Mario; Lippi, Giuseppe; Zanotti, Isabella; Negro, Sophie; Rocchetti, Andrea; Arfini, Carlo

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the role of suPAR in patients with sepsis admitted to the Emergency Department (ED). We performed multicentre prospective trial including patients admitted to the ED of three different Italian hospitals. Patients were studied upon admission on day 1, 2, 4 and 7. They were subdivided into two groups: sepsis (group 1) and severe sepsis or septic shock (group 2). The two groups were comparable for age, gender and CRP level on day 1. Patients with severe sepsis or septic shock displayed significantly higher baseline levels of suPAR, PCT and lactate. In both groups, suPAR decreased across the time (p < 0.0005). Group 1 was not different from group 2 (p = 0.545) in mortality at 7 days, while group 2 had higher mortality at 30 days than group 1 (p = 0.022). At the multivariate analysis, lactate1 (p = 0.012) and age (p = 0.019) were independent predictors of mortality at 7 days, whereas suPAR1 (p = 0.023) and age (p = 0.032) were independent predictors of mortality at 30 days. Lactate and suPAR resulted the most predictive biomarkers in the risk stratification of patients with suspected infection initially admitted to the ED, according to their role in predicting 7- and 30-day mortality, respectively. PMID:26156446

  7. Reconstruction et calibration d'un signal de volume PRI VPRI par rgression linaire multiple partir des signaux dbit, thorax et abdomen (Eberhard, 2001)

    E-print Network

    Fontecave-Jallon, Julie

    multiple à partir des signaux débit, thorax et abdomen (Eberhard, 2001) Calcul d'une fréquence cardiaque Hz) Electrocardiogramme Variations de sections THORAX et ABDOMEN par Pléthysmographie Respiratoire

  8. Manifestations neuropsychiatriques révélant une hémorragie cérébro-méningée causée par un accident d’électrisation: à propos d'une observation et revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Bugeme, Marcellin; Mukuku, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Le courant électrique est susceptible de léser tout tissu de l'organisme rencontré lors de son passage, de manière transitoire ou définitive. Les hémorragies cérébro-méningées secondaires à un accident d’électrisation par courant électrique à haute tension sont très rarement rapportées dans la littérature. Nous rapportons un cas d'hémorragie cérébro-méningée révélée par des manifestations neuropsychiatriques causée par un AE par courant électrique à haute tension observée chez un enfant âgé de 6 ans à Lubumbashi, en République Démocratique du Congo. La particularité que présente notre observation est les manifestations neuropsychiatriques observées tardivement. PMID:25419328

  9. Par@Graph - a parallel toolbox for the construction and analysis of large complex climate networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihshaish, H.; Tantet, A.; Dijkzeul, J. C. M.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present Par@Graph, a software toolbox to reconstruct and analyze complex climate networks having a large number of nodes (up to at least O (106)) and of edges (up to at least O (1012)). The key innovation is an efficient set of parallel software tools designed to leverage the inherited hybrid parallelism in distributed-memory clusters of multi-core machines. The performance of the toolbox is illustrated through networks derived from sea surface height (SSH) data of a global high-resolution ocean model. Less than 8 min are needed on 90 Intel Xeon E5-4650 processors to construct a climate network including the preprocessing and the correlation of 3 × 105 SSH time series, resulting in a weighted graph with the same number of vertices and about 3 × 106 edges. In less than 5 min on 30 processors, the resulted graph's degree centrality, strength, connected components, eigenvector centrality, entropy and clustering coefficient metrics were obtained. These results indicate that a complete cycle to construct and analyze a large-scale climate network is available under 13 min. Par@Graph therefore facilitates the application of climate network analysis on high-resolution observations and model results, by enabling fast network construction from the calculation of statistical similarities between climate time series. It also enables network analysis at unprecedented scales on a variety of different sizes of input data sets.

  10. Multiple IgE recognition on the major allergen of the Parietaria pollen Par j 2.

    PubMed

    Longo, Valeria; Costa, Maria Assunta; Cibella, Fabio; Cuttitta, Giuseppina; La Grutta, Stefania; Colombo, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    The interaction between IgE antibodies and allergens is a key event in triggering an allergic reaction. The characterization of this region provides information of paramount importance for diagnosis and therapy. Par j 2 Lipid Transfer Protein is one of the most important allergens in southern Europe and a well-established marker of sensitization in Parietaria pollen allergy. The main aim of this study was to map the IgE binding regions of this allergen and to study the pattern of reactivity of individual Parietaria-allergic patients. By means of gene fragmentation, six overlapping peptides were expressed in Escherichia coli, and their IgE binding activity was evaluated by immunoblotting in a cohort of 79 Parietaria-allergic patients. Our results showed that Pj-allergic patients display a heterogeneous pattern of IgE binding to the different recombinant fragments, and that patients reacted simultaneously against several protein domains spread all the over the molecule, even in fragments which do not contain structural features resembling the native allergen. Our results reveal the presence of a large number of linear and conformational epitopes on the Par j 2 sequence, which probably explains the high allergenic activity of this allergen. PMID:25284812

  11. Contribution au contrôle de la fluidisation des sédiments marins par ultrasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresson, J.; Daïf, A.; Longuemard, J. P.; Mevel, Y.

    1994-08-01

    The authors present an original method based on acoustic propagation of longitudinal waves to determine the state of fluidisation in marine sediments as a function of wave characteristics. Indeed, the pressure variations due to the wave in permeable marine sediments contributes to the desegregation of the inter granular structure. This approach have been tested in wave's channel before being experiment in sea environment. Après avoir présenté le phénomène de fluidisation des sédiments marins et sa modélisation simple, les auteurs étudient dans un canal à houle et expérimentent en mer une méthode, basée sur la propagation d'ondes ultrasonores longitudinales, permettant de détecter l'état de fluidisation du sédiment marin en fonction des caractéristiques de la houle. En effet, les variations de pression engendrées par la houle, dans les sédiments marins perméables, détruisent la liaison du "squelette" inter granulaire existant dans celui-ci quand il est consolidé. Il n'y a plus de contact grain à grain, mais un mince film d'eau sépare complètement ces derniers. On assiste alors à la fluidisation des sédiments près du fond. Cet état est détecté par moyens acoustiques.

  12. PAR immobilized colorimetric fiber for heavy metal ion detection and adsorption.

    PubMed

    Li, Guowei; Zhang, Lianhai; Li, Zhiwei; Zhang, Wenqin

    2010-05-15

    A new wearable colorimetric fiber for heavy metal ion detection and adsorption has been synthesized by first aminating a commercially available polyacrylonitrile fiber with ethylenediamine and then covalently immobilizing 4-(2-pyridylazo)-1,3-benzenediol (PAR) on the modified fiber through a Mannich reaction. The fiber was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction spectra (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy, and its acid exchange capacity, colorimetric properties, response speed, selectivity, reusability, photostability and adsorption capacity were investigated. In neutral aqueous solutions, the PAR immobilized fiber responds selectively to heavy metal ions, such as Hg(2+), Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Ni(2+) and Cu(2+) with a color change from red-orange to dark-brown. Its visual detection limit for Pb(2+) is 1 x 10(-6)mol/L. Moreover, the selectivity increases with a decrease in pH, i.e. at pH 3.0, it shows a color change only for Hg(2+) and Cu(2+). This fiber also shows excellent reusability (>50 times), high photostability (>30 days under direct exposure to sunlight) and high adsorption capacity for Hg(2+) (0.74 mmol/g). PMID:20096995

  13. Étude par spectroscopie Raman de résonance de composés modèles de la polyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, M. I.; Quillard, S.; Louarn, G.; Lefrant, S.; Rebourt, E.; Monkman, A.

    1998-06-01

    In this paper, a vibrational study (Resonance Raman Scattering and valence- force-field calculations) of some model compounds of polyaniline is presented. Indeed, this model compound approach allows one to obtain some informations about the vibrational properties and consequently about the electronic configurations of the corresponding polymeric forms. By using valence-force- field calculations, three sets of force constants have been obtained, related to the reduced and oxidized units of the base forms of polyaniline and to the emeraldine salt form. Dans ce travail, nous présentons une étude vibrationnelle (diffusion Raman de résonance et calcul de champ de force de valence) de quelques composés modèles de la polyaniline. Cette approche par les composés modèles permet, en effet, d'obtenir des informations sur les propriétés vibrationnelles et à fortiori sur les configurations électroniques des formes polymères correspondantes. Ainsi, par un calcul de champ de force de valence, trois jeux de constantes ont été déterminés relatifs aux unités réduites et oxydées des différentes formes bases des polyanilines et à la forme éméraldine sel.

  14. Modulation des propriétés électroniques de groupes pendants par l'intermédiaire des polymères conducteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangeney, C.; Lacroix, J. C.; Aeiyach, S.; Jouini, M.; Chane-Ching, K. I.; Lacaze, P. C.

    1998-06-01

    In order to study the influence of the oxidation state of a conductive polymer on the electronic properties of its substituents, two monomers have been polymerized electrochemically: one of them has an electropolymerizable group conjugated with the substituent (N-phenylpyrrole) while the other one has an insulating link between the two functional groups ( N-benzylpyrrole). The films synthesized were analysed in situ by FTIR after polarisation at different potentials. In the case of N-phenylpyrrole, the intensities of the infrared absorptions characteristic of the substituants depend on the potential applied. For the N-benzylpyrrole, we don't observe any evolution of these vibrational bands with the potential applied. Afin d'étudier l'influence de l'état d'oxydation d'un polymère conducteur sur les propriétés électroniques de ses substituants, nous avons polymérisÕ par voie électrochimique deux monomères: l'un comportant un groupe pendant conjugué au motif électropolymèrisable, le N-phénylpyrrole, et l'autre possÕdant un lien isolant entre ces deux groupes fonctionnels, le N- benzylpyrrole. Les films synthétisés ont été analysés in situ par IRTF après polarisation à différents potentiels. Dans le cas du N-phénylpyrrole, les bandes infrarouge caractéristiques de la présence des groupes pendants évoluent en intensité en fonction du potentiel appliqué. Pour le N-benzylpyrrole, on n'observe pas d'évolution de ces bandes avec le potentiel appliqué.

  15. Activated protein C promotes breast cancer cell migration through interactions with EPCR and PAR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulieu, Lea M.; Church, Frank C. . E-mail: fchurch@email.unc.edu

    2007-02-15

    Activated protein C (APC) is a serine protease that regulates thrombin (IIa) production through inactivation of blood coagulation factors Va and VIIIa. APC also has non-hemostatic functions related to inflammation, proliferation, and apoptosis through various mechanisms. Using two breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435, we investigated the role of APC in cell chemotaxis and invasion. Treatment of cells with increasing APC concentrations (1-50 {mu}g/ml) increased invasion and chemotaxis in a concentration-dependent manner. Only the active form of APC increased invasion and chemotaxis of the MDA-MB-231 cells when compared to 3 inactive APC derivatives. Using a modified 'checkerboard' analysis, APC was shown to only affect migration when plated with the cells; therefore, APC is not a chemoattractant. Blocking antibodies to endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) and protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) attenuated the effects of APC on chemotaxis in the MDA-MB-231 cells. Finally, treatment of the MDA-MB-231 cells with the proliferation inhibitor, Na butyrate, showed that APC did not increase migration by increasing cell number. Therefore, APC increases invasion and chemotaxis of cells by binding to the cell surface and activating specific signaling pathways through EPCR and PAR-1.

  16. Disjonction symphysaire après un accouchement par voie basse dystocique: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Laadioui, Meriem; Slimani, Wafae; Jayi, Sofia; Alaoui, Fatimazahra Fdili; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, Moulay Aabdelilah

    2014-01-01

    La disjonction symphysaire est une affection rare, qui se définie par un élargissement au niveau de l'articulation inter-symphysaire estimé supérieur à 10 mm. Cette affection nécessite une prise en charge spécialisée en cas de douleurs sévères et invalidantes. Nous rapportant le cas d'une patiente présentant des douleurs pelviennes intense avec impotence du MI gauche à J2 d'un accouchement dystocique, l'examen clinique a objectivé une douleur exquise à la palpation de la symphyse pubienne. Le diagnostic a été confirmé par une radiologie du bassin de face objectivant un élargissement de la symphyse pubienne de 15 mm, la prise en charge thérapeutique a consisté en une mise sous décharge et anti-coagulation préventive avec un traitement antalgique à base de paracétamol et AINS. L’évolution était favorable. A travers notre cas, nous insisterons sur les caractéristiques de cette pathologie notamment pronostic, ce qui permettra au praticien de comprendre l'intérêt du diagnostic et prise en charge précoce de cette entité qu'elle évoquer devant toute douleurs pelviennes survenant au cours de la grossesse ou en post partum. PMID:24932344

  17. Par-baked Bread Technology: Formulation and Process Studies to Improve Quality.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Eveline Lopes; Steel, Caroline Joy; Chang, Yoon Kil

    2016-01-01

    Extending the shelf-life of bakery products has been an important requirement resulting from the mechanization of this industry and the need to increase the distance for the distribution of final products, caused by the increase in production and consumer demand. Technologies based on the interruption of the breadmaking process represent an alternative to overcome product staling and microbiological deterioration. The production of par-baked breads is one of these technologies. It consists of baking the bread in two stages, and due to the possibility of retarding the second stage, it can be said that the bread can always be offered fresh to the consumer. The technology inserts logistics as part of the production process and creates the "hot point" concept, these being the locations where the bread is finalized, such as in the consumers' homes or sales locations. In this work, a review of the papers published on this subject was carried out, and aspects related to both the formulation and the process were considered. This technology still faces a few challenges, such as solving bread quality problems that appear due to process modifications, and these will also be considered. The market for these breads has grown rapidly and the bakery industry searches innovations related to par-baked bread technology. PMID:25000472

  18. Par@Graph - a parallel toolbox for the construction and analysis of large complex climate networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihshaish, H.; Tantet, A.; Dijkzeul, J. C. M.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present Par@Graph, a software toolbox to reconstruct and analyze complex climate networks having a large number of nodes (up to at least 106) and edges (up to at least 1012). The key innovation is an efficient set of parallel software tools designed to leverage the inherited hybrid parallelism in distributed-memory clusters of multi-core machines. The performance of the toolbox is illustrated through networks derived from sea surface height (SSH) data of a global high-resolution ocean model. Less than 8 min are needed on 90 Intel Xeon E5-4650 processors to reconstruct a climate network including the preprocessing and the correlation of 3 × 105 SSH time series, resulting in a weighted graph with the same number of vertices and about 3.2 × 108 edges. In less than 14 min on 30 processors, the resulted graph's degree centrality, strength, connected components, eigenvector centrality, entropy and clustering coefficient metrics were obtained. These results indicate that a complete cycle to construct and analyze a large-scale climate network is available under 22 min Par@Graph therefore facilitates the application of climate network analysis on high-resolution observations and model results, by enabling fast network reconstruct from the calculation of statistical similarities between climate time series. It also enables network analysis at unprecedented scales on a variety of different sizes of input data sets.

  19. Mammalian aPKC/Par polarity complex mediated regulation of epithelial division orientation and cell fate

    SciTech Connect

    Vorhagen, Susanne; Niessen, Carien M.

    2014-11-01

    Oriented cell division is a key regulator of tissue architecture and crucial for morphogenesis and homeostasis. Balanced regulation of proliferation and differentiation is an essential property of tissues not only to drive morphogenesis but also to maintain and restore homeostasis. In many tissues orientation of cell division is coupled to the regulation of differentiation producing daughters with similar (symmetric cell division, SCD) or differential fate (asymmetric cell division, ACD). This allows the organism to generate cell lineage diversity from a small pool of stem and progenitor cells. Division orientation and/or the ratio of ACD/SCD need to be tightly controlled. Loss of orientation or an altered ratio can promote overgrowth, alter tissue architecture and induce aberrant differentiation, and have been linked to morphogenetic diseases, cancer and aging. A key requirement for oriented division is the presence of a polarity axis, which can be established through cell intrinsic and/or extrinsic signals. Polarity proteins translate such internal and external cues to drive polarization. In this review we will focus on the role of the polarity complex aPKC/Par3/Par6 in the regulation of division orientation and cell fate in different mammalian epithelia. We will compare the conserved function of this complex in mitotic spindle orientation and distribution of cell fate determinants and highlight common and differential mechanisms in which this complex is used by tissues to adapt division orientation and cell fate to the specific properties of the epithelium.

  20. Par Pond phytoplankton in association with refilling of the pond: Final Report for sampling from February 1995 -- September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.; Johnson, M.A.; Cody, W.C.

    1996-12-31

    This report describes the results of phytoplankton analyses from Par Pond samples collected between February 1995 and September 1996. The principal objective of the study was to determine the effect of refilling of Par Pond following repair of the dam on the phytoplankton community. Algal blooms are often responsible for fish kills and other detrimental effects in ponds and lakes, and it was postulated that decaying vegetation from formerly exposed sediments might trigger algal blooms that could result in fish kills in Par Pond following the refill. Sporadic algal blooms involving blue-green algae were detected, especially during the summer of 1996. However, the data derived from the study demonstrates that overall, the refilling effort caused no significant negative impact to the pond attributable to phytoplankton dynamics.

  1. Results of submerged sediment core sampling and analysis on Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake: July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Friday, G.P.

    1996-06-01

    Sediment cores from shallow and deep water locations in Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake were collected and analyzed in 1995 for radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. This core analysis was conducted to develop a defensible characterization of contaminants found in the sediments of Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake. Mercury was the only nonradiological constituent with a nonestimated quantity that was detected above the U.S Environmental Protection Agency Region IV potential contaminants of concern screening criteria. It was detected at a depth of 0.3--0.6 meters (1.0--2.0 feet) at one location in L Lake. Cesium-137, promethium-146, plutonium-238, and zirconium-95 had significantly higher concentrations in Par Pond sediments than in sediments from the reference sites. Cobalt-60, cesium-137, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and strontium-90 had significantly higher concentrations in L-Lake sediments than sediments from the reference sites.

  2. The aPKC/Par3/Par6 Polarity Complex and Membrane Order Are Functionally Interdependent in Epithelia During Vertebrate Organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Abu-Siniyeh, Ahmed; Owen, Dylan M; Benzing, Carola; Rinkwitz, Silke; Becker, Thomas S; Majumdar, Arindam; Gaus, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The differential distribution of lipids between apical and basolateral membranes is necessary for many epithelial cell functions, but how this characteristic membrane organization is integrated within the polarity network during ductal organ development is poorly understood. Here we quantified membrane order in the gut, kidney and liver ductal epithelia in zebrafish larvae at 3-11 days post fertilization (dpf) with Laurdan 2-photon microscopy. We then applied a combination of Laurdan imaging, antisense knock-down and analysis of polarity markers to understand the relationship between membrane order and apical-basal polarity. We found a reciprocal relationship between membrane order and the cell polarity network. Reducing membrane condensation by exogenously added oxysterol or depletion of cholesterol reduced apical targeting of the polarity protein, aPKC. Conversely, using morpholino knock down in zebrafish, we found that membrane order was dependent upon the Crb3 and Par3 polarity protein expression in ductal epithelia. Hence our data suggest that the biophysical property of membrane lipid packing is a regulatory element in apical basal polarity. PMID:26456025

  3. Pharmacological inhibition of PAR2 with the pepducin P2pal-18S protects mice against acute experimental biliary pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Michael, E. S.; Kuliopulos, A.; Covic, L.; Steer, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic acinar cells express proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) that is activated by trypsin-like serine proteases and has been shown to exert model-specific effects on the severity of experimental pancreatitis, i.e., PAR2?/? mice are protected from experimental acute biliary pancreatitis but develop more severe secretagogue-induced pancreatitis. P2pal-18S is a novel pepducin lipopeptide that targets and inhibits PAR2. In studies monitoring PAR2-stimulated intracellular Ca2+ concentration changes, we show that P2pal-18S is a full PAR2 inhibitor in acinar cells. Our in vivo studies show that P2pal-18S significantly reduces the severity of experimental biliary pancreatitis induced by retrograde intraductal bile acid infusion, which mimics injury induced by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). This reduction in pancreatitis severity is observed when the pepducin is given before or 2 h after bile acid infusion but not when it is given 5 h after bile acid infusion. Conversely, P2pal-18S increases the severity of secretagogue-induced pancreatitis. In vitro studies indicate that P2pal-18S protects acinar cells against bile acid-induced injury/death, but it does not alter bile acid-induced intracellular zymogen activation. These studies are the first to report the effects of an effective PAR2 pharmacological inhibitor on pancreatic acinar cells and on the severity of experimental pancreatitis. They raise the possibility that a pepducin such as P2pal-18S might prove useful in the clinical management of patients at risk for developing severe biliary pancreatitis such as occurs following ERCP. PMID:23275617

  4. Pharmacological inhibition of PAR2 with the pepducin P2pal-18S protects mice against acute experimental biliary pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Michael, E S; Kuliopulos, A; Covic, L; Steer, M L; Perides, G

    2013-03-01

    Pancreatic acinar cells express proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) that is activated by trypsin-like serine proteases and has been shown to exert model-specific effects on the severity of experimental pancreatitis, i.e., PAR2(-/-) mice are protected from experimental acute biliary pancreatitis but develop more severe secretagogue-induced pancreatitis. P2pal-18S is a novel pepducin lipopeptide that targets and inhibits PAR2. In studies monitoring PAR2-stimulated intracellular Ca(2+) concentration changes, we show that P2pal-18S is a full PAR2 inhibitor in acinar cells. Our in vivo studies show that P2pal-18S significantly reduces the severity of experimental biliary pancreatitis induced by retrograde intraductal bile acid infusion, which mimics injury induced by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). This reduction in pancreatitis severity is observed when the pepducin is given before or 2 h after bile acid infusion but not when it is given 5 h after bile acid infusion. Conversely, P2pal-18S increases the severity of secretagogue-induced pancreatitis. In vitro studies indicate that P2pal-18S protects acinar cells against bile acid-induced injury/death, but it does not alter bile acid-induced intracellular zymogen activation. These studies are the first to report the effects of an effective PAR2 pharmacological inhibitor on pancreatic acinar cells and on the severity of experimental pancreatitis. They raise the possibility that a pepducin such as P2pal-18S might prove useful in the clinical management of patients at risk for developing severe biliary pancreatitis such as occurs following ERCP. PMID:23275617

  5. Hepatic Overexpression of Soluble Urokinase Receptor (uPAR) Suppresses Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Deficient (LDLR-/-) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Henrike; Müller, Martin; Herzog, Christine; Lorenz, Anika; Schmitz, Martina; Nofer, Jerzy-Roch; Theilmeier, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Objective Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease, arises from metabolic disorders and is driven by inappropriate recruitment and proliferation of monocytes / macrophages and vascular smooth-muscle-cells. The receptor for the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPAR, Plaur) regulates the proteolytic activation of plasminogen. It is also a coactivator of integrins and facilitates leukocyte-endothelial interactions and vascular smooth-muscle-cell migration. The role of uPAR in atherogenesis remains elusive. Methods and Results We generated C57Bl6/J low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL) and uPAR double knockout (uPAR-/-/LDLR-/-) mice to test the role of uPAR in two distinct atherosclerosis models. In LDLR-/- mice, hepatic overexpression following hydrodynamic transfection of soluble uPAR that competes with endogenous membrane-bound uPAR was performed as an interventional strategy. Aortic root atherosclerotic lesions induced by feeding a high-fat diet were smaller and comprised less macrophages and vascular smooth-muscle-cells in double knockout mice and animals overexpressing soluble uPAR when compared to controls. In contrast, lesion size, lipid-, macrophage-, and vascular smooth muscle cell content of guide-wire-induced intima lesions in the carotid artery were not affected by uPAR deficiency. Adhesion of uPAR-/--macrophages to TNF?-stimulated endothelial cells was decreased in vitro accompanied by reduced VCAM-1 expression on primary endothelial cells. Hepatic overexpression of soluble full-length murine uPAR in LDLR-/- mice led to a reduction of diet-induced atherosclerotic lesion formation and monocyte recruitment into plaques. Ex vivo incubation with soluble uPAR protein also inhibited adhesion of macrophages to TNF?-stimulated endothelial cells in vitro. Conclusion uPAR-deficiency as well as competitive soluble uPAR reduced diet-promoted but not guide-wire induced atherosclerotic lesions in mice by preventing monocyte recruitment and vascular smooth-muscle-cell infiltration. Soluble uPAR may represent a therapeutic tool for the modulation of hyperlipidemia-associated atherosclerotic lesion formation. PMID:26313756

  6. HIV-1 Infected Lymphoid Organs Upregulate Expression and Release of the Cleaved Form of uPAR That Modulates Chemotaxis and Virus Expression

    PubMed Central

    Nebuloni, Manuela; Zawada, Lidia; Ferri, Angelita; Tosoni, Antonella; Zerbi, Pietro; Resnati, Massimo; Poli, Guido; Genovese, Luca; Alfano, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Cell-associated receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPAR) is released as both full-length soluble uPAR (suPAR) and cleaved (c-suPAR) form that maintain ability to bind to integrins and other receptors, thus triggering and modulating cell signaling responses. Concerning HIV-1 infection, plasma levels of suPAR have been correlated with the severity of disease, levels of immune activation and ineffective immune recovery also in individuals receiving combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART). However, it is unknown whether and which suPAR forms might contribute to HIV-1 induced pathogenesis and to the related state of immune activation. In this regard, lymphoid organs represent an import site of chronic immune activation and virus persistence even in individuals receiving cART. Lymphoid organs of HIV-1+ individuals showed an enhanced number of follicular dendritic cells, macrophages and endothelial cells expressing the cell-associated uPAR in comparison to those of uninfected individuals. In order to investigate the potential role of suPAR forms in HIV-1 infection of secondary lymphoid organs, tonsil histocultures were established from HIV-1 seronegative individuals and infected ex vivo with CCR5- and CXCR4-dependent HIV-1 strains. The levels of suPAR and c-suPAR were significantly increased in HIV-infected tonsil histocultures supernatants in comparison to autologous uninfected histocultures. Supernatants from infected and uninfected cultures before and after immunodepletion of suPAR forms were incubated with the chronically infected promonocytic U1 cell line characterized by a state of proviral latency in unstimulated conditions. In the contest of HIV-conditioned supernatants we established that c-suPAR, but not suPAR, inhibited chemotaxis and induced virus expression in U1 cells. In conclusion, lymphoid organs are an important site of production and release of both suPAR and c-suPAR, this latter form being endowed with the capacity of inhibiting chemotaxis and inducing HIV-1 expression. PMID:23923008

  7. HIV-1 infected lymphoid organs upregulate expression and release of the cleaved form of uPAR that modulates chemotaxis and virus expression.

    PubMed

    Nebuloni, Manuela; Zawada, Lidia; Ferri, Angelita; Tosoni, Antonella; Zerbi, Pietro; Resnati, Massimo; Poli, Guido; Genovese, Luca; Alfano, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Cell-associated receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPAR) is released as both full-length soluble uPAR (suPAR) and cleaved (c-suPAR) form that maintain ability to bind to integrins and other receptors, thus triggering and modulating cell signaling responses. Concerning HIV-1 infection, plasma levels of suPAR have been correlated with the severity of disease, levels of immune activation and ineffective immune recovery also in individuals receiving combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART). However, it is unknown whether and which suPAR forms might contribute to HIV-1 induced pathogenesis and to the related state of immune activation. In this regard, lymphoid organs represent an import site of chronic immune activation and virus persistence even in individuals receiving cART. Lymphoid organs of HIV-1(+) individuals showed an enhanced number of follicular dendritic cells, macrophages and endothelial cells expressing the cell-associated uPAR in comparison to those of uninfected individuals. In order to investigate the potential role of suPAR forms in HIV-1 infection of secondary lymphoid organs, tonsil histocultures were established from HIV-1 seronegative individuals and infected ex vivo with CCR5- and CXCR4-dependent HIV-1 strains. The levels of suPAR and c-suPAR were significantly increased in HIV-infected tonsil histocultures supernatants in comparison to autologous uninfected histocultures. Supernatants from infected and uninfected cultures before and after immunodepletion of suPAR forms were incubated with the chronically infected promonocytic U1 cell line characterized by a state of proviral latency in unstimulated conditions. In the contest of HIV-conditioned supernatants we established that c-suPAR, but not suPAR, inhibited chemotaxis and induced virus expression in U1 cells. In conclusion, lymphoid organs are an important site of production and release of both suPAR and c-suPAR, this latter form being endowed with the capacity of inhibiting chemotaxis and inducing HIV-1 expression. PMID:23923008

  8. Increased Protease-Activated Receptor-2 (PAR-2) Expression on CD14++CD16+ Peripheral Blood Monocytes of Patients with Severe Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha Palikhe, Nami; Nahirney, Drew; Laratta, Cheryl; Gandhi, Vivek Dipak; Vethanayagam, Dilini; Bhutani, Mohit; Mayers, Irvin

    2015-01-01

    Background Protease-Activated Receptor-2 (PAR-2), a G protein coupled receptor activated by serine proteases, is widely expressed in humans and is involved in inflammation. PAR-2 activation in the airways plays an important role in the development of allergic airway inflammation. PAR-2 expression is known to be upregulated in the epithelium of asthmatic subjects, but its expression on immune and inflammatory cells in patients with asthma has not been studied. Methods We recruited 12 severe and 24 mild/moderate asthmatics from the University of Alberta Hospital Asthma Clinics and collected baseline demographic information, medication use and parameters of asthma severity. PAR-2 expression on blood inflammatory cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Subjects with severe asthma had higher PAR-2 expression on CD14++CD16+ monocytes (intermediate monocytes) and also higher percentage of CD14++CD16+PAR-2+ monocytes (intermediate monocytes expressing PAR-2) in blood compared to subjects with mild/moderate asthma. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis showed that the percent of CD14++CD16+PAR-2+ in peripheral blood was able to discriminate between patients with severe and those with mild/moderate asthma with high sensitivity and specificity. In addition, among the whole populations, subjects with a history of asthma exacerbations over the last year had higher percent of CD14++CD16+ PAR-2+ cells in peripheral blood compared to subjects without exacerbations. Conclusions PAR-2 expression is increased on CD14++CD16+ monocytes in the peripheral blood of subjects with severe asthma and may be a biomarker of asthma severity. Our data suggest that PAR-2 -mediated activation of CD14++CD16+ monocytes may play a role in the pathogenesis of severe asthma. PMID:26658828

  9. Hémorragie cérébelleuse à distance après évacuation d'un hématome sous dural chronique par trou de trepan

    PubMed Central

    Shimi, Abdelkarim; Elbakouri, Nabil; Bechri, Brahim; Derkaoui, Ali; Agouri, Mohamed; Khatouf, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    L'hémorragie cérébelleuse à distance du site de la chirurgie ou remote cerebellar hemorrhage constitue une complication rare de la chirurgie intracranienne. la survenue d'une hémorragie cérébelleuse a distance dans les suites d'un drainage d'un hématome sous dural par trou de trépan reste un événement très rare. Nous rapportons le cas d'un patient ayant présenté ce syndrome après drainage d'un hématome sous dural chronique par trou de trépan avec évolution défavorable. Nous discutons à travers cette observation, les aspects diagnostics et étiopathogéniques de cette complication. PMID:26309454

  10. Protection des ions organiques contre les dommages induits a l'ADN par les electrons de basse energie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Ariane

    Il a ete demontre que les electrons de basse energie (EBE) peuvent induire des cassures simple brin (CSB) a l'ADN, via la formation d'anions transitoires qui decroissent par attachement dissociatif, ou dans d'autres etats electroniques dissociatifs menant a la fragmentation. Afin d'effectuer une etude complete des effets des electrons de basse energie sur la matiere biologique, il est necessaire de comprendre leur mecanismes d'interaction non seulement avec l'ADN, mais avec les constituants de son environnement. Les histones sont une composante importante de l'environnement moleculaire de l'ADN. Leur charge positive leur permet de s'associer aux groupements phosphate anionique de l'ADN. Le role principal de ces proteines basiques consiste a organiser l'ADN et l'empaqueter afin de former la chromatine. Les cations sont une autre composante importante de la cellule; ils jouent un role dans la stabilisation de la conformation B de l'ADN in vitro par leurs interactions avec les petits et grands sillons de l'ADN, ainsi qu'avec le groupement phosphate charge negativement. Avec les histones, ils participent egalement a la compaction de l'ADN pour former la chromatine. Cette etude a pour but de comprendre comment la presence d'ions organiques (sous forme de Tris et d'EDTA) a proximite de l'ADN modifie le rendement de cassures simple brin induit par les electrons de basse energie. Le Tris et l'EDTA ont-ete choisis comme objet d'etude, puisqu'en solution, ils forment le tampon standard pour solubiliser l'ADN dans les experiences in vitro (10mM Tris, 1mM EDTA). De plus, la molecule Tris possede un groupement amine alors que l'EDTA possede 4 groupements carboxyliques. Ensembles, ils peuvent se comporter comme un modele simple pour les acides amines. Le ratio molaire de 10 :1 de Tris par rapport a l'EDTA a pour but d'imiter le comportement des histones qui sont riches en arginine et lysine, acides amines possedant un groupement amine charge positivement additionnel. Des films d'ADN de differentes epaisseurs, possedant entre 0 et 32 ions organiques/ nucleotide, ont ete irradies avec des electrons de 10eV. Les dommages induits par les electrons, sous forme de cassures, ont ete detectes par electrophorese. Nous avons demontre que le rendement de cassure simple brin diminuait de facon dramatique en fonction du nombre d'ions organiques/ nucleotide. Aussi peu que 2 ions organiques/ nucleotide sont suffisant pour decroitre le rendement de SSB de 70%. Cet effet radioprotecteur est en partie explique par l'augmentation de l'epaisseur des films, mais surtout par la modification du champ electrique a proximite de l'ADN, due a l'ajout de molecules chargees positivement. La modification du champ electrique pres de l'ADN altere les parametres de resonance comme le temps de vie de l'anion transitoire et la limite de dissociation, qui influent directement sur la section efficace d'attachement dissociatif. L'effet protecteur peut egalement etre explique par la restauration des bases anioniques deshydrogenees induites par l'attachement dissociatif de l'electron sur une base (G(-H)-). Ce sont les molecules Tris qui, en transferant un atome d'hydrogene ou un proton, restaurent les bases deshydrogenees et inhibent par le fait meme la formation de cassures simple brin. Ces resultats indiquent que les histones peuvent egalement participer a la reparation de dommages precoces induits a l'ADN avant qu'elles ne menent a des dommages encore plus nocifs et difficiles a reparer, comme les cassures simples brins. Mots cles : Electrons de basse energie, dommage a l'ADN, ions organiques, attachement dissociatif de l'electron.

  11. Adaptive and Efficient Computing for Subsurface Simulation within ParFlow

    SciTech Connect

    Tiedeman, H; Woodward, C S

    2010-11-16

    This project is concerned with the PF.WRF model as a means to enable more accurate predictions of wind fluctuations and subsurface storage. As developed at LLNL, PF.WRF couples a groundwater (subsurface) and surface water flow model (ParFlow) to a mesoscale atmospheric model (WRF, Weather Research and Forecasting Model). It was developed as a unique tool to address coupled water balance and wind energy questions that occur across traditionally separated research regimes of the atmosphere, land surface, and subsurface. PF.WRF is capable of simulating fluid, mass, and energy transport processes in groundwater, vadose zone, root zone, and land surface systems, including overland flow, and allows for the WRF model to both directly drive and respond to surface and subsurface hydrologic processes and conditions. The current PF.WRF model is constrained to have uniform spatial gridding below the land surface and matching areal grids with the WRF model at the land surface. There are often cases where it is advantageous for land surface, overland flow and subsurface models to have finer gridding than their atmospheric counterparts. Finer vertical discretization is also advantageous near the land surface (to properly capture feedbacks) yet many applications have a large vertical extent. However, the surface flow is strongly dependent on topography leading to a need for greater lateral resolution in some regions and the subsurface flow is tightly coupled to the atmospheric model near the surface leading to a need for finer vertical resolution. In addition, the interactions (e.g. rain) will be highly variable in space and time across the problem domain so an adaptive scheme is preferred to a static strategy to efficiently use computing and memory resources. As a result, this project focussed on algorithmic research required for development of an adaptive simulation capability in the PF.WRF system and its subsequent use in an application problem in the Central Valley of California. This report documents schemes of use for a future implementation of an adaptive grid capability within the ParFlow subsurface flow simulator in PF.WRF. The methods describe specific handling of the coarse/fine boundaries within a cell-centered discretization of the nonlinear parabolic Richards equation model for variable saturated flow. In addition, we describe development of a spline fit and table lookup method implemented within ParFlow to enhance computational efficiency of variably saturated flow calculations.

  12. Sources of Uncertainty in the Prediction of LAI / fPAR from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dungan, Jennifer L.; Ganapol, Barry D.; Brass, James A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    To explicate the sources of uncertainty in the prediction of biophysical variables over space, consider the general equation: where z is a variable with values on some nominal, ordinal, interval or ratio scale; y is a vector of input variables; u is the spatial support of y and z ; x and u are the spatial locations of y and z , respectively; f is a model and B is the vector of the parameters of this model. Any y or z has a value and a spatial extent which is called its support. Viewed in this way, categories of uncertainty are from variable (e.g. measurement), parameter, positional. support and model (e.g. structural) sources. The prediction of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR) are examples of z variables predicted using model(s) as a function of y variables and spatially constant parameters. The MOD15 algorithm is an example of f, called f(sub 1), with parameters including those defined by one of six biome types and solar and view angles. The Leaf Canopy Model (LCM)2, a nested model that combines leaf radiative transfer with a full canopy reflectance model through the phase function, is a simpler though similar radiative transfer approach to f(sub 1). In a previous study, MOD15 and LCM2 gave similar results for the broadleaf forest biome. Differences between these two models can be used to consider the structural uncertainty in prediction results. In an effort to quantify each of the five sources of uncertainty and rank their relative importance for the LAI/fPAR prediction problem, we used recent data for an EOS Core Validation Site in the broadleaf biome with coincident surface reflectance, vegetation index, fPAR and LAI products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). Uncertainty due to support on the input reflectance variable was characterized using Landsat ETM+ data. Input uncertainties were propagated through the LCM2 model and compared with published uncertainties from the MOD15 algorithm.

  13. Nanoparticules d'or: De l'imagerie par resonance magnetique a la radiosensibilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, Etienne M.

    Cette thèse approfondit l'étude de nanoparticules d'or de 5 nm de diamètre recouvertes de diamideéthanethioldiethylènetriaminepentacétate de gadolinium (DTDTPA:Gd), un agent de contraste pour l'imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM). En guise de ciblage passif, la taille des nanoparticules a été contrôlée afin d'utiliser le réseau de néovaisseaux poreux et perméable des tumeurs. De plus les tumeurs ont un drainage lymphatique déficient qui permet aux nanoparticules de demeurer plus longtemps dans le milieu interstitiel de la tumeur. Les expériences ont été effectuées sur des souris Balb/c femelles portant des tumeurs MC7-L1. La concentration de nanoparticules a pu être mesurée à l'IRM in vivo. La concentration maximale se retrouvait à la fin de l'infusion de 10 min. La concentration s'élevait à 0.3 mM dans la tumeur et de 0.12 mM dans le muscle environnant. Les nanoparticules étaient éliminées avec une demi-vie de 22 min pour les tumeurs et de 20 min pour le muscle environnant. Les nanoparticules ont été fonctionnalisées avec le peptide Tat afin de leur conférer des propriétés de ciblage actif La rétention de ces nanoparticules a ainsi été augmentée de 1600 %, passant d'une demi-vie d'élimination de 22 min à 350 min. La survie des souris a été mesurée à l'aide de courbes Kaplan-Meier et d'un modèle mathématique évalue l'efficacité de traitements. Le modèle nous permet, à l'aide de la vitesse de croissance des tumeurs et de l'efficacité des traitements, de calculer la courbe de survie des spécimens. Un effet antagoniste a été observé au lieu de l'effet synergétique attendu entre une infusion de Au@DTDTPA:Gd et l'irradiation aux rayons X. L'absence d'effet synergétique a été attribuée à l'épaisseur du recouvrement de DTDTPA:Gd qui fait écran aux électrons produits par l'or. De plus, le moyen d'ancrage du recouvrement utilise des thiols qui peuvent s'avérer être des capteurs de radicaux. De plus, contrairement a ce qui était escompté, un effet chimiothérapeutique de ces nanoparticules a été observé in vitro et in vivo. Par contre, le mécanisme précis de cet effet est encore à être expliquer, mais on sait déjà que les nanoparticules d'or affectent les fonctions des macrophages ainsi que l'angiogenèse. MOTS-CLÉS : Radiosensibilisateur, Nanoparticules d'or, Agent de contraste pour l'IRM, Électrons de basses énergies, Kaplan-Meier, Effet chimiothérapeutique.

  14. Activit Localisation d'un bateau par triangulation Ulysse navigue sur son bateau au large de la Corse, dans le golfe de Sagone. Pour dterminer sa

    E-print Network

    Jeanjean, Louis

    Activité ­ Localisation d'un bateau par triangulation Ulysse navigue sur son bateau au large de la Corse, dans le golfe de Sagone. Pour déterminer sa position par rapport aux côtes, Ulysse va se repérer Giuseppe se trouve à 2=-97°. Le but de votre travail est de déterminer la position du bateau d'Ulysse sur

  15. Prsentation conue par Cyprien Gay avec la suite bureautique libre et gratuite http://fr.openoffice.org et rutilisable sous licence GFDL Rheology of dry foams

    E-print Network

    Cox, Simon

    Présentation conçue par Cyprien Gay avec la suite bureautique libre et gratuite http of Foams Trinity College Dublin, Ireland ­ Jan. 912 Cyprien Gay Matière et Systèmes complexes (UMR 7057 ­ Université Rennes 1 #12;Présentation conçue par Cyprien Gay avec la suite bureautique libre et gratuite http

  16. Application de la transformation de Fourier fractionnaire à la restitution numérique des hologrammes des particules éclairées par un faisceau gaussien elliptique astigmate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, F.; Coëtmellec, S.; Brunel, M.; Allano, D.; Lebrun, D.; Janssen, A. J. E. M.

    2006-10-01

    Cette étude concerne la diffraction d'un faisceau gaussien elliptique astigmate par une particule opaque. Nous montrons que la transformation de Fourier fractionnaire bidimensionnelle est un outil mathématique bien adapté à l'analyse des hologrammes des particules enregistrés par un tel faisceau.

  17. Diabetes-Induced Superoxide Anion and Breakdown of the Blood-Retinal Barrier: Role of the VEGF/uPAR Pathway

    PubMed Central

    El-Remessy, Azza B.; Franklin, Telina; Ghaley, Nagla; Yang, Jinling; Brands, Michael W.; Caldwell, Ruth B.; Behzadian, Mohamed Ali

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes-induced breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) has been linked to hyperglycemia-induced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and is likely mediated by an increase in oxidative stress. We have shown that VEGF increases permeability of retinal endothelial cells (REC) by inducing expression of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). The purpose of this study was to define the role of superoxide anion in VEGF/uPAR expression and BRB breakdown in diabetes. Studies were performed in streptozotocin diabetic rats and mice and high glucose (HG) treated REC. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic tempol blocked diabetes-induced permeability and uPAR expression in rats and the cell permeable SOD inhibited HG-induced expression of uPAR and VEGF in REC. Inhibiting VEGFR blocked HG-induced expression of VEGF and uPAR and GSK-3? phosphorylation in REC. HG caused ?-catenin translocation from the plasma membrane into the cytosol and nucleus. Treatment with HG-conditioned media increased REC paracellular permeability that was blocked by anti-uPA or anti-uPAR antibodies. Moreover, deletion of uPAR blocked diabetes-induced BRB breakdown and activation of MMP-9 in mice. Together, these data indicate that diabetes-induced oxidative stress triggers BRB breakdown by a mechanism involving uPAR expression through VEGF-induced activation of the GSK3?/?-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:23951261

  18. Hémophilie B mineure révélée par une hémorragie cérébrale: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Naji, Abdelhalim; Rkain, Maria; Amrani, Rim; Benajiba, Noufissa

    2015-01-01

    L'hémorragie intracrânienne (HIC) du nouveau-né à terme est une pathologie rare, leur prévalence est estimée à 2% des naissances vivantes. Les manifestations cliniques sont variables et non spécifique. Les causes d'HIC sont multiples et souvent intriquées, les mécanismes physiopathologiques principaux sont la dysrégulation du débit cérébral, une obstruction des vaisseaux ou une coagulation intravasculaire; ou une lésion directe par traumatisme. Nous rapportons le cas d'un nourrisson d'un mois qui a été admis dans notre service pour prendre en charge des convulsions associées à une pâleur cutanéomuqueuse, suite à laquelle l'examen biologique a mis fortuitement en faveur une hémophilie mineure sur une maladie hémorragique tardive. PMID:26491519

  19. Pars Plana Vitrectomy and Intravitreal Liposomal Amphotericin B in the Treatment of Candida Endophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Koç, Aylin; Onal, Sumru; Yenice, Ozlem; Kazokoglu, Haluk

    2010-03-01

    Candida endophthalmitis is a common cause of fungal endophthalmitis. A case of bilateral endogenous endophthalmitis caused by Candida albicans without candidemia in an otherwise healthy 77-year-old man was reported. The patient underwent bilateral pars plana vitrectomy and intravitreal liposomal amphotericin B injections in addition to systemic fluconazole therapy. Postoperatively, a significant decrease of inflammation and resolution of abscesses were observed in both eyes. Vision improved in the left eye but remained constant in the right eye because of secondary cataract formation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of liposomal amphotericin B intravitreally in a patient with bilateral endogenous candida endophthalmitis. No evidence of clinical ocular toxicity was observed with the liposomal form of amphotericin B injection. PMID:20337336

  20. Genome-wide identification of miRNA targets by PAR-CLIP

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, Markus; Lianoglou, Steve; Tuschl, Thomas; Betel, Doron

    2012-01-01

    MiRNAs are short (20-23 nt) RNAs that are loaded into proteins of the Argonaute (AGO) family and guide them to partially complementary target sites on mRNAs, resulting in mRNA destabilization and/or translational repression. It is estimated that about 60% of the mammalian genes are potentially regulated by miRNAs, and therefore methods for experimental miRNA target determination have become valuable tools for the characterization of posttranscriptional gene regulation. Here we present a step-by-step protocol and guidelines for the computational analysis for the large-scale identification of miRNA target sites in cultured cells by photoactivatable ribonucleoside enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) of AGO proteins. PMID:22926237

  1. La prévention de l’infection par le virus respiratoire syncytial

    PubMed Central

    Samson, L

    2009-01-01

    L’infection par le virus respiratoire syncytial (VRS) est la principale cause d’infection des voies respiratoires inférieures chez les jeunes enfants et pour cette raison, bon nombre des prématurés et des enfants présentant d’autres facteurs de risque doivent être hospitalisés chaque année au Canada. Le palivizumab, un anticorps monoclonal anti-VRS, peut réduire le taux d’hospitalisation et la gravité de la maladie d’un petit groupe de prématurés ou de nourrissons à haut risque pendant leur première saison de VRS. Le présent document de principes contient une analyse des publications ainsi que des recommandations à l’intention des médecins canadiens au sujet de son utilisation chez les prématurés et les autres nourrissons à risque.

  2. Pars plana vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment associated with benign retinal tumors.

    PubMed

    Say, Emil Anthony T; Jani, Pooja D; Ulrich, J Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Two patients with known histories of benign retinal tumors presented with rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RRD) in the same eye. One had a retinocytoma and presenting vision of 20/50, while the other had congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium and vision of 20/30. Both had subretinal fluid accumulation in a configuration consistent with a retinal break near the tumor; however, no breaks were detected on examination or intraoperatively. Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), drainage retinotomy, fluid-air exchange, barrier laser around the tumor, and gas tamponade successfully reattached the retina in both cases. After 12 and 6 months of follow-up, respectively, final vision was 20/25 and the retina remained attached. RRD may be associated with benign retinal tumors presumably with microscopic breaks at the margins. In these cases, PPV, drainage retinotomy, fluid-air exchange, endolaser around the tumor, and gas tamponade can be effective for treatment. PMID:23883537

  3. La médecine générale perçue par les étudiants de la faculté de médecine de Sousse (Tunisie)

    PubMed Central

    Zedini, Chekib; Limam, Manel; El Ghardallou, Mariem; Mallouli, Menel; Mestiri, Tarek; Bougmiza, Iheb; Ajmi, Thouraya; Mtiraoui, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Les étudiants en début du cursus suivent la même formation hospitalo-universitaire, cependant, ils sont peu nombreux à choisir délibérément la médecine générale comme discipline d'exercice médical. Notre objectif est de préciser auprès des étudiants en médecine, les facteurs qui déterminent le choix de la médecine générale comme carrière et leur vision de cette discipline. Méthodes Etude descriptive transversale menée auprès d'un échantillon d’étudiants inscrits à la faculté de médecine de Sousse (Tunisie) pour l'année universitaire 2012-2013. Le recueil des données a été pratiqué par l'intermédiaire d'un questionnaire conçu pour les fins de ce travail. La saisie et l'analyse des données ont été effectuées par le logiciel SPSS 18.0. Résultats Notre étude a porté sur 388 étudiants dont 69,5% étaient du genre féminin. L’âge moyen était de 22,1 ± 2,8 ans. Cent étudiants (25,8%) avaient un parent cadre de santé sans que cela n'ait une influence sur le choix de carrière. A l'entrée à la faculté, seulement 7,1% (n = 27) voulaient faire de la médecine générale leur carrière. Le changement de choix vers la médecine générale est statistiquement différent à l'entrée et à la sortie de la faculté chez les internes finissants. Conclusion Afin d'attirer davantage les étudiants vers la médecine générale, il serait judicieux d'adopter des changements majeurs touchant l'enseignement théorique et pratique et de modifier les conditions de travail en fonction des attentes des générations futures. PMID:25852793

  4. Joan Sol Reconstitution de l'tat d'un micro drone par fusion de donnes TABLE DES MATIRES

    E-print Network

    Solà, Joan

    Joan Solà Reconstitution de l'état d'un micro drone par fusion de données 1 TABLE DES MATIÈRES PRÉSENTATION ____________________________________________________3 LE PROJET MICRO DRONE.1.1 Le domaine de vol du micro drone _________________________________________8 2.1.2 La référence NED

  5. Mapping the Transcriptome-Wide Landscape of RBP Binding Sites Using gPAR-CLIP-seq: Experimental Procedures.

    PubMed

    Han, Ting; Kim, John K

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 5-10 % of protein-coding genes in eukaryotic genomes encode RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Through dynamic changes in RNA recognition, RBPs posttranscriptionally regulate the biogenesis, transport, inheritance, storage, and degradation of RNAs. Understanding such widespread RBP-mediated posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms requires comprehensive discovery of the in vivo binding sites of RBPs. Here, we describe the experimental procedures of the gPAR-CLIP-seq (global photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced cross-linking and precipitation followed by deep sequencing) approach we recently developed for capturing and sequencing regions of the transcriptome bound by RBPs in budding yeast. Unlike the standard PAR-CLIP method, which identifies the bound RNA substrates for a single RBP, the gPAR-CLIP-seq method was developed to isolate and sequence all mRNA sites bound by the cellular "RBPome." The gPAR-CLIP-seq approach is readily applicable to a variety of organisms and cell lines to profile global RNA-protein interactions underlying posttranscriptional gene regulation. The complete landscape of RBP binding sites provides insights to the function of all RNA cis-regulatory elements in an organism and reveals fundamental mechanisms of posttranscriptional gene regulation. PMID:26483017

  6. Habitat-Specific Population Growth of a Farmland Bird Debora Arlt*, Par Forslund, Tobias Jeppsson, Tomas Part

    E-print Network

    Habitat-Specific Population Growth of a Farmland Bird Debora Arlt*, Pa¨r Forslund, Tobias Jeppsson of habitat on reproduction and survival have to be investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings: We used a matrix population model to estimate habitat-specific population growth rates for a population of northern

  7. Par1b links lumen polarity with LGN-NuMA positioning for distinct epithelial cell division phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Lázaro-Diéguez, Francisco; Cohen, David; Fernandez, Dawn; Hodgson, Louis; van Ijzendoorn, Sven C D; Müsch, Anne

    2013-10-28

    Columnar epithelia establish their luminal domains and their mitotic spindles parallel to the basal surface and undergo symmetric cell divisions in which the cleavage furrow bisects the apical domain. Hepatocyte lumina interrupt the lateral domain of neighboring cells perpendicular to two basal domains and their cleavage furrow rarely bifurcates the luminal domains. We determine that the serine/threonine kinase Par1b defines lumen position in concert with the position of the astral microtubule anchoring complex LGN-NuMA to yield the distinct epithelial division phenotypes. Par1b signaling via the extracellular matrix (ECM) in polarizing cells determined RhoA/Rho-kinase activity at cell-cell contact sites. Columnar MDCK and Par1b-depleted hepatocytic HepG2 cells featured high RhoA activity that correlated with robust LGN-NuMA recruitment to the metaphase cortex, spindle alignment with the substratum, and columnar organization. Reduced RhoA activity at the metaphase cortex in HepG2 cells and Par1b-overexpressing MDCK cells correlated with a single or no LGN-NuMA crescent, tilted spindles, and the development of lateral lumen polarity. PMID:24165937

  8. RGLEMENT DISCIPLINAIRE SUR LE PLAGIAT OU LA FRAUDE CONCERNANT LES TUDIANTS Rglement modifi, adopt par l'Assemble universitaire

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Michel

    RÈGLEMENT DISCIPLINAIRE SUR LE PLAGIAT OU LA FRAUDE CONCERNANT LES ÉTUDIANTS Règlement modifié fait pour un étudiant de commettre une fraude ou, intentionnellement, par insouciance ou négligence ayant participé au complot. 1.2 Constituent notamment un plagiat, copiage ou fraude : a) la substitution

  9. Mapping the topographic epitope landscape on the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) by surface plasmon resonance and X-ray crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baoyu; Gandhi, Sonu; Yuan, Cai; Luo, Zhipu; Li, Rui; Gårdsvoll, Henrik; de Lorenzi, Valentina; Sidenius, Nicolai; Huang, Mingdong; Ploug, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR or CD87) is a glycolipid-anchored membrane protein often expressed in the microenvironment of invasive solid cancers and high levels are generally associated with poor patient prognosis (Kriegbaum et al., 2011 [1]). uPAR is organized as a dynamic modular protein structure composed of three homologous Ly6/uPAR domains (LU).This internally flexible protein structure of uPAR enables an allosteric regulation of the interactions with its two principal ligands: the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and the provisional matrix protein vitronectin (Vn) (Mertens et al., 2012; Gårdsvoll et al., 2011; Madsen et al., 2007 [2–4]). The data presented here relates to the non-covalent trapping of one of these biologically relevant uPAR-conformations by a novel class of monoclonal antibodies (Zhao et al., 2015 [5]) and to the general mapping of the topographic epitope landscape on uPAR. The methods required to achieve these data include: (1) recombinant expression and purification of a uPAR-hybrid protein trapped in the desired conformation [patent; WO 2013/020898 A12013]; (2) developing monoclonal antibodies with unique specificities using this protein as antigen; (3) mapping the functional epitope on uPAR for these mAbs by surface plasmon resonance with a complete library of purified single-site uPAR mutants (Zhao et al., 2015; Gårdsvoll et al., 2006 [5,6]); and finally (4) solving the three-dimensional structures for one of these mAbs by X-ray crystallography alone and in complex with uPAR [deposited in the PDB database as 4QTH and 4QTI, respectively]. PMID:26504891

  10. Mapping the topographic epitope landscape on the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) by surface plasmon resonance and X-ray crystallography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baoyu; Gandhi, Sonu; Yuan, Cai; Luo, Zhipu; Li, Rui; Gårdsvoll, Henrik; de Lorenzi, Valentina; Sidenius, Nicolai; Huang, Mingdong; Ploug, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR or CD87) is a glycolipid-anchored membrane protein often expressed in the microenvironment of invasive solid cancers and high levels are generally associated with poor patient prognosis (Kriegbaum et al., 2011 [1]). uPAR is organized as a dynamic modular protein structure composed of three homologous Ly6/uPAR domains (LU).This internally flexible protein structure of uPAR enables an allosteric regulation of the interactions with its two principal ligands: the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and the provisional matrix protein vitronectin (Vn) (Mertens et al., 2012; Gårdsvoll et al., 2011; Madsen et al., 2007 [2-4]). The data presented here relates to the non-covalent trapping of one of these biologically relevant uPAR-conformations by a novel class of monoclonal antibodies (Zhao et al., 2015 [5]) and to the general mapping of the topographic epitope landscape on uPAR. The methods required to achieve these data include: (1) recombinant expression and purification of a uPAR-hybrid protein trapped in the desired conformation [patent; WO 2013/020898 A12013]; (2) developing monoclonal antibodies with unique specificities using this protein as antigen; (3) mapping the functional epitope on uPAR for these mAbs by surface plasmon resonance with a complete library of purified single-site uPAR mutants (Zhao et al., 2015; Gårdsvoll et al., 2006 [5,6]); and finally (4) solving the three-dimensional structures for one of these mAbs by X-ray crystallography alone and in complex with uPAR [deposited in the PDB database as 4QTH and 4QTI, respectively]. PMID:26504891

  11. Conception et caracterisation d'un magnetoplasma produit par une onde de surface pour la pulverisation d'echantillons solides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masse, Louis Philippe

    Suite a l'extraordinaire explosion de l'informatique de la derniere decennie, la science et la technologie des materiaux ont pris un essor extraordinaire. Par exemple, il est devenu crucial de concevoir des materiaux a haut degre de purete. Ce besoin a fortement motive le developpement de methodes d'analyse de solides. Traditionnellement, la methode adoptee est l'analyse par torche ICP, mais pour de nombreuses raisons, dont la lenteur de cette methode, la communaute scientifique oeuvrant en chimie analytique recherche des techniques d'analyse de solides directes, rapides et plus sensibles. Parmi les voies possibles, on trouve les methodes basees sur la pulverisation par plasma. Dans ce contexte, nous avons etudie la possibilite et la pertinence d'utiliser un magnetoplasma entretenu par une onde de surface pour pulveriser des solides dans le but de les analyser. Nos travaux portent principalement sur l'etude du comportement du plasma lors de la pulverisation. Nous avons montre que la pulverisation affecte la decharge de diverses facons. En premier lieu, la concentration d'especes provenant du materiau pulverise dans le plasma augmente avec la tension de polarisation. De plus, la concentration d'especes pulverisees diminue lorsque la pression croit, possiblement a cause du redepot. Nous avons aussi montre qu'il etait possible de pulveriser des solides isolants en exploitant le phenomene d'autopolarisation du a l'application d'une tension RF. Nous avons aussi etudie l'effet de la pulverisation sur la temperature et la densite electronique. Ainsi, lors de la pulverisation de metaux tels que le cuivre, la temperature electronique diminue lorsque la tension de polarisation augmente. Ceci est attribuable a l'augmentation de la densite d'especes metalliques neutres facilement ionisables par impact electronique. Nous avons aussi note que la densite electronique augmente avec la concentration d'especes metalliques dans le plasma, ce qui resulte d'un meilleur bilan de puissance. Une etude des caracteristiques du plasma seul a revele que le champ magnetique confine si bien le plasma que le maximum de densite electronique se trouve hors axe, plus exactement a la position radiale correspondant au rayon du cylindre dielectrique servant a former l'interface dielectrique-plasma dans la zone source du reacteur. Ce phenomene indique une tres nette superiorite du coefficient de diffusion axial par rapport au coefficient de diffusion radial. Notre reacteur a un potentiel interessant pour l'analyse elementaire de materiaux solides puisque le taux de pulverisation y est eleve et que les especes pulverisees sont aisement excitees et ionisees par le plasma.

  12. Neutralizing the EGF receptor in glioblastoma cells stimulates cell migration by activating uPAR-initiated cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Hu, J; Muller, K A; Furnari, F B; Cavenee, W K; VandenBerg, S R; Gonias, S L

    2015-07-30

    In glioblastoma (GBM), the EGF receptor (EGFR) and Src family kinases (SFKs) contribute to an aggressive phenotype. EGFR may be targeted therapeutically; however, resistance to EGFR-targeting drugs such as Erlotinib and Gefitinib develops quickly. In many GBMs, a truncated form of the EGFR (EGFRvIII) is expressed. Although EGFRvIII is constitutively active and promotes cancer progression, its activity is attenuated compared with EGF-ligated wild-type EGFR, suggesting that EGFRvIII may function together with other signaling receptors in cancer cells to induce an aggressive phenotype. In this study, we demonstrate that in EGFRvIII-expressing GBM cells, the urokinase receptor (uPAR) functions as a major activator of SFKs, controlling phosphorylation of downstream targets, such as p130Cas and Tyr-845 in the EGFR in vitro and in vivo. When EGFRvIII expression in GBM cells was neutralized, either genetically or by treating the cells with Gefitinib, paradoxically, the cells demonstrated increased cell migration. The increase in cell migration was explained by a compensatory increase in expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator, which activates uPAR-dependent cell signaling. GBM cells that were selected for their ability to grow in vivo in the absence of EGFRvIII also demonstrated increased cell migration, due to activation of the uPAR signaling system. The increase in GBM cell migration, induced by genetic or pharmacologic targeting of the EGFR, was blocked by Dasatinib, highlighting the central role of SFKs in uPAR-promoted cell migration. These results suggest that compensatory activation of uPAR-dependent cell signaling, in GBM cells treated with targeted therapeutics, may adversely affect the course of the disease by promoting cell migration, which may be associated with tumor progression. PMID:25347738

  13. Restauration adaptative des contours par une approche inspiree de la prediction des performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Kami

    En teledetection, les cartes de contours peuvent servir, entre autres choses, a la restitution geometrique, a la recherche d'elements lineaires, ainsi qu'a la segmentation. La creation de ces cartes est faite relativement tot dans la chaine de traitements d'une image. Pour assurer la qualite des operations subsequentes, il faut veiller a obtenir une carte de contours precise. Notre problematique est de savoir s'il est possible de diminuer la perte de temps liee au choix d'algorithme et de parametre en corrigeant automatiquement la carte de contours. Nous concentrerons donc nos efforts sur le developpement d'une methode de detection/restauration de contours adaptative. Notre methode s'inspire d'une technique de prediction des performances d'algorithmes de bas niveau. Elle consiste a integrer un traitement par reseau de neurones a une methode " classique " de detection de contours. Plus precisement, nous proposons de combiner la carte de performances avec la carte de gradient pour permettre des decisions plus exactes. La presente etude a permis de developper un logiciel comprenant un reseau de neurones entraine pour predire la presence de contours. Ce reseau de neurones permet d'ameliorer les decisions de detecteurs de contours, en reduisant le nombre de pixels de fausses alarmes et de contours manques. La premiere etape de ce travail consiste en une methode d'evaluation de performance pour les cartes de contours. Une fois ce choix effectue, il devient possible de comparer les cartes entre elles. Il est donc plus aise de determiner, pour chaque image, la meilleure detection de contours. La revue de la litterature realisee simultanement a permis de faire un choix d'un groupe d'indicateurs prometteurs pour la restauration de contours. Ces derniers ont servi a la calibration et a l'entrainement d'un reseau de neurones pour modeliser les contours. Par la suite, l'information fournie par ce reseau a ete combinee par multiplication arithmetique avec les cartes d'amplitudes de detecteurs " classiques " afin de fournir de nouvelles cartes d'amplitude du gradient. Le seuillage de ces contours donne des cartes de contours " optimisees ". Sur les images aeroportees du jeu de donnees South Florida, la mediane des mesures-F de la pour l'algorithme de Sobel passe de 51,3 % avant la fusion a 56,4 % apres. La mediane des mesures-F pour l'algorithme de Kirsch ameliore est de 56,3 % et celle de Frei-Chen ameliore est de 56,3 %. Pour l'algorithme de Sobel avec seuillage adaptatif, la mesure-F mediane est de 52,3 % avant fusion et de 57,2 % apres fusion. En guise de comparaison, la mesure-F mediane pour le detecteur de Moon, mathematiquement optimal pour contours de type " rampe ", est de 53,3 % et celle de l'algorithme de Canny, est de 61,1 %. L'applicabilite de notre algorithme se limite aux images qui, apres filtrage, ont un rapport signal sur bruit superieur ou egal a 20. Sur les photos au sol du jeu de donnees de South Florida, les resultats sont comparables a ceux obtenus sur les images aeroportees. Par contre, sur le jeu de donnees de Berkeley, les resultats n'ont pas ete concluants. Sur une imagette IKONOS du campus de l'Universite de Sherbrooke, pour l'algorithme de Sobel, la mesure-F est de 45,7 % +/-0,9 % avant la fusion et de 50,8 % apres. Sur une imagette IKONOS de l'Agence Spatiale Canadienne, pour l'algorithme de Sobel avec seuillage adaptatif, la mesure-F est de 35,4 % +/-0,9 % avant la fusion et de 42,2 % apres. Sur cette meme image, l'algorithme de Argyle (Canny sans post-traitement) a une mesure-F de 35,1 % +/-0,9 % avant fusion et de 39,5 % apres. Nos travaux ont permis d'ameliorer la banque d'indicateurs de Chalmond, rendant possible le pretraitement avant le seuillage de la carte de gradient. A chaque etape, nous proposons un choix de parametres permettant d'utiliser efficacement la methode proposee. Les contours corriges sont plus fins, plus complets et mieux localises que les contours originaux. Une etude de sensibilite a ete effectuee et permet de mieux comprendre la contributio

  14. Non-hematopoietic PAR-2 is essential for matriptase-driven pre-malignant progression and potentiation of ras-mediated squamous cell carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Katiuchia Uzzun; Friis, Stine; Konkel, Joanne E.; Godiksen, Sine; Hatakeyama, Marcia; Hansen, Karina K.; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; Szabo, Roman; Vogel, Lotte K.; Chen, Wanjun; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Bugge, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    The membrane-anchored serine protease, matriptase, is consistently dysregulated in a range of human carcinomas, and high matriptase activity correlates with poor prognosis. Furthermore, matriptase is unique among tumor-associated proteases in that epithelial stem cell expression of the protease suffices to induce malignant transformation. Here, we use genetic epistasis analysis to identify proteinase-activated receptor (PAR)-2-dependent inflammatory signaling as an essential component of matriptase-mediated oncogenesis. In cell-based assays, matriptase was a potent activator of PAR-2, and PAR-2 activation by matriptase caused robust induction of NF?B through G?i. Importantly, genetic elimination of PAR-2 from mice completely prevented matriptase-induced pre-malignant progression, including inflammatory cytokine production, inflammatory cell recruitment, epidermal hyperplasia, and dermal fibrosis. Selective ablation of PAR-2 from bone marrow-derived cells did not prevent matriptase-driven pre-malignant progression, indicating that matriptase activates keratinocyte stem cell PAR-2 to elicit its pro-inflammatory and pro-tumorigenic effects. When combined with previous studies, our data suggest that dual induction of PAR-2-NF?B inflammatory signaling and PI3K-Akt-mTor survival/proliferative signaling underlies the transforming potential of matriptase and may contribute to pro-tumorigenic signaling in human epithelial carcinogenesis. PMID:24469043

  15. Non-hematopoietic PAR-2 is essential for matriptase-driven pre-malignant progression and potentiation of ras-mediated squamous cell carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sales, K U; Friis, S; Konkel, J E; Godiksen, S; Hatakeyama, M; Hansen, K K; Rogatto, S R; Szabo, R; Vogel, L K; Chen, W; Gutkind, J S; Bugge, T H

    2015-01-15

    The membrane-anchored serine protease, matriptase, is consistently dysregulated in a range of human carcinomas, and high matriptase activity correlates with poor prognosis. Furthermore, matriptase is unique among tumor-associated proteases in that epithelial stem cell expression of the protease suffices to induce malignant transformation. Here, we use genetic epistasis analysis to identify proteinase-activated receptor (PAR)-2-dependent inflammatory signaling as an essential component of matriptase-mediated oncogenesis. In cell-based assays, matriptase was a potent activator of PAR-2, and PAR-2 activation by matriptase caused robust induction of nuclear factor (NF)?B through G?i. Importantly, genetic elimination of PAR-2 from mice completely prevented matriptase-induced pre-malignant progression, including inflammatory cytokine production, inflammatory cell recruitment, epidermal hyperplasia and dermal fibrosis. Selective ablation of PAR-2 from bone marrow-derived cells did not prevent matriptase-driven pre-malignant progression, indicating that matriptase activates keratinocyte stem cell PAR-2 to elicit its pro-inflammatory and pro-tumorigenic effects. When combined with previous studies, our data suggest that dual induction of PAR-2-NF?B inflammatory signaling and PI3K-Akt-mTor survival/proliferative signaling underlies the transforming potential of matriptase and may contribute to pro-tumorigenic signaling in human epithelial carcinogenesis. PMID:24469043

  16. PAR-1 activation rescues astrocytes through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway from chemically induced apoptosis that is exacerbated by gene silencing of ?-arrestin 1.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhihui; Reiser, Georg

    2014-02-01

    Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are seven transmembrane-domains G-protein-coupled receptors with four members: PAR-1, PAR-2, PAR-3, and PAR-4. The scaffold proteins ?-arrestin 1 and ?-arrestin 2 have been shown mediating responses to various receptor agonists, including PAR-1 and PAR-2. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the signaling adaptor ?-arrestin 1 is (i) associated with apoptosis of astrocytes and (ii) involved in thrombin-induced PAR-1-mediated cytoprotection. Here, we found firstly that staurosporine-induced apoptosis, detected as cleavage of caspase 3 is more than 3-times higher in ?-arrestin 1-lacking astrocytes than in control cells. This indicates that ?-arrestin 1 is important to protect astrocytes from apoptosis. Secondly, PAR-1 activation by thrombin protects non-silenced and ?-arrestin 1-deficient astrocytes from staurosporine-induced chemical toxicity. Furthermore, application of thrombin rescues ?-arrestin 1-lacking astrocytes from apoptosis by enhanced Akt (Ser 473) phosphorylation. Rescue from cell death was measured by quantification of the cleavage of caspase 3. Thus, we conclude that the thrombin-activated PI3K/Akt signaling cascades play pivotal roles in survival of ?-arrestin 1-deficient astrocytes. Our most striking novel finding is that ?-arrestin 1 inhibits long-term thrombin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt (Ser 473). This has been demonstrated by enhanced Akt (Ser 473) phosphorylation in astrocytes with knockdown of ?-arrestin 1. Blockade of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway by LY294002 abrogates the protection caused by thrombin treatment. In addition, we also found that thrombin-induced phosphorylation of Akt (Ser 473) is increased by transactivation of the EGF and PDGF receptors in ?-arrestin 1-silenced astrocytes. PMID:24378649

  17. Urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR) Ligation Induces a Raft-localized Integrin Signaling Switch That Mediates the Hypermotile Phenotype of Fibrotic Fibroblasts*

    PubMed Central

    Grove, Lisa M.; Southern, Brian D.; Jin, Tong H.; White, Kimberly E.; Paruchuri, Sailaja; Harel, Efrat; Wei, Ying; Rahaman, Shaik O.; Gladson, Candece L.; Ding, Qiang; Craik, Charles S.; Chapman, Harold A.; Olman, Mitchell A.

    2014-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked membrane protein with no cytosolic domain that localizes to lipid raft microdomains. Our laboratory and others have documented that lung fibroblasts from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) exhibit a hypermotile phenotype. This study was undertaken to elucidate the molecular mechanism whereby uPAR ligation with its cognate ligand, urokinase, induces a motile phenotype in human lung fibroblasts. We found that uPAR ligation with the urokinase receptor binding domain (amino-terminal fragment) leads to enhanced migration of fibroblasts on fibronectin in a protease-independent, lipid raft-dependent manner. Ligation of uPAR with the amino-terminal fragment recruited ?5?1 integrin and the acylated form of the Src family kinase, Fyn, to lipid rafts. The biological consequences of this translocation were an increase in fibroblast motility and a switch of the integrin-initiated signal pathway for migration away from the lipid raft-independent focal adhesion kinase pathway and toward a lipid raft-dependent caveolin-Fyn-Shc pathway. Furthermore, an integrin homologous peptide as well as an antibody that competes with ?1 for uPAR binding have the ability to block this effect. In addition, its relative insensitivity to cholesterol depletion suggests that the interactions of ?5?1 integrin and uPAR drive the translocation of ?5?1 integrin-acylated Fyn signaling complexes into lipid rafts upon uPAR ligation through protein-protein interactions. This signal switch is a novel pathway leading to the hypermotile phenotype of IPF patient-derived fibroblasts, seen with uPAR ligation. This uPAR dependent, fibrotic matrix-selective, and profibrotic fibroblast phenotype may be amenable to targeted therapeutics designed to ameliorate IPF. PMID:24644284

  18. Springtime size-fractionated primary production across hydrographic and PAR-light gradients in Chilean Patagonia (41-50°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Bárbara G.; Tapia, Fabián J.; Daneri, Giovanni; Iriarte, Jose L.; Montero, Paulina; Sobarzo, Marcus; Quiñones, Renato A.

    2014-12-01

    We combined on-deck and in situ measurements and satellite-derived data to study the spatial variability of springtime size-fractionated primary production and chlorophyll-a biomass along gradients of hydrographic conditions and surface PAR in central and northern Chilean Patagonia (41-50°S). This extensive and fragmented region encompasses numerous fjords and channels, as well as the northern and southern icefields (46-47°S, 48-52°S). Primary production displayed a latitudinal pattern decreasing southwards (6-fold lower), particularly toward areas influenced by rivers with a nival regime. Micro-phytoplankton (>20 ?m) dominated the primary production (57-93%) and chlorophyll-a (43-91%) of northern sites, where warmer and more saline surface waters exhibit greater PAR irradiance. Small phytoplankton cells (<2 ?m; 2-20 ?m) contributed > 50% of carbon fixation and chlorophyll-a in the southernmost sites, especially those located near glaciers and major rivers, where surface temperature, salinity, and PAR irradiance were lowest. The long-term (2002-2012) average field of springtime PAR derived from satellite imagery showed a southward increase in longitudinal gradients, which indicates that spatial changes in surface light attenuation along this region are largely driven by glacier-derived freshwater inputs. A principal component analysis of surface temperature, salinity, and PAR produced an ordination of sites that was consistent with spatial changes in the balance of oceanic versus riverine influence on surface conditions along this region. Total primary production was significantly correlated (r = 0.61, p = 0.007) with the first principal component, which explained 65% of joint variability in hydrographic conditions and PAR. The same principal component clearly separated sites in northern Patagonia where micro-phytoplankton dominated total primary production - along the Reloncavi fjord and Inner Sea of Chiloe - from those located further south where other size fractions were equally or more important. We stress the need to include spatial variability in nutrient concentrations, which together with the strong light attenuation induced by glacier-derived freshwater may further explain the spatial patterns in primary productivity, phytoplankton biomass, and carbon fluxes along Chilean Patagonia.

  19. Fabrication de memoire monoelectronique non volatile par une approche de nanogrille flottante

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilmain, Marc

    Les transistors monoelectroniques (SET) sont des dispositifs de tailles nanometriques qui permettent la commande d'un electron a la fois et donc, qui consomment peu d'energie. Une des applications complementaires des SET qui attire l'attention est son utilisation dans des circuits de memoire. Une memoire monoelectronique (SEM) non volatile a le potentiel d'operer a des frequences de l'ordre des gigahertz ce qui lui permettrait de remplacer en meme temps les memoires mortes de type FLASH et les memoires vives de type DRAM. Une puce SEM permettrait donc ultimement la reunification des deux grands types de memoire au sein des ordinateurs. Cette these porte sur la fabrication de memoires monoelectroniques non volatiles. Le procede de fabrication propose repose sur le procede nanodamascene developpe par C. Dubuc et al. a 1'Universite de Sherbrooke. L'un des avantages de ce procede est sa compatibilite avec le back-end-of-line (BEOL) des circuits CMOS. Ce procede a le potentiel de fabriquer plusieurs couches de circuits memoirestres denses au-dessus de tranches CMOS. Ce document presente, entre autres, la realisation d'un simulateur de memoires monoelectroniques ainsi que les resultats de simulations de differentes structures. L'optimisation du procede de fabrication de dispositifs monoelectroniques et la realisation de differentes architectures de SEM simples sont traitees. Les optimisations ont ete faites a plusieurs niveaux : l'electrolithographie, la gravure de l'oxyde, le soulevement du titane, la metallisation et la planarisation CMP. La caracterisation electrique a permis d'etudier en profondeur les dispositifs formes de jonction de Ti/TiO2 et elle a demontre que ces materiaux ne sont pas appropries. Par contre, un SET forme de jonction de TiN/Al2O3 a ete fabrique et caracterise avec succes a basse temperature. Cette demonstration demontre le potentiel du procede de fabrication et de la deposition de couche atomique (ALD) pour la fabrication de memoires monoelectroniques. Mots-cles: Transistor monoelectronique (SET), memoire monoelectronique (SEM), jonction tunnel, temps de retention, nanofabrication, electrolithographie, planarisation chimicomecanique.

  20. Combined pars plana vitrectomy and Baerveldt glaucoma implant placement for refractory glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Campagnoli, Thalmon R.; Kim, Sung Soo; Smiddy, William E.; Gedde, Steve J.; Budenz, Donald L.; Parrish, Richard K.; Palmberg, Paul F.; Feuer, William; Shi, Wei

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate outcomes of combined pars plana vitrectomy and Baerveldt glaucoma implant (PPV-BGI) placement for refractory glaucoma. METHODS The medical records of 92 eyes (89 patients) that underwent PPV-BGI were retrospectively reviewed, including 43 eyes with neovascular glaucoma (NVG) and 49 eyes with other types of glaucoma (non-NVG). RESULTS Outcome measures were visual acuity (VA), intraocular pressure (IOP), glaucoma medical therapy, complications, and success [VA>hand motions (HM), IOP?6 mm Hg and ?21 mm Hg, no subsequent glaucoma surgery]. Cumulative success rates for the non-NVG group and NVG group were 79% and 40% at 1y, respectively (P=0.038). No difference in the rates of surgical success were found between pars plana and anterior chamber tube placement. Preoperative IOP (mean±SD) was 30.3±11.7 mm Hg in the Non-NVG group and 40.0±10.6 mm Hg in the NVG group, and IOP was reduced to 15±9.5 mm Hg in the non-NVG group and 15±10.5 mm Hg in the NVG at 1y. Number of glaucoma medications (mean±SD) decreased from 2.7±1.3 in the non-NVG group and 2.8±1.3 in the NVG group preoperatively to 0.76±1.18 in the non-NVG group and 0.51±1.00 in the NVG group at 1y. Improvement in VA of ?2 Snellen lines was observed in 25 (27%) eyes, although only 33% of non-NVG eyes and 2.3% of NVG eyes maintained VA better than 20/200 at 1y. Nonclearing vitreous hemorrhage was the most common postoperative complication occurring in 16 (17%) eyes, and postoperative suprachoroidal hemorrhages developed in 5 (5.4%) eyes. CONCLUSION PPV-BGI is a viable surgical option for eyes with refractory glaucoma, but visual outcomes are frequently poor because of ocular comorbidities, especially in eyes with NVG. The location of tube placement does not influence surgical outcome and should be left to the discretion of the surgeon. PMID:26558201

  1. In Vitro Activity of Five Quinolones and Analysis of the Quinolone Resistance-Determining Regions of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE in Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum Clinical Isolates from Perinatal Patients in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Yasuhiro; Nakura, Yukiko; Wakimoto, Tetsu; Nomiyama, Makoto; Tokuda, Tsugumichi; Takayanagi, Toshimitsu; Shiraishi, Jun; Wasada, Kenshi; Kitajima, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Tomio; Nakayama, Masahiro; Mitsuda, Nobuaki; Nakanishi, Isao; Takeuchi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Ureaplasma spp. cause several disorders, such as nongonococcal urethritis, miscarriage, and preterm delivery with lung infections in neonates, characterized by pathological chorioamnionitis in the placenta. Although reports on antibiotic resistance in Ureaplasma are on the rise, reports on quinolone-resistant Ureaplasma infections in Japan are limited. The purpose of this study was to determine susceptibilities to five quinolones of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum isolated from perinatal samples in Japan and to characterize the quinolone resistance-determining regions in the gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes. Out of 28 clinical Ureaplasma strains, we isolated 9 with high MICs of quinolones and found a single parC gene mutation, resulting in the change S83L. Among 158 samples, the ParC S83L mutation was found in 37 samples (23.4%), including 1 sample harboring a ParC S83L–GyrB P462S double mutant. Novel mutations of ureaplasmal ParC (S83W and S84P) were independently found in one of the samples. Homology modeling of the ParC S83W mutant suggested steric hindrance of the quinolone-binding pocket (QBP), and de novo prediction of peptide structures revealed that the ParC S84P may break/kink the formation of the ?4 helix in the QBP. Further investigations are required to unravel the extent and mechanism of antibiotic resistance of Ureaplasma spp. in Japan. PMID:25645833

  2. Accident vasculaire cérébral hémorragique mortel suite à une envenimation par une vipère à corne en Tunisie

    PubMed Central

    Ghezala, Hassen Ben; Snouda, Salah

    2015-01-01

    En Tunisie, parmi les envenimations par animaux terrestres, les morsures de vipéridés sont, après les piqûres de scorpions, les plus fréquentes. La présence d'un syndrome hémorragique est un des principaux critères de gravité. Nous rapportons le cas fatal d'une envenimation vipérine chez un patient de 37 ans sans antécédents qui a consulté nos urgences dans les suites d'une morsure de vipère. L'examen initial note un œdème local de la main gauche avec des ecchymoses et la trace de morsure. Initialement le patient est conscient. La biologie initiale est strictement normale. Quatre heures après son admission, le patient présente brutalement une altération de l’état de conscience. Le scanner cérébral pratiqué en urgence conclut à la présence d'hémorragie méningée, d'hématomes intra cérébraux et de lésions ischémiques diffuses. La biologie de contrôle révèle une coagulation intravasculaire disséminée (CIVD). L’évolution est rapidement défavorable avec décès du patient dans un tableau de coma dépassé. PMID:26327993

  3. CALiPER Report 20.3: Robustness of LED PAR38 Lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Poplawski, Michael E.; Royer, Michael P.; Brown, Charles C.

    2014-12-31

    Three samples of 40 of the Series 20 PAR38 lamps underwent multi-stress testing, whereby samples were subjected to increasing levels of simultaneous thermal, humidity, electrical, and vibrational stress. The results do not explicitly predict expected lifetime or reliability, but they can be compared with one another, as well as with benchmark conventional products, to assess the relative robustness of the product designs. On average, the 32 LED lamp models tested were substantially more robust than the conventional benchmark lamps. As with other performance attributes, however, there was great variability in the robustness and design maturity of the LED lamps. Several LED lamp samples failed within the first one or two levels of the ten-level stress plan, while all three samples of some lamp models completed all ten levels. One potential area of improvement is design maturity, given that more than 25% of the lamp models demonstrated a difference in failure level for the three samples that was greater than or equal to the maximum for the benchmarks. At the same time, the fact that nearly 75% of the lamp models exhibited better design maturity than the benchmarks is noteworthy, given the relative stage of development for the technology.

  4. Outcomes of Late-Onset Bleb-Related Endophthalmitis Treated with Pars Plana Vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ohtomo, Kazuyoshi; Mayama, Chihiro; Ueta, Takashi; Nagahara, Miyuki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate clinical results on bleb-related endophthalmitis (BRE) after trabeculectomy treated with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and to evaluate influence factors for visual prognosis. Methods. Investigating medical records retrospectively, BRE was defined as an endophthalmitis induced by bleb infection. A total of 2018 eyes of 1225 patients who had trabeculectomy between December 2000 and July 2013 were included in this study. Eleven eyes of 11 patients with BRE were performed with PPV. Results. The mean age was 56.6 years. The mean period between trabeculectomy and BRE onset was 7.4 years. The mean period from starting symptom to initiation of treatment for endophthalmitis (PSITE) was 2.3 days. Bleb leakages were observed in 7 eyes (64%). On culture examinations, highly pathogenic bacteria (HPB) were identified in 6 cases (55%). HPB infection was influence factors on visual disturbance (P = .0337). Number of HPB infections is significantly higher in poor visual outcome than without poor visual outcome (P = .0310). Conclusion. Visual prognosis of BRE treated by PPV is significantly better when the pathogenic bacteria are not HPB. Severe visual loss occurred with HPB infection even though patients had appropriate treatments. Physicians need to have careful consideration to prevent bleb infection after trabeculectomy with MMC. PMID:26495137

  5. PAR-4 and anillin regulate myosin to coordinate spindle and furrow position during asymmetric division.

    PubMed

    Pacquelet, Anne; Uhart, Perrine; Tassan, Jean-Pierre; Michaux, Grégoire

    2015-09-28

    During asymmetric cell division, the mitotic spindle and polarized myosin can both determine the position of the cytokinetic furrow. However, how cells coordinate signals from the spindle and myosin to ensure that cleavage occurs through the spindle midzone is unknown. Here, we identify a novel pathway that is essential to inhibit myosin and coordinate furrow and spindle positions during asymmetric division. In Caenorhabditis elegans one-cell embryos, myosin localizes at the anterior cortex whereas the mitotic spindle localizes toward the posterior. We find that PAR-4/LKB1 impinges on myosin via two pathways, an anillin-dependent pathway that also responds to the cullin CUL-5 and an anillin-independent pathway involving the kinase PIG-1/MELK. In the absence of both PIG-1/MELK and the anillin ANI-1, myosin accumulates at the anterior cortex and induces a strong displacement of the furrow toward the anterior, which can lead to DNA segregation defects. Regulation of asymmetrically localized myosin is thus critical to ensure that furrow and spindle midzone positions coincide throughout cytokinesis. PMID:26416962

  6. Pars Plana Vitrectomy and Evisceration Resulting in Death Due to Misdiagnosis of Retinoblastoma in Children

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Tao; Liu, Rongjiao; Lin, Jing; Huang, Huiqun; Li, Xiuling; Yan, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is a curable intraocular malignancy in children. However, in clinical practice, retinoblastoma can sometimes be misdiagnosed and mismanaged, leading to extraocular extension and even death. In this report, a series of 3 cases are related that emphasize the conditions and consequences resulting from misdiagnosis and mismanagement of retinoblastoma. The clinical features, imaging findings, histopatholigical examination, and management in 3 case reports of children with misdiagnosed retinoblastoma are presented. Two of the cases received pars plana vitrectomy after being misdiagnosed with Coats disease or ocular blunt trauma, whereas the third case received evisceration after being misdiagnosed with suppurative endophthalmitis. When the diagnosis of retinoblastoma had been confirmed after a second surgery was performed in our hospital, only 2 of the cases received adjuvant orbital radiotherapy. All 3 cases died of systemic tumor metastases. Intraocular surgical procedures should be avoided in any equivocal case until the possibility of latent retinoblastoma is eliminated. We strongly recommend that early enucleation be executed as soon as possible followed by postoperative adjuvant therapy under conditions wherein an intraocular surgery was inadvertently performed in an eye with retinoblastoma. PMID:26266382

  7. Solution-printed organic semiconductor blends exhibiting transport properties on par with single crystals

    PubMed Central

    Niazi, Muhammad R.; Li, Ruipeng; Qiang Li, Er; Kirmani, Ahmad R.; Abdelsamie, Maged; Wang, Qingxiao; Pan, Wenyang; Payne, Marcia M.; Anthony, John E.; Smilgies, Detlef-M.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Amassian, Aram

    2015-01-01

    Solution-printed organic semiconductors have emerged in recent years as promising contenders for roll-to-roll manufacturing of electronic and optoelectronic circuits. The stringent performance requirements for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) in terms of carrier mobility, switching speed, turn-on voltage and uniformity over large areas require performance currently achieved by organic single-crystal devices, but these suffer from scale-up challenges. Here we present a new method based on blade coating of a blend of conjugated small molecules and amorphous insulating polymers to produce OTFTs with consistently excellent performance characteristics (carrier mobility as high as 6.7?cm2?V?1?s?1, low threshold voltages of<1?V and low subthreshold swings <0.5?V?dec?1). Our findings demonstrate that careful control over phase separation and crystallization can yield solution-printed polycrystalline organic semiconductor films with transport properties and other figures of merit on par with their single-crystal counterparts. PMID:26592862

  8. Low Anticoagulant Heparin Blocks Thrombin-Induced Endothelial Permeability in a PAR-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Joyce N.; Kim, Kyung-mi; Zemskova, Marina A.; Rafikov, Ruslan; Heeke, Brenten; Varn, Matthew N.; Black, Stephen; Kennedy, Thomas P.; Verin, Alexander D.; Zemskov, Evgeny A.

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome are accompanied by thrombin activation and fibrin deposition that enhances lung inflammation, activates endothelial cells and disrupts lung paracellular permeability. Heparin possesses anti-inflammatory properties but its clinical use is limited by hemorrhage and heparin induced thrombocytopenia. We studied the effects of heparin and low anticoagulant 2-O, 3-O desulfated heparin (ODSH) on thrombin-induced increases in paracellular permeability of cultured human pulmonary endothelial cells (EC). Pretreatment with heparin or ODSH blocked thrombin-induced decrease in the EC transendothelial electrical resistance (TER), attenuated thrombin-stimulated paracellular gap formation and actin cytoskeletal rearrangement. Our data demonstrated that heparin and ODSH had inhibitory effects on thrombin-induced RhoA activation and intracellular calcium elevation. Thrombin-stimulated phosphorylation of the cytoskeletal regulatory proteins, myosin light chain and ezrin/radixin/moesin, were also reduced. In these effects, low anticoagulant ODSH was more potent than heparin. Heparin or ODSH alone produced decreases in the EC TER that were abolished by siRNA-mediated depletion of the thrombin receptor, PAR-1. We also demonstrated that, in contrast to heparin, ODSH did not possess thrombin-binding activity. Results suggest that heparin and low anticoagulant ODSH, can interfere with thrombin-activated signaling. PMID:24469066

  9. Solution-printed organic semiconductor blends exhibiting transport properties on par with single crystals.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Muhammad R; Li, Ruipeng; Qiang Li, Er; Kirmani, Ahmad R; Abdelsamie, Maged; Wang, Qingxiao; Pan, Wenyang; Payne, Marcia M; Anthony, John E; Smilgies, Detlef-M; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Giannelis, Emmanuel P; Amassian, Aram

    2015-01-01

    Solution-printed organic semiconductors have emerged in recent years as promising contenders for roll-to-roll manufacturing of electronic and optoelectronic circuits. The stringent performance requirements for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) in terms of carrier mobility, switching speed, turn-on voltage and uniformity over large areas require performance currently achieved by organic single-crystal devices, but these suffer from scale-up challenges. Here we present a new method based on blade coating of a blend of conjugated small molecules and amorphous insulating polymers to produce OTFTs with consistently excellent performance characteristics (carrier mobility as high as 6.7?cm(2)?V(-1)?s(-1), low threshold voltages of<1?V and low subthreshold swings <0.5?V?dec(-1)). Our findings demonstrate that careful control over phase separation and crystallization can yield solution-printed polycrystalline organic semiconductor films with transport properties and other figures of merit on par with their single-crystal counterparts. PMID:26592862

  10. Mesusage du tramadol par les adolescents et jeunes adultes en situation de rue

    PubMed Central

    Maiga, Djibo Douma; Seyni, Houdou; Moussa, Ali Ousmane; Sidikou, Amadou

    2012-01-01

    L’objectif de cette étude transversale et descriptive était de décrire quelques caractéristiques de l’addiction au Tramadol chez les adolescents et jeunes adultes en situation de rue, rattachés aux centres d’écoute du Service Educatif, Judiciaire et préventif (SEJUP) de Niamey. Le recueil des données a porté sur les variables sociodémographiques et la consommation de tramadol. L’analyse des données a calculé les moyennes, minima, maxima et écarts types. Les résultats indiquent que : trois centres d’écoute sur huit participaient à l’étude. L’échantillon constituait 61 adolescents et jeunes adultes dont l’âge moyen était de 17,49 ans. L’analyse indique que 47 adolescents et jeunes adultes de toutes les catégories sociodémographiques (sexe, niveau d’instruction, provenance familiale ; région de provenance ; antécdents médicaux; antécédents judiciaires) étaient usagers du Tramadol. 46 étaient dépendants du Tramadol. La quantité moyenne consommée était de 1455,31 ± 901,4mg. Le mésusage du tramadol par les jeunes en situation de rue est probablement une des conséquences de la vente illicite et libre des médicaments, dont il est urgent de préciser les données médicales et sociales. PMID:23330046

  11. Tailless and Atrophin control Drosophila aggression by regulating neuropeptide signalling in the pars intercerebralis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Shaun M.; Thomas, Amanda L.; Nomie, Krystle J.; Huang, Longwen; Dierick, Herman A.

    2014-02-01

    Aggressive behaviour is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. However, its mechanisms are poorly understood, and the degree of molecular conservation between distantly related species is unknown. Here we show that knockdown of tailless (tll) increases aggression in Drosophila, similar to the effect of its mouse orthologue Nr2e1. Tll localizes to the adult pars intercerebralis (PI), which shows similarity to the mammalian hypothalamus. Knockdown of tll in the PI is sufficient to increase aggression and is rescued by co-expressing human NR2E1. Knockdown of Atrophin, a Tll co-repressor, also increases aggression, and both proteins physically interact in the PI. tll knockdown-induced aggression is fully suppressed by blocking neuropeptide processing or release from the PI. In addition, genetically activating PI neurons increases aggression, mimicking the aggression-inducing effect of hypothalamic stimulation. Together, our results suggest that a transcriptional control module regulates neuropeptide signalling from the neurosecretory cells of the brain to control aggressive behaviour.

  12. Four Years Old, One Eye, Pars Planitis and Cataract: Surgical Challenges Give Challenging Surprises

    PubMed Central

    García-Rojas, Leonardo; Matiz-Moreno, Humberto; Chávez-Mondragón, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Pars planitis (PP) is an intermediate form of uveitis, which, if left untreated, can result in vision loss. Although phacoemulsification with IOL implantation in eyes with PP often results in improved vision, it represents a surgical challenge due to inflammatory sequelae and the possibility of postoperative complications. This case report describes a 4-year-old male who was admitted for poor visual acuity and severe photophobia. The patient previously received vitreo-retinal surgery on his right eye due to an ‘unknown disease’. Ophthalmological evaluation revealed NLP, pupillary seclusion and band keratopathy in the right eye; echographic scans revealed funnel retinal detachment. The left eye had a visual acuity of CF at 1 foot, minimal band keratopathy, posterior synechiae and the following echographic findings: abundant vitreous opacities and increased chorioretinal thickness (1.6 mm). Complete medical and laboratory assessments found no infectious pathologies. The patient was diagnosed with PP. Anti-inflammatory and immunological therapy was given in order to control inflammation. Within four months, the inflammation was controlled. Slow motion phacoemulsification with iris-retractors was performed. During the surgery, an unexpected challenge was identified: an opaque-vascular retrolental membrane. The membrane was cauterized with diathermy. Primary posterior capsulotomy and membranectomy were performed, followed by a limited anterior vitrectomy. An in-the-bag IOL was implanted successfully, with no postoperative complications, and visual acuity improved to 20/200. PMID:23626571

  13. PAR-CLIP analysis uncovers AUF1 impact on target RNA fate and genome integrity

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Je-Hyun; De, Supriyo; Srikantan, Subramanya; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Grammatikakis, Ioannis; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Kyoung Mi; Noh, Ji Heon; White, Elizabeth J.F.; Martindale, Jennifer L.; Yang, Xiaoling; Kang, Min-Ju; Wood, William H.; Hooten, Nicole Noren; Evans, Michele K.; Becker, Kevin G.; Tripathi, Vidisha; Prasanth, Kannanganattu V.; Wilson, Gerald M.; Tuschl, Thomas; Ingolia, Nicholas T.; Hafner, Markus; Gorospe, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Post-transcriptional gene regulation is robustly regulated by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Here we describe the collection of RNAs regulated by AUF1 (AU-binding factor 1), an RBP linked to cancer, inflammation and aging. Photoactivatable ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) analysis reveals that AUF1 primarily recognizes U-/GU-rich sequences in mRNAs and noncoding RNAs and influences target transcript fate in three main directions. First, AUF1 lowers the steady-state levels of numerous target RNAs, including long noncoding RNA NEAT1, in turn affecting the organization of nuclear paraspeckles. Second, AUF1 does not change the abundance of many target RNAs, but ribosome profiling reveals that AUF1 promotes the translation of numerous mRNAs in this group. Third, AUF1 unexpectedly enhances the steady-state levels of several target mRNAs encoding DNA-maintenance proteins. Through its actions on target RNAs, AUF1 preserves genomic integrity, in agreement with the AUF1-elicited prevention of premature cellular senescence. PMID:25366541

  14. Bilateral optic neuropathy and intraretinal deposits after pars plana vitrectomy in amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Alberto, Rossetti; Luigi, Spedicato; Ambrogio, Fassina; Daniele, Doro

    2015-01-01

    Pathological examination of material from a nonextensive pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) in the right eye provided a diagnosis of nonfamilial amyloidosis in a 68-year-old woman, who presented with bilateral glass wool-like vitreous opacities. Genetic testing revealed a Tyr114Cys mutation in the transthyretin gene. Six months after PPV, perimetry showed intense constriction with a temporal island and central scotoma in the right eye. An extensive PPV was performed in the left eye. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography evidenced bilateral epimacular amyloid deposits and unreported reflective spots within the inner retina. One year later, visual acuity had decreased to 20/400 in the left eye, with mild vitreous opacity, pale cupped optic disc and inferior altitudinal field defect. Bilateral diurnal intraocular pressure, transiently increased after PPV, never exceeded 16 mmHg with medication. Our patient presented optic nerve blood supply impairment, due to amyloidosis, which caused optic atrophy. Epiretinal and intraretinal deposit detection could aid in diagnosing patients with suspected amyloidosis. PMID:25686071

  15. PaR Tensile Truss for Nuclear Decontamination and Decommissioning - 12467

    SciTech Connect

    Doebler, Gary R.

    2012-07-01

    Remote robotics and manipulators are commonly used in nuclear decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) processes. D and D robots are often deployed using rigid telescoping masts in order to apply and counteract side loads. However, for very long vertical reaches (15 meters or longer) and high lift capacities, a telescopic is usually not practical due to the large cross section and weight required to make the mast stiff and resist seismic forces. For those long vertical travel applications, PaR Systems has recently developed the Tensile Truss, a rigid, hoist-driven 'structure' that employs six independent wire rope hoists to achieve long vertical reaches. Like a mast, the Tensile Truss is typically attached to a bridge-mounted trolley and is used as a platform for robotic manipulators and other remotely operated tools. For suspended, rigid deployment of D and D tools with very long vertical reaches, the Tensile Truss can be a better alternative than a telescoping mast. Masts have length limitations that can make them impractical or unworkable as lengths increase. The Tensile Truss also has the added benefits of increased safety, ease of decontamination, superior stiffness and ability to withstand excessive side loading. A Tensile Truss system is currently being considered for D and D operations and spent fuel recovery at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan. This system will deploy interchangeable tools such as underwater hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic shears and crushers, grippers and fuel grapples. (authors)

  16. Contrôle d'une machine asynchrone par estimation robuste de la vitesse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roboam, X.; Hapiot, J. C.; de Fornel, B.; Andrieux, C.

    1992-03-01

    This paper describes the study and the implementation of a variable speed drive for induction motor with no mechanical sensor. Power is supplied by a current-controlled voltage-source inverter. The lack of information (only two line-current sensors) requires an accurate and reliable reconstitution of the main quantities not sensed (flux, speed, torque). The results obtained show the excellent quality of the estimated speed, whatever the operating condition and despite the perturbations applied to the system. This study finally leads to the construction of a prototype. Cet article décrit l'étude et la mise en oeuvre d'un variateur de vitesse pour machine asynchrone sans capteur mécanique et alimentée par un onduleur de tension cotrôlé en courant. Le manque d'information (2 capteurs de courants de ligne uniquement) nécessite la reconstitution fiable et précise des grandeurs fondamentales non mesurées (flux, vitesse, couple). Les résultats obtenus montrent notamment l'excellente qualité de l'estimation de vitesse, quel que soit le point de fonctionnement et en dépit des perturbations auxquelles le système est soumis. Cette étude donne lieu à la réalisation d'un variateur prototype.

  17. Possibilité d'une nouvelle technologie de traitement des minerais de fer de l'Ouenza par radiométrie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idres, A.; Bounouala, M.

    2005-05-01

    En l'absence d'une technologie fiable de traitement des haldes de minerais de fer, les caractéristiques minéralogiques et chimiques complexes et les effets néfastes des résidus miniers posent réellement un problème environnemental. A cet effet, une étude minéralogique et chimique du minerai de fer a été menée en utilisant des techniques multiples (microscopie optique, DRX, FX, MEB). En tenant compte de la nature des résidus, des échantillons représentatifs ont été testés par séparation radiométrique. Plusieurs paramètres ont été caractérisés tels que la vitesse de la bande transporteuse, le temps d'émission des rayons gamma et la granulométrie d'alimentation du procédé. Les résultats ainsi obtenus par cette méthode de séparation sont très significatifs en récupération et en teneur fer. Cependant, cette nouvelle technologie permet d'une part une meilleure valorisation des minerais de fer et d'autre part une réduction du tonnage stocké sur le carreau de la mine.

  18. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth quarter 1993 and summary 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Samples from the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standard in a single well of the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site during fourth quarter 1993. Aluminum, iron, and lead, reported in excess of the SRS Flag 2 criteria at both the K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites during third quarter 1993, were not analyzed fourth quarter.

  19. Croissance Par Epitaxie EN Phase Vapeur aux Organo - et Caracterisation des Heterostructures Contraintes a Base de Phosphur de Indium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Chuong Anh

    Trois systemes heteroepitaxiaux a base de InP:InP/Si, InAs/InP et InAsP/InP ont ete fabriques par epitaxie en phase vapeur aux organo-metalliques (EPVOM)conventionelle. En plus l'epitaxie par couches atomiques (ECA) a ete utilisee pour fabriquer des puits quantiques ultra-minces et des superreseaux a courte periode InAs/InP. L'epitaxie de InP sur le silicium pose des problemes lies a un desaccord de maille de 8%. Les resultats indiquent une relaxation totale de la couche de InP a la temperature de croissance. La contrainte residuelle observee par diffraction de rayons X a haute resolution (DRXHR) et photoluminescence s'explique par une difference dans les coefficients de dilatation thermique de InP et due Si. L'incorporation des impuretes ainsi que la diffusion d'atomes de Si du substrat dans la couche epitaxiale de InP dependent fortement des parametres de croissance. Les resultats montrents que le reseau de dislocations dans les couches de InP deposees sur un substrat de Si mesoriente est suffisamment asymetrique pour creer des constraintes locales. Celles-ci peuvent etre analysees par diffraction de rayons X. Par contre le systeme heteroepitaxial InAs/InP, dont le desaccord de maille est 3.2% peut etre realise sans dislocation a condition que l'epaisseur de toute heterostructure soit gardee inferieure a l'epaisseur critique. Des puits quantiques InAsP/InP a la temperature ambiante montre clairement l'inter et technologique du systeme InAs_ {x}P_{1-x}/InP pour la realisation de dispositifs tels que les modulateurs optiques. L'ECA a ete utilisee pour realiser des puits quantiques simples et des superreseaux a courte periode InAs/InP. Nous avons demontre que cette technique permet d'obtenir des interfaces tres abruptes et des epaisseurs bien definies, et de faire des heterostructures que peuvent combiner une large gamme de semiconducteurs de composition et desaccords de maille varies. Finalement nous avons fait une etude approfondie des modes vibratoires dans les puits quantiques simples et superresseaux a courte periode InAs/InP fabriques par l'ECA. Gr ace a la haute qualite structurale de ces heterostructures, les phonons acoustiques replies et les phonons optiques confines ont ete clairement observes pour la premiere fois dans ce systeme. Pour les puits quantiques multiples InAs _{x}P_{1-x }/InP, une combinaison de differentes techniques de caracterisation optique et structurale est necessaire pour pouvoir determiner l'efficacite de la sequence d'interruption a l'interface utilisee pendant la croissance. Nous avons montre que la photoluminescence, qui est une procedure repandue pour evaluer la qualite de l'interface d'une heterostructure n'est pas suffisante pour determiner la qualite de l'interface InAs_{x}P_ {1-x}/InP. Avec une sequence d'interruption non-optimisee, une grande densite d'etats localises peut etre creee. Dans ce cas le mesures d'absorption et de diffraction de rayons X sont complementaires a celles de photoluminescence. Les positions experimentales en energie des modes d'interface peuvent etre predites par le modele du continuum electrostatique. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  20. Contribution a la modelisation des ecoulements dans les labyrinthes de machines hydrauliques par la methode des elements finis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raihani, Rajaa

    La différence de pression entre l'amont et l'aval de la roue d'une machine hydraulique entraîne des pertes par fuites volumétriques. Pour minimiser ces fuites, les constructeurs de turbines placent souvent entre la roue et la partie fixe une garniture d'étanchéité de type labyrinthes à créneaux dont le rôle et de créer un effet de barrage. L'étude de l'écoulement dans ces labyrinthes fait l'objet de notre étude. L'écoulement stationnaire incompressible est simulé par la résolution des équations de Navier Stokes avec le modèle de la turbulence k- 3 . La couche limite est modélisée a l'aide des lois de paroi. L'application pratique aux labyrinthes à creneaux a permis de faire une analyse complète du comportement de l'écoulement et de faire une comparaison avec des résultats expérimentaux. La confrontation avec deux codes commerciaux a permis d'estimer la précision générale du modèle proposé.

  1. Evaluation of treatment outcomes in a 3 years post-graduate orthodontic program using the peer assessment rating (par)

    PubMed Central

    Bellot-Arcís, Carlos; Montiel-Company, José M.; Gandía-Franco, José L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To maintain high treatment quality it is important to evaluate orthodontic treatment results using objective methods. Outcome assessments allow private practitioners and university students to evaluate their results and raise the level of treatment outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the orthodontic treatment outcome in a post-graduate orthodontics program in the University of Valencia (Spain) and to determine whether the treatment outcome is related to several factors as gender, age at start of the treatment, treatment duration, treatment method, extraction-non extraction treatment and cooperation needed. Material and Methods: A sample of 50 patients treated in the post-graduate clinic was randomly selected. Pre-treatment and post-treatment study casts have been assessed by the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR index). The influence of various factors: gender, age at start of the treatment, treatment duration, treatment method, extraction-non extraction treatment, cooperation needed and number of students finishing each case, were statistically analyzed. Results: According to the PAR index, orthodontic treatment reduced the malocclusion in a mean point reduction of 21.4 (CI 95% 18.7-24.1) and a mean percentage reduction of 80.5% (CI 95% 75.9-85.1). The total of the cases improved, 44% of the patients were in greatly improved category. Conclusions: None of the variables studied influenced significantly the treatment outcomes regarding the PAR. Based on the general classification criteria of the index, the results showed that the patients received a high standard treatment. Key words:Treatment outcome, orthodontics education, PAR Index. PMID:25593657

  2. ANALYSE d'IRM CARDIAQUES MARQUES : AUGMENTATION DE LA ROBUSTESSE DU SUIVI DE LA GRILLE DE TAG PAR DIFFUSION ANISOTROPE

    E-print Network

    Histace, Aymeric

    ANALYSE d'IRM CARDIAQUES MARQU�ES : AUGMENTATION DE LA ROBUSTESSE DU SUIVI DE LA GRILLE DE TAG PAR-vasculaires. Utilisée en routine clinique, l'IRM cardiaque permet la mesure de paramètres anatomiques et fonctionnels du myocarde. Méthode d'acquisition plus récente, l'IRM cardiaque marquée permet quant à elle d'estimer le

  3. Responses of a rice-field cyanobacterium Anabaena siamensis TISTR-8012 upon exposure to PAR and UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rajesh P; Incharoensakdi, Aran; Madamwar, Datta

    2014-10-15

    The effects of PAR and UV radiation and subsequent responses of certain antioxidant enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense systems were studied in a rice field cyanobacterium Anabaena siamensis TISTR 8012. UV radiation resulted in a decline in growth accompanied by a decrease in chlorophyll a and photosynthetic efficiency. Exposure of cells to UV radiation significantly affected the differentiation of vegetative cells into heterocysts or akinetes. UV-B radiation caused the fragmentation of the cyanobacterial filaments conceivably due to the observed oxidative stress. A significant increase of reactive oxygen species in vivo and DNA strand breaks were observed in UV-B exposed cells followed by those under UV-A and PAR radiation, respectively. The UV-induced oxidative damage was alleviated due to an induction of antioxidant enzymatic/non-enzymatic defense systems. In response to UV irradiation, the studied cyanobacterium exhibited a significant increase in antioxidative enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase. Moreover, the cyanobacterium also synthesized some UV-absorbing/screening substances. HPLC coupled with a PDA detector revealed the presence of three compounds with UV-absorption maxima at 326, 331 and 345 nm. The induction of the biosynthesis of these UV-absorbing compounds was found under both PAR and UV radiation, thus suggesting their possible function as an active photoprotectant. PMID:25128787

  4. Polarity protein Par3 controls B-cell receptor dynamics and antigen extraction at the immune synapse

    PubMed Central

    Reversat, Anne; Yuseff, Maria-Isabel; Lankar, Danielle; Malbec, Odile; Obino, Dorian; Maurin, Mathieu; Penmatcha, Naga Venkata Gayathri; Amoroso, Alejandro; Sengmanivong, Lucie; Gundersen, Gregg G.; Mellman, Ira; Darchen, François; Desnos, Claire; Pierobon, Paolo; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    B-cell receptor (BCR) engagement with surface-tethered antigens leads to the formation of an immune synapse, which facilitates antigen uptake for presentation to T-lymphocytes. Antigen internalization and processing rely on the early dynein-dependent transport of BCR–antigen microclusters to the synapse center, as well as on the later polarization of the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC). MTOC repositioning allows the release of proteases and the delivery of MHC class II molecules at the synapse. Whether and how these events are coordinated have not been addressed. Here we show that the ancestral polarity protein Par3 promotes BCR–antigen microcluster gathering, as well as MTOC polarization and lysosome exocytosis, at the synapse by facilitating local dynein recruitment. Par3 is also required for antigen presentation to T-lymphocytes. Par3 therefore emerges as a key molecule in the coupling of the early and late events needed for efficient extraction and processing of immobilized antigen by B-cells. PMID:25631815

  5. Huntingtin Is Required for Epithelial Polarity through RAB11A-Mediated Apical Trafficking of PAR3-aPKC

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Salah; McGuire, John Russel; Yu, Hua; Humbert, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of apical-basolateral polarity is important for both normal development and disease, for example, during tumorigenesis and metastasis. During this process, polarity complexes are targeted to the apical surface by a RAB11A-dependent mechanism. Huntingtin (HTT), the protein that is mutated in Huntington disease, acts as a scaffold for molecular motors and promotes microtubule-based dynamics. Here, we investigated the role of HTT in apical polarity during the morphogenesis of the mouse mammary epithelium. We found that the depletion of HTT from luminal cells in vivo alters mouse ductal morphogenesis and lumen formation. HTT is required for the apical localization of PAR3-aPKC during epithelial morphogenesis in virgin, pregnant, and lactating mice. We show that HTT forms a complex with PAR3, aPKC, and RAB11A and ensures the microtubule-dependent apical vesicular translocation of PAR3-aPKC through RAB11A. We thus propose that HTT regulates polarized vesicular transport, lumen formation and mammary epithelial morphogenesis. PMID:25942483

  6. Comparison of the Changes in Corneal Endothelial Cells after Pars Plana and Anterior Chamber Ahmed Valve Implant

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ji Won; Lee, Jong Yeon; Nam, Dong Heun; Lee, Dae Yeong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the changes in corneal endothelial cells after pars plana Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation with those after the anterior chamber AGV implantation for refractory glaucoma. Methods. The medical records of 18 eyes with pars plana implantation of AGV (ppAGV) were reviewed retrospectively and were compared with 18 eyes with the anterior chamber AGV (acAGV) implant. The preoperative and postoperative endothelial cells, intraocular pressure (IOP), and postoperative complications during the follow-up in both groups were compared. Results. The average follow-up was 18 months. The postoperative endothelial cells in the ppAGV and acAGV groups were 2044 ± 303 and 1904 ± 324, respectively (P = 0.25). The average percentage decrease in the endothelial cells in the ppAGV and acAGV groups at 18 months was 12.5% and 18.4%, respectively, and showed significant difference between the 2 groups (P = 0.01). No difference in IOP control and the number of postoperative glaucoma medications was observed between the 2 groups. Conclusions. Endothelial cell damage in the ppAGV group for refractory glaucoma appeared to be lower than that in the acAGV group. Therefore, pars plana implantation of AGV may be preferred as it may have lower level of endothelial cell damage while maintaining similar level of IOP control. PMID:25694824

  7. Comparison of the changes in corneal endothelial cells after pars plana and anterior chamber ahmed valve implant.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ji Won; Lee, Jong Yeon; Nam, Dong Heun; Lee, Dae Yeong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the changes in corneal endothelial cells after pars plana Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation with those after the anterior chamber AGV implantation for refractory glaucoma. Methods. The medical records of 18 eyes with pars plana implantation of AGV (ppAGV) were reviewed retrospectively and were compared with 18 eyes with the anterior chamber AGV (acAGV) implant. The preoperative and postoperative endothelial cells, intraocular pressure (IOP), and postoperative complications during the follow-up in both groups were compared. Results. The average follow-up was 18 months. The postoperative endothelial cells in the ppAGV and acAGV groups were 2044 ± 303 and 1904 ± 324, respectively (P = 0.25). The average percentage decrease in the endothelial cells in the ppAGV and acAGV groups at 18 months was 12.5% and 18.4%, respectively, and showed significant difference between the 2 groups (P = 0.01). No difference in IOP control and the number of postoperative glaucoma medications was observed between the 2 groups. Conclusions. Endothelial cell damage in the ppAGV group for refractory glaucoma appeared to be lower than that in the acAGV group. Therefore, pars plana implantation of AGV may be preferred as it may have lower level of endothelial cell damage while maintaining similar level of IOP control. PMID:25694824

  8. Coinfection pulmonaire par pneumocystis jirovecii et pseudomonas aeruginosa au cours du SIDA: à propos de deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Mamoudou, Savadogo; Bellaud, Guillaume; Ana, Canestri; Gilles, Pialoux

    2015-01-01

    Rapporter deux cas cliniques de coinfections pulmonaires par Pneumocystis jirovecii et par Pseudomonas aeruginosa chez des patients vivant avec le VIH. Les deux patients étaient âgés respectivement de 32 ans et 46 ans. Un patient a été pris en charge à l'hôpital Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou au Burkina Faso et l'autre a été pris en charge à l'hôpital Ténon de Paris, en France. Les deux souffraient de pneumopathie confirmée à la radiographie et à la tomodensitométrie. L'un des patients était sévèrement immuno déprimé, contrairement à l'autre. L'examen bactériologique dans les crachats avait permis d'isoler Pseudomonas aeruginosa et Pneumocystis jirovecii chez les deux patients. Sous traitement, l’évolution a été favorable. Les coinfections morbides sont relativement fréquentes chez les patients vivant avec le VIH. Devant une symptomatologie respiratoire du sujet vivant avec le VIH, il faut savoir rechercher en plus du Bacille de Koch, Pneumocystis jirovecii et Pseudomonas aeruginosa par un lavage broncho alvéolaire. PMID:26516396

  9. Enhanced Approximate Cloaking by SH and FSH Lining

    E-print Network

    Jingzhi Li; Hongyu Liu; Hongpeng Sun

    2011-10-19

    We consider approximate cloaking from a regularization viewpoint introduced in [13] for EIT and further investigated in [12] [17] for the Helmholtz equation. The cloaking schemes in [12] and [17] are shown to be (optimally) within $|\\ln\\rho|^{-1}$ in 2D and $\\rho$ in 3D of perfect cloaking, where $\\rho$ denotes the regularization parameter. In this paper, we show that by employing a sound-hard layer right outside the cloaked region, one could (optimally) achieve $\\rho^N$ in $\\mathbb{R}^N,\\ N\\geq 2$, which significantly enhances the near-cloak. We then develop a cloaking scheme by making use of a lossy layer with well-chosen parameters. The lossy-layer cloaking scheme is shown to possess the same cloaking performance as the one with a sound-hard layer. Moreover, it is shown that the lossy layer could be taken as a finite realization of the sound-hard layer. Numerical experiments are also presented to assess the cloaking performances of all the cloaking schemes for comparisons.

  10. Caractérisation par spectrométrie photoélectronique (XPS) et spectrométrie d'émission X (XRFS et LEEIXS) de films minces de Ni ou Cu electroless déposés sur substrats polymères

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonnier, M.; Leonard, D.; Goepfert, Y.; Romand, M.

    2004-11-01

    Le procédé electroless est un procédé de métallisation (généralement Ni ou Cu) multi-étapes largement utilisé dans de nombreux secteurs industriels. Dans le cadre du présent travail, nous illustrons la complémentarité des informations apportées par différentes techniques d'analyse de surface et la manière dont l'utilisation de ces outils a conduit au développement de nouvelles approches de la métallisation electroless des surfaces polymères. Plus précisément, nous nous sommes intéressés à la caractérisation par spectrométrie photoélectronique (XPS), spectrométrie de fluorescence X (XRFS) et spectrométrie d'émission X induite par excitation électronique de basse énergie (LEEIXS) (i) de la surface de substrats de polyimide soumis successivement à un traitement plasma sous atmosphère NH{3}, une “activation" par immersion dans une solution acide de chlorure de palladium et à une réduction en solution d'hypophosphite des espèces palladiées chimisorbées, et (ii) des films minces de Ni ou Cu déposés sur les substrats ainsi traités à partir de bains electroless commerciaux.

  11. Improving Recruitment and Reten2on of UW Green Laboratory Cer2fica2on Program Par2cipants Hannah Hainline

    E-print Network

    Brown, Sally

    Par2cipants Hannah Hainline Advisor: Stanley T. Asah School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, University of Washington, Spring 2015 Acknowledgements: I would and retenEon efforts. The primary suggesEon for improvement would be to replace

  12. Methodologie Mathematiques Demonstrations par 'reductio ad absurdum' La base logique: Le principe base sur l'axiome 'tertiur non datur', c'est `a dire du tiers

    E-print Network

    Haak, Bernhard

    principe base sur l'axiome 'tertiur non datur', c'est `a dire du tiers exclu. Cela veut dire qu'une assertion est soit fausse, soit vraie mais rien d'autre (le 'tiers'). Par exemple 'ni vraie ni fausse' pourrait ^etre un tel tiers - mais par axiome on n'accepte pas la possibilit´e d'un tiers. La m´ethode de d

  13. Quality control summary report for the RFI/RI assessment of the submerged sediment core samples taken at Par Pond, Pond C, and L-Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J. II

    1996-12-01

    This report presents a summary of the sediment characterization performed under the direction of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company`s (WSRC) Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) in support of Par Pond, Pond C, and L- Lake. This characterization will be a screening study and will enable the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) to develop a defensible contaminants of concern list for more extensive characterization of the Par Pond, Pond C, and L-Lake.

  14. Structure-Driven Design of Radionuclide Tracers for Non-Invasive Imaging of uPAR and Targeted Radiotherapy. The Tale of a Synthetic Peptide Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Ploug, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Research performed during the last two decades has provided a wealth of information to highlight the role of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in the progression and dissemination of invasive and metastatic cancer. In parallel, our perception of the structure-function relationships in uPAR has been refined to such a level that a rational design of uPAR function as well as compounds specifically targeting defined functions of uPAR are now realistic options. This knowledge opens new avenues for developing therapeutic intervention regimens targeting uPAR as well as for monitoring the effects of such treatments by non-invasive imaging using e.g. positron emission tomography. This mini-review will focus on recent advancements in translational research devoted to non-invasive targeting of uPAR, with a view to molecular imaging of its expression in live individuals as well as specific eradication of these cells by targeted radiotherapy. PMID:23843894

  15. Diagnostic moléculaire d'helicobacter pylori par PCR chez les patients en consultation gastroentérologique au Centre Médical Saint Camille de Ouagadougou

    PubMed Central

    Werme, Karidia; Bisseye, Cyrille; Ouedraogo, Issiaka; Yonli, Albert Théophane; Ouermi, Djénèba; Djigma, Florencia; Moret, Rémy; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Simpore, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'infection par Helicobacter pylori constitue un problème de santé publique notamment dans les pays en développement. Elle entraine une gastrite pouvant évoluer vers des formes sévères d'ulcération et de transformation maligne. La présenté étude avait pour objectif de diagnostiquer H. pylori par des techniques sérologique et moléculaire au Burkina Faso. Méthodes L’étude prospective a été conduite de mars à juin 2012 sur 70 patients venus en consultation dans le service de gastroentérologie au Centre Médical Saint Camille. Le diagnostic de H. pylori a été réalisé par le test ELISA Immunocomb (ORGENICS Ltd, Yavne, Israël) et la PCR sur des biopsies gastriques prélevées sur les patients. Résultats Les pathologies gastroduodénales étaient plus fréquentes chez les patients de plus de 45 ans. Les prévalences de H. pylori étaient respectivement de 88,57% et de 91,43% par sérologie Immunocomb et par PCR. La différence entre les deux techniques n’était pas significative (P = 0,573). La performance de la PCR a été comparée à celle de la technique Immunocomb. Les résultats montrent une sensibilité et une spécificité de 92,2% et 50,0% pour la technique Immunocomb. Conclusion Le diagnostic de H. pylori par PCR est plus spécifique que le test sérologique Immunocomb et devrait être introduit dans le diagnostic de routine de cette bactérie pathogène au Burkina Faso. PMID:26327960

  16. NMDA-receptor inhibition restores Protease-Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) mediated alterations in homeostatic synaptic plasticity of denervated mouse dentate granule cells.

    PubMed

    Becker, Denise; Ikenberg, Benno; Schiener, Sabine; Maggio, Nicola; Vlachos, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    A common feature of neurological diseases is the loss of central neurons, which leads to deafferentation of connected brain regions. In turn, the remodeling of denervated neuronal networks is considered to play an important role for the postlesional recovery, but has also been linked to maladaptive plasticity resulting in disease-related complications such as memory dysfunction or epilepsy. Recent work has indicated that Protease-Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1), which can be activated by thrombin that enters the brain under pathological conditions, alters synaptic plasticity and neuronal excitability. However, the role of PAR1 in lesion-induced synaptic plasticity remains incompletely understood. Here, we used entorhinal denervation of organotypic hippocampal slice cultures to study the effects of PAR1 on denervation-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Our results disclose that PAR1 activation counters the ability of denervated dentate granule cells to increase their excitatory synaptic strength in a compensatory, i.e., homeostatic manner. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this PAR1 effect is rescued by pharmacological inhibition of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDA-R). Thus, NMDA-R inhibitors may restore the ability of denervated neurons to express homeostatic synaptic plasticity under conditions of increased PAR1-activity, which may contribute to their beneficial effects seen in the context of neurological diseases. PMID:25086265

  17. The ParE2–PaaA2 toxin–antitoxin complex from Escherichia coli O157 forms a heterodocecamer in solution and in the crystal

    PubMed Central

    Sterckx, Yann G. J.; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Haesaerts, Sarah; Jové, Thomas; Geerts, Lieselotte; Sakellaris, Viktor; Van Melderen, Laurence; Loris, Remy

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157 paaR2-paaA2-parE2 constitutes a unique three-component toxin–antitoxin (TA) module encoding a toxin (ParE2) related to the classic parDE family but with an unrelated antitoxin called PaaA2. The complex between PaaA2 and ParE2 was purified and characterized by analytical gel filtration, dynamic light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering. It consists of a particle with a radius of gyration of 3.95?nm and is likely to form a heterododecamer. Crystals of the ParE2–PaaA2 complex diffract to 3.8?Å resolution and belong to space group P3121 or P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 142.9, c = 87.5?Å. The asymmetric unit is consistent with a particle of around 125?kDa, which is compatible with the solution data. Therefore, the ParE2–PaaA2 complex is the largest toxin–antitoxin complex identified to date and its quaternary arrangement is likely to be of biological significance. PMID:22684081

  18. Structure-driven design of radionuclide tracers for non-invasive imaging of uPAR and targeted radiotherapy. The tale of a synthetic peptide antagonist.

    PubMed

    Ploug, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Research performed during the last two decades has provided a wealth of information to highlight the role of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in the progression and dissemination of invasive and metastatic cancer. In parallel, our perception of the structure-function relationships in uPAR has been refined to such a level that a rational design of uPAR function as well as compounds specifically targeting defined functions of uPAR are now realistic options. This knowledge opens new avenues for developing therapeutic intervention regimens targeting uPAR as well as for monitoring the effects of such treatments by non-invasive imaging using e.g. positron emission tomography. This mini-review will focus on recent advancements in translational research devoted to non-invasive targeting of uPAR, with a view to molecular imaging of its expression in live individuals as well as specific eradication of these cells by targeted radiotherapy. PMID:23843894

  19. Structural Basis for Par-4 Recognition by the SPRY Domain- and SOCS Box-Containing Proteins SPSB1, SPSB2, and SPSB4

    PubMed Central

    Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Low, Andrew; Sharpe, Timothy D.; Uppenberg, Jonas; Yao, Shenggen; Kuang, Zhihe; Savitsky, Pavel; Lewis, Rowena S.; Nicholson, Sandra E.; Norton, Raymond S.; Bullock, Alex N.

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian SPRY domain- and SOCS box-containing proteins, SPSB1 to SPSB4, belong to the SOCS box family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Substrate recognition sites for the SPRY domain are identified only for human Par-4 (ELNNNL) and for the Drosophila orthologue GUSTAVUS binding to the DEAD-box RNA helicase VASA (DINNNN). To further investigate this consensus motif, we determined the crystal structures of SPSB1, SPSB2, and SPSB4, as well as their binding modes and affinities for both Par-4 and VASA. Mutation of each of the three Asn residues in Par-4 abrogated binding to all three SPSB proteins, while changing EL to DI enhanced binding. By comparison to SPSB1 and SPSB4, the more divergent protein SPSB2 showed only weak binding to Par-4 and was hypersensitive to DI substitution. Par-4(59–77) binding perturbed NMR resonances from a number of SPSB2 residues flanking the ELNNN binding site, including loop D, which binds the EL/DI sequence. Although interactions with the consensus peptide motif were conserved in all structures, flanking sites in SPSB2 were identified as sites of structural change. These structural changes limit high-affinity interactions for SPSB2 to aspartate-containing sequences, whereas SPSB1 and SPSB4 bind strongly to both Par-4 and VASA peptides. PMID:20561531

  20. PAR1-dependent COX-2/PGE2 production contributes to cell proliferation via EP2 receptors in primary human cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Peter Tzu-Yu; Hsieh, Hsi-Lung; Chi, Pei-Ling; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Different protease-activated receptors (PARs) activated by thrombin are involved in cardiovascular disease, via up-regulation of inflammatory proteins including COX-2. However, the mechanisms underlying thrombin-regulated COX-2 expression in human cardiomyocytes remain unclear. Experimental Approach Human cardiomyocytes were used in the study. Thrombin-induced COX-2 protein and mRNA expression, and signalling pathways were determined by Western blot, real-time PCR and COX-2 promoter luciferase reporter assays, and pharmacological inhibitors or siRNAs. PGE2 generation and cell proliferation were also determined. Key Results Thrombin-induced COX-2 protein and mRNA expression, promoter activity and PGE2 release was attenuated by the PAR1 antagonist (SCH79797) or the inhibitors of proteinase activity (PPACK), MEK1/2 (U0126), p38 MAPK (SB202190) or JNK1/2 (SP600125), and transfection with small interfering RNA (siRNA) of PAR1, p38, p42 or JNK2. These results suggested that PAR1-dependent MAPKs participate in thrombin-induced COX-2 expression in human cardiomyocytes. Moreover, thrombin stimulated phosphorylation of MAPKs, which was attenuated by PPACK and SCH79797. Furthermore, thrombin-induced COX-2 expression was blocked by the inhibitors of AP-1 (tanshinone IIA) and NF-?B (helenalin). Moreover, thrombin-stimulated phosphorylation of c-Jun/AP-1 and p65/NF-?B was attenuated by tanshinone IIA and helenalin, respectively, suggesting that thrombin induces COX-2 expression via PAR1/MAPKs/AP-1 or the NF-?B pathway. Functionally, thrombin increased human cardiomyocyte proliferation through the COX-2/PGE2 system linking to EP2 receptors, as determined by proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cyclin D1 expression. Conclusions and Implications These findings demonstrate that MAPKs-mediated activation of AP-1/NF-?B pathways is, at least in part, required for COX-2/PGE2/EP2-triggered cell proliferation in human cardiomyocytes. PMID:24902855

  1. Natural variant of the Helicobacter pylori CagA oncoprotein that lost the ability to interact with PAR1.

    PubMed

    Hashi, Kana; Murata-Kamiya, Naoko; Varon, Christine; Mégraud, Francis; Dominguez-Bello, Maria Gloria; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2014-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori strains carrying the cagA gene are associated with severe disease outcomes, most notably gastric cancer. CagA protein is delivered into gastric epithelial cells by a type IV secretion system. The translocated CagA undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation at the C-terminal EPIYA motifs by host cell kinases. Tyrosine-phosphorylated CagA acquires the ability to interact with and activate SHP2, thereby activating mitogenic signaling and inducing cell morphological transformation (hummingbird phenotype). CagA also interacts with PAR1b via the CM sequence, resulting in induction of junctional and polarity defects. Furthermore, CagA-PAR1b interaction stabilizes the CagA-SHP2 complex. Because transgenic mice systemically expressing CagA develop gastrointestinal and hematological malignancies, CagA is recognized as a bacterium-derived oncoprotein. Interestingly, the C-terminal region of CagA displays a large diversity among H. pylori strains, which influences the ability of CagA to bind to SHP2 and PAR1b. In the present study, we investigated the biological activity of v225d CagA, an Amerindian CagA of H. pylori isolated from a Venezuelan Piaroa Amerindian subject, because the variant CagA does not possess a canonical CM sequence. We found that v225d CagA interacts with SHP2 but not PAR1b. Furthermore, SHP2-binding activity of v225d CagA was much lower than that of CagA of H. pylori isolated from Western countries (Western CagA). v225d CagA also displayed a reduced ability to induce the hummingbird phenotype than that of Western CagA. Given that perturbation of PAR1b and SHP2 by CagA underlies the oncogenic potential of CagA, the v225d strain is considered to be less oncogenic than other well-studied cagA-positive H. pylori strains. PMID:24354359

  2. Étude des Aurores polaires joviennes par Spectro-imagerie UV avec le Télescope spatial Hubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallier, Laurent

    2000-12-01

    Les aurores polaires résultent de la précipitation dans l'atmosphère d'une planète de particules chargées le long des lignes du champ magnétique planétaire. Étudiées sur Terre depuis le début du siècle, les aurores polaires des planètes magnétisées du système solaire ont été révélées par différentes sondes spatiales depuis la fin des années 70. L'observation des aurores permet de cartographier les différentes régions de la magnétosphère de la planète d'où sont originaires les particules qui précipitent, et de comparer les conditions physiques qui y règnent. Jupiter possède une vitesse de rotation plus élevée et un champ magnétique plus intense que ceux de la Terre. Les aurores polaires qu'ony observe, sont produites dans des conditions physiques différentes que sur Terre. L'ultraviolet lointain (1180 Å - 1600 Å) est la région du spectre électromagnétique qui a été utilisée pour observer les aurores de Jupiter depuis l'orbite terrestre avec le télescope spatial Hubble depuis 1992. Les images prises par les caméras à son bord ont permis de découvrir les principales structures aurorales avec une haute résolution spatiale. Elles ont montré des structures complexes en corotation avec la planète. Dans ce travail, à partir d'un jeu d'images UV (vers 1500 Å) à haute résolution spatiale réalisées en 1994 avec la caméra à objets faibles (FOC) à bord du télescope spatial Hubble, je me suis appliqué à déterminer deux ovales principaux de référence, avec lesquels j'ai pu identifier la région de la magnétosphère jovienne d'où sont originaires les particules chargées qui précipitent dans les ovales principaux nord et sud. Cette région est située à l'équateur magnétique entre 20 et 30 rayons joviens, dans une zone où le régime de corotation n'est plus rigide. J'ai identifié deux ovales internes à l'ovale auroral nord, entre lesquels il existe une émission intense de la calotte polaire, qu'il est possible de situer au pied du cornet polaire ou d'identifier avec une aurore diurne, comme on peut en observer sur Terre. Notre équipe a montré qu'il était possible d'identifier l'énergie et la nature des particules qui précipitent dans les régions aurorales à partir de spectres à des résolutions spectrales différentes. J'ai appliqué cette méthode sur des spectres réalisés avec le spectrographe GHRS (Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph) à bord du télescope spatial. Les premiers résultats tendent à montrer que ce sont des électrons de quelques keV qui précipitent dans l'ovale principal, et des protons énergétiques de 1 MeV environ qui précipitent dans la ceinture à basse latitude autour de l'ovale principal et au pied magnétique du tore de plasma du satellite galiléen Io.

  3. A TOCA/CDC-42/PAR/WAVE functional module required for retrograde endocytic recycling

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Zhiyong; Grant, Barth D.

    2015-01-01

    Endosome-to-Golgi transport is required for the function of many key membrane proteins and lipids, including signaling receptors, small-molecule transporters, and adhesion proteins. The retromer complex is well-known for its role in cargo sorting and vesicle budding from early endosomes, in most cases leading to cargo fusion with the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Transport from recycling endosomes to the TGN has also been reported, but much less is understood about the molecules that mediate this transport step. Here we provide evidence that the F-BAR domain proteins TOCA-1 and TOCA-2 (Transducer of Cdc42 dependent actin assembly), the small GTPase CDC-42 (Cell division control protein 42), associated polarity proteins PAR-6 (Partitioning defective 6) and PKC-3/atypical protein kinase C, and the WAVE actin nucleation complex mediate the transport of MIG-14/Wls and TGN-38/TGN38 cargo proteins from the recycling endosome to the TGN in Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results indicate that CDC-42, the TOCA proteins, and the WAVE component WVE-1 are enriched on RME-1–positive recycling endosomes in the intestine, unlike retromer components that act on early endosomes. Furthermore, we find that retrograde cargo TGN-38 is trapped in early endosomes after depletion of SNX-3 (a retromer component) but is mainly trapped in recycling endosomes after depletion of CDC-42, indicating that the CDC-42–associated complex functions after retromer in a distinct organelle. Thus, we identify a group of interacting proteins that mediate retrograde recycling, and link these proteins to a poorly understood trafficking step, recycling endosome-to-Golgi transport. We also provide evidence for the physiological importance of this pathway in WNT signaling. PMID:25775511

  4. Régulation de la production, par des cellules endothéliales, de cytokines pro-inflammatoires après irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meeren, A.; Lafont, H.; Mathé, D.

    1998-04-01

    Gamma irradiation leads to an increased production of interleukin- (IL)-6 and IL-8 by human endothelial cells. In order to regulate the radio-induced production of these pro-inflammatory cytokines, we used the immunoregulatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. These agents were added either before or after a 10 Gy-irradiation. Our results show that it is possible to decrease the radio-induced production of IL-6 and IL-8 with the use of IL-4 and IL-10. Differences in the intensity of the response have been observed according to the time of treatment. The anti-inflammatory potential of both IL-4 and IL-10 was more pronounced when added after irradiation. Après irradiation gamma, des cellules endothéliales humaines ont une production accrue des interleukines (IL-) -6 et -8. Dans le but de réguler la production de ces cytokines pro-inflammatoires, nous avons utilisé des cytokines dites anti-inflammatoires, l'IL-4 et l'IL-10. Ces agents ont été ajoutés soit avant soit après une irradiation de 10Gy. Nos résultats montrent qu'il est possible de diminuer les productions radio-induites d'IL-6 et d'IL-8 par l'IL-4 et l'IL-10. Des différences dans l'intensité de la réponse ont toutefois été observées selon que l'IL-4 ou l'IL-10 ont été ajoutées avant ou après irradiation; leur efficacité anti-inflammatoire étant plus marquée lorsque les cytokines sont ajoutées après l'irradiation.

  5. Simulation d'ecoulements internes compressibles laminaires et turbulents par une methode d'elements finis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebaine, Ali

    1997-08-01

    Ce travail consiste en la simulation numerique des ecoulements internes compressibles bidimensionnels laminaires et turbulents. On s'interesse, particulierement, aux ecoulements dans les ejecteurs supersoniques. Les equations de Navier-Stokes sont formulees sous forme conservative et utilisent, comme variables independantes, les variables dites enthalpiques a savoir: la pression statique, la quantite de mouvement et l'enthalpie totale specifique. Une formulation variationnelle stable des equations de Navier-Stokes est utilisee. Elle est base sur la methode SUPG (Streamline Upwinding Petrov Galerkin) et utilise un operateur de capture des forts gradients. Un modele de turbulence, pour la simulation des ecoulements dans les ejecteurs, est mis au point. Il consiste a separer deux regions distinctes: une region proche de la paroi solide, ou le modele de Baldwin et Lomax est utilise et l'autre, loin de la paroi, ou une formulation nouvelle, basee sur le modele de Schlichting pour les jets, est proposee. Une technique de calcul de la viscosite turbulente, sur un maillage non structure, est implementee. La discretisation dans l'espace de la forme variationnelle est faite a l'aide de la methode des elements finis en utilisant une approximation mixte: quadratique pour les composantes de la quantite de mouvement et de la vitesse et lineaire pour le reste des variables. La discretisation temporelle est effectuee par une methode de differences finies en utilisant le schema d'Euler implicite. Le systeme matriciel, resultant de la discretisation spatio-temporelle, est resolu a l'aide de l'algorithme GMRES en utilisant un preconditionneur diagonal. Les validations numeriques ont ete menees sur plusieurs types de tuyeres et ejecteurs. La principale validation consiste en la simulation de l'ecoulement dans l'ejecteur teste au centre de recherche NASA Lewis. Les resultats obtenus sont tres comparables avec ceux des travaux anterieurs et sont nettement superieurs concernant les ecoulements turbulents dans les ejecteurs.

  6. Interventions to Reduce Drug Abuse in Pars Special Economic Energy Zone

    PubMed Central

    Damari, Behzad; Ahmadi Pishkuhi, Mahin; Masoudiasl, Irvan; Bostanmanesh, Golamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: South Pars special economic energy zone is the world's second largest gas reservoir that was established two decades ago. High incidence of social harms is observed in this region due to various problems such as drug addiction which is of high prevalence. Objectives: The current study aimed at finding the strategies to prevent drug abuse and formulating policies in the region. Materials and Methods: The research method was a combination of nested type (qualitative-quantitative) and analysis of participated stakeholders’ views. The study was conducted from January 2014 to May 2015 in Bushehr province. Intentional sampling was used in qualitative section. Collected data were classified in 3 areas: recognition, directions, and implementation requirements. Results: Different factors were identified affecting the prevalence of drug addiction. Various prevention and treatment interventions have been conducted in response to drug abuse in the region, though they have been often sectional, insular, inconsistent, and immeasurable in terms of impact. After the study, a combination of compulsory, facilitative, and promotional interventions was proposed to reduce drug abuse by 10% within a strategic 5-year plan. These interventions are based on 3 aspects: people, industry, and governance, which have been announced and approved based on a memorandum of understanding. Conclusions: It is necessary to implement simultaneous national interventions as soon as possible to improve the economic, social, political, technological, international, and environmental conditions. In the current study, unlike the previous attempts, national stakeholders, including ministry of petroleum, ministry of health and medical education, interior ministry, ministry of cooperatives, labor, and social welfare, and Iran drug control headquarters have played active roles. This fact is evident in their formulation of a policy document in the region and action plan after reaching a memorandum of understanding.

  7. PAR-2 activation enhances weak acid-induced ATP release through TRPV1 and ASIC sensitization in human esophageal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liping; Oshima, Tadayuki; Shan, Jing; Sei, Hiroo; Tomita, Toshihiko; Ohda, Yoshio; Fukui, Hirokazu; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2015-10-15

    Esophageal visceral hypersensitivity has been proposed to be the pathogenesis of heartburn sensation in nonerosive reflux disease. Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is expressed in human esophageal epithelial cells and is believed to play a role in inflammation and sensation. PAR-2 activation may modulate these responses through adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release, which is involved in transduction of sensation and pain. The transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are both acid-sensitive nociceptors. However, the interaction among these molecules and the mechanisms of heartburn sensation are still not clear. We therefore examined whether ATP release in human esophageal epithelial cells in response to acid is modulated by TRPV1 and ASICs and whether PAR-2 activation influences the sensitivity of TRPV1 and ASICs. Weak acid (pH 5) stimulated the release of ATP from primary human esophageal epithelial cells (HEECs). This effect was significantly reduced after pretreatment with 5-iodoresiniferatoxin (IRTX), a TRPV1-specific antagonist, or with amiloride, a nonselective ASIC blocker. TRPV1 and ASIC3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection also decreased weak acid-induced ATP release. Pretreatment of HEECs with trypsin, tryptase, or a PAR-2 agonist enhanced weak acid-induced ATP release. Trypsin treatment led to the phosphorylation of TRPV1. Acid-induced ATP release enhancement by trypsin was partially blocked by IRTX, amiloride, or a PAR-2 antagonist. Conversely, acid-induced ATP release was augmented by PAR-2 activation through TRPV1 and ASICs. These findings suggested that the pathophysiology of heartburn sensation or esophageal hypersensitivity may be associated with the activation of PAR-2, TRPV1, and ASICs. PMID:26294672

  8. Interdiffusion de puits quantiques controlee par irradiation laser excimere pour l'integration de composants photoniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genest, Jonathan

    L'integration de composants discrets sur un systeme unique, tel une puce electronique, augmente les performances totales du systeme, fait apparaitre de nouvelles fonctionnalites et diminue les couts associes a la fabrication des dispositifs. Ces ameliorations, appliquees au secteur de la microelectronique, sont grandement responsables des avancements importants qu'ont connus les technologies de l'information et des communications au cours des dernieres annees. Puisque la fabrication de circuits photoniques integres necessite l'integration de structures ayant des bandes interdites differentes a partir d'une meme puce semiconductrice, leur niveau d'integration est bien inferieur que celui atteint pour un microprocesseur standard. Parmi les techniques ayant le potentiel de fabriquer des circuits photoniques integres monolithiquement, l'interdiffusion de puits quantique post-expitaxial controlee spatialement augmente la bande interdite d'une heterostructure semiconductrice a l'interieur de regions definies. Le processus d'interdiffusion, active thermiquement, est accelere par la diffusion d'impuretes et de defauts ponctuels tels que les lacunes et les interstitiels. L'hypothese de depart de mes travaux de doctorat suppose que la radiation laser ultra-violette module la diffusion et la generation de defauts ponctuels dans les heterostructures reposant sur les technologies a base de GaAs et d'InP et, consequemment, controle spatialement l'interdiffusion de puits quantiques. Nous avons demontre que lorsque appliquee sur des heterostructures a base de GaAs, l'irradiation laser excimere l'interdiffusion en favorisant la croissance d'un stresseur de surface qui empeche la diffusion des defauts ponctuels vers les puits quantiques. Nous avons souligne l'influence de la vapeur d'eau physisorbee sur la croissance du stresseur et avons determine la resolution spatiale de la technique. Dans les heterostructures basees sur les technologies InP, meme sous le seuil d'ablation, l'absorption des impulsions laser UV favorise la desorption des atomes de surface ce qui genere des defauts ponctuels en concentration excedentaire. Lors d'un recuit thermique, ces defauts ponctuels augmentent la vitesse de l'interdiffusion sous les regions irradiees. Mots cles : Interdiffusion de puits quantique, integration potonique, laser excimere, semiconducteur, InP, GaAs.

  9. Etude par spectrometrie raman de corticosteroides derives de la fluocortolone: trimethylacetate et caproate.

    PubMed

    Gamot, A P; Vergoten, G; Saudemon, M; Fleury, G

    1985-05-01

    Les spectres Raman de trois corticostéroïdes: fluocortolone base, triméthylacétate et caproate de fluocortolone (TMAF et CAF) ontétéenregistrésàl'état polycristallin entre 150 et 4000 cm(-1). Une attribution des raies observées est proposée. Elle a montréla complexitédu problème poséàsavoir la différenciation de trois composés de structure trés voisine. Cependant quelques intervalles de fréquences contenant des raies spécifiques sont susceptibles d'e^tre utilisés afin de permettre l'identification des composésétudiés. Il convient en premier lieu de distinguer tout particulièrement les raies situées entre 1500 et 1800 cm(-1). Dans l'intervalle 1580-1690 cm(-1) celles-ci sont intenses et spécifiques de la structure conjuguée Delta(1,4) 3-one des corticostéroi des ce qui permet de distinguer la classe de médicamentàlaquelle appartiennent les substancesétudiées. La zone de fréquence comprise entre 1690 et 1750 cm(-1) témoigne non seulement de la présence d'une fonction cétonique sur la chai^ne latérale mais aussi de l'existence d'une fonction ester suivant que l'on y trouve respectivement une ou deux raies (fluocortolone base 1701 cm(-1); TMAF 1728, 1745 cm(-1); CAF 1723, 1745 cm(-1). La fluocortolone base présenteà1635 cm(-1) une raie qui n'est pas retrouvée chez les dérivès estérifiés. En second lieu, nous retiendrons les zones spectrales représentatives des chai^nes latérales est?rifiées fixées sur le carbone C(21): chai^ne triméthylacétate 340-360, 570-610, 750-810 cm(-1) (dans cette dernière région commune au caproate et au triméthylacétate la différenciation des deux composés se fait grâceàla raieà796 cm(-1) absente dans le spectre du caproate); chai^ne caproate 1310-1350 cm(-1) (dans cet intervalle, le caproate présente un profil très particulier avec trois raies d'intensitévoisine). Cet ensemble de résultats doite^tre utilisépour identifier ces substances par spectroscopie Raman sur des quantitiés de l'ordre du picogramme provenant d'éluat d'HPLC. PMID:18963862

  10. Diffractométrie de poudres d'alliages de tungstène nanostructurées par mécanosynthèse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avettand-Fènoël, M.-N.; Taillard, R.; Dhers, J.; Parmentier, Ph.; Foct, J.

    2002-07-01

    High energy ball milling carried out in a planetary ball mill is generally used to alloy elementary powders and to obtain nanostructures. The latter advantages urge us to elaborate pure tungsten or blends of tungsten and yttria powders by means of this process. The obtained powders are then sintered in order to achieve creepproof materials at high temperature. The ball-to-powder ratio is constant during the experiments. The effects of different milling parameters (number of balls: 2, 16, 92 ; milling time: 5mn, 20mn, 40mn, 80mn, rotational speed: 200 or 300 or 400rpm, nature of the milling system: stainless steel or tungsten carbide system) and of the composition of blends (volumetric content of second phase) are examined. The results concern nanocrystals in the powder particles, the strain level of powder particles, the formation of alloys and the oxide particles dispersion. The difficulties and advantages of the characterization techniques are developed. The consequences of structural changes are outlined and the mechanisms of the alloy evolution discussed. Le broyage à haute énergie effectué dans un broyeur planétaire de type Fritsch Pulvérisette 6 permet à la fois de mettre en alliage des poudres élémentaires mais aussi d'obtenir une nanostructure. Ces avantages privilégient l'emploi de cette technique pour l'élaboration de poudres à partir de particules de tungstène pur, ou de mélanges de particules de tungstène et d'oxyde d'yttrium. Les poudres obtenues sont ensuite frittées dans le but d'obtenir des matériaux à forte résistance au fluage à haute température. Le rapport entre la masse des billes et celle de la poudre déformée, a été maintenue constante au cours des expériences. Les effets des différents paramètres de broyage (nombre de billes : 2, 16, 92 ; durée de broyage: 5 mn, 20 mn, 40 mn, 80 mn ; vitesse de broyage: 200, 300, 400 tours par minute ; nature du système de broyage système en acier inoxydable ou en carbure de tungstène) et de la composition du mélange d'origine (teneur volumique de seconde phase) sont examinés. Les résultats concernent les nanocristaux au sein des particules de poudre, le taux de déformation des particules de poudre, la mise en alliage mécanique ou la distribution géométrique des particules d'oxyde. Les difficultés et avantages respectifs des différentes techniques d'analyse sont dégagés. Les conséquences pratiques des modifications structurales sont esquissées et les mécanismes de l'évolution de l'alliage soumis aux impacts discutés.

  11. La prise en charge des troubles de santé mentale par les omnipraticiens du Québec

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Farand, Lambert; Aubé, Denise; Imboua, Armelle

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Cette recherche vise à documenter la prise en charge des troubles mentaux (TM) par les omnipraticiens. Type d’étude Il s’agit d’une étude mixte intégrant un questionnaire auto-administré et des entrevues qualitatives. La banque de données administratives des actes médicaux de la Régie de l’assurance maladie du Québec a aussi été analysée. Contexte La province de Québec. Participants Un total de 1415 omnipraticiens de différents lieux de pratiques ont été sollicités pour le questionnaire; 970 ont été rejoints. Un sous-groupe de 60 omnipraticiens a été rejoint pour les entrevues. Principaux paramètres à l'étude La prévalence annuelle des consultations reliées à des TM courants (TMC) ou graves (TMG), les pratiques cliniques, les pratiques de collaboration, les facteurs facilitant ou entravant la prise en charge des TM, ainsi que les recommandations pour l’amélioration du système de soins. Résultats Le taux de réponse a été de 41% (n = 398 omnipraticiens) pour le questionnaire et de 63% (n = 60) pour les entrevues. Environ 25 % des visites chez les omnipraticiens sont associées à des TM. Presque tous les omnipraticiens prennent en charge des TMC et se sentent compétents pour le faire, à l’inverse de la situation retrouvée pour les TMG. Près de 20 % des TMC sont référés (principalement à des intervenants psychosociaux), alors que près de 75 % des TMG sont référés (surtout en psychiatrie et à l’urgence). Plus de 50 % des omnipraticiens affirment n’entretenir aucun contact avec l’une ou l’autre des ressources de santé mentale. Plusieurs facteurs influencent la prise en charge des TM: les profils des patients (complexité des TM, troubles concomitants); les caractéristiques des omnipraticiens (réseau informel, formation); la culture professionnelle (travail en silo, mécanismes cliniques formalisés); le milieu institutionnel (multidisciplinarité, salariat); l’organisation des services (ressources; coordination formalisée) et l’environnement (politiques). Conclusion Le rôle clé des omnipraticiens et leur soutien à la prise en charge des TM ont été démontrés, spécifiquement pour les TMC. Pour une prise en charge optimale des soins primaires de santé mentale, des stratégies à composantes multiples, dont les soins partagés, devraient être davantage déployées.

  12. Care for Cardiac Arrest on Golf Courses: Still Not up to Par?

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Leisa; Paternoster, Ryan; Putman, Kevin; Fales, William; Swor, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction. Early CPR and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) have been shown to improve cardiac arrest (CA) outcomes. Placement of AEDs on golf courses has been advocated for more than a decade, with many trade golf publications calling for their use. Objective. To describe the incidence and treatment of CAs at Michigan golf courses and assess the response readiness of their staff. Methods. We performed a retrospective study of CA on Michigan golf courses from 2010 to 2012. Cases were identified from the Michigan EMS Information (MI-EMSIS) database. Cases with "golf" or "country club" were manually reviewed and location type was confirmed using Google Maps. We conducted a structured telephone survey capturing demographics, course preparedness, including CPR training and AED placement, and a description of events, including whether CPR was performed and if an AED was used. Our primary area of interest was the process of care. We also recorded return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) as an outcome measure. EMS Utstein data were collected from MI-EMSIS. Descriptive data are presented. Results. During the study period, there were 14,666 CAs, of which 40 (0.18%) occurred on 39 golf courses (1 arrest/64 courses/year). Of these, 38 occurred between May and October, yielding a rate of 1 arrest/33.5 courses/golf season. Almost all (96.2%) patients were male, mean age 66.3 (range 45-85), 68% had VT/VF, and 7 arrested after EMS arrival. Mean interval from 9-1-1 call to EMS arrival at the patient was 9:45 minutes (range 3-20). Of all cases, 24 (72.3%) patients received CPR with 2 patients having CPR performed by course staff. Although AEDs were available at 9 (22.5%) courses, they were only placed on 2 patients prior to EMS arrival. Sustained ROSC was obtained in 12 (30.0%) patients. Only 7, (17.9%) courses required CPR/AED training of staff. Conclusion. When seasonally adjusted, the rate of cardiac arrest on Michigan golf courses is similar to that of other public locations. AED use was rare even when available. Preparedness for and response during a CA is suboptimal. Despite more than a decade of advocacy, response to golf course cardiac arrest is still not up to par. PMID:25153828

  13. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment associated with massive spontaneous suprachoroidal hemorrhage and prognosis of pars plana vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Tang, Luo-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    AIM To describe the clinical characters of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) associated with massive spontaneous suprachoroidal hemorrhage (SSCH). To evaluate optimal timing and prognosis of pars plana vitrectomy. METHODS A retrospective review of 6 cases (6 eyes) of RRD and massive SSCH among 3772 cases of RRD was conducted. All of 6 patients were treated with twenty-gauge vitrectomy, suprachoroidal blood drainage, phacoemulsification (PHACO) or lensectomy and silicon oil tamponade. The clinical characters, intraoperative findings and treatment outcomes were reported. RESULTS In the 6 affected eyes of 6 patients (3 men and 3 women; mean age, 53.83y; range 34-61y), preoperative visual acuity ranged from faint light perception (LP) to counting finger (CF). The average interventional duration from visual decreased to surgery was 12.8 d (range 9-15d). All eyes were associated with high myopia and the mean ocular length was 30.32 mm (range 28.14-32.32 mm). Choroidal hemorrhage were successfully drained in the operation of all 6 eyes. Intraoperative findings showed there were multiple retinal breaks in all 6 eyes and in 4 eyes breaks were along supratemporal and/or infratemporal retinal vascular arcade, especially in the edge of chorioretinal atrophy areas. These patients were followed up from 6 to 34mo (Mean, 23.5mo). The best-corrected visual acuity after surgery varied from CF to 20/100, with improvement in 5 eyes (83.33%) and no change in 1 eye (16.67%). Ocular hypertension ocurred in 1 eye (16.67%), which was successfully treated by silicon oil removal combined with trabeculectomy. In 4 eyes, tractional retinal detachment caused by proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) appeared and a secondary surgery of pre-retinal membrane peeling and silicon oil retained were performed. In 4 eyes, silicon oil cannot be removed. The initial and final reattachment rates were 33.33% and 66.67%, respectively. CONCLUSION RRD associated with massive SSCH is an extremely rare event. The most common risk factor is long axial length. Vitrectomy and choroidal blood drainage can effectively remove suprachoroidal hemorrhage and promote retinal reattachment in these eyes. However, silicon oil could not be removed in most eyes and final visual acuities are generally poor. PMID:25349805

  14. Range 7 Scanner Integration with PaR Robot Scanning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuler, Jason; Burns, Bradley; Carlson, Jeffrey; Minich, Mark

    2011-01-01

    An interface bracket and coordinate transformation matrices were designed to allow the Range 7 scanner to be mounted on the PaR Robot detector arm for scanning the heat shield or other object placed in the test cell. A process was designed for using Rapid Form XOR to stitch data from multiple scans together to provide an accurate 3D model of the object scanned. An accurate model was required for the design and verification of an existing heat shield. The large physical size and complex shape of the heat shield does not allow for direct measurement of certain features in relation to other features. Any imaging devices capable of imaging the entire heat shield in its entirety suffers a reduced resolution and cannot image sections that are blocked from view. Prior methods involved tools such as commercial measurement arms, taking images with cameras, then performing manual measurements. These prior methods were tedious and could not provide a 3D model of the object being scanned, and were typically limited to a few tens of measurement points at prominent locations. Integration of the scanner with the robot allows for large complex objects to be scanned at high resolution, and for 3D Computer Aided Design (CAD) models to be generated for verification of items to the original design, and to generate models of previously undocumented items. The main components are the mounting bracket for the scanner to the robot and the coordinate transformation matrices used for stitching the scanner data into a 3D model. The steps involve mounting the interface bracket to the robot's detector arm, mounting the scanner to the bracket, and then scanning sections of the object and recording the location of the tool tip (in this case the center of the scanner's focal point). A novel feature is the ability to stitch images together by coordinates instead of requiring each scan data set to have overlapping identifiable features. This setup allows models of complex objects to be developed even if the object is large and featureless, or has sections that don't have visibility to other parts of the object for use as a reference. In addition, millions of points can be used for creation of an accurate model [i.e. within 0.03 in. (=0.8 mm) over a span of 250 in. (=635 mm)].

  15. Laminar segregation of GABAergic neurons in the avian nucleus isthmi pars magnocellularis: a retrograde tracer and comparative study.

    PubMed

    Faunes, Macarena; Fernández, Sara; Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Cristián; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Wylie, Douglas R; Mpodozis, Jorge; Karten, Harvey J; Marín, Gonzalo

    2013-06-01

    The isthmic complex is part of a visual midbrain circuit thought to be involved in stimulus selection and spatial attention. In birds, this circuit is composed of the nuclei isthmi pars magnocellularis (Imc), pars parvocellularis (Ipc), and pars semilunaris (SLu), all of them reciprocally connected to the ipsilateral optic tectum (TeO). The Imc conveys heterotopic inhibition to the TeO, Ipc, and SLu via widespread ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic axons that allow global competitive interactions among simultaneous sensory inputs. Anatomical studies in the chick have described a cytoarchitectonically uniform Imc nucleus containing two intermingled cell types: one projecting to the Ipc and SLu and the other to the TeO. Here we report that in passerine species, the Imc is segregated into an internal division displaying larger, sparsely distributed cells, and an external division displaying smaller, more densely packed cells. In vivo and in vitro injections of neural tracers in the TeO and the Ipc of the zebra finch demonstrated that neurons from the external and internal subdivisions project to the Ipc and the TeO, respectively, indicating that each Imc subdivision contains one of the two cell types hodologically defined in the chick. In an extensive survey across avian orders, we found that, in addition to passerines, only species of Piciformes and Rallidae exhibited a segregated Imc, whereas all other groups exhibited a uniform Imc. These results offer a comparative basis to investigate the functional role played by each Imc neural type in the competitive interactions mediated by this nucleus. PMID:23124899

  16. Incidence du carcinome hépatocellulaire lors de l'infection chronique par le virus de l'hépatite B

    PubMed Central

    Ntagirabiri, Rénovat; Munezero, Bélyse; Kaze, Hippolyte; Ndirahisha, Eugène; Manirakiza, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Le virus de l'hépatite B (VHB) est incriminé comme cause de cancer primitif du foie. Le stade de fibrose et d'autres facteurs environnementaux et génétiques seraient intriqués. Le but de notre travail était de déterminer l'incidence du carcinome hépatocellulaire (CHC) lors d'une infection chronique par le VHB et estimer le risque relatif (RR) de CHC lié au stade de la fibrose hépatique. Méthodes Étude prospective de suivi d'une cohorte de patients porteurs chroniques du VHB sur une période de 5 ans (2009 à 2014). Etaient inclus les patients consécutifs qui ont subi un dosage de la charge virale B, une évaluation de la fibrose hépatique et un suivi régulier de tous les 6 à 12 mois par une échographie hépatique. Résultats Au total 194 patients ont été retenus. L’âge moyen était de 39,1 ans. Parmi eux 112 étaient des hommes. L'incidence cumulée de CHC a été de 8,8% dans la population d’étude soit une incidence annuelle de 1,8%. Selon le stade de fibrose, 31 patients avaient une fibrose sévère ou une cirrhose (score Fibrotest >0,73). Parmi eux, l'incidence cumulée de CHC était de 35,5% soit une incidence annuelle estimée à 7,10%. Parmi 163 patients ayant une fibrose mineure, l'incidence cumulée de CHC était de 3,7% soit une incidence annuelle de 0,7%. Le RR lié à la cirrhose était de 9,7; IC 95%: (3,8-24,1%). Conclusion Le VHB expose au CHC jusqu’à 10 fois. La fibrose sévère et la cirrhose constituent des facteurs prédictifs de CHC chez le porteur chronique du VHB. Evaluer systématiquement la fibrose pour traiter précocement les malades pourra prévenir l’évolution vers la cirrhose et par là réduire la survenue du CHC. PMID:26113910

  17. Analyse numérique du problème de déplacement du noyau fondu en soudage par points de tôles à différentes épaisseurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkedda, Y.; Tahar Chaouch, K.; Ibrir, B.

    2005-05-01

    Le soudage par résistance par points est une technique d'assemblage très répandue, en particulier dans l'industrie automobile, parce qu'elle est rapide, fiable et bon marché. Pour cela, la réalisation d'un point de soudure de qualité reste encore une préoccupation de l'industrie, surtout lorsqu'il s'agit de souder des tôles à différentes épaisseurs. Les premiers modèles mathématiques et expérimentaux qui couvrent ces différents aspects, sont principalement dirigés vers les modèles de transfert de chaleur ou vers les phénomènes de surfaces (modèles de surfaces) ; ces derniers, sont un problème d'importance, puisqu'ils interviennent chaque fois qu'un transfert de chaleur s'effectue entre deux solides accolés. Les physiciens ont étudie expérimentalement la réponse de la région de contact de deux solides aux pulsations de courant. Ils ont montré que le contact possède une résistance de resserrement due aux aspérités de surface, et que la température moyenne à l'interface des deux solides sous un chargement uniforme produit un adoucissement local lequel fait augmenter la région de contact. Le but de ce travail est consacré à l'analyse de l'influence des épaisseurs de tôles sur la position du noyau fondu. Expérimentalement, il a été montré que lorsque le rapport des épaisseurs est compris entre 1/1 et 1/10, le noyau fondu se déplace vers la pièce la plus épaisse. Ce phénomène peut s'expliquer à partir d'une étude thermique. Nous proposons donc, de résoudre le problème de transfert thermique transitoire associé au processus de soudage par points moyennant une méthode numérique. Ce modèle est capable de prédire l'évolution du noyau fondu en fonction des paramètres du procédé à savoir l'intensité de soudage et temps de soudage, ainsi que la répartition thermique en chaque point de l'assemblage.

  18. Modélisation de la dynamique de la chaîne peptidique des protéines en solution par RMN à travers les couplages dipolaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvignies, G.; Bernadó, P.; Blackledge, M.

    2005-11-01

    L'activité d'une protéine est liée non seulement à sa structure, mais également à sa dynamique, et il est important de connaître la nature de ses mouvements pour comprendre sa fonction biologique. La résonance magnétique nucléaire est particulièrement utile pour étudier la dynamique d'une molécule en solution sur une gamme de temps de corrélation très large. En particulière, la relaxation des spins 15N ou 13C donne accès aux mouvements moléculaires avec les temps caractéristiques entre les dizaines de picosecondes et le temps de corrélation rotationelle de la molécule (autour de 10ns pour une protéine monomérique de 20 kD à 300 K). Les vitesses de relaxation dépendent de la flexibilité de chaque site, et peuvent être caractérisé en termes d'amplitude et de temps caractéristique locale. La précision de ces paramètres et sa compréhension en termes de fonction exigent que la réorientation globale de la molécule soit correctement prise en compte. Ces méthodes expérimentales, qui seront présentées ici brièvement, font maintenant partie de la panoplie d'expériences appliquées dans l'étude de la relation structure-dynamique d'une protéine et ses partenaires. Néanmoins les mouvements plus lents, entre la nano et la milliseconde, sont plus difficiles à étudier, et il y a très peu d'information disponible sur la nature de la dynamique de la chaîne peptidique dans cette gamme de temps par RMN. Très récemment de nouvelles méthodologies ont été proposées, basées sur l'alignement préférentiel d'une protéine par rapport au champ magnétique, induit par dissolution de la molécule dans un cristal liquide très dilué. Dans ces conditions les changements conformationels sur des temps caractéristique plus lents (jusqu'au millisecondes) peuvent être étudiés. Nous présenterons cette technique, et quelques résultats, comparant la dynamique rapide (ps-ns), et plus lente le long de la chaîne peptidique de quatre protéines.

  19. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulatory subunits ParA and PabA orchestrate septation and conidiation and are essential for PP2A activity in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Guo-wei; Jiang, Ping; Qiao, Wei-ran; Zhang, Yuan-wei; Wei, Wen-fan; Lu, Ling

    2014-12-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a major intracellular protein phosphatase that regulates multiple aspects of cell growth and metabolism. Different activities of PP2A and subcellular localization are determined by its regulatory subunits. Here we identified and characterized the functions of two protein phosphatase regulatory subunit homologs, ParA and PabA, in Aspergillus nidulans. Our results demonstrate that ParA localizes to the septum site and that deletion of parA causes hyperseptation, while overexpression of parA abolishes septum formation; this suggests that ParA may function as a negative regulator of septation. In comparison, PabA displays a clear colocalization pattern with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-stained nuclei, and deletion of pabA induces a remarkable delayed-septation phenotype. Both parA and pabA are required for hyphal growth, conidiation, and self-fertilization, likely to maintain normal levels of PP2A activity. Most interestingly, parA deletion is capable of suppressing septation defects in pabA mutants, suggesting that ParA counteracts PabA during the septation process. In contrast, double mutants of parA and pabA led to synthetic defects in colony growth, indicating that ParA functions synthetically with PabA during hyphal growth. Moreover, unlike the case for PP2A-Par1 and PP2A-Pab1 in yeast (which are negative regulators that inactivate the septation initiation network [SIN]), loss of ParA or PabA fails to suppress defects of temperature-sensitive mutants of the SEPH kinase of the SIN. Thus, our findings support the previously unrealized evidence that the B-family subunits of PP2A have comprehensive functions as partners of heterotrimeric enzyme complexes of PP2A, both spatially and temporally, in A. nidulans. PMID:25280816

  20. Expression of the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and its ligand (uPA) in brain tissues of human immunodeficiency virus patients with opportunistic cerebral diseases.

    PubMed

    Nebuloni, Manuela; Cinque, Paola; Sidenius, Nicolai; Ferri, Angelita; Lauri, Eleonora; Omodeo-Zorini, Elisabetta; Zerbi, Pietro; Vago, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and its ligand (uPA) play an important role in cell migration and extracellular proteolysis. We previously described uPAR/uPA overexpression in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissues of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related cerebral diseases. In this study, we examined uPAR/uPA expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in brains of HIV patients with opportunistic cerebral lesions and in HIV-positive/negative controls. uPAR was found in macrophages/microglia with the highest levels in cytomegalovirus (CMV) encephalitis, toxoplasmosis, and lymphomas; in cryptococcosis and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) cases, only a few positive cells were found and no positivity was observed in controls. uPA expression was demonstrated only in a few macrophages/microglia and lymphocytes in all the cases and HIV-positive controls without different pattern of distribution; no uPA immunostaining was found in cryptococcosis and HIV-negative controls. The higher expression of uPAR/uPA in most of the opportunistic cerebral lesions supports their role in these diseases, suggesting their contribution to tissue injury. PMID:19115132

  1. Influence of Genetic Ancestry on INDEL Markers of NFK?1, CASP8, PAR1, IL4 and CYP19A1 Genes in Leprosy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Pablo; Salgado, Claudio; Santos, Ney Pereira Carneiro; Santos, Sidney; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Leprosy is an insidious infectious disease caused by the obligate intracellular bacteria Mycobacterium leprae, and host genetic factors can modulate the immune response and generate distinct categories of leprosy susceptibility that are also influenced by genetic ancestry. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the possible effects of CYP19A1 [rs11575899], NFK?1 [rs28362491], IL1? [rs3783553], CASP8 [rs3834129], UGT1A1 [rs8175347], PAR1 [rs11267092], CYP2E1 [INDEL 96pb] and IL4 [rs79071878] genes in a group of 141 leprosy patients and 180 healthy individuals. The INDELs were typed by PCR Multiplex in ABI PRISM 3130 and analyzed with GeneMapper ID v3.2. The NFK?1, CASP8, PAR1 and IL4 INDELs were associated with leprosy susceptibility, while NFK?1, CASP8, PAR1 and CYP19A1 were associated with the MB (Multibacilary) clinical form of leprosy. Conclusions/Significance NFK?1 [rs28362491], CASP8 [rs3834129], PAR1 [rs11267092] and IL4 [rs79071878] genes are potential markers for susceptibility to leprosy development, while the INDELs in NFK?1, CASP8, PAR1 and CYP19A1 (rs11575899) are potential markers for the severe clinical form MB. Moreover, all of these markers are influenced by genetic ancestry, and European contribution increases the risk to leprosy development, in other hand an increase in African contribution generates protection against leprosy. PMID:26367014

  2. Arp2/3 mediates early endosome dynamics necessary for the maintenance of PAR asymmetry in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Shivas, Jessica M.; Skop, Ahna R.

    2012-01-01

    The widely conserved Arp2/3 complex regulates branched actin dynamics that are necessary for a variety of cellular processes. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the actin cytoskeleton has been extensively characterized in its role in establishing PAR asymmetry; however, the contributions of actin to the maintenance of polarity before the onset of mitosis are less clear. Endocytic recycling has emerged as a key mechanism in the dynamic stabilization of cellular polarity, and the large GTPase dynamin participates in the stabilization of cortical polarity during maintenance phase via endocytosis in C. elegans. Here we show that disruption of Arp2/3 function affects the formation and localization of short cortical actin filaments and foci, endocytic regulators, and polarity proteins during maintenance phase. We detect actin associated with events similar to early endosomal fission, movement of endosomes into the cytoplasm, and endosomal movement from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane, suggesting the involvement of actin in regulating processes at the early endosome. We also observe aberrant accumulations of PAR-6 cytoplasmic puncta near the centrosome along with early endosomes. We propose a model in which Arp2/3 affects the efficiency of rapid endocytic recycling of polarity cues that ultimately contributes to their stable maintenance. PMID:22456506

  3. H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    Groundwater samples from the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Construction Permit 12,076. Samples from the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 13,173. All samples are also analyzed as requested for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permits. No constituents exceeded the SCDHEC final Primary Drinking Water Standard in any well from the H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites. Aluminum, iron, lead, and manganese, which were above standards and Flag 2 criteria in one or more wells in the three sites during first quarter 1994, were not analyzed this quarter. Second quarter results are similar to results for fourth quarter 1993.

  4. Entamoeba histolytica-secreted cysteine proteases induce IL-8 production in human mast cells via a PAR2-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Ah; Nam, Young Hee; Min, Arim; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Saito-Nakano, Yumiko; Mirelman, David; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an extracellular tissue parasite causing colitis and occasional liver abscess in humans. E. histolytica-derived secretory products (SPs) contain large amounts of cysteine proteases (CPs), one of the important amoebic virulence factors. Although tissue-residing mast cells play an important role in the mucosal inflammatory response to this pathogen, it is not known whether the SPs induce mast cell activation. In this study, when human mast cells (HMC-1 cells) were stimulated with SPs collected from pathogenic wild-type amoebae, interleukin IL-8 mRNA expression and production were significantly increased compared with cells incubated with medium alone. Inhibition of CP activity in the SPs with heat or the CP inhibitor E64 resulted in significant reduction of IL-8 production. Moreover, SPs obtained from inhibitors of cysteine protease (ICP)-overexpressing amoebae with low CP activity showed weaker stimulatory effects on IL-8 production than the wild-type control. Preincubation of HMC-1 cells with antibodies to human protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) did not affect the SP-induced IL-8 production. These results suggest that cysteine proteases in E. histolytica-derived secretory products stimulate mast cells to produce IL-8 via a PAR2-independent mechanism, which contributes to IL-8-mediated tissue inflammatory responses during the early phase of human amoebiasis. PMID:24502918

  5. Determination of production biology of cladocera in a reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents from a nuclear production reactor. [Par Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Vigerstad, T J

    1980-01-01

    The effects on zooplankton of residence in a cooling reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents directly from a nuclear-production-reactor were studied. Rates of cladoceran population production were compared at two stations in the winter and summer of 1976 on Par Pond located on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC. One station was located in an area of the reservoir directly receiving hyperthermal effluent (Station MAS) and the second was located about 4 km away in an area where surface temperatures were normal for reservoirs in the general geographical region (Station CAS). A non-parametric comparison between stations of standing stock and fecundity data for Bosmina longirostris, taken for the egg ratio model, was used to observe potential hyperthermal effluent effects. There was a statistically higher incidence of deformed eggs in the Bosmina population at Station MAS in the summer. Bosmina standing stock underwent two large oscillations in the winter and three large oscillations in the summer at Station MAS compared with two in the winter and one in the summer at Station CAS. These results are consistent with almost all other Par Pond studies which have found the two stations to be essentially similar in spectra composition but with some statistically significant differences in various aspects of the biology of the species.

  6. 2-Arachidonoyl glycerol sensitizes the pars distalis and enhances forskolin-stimulated prolactin secretion in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Yasuo, Shinobu; Fischer, Claudia; Bojunga, Joerg; Iigo, Masayuki; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2014-04-01

    2-Arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) is a major endocannabinoid and an important regulator of neuroendocrine system. In Syrian hamster and human, we found that 2-AG is synthesized in the hypophysial pars tuberalis (PT), an interface between photoperiodic melatonin signals and neuroendocrine output pathways. The target of 2-AG produced in the PT is likely to be the pars distalis (PD). Here we demonstrate that 2-AG in combination with forskolin stimulated prolactin secretion from PD organ cultures of Syrian hamsters, whereas incubation with 2-AG alone had no effect. Forskolin-induced prolactin secretion was also significantly enhanced when cultured PD tissue was preincubated with 2-AG. The stimulatory effects of 2-AG on prolactin secretion were blocked by AM251, a selective CB1 antagonist, and were still observed in the presence of quinpirole, a D2-class dopamine receptor agonist. 2-AG also enhanced prolactin secretion in the presence of adenosine, while it had little effect when applied together with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Moreover, the effect of forskolin was mimicked by adenosine in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, our data suggest that 2-AG sensitizes the PD tissue to potentiate the stimulating effects of forskolin and adenosine on prolactin secretion and thus provide novel insight into the mode of action of 2-AG in the PD. PMID:24200164

  7. Par1b induces asymmetric inheritance of plasma membrane domains via LGN-dependent mitotic spindle orientation in proliferating hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Slim, Christiaan L; Lázaro-Diéguez, Francisco; Bijlard, Marjolein; Toussaint, Mathilda J M; de Bruin, Alain; Du, Quansheng; Müsch, Anne; van Ijzendoorn, Sven C D

    2013-12-01

    The development and maintenance of polarized epithelial tissue requires a tightly controlled orientation of mitotic cell division relative to the apical polarity axis. Hepatocytes display a unique polarized architecture. We demonstrate that mitotic hepatocytes asymmetrically segregate their apical plasma membrane domain to the nascent daughter cells. The non-polarized nascent daughter cell can form a de novo apical domain with its new neighbor. This asymmetric segregation of apical domains is facilitated by a geometrically distinct "apicolateral" subdomain of the lateral surface present in hepatocytes. The polarity protein partitioning-defective 1/microtubule-affinity regulating kinase 2 (Par1b/MARK2) translates this positional landmark to cortical polarity by promoting the apicolateral accumulation of Leu-Gly-Asn repeat-enriched protein (LGN) and the capture of nuclear mitotic apparatus protein (NuMA)-positive astral microtubules to orientate the mitotic spindle. Proliferating hepatocytes thus display an asymmetric inheritance of their apical domains via a mechanism that involves Par1b and LGN, which we postulate serves the unique tissue architecture of the developing liver parenchyma. PMID:24358023

  8. Niveau socioéconomique et processus du recours aux soins par les familles de patients souffrant de troubles psychiques au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Yaogo, Ahmed; Sommer, Alain; Moulaï, Pierre; Chebili, Saïd; Abaoub-Germain, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le Burkina Faso a connu une amélioration constante depuis deux décennies de l'offre de soins en psychiatrie. De même, le taux d'alphabétisation sans cesse croissant s'accompagne d'une profonde modification des conceptions et des comportements. La présente étude visait à déterminer l?impact des déterminants socioéconomiques sur le processus du recours aux soins par les familles. Méthodes Il s'est agi d'une enquête transversale portant sur 200 familles, menée dans le service de psychiatrie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou. Variable à expliquer: premier recours aux soins par les familles (guérisseur traditionnel ou prières religieuses vs. consultations psychiatrique ou médicale). Variable explicative: catégorie socioprofessionnelle classée en suivant la nomenclature des professions et catégories socioprofessionnelles; niveau d’études. L'analyse statistique a été effectuée à l'aide du logiciel SAS version 9.2. Le test du Khi deux a été utilisé. Résultats Il existait une association entre le choix du premier recours et la Profession et la catégorie socioprofessionnelledu « décideur » (p = 0.0006) ainsi que leniveau d’études du « décideur » (p = 0.0001). Conclusion La Profession et Catégorie Sociale et le niveau d'instruction scolaire pourraient être un marqueur important dans les politiques visant à optimiser les processus de recours aux soins des patients dans le circuit de soins. PMID:25161751

  9. Kinase Associated-1 Domains Drive MARK/PAR1 Kinases to Membrane Targets by Binding Acidic Phospholipids

    SciTech Connect

    Moravcevic, Katarina; Mendrola, Jeannine M.; Schmitz, Karl R.; Wang, Yu-Hsiu; Slochower, David; Janmey, Paul A.; Lemmon, Mark A.

    2011-09-28

    Phospholipid-binding modules such as PH, C1, and C2 domains play crucial roles in location-dependent regulation of many protein kinases. Here, we identify the KA1 domain (kinase associated-1 domain), found at the C terminus of yeast septin-associated kinases (Kcc4p, Gin4p, and Hsl1p) and human MARK/PAR1 kinases, as a membrane association domain that binds acidic phospholipids. Membrane localization of isolated KA1 domains depends on phosphatidylserine. Using X-ray crystallography, we identified a structurally conserved binding site for anionic phospholipids in KA1 domains from Kcc4p and MARK1. Mutating this site impairs membrane association of both KA1 domains and intact proteins and reveals the importance of phosphatidylserine for bud neck localization of yeast Kcc4p. Our data suggest that KA1 domains contribute to coincidence detection, allowing kinases to bind other regulators (such as septins) only at the membrane surface. These findings have important implications for understanding MARK/PAR1 kinases, which are implicated in Alzheimer's disease, cancer, and autism.

  10. Entamoeba histolytica-secreted cysteine proteases induce IL-8 production in human mast cells via a PAR2-independent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Ah; Nam, Young Hee; Min, Arim; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Saito-Nakano, Yumiko; Mirelman, David; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an extracellular tissue parasite causing colitis and occasional liver abscess in humans. E. histolytica-derived secretory products (SPs) contain large amounts of cysteine proteases (CPs), one of the important amoebic virulence factors. Although tissue-residing mast cells play an important role in the mucosal inflammatory response to this pathogen, it is not known whether the SPs induce mast cell activation. In this study, when human mast cells (HMC-1 cells) were stimulated with SPs collected from pathogenic wild-type amoebae, interleukin IL-8 mRNA expression and production were significantly increased compared with cells incubated with medium alone. Inhibition of CP activity in the SPs with heat or the CP inhibitor E64 resulted in significant reduction of IL-8 production. Moreover, SPs obtained from inhibitors of cysteine protease (ICP)-overexpressing amoebae with low CP activity showed weaker stimulatory effects on IL-8 production than the wild-type control. Preincubation of HMC-1 cells with antibodies to human protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) did not affect the SP-induced IL-8 production. These results suggest that cysteine proteases in E. histolytica-derived secretory products stimulate mast cells to produce IL-8 via a PAR2-independent mechanism, which contributes to IL-8-mediated tissue inflammatory responses during the early phase of human amoebiasis. PMID:24502918

  11. Effect of the photoperiod and administration of melatonin on the pars tuberalis of viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus): an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Romera, Edith Perez; Mohamed, Fabian; Fogal, Teresa; Dominguez, Susana; Piezzi, Ramón; Scardapane, Luis

    2010-05-01

    The pituitary pars tuberalis (PT) is a glandular zone exhibiting well-defined structural characteristics. Morphologically, it is formed by specific secretory cells, folliculostellate cells, and migratory cells coming from the pars distalis. The purpose of this work was to investigate differences in specific cellular characteristics in the PT of viscachas captured in summer (long photoperiod) and winter (short photoperiod), as well as the effects of chronic melatonin administration in viscachas captured in summer and kept under long photoperiod. In summer, the PT-specific cells exhibited cell-like characteristics with an important secretory activity and a moderate amount of glycogen. In winter, the PT-specific granulated cells showed ultrastructural variations with signs of a reduced synthesis activity. Also, PT showed a high amount of glycogen and a great number of cells in degeneration. After melatonin administration, the ultrastructural characteristics were similar to those observed in winter, but the amount of glycogen was higher. These results suggest possible functional implications as a result of morphological differences between long and short photoperiods, and are in agreement with the variations of the pituitary-gonadal axis, probably in response to the natural photoperiod changes through the pineal melatonin. The ultrastructural differences observed in PT, after melatonin administration, were similar to those observed in the short photoperiod, thus supporting the hypothesis that these cytological changes are induced by melatonin. PMID:20432374

  12. Étude par analogie électrique de différents types de tubes à gaz pulsé : modélisation et expérience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halouane, A.; Maréchal, J.-C.; David, M.

    1998-10-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to explain the operation of pulse tubes refrigerators (PTR) by a network theory approach: the voltage and the current represent respectively the hydrodynamic parameters pressure P and mass flow rate m of the system. Each impedance is treated as a circuit of equivalent electrical element: resistance, capacitance or inductance. At the hot end of the PTR, different phase shift systems are modelled in the same way and could be compared, as the orifice pulse tube refrigerator (OPTR), the double inlet pulse tube refrigerator (DIPTR), the modified pulse tube refrigerator (MPTR) whose phasor is a moving piston at the hot end, the hybrid pulse tube refrigerator (HPTR) with a sequential orifice opening and the OPTR with inertance (IOPTR). By combining the network approach with the thermal analysis of the regenerator and the thermodynamic analysis of the tube it is possible to predict the energy balance at the cold end: extracted power, regenerator and tube losses and the influence of dead volumes. Different solutions were pointed out to treat this model. If the parameters are not sinusoidal the system might be treated at an order greater than 1. This modelling was used to design a miniature PTR operating at high frequency (20-50) Hz and pressure higher than 2 MPa, developed in collaboration with “Air Liquide" firm. The rotary or linear compressor used has 1 cm3 swept-volume and is similar to that used on Stirling refrigerator and generate a quasi-sinusoidal pressure wave. Under a mean pressure of 3 MPa and a 27.5 Hz operating frequency, the lower temperature reached is 49 K with an available power of 1 W at 84 K, in a double inlet mode. Le principal objectif de cet article est de présenter le fonctionnement des tubes à gaz pulsé (TGP) par une analogie électrique [CITE] où la tension et le courant représentent les paramètres hydrodynamiques pression P et débit massique m du système. Toute impédance peut être traitée comme un assemblage d'éléments électriques : résistance, capacitance ou inductance. À la source chaude du TGP, différents déphaseurs sont modélisés de la même manière et ainsi peuvent être comparés, comme l'orifice pulse tube refrigerator (OPTR) ou tube pulsé à simple orifice, le double inlet pulse tube refrigerator (DIPTR), le modified pulse tube refrigerator (MPTR) dont le déphaseur est un piston à la source chaude, le hybrid pulse tube refrigerator (HPTR) à ouverture séquentielles d'orifices, l'inertance in OPTR (IOPTR). En combinant cette analogie électrique avec l'étude thermique il est possible de prédire un bilan d'énergie à la source froide : puissance extraite, pertes du régénérateur, pertes du tube et influence des volumes morts. Différentes solutions peuvent être apportées au traitement de cette modélisation. Si les paramètres ne sont pas sinusoïdaux, le système peut être traité à un ordre supérieur à 1. Cette modélisation a été utilisée pour la conception du tube à gaz pulsé miniature qui travaille à des fréquences élevées 20-50 Hz et à des pressions supérieures à 20 MPa, construit en collaboration avec la société “Air Liquide". Le compresseur (rotatif ou linéaire) de demi volume balayé ? 1 cm3 est du type utilisé sur les “Stirling", il délivre une onde de pression quasi sinusoïdale. Sous 3 MPa de pression moyenne et une fréquence de 27,5 Hz, la température limite en mode double inlet est de 49 K avec une puissance disponible de 1 W à 84 K.

  13. Genetic polymorphisms of PAI-1 and PAR-1 are associated with acute normal tissue toxicity in Chinese rectal cancer patients treated with pelvic radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Mengyun; Shi, Tingyan; Shen, Lijun; Zhu, Ji; Sun, Menghong; Deng, Yun; Liang, Liping; Li, Guichao; Wu, Yongxin; Fan, Ming; Wei, Qingyi; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) and protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) are crucial mediators of the intestinal microenvironment and are involved in radiation-induced acute and chronic injury. To evaluate whether genetic polymorphisms of PAI-1 and PAR-1 were predictors of radiation-induced injury in patients with rectal cancer, we retrospectively evaluated 356 rectal cancer patients who had received pelvic radiotherapy and analyzed the association of genetic polymorphisms of PAI-1 and PAR-1 with acute toxicities after radiotherapy. Acute adverse events were scored, including dermatitis, fecal incontinence (anal toxicity), hematological toxicity, diarrhea, and vomiting. The patients were grouped into grade ?2 and grade 0–1 toxicity groups to analyze the acute toxicities. Genotyping of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PAI-1 and PAR-1 was performed using TaqMan assays. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Of the 356 individuals, 264 (72.5%) had grade ?2 total toxicities; within this group, there were 65 (18.3%) individuals who reached grade ?3 toxicities. There were 19.5% (69/354) and 36.9% (130/352) patients that developed grade ?2 toxicities for diarrhea and fecal incontinence, respectively. The variant genotype GG of rs1050955 in PAI-1 was found to be negatively associated with the risk of diarrhea and incontinence (P<0.05), whereas the AG and GG genotypes of rs2227631 in PAI-1 were associated with an increased risk of incontinence. The CT genotype of PAR-1 rs32934 was associated with an increased risk of total toxicity compared with the CC allele. Our results demonstrated that SNPs in the PAI-1 and PAR-1 genes were associated with acute injury in rectal cancer patients treated with pelvic irradiation. These SNPs may be useful biomarkers for predicting acute radiotoxicity in patients with rectal cancer if validated in future studies. PMID:26347502

  14. Atrophie cérébelleuse post accident d’électrisation se manifestant par un état d'agitation psychomotrice: à propos de 2 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bugeme, Marcellin; Mukuku, Olivier; Kiji, John Makong; Ruhindiza, Bienvenu Mukuku; Muyumba, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Les accidents d’électrisation (AE) sont relativement fréquents dans la vie quotidienne. L'atrophie cérébelleuse représente une complication rare. Nous rapportons deux cas d'atrophie cérébelleuse qui se sont manifestés révélés par un état d'agitation psychomotrice. L'atteinte du cervelet était bilatérale chez le premier tandis que chez le deuxième, elle était unilatérale droite associée à celle du cerveau droit. La particularité que présentent nos deux observations est non seulement la rareté de l'atrophie cérébelleuse dans les complications neurologiques post AE mais aussi par son mode d'expression clinique. PMID:26175837

  15. La Liste Des Tantras Du rNying Ma'i Rgyud 'bum Selon L'edition Et Ablie Par Kun Mkhyen 'Jigs Med Gling Pa

    E-print Network

    Achard, Jean-Luc

    2002-01-01

    L’EDITION ETABLIE PAR KUN MKHYEN ‘JIGS MED GLING PA* par Jean-Luc Achard (CNRS) ‘Jigs med gling pa (1729-1798) fut l’un des plus importants patriarches de latradition rNying ma pa et un luminaire précurseur du mouvement ris med1. Il futégalement à l... ’origine de la première édition xylographique du rNying ma’i rgyud‘bum (NGB) pour laquelle il établit un catalogue (dkar chag) dans son Ornementqui Embrasse l’Immensité du Monde (‘Dzam gling mtha’i gru khyab pa’irgyan), plus connu sous le titre abrégé de L...

  16. ESO-H? 574 and Par-Lup 3-4 jets: Exploring the spectral, kinematical, and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, E. T.; Bonito, R.; Antoniucci, S.; Alcalá, J. M.; Giannini, T.; Nisini, B.; Bacciotti, F.; Podio, L.; Stelzer, B.; Comerón, F.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper a comprehensive analysis of VLT/X-Shooter observations of two jet systems, namely ESO-H? 574 a K8 classical T Tauri star and Par-Lup 3-4 a very low mass (0.13 M?) M5 star, is presented. Both stars are known to have near-edge on accretion disks. A summary of these first X-shooter observations of jets was given in a 2011 letter. The new results outlined here include flux tables of identified emission lines, information on the morphology, kinematics and physical conditions of both jets and, updated estimates of ?out/?acc. Asymmetries in the ESO-H? 574 flow are investigated while the Par-Lup 3-4 jet is much more symmetric. The density, temperature, and therefore origin of the gas traced by the Balmer lines are investigated from the Balmer decrements and results suggest an origin in a jet for ESO-H? 574 while for Par-Lup 3-4 the temperature and density are consistent with an accretion flow. ?acc is estimated from the luminosity of various accretion tracers. For both targets, new luminosity relationships and a re-evaluation of the effect of reddening and grey extinction (due to the edge-on disks) allows for substantial improvements on previous estimates of ?acc. It is found that log(?acc) = -9.15 ± 0.45M? yr-1 and -9.30 ± 0.27M? yr-1 for ESO-H? 574 and Par-Lup 3-4 respectively. Additionally, the physical conditions in the jets (electron density, electron temperature, and ionisation) are probed using various line ratios and compared with previous determinations from iron lines. The results are combined with the luminosity of the [SII]?6731 line to derive ?out through a calculation of the gas emissivity based on a 5-level atom model. As this method for deriving ?out comes from an exact calculation based on the jet parameters (measured directly from the spectra) rather than as was done previously from an approximate formula based on the value of the critical density at an assumed unknown temperature, values of ?out are far more accurate. Overall the accuracy of earlier measurements of ?out/?acc is refined and ?out/?acc = 0.5 (+1.0)(- 0.2) and 0.3 (+0.6)(- 0.1) for the ESO-H? 574 red and blue jets, respectively, and 0.05 (+0.10)(- 0.02) for both the Par-Lup 3-4 red and blue jets. While the value for the total (two-sided) ?out/?acc in ESO-H? 574 lies outside the range predicted by magneto-centrifugal jet launching models, the errors are large and the effects of veiling and scattering on extinction measurements, and therefore the estimate of ?acc, should also be considered. ESO-H? 574 is an excellent case study for understanding the impact of an edge-on accretion disk on the observed stellar emission. The improvements in the derivation of ?out/?acc means that this ratio for Par-Lup 3-4 now lies within the range predicted by leading models, as compared to earlier measurements for very low mass stars. Par-Lup 3-4 is one of a small number of brown dwarfs and very low mass stars which launch jets. Therefore, this result is important in the context of understanding how ?out/?acc and, thus, jet launching mechanisms for the lowest mass jet drivingsources, compare to the case of the well-studied low mass stars. Based on Observations collected with X-Shooter and UVES at the Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal (Chile), operated by the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Program ID's: 085.C-0238(A) and 078.C-0429(A).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Étude par chromatographie gazeuse inverse, à concentration finie, des propriétés de surface d'échantillons obtenus par traitement thermique de la goethite : distribution des sites d'adsorption des alcanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brendlé, E.; Balard, H.; Papirer, E.

    1998-07-01

    Inverse Gas Chromatography (IGC), at finite concentration conditions, was applied for the evaluation of the surface properties of hematite samples obtained by heat treatment of goethite. From the alkane adsorption isotherms, the distribution of surface sites according to the adsorption energy is determined. It is shown that the surface of hematite undergoes significant changes when heated up to 500 circC. La chromatographie Gazeuse Inverse (CGI), à concentration finie, a été utilisée pour évaluer les propriétés de surface d'échantillons d'hématite obtenus par traitement thermique de la goethite. A partir des isothermes d'adsorption des alcanes, on détermine la courbe de distribution des sites de surface en fonction de l'énergie d'adsorption de molécules sondes. On montre que ces courbes évoluent en fonction du traitement thermique de la goethite et traduisent une importante modification de surface de l'hématite formée après un chauffage à 500 circC.

  18. Developpement de mesures non destructives, par ondes ultrasonores, d'epaisseurs de fronts de solidification dans les reacteurs metallurgiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floquet, Jimmy

    Dans les cuves d'electrolyse d'aluminium, le milieu de reaction tres corrosif attaque les parois de la cuve, ce qui diminue leur duree de vie et augmente les couts de production. Le talus, qui se forme sous l'effet des pertes de chaleur qui maintiennent un equilibre thermique dans la cuve, sert de protection naturelle a la cuve. Son epaisseur doit etre controlee pour maximiser cet effet. Advenant la resorption non voulue de ce talus, les degats generes peuvent s'evaluer a plusieurs centaines de milliers de dollars par cuve. Aussi, l'objectif est de developper une mesure ultrasonore de l'epaisseur du talus, car elle serait non intrusive et non destructive. La precision attendue est de l'ordre du centimetre pour des mesures d'epaisseurs comprenant 2 materiaux, allant de 5 a 20 cm. Cette precision est le facteur cle permettant aux industriels de controler l'epaisseur du talus de maniere efficace (maximiser la protection des parois tout en maximisant l'efficacite energetique du procede), par l'ajout d'un flux thermique. Cependant, l'efficacite d'une mesure ultrasonore dans cet environnement hostile reste a demontrer. Les travaux preliminaires ont permis de selectionner un transducteur ultrasonore a contact ayant la capacite a resister aux conditions de mesure (hautes temperatures, materiaux non caracterises...). Differentes mesures a froid (traite par analyse temps-frequence) ont permis d'evaluer la vitesse de propagation des ondes dans le materiau de la cuve en graphite et de la cryolite, demontrant la possibilite d'extraire l'information pertinente d'epaisseur du talus in fine. Fort de cette phase de caracterisation des materiaux sur la reponse acoustique des materiaux, les travaux a venir ont ete realises sur un modele reduit de la cuve. Le montage experimental, un four evoluant a 1050 °C, instrumente d'une multitude de capteurs thermique, permettra une comparaison de la mesure intrusive LVDT a celle du transducteur, dans des conditions proches de la mesure industrielle. Mots-cles : Ultrasons, CND, Haute temperature, Aluminium, Cuve d'electrolyse.

  19. PAR-6, but not E-cadherin and ?-integrin, is necessary for epithelial polarization in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Von Stetina, Stephen E; Mango, Susan E

    2015-07-01

    Cell polarity is a fundamental characteristic of epithelial cells. Classical cell biological studies have suggested that establishment and orientation of polarized epithelia depend on outside-in cues that derive from interactions with either neighboring cells or the substratum (Akhtar and Streuli, 2013; Chen and Zhang, 2013; Chung and Andrew, 2008; McNeill et al., 1990; Nejsum and Nelson, 2007; Nelson et al., 2013; Ojakian and Schwimmer, 1994; Wang et al., 1990; Yu et al., 2005). This paradigm has been challenged by examples of epithelia generated in the absence of molecules that mediate cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions, notably E-cadherin and integrins (Baas et al., 2004; Choi et al., 2013; Costa et al., 1998; Harris and Peifer, 2004; Raich et al., 1999; Roote and Zusman, 1995; Vestweber et al., 1985; Williams and Waterston, 1994; Wu et al., 2009). Here we explore an alternative hypothesis, that cadherins and integrins function redundantly to substitute for one another during epithelium formation (Martinez-Rico et al., 2010; Ojakian et al., 2001; Rudkouskaya et al., 2014; Weber et al., 2011). We use C. elegans, which possesses a single E-cadherin (Costa et al., 1998; Hardin et al., 2013; Tepass, 1999) and a single ?-integrin (Gettner et al., 1995; Lee et al., 2001), and analyze the arcade cells, which generate an epithelium late in embryogenesis (Portereiko and Mango, 2001; Portereiko et al., 2004), after most maternal factors are depleted. Loss of E-cadherin(HMR-1) in combination with ?-integrin(PAT-3) had no impact on the onset or formation of the arcade cell epithelium, nor the epidermis or digestive tract. Moreover, ß-integrin(PAT-3) was not enriched at the basal surface of the arcades, and the candidate PAT-3 binding partner ?-laminin(LAM-1) was not detected until after arcade cell polarity was established and exhibited no obvious polarity defect when mutated. Instead, the polarity protein par-6 (Chen and Zhang, 2013; Watts et al., 1996) was required to polarize the arcade cells, and par-6 mutants exhibited mislocalized or absent apical and junctional proteins. We conclude that the arcade cell epithelium polarizes by a PAR-6-mediated pathway that is independent of E-cadherin, ?-integrin and ?-laminin. PMID:25773364

  20. Facteurs de risque de l'infection par le VIH dans le district de santé de Meyomessala au Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Mbopi-Keou, Francois-Xavier; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kalla, Ginette Claude Mireille; Abessolo, Stéphanie Abo'o; Angwafo, Fru; Muna, Walinjom

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer les facteurs de risque de l'infection par le VIH dans le district de santé de Meyomessala (Région du Sud) au Cameroun. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale, descriptive et analytique qui s'est déroulée de Février à Mai 2011. Pour cette étude, nous avons obtenu une clairance éthique. Résultats L’échantillon était constitué de 315 participants dont 181 (57,46%) hommes et 134 (42,54%) femmes. L’âge moyen était de 24,5±8ans (extrême: 15-45ans). Quarante personnes (40) étaient séropositifs, soit une prévalence de l'infection par le VIH de 12,7%. Cette prévalence augmentait significativement (p = 0) avec le nombre de partenaires occasionnels au cours des douze derniers mois, allant de 2,7% chez ceux n'ayant eu aucun partenaire occasionnel à 21,25% chez ceux ayant plus de trois partenaires occasionnels (RC = 9,72; IC = 1,27-74,14; P = 0,03). le fait d’être âgé entre 20 et 24 ans (RC = 4,88; IC = 1,74-13,67; p = 0), avoir plus de trois partenaires sexuels au cours des douze derniers mois (RC = 9,72; IC = 1,27-74,14; p = 0,03), avoir les rapports sexuels avec les prostitués (RC = 2,86; IC = 1,42-5,76; p = 0), avoir eu le chlamydia (RC = 3,00; IC = 1,07-8,39; p = 0,04), avoir eu la syphilis (RC = 3,35; IC = 1,57-7,14; p = 0), avoir des avantages sociaux lors du premier rapport sexuel (RC = 2,57; IC = 1,03-6,43; p = 0,04) constituaient des potentiels facteurs de risque du VIH. Conclusion Il apparait urgent d'intensifier les campagnes de sensibilisation au risque d'infection par le VIH et les maladies sexuellement transmissibles dans le district de santé de Meyomessala PMID:25419299