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  1. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Facts Chat Day: Inhalants Drug Facts Chat Day: Inhalants Print Can you get high off of ... Cool Order Free Materials National Drugs & Alcohol Chat Day Newsletter Sign up to receive National Drug & Alcohol ...

  2. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... Notes Articles Adolescent Cigarette, Alcohol Use Declines as Marijuana Use Rises ( February 2013 ) Program Helps Troubled Boys ...

  3. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... or LSD. But you may not realize the dangers of substances in your own home. Household products such as glues, hair sprays, paints and lighter fluid can be drugs for kids in search of a quick high. Many young people ... need to know the dangers. Even inhaling once can disrupt heart rhythms and ...

  4. Une alternative au cobalt pour la synthese de nanotubes de carbone monoparoi par plasma inductif thermique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrier, Jean-Francois

    Les nanotubes de carbone de type monoparoi (C-SWNT) sont une classe recente de nanomateriaux qui ont fait leur apparition en 1991. L'interet qu'on leur accorde provient des nombreuses proprietes d'avant-plan qu'ils possedent. Leur resistance mecanique serait des plus rigide, tout comme ils peuvent conduire l'electricite et la chaleur d'une maniere inegalee. Non moins, les C-SWNT promettent de devenir une nouvelle classe de plateforme moleculaire, en servant de site d'attache pour des groupements reactifs. Les promesses de ce type particulier de nanomateriau sont nombreuses, la question aujourd'hui est de comment les realiser. La technologie de synthese par plasma inductif thermique se situe avantageusement pour la qualite de ses produits, sa productivite et les faibles couts d'operation. Par contre, des recherches recentes ont permis de mettre en lumiere des risques d'expositions reliees a l'utilisation du cobalt, comme catalyseur de synthese; son elimination ou bien son remplacement est devenu une preoccupation importante. Quatre recettes alternatives ont ete mises a l'essai afin de trouver une alternative plus securitaire a la recette de base; un melange catalytique ternaire, compose de nickel, de cobalt et d'oxyde d'yttrium. La premiere consiste essentiellement a remplacer la proportion massique de cobalt par du nickel, qui etait deja present dans la recette de base. Les trois options suivantes contiennent de nouveaux catalyseurs, en remplacement au Co, qui sont apparus dans plusieurs recherches scientifiques au courant des dernieres annees: le dioxyde de zircone (ZrO2), dioxyde de manganese (MnO2) et le molybdene (Mo). La methode utilisee consiste a vaporiser la matiere premiere, sous forme solide, dans un reacteur plasma a haute frequence (3 MHz) a paroi refroidi. Apres le passage dans le plasma, le systeme traverse une section dite de "croissance", isolee thermiquement a l'aide de graphite, afin de maintenir une certaine plage de temperature favorable a la

  5. Brulures Profondes des Membres Apres Intoxication au Co Par Usage du Barbecue Traditionnel en Salle de Bain

    PubMed Central

    Chraïbi, R.; Moussaoui, A.; Tourabi, K.; Ennouhi, A.; Ihrai, H.; Hassam, B.

    2007-01-01

    Summary En l'absence des moyens de chauffage moderne à domicile chez une proportion non négligeable des Marocains, le recours au moyen traditionnel est fréquent. A travers six observations de brûlures profondes des membres, particulières par leur mode de survenue et par leur gravité, les Auteurs attirent l'attention sur le danger de l'utilisation du barbecue traditionnel «majmer» pour réchauffement en milieu clos. PMID:21991072

  6. Arthrose due au genu varum: traitement par osteotomie tibiale de valgisation

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Abdou Kadri; Lukulunga, Loubet Unyendje; Mahfoud, Mustapha; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Ismail, Farid; Kharmaz, Mohamed; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Le traitement du genu varum est le plus souvent conservateur (ostéotomie tibiale de valgisation) permettant de corriger le trouble architectural afin de rétablir l'axe physiologique du membre inférieur. Le but de l’étude était d’évaluer les résultats du traitement et comparer à ceux de la littérature. Il s'est agi d'une étude rétrospective portant sur des patients présentant un genu varum qui s'est déroulée dans le Service de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologie de CHU Ibn SINA de RABAT, sur une période de 9 ans (2000 au 31 Décembre 2008). Nous avons inclus dans notre étude: les patients qui avaient un genu-varum clinique avec examen radiographique standard ainsi qu'un pangonogramme; traités par différents procédés d'ostéotomie tibiale de valgisation; avec un suivis d’ au moins deux ans. Nos critères d’évaluation ont été appréciés selon le score HSS. Nous avons colligé 115 cas de genu-varum par ostéotomie de valgisation. L’âge de nos patients variait entre 40 et 69 ans, avec une moyenne de 53 ans. Le pic de fréquence se situait entre 52et 63 ans. Le sexe féminin prédominait avec 87 cas (75,6%) avec un sex ratio 3,1. Un Indice de masse corporelle supérieur à 30 a été noté dans 44 cas (38%). Quant aux antécédents chirurgicaux,18 patients de la série (soit 14%) ont été opérés pour le genu varum d'un autre genou. Le délai de consultation a varié entre 4 mois à 6 ans, avec une moyenne de 2 ans. La douleur était le principal motif de consultation et était de siège médial dans 70% des cas et bicompartimental dans 30% cas. Il s'agissait d'une douleur mécanique dans 76% des cas, mixte 21% des cas et inflammatoire 4% des cas. La déformation du genou appréciée par l’écart intercondylien a été en moyenne de 8,7 cm avec des extrêmes de 3 cm et 33cm. Le bilan de l'imagerie médicale reposait essentiellement sur les radiographies standards du genou de face et de profil, ainsi que la goniométrie. Ces

  7. L'engelure causée par le butane commercial au cours d’un accident industriel

    PubMed Central

    Assi-Dje Bi Dje, V.; Abhe, C.M.; Sie-Essoh, J.B.; Kouamé, K.; Vilasco, B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Les engelures sont encore exceptionnelles en Afrique sub-saharienne, mais l’essor des industries pétrochimiques en rapport avec la promotion d’une large utilisation du gaz domestique (butane commercial) expose au risque de survenue de ce type de brûlures abusivement dites gelures. Nous rapportons un cas de brûlures au froid par gaz de pétrole liquéfié (GPL) en milieu professionnel dont le diagnostic de gravité et la prise en charge tardifs ont défavorisé l’évolution locale. Le respect des mesures de sécurité au sein des usines reste néanmoins le principal moyen de prévention de ce type de brûlures méconnues. PMID:26170791

  8. Douleurs induites par les soins: la réalité au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Befelatanana Antananarivo, Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Mahavivola, Ernestho-Ghoud Indretsy; Olivah, Razanaparany Miarisoa Mireille; Mihary, Dodo; Hendriniaina, Rakotoharivelo; Lalao, Randriamboavonjy Rado; Henintsoa, Rakotonirainy Oliva; Fahafahantsoa, Rapelanoro Rabenja

    2014-01-01

    La douleur induite par les soins correspond à la douleur survenant lors des actes à visé diagnostique et/ou thérapeutique. A notre connaissance, nous n'avons pas encore des données disponibles pour les douleurs induites par les soins à l'Hôpital de Befelatanana. Nos objectifs étaient de décrire le profil épidémiologique de la douleur induite par les soins, d'identifier les principaux facteurs influençant sur l'intensité de la douleur et leurs retentissements chez les patients. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective, transversale type un jour donné menée dans les douze services de Médecines au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Befelatanana en Novembre 2013. Cent deux patients ont été retenus dans l’étude et trois cent vingt trois actes douloureux étaient enregistrés. La fréquence de la douleur induite par les soins était de 69,86%. Le genre féminin prédominait dans 52% des cas (n = 53) avec un sex-ratio à 0,92. L’âge moyen était de 46 ans. Les ponctions vasculaires étaient l'acte prédominant dans 49,54% (n = 109) des cas. Les infirmiers réalisaient les soins dans 47,05% (n = 48) des cas. L'information verbale était la mesure préventive utilisée dans 57,84% des cas (n = 59). Le transport par marche à pied et au dos représentait 16,67% des cas (n = 17). Les patients naïfs des gestes étaient plus anxieux. Ces patients gardaient de mauvais souvenir dans 64,71% des cas (n = 66). La fréquence de douleur induite par les soins était trop élevée. Un effort important est nécessaire pour réduire la douleur induite par les soins PMID:25932071

  9. Panniculite au cours d'un traitement d'une dermatomyosite par du méthotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Feki, Nabil Bel; Khanfir, Monia Smiti; Ghorbel, Imed Ben; Said, Fatma; Houman, Mohamed Habib

    2016-01-01

    La panniculite est une manifestation rare au cours des dermatomyosites (DM). L'apparition d'une panniculite au cours d'un traitement par du méthotrexate (MTX) est exceptionnelle et n'a été décrite que dans 3 cas. Nous rapportons l'observation d'une patiente âgée de 50 ans atteinte d'une DM diagnostiquée en 1997 et traitée par une corticothérapie avec une évolution favorable aux plans clinique et biologique. A l'occasion d'une rechute 2 ans plus tard, la corticothérapie a été majorée et du méthotrexate à une dose hebdomadaire de 7,5 mg a été rajouté. L’évolution était rapidement favorable. Dix huit mois plus tard, la patiente présentait de multiples nodules sous cutanés siégeant aux 4 membres et aux fesses, dont l'examen anatomopthologique concluait à une panniculite. Il n'existait aucun signe d’évolutivité de la DM. La dose de prédnisone a été augmentée à 0,5 mg/kg/j toujours en association au MTX mais sans aucune amélioration. Le MTX a été arrêté et les lésions cutanées ont complètement disparu en 2 mois sans aucune récidive avec un recul actuel de 42 mois. Notre observation est particulière par la survenue d'une panniculite chez une patiente ayant une DM traitée par du MTX et illustre la difficulté diagnostique. Cette entité doit être connue malgré son caractère exceptionnel puisque l'arrêt du MTX induit en général la disparition des nodules sous cutanés. PMID:27279974

  10. Coinfection pulmonaire par pneumocystis jirovecii et pseudomonas aeruginosa au cours du SIDA: à propos de deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Mamoudou, Savadogo; Bellaud, Guillaume; Ana, Canestri; Gilles, Pialoux

    2015-01-01

    Rapporter deux cas cliniques de coinfections pulmonaires par Pneumocystis jirovecii et par Pseudomonas aeruginosa chez des patients vivant avec le VIH. Les deux patients étaient âgés respectivement de 32 ans et 46 ans. Un patient a été pris en charge à l'hôpital Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou au Burkina Faso et l'autre a été pris en charge à l'hôpital Ténon de Paris, en France. Les deux souffraient de pneumopathie confirmée à la radiographie et à la tomodensitométrie. L'un des patients était sévèrement immuno déprimé, contrairement à l'autre. L'examen bactériologique dans les crachats avait permis d'isoler Pseudomonas aeruginosa et Pneumocystis jirovecii chez les deux patients. Sous traitement, l’évolution a été favorable. Les coinfections morbides sont relativement fréquentes chez les patients vivant avec le VIH. Devant une symptomatologie respiratoire du sujet vivant avec le VIH, il faut savoir rechercher en plus du Bacille de Koch, Pneumocystis jirovecii et Pseudomonas aeruginosa par un lavage broncho alvéolaire. PMID:26516396

  11. Prévalence de l'hépatite B chez les personnes infectées par le VIH à Parakou au Bénin

    PubMed Central

    Dovonou, Comlan Albert; Amidou, Salimanou Ariyoh; Kpangon, Amadohoué Arsène; Traoré, Yacoubou Adam; Godjedo, Togbemabou Primous Martial; Satondji, Assongba Joseph; Wachinou, Ablo Prudence; Issa-Djibril, Fatioulaye Mahamadi; Fourn, Léonard; Zannou, Djimon Marcel; Gandaho, Prosper

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La co-infection avec l'hépatite B est l'un des défis majeurs de la prise en charge du VIH depuis l'amélioration de l'accès aux antirétroviraux en Afrique. La présente étude visait à estimer la prévalence de l'hépatite B chez les personnes séropositives au VIH à Parakou et décrire les facteurs associés. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude transversale menée de Mai 2011 à Juin 2012 dans le service de Médecine du CHU de Parakou. Ont été inclus tous les adultes séropositifs au VIH vus en consultation ou hospitalisés. Les données ont été collectées par interviews et dépouillement de dossiers médicaux. L'antigène HBs a été recherché par un test rapide et l'ALAT a été dosé. L'analyse des données a été faite avec le logiciel EpiInfo 3.5.1. Les proportions ont été comparées grâce au test de Chi-deux ou au test de Fisher au seuil de significativité de 5%. Un modèle de régression logistique multivariable a permis d'expliquer la prévalence de l'hépatite B. Résultats Sur les 744 sujets inclus on a dénombré 555 femmes. L’âge moyen était de 35,5 + 10,1 ans. La prévalence de l'hépatite B a été estimée à 16,9% (IC95: 14,3%-19,9%). Cette prévalence était plus élevée chez les sujets originaires du Borgou/Alibori et ceux au stade 4 de l'OMS. Conclusion La prévalence de la co-infection VIH/VHB au CHU Parakou est élevée. Le dispositif national de prise en charge et de prévention de l'hépatite B chez les personnes séropositives au VIH doit être renforcé. PMID:26097629

  12. Facteurs de risque de l'infection par le VIH dans le district de santé de Meyomessala au Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Mbopi-Keou, Francois-Xavier; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kalla, Ginette Claude Mireille; Abessolo, Stéphanie Abo'o; Angwafo, Fru; Muna, Walinjom

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer les facteurs de risque de l'infection par le VIH dans le district de santé de Meyomessala (Région du Sud) au Cameroun. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale, descriptive et analytique qui s'est déroulée de Février à Mai 2011. Pour cette étude, nous avons obtenu une clairance éthique. Résultats L’échantillon était constitué de 315 participants dont 181 (57,46%) hommes et 134 (42,54%) femmes. L’âge moyen était de 24,5±8ans (extrême: 15-45ans). Quarante personnes (40) étaient séropositifs, soit une prévalence de l'infection par le VIH de 12,7%. Cette prévalence augmentait significativement (p = 0) avec le nombre de partenaires occasionnels au cours des douze derniers mois, allant de 2,7% chez ceux n'ayant eu aucun partenaire occasionnel à 21,25% chez ceux ayant plus de trois partenaires occasionnels (RC = 9,72; IC = 1,27-74,14; P = 0,03). le fait d’être âgé entre 20 et 24 ans (RC = 4,88; IC = 1,74-13,67; p = 0), avoir plus de trois partenaires sexuels au cours des douze derniers mois (RC = 9,72; IC = 1,27-74,14; p = 0,03), avoir les rapports sexuels avec les prostitués (RC = 2,86; IC = 1,42-5,76; p = 0), avoir eu le chlamydia (RC = 3,00; IC = 1,07-8,39; p = 0,04), avoir eu la syphilis (RC = 3,35; IC = 1,57-7,14; p = 0), avoir des avantages sociaux lors du premier rapport sexuel (RC = 2,57; IC = 1,03-6,43; p = 0,04) constituaient des potentiels facteurs de risque du VIH. Conclusion Il apparait urgent d'intensifier les campagnes de sensibilisation au risque d'infection par le VIH et les maladies sexuellement transmissibles dans le district de santé de Meyomessala PMID:25419299

  13. Les neuropathies liées au VIH/SIDA: une étude clinique chez les patients infectés par le VIH au Centre d'Excellence VIH/SIDA de l'Université de Lubumbashi

    PubMed Central

    Kabongo, Joe Katabwa; Kaputu-Kalala-Malu, Célestin; Luboya, Oscar; Mutombo, Valerien; Ntambwe, Abel; Mapatano, Mala Ali; Mukendi, Kavulu Mayamba

    2015-01-01

    Introduction En vue d'améliorer la prise en charge des patients souffrant de neuropathie (NP) associées à l'infection HIV, nous avons essayé de déterminer le profil clinique des personnes souffrant de NP au cours du suivi thérapeutique de leur infection HIV. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude transversale (n= 101) menée au centre d'excellence depuis 1 an. Notre analyse est essentiellement clinique. Par un examen clinique minutieux, nous avons recherché tous les symptômes et signes cliniques des NP. Subjectivement, les douleurs dominent le tableau. Pour affiner leur diagnostic, nous avons utilisé l’échelle DN4 (Diagnostic des douleurs neuropathiques) et l’échelle EVA (Evaluation de la gravité des douleurs). Nous avons ensuite analysé nos données en fonction de certains autres facteurs épidémiologiques tels que le taux des CD4, le traitement anti-HIV etc. Résultats Les 101 patients représentent 3,12% de la cohorte générale; 53,3% des patients présentent une abolition des réflexes ostéotendineux des membres inférieurs; 77,89% présentent une hypoesthésie thermo algique en chaussette et en gants; 25% ont présenté une amyotrophie des membres inférieurs; 76,5% ont été soumis à un traitement antirétroviral contenant la stavudine; 11,7% ont pris la didanosine (DDI) et Abacavir (ABC). 84% ont une moyenne de CD4 de 292 cel/mm3. Conclusion La NP altère la qualité de vie de nos patients et diminue l'adhérence au traitement antirétroviral. Plusieurs facteurs sont incriminés dans la survenue de la NP, l'effet direct des antirétroviraux, l'effet inflammatoire dysimmunitaire, l'effet infectieux lié aux infections opportunistes. D'autres facteurs seront recherchés et analysés ultérieurement. PMID:26185582

  14. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can inhale that can cause acute internal injuries. Particles in the air from fires and toxic ... and lung diseases worse. Symptoms of acute inhalation injuries may include Coughing and phlegm A scratchy throat ...

  15. Fluticasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... by mouth using an inhaler and as a powder to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Fluticasone ... Flovent® HFA) is usually inhaled twice daily. Fluticasone powder for oral inhalation (Flovent® Diskus) is usually inhaled ...

  16. Diagnostic moléculaire d'helicobacter pylori par PCR chez les patients en consultation gastroentérologique au Centre Médical Saint Camille de Ouagadougou

    PubMed Central

    Werme, Karidia; Bisseye, Cyrille; Ouedraogo, Issiaka; Yonli, Albert Théophane; Ouermi, Djénèba; Djigma, Florencia; Moret, Rémy; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Simpore, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'infection par Helicobacter pylori constitue un problème de santé publique notamment dans les pays en développement. Elle entraine une gastrite pouvant évoluer vers des formes sévères d'ulcération et de transformation maligne. La présenté étude avait pour objectif de diagnostiquer H. pylori par des techniques sérologique et moléculaire au Burkina Faso. Méthodes L’étude prospective a été conduite de mars à juin 2012 sur 70 patients venus en consultation dans le service de gastroentérologie au Centre Médical Saint Camille. Le diagnostic de H. pylori a été réalisé par le test ELISA Immunocomb (ORGENICS Ltd, Yavne, Israël) et la PCR sur des biopsies gastriques prélevées sur les patients. Résultats Les pathologies gastroduodénales étaient plus fréquentes chez les patients de plus de 45 ans. Les prévalences de H. pylori étaient respectivement de 88,57% et de 91,43% par sérologie Immunocomb et par PCR. La différence entre les deux techniques n’était pas significative (P = 0,573). La performance de la PCR a été comparée à celle de la technique Immunocomb. Les résultats montrent une sensibilité et une spécificité de 92,2% et 50,0% pour la technique Immunocomb. Conclusion Le diagnostic de H. pylori par PCR est plus spécifique que le test sérologique Immunocomb et devrait être introduit dans le diagnostic de routine de cette bactérie pathogène au Burkina Faso. PMID:26327960

  17. Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk of being hurt in a fall, a fire or a car crash (for example, if your child tries to drive while he or she is high on an inhalant). Inhalants block oxygen flow to the brain and every other organ ...

  18. Mometasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... powder to inhale by mouth and as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Mometasone ... inhaler is not working properly.To use the aerosol inhaler, follow these steps: Remove the cap from ...

  19. Tiotropium Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... use the inhaler to breathe in the dry powder contained in the capsules. Tiotropium is usually inhaled ... the inhaler it comes with to inhale the powder in the capsules. Never try to inhale them ...

  20. Asthma Inhalers

    MedlinePlus

    ... reduce the release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) into the atmosphere when taking certain asthma medications. Until recently, most ... hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) inhalers, that do not rob the atmosphere of ozone. “The FDA [Food and Drug Administration] ...

  1. Résultats de la chirurgie avancée de la cataracte par tunnélisation: à propos de 262 cas réalisés au CHR de Banfora (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Djiguimdé, Pierre Windinmanégdé; Diomandé, Ibrahim Abib; Ahnoux-Zabsonré, Ahgbatouhabéba; Koffi, Konan Virgile; Meda, Tierinyê Armand; Diomandé, Gossé François; Sanou, Jerôme; Meda-Hien, Gertude; Sankara, Paté; Meda, Nonfounikoun

    2015-01-01

    La cataracte demeure la première cause de cécité dans les pays en voie de développement posant un problème de santé publique. Le but de cette étude est de faire le bilan d'une activité de chirurgie avancée de la cataracte par la technique dite de « phacoalternative » ou par tunnélisation. Il s'agissait d'une étude prospective de base réalisée au Burkina Faso portant sur la chirurgie de la cataracte par la technique de tunnélisation. L’âge moyen de nos patients atteints de cataracte était de 62,47 ± 12,77 ans avec un sex-ratio de 0,98. La majorité des patients opérés (82,82%) étaient des cultivateurs et des ménagères. L'acuité visuelle de loin était réduite à la perception lumineuse dans 68,70% des cas. La profondeur moyenne de la chambre antérieure était de 2,98 ± 0,53 mm. L’épaisseur moyenne du cristallin était de 3,55 ± 0,75 mm. La longueur axiale moyenne de l’œil de nos patients opérés de la cataracte était de 22,88 ± 0,90 mm. La puissance réfractive moyenne estimée de la cornée était de 43,21 ± 2,03 dioptries chez nos patients. La puissance moyenne estimée de l'implant intra oculaire (IOL) utilisé était de23,11 ± 2,35D. La majorité (79,6%) de nos patients avait une bonne acuité visuelle après la chirurgie de la cataracte par tunnélisation. La chirurgie de la cataracte par tunnélisation est une technique révolutionnaire adaptée aux pays pauvres d'Afrique. Elle permet une lutte efficace à moindre coût contre la cécité par cataracte dans nos régions. La tunnélisation est une technique chirurgicale adaptée pour lutter efficacement contre la cécité due à la cataracte en Afrique. PMID:27022426

  2. Mometasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... children 12 years of age and older. Mometasone powder for oral inhalation (Asmanex® Twisthaler) is used in ... Mometasone inhalation comes as a powder to inhale by mouth and as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Mometasone oral inhalation is usually inhaled ...

  3. Insulin Human Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... inhalation comes as a powder to inhale by mouth using a special inhaler. It is usually used ... to your doctor.Before you use your insulin oral inhaler the first time, read the written instructions ...

  4. Inhaled Asthma Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... metered – dose inhaler (MDI), which uses a chemical propellant to push the medication out of the inhaler. ... powder inhalers (DPIs) deliver medication without using chemical propellants, but they require a strong and fast inhalation. ...

  5. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... increase mortality 30% to 40% when patients with cutaneous burns and inhalation injury are compared with patients ... nasal hairs • Facial burns • Burns around the mouth • Mineral spirits – 104º F – paint thinner, brush cleaner. • Redness, ...

  6. Niveau socioéconomique et processus du recours aux soins par les familles de patients souffrant de troubles psychiques au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Yaogo, Ahmed; Sommer, Alain; Moulaï, Pierre; Chebili, Saïd; Abaoub-Germain, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le Burkina Faso a connu une amélioration constante depuis deux décennies de l'offre de soins en psychiatrie. De même, le taux d'alphabétisation sans cesse croissant s'accompagne d'une profonde modification des conceptions et des comportements. La présente étude visait à déterminer l′impact des déterminants socioéconomiques sur le processus du recours aux soins par les familles. Méthodes Il s'est agi d'une enquête transversale portant sur 200 familles, menée dans le service de psychiatrie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou. Variable à expliquer: premier recours aux soins par les familles (guérisseur traditionnel ou prières religieuses vs. consultations psychiatrique ou médicale). Variable explicative: catégorie socioprofessionnelle classée en suivant la nomenclature des professions et catégories socioprofessionnelles; niveau d’études. L'analyse statistique a été effectuée à l'aide du logiciel SAS version 9.2. Le test du Khi deux a été utilisé. Résultats Il existait une association entre le choix du premier recours et la Profession et la catégorie socioprofessionnelledu « décideur » (p = 0.0006) ainsi que leniveau d’études du « décideur » (p = 0.0001). Conclusion La Profession et Catégorie Sociale et le niveau d'instruction scolaire pourraient être un marqueur important dans les politiques visant à optimiser les processus de recours aux soins des patients dans le circuit de soins. PMID:25161751

  7. Le diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par l'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH): à propos des premiers tests réalisés au Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Lamzouri, Afaf; Natiq, Abdelhafid; Tajir, Mariam; Sendid, Mohamed; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Le but de cette étude était de présenter les premiers résultats de diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique d'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH) au Maroc et discuter son intérêt dans le diagnostic rapide de cette aneuploïdie. Méthodes Ce travail a été réalisé chez 23 femmes avec des grossesses à haut risque de trisomie 21. La moyenne d’âge des gestantes étaient de 37,43 ans avec des extrêmes de 21 et 43 ans. Toutes étaient musulmanes mariées, mariage légitimé par la Charia, dont trois mariages consanguins, sauf une originaire de la République Démocratique du Congo qui était chrétienne et concubine. La majorité des femmes étaient fonctionnaires et avaient un niveau de scolarisation moyen à élevé. Toutes les patientes ont bénéficié d'une consultation de génétique médicale au cours de laquelle il leur a été donné des informations sur la technique, son intérêt et ses limites. Il s'agit de femmes enceintes qui avaient soit un âge maternel élevé ou des signes d'appel échographiques et/ ou biochimiques. Une des patientes était porteuse d'une translocation robertsonienne t(14;21) équilibrée. Une amniocentèse a été réalisée chez toutes les gestantes et aucun avortement n'a était induit par ce geste invasif. L’âge gestationnel moyen à la première consultation était de 14 semaines d'aménorrhée (SA) et à l'amniocentèse était de 16 SA et 5 jours. L'analyse FISH a été réalisée, après consentement des couples, sur des cellules non cultivées à partir des échantillons de liquides amniotiques, en utilisant des sondes spécifiques du chromosome 21. Résultats Parmi les 23 patientes qui ont bénéficiées d'un diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique FISH, nous avons pu rassurer 21 d'entre elles, et nous avons détecté deux cas de trisomie 21 fœtal. Conclusion La technique FISH permet un diagnostic anténatal rapide, en moins de 48h, de la trisomie 21 sur

  8. Échecs thérapeutiques chez les enfants infectés par le VIH en suivi de routine dans un contexte à ressources limitées au Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Penda, Calixte Ida; Bebey, Francine Same; Mangamba, Danielle Kedy; Moukoko, Else Carole Eboumbou; Ngwa, Victoria; Makouet, Nicaise; Bissek, Anne-Cécile; Minkemdefo, Blaise Dupont; Tetanye, Ekoe; Ndombo, Paul Koki

    2013-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de cette étude était de déterminer les facteurs associés aux échecs thérapeutiques chez les enfants infectés par le VIH à l'Hôpital Laquintinie de Douala. Méthodes Une étude transversale rétrospective a été menée sur une période de 5 mois en 2010, recrutant 222 enfants âgés de 1 à 18 ans et sous TARV depuis au moins 24 semaines. Les données sociodémographiques, cliniques, biologiques et de l'observance thérapeutique des patients ont été collectés à partir des dossiers des patients, et analysées avec le logiciel SPSS (version 16). Résultats 39 (17,6%) des enfants étaient en échec thérapeutique (délai moyen de survenue 26,8 mois) et 73,4% d'entre eux sont passés en seconde ligne. Les garçons avaient en moyenne un risque 5 fois plus élevé de faire un échec thérapeutique que les filles (OR=3,9; p=0,035). 94,4% des enfants suivis avaient un faible taux de CD4 à l'initiation (‘ 25%) associé au risque élevé d’échec thérapeutique (OR=5,2; p=0,007). Les enfants issus de famille monoparentale représentaient près de la moitié des cas d’échecs thérapeutiques. Sur 39 cas en échec thérapeutique, 41% des enfants étaient des orphelins. Parmi les enfants sous TARV, 46% prenaient leur trithérapie sous forme de médicaments séparés parmi lesquels 52,1% étaient en échec thérapeutique. Conclusion Les échecs thérapeutiques et le passage en seconde ligne dépendaient du contexte familial des enfants, de leur statut immunologique à l'initiation du traitement, de leur sexe et de la forme galénique du TARV. PMID:24171063

  9. Levalbuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... by mouth using a nebulizer, and as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. The ... will come in canisters. Each canister of levalbuterol aerosol is designed to provide 200 inhalations. After the ...

  10. Albuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... that affect the lungs and airways). Albuterol inhalation aerosol and powder for oral inhalation is also used to prevent breathing difficulties during exercise. Albuterol inhalation aerosol (Proair HFA, Proventil HFA, Ventolin HFA) is used ...

  11. Substance use - inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... in (inhaled). Common types of abused inhalants are: Aerosols, such as air freshener, deodorant, fabric protector, hair ... a gas from a balloon Dusting: Spraying an aerosol into the nose or mouth Glading: Inhaling air- ...

  12. Prise en charge d’un afflux massif de brûles lors d’une situation de catastrophe par incendie au Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Hatimi, E.M.; Ihrai, H.; Drissi Kamili, N.

    2012-01-01

    Summary La brûlure est l’une des lésions les plus fréquemment rencontrées lors de catastrophes naturelles ou lors de catastrophes d’origine humaine (incendies de lieux publics d’origine accidentelle, ou en temps de guerre ou encore lors d’attentats terroristes). La prise en charge et le triage de brûlés en nombre reste un problème difficile; ceci souligne la nécessité d’une réflexion et de prévisions de ces crises en insistant sur la formation des médecins et des soignants. Les défis à relever sont multiples: les soins aux brûlés requièrent un nombre important de personnel qualifié; les évacuations doivent être planifiées en fonction de la gravité de la brûlure et des lésions associées; les stocks et lots de dotation (en particulier en topiques anti-infectieux et en cristalloïdes) doivent être suffisants et adéquats. Les services hospitaliers de l’Hôpital Militaire d’Instruction Mohammed V de Rabat doivent pouvoir être rapidement adaptés pour accueillir et surtout isoler ces patients. L’hypothèse d’une catastrophe par incendie avec afflux massif de brûlés à l’hôpital militaire d’instruction Mohammed V de Rabat ne doit laisser place à aucune improvisation. PMID:23467075

  13. Fluticasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... fluticasone aerosol inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed ... Do not store the inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct ...

  14. Flunisolide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... your flunisolide inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed ... Do not store the inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct ...

  15. Ciclesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... your ciclesonide inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed ... Do not store the inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct ...

  16. Zanamivir Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Zanamivir comes as a powder to inhale (breathe in) by mouth. To treat influenza, it is usually inhaled twice daily for 5 days. You should ... plastic inhaler called a Diskhaler (device for inhaling powder) and five Rotadisks (circular foil blister packs each ...

  17. Budesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... tightness, wheezing, and coughing caused by asthma. Budesonide powder for oral inhalation (Pulmicort Flexhaler) is used in ... Budesonide comes as a powder to inhale by mouth using an inhaler and as a suspension to inhale by mouth using a special jet nebulizer ( ...

  18. Ciclesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Ciclesonide comes as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Ciclesonide is usually inhaled twice a day. Try to use ciclesonide at around ... than usual.The inhaler that comes with ciclesonide aerosol is designed for use only with a canister ...

  19. La pelade par plaques

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, l’histologie et l’approche clinique au diagnostic de la pelade par plaques. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant la pathogenèse, le diagnostic et le pronostic de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme de perte pileuse auto-immune dont la prévalence durant une vie est d’environ 2 %. Des antécédents personnels ou familiaux de troubles auto-immuns concomitants, comme le vitiligo ou une maladie de la thyroïde, peuvent être observés dans un petit sous-groupe de patients. Le diagnostic peut souvent être posé de manière clinique en se fondant sur la perte de cheveux non cicatricielle et circulaire caractéristique, accompagnée de cheveux en « point d’exclamation » en périphérie chez ceux dont le problème en est aux premiers stades. Le diagnostic des cas plus complexes ou des présentations inhabituelles peut être facilité par une biopsie et un examen histologique. Le pronostic varie largement et de mauvais résultats sont associés à une apparition à un âge précoce, une perte importante, la variante ophiasis, des changements aux ongles, des antécédents familiaux ou des troubles auto-immuns concomitants. Conclusion La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte de cheveux périodiquement observée en soins primaires. Les médecins de famille sont bien placés pour identifier la pelade par plaques, déterminer la gravité de la maladie et poser le diagnostic différentiel approprié. De plus, ils sont en mesure de renseigner leurs patients à propos de l’évolution clinique de la maladie ainsi que du pronostic général selon le sous-type de patients.

  20. Indacaterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... a short-acting beta agonist inhaler such as albuterol (Proventil, Ventolin) to use during attacks. If you ... stop the pieces of capsule from reaching your mouth as you inhale the medication. Very tiny pieces ...

  1. Hydrazine inhalation hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yung Hsiang; Chong, C H; Ng, W T; Lim, D

    2007-10-01

    Abstract Hydrazine is a hazardous chemical commonly used as a reactant in rocket and jet fuel cells. Animal studies have demonstrated hepatic changes after hydrazine inhalation. Human case reports of hydrazine inhalation hepatotoxicity are rare. We report a case of mild hepatotoxicity following brief hydrazine vapour inhalation in a healthy young man, which resolved completely on expectant management. PMID:17761725

  2. Flunisolide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Flunisolide comes as an aerosol to inhale by mouth. It usually is inhaled twice daily. Try to use flunisolide at around the same times every ... acting medication than usual.Each canister of flunisolide aerosol is designed to provide 60 or 120 inhalations, ...

  3. La pelade par plaques

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre les schémas thérapeutiques et les résultats des traitements pour la pelade par plaques, de même que les aider à identifier les patients pour qui une demande de consultation en dermatologie pourrait s’imposer. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant le traitement de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte pileuse qui touche à la fois les enfants et les adultes. Même s’il n’y a pas de mortalité associée à la maladie, la morbidité découlant des effets psychologiques de la perte des cheveux peut être dévastatrice. Lorsque la pelade par plaques et le sous-type de la maladie sont identifiés, un schéma thérapeutique approprié peut être amorcé pour aider à arrêter la chute des cheveux et possiblement faire commencer la repousse. Les traitements de première intention sont la triamcinolone intralésionnelle avec des corticostéroïdes topiques ou du minoxidil ou les 2. Les médecins de famille peuvent prescrire ces traitements en toute sécurité et amorcer ces thérapies. Les cas plus avancés ou réfractaires pourraient avoir besoin de diphénylcyclopropénone topique ou d’anthraline topique. On peut traiter la perte de cils avec des analogues de la prostaglandine. Les personnes ayant subi une perte de cheveux abondante peuvent recourir à des options de camouflage ou à des prothèses capillaires. Il est important de surveiller les troubles psychiatriques en raison des effets psychologiques profonds de la perte de cheveux. Conclusion Les médecins de famille verront de nombreux patients qui perdent leurs cheveux. La reconnaissance de la pelade par plaques et la compréhension du processus pathologique sous-jacent permettent d’amorcer un schéma thérapeutique approprié. Les cas plus graves ou r

  4. [Inhaled therapy in asthma].

    PubMed

    Plaza Moral, Vicente; Giner Donaire, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Because of its advantages, inhaled administration of aerosolized drugs is the administration route of choice for the treatment of asthma and COPD. Numerous technological advances in the devices used in inhaled therapy in recent decades have boosted the appearance of multiple inhalers and aerosolized drugs. However, this variety also requires that the prescribing physician is aware of their characteristics. The main objective of the present review is to summarize the current state of knowledge on inhalers and inhaled drugs commonly used in the treatment of asthma. The review ranges from theoretical aspects (fundamentals and available devices and drugs) to practical and relevant aspects for asthma care in the clinical setting (therapeutic strategies, education, and adherence to inhalers). PMID:26683076

  5. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    PubMed

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan. PMID:27338970

  6. L'inhalation d’épingle à foulard: urgence pneumologique émergente

    PubMed Central

    Hebbazi, Afafe; Khattabi, Wiam El; Bopaka, Régis; Jabri, Hasna; Afif, Hicham

    2015-01-01

    L'inhalation d’épingle à foulard (EF) est un phénomène de plus en plus fréquent dans les pays où les femmes portent le voile et dont les conséquences peuvent être graves. Le but de ce travail est de présenter notre expérience dans le diagnostic et la prise en charge de cette nouvelle entité clinique, de définir ses particularités et d'illustrer les dangers de la tenue d'une épingle à foulard dans la bouche. Soixante-dix cas d'inhalation d'EF ont été colligés en 8 ans (2007-2015). Il s'agit de 69 patientes, toutes voilées avec un âge moyen de 16,5 ans et d'un patient de 14 ans. Les patientes mettaient l’épingle entre leurs lèvres tout en fixant leurs foulards. L'inhalation a été accidentelle dans tous les cas. Le signe le plus fréquemment rapporté après inhalation était la toux. Le siège de l’épingle était plus fréquent au niveau de l'arbre bronchique gauche (52,9%). Une expulsion spontanée de l'EF a été notée dans 9 cas. La bronchoscopie souple, réalisée en première intention, dans 61 cas a permis l'extraction de l'EF, dans 83,6% des cas. Le recours à la bronchoscopie rigide a été nécessaire dans 4,9% des cas et à une thoracotomie également dans 4,9% des cas du fait d'une migration distale de l'EF. L'inhalation d’épingle à foulard représente une urgence pneumologique. Les cliniciens doivent être informés de cette forme distincte de corps étrangers intra-bronchiques, son diagnostic et les techniques de son extraction. L'extraction par bronchoscopie souple est une méthode efficace avec un taux de succès élevé. La prévention reste le meilleur traitement. PMID:26958140

  7. Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeutic dose delivered by inhaled pharmacological drugs. Howeve...

  8. Inhalation of chlorine gas.

    PubMed

    Williams, J G

    1997-11-01

    The clinical features of acute chlorine gas inhalation, and its management are reviewed. Current medical views on the chronic effects of an acute overwhelming exposure on lung function (reactive airways dysfunction syndrome), and the more controversial field of lung disease secondary to repeated inhalations of lower concentrations of chlorine gas are discussed. PMID:9519180

  9. Evaluation des résultats après traitement des lésions intra épithéliales du col utérin par la cryothérapie: étude préliminaire au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Yaoundé: A propos de 21 cas

    PubMed Central

    Ndoua, Claude Cyrille Noa; Tebeu, Pierre Marie; Kemfang, Jean Dupont; Kasia, Jean Marie

    2015-01-01

    Nous rapportons les résultats d'une série de 21 cas de prise en charge par cryothérapie de lésions intra-épithéliales cervicales au Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire (CHU) de Yaoundé. Notre objectif principal était d’évaluer les résultats préliminaires de la prise en charge des lésions précancéreuses éligibles pour la cryothérapie. Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale descriptive qui s'est étalée sur 24 mois. Etaient inclus dans l’étude toutes les femmes traitées par cryothérapie. Nous avons exclu les patientes traitées par une autre méthode, les patientes perdues de vue et les dossiers incomplets. Le statut cervical a été déterminé à 6 semaines, 6 mois et 12 mois. Les complications précoces et tardives ont également été répertoriées. Au total 95.2% des lésions étaient cicatrisées à 6 semaines. A 6 mois, toutes les lésions avaient disparu et au 12ème mois, la guérison était effective chez 95.2% des patientes. Les saignements et l'hydrorrhée étaient les principales complications tardives avec des fréquences respectives de 66.7% et 95.2%. Aucun cas de sténose cervicale n'a été répertorié. La cryothérapie peut être utilisée comme méthode de traitement pour des lésions précancéreuses du col. PMID:26140068

  10. Short-term cardiovascular and autonomic effects of inhaled salbutamol.

    PubMed

    Edgell, Heather; Moore, Linn E; Chung, Carol; Byers, Bradley W; Stickland, Michael K

    2016-09-01

    Asthma independently increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. As inhaled β-agonists have systemic cardiovascular effects, and elevations in arterial stiffness and sympathetic nerve activity are associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity/mortality, this study examines the effect of salbutamol use on pulse wave velocity (PWV) and muscle sympathetic nervous activity (MSNA). Healthy men and women (26.2±1.5years) were recruited for: Day 1: 4 inhalations of placebo followed by 4 inhalations of salbutamol (4×100μg); Day 2: placebo only; Day 3: carotid-femoral PWV measurements before/after placebo/salbutamol. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and carotid-radial PWV were obtained on Day 1 and 2. MSNA was obtained on Day 1. Salbutamol increased HR and total MSNA (Baseline1: 2.8±2.8au; Placebo: 2.4±2.1au; Baseline2: 2.7±3.0au; Salbutamol: 3.3±2.9au; p=0.05), with no changes in MAP or PWV. There were no effects of placebo on HR, MSNA, or PWV. Acute salbutamol use increases sympathetic activity suggesting that salbutamol could contribute to cardiovascular morbidity/mortality in individuals using inhaled β-agonists. PMID:27236040

  11. Inhalation treatment for asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Reiser, J; Warner, J O

    1986-01-01

    Inhaled medication has revolutionised the lives of many children with asthma. Despite this we see many children for whom appropriate inhaled medication has been prescribed but whose symptoms continue to be poorly controlled. In our experience this is often due to poor technique or inappropriately prescribed devices and an inadequate understanding of when and how to use the treatment. The prescribing physician must have a clear idea of the optimal inhalation technique. We have reviewed the standard devices available and our use of them in the treatment of childhood asthma. PMID:3082295

  12. Insulin Human Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Insulin inhalation is used in combination with a long-acting insulin to treat type 1 diabetes (condition in which the body does not produce insulin and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar ...

  13. Olodaterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs ... Do not use olodaterol inhalation during a sudden COPD attack. Your doctor will prescribe a short-acting ( ...

  14. Pirbuterol Acetate Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to prevent and treat wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by asthma, chronic ... the puff; continue to take a full, deep breath. Take the inhaler away from you mouth, hold ...

  15. Albuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the dose counter go down. Do not waste doses by opening the inhaler unless you are ... refrigerator or at room temperature away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Store the ...

  16. Umeclidinium Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... the inhaler without using your dose, you will waste the medication. The counter will count down by ... at room temperature and away from sunlight, excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away ...

  17. Cromolyn Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... difficulties (bronchospasm) caused by exercise, cold and dry air, or by inhaling substances such as pet dander, ... of substances that cause inflammation (swelling) in the air passages of the lungs.

  18. Arformoterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... a short acting beta agonist inhaler such as albuterol (Proventil, Ventolin) to use during attacks. If you ... Sit upright and place the mouthpiece in your mouth or put on the facemask. Turn on the ...

  19. Substance use - inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... it has been sprayed or put into a paper or plastic bag Ballooning: Inhaling a gas from ... empty soda cans, empty perfume bottles, and toilet paper tubes stuffed with rags or toilet paper soaked ...

  20. Overview of inhalation toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Dorato, M A

    1990-01-01

    The development of inhalation toxicology as a distinct discipline can be traced back well over one hundred years. The technology has advanced in terms of materials and designs used to construct inhalation chambers and the equipment used to generate controlled test atmospheres of a wide variety of gases, vapors, dusts, and droplets. Consideration of metered dose inhalers, a relatively recent concern, has led to the design of new equipment for administering this unique dosage form. The parameters used to evaluate inhalation toxicity are similar to those used for any other route of administration. In addition, there are some unique procedures for early screening of pulmonary toxicity, especially within a series of related chemicals. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. PMID:2200660

  1. Acute Inhalation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gorguner, Metin; Akgun, Metin

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled substances may cause injury in pulmonary epithelium at various levels of respiratory tract, leading from simple symptoms to severe disease. Acute inhalation injury (AII) is not uncommon condition. There are certain high risk groups but AII may occur at various places including home or workplace. Environmental exposure is also possible. In addition to individual susceptibility, the characteristics of inhaled substances such as water solubility, size of substances and chemical properties may affect disease severity as well as its location. Although AII cases may recover in a few days but AII may cause long-term complications, even death. We aimed to discuss the effects of short-term exposures (minutes to hours) to toxic substances on the lungs. PMID:25610115

  2. Effect of Inhalation of Aromatherapy Oil on Patients with Perennial Allergic Rhinitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seo Yeon; Park, Kyungsook

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of aromatherapy oil inhalation on symptoms, quality of life, sleep quality, and fatigue level among adults with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR). Fifty-four men and women aged between 20 and 60 were randomized to inhale aromatherapy oil containing essential oil from sandalwood, geranium, and Ravensara or almond oil (the placebo) for 5 minutes twice daily for 7 days. PAR symptoms determined by Total Nasal Symptom Score (TNSS), the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ), sleep quality by Verran Synder-Halpern (VSH) scale, and fatigue level by Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFS) were assessed before and after intervention period. Compared with the placebo, the experimental group showed significant improvement in TNSS, especially in nasal obstruction. The aromatherapy group also showed significantly higher improvements in total score of RQLQ and CFS. These findings indicate that inhalation of certain aromatherapy oil helps relieve PAR symptoms, improve rhinitis-specific quality of life, and reduce fatigue in patients with PAR. In conclusion, inhalation of aromatherapy essential oil may have potential as an effective intervention to alleviate PAR. PMID:27034695

  3. Effect of Inhalation of Aromatherapy Oil on Patients with Perennial Allergic Rhinitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seo Yeon

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of aromatherapy oil inhalation on symptoms, quality of life, sleep quality, and fatigue level among adults with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR). Fifty-four men and women aged between 20 and 60 were randomized to inhale aromatherapy oil containing essential oil from sandalwood, geranium, and Ravensara or almond oil (the placebo) for 5 minutes twice daily for 7 days. PAR symptoms determined by Total Nasal Symptom Score (TNSS), the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ), sleep quality by Verran Synder-Halpern (VSH) scale, and fatigue level by Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFS) were assessed before and after intervention period. Compared with the placebo, the experimental group showed significant improvement in TNSS, especially in nasal obstruction. The aromatherapy group also showed significantly higher improvements in total score of RQLQ and CFS. These findings indicate that inhalation of certain aromatherapy oil helps relieve PAR symptoms, improve rhinitis-specific quality of life, and reduce fatigue in patients with PAR. In conclusion, inhalation of aromatherapy essential oil may have potential as an effective intervention to alleviate PAR. PMID:27034695

  4. Fluticasone and Salmeterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor about how you should take your other oral or inhaled medications for asthma during your treatment with salmeterol and fluticasone inhalation. If you were using a short-acting beta agonist inhaler such as albuterol (Proventil, Ventolin) on a regular basis, your doctor ...

  5. MODELING DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles: ABSTRACT

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeut...

  6. Pars Injuries in Athletes.

    PubMed

    Oren, Jonathan H; Gallina, Jason M

    2016-03-01

    Pars injuries are common causes of low back pain in adolescent athletes. Workup traditionally has included lumbar radiographs with oblique views and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). However, recent literature has demonstrated the accuracy of MRI as a diagnostic modality. Acute injuries may be amenable to bracing with the goal of a healed lesion. Most cases of spondylolysis will result in asymptomatic non-union, though pars repair is an option for symptomatic pars defects without spondylolisthesis. PMID:26977552

  7. Liposomal formulations for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Cipolla, David; Gonda, Igor; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2013-08-01

    No marketed inhaled products currently use sustained release formulations such as liposomes to enhance drug disposition in the lung, but that may soon change. This review focuses on the interaction between liposomal formulations and the inhalation technology used to deliver them as aerosols. There have been a number of dated reviews evaluating nebulization of liposomes. While the information they shared is still accurate, this paper incorporates data from more recent publications to review the factors that affect aerosol performance. Recent reviews have comprehensively covered the development of dry powder liposomes for aerosolization and only the key aspects of those technologies will be summarized. There are now at least two inhaled liposomal products in late-stage clinical development: ARIKACE(®) (Insmed, NJ, USA), a liposomal amikacin, and Pulmaquin™ (Aradigm Corp., CA, USA), a liposomal ciprofloxacin, both of which treat a variety of patient populations with lung infections. This review also highlights the safety of inhaled liposomes and summarizes the clinical experience with liposomal formulations for pulmonary application. PMID:23919478

  8. Inhalants. Specialized Information Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    The document presents a collection of articles about inhalant abuse. Article 1 presents findings on the psychophysiological effects related to the use of amyl or butyl nitrate as a "recreational drug." Article 2 suggests a strong association between chronic sniffing of the solvent toulene and irreversible brain damage. Article 3 warns about the…

  9. Isoetharine Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Isoetharine comes as an aerosol and a solution to inhale by mouth. It is used as needed to relieve symptoms but usually should not be ... proper disposal of your medication. Avoid puncturing the aerosol container, and do not discard it in an ...

  10. Nonconsecutive Pars Interarticularis Defects.

    PubMed

    Elgafy, Hossein; Hart, Ryan C; Tanios, Mina

    2015-12-01

    Lumbar spondylolysis is a well-recognized condition occurring in adolescents because of repetitive overuse in sports. Nonconsecutive spondylolysis involving the lumbar spine is rare. In contrast to single-level pars defects that respond well to conservative treatment, there is no consensus about the management of multiple-level pars fractures; a few reports indicated that conservative management is successful, and the majority acknowledged that surgery is often required. The current study presents a rare case of pars fracture involving nonconsecutive segments and discusses the management options. In this case report, we review the patient's history, clinical examination, radiologic findings, and management, as well as the relevant literature. An 18-year-old man presented to the clinic with worsening lower back pain related to nonconsecutive pars fractures at L2 and L5. After 6 months of conservative management, diagnostic computed tomography-guided pars block was used to localize the symptomatic level at L2, which was treated surgically; the L5 asymptomatic pars fracture did not require surgery. At the last follow-up 2 years after surgery, the patient was playing baseball and basketball, and denied any back pain. This article reports a case of rare nonconsecutive pars fractures. Conservative management for at least 6 months is recommended. Successful management depends on the choice of appropriate treatment for each level. Single-photon emission computed tomography scan, and computed tomography-guided pars block are valuable preoperative tools to identify the symptomatic level in such a case. PMID:26665257

  11. Food hypersensitivity by inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Daniel A; Bahna, Sami L

    2009-01-01

    Though not widely recognized, food hypersensitivity by inhalation can cause major morbidity in affected individuals. The exposure is usually more obvious and often substantial in occupational environments but frequently occurs in non-occupational settings, such as homes, schools, restaurants, grocery stores, and commercial flights. The exposure can be trivial, as in mere smelling or being in the vicinity of the food. The clinical manifestations can vary from a benign respiratory or cutaneous reaction to a systemic one that can be life-threatening. In addition to strict avoidance, such highly-sensitive subjects should carry self-injectable epinephrine and wear MedicAlert® identification. Asthma is a strong predisposing factor and should be well-controlled. It is of great significance that food inhalation can cause de novo sensitization. PMID:19232116

  12. Technosphere inhaled insulin (Afrezza).

    PubMed

    Rendell, M

    2014-12-01

    Technosphere® insulin uses a unique carrier -fumaryl diketopiperazine (FDKP)- which adsorbs insulin to form microparticles to permit delivery to the alveoli by inhalation. Toxicity studies have been entirely negative. The pulmonary absorption of insulin is very rapid, and the disappearance time is shorter than for subcutaneously delivered rapid-acting insulins. As a result, after inhalation, there is a rapid drop in glucose levels which subsequently return to normal in a shorter time than after subcutaneous insulin administration. Consequently, there is a lower incidence of hypoglycemic reactions. Pulmonary function studies have shown a small, reversible decrease in FEV1, and pulmonary imaging studies have shown no adverse effect. The inhalation of Technosphere insulin can produce a cough in up to 27% of patients. The cough has resulted in discontinuance in as many as 9% of users. Technosphere insulin has been approved for use in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Long-term studies of pulmonary safety and surveillance for malignancy will be performed in the future. Studies to assess the optimal time dosing regimen are needed. PMID:25588086

  13. Par Pond water balance

    SciTech Connect

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

    1996-06-01

    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs.

  14. Efficacité de la prévention de la transmission mère-enfant du Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine par le protocole 2010 de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé au Centre Médical Saint Camille de Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    OuédraogoYugbaré, Solange Odile; Zagré, Nikaise; Koueta, Fla; Dao, Lassina; Kam, Ludovic; Ouattara, Diarra Yé; Simporé, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    L’épidémie du Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine en milieu pédiatrique est surtout le résultat de la transmission mère-enfant. Notre étude a pour objectif de décrire l'efficacité de la prévention de la transmission mère-enfant du Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine par le protocole OMS 2010 (Option A et trithérapie) au centre médical saint Camille de Ouagadougou. Nous avons mené une étude d'une cohorte d'enfants suivis dans le cadre de la prévention de la transmission mère-enfant du Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine au centre médical saint Camille de Ouagadougou sur une période de 2 ans allant du 1er Janvier 2012 au 31 Décembre 2013. Nous avons obtenu l'accord de 4900 femmes enceintes pour le dépistage de l'infection du Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine et 238 gestantes ont été diagnostiquées séropositives soit 4,86% de séroprévalence. Les femmes étaient surtout infectées par le Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine avec de type I (95,38%)). La majorité était sous trithérapie (74,3%) et (25,7%) sous prophylaxie (option A). Les nouveau-nés (92,5%) ont reçu un traitement antirétroviral à base de névirapine dans les 72 heures après la naissance. L'allaitement sécurisé a été appliquée dans 78% des cas. Le taux global de transmission mère-enfant du VIH était de 3,6% avec 3% de transmission chez les enfants nés de mères sous trithérapie antirétrovirale et 6,3% dans les cas de prophylaxie antirétrovirale. Le facteur de risque de transmission a été le long délai du début d'administration des antirétroviraux chez le nouveau-né. La mortalité infantile à un an était de 3,5%. Cette étude a révélé l'efficacité de l'Option A et conforté celle de la trithérapie, le passage à l'Option B+ serait donc plus bénéfique. PMID:26966499

  15. How to Use Metered-Dose Inhalers

    MedlinePlus

    ... methods really work, and people who use these methods may continue to use their inhalers after the inhalers are empty.Some inhalers come with a counter that shows the number of sprays that remain in the inhaler. If your inhaler ...

  16. uPAR

    PubMed Central

    Uhrin, Pavel; Breuss, Johannes M.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-initiated angiogenesis requires both coordinated proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrix provided by the urokinase plasminogen activator/urokinase receptor (uPA/uPAR) system and regulation of cell-migration provided by integrin–matrix interaction. Previously we have shown that stimulation of pericellular proteolysis induced by VEGF occurs via the VEGF receptor-2 leading to redistribution of uPAR to focal adhesions at the leading edge of endothelial cells. In our recent work published in Cardiovascular Research, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the uPAR-dependent modulation of VEGF-induced endothelial migration. By applying a micropatterning technique we described that VEGF stimulation results in complex formation between uPAR and α5β1-integrin on the cell surface. The subsequent internalization of this complex, important for receptor redistribution, was demonstrated by flow-cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Targeting of the interaction site between uPAR and α5β1 impairs receptor internalization and leads to the inhibition of endothelial cell migration in vitro and in an angiogenesis model in vivo. This proof-of-principle that the interface of uPAR and α5β1-integrin may represent a promising site to therapeutically target tumor angiogenesis raises hope for the development of an anti-angiogenic approach that is limited to only the mobilizing effect of VEGF to endothelial cells, and does not interfere with the inarguably positive effect of VEGF as survival factor. PMID:23076213

  17. Carcinogenicity of inhaled nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Roller, Markus

    2009-07-01

    Large epidemiological studies in the United States have shown a statistical association between air concentration of the fine dust fraction PM(2.5) in the general environment and increased risk of lung cancer. A quantitative risk assessment for lung cancer based on these studies corresponds to risk estimates based on studies at workplaces with exposure to diesel engine emissions; its magnitude cannot be explained by the known carcinogenicity of organic substances or metals adsorbed to the insoluble particle core. Carcinogenic effects of diesel particles were observed after inhalation in rats independently in several studies. The surprisingly strong effect of diesel particles was partially attributed to their small size. This hypothesis was corroborated by inhalation studies with synthetic nanoparticles virtually free of organic compounds. IARC found sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of carbon black and of titanium dioxide in experimental animals. Long-term studies by the method of intratracheal instillation confirmed the carcinogenic effects in rats for an even broader spectrum of synthetic nanoparticles. Non-positive studies with hamsters are not valid because hamsters did not develop lung tumors after inhalation of some known human carcinogens. In recent years, the number of publications reporting in vitro genotoxicity of TiO(2) and of carbon black nanomaterials has increased. Overall, there is clear positive evidence for carcinogenicity in rats, together with supporting evidence from human data of structurally related substances. Therefore, the European Union (EU) criteria for category 2 of carcinogenic substances appear to be fulfilled for bio-durable nanoparticles consisting of matter without known significant specific toxicity. PMID:19558247

  18. Parent's Guide to Preventing Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditioning coolants. How can you tell if a young person is an inhalant abuser? If someone is ... youths involved with inhalant abuse. How does a young person who abuses inhalants die? There are many ...

  19. About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... dose-inhalers ( inhaled steroids ), oral forms (pills or syrups) , injections (shots) and intravenous (IV) solutions. Healthcare providers ... slowly decreased. Inhaled steroids and steroid pills and syrups are often prescribed for people with a chronic ...

  20. Accidental condom inhalation.

    PubMed

    Arya, C L; Gupta, Rajnish; Arora, V K

    2004-01-01

    A 27-year-old lady presented with persistent cough, sputum and fever for the preceding six months. Inspite of trials with antibiotics and anti-tuberculosis treatment for the preceeding four months, her symptoms did not improve. A subsequent chest radiograph showed non-homogeneous collapse-consolidation of right upper lobe. Videobronchoscopy revealed an inverted bag like structure in right upper lobe bronchus and rigid bronchoscopic removal with biopsy forceps confirmed the presence of a condom. Detailed retrospective history also confirmed accidental inhalation of the condom during fellatio. PMID:14870871

  1. Traitement des fractures des plateaux externes par vissage percutané assisté par arthroscopie

    PubMed Central

    Abouchane, Merouane; Belmoubarik, Amine; Benameur, Hamza; Haddoun, Ahmed Reda; Nechad, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Le but de notre étude est d'évaluer les résultats de fractures des plateaux tibiaux externes traitées par ostéosynthèse percutanée assistée par arthroscopie. Dix patients (8 hommes et 2 femmes) de 32 ans en moyenne ont subi cette intervention afin de réparer des fractures des plateaux tibiaux Schatzker I-III. Après avoir appliqué un garrot pneumatique, nous avons réduit et fixé la fracture au moyen de vis cannelées souschondrales. Lésions associées retrouvent deux lésions partielles du ménisque externe ont été retrouvé, traitées par résection partielle. Une orthèse de genou été de mise à but antalgique et protectrice pendant six semaines avec béquillage et interdiction de l'appui pour une durée de douze semaines avec reprise d'appui partiel au delà. La durée d'hospitalisation été d'une moyenne de cinq jours. La rééducation passive a été commence le lendemain de l'intervention et continuait dans chez un kinésithérapeute à la sortie du patient du service. Le suivi été à J7, J15, 1mois, 3mois, 6 mois puis tous les 6 mois. Neuf de nos patients ont été revu régulièrement sauf un perdu de vue. Le recul moyen de notre série été de 16 mois (10 et 24 mois). Le score de Lysholm a été utilisé pour évaluer les résultats cliniques chez nos neuf patients: excellent chez trois patients bons chez trois moyen chez un seul et mauvais chez deux patients. Tous nos neuf patients ont consolidé (figure 10 contrôle scopique d un article). Aucune gonarthrose n'a été note chez nos neuf patients due essentiellement au recul moyen faible de 16 mois. Le traitement des fractures des plateaux tibiaux externes assisté par arthroscopie produit des résultats satisfaisants et peut être accepté comme solution de rechange efficace au traitement des fractures des plateaux tibiaux causées par un choc de faible énergie. PMID:26587137

  2. THE MEASURES PAR PROJECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouin, R. J.; Franz, B.

    2009-12-01

    The solar energy available for photosynthesis, known as PAR, controls the growth of phytoplankton and, therefore, regulates the composition and evolution of marine ecosystems. Knowing the spatial and temporal distribution of PAR over the oceans is critical to understanding biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nutrients, and oxygen, and to address important climate and global change issues such as the fate of anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide. In view of this, a 12-year time series of PAR at the ocean surface, starting in September 1997, is being produced by the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group from SeaWiFS, MODIS-Terra, and MODIS-Aqua data. The product covers the global oceans, with a spatial resolution of about 9.3x9.3 km (equal area grid) and a temporal resolution of one day. PAR is computed as the difference between the 400-700 nm solar flux incident on the top of the atmosphere (known) and reflected back to space by the atmosphere and surface (derived from satellite radiance), taking into account atmospheric absorption (modeled). Knowledge of pixel composition is not required, eliminating the need for cloud screening and arbitrary assumptions about sub-pixel cloudiness. Combining data from satellite sensors with different equatorial crossing times accounts for the diurnal variability of clouds and, therefore, increases accuracy on a daily time scale. The processing system, including routine check of accuracy and control of quality, is designed to operate during the entire lifetime of SeaWiFS and MODIS, and to accommodate future sensors with ocean-color capabilities. Maps of daily, weekly, and monthly PAR obtained from individual sensors are presented, as well as merged products. Accuracy is quantified in comparisons with other satellite estimates, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis product, and in-situ measurements from fixed buoys and platforms. The good statistical performance makes the satellite PAR product suitable for large

  3. Mephedrone inhalation causes pneumomediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Ruth; Bowen, Nia; Singh, Joy

    2014-01-01

    A 17-year-old male patient presented to A&E with swelling on the right side of his neck, extending to below the clavicle, associated with neck pain and dysphonia. On examination, subcutaneous supraclavicular and chest wall emphysema was noted. Clinical observations and bloods were normal. A chest X-ray and subsequent CT of the thorax showed evidence of pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema. The patient denied any history of trauma but admitted to inhalation of mephedrone 3 days previously. The patient was discussed with the regional cardiothoracic unit who advised conservative management. He was treated prophylactically with antibiotics and was initially kept nil by mouth, but diet was introduced 24 h later. He remained well, his dysphonia resolved and his subcutaneous emphysema improved. He was discharged after 3 days. He has not attended any formal follow-up but was well when contacted by phone. PMID:24614784

  4. Toxic inhalational exposures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tze-Ming Benson; Malli, Harjoth; Maslove, David M; Wang, Helena; Kuschner, Ware G

    2013-01-01

    Respirable toxicants are a spectrum of irritant and nonirritant gases, vapors, fumes, and airborne particles that can be entrained into the body through the respiratory tract, resulting in exposures that cause pulmonary injury and/or systemic disease. Sources of respirable toxicants include structural fires, industrial accidents, domestic mishaps, and intentional releases of injurious agents on the battleground (warfare) or in civilian settings (acts of terrorism). Acute toxic inhalational exposures may result in respiratory failure, multisystem organ dysfunction, and death. Management of victims includes assessment and protection of the airway, monitoring and treatment of systemic toxicity, and delivery of exposure-specific and nonspecific therapies that improve outcomes. Treatments may include antidotes, hyperbaric oxygen, and other nonspecific life-supporting interventions. PMID:22232204

  5. Inhaled Hydrogen Sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Volpato, Gian Paolo; Searles, Robert; Yu, Binglan; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Ichinose, Fumito; Zapol, Warren M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Breathing hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been reported to induce a suspended animation–like state with hypothermia and a concomitant metabolic reduction in rodents. However, the impact of H2S breathing on cardiovascular function remains incompletely understood. In this study, the authors investigated the cardiovascular and metabolic effects of inhaled H2S in a murine model. Methods The impact of breathing H2S on cardiovascular function was examined using telemetry and echocardiography in awake mice. The effects of breathing H2S on carbon dioxide production and oxygen consumption were measured at room temperature and in a warmed environment. Results Breathing H2S at 80 parts per million by volume at 27°C ambient temperature for 6 h markedly reduced heart rate, core body temperature, respiratory rate, and physical activity, whereas blood pressure remained unchanged. Echocardiography demonstrated that H2S exposure decreased both heart rate and cardiac output but preserved stroke volume. Breathing H2S for 6 h at 35°C ambient temperature (to prevent hypothermia) decreased heart rate, physical activity, respiratory rate, and cardiac output without altering stroke volume or body temperature. H2S breathing seems to induce bradycardia by depressing sinus node activity. Breathing H2S for 30 min decreased whole body oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production at either 27° or 35°C ambient temperature. Both parameters returned to baseline levels within 10 min after the cessation of H2S breathing. Conclusions Inhalation of H2S at either 27° or 35°C reversibly depresses cardiovascular function without changing blood pressure in mice. Breathing H2S also induces a rapidly reversible reduction of metabolic rate at either body temperature. PMID:18362598

  6. Inhaled matters of the heart

    PubMed Central

    Zaky, Ahmed; Ahmad, Aftab; Dell’Italia, Louis J; Jahromi, Leila; Reisenberg, Lee Ann; Matalon, Sadis; Ahmad, Shama

    2015-01-01

    Inhalations of atmospheric pollutants, especially particulate matters, are known to cause severe cardiac effects and to exacerbate preexisting heart disease. Heart failure is an important sequellae of gaseous inhalation such as that of carbon monoxide. Similarly, other gases such as sulphur dioxide are known to cause detrimental cardiovascular events. However, mechanisms of these cardiac toxicities are so far unknown. Increased susceptibility of the heart to oxidative stress may play a role. Low levels of antioxidants in the heart as compared to other organs and high levels of reactive oxygen species produced due to the high energetic demand and metabolic rate in cardiac muscle are important in rendering this susceptibility. Acute inhalation of high concentrations of halogen gases is often fatal. Severe respiratory injury and distress occurs upon inhalation of halogens gases, such as chlorine and bromine; however, studies on their cardiac effects are scant. We have demonstrated that inhalation of high concentrations of halogen gases cause significant cardiac injury, dysfunction, and failure that can be critical in causing mortalities following exposures. Our studies also demonstrated that cardiac dysfunction occurs as a result of a direct insult independent of coexisting hypoxia, since it is not fully reversed by oxygen supplementation. Therefore, studies on offsite organ effects of inhaled toxic gases can impact development of treatment strategies upon accidental or deliberate exposures to these agents. Here we summarize the knowledge of cardiovascular effects of common inhaled toxic gases with the intent to highlight the importance of consideration of cardiac symptoms while treating the victims. PMID:26665179

  7. Inhaled antibiotics: dry or wet?

    PubMed

    Tiddens, Harm A W M; Bos, Aukje C; Mouton, Johan W; Devadason, Sunalene; Janssens, Hettie M

    2014-11-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) delivering antibiotics for the suppressive treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients were developed recently and are now increasingly replacing time-consuming nebuliser therapy. Noninferiority studies have shown that the efficacy of inhaled tobramycin delivered by DPI was similar to that of wet nebulisation. However, there are many differences between inhaled antibiotic therapy delivered by DPI and by nebuliser. The question is whether and to what extent inhalation technique and other patient-related factors affect the efficacy of antibiotics delivered by DPI compared with nebulisers. Health professionals should be aware of the differences between dry and wet aerosols, and of patient-related factors that can influence efficacy, in order to personalise treatment, to give appropriate instructions to patients and to better understand the response to the treatment after switching. In this review, key issues of aerosol therapy are discussed in relation to inhaled antibiotic therapy with the aim of optimising the use of both nebulised and DPI antibiotics by patients. An example of these issues is the relationship between airway generation, structural lung changes and local concentrations of the inhaled antibiotics. The pros and cons of dry and wet modes of delivery for inhaled antibiotics are discussed. PMID:25323242

  8. Fluticasone and Vilanterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... the inhaler without using your dose, you will waste the medication. The counter will count down by ... at room temperature and away from sunlight, excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away ...

  9. Fluticasone and Salmeterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the dose counter go down. Do not waste doses by closing or tilting the inhaler, playing ... at room temperature and away from sunlight, excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away ...

  10. Umeclidinium and Vilanterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... the inhaler without using your dose, you will waste the medication. The counter will count down by ... at room temperature and away from sunlight, excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away ...

  11. Foreign object - inhaled or swallowed

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000036.htm Foreign object - inhaled or swallowed To use the sharing features ... please enable JavaScript. If you breathe a foreign object into your nose, mouth, or respiratory tract, it ...

  12. Pneumoconiosis after sericite inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Algranti, E; Handar, A; Dumortier, P; Mendonca, E; Rodrigues, G; Santos, A; Mauad, T; Dolhnikoff, M; De Vuyst, P; Saldiva, P; Bussacos, M

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To investigate and describe the radiological, clinical, and pathological changes in miners and millers exposed to sericite dust with mineralogical characteristics of inhaled dust. Methods: The working premises were visited to examine the sericite processing and to classify the jobs according to make qualitative evaluation. Respirable dust was collected and the amount of crystalline silica and particle size distribution were measured. Forty four workers were examined by a standard questionnaire for respiratory symptoms, spirometry, and chest x ray. Material from an open lung biopsy was reviewed for histopathological and mineralogical analysis, together with sericite samples from the work site to compare the mineral characteristics in lung lesions and work area. Results: Respirable dust contained 4.5–10.0% crystalline silica. Particle size distribution showed a heavy burden of very fine particles (23–55%) with a mean diameter of <0.5 µm. Mean age of sericite miners was 41.0 (11.9) and mean number of years of exposure was 13.5 (10.1). In 52.3% of workers (23/44), chest radiographs presented a median category of 1/0 or above, and 18.2% (8/44) had a reduced FEV1. There was a significant association between exposure indices and x ray category. Histological studies of the lung biopsy showed lesions compatible with mixed dust fibrosis with no silicotic nodules. x Ray diffraction analysis of the lung dust residue and the bulk samples collected from work area showed similar mineralogical characteristics. Muscovite and kaolinite were the major mineral particle inclusions in the lung. Conclusion: Exposure to fine sericite particles is associated with the development of functional and radiological changes in workers inducing mixed dust lesions, which are distinct histologically from silicosis. PMID:15723874

  13. Zinc toxicology following particulate inhalation.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ross G

    2008-04-01

    The current mini-review describes the toxic effects of zinc inhalation principally in the workplace and associated complications with breathing and respiration. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Criteria were used to specifically select articles. Most of the commercial production of zinc involves the galvanizing of iron and the manufacture of brass. The recommended daily allowance for adults is 15 mg zinc/day. Metal fume fever associated with inhalation of fumes of ZnO is characterized by fatigue, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis, thirst, metallic taste and salivation. ZnCl(2) inhalation results in edema in the alveolar surface and the protein therein the lavage fluid is elevated. Particular pathological changes associated with zinc intoxication include: pale mucous membranes; jaundice; numerous Heinz bodies; and marked anemia. Adequate ambient air monitors for permissible exposure limits, excellent ventilation and extraction systems, and approved respirators are all important in providing adequate protection. PMID:20040991

  14. Anaphylaxis induced by lentil inhalation.

    PubMed

    Ayşenur, Kaya; Akan, Ayşegül; Mustafa, Erkoçoğlu; Müge, Toyran; Kocabaş, Can Naci

    2012-06-01

    Anaphylaxis is a rapid onset serious allergic reaction which may be fatal. Foods are the most common allergens leading to anaphylaxis especially for childhood. Most of the food-induced anaphylactic reactions take place after ingestion of the allergic food and only a few cases exist with anaphylactic reactions induced by inhalation of foods such as peanut, soybean and lupine. The case we present is unusual in that an 8 1/2-year-old boy developed anaphylaxis with the inhalation of steam from boiling lentils. PMID:22830298

  15. Modelisation par elements finis du muscle strie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Mathieu

    Ce present projet de recherche a permis. de creer un modele par elements finis du muscle strie humain dans le but d'etudier les mecanismes engendrant les lesions musculaires traumatiques. Ce modele constitue une plate-forme numerique capable de discerner l'influence des proprietes mecaniques des fascias et de la cellule musculaire sur le comportement dynamique du muscle lors d'une contraction excentrique, notamment le module de Young et le module de cisaillement de la couche de tissu conjonctif, l'orientation des fibres de collagene de cette membrane et le coefficient de poisson du muscle. La caracterisation experimentale in vitro de ces parametres pour des vitesses de deformation elevees a partir de muscles stries humains actifs est essentielle pour l'etude de lesions musculaires traumatiques. Le modele numerique developpe est capable de modeliser la contraction musculaire comme une transition de phase de la cellule musculaire par un changement de raideur et de volume a l'aide des lois de comportement de materiau predefinies dans le logiciel LS-DYNA (v971, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Livermore, CA, USA). Le present projet de recherche introduit donc un phenomene physiologique qui pourrait expliquer des blessures musculaires courantes (crampes, courbatures, claquages, etc.), mais aussi des maladies ou desordres touchant le tissu conjonctif comme les collagenoses et la dystrophie musculaire. La predominance de blessures musculaires lors de contractions excentriques est egalement exposee. Le modele developpe dans ce projet de recherche met ainsi a l'avant-scene le concept de transition de phase ouvrant la porte au developpement de nouvelles technologies pour l'activation musculaire chez les personnes atteintes de paraplegie ou de muscles artificiels compacts pour l'elaboration de protheses ou d'exosquelettes. Mots-cles Muscle strie, lesion musculaire, fascia, contraction excentrique, modele par elements finis, transition de phase

  16. William TG Morton's early ether inhalers: a tale of three inhalers and their inscriptions.

    PubMed

    Haridas, R P

    2009-07-01

    Three ether inhalers with inscriptions stating that they had been used in early ether anaesthesia were found. All three inhalers were initially linked to WTG Morton. Two of the inhalers were probably among several types of inhalers used by Morton. The third inhaler was found to have been incorrectly attributed to Morton. It was first used by John Foster Brewster Flagg, a dentist in Philadelphia. PMID:19705631

  17. Parental Influence on Inhalant Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltazar, Alina; Hopkins, Gary; McBride, Duane; Vanderwaal, Curt; Pepper, Sara; Mackey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the dynamics of the relationship between parents and their adolescent children and their association with lifetime and past-month inhalant usage. The population studied was seventh- through ninth-grade students in rural Idaho (N = 570). The authors found a small, but consistent, significant inverse…

  18. TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ETD-02-047 (Martonen) GPRA # 10108

    TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS
    T. B. Martonen1, J. Schroeter2, Z. Zhang3, D. Hwang4, and J. S. Fleming5
    1Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park...

  19. Inhalant Use in Florida Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siqueira, Lorena; Crandall, Lee A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine (1) the prevalence of use, (2) risk and protective factors for use of inhalants in Florida youth. Methods: The Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey 2004 is a comprehensive assessment of youth substance abuse attitudes and practices obtained by sampling youth from sixty-five counties. Results: The sample consisted of 60,345…

  20. INHALATION EXPOSURE-RESPONSE METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Inhalation Exposure-Response Analysis Methodology Document is expected to provide guidance on the development of the basic toxicological foundations for deriving reference values for human health effects, focusing on the hazard identification and dose-response aspects of the ...

  1. Impact of inhalation therapy on oral health

    PubMed Central

    Godara, Navneet; Godara, Ramya; Khullar, Megha

    2011-01-01

    Inhalation therapy has been employed as the mainstay of the treatment in chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Beta-2 agonists, anticholinergic bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, and sodium cromoglycate are often used alone or in combination in an inhaled form. Studies have shown that inhaled drugs used in the treatment have some adverse effects on the oral health based on their dosage, frequency, and duration of use. Several oral conditions such as xerostomia, dental caries, candidiasis, ulceration, gingivitis, periodontitis, and taste changes have been associated with inhalation therapy. Since the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases is rising, it is important to provide optimal oral care to the individuals receiving inhalation therapy. This article will review the influence of inhaled drugs on the oral health of individuals and adequate management and prevention of the same. PMID:22084541

  2. [Effects of Instruction on Inhalation Techniques Using iPads - Web Application "Inhalation Lessons"].

    PubMed

    Kogawa, Noriko; Ito, Reiko; Gon, Yasuhiro; Maruoka, Shuichiro; Hashimoto, Shu

    2015-12-01

    Instruction on inhalation techniques for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD)and asthma patients being treated with inhalants have sufficient therapeutic effects and are important to maintain adherence. However, problems continue to exist, including time constraints of medical staff that have a large number of patients and a lack of knowledge on inhalation instruction methods. A web application,"Inhalation Lessons,'for the iPad has been developed. It explains inhalation methods, and consists of videos and review tests. Instruction on inhalation techniques was performed using this application for patients that use Diskus, and the effects were examined. As a result, there are significant improvements in the inhalation techniques of patients after viewing the"Inhalation Lessons'application. Uniform instruction on inhalation techniques can be performed even in the field of homecare. PMID:26809400

  3. Leuconychie transversale induite par la manucurie: y a-t-il un apport de la dermoscopie?

    PubMed Central

    Gallouj, Salim; Mernissi, Fatima Zahra

    2014-01-01

    La leuconychie transversale induite par la manucurie est une leuconychie secondaire au microtraumatisme transmis à la matrice unguéale. Nous rapportant une observation où la dermoscopie avait un intérêt considérable pour l'orientation diagnostic. PMID:25368728

  4. Inhalation therapy in mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Maccari, Juçara Gasparetto; Teixeira, Cassiano; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso; Savi, Augusto; Dexheimer-Neto, Felippe Leopoldo; Knorst, Marli Maria

    2015-01-01

    Patients with obstructive lung disease often require ventilatory support via invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation, depending on the severity of the exacerbation. The use of inhaled bronchodilators can significantly reduce airway resistance, contributing to the improvement of respiratory mechanics and patient-ventilator synchrony. Although various studies have been published on this topic, little is known about the effectiveness of the bronchodilators routinely prescribed for patients on mechanical ventilation or about the deposition of those drugs throughout the lungs. The inhaled bronchodilators most commonly used in ICUs are beta adrenergic agonists and anticholinergics. Various factors might influence the effect of bronchodilators, including ventilation mode, position of the spacer in the circuit, tube size, formulation, drug dose, severity of the disease, and patient-ventilator synchrony. Knowledge of the pharmacological properties of bronchodilators and the appropriate techniques for their administration is fundamental to optimizing the treatment of these patients. PMID:26578139

  5. Inhaled Therapies for Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hill, Nicholas S; Preston, Ioana R; Roberts, Kari E

    2015-06-01

    The inhaled route has a number of attractive features for treatment of pulmonary hypertension, including delivery of drug directly to the target organ, thus enhancing pulmonary specificity and reducing systemic adverse effects. It can also improve ventilation/perfusion matching by dilating vessels supplying ventilated regions, thus improving gas exchange. Furthermore, it can achieve higher local drug concentrations at a lower overall dose, potentially reducing drug cost. Accordingly, a number of inhaled agents have been developed to treat pulmonary hypertension. Most in current use are prostacyclins, including epoprostenol, which has been cleared for intravenous applications but is used off-label in acute care settings as a continuously nebulized medication. Aerosolized iloprost and treprostinil are both prostacyclins that have been cleared by the FDA to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Both require frequent administration (6 and 4 times daily, respectively), and both have a tendency to cause airway symptoms, including cough and wheeze, which can lead to intolerance. These agents cannot be used to substitute for the infused routes of prostacyclin because they do not permit delivery of medication at high doses. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) is cleared for the treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension in newborns. It is also used off-label to test acute vasoreactivity in PAH during right-heart catheterization and to treat acute right-heart failure in hospitalized patients. In addition, some studies on long-term application of INO either have been recently completed with results pending or are under consideration. In the future, because of its inherent advantages in targeting the lung, the inhaled route is likely to be tested using a variety of small molecules that show promise as PAH therapies. PMID:26070575

  6. Recognition and prevention of inhalant abuse.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Carrie E; Loomis, Glenn A

    2003-09-01

    Inhalant abuse is a prevalent and often overlooked form of substance abuse in adolescents. Survey results consistently show that nearly 20 percent of children in middle school and high school have experimented with inhaled substances. The method of delivery is inhalation of a solvent from its container, a soaked rag, or a bag. Solvents include almost any household cleaning agent or propellant, paint thinner, glue, and lighter fluid. Inhalant abuse typically can cause a euphoric feeling and can become addictive. Acute effects include sudden sniffing death syndrome, asphyxia, and serious injuries (e.g., falls, burns, frostbite). Chronic inhalant abuse can damage cardiac, renal, hepatic, and neurologic systems. Inhalant abuse during pregnancy can cause fetal abnormalities. Diagnosis of inhalant abuse is difficult and relies almost entirely on a thorough history and a high index of suspicion. No specific laboratory tests confirm solvent inhalation. Treatment is generally supportive, because there are no reversal agents for inhalant intoxication. Education of young persons and their parents is essential to decrease experimentation with inhalants. PMID:13678134

  7. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)1, PAR2 and PAR4 expressions in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LI, Si-Man; JIANG, Ping; XIANG, Yang; WANG, Wei-Wei; ZHU, Yue-Chun; FENG, Wei-Yang; LI, Shu-De; YU, Guo-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Here, we used reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and western blot to detect protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1, PAR 2 and PAR 4 expression in cancer tissues and cell lines of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and investigated the co-relationship between PAR expression and clinic-pathological data for esophageal cancer. The methylation of PAR4 gene promoter involved in esophageal carcinoma was also analyzed. By comparing the mRNA expressions of normal esophageal tissue and human esophageal epithelial cells (HEEpiC), we found that among the 28 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, PAR1 (60%) and PAR2 (71%) were elevated in 17 and 20 cases, respectively, and PAR4 (68%) expression was lowered in 19 cases. Whereas, in human esophageal squamous cells (TE-1 and TE-10), PAR1 and PAR2 expression was increased but PAR4 was decreased. Combined with clinical data, the expression of PAR1 in poorly differentiated (P=0.016) and middle and lower parts of the esophagus (P=0.016) was higher; expression of PAR4 in poorly differentiated carcinoma was lower (P=0.049). Regarding TE-1 and TE-10 protein expression, we found that in randomized esophageal carcinoma, PAR1 (P=0.027) and PAR2 (P=0.039) expressions were increased, but lowered for PAR4 (P=0.0001). In HEEpiC, TE-1, TE-10, esophageal and normal esophagus tissue samples (case No. 7), the frequency of methylation at the 19 CpG loci of PAR4 was 35.4%, 95.2%, 83.8%, 62.6% and 48.2%, respectively. Our results indicate that the expression of PAR1 and PAR2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is increased but PAR4 is decreased. Hypermethylation of the promoter of the PAR4 gene may contribute to reduced expression of PAR4 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25297082

  8. [Significance of inhaled environmental allergens].

    PubMed

    Zochert, J

    1983-01-01

    Whereas the importance of pollen as inhalative allergens has been largely investigated and is generally known, the experience in the frequency and the role of the sensibilization with air-borne fungi is relatively limited. In 720 patients with Asthma bronchiale the degree of sensitization has been tested with various extracts of air-borne fungi of SSW Dresden (mould mixture, aspergillin, mucor, cladosporium and penicillium and alternaria). The most frequent and also the strongest reactions were found with alternaria and the smallest part of positive skin reactions with penicillium. An isolated sensitization with mould has been demonstrated in 20 per cent of the cases. In 60 per cent of the tested patients a manifest mould allergy was shown by means of the Inhalative Allergen Test, the most favourable correlation between Intracutaneous Test (ICT) and Inhalative Test (IAT) was found with alternaria (76%). A conformance between ICT and basophils degranulation test (BDT) was stated in 69% of the cases. The aim should be comparable tests with allergen extracts without irritative effects and qualitative measurements of air-borne fungi. PMID:6649704

  9. The Skeletal Effects of Inhaled Glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Stephanie A; Stein, Emily M

    2016-06-01

    The skeletal effects of inhaled glucocorticoids are poorly understood. Children with asthma treated with inhaled glucocorticoids have lower growth velocity, bone density, and adult height. Studies of adults with asthma have reported variable effects on BMD, although prospective studies have demonstrated bone loss after initiation of inhaled glucocorticoids in premenopausal women. There is a dose-response relationship between inhaled glucocorticoids and fracture risk in asthmatics; the risk of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures is greater in subjects treated with the highest doses in the majority of studies. Patients with COPD have lower BMD and higher fracture rates compared to controls, however, the majority of studies have not found an additional detrimental effect of inhaled glucocorticoids on bone. While the evidence is not conclusive, it supports using the lowest possible dose of inhaled glucocorticoids to treat patients with asthma and COPD and highlights the need for further research on this topic. PMID:27091558

  10. Par Pond vegetation status 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  11. Traumatismes Oculaires par Petards: Bilan sur Trois Annees

    PubMed Central

    Zouaoui-Kesraoui, N.; Derdour, A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Les accidents dus aux pétards sont des accidents graves. Leur recrudescence ces dernières années en Algérie, essentiellement durant les fêtes du Mawlid Ennabaoui (fête de la naissance du prophète), mérite à notre sens d'entreprendre des bilans exhaustifs dont celui-ci dans le but d'une sensibilisation de toutes les compétences concernées. Nous avons réuni sur trois années consécutives (2002, 2003, 2004) 60 dossiers de malades ayant subi des accidents oculaires par pétards. Nos patients sont répartis en 42 consultations pour blessures légères et 18 hospitalisations pour blessures graves. Parmi ces derniers, neuf ont présenté des complications et séquelles graves (cinq cas de cécité par atrophie du globe oculaire, trois cas de cécité cornéenne et un cas de cécité par trou maculaire). Dans tous ces cas l'incapacité permanente partielle est au minimum de 30%. Au vu de ces données nous proposons des mesures d'éducation sanitaire et une sensibilisation du grand public aux traumatismes oculaires, par le biais de mé dias appropriés: radio, télévision, affiches. PMID:21991157

  12. Misuse of xylometazoline nasal drops by inhalation.

    PubMed

    Anand, Jacek Sein; Salamon, Marek; Habrat, Boguslaw; Scinska, Anna; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw

    2008-12-01

    Six male prisoners who misused xylometazoline nasal drops by inhalation were interviewed by a prison physician in 2006. The prisoners received xylometazoline drops during regular visits in the prison ambulatory service. In order to get the medication, the subjects reported false symptoms of rhinosinusitis and allergic reactions. Psychoactive effects of inhaled xylometazoline were described as "stimulation," "excitation," and "feeling of strength." Although preliminary, our findings suggest that topical adrenergic decongestants can produce rewarding effects when administered by inhalation. PMID:19085441

  13. Immunopathogenic Background of Pars Planitis.

    PubMed

    Przeździecka-Dołyk, Joanna; Węgrzyn, Agnieszka; Turno-Kręcicka, Anna; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Pars planitis is defined as an intermediate uveitis of unknown background of systemic disease with characteristic formations such as vitreous snowballs, snowbanks and changes in peripheral retina. The incidence of pars planitis varies 2.4-15.4 % of the uveitis patients. The pathogenesis of the disease is to be determined in future. Clinical and histopathological findings suggest an autoimmune etiology, most likely as a reaction to endogenous antigen of unknown source, with T cells predominant in both vitreous and pars plana infiltrations. T cells subsets play an important role as a memory-effector peripheral cell. Snowbanks are formed as an effect of post inflammatory glial proliferation of fibrous astrocytes. There is also a genetic predisposition for pars planitis by human leukocyte antigen and several other genes. A coexistence of multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis has been described in numerous studies. Epiretinal membrane, cataract, cystoid macular edema, retinal detachment, retinal vasculitis, neovascularization, vitreous peripheral traction, peripheral hole formation, vitreous hemorrhage, disc edema are common complications observed in pars planitis. There is a need to expand the knowledge of the pathogenic and immunologic background of the pars planitis to create an accurate pharmacological treatment. PMID:26438050

  14. [Inhalation of nitric oxide - dependence: case report

    PubMed

    Carvalho, W B; Matsumoto, T; Horita, S M; Almeida, N M; Martins, F R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Describe the hemodynamic response with rebound of pulmonary hypertension after withdrawal of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) in a pediatric patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Case report of a child with ARDS and pulmonary hypertension evaluated through ecocardiografic with dopller, receiving inhaled NO for a period of 21 days. RESULTS: There was a decrease of the pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) from 52 mmHg to 44 mmHg after the initial titulation of NO inhalation dose. After the withdrawal of inhaled NO an elevation of PAP was observed (55 mmHg). It was necessary to reinstall the inhaled NO to obtain a more appropriate value (34 mmHg). A new attempt of interruption of the inhaled NO after prolonged inhalation (20 days) resulted in a new clinic worsening and increase of PAP, with the indication to reinstall the inhaled NO. In the 24th day of permanence in the intensive care unit the patient died due to multiple organ dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: The possibility of pulmonary hypertension rebound after withdrawal of inhaled NO is a complication that may have important clinical implications for patients who need a prolonged treatment with NO. This case report emphasizes these implications. PMID:14647690

  15. Inhalant abuse: youth at risk.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Nancy R; Falsafi, Nasrin

    2013-08-01

    Inhalant abuse is a significant problem affecting many people, particularly youth. The easy availability of products containing volatile substances (e.g., aerosol sprays, cleaning products, paint) provides opportunity for mind-altering experiences. Unfortunately, serious complications such as brain, cardiovascular, liver, and renal damage or even death may ensue. Adolescents perceive the risk as low, and parents may be unaware of the risks. Health care providers, particularly psychiatric nurses, should undertake strategies of prevention, assessment, and treatment of this challenging problem. PMID:23786241

  16. Ultra-relativistic Au+Au and d+Au collisions:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Hauer, M.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    In this talk I will review PHOBOS data on charged particle multiplicities, obtained in Au+Au and d+Au collisions at RHIC. The general features of the Au+Au pseudorapidity distributions results will be discussed and compared to those of /line{p}p collisions. The total charged particle multiplicity, scaled by the number of participant pairs, is observed to be about 40% higher in Au+Au collisions than in /line{p}p and d+Au systems, but, surprisingly at the same level of e+e- collisions. Limiting fragmentation scaling is seen to be obeyed in Au+Au collisions.

  17. Exploration of locomotion in the ParA/ParB system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindal, Lavisha; Emberly, Eldon

    2015-03-01

    In many bacteria the ParA/ParB system is responsible for actively segregating DNA during replication. ParB precessively moves by hydrolyzing DNA bound ParA-ATP forming a depleted ParA region in its wake. Recent in-vitro experiments have shown that a ParB covered bead can traverse a ParA bound DNA substrate. It has been suggested that the formation of a gradient in ParA leads to diffusion-ratchet like motion of the ParB bead but its origin and potential consequences requires investigation. We have developed a deterministic model for the in-vitro ParA/ParB system and show that any amount of spatial noise in ParA can lead to the spontaneous formation of its gradient. The velocity of the bead is independent of this noise but depends on the scale over which ParA exerts a force on the bead and the scale over which ParB hydrolyzes ParA from the substrate. There is a particular ratio of these scales at which the velocity is a maximum. We also explore the effects of cooperative vs independent rebinding of ParA to the substrate. Our model shows how the driving force for ParB originates and highlights necessary conditions for directed motion in the in-vitro system that may provide insight into the in-vivo behaviour of the ParA/ParB system.

  18. 40 CFR 798.2450 - Inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inhalation toxicity. 798.2450 Section 798.2450 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Subchronic Exposure § 798.2450 Inhalation toxicity. (a) Purpose. In the assessment...

  19. How to use an inhaler - with spacer

    MedlinePlus

    ... out through your mouth. After using your inhaler, rinse your mouth with water, gargle, and spit. This helps reduce side effects from your medicine. Keep your inhaler clean Look at the ... mouthpiece. Rinse only the mouthpiece and cap in warm water. ...

  20. Tips for Teens: The Truth about Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... site at www. whitehousedrugpolicy. gov. No.Even though household products like glue and air freshener have legal,useful ... A. A. Q.Since inhalants are found in household products,aren’t they safe? Q.Can inhalants make ...

  1. Inhaled antimicrobial therapy - barriers to effective treatment.

    PubMed

    Weers, Jeffry

    2015-05-01

    Inhaled antibiotics dramatically improve targeting of drug to the site of respiratory infections, while simultaneously minimizing systemic exposure and associated toxicity. The high local concentrations of antibiotic may enable more effective treatment of multi-drug resistant pathogens. This review explores barriers to effective treatment with inhaled antibiotics. In addition, potential opportunities for improvements in treatment are reviewed. PMID:25193067

  2. Nanotechnology and pharmaceutical inhalation aerosols.

    PubMed

    Patel, A R; Vavia, P R

    2007-02-01

    Pharmaceutical inhalation aerosols have been playing a crucial role in the health and well being of millions of people throughout the world for many years. The technology's continual advancement, the ease of use and the more desirable pulmonary-rather-than-needle delivery for systemic drugs has increased the attraction for the pharmaceutical aerosol in recent years. But administration of drugs by the pulmonary route is technically challenging because oral deposition can be high, and variations in inhalation technique can affect the quantity of drug delivered to the lungs. Recent advances in nanotechnology, particularly drug delivery field have encouraged formulation scientists to expand their reach in solving tricky problems related to drug delivery. Moreover, application of nanotechnology to aerosol science has opened up a new category of pharmaceutical aerosols (collectively known as nanoenabled-aerosols) with added advantages and effectiveness. In this review, some of the latest approaches of nano-enabled aerosol drug delivery system (including nano-suspension, trojan particles, bioadhesive nanoparticles and smart particle aerosols) that can be employed successfully to overcome problems of conventional aerosol systems have been introduced. PMID:17375556

  3. Toxicological Assessment of Noxious Inhalants

    PubMed Central

    Kleinsasser, N. H.; Sassen, A. W.; Wallner, B. W.; Staudenmaier, R.; Harréus, U. A.; Richter, E.

    2004-01-01

    In the past centuries mankind has been exposed to various forms of air pollution not only at his occupational but also in his social environment. He mainly gets exposed with these pollutants through the respiratory organs and partially absorbs them into the body. Many of these airborne substances can be harmful for humans and some of them may account for tumorigenic effects. The following essay describes the main features of toxicological assessment of inhalative environmental and workplace xenobiotics. The essay also explains relevant characteristics and limit values of noxious compounds and gases and depicts modern testing methods. To this end, emphasis is given on methods characterizing the different stages of tumorigenic processes. Various test systems have been developed which can be used in vivo, ex vivo or in vitro. They are to a great part based on the evidence of changes in DNA or particular genes of cells. Among others they have highlighted the impact of interindividual variability on enzymatic activation of xenobiotics and on susceptibility of the host to tumor diseases. Unfortunately, for many inhalative environmental noxious agents no sufficient risk profiles have been developed. The completion of these profiles should be the goal of toxicological assessment in order to allow reasonable socioeconomic or individual-based risk reduction. PMID:22073045

  4. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... that your kids will use drugs such as marijuana or LSD. But you may not realize the dangers of substances in your own home. Household products such as glues, hair sprays, paints and lighter fluid can be drugs ...

  5. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the wide variety of substances—including solvents, aerosols, gases, and nitrites—that are rarely, if ever, ... a glue bottle or a marking pen), spray aerosols (such as computer cleaning dusters) directly into their ...

  6. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... electronic contact cleaner Aerosols are sprays that contain propellants and solvents. They include: Spray paint, hair spray, ... burn injuries Freon (difluoroethane substitutes) Refrigerant and aerosol propellant Sudden sniffing death Breathing problems and death (from ...

  7. [Physiology of protease-activated receptors (PARs): involvement of PARs in digestive functions].

    PubMed

    Kawabata, A; Kuroda, R; Hollenberg, M D

    1999-10-01

    The protease-activated receptor (PAR), a G protein-coupled receptor present on cell surface, mediates cellular actions of extracellular proteases. Proteases cleave the extracellular N-terminal of PAR molecules at a specific site, unmasking and exposing a novel N-terminal, a tethered ligand, that binds to the body of receptor molecules resulting in receptor activation. Amongst four distinct PARs that have been cloned, PARs 1, 3 and 4 are activated by thrombin, but PAR-2 is activated by trypsin or mast cell tryptase. Human platelets express two distinct thrombin receptors, PAR-1 and PAR-4, while murine platelets express PAR-3 and PAR-4. Apart from roles of PARs in platelet activation, PARs are distributed to a number of organs in various species, predicting their physiological importance. We have been evaluating agonists specific for each PAR, using multiple procedures including a HEK cell calcium signal receptor desensitization assay. Using specific agonists that we developed, we found the following: 1) the salivary glands express PAR-2 mRNA and secret saliva in response to PAR-2 activation; 2) pancreatic juice secretion occurs following in vivo PAR-2 activation; 3) PAR-1 and PAR-2 modulate duodenal motility. Collectively, PAR plays various physiological and/or pathophysiological roles, especially in the digestive systems, and could be a novel target for drug development. PMID:10629876

  8. Caractérisation électrique des interfaces P^+ - Si - poly/N-c-Si réalisées par dépôt LPCVD de films fortement dopés in situ au bore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akani, M.; Benouis, C. E.; Benzohra, M.

    1993-11-01

    La liste des auteurs (et leur adresse) concernant cet article sont à corriger comme suit: The list of authors (and the address) for this article are to be corrected as follows: M. Idrissi-Benzohra, M. Akani, C. E. Benouis, M. Benzohra Laboratoire d'Analyse des Composants au Silcium, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie d'Oran, Oran El-Mnaouer 31000, Algérie.

  9. Inhalation injury: epidemiology, pathology, treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Lung injury resulting from inhalation of smoke or chemical products of combustion continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Combined with cutaneous burns, inhalation injury increases fluid resuscitation requirements, incidence of pulmonary complications and overall mortality of thermal injury. While many products and techniques have been developed to manage cutaneous thermal trauma, relatively few diagnosis-specific therapeutic options have been identified for patients with inhalation injury. Several factors explain slower progress for improvement in management of patients with inhalation injury. Inhalation injury is a more complex clinical problem. Burned cutaneous tissue may be excised and replaced with skin grafts. Injured pulmonary tissue must be protected from secondary injury due to resuscitation, mechanical ventilation and infection while host repair mechanisms receive appropriate support. Many of the consequences of smoke inhalation result from an inflammatory response involving mediators whose number and role remain incompletely understood despite improved tools for processing of clinical material. Improvements in mortality from inhalation injury are mostly due to widespread improvements in critical care rather than focused interventions for smoke inhalation. Morbidity associated with inhalation injury is produced by heat exposure and inhaled toxins. Management of toxin exposure in smoke inhalation remains controversial, particularly as related to carbon monoxide and cyanide. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment has been evaluated in multiple trials to manage neurologic sequelae of carbon monoxide exposure. Unfortunately, data to date do not support application of hyperbaric oxygen in this population outside the context of clinical trials. Cyanide is another toxin produced by combustion of natural or synthetic materials. A number of antidote strategies have been evaluated to address tissue hypoxia associated with cyanide exposure. Data

  10. Collective flow in Au + Au collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, H.G.; EOS Collaboration

    1994-05-01

    Based on a preliminary sample of Au + Au collisions in the EOS time projection chamber at the Bevalac, we study sideward flow as a function of bombarding energy between 0.25A GeV and 1.2A GeV. We focus on the increase in in-plane transverse momentum per nucleon with fragment mass. We also find event shapes to be close to spherical in the most central collisions, independent of bombarding energy and fragment mass up to {sup 4}He.

  11. [Influence of inhaler and fine particle on efficacy of inhalation therapy in COPD].

    PubMed

    Sliwiński, Paweł; Chazan, Ryszarda; Dąbrowiecki, Piotr; Jahnz-Różyk, Karina; Mróz, Robert; Pirożyński, Michał

    2014-01-01

    Orally inhaled products delivered via inhalation exert their effect directly to the target organ. This allows to administer a very low dose of a drug compared with an oral route with similar clinical effect and significantly reduced toxicity. However inhalation therapy is also limited by several factors. Delivery of the desired dose of the drug to the airways depends on a type of the inhaler - pressurised metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) or dry powder inhaler (DPI), inhaler characteristics (low or high internal resistance, diameter of particles and distribution of the generated aerosol fine particles), thermal conditions of air, and ability of patient to generate sufficient inspiratory flow (for DPI) or to coordinate actuation with inhalation (for pMDI). Unlike pMDIs, DPIs are breath- -actuated, hence avoiding the need for the patient to coordinate actuation with inspiration. Furthermore, DPIs are propellant-free and do not produce the cold sensation on inhalation. Currently available DPIs vary widely in design, operating characteristics and performance. And poor inhalation technique may compromise treatment efficacy. Hence, there is a clear need for a careful selection of DPIs for different patient groups, including children, elderly patients and those with severe airway obstruction. PMID:24793155

  12. Dynamics of airflow in a short inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Bates, A. J.; Doorly, D. J.; Cetto, R.; Calmet, H.; Gambaruto, A. M.; Tolley, N. S.; Houzeaux, G.; Schroter, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    During a rapid inhalation, such as a sniff, the flow in the airways accelerates and decays quickly. The consequences for flow development and convective transport of an inhaled gas were investigated in a subject geometry extending from the nose to the bronchi. The progress of flow transition and the advance of an inhaled non-absorbed gas were determined using highly resolved simulations of a sniff 0.5 s long, 1 l s−1 peak flow, 364 ml inhaled volume. In the nose, the distribution of airflow evolved through three phases: (i) an initial transient of about 50 ms, roughly the filling time for a nasal volume, (ii) quasi-equilibrium over the majority of the inhalation, and (iii) a terminating phase. Flow transition commenced in the supraglottic region within 20 ms, resulting in large-amplitude fluctuations persisting throughout the inhalation; in the nose, fluctuations that arose nearer peak flow were of much reduced intensity and diminished in the flow decay phase. Measures of gas concentration showed non-uniform build-up and wash-out of the inhaled gas in the nose. At the carina, the form of the temporal concentration profile reflected both shear dispersion and airway filling defects owing to recirculation regions. PMID:25551147

  13. Accouchement de jumeaux conjoints de découverte fortuite au cours du travail au CHU de Dakar

    PubMed Central

    Guèye, Mamour; Guèye, Serigne Modou Kane; Guèye, Mame Diarra Ndiaye; Diouf, Abdoul Aziz; Niang, Mouhamadou Mansour; Diallo, Moussa; Cissé, Mamadou Lamine; Moreau, Jean Charles

    2012-01-01

    L'objectif de cette étude était de rapporter 3 cas de jumeaux conjoints, discuter de l'importance du diagnostic anténatal et de décrire les particularités diagnostiques, thérapeutiques et évolutives. Sur 45700 accouchements du 1er Février 2009 au 31 Décembre 2011, 3 cas de jumeaux conjoints ont été enregistrés, soit 1 cas pour 15000 accouchements. Ces cas ont été diagnostiqués au cours du travail au décours d'une dystocie mécanique ou d'une césarienne réalisée pour une autre indication. Il s'agissait d'un cas de jumeaux conjoints thoraco-omphalopages, un cas de diprosopes et un cas de dicéphales. L'accouchement dans les trois cas était fait par voie haute permettant d'extraire des mort-nés frais. Nous insistons sur l'intérêt d'un diagnostic anténatal précoce par le recours à l’échographie afin d’éviter les accidents mécaniques d'un accouchement qui ne saurait s'accomplir par voie basse. PMID:23133702

  14. Clinical efficacy and safety of beclomethasone dipropionate inhalation capsules inhaled by Cyclohaler compared with Becotide Rotacaps inhaled by Rotahaler.

    PubMed

    Vink-van Wijngaarden, T; Blom-Ross, M E; Lansdorp, D; Goedhart, D M; Eelhart, J; Guelen, P J; de Vos, D

    1998-09-01

    The study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of beclomethasone dipropionate inhalation powder inhaled by Rotahaler (Becotide Rotacaps, Glaxo Wellcome) and by Cyclohaler (Beclomethasone Cyclocaps, Pharmachemie). Both the Cyclohaler and the Rotahaler are single-dose dry powder inhalation devices for inhalation capsules. 182 asthma patients stabilized on inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate 800 micrograms daily, were randomly assigned to treatment with 800 micrograms beclomethasone dipropionate inhaled by Rotahaler (91 patients) or Cyclohaler (91 patients) in a double-blind manner, using the double-dummy method. It was shown that the asthma remained stable during the 16-week study period with both preparations. There were no statistically significant differences in the pulmonary parameters (morning PEF, evening PEF, FEV1). The test/reference ratio of the morning PEF (99.5%, CI 93.0% - 106.5%) was well within the equivalence interval, which had been set a priori from 85% to 117.6%. There were no marked differences between the Cyclocaps and Rotacaps group in symptom scores and adverse events. A total of 12 patients had an asthma exacerbation: 8 exacerbations occurred in the Rotahaler group and 4 in the Cyclohaler group. The difference was not statistically significant. The use of rescue medication was somewhat higher in the Rotahaler group, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. Significantly more patients (17 patients) withdrew from the study in the Rotahaler group than in the Cyclohaler group (5 patients). In conclusion, there was no difference in asthma control of patients treated with Beclomethasone Cyclocaps inhaled by Cyclohaler and Becotide Rotacaps inhaled by Rotahaler. Both preparations are therapeutically equivalent. PMID:9760014

  15. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

  16. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C.; Liu, Jian

    The segregation of DNA prior to cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of the low-copy-number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of ParA ATPase and its stimulator protein ParB. Recent experiments suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion-ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. We develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA-nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB bound cargo. Paradoxically, the resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work sheds light on a new emergent phenomenon in which non-motor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos -- an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria.

  17. The ParB-parS Chromosome Segregation System Modulates Competence Development in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Attaiech, Laetitia; Minnen, Anita; Kjos, Morten; Gruber, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT ParB proteins bind centromere-like DNA sequences called parS sites and are involved in plasmid and chromosome segregation in bacteria. We previously showed that the opportunistic human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae contains four parS sequences located close to the origin of replication which are bound by ParB. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we found here that ParB spreads out from one of these parS sites, parS(−1.6°), for more than 5 kb and occupies the nearby comCDE operon, which drives competence development. Competence allows S. pneumoniae to take up DNA from its environment, thereby mediating horizontal gene transfer, and is also employed as a general stress response. Mutating parS(−1.6°) or deleting parB resulted in transcriptional up-regulation of comCDE and ssbB (a gene belonging to the competence regulon), demonstrating that ParB acts as a repressor of competence. However, genome-wide transcription analysis showed that ParB is not a global transcriptional regulator. Different factors, such as the composition of the growth medium and antibiotic-induced stress, can trigger the sensitive switch driving competence. This work shows that the ParB-parS chromosome segregation machinery also influences this developmental process. PMID:26126852

  18. INTERSPECIES MODELING OF INHALED PARTICLE DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    To evaluate the potential toxic effects of ambient contaminants or therapeutic effects of airborne drugs, inhalation exposure experiments can be performed with surrogate laboratory animals. erein, an interspecies particle deposition theory is presented for physiologically based p...

  19. Nitrous Oxide and the Inhalation Anesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Daniel E; Rosenberg, Morton

    2008-01-01

    Nitrous oxide is the most commonly used inhalation anesthetic in dentistry and is commonly used in emergency centers and ambulatory surgery centers as well. When used alone, it is incapable of producing general anesthesia reliably, but it may be combined with other inhalation and/or intravenous agents in deep sedative/general anesthestic techniques. However, as a single agent, it has impressive safety and is excellent for providing minimal and moderate sedation for apprehensive dental patients. To gain a full appreciation of the pharmacology, physiologic influences, and proper use of nitrous oxide, one must compare it with other inhalation anesthetics. The purpose of this CE article is to provide an overview of inhalation anesthetics in general and to address nitrous oxide more specifically in comparison. PMID:19108597

  20. REGIONAL DEPOSITION OF INHALED REACTIVE GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A critical concept in inhalation toxicology involves the determination of dose as the first component for providing a perspective to judge the applicability of various toxicological results to human exposure conditions. Available experimental data for reactive gases were reviewed...

  1. Inhaled insulin: too soon to be forgotten?

    PubMed

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Papanas, Nikolaos; Kouliatsis, Georgios; Spyratos, Dionysis; Zarogoulidis, Kostas; Maltezos, Efstratios

    2011-10-01

    Inhalation is a potentially viable route of administration for numerous agents. In diabetes mellitus, the need for frequent injections to achieve ideal glycemic control remains a significant limitation for initiating and complying with insulin therapy in a large number of patients. To overcome this barrier, inhaled insulin was developed. The inhalation form of regular human insulin has been tested and administered in a large number of trials. Respiratory capacity was evaluated in patients with normal lung parenchyma in whom inhaled insulin was administered without complications. However, issues like cost, bulky device, fear for lung safety, and the small number of studies in subjects with underlying respiratory disease prevented widespread use of this new mode of delivery. In the present review, we will suggest a number of methods that could be applied in this form of administration to maximize drug absorption and fully exploit the advantages of this route of administration. PMID:21689020

  2. Tuberculose pulmonaire révélée par un purpura thrombopénique chez l'enfant-à propos d'un cas clinique observé au service de pédiatrie des Cliniques Universitaires de Lubumbashi

    PubMed Central

    Lubala, Toni Kasole; Mutombo, Augustin Mulangu; Munkana, Arthur Ndundula; Manika, Michel Muteya

    2012-01-01

    Nous rapportons le cas d'un enfant de 7 ans, de sexe masculin ayant présenté un purpura thrombopénique avec épistaxis, hématémèse, otorragies et pétéchies généralisées. Durant la même hospitalisation, nous avons mis en évidence une tuberculose pulmonaire documentée par la présence de bacilles acido-alcoolo résistants à l'examen des crachats. Nous avons observé une majoration du taux de plaquettes en une semaine de corticothérapie intraveineuse à haute dose, avant l'instauration d'une poly chimiothérapie antituberculeuse. Nous rappelons également la controverse que suscite la prise en charge de cette association rarement rapportée. PMID:23077696

  3. Animal models of smoke inhalation induced injuries.

    PubMed

    David, Poon; Dunsford, Denny; Lu, Jia; Moochhala, Shabbir

    2009-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury is the leading cause of mortality from structural fires, as a result of complications such as systemic inflammatory response syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which can be caused by a localized or systemic response. In this review, the pathophysiology of smoke inhalation injury, along with the characteristics found in clinical settings, common animal models, current treatment methods and future potential therapeutics are discussed. PMID:19273376

  4. Amorphous powders for inhalation drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lan; Okuda, Tomoyuki; Lu, Xiang-Yun; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-05-01

    For inhalation drug delivery, amorphous powder formulations offer the benefits of increased bioavailability for poorly soluble drugs, improved biochemical stability for biologics, and expanded options of using various drugs and their combinations. However, amorphous formulations usually have poor physicochemical stability. This review focuses on inhalable amorphous powders, including the production methods, the active pharmaceutical ingredients and the excipients with a highlight on stabilization of the particles. PMID:26780404

  5. Assessing inhalation injury in the emergency room

    PubMed Central

    Tanizaki, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory tract injuries caused by inhalation of smoke or chemical products are related to significant morbidity and mortality. While many strategies have been built up to manage cutaneous burn injuries, few logical diagnostic strategies for patients with inhalation injuries exist and almost all treatment is supportive. The goals of initial management are to ensure that the airway allows adequate oxygenation and ventilation and to avoid ventilator-induced lung injury and substances that may complicate subsequent care. Intubation should be considered if any of the following signs exist: respiratory distress, stridor, hypoventilation, use of accessory respiratory muscles, blistering or edema of the oropharynx, or deep burns to the face or neck. Any patients suspected to have inhalation injuries should receive a high concentration of supplemental oxygen to quickly reverse hypoxia and to displace carbon monoxide from protein binding sites. Management of carbon monoxide and cyanide exposure in smoke inhalation patients remains controversial. Absolute indications for hyperbaric oxygen therapy do not exist because there is a low correlation between carboxyhemoglobin levels and the severity of the clinical state. A cyanide antidote should be administered when cyanide poisoning is clinically suspected. Although an ideal approach for respiratory support of patients with inhalation injuries do not exist, it is important that they are supported using techniques that do not further exacerbate respiratory failure. A well-organized strategy for patients with inhalation injury is critical to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:27147888

  6. Magnétométrie à hélium par pompage laser: le bilan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles, H.; Hamel, J.; Monfort, Y.

    2002-06-01

    Depuis 1986, l'équipe Physique Atomique et Capteurs du CIRIL-ISMRA de Caen étudie les magnétomètres à hélium par pompage laser. On présente ici le bilan de ces travaux de recherche et les performances des deux prototypes (hélium4 et hélium3) réalisés au Laboratoire.

  7. Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-06-30

    The parallel analysis toolkit (ParCAT) provides parallel statistical processing of large climate model simulation datasets. ParCAT provides parallel point-wise average calculations, frequency distributions, sum/differences of two datasets, and difference-of-average and average-of-difference for two datasets for arbitrary subsets of simulation time. ParCAT is a command-line utility that can be easily integrated in scripts or embedded in other application. ParCAT supports CMIP5 post-processed datasets as well as non-CMIP5 post-processed datasets. ParCAT reads and writes standard netCDF files.

  8. PAR-1 antagonist SCH79797 ameliorates apoptosis following surgical brain injury through inhibition of ASK1-JNK in rats

    PubMed Central

    Manaenko, Anatol; Sun, Xuejun; Kim, Cherine; Yan, Junhao; Ma, Qingyi

    2012-01-01

    Neurosurgical procedures inevitably produce intraoperative hemorrhage. The subsequent entry of blood into the brain parenchyma results in the release of large amounts of thrombin, a known contributor to perihematomal edema formation and apoptosis after brain injury. The present study seeks to test 1) the effect of surgically induced brain injury (SBI) on thrombin activity, expression of thrombin’s receptor PAR-1, and PAR-1 mediated apoptosis; 2) the effect of thrombin inhibition by argatroban and PAR-1 inhibition by SCH79797 on the development of secondary brain injury in the SBI model on rats. A total of 88 Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into sham, vehicle-, argatroban-, or SCH79797-treated groups. SBI involved partial resection of the right frontal lobe under inhalation isoflurane anesthesia. Sham-operated animals received only craniotomy. Thrombin activity, brain water content, and neurological deficits were measured at 24 hours following SBI. Involvement of the Ask1/JNK pathway in PAR-1-induced post-SBI apoptosis was characterized by using Ask1 or JNK inhibitors. We observed that SBI increased thrombin activity, yet failed to demonstrate any effect on PAR-1 expression. Argatroban and SCH79797 reduced SBI-induced brain edema and neurological deficits in a dose-dependent manner. SBI-induced apoptosis seemed mediated by the PAR-1/Ask1/JNK pathways. Administration of SCH79797 ameliorated the apoptosis following SBI. Our finding indicate that PAR-1 antagonist protects against secondary brain injury after SBI by decreasing both brain edema and apoptosis by inactivating PAR-1/Ask1/JNK pathway. The anti-apoptotic effect of PAR-1 antagonists may provide a promising path for therapy following SBI. PMID:23000356

  9. Inhaling to mitigate exhaled bioaerosols.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David A; Man, Jonathan C; Brand, Peter; Katstra, Jeffrey P; Sommerer, K; Stone, Howard A; Nardell, Edward; Scheuch, Gerhard

    2004-12-14

    Humans commonly exhale aerosols comprised of small droplets of airway-lining fluid during normal breathing. These "exhaled bioaerosols" may carry airborne pathogens and thereby magnify the spread of certain infectious diseases, such as influenza, tuberculosis, and severe acute respiratory syndrome. We hypothesize that, by altering lung airway surface properties through an inhaled nontoxic aerosol, we might substantially diminish the number of exhaled bioaerosol droplets and thereby provide a simple means to potentially mitigate the spread of airborne infectious disease independently of the identity of the airborne pathogen or the nature of any specific therapy. We find that some normal human subjects expire many more bioaerosol particles than other individuals during quiet breathing and therefore bear the burden of production of exhaled bioaerosols. Administering nebulized isotonic saline to these "high-producer" individuals diminishes the number of exhaled bioaerosol particles expired by 72.10 +/- 8.19% for up to 6 h. In vitro and in vivo experiments with saline and surfactants suggest that the mechanism of action of the nebulized saline relates to modification of the physical properties of the airway-lining fluid, notably surface tension. PMID:15583121

  10. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of /sub 86/Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with /sup 141/Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO/sub 2/) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines.

  11. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C; Liu, Jian

    2015-12-22

    The segregation of DNA before cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of low-copy number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and its stimulator protein ParB. The ParA/ParB system drives directed and persistent movement of DNA cargo both in vivo and in vitro. Filament-based models akin to actin/microtubule-driven motility were proposed for plasmid segregation mediated by ParA. Recent experiments challenge this view and suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. Here, we develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA-nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB-bound cargo. Paradoxically, this resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work thus sheds light on an emergent phenomenon in which nonmotor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos-an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria. PMID:26647183

  12. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C.; Liu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The segregation of DNA before cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of low-copy number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and its stimulator protein ParB. The ParA/ParB system drives directed and persistent movement of DNA cargo both in vivo and in vitro. Filament-based models akin to actin/microtubule-driven motility were proposed for plasmid segregation mediated by ParA. Recent experiments challenge this view and suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. Here, we develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA–nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB-bound cargo. Paradoxically, this resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work thus sheds light on an emergent phenomenon in which nonmotor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos—an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria. PMID:26647183

  13. Inhalant Initiation and the Relationship of Inhalant Use to the Use of Other Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamblen, Stephen R.; Miller, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that inhalant use is primarily isolated to youthful experimentation; however, a growing body of evidence suggests that inhalant use (a) occurs after use of common substances of experimentation (e.g., alcohol, marijuana), (b) can persist into later life, and (c) is associated with severe consequences. The current study…

  14. Extracellular killing of inhaled pneumococci in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Coonrod, J.D.; Marple, S.; Holmes, G.P.; Rehm, S.R.

    1987-12-01

    Early clearance of inhaled Staphylococcus aureus is believed to be caused by phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. In murine models inhaled pneumococci are cleared even more rapidly than S. aureus. Conventional opsonins appear to play no role in this clearance, and recently it has been shown that murine alveolar lining material contains free fatty acids and other soluble factors that are directly bactericidal for pneumococci. To determine whether non-phagocytic factors are involved in pneumococcal clearance, we compared the site of killing of inhaled pneumococci and S. aureus in rats using histologic methods and bronchoalveolar lavage. Spontaneous lysis of pneumococci was prevented by use of autolysin-defective pneumococci or by substitution of ethanolamine for choline in the cell wall. Histologic studies showed that the percent of inhaled staphylococci associated with alveolar macrophages always exceeded the percent of staphylococci cleared, whereas there was little association of pneumococci with macrophages during clearance. Analysis of the intracellular or extracellular location of iron 59 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of rats that had inhaled aerosols of /sup 59/Fe-labeled bacteria suggested that staphylococci were killed predominantly in macrophages and pneumococci in the extracellular space. When /sup 59/Fe-labeled pneumococci or staphylococci were ingested and killed by macrophages in vitro, the /sup 59/Fe remained with the macrophages, suggesting that the extracellular location of /sup 59/Fe during pneumococcal killing in vivo was not caused by rapid turnover of /sup 59/Fe in macrophages. Studies of the site of killing of inhaled type 25 pneumococci labeled exclusively in the cell wall with carbon 14-ethanolamine confirmed the results obtained with /sup 59/Fe-labeled pneumococci. Thus, early killing of inhaled pneumococci, unlike staphylococci, appears to take place outside of macrophages.

  15. Olfactory deposition of inhaled nanoparticles in humans

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; Schroeter, Jeffry D.; Kimbell, Julia S.

    2016-01-01

    Context Inhaled nanoparticles can migrate to the brain via the olfactory bulb, as demonstrated in experiments in several animal species. This route of exposure may be the mechanism behind the correlation between air pollution and human neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Objectives This manuscript aims to (1) estimate the dose of inhaled nanoparticles that deposit in the human olfactory epithelium during nasal breathing at rest and (2) compare the olfactory dose in humans with our earlier dose estimates for rats. Materials and methods An anatomically-accurate model of the human nasal cavity was developed based on computed tomography scans. The deposition of 1–100 nm particles in the whole nasal cavity and its olfactory region were estimated via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Our CFD methods were validated by comparing our numerical predictions for whole-nose deposition with experimental data and previous CFD studies in the literature. Results In humans, olfactory dose of inhaled nanoparticles is highest for 1–2 nm particles with approximately 1% of inhaled particles depositing in the olfactory region. As particle size grows to 100 nm, olfactory deposition decreases to 0.01% of inhaled particles. Discussion and conclusion Our results suggest that the percentage of inhaled particles that deposit in the olfactory region is lower in humans than in rats. However, olfactory dose per unit surface area is estimated to be higher in humans due to their larger minute volume. These dose estimates are important for risk assessment and dose-response studies investigating the neurotoxicity of inhaled nanoparticles. PMID:26194036

  16. Effect of Disease Severity in Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Inhaler-Specific Inhalation Profiles Through the ELLIPTA® Dry Powder Inhaler

    PubMed Central

    de Backer, Wilfried; Hamilton, Melanie; Cahn, Anthony; Preece, Andrew; Kelleher, Dennis; Baines, Amanda; Moore, Alison; Brealey, Noushin; Moynihan, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Two studies were undertaken to characterize the maximal effort inhalation profiles of healthy subjects and patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) through a moderate-resistance dry powder inhaler (DPI). Correlations between inhaler-specific inhalation characteristics and inhaler-independent lung function parameters were investigated. Methods: Healthy subjects (n = 15), patients with mild, moderate, or severe asthma (n = 45), and patients with mild, moderate, severe, or very-severe COPD (n = 60) were included in the studies. Inhalation pressure drop versus time profiles were recorded using an instrumented ELLIPTA® DPI or bespoke resistor component with equivalent resistivity. Inhaler-independent lung function assessments included pharyngometry, spirometry, plethysmography, and diffusion. Results: For the inhaler-specific inhalation profiles, the mean maximal effort peak inspiratory flow rates (PIFRs) varied across the subgroups from 65.8–110.6 L/min (range: 41.6–142.9). Peak pressure drop, PIFR, inhaled volume, and average inhalation flow rate (primary endpoints) did not differ markedly between healthy subjects and patients with asthma or mild COPD. Moderate, severe, and very-severe COPD patients demonstrated lower mean peak pressure drops, PIFRs and inhaled volumes, which tended to decrease with increasing COPD severity. Severe and very-severe COPD patients demonstrated shorter mean inhalation times compared with all other participants. Inhaler-independent lung function parameters were consistent with disease severity, and statistically significant (p < 0.05) strong correlations (R > 0.7) with components of the inhaler-specific inhalation profiles were observed in the COPD cohort; correlations in the asthma cohort tended to be weaker. Conclusions: All participants achieved a maximal effort PIFR ≥ 41.6 L/min through the moderate resistance of the ELLIPTA inhaler. Patients with asthma

  17. Role of PAR-4 in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Meynier, Sonia; Kramer, Marianne; Ribaux, Pascale; Tille, Jean-Christophe; Delie, Florence; Petignat, Patrick; Cohen, Marie

    2015-09-01

    Prostate apoptosis response-4 (PAR-4) is considered as a tumour suppressor due to its ability to selectively induce cell apoptosis in most cancer cells. However little is known about the role of PAR-4 in ovarian cancer. In this study, we investigated for the first time the role of PAR-4 in ovarian carcinogenesis. We showed that PAR-4 mRNA level is not significantly different between healthy and cancer ovarian cells. Immunohistochemistry on ovarian tissue showed that ovarian cancer cells are positive for PAR-4 nuclear and cytoplasmic staining whereas ovarian healthy cells are negative for PAR-4 nuclear staining. We then studied the role of PAR-4 in cell apoptosis. We determined that PAR-4 induces cell apoptosis in response to stimuli, in vitro, but is also involved in the relocation of GRP78 from endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface of ovarian cancer cell line (SKOV-3 cells). In ovo, PAR-4 decreases ovarian tumour development and increases the response to taxol treatment. These observations suggest that PAR-4 is a very interesting therapeutic target against ovarian carcinogenesis. PMID:26246468

  18. Role of PAR-4 in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meynier, Sonia; Kramer, Marianne; Ribaux, Pascale; Tille, Jean-Christophe; Delie, Florence; Petignat, Patrick; Cohen, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Prostate apoptosis response-4 (PAR-4) is considered as a tumour suppressor due to its ability to selectively induce cell apoptosis in most cancer cells. However little is known about the role of PAR-4 in ovarian cancer. In this study, we investigated for the first time the role of PAR-4 in ovarian carcinogenesis. We showed that PAR-4 mRNA level is not significantly different between healthy and cancer ovarian cells. Immunohistochemistry on ovarian tissue showed that ovarian cancer cells are positive for PAR-4 nuclear and cytoplasmic staining whereas ovarian healthy cells are negative for PAR-4 nuclear staining. We then studied the role of PAR-4 in cell apoptosis. We determined that PAR-4 induces cell apoptosis in response to stimuli, in vitro, but is also involved in the relocation of GRP78 from endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface of ovarian cancer cell line (SKOV-3 cells). In ovo, PAR-4 decreases ovarian tumour development and increases the response to taxol treatment. These observations suggest that PAR-4 is a very interesting therapeutic target against ovarian carcinogenesis. PMID:26246468

  19. Sidération myocardique au cours d'une intoxication au monoxyde de carbone (CO) chez une femme enceinte

    PubMed Central

    Coulibaly, Mahamadoun; Berdai, Mohamed Adnane; Labib, Smael; Harandou, Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    L'intoxication au monoxyde de carbone (CO) est la première cause de décès par intoxication en France. La littérature est ancienne et peu connue. Les signes les plus fréquents de l'intoxication sont la triade: Céphalées; asthénie, faiblesse musculaire surtout des membres inférieurs. Ses conséquences sont potentiellement graves pour le fœtus quand elle survient chez la femme enceinte, il est particulièrement exposé au risque d'hypoxie en raison de la forte affinité de son hémoglobine pour le CO qui traverse aisément le placenta. Les événements cardiovasculaires ne sont pas rares et peuvent être responsable d'une morbi-mortalité assez importante qui peuvent être d'apparition rapide ou secondaire mais régressent habituellement en quelques jours. Des SCA peuvent survenir lors d'une une intoxication au CO avec à l'extrême infarctus myocardique avec surélévation du segment ST. Il paraît légitime de proposer pour toutes les patientes: l’éloignement maternel de la source de CO; l'oxygénothérapie à 100% au masque facial par les services de secours et pendant le transfert; le traitement par oxygénothérapie hyperbare pour toutes les femmes enceintes, le plus rapidement possible et quelque soit l’âge gestationnel. PMID:26405502

  20. Deposition and biokinetics of inhaled nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Particle biokinetics is important in hazard identification and characterization of inhaled particles. Such studies intend to convert external to internal exposure or biologically effective dose, and may help to set limits in that way. Here we focus on the biokinetics of inhaled nanometer sized particles in comparison to micrometer sized ones. The presented approach ranges from inhaled particle deposition probability and retention in the respiratory tract to biokinetics and clearance of particles out of the respiratory tract. Particle transport into the blood circulation (translocation), towards secondary target organs and tissues (accumulation), and out of the body (clearance) is considered. The macroscopically assessed amount of particles in the respiratory tract and secondary target organs provides dose estimates for toxicological studies on the level of the whole organism. Complementary, microscopic analyses at the individual particle level provide detailed information about which cells and subcellular components are the target of inhaled particles. These studies contribute to shed light on mechanisms and modes of action eventually leading to adverse health effects by inhaled nanoparticles. We review current methods for macroscopic and microscopic analyses of particle deposition, retention and clearance. Existing macroscopic knowledge on particle biokinetics and microscopic views on particle organ interactions are discussed comparing nanometer and micrometer sized particles. We emphasize the importance for quantitative analyses and the use of particle doses derived from real world exposures. PMID:20205860

  1. Pars triangularis asymmetry and language dominance.

    PubMed Central

    Foundas, A L; Leonard, C M; Gilmore, R L; Fennell, E B; Heilman, K M

    1996-01-01

    The pars triangular is a portion of Broca's area. The convolutions that form the inferior and caudal extent of the pars triangularis include the anterior horizontal and anterior ascending rami of the sylvian fissure, respectively. To learn if there are anatomic asymmetries of the pars triangularis, these convolutions were measured on volumetric magnetic resonance imaging scans of 11 patients who had undergone selective hemispheric anesthesia (Wada testing) to determine hemispheric speech and language lateralization. Of the 10 patients with language lateralized to the left hemisphere, 9 had a leftward asymmetry of the pars triangularis. The 1 patient with language lateralized to the right hemisphere had a significant rightward asymmetry of the pars triangularis. Our data suggest that asymmetries of the pars triangularis may be related to speech-language lateralization. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8570622

  2. Vapor Inhalation of Alcohol in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Richardson, Heather N.; Cole, Maury; Koob, George F.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol dependence constitutes a neuroadaptive state critical for understanding alcoholism, and various methods have been utilized to induce alcohol dependence in animals, one of which is alcohol vapor exposure. Alcohol vapor inhalation provides certain advantages over other chronic alcohol exposure procedures that share the ultimate goal of producing alcohol dependence in rats. Chronic alcohol vapor inhalation allows the experimenter to control the dose, duration, and pattern of alcohol exposure. Also, this procedure facilitates testing of somatic and motivational aspects of alcohol dependence. Chronic exposure to alcohol vapor produces increases in alcohol-drinking behavior, increases in anxiety-like behavior, and reward deficits in rats. Alcohol vapor inhalation as a laboratory protocol is flexible, and the parameters of this procedure can be adjusted to accommodate the specific aims of different experiments. This unit describes the options available to investigators using this procedure for dependence induction, when different options are more or less appropriate, and the implications of each. PMID:18634001

  3. Inhalation injury: a decade without progress.

    PubMed

    Sobel, J B; Goldfarb, I W; Slater, H; Hammell, E J

    1992-01-01

    Despite major advances in the management of patients with critical burn injuries, inhalation injury continues to be a major determinant of death resulting from burn injuries. Two cohort groups of victims with burn and inhalation injuries, separated by a decade, were retrospectively reviewed in an effort to determine the impact of newer treatment modalities. Patients were categorized as being at "high" or "low" risk on the basis of primary and secondary diagnostic criteria. Despite a statistically significant decrease in the percent of total body surface injury, no change in mortality rate was noted between the two groups. The advent of sophisticated diagnostic and management techniques does not appear to have decreased the mortality rate associated with inhalation injury. PMID:1452592

  4. Inhaled Antibiotics for Lower Airway Infections

    PubMed Central

    Quon, Bradley S.; Goss, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    Inhaled antibiotics have been used to treat chronic airway infections since the 1940s. The earliest experience with inhaled antibiotics involved aerosolizing antibiotics designed for parenteral administration. These formulations caused significant bronchial irritation due to added preservatives and nonphysiologic chemical composition. A major therapeutic advance took place in 1997, when tobramycin designed for inhalation was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Attracted by the clinical benefits observed in CF and the availability of dry powder antibiotic formulations, there has been a growing interest in the use of inhaled antibiotics in other lower respiratory tract infections, such as non-CF bronchiectasis, ventilator-associated pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mycobacterial disease, and in the post–lung transplant setting over the past decade. Antibiotics currently marketed for inhalation include nebulized and dry powder forms of tobramycin and colistin and nebulized aztreonam. Although both the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency have approved their use in CF, they have not been approved in other disease areas due to lack of supportive clinical trial evidence. Injectable formulations of gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, ceftazidime, and amphotericin are currently nebulized “off-label” to manage non-CF bronchiectasis, drug-resistant nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and post-transplant airway infections. Future inhaled antibiotic trials must focus on disease areas outside of CF with sample sizes large enough to evaluate clinically important endpoints such as exacerbations. Extrapolating from CF, the impact of eradicating organisms such as P. aeruginosa in non-CF bronchiectasis should also be evaluated. PMID:24673698

  5. Etude par spectroscopie de Coulomb de points quantiques lateraux individuels et couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pioro-Ladriere, Michel

    Des points quantiques contenant un nombre discret et variable d'electrons sont formes dans un gaz bi-dimensionnel d'electrons a l'aide de grilles metalliques. Le transport electrique, le blocage de spin et la detection de charge sont employes comme outils spectroscopiques permettant de sonder les proprietes de ces nanostructures. Ces techniques permettent aussi de controler exactement le nombres d'electrons confines dans des points quantiques individuels et couples en utilisant un patron de grille judicieux. Une technique de refroidissement en tension est developpee afin de minimiser les effets parasites du bruit telegraphique. Ce type de bruit de charge deteriore la stabilite des nanostructures laterales par l'activation d'un minuscule courant de fuite entre les grilles et le gaz bi-dimensionnel. Un modele expliquant le role du refroidissement en tension sur le courant de fuite est presente. L'activation du courant de fuite est confirmee par detection de charge. Les effets des interactions entre les electrons pieges dans un point quantique sont ensuite etudies dans un regime ou il est possible de comparer les resulats experimentaux avec ceux obtenus par diagonalisation exacte. L'etude demontre que la phase associee au facteur de remplissage nu = 2 est instable au-dessus d'un nombre critique d'electrons. Cette instabilite est confirmee experimentalement par blocage de spin. On demontre aussi l'existence d'etats correles dans le regime des renversements de spin, associe au passage de la phase nu = 2 a nu = 1. Les etats correles sont identifies par spectroscopie en transport non lineaire. Cette caracterisation du diagramme de phase de points individuels permet de coupler deux points quantiques configures a nu = 2. Pour ce regime, la nanostructure se comporte comme un systeme a deux niveaux pouvant contenir entre un et quatre electrons de valence et ce, meme si le nombre total d'electrons est plus eleve. Les degres de liberte de charge et de spin des deux points

  6. Brulure par Foudre. A Propos d’une Observation

    PubMed Central

    Mradmi, W.; Fassi-Fihri, J.; Mehaji, G.; Ezzoubi, M.; Diouri, M.; Bahechar, N.; Boukind, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Summary Aussi loin que l’on remonte dans la littérature, on retrouve des récits relatant des accidents consécutifs à la fulguration chez l’homme. La foudre était alors associée à la colère des dieux ou à la notion de châtiment. La fulguration correspond à un transfert d’énergie entre un cumulonimbus de charge négative et un objet de charge positive se trouvant au niveau du sol. Les lésions déterminées sont à la fois thermiques et électrothermiques. Bien que l’arrêt cardiorespiratoire soit une cause bien documentée de décès, la plupart des cas rapportés dans la littérature décrivent un éventail très disparate des séquelles qui surviennent suite à cet accident. Les Auteurs rapportent le cas d’un patient atteint par la foudre en insistant particulièrement sur les complications neurologiques qui sont survenues en cours d’évolution. Se basant sur cette observation et sur une revue de la littérature, les Auteurs soulignent que le pronostic des patients atteints par la foudre est plus favorable que généralement rapporté. PMID:21990993

  7. INHALATION EXPOSURE-RESPONSE ASSESSMENTS FOR FIVE CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhalation exposure-response assessments for five chemicals (acrolein, ethylene oxide, hexachlorocyclopentadiene, hydrogen sulfide, and phosgene) for less-than-lifetime durations are being developed to inform the development of the Inhalation Exposure-Response Analysis Methodolog...

  8. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  9. Fewer Inhaled Steroids May Be OK for Asthmatic Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159083.html Fewer Inhaled Steroids May Be OK for Asthmatic Children Study suggests ... 2016 FRIDAY, May 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Inhaled steroid therapy is commonly used to treat asthmatic children ...

  10. [Inhaled corticosteroids: Which regimens are appropriate?].

    PubMed

    Giovannini-Chami, L; Piccini-Bailly, C; Albertini, M

    2016-06-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids are the cornerstone of asthma management. Inhaled corticosteroid regimens differ slightly in various international guidelines on asthma management but are based on the principles of continuous treatment and titration to the lowest effective dose. Several recent studies, nevertheless, appear to demonstrate the potential value of preemptive or "pro re nata" regimens in infants and children. These studies were included in GINA 2015 for children 5 years of age and younger in whom discontinuous treatment is proposed as a second-line option. Should we change our practices after a critical reading of these studies? PMID:27133372

  11. The pathophysiology of smoke inhalation injury.

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, S F; Esrig, B C; Polk, H C; Fulton, R L

    1975-01-01

    The consequences of near-lethal smoke inhalation in dogs were studied for a 72-hour period following injury. Progressive hypoxemia and decrease in compliance developed. Severe respiratory distress and frank pulmonary edema were not encountered. Respiratory insufficiecy was related more to alterations in ventilation perfusion ratios than to alveolar destruction. These data were related to clinical observations made by others. No deterioration of lung function was seen with crystalloid overload imposed upon smoke inhalation. The presence of bacterial infection in dogs surviving beyond 24 hours appears pathogenically significant. Images Fig. 8. Fig. 10. PMID:242281

  12. L'astronomie au féminin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël

    2006-03-01

    Qui détient le record des découvertes de comètes ? Une femme. Qui a permis de comprendre comment est organisée la population des étoiles ? Une femme. Qui a découvert la loi permettant d'arpenter l'Univers, a trouvé des phares dans l'espace, a compris le fonctionnement des forges stellaires et a bouleversé notre vision de l'Univers ? Encore et toujours une femme... Pourtant, quand on doit citer un astronome -- historique -- au hasard, on pense le plus souvent -- des hommes : Ptolémée, Galilée, Copernic ou, plus près de nous par exemple, Hubble. Certes, au cours des siècles, les femmes n'ont guère eu accès aux sciences en général et -- l'astronomie en particulier mais ce n'est pas une raison pour croire en l'absence totale de contributions dues au beau sexe ! C'est ce que dévoile ici l'auteur. Loin de toute forme de féminisme enragé, on suivra le parcours de quelques scientifiques importantes qui ont par hasard en commun une même particularité : leur sexe.

  13. PAR for the Course: A Congruent Pedagogical Approach for a PAR Methods Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Joyce D.; Hicks, Maria; Kalman, Rowenn; Miller, Jason

    2005-01-01

    In the past two years, three graduate students and a senior faculty member have co-taught a participatory action research (PAR) course to undergraduate and graduate students. In this article the co-teachers advocate a set of pedagogical principles and practices in a PAR-oriented classroom that establishes congruency with community PAR projects in…

  14. Mathematics Achievement and Inhalant Allergy in Middle School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchfield, Patricia Crosby; Easterday, Kenneth E.

    1991-01-01

    This study of 137 students in grades 6 through 8 found no significant differences between the mean scores of sixth and seventh grade students with and without inhalant allergies on a mathematics concepts subtest, but found that eighth grade students with inhalant allergies performed better than eighth grade students without inhalant allergies.…

  15. Physical Symptoms and Psychological Distress among Inhalant Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, George W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Among 110 Mexican-American adolescents with varying drug use histories, self-reported physical health problems were not related to inhalant use history, but blood analyses indicated a relationship between extensive inhalant use and liver problems. Psychological distress symptoms were related to inhalant use and physical symptoms. Contains 23…

  16. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  17. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  18. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  19. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  20. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  1. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  2. Plaies des membres par agression: analyse de 245 dossiers

    PubMed Central

    Boufettal, Monsef; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Ismael, Farid; Kharmaz, Mohamed; Bardouni, Ahmed El; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; Yaacoubi, Moradh El

    2015-01-01

    Il s'agit d'une étuderétrospective, analytique, monocentrique rentrant dans le cadre d'une étude épidémiologique s’étalant sur une période de trois années (de 2010 à 2012) durant laquelle nous avons revu les dossiers de 245 patients victimes de violence et d'agression. Nous avons exclu les lésions simples traitées en ambulatoire. Par conséquent, nous nous sommes limités aux cas de blessures ayant nécessité une prise en charge spécialisée au bloc opératoire. Les objectifs de notre travail étaient de connaitre la fréquence des agressions au service de traumatologie du CHU de Rabat, classer les différents types de lésions, évaluer leur gravité, mettre la lumière sur les populations les plus touchées et enfin montrer les différentes modalités de prise en charge thérapeutiques. PMID:26918078

  3. Magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au and Fe-Au alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, S.; Shimakura, H.; Tahara, S.; Okada, T.

    2015-08-17

    The magnetic susceptibility of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, Fe-Au and Cu-Au alloys was investigated as a function of temperature and composition. Liquid Cr{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.5 ≤ c and Mn{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.3≤c obeyed the Curie-Weiss law with regard to their dependence of χ on temperature. The magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Fe-Au alloys also exhibited Curie-Weiss behavior with a reasonable value for the effective number of Bohr magneton. On the Au-rich side, the composition dependence of χ for liquid TM-Au (TM=Cr, Mn, Fe) alloys increased rapidly with increasing TM content, respectively. Additionally, the composition dependences of χ for liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, and Fe-Au alloys had maxima at compositions of 50 at% Cr, 70 at% Mn, and 85 at% Fe, respectively. We compared the composition dependences of χ{sub 3d} due to 3d electrons for liquid binary TM-M (M=Au, Al, Si, Sb), and investigated the relationship between χ{sub 3d} and E{sub F} in liquid binary TM-M alloys at a composition of 50 at% TM.

  4. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  5. THE METABOLISM OF NALED INHALED BY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Naled (Dibrom) was prepared with a (14)carbon label in the 1-ethyl position. The labeled compound was administered in appropriate formulation vehicles to female rats by the inhalation, oral or intraperitoneal routes. Treated animals were either placed in metabolism cages and thei...

  6. A murine model of smoke inhalation.

    PubMed

    Matthew, E; Warden, G; Dedman, J

    2001-04-01

    The United States has one of the world's largest per capita fire death rates. House fires alone kill >9,000 Americans annually, and smoke inhalation is the leading cause of mortality from structural fires. Animal models are needed to develop therapies to combat this problem. We have developed a murine model of smoke inhalation through the design, construction, and use of a controlled-environment smoke chamber. There is a direct relationship between the quantity of wood combusted and mortality in mice. As with human victims, the primary cause of death from smoke inhalation is an elevated blood carboxyhemoglobin level. Lethal (78%) and sublethal (50%) carboxyhemoglobin levels were obtained in mice subjected to varying amounts of smoke. Mice exposed to wood smoke demonstrated more dramatic pathology than mice exposed to cotton or polyurethane smoke. A CD-1 model of wood smoke exposure was developed, demonstrating type II cell hypertrophy, cytoplasmic blebbing, cytoplasmic vacuolization, sloughing, hemorrhage, edema, macrophage infiltration, and lymphocyte infiltration. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of smoke-exposed mice demonstrated a significant increase in total cell counts compared with those in control mice. These findings are comparable to the lung tissue response observed in human victims of smoke inhalation. PMID:11238012

  7. Inhalation exposure in secondary aluminium smelting.

    PubMed

    Healy, J; Bradley, S D; Northage, C; Scobbie, E

    2001-04-01

    Inhalation exposure at seven UK secondary aluminium smelters was investigated to quantify the main exposures and identify their sources. The substances monitored were gases (carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulphide and nitrogen dioxide), total inhalable dust, metals, ammonia, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particulate fluoride salts and acids. The results showed that people were exposed to a range of workplace air pollutants. Personal exposure results for total inhalable dust were between 700 and 5600 microg x m(-3) and the maximum personal exposure result for particulate fluoride salts was 690 microg x m(-3) (as F). The maximum aluminium, total PAH and lead personal exposure results were 900, 19 and 18 microg x m(-3) respectively. The average proportion of aluminium in total inhalable dust samples was 13% and rotary furnace processes generated the most dust. Particulate fluoride salt exposure was more widespread than hydrofluoric acid exposure. The source of the salt exposure was fluoride containing fluxes. The lead exposure source was lead solder contamination in the furnace charge. PMID:11295145

  8. CYTOGENETIC EFFECTS OF PHOSPHINE INHALATION BY RODENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phosphine (PH3) is a highly toxic grain fumigant that can be produced from the reaction of metal phosphides with water. o determine the in vivo cytogenetic effects of inhalation of PH3, male CD-1 mice were exposed to either 0, 5, 10, or 15 ppm target concentrations of PH3 for 6 h...

  9. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY OF INHALED METHANOL IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dr. Weiss and his colleagues conducted a controlled series of experiments in which they exposed pregnant rats and their newborn offspring to 4,500 parts per million (ppm) methanol by inhalation, and then submitted them to tests of behavioral function.

    Exposure to 4,500...

  10. Parental Influences on Inhalant Use by Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stephanie S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Among 78 mothers of Mexican-American adolescent inhalant users, many did not adhere to traditional marital and maternal roles, but this was not related to child's drug use. Child's drug use was related to indicators of household stability, including parents' marital status, father's employment status, and maternal emotional adjustment. (Author/SV)

  11. Ozone inhalation modifies the rat liver proteome☆

    PubMed Central

    Theis, Whitney S.; Andringa, Kelly K.; Millender-Swain, Telisha; Dickinson, Dale A.; Postlethwait, Edward M.; Bailey, Shannon M.

    2013-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is a serious public health concern. Recent findings indicate that the damaging health effects of O3 extend to multiple systemic organ systems. Herein, we hypothesize that O3 inhalation will cause downstream alterations to the liver. To test this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0.5 ppm O3 for 8 h/day for 5 days. Plasma liver enzyme measurements showed that 5 day O3 exposure did not cause liver cell death. Proteomic and mass spectrometry analysis identified 10 proteins in the liver that were significantly altered in abundance following short-term O3 exposure and these included several stress responsive proteins. Glucose-regulated protein 78 and protein disulfide isomerase increased, whereas glutathione S-transferase M1 was significantly decreased by O3 inhalation. In contrast, no significant changes were detected for the stress response protein heme oxygenase-1 or cytochrome P450 2E1 and 2B in liver of O3 exposed rats compared to controls. In summary, these results show that an environmentally-relevant exposure to inhaled O3 can alter the expression of select proteins in the liver. We propose that O3 inhalation may represent an important unrecognized factor that can modulate hepatic metabolic functions. PMID:25544660

  12. A pharmacokinetic simulation tool for inhaled corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Weber, Benjamin; Hochhaus, Guenther

    2013-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic (PK) behavior of inhaled drugs is more complicated than that of other forms of administration. In particular, the effects of certain physiological (mucociliary clearance and differences in membrane properties in central and peripheral (C/P) areas of the lung), formulation (as it relates to drug deposition and particle dissolution rate), and patient-related factors (lung function; effects on C/P deposition ratio) affect the systemic PKs of inhaled drugs. The objectives of this project were (1) to describe a compartmental model that adequately describes the fate of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) after administration while incorporating variability between and within subjects and (2) based upon the model, to provide a freely available tool for simulation of PK trials after ICS administration. This compartment model allows for mucociliary removal of undissolved particles from the lung, distinguishes between central and peripheral regions of the lung, and models drug entering the systemic circulation via the lung and the gastrointestinal tract. The PK simulation tool is provided as an extension package to the statistical software R ('ICSpkTS'). It allows simulation of PK trials for hypothetical ICS and of four commercially available ICS (budesonide, flunisolide, fluticasone propionate, and triamcinolone acetonide) in a parallel study design. Simulated PK data and parameters agreed well with literature data for all four ICS. The ICSpkTS package is especially suitable to explore the effect of changes in model parameters on PK behavior and can be easily adjusted for other inhaled drugs. PMID:23139018

  13. Subacute Inhalation Toxicity of 3-Methylpentane.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yong Hyun; Shin, Seo-Ho; Han, Jeong Hee; Lee, Yong-Hoon

    2016-07-01

    3-Methylpentane (C6H14, CAS No. 96-14-0), isomer of hexane, is a colorless liquid originating naturally from petroleum or natural gas liquids. 3-Methylpentane has been used as a solvent in organic synthesis, as a lubricant, and as a raw material for producing carbon black. There is limited information available on the inhalation toxicity of 3-methylpentane, and the aim of this study was to determine its subacute inhalation toxicity. According to OECD Test Guideline 412 (subacute inhalation toxicity: 28-day study), Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to 0, 284, 1,135, and 4,540 ppm of 3-methylpentane for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks via whole-body inhalation. Mortality, clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, organ weights, and gross and histopathological findings were compared between control and all exposure groups. No mortality or remarkable clinical signs were observed during the study. No gross or histopathological lesions, or adverse effects on body weight, food consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, and organ weights were observed in any male or female rats in all exposure groups, although some statistically significant changes were observed in food consumption, serum chemistry, and organ weights. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for 3-methylpentane above 4,540 ppm/6 hr/day, 5 days/week for rats. PMID:27437092

  14. FATE OF INHALED FLY ASH IN HAMSTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine pulmonary deposition, translocation, and clearance of inhaled fly ash, hamsters received a single 95-min nose-only exposure to neutron-activated fly ash. Over a period of 99 days postexposure, the hamsters were sacrificed in groups of six animals. Lungs, liver, kidne...

  15. VALIDATION OF SAMPLERS FOR INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods for the testing of new samplers for inhalable particles have been developed and applied to the dichotomous sampler and the size-selective hi-vol. The sampling effectiveness of the inlet to the dichotomous sampler was measured and found to be excessively dependent on wind ...

  16. Inhalant Use in Latina Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzmán, Bianca L.; Kouyoumdjian, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how lifetime use and extent of use of inhalants by Latina girls is impacted by age, acculturation, grades, ditching, sexual behaviors (light petting, heavy petting, and going all the way) and sexual agency. A total of 273 females who self-identified as being Latina whose mean age was 13.94 completed…

  17. Patterns of Inhalant Use among Incarcerated Youth

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Susan M.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2015-01-01

    Inhalant use is especially prevalent among antisocial youth and can have serious health consequences. However, the extant literature has not investigated how use of various inhalants may co-occur among incarcerated youth. This study begins to address this gap in the literature by using latent class analyses to form distinct typologies of inhalant use. Study participants were residents (N = 723) of 27 Missouri Division of Youth Services facilities. Interviews assessed psychiatric symptoms, antisocial traits, delinquency, trauma, suicidality, and substance use behaviors. The mean age of the mostly male, ethnically diverse sample was 15.5 (S.D. = 1.2) years old. The study revealed the following classes of inhalant use: (1) severe polyinhalant use; (2) moderate polyinhalant use; (3) gas and permanent marker use; and (4) low-use. Compared to the low-use class, members of the severe polyinhalant use class had experienced more than double the rate of head injuries, the highest rates of traumatic experiences, and the highest rates of mental illness diagnoses. The gas and markers class had the highest rate of reporting hearing voices, followed by the severe polyinhalant use class, and the moderate polyinhalant use class. Results of this study underscore the need to address the high rate of head injuries and mental health diagnoses that contribute to severe polyinhalant use. PMID:26333159

  18. Patterns of Inhalant Use among Incarcerated Youth.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Susan M; Howard, Matthew O

    2015-01-01

    Inhalant use is especially prevalent among antisocial youth and can have serious health consequences. However, the extant literature has not investigated how use of various inhalants may co-occur among incarcerated youth. This study begins to address this gap in the literature by using latent class analyses to form distinct typologies of inhalant use. Study participants were residents (N = 723) of 27 Missouri Division of Youth Services facilities. Interviews assessed psychiatric symptoms, antisocial traits, delinquency, trauma, suicidality, and substance use behaviors. The mean age of the mostly male, ethnically diverse sample was 15.5 (S.D. = 1.2) years old. The study revealed the following classes of inhalant use: (1) severe polyinhalant use; (2) moderate polyinhalant use; (3) gas and permanent marker use; and (4) low-use. Compared to the low-use class, members of the severe polyinhalant use class had experienced more than double the rate of head injuries, the highest rates of traumatic experiences, and the highest rates of mental illness diagnoses. The gas and markers class had the highest rate of reporting hearing voices, followed by the severe polyinhalant use class, and the moderate polyinhalant use class. Results of this study underscore the need to address the high rate of head injuries and mental health diagnoses that contribute to severe polyinhalant use. PMID:26333159

  19. Inhalation delivery of proteins from ethanol suspensions.

    PubMed

    Choi, W S; Murthy, G G; Edwards, D A; Langer, R; Klibanov, A M

    2001-09-25

    To circumvent inherent problems associated with pulmonary administration of aqueous-solution and dry-powder protein drugs, inhalation delivery of proteins from their suspensions in absolute ethanol was explored both in vitro and in vivo. Protein suspensions in ethanol of up to 9% (wt/vol) were readily aerosolized with a commercial compressor nebulizer. Experiments with enzymic proteins revealed that nebulization caused no detectable loss of catalytic activity; furthermore, enzyme suspensions in anhydrous ethanol retained their full catalytic activity for at least 3 weeks at room temperature. With the use of Zn(2+)-insulin, conditions were elaborated that produced submicron protein particles in ethanol suspensions. The latter (insulin/EtOH) afforded respirable-size aerosol particles after nebulization. A 40-min exposure of laboratory rats to 10 mg/ml insulin/EtOH aerosols resulted in a 2-fold drop in the blood glucose level and a marked rise in the serum insulin level. The bioavailability based on estimated deposited lung dose of insulin delivered by inhalation of ethanol suspension aerosols was 33% (relative to an equivalent s.c. injection), i.e., comparable to those observed in rats after inhalation administration of dry powder and aqueous solutions of insulin. Inhalation of ethanol in a relevant amount/time frame resulted in no detectable acute toxic effects on rat lungs or airways, as reflected by the absence of statistically significant inflammatory or allergic responses, damage to the alveolar/capillary barrier, and lysed and/or damaged cells. PMID:11562495

  20. Subacute Inhalation Toxicity of 3-Methylpentane

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yong Hyun; Shin, Seo-Ho; Han, Jeong Hee; Lee, Yong-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    3-Methylpentane (C6H14, CAS No. 96-14-0), isomer of hexane, is a colorless liquid originating naturally from petroleum or natural gas liquids. 3-Methylpentane has been used as a solvent in organic synthesis, as a lubricant, and as a raw material for producing carbon black. There is limited information available on the inhalation toxicity of 3-methylpentane, and the aim of this study was to determine its subacute inhalation toxicity. According to OECD Test Guideline 412 (subacute inhalation toxicity: 28-day study), Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to 0, 284, 1,135, and 4,540 ppm of 3-methylpentane for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks via whole-body inhalation. Mortality, clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, organ weights, and gross and histopathological findings were compared between control and all exposure groups. No mortality or remarkable clinical signs were observed during the study. No gross or histopathological lesions, or adverse effects on body weight, food consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, and organ weights were observed in any male or female rats in all exposure groups, although some statistically significant changes were observed in food consumption, serum chemistry, and organ weights. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for 3-methylpentane above 4,540 ppm/6 hr/day, 5 days/week for rats. PMID:27437092

  1. Fate of inhaled azodicarbonamide in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Mewhinney, J.A.; Ayres, P.H.; Bechtold, W.E.; Dutcher, J.S.; Cheng, Y.S.; Bond, J.A.; Medinsky, M.A.; Henderson, R.F.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1987-04-01

    Azodicarbonamide (ADA) is widely used as a blowing agent in the manufacture of expanded foam plastics, as an aging and bleaching agent in flour, and as a bread dough conditioner. Human exposures have been reported during manufacture as well as during use. Groups of male F344/N rats were administered ADA by gavage, by intratracheal instillation, and by inhalation exposure to determine the disposition and modes of excretion of ADA and its metabolites. At 72 hr following gavage, 30% of the administered ADA was absorbed whereas following intratracheal instillation, absorption was 90%. Comparison between groups of rats exposed by inhalation to ADA to achieve body burdens of 24 or 1230 micrograms showed no significant differences in modes or rates of excretion of (/sup 14/C)ADA equivalents. ADA was readily converted to biurea under physiological conditions and biurea was the only /sup 14/C-labeled compound present in excreta. (/sup 14/C)ADA equivalents were present in all examined tissues immediately after inhalation exposure, and clearance half-times on the order of 1 day were evident for all tissues investigated. Storage depots for (/sup 14/C)ADA equivalents were not observed. The rate of buildup of (/sup 14/C)ADA equivalents in blood was linearly related to the lung content as measured from rats withdrawn at selected times during a 6-hr inhalation exposure at an aerosol concentration of 25 micrograms ADA/liter. In a study extending 102 days after exposure, retention of (/sup 14/C)ADA equivalents in tissues was described by a two-component negative exponential function. The results from this study indicate that upon inhalation, ADA is rapidly converted to biurea and that biurea is then eliminated rapidly from all tissues with the majority of the elimination via the urine.

  2. Electrochemistry of Au(II) and Au(III) pincer complexes: determination of the Au(II)-Au(II) bond energy.

    PubMed

    Dann, Thomas; Roşca, Dragoş-Adrian; Wright, Joseph A; Wildgoose, Gregory G; Bochmann, Manfred

    2013-10-01

    The bond energy of the unsupported Au-Au bond in the Au(ii) dimer [(C(∧)N(∧)C)Au]2 and the difference between Au(III)-OH and Au(III)-H bond enthalpies have been determined experimentally by electrochemical methods, with Au-OH and Au-H complexes showing unexpected differences in their reduction pathways, supported by DFT modelling. PMID:24051607

  3. ParAB Partition Dynamics in Firmicutes: Nucleoid Bound ParA Captures and Tethers ParB-Plasmid Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Lioy, Virginia S.; Volante, Andrea; Soberón, Nora E.; Lurz, Rudi; Ayora, Silvia; Alonso, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    In Firmicutes, small homodimeric ParA-like (δ2) and ParB-like (ω2) proteins, in concert with cis-acting plasmid-borne parS and the host chromosome, secure stable plasmid inheritance in a growing bacterial population. This study shows that (ω:YFP)2 binding to parS facilitates plasmid clustering in the cytosol. (δ:GFP)2 requires ATP binding but not hydrolysis to localize onto the cell’s nucleoid as a fluorescent cloud. The interaction of (δ:CFP)2 or δ2 bound to the nucleoid with (ω:YFP)2 foci facilitates plasmid capture, from a very broad distribution, towards the nucleoid and plasmid pairing. parS-bound ω2 promotes redistribution of (δ:GFP)2, leading to the dynamic release of (δ:GFP)2 from the nucleoid, in a process favored by ATP hydrolysis and protein-protein interaction. (δD60A:GFP)2, which binds but cannot hydrolyze ATP, also forms unstable complexes on the nucleoid. In the presence of ω2, (δD60A:GFP)2 accumulates foci or patched structures on the nucleoid. We propose that (δ:GFP)2 binding to different nucleoid regions and to ω2-parS might generate (δ:GFP)2 gradients that could direct plasmid movement. The iterative pairing and unpairing cycles may tether plasmids equidistantly on the nucleoid to ensure faithful plasmid segregation by a mechanism compatible with the diffusion-ratchet mechanism as proposed from in vitro reconstituted systems. PMID:26161642

  4. Inhaled insulin--does it become reality?

    PubMed

    Siekmeier, R; Scheuch, G

    2008-12-01

    After more than 80 years of history the American and European Drug Agencies (FDA and EMEA) approved the first pulmonary delivered version of insulin (Exubera) from Pfizer/Nektar early 2006. However, in October 2007, Pfizer announced it would be taking Exubera off the market, citing that the drug had failed to gain market acceptance. Since 1924 various attempts have been made to get away from injectable insulin. Three alternative delivery methods where always discussed: Delivery to the upper nasal airways or the deep lungs, and through the stomach. From these, the delivery through the deep lungs is the most promising, because the physiological barriers for the uptake are the smallest, the inspired aerosol is deposited on a large area and the absorption into the blood happens through the extremely thin alveolar membrane. However, there is concern about the long-term effects of inhaling a growth protein into the lungs. It was assumed that the large surface area over which the insulin is spread out would minimize negative effects. But recent news indicates that, at least in smokers, the bronchial tumour rate under inhaled insulin seems to be increased. These findings, despite the fact that they are not yet statistical significant and in no case found in a non-smoker, give additional arguments to stop marketing this approach. Several companies worked on providing inhalable insulin and the insulin powder inhalation system Exubera was the most advanced technology. Treatment has been approved for adults only and patients with pulmonary diseases (e.g., asthma, emphysema, COPD) and smokers (current smokers and individuals who recently quitted smoking) were excluded from this therapy. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Exubera are similar to those found with short-acting subcutaneous human insulin or insulin analogs. It is thus possible to use Exubera as a substitute for short-acting human insulin or insulin analogs. Typical side effects of inhaled insulin were coughing

  5. Effects, side effects and plasma concentrations of terbutaline in adult asthmatics after inhaling from a dry powder inhaler device at different inhalation flows and volumes.

    PubMed

    Engel, T; Scharling, B; Skovsted, B; Heinig, J H

    1992-04-01

    1. The efficacy of a metered dose inhaler (MDI) is highly dependent on the mode of inhalation. The relatively high built-in resistance in the Turbohaler (TBH), a new dry powder inhaler device for inhalation of terbutaline sulphate and budesonide, reduces the flow during inhalation. We compared five different modes of inhalation using the terbutaline TBH in 10 stable asthmatic subjects, who were tested on 5 consecutive days. 2. Measurement of 10 different parameters of pulmonary function indicated that the full bronchodilatory effect of an inhaled dose was already achieved at 5 min after the inhalation. Inspiratory flows through the TBH varying from 34 to 88 l min-1 resulted in comparable bronchodilation, and a previous exhalation to residual volume proved of no value. However, if, prior to inhalation, an exhalation through the device was performed, a substantially reduced effect was seen. 3. Reducing the inspiratory flow to approximately 34 l min-1 produced slightly reduced side effects and lower plasma terbutaline concentrations. PMID:1576070

  6. Inhaled drug delivery in the hands of the patient.

    PubMed

    Lavorini, Federico

    2014-12-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are both diseases with an increasing prevalence worldwide. Inhaled therapy for these conditions has a number of advantages over systemic therapy, but requires the patients to use, and to master the use of, an inhaler device. However, many patients cannot use inhalers correctly, and over 50% of patients struggle to use a metered-dose inhaler properly. Poor inhaler technique is associated with a reduced asthma control, worst COPD outcomes, and wastage of economic resources. Of perhaps more concern is the fact that many health professionals also do not know how to use inhalers correctly and are therefore not in a position to coach patients effectively. Training patients and caregivers in the correct inhaler preparation and use is an essential component in the process toward achieving reliable and repeatable medication delivery. Instructions should be inhaler-specific, and they include instruction on how to load or prime the device. Providing only the leaflet that comes with the medicines does not lead to adequate inhalation technique, not even immediately after the patient has read the instructions and practiced with the inhaler. One-on-one sessions with health-care professionals probably represent the most effective educational method. However, it appears that, by itself, even repeated instruction could be insufficient to achieve improved adherence in the long term, as there is a tendency for patients or caregivers to forget what they have learned as time elapses since the training event. Thus, despite the development of several new and improved types of inhaler device, the evidence currently available points to little or no progress having been made with patients' ability to use their inhalers. As the range of drugs delivered by inhalation increases, inhaler technique checks and training need to be an integral part of the routine management of any patient with either asthma or COPD. PMID:25238005

  7. Magnetoresistance of Au films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, D. L.; Song, X. H.; Zhang, X; Zhang, Xiaoguang

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of the magnetoresistance (MR) of Au films as a function of temperature and film thickness reveals a strong dependence on grain size distribution and clear violation of the Kohler s rule. Using a model of random resistor network, we show that this result can be explained if the MR arises entirely from inhomogeneity due to grain boundary scattering and thermal activation of grain boundary atoms.

  8. Magnetoresistance of Au films

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, D. L.; Song, X. H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Xiaoguang

    2014-12-10

    Measurement of the magnetoresistance (MR) of Au films as a function of temperature and film thickness reveals a strong dependence on grain size distribution and clear violation of the Kohler s rule. Using a model of random resistor network, we show that this result can be explained if the MR arises entirely from inhomogeneity due to grain boundary scattering and thermal activation of grain boundary atoms.

  9. Effect of Inhaler Design Variables on Paediatric Use of Dry Powder Inhalers

    PubMed Central

    Lexmond, Anne J.; Kruizinga, Tonnis J.; Hagedoorn, Paul; Rottier, Bart L.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; de Boer, Anne H.

    2014-01-01

    Age appropriateness is a major concern of pulmonary delivery devices, in particular of dry powder inhalers (DPIs), since their performance strongly depends on the inspiratory flow manoeuvre of the patient. Previous research on the use of DPIs by children focused mostly on specific DPIs or single inspiratory parameters. In this study, we investigated the requirements for a paediatric DPI more broadly using an instrumented test inhaler. Our primary aim was to assess the impact of airflow resistance on children’s inspiratory flow profiles. Additionally, we investigated children’s preferences for airflow resistance and mouthpiece design and how these relate to what may be most suitable for them. We tested 98 children (aged 4.7–12.6 years), of whom 91 were able to perform one or more correct inhalations through the test inhaler. We recorded flow profiles at five airflow resistances ranging from 0.025 to 0.055 kPa0.5.min.L−1 and computed various inspiratory flow parameters from these recordings. A sinuscope was used to observe any obstructions in the oral cavity during inhalation. 256 flow profiles were included for analysis. We found that both airflow resistance and the children’s characteristics affect the inspiratory parameters. Our data suggest that a medium-high resistance is both suitable for and well appreciated by children aged 5–12 years. High incidences (up to 90%) of obstructions were found, which may restrict the use of DPIs by children. However, an oblong mouthpiece that was preferred the most appeared to positively affect the passageway through the oral cavity. To accommodate children from the age of 5 years onwards, a DPI should deliver a sufficiently high fine particle dose within an inhaled volume of 0.5 L and at a peak inspiratory flow rate of 25–40 L.min−1. We recommend taking these requirements into account for future paediatric inhaler development. PMID:24901338

  10. Facteurs associes au port de charge céphalique chez des enfants au Bénin: étude transversale

    PubMed Central

    Akplogan, Barnabé; Hounmenou, Alain Mahoutin; Aze, Oscar; Alegbeh, Sakibou Essofa; Azondekon, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Le port de charge céphalique par les enfants est une méthode de manutention courante au Bénin. Peu d’étude sont investigué sur le port de charge céphalique chez les enfants. Méthodes Cette étude transversale vise à faire l’état des lieux et à identifier les facteurs associés au port de charge céphalique chez des enfants au Bénin. Au total,300 enfants âgés de 13,7 ± 2,6 ans ont participé à l’étude dans les 12 départements du Bénin. La méthode non probabiliste et la technique accidentelle ont été utilisées pour déterminer la taille de l’échantillon. La masse portée par les enfants constitue la variable dépendante. L’âge, la taille, les sites corporels des douleurs, l'ancienneté dans le port de charge etla fréquence hebdomadaire du port céphalique de charge constituent les variables indépendantes. Résultats Le rapport de la masse portée sur le poids corporel est évalué en moyenne à 66%. Pendant et après le port de charge, les douleurs ressenties sont localisées essentiellement au cou, au dos et au bas du dos. Le test de corrélation entre charge portée et la taille indique r = 0,58 (p < 0,001). Conclusion Cette étude indique que les enfants surchargent leur rachis lors du port de charge céphalique. PMID:27279962

  11. Le syndrome des loges du bras: une complication inhabituelle de l'intoxication au monoxyde de carbone

    PubMed Central

    Chkoura, Khalid; Kechna, Hicham; Loutid, Jaouad; Ouzad, Omar; Cherradi, Toufiq; Hachimi, Moulay Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Le monoxyde de carbone (CO) surnommé “Silent killer” par les Anglo-Saxons représente la première cause de mortalité par intoxication accidentelle ou volontaire en Europe comme aux États-Unis. Au Maroc, le centre anti poison a collecté entre 1991 et 2008, 12976 cas d'intoxication au monoxyde de carbone dont 98,7% étaient accidentelles. Cette intoxication est très exceptionnellement compliquée d'un syndrome de loge qui peut contribuer à une aggravation certaine du pronostic fonctionnel et vital quand il est ignoré ou dominé par d'autres symptômes en particulier neurologiques. Nous rapportons le cas d'un gardien de nuit qui a présenté un syndrome de loge particulier par sa localisation (bras) au cours d'une intoxication au CO qui a évolué favorablement. PMID:26301009

  12. Inhalation drug delivery devices: technology update

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mariam; Verma, Rahul; Garcia-Contreras, Lucila

    2015-01-01

    The pulmonary route of administration has proven to be effective in local and systemic delivery of miscellaneous drugs and biopharmaceuticals to treat pulmonary and non-pulmonary diseases. A successful pulmonary administration requires a harmonic interaction between the drug formulation, the inhaler device, and the patient. However, the biggest single problem that accounts for the lack of desired effect or adverse outcomes is the incorrect use of the device due to lack of training in how to use the device or how to coordinate actuation and aerosol inhalation. This review summarizes the structural and mechanical features of aerosol delivery devices with respect to mechanisms of aerosol generation, their use with different formulations, and their advantages and limitations. A technological update of the current state-of-the-art designs proposed to overcome current challenges of existing devices is also provided. PMID:25709510

  13. Interspecies modeling of inhaled particle deposition patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Martonen, T.B.; Zhang, Z.; Yang, Y.

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the potential toxic effects of ambient contaminants or therapeutic effects of airborne drugs, inhalation exposure experiments can be performed with surrogate laboratory animals. Herein, an interspecies particle deposition theory is presented for physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling. It is derived to improve animal testing protocols. The computer code describes the behavior and fate of particles in the lungs of human subjects and a selected surrogate, the laboratory rat. In the simulations CO2 is integrated with exposure chamber atmospheres, and its concentrations regulated to produce rat breathing profiles corresponding to selected levels of human physical activity. The dosimetric model is used to calculate total, compartmental (i.e., tracheobronchial and pulmonary), and localized distribution patterns of inhaled particles in rats and humans for comparable ventilatory conditions. It is demonstrated that the model can be used to predetermine the exposure conditions necessary to produce deposition patterns in rats that are equivalent to those in humans at prescribed physical activities.

  14. Inhalation risk in low-gravity spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Paul; Sklar, Michael V.; Ramirez, W. Fred; Smith, Gerald J.; Morgenthaler, George W.; McKinnon, J. T.; Oberdörster, Günter; Schulz, Jon

    Inhalation risks on long-duration manned spaced flight include gasses chronically released by outgassing of materials, gasses released during spills, thermodegradation events (including fires) with their attendant particulates, and fire extinguishment. As an example, an event in which electronic insulation consisting of polytetrafluoroethylene undergoes thermodegradation on the Space Station Freedom was modeled experimentally and theoretically from the initial chemistry and convective transport through pulmonary deposition in humans. The low-gravity environment was found to impact various stages of event simulation. Critical unknowns were identified, and these include the extent of production of ultrafine particles and polymeric products at the source in low gravity, the transport of ultrafine particles in the spacecraft air quality control system, and the biological response of the lung, including alveolar macrophages, to this inhalation risk in low gravity.

  15. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia caused by herbicide inhalation.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Takamasa; Tsubata, Yukari; Okimoto, Tamio; Hoshino, Teppei; Hamaguchi, Shun-Ichi; Isobe, Takeshi

    2016-09-01

    Exogenous lipoid pneumonia is caused by aspiration or inhalation of oily substances. Generally, lipoid pneumonia has non-specific clinical and radiological presentations and may be misdiagnosed as bacterial pneumonia. Our patient, a 68-year-old man who had been diagnosed with pneumonia on three previous occasions, was admitted to our hospital with a fourth similar episode. Computed tomography of the chest revealed extensive consolidations with air bronchograms in lung fields on the right side. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) increased ghost-like macrophages that stained positive for lipid. Our patient reported that he had sprayed herbicide in large quantities without wearing a mask. We analysed the BALF and herbicide by gas chromatography and diagnosed exogenous lipoid pneumonia caused by inhalation of herbicide. Clinicians should be aware of lipoid pneumonia, which may present as infectious pneumonia. PMID:27516888

  16. Inhaled medicinal cannabis and the immunocompromised patient.

    PubMed

    Ruchlemer, Rosa; Amit-Kohn, Michal; Raveh, David; Hanuš, Lumír

    2015-03-01

    Medicinal cannabis is an invaluable adjunct therapy for pain relief, nausea, anorexia, and mood modification in cancer patients and is available as cookies or cakes, as sublingual drops, as a vaporized mist, or for smoking. However, as with every herb, various microorganisms are carried on its leaves and flowers which when inhaled could expose the user, in particular immunocompromised patients, to the risk of opportunistic lung infections, primarily from inhaled molds. The objective of this study was to identify the safest way of using medicinal cannabis in immunosuppressed patients by finding the optimal method of sterilization with minimal loss of activity of cannabis. We describe the results of culturing the cannabis herb, three methods of sterilization, and the measured loss of a main cannabinoid compound activity. Systematic sterilization of medicinal cannabis can eliminate the risk of fatal opportunistic infections associated with cannabis among patients at risk. PMID:25216851

  17. Toxicity of inhaled methyl isocyanate vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The toxicity of inhaled isocyanate (MIC) vapor was evaluated using several bioassays designed to investigate the toxicity of airborne chemicals. Two methods which measure changes in respiratory rate and identify characteristic breathing patterns in mice were used to evaluate the potency of MIC as a sensory and pulmonary irritant. Using the CO{sub 2} challenge method in conjunction with the measurement of airflow (V) and tidal volume (VT), the pulmonary effects and subsequent recovery process following a single exposure to MIC were studied in guinea pigs for a period of one year. Flow-volume loops were also obtained by plotting V vs. VT. Measurement of O{sub 2} uptake and CO{sub 2} output were also performed to determine the acute and chronic effects of MIC exposure on gas exchange. Lastly, guinea pigs and mice were exposed to {sup 14}C-MIC in an effort to determine uptake and fate of inhaled MIC.

  18. Regional deposition of inhaled reactive gases

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, F.J.; Overton, J.H.; Graham, R.C.

    1987-03-01

    A critical concept in inhalation toxicology involves the determination of dose as the first component for providing a perspective to judge the applicability of various toxicological results to human-exposure conditions. Available experimental data for reactive gases were reviewed, and basic concepts in the formulation of mathematical dosimetry models were discussed. The complexity of factors influencing dose was illustrated as related to rate-constant sensitivity, thickness of the protective layer of the lungs, the choice of anatomical model, ventilatory parameters, and path distance. Results obtained thus far illustrate the feasibility of making interspecies dosimetric comparisons as an integral step in evaluating the toxicity of inhaled reactive gases, assisting in experimental design, and providing sensitivity studies to determine parameters and processes needing additional research.

  19. Effects of inhaled acids on lung biochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Last, J.A.

    1989-02-01

    Effects of respirable aerosols of sulfuric acid, ammonium sulfate, sodium sulfite, and ammonium persulfate on lungs of rats are reviewed. The literature regarding interactions between ozone or nitrogen dioxide and acidic aerosols (ammonium sulfate, sulfuric acid) is discussed. An unexpected interaction between nitrogen dioxide and sodium chloride aerosol is also discussed. An attempt is made to identify bases for prediction of how and when acid aerosols might potentiate effects of inhaled gases.

  20. Deposition and clearance of inhaled particles.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, B O

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical models of respiratory tract deposition of inhaled particles are compared to experimental studies of deposition patterns in humans and animals, as determined principally by particle size, density, respiratory rate and flow parameters. Various models of inhaled particle deposition make use of convenient approximations of the respiratory tract to predict tractional deposition according to fundamental physical processes of impaction, sedimentation, and diffusion. These theoretical models for both total deposition and regional (nasopharyngeal, tracheobronchial, and pulmonary) deposition are compared with experimental studies of inhaled dusts in humans or experimental animals that have been performed in many laboratories over several decades. Reasonable correlation has been obtained between theoretical and experimental studies, but the behavior of very fine (less than 0.01 mum) particles requires further refinement.Properties of particle shape, charge, and hygroscopicity as well as the degree of respiratory tract pathology also influence deposition patterns and further experimental work is urgently needed in these areas. The influence upon deposition patterns of dynamic alterations in inspiratory flow profiles caused by a variety of breathing patterns also requires further study, and the use of such techniques with selected inhaled particle size holds promise in possible diagnostic aid in diagnosis of normal versus disease conditions. Mechanisms of conducting airway and alveolar clearance processes involving mucociliary clearance, dissolution, transport to systemic circulation, and translocation via regional lymphatic clearance are discussed. The roles of the pulmonary macrophage in airway and alveolar clearance are described, and the applicability of recent solubility models for translocation or deposited materials to liver, skeleton, or other systemic organs is discussed. PMID:797567

  1. Inhalation cancer risk assessment of cobalt metal.

    PubMed

    Suh, Mina; Thompson, Chad M; Brorby, Gregory P; Mittal, Liz; Proctor, Deborah M

    2016-08-01

    Cobalt compounds (metal, salts, hard metals, oxides, and alloys) are used widely in various industrial, medical and military applications. Chronic inhalation exposure to cobalt metal and cobalt sulfate has caused lung cancer in rats and mice, as well as systemic tumors in rats. Cobalt compounds are listed as probable or possible human carcinogens by some agencies, and there is a need for quantitative cancer toxicity criteria. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has derived a provisional inhalation unit risk (IUR) of 0.009 per μg/m(3) based on a chronic inhalation study of soluble cobalt sulfate heptahydrate; however, a recent 2-year cancer bioassay affords the opportunity to derive IURs specifically for cobalt metal. The mechanistic data support that the carcinogenic mode of action (MOA) is likely to involve oxidative stress, and thus, non-linear/threshold mechanisms. However, the lack of a detailed MOA and use of high, toxic exposure concentrations in the bioassay (≥1.25 mg/m(3)) preclude derivation of a reference concentration (RfC) protective of cancer. Several analyses resulted in an IUR of 0.003 per μg/m(3) for cobalt metal, which is ∼3-fold less potent than the provisional IUR. Future research should focus on establishing the exposure-response for key precursor events to improve cobalt metal risk assessment. PMID:27177823

  2. Inhalant abuse among adolescents: neurobiological considerations.

    PubMed

    Lubman, D I; Yücel, M; Lawrence, A J

    2008-05-01

    Experimentation with volatile substances (inhalants) is common during early adolescence, yet limited work has been conducted examining the neurobiological impact of regular binge use during this key stage of development. Human studies consistently demonstrate that chronic use is associated with significant toxic effects, including neurological and neuropsychological impairment, as well as diffuse and subtle changes in white matter. However, most preclinical research has tended to focus on acute exposure, with limited work examining the neuropharmacological or toxicological mechanisms underpinning these changes or their potential reversibility with abstinence. Nevertheless, there is growing evidence that commonly abused inhalants share common cellular mechanisms, and have similar actions to other drugs of abuse. Indeed, the majority of acute behavioural effects appear to be underpinned by changes in receptor and/or ion channel activity (for example, GABA(A), glycine and 5HT(3) receptor activation, NMDA receptor inhibition), although nonspecific interactions can also arise at high concentrations. Recent studies examining the effects of toluene exposure during the early postnatal period are suggestive of long-term alterations in the function of NMDA and GABA(A) receptors, although limited work has been conducted investigating exposure during adolescence. Given the critical role of neurotransmitter systems in cognitive, emotional and brain development, future studies will need to take account of the substantial neuromaturational changes that are known to occur in the brain during childhood and adolescence, and to specifically investigate the neuropharmacological and toxicological profile of inhalant exposure during this period of development. PMID:18332858

  3. Inhaled nano- and microparticles for drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M.; El-Baz, Nancy M.; Yacoub, Magdi H.

    2015-01-01

    The 21st century has seen a paradigm shift to inhaled therapy, for both systemic and local drug delivery, due to the lung's favourable properties of a large surface area and high permeability. Pulmonary drug delivery possesses many advantages, including non-invasive route of administration, low metabolic activity, control environment for systemic absorption and avoids first bypass metabolism. However, because the lung is one of the major ports of entry, it has multiple clearance mechanisms, which prevent foreign particles from entering the body. Although these clearance mechanisms maintain the sterility of the lung, clearance mechanisms can also act as barriers to the therapeutic effectiveness of inhaled drugs. This effectiveness is also influenced by the deposition site and delivered dose. Particulate-based drug delivery systems have emerged as an innovative and promising alternative to conventional inhaled drugs to circumvent pulmonary clearance mechanisms and provide enhanced therapeutic efficiency and controlled drug release. The principle of multiple pulmonary clearance mechanisms is reviewed, including mucociliary, alveolar macrophages, absorptive, and metabolic degradation. This review also discusses the current approaches and formulations developed to achieve optimal pulmonary drug delivery systems. PMID:26779496

  4. Deposition and clearance of inhaled particles.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, B O

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical models of respiratory tract deposition of inhaled particles are compared to experimental studies of deposition patterns in humans and animals, as governed principally by particle size, density, respiratory rate and flow parameters. Various models of inhaled particle deposition make use of approximations of the respiratory tract to predict fractional deposition caused by fundamental physical processes of particle impaction, sedimentation, and diffusion. These models for both total deposition and regional (nasopharyngeal, tracheobronchial, and pulmonary) deposition are compared with early and recent experimental studies. Reasonable correlation has been obtained between theoretical and experimental studies, but the behavior in the respiratory tract of very fine (less than 0.1 micron) particles requires further investigation. Properties of particle shape, charge and hygroscopicity as well as the degree of respiratory tract pathology also influence deposition patterns; definitive experimental work is needed in these areas. The influence upon deposition patterns of dynamic alterations in inspiratory flow profiles caused by a variety of breathing patterns also requires further study, and the use of differing ventilation techniques with selected inhaled particle sizes holds promise in diagnosis of respiratory tract diseases. Mechanisms of conducting airway and alveolar clearance processes involving the pulmonary macrophage, mucociliary clearance, dissolution, transport to systemic circulation, and translocation via regional lymphatic vessels are discussed. PMID:6376108

  5. Enhanced interleukin activity following asbestos inhalation.

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, D P; Georgian, M M; Oghiso, Y; Kagan, E

    1984-01-01

    Asbestos inhalation can cause pulmonary fibrosis and is associated with a variety of immunological abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of asbestos inhalation on interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production in a rodent model. Two groups of rats were exposed, by intermittent inhalation, to either amphibole (crocidolite) or serpentine (chrysotile) asbestos. A third (control) group of rats was sham exposed to clean air. Animals from the three exposure groups were thereafter immunized (or not immunized) with fetal calf serum antigens. In order to assay interleukin activity, supernatants were generated from cultures containing alveolar macrophages and autologous splenic lymphocytes, and from cultures containing alveolar macrophages alone. Using assay systems designed to detect IL-1 and IL-2 functional activity, the supernatants were evaluated for their capacity to stimulate lymphoproliferation and fibroblast DNA synthesis. Macrophage-lymphocyte co-culture supernatants, when obtained from immunized, asbestos exposed rats, contained greater IL-1 and IL-2 activity than identical supernatants from immunized, sham exposed animals. These between group differences were not, however, observed in supernatants from unimmunized rats, or when supernatants were generated in the absence of immune lymphocytes. These observations suggest that asbestos exposure is associated with enhanced activation of lymphocytes by antigens. The possible relevance of these findings to asbestos related fibrogenesis and immunological stimulation is discussed. PMID:6608427

  6. Comparative cactus architecture and par interception

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, G.N.; Nobel, P.S. )

    1987-07-01

    Because CO{sup 2} uptake by cacti can be limited by low levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and because plant form affects PAR interception, various cactus forms were studied using a computer model, field measurements, and laboratory phototropic studies. Model predictions indicated that CO{sub 2} uptake by individual stems at an equinox was greatest when the stem were vertical, but at the summer and the winter solstice CO{sub 2} uptake was greatest for stems titled 30{degree} away from the equator. Stem tilting depended on form and taxonomic group. Not only can the shape of cacti be affected by PAR, but also shape influences PAR interception and hence CO{sub 2} uptake.

  7. Radioecological implications of the Par Pond drawdown

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, H.; Whicker, F.W.

    1991-12-05

    The drawdown of the Par Pond reservoir created dramatic alterations in this formerly stable lentic ecosystem. In addition, the radiation environment at Par Pond has changed significantly because of the exposure of Cesium 137-contaminated sediments and the appearance of new transport pathways to the terrestrial environment. In response to this situation, SREL was asked to study the radioecological implications of the reservoir drawdown. This report contains the objectives, methods, and results of the SREL study.

  8. Rupture de la rate au cours de l'accouchement: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Elbahraoui, Houda; Bouziane, Hanane; Akrouch, Jamila; Lakhdar, Amina; Ferhati, Driss

    2011-01-01

    La rupture de rate est une extrême urgence chirurgicale abdominale qui met très rapidement en jeu le pronostic vital. Les étiologies fréquemment retrouvées sont les traumatismes abdominaux par contusions ou plaies pénétrantes. La survenue d'une rupture de rate au cours de l'accouchement est un événement rare. Nous rapportons dans cette observation le cas d'une rupture splénique suite à des expressions abdominales survenue au cours d'un accouchement dystocique. PMID:22355431

  9. Facteurs de risque de mortalité par tuberculose pulmonaire

    PubMed Central

    Janah, Hicham; Souhi, Hicham; Kouismi, Hatim; Mark, Karima; Zahraoui, Rachida; Benamor, Jouda; Soualhi, Mona; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    La tuberculose est une maladie infectieuse transmissible provoquée par myco-bacterium tuberculosis (bacille de Koch ou BK). Elle représente, selon les estimations del'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS), l'une des pathologies infectieuses causant le plus de décès au niveau mondial avec plus de 1 million de décès par an. Pour déterminer les facteurs de risque de mortalité au cours de la tuberculose pulmonaire à microscopie positive nous avons mené une étude rétrospective portant sur tous les cas de tuberculose pulmonaire à microscopie positive et qui étaient décédés au cours de leur hospitalisation. Cette étude a colligé 1803 cas de tuberculose sur une période de 2 ans et demi dont 46 sont décédés. La prévalence de décès est de 2,55%. La population se répartit en 32 hommes et 14 femmes. L’âge moyen était de 53ans ± 17 ans. Le tabagisme était retrouvé chez la moitié des cas. Une comorbidité était retrouvée dans 43%, avec 17% de diabète. Le délai de diagnostic avait une médiane de 60 jours avec percentile (30j; 105j). La symptomatologie clinique était dominée par la toux, la dyspnée et les expectorations soit respectivement: 97,8%, 69,6% et 67,4% des cas. Sur le plan radiologique les lésions étaient diffuses et bilatérales dans 76,1% des cas. Tous les patients étaient mis sous SRHZ. 11% avaient présenté une toxicité aux antibacillaires (de type hépatiques dans 3 cas et neurologiques dans 2 cas). Le délai médian de décès était de 8,5 jours (5j; 17j). Les causes de décès retrouvées étaient: Une hépatite fulminante (3 cas), une décompensation acido-cétosique (3 cas), un SDRA (2 cas), des hémoptysies foudroyantes (2 cas), et respectivement un cas secondaire à une décompensation de BPCO, une décompensation cardiaque, une hypoglycémie et un tableau d'anasarque. Cette étude suggère que le terrain, le retard diagnostique et les effets secondaires du traitement sont les principaux facteurs de risque de

  10. Structural analysis of the ParR/parC plasmid partition complex.

    PubMed

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ringgaard, Simon; Mercogliano, Christopher P; Gerdes, Kenn; Löwe, Jan

    2007-10-17

    Accurate DNA partition at cell division is vital to all living organisms. In bacteria, this process can involve partition loci, which are found on both chromosomes and plasmids. The initial step in Escherichia coli plasmid R1 partition involves the formation of a partition complex between the DNA-binding protein ParR and its cognate centromere site parC on the DNA. The partition complex is recognized by a second partition protein, the actin-like ATPase ParM, which forms filaments required for the active bidirectional movement of DNA replicates. Here, we present the 2.8 A crystal structure of ParR from E. coli plasmid pB171. ParR forms a tight dimer resembling a large family of dimeric ribbon-helix-helix (RHH)2 site-specific DNA-binding proteins. Crystallographic and electron microscopic data further indicate that ParR dimers assemble into a helix structure with DNA-binding sites facing outward. Genetic and biochemical experiments support a structural arrangement in which the centromere-like parC DNA is wrapped around a ParR protein scaffold. This structure holds implications for how ParM polymerization drives active DNA transport during plasmid partition. PMID:17898804

  11. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-01-01

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was <1% of that from flat and rough reference surfaces. Our micro/nanofabrication process is a scalable approach based on cost-efficient self-organization and provides potential for further developing functional surfaces to study the behavior of microbes on nanoscale topographies.We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It

  12. Diagnosis and management of inhalation injury: an updated review.

    PubMed

    Walker, Patrick F; Buehner, Michelle F; Wood, Leslie A; Boyer, Nathan L; Driscoll, Ian R; Lundy, Jonathan B; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Chung, Kevin K

    2015-01-01

    In this article we review recent advances made in the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of inhalation injury. Historically, the diagnosis of inhalation injury has relied on nonspecific clinical exam findings and bronchoscopic evidence. The development of a grading system and the use of modalities such as chest computed tomography may allow for a more nuanced evaluation of inhalation injury and enhanced ability to prognosticate. Supportive respiratory care remains essential in managing inhalation injury. Adjuncts still lacking definitive evidence of efficacy include bronchodilators, mucolytic agents, inhaled anticoagulants, nonconventional ventilator modes, prone positioning, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Recent research focusing on molecular mechanisms involved in inhalation injury has increased the number of potential therapies. PMID:26507130

  13. Corpus callosum size and shape alterations in adolescent inhalant users.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Michael; Lubman, Dan I; Walterfang, Mark; Barton, Sarah; Reutens, David; Wood, Amanda; Yücel, Murat

    2013-09-01

    Inhalants, frequently abused during adolescence, are neurotoxic to white matter. We investigated the impact of inhalant misuse on the morphology of the corpus callosum (CC), the largest white matter bundle in the brain, in an adolescent sample of inhalant users [n = 14; mean age = 17.3; standard deviation (SD) = 1.7], cannabis users (n = 11; mean age = 19.7; SD = 1.7) and community controls (n = 9; mean age = 19.5; SD = 2.6). We identified significant morphological differences in the CC among inhalant users compared with community controls. There were no morphological differences between inhalant and cannabis users. Our findings may represent the early stages of neurobiological damage associated with chronic inhalant misuse. PMID:21955104

  14. Surface morphology and optical properties of porphyrin/Au and Au/porphyrin/Au systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalachyova, Yevgeniya; Lyutakov, Oleksiy; Solovyev, Andrey; Slepička, Petr; Švorčík, Vaclav

    2013-12-01

    Porphyrin/Au and Au/porphyrin/Au systems were prepared by vacuum evaporation and vacuum sputtering onto glass substrate. The surface morphology of as-prepared systems and those subjected to annealing at 160°C was studied by optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Absorption and luminescence spectra of as-prepared and annealed samples were measured. Annealing leads to disintegration of the initially continuous gold layer and formation of gold nanoclusters. An amplification of Soret band magnitude was observed on the Au/meso-tetraphenyl porphyrin (TPP) system in comparison with mere TPP. Additional enhancement of luminescence was observed after the sample annealing. In the case of sandwich Au/porphyrin/Au structure, suppression of one of the two porphyrins' luminescence maxima and sufficient enhancement of the second one were observed.

  15. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-02-01

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was <1% of that from flat and rough reference surfaces. Our micro/nanofabrication process is a scalable approach based on cost-efficient self-organization and provides potential for further developing functional surfaces to study the behavior of microbes on nanoscale topographies. PMID:26648134

  16. Techniques for measuring intercepted and absorbed PAR in corn canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, K. P.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1984-01-01

    The quantity of radiation potentially available for photosynthesis that is captured by the crop is best described as absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Absorbed PAR (APAR) is the difference between descending and ascending fluxes. The four components of APAR were measured above and within two planting densities of corn (Zea mays L.) and several methods of measuring and estimating APAR were examined. A line quantum sensor that spatially averages the photosynthetic photon flux density provided a rapid and portable method of measuring APAR. PAR reflectance from the soil (Typic Argiaquoll) surface decreased from 10% to less than 1% of the incoming PAR as the canopy cover increased. PAR reflectance from the canopy decreased to less than 3% at maximum vegetative cover. Intercepted PAR (1 - transmitted PAR) generally overestimated absorbed PAR by less than 4% throughout most of the growing season. Thus intercepted PAR appears to be a reasonable estimate of absorbed PAR.

  17. Adolescent inhalant use prevention, assessment, and treatment: A literature synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jacqueline; O'Brien, Casey; Schapp, Salena

    2016-05-01

    Inhalant use refers to the use of substances such as gases, glues, and aerosols in order to achieve intoxication, while inhalant use disorder (IUD) encompasses both DSM-IV-TR criteria for inhalant abuse and dependence. Inhalant use among adolescents is an international public health concern considering the severe medical and cognitive consequences and biopsychosocial correlates. In this paper, we summarize the current state of the literature on inhalant use among adolescents focusing on social context, prevention, assessment, and treatment strategies. Psychoeducation, skills training, and environmental supply reduction are helpful strategies for preventing adolescent inhalant use, while parent and adolescent self-report as well as physician report of medical signs and symptoms can aid in assessment and diagnosis. Although research has only begun to explore the treatment of inhalant use, preliminary findings suggest that a multimodal approach involving individual counselling (i.e., CBT brief intervention), family therapy, and activity and engagement programs is the first-line treatment, with residential treatment programs indicated for more severe presentations. The limited nature of treatments developed specifically for inhalant use combined with high prevalence rates and potential for significant impairment within the adolescent population indicate the need for further research. Research should focus on understanding the social context of use, establishing the efficacy of current adolescent substance use treatments adapted for inhalant use, and exploring long-term outcomes. PMID:26969125

  18. Corticosteroid inhalation in the treatment of childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Munasir, Z; Knol, K

    1990-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids are a dramatic advance in the therapy of chronic asthma. Corticosteroid inhalation therapy in children offers the same advantages over oral medication as in adults. Inhaled corticosteroids have better effects compared with other prophylactic antiasthma therapy such as theophylline, sodium cromoglycate and ketotifen. However, it is obvious that inhaled corticosteroids are not completely free of side effects, both topical and systemic such as suppression of HPA, growth retardation, osteoporosis, cataract formation, blood count and immunoglobulin changes, oropharyngeal candidiasis and dysphonia. Recently, many clinicians have been using this effective and save treatment more freely and for longterm administration. PMID:2077473

  19. A new multiple dose powder inhaler, (Turbuhaler), compared with a pressurized inhaler in a study of terbutaline in asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Persson, G; Gruvstad, E; Ståhl, E

    1988-08-01

    Twelve adult asthmatic patients participated in an open, randomized, cross-over comparison between cumulatively increasing doses of terbutaline sulphate administered via the multiple dose powder inhaler (Turbuhaler) or via a pressurized inhaler. Turbuhaler and the pressurized inhaler showed equipotency both with respect to bronchodilatation and side effects. Both treatments produced a significant increase in pulmonary function measurements, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). No increase in pulse rate was seen with either treatment but there was an increase in tremor at higher doses with both treatments. Inhalation of beta-agonists via Turbuhaler seems to be an effective way of treating asthma. PMID:3234516

  20. Health effects of inhaled gasoline engine emissions.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jacob D; Reed, Matthew D; Campen, Matthew J; Barrett, Edward G; Seagrave, JeanClare; Mauderly, Joe L

    2007-01-01

    Despite their prevalence in the environment, and the myriad studies that have shown associations between morbidity or mortality with proximity to roadways (proxy for motor vehicle exposures), relatively little is known about the toxicity of gasoline engine emissions (GEE). We review the studies conducted on GEE to date, and summarize the findings from each of these studies. While there have been several studies, most of the studies were conducted prior to 1980 and thus were not conducted with contemporary engines, fuels, and driving cycles. In addition, many of the biological assays conducted during those studies did not include many of the assays that are conducted on contemporary inhalation exposures to air pollutants, including cardiovascular responses and others. None of the exposures from these earlier studies were characterized at the level of detail that would be considered adequate today. A recent GEE study was conducted as part of the National Environmental Respiratory Center (www.nercenter.org). In this study several in-use mid-mileage General Motors (Chevrolet S-10) vehicles were purchased and utilized for inhalation exposures. An exposure protocol was developed where engines were operated with a repeating California Unified Driving Cycle with one cold start per day. Two separate engines were used to provide two cold starts over a 6-h inhalation period. The exposure atmospheres were characterized in detail, including detailed chemical and physical analysis of the gas, vapor, and particle phase. Multiple rodent biological models were studied, including general toxicity and inflammation (e.g., serum chemistry, lung lavage cell counts/differentials, cytokine/chemokine analysis, histopathology), asthma (adult and in utero exposures with pulmonary function and biochemical analysis), cardiovascular effects (biochemical and electrocardiograph changes in susceptible rodent models), and susceptibility to infection (Pseudomonas bacteria challenge). GEE resulted in

  1. Inhaled crocidolite mutagenicity in lung DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Rihn, B; Coulais, C; Kauffer, E; Bottin, M C; Martin, P; Yvon, F; Vigneron, J C; Binet, S; Monhoven, N; Steiblen, G; Keith, G

    2000-01-01

    We used transgenic mice carrying the lacI reporter gene to study the mutagenesis potential of asbestos crocidolite. The animals were exposed by nose-only inhalation to an aerosol containing 5.75 mg/m(3) crocidolite dust for 6 hr/day and 5 consecutive days. After 1, 4, and 12 weeks, we examined four end points: the cytology of bronchoalveolar lavage, the lung load of crocidolite, the hydrophobic DNA adducts, and the mutations in the lacI reporter gene. Twelve weeks after exposure, nearly 10% of the inhaled fibers remained in the lung (227 +/- 103 ng/mg lung). There was evidence of a typical inflammatory response consisting of multinucleate macrophages at weeks 4 and 12, whereas immediately after the exposure, we observed numerous polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The mutant frequency significatively increased during the fourth week after the exposure: 13.5 [time] 10(-5) in the exposed group versus 6. 9 10(-5) in the control group. The induction factor, defined by the ratio of checked mutants of exposed mice to checked mutants of control mice, was 1.96. The mutation spectrum of control lung DNA and exposed lung DNA was similar, suggesting the possible involvement of a DNA repair decrease in crocidolite-treated animals. We used the (32)P-postlabeling method and did not detect any increase of either 5 mC or bulky adduct in treated mice. This is the first study that demonstrates asbestos mutagenicity in vivo after a nose-only inhalation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10753093

  2. Age-specific inhalation radiation dose commitment factors for selected radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Baker, D.A.

    1982-08-01

    Inhalation dose commitment factors are presented for selected radionuclides for exposure of individuals in four age groups: infant, child, teen and adult. Radionuclides considered are /sup 35/S, /sup 36/Cl, /sup 45/Ca, /sup 67/Ga, /sup 75/Se, /sup 85/Sr, /sup 109/Cd, /sup 113/Sn, /sup 125/I, /sup 133/Ba, /sup 170/Tm, /sup 169/Yb, /sup 182/Ta, /sup 192/Ir, /sup 198/Au, /sup 201/Tl, /sup 204/Tl, and /sup 236/Pu. The calculational method is based on the human metabolic model of ICRP as defined in Publication 2 (ICRP 1959) and as used in previous age-specific dose factor calculations by Hoenes and Soldat (1977). Dose commitment factors are presented for the following organs of reference: total body, bone, liver, kidney, thyroid, lung and lower large intestine.

  3. ParCAT: Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brian E.; Steed, Chad A.; Shipman, Galen M.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Thornton, Peter E.; Wehner, Michael; Williams, Dean N.

    2013-01-01

    Climate science is employing increasingly complex models and simulations to analyze the past and predict the future of Earth s climate. This growth in complexity is creating a widening gap between the data being produced and the ability to analyze the datasets. Parallel computing tools are necessary to analyze, compare, and interpret the simulation data. The Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT) provides basic tools to efficiently use parallel computing techniques to make analysis of these datasets manageable. The toolkit provides the ability to compute spatio-temporal means, differences between runs or differences between averages of runs, and histograms of the values in a data set. ParCAT is implemented as a command-line utility written in C. This allows for easy integration in other tools and allows for use in scripts. This also makes it possible to run ParCAT on many platforms from laptops to supercomputers. ParCAT outputs NetCDF files so it is compatible with existing utilities such as Panoply and UV-CDAT. This paper describes ParCAT and presents results from some example runs on the Titan system at ORNL.

  4. Zinc chloride (smoke bomb) inhalational lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Matarese, S.L.; Matthews, J.I.

    1986-02-01

    Physicians, military and civilian alike, may be called upon to recognize, treat, and provide long-term care to patients who have suffered a zinc chloride (smoke bomb) inhalational injury. Pathologic changes described in the literature include laryngeal, tracheal, and bronchial mucosal edema and ulceration; interstitial edema; interstitial fibrosis; alveolar obliteration; and bronchiolitis obliterans. Acute injury is associated with a high mortality. Following is a report of a patient with a zinc chloride smoke injury which resulted in subpleural emphysematous blebs complicated by pneumothorax and abnormal exercise physiology. Gradual recovery occurred over several months. However, the chest roentgenogram remains abnormal with emphysematous blebs.

  5. Inhaled therapy in cystic fibrosis: agents, devices and regimens

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Key points There have been significant advances in both inhalation medicines and delivery devices with “intelligent nebulisers” and “dry-powder inhalers” becoming commonplace in CF care. Inhaled medicines generate high levels of a drug within the airways with limited systemic effects, offering safe and convenient antibiotic and mucolytic therapy for individuals with CF. Variations in adherence are not unique to CF; however, treatment burden is high and therefore fast inhaled drug delivery devices may assist individuals in completing the prescribed treatment regimes. Prescribers of inhaled medicines have a responsibility to consider, in addition to efficacy, the appropriated drug/device combination for each individual in order to promote adherence and achieve the desired clinical benefit. Summary The recognised mainstay daily treatments for cystic fibrosis (CF) focus on inhaled and oral medications, airway clearance and optimised nutrition. This review discusses recent advances in inhaled therapies for the management of CF, including devices such as intelligent nebulisers, drug formulations and supporting evidence for inhaled antibiotics (for the management of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and muco-active drugs. We include practical advice for clinicians regarding the optimisation of inhalation technique and education. The influence of adherence on the use of inhaled therapies in CF is also reviewed. Educational aims To inform readers about the history and progression of inhaled therapies for people with CF with reference to the literature supporting current practice. To highlight the factors that may impact the success of inhaled therapies, including those which are device specific such as drug deposition and those which influence adherence. PMID:26306111

  6. Inhaled drugs as risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Almirall, J; Bolíbar, I; Serra-Prat, M; Palomera, E; Roig, J; Hospital, I; Carandell, E; Agustí, M; Ayuso, P; Estela, A; Torres, A

    2010-11-01

    The effect of inhaled drugs in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is unclear. This case-control study was designed to determine whether inhaled drugs were risk factors for CAP. All incident cases of confirmed CAP that occurred over 1 yr in patients with chronic bronchitis (CB), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma were included, as well as CB, COPD and asthma controls. Risk factors for CAP and inhaled treatment were recorded during a personal interview. An effect of inhaled drugs on the risk of CAP was observed in COPD and asthma patients after adjusting for the effect of other respiratory diseases and their concomitant treatments. In COPD patients, inhaled steroids had a risk OR of 3.26 (95% CI 1.07-9.98) and in asthma patients inhaled anticholinergics had a risk OR of 8.80 (95% CI 1.02-75.7). In CB patients, no association with CAP was observed for any inhaler. These effects were independent of adjusting variables related to severity and other respiratory and non-respiratory risk factors for CAP, including vaccines. Inhaled β(2)-adrenergic agonists did not show a significant effect on the risk of CAP in any of the respiratory diseases. Inhaled steroids may favour CAP in COPD patients, whereas anticholinergics may favour CAP in asthma patients. It is difficult to differentiate the effect of inhaled therapy from the effect of COPD or asthma severity on the risk of CAP, and these relationships may not be causal, but could call attention to inhaled therapy in COPD and asthma patients. PMID:20525710

  7. Imagerie par modulation acoustique de conductivite electrique destinee au diagnostic du cancer du sein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendron, Mathieu

    This thesis describes a new medical imaging technique for determining the electrical conductivity distribution of tissues in a body region with a resolution comparable to that of current ultrasound techniques. The new technique, henceforth referred to as "Acousto-Electric Conductivity Modulation" (AECM) imaging, is based on the interaction of a sound wave with an electrical field. In its simplest form, four electrodes located near the region to be imaged apply a low-amplitude electrical current and measure the potential difference arising from current flow in the tissues. A focused ultrasound transducer directs a pressure wave to a voxel of the region of interest, modifying its conductivity distribution and, as a result, the amplitude of the potential measured by the electrodes. An image of the conductivity distribution can thus be constructed point-by-point by moving the electrodes and transducer to scan the object. In this context, the acoustic wave acts as the localization agent while the electrical potential provides a measure of the local conductivity change that occurs in the voxel. The first model presented in the thesis is based on the use of bipolar acoustic waves for excitation. This waveform is generally used with narrow band transducers. Acoustic waves generated by an ultrasound transducer driven with a burst of sine waves consists of alternating compression and rarefaction phases which tend to cancel each other in terms of the conductivity changes they produce. However when the thickness of the target object is small compared to the wavelength of the acoustic wave, this cancelling effect will not occur and the AECM signals will have sufficiently high amplitude to achieve image reconstruction using successive transducer positions to scan the region of interest. By extracting from the spectra of the AECM signals the amplitude of the peak at the excitation frequency, a map of the acousto-electric sensitivity of the system can be obtained. This map is then used to reconstruct the electrical conductivity distribution. The second model presented in the thesis uses a unipolar acoustic wave to generate AECM signals of relatively large amplitude. There are two aspects related to this type of wave. The first aspect is that the acoustic modulation is unidirectional if the applied pressure is unidirectional. As a result, a positive pressure only produces an increase in electrical conductivity and this will result in a large AECM signal even when the thickness of the object is large. The second aspect concerns the shape of the acoustic field. Since the unipolar acoustic wave is not focused, it modulates the conductivity over a large area, and thus the associated AECM signals needs to be processed through a reconstruction algorithm so as to recover local conductivity. In this model, the data required for image reconstruction are acquired by rotating the transducer around the target object. An experimental setup has been developed during our project to get values of certain parameter that are required to define the numerical models. The setup comprises a large tank which is filled with water and in which are immersed the ultrasound transducer, a hydrophone and a measurement cell. The acousto-electric interaction takes place within this cell. A computer controlled positioning system allows precise displacements of the transducer relative to the hydrophone and the measurement cell. This cell comprises a cavity in which the object to be analyzed is placed and that is then filled with an electrolytic solution. The cavity is closed on two sides by an acoustic window to allow propagation of the ultrasound wave and on another side by six Ag/AgCl electrodes that are used to apply current and to measure the resulting electrical potential. Mammography is presently the most widely used medical imaging procedure for breast cancer screening. The average sensitivity of this technique is 80 % but it is less for younger women. According to recent studies, MRI offers a higher sensitivity and the possibility of detecting very smal

  8. Imagerie par modulation acoustique de conductivite electrique destinee au diagnostic du cancer du sein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendron, Mathieu

    This thesis describes a new medical imaging technique for determining the electrical conductivity distribution of tissues in a body region with a resolution comparable to that of current ultrasound techniques. The new technique, henceforth referred to as "Acousto-Electric Conductivity Modulation" (AECM) imaging, is based on the interaction of a sound wave with an electrical field. In its simplest form, four electrodes located near the region to be imaged apply a low-amplitude electrical current and measure the potential difference arising from current flow in the tissues. A focused ultrasound transducer directs a pressure wave to a voxel of the region of interest, modifying its conductivity distribution and, as a result, the amplitude of the potential measured by the electrodes. An image of the conductivity distribution can thus be constructed point-by-point by moving the electrodes and transducer to scan the object. In this context, the acoustic wave acts as the localization agent while the electrical potential provides a measure of the local conductivity change that occurs in the voxel. The first model presented in the thesis is based on the use of bipolar acoustic waves for excitation. This waveform is generally used with narrow band transducers. Acoustic waves generated by an ultrasound transducer driven with a burst of sine waves consists of alternating compression and rarefaction phases which tend to cancel each other in terms of the conductivity changes they produce. However when the thickness of the target object is small compared to the wavelength of the acoustic wave, this cancelling effect will not occur and the AECM signals will have sufficiently high amplitude to achieve image reconstruction using successive transducer positions to scan the region of interest. By extracting from the spectra of the AECM signals the amplitude of the peak at the excitation frequency, a map of the acousto-electric sensitivity of the system can be obtained. This map is then used to reconstruct the electrical conductivity distribution. The second model presented in the thesis uses a unipolar acoustic wave to generate AECM signals of relatively large amplitude. There are two aspects related to this type of wave. The first aspect is that the acoustic modulation is unidirectional if the applied pressure is unidirectional. As a result, a positive pressure only produces an increase in electrical conductivity and this will result in a large AECM signal even when the thickness of the object is large. The second aspect concerns the shape of the acoustic field. Since the unipolar acoustic wave is not focused, it modulates the conductivity over a large area, and thus the associated AECM signals needs to be processed through a reconstruction algorithm so as to recover local conductivity. In this model, the data required for image reconstruction are acquired by rotating the transducer around the target object. An experimental setup has been developed during our project to get values of certain parameter that are required to define the numerical models. The setup comprises a large tank which is filled with water and in which are immersed the ultrasound transducer, a hydrophone and a measurement cell. The acousto-electric interaction takes place within this cell. A computer controlled positioning system allows precise displacements of the transducer relative to the hydrophone and the measurement cell. This cell comprises a cavity in which the object to be analyzed is placed and that is then filled with an electrolytic solution. The cavity is closed on two sides by an acoustic window to allow propagation of the ultrasound wave and on another side by six Ag/AgCl electrodes that are used to apply current and to measure the resulting electrical potential. Mammography is presently the most widely used medical imaging procedure for breast cancer screening. The average sensitivity of this technique is 80 % but it is less for younger women. According to recent studies, MRI offers a higher sensitivity and the possibility of detecting very small tumors, thus allowing earlier treatment. The operating costs of MRI systems are at the moment too high to consider using the modality for breast cancer screening on a large scale. AECM imaging could eventually provide an interesting compromise between operating costs and the sensitivity required for screening patients of all ages. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  9. Choriorétinite extensive bilatérale révélant une infection par le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH)

    PubMed Central

    El Yamouni, Oubaida; Tzili, Nazih; El Hassan, Abdallah; Slassi, Nadia; El Khaoua, Mahfoud; Jebbar, Zakaria; Berraho, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Au cours de l'infection par le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine(VIH), Les atteintes oculaires sont polymorphes, pouvant compromettre le pronostic fonctionnel. Nous rapportons l'observation d'un patient présentant une choriorétinite infectieuse sévère révélant une infection par le VIH. Patient âgé de 35 ans avec antécédent de tuberculose pulmonaire en 2007, consulte pour BAV bilatérale progressive depuis 6 mois. Une acuité visuelle à compte les doigts au niveau de l'oeil droit et à mouvement des doigts au niveau de l'oeil gauche, avec présence de foyers choriorétiniens diffus visualisés au fond d'oeil et à l'angiographie. Les sérologies VIH, toxoplasmose et CMV sont positives. Le patient a été mis sous traitement anti-toxoplasmose (Sulfadiazine et pyriméthamine) et anti-CMV (Ganciclovir per os). L’évolution sous traitement a été marquée par une régression de la hyalite avec la persistance des foyers choriorétiniens évolutifs et une acuité visuelle réduite à perception lumineuse. PMID:25709723

  10. Emitted dose and lung deposition of inhaled terbutaline from Turbuhaler at different conditions.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahim, Mohamed E

    2010-05-01

    Turbuhaler has a very high resistance hence patient inhalation flow when using it would be low. The total emitted dose (TED) of 500microg terbutaline sulphate from a Bricanyl Turbuhaler was determined using a range of inhalation flows (10-60L min(-1)) with inhalation volume of 2 and 4L using a DPI sampling apparatus after one and two inhalations. The relative lung and systemic bioavailability of terbutaline from Bricanyl Turbuhaler when used by healthy subjects and COPD patients were determined after one and two inhalations at slow and fast inhalation flows using a novel urinary terbutaline pharmacokinetic method. The TED resulted from the one and two inhalations increased significantly (p<0.05) with the increase of the inhalation flow at both 2 and 4L inhalation volumes. The relative lung and systemic bioavailability after one inhalation at fast inhalation flow were significantly higher (p<0.01) than at slow inhalation flow in both healthy subjects and patients. Also the healthy subjects results were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the COPD patients after one inhalation. However after two inhalations there was no significant difference between slow and fast inhalation flow or healthy subjects and COPD patients. Hence it is essential to inhale twice and as deep and hard as possible from each dose of Turbuhaler for patients with low inspiratory flow and limited inhalation volume as they may not receive much benefit from one inhalation. PMID:20004090

  11. IMPROVED STREET SWEEPERS FOR CONTROLLING URBAN INHALABLE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an experimental program to develop design modifications that can be used to improve the ability of municipal street sweepers to remove inhalable dust particles from streets. (Dust emissions from paved roads are a major source of urban inhalable particu...

  12. Laryngeal aspergilloma: a complication of inhaled fluticasone therapy for asthma

    PubMed Central

    Darley, David; Lowinger, David; Plit, Marshall

    2014-01-01

    Primary laryngeal aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients is rare. We describe a case of a 59-year-old woman with laryngeal aspergillosis thought to be secondary to long-term inhaled fluticasone therapy. Laryngeal aspergillosis may be an underrecognized complication of inhaled corticosteroid therapy. PMID:25530858

  13. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and the lower point of the upper diamond must be 14 mm...

  14. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and the lower point of the upper diamond must be 14 mm...

  15. IS INHALED ARSENIC CARCINOGENIC FOR SITES OTHER THAN THE LUNG?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The carcinogenic risk from inhaled arsenic for sites other an the lung is discussed. Data from persons ingesting arsenic as well as from persons inhaling arsenic are considered in arriving at the conclusions. n the past, lung cancer has generally been assumed to be the only cance...

  16. Inhalant Abuse: Your Child at Risk! Asian Language Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    This brochure is aimed at helping Asian American and Pacific Islander adults communicate with young people about the consequences of inhalant abuse. The booklet addresses the issue of preventing youth substance abuse as part of balancing traditional values with American culture. Also explained are symptoms of inhalant use, common names and, most…

  17. Personal exposure to inhalable cement dust among construction workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Susan; Thomassen, Yngvar; Fechter-Rink, Edeltraud; Kromhout, Hans

    2009-02-01

    A case study was carried out in 2006-2007 to assess the actual cement dust exposure among construction workers involved in a full-scale construction project and as a comparison among workers involved in various stages of cement and concrete production. Full-shift personal exposure measurements were performed for several job types. Inhalable dust and cement dust (based on analysis of elemental calcium) concentrations were determined. Inhalable dust exposures at the construction site ranged from 0.05 to 34 mg/m3, with a mean concentration of 1.0 mg/m3. For inhalable cement dust mean exposure was 0.3 mg/m3 (range 0.02-17 mg/m3). Reinforcement and pouring workers had the lowest average concentrations. Inhalable dust levels in the ready-mix and pre-cast concrete plants were, on average, below 0.5 mg/m3 for inhalable dust and below 0.2 mg/m3 for inhalable cement dust. Highest dust concentrations were measured in cement production, particularly during cleaning tasks (inhalable dust GM=55 mg/m3; inhalable cement dust GM=33 mg/m3) at which point the workers wore personal protective equipment. Elemental measurements showed highest but very variable cement percentages in the cement plant and very low percentages of cement during reinforcement work and pouring.

  18. Inhalant use among antisocial youth: prevalence and correlates.

    PubMed

    Howard, M O; Jenson, J M

    1999-01-01

    The current (2.9%), annual (19.6%), and lifetime (34.3%) prevalence of inhalant use among 475 youth (M age = 15.5; SD = 1.5; 87.4% male) on probation in a western state of the United States was assessed. Inhalant users reported significantly less family support and cohesiveness and lower self-esteem, and significantly more lifetime thoughts of suicide and suicide attempts, neighborhood gang activity, peer and parental substance abuse, intentions to engage in illegal behavior, substance-related criminality, and substance abuse than did nonusers. Ethnicity, self-esteem, suicidality, number of substance-using peers, and extent of substance-related criminality significantly discriminated inhalant users from nonusers in a logistic regression analysis. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that age, perceived school ability, age at initiation of alcohol use, self-esteem, and substance-related criminality significantly predicted age at onset of inhalant use (R2 = .30). Age at initiation of inhalant use, gang membership, truancy, and substance-related criminality significantly predicted lifetime frequency of inhalant use (R2 = .20). Study findings indicate that inhalant-using delinquents evidence significantly greater antisocial attitudes, personal and familial dysfunction, and substance abuse, than do their non-inhalant-using counterparts. PMID:10189973

  19. Inhalant Abuse and Dependence among Adolescents in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Schlenger, William E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the patterns of inhalant use and correlates of the progression from inhalant use to abuse and dependence among adolescents aged 12 to 17. Method: Study data were drawn from the 2000 and 2001 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse. Multinominal logistic regression was used to identify the characteristics associated with…

  20. 49 CFR 179.102-3 - Materials poisonous by inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102-3 Materials poisonous by inhalation. (a) Each tank car built after March 16, 2009 for the transportation of a material poisonous by inhalation must, in addition to the requirements prescribed in §...

  1. 49 CFR 179.102-3 - Materials poisonous by inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102-3 Materials poisonous by inhalation. (a) Each tank car built after March 16, 2009 for the transportation of a material poisonous by inhalation must, in addition to the requirements prescribed in §...

  2. 49 CFR 179.102-3 - Materials poisonous by inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102-3 Materials poisonous by inhalation. (a) Each tank car built after March 16, 2009 for the transportation of a material poisonous by inhalation must, in addition to the requirements prescribed in §...

  3. The Deliberate Inhalation of Volatile Substances. Series 30, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamage, James R.; Zerkin, E. Lief

    This report, prepared by the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information, presents information on the deliberate inhalation of volatile substances--the treatment modalities, the pharmacology and chemistry of this drug abuse, and the opinions and practices of recognized authorities in the field. Substances which are currently being inhaled to…

  4. Epidemiology of Inhalant Abuse: An Update. NIDA Research Monograph 85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crider, Raquel A., Ed.; Rouse, Beatrice A., Ed.

    This publication consists of papers and discussion from a comprehensive RAUS (Research Analysis and Utilization System) review focusing on factors relating to a multi-year increase in inhalant abuse among high school seniors. The document contains the following articles: (1) "Inhalant Overview" (Raquel A. Crider and Beatrice A. Rouse); (2)…

  5. INHALATION TERATOLOGY STUDIES OF CAPTAN AND FOLPET IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Timed pregnant CD-1 mice were exposed to captan or folpet by the intragastric, subcutaneous or inhalation route. A dose of 100 mg/kg/day of captan or folpet was administered subcutaneously or intragastrically from day 6-15 of gestation. The dose levels for the inhalation route we...

  6. SPECIES COMPARISON OF ACUTE INHALATION TOXICITY OF OZONE AND PHOSGENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparison of the concentration-response effects of inhaled ozone (O3) in different species of laboratory animals was made in order to better understand the influence of the choice of species in inhalation studies of this gas. The effect of 4 hour exposure to ozone (O3) at conc...

  7. Characterization of a new inhalable thymopentin formulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yu; Tang, Xing

    2009-06-22

    The present work describes a new dry powder containing thymopentin (TP5) suitable for inhalation. A total of 21 dry powders were produced by co-spray drying TP5 with lactose or mannitol as a bulking agent, leucine as a dispersibility enhancer and poloxamer 188 as a drug stabilizer. Analyses by scanning electron microscopy, laser diffractometry, thermogravimetry, Twin Stage Impactor and HPLC were performed to characterize the manufactured powders. The results revealed that formulation compositions greatly influenced the physical characteristics of the powders, such as the angle of repose, tapped density, particle size and aerodynamic diameter which, in turn, affected their aerodynamic behavior. A higher loading of leucine in the formulations (>63% by dry weight) improved the aerosolization properties of the powders by producing aerodynamically lighter particles. The optimum formulation, which had a tapped density of 0.31 g/cm(3), an aerodynamic diameter of 1.9 microm and an in vitro deposition of 45%, was obtained by combining TP5/mannitol/leucine in the ratio of 10/18/72. In addition, it was interesting to find that poloxamer 188 had a significant impact on improving the powder flowability rather than stabilizing TP5. In conclusion, the chosen composition promises an enhanced aerosol performance for the new TP5 inhalation formulation, suitable for deep lung deposition. PMID:19443146

  8. Formulation Design of Dry Powders for Inhalation.

    PubMed

    Weers, Jeffry G; Miller, Danforth P

    2015-10-01

    Drugs for inhalation are no longer exclusively highly crystalline small molecules. They may also be amorphous small molecules, peptides, antibodies, and myriad types of engineered proteins. The evolution of respiratory therapeutics has created a need for flexible formulation technologies to engineer respirable particles. These technologies have enabled medicinal chemists to focus on molecular design without concern regarding compatibility of physicochemical properties with traditional, blend-based technologies. Therapeutics with diverse physicochemical properties can now be formulated as stable and respirable dry powders. Particle engineering technologies have also driven the deployment of new excipients, giving formulators greater control over particle and powder properties. This plays a key role in enabling efficient delivery of drugs to the lungs. Engineered powder and device combinations enable aerosols that largely bypass the mouth and throat, minimizing the inherent variability among patients that arises from differences in oropharyngeal and airway anatomies and in breathing profiles. This review explores how advances among molecules, particles, and powders have transformed inhaled drug product development. Ultimately, this scientific progress will benefit patients, enabling new classes of therapeutics to be formulated as dry powder aerosols with improved efficacy, reduced variability and side effects, and improved patient adherence. PMID:26296055

  9. Technosphere insulin: an inhaled prandial insulin product.

    PubMed

    Neumiller, Joshua J; Campbell, R Keith

    2010-06-01

    Given the important role of insulin in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and in light of common barriers to insulin use, new strategies for insulin delivery by routes other than intravenous and subcutaneous injection have been investigated since the discovery of insulin in the 1920s. Most companies researching and developing pulmonary administration systems for the use of insulin announced the termination of product development following the failure of the first US FDA-approved inhaled insulin product, Exubera. One company in particular continued their pursuit of a useful inhaled insulin product. MannKind Corporation has developed a powder formulation of insulin that allows for a high percentage of the administered insulin to be absorbed via the lung. Their product, AFREZZA (Technosphere insulin), is currently under review by the FDA for use in patients with diabetes. Technosphere insulin appears to overcome some of the barriers that contributed to the market withdrawal of Exubera by the manufacturer. Studies with Technosphere insulin have shown it to be a unique insulin formulation in that it is very rapid acting, has a relatively short duration of action, and is efficacious in terms of improved glycemic control without contributing to increased weight gain or the incidence of hypoglycemia when compared with other prandial insulin products. Additionally, Technosphere insulin has demonstrated a favorable safety and tolerability profile in clinical studies to date. PMID:20462282

  10. Effect of inhaled steroids on laryngeal microflora.

    PubMed

    Turan, Mahfuz; Ekin, Selami; Ucler, Rıfkı; Arısoy, Ahmet; Bayram, Yasemin; Yalınkılıç, Abdulaziz; Bozan, Nazım; Garca, Mehmet Fatih; Çankaya, Hakan

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions As is known, this study is the first study to evaluate the effect of inhaled steroids on laryngeal microflora. The data support that ICS usage causes changes in the larynx microflora. Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the alteration in larynx microbial flora of the patients treated with ICS comparing the culture results of a control group. In addition, laryngeal microflora was compared to the smears obtained from the vallecula and pharynx. Materials and methods The study included 39 patients (mean age = 45.56 ± 12.76 years) who had been using a corticosteroid inhaler and control group consisting of 27 persons (mean age = 43.07 ± 13.23 years). Culture samples were obtained from the pharynx, larynx, and vallecula in the patient and control groups, and they were evaluated in the microbiology laboratory. Obtained culture results were named by the same microbiologist according to the basic microorganism classification method. Results Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Streptococcus viridians (VGS) and candida albicans were detected to grow significantly more in the patient group in all three anatomic localizations compared to the control group. Neisseria spp, basillus spp, and Non-viridans alpha-hemolytic streptococcus were detected to grow significantly more in the control group in all three anatomic localizations compared to the patient group. PMID:26901427

  11. Lethal methemoglobinemia and automobile exhaust inhalation.

    PubMed

    Vevelstad, Merete; Morild, Inge

    2009-05-30

    Inhalation of automobile exhaust gas often leads to death by CO intoxication. In some cases the measured carbon monoxide hemoglobin saturation level (COHb) is considerably below what is considered to be lethal. The death in such cases has been attributed to a combination of a high CO2 and a low O2 tension. In a recent case the deceased was found dead in a car equipped with a catalytic converter, with a hose leading exhaust from the engine to the interior of the car. Analysis revealed a moderately elevated COHb and a high methemoglobin saturation level (MetHb) in peripheral blood. No ethanol, narcotics or drugs were detected. Reports mentioning MetHb or methemoglobinemia in post-mortem cases are surprisingly scarce, and very few have related exhaust gas deaths to methemoglobinemia. High-degree methemoglobinemia causes serious tissue hypoxia leading to unconsciousness, arrhythmia and death. The existing literature in this field and the knowledge that exhaust fumes contain nitrogen oxide gases (NOx) that by inhalation and absorption can result in severe methemoglobinemia, led us to postulate that this death could possibly be attributed to a combination of methemoglobinemia and a moderately high COHb concentration. PMID:19261402

  12. Alveolar proteinosis associated with aluminium dust inhalation.

    PubMed

    Chew, R; Nigam, S; Sivakumaran, P

    2016-08-01

    Secondary alveolar proteinosis is a rare lung disease which may be triggered by a variety of inhaled particles. The diagnosis is made by detection of anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor antibodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which appears milky white and contains lamellar bodies. Aluminium has been suggested as a possible cause, but there is little evidence in the literature to support this assertion. We report the case of a 46-year-old former boilermaker and boat builder who developed secondary alveolar proteinosis following sustained heavy aluminium exposure. The presence of aluminium was confirmed both by histological examination and metallurgical analysis of a mediastinal lymph node. Despite cessation of exposure to aluminium and treatment with whole-lung lavage which normally results in improvements in both symptoms and lung function, the outcome was poor and novel therapies are now being used for this patient. It may be that the natural history in aluminium-related alveolar proteinosis is different, with the metal playing a mediating role in the disease process. Our case further supports the link between aluminium and secondary alveolar proteinosis and highlights the need for measures to prevent excessive aluminium inhalation in relevant industries. PMID:27099254

  13. Inhaled Anesthetic Potency in Aged Alzheimer Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Shannon L.; Caltagarone, Breanna M.; LaFerla, Frank M.; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.; Kelz, Max B.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The number of elderly patients with frank or incipient Alzheimer’s disease (AD) requiring surgery is growing as the population ages. General anesthesia may exacerbate symptoms of and the pathology underlying AD, so minimizing anesthetic exposure may be important. This requires knowledge of whether the continuing AD pathogenesis alters anesthetic potency. METHODS We determined the induction potency and emergence time for isoflurane, halothane, and sevoflurane using the minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration for loss of righting reflex as an end point in 12- to 14-mo-old triple transgenic Alzheimer (3xTgAD) mice and wild type C57BL6 controls. 3xTgAD mice model AD by harboring three distinct mutations: the APPSwe, Tau, and PS1 human transgenes, each of which has been associated with familial forms of human AD. RESULTS The 3xTgAD mice exhibited mild resistance (from 8% to 30%) to volatile anesthetics but displayed indistinguishable emergence patterns from all three inhaled anesthetics. CONCLUSIONS These results show that the genetic vulnerabilities and neuropathology associated with AD produce a small but significant decrease in sensitivity to the hypnotic actions of three inhaled anesthetics. Emergence times were not altered. PMID:19820240

  14. Whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposures.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jinghai; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Frazer, Dave; Castranova, Vince; McBride, Carroll; Knuckles, Travis L; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Minarchick, Valerie C; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation is the most likely exposure route for individuals working with aerosolizable engineered nano-materials (ENM). To properly perform nanoparticle inhalation toxicology studies, the aerosols in a chamber housing the experimental animals must have: 1) a steady concentration maintained at a desired level for the entire exposure period; 2) a homogenous composition free of contaminants; and 3) a stable size distribution with a geometric mean diameter < 200 nm and a geometric standard deviation σg < 2.5 (5). The generation of aerosols containing nanoparticles is quite challenging because nanoparticles easily agglomerate. This is largely due to very strong inter-particle forces and the formation of large fractal structures in tens or hundreds of microns in size (6), which are difficult to be broken up. Several common aerosol generators, including nebulizers, fluidized beds, Venturi aspirators and the Wright dust feed, were tested; however, none were able to produce nanoparticle aerosols which satisfy all criteria (5). A whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposure system was fabricated, validated and utilized for nano-TiO2 inhalation toxicology studies. Critical components: 1) novel nano-TiO2 aerosol generator; 2) 0.5 m(3) whole-body inhalation exposure chamber; and 3) monitor and control system. Nano-TiO2 aerosols generated from bulk dry nano-TiO2 powders (primary diameter of 21 nm, bulk density of 3.8 g/cm(3)) were delivered into the exposure chamber at a flow rate of 90 LPM (10.8 air changes/hr). Particle size distribution and mass concentration profiles were measured continuously with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and an electric low pressure impactor (ELPI). The aerosol mass concentration (C) was verified gravimetrically (mg/m(3)). The mass (M) of the collected particles was determined as M = (Mpost-Mpre), where Mpre and Mpost are masses of the filter before and after sampling (mg). The mass concentration was calculated as C = M

  15. Whole-Body Nanoparticle Aerosol Inhalation Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Jinghai; Chen, Bean T.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Frazer, Dave; Castranova, Vince; McBride, Carroll; Knuckles, Travis L.; Stapleton, Phoebe A.; Minarchick, Valerie C.; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation is the most likely exposure route for individuals working with aerosolizable engineered nano-materials (ENM). To properly perform nanoparticle inhalation toxicology studies, the aerosols in a chamber housing the experimental animals must have: 1) a steady concentration maintained at a desired level for the entire exposure period; 2) a homogenous composition free of contaminants; and 3) a stable size distribution with a geometric mean diameter < 200 nm and a geometric standard deviation σg < 2.5 5. The generation of aerosols containing nanoparticles is quite challenging because nanoparticles easily agglomerate. This is largely due to very strong inter-particle forces and the formation of large fractal structures in tens or hundreds of microns in size 6, which are difficult to be broken up. Several common aerosol generators, including nebulizers, fluidized beds, Venturi aspirators and the Wright dust feed, were tested; however, none were able to produce nanoparticle aerosols which satisfy all criteria 5. A whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposure system was fabricated, validated and utilized for nano-TiO2 inhalation toxicology studies. Critical components: 1) novel nano-TiO2 aerosol generator; 2) 0.5 m3 whole-body inhalation exposure chamber; and 3) monitor and control system. Nano-TiO2 aerosols generated from bulk dry nano-TiO2 powders (primary diameter of 21 nm, bulk density of 3.8 g/cm3) were delivered into the exposure chamber at a flow rate of 90 LPM (10.8 air changes/hr). Particle size distribution and mass concentration profiles were measured continuously with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and an electric low pressure impactor (ELPI). The aerosol mass concentration (C) was verified gravimetrically (mg/m3). The mass (M) of the collected particles was determined as M = (Mpost-Mpre), where Mpreand Mpost are masses of the filter before and after sampling (mg). The mass concentration was calculated as C = M/(Q*t), where Q is

  16. Étude comparative des techniques d'analyse par fluorescence X à dispersion d'énergie (ED-XRF) et à dispersion de longueur d'onde (WD-XRF), et par spectrométrie d'émission atomique à source plasma couplée par induction (ICP-AES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, A.; Benyaïch, F.; Bounakhla, M.; Bilal, E.; Moutte, J.; Gruffat, J. J.; Zahry, F.

    2004-11-01

    Dans ce travail, nous présentons une étude comparative des techniques d'analyse par fluorescence X à dispersion d'énergie (ED-XRF) et à dispersion de longueur d'onde (WD-XRF), et par spectrométrie d'émission atomique à source plasma couplée par induction (ICP-AES). Les résultats de la calibration des spectromètres à dispersion d'énergie, à excitation par sources radioactives (55Fe, 109Cd et 241Am) et à excitation secondaire (cible secondaire Mo et Cu) du Centre National pour l'Energie, les Sciences et les Techniques Nucléaires (CNESTEN, Rabat, Maroc) sur des échantillons étalons de références de l'Agence International de l'Energie Atomique (AIEA) et du Community Bureau of Référence (BCR) ont été comparés aux résultats d'analyse des mêmes échantillons étalons par la spectrométrie X à dispersion de longueur d'onde (WD-XRF) et par spectrométrie d'émission atomique à source plasma couplé par induction (ICP-AES) au département GENERIC du centre SPIN à l'Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne (France). Les trois techniques d'analyse utilisées donnent des résultats comparables pour le dosage des éléments majeurs, alors que pour les traces on note des déviations importantes à cause des effets de matrice qui sont difficiles à corriger dans le cas de la fluorescence X.

  17. Disposition and safety of inhaled biodegradable nanomedicines: Opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Haque, Shadabul; Whittaker, Michael R; McIntosh, Michelle P; Pouton, Colin W; Kaminskas, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    The inhaled delivery of nanomedicines can provide a novel, non-invasive therapeutic strategy for the more localised treatment of lung-resident diseases and potentially also enable the systemic delivery of therapeutics that are otherwise administered via injection alone. However, the clinical translation of inhalable nanomedicine is being hampered by our lack of understanding about their disposition and clearance from the lungs. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the biodegradable nanomaterials that are currently being explored as inhalable drug delivery systems and our current understanding of their disposition within, and clearance from the lungs. The safety of biodegradable nanomaterials in the lungs is discussed and latest updates are provided on the impact of inflammation on the pulmonary pharmacokinetics of inhaled nanomaterials. Overall, the review provides an in-depth and critical assessment of the lung clearance mechanisms for inhaled biodegradable nanomedicines and highlights the opportunities and challenges for their translation into the clinic. PMID:27033834

  18. Inhaled carbon nanotubes reach the subpleural tissue in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryman-Rasmussen, Jessica P.; Cesta, Mark F.; Brody, Arnold R.; Shipley-Phillips, Jeanette K.; Everitt, Jeffrey I.; Tewksbury, Earl W.; Moss, Owen R.; Wong, Brian A.; Dodd, Darol E.; Andersen, Melvin E.; Bonner, James C.

    2009-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes are shaped like fibres and can stimulate inflammation at the surface of the peritoneum when injected into the abdominal cavity of mice, raising concerns that inhaled nanotubes may cause pleural fibrosis and/or mesothelioma. Here, we show that multiwalled carbon nanotubes reach the subpleura in mice after a single inhalation exposure of 30 mg m-3 for 6 h. Nanotubes were embedded in the subpleural wall and within subpleural macrophages. Mononuclear cell aggregates on the pleural surface increased in number and size after 1 day and nanotube-containing macrophages were observed within these foci. Subpleural fibrosis unique to this form of nanotubes increased after 2 and 6 weeks following inhalation. None of these effects was seen in mice that inhaled carbon black nanoparticles or a lower dose of nanotubes (1 mg m-3). This work suggests that minimizing inhalation of nanotubes during handling is prudent until further long-term assessments are conducted.

  19. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation.

    PubMed

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Jakimowicz, Dagmara

    2016-04-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800

  20. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation

    PubMed Central

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces. To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800

  1. Inhalant Use Among Schoolchildren in Northeast India: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Akoijam, Brogen Singh; Jamir, M. Nukshisangla; Phesao, Ebenezer; Senjam, Gojendra Singh

    2013-01-01

    Inhalant use by children leads to poor performance in school and has been observed to precede substance use later in life. There is paucity of data on inhalant use among school children in India, particularly in the Northeast region of the country. We determined the prevalence and documented inhalant use characteristics among schoolchildren in the Northeast region of India. This cross sectional study was conducted in six states in the Northeast region of India. Schoolchildren between eighth and eleventh standards from the capital areas of the states were included in the study. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test. Of the 4074 enrolled students, data from 3943 students who responded to the inhalant use question were analyzed. Mean age was 14.8 ± 1.2 years and 51.2% of participants were male. The proportion of students who had ever used inhalants (ever user) was 18.8% and adhesive/glue was the inhalant misused by most of the students. A higher proportion of males than females were ever users (P ≤ 0.001) and the most common place of use was at home (33.1%). Being in the presence of an older person using an inhalant or tobacco was found to be associated with use of inhalants among students. Nearly one-fifth of the students had used inhalants and nearly half used inhalants in the past month. Sensitization of the parents and school authorities to the problem, as well as preventive and curative services, should be considered. PMID:24250225

  2. Personal exposure to inhalable cement dust among construction workers.

    PubMed

    Peters, Susan; Thomassen, Yngvar; Fechter-Rink, Edeltraud; Kromhout, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Objective- A case study was carried out to assess cement dust exposure and its determinants among construction workers and for comparison among workers in cement and concrete production.Methods- Full-shift personal exposure measurements were performed and samples were analysed for inhalable dust and its cement content. Exposure variability was modelled with linear mixed models.Results- Inhalable dust concentrations at the construction site ranged from 0.05 to 34 mg/m(3), with a mean of 1.0 mg/m(3). Average concentration for inhalable cement dust was 0.3 mg/m(3) (GM; range 0.02-17 mg/m(3)). Levels in the ready-mix and pre-cast concrete plants were on average 0.5 mg/m(3) (GM) for inhalable dust and 0.2 mg/m(3) (GM) for inhalable cement dust. Highest concentrations were measured in cement production, particularly during cleaning tasks (inhalable dust GM = 55 mg/m(3); inhalable cement dust GM = 33 mg/m(3)) at which point the workers wore personal protective equipment. Elemental measurements showed highest but very variable cement percentages in the cement plant and very low percentages during reinforcement work and pouring. Most likely other sources were contributing to dust concentrations, particularly at the construction site. Within job groups, temporal variability in exposure concentrations generally outweighed differences in average concentrations between workers. 'Using a broom', 'outdoor wind speed' and 'presence of rain' were overall the most influential factors affecting inhalable (cement) dust exposure.Conclusion- Job type appeared to be the main predictor of exposure to inhalable (cement) dust at the construction site. Inhalable dust concentrations in cement production plants, especially during cleaning tasks, are usually considerably higher than at the construction site. PMID:19137154

  3. Insulin inhalation--Pfizer/Nektar Therapeutics: HMR 4006, inhaled PEG-insulin--Nektar, PEGylated insulin--Nektar.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    Nektar Therapeutics (formerly Inhale Therapeutic Systems) has developed a pulmonary drug delivery system for insulin [HMR 4006, Exubera]. The rationale behind developing a pulmonary drug delivery system is to ensure that insulin powder is delivered deep into the lungs, where it is easily absorbed into the bloodstream, in a hand-held inhalation device. The device converts the insulin powder particles into an aerosol cloud for the patient to inhale. No propellants are used. The inhaler requires no power source and the clear chamber ensures that the patient knows immediately when all the insulin has been inhaled. Nektar Therapeutics, developers of the inhalation device and formulation process, has licensed the system to Pfizer. Under the terms of the agreement, Pfizer will lead the clinical development of inhaled insulin, while working with Nektar Therapeutics to develop the technology required for packaging the product. Pfizer has an agreement with Hoechst Marion Roussel (now Aventis Pharma) for developing, manufacturing and promoting inhaled insulin. Under the terms of the collaboration, Aventis Pharma will supply recombinant insulin to Nektar Therapeutics to process it into dry powder for incorporation into the inhaler device. Nektar Therapeutics will receive royalties on sales of inhaled insulin marketed by Pfizer and Aventis Pharma, and milestone payments and research support from Pfizer. Aventis Pharma's codename for the product is HMR 4006.Profil, a CRO in Germany, is cooperating with Pfizer/Aventis Pharma in the development of inhaled insulin. In March 2004, Pfizer and Aventis announced that the European Medicines Evaluation Agency (EMEA) accepted the filing of the MAA for inhaled insulin (Exubera) for the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The two companies are working with the US FDA to determine the timing for the submission of the NDA in the US. Pfizer completed five pivotal phase III clinical trials with inhaled insulin in patients with

  4. Par-4: A New Activator of Myosin Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Vetterkind, Susanne; Lee, Eunhee; Sundberg, Eric; Poythress, Ransom H.; Tao, Terence C.; Preuss, Ute

    2010-01-01

    Myosin phosphatase (MP) is a key regulator of myosin light chain (LC20) phosphorylation, a process essential for motility, apoptosis, and smooth muscle contractility. Although MP inhibition is well studied, little is known about MP activation. We have recently demonstrated that prostate apoptosis response (Par)-4 modulates vascular smooth muscle contractility. Here, we test the hypothesis that Par-4 regulates MP activity directly. We show, by proximity ligation assays, surface plasmon resonance and coimmunoprecipitation, that Par-4 interacts with the targeting subunit of MP, MYPT1. Binding is mediated by the leucine zippers of MYPT1 and Par-4 and reduced by Par-4 phosphorylation. Overexpression of Par-4 leads to increased phosphatase activity of immunoprecipitated MP, whereas small interfering RNA knockdown of endogenous Par-4 significantly decreases MP activity and increases MYPT1 phosphorylation. LC20 phosphorylation assays demonstrate that overexpression of Par-4 reduces LC20 phosphorylation. In contrast, a phosphorylation site mutant, but not wild-type Par-4, interferes with zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK)-mediated MP inhibition. We conclude from our results Par-4 operates through a “padlock” model in which binding of Par-4 to MYPT1 activates MP by blocking access to the inhibitory phosphorylation sites, and inhibitory phosphorylation of MYPT1 by ZIPK requires “unlocking” of Par-4 by phosphorylation and displacement of Par-4 from the MP complex. PMID:20130087

  5. suPAR and Team Nephrology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) accounts for nearly 10 % of patients who require renal replacement therapy. Elevated circulating levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) have been identified as a biomarker to discriminate primary FSGS from other glomerulopathies. Subsequent reports have questioned the diagnostic utility of this test. In a study in BMC Medicine, Huang et al. demonstrate that urinary soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) excretion assists in distinguishing primary FSGS from other glomerular diseases, and that high plasma suPAR concentrations are not directly linked to a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This observation suggests that further investigation of suPAR is warranted in patients with FSGS. It should be interpreted in light of a recent report that B7-1 is expressed in the podocytes of a subset of patients with FSGS, and that blocking this molecule may represent the first successful targeted intervention for this disease. These advances highlight the rapid pace of scientific progress in the field of nephrology. Nephrologists should work together, share resources, and expedite the design of protocols to evaluate these novel biomarkers in a comprehensive and scientifically valid manner. Please see related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/81. PMID:24885021

  6. suPAR and Team Nephrology.

    PubMed

    Trachtman, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) accounts for nearly 10 % of patients who require renal replacement therapy. Elevated circulating levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) have been identified as a biomarker to discriminate primary FSGS from other glomerulopathies. Subsequent reports have questioned the diagnostic utility of this test. In a study in BMC Medicine, Huang et al. demonstrate that urinary soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) excretion assists in distinguishing primary FSGS from other glomerular diseases, and that high plasma suPAR concentrations are not directly linked to a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This observation suggests that further investigation of suPAR is warranted in patients with FSGS. It should be interpreted in light of a recent report that B7-1 is expressed in the podocytes of a subset of patients with FSGS, and that blocking this molecule may represent the first successful targeted intervention for this disease. These advances highlight the rapid pace of scientific progress in the field of nephrology. Nephrologists should work together, share resources, and expedite the design of protocols to evaluate these novel biomarkers in a comprehensive and scientifically valid manner. PMID:24885021

  7. Deposition, retention, and clearance of inhaled particles.

    PubMed Central

    Lippmann, M; Yeates, D B; Albert, R E

    1980-01-01

    The relation between the concentrations and characteristics of air contaminants in the work place and the resultant toxic doses and potential hazards after their inhalation depends greatly on their patterns of deposition and the rates and pathways for their clearance from the deposition sites. The distribution of the deposition sites of inhaled particles is strongly dependent on their aerodynamic diameters. For normal man, inhaled non-hygroscopic particles greater than or equal to 2 micrometers that deposit in the conducting airways by impaction are concentrated on to a small fraction of the surface. Cigarette smoking and bronchitis produce a proximal shift in the deposition pattern. The major factor affecting the deposition of smaller particles is their transfer from tidal to reserve air. For particles soluble in respiratory tract fluid, systemic uptake may be relatively complete for all deposition patterns, and there may be local toxic or irritant effects or both. On the other hand, slowly soluble particles depositing in the conducting airways are carried on the surface to the glottis and are swallowed within one day. Mucociliary transport rates are highly variable, both along the ciliated airways of a given individual and between individuals. The changes in clearance rates produced by drugs, cigarette smoke, and other environmental pollutants can greatly increase or decrease these rates. Particles deposited in non-ciliated airways have large surface-to-volume ratios, and clearance by dissolution can occur for materials generally considered insoluble. They may also be cleared as free particles either by passive transport along surface liquids or, after phagocytosis, by transport within alveolar macrophages. If the particles penetrate the epithelium, either bare or within macrophages, they may be sequestered within cells or enter the lymphatic circulation and be carried to pleural, hilar, and more distant lymph nodes. Non-toxic insoluble particles are cleared from

  8. Les Brulures Electriques par Haut Voltage - A Propos de 10 Cas

    PubMed Central

    Belmir, R.; Fejjal, N.; El Omari, M.; El Mazouz, S.; Gharib, N.; Abassi, A.; Belmahi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Les accidents électriques par haute tension (AEHT) provoquent des brûlures profondes par effet Joule le long des axes vasculo-nerveux entre les points d'entrée et de sortie, qui sont le siège de lésions délabrantes. Les Auteurs rapportent une série de dix cas d'AEHT admis au service de chirurgie réparatrice et de brûlés de l'Hôpital Ibn Sina de Rabat à travers laquelle ils étudient les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, cliniques et thérapeutiques. Tous les patients étaient des adultes de sexe masculin dont l'âge moyen était de 31 ans. Dans 70% des cas, ces brûlures étaient secondaires à un contact avec les distributeurs d'électricité avec une surface brûlée inférieure à 20%. Le traitement des lésions électrothermiques a nécessité des interventions itératives avec amputation des segments de membres nécrosés dans 70% des cas, dont les suites étaient marquées par des séquelles fonctionnelles invalidantes. La prévention des AEHT, en particulier pour les accidents du travail au sein des professions exposées, reste fondamentale. PMID:21991124

  9. Au20: A Tetrahedral Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jun; Li, Xi; Zhai, Hua Jin; Wang, Lai S.

    2003-02-07

    Photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that a 20 atom gold cluster has an extremely large energy gap, which is even greater than that of C60, and an electron affinity comparable with that of C60. This observation suggests that the Au20 cluster must be extremely stable and chemically inert. Using relativistic density functional calculations, we found that Au20 possesses a remarkable tetrahedral structure, which is a fragment of the bulk face-centered cubic lattice of gold with a small structural relaxation. Au20 is thus a true cluster molecule, while at the same time it is exactly part of the bulk, but with very different properties. The tetrahedral Au20 may possess interesting catalytic properties and may be synthesized in bulk quantity or assembled on non-interacting surfaces.

  10. The Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler, a Novel Inhaled Drug Delivery Device.

    PubMed

    Perriello, Emily A; Sobieraj, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Summary The Respimat SMI offers a novel delivery mechanism for the management of primarily COPD, but asthma as well. Presently, four different medications, as monotherapy or a combination of two active ingredients, are available using the Respimat SMI technology. Multiple studies have demonstrated safety and efficacy of these drugs when delivered via Respimat SMI. Patients tend to prefer the Respimat SMI over traditional inhaler devices, as it overcomes some of the disadvantages posed by traditional delivery devices. PMID:27509644

  11. View from east to west of PAR site storage building; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from east to west of PAR site storage building; formerly PAR dispensary - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Storage Building, Across street from Family Housing Units 110 & 111, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  12. View from west to east of PAR site resident engineer's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from west to east of PAR site resident engineer's office building (REOB) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Resident Engineers Office Building, Southeast of intersection of PAR Access Road & Fourth Avenue, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  13. Cost Reduction of Inhaled Tobramycin by Use of Preservative-Free Intravenous Tobramycin Given via Inhalation.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Timothy P; Wasko, Justin; Unger, Nathan R; Abbo, Lilian M; Fernandez, Margaret; Aragon, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates drug cost outcomes related to automatic therapeutic substitution of branded tobramycin solution for inhalation (TOBI(®)) with inhaled generic preservative-free intravenous tobramycin (PFIT). A retrospective single-center evaluation of inhaled tobramycin use from 2008 through 2012 was performed. Number of doses dispensed and acquisition costs were obtained. Hourly wage data was acquired, pharmacy production costs were estimated and total cost-savings calculated. Days of therapy (DOTs) were determined for each year. Quality assurance and safety data was collected. In 2008, TOBI(®) drug costs and doses dispensed were $118,665 and 1769, respectively. Following implementation of the interchange in May 2009, TOBI(®) utilization ceased. PFIT costs in 2010 through 2012 averaged $34,775 annually and TOBI(®) cost-avoidance exceeded $94,000 annually when accounting for pharmacy production costs, which were determined to be at most $5.28 per dose. The maximum estimated pharmacy production cost ranged from $8812 to $11,299 annually. PFIT doses dispensed exceeded 1650 each year and annual DOTs ranged from 815 to 1069. The 40-month savings were calculated to be $374,706. Quality assurance and safety data identified one patient who refused PFIT due to odor complaints and one patient who was inappropriately administered a dose orally. Therapeutic substitution of TOBI(®) with PFIT can produce immediate and sustained savings with an acceptable safety profile. PMID:27025517

  14. Cost Reduction of Inhaled Tobramycin by Use of Preservative-Free Intravenous Tobramycin Given via Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Timothy P.; Wasko, Justin; Unger, Nathan R.; Abbo, Lilian M.; Fernandez, Margaret; Aragon, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates drug cost outcomes related to automatic therapeutic substitution of branded tobramycin solution for inhalation (TOBI®) with inhaled generic preservative-free intravenous tobramycin (PFIT). A retrospective single-center evaluation of inhaled tobramycin use from 2008 through 2012 was performed. Number of doses dispensed and acquisition costs were obtained. Hourly wage data was acquired, pharmacy production costs were estimated and total cost-savings calculated. Days of therapy (DOTs) were determined for each year. Quality assurance and safety data was collected. In 2008, TOBI® drug costs and doses dispensed were $118,665 and 1769, respectively. Following implementation of the interchange in May 2009, TOBI® utilization ceased. PFIT costs in 2010 through 2012 averaged $34,775 annually and TOBI® cost-avoidance exceeded $94,000 annually when accounting for pharmacy production costs, which were determined to be at most $5.28 per dose. The maximum estimated pharmacy production cost ranged from $8812 to $11,299 annually. PFIT doses dispensed exceeded 1650 each year and annual DOTs ranged from 815 to 1069. The 40-month savings were calculated to be $374,706. Quality assurance and safety data identified one patient who refused PFIT due to odor complaints and one patient who was inappropriately administered a dose orally. Therapeutic substitution of TOBI® with PFIT can produce immediate and sustained savings with an acceptable safety profile. PMID:27025517

  15. A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    B Chaudhuri; S Gupta; V Urban; M Chance; R DMello; L Smith; K Lyons; J Gee

    2011-12-31

    Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

  16. A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, Barnali; Gupta, Sayan; Urban, Volker S; Chance, Mark; D'Mello, Rhijuta; Smith, Lauren; Lyons, Kelly; Gee, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

  17. Specific Inhalation Challenge in Persulfate Asthma.

    PubMed

    Hagemeyer, O; Marek, E; van Kampen, V; Sander, I; Raulf, M; Merget, R; Brüning, T

    2015-01-01

    Specific inhalation challenge (SIC) may be considered the 'gold standard' for the diagnosis of occupational asthma due to persulfate salts. The aim of the study was to develop a safe SIC protocol. Between 2003 and 2014, eight patients with suspected occupational asthma due to persulfate salts were examined (7 females, all hair-dressers). SIC was done with a dosimeter and a nebulizer using ammonium persulfate dissolved in phosphate buffer. Until 2009, a four-step-protocol (doses: 0.0004, 0.0045, 0.045, 0.45 mg; cumulative: 0.5 mg) was used, afterwards a six-step-protocol (doses: 0.0004, 0.0018, 0.007, 0.028, 0.113, 0.45 mg; cumulative: 0.6 mg). With each SIC protocol, four subjects were tested. Skin prick tests with ammonium persulfate (20 mg/mL) were performed in all and patch tests in four subjects. In total, four subjects showed a positive SIC, two with each protocol. All subjects showed an isolated late reaction. The greatest decrease of volume in 1 s was 35 % about 3.5 h after the last inhalation (four-step-protocol). Skin prick test with ammonium persulfate was positive in one SIC positive (2 mm wheal) and in two SIC negative patients (3 and 4 mm wheal). All four subjects tested with patch tests showed a positive reaction; three of them were SICpos. We recommend to include patch-testing in the diagnosis of suspected occupational asthma due to persulfate salts. Isolated late asthmatic reactions may occur after SIC. The proposed six-step SIC protocol was safe in this limited number of subjects. PMID:26022895

  18. Synthetic vitreous fibers--inhalation studies.

    PubMed

    McConnell, E E

    1994-12-01

    Synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs), often referred to as "man-made vitreous fibers," are a class of materials that have their major uses for insulation against heat and sound. The original fibers are produced by melting various types of rock, clay, etc. and then blowing or extruding them into fibers of particular properties. During production and use small fractions of airborne fibers can be generated. Because of this a series of state-of-the-art inhalation studies was initiated to study the possible health hazards presented by the four major types of vitreous materials [two types of insulation glass wool, rock wool, slag wool, and four types of refractory ceramic fibers (RCF)] found in the workplace or to which the general public may be exposed. Rats and hamsters (30 mg/m3 kaolin-based RCF only) were exposed by nose-only inhalation to 3, 16, or 30 mg/m3 for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, for 18 (hamsters) or 24 (rats) months and were held for lifetime observation (until approximately 20% survival) to study the chronic toxicity and potential carcinogenic activity of these classes of SVFs. Chrysotile or crocidolite asbestos served as positive controls. All of the fibers stimulated an inflammatory response characterized by an increase in the number of pulmonary macrophages at the level of the terminal bronchioles and proximal alveoli. RCF produced interstitial fibrosis in the walls of the proximal alveoli as early as 3 months and rock wool by 12 months. The only fiber which showed carcinogenic activity was RCF which produced a dose-related increase in both primary lung neoplasms (rats only) and mesotheliomas (rats and hamsters). PMID:7724853

  19. Acute inhalation toxicity of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jae Hyuck; Ji, Jun Ho; Song, Kyung Seuk; Lee, Ji Hyun; Choi, Kyung Hee; Lee, Sang Hee; Yu, Il Je

    2011-03-01

    The acute inhalation toxicity of silver nanoparticles was studied in Sprague-Dawley rats. Seven-week-old rats, weighing approximately 218 g (males) and 153 g (females), were divided into four groups (five rats in each group): fresh-air control, low-dose (0.94 × 10(6) particle/cm(3), 76 µg/m(3)), middle-dose (1.64 × 10(6) particle/ cm(3), 135 µg/m( 3)), and high-dose (3.08 × 10(6) particle/cm(3), 750 µg/m(3)). The animals were then exposed to silver nanoparticles (average diameter 18-20 nm) for 4 hours in a whole-body inhalation chamber. The experiment was conducted following Organization Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guideline 403 with the application of good laboratory practice (GLP). In addition to mortality and clinical observations, the body weights, food consumption, and pulmonary function tests were recorded weekly. At the end of the study, the rats were subjected to a full necropsy, and the organ weights measured. The lung function was also measured twice per week after the initial 4-hour exposure. No significant body weight changes or clinical changes were found during the 2-week observation period. The lung function tests also indicated no significant difference between the fresh air control and the exposed groups. Thus, LC50 silver nanoparticles are suggested for higher than 3.1 × 10(6) particles/cm(3) (750 µg/m(3)). PMID:20870693

  20. Metallic hairpin inhalation: a healthcare problem facing young Muslim females

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To perform an epidemiological assessment of metallic hairpin inhalation in young Muslim females and highlight the need for a health education program in this population. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of females with a history of metallic hairpin inhalation presenting to the Otolaryngology and Cardiothoracic Surgery Departments at Mansoura University Hospitals from January 2000 to October 2006. Results A total of 83 patients were identified with metallic hairpin inhalation, of which 2 were excluded as they were coughed and expelled by the patient. Ages ranged from 7 to 19 years. A history of inhaled foreign body (FB) was found in all cases but the majority of patients were asymptomatic, with only 6 patients (7%) presenting with cough. Chest x-rays confirmed the presence of metallic hairpin inhalation in all cases. The metallic hairpins were present in the trachea in 7 patients (9%), in the left bronchial tree in 43 patients (53%) and in the right bronchial tree in 31 patients (38%). Rigid bronchoscopy was performed in all patients with a retrieval rate of 80%. Repeat bronchoscopy was performed in 16 patients (20%), which was successful in 11 patients (14%). The remaining 5 patients required thoracotomy for removal of the metallic hairpin (6%). Conclusion The significant number of inhaled metallic hairpins in young Muslim females highlights the need for a health education program in this population. Rigid bronchoscopy remains the primary tool for retrieval of these inhaled foreign bodies. However, when repeat broncoscopy is necessitated, a thoracotomy may be required. PMID:25085592

  1. Mise au point d'un reacteur epitaxial CBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Hubert

    Ce projet de maîtrise consiste à l'asservissement et la mise en marche d'un réacteur d'épi-taxie par jets chimiques au Laboratoire d'Épitaxie Avancée de l'Université de Sherbrooke. Le réacteur sert à la croissance dans l'ultravide de matériaux semi-conducteurs tels que l'arséniure de gallium (GaAs) et le phosphure d'indium-gallium (GaInP). La programmation LabVIEW et du matériel informatique de National Instruments sont utilisés pour asservir le réacteur. Le contrôle de la température de l'échantillon et de la pression de contrôle des réactifs de croissance dans le réacteur est assuré par des boucles de rétroaction. Ainsi, la température de l'échantillon est stabilisée à ±0, 4 °C, alors que les pressions de contrôle de gaz peuvent être modulées sur un ordre de grandeur en 2 à 4 secondes, et stabilisées à ±0, 002 Torr. Le système de pompage du réacteur a été amélioré suite à des mesures de vitesse de pompage d'une pompe cryogénique. Ces mesures révèlent une dégradation sur plus d'un ordre de grandeur de son pompage d'hydrogène avec l'opération à long terme. Le remplacement de la pompe cryogénique par une pompe turbo-moléculaire comme pompe principale a permis d'améliorer la fiabilité du système de pompage du système sous vide. D'autre part, la conductance du système d'acheminement de gaz et d'injection a été augmentée afin de réduire un effet mémoire des sources le système et faciliter la croissance de matériaux ternaires. Ainsi, des croissances de GaAs (100) sur substrat de même nature ont été effectuées et ont révélé un matériau de bonne qualité. Sa rugosité moyenne de 0,17 nm, mesurée par microscopie à force atomique, est très faible selon la littérature. De plus, une mobilité élevée des porteurs est obtenue à fort dopage au silicium, au tellure et au carbone, notamment une mobilité de 42 ± 9 cm2V -1s-1 des porteurs majoritaires '(trous) lors du dopage au

  2. Orofacial and digital frostbite caused by inhalant abuse.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Matthew M; Henninger, Camille A

    2014-05-01

    Inhalation of volatile substances is a cheap and accessible way for individuals, most commonly teenagers, to ingest mind-altering substances. The adverse effects of using inhalants, including cardiac dysrhythmia, respiratory tract injury, and asphyxiation, can be devastating. Detection often is difficult, but a high degree of suspicion with patterns of perioral, perinasal, and/or digital lesions can help identify use. We report an uncommon case of severe orofacial and digital frostbite initially mistaken for an allergic reaction in a 20-year-old man following intentional inhalation of a commercial air-dusting agent containing 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a). PMID:24897139

  3. Pulmonary oedema due to inhalation of detergent aerosol.

    PubMed

    Rao, J; Das, P K

    1994-12-01

    Healthy adult male albino rats were subjected to inhalation of increasing doses of detergent (dioctyl sodium sulfo-succinate) aerosol ranging from 100 mg to 500 mg. Administration of 500 mg of detergent aerosol resulted in peribronchial and focal alveolar oedema in 3 out of 5 animals. The lungs of control animals which were subjected to inhalation of vehicle aerosol (ethanol and saline) did not show any abnormality. It is possible that pulmonary oedema observed in detergent aerosol inhalation may be due to the action of detergents on the surfactant system of the lung. PMID:9053567

  4. Trends in Adolescent Inhalant Use: 2002 to 2007. The NSDUH Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Preventing and treating inhalant use problems, as well as raising awareness about the dangers of inhalant use, are important ongoing goals of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Monitoring trends in inhalant use is vital to assessing policies intended to reduce inhalant use. This issue of "The NSDUH Report"…

  5. Age of Inhalant First Time Use and Its Association to the Use of Other Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Kele; Chang, G. Andy; Southerland, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Inhalants are the 4th most commonly abused drugs after alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Although inhalants are often referred as Gateway Drugs this hypothesis is less examined. Using the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data, age of first time inhalant use was compared with the age of onset of other drugs among 6466 inhalant users who…

  6. Inhalant Use, Abuse, and Dependence among Adolescent Patients: Commonly Comorbid Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakai, Joseph T.; Hall, Shannon K.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Crowley, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about adolescents with DSM-IV-defined inhalant abuse and dependence. The aim of this study was to compare comorbidity among (1) adolescents with inhalant use disorders, (2) adolescents who reported using inhalants without inhalant use disorder, and (3) other adolescent patients drawn from an adolescent drug and alcohol…

  7. ViPAR: a software platform for the Virtual Pooling and Analysis of Research Data

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Kim W; Carter, KW; Francis, RW; Bresnahan, M; Gissler, M; Grønborg, TK; Gross, R; Gunnes, N; Hammond, G; Hornig, M; Hultman, CM; Huttunen, J; Langridge, A; Leonard, H; Newman, S; Parner, ET; Petersson, G; Reichenberg, A; Sandin, S; Schendel, DE; Schalkwyk, L; Sourander, A; Steadman, C; Stoltenberg, C; Suominen, A; Surén, P; Susser, E; Sylvester Vethanayagam, A; Yusof, Z

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research studies exploring the determinants of disease require sufficient statistical power to detect meaningful effects. Sample size is often increased through centralized pooling of disparately located datasets, though ethical, privacy and data ownership issues can often hamper this process. Methods that facilitate the sharing of research data that are sympathetic with these issues and which allow flexible and detailed statistical analyses are therefore in critical need. We have created a software platform for the Virtual Pooling and Analysis of Research data (ViPAR), which employs free and open source methods to provide researchers with a web-based platform to analyse datasets housed in disparate locations. Methods: Database federation permits controlled access to remotely located datasets from a central location. The Secure Shell protocol allows data to be securely exchanged between devices over an insecure network. ViPAR combines these free technologies into a solution that facilitates ‘virtual pooling’ where data can be temporarily pooled into computer memory and made available for analysis without the need for permanent central storage. Results: Within the ViPAR infrastructure, remote sites manage their own harmonized research dataset in a database hosted at their site, while a central server hosts the data federation component and a secure analysis portal. When an analysis is initiated, requested data are retrieved from each remote site and virtually pooled at the central site. The data are then analysed by statistical software and, on completion, results of the analysis are returned to the user and the virtually pooled data are removed from memory. Conclusions: ViPAR is a secure, flexible and powerful analysis platform built on open source technology that is currently in use by large international consortia, and is made publicly available at [http://bioinformatics.childhealthresearch.org.au/software/vipar/]. PMID:26452388

  8. Conception et caracterisation d'un magnetoplasma produit par une onde de surface pour la pulverisation d'echantillons solides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masse, Louis Philippe

    puissance. Une etude des caracteristiques du plasma seul a revele que le champ magnetique confine si bien le plasma que le maximum de densite electronique se trouve hors axe, plus exactement a la position radiale correspondant au rayon du cylindre dielectrique servant a former l'interface dielectrique-plasma dans la zone source du reacteur. Ce phenomene indique une tres nette superiorite du coefficient de diffusion axial par rapport au coefficient de diffusion radial. Notre reacteur a un potentiel interessant pour l'analyse elementaire de materiaux solides puisque le taux de pulverisation y est eleve et que les especes pulverisees sont aisement excitees et ionisees par le plasma.

  9. Interfacial nanodroplets guided construction of hierarchical Au, Au-Pt, and Au-Pd particles as excellent catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Aijing; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Xuehua; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Dayang; Xu, Haolan

    2014-01-01

    Interfacial nanodroplets were grafted to the surfaces of self-sacrificed template particles in a galvanic reaction system to assist the construction of 3D Au porous structures. The interfacial nanodroplets were formed via direct adsorption of surfactant-free emulsions onto the particle surfaces. The interfacial nanodroplets discretely distributed at the template particle surfaces and served as soft templates to guide the formation of porous Au structures. The self-variation of footprint sizes of interfacial nanodroplets during Au growth gave rise to a hierarchical pore size distribution of the obtained Au porous particles. This strategy could be easily extended to synthesize bimetal porous particles such as Au-Pt and Au-Pd. The obtained porous Au, Au-Pt, and Au-Pd particles showed excellent catalytic activity in catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol. PMID:24797697

  10. Interfacial nanodroplets guided construction of hierarchical Au, Au-Pt, and Au-Pd particles as excellent catalysts.

    PubMed

    Ma, Aijing; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Xuehua; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Dayang; Xu, Haolan

    2014-01-01

    Interfacial nanodroplets were grafted to the surfaces of self-sacrificed template particles in a galvanic reaction system to assist the construction of 3D Au porous structures. The interfacial nanodroplets were formed via direct adsorption of surfactant-free emulsions onto the particle surfaces. The interfacial nanodroplets discretely distributed at the template particle surfaces and served as soft templates to guide the formation of porous Au structures. The self-variation of footprint sizes of interfacial nanodroplets during Au growth gave rise to a hierarchical pore size distribution of the obtained Au porous particles. This strategy could be easily extended to synthesize bimetal porous particles such as Au-Pt and Au-Pd. The obtained porous Au, Au-Pt, and Au-Pd particles showed excellent catalytic activity in catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol. PMID:24797697

  11. Mesure du taux de la capture radiative du muon par l'hydrogene liquide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonkmans, Guy

    À basse énergie, l'interaction faible entre leptons et quarks est décrite par une interaction de la forme courant × courant de type V - A. La présence de l'interaction forte induit des couplages additionnels qui doivent être déterminés expérimentalement. De ceux-ci, le couplage pseudoscalaire induit, gp , est mesuré avec la plus grande incertitude et fait l'objet de la présente recherche. L'hypothèse du Courant Axial Partiellement Conservé (CAPC) et l'usage de la relation de Goldberger-Treiman relie gp au couplage axial ga . Cette relation a été vérifiée traditionnellement par la Capture Ordinaire du Muon (COM) à une valeur fixe du moment de transfert q. La Capture Radiative du Muon (CRM), m- p-->nnmg , est un meilleur outil pour l'étude de gp à cause de sa dépendance variable en q2 qui offre une plus grande sensibilité dans la partie à haute énergie du spectre des photons. Toutefois, le petit rapport d'embranchement (~10-8) de la CRM par rapport à la désintégration du muon a retardé cette mesure jusqu'à ce jour. La théorie et les difficultés expérimentales associées à la détection des photons de CRM sont présentées au deuxième chapitre. On décrit ensuite, au troisième chapitre, les composantes du système de détection. Ce détecteur est un spectromètre à paires de grand angle solide (~3p) et qui permet l'observation des photons par l'analyse des électrons et des positrons de photo-conversion. Ainsi, le bruit de fond important des neutrons de la COM ne constitue pas un problème pour cette mesure. Nous décrivons, au quatrième chapitre, toutes les étapes de l'analyse, nécessaires pour la réduction des multiples bruits de fond. Le cinquième chapitre présente le calcul des efficacités ainsi que l'estimation des erreurs systématiques. Le sixième chapitre démontre comment l'on extrait le rapport d'embranchement pour la CRM ainsi que la valeur ae gp . On insiste sur la dépendance de gp en fonction de la valeur de

  12. Lens implant surgery in pars planitis.

    PubMed

    Michelson, J B; Friedlaender, M H; Nozik, R A

    1990-08-01

    Intraocular lens (IOL) implantation is usually contraindicated in eyes with active inflammation, but patients with "burned-out" pars planitis also may be considered as candidates. Fifteen of 16 eyes in eight patients underwent extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with posterior chamber IOL (PC IOL) implantation combined with pars plana vitrectomy for both cataracts and chronic cystoid macular edema (CME); 60% achieved visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Even with "low-grade" inflammation in these patients, however, a persistent veil of debris accumulated over the posterior and anterior surface of the IOL. One patient (patient 2) required 27 YAG procedures for two eyes, and another required 11 YAG procedures and eventual removal of the IOL. Another patient required surgical "brushing-off" of the IOL and vitrectomy. Even in eyes with "burned-out" uveitis, a continual low-grade inflammation may complicate the use of IOL implantation. PMID:2402411

  13. Par Pond refill water quality sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column.

  14. Combined DSEK and Transconjunctival Pars Plana Vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Sane, Mona; Shaikh, Naazli

    2016-01-01

    We report here three patients who underwent combined Descemet's stripping with endothelial keratoplasty and transconjunctival pars plana vitrectomy for bullous keratopathy and posterior segment pathology. A surgical technique and case histories are described. Anatomic and visual outcomes of combined Descemet's stripping with endothelial keratoplasty and vitrectomy were excellent. Our experience provides technical guidelines and limitations. The combined minimally invasive techniques allow for rapid anatomical recovery and return of function and visual acuity in a single sitting. PMID:27413563

  15. Difficultes de Prise en Charge des Brulures Electriques par Haut Voltage: a propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Mejjati, H.; Tourabi, K.; Arrob, A.; Moussaoui, A.; Ihrai, H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Les brûlures électriques à haut voltage sont caractérisées par leur potentialité évolutive avec une extension en profondeur et une destruction tissulaire étendue dont les conséquences fonctionnelles sont considérables. La prise en charge de ces brûlures électriques se trouve toujours compliquée par un problème essentiel représenté par la difficulté diagnostique qui sous-évalue régulièrement la profondeur et l’étendue de ces lésions: en effet la nécrose cutanée s’étend progressivement jusqu’au quatrième jour à cause des thromboses vasculaires extensives, et par conséquent le diagnostic d’étendue et de profondeur de ces brûlures est difficile avant le quatrième jour. Nous présentons le cas illustré d’un jeune patient admis dans notre formation pour des brûlures à haut voltage ayant bénéficié d’un traitement chirurgical à la phase aiguë et une réparation secondaire. PMID:21991228

  16. Photochemical Reaction Altered Cardiac Toxicity of Diesel Exhaust Inhalation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Epidemiological studies have indicated an association between urban air pollution exposure and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present study was designed to evaluate the cardiac effects of inhaled diesel exhaust and compared with photochemically altered d...

  17. The use of inhaled corticosteroids in pediatric asthma: update.

    PubMed

    Hossny, Elham; Rosario, Nelson; Lee, Bee Wah; Singh, Meenu; El-Ghoneimy, Dalia; Soh, Jian Yi; Le Souef, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of several formulations of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and delivery devices for treatment of childhood asthma and despite the development of evidence-based guidelines, childhood asthma control remains suboptimal. Improving uptake of asthma management plans, both by families and practitioners, is needed. Adherence to daily ICS therapy is a key determinant of asthma control and this mandates that asthma education follow a repetitive pattern and involve literal explanation and physical demonstration of the optimal use of inhaler devices. The potential adverse effects of ICS need to be weighed against the benefit of these drugs to control persistent asthma especially that its safety profile is markedly better than oral glucocorticoids. This article reviews the key mechanisms of inhaled corticosteroid action; recommendations on dosage and therapeutic regimens; potential optimization of effectiveness by addressing inhaler technique and adherence to therapy; and updated knowledge on the real magnitude of adverse events. PMID:27551328

  18. Inhalation of Simulated Smog Affects Cardiac Function in Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: The health effects of individual criteria air pollutants have been well investigated. Little is known about health effects of inhaled multi-pollutant mixtures that more realistically represent environmental exposures. The present study was designed to evaluate the card...

  19. MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE SELECTIVE DEPOSITION OF INHALED PHARMACEUTICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To accurately assess the potential therapeutic effects of airborne drugs, the deposition sites of inhaled particles must be known. erein, an original theory is presented for physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling and related prophylaxis of airway diseases. he mathematical...

  20. Mexican-American Adolescent Inhalant Abuse: A Proposed Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, A. Gary; Stephens, Richard C.

    1980-01-01

    Drawing from literature on differences between the Mexican American experience and that of other groups, offers a model to explain the higher rates of inhalant abuse among Mexican American youth. Considers cultural, ecological, structural, and economic factors. (Author/GC)

  1. Inhaled medical gases: more to breathe than oxygen.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Michael A

    2011-09-01

    The mixture of oxygen and nitrogen is usually sufficient to achieve the therapeutic objective of supporting adequate gas exchange. Pediatric and neonatal patients have an assortment of physiologic conditions that may require adjunctive inhaled gases to treat the wide variety of diseases seen in this heterogeneous population. Inhaled nitric oxide, helium oxygen mixtures, inhaled anesthetics, hypercarbic mixtures, hypoxic mixtures, inhaled carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide have been used to alter physiology in an attempt to improve patient outcomes. Balancing the therapeutic potential, possible adverse effects, and the complexity of the technical aspects of gas delivery, it is essential that clinicians thoroughly understand the application of medical gas therapy beyond the traditional nitrogen/oxygen mixture. PMID:21944684

  2. Behavorial effects of subchronic inhalation of toluene in adult rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Whereas the acute neurobehavioral effects oftoluene are robust and well characterized, evidence for persistent effects ofrepeated exposure to this industrial solvent is less compelling. The present studies sought to determine whether repeated inhalation oftoluene caused persist...

  3. Inhaled therapy for the management of perioperative pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Thunberg, C. A.; Morozowich, S. T.; Ramakrishna, Harish

    2015-01-01

    Patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) are at high risk for complications in the perioperative setting and often receive vasodilators to control elevated pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). Administration of vasodilators via inhalation is an effective strategy for reducing PAP while avoiding systemic side effects, chiefly hypotension. The prototypical inhaled pulmonary-specific vasodilator, nitric oxide (NO), has a proven track record but is expensive and cumbersome to implement. Alternatives to NO, including prostanoids (such as epoprostenol, iloprost, and treprostinil), NO-donating drugs (sodium nitroprusside, nitroglycerin, and nitrite), and phosphodiesterase inhibitors (milrinone, sildenafil) may be given via inhalation for the purpose of treating elevated PAP. This review will focus on the perioperative therapy of PH using inhaled vasodilators. PMID:26139748

  4. FACTORS AFFECTING THE DEPOSITION OF INHALED POROUS DRUG PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Recent findings indicate that the inhalation of large manufactured porous particles may be particularly effective for drug delivery. In this study, a mathematical model was employed to systematically investigate the effects of particle size, particle density, aerosol ...

  5. Bioavailability of therapeutic proteins by inhalation--worker safety aspects.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Thomas; Dolan, David; Bercu, Joel; Gould, Janet; Wang, Bonnie; Bechter, Rudolf; Barle, Ester Lovsin; Pfannkuch, Friedlieb; Flueckiger, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    A literature review and analysis of inhalation bioavailability data for large therapeutic proteins was conducted in order to develop a practical estimate of the inhalation bioavailability of these drugs. This value is incorporated into equations used to derive occupational exposure limits(OELs) to protect biopharmaceutical manufacturing workers from systemic effects. Descriptive statistics implies that a value of 0.05, or 5% is an accurate estimate for large therapeutic proteins (molecular weight ≥ 40kDa). This estimate is confirmed by pharmacokinetic modeling of data from a human daily repeat-dose inhalation study of immunoglobulin G. In conclusion, we recommend using 5% bioavailability by inhalation when developing OELs for large therapeutic proteins. PMID:24958792

  6. USER'S GUIDE FOR THE AUTOMATED INHALATION EXPOSURE METHODOLOGY (IEM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Inhalation Exposure Methodology(IEM) is a system of computer programs that estimates atmospheric transport of and population exposure to airborne pollutants. This paper discusses the capabilities of IEM and gives detailed instructions for executing the automated, interactive ...

  7. Pathophysiology, management and treatment of smoke inhalation injury

    PubMed Central

    Rehberg, Sebastian; Maybauer, Marc O; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Maybauer, Dirk M; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Traber, Daniel L

    2009-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury continues to increase morbidity and mortality in burn patients in both the third world and industrialized countries. The lack of uniform criteria for the diagnosis and definition of smoke inhalation injury contributes to the fact that, despite extensive research, mortality rates have changed little in recent decades. The formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, as well as the procoagulant and antifibrinolytic imbalance of alveolar homeostasis, all play a central role in the pathogenesis of smoke inhalation injury. Further hallmarks include massive airway obstruction owing to cast formation, bronchospasm, the increase in bronchial circulation and transvascular fluid flux. Therefore, anticoagulants, antioxidants and bronchodilators, especially when administered as an aerosol, represent the most promising treatment strategies. The purpose of this review article is to provide an overview of the pathophysiological changes, management and treatment options of smoke inhalation injury based on the current literature. PMID:20161170

  8. Symmetry energy from elliptic flow in 197Au + 197Au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russotto, P.; Wu, P. Z.; Zoric, M.; Chartier, M.; Leifels, Y.; Lemmon, R. C.; Li, Q.; Łukasik, J.; Pagano, A.; Pawłowski, P.; Trautmann, W.

    2011-03-01

    The elliptic-flow ratio of neutrons with respect to protons or light complex particles in reactions of neutron-rich systems at relativistic energies is proposed as an observable sensitive to the strength of the symmetry term in the equation of state at supra-normal densities. The results obtained from the existing FOPI/LAND data for 197Au + 197Au collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon in comparison with the UrQMD model favor a moderately soft symmetry term with a density dependence of the potential term proportional to (ρ /ρ0) γ with γ = 0.9 ± 0.4.

  9. Flow in Au+Au collisions at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belt Tonjes, Marguerite; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wyslouch, B.

    2004-08-01

    The study of flow can provide information on the initial state dynamics and the degree of equilibration attained in heavy-ion collisions. This contribution presents results for both elliptic and directed flow as determined from data recorded by the PHOBOS experiment in Au+Au runs at RHIC at \\sqrt{s_{{\\rm NN}}} = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. The PHOBOS detector provides a unique coverage in pseudorapidity for measuring flow at RHIC. The systematic dependence of flow on pseudorapidity, transverse momentum, centrality and energy is discussed.

  10. L'asthme allergique au centre tunisien

    PubMed Central

    Joobeur, Samah; Mhamed, Saousen Cheikh; Saad, Ahmed Ben; Mribah, Hathami; Dekhil, Asma; Rouatbi, Naceur; El Kamel, Ali

    2015-01-01

    L'asthme allergique pose un réel problème de santé publique vu sa prévalence et son coût de prise en charge élevés. Etudier le profil clinique, fonctionnel respiratoire, allergologique, thérapeutique et évolutif de l'asthme allergique dans une région du centre tunisien. Etude rétrospective portant sur 1132 dossiers de patients porteurs d'asthme allergique suivis dans le service de pneumologie et d'allergologie à l'hôpital de Monastir (Tunisie). L’âge moyen est de 27 ± 12,5 ans. 61,1% des patients sont âgés entre 16 et 39 ans. Une prédominance féminine est notée (56,7%). L'identification de l'allergène en cause s'est basée essentiellement sur les tests cutanés allergologiques (99,4%). Les principaux pneumallergènes identifiés sont les acariens (91,2%), suivis par les pollens (22,8%) et les phanères des animaux (12%). La classification selon la sévérité a conclu à un asthme intermittent à persistant léger chez 87.1% de nos patients. Le traitement s'est basé essentiellement sur la corticothérapie inhalée (67,6%). L'asthme dans notre étude a été jugé contrôlé dans 68,3% des cas, partiellement contrôlé dans 24,8% et non contrôlé dans 6,9% des cas. L'asthme allergique est une affection répandue qui touche essentiellement le sujet jeune en pleine activité. Une prise en charge adéquate permet de contrôler la maladie et de réduire ses répercussions sur le patient et la collectivité. PMID:26097637

  11. Effects of inhaled acids on respiratory tract defense mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Schlesinger, R B

    1985-01-01

    The respiratory tract is endowed with an interlocking array of nonspecific and specific defense mechanisms which protect it from the effects of inhaled microbes and toxicants, and reduce the risk of absorption of materials into the bloodstream, with subsequent systemic translocation. Ambient acids may compromise these defenses, perhaps providing a link between exposure and development of chronic and acute pulmonary disease. This paper reviews the effects of inhaled acids upon the nonspecific clearance system of the lungs. PMID:3908089

  12. Comparison of absorption after inhalation and instillation of uranium octoxide.

    PubMed

    Pellow, P G D; Hodgson, S A; Hodgson, A; Rance, E; Ellender, M; Guilmette, R A; Stradling, G N

    2003-01-01

    Values for the absorption parameters were compared after inhalation or intratracheal instillation of 1.5 microm mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) 233U3O8 particles into the lungs of HMT strain rats. The two sets of parameter values were similar, as were the calculated dose coefficients and predicted biokinetics for workers. Hence the inhalation and instillation techniques can probably both be used to generate values of the absorption parameters for U3O8. PMID:14526937

  13. [Inhaled nitric oxide: one modality in the treatment of ARDS].

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Esper, R; Ramírez-Hernández, J M; Gargallo-Hernández, J J; Hernández-Vásquez, R; Domínguez-Rodríguez, M I; Alemán-Alarcón, C E; Gallegos-Rodríguez, G

    1999-01-01

    We describe a patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), refractory to treatment with conventional mechanical ventilation. The hemodynamic parameters showed severe pulmonary hypertension with increased intrapulmonary shunt. Inhaled nitric oxide was administered and we observed a diminishing in pulmonary hypertension and intrapulmonary shunt with an important increase of oxygen exchange. We reviewed the literature and make a suggestion concerning use of inhaled nitric oxide in patients with ARDS. PMID:10491897

  14. Optimising inhaled mannitol for cystic fibrosis in an adult population

    PubMed Central

    Flume, Patrick A.; Aitken, Moira L.; Agent, Penny; Charlton, Brett; Forster, Emma; Fox, Howard G.; Hebestreit, Helge; Kolbe, John; Zuckerman, Jonathan B; Button, Brenda M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There has been remarkable progress in the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients over the past 20 years. However, limitations of standard therapies have highlighted the need for a convenient alternative treatment to effectively target the pathophysiologic basis of CF-related disease by improving mucociliary clearance of airway secretions and consequently improve lung function and reduce respiratory exacerbations. Mannitol is an osmotic agent available as a dry powder, dispensed in a convenient disposable inhaler device for the treatment of adult patients with CF. Inhalation of mannitol as a dry powder is thought to change the viscoelastic properties of airway secretions, increase the hydration of the airway surface liquid and contribute to increased mucociliary and cough clearance of retained secretions. In two large phase 3 studies [1, 2], long-term use of inhaled mannitol resulted in a significant and clinically meaningful improvement in lung function relative to control in adult CF subjects and had an acceptable safety profile. Clinical experience with inhaled mannitol confirms that it is safe and effective. A minority of patients are unable to tolerate the medication. However, through training in proper inhaler technique and setting clear expectations regarding therapeutic effects, both the tolerance and adherence necessary for long term efficacy can be positively influenced. Educational aims To discuss the importance of airway clearance treatments in the management of cystic fibrosis. To describe the clinical data that supports the use of mannitol in adult patients with cystic fibrosis. To highlight the role of mannitol tolerance testing in screening for hyperresponsiveness. To provide practical considerations for patient education in use of mannitol inhaler. Key points Inhaled mannitol is a safe and effective option in adult patients with cystic fibrosis. Mannitol tolerance testing effectively screens for hyperresponsiveness prior to initiation

  15. Human inhalation exposure to ethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Jörn; Csanády, György A; Faller, Thomas H; Filser, Johannes G

    2003-08-01

    Two male volunteers (A and B) inhaled 1.43 and 1.34 mmol, respectively, of vaporous (13)C-labeled ethylene glycol ((13)C(2)-EG) over 4 h. In plasma, (13)C(2)-EG and its metabolite (13)C(2)-glycolic acid ((13)C(2)-GA) were determined together with the natural burden from background GA using a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass selective detector. Maximum plasma concentrations of (13)C(2)-EG were 11.0 and 15.8 micromol/l, and of (13)C(2)-GA were 0.9 and 1.8 micromol/l, for volunteers A and B, respectively. Corresponding plasma half-lives were 2.1 and 2.6 h for (13)C(2)-EG, and 2.9 and 2.6 h for (13)C(2)-GA. Background GA concentrations were 25.8 and 28.3 micro mol/l plasma. Unlabeled background EG, GA and oxalic acid (OA) were detected in urine in which the corresponding (13)C-labeled compounds were also quantified. Within 28 h after the start of the exposures, 6.4% and 9.3% (13)C(2)-EG, 0.70% and 0.92% (13)C(2)-GA, as well as 0.08% and 0.28% (13)C(2)-OA of the inhaled amounts of (13)C(2)-EG, were excreted in urine by volunteers A and B, respectively. The amounts of (13)C(2)-GA represented 3.7% and 14.2% of background urinary GA excreted over 24 h (274 and 88 micromol). The amounts of (13)C(2)-OA were 0.5% and 2.1% of background urinary OA excreted over 24 h (215 and 177 micromol). From the findings obtained in plasma and urine and from a toxicokinetic analysis of these data, it is highly unlikely that workplace EG exposure according to the German exposure limit (MAK-value 10 ppm EG, 8 h) could lead to adverse effects from the metabolically formed GA and OA. PMID:12856104

  16. Subchronic inhalation toxicity of gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gold nanoparticles are widely used in consumer products, including cosmetics, food packaging, beverages, toothpaste, automobiles, and lubricants. With this increase in consumer products containing gold nanoparticles, the potential for worker exposure to gold nanoparticles will also increase. Only a few studies have produced data on the in vivo toxicology of gold nanoparticles, meaning that the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of gold nanoparticles remain unclear. Results The toxicity of gold nanoparticles was studied in Sprague Dawley rats by inhalation. Seven-week-old rats, weighing approximately 200 g (males) and 145 g (females), were divided into 4 groups (10 rats in each group): fresh-air control, low-dose (2.36 × 104 particle/cm3, 0.04 μg/m3), middle-dose (2.36 × 105 particle/cm3, 0.38 μg/m3), and high-dose (1.85 × 106 particle/cm3, 20.02 μg/m3). The animals were exposed to gold nanoparticles (average diameter 4-5 nm) for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 90-days in a whole-body inhalation chamber. In addition to mortality and clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, and lung function were recorded weekly. At the end of the study, the rats were subjected to a full necropsy, blood samples were collected for hematology and clinical chemistry tests, and organ weights were measured. Cellular differential counts and cytotoxicity measurements, such as albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and total protein were also monitored in a cellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Among lung function test measurements, tidal volume and minute volume showed a tendency to decrease comparing control and dose groups during the 90-days of exposure. Although no statistically significant differences were found in cellular differential counts, histopathologic examination showed minimal alveoli, an inflammatory infiltrate with a mixed cell type, and increased macrophages in the high-dose rats. Tissue distribution of gold

  17. Mechanisms of apoptosis by the tumor suppressor Par-4.

    PubMed

    Hebbar, Nikhil; Wang, Chi; Rangnekar, Vivek M

    2012-12-01

    Par-4 is a pro-apoptotic, tumor suppressor protein that induces apoptosis selectively in cancer cells. Endoplasmic reticulum-stress and higher levels of protein kinase A in tumor cells confer the coveted feature of cancer selective response to extracellular and intracellular Par-4, respectively. Recent studies have shown that systemic Par-4 confers resistance to tumor growth in mice, and that tumor-resistance is transferable by bone-marrow transplantation. Moreover, recombinant Par-4 inhibits the growth of tumors in mice. As systemic Par-4 induces apoptosis via cell surface GRP78, strategies that promote GRP78 trafficking to the cell surface are expected sensitize cancer cells to circulating levels of Par-4. This review illustrates the domains and mechanisms by which Par-4 orchestrates the apoptotic process in both cell culture models and in physiological settings. PMID:22552839

  18. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THE INTRODUCTION OF A NEW CYSTIC FIBROSIS INHALED ANTIBIOTIC CLASS AND CHANGE IN PREVALENCE OF PATIENTS RECEIVING MULTIPLE INHALED ANTIBIOTIC CLASSES

    PubMed Central

    Dasenbrook, Elliott C.; Konstan, Michael W.; VanDevanter, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2010, aztreonam for inhalation solution joined aminoglycosides and colistimethate as a new cystic fibrosis (CF) chronic inhaled antimicrobial therapy. We studied how introduction of this new inhaled antibiotic class changed management of US CF patients. Methods Use of inhaled aminoglycosides, colistimethate, and aztreonam among patients followed in the CF Foundation Patient Registry was analyzed by age group, lung disease stage, and microbiologic status both annually, and at individual visits between 2009 and 2012. Results The overall prevalence of inhaled antibiotic use did not change during the period, but the prevalence of annual and any visit treatment with >1 inhaled antibiotic class more than doubled. Adults, those with advanced lung disease, and those with >1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa respiratory culture were more likely to receive >1 antibiotic class. Conclusions Inhaled antibiotic management of US CF patients has dramatically changed in association with the introduction of a third inhaled antibiotic class. PMID:25496726

  19. A Single parS Sequence from the Cluster of Four Sites Closest to oriC Is Necessary and Sufficient for Proper Chromosome Segregation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Jecz, Paulina; Bartosik, Aneta A.; Glabski, Krzysztof; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

    2015-01-01

    Among the mechanisms that control chromosome segregation in bacteria are highly-conserved partitioning systems comprising three components: ParA protein (a deviant Walker-type ATPase), ParB protein (a DNA-binding element) and multiple cis-acting palindromic centromere-like sequences, designated parS. Ten putative parS sites have been identified in the P. aeruginosa PAO1 genome, four localized in close proximity of oriC and six, diverged by more than one nucleotide from a perfect palindromic sequence, dispersed along the chromosome. Here, we constructed and analyzed P. aeruginosa mutants deprived of each single parS sequence and their different combinations. The analysis included evaluation of a set of phenotypic features, chromosome segregation, and ParB localization in the cells. It was found that ParB binds specifically to all ten parS sites, although with different affinities. The P. aeruginosa parS mutant with all ten parS sites modified (parSnull) is viable however it demonstrates the phenotype characteristic for parAnull or parBnull mutants: slightly slower growth rate, high frequency of anucleate cells, and defects in motility. The genomic position and sequence of parS determine its role in P. aeruginosa biology. It transpired that any one of the four parS sites proximal to oriC (parS1 to parS4), which are bound by ParB with the highest affinity, is necessary and sufficient for the parABS role in chromosome partitioning. When all these four sites are mutated simultaneously, the strain shows the parSnull phenotype, which indicates that none of the remaining six parS sites can substitute for these four oriC-proximal sites in this function. A single ectopic parS2 (inserted opposite oriC in the parSnull mutant) facilitates ParB organization into regularly spaced condensed foci and reverses some of the mutant phenotypes but is not sufficient for accurate chromosome segregation. PMID:25794281

  20. Experimental investigation of design parameters on dry powder inhaler performance.

    PubMed

    Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Quynh; Chang, Lusi; Jia, Xinli; Lau, Raymond

    2013-11-30

    The study aims to investigate the impact of various design parameters of a dry powder inhaler on the turbulence intensities generated and the performance of the dry powder inhaler. The flow fields and turbulence intensities in the dry powder inhaler are measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. In vitro aerosolization and deposition a blend of budesonide and lactose are measured using an Andersen Cascade Impactor. Design parameters such as inhaler grid hole diameter, grid voidage and chamber length are considered. The experimental results reveal that the hole diameter on the grid has negligible impact on the turbulence intensity generated in the chamber. On the other hand, hole diameters smaller than a critical size can lead to performance degradation due to excessive particle-grid collisions. An increase in grid voidage can improve the inhaler performance but the effect diminishes at high grid voidage. An increase in the chamber length can enhance the turbulence intensity generated but also increases the powder adhesion on the inhaler wall. PMID:24055597

  1. Off-label use of inhaled tobramycin in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Tadrous, Mina; Khuu, Wayne; Paterson, J Michael; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Juurlink, David N; Gomes, Tara

    2016-09-01

    Inhaled tobramycin solution is indicated for use in the management of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Concerns have been raised regarding increasing off-label use of inhaled tobramycin, particularly for the management of COPD. We conducted an 8-year repeated cross-sectional study examining the indication for prescription claims for inhaled tobramycin in Ontario paid for by the Public Drug Benefit Program, which covers all Ontario residents with financial needs or aged 65 and older. Inhaled tobramycin prescription claims increased approximately 3 times greater from 86 prescriptions in the second quarter of 2007 to 261 prescriptions in the first quarter of 2015. Approximately half of all prescriptions (range: 46-65%) per quarter were dispensed to patients with CF. A large proportion of prescriptions (range: 31-36%) were dispensed to individuals who did not have a diagnosis of CF but had a diagnosis of COPD. In 2014, there were 324 unique users of inhaled tobramycin solution in the Ontario Public Drug Program (OPDP). Only half of users (54%; n=163) had a diagnosis of CF. Our study found increasing prescriptions of inhaled tobramycin from 2007 to 2015 in the OPDP with approximately half of these claims being for off-label use, mostly among patients with COPD. PMID:27165985

  2. Influencing Inhalant Intentions by Changing Socio-Personal Expectations

    PubMed Central

    Alvaro, Eusebio M.; Crano, William D.; Skenderian, Jessica; Lac, Andrew; Patel, Neil

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates an approach for reducing inhalant initiation among younger adolescents: altering Socio-Personal Expectations (SPEs), a term referring to perceived linkages between behavior and personally relevant social outcomes. The study focuses specifically on SPEs regarding outcomes associated with increased social status and popularity. An anti-inhalant message was embedded within a short anti-bullying education video. Young adolescents (N=893) were assigned randomly to receive a message focused on the physical or the social harms of inhalant use. The objectives of this study were to test: (1) the malleability of SPEs, (2) SPEs’ predictive validity for future inhalant use, and (3) whether being exposed to a socio-personal threat, rather than a physical threat, led to different variables affecting drug-relevant decision-making processes. Analysis of variance suggested the malleability of SPEs (p<.001). Multiple regression analysis revealed that SPEs were predictive of future inhalant use. SPEs accounted for a significant portion of variance in future intentions over and above demographic variables, prior use, psychosocial variables, and perceived physical harm (R2=.26, p<.01). Moreover, being exposed to a social, rather than a physical threat, message resulted in different variables being predictive of future intentions to use inhalants. PMID:18543103

  3. Inhalation of two putative Gulf War toxins by mice.

    PubMed

    Repine, John E; Wilson, Paul; Elkins, Nancy; Klawitter, Jelena; Christians, Uwe; Peters, Ben; Smith, Dwight M

    2016-06-01

    We employed our inhalation methodology to examine whether biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress would be produced in mice following inhalation of aerosols containing carbonaceous particles or the vapor of pesticides prevalent during the first Gulf War. Exposure to two putative Gulf War Illness toxins, fine airborne particles and the pesticide malathion, increased biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in Friend virus B (FVB) female mice. Mice inhaling particles 24 h before had increased lung lavage and plasma Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) (a biomarker of inflammation) and PGF2α (a biomarker of oxidative stress) levels, lung lavage protein and lung lavage lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. These changes were a function of particle density and exposure time. Compared to particle inhalation, mice inhaling malathion 24 h before had small increase in plasma LTB4 and PGF2α levels but no increase in lung lavage LTB4, lung lavage protein, lung lavage LDH, and lung lavage alveolar macrophage (AM) levels compared to unexposed control mice. AM from particle-exposed mice contained phagocytosed particles, while AM from malathion-exposed mice showed no abnormalities. Our results indicate that inhaling particles or malathion can alter inflammatory and oxidative biomarkers in mice and raise the possibility that these toxins may have altered inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers in Gulf War-exposed individuals. PMID:26950528

  4. Cigarette smoke inhalation and the acute airway response.

    PubMed Central

    Higenbottam, T; Feyeraband, C; Clark, T J

    1980-01-01

    The acute airway response to smoking varying numbers (one to four) of identical cigarettes in rapid succession and smoking single cigarettes of differing tar/nicotine yields was assessed repeatedly in 13 healthy smokers. The airway response was variable, indicating airway narrowing consistently in only three subjects. There appeared no difference between forced spirometry and measurement of airway resistance in detecting the airway response. No relationship was observed between the airway response and amount of smoke inhaled into the lungs as measured either by changes in venous blood nicotine or percentage carboxyhaemoglobin. When five smokers inhaled smoke directly from a cigarette acute airway narrowing was consistently observed. A normal smoking pattern consisting of an initial drag of smoke into the mouth, followed after a pause by inhalation of smoke diluted with air, did not consistently cause airway narrowing although similar amounts of smoke as the direct drag were inhaled as assessed by changes in venous blood nicotine. The manner of smoke inhalation affects the relative concentrations of the different constituents of smoke reaching the lungs and also appears to be the main determinant of the acute airway response to smoking, which was unrelated to the number of cigarettes smoked or the tar content of the smoke. This suggests that patterns of smoke inhalation may influence the pathogenesis of bronchial disease associated with smoking. PMID:7434266

  5. From inhaler to lung: clinical implications of the formulations of ciclesonide and other inhaled corticosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Nave, Ruediger; Mueller, Helgert

    2013-01-01

    Asthma continues to be a global health problem and currently available treatments such as corticosteroids can cause unwanted side effects. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are recommended as first-line therapy for reducing airway inflammation and have a distinct advantage over oral preparations as they provide a direct route of delivery to the lungs. However, local deposition of ICS in the oropharynx can lead to oral candidiasis, dysphonia, and pharyngitis. The pharmaceutical quality is a primary concern of any ICS asthma treatment, with a higher quality product resulting in improved efficacy and safety profiles. The particle size distribution and the spray force velocity of an ICS may directly influence lung deposition, and the spray duration of a device is another important factor when coordinating inhalation. Recent advances in ICS device and formulation technology have resulted in significant improvements in the efficacy of available asthma treatments. In particular, hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) solution technology and the development of smaller particle sizes have resulted in the production of new ICS formulations that have the ability to directly target drug delivery to the site of airway inflammation. Both the ICS formulation and the pressurized metered-dose inhaler device used to administer ciclesonide (CIC) HFA have been developed to treat the underlying chronic inflammation associated with asthma. CIC is administered as a prodrug which is activated in the lungs, leading to minimal oropharyngeal deposition. The small particle size of CIC results in the delivery of a high fraction of respirable particles to the small airways of the lungs, resulting in high lung deposition and continual dose consistency. This review summarizes how CIC administered as an HFA formulation is an effective treatment for asthma. PMID:23516175

  6. Enquete sur les aspects toxicologiques de la phytotherapie utilisee par un herboriste à Fes, Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Zeggwagh, Ali Amine; Lahlou, Younes; Bousliman, Yassir

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dans le but d'étudier l'aspect toxicologique des plantes médicinales utilisées en médecine traditionnelle, une étude ethnobotanique a été réalisée à la ville de Fès au centre du Maroc. Méthodes Ont été inclus dans l'étude tous les patients ayant bénéficié d'une prescription par l'herboriste de plantes à visée thérapeutique. La discussion de nos résultats s'est faite sur la base d'une revue de la littérature avec identification des principales plantes toxiques utilisées en phytothérapie au Maroc. L'approche bibliographique a permis de compléter les informations. Résultats L'âge moyen des patients traités par des plantes (38 femmes, 32 hommes) était de 35 ± 18 ans. L'enquête ethnobotanique à révélé que la majorité des plantes médicinales étaient utilisées contre les affections urinaires (21%), suivi des maladies de l'appareil digestif (19.6%) et des maladies rhumatologiques (18.2%). Le nombre de plantes prescrits par l'herboriste a été de 53 dont 5 sont potentiellement toxiques. L'identification taxonomique des plantes prescrites a recensé 30 familles dont les plus représentées sont les Lamiaceae (23.33%), les Apiaceae (13,33%) et les Asteraceae (10%). La prescription des plantes considérées comme toxiques a concerné 7,1% des consultants traités par les plantes médicinales. Aucune complication inhérente aux plantes prescrites n'a été déplorée. Conclusion Malgré les résultats encourageants de notre enquête sur le compte de la phytothérapie, la pratique de la phytothérapie est laissée à la vulgarisation et à l'oubli scientifique, législatif et universitaire. PMID:23734270

  7. Dose to lung from inhaled tritiated particles.

    PubMed

    Richardson, R B; Hong, A

    2001-09-01

    Tritiated particulate materials are of potential hazard in fission, fusion, and other tritium handling facilities. The absorbed fractions (fraction of energy emitted that is absorbed by the target region) are calculated for tritiated particles deposited in the alveolar-interstitial (AI) region of the respiratory tract. The energy absorbed by radiologically sensitive tissue irradiated by tritiated particles, in regions of the lung other than in the AI region, is negligible. The ICRP Publication 71 assumes the absorbed fraction is unity for tritium deposited in the AI region. We employed Monte Carlo methods in a model to evaluate the energy deposition in the wall of the alveolar sac from particles of tritiated beryllium, tritiated graphite, titanium tritide, tritiated iron hydroxide and zirconium tritide. For the five materials examined, the absorbed fraction in alveolar tissue ranged from 0.31 to 0.61 for particles of 1 microm physical diameter and 0.07 to 0.21 for 5 microm diameter particles. The dose to alveolar tissue, for an acute inhalation of tritiated particles by an adult male worker, was calculated based on the ICRP 66 lung model and the particle dissolution model of Mercer (1967). For particles of 5 microm activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD), the committed equivalent dose to alveolar tissue, calculated for the five materials, ranged from 32-42%, respectively, of the committed equivalent dose derived assuming the absorbed fractions were unity. PMID:11513464

  8. Introduction: Aerosol delivery of orally inhaled agents.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Timothy E; Devadason, Sunalene G; Kuehl, Philip J

    2012-12-01

    Deposition scintigraphy methods have been used extensively to provide qualitative and quantitative data on aerosol drug deposition in the lungs. However, differences in methodology among the different centers performing these studies have limited the application of these techniques, especially in regulatory roles. As an introduction to the standardized techniques developed by the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine (ISAM) Regulatory Affairs Networking Group, we present potential advantages of the use of standard techniques for deposition scintigraphy. Specifically, we propose that standardized techniques would allow for better comparisons between labs and would facilitate multicenter studies. They would allow for improved methods of establishing equivalence and could be better utilized to establish dosing for new medications. They would allow for the performance of more accurate dose ranging or multidose studies and complement pharmacokinetic studies of new inhaled medications. Standardized techniques could help to establish the relationship between the deposition of drug in the lungs and clinical effect, and may also facilitate clinical measurements of deposited dose for medications with narrow therapeutic indices. In the sections that follow, we discuss the best techniques used to perform deposition scintigraphy through planar, single-photon emission computed tomography, and positron emission tomography modalities and propose a detailed set of standardized methods for each. These include methods for radiolabel validation, radiolabel accountability and mass balance, and imaging acquisition and analysis. PMID:23215846

  9. Homicide facilitated by inhalation of chloroform.

    PubMed

    Nashelsky, M B; Dix, J D; Adelstein, E H

    1995-01-01

    Three related homicides in which each decedent had significant concentrations of chloroform in blood, fat, brain and/or liver are described. The tissue concentrations of chloroform in one of three decedents were within reported lethal ranges. The concentrations in the remaining two decedents were less than lethal but were well above blood levels in nonoccupationally exposed, healthy subjects. The cause of death in one decedent with sublethal chloroform concentrations was suffocation; the cause of death in the other decedent could not be determined with certainty. The manner of death in each case was homicide. Through a review of the literature the authors discuss the history of chloroform as an inhalation anesthetic and the history of chloroform as an agent of abuse, suicide, assault, and homicide. Blood and/or tissue concentrations of chloroform in nonoccupationally exposed, healthy subjects and victims of suicide or homicide from previous reports are compared and contrasted with the amounts in blood and/or tissue in the three subjects described in this study. The authors conclude that, in addition to a direct lethal effect, chloroform may be used to incapacitate a victim of assault who then dies by another cause. PMID:7876797

  10. Lupine inhalation induced asthma in a child.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Ancillo, Alvaro; Gil-Adrados, Ana C; Domínguez-Noche, Carmen; Cosmes, Pedro M

    2005-09-01

    The ingestion of lupine seed flour has been reported as a cause of allergic reactions. There is some evidence of its allergenic potential after inhalation. An 8-year-old asthmatic child, who was allergic to peanut, was studied in our clinic with the suspicion of an adverse drug reaction due to salbutamol. He suffered an asthma attack while playing with his brother, who had been eating lupine seed as snack; surprisingly, the asthma attack worsened with salbutamol. The skin tests showed a positive result with Lupinus albus extract, peanut, garbanzo bean, navy bean, pea, green bean, lentil, soy, Olea europea pollen, grass pollen and Plantago lanceolata pollen. The prick-by-prick tests both from dried seeds and those preserved in salt and water were strongly positive. Serum specific IgE antibodies were positive to Lupine albus (1.43 kU/l), peanut (4.32 kU/l), soy (2.15 kU/l), lentil (3.12 kU/l) and garbanzo (0.7 kU/l). After informed consent salbutamol was well tolerated but the patient had asthma in 5 min of manipulation of the lupine seeds. In our case, reactivity with other legumes was also demonstrated, but only peanut allergy was relevant because boiled legumes were tolerated. It is also notorious that anamnesis is so important to assess the true etiological agents of asthma. PMID:16176404

  11. Traumatic Inhalation due to Merapi Volcanic Ash.

    PubMed

    Trisnawati, Ika; Budiono, Eko; Sumardi; Setiadi, Andang

    2015-07-01

    Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis is fibrotic lung diseases of the pulmonary parenchyma following chronic inhalation of inorganic dusts containing crystalline silicon dioxide. The acute manifestations observed after heavy ashfalls include attacks of asthma and bronchitis, with an increased reporting of cough, breathlessness, chest tightness, and wheezing due to irritation of the lining of the airways. The chronic health condition of most concern is silicosis, a diffuse nodular fibrosis of the lungs, develops slowly, usually appearing 10 to 30 years after first exposure. A 35 years old male was admitted to Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta with complaints of progressive dyspnoea, right side chest pain since last 3 month and periodic episodes of dry cough. He had history of exposure to volcanic ash at the location around volcano eruption for about 10 month. Examination revealed hyperresonant note, diminished vesicular breath sounds in lower right side of the chest. The chest X-ray presence leads to bleb. Based on the clinical and radiological suspicion of pneumoconiosis the patient was submitted to computed tomography of the chest and revealed bilateral multiple bullae mainly at the right lung field. The biopsy specimen verified the diagnosis of anthrocosilicosis. There is no proven specific therapy for any form of silicosis. Symptomatic therapy should include treatment of airflow limitation with bronchodilators, aggressive management of respiratory tract infection with antibiotics, and use of supplemental oxygen (if indicated) to prevent complications of chronic hypoxemia. PMID:26586390

  12. Inhaled Corticosteroids and Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sannarangappa, Vishnu; Jalleh, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have been used as first line treatment of asthma for many decades. ICS are a form of exogenous glucocorticosteroids that can suppress the endogenous production of glucocorticosteroids, a condition known as adrenal suppression (AS). As a result, cessation, decreasing the dose or changing the type of ICS may trigger features of adrenal insufficiency (AI). AI may cause a spectrum of presentations varying from vague symptoms of fatigue to potentially life threatening acute adrenal crises. This article reviews the current literature on ICS and AI particularly in adults (although majority of data available is from the paediatric population). It aims to increase awareness of the potential risk of AI associated with ICS use, delineate the pathogenesis of AI and to provide recommendations on screening and management. From our literature review, we have found numerous case reports that have shown an association between ICS and AI particularly in children and patients using high doses. However, there have also been reports of AI in adults as well as in patients using low to moderate doses of ICS. To conclude, we recommend screening for AI in select patient groups with an initial early morning serum cortisol. If results are abnormal, more definitive testing such as the low dose corticotropin stimulation test may be done to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:25674179

  13. Incinerator air emissions: Inhalation exposure perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, H.W.

    1995-12-01

    Incineration is often proposed as the treatment of choice for processing diverse wastes, particularly hazardous wastes. Where such treatment is proposed, people are often fearful that it will adversely affect their health. Unfortunately, information presented to the public about incinerators often does not include any criteria or benchmarks for evaluating such facilities. This article describes a review of air emission data from regulatory trial burns in a large prototype incinerator, operated at design capacity by the US Army to destroy chemical warfare materials. It uses several sets of criteria to gauge the threat that these emissions pose to public health. Incinerator air emission levels are evaluated with respect to various toxicity screening levels and ambient air levels of the same pollutants. Also, emission levels of chlorinated dioxins and furans are compared with emission levels of two common combustion sources. Such comparisons can add to a community`s understanding of health risks associated with an incinerator. This article focuses only on the air exposure/inhalation pathway as related to human health. It does not address other potential human exposure pathways or the possible effects of emissions on the local ecology, both of which should also be examined during a complete analysis of any major new facility.

  14. Inhaled corticosteroids in COPD: the clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Pierre; Saad, Nathalie; Suissa, Samy

    2015-02-01

    In this article, we focus on the scientific evidence from randomised trials supporting treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including treatment with combinations of long-acting β-agonist (LABA) bronchodilators and ICS. Our emphasis is on the methodological strengths and limitations that guide the conclusions that may be drawn. The evidence of benefit of ICS and, therefore, of the LABA/ICS combinations in COPD is limited by major methodological problems. From the data reviewed herein, we conclude that there is no survival benefit independent of the effect of long-acting bronchodilation and no effect on FEV1 decline, and that the possible benefit on reducing severe exacerbations is unclear. Our interpretation of the data is that there are substantial adverse effects from the use of ICS in patients with COPD, most notably severe pneumonia resulting in excess deaths. Currently, the most reliable predictor of response to ICS in COPD is the presence of eosinophilic inflammation in the sputum. There is an urgent need for better markers of benefit and risk that can be tested in randomised trials for use in routine specialist practice. Given the overall safety and effectiveness of long-acting bronchodilators in subjects without an asthma component to their COPD, we believe use of such agents without an associated ICS should be favoured. PMID:25537556

  15. Cariogenic Potential of Inhaled Antiasthmatic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Brigic, Amela; Kobaslija, Sedin; Zukanovic, Amila

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The organism of children with asthma is exposed to the effects of the disease but also the drugs for its treatment. Antiasthmatic drugs have different modes that promote the caries formation which varies according to their basic pharmacological composition. Namely, these drugs have a relatively low pH (5.5), can contain sweeteners such as lactose monohydrate in order to improve the drug taste or both. Frequent consumption of these inhalers in combination with reduced secretion of saliva increases the risk of caries. Material and methods: The study sample consisted of 200 patients, age from 7-14 years, divided into two groups: control group (n1 = 100) consisted of healthy children and the experimental group consisted of children suffering from asthma (n2 = 100). In both groups of respondents are determined the DMFT index, plaque index value and hygienic-dietary habits using the questionnaire. The subjects in the control group had significantly higher DMFT index than subjects in the experimental group (p = 0.004). It is determined that there are no significant differences in the values of plaque index (p>0.05). Conclusion: The effect of different diseases or medications from their treatment, diet and fermentable carbohydrates in the etiology of dental caries cannot be observed outside the living conditions of subjects, their social epidemiologic status, age, habits, oral hygiene, fluoride use, etc. PMID:26543312

  16. Schedules of Controlled Substances: Table of Excluded Nonnarcotic Products: Nasal Decongestant Inhaler/Vapor Inhaler. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    This final rule adopts, without change, the interim final rule that was published in the Federal Register on October 27, 2015. The Drug Enforcement Administration is amending the table of Excluded Nonnarcotic Products to update the company name for the drug product Nasal Decongestant Inhaler/Vapor Inhaler (containing 50 milligrams levmetamfetamine) to Aphena Pharma Solutions--New York, LLC. This over-the-counter, nonnarcotic drug product is excluded from the provisions of the Controlled Substances Act. PMID:26859907

  17. Evaluation of dry powder inhalers with a focus on ease of use and user preference in inhaler-naïve individuals.

    PubMed

    von Schantz, Sofia; Katajavuori, Nina; Antikainen, Osmo; Juppo, Anne

    2016-07-25

    Inhaler errors are common amongst inhaler users. Therefore, in the development work of new inhalation devices, it is important to characterize the ease of use of the inhalers. In this study four dry powder inhalers, Diskus, Easyhaler, Ellipta and Turbuhaler, were evaluated, focusing on ease of use and patient preference. The study used a triangular methodology. The sample consisted of 31 inhaler naïve individuals. Educational videos for all inhalers were watched, and afterwards, the use of all four inhalers was demonstrated in a random order. The demonstrations were videotaped. Thereafter they were checked against a predefined checklist and all mistakes were recorded. Only 33% of inhaler demonstrations were completed without the participants making any mistakes. The proportions of subjects who used the devices correctly were as follows: Diskus 48%, Easyhaler 19%, Ellipta 55% and Turbuhaler 16%. When comparing correct and incorrect inhaler technique for each inhaler pair the following differences were statistically significant: Diskus vs. Easyhaler (p<0.05), Ellipta vs. Easyhaler (p<0.01), Diskus vs. Turbuhaler (p<0.01), Ellipta vs. Turbuhaler (p<0.01). In the participants' ranking, the inhalers Ellipta, followed by Turbuhaler, were most often ranked as most preferred. Participants' preference of Ellipta over Easyhaler (p<0.01) and over Diskus (p<0.001) were statistically significant. PMID:27208655

  18. Inhalational anesthesia for organ procurement: potential indications for administering inhalational anesthesia in the brain-dead organ donor.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Laurie J

    2010-08-01

    Organs needed for transplantation far outweigh their availability. There is minimal research regarding perioperative care of the brain-dead organ donor during the procurement procedure. Current research attributes a great deal of organ damage to autonomic or sympathetic storm that occurs during brain death. Literature searches were performed with the terms brain death, organ donor, organ procurement, anesthesia and organ donor, anesthesia and brain death, anesthesia and organ procurement, inhalational anesthetics and organ procurement, and inhalational anesthetics and brain dead. Additional resources were obtained from reference lists of published articles. The literature review showed there is a lack of published studies researching the use of inhalational anesthetics in organ procurement. No studies have been published evaluating the effect of preconditioning with inhalational agents (administering 1.3 minimal alveolar concentration of an inhalational agent for the 20 minutes before periods of ischemia) in the brain-dead organ donor population. Further studies are required to determine if administration of inhalational anesthetics reduces catecholamine release occurring with surgical stimulation during the organ procurement procedure and whether this technique increases viability of transplanted organs. Anesthetic preconditioning before the ischemic period may reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury in transplanted organs, further increasing viability of transplanted organs. PMID:20879630

  19. Kyste hydatique pulmonaire chez l'enfant traité par thoracoscopie: huit ans d'expérience

    PubMed Central

    Khattala, Khalid; Elmadi, Aziz; Rami, Mohamed; Bouamama, Hanan; Bouabdallah, Youssef

    2013-01-01

    L’échinococcose kystique est une pathologie fréquente en zone d'endémie: pourtour méditerranéen, Afrique de l'est et l'Amérique du Sud. L'hydatidose reste à l'heure actuelle un problème majeur de santé publique. Notre travail consiste en une étude rétrospective de 27 malades opérés pour kyste hydatique pulmonaire (KHP) par thoracoscopie, au service de chirurgie pédiatrique du centre hospitalier universitaire HASSAN II à Fès, sur une période de huit ans allant de janvier 2004 au décembre 2011. PMID:24198890

  20. Particle engineering of materials for oral inhalation by dry powder inhalers. II-Sodium cromoglicate.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Lorraine M; Li, Jianhe; Tajber, Lidia; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

    2011-02-28

    Sodium cromoglicate is an antiasthmatic and antiallergenic drug used in inhalation therapy and commonly administered by a dry powder inhaler. In the present study we sought to examine the feasibility of producing nanoporous microparticles (NPMPs) of this hydrophilic material by adaptation of a spray drying process previously applied to hydrophobic drugs, and to examine the physicochemical and in vitro deposition properties of the spray dried particles in comparison to a commercial product. The storage stability of successfully prepared NPMPs was assessed under a number of conditions (4°C with dessicant, 25°C at 60% relative humidity and 25°C with dessicant). Spray dried sodium cromoglicate was amorphous in nature. NPMPs of sodium cromoglicate displayed superior aerodynamic properties resulting in improved in vitro drug deposition, as assessed by Andersen Cascade Impactor and twin impinger studies, in comparison to the commercial product, Intal. Deposition studies indicated that porosity and sphericity were important factors in improving deposition properties. The optimum solvent system for NPMP production was water:methanol:n-butyl acetate, as spherical NPMPs spray dried from this solvent system had a higher respirable fraction than non-spherical NPMPs of sodium cromoglicate (spray dried from methanol:n-butyl acetate), non-porous sodium cromoglicate (spray dried from water) and micronised sodium cromoglicate (Intal). While particle morphology was altered by storage at high humidity (60% RH) and in vitro deposition performance deteriorated, it was possible to maintain NPMP morphology and aerosolisation performance by storing the powder with dessicant. PMID:21129460

  1. INHALATION TOXICOLOGY METHODS: The Generation and Characterization of Exposure Atmospheres and Inhalational Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lung-Chi; Lippmann, Morton

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we outline the need for laboratory-based inhalation toxicology studies, the historical background on adverse health effects of airborne toxicants, and the benefits of advance planning for the building of analytic options into the study design to maximize the scientific gains to be derived from the investments in the study. We then discuss methods for: 1) the generation and characterization of exposure atmospheres for inhalation exposures in humans and laboratory animals; 2) their delivery and distribution into and within whole-body exposure chambers, head-only exposure chambers, face-masks, and mouthpieces or nasal catheters; 3) options for on-line functional assays during and between exposures; and 4) options for serial non-invasive assays of response. In doing so, we go beyond exposures to single agents and simple mixtures, and include methods for evaluating biological responses to complex environmental mixtures. We also emphasize that great care should be taken in the design and execution of such studies so that the scientific returns can be maximized both initially, and in follow-up utilization of archived samples of the exposure atmospheres, excreta, and tissues collected for histology. PMID:25645246

  2. Escherichia coli low-copy-number plasmid R1 centromere parC forms a U-shaped complex with its binding protein ParR

    PubMed Central

    Hoischen, C.; Bussiek, M.; Langowski, J.; Diekmann, S.

    2008-01-01

    The Escherichia coli low-copy-number plasmid R1 contains a segregation machinery composed of parC, ParR and parM. The R1 centromere-like site parC contains two separate sets of repeats. By atomic force microscopy (AFM) we show here that ParR molecules bind to each of the 5-fold repeated iterons separately with the intervening sequence unbound by ParR. The two ParR protein complexes on parC do not complex with each other. ParR binds with a stoichiometry of about one ParR dimer per each single iteron. The measured DNA fragment lengths agreed with B-form DNA and each of the two parC 5-fold interon DNA stretches adopts a linear path in its complex with ParR. However, the overall parC/ParR complex with both iteron repeats bound by ParR forms an overall U-shaped structure: the DNA folds back on itself nearly completely, including an angle of ∼150°. Analysing linear DNA fragments, we never observed dimerized ParR complexes on one parC DNA molecule (intramolecular) nor a dimerization between ParR complexes bound to two different parC DNA molecules (intermolecular). This bacterial segrosome is compared to other bacterial segregation complexes. We speculate that partition complexes might have a similar overall structural organization and, at least in part, common functional properties. PMID:18056157

  3. Traitement par plasma thermique d'une liqueur caustique pour la destruction des cyanures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Luc

    L'objectif principal de cette recherche est d'evaluer la possibilite de traiter le lixiviat de brasques usees produit par le procede LCL&L (Lixiviation a bas caustique et chaulage) par contact direct avec un jet de plasma thermique. L'utilisation d'un chalumeau au plasma permet d'eliminer les problemes de reaction avec les produits de combustion relies a l'utilisation de chalumeaux conventionnels (e.g. carbonatation du NaOH en Na2CO3). Le fait de se servir de ce type de chalumeau en mode submerge pour le traitement d'une solution liquide constitue l'originalite du projet. Les essais effectues dans le cadre de ce travail experimental sont realises a l'echelle banc d'essai dans un premier temps. Ils visent a determiner le taux de decomposition des cyanures contenus dans le lixiviat sous des conditions de plasma thermique en fonction de differents parametres et a faire la mise a l'echelle d'un reacteur pilote. La puissance electrique fournie au chalumeau, la temperature et la pression d'operation, le point d'addition d'eau, le volume de lixiviat traite et l'addition de peroxyde d'hydrogene (H2O2) comme co-reactif ont tous un impact sur le taux de destruction des cyanures trouve. Sous toutes les conditions etudiees, le reacteur plasma offre un taux de destruction plus rapide qu'un reacteur agite sous pression pour une meme concentration en cyanures. Ainsi, la comparaison de la constante cinetique obtenue pour le reacteur agite avec une constante similaire pour le reacteur plasma (pente du graphique -ln(C/C0) en fonction du temps) est de 0.04x10-3 s-1 vs 0.59x10-3 s-1 a 100°C et de 1.85x10-3 s-1' vs 3x10 -3 s-1s a 170°C. Ces resultats confirment que le plasma joue un role important sur la decomposition des cyanures et qu'il contribue a en augmenter le taux de destruction. Suite aux connaissances acquises sur le banc d'essai, un reacteur pilote est concu. Un chalumeau au plasma d'une puissance de 60 kW-150 kW et fonctionnant avec l'air comme gaz plasmagene y est

  4. Towards the optimisation and adaptation of dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Cui, Y; Schmalfuß, S; Zellnitz, S; Sommerfeld, M; Urbanetz, N

    2014-08-15

    Pulmonary drug delivery by dry powder inhalers is becoming more and more popular. Such an inhalation device must insure that during the inhalation process the drug powder is detached from the carrier due to fluid flow stresses. The goal of the project is the development of a drug powder detachment model to be used in numerical computations (CFD, computational fluid dynamics) of fluid flow and carrier particle motion through the inhaler and the resulting efficiency of drug delivery. This programme will be the basis for the optimisation of inhaler geometry and dry powder inhaler formulation. For this purpose a multi-scale approach is adopted. First the flow field through the inhaler is numerically calculated with OpenFOAM(®) and the flow stresses experienced by the carrier particles are recorded. This information is used for micro-scale simulations using the Lattice-Boltzmann method where only one carrier particle covered with drug powder is placed in cubic flow domain and exposed to the relevant flow situations, e.g. plug and shear flow with different Reynolds numbers. Therefrom the fluid forces on the drug particles are obtained. In order to allow the determination of the drug particle detachment possibility by lift-off, sliding or rolling, also measurements by AFM (atomic force microscope) were conducted for different carrier particle surface structures. The contact properties, such as van der Waals force, friction coefficient and adhesion surface energy were used to determine, from a force or moment balance (fluid forces versus contact forces), the detachment probability by the three mechanisms as a function of carrier particle Reynolds number. These results will be used for deriving the drug powder detachment model. PMID:24792975

  5. Evaluation of the PAR corneal topography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindal, Prateek; Cheung, Susan; Pirouzian, Amir; Keates, Richard H.; Ren, Qiushi

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the raster photogrammetry based Corneal Topography System by determining: inter-operator variability, reproducibility of images, effects of defocused and decentered images, and the precision of data at different optical zones. 4 human cadaver eyes were used to study the inter-operator variability. To study the reproducibility of images, 3 human cadaver eyes and a test surface doped with flourescine (provided by PAR Vision Systems Corporation) were focused and their images taken four successive times. Defocused and decentered images were taken of 4 human cadaver eyes and four times of the test surface mentioned above. The precision of defocused/decentered cadaver eyes was evaluated at the following optical zones: 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm. All human cadaver eyes used in the above experiments had their epithelial layer removed before imaging. Average inter-operator variability was 0.06 D. In reproducibility attempts, there was an average deviation of 0.28 D for the human cadaver eyes and 0.04 D for the test surface. The defocused and decentered test surface gave an average deviation of 0.09 D. Defocused and decentered cadaver eyes resulted in an average deviation of 0.52 D, 0.37 D, 0.24 D, and 0.22 D at optical zones of 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm, respectively. The imaging method employed by PAR Vision Systems Corporation virtually eliminates inter-operator variability. The PAR Corneal Topography System's clinical usefulness, however, could be improved by improving the reproducibility of images, decreasing the sensitivity to spatial alignment, and increasing accuracy over smaller optical zones.

  6. Plume temperature emitted from metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, G; Church, T; Lewis, D; Meakin, B

    2011-02-28

    The temperature of the drug cloud emitted from a pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI) may result in patient discomfort and inconsistent or non-existent dose delivery to the lungs. The effects of variations in formulation (drug, propellant, co-solvent content) and device hardware (metering volume, actuator orifice diameter, add-on devices) upon the temperature of pMDI plumes, expressed as replicate mean minimum values (MMPT), collected into a pharmacopoeial dose unit sampling apparatus (DUSA), have been investigated. Ten commercially available and two development products, including chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) suspensions and hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) solutions or suspensions, were examined together with a number of drug products in late stage development and a variety of HFA 134a placebo pMDIs. Plume temperatures were observed to be lowest in the proximity of the product's actuator mouthpiece where rapid flashing and evaporation of the formulation's propellant and volatile excipients cause cooling. The ability to control plume temperature by judicious choice of formulation co-solvent content, metering volume and the actuator orifice diameter is identified. An ethanol based HFA 134a formulation delivered through a fine orifice is inherently warmer than one with 100% HFA 134a vehicle delivered through a coarse actuator orifice. Of the 10 commercial products evaluated, MMPTs ranged from -54 to +4°C and followed the formulation class rank order, HFA suspensions

  7. Inhaled innate immune ligands to prevent pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Scott E; Tuvim, Michael J; Fox, Cory J; Sachdev, Nidhi; Gibiansky, Leonid; Dickey, Burton F

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial surfaces throughout the body continuously sample and respond to environmental stimuli. The accessibility of lung epithelium to inhaled therapies makes it possible to stimulate local antimicrobial defences with aerosolized innate immune ligands. This strategy has been shown to be effective in preclinical models, as delivery of innate immune ligands to the lungs of laboratory animals results in protection from subsequent challenge with microbial pathogens. Survival of the animal host in this setting correlates directly with killing of pathogens within the lungs, indicating the induction of a resistance mechanism. Resistance appears to be mediated primarily by activated epithelial cells rather than recruited leucocytes. Resistance reaches a peak within hours and persists for several days. Innate immune ligands can interact synergistically under some circumstances, and synergistic combinations of innate ligands delivered by aerosol are capable of inducing a high level of broad host resistance to bacteria, fungi and viruses. The induction of innate antimicrobial resistance within the lungs could have clinical applications in the prevention of lower respiratory tract infection in subjects transiently at high risk. These include cancer patients undergoing myeloablative chemotherapy, intubated patients being mechanically ventilated, vulnerable individuals during seasonal influenza epidemics, asthmatic subjects experiencing a respiratory viral infection, and healthy subjects exposed to virulent pathogens from a bioterror attack or emergent pandemic. In summary, stimulation of the lung epithelium to induce localized resistance to infection is a novel strategy whose clinical utility will be assessed in the near future. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Respiratory Pharmacology. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.163.issue-1 PMID:21250981

  8. La prévention des infections par le virus respiratoire syncytial

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, JL

    2011-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ L’infection par le virus respiratoire syncytial (VRS) est la principale cause d’infections des voies respiratoires inférieures chez les jeunes enfants. Le palivizumab, un anticorps monoclonal anti-VRS, réduit le taux d’hospitalisation des enfants à haut risque mais est très coûteux. Le présent document de principes remplace les trois précédents documents de principes de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie sur le sujet et est mis à jour principalement pour traiter des récentes modifications aux lignes directrices de l’American Academy of Pediatrics dans le contexte canadien. Il contient une analyse des publications ainsi que des recommandations au sujet de l’utilisation du palivizumab chez les enfants à haut risque

  9. A Conserved Mode of Protein Recognition and Binding in a ParD−ParE Toxin−Antitoxin Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, Kevin M.; Crosson, Sean

    2010-05-06

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems form a ubiquitous class of prokaryotic proteins with functional roles in plasmid inheritance, environmental stress response, and cell development. ParDE family TA systems are broadly conserved on plasmids and bacterial chromosomes and have been well characterized as genetic elements that promote stable plasmid inheritance. We present a crystal structure of a chromosomally encoded ParD-ParE complex from Caulobacter crescentus at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution. This TA system forms an {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 2} heterotetramer in the crystal and in solution. The toxin-antitoxin binding interface reveals extensive polar and hydrophobic contacts of ParD antitoxin helices with a conserved recognition and binding groove on the ParE toxin. A cross-species comparison of this complex structure with related toxin structures identified an antitoxin recognition and binding subdomain that is conserved between distantly related members of the RelE/ParE toxin superfamily despite a low level of overall primary sequence identity. We further demonstrate that ParD antitoxin is dimeric, stably folded, and largely helical when not bound to ParE toxin. Thus, the paradigmatic model in which antitoxin undergoes a disorder-to-order transition upon toxin binding does not apply to this chromosomal ParD-ParE TA system.

  10. A conserved mode of protein recognition and binding in a ParD-ParE toxin-antitoxin complex†

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Kevin M.; Crosson, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems form a ubiquitous class of prokaryotic proteins with functional roles in plasmid inheritance, environmental stress response, and cell development. ParDE-family TA systems are broadly conserved on plasmids and bacterial chromosomes, and have been well characterized as genetic elements that promote stable plasmid inheritance. We present a crystal structure of a chromosomally-encoded ParD-ParE complex from Caulobacter crescentus at 2.6 Å resolution. This TA system forms an α2β2 heterotetramer in the crystal and in solution. The toxin-antitoxin binding interface reveals extensive polar and hydrophobic contacts of ParD antitoxin helices with a conserved recognition and binding groove on the ParE toxin. A cross-species comparison of this complex structure with related toxin structures identified an antitoxin recognition and binding sub-domain that is conserved between distantly-related members of the RelE/ParE toxin superfamily despite low overall primary sequence identity. We further demonstrate that ParD antitoxin is dimeric, stably folded, and largely helical when not bound to ParE toxin. Thus, the paradigmatic model in which antitoxin undergoes a disorder-to-order transition upon toxin binding does not apply to this chromosomal ParD-ParE TA system. PMID:20143871

  11. Inhalability for aerosols at ultra-low windspeeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleeth, Darrah K.; Vincent, James H.

    2009-02-01

    Most previous experimental studies of aerosol inhalability were conducted in wind tunnels for windspeeds greater than 0.5 ms-1. While that body of work was used to establish a convention for the inhalable fraction, results from studies in calm air chambers (for essentially zero windspeed) are being discussed as the basis of a modified criterion. However, information is lacking for windspeeds in the intermediate range, which - it so happens - pertain to most actual workplaces. With this in mind, we have developed a new experimental system to assess inhalability - and, ultimately, personal sampler performance - for aerosols with particle aerodynamic diameter within the range from about 9 to 90 μm for ultra-low windspeed environments from about 0.1 to 0.5 ms1. This new system contains an aerosol test facility, fully described elsewhere, that combines the physical attributes and performance characteristics of moving air wind tunnels and calm air chambers, both of which have featured individually in previous research. It also contains a specially-designed breathing, heated, life-sized mannequin that allows for accurate recovery of test particulate material that has been inhaled. Procedures have been developed that employ test aerosols of well-defined particle size distribution generated mechanically from narrowly-graded powders of fused alumina. Using this new system, we have conducted an extensive set of new experiments to measure the inhalability of a human subject (as represented by the mannequin), aimed at filling the current knowledge gap for conditions that are more realistic than those embodied in most previous research. These data reveal that inhalability throughout the range of interest is significantly different based on windspeed, indicating a rise in aspiration efficiency as windspeed decreases. Breathing flowrate and mode of breathing (i.e. nose versus mouth breathing) did not show significant differences for the inhalability of aerosols. On the whole

  12. Capteur de CO{2} à fibres optiques par absorption moléculaire à 4,3 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendamardji, S.; Alayli, Y.; Huard, S.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a remote optical fibre sensor for the carbon dioxide detection by molecular absorption in the near infrared (4.3 μm) corresponding to fundamental mode ν3. To overcome the problem of the strong attenuation signal of optical fibre in the near infrared, we have used the opto-suppling technique which changes the working wavelength from 4.3 μm to 860 nm and permits the use of standard optical fibre 50/125. The simulation of absorption has been obtained by original modelisation of the absorption spectrum and the establishment of the calibration curves takes to the sensor to detect a partial pressures greater than 100 μbar with a minimal error margin of 100 μbar, which is acceptable considering the future use of the device. The sensor has been designed to monitor the CO{2} rate in enriched greenhouses. Cet article décrit un capteur à fibres optiques de gaz carbonique par absorption moléculaire dans l'infrarouge moyen (4,3 μm) correspondant au mode fondamental ν3. La liaison entre le site de mesure et le site de contrôle est assurée par un fibre optique standard 50/125 après une transposition de longueur d'onde de 4,3 μm à 860 nm par opto-alimentation. La simulation de l'absorption a été obtenue par modélisation originale du spectre d'absorption et l'établissement des courbes d'étalonnage prévoit une marge d'erreur minimale de 100 μbar, ce qui est suffisant pour l'application du dispositif à la régulation de taux CO{2} dans les serres agricoles enrichies par de gaz.

  13. Dry powder inhalable formulations for anti-tubercular therapy.

    PubMed

    Parumasivam, Thaigarajan; Chang, Rachel Yoon Kyung; Abdelghany, Sharif; Ye, Tian Tian; Britton, Warwick John; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an intracellular infectious disease caused by the airborne bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Despite considerable research efforts, the treatment of TB continues to be a great challenge in part due to the requirement of prolonged therapy with multiple high-dose drugs and associated side effects. The delivery of pharmacological agents directly to the respiratory system, following the natural route of infection, represents a logical therapeutic approach for treatment or vaccination against TB. Pulmonary delivery is non-invasive, avoids first-pass metabolism in the liver and enables targeting of therapeutic agents to the infection site. Inhaled delivery also potentially reduces the dose requirement and the accompanying side effects. Dry powder is a stable formulation of drug that can be stored without refrigeration compared to liquids and suspensions. The dry powder inhalers are easy to use and suitable for high-dose formulations. This review focuses on the current innovations of inhalable dry powder formulations of drug and vaccine delivery for TB, including the powder production method, preclinical and clinical evaluations of inhaled dry powder over the last decade. Finally, the risks associated with pulmonary therapy are addressed. A novel dry powder formulation with high percentages of respirable particles coupled with a cost effective inhaler device is an appealing platform for TB drug delivery. PMID:27212477

  14. Presumed Pseudotumor Cerebri Syndrome After Withdrawal of Inhaled Glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young Joon; Allen, Julian L; Liu, Grant T; McCormack, Shana E

    2016-06-01

    Pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS) is characterized by increased intracranial pressure with normal brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid constituents. PTCS after withdrawal of systemic corticosteroids also has been described in children. In contrast, to our knowledge, PTCS after withdrawal of inhaled glucocorticoids has not previously been described. Here we report the case of an 8-year and 6-month-old girl who developed signs and symptoms consistent with PTCS after withdrawal of inhaled glucocorticoids. The patient had excellent adherence to inhaled glucocorticoid therapy for ∼1 year before presentation, after which the therapy was stopped for concern related to poor growth. The withdrawal of inhaled glucocorticoids was associated with the development of severe headaches and diplopia, and further clinical examination led to the patient's diagnosis of likely PTCS. Although its occurrence is likely rare, clinicians caring for the many children receiving inhaled glucocorticoid therapy should be aware of the potential for PTCS after abrupt withdrawal of such treatment, and consider ophthalmology evaluation if patients report suggestive symptoms, such as headaches or vision changes in this context. PMID:27244842

  15. Pulmonary vasodilation by inhaled nitric oxide after endothelial injury

    SciTech Connect

    Rimar, S.; Gillis, C.N. )

    1992-11-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide gas (NO) has recently been shown to reverse experimentally induced pulmonary vasoconstriction. To examine the effect of free radical injury and methylene blue exposure on inhaled NO-induced pulmonary vasodilation the authors studied ventilated rabbit lungs perfused with Krebs solution containing 3% dextran and indomethacin. When NO gas (120 ppm) was added to the inhaled mixture for 3 min, the elevated pulmonary arterial perfusion pressure (Ppa) induced by the thromboxane analogue U-46619 was significantly reduced [8 [+-] 2 (SE) mmHg]. Acetylcholine similarly reduced Ppa (9 [+-] 1 mmHg). After free radical injury and methylene blue exposure, inhaled NO again produced significant vasodilation (5 [+-] 1 and 9 [+-] 2 mmHg, respectively), but acetylcholine resulted in an increase in Ppa ([minus]9 [+-] 3 and [minus]4 [+-] 1 mmHg, respectively). These data demonstrate that pulmonary vasodilation produced by inhaled NO is unaffected by free radical injury or methylene blue in the intact lung despite concomitant reversal of acetylcholine-induced vasodilation. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Raxibacumab: potential role in the treatment of inhalational anthrax

    PubMed Central

    Kummerfeldt, Carlos E

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax is a highly contagious and potentially fatal human disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, an aerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming rod-shaped bacterium with worldwide distribution as a zoonotic infection in herbivore animals. Bioterrorist attacks with inhalational anthrax have prompted the development of more effective treatments. Antibodies against anthrax toxin have been shown to decrease mortality in animal studies. Raxibacumab is a recombinant human monoclonal antibody developed against inhalational anthrax. The drug received approval after human studies showed its safety and animal studies demonstrated its efficacy for treatment as well as prophylaxis against inhalational anthrax. It works by preventing binding of the protective antigen component of the anthrax toxin to its receptors in host cells, thereby blocking the toxin’s deleterious effects. Recently updated therapy guidelines for Bacillus anthracis recommend the use of antitoxin treatment. Raxibacumab is the first monoclonal antitoxin antibody made available that can be used with the antibiotics recommended for treatment of the disease. When exposure is suspected, raxibacumab should be given with anthrax vaccination to augment immunity. Raxibacumab provides additional protection against inhalational anthrax via a mechanism different from that of either antibiotics or active immunization. In combination with currently available and recommended therapies, raxibacumab should reduce the morbidity and mortality of inhalational anthrax. PMID:24812521

  17. Asthma control: the right inhaler for the right patient.

    PubMed

    Scichilone, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Inhaled therapy is the cornerstone of asthma management in that it optimizes the delivery of the medication to the site of action. The effectiveness of inhaled therapy is affected by the correct choice of the device and proper inhalation technique. In fact, this influences the drug delivery and distribution along the bronchial tree, including the most peripheral airways. In this context, accumulating evidence supports the contribution of small airways in asthma, and these have become an important target of treatment. In reality, the "ideal inhaler" does not exist, and not all inhalers are the same. Advances in technology has highlighted these differences, and have led to the design of new devices and the development of formulations characterized by extrafine particles that facilitate the distribution and deposition of the drug particles along the respiratory tract. In addition, efforts have been made to implement adherence to chronic treatment, which translates into clinical benefit. Taken together, the optimal control of asthma depends on the drug that is selected, the device that is employed and the removal of factors that reduce patient's adherence to therapy. PMID:25845769

  18. A Curious Case of Inhalation Fever Caused by Synthetic Cannabinoid

    PubMed Central

    Chinnadurai, Thiru; Shrestha, Srijan; Ayinla, Raji

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 29 Final Diagnosis: Inhalation fever induced by synthetic cannabinoid Symptoms: Agitation • smoked synthetic cannabinoid Medication: Ringer’s lactate solution • Ceftriaxone • Azithromycin• Magnesium sulfate • Potassium Phosphate • Levofloxacin • Risperidone Clinical Procedure: Chest radiograph • CBC • urine toxicology Specialty: Pulmonology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: This case report describes inhalation fever as an uncommon pulmonary adverse effect of synthetic cannabinoids. Case Report: A 29-year-old man was brought in for severe agitation after smoking K2, a synthetic cannabinoid. He required multiple doses of lorazepam and haloperidol for sedation. His vital signs were notable for a mild fever and tachycardia. Otherwise, the rest of his exam was unremarkable. The laboratory test was significant for leucocytosis and diffuse reticular-nodular and interstitial infiltrates on chest radiograph. Urine drug toxicology was negative. Interestingly, his symptoms and pulmonary infiltrates on the chest radiograph resolved spontaneously after 24 hours of observation. Conclusions: This patient developed transient pulmonary infiltrates and fever following the synthetic cannabinoid inhalation, as seen in self-limiting inhalation fever. Inhalation fever as a consequence of synthetic cannabinoid has not been described previously and there is a need for further research in this field. PMID:27262587

  19. Rethinking the paradigm for the development of inhaled drugs.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, John N

    2015-12-30

    Nebulized treatment is an important delivery option for the young, elderly, and those with severe chronic respiratory disease, but there is a lack of new nebulized drug products being produced for these patients, leading to the potential for under-treatment. This communication describes a new drug development paradigm as a timely solution to this issue. Often, drug development is initiated with nebulizers in the early stages, to provide cheaper and faster drug development, and then switched to inhaler devices in later clinical trials to address the majority of patients. However, the waste of resource on parallel development of the inhaler can be large due to the high early attrition rate of new drug development. The new paradigm uses the nebulizer to continue drug development through to market, and initiates inhaler development after completion of the riskier early phase studies. New drug safety and efficacy can be assessed faster and more efficiently by using a nebulized formulation rather than developing an inhaler. The results of calculations of expected net present value showed that the new paradigm produced higher expected net present values than the conventional model over a range of economic scenarios. This new paradigm could therefore provide improved returns on investments, as well as more modern drugs in nebulized form for those patients unable to use inhalers. PMID:26475968

  20. Inhaled corticosteroids: hazardous effects on voice-an update.

    PubMed

    Gallivan, Gregory J; Gallivan, K Holly; Gallivan, Helen K

    2007-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have become the prevalent treatment in asthmatics. Hazards to voice are under-recognized. A total of 38 patients with voice complaints associated with the use of ICS were assessed by 79 strobovideolaryngoscopy (SVL) examinations, 24 single and 14 multiple SVL. Hoarseness and dysphonia were the primary reasons for referral. The ICS initially used most frequently was Advair Diskus (fluticasone propionate and salmeterol-inhalation powder-[IP]) in 22 patients, followed by Flovent (fluticasone propionate inhalation aerosol-pressurized metered-dose inhaler-[PMDI]) in 11. Duration of ICS usage varied from 2 weeks to 4-5 years. Higher dosage and frequency of use exacerbated problems. Hazards to voice previously unrecognized by real-time indirect mirror or fiberoptic laryngoscopy were identified by meticulous attention to SVL abnormalities. There was essentially no difference in occurrence of abnormalities whether analyzed from the perspective of the initial 38 or all 79 examinations. These included abnormal mucosal wave symmetry/periodicity (76-63%), phase closure (74-63%), glottic closure (63-59%), mucosal wave amplitude/magnitude (50-35%), supraglottic hyperactivity (39-25%), mucosal quality (34-34%), and glottic plane (10-5%). Candidiasis of the larynx was infrequently observed. Fluticasone ICS were a cause of steroid inhaler laryngitis, and the best treatment was their avoidance or cessation. Further prospective studies ideally might include SVL documented as a pretherapy baseline and then repeated in each ICS patient who developed hoarseness/dysphonia. PMID:16442776

  1. Universality in fragment inclusive yields from Au+Au collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insolia, A.; Tuvè, C.; Albergo, S.; Bieser, F.; Brady, F. P.; Caccia, Z.; Cebra, D.; Chacon, A. D.; Chance, J. L.; Choi, Y.; Costa, S.; Elliott, J. B.; Gilkes, M.; Hauger, J. A.; Hirsch, A. S.; Hjort, E. L.; Justice, M.; Keane, D.; Kintner, J.; Lisa, M.; Matis, H. S.; McMahan, M.; McParland, C.; Olson, D. L.; Partlan, M. D.; Porile, N. T.; Potenza, R.; Rai, G.; Rasmussen, J.; Ritter, H. G.; Romero, J. L.; Russo, G. V.; Scharenberg, R.; Scott, A.; Shao, Y.; Srivastava, B. K.; Symons, T. J. M.; Tincknell, M. L.; Wang, S.; Warren, P. G.; Wieman, H. H.; Wolf, K. L.

    2001-11-01

    The inclusive light fragment (Z⩽7) yield data in Au+Au reactions, measured by the EOS Collaboration at the LBNL Bevalac, are presented and discussed. For peripheral collisions the measured charge distributions develop progressively according to a power law which can be fitted by a single τ exponent independently of the bombarding energy in the range 250-1200 A MeV. In addition to this universal feature, we observe that the location of the maximum in the individual yields of different charged fragments shift towards lower multiplicity as the fragment charge increases from Z=3 to Z=7. This trend is common to all six measured beam energies. Moments of charge distributions and correlations among different moments are reported. Finally, the THe,DT thermometer has been constructed for central and peripheral collisions using the double yield ratios of He and D, T projectile fragments. The measured nuclear temperatures are in agreement with experimental findings in other fragmentation reactions.

  2. Global polarization measurement in Au+Au collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Abelev, B.I.; Adams, J.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett,J.; Anderson, B.D.; Anderson, M.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G.S.; Bai,Y.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Bhardwaj, S.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, S.-L.; Bonner, B.E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A.V.; Bravar, A.; Bystersky, M.; Cadman, R.V.; Cai,X.Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez, M.; Castillo, J.; Catu,O.; Cebra, D.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen,H.F.; Chen, J.H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Cosentino, M.R.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford,H.J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; Daugherity, M.; de Moura, M.M.; Dedovich, T.G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Djawotho,P.; Dogra, S.M.; Dong, W.J.; Dong, X.; Draper, J.E.; Du, F.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Dutta Mazumdar, M.R.; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov,L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch,E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti,M.S.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gonzalez, J.S.; Gorbunov, Y.G.; Gos,H.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S.M.; Guimaraes, K.S.F.F.; Guo,Y.; Gupta, N.; Gutierrez, T.D.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J.W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T.W.; Hepplemann, S.; Hippolyte,B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A.M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Horner, M.J.; Huang, H.Z.; Huang, S.L.; Hughes, E.W.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs,P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jakl, P.; Jia, F.; Jiang, H.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khodyrev,V.Yu.; Kim, B.C.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Kislov, E.M.; Klein,S.R.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D.D.; et al.

    2007-08-02

    The system created in non-central relativisticnucleus-nucleus collisions possesses large orbital angular momentum. Dueto spin-orbit coupling, particles produced in such a system could becomeglobally polarized along the direction of the system angular momentum. Wepresent the results of Lambda and anti-Lambda hyperon global polarizationmeasurements in Au+Au collisions at sqrt sNN=62.4 GeV and 200 GeVperformed with the STAR detector at RHIC. The observed globalpolarization of Lambda and anti-Lambda hyperons in the STAR acceptance isconsistent with zero within the precision of the measurements. Theobtained upper limit, lbar P Lambda, anti-Lambda rbar<= 0.02, iscompared to the theoretical values discussed recently in theliterature.

  3. Nuclear Modification of Jet Fragmentation in Au+Au Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan, Zachary; Phenix Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The characterization of energy in the quark gluon plasma is facilitated by measurements of modifications to the observed jet fragmentation. A favorable channel of study relies on direct photons created in the initial parton interactions of heavy ion collisions. Such a photon traverses the created medium unscathed and grants us a proxy for the transverse momentum of an away side jet. PHENIX Au+Au data recorded at √{sNN} = 200 GeV during RHIC run 14 benefit from the background rejection capability of the silicon vertex detector, enabling the extraction of a higher purity hadron signal. This advantage, combined with a larger integrated luminosity, allows previous PHENIX measurements of fragmentation functions to be extended to greater jet energies. In this talk, the status of the analysis of direct photon hadron correlations with the new data set will be discussed.

  4. Global polarization measurement in Au+Au collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, Y.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L. S.; Baudot, J.; Baumgart, S.; Belaga, V. V.; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Betts, R. R.; Bhardwaj, S.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Blyth, S.-L.; Bombara, M.; Bonner, B. E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Burton, T. P.; Bystersky, M.; Cai, X. Z.; Caines, H.; Sánchez, M. Calderón De La Barca; Callner, J.; Catu, O.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, J. Y.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chung, S. U.; Clarke, R. F.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Coffin, J. P.; Cormier, T. M.; Cosentino, M. R.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, D.; Dash, S.; Daugherity, M.; Moura, M. M. De; Dedovich, T. G.; Dephillips, M.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Djawotho, P.; Dogra, S. M.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, F.; Dunin, V. B.; Dunlop, J. C.; Mazumdar, M. R. Dutta; Edwards, W. R.; Efimov, L. G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, A.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti, M. S.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gorbunov, Y. N.; Gos, H.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Grube, B.; Guertin, S. M.; Guimaraes, K. S. F. F.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, N.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T. J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J. W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T. W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A. M.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Horner, M. J.; Huang, H. Z.; Hughes, E. W.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Iordanova, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jakl, P.; Jones, P. G.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kettler, D.; Khodyrev, V. Yu.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Kislov, E. M.; Klein, S. R.; Knospe, A. G.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kopytine, M.; Kotchenda, L.; Kouchpil, V.; Kowalik, K. L.; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V. I.; Krueger, K.; Kuhn, C.; Kulikov, A. I.; Kumar, A.; Kurnadi, P.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Lange, S.; Lapointe, S.; Laue, F.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, C.-H.; Lehocka, S.; Levine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, Q.; Li, Y.; Lin, G.; Lin, X.; Lindenbaum, S. J.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Liu, H.; Liu, J.; Liu, L.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Longacre, R. S.; Love, W. A.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, T.; Lynn, D.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, J. G.; Ma, Y. G.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Mangotra, L. K.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Martin, L.; Matis, H. S.; Matulenko, Yu. A.; McShane, T. S.; Meschanin, A.; Millane, J.; Miller, M. L.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mischke, A.; Mitchell, J.; Mohanty, B.; Morozov, D. A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nandi, B. K.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nepali, C.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Nogach, L. V.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okorokov, V.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Pal, S. K.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pavlinov, A. I.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Phatak, S. C.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Porile, N.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Potekhin, M.; Potrebenikova, E.; Potukuchi, B. V. K. S.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Qattan, I. A.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Relyea, D.; Ridiger, A.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Rose, A.; Roy, C.; Ruan, L.; Russcher, M. J.; Sahoo, R.; Sakrejda, I.; Sakuma, T.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarsour, M.; Sazhin, P. S.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shabetai, A.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shen, W. Q.; Shimanskiy, S. S.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R. N.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Speltz, J.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stadnik, A.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Staszak, D.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Suarez, M. C.; Subba, N. L.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Symons, T. J. M.; Toledo, A. Szanto De; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Timoshenko, S.; Tokarev, M.; Trainor, T. A.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tsai, O. D.; Ulery, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Buren, G. Van; Kolk, N. Van Der; Leeuwen, M. Van; Molen, A. M. Vander; Varma, R.; Vasilevski, I. M.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vernet, R.; Vigdor, S. E.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Wada, M.; Waggoner, W. T.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; , C. Whitten, Jr.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, J.; Wu, Y.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yue, Q.; Yurevich, V. I.; Zawisza, M.; Zhan, W.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, W. M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, Y.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, J.; Zoulkarneev, R.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zubarev, A. N.; Zuo, J. X.

    2007-08-01

    The system created in noncentral relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions possesses large orbital angular momentum. Because of spin-orbit coupling, particles produced in such a system could become globally polarized along the direction of the system angular momentum. We present the results of Λ and Λ¯ hyperon global polarization measurements in Au+Au collisions at sNN=62.4 and 200 GeV performed with the STAR detector at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The observed global polarization of Λ and Λ¯ hyperons in the STAR acceptance is consistent with zero within the precision of the measurements. The obtained upper limit, |PΛ,Λ¯|⩽0.02, is compared with the theoretical values discussed recently in the literature.

  5. Comparison of combination inhalers vs inhaled corticosteroids alone in moderate persistent asthma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daniel K C; Jackson, Catherine M; Currie, Graeme P; Cockburn, Wendy J; Lipworth, Brian J

    2003-01-01

    Aims Inhalers combining long acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists (LABA) and corticosteroids (ICS) are indicated at Step 3 of current asthma guidelines. We evaluated the relative effects of LABA + ICS combination vs ICS alone on pulmonary function, bronchoprotection, acute salbutamol recovery following methacholine bronchial challenge, and surrogate inflammatory markers in patients with moderate persistent asthma. Methods Twenty-nine patients with mean FEV1 (± SEM) of 78 ± 3% predicted completed a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, cross-over study. Patients received either 4 weeks of budesonide 400 µg + formoterol 12 µg (BUD + FM) combination twice daily followed by 1 week of BUD 400 µg alone twice daily, or 4 weeks of fluticasone propionate 250 µg + salmeterol 50 µg (FP + SM) combination twice daily followed by 1 week of FP 250 µg alone twice daily. Measurements were made at baseline and following each randomized treatment. Results FEV1 increase from pretreatment baseline as mean (± SEM) % predicted was significantly higher (P < 0.05) for BUD + FM (8 ± 1%) vs BUD (2 ± 1%), and for FP + SM (8 ± 1%) vs FP (2 ± 1%). The fall in FEV1 following methacholine challenge as percentage change from prechallenge baseline FEV1 was not significantly different in all four groups; BUD + FM (22 ± 1%), BUD (24 ± 1%), FP + SM (23 ± 1%) and FP (23 ± 1%). Salbutamol recovery over 30 min following methacholine challenge as area under curve (AUC %.min) was significantly blunted (P < 0.05) with BUD + FM (486.7 ± 35.5) vs BUD (281.1 ± 52.8), and with FP + SM (553.1 ± 34.1) vs FP (368.3 ± 46.7). There were no significant differences between respective combination inhalers or between respective ICS alone. Decreases in exhaled nitric oxide (NO) and serum eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) from baseline were not significantly different between treatments. Conclusions Combination inhalers improve pulmonary function without potentiating anti-inflammatory effects on

  6. Historic macrophyte development in Par Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, J.B.

    1985-08-01

    Aerial photographs from 1975, 1980, and 1983 were examined to evaluate the changes that have occurred in the wetland vegetation of Par Pond, a reactor-cooling reservoir. Evaluation of the aerial photographs was based on comparisons with ground-level vegetation maps made during July 1984. Comparisons of photographs from August and December of 1983 revealed the main seasonal change in the aerial coverage of wetland vegetation to be the wintertime loss of non-persistent emergent species such as Nelumbo lutea and Nymphaea odorata. Comparisons between September 1980 and August 1983 revealed that the lakeward extent of non-persistent macrophytes has increased by an average of 8.2 m, though not all sites have changed equally. For persistent macrophytes (principally Typha), the average increase in lakeward extent between December 1975 and August 1983 was 3.48 m. The extensive development of wetland vegetation in Par Pond as well as the substantial spread of vegetation over only a few years time indicates the high suitability of this habitat for the growth of wetland plants.

  7. A Par-1-Par-3-Centrosome Cell Polarity Pathway and Its Tuning for Isotropic Cell Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; McKinley, R F Andrew; McGill, Melanie A; Angers, Stephane; Harris, Tony J C

    2015-10-19

    To form regulated barriers between body compartments, epithelial cells polarize into apical and basolateral domains and assemble adherens junctions (AJs). Despite close links with polarity networks that generate single polarized domains, AJs distribute isotropically around the cell circumference for adhesion with all neighboring cells [1-3]. How AJs avoid the influence of polarity networks to maintain their isotropy has been unclear. In established epithelia, trans cadherin interactions could maintain AJ isotropy [4], but AJs are dynamic during epithelial development and remodeling [5, 6], and thus specific mechanisms may control their isotropy. In Drosophila, aPKC prevents hyper-polarization of junctions as epithelia develop from cellularization to gastrulation [7]. Here, we show that aPKC does so by inhibiting a positive feedback loop between Bazooka (Baz)/Par-3, a junctional organizer [5, 8-10], and centrosomes. Without aPKC, Baz and centrosomes lose their isotropic distributions and recruit each other to single plasma membrane (PM) domains. Surprisingly, our loss- and gain-of-function analyses show that the Baz-centrosome positive feedback loop is driven by Par-1, a kinase known to phosphorylate Baz and inhibit its basolateral localization [8, 11, 12]. We find that Par-1 promotes the positive feedback loop through both centrosome microtubule effects and Baz phosphorylation. Normally, aPKC attenuates the circuit by expelling Par-1 from the apical domain at gastrulation. The combination of local activation and global inhibition is a common polarization strategy [13-16]. Par-1 seems to couple both effects for a potent Baz polarization mechanism that is regulated for the isotropy of Baz and AJs around the cell circumference. PMID:26455305

  8. 2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

  9. Écologie des soins de santé au Canada

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Moira; Ryan, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter un profil populationnel pancanadien des besoins en soins de santé et de leur utilisation, facile d’accès et permettant des comparaisons entre les provinces et avec d’autres instances internationales. Conception Une comparaison des taux d’utilisation des soins de santé entre les provinces en utilisant des données d’enquêtes et des renseignements administratifs sur la santé. Contexte Les provinces du Canada. Principaux paramètres à l’étude Les taux canadiens et provinciaux de personnes en mauvaise santé (présence de problèmes chroniques) et d’utilisation des soins de santé (contacts avec des médecins de famille, avec d’autres médecins spécialistes, avec des infirmières et hospitalisations) sous forme de proportions mensuelles par 1000 habitants normalisées en fonction de l’âge et du genre. Résultats La proportion mensuelle par 1000 habitants de personnes souffrant d’au moins 1 problème chronique variait de 524 au Québec à 638 en Nouvelle-Écosse; les contacts avec un médecin de famille se situaient entre 158 au Québec et 295 en Colombie-Britannique; les contacts avec d’autres médecins spécialistes variaient entre 53 en Saskatchewan et 79 en Ontario; et le nombre de contacts avec des infirmières se situait entre 23 en Colombie-Britannique et 41 au Québec. Le nombre de séjours à l’hôpital variait entre 8 et 11 par 1000 habitants et les proportions étaient semblables d’une province à l’autre. Conclusion Il est essentiel de reconnaître les distinctions entre les provinces pour éclairer les politiques sur la santé dans l’ensemble du pays. Les différences persistaient lorsque les taux étaient normalisés en fonction de la composition démographique variable selon l’âge et le genre dans les provinces. Cet article présente une méthodologie simple à l’aide de données publiquement accessibles qui peut servir dans chaque province à examiner, à l’avenir, l

  10. d + Au hadron correlation measurements at PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Anne M. Sickles

    2014-05-13

    In these proceedings, we discuss recent results from d + Au collisions in PHENIX ridge related measurements and their possible hydrodynamic origin. We present the v2 at midrapidity and measurements of the pseudorapidity dependence of the ridge, distinguishing between the d-going and Au-going directions. We investigate the possible geometrical origin by comparing v2 in d + Au to that in p + Pb, Au + Au and Pb + Pb collisions. Future plans to clarify the role of geometry in small collision systems at RHIC are discussed.

  11. Traitement chirurgical des fractures articulaires du calcanéum par plaque vissée

    PubMed Central

    Hammou, Nassreddine; Abid, Hatim; Shimi, Mohammed; El Ibrahimi, Abdelhalim; El Mrini, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Les fractures du calcanéum sont peu fréquentes mais le plus souvent graves. Le traitement chirurgical par plaque vissée est ardemment défendu. L'objectif de notre travail rétrospectif est d’évaluer les résultats du traitement chirurgical des fractures articulaires du calcanéum à travers une série de 12 patients opérée aux service d'orthopédie du CHU Hassan II de Fès sur une durée de 3 ans, et les comparer aux données de la littérature. L’âge moyen dans notre série était de 34 ans, le geste opératoire était réalisé au 7ème jour. Tous nos patient ont bénéficie d'une réduction à foyer ouvert avec une ostéosynthèse par plaques vissées. Le recul moyen était de 12 mois et les résultats fonctionnels ont été évaluer selon le score de Kitaoka. PMID:26161214

  12. Infection par le virus de l’hépatite E durant la grossesse

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Shahnaz A.; Verma, Natasha; Koren, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question Plusieurs de mes patientes sont originaires de l’Asie du Sud-Est où le virus de l’hépatite E est assez commun. Quelles précautions puis-je leur suggérer de prendre avant de voyager dans cette région et quels sont les risques d’une infection par le VHE durant la grossesse? Réponse L’hépatite E est un pathogène présent dans l’eau qui se transmet par voie oro-fécale. Afin de réduire le risque de contracter le VHE lors de voyages dans des régions endémiques, il est important de maintenir des pratiques d’hygiène telles que se laver les mains avec de l’eau potable, particulièrement avant de manipuler de la nourriture, éviter de boire de l’eau ou d’utiliser des glaçons de pureté inconnue et ne pas manger de fruits ou de légumes non pelés. Actuellement, il n’existe aucun vaccin disponible au Canada pour le VHE. Une infection à l’hépatite E durant la grossesse, surtout durant le troisième trimestre, se caractérise par une infection plus sévère qui se transforme parfois en hépatite fulminante, augmentant ainsi les risques de mortalité et de morbidité maternelles et fœtales.

  13. [Evaluations of a specified number of inhalations and how to assess the contents in metered-dose inhalers].

    PubMed

    Obata, T; Fujikawa, M; Obata, Y; Obata, J

    1996-10-01

    Many kinds of Metered-Dose Inhalers (MDI) have been clinically available for bronchial asthma. Although manufacturers demonstrate the specified number of inhalations per canister on an attached document or on a plastic bag, the information provided are usually inadequate and inconsistent. They provide no information on the problems of the Metered-Dose Inhalers beyond the maximum specified number of actuations and the time when to exchange for a new one. We examined the technique how to evaluate the contents of MDI and their accuracy. Patients and their parents depended on inaccurate methods, such as shaking the inhalers to listen to the sound of contents, estimating the weight of the canisters and the size of emissions, and only a half of them were able to distinguish between 1/3 and 2/ 3 of remaining doses. Three Metered-Dose Inhalers with anti-inflammatory drugs and one MDI with beta-stimulant supplied consistent doses until they reached the maximum specified number. The 4 MDIs floated in the water in different ways and provided information when to replace for new ones in some MDIs. PMID:8958655

  14. Inhaled treprostinil for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Poms, Abby; Kingman, Martha

    2011-12-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disease characterized by vascular proliferation and vasoconstriction of the small pulmonary arteries that eventually leads to right-sided heart failure and death. Patients often initially have symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and edema; later in the disease, presyncope and syncope are common. Patients with progressive pulmonary arterial hypertension despite oral therapy and/or with severe disease typically require treatment with a prostanoid. Inhaled treprostinil (Tyvaso) is a prostacyclin analog indicated for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension to increase walk distance in patients with symptoms classified as New York Heart Association functional class III. Inhaled treprostinil was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in July 2009. This article provides a brief overview of the pathophysiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension and reviews the mechanism of action, key clinical data, and the practical management of inhaled treprostinil in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. PMID:22135338

  15. Chronic inhalation of marijuana and tobacco in dogs: pulmonary pathology.

    PubMed

    Roy, P E; Magnan-Lapointe, F; Huy, N D; Boutet, M

    1976-06-01

    The pulmonary effects of chronic marijuana (M) and tobacco (T) smoke inhalation were studied in adult female dogs. The smoke was inhaled through a tracheostomy tube: four cigarettes containing either tobacco (3.2 g/dog) or marijuana (3.0 g/dog) were used per day over 900 days. At autopsy, the pulmonary volume and alveolar surface of the T group had decreased, compared to controls (C) and the M group. The tracheostomy (Tr) produced itself result in chiolitis; in order of severity the M group greater than T greater than Tr greater than C. The incidence of squamous metaplasia also followed this order but the T group showed more abnormalities affecting the mucosal membrane. Our findings reported that chronic inhalation of marijuana and tobacco produced the bronchiolitis with the macrophage infiltration in the wall of the terminal air-passages. This may thereafter induce the pulmonary emphysema. PMID:940962

  16. Allergic inhalant dermatitis attributable to marijuana exposure in a dog.

    PubMed

    Evans, A G

    1989-12-01

    Exposure to marijuana was believed to be responsible for clinical signs consistent with allergic inhalant dermatitis in a dog. The dog had facial and pedal pruritus associated with bilateral ocular discharge. Clinical signs resolved when the dog was kenneled, but returned when the dog was returned to its home. The results of intradermal skin testing, using a standard tray of 51 inhalant extracts, did not adequately account for the dog's clinical signs. Later, the owners indicated that previous residents of the owners' home had cultivated marijuana intensively inside and outside of the home. Intradermal skin testing with a source of marijuana pollen extract was performed, yielding a positive reaction in the dog and a negative reaction in another dog without clinical or historical evidence of allergic inhalant dermatitis. The affected dog was treated successfully and exclusively by hyposensitization with marijuana pollen extract. PMID:2599943

  17. Inhaled chemotherapy in lung cancer: future concept of nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Chatzaki, Ekaterini; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Domvri, Kalliopi; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Goldberg, Eugene P; Karamanos, Nikos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Regional chemotherapy was first used for lung cancer 30 years ago. Since then, new methods of drug delivery and pharmaceuticals have been investigated in vitro, and in animals and humans. An extensive review of drug delivery systems, pharmaceuticals, patient monitoring, methods of enhancing inhaled drug deposition, safety and efficacy, and also additional applications of inhaled chemotherapy and its advantages and disadvantages are presented. Regional chemotherapy to the lung parenchyma for lung cancer is feasible and efficient. Safety depends on the chemotherapy agent delivered to the lungs and is dose-dependent and time-dependent. Further evaluation is needed to provide data regarding early lung cancer stages, and whether regional chemotherapy can be used as neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment. Finally, inhaled chemotherapy could one day be administered at home with fewer systemic adverse effects. PMID:22619512

  18. Inhaled formulations and pulmonary drug delivery systems for respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Leung, Sharon Shui Yee; Tang, Patricia; Parumasivam, Thaigarajan; Loh, Zhi Hui; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2015-05-01

    Respiratory infections represent a major global health problem. They are often treated by parenteral administrations of antimicrobials. Unfortunately, systemic therapies of high-dose antimicrobials can lead to severe adverse effects and this calls for a need to develop inhaled formulations that enable targeted drug delivery to the airways with minimal systemic drug exposure. Recent technological advances facilitate the development of inhaled anti-microbial therapies. The newer mesh nebulisers have achieved minimal drug residue, higher aerosolisation efficiencies and rapid administration compared to traditional jet nebulisers. Novel particle engineering and intelligent device design also make dry powder inhalers appealing for the delivery of high-dose antibiotics. In view of the fact that no new antibiotic entities against multi-drug resistant bacteria have come close to commercialisation, advanced formulation strategies are in high demand for combating respiratory 'super bugs'. PMID:25451137

  19. Inhaled aerosol particle dosimetry in mice: a review.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Loyda B; Gookin, Glenn; Phalen, Robert F

    2010-10-01

    The availability of molecular and genetic tools has made the mouse the most common animal model for a variety of human diseases in toxicology studies. However, little is known about the factors that will influence the dose delivery to murine lungs during an inhalation study. Among these factors are the respiratory tract anatomy, lung physiology, and clearance characteristics. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to briefly review the current knowledge on the aforementioned factors in mice and their implications to the dose delivered to mouse models during inhalation studies. Representative scientific publications were chosen from searches using the NCBI PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge databases. Relevant respiratory physiological differences have been widely reported for different mouse strains and sexes. The limited data on anatomical morphometry that is available for the murine respiratory tract indicates significant differences between mouse strains. These differences have implications to the dose delivered and the biological outcomes of inhalation studies. PMID:20879957

  20. Inhaled aerosol particle dosimetry in mice: a review.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Loyda B; Gookin, Glenn; Phalen, Robert F

    2010-12-01

    The availability of molecular and genetic tools has made the mouse the most common animal model for a variety of human diseases in toxicology studies. However, little is known about the factors that will influence the dose delivery to murine lungs during an inhalation study. Among these factors are the respiratory tract anatomy, lung physiology, and clearance characteristics. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to briefly review the current knowledge on the aforementioned factors in mice and their implications to the dose delivered to mouse models during inhalation studies. Representative scientific publications were chosen from searches using the NCBI PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge databases. Relevant respiratory physiological differences have been widely reported for different mouse strains and sexes. The limited data on anatomical morphometry that is available for the murine respiratory tract indicates significant differences between mouse strains. These differences have implications to the dose delivered and the biological outcomes of inhalation studies. PMID:21142796

  1. Adolescents and inhalant abuse: how huffing affects the myelin sheath.

    PubMed

    Baird, Carolyn A; Furek, Maxim W

    2012-05-01

    As concern grows over the impact that accidental chemical exposures may have on the long term health of individuals, our young people are deliberately exposing themselves to the effect of neurotoxic chemicals with the intent of feeling high. Over time the result of inhaling these chemicals is often the development of symptoms and behavior that may suggest serious physiological damage. Research is being conducted to examine what the exact nature of the damage might be, especially the impact of inhaled lipophilic chemicals on structures in the brain and other parts of the nervous system. Healthcare professionals responsible for assessing adolescents in all settings need to be aware of the prevalence of inhalant abuse, as well as the chemicals, terminology, and potential symptomatology in order to intervene in the behavior and provide diagnosis and treatment as indicated. Some implications for nursing are included. PMID:22471781

  2. Inhalation carcinogenicity of dichloromethane in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Aiso, Shigetoshi; Take, Makoto; Kasai, Tatsuya; Senoh, Hideki; Umeda, Yumi; Matsumoto, Michiharu; Fukushima, Shoji

    2014-07-01

    The carcinogenicity of inhaled dichloromethane (DCM) was examined by exposing groups of 50 F344/DuCrj rats and 50 Crj: BDF1 mice of both sexes to 0, 1000, 2000, or 4000 ppm (w/w) DCM-containing aerosol for 2 years. Inhalation of DCM resulted in increased incidences of subcutis fibromas, mammary gland fibroadenoma, and peritoneum mesotheliomas in male rats; mammary gland fibroadenomas in female rats; and bronchiolar-alveolar adenomas and carcinomas in the lung and hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in male and female mice. These results clearly indicate that inhaled DCM is carcinogenic in F344/DuCrj (SPF) rats and Crj: BDF1 (SPF) mice. PMID:24909451

  3. Particulate oil shale inhalation and pulmonary inflammatory response in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.S.; Holland, L.M.; Halleck, M.S.; Martinez, E.; Saunders, G.

    1983-01-01

    This experiment detrimetal that long-term inhalation of shale dusts by rats elicits a limited inflammatory response in the lung less profound than that observed in animals exposed to equivalent levels of quartz alone. This observation suggests that organic and inorganic constituents of shale may provide a protective effect. The implications for fibrogenic disease are two-fold: (1) inhalation of oil shale dusts appeared to be less detriemtal than the inhalation of quartz along, and (2) there was no apparent synergistic action of quartz and the complex of organic materials present in shale. Animals exposed to shale dusts failed to develop any significant lung lesions, while all of the animals exposed to quartz developed granulomas and some frank fibrosis.

  4. Emerging inhalation aerosol devices and strategies: where are we headed?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Tang, Patricia; Leung, Sharon Shui Yee; Chan, John Gar Yan; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2014-08-01

    Novel inhaled therapeutics including antibiotics, vaccines and anti-hypertensives, have led to innovations in designing suitable delivery systems. These emerging design technologies are in urgent demand to ensure high aerosolisation performance, consistent efficacy and satisfactory patient adherence. Recent vibrating-mesh and software technologies have resulted in nebulisers that have remarkably accurate dosing and portability. Alternatively, dry powder inhalers (DPIs) have become highly favourable for delivering high-dose and single-dose drugs with the aid of advanced particle engineering. In contrast, innovations are needed to overcome the technical constrains in drug-propellant incompatibility and delivering high-dose drugs with pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs). This review discusses recent and emerging trends in pulmonary drug delivery systems. PMID:24732364

  5. Lactose Engineering for Better Performance in Dry Powder Inhalers

    PubMed Central

    Rahimpour, Yahya; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    Dry powder inhaler (DPI) is generally formulated as a powder mixture of coarse carrier particles and micronized drug with aerodynamic diameters of 1-5 μm. Carrier particles are used to improve drug particle flowability, thus improving dosing accuracy, minimizing the dose variability compared with drug alone and making them easier to handle during manufacturing operations. Lactose is the most common and frequently used carrier in DPIs formulations and nowadays various inhalation grades of lactose with different physico-chemical properties are available on the market. Therefore, the purpose of this manuscript is to review evolution of lactose as a carrier in inhalable formulations, their production and the impact of its physico-chemical properties on drug dispersion. This review offers a perspective on the current reported studies to modify lactose for better performance in DPIs. PMID:24312791

  6. A Simple and Disposable Sampler for Inhalable Aerosol.

    PubMed

    L'Orange, Christian; Anderson, Kimberly; Sleeth, Darrah; Anthony, T Renée; Volckens, John

    2016-03-01

    The state-of-the-art for personal sampling for inhalable aerosol hazards is constrained by issues of sampler cost and complexity; these issues have limited the adoption and use of some samplers by practicing hygienists. Thus, despite the known health effects of inhalable aerosol hazards, personal exposures are routinely assessed for only a small fraction of the at-risk workforce. To address the limitations of current technologies for inhalable aerosol sampling, a disposable inhalable aerosol sampler was developed and evaluated in the laboratory. The new sampler is designed to be less expensive and simpler to use than existing technologies. The sampler incorporates a lightweight internal capsule fused to the sampling filter. This capsule-filter assembly allows for the inclusion of particles deposited on the internal walls and inlet, thus minimizing the need to wash or wipe the interior sampling cassette when conducting gravimetric analyses. Sampling efficiency and wall losses were tested in a low-velocity wind tunnel with particles ranging from 9.5 to 89.5 μm. The results were compared to the proposed low-velocity inhalability criterion as well as published data on the IOM sampler. Filter weight stability and time-to-equilibrium were evaluated as these factors affect the practicality of a design. Preliminary testing of the new sampler showed good agreement with both the IOM and the proposed low-velocity inhalability curve. The capsule and filter assemblies reached equilibrium within 25h of manufacturing when conditioned at elevated temperatures. After reaching equilibrium, the capsule-filter assemblies were stable within 0.01mg. PMID:26467335

  7. Inhalation a significant exposure route for chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Schreder, Erika D; Uding, Nancy; La Guardia, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    Chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants (ClOPFRs) are widely used as additive flame retardants in consumer products including furniture, children's products, building materials, and textiles. Tests of indoor media in homes, offices, and other environments have shown these compounds are released from products and have become ubiquitous indoor pollutants. In house dust samples from Washington State, U.S.A., ClOPFRs were the flame retardants detected in the highest concentrations. Two ClOPFRs, tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCPP or TDCIPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP), have been designated as carcinogens, and there is growing concern about the toxicity of the homologue tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TCPP or TCIPP). In response to concerns about exposure to these compounds, the European Union and a number of U.S. states have taken regulatory action to restrict their use in certain product categories. To better characterize exposure to ClOPFRs, inhalation exposure was assessed using active personal air samplers in Washington State with both respirable and inhalable particulate fractions collected to assess the likelihood particles penetrate deep into the lungs. Concentrations of ∑ClOPFRs (respirable and inhalable) ranged from 97.1 to 1190 ng m(-3) (mean 426 ng m(-3)), with TCPP detected at the highest concentrations. In general, higher levels were detected in the inhalable particulate fraction. Total intake of ClOPFRs via the inhalation exposure route was estimated to exceed intake via dust ingestion, indicating that inhalation is an important route that should be taken into consideration in assessments of these compounds. PMID:26775187

  8. AFREZZA® (insulin human) Inhalation Powder: A Review in Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Esther S; Plosker, Greg L

    2015-09-01

    Afrezza® (insulin human) inhalation powder is a rapid-acting Technosphere® insulin (TI) administered via a breath-powered oral inhaler to patients with diabetes requiring prandial insulin. TI, a dry powdered formulation of recombinant human insulin adsorbed onto a proprietary carrier, is designed to deliver insulin to the deep lung, at the level of the alveoli, where it is absorbed into the systemic circulation. In a randomized, open-label, multinational, phase III trial (trial 171) in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) patients, prandial TI via the Gen2 inhaler provided noninferior glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) lowering compared with prandial subcutaneous insulin aspart. Although TI was associated with less HbA1c lowering, it provided significantly lower fasting plasma glucose levels and significantly less hypoglycaemia and bodyweight gain compared with insulin aspart. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational, phase III trial (trial 175) in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients, prandial TI via the Gen2 inhaler provided superior HbA1c lowering compared with inhaled placebo. Cough was the most commonly occurring non-hypoglycaemia adverse event across both studies. In a pooled analysis of tolerability data from phase II and III studies, the most commonly occurring non-hypoglycaemia adverse events in T1DM and T2DM patients were cough and throat pain/irritation. However, cough was generally mild, dry and decreased over time. In addition, treatment with TI was associated with positive patient-reported outcomes. Insulin human inhalation powder is an effective and generally well-tolerated agent for the prandial treatment of hyperglycaemia in T1DM and T2DM patients and may provide a solution to insulin initiation barriers such as injection phobia, concerns of bodyweight gain and concerns of hypoglycaemia. PMID:26384673

  9. Cometary Activity Beyond 4 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womack, M.

    2000-10-01

    Recent observations of the distantly active comets 29 P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, 2060 Chiron, and C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) are consistent with models that predict that the activity beyond 4 AU is dominated by outgassing of CO and CO2 molecules trapped in an amorphous water ice surface undergoing crystallization. The nominal CO production rates in Hale-Bopp, SW 1 and Chiron over the range of r = 4 to 9 AU are consistent with Q(CO) = (2.9+/-0.5)x1030r{(-2.5 +/- 0.1)}, with sporadic outbursts superimposed. The data indicate that the gas production rates in distant comets are primarily determined by the composition, and not the size, of the nucleus. The dust production rates, however, are very different among these comets and are not well-correlated with heliocentric distance. Thus, the gas and dust mixtures may not be uniform amongst these comets, nor in an individual comet. Development and sublimation of an icy grain coma at ~ 5 AU appears to be a common feature in distantly active comets. Sublimation of such icy grains is probably the main source of emission of OH, CH3OH, HCN, and H2S in comets beyond 4 AU. Studying the energetics of these phenomena provides an excellent opportunity to learn more about the composition and physical behavior of comet nuclei, as well as other icy bodies in the outer solar system, such as moons and Kuiper Belt Objects. This work was funded by the NSF CAREER Program.

  10. Profil épidémiologique de l'infection à VIH au cours d'une campagne de sensibilisation à Yaoundé au Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Mbopi-Keou, Francois-Xavier; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kalla, Ginette Claude Mireille; Viche, Lade; Noubom, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer le profil épidémiologique de l'infection à VIH/SIDA au cours d'une campagne de sensibilisation à Yaoundé au Cameroun. Méthodes Après avoir obtenu le consentement éclairé des participants, le dépistage de l'infection par le VIH a été effectué selon l'algorithme de dépistage en série de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS). En outre, un questionnaire socio-comportemental a été proposé à chaque participant. Résultats Au total, 911 personnes ont été dépistées. La prévalence de l'infection par le VIH était de 2.6%. Elle était 3 fois plus élevée parmi les femmes (RC = 3.22, IC (1.26 - 8.18). Les prévalences les plus élevées ont été observées chez les personnes de plus de 45 ans (p = 0.01), les personnes sans emploi (p < 0.001) et les veufs/veuves (p = 0.02). Plus de 80% des participants trouvaient le test de dépistage nécessaire et 76,2% l'avaient déjà effectué au moins une fois auparavant. Il s'agissait principalement de femmes (p = 0.02), d'étudiants (p < 0.001) et des personnes âgées de 25 à 34 ans (p < 0.001). Les personnes séropositives avaient moins tendance à retirer leur résultat (p = 0.01). Conclusion Il apparait urgent d'intensifier les campagnes de dépistage de l'infection par le VIH en ciblant davantage des groupes particuliers tels que les élèves, les personnes âgées et les veufs/veuves, tout en recherchant les facteurs pouvant favoriser la propagation de l'infection dans ces groupes. PMID:24255725

  11. CONVOLUTION APPROACH TO EVALUATING INTAKE DISTRIBUTIONS FOR INHALED PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE FOR THE STOCHASTIC INTAKE PARADIGM

    EPA Science Inventory

    For airborne toxic particles, the stochastic intake (SI) paradigm involves relativelylow numbers of particles that are presented for inhalation. Each person at risk may inhale adifferent number of particles, including zero particles. For such exposure scenarios, probabilistic d...

  12. Bronchoscopy-Derived Correlates of Lung Injury Following Inhalational Injuries: A Prospective Obervational Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major factor determining morbidity following burns and inhalational injury. In experimental models, factors potentially contributing to ALI risk include inhalation of toxins directly causing cell damage; inflammation; and infection. However, few studi...

  13. The subacute inhalation toxicity of 109 industrial chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Gage, J. C.

    1970-01-01

    Gage, J. C. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 1-18. The subacute inhalation toxicity of 109 industrial chemicals. The inhalation toxicity of 109 substances has been studied by exposing experimental animals to known concentrations in air for periods of about three weeks. The toxic properties of these substances are reviewed in relation to the effects of similar compounds on animals and on man. Provisional operational limits are suggested to assist in the design of new plant and in the establishment of codes for safe manufacturing practice. PMID:5418916

  14. Inhaled insulin--a new delivery for an old drug.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2015-01-01

    Rates of diabetes continue to rise in the United States. It's estimated that more than 25 million people in the United States currently have either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Insulin is the mainstay of treatment, and a new delivery option is available. In 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Afrezza® inhalation powder, a rapid-acting inhaled form of human insulin, to treat diabetes in adults. This article will provide an overview of the Afrezza system, indications for use, adverse reactions and implications for nurses who work with women with diabetes. PMID:25690817

  15. When bioterrorism strikes: diagnosis and management of inhalational anthrax.

    PubMed

    Shafazand, Shirin

    2003-09-01

    In October and November, 2001, reports of patients with inhalational anthrax reacquainted the public with this ancient disease and introduced the harsh reality of a bioterrorist act. Bacillus anthracis, a rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium, primarily infects herbivores. Humans traditionally have acquired the disease from occupational or agricultural exposure to infected animals and animal products. Recent events saw the intentional release of anthrax spores, using the U.S. postal system as an unlikely and unwilling agent. Cutaneous disease, pulmonary disease, and gastrointestinal anthrax are the known clinical manifestations of anthrax. Inhalational anthrax has the highest mortality and is the main focus of this report. PMID:14505276

  16. Transcriptome profiling reveals links between ParS/ParR, MexEF-OprN, and quorum sensing in the regulation of adaptation and virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ParS/ParR two component regulatory system plays critical roles for multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It was demonstrated that in the presence of antimicrobials, ParR enhances bacterial survival by distinct mechanisms including activation of the mexXY efflux genes, enhancement of lipopolysaccharide modification through the arn operon, and reduction of the expression of oprD porin. Results In this study, we report on transcriptomic analyses of P. aeruginosa PAO1 wild type and parS and parR mutants growing in a defined minimal medium. Our transcriptomic analysis provides the first estimates of transcript abundance for the 5570 coding genes in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Comparative transcriptomics of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and par mutants identified a total of 464 genes regulated by ParS and ParR. Results also showed that mutations in the parS/parR system abolished expression of the mexEF-oprN operon by down-regulating the regulatory gene mexS. In addition to the known effects on drug resistance genes, transcript abundances of the quorum sensing genes (rhlIR and pqsABCDE-phnAB) were higher in both parS and parR mutants. In accordance with these results, a significant portion of the ParS/ParR regulated genes belonged to the MexEF-OprN and quorum sensing regulons. Deletion of the par genes also led to increased phenazine production and swarming motility, consistent with the up-regulation of the phenazine and rhamnolipid biosynthetic genes, respectively. Conclusion Our results link the ParS/ParR two component signal transduction system to MexEF-OprN and quorum sensing systems in P. aeruginosa. These results expand our understanding of the roles of the ParS/ParR system in the regulation of gene expression in P. aeruginosa, especially in the absence of antimicrobials. PMID:24034668

  17. La prévention de l’infection par le virus respiratoire syncytial

    PubMed Central

    Samson, L

    2009-01-01

    L’infection par le virus respiratoire syncytial (VRS) est la principale cause d’infection des voies respiratoires inférieures chez les jeunes enfants et pour cette raison, bon nombre des prématurés et des enfants présentant d’autres facteurs de risque doivent être hospitalisés chaque année au Canada. Le palivizumab, un anticorps monoclonal anti-VRS, peut réduire le taux d’hospitalisation et la gravité de la maladie d’un petit groupe de prématurés ou de nourrissons à haut risque pendant leur première saison de VRS. Le présent document de principes contient une analyse des publications ainsi que des recommandations à l’intention des médecins canadiens au sujet de son utilisation chez les prématurés et les autres nourrissons à risque.

  18. A double-blind comparison between a new multidose powder inhaler (Turbuhaler) and metered dose inhaler in children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Hultquist, C; Ahlström, H; Kjellman, N I; Malmqvist, L A; Svenonius, E; Melin, S

    1989-09-01

    Turbuhaler is a ready-loaded multiple dose inhaler which does not require co-ordination between release of dose and inhalation. 57 children with asthma participated in this clinical trial to compare the clinical effect and acceptance of terbutaline sulphate via Turbuhaler with that of metered dose inhaler (MDI). The trial consisted of two parts. In the first part of the study, which made use of a double-blind cross-over design, the clinical effect and number of treatment occasions with Turbuhaler were compared with those of MDI. In the second part, which was open, all patients were treated with Turbuhaler for 2 weeks. At the end of this period the patients were asked to make a subjective assessment of effect and to state their preference. There was no difference in clinical effect and number of treatment occasions between Turbuhaler and MDI. A majority of the patients thought Turbuhaler had the best effect and was easy to use. PMID:2683835

  19. Carcinome cutané de Merkel: apport de la TEP-TDM au18FDG

    PubMed Central

    Amal, Guensi; Sara, Taleb; Ghofrane, Cherkaoui Salhi; Malika, Ait Idir; Majdouline, Houjami; Souha, Sahraoui; Abdelatif, Benider; Najoua, Touil; Ghita, Benmoussa; Zineb, Baroudi; Nabil, Chikhaoui

    2016-01-01

    Le carcinome à cellules de Merkel (CCM) est une tumeur cutanée neuroendocrinerare d’évolution imprévisible et à grand potentiel métastatique. Ce néoplasme survient habituellement chez le sujet âgé au niveau des zones photo exposées. L'avidité constante du CCM au 18 fluorodésoxyglucose (FDG) justifie l'intérêt de la tomographie par émission de positon (TEP) au cours de cette pathologie. Toutefois, aucun consensus n'est établi à ce jour. Cette étude rapporte le cas d'une patiente de 25 ans suivie pour CCM métastatique, afin d'attirer l'attention sur cette tumeur particulière et d'illustrer l'intérêt de la TEP au 18 FDG dans la prise en charge de cette entité rare. PMID:27303574

  20. Laboratory approach for diagnosis of toluene-based inhalant abuse in a clinical setting

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Raka; Verma, Arpita

    2016-01-01

    The steady increase of inhalant abuse is a great challenge for analytical toxicologists. This review describes an overview of inhalant abuse including the extent of the problem, types of products abused, modes of administration, pharmacology and effects of inhalants, the role of laboratory, interpretation of laboratory results and clinical considerations. Regular laboratory screening for inhalant abuse as well as other substance abuse and health risk behaviors must be a part of standard clinical care. PMID:26957863

  1. Comparison of bronchodilator responses and deposition patterns of salbutamol inhaled from a pressurised metered dose inhaler, as a dry powder, and as a nebulised solution.

    PubMed Central

    Zainudin, B M; Biddiscombe, M; Tolfree, S E; Short, M; Spiro, S G

    1990-01-01

    The lung dose and deposition patterns of drug delivered by dry powder inhaler are not known. The effects of inhaling 400 micrograms salbutamol delivered by dry powder inhaler (two 200 micrograms salbutamol Rotacaps), by pressurised metered dose inhaler, and by Acorn nebuliser were studied in nine subjects with chronic stable asthma. Technetium-99m labelled Teflon particles were mixed with micronised salbutamol in the pressurised metered dose inhaler and in the capsules; technetium-99m labelled human serum albumin was mixed with the salbutamol solution for the nebuliser study. The pressurised metered dose inhaler deposited 11.2% (SEM 0.8%) of the dose within the lungs; this was significantly more than the dose deposited by the dry powder inhaler (9.1% (0.6%], but did not differ significantly from the dose delivered by the nebuliser (9.9% (0.7%]. Distribution within the peripheral third of the lung was significantly greater with the nebuliser than with the other two systems; FEV1 improved to a significantly greater extent after inhalation of 400 micrograms salbutamol from the pressurised metered dose inhaler (35.6% from baseline) than from the nebuliser (25.8%) or dry powder inhaler (25.2%). Thus after inhalation of similar doses of salbutamol a larger proportion of drug was deposited within the lungs when it was inhaled from a metered dose inhaler than from a dry powder system; the nebuliser achieved the greatest peripheral deposition. The bronchodilator response seems to depend on the amount of drug within the lungs rather than its pattern of distribution. Images PMID:2392793

  2. Taare Zameen Par and dyslexic savants.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Ambar

    2009-04-01

    The film Taare Zameen Par (Stars upon the Ground) portrays the tormented life at school and at home of a child with dyslexia and his eventual success after his artistic talents are discovered by his art teacher at the boarding school. The film hints at a curious neurocognitive phenomenon of creativity in the midst of language disability, as exemplified in the lives of people like Leonardo da Vinci and Albert Einstein, both of whom demonstrated extraordinary creativity even though they were probably affected with developmental learning disorders. It has been hypothesized that a developmental delay in the dominant hemisphere most likely 'disinhibits' the nondominant parietal lobe, unmasking talents-artistic or otherwise-in some such individuals. It has been suggested that, in remedial training, children with learning disorders be encouraged to develop such hidden talents to full capacity, rather than be subjected to the usual overemphasis on the correction of the disturbed coded symbol operations. PMID:20142854

  3. Taare Zameen Par and dyslexic savants

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Ambar

    2009-01-01

    The film Taare Zameen Par (Stars upon the Ground) portrays the tormented life at school and at home of a child with dyslexia and his eventual success after his artistic talents are discovered by his art teacher at the boarding school. The film hints at a curious neurocognitive phenomenon of creativity in the midst of language disability, as exemplified in the lives of people like Leonardo da Vinci and Albert Einstein, both of whom demonstrated extraordinary creativity even though they were probably affected with developmental learning disorders. It has been hypothesized that a developmental delay in the dominant hemisphere most likely ‘disinhibits’ the nondominant parietal lobe, unmasking talents—artistic or otherwise—in some such individuals. It has been suggested that, in remedial training, children with learning disorders be encouraged to develop such hidden talents to full capacity, rather than be subjected to the usual overemphasis on the correction of the disturbed coded symbol operations. PMID:20142854

  4. Biased signaling: potential agonist and antagonist of PAR2.

    PubMed

    Kakarala, Kavita Kumari; Jamil, Kaiser

    2016-06-01

    Protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) has emerged as one of the promising therapeutic targets to inhibit rapidly metastasizing breast cancer cells. However, its elusive molecular mechanism of activation and signaling has made it a difficult target for drug development. In this study, in silico methods were used to unfold PAR2 molecular mechanism of signaling based on the concept of GPCR receptor plasticity. Although, there are no conclusive evidences of the presence of specific endogenous ligands for PAR2, the efficacy of synthetic agonist and antagonist in PAR2 signaling has opened up the possibilities of ligand-mediated signaling. Furthermore, it has been proved that ligands specific for one GPCR can induce signaling in GPCRs belonging to other subfamilies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify potential agonists and antagonists from the GPCR ligand library (GLL), which may induce biased signaling in PAR2 using the concept of existence of multiple ligand-stabilized receptor conformations. The results of our in silico study suggest that PAR2 may show biased signaling mainly with agonists of serotonin type 1, β-adrenergic type 1,3 and antagonists of substance K (NK1), serotonin type 2, dopamine type 4, and thromboxane receptors. Further, this study also throws light on the putative ligand-specific conformations of PAR2. Thus, the results of this study provide structural insights to putative conformations of PAR2 and also gives initial clues to medicinal chemists for rational drug design targeting this challenging receptor. PMID:26295578

  5. Synthesis and optical property characterization of elongated AuPt and Pt@Au metal nanoframes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangji; Jang, Hee-Jeong; Jang, Ho Young; Hong, Soonchang; Moh, Sang Hyun; Park, Sungho

    2016-02-01

    We report a facile method to synthesize elongated nanoframes consisting of Pt and Au in solution. Pentagonal Au nanorods served as templates and successfully led to an elongated AuPt nanoframe after etching the core Au. Subsequently, the coating of Au around Pt ridges resulted in Pt@Au metal nanoframes. The resulting elongated nanostructure exhibited 5 well-defined ridges continuously connected along the long axis. During the shape evolution from pure Au nanorods to elongated Pt@Au metal nanoframes, their corresponding localized surface plasmon resonance bands were monitored. Especially, unique surface plasmon features were observed for elongated Pt@Au nanoframes where the short-axis oscillation of surface free electrons is strongly coupled but the long-axis oscillation is not coupled among the ridges.We report a facile method to synthesize elongated nanoframes consisting of Pt and Au in solution. Pentagonal Au nanorods served as templates and successfully led to an elongated AuPt nanoframe after etching the core Au. Subsequently, the coating of Au around Pt ridges resulted in Pt@Au metal nanoframes. The resulting elongated nanostructure exhibited 5 well-defined ridges continuously connected along the long axis. During the shape evolution from pure Au nanorods to elongated Pt@Au metal nanoframes, their corresponding localized surface plasmon resonance bands were monitored. Especially, unique surface plasmon features were observed for elongated Pt@Au nanoframes where the short-axis oscillation of surface free electrons is strongly coupled but the long-axis oscillation is not coupled among the ridges. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08200e

  6. 42 CFR 84.137 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; check valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; check valves... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.137 Inhalation and exhalation valves; check valves; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation and exhalation valves shall be provided where necessary and protected...

  7. 42 CFR 84.137 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; check valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; check valves... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.137 Inhalation and exhalation valves; check valves; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation and exhalation valves shall be provided where necessary and protected...

  8. TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PHARMACEUTICALS USING AN IN SILICO DOSIMETRY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present an in silico dosimetry model which can be used for inhalation toxicology (risk assessment of inhaled air pollutants) and aerosol therapy ( targeted delivery of inhaled drugs). This work presents scientific and clinical advances beyond the development of the original in...

  9. [Dermal and inhalation poisoning. Rare guests in our intensive care units?].

    PubMed

    Sagoschen, I

    2013-09-01

    Patients with dermal and inhalation poisoning are uncommon in intensive care treatment. We describe the diagnostics and specific toxicological treatment of patients with hydrofluoric acid burns. For inhalation poisoning, we focus on smoke inhalation, especially the management of cyanide and carbon monoxide poisoning. Special attention is given to the use of hyperbaric oxygenation for the treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:23925447

  10. Les apports de l'experimentation assistee par ordinateur (ExAO) en pedagogie par projet en Sciences de la nature au collegial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcotte, Alice

    The goals of this research were to conceptualize and to produce a test synthesis model for the Sciences program, where the student had to demonstrate his or her competency using the approach Considering New Situations from Acquired Knowledge. The test took the form of a student-structured project utilizing the experimental process: the student's scientific investigation was supported and facilitated by computer-assisted experimentation (CAEx). The model of action was elaborated in developmental research within the school setting, tested in biology, and continued in an interdisciplinary context. Our study focused on the advantages and the constraints of this new learning environment, which modify laboratories using traditional instrumentation. The final research was not to evaluate a type of test synthesis, but to propose and to improve this model of test synthesis based on experimental process and supported by CAEx. In order to implement the competency approach within an integration activity, we chose a cooperative learning environment contained within the pedagogical project. This didactic environment was inspired by socio-constructivism which involves students in open scientific problem-solving. Computer-assisted experimentation turned out to be a valuable tool for this environment, facilitating the implementation of the scientific process by increased induction. Resistance to confronted and uncircumvented reality changes students' perception of scientific knowledge. They learn to integrate the building of this knowledge, and then to realize the extent of their learning and their training. Students' opinions, which were gathered from questionnaires, reveal that they favorably perceive this type of environment in interaction with their peers and the experimentation. While this new knowledge contributes to CAEx within the pedagogical project, the products of this research included a teaching guide for the test synthesis, a booklet featuring the projects carried out by the students with CAEx, and the proposals to renew the didactic approach in the laboratory.

  11. Proteases in agricultural dust induce lung inflammation through PAR-1 and PAR-2 activation.

    PubMed

    Romberger, Debra J; Heires, Art J; Nordgren, Tara M; Souder, Chelsea P; West, William; Liu, Xiang-de; Poole, Jill A; Toews, Myron L; Wyatt, Todd A

    2015-08-15

    Workers exposed to aerosolized dust present in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are susceptible to inflammatory lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Extracts of dust collected from hog CAFOs [hog dust extract (HDE)] are potent stimulators of lung inflammatory responses in several model systems. The observation that HDE contains active proteases prompted the present study, which evaluated the role of CAFO dust proteases in lung inflammatory processes and tested whether protease-activated receptors (PARs) are involved in the signaling pathway for these events. We hypothesized that the damaging proinflammatory effect of HDE is due, in part, to the proteolytic activation of PARs, and inhibiting the proteases in HDE or disrupting PAR activation would attenuate HDE-mediated inflammatory indexes in bronchial epithelial cells (BECs), in mouse lung slices in vitro, and in a murine in vivo exposure model. Human BECs and mouse lung slice cultures stimulated with 5% HDE released significantly more of each of the cytokines measured (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, keratinocyte-derived chemokine/CXC chemokine ligand 1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2/CXC chemokine ligand 2) than controls, and these effects were markedly diminished by protease inhibition. Inhibition of PARs also blunted the HDE-induced cytokine release from BECs. In addition, protease depletion inhibited HDE-induced BEC intracellular PKCα and PKCε activation. C57BL/6J mice administered 12.5% HDE intranasally, either once or daily for 3 wk, exhibited increased total cellular and neutrophil influx, bronchial alveolar fluid inflammatory cytokines, lung histopathology, and inflammatory scores compared with mice receiving protease-depleted HDE. These data suggest that proteases in dust from CAFOs are important mediators of lung inflammation, and these proteases and their receptors may provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention in CAFO dust-induced airways disease. PMID

  12. Effet Hall et Magnetisme des Alliages Amorphes Nickel-Zirconium Fabriques Par Pulverisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, Robert

    Cette these se situe dans le cadre d'une etude des proprietes electroniques et structurales des alliages metalliques amorphes, en cours depuis quelques annees a l'Universite de Montreal. Ce programme nous a entre autres amene a caracteriser la magnetoresistivite et l'effet Hall d'alliages FeZr, CoZr et NiZr, ce qui a permis de mettre en evidence deux caracteristiques de l'effet Hall: Dans les alliages amorphes ferromagnetiques, la resistivite elevee engendre un effet Hall extraordinaire beaucoup plus important que celui enregistre dans les metaux cristallins. La polarisation des spins entrai ne une asymetrie de la diffusion qui, tant dans les phases cristalline et amorphe, est tenue responsable de cette contribution. L'autre particularite du comportement de Hall de ces systemes est le renversement de signe du coefficient de Hall ordinaire, qui passe du negatif au positif dans les echantillons plus riches en zirconium. Dans les metaux cristallins, un modele d'electrons libres predit un signe negatif a moins que la conduction ne soit dominee par les trous. Or, dans un milieu desordonne les memes concepts sont difficilement applicables et de nouvelles theories ont du etre elaborees pour expliquer ce phenomene. Jusqu'a maintenant, l'etude des alliages amorphes nickel-zirconium s'est faite surtout a partir d'echantillons fabriques par trempe sur roue. Malheureusement cette technique ne permet pas la fabrication d'alliages contenant plus de 70% de nickel, a l'exception du seul compose Ni _{90}Zr_{10 }. Pour pallier a cette lacune et etendre nos connaissance a l'ensemble de la gamme de compositions, nous avons fabrique par pulverisation cathodique des echantillons NiZr amorphes--et quelques alliages cristallins tres riches en nickel--couvrant une bonne partie de la gamme interdite par la technique de trempe sur roue. Dans un premier temps, par comparaison avec les resultats connus nous avons mis en evidence les similitudes et les differences entre les alliages obtenus par

  13. Cancer-selective apoptosis by tumor suppressor par-4.

    PubMed

    Hebbar, Nikhil; Shrestha-Bhattarai, Tripti; Rangnekar, Vivek M

    2014-01-01

    Tumor suppressor genes play an important role in preventing neoplastic transformation and maintaining normal tissue homeostasis. Par-4 is one such tumor suppressor which is unique in its ability to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells while leaving the normal cells unaffected. The cancer cell specific activity of Par-4 is elicited through intracellular as well as extracellular mechanisms. Intracellularly Par-4 acts through the inhibition of pro-survival pathways and activation of Fas mediated apoptosis whereas extracellular (secreted Par-4) acts by binding to cell surface GRP78 leading to activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Many studies have highlighted the importance of Par-4 not only in preventing cancer development/recurrence but also as a promising anticancer therapeutic agent. PMID:25001535

  14. Structure par RMN d'un complexe AlcR(1-60)-ADN: Reconnaissance du petit sillon par la partie N-terminale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahuzac, B.; Félenbok, B.; Guittet, E.

    1999-10-01

    Aspergillus nidulans is a filamentous fungus able to use ethanol as sole energy source. The activation of the ethanol regulon genes expression is mediated by the AlcR protein. Its DNA-binding domain is located in the N-terminus (residues 1 to 60), and its NMR solution structure shows a global zinc binuclear cluster fold, with two helices in addition to the basic binuclear motif. A small number of crystallographic structures of DNA complexes of binuclear cluster proteins is yet known, and points out the major groove and the first helix as the principal sites of interaction on the DNA and the protein respectively. In this article we show evidences that the N-terminus of the protein is involved in binding to the minor groove. Aspergillus nidulans est un champignon filamenteux capable d'utiliser l'éthanol comme source unique d'énergie. La protéine AlcR est responsable de l'activation de l'expression des gènes du régulon éthanol. Le domaine de liaison à l'ADN est situé dans la partie N-terminale de la protéine (a.a. 1 à 60), et sa structure déterminée par RMN en solution montre un repliement global en bouquet binucléaire à zinc, avec deux hélices supplémentaires par rapport au motif de base. Alors que les structures déjà connues de complexes ADN - bouquets binucléaires permettent de situer dans le grand sillon la quasi-totalité des interactions, nous montrons dans la présente étude l'implication du début de la séquence dans la reconnaissance du petit sillon de l'ADN (a.a. 5 et 6).

  15. PAR-3 and PAR-1 Inhibit LET-99 Localization to Generate a Cortical Band Important for Spindle Positioning in Caenorhabditis elegans Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jui-Ching

    2007-01-01

    The conserved PAR proteins are localized in asymmetric cortical domains and are required for the polarized localization of cell fate determinants in many organisms. In Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, LET-99 and G protein signaling act downstream of the PARs to regulate spindle positioning and ensure asymmetric division. PAR-3 and PAR-2 localize LET-99 to a posterior cortical band through an unknown mechanism. Here we report that LET-99 asymmetry depends on cortically localized PAR-1 and PAR-4 but not on cytoplasmic polarity effectors. In par-1 and par-4 embryos, LET-99 accumulates at the entire posterior cortex, but remains at low levels at the anterior cortex occupied by PAR-3. Further, PAR-3 and PAR-1 have graded cortical distributions with the highest levels at the anterior and posterior poles, respectively, and the lowest levels of these proteins correlate with high LET-99 accumulation. These results suggest that PAR-3 and PAR-1 inhibit the localization of LET-99 to generate a band pattern. In addition, PAR-1 kinase activity is required for the inhibition of LET-99 localization, and PAR-1 associates with LET-99. Finally, examination of par-1 embryos suggests that the banded pattern of LET-99 is critical for normal posterior spindle displacement and to prevent spindle misorientation caused by cell shape constraints. PMID:17761536

  16. Recombination in the Human Pseudoautosomal Region PAR1

    PubMed Central

    Hinch, Anjali G.; Altemose, Nicolas; Noor, Nudrat; Donnelly, Peter; Myers, Simon R.

    2014-01-01

    The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is a short region of homology between the mammalian X and Y chromosomes, which has undergone rapid evolution. A crossover in the PAR is essential for the proper disjunction of X and Y chromosomes in male meiosis, and PAR deletion results in male sterility. This leads the human PAR with the obligatory crossover, PAR1, to having an exceptionally high male crossover rate, which is 17-fold higher than the genome-wide average. However, the mechanism by which this obligatory crossover occurs remains unknown, as does the fine-scale positioning of crossovers across this region. Recent research in mice has suggested that crossovers in PAR may be mediated independently of the protein PRDM9, which localises virtually all crossovers in the autosomes. To investigate recombination in this region, we construct the most fine-scale genetic map containing directly observed crossovers to date using African-American pedigrees. We leverage recombination rates inferred from the breakdown of linkage disequilibrium in human populations and investigate the signatures of DNA evolution due to recombination. Further, we identify direct PRDM9 binding sites using ChIP-seq in human cells. Using these independent lines of evidence, we show that, in contrast with mouse, PRDM9 does localise peaks of recombination in the human PAR1. We find that recombination is a far more rapid and intense driver of sequence evolution in PAR1 than it is on the autosomes. We also show that PAR1 hotspot activities differ significantly among human populations. Finally, we find evidence that PAR1 hotspot positions have changed between human and chimpanzee, with no evidence of sharing among the hottest hotspots. We anticipate that the genetic maps built and validated in this work will aid research on this vital and fascinating region of the genome. PMID:25033397

  17. Recombination in the human Pseudoautosomal region PAR1.

    PubMed

    Hinch, Anjali G; Altemose, Nicolas; Noor, Nudrat; Donnelly, Peter; Myers, Simon R

    2014-07-01

    The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is a short region of homology between the mammalian X and Y chromosomes, which has undergone rapid evolution. A crossover in the PAR is essential for the proper disjunction of X and Y chromosomes in male meiosis, and PAR deletion results in male sterility. This leads the human PAR with the obligatory crossover, PAR1, to having an exceptionally high male crossover rate, which is 17-fold higher than the genome-wide average. However, the mechanism by which this obligatory crossover occurs remains unknown, as does the fine-scale positioning of crossovers across this region. Recent research in mice has suggested that crossovers in PAR may be mediated independently of the protein PRDM9, which localises virtually all crossovers in the autosomes. To investigate recombination in this region, we construct the most fine-scale genetic map containing directly observed crossovers to date using African-American pedigrees. We leverage recombination rates inferred from the breakdown of linkage disequilibrium in human populations and investigate the signatures of DNA evolution due to recombination. Further, we identify direct PRDM9 binding sites using ChIP-seq in human cells. Using these independent lines of evidence, we show that, in contrast with mouse, PRDM9 does localise peaks of recombination in the human PAR1. We find that recombination is a far more rapid and intense driver of sequence evolution in PAR1 than it is on the autosomes. We also show that PAR1 hotspot activities differ significantly among human populations. Finally, we find evidence that PAR1 hotspot positions have changed between human and chimpanzee, with no evidence of sharing among the hottest hotspots. We anticipate that the genetic maps built and validated in this work will aid research on this vital and fascinating region of the genome. PMID:25033397

  18. Circulating suPAR in Two Cohorts of Primary FSGS

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Changli; Trachtman, Howard; Li, Jing; Dong, Chuanhui; Friedman, Aaron L.; Gassman, Jennifer J.; McMahan, June L.; Radeva, Milena; Heil, Karsten M.; Trautmann, Agnes; Anarat, Ali; Emre, Sevinc; Ghiggeri, Gian M.; Ozaltin, Fatih; Haffner, Dieter; Gipson, Debbie S.; Kaskel, Frederick; Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane; Schaefer, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Overexpression of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) causes pathology in animal models similar to primary FSGS, and one recent study demonstrated elevated levels of serum suPAR in patients with the disease. Here, we analyzed circulating suPAR levels in two cohorts of children and adults with biopsy-proven primary FSGS: 70 patients from the North America–based FSGS clinical trial (CT) and 94 patients from PodoNet, the Europe-based consortium studying steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Circulating suPAR levels were elevated in 84.3% and 55.3% of patients with FSGS patients in the CT and PodoNet cohorts, respectively, compared with 6% of controls (P<0.0001); inflammation did not account for this difference. Multiple regression analysis suggested that lower suPAR levels associated with higher estimated GFR, male sex, and treatment with mycophenolate mofetil. In the CT cohort, there was a positive association between the relative reduction of suPAR after 26 weeks of treatment and reduction of proteinuria, with higher odds for complete remission (P=0.04). In the PodoNet cohort, patients with an NPHS2 mutation had higher suPAR levels than those without a mutation. In conclusion, suPAR levels are elevated in geographically and ethnically diverse patients with FSGS and do not reflect a nonspecific proinflammatory milieu. The associations between a change in circulating suPAR with different therapeutic regimens and with remission support the role of suPAR in the pathogenesis of FSGS. PMID:23138488

  19. Circulating suPAR in two cohorts of primary FSGS.

    PubMed

    Wei, Changli; Trachtman, Howard; Li, Jing; Dong, Chuanhui; Friedman, Aaron L; Gassman, Jennifer J; McMahan, June L; Radeva, Milena; Heil, Karsten M; Trautmann, Agnes; Anarat, Ali; Emre, Sevinc; Ghiggeri, Gian M; Ozaltin, Fatih; Haffner, Dieter; Gipson, Debbie S; Kaskel, Frederick; Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane; Schaefer, Franz; Reiser, Jochen

    2012-12-01

    Overexpression of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) causes pathology in animal models similar to primary FSGS, and one recent study demonstrated elevated levels of serum suPAR in patients with the disease. Here, we analyzed circulating suPAR levels in two cohorts of children and adults with biopsy-proven primary FSGS: 70 patients from the North America-based FSGS clinical trial (CT) and 94 patients from PodoNet, the Europe-based consortium studying steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Circulating suPAR levels were elevated in 84.3% and 55.3% of patients with FSGS patients in the CT and PodoNet cohorts, respectively, compared with 6% of controls (P<0.0001); inflammation did not account for this difference. Multiple regression analysis suggested that lower suPAR levels associated with higher estimated GFR, male sex, and treatment with mycophenolate mofetil. In the CT cohort, there was a positive association between the relative reduction of suPAR after 26 weeks of treatment and reduction of proteinuria, with higher odds for complete remission (P=0.04). In the PodoNet cohort, patients with an NPHS2 mutation had higher suPAR levels than those without a mutation. In conclusion, suPAR levels are elevated in geographically and ethnically diverse patients with FSGS and do not reflect a nonspecific proinflammatory milieu. The associations between a change in circulating suPAR with different therapeutic regimens and with remission support the role of suPAR in the pathogenesis of FSGS. PMID:23138488

  20. Condensation and localization of the partitioning protein ParB on the bacterial chromosome.

    PubMed

    Broedersz, Chase P; Wang, Xindan; Meir, Yigal; Loparo, Joseph J; Rudner, David Z; Wingreen, Ned S

    2014-06-17

    The ParABS system mediates chromosome segregation and plasmid partitioning in many bacteria. As part of the partitioning mechanism, ParB proteins form a nucleoprotein complex at parS sites. The biophysical basis underlying ParB-DNA complex formation and localization remains elusive. Specifically, it is unclear whether ParB spreads in 1D along DNA or assembles into a 3D protein-DNA complex. We show that a combination of 1D spreading bonds and a single 3D bridging bond between ParB proteins constitutes a minimal model for a condensed ParB-DNA complex. This model implies a scaling behavior for ParB-mediated silencing of parS-flanking genes, which we confirm to be satisfied by experimental data from P1 plasmids. Furthermore, this model is consistent with experiments on the effects of DNA roadblocks on ParB localization. Finally, we show experimentally that a single parS site is necessary and sufficient for ParB-DNA complex formation in vivo. Together with our model, this suggests that ParB binding to parS triggers a conformational switch in ParB that overcomes a nucleation barrier. Conceptually, the combination of spreading and bridging bonds in our model provides a surface tension ensuring the condensation of the ParB-DNA complex, with analogies to liquid-like compartments such as nucleoli in eukaryotes. PMID:24927534

  1. 40 CFR 799.9346 - TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity. 799.9346 Section 799.9346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines...

  2. Inhaled corticosteroids: potency, dose equivalence and therapeutic index

    PubMed Central

    Daley-Yates, Peter T

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticosteroids are a group of structurally related molecules that includes natural hormones and synthetic drugs with a wide range of anti-inflammatory potencies. For synthetic corticosteroid analogues it is commonly assumed that the therapeutic index cannot be improved by increasing their glucocorticoid receptor binding affinity. The validity of this assumption, particularly for inhaled corticosteroids, has not been fully explored. Inhaled corticosteroids exert their anti-inflammatory activity locally in the airways, and hence this can be dissociated from their potential to cause systemic adverse effects. The molecular structural features that increase glucocorticoid receptor binding affinity and selectivity drive topical anti-inflammatory activity. However, in addition, these structural modifications also result in physicochemical and pharmacokinetic changes that can enhance targeting to the airways and reduce systemic exposure. As a consequence, potency and therapeutic index can be correlated. However, this consideration is not reflected in asthma treatment guidelines that classify inhaled corticosteroid formulations as low-, mid- and high dose, and imbed a simple dose equivalence approach where potency is not considered to affect the therapeutic index. This article describes the relationship between potency and therapeutic index, and concludes that higher potency can potentially improve the therapeutic index. Therefore, both efficacy and safety should be considered when classifying inhaled corticosteroid regimens in terms of dose equivalence. The historical approach to dose equivalence in asthma treatment guidelines is not appropriate for the wider range of molecules, potencies and device/formulations now available. A more robust method is needed that incorporates pharmacological principles. PMID:25808113

  3. Airmax: a multi-dose dry powder inhaler.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M; Faulds, Diana

    2002-01-01

    Airmax is a multi-dose dry powder inhaler. An internal pump measures out the drug dose using controlled air pressure. Inhalation transports the drug into a cyclone separator (where active drug is separated from the lactose carrier) and then into the patient airway. In vitro studies indicate that Airmax may be less dependent on airflow than Turbuhaler for drug delivery; greater dose consistency was seen with administration of budesonide via Airmax than via Turbuhaler. At a low flow rate, the lung deposition of budesonide administered via Airmax was greater than that of budesonide administered via Turbuhaler or a pressurised metered dose inhaler in patients with asthma. In cumulative-dose studies, the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) achieved with salbutamol (albuterol) or formoterol administered via Airmax was equivalent to that achieved with twice the dose administered via dry powder inhalers. black triangle In randomised, double-blind studies, budesonide administration via Airmax was equivalent to administration via Turbuhaler with regards to FEV(1) and improvement in asthma symptoms in both adults and children with asthma. The concentration of adenosine monophosphate producing a 20% fall in FEV(1) increased from pretreatment levels by a greater extent with budesonide administered via Airmax, compared with Turbuhaler. Both adults and children preferred Airmax to Turbuhaler, and more found Airmax easier to use. In one study, the majority of children found learning how to use Airmax trade mark easier than learning how to use Turbuhaler. PMID:12215059

  4. ALTERATIONS IN LUNG STRUCTURE CAUSED BY INHALATION OF OXIDANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Morphometric and morphologic methods have been used to evaluate changes in rat lungs caused by the inhalation of a variety of oxidants. Exposure to 100% oxygen causes diffuse pulmonary injury and leads to death after 66-72 h of exposure. The primary insult leading to death in rat...

  5. NEW APPROACHES TO QUANTITATING THE PULMONARY EFFECTS OF INHALED POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have developed a variety of non-invasive and other techniques to study effects of inhaled pollutants on the lung. In the area of airway mechanics they have developed and applied a diameter gauge to make continuous measurements of large airways caliber. The gauge provi...

  6. CONTROLLED, SHORT-TERM DERMAL AND INHALATION EXPOSURE TO CHLOROFORM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were conducted to determine the uptake by humans of chloroform as a result of controlled short-term dermal and inhalation exposures. The approach used continuous real-time breath analysis to determine exhaled-breath profiles and evaluate chloroform kinetics in the huma...

  7. Guide Book for an Approved School of Inhalation Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society of Anesthesiologists, Park Ridge, IL.

    The "essentials" for programs in inhalation therapy were studied by the American Society of Anesthesiologists and the American College of Chest Physicians and adopted by several pilot schools between 1957 and 1962. Recommended with minor modifications, they were approved by the American Medical Association Council on Medical Education and the…

  8. Exposure to inhalable, respirable, and ultrafine particles in welding fume.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Martin; Pesch, Beate; Lotz, Anne; Pelzer, Johannes; Kendzia, Benjamin; Gawrych, Katarzyna; Heinze, Evelyn; Van Gelder, Rainer; Punkenburg, Ewald; Weiss, Tobias; Mattenklott, Markus; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Möhlmann, Carsten; Berges, Markus; Hartwig, Andrea; Brüning, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    This investigation aims to explore determinants of exposure to particle size-specific welding fume. Area sampling of ultrafine particles (UFP) was performed at 33 worksites in parallel with the collection of respirable particles. Personal sampling of respirable and inhalable particles was carried out in the breathing zone of 241 welders. Median mass concentrations were 2.48 mg m(-3) for inhalable and 1.29 mg m(-3) for respirable particles when excluding 26 users of powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs). Mass concentrations were highest when flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) with gas was applied (median of inhalable particles: 11.6 mg m(-3)). Measurements of particles were frequently below the limit of detection (LOD), especially inside PAPRs or during tungsten inert gas welding (TIG). However, TIG generated a high number of small particles, including UFP. We imputed measurements inhalable fraction of the welding fume (expressed as their mass) remains challenging. PMID:22539559

  9. Essentials of an Acceptable School for Inhalation Therapy Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Medical Association, Chicago, IL. Council on Medical Education.

    Prepared by the Council with the cooperation of the Society of Anesthesiologists, the Society of Chest Physicians, and the American Association for Inhalation Therapy, the standards are intended for informing of physicians, hospitals, and prospective students and for the protecting of the public. Twenty-two standards are organized under the…

  10. Physico-chemical characterisation of surface modified particles for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Stank, Katharina; Steckel, Hartwig

    2013-05-01

    Surface modification of drugs for inhalation is a possibility to influence interparticulate forces. This can be necessary to achieve a sufficient aerosolisation during powder inhalation as the cohesiveness of the micronised drug can be reduced. In addition, the interaction with propellants in pressurised metered dose inhaler can be changed. This can be used to improve the physical stability of the suspension based formulations. A dry particle coating process was used for the alteration of particle surfaces. The blending of micronised salbutamol sulphate (SBS) with different concentrations of magnesium stearate (Mgst) or glycerol monostearate (GMS) was followed by co-milling with an air jet mill. The powder properties were characterised by SEM, EDX, laser diffraction, BET and inverse gas chromatography. Physical mixtures generated by Turbula blending were compared to co-milled samples. A slight particle size reduction was determined. The Mgst deposition on SBS particles was detected by EDX measurements. The dispersive surface energy of SBS is lowered and the energy distribution is more homogenous for the co-milled samples. This study proves the application of co-milling for surface modification in the inhalation area. PMID:23518364

  11. CARBONYL SULFIDE INHALATION PRODUCES BRAIN LESIONS IN F344 RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is an intermediate in the production of pesticides and herbicides, and is a metabolite of the neurotoxicant carbon disulfide. The potential neurotoxicity of inhaled COS was investigated in F344 rats. Male rats were exposed to 0, 75, 150, 300, or 600 ppm COS...

  12. 40 CFR 79.61 - Vehicle emissions inhalation exposure guideline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... health effects testing guidelines in 40 CFR 79.62 through 79.68 specify differing values for the same... observation. Aerodynamic diameter means the diameter of a sphere of unit density that has the same settling... administered test substance or its metabolites in the susceptible tissues. Inhalable diameter means...

  13. Inhalation of Carbon Black Nanoparticles Aggravates Pulmonary Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Saputra, Devina; Yoon, Jin-ha; Park, Hyunju; Heo, Yongju; Yang, Hyoseon; Lee, Eun Ji; Lee, Sangjin; Song, Chang-Woo; Lee, Kyuhong

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of recent studies have focused on the impact of particulate matter on human health. As a model for atmospheric particulate inhalation, we investigated the effects of inhaled carbon black nanoparticles (CBNP) on mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The CNBPs were generated by a novel aerosolization process, and the mice were exposed to the aerosol for 4 hours. We found that CBNP inhalation exacerbated lung inflammation, as evidenced by histopathology analysis and by the expression levels of interleukin-6 protein, fibronectin, and interferon-γ mRNAs in lung tissues. Notably, fibronectin mRNA expression showed a statistically significant increase in expression after CBNP exposure. These data suggest that the concentration of CBNPs delivered (calculated to be 12.5 μg/m3) can aggravate lung inflammation in mice. Our results also suggest that the inhalation of ultrafine particles like PM 2.5 is an impactful environmental risk factor for humans, particularly in susceptible populations with predisposing lung conditions. PMID:25071917

  14. Evidence for Adverse Phonatory Change Following an Inhaled Combination Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Elizabeth; Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Voice problems are reported as a frequent side effect of inhaled combination (IC) treatments. The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate whether IC treatments are detrimental to phonation. We hypothesized that IC treatment would significantly increase phonation threshold pressure (PTP) and perceived phonatory effort (PPE),…

  15. NEW CHARGED FOG GENERATOR FOR INHALABLE PARTICLE CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of a new charged fog generator (CFG) by modifying a commercial rotary atomizer. Extensive field tests of the CFG (at a bentonite ore unloading operation) were performed to determine the dependence of its inhalable particle control efficiency (...

  16. Infant with Altered Consciousness after Cannabis Passive Inhalation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarfin, Yehoshua; Yefet, Enav; Abozaid, Said; Nasser, Wael; Mor, Tamer; Finkelstein, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    We report on an infant who was admitted to hospital with severe neurological symptoms following passive inhalation of cannabis. To date, cannabis abuse has been described almost entirely in adolescents and adults. In early childhood, however, cannabis effects were almost exclusively discussed in the context of maternal prenatal exposure, and the…

  17. SAMPLING AND DATA HANDLING METHODS FOR INHALABLE PARTICULATE SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report reviews the objectives of a research program on sampling and measuring particles in the inhalable particulate (IP) size range in emissions from stationary sources, and describes methods and equipment required. A computer technique was developed to analyze data on parti...

  18. [Impact of inhaled NO on developing lung and brain].

    PubMed

    Baud, O; Olivier, P; Vottier, G; Pham, H; Mercier, J-C; Loron, G

    2009-09-01

    With the advent of prenatal steroids, postnatal exogenous surfactant and less aggressive respiratory support, premature infants can develop chronic lung disease without even acute respiratory distress. This "new bronchopulmonary dysplasia" could be the result of impaired postnatal growth. Several experimental studies have suggested a possible role of the vascular endothelial growth factor/nitric oxide (VEGF/NO) pathway in restoring pulmonary angiogenesis and enhancing distal lung growth. The results of the clinical studies are, however, inconclusive, and it is currently unclear which subsets of premature infants might benefit from inhaled nitric oxide. Besides, severe intracranial haemorrhage and/or cystic periventricular leukomalacia may affect the most immature babies, many of whom are spared from severe initial respiratory disease. Recently, inhaled nitric oxide was shown to significantly decrease the incidence of these neurological events, and to improve the long-term outcome in a few clinical trials. At times neuroprotective, at times neurotoxic, nitric oxide is capable of divergent effects depending upon the extent of cerebral damage, the redox state of the cell, and the experimental model used. Recently, inhaled nitric oxide had recognized to have dramatic remote effects including angiogenesis and maturation on the developing brain in rodent pups. Therefore, the developmental consequences of inhaled NO should be further investigated to ensure its safety on the developing brain and to test its potential neurprotective effect. PMID:19836663

  19. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and the lower point of the upper diamond must... must be black. ... color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  20. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and the lower point of the upper diamond must... must be black. ... color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  1. ISOTOPIC STUDY OF THE INHALATION TOXICOLOGY OF OXIDANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of these studies was to develop novel methods to investigate the biological fate of inhaled ozone and other oxygen-containing pollutants in animal and human tissues using the heavy isotope of oxygen, oxygen-18 (18O). Methods were developed which facilitated the conver...

  2. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90 Section 84.90 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90...

  3. Inhalation trauma due to overheating in a microwave oven.

    PubMed Central

    Zanen, A L; Rietveld, A P

    1993-01-01

    The microwave oven is a kitchen appliance that has become increasingly popular in recent years. In some instances the temperature in the microwave oven can become exceedingly high. A case is discussed of a patient with respiratory distress after inhalation of gas from an overheated microwave oven. Images PMID:8497834

  4. Evidence of Inhaled Tobramycin in Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Vendrell, Montserrat; Muñoz, Gerard; de Gracia, Javier

    2015-01-01

    There is currently less experience with inhaled tobramycin in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis than in cystic fibrosis (CF). Intravenous formulation and solution for inhalation (TSI) have been studied in non-CF bronchiectasis patients with chronic P. aeruginosa bronchial infection. An improvement in clinical parameters and a reduction in bacterial density have been shown with both inhaled solutions in these patients. However, further trials are needed to determine the most effective dose and administration protocol in these patients. Based on the current evidence, recommendations cannot be made regarding the use of TSI to treat exacerbations. Although no systemic toxicity has been reported in studies specifically investigating this treatment, patients with known kidney disease or ear disorders should be treated with caution. Adverse respiratory effects are reported to be more common in non-CF patients than in CF patients, who tend to be non-smokers and younger. Research is being conducted into the possibility of combining tobramycin with other antibiotics to increase its antibacterial activity. In this review we will present and discuss the published evidence regarding the use of inhaled tobramycin in non–CF bronchiectasis. PMID:25893022

  5. Fatal ammonia inhalation. A case report with autopsy findings.

    PubMed

    Price, S K; Hughes, J E; Morrison, S C; Potgieter, P D

    1983-12-01

    A 25-year-old refrigeration technician died 85 days after accidental massive anhydrous ammonia inhalation; the case history and autopsy findings are described. The latter included bronchiectasis and obliterative bronchiolitis, but interstitial fibrosis and emphysema were conspicuously absent. The roles of dosage, infection, and healing are discussed. PMID:6648731

  6. Inhaled corticosteroids and Aspergillus fumigatus isolation in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Noni, Maria; Katelari, Anna; Dimopoulos, George; Kourlaba, Georgia; Spoulou, Vana; Alexandrou-Athanassoulis, Helen; Doudounakis, Stavros-Eleftherios; Tzoumaka-Bakoula, Chryssa

    2014-10-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus isolation in cultures from respiratory specimens of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is quite common; however, the role of A. fumigatus as a pathogen and whether its presence is associated with progression of pulmonary disease remain unclear. We investigated the association between inhaled corticosteroids and the recovery of A. fumigatus by performing a retrospective cohort study of CF patients born between 1988 and 1996. The patients' medical records from their first visit to the CF Center until December 2010 were reviewed. Outcomes were the occurrence of A. fumigatus first isolation, chronic colonization, or the last visit at the CF Center. A number of possible confounders were included in the multivariate logistic regression analysis in order to identify an independent association between inhaled corticosteroids and colonization status. A total of 121 patients were included in the study. Thirty-nine patients (32.2%) had at least one positive culture and 14 (11.6%) developed chronic colonization. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independent effect of inhaled corticosteroids on the odds of first isolation (odds ratio [OR], 1.165; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.015-1.337; P = 0.029) and chronic colonization (OR, 1.180; 95% CI, 1.029-1.353; P = 0.018). In conclusion, A. fumigatus first isolation and chronic colonization are associated with the duration of inhaled corticosteroid treatment. PMID:25056962

  7. Risk from inhaled mycotoxins in indoor office and residential environments.

    PubMed

    Kelman, Bruce J; Robbins, Coreen A; Swenson, Lonie J; Hardin, Bryan D

    2004-01-01

    Mycotoxins are known to produce veterinary and human diseases when consumed with contaminated foods. Mycotoxins have also been proposed to cause adverse human health effects after inhalation exposure to mold in indoor residential, school, and office environments. Epidemiologic evidence has been inadequate to establish a causal relationship between indoor mold and nonallergic, toxigenic health effects. In this article, the authors model a maximum possible dose of mycotoxins that could be inhaled in 24 h of continuous exposure to a high concentration of mold spores containing the maximum reported concentration of aflatoxins B1 and B2, satratoxins G and H, fumitremorgens B and C, verruculogen, and trichoverrols A and B. These calculated doses are compared to effects data for the same mycotoxins. None of the maximum doses modeled were sufficiently high to cause any adverse effect. The model illustrates the inefficiency of delivery of mycotoxins via inhalation of mold spores, and suggests that the lack of association between mold exposure and mycotoxicoses in indoor environments is due to a requirement for extremely high airborne spore levels and extended periods of exposure to elicit a response. This model is further evidence that human mycotoxicoses are implausible following inhalation exposure to mycotoxins in mold-contaminated home, school, or office environments. PMID:15162841

  8. [Recent progress of dry powder inhalation of proteins and peptides].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie-yu; Zhang, Lan; Mao, Shi-rui

    2015-07-01

    To provide theoretical and practical basis for the successful formulation design of physically-mixed inhalation dry powder of proteins and peptides, related references were collected, analyzed and summarized. In this review drug micronization technology and commonly used carriers for inhalation dry powder preparation were introduced. For proteins and peptides, supercritical fluid technology and spray-drying are more suitable because of their capabilities of keeping drug activity. Being approved by U. S. Food and Drug Administration, lactose has been extensively used as carriers in many inhalation products. Formulation and process factors influencing drug deposition in the lung, including carrier properties, drug-carrier ratio, blending order, mixing methods, mixing time and the interaction between drug and carrier, were elucidated. The size, shape and surface properties of carries all influence the interaction between drug and carrier. Besides, influence of micromeritic properties of the dry powder, such as particle size, shape, density, flowability, charge, dispersibility and hygroscopicity, on drug deposition in the lung was elaborated. Among these particle size plays the most crucial role in particle deposition in the lung. Moreover, based on the mechanisms of powder dispersity, some strategies to improve drug lung deposition were put forward, such as adding carrier fines, adding adhesive-controlling materials and reprocessing micronized drug. In order to design physically-mixed inhalation dry powder for proteins and peptides with high lung deposition, it is essential to study drug-carriers interactions systematically and illustrate the potential influence of formulation, process parameters and micromeritic properties of the powder. PMID:26552141

  9. Generation and characterization of aerosols and vapors for inhalation experiments.

    PubMed Central

    Tillery, M I; Wood, G O; Ettinger, H J

    1976-01-01

    Control of aerosol and vapor characteristics that affect the toxicity of inhaled contaminants often determines the methods of generating exposure atmospheres. Generation methods for aerosols and vapors are presented. The characteristics of the resulting exposure atmosphere and the limitations of the various generation methods are discussed. Methods and instruments for measuring the airborne contaminant with respect to various charcteristics are also described. PMID:797565

  10. Inhaled Antibiotics for Gram-Negative Respiratory Infections.

    PubMed

    Wenzler, Eric; Fraidenburg, Dustin R; Scardina, Tonya; Danziger, Larry H

    2016-07-01

    Gram-negative organisms comprise a large portion of the pathogens responsible for lower respiratory tract infections, especially those that are nosocomially acquired, and the rate of antibiotic resistance among these organisms continues to rise. Systemically administered antibiotics used to treat these infections often have poor penetration into the lung parenchyma and narrow therapeutic windows between efficacy and toxicity. The use of inhaled antibiotics allows for maximization of target site concentrations and optimization of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic indices while minimizing systemic exposure and toxicity. This review is a comprehensive discussion of formulation and drug delivery aspects, in vitro and microbiological considerations, pharmacokinetics, and clinical outcomes with inhaled antibiotics as they apply to disease states other than cystic fibrosis. In reviewing the literature surrounding the use of inhaled antibiotics, we also highlight the complexities related to this route of administration and the shortcomings in the available evidence. The lack of novel anti-Gram-negative antibiotics in the developmental pipeline will encourage the innovative use of our existing agents, and the inhaled route is one that deserves to be further studied and adopted in the clinical arena. PMID:27226088

  11. Dilated cardiomyopathy associated with chronic overuse of an adrenaline inhaler

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, M J; Fraser, D M; Boon, N

    1992-01-01

    Endogenous catecholamines in excess are known to cause dilated cardiomyopathy. A patient presented with dilated cardiomyopathy after many years of overusing an adrenaline inhaler. Pathological features and a considerable improvement in myocardial function after withdrawal implicated the exogenous catecholamine excess in the pathogenesis of the cardiomyopathy. PMID:1389744

  12. FATE OF INHALED NITROGEN DIOXIDE IN ISOLATED PERFUSED RAT LUNG

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of inhaled NO2 was studied with isolated perfused rat lungs. The isolated lungs were exposed to 5 ppm NO2 for 90 min at a ventilation rate of 45 ml/min. The NO2 exposure had no adverse effects on the lungs as judged from their weights, glucose uptake, or lactate producti...

  13. Exposure to Inhalable, Respirable, and Ultrafine Particles in Welding Fume

    PubMed Central

    Pesch, Beate

    2012-01-01

    This investigation aims to explore determinants of exposure to particle size-specific welding fume. Area sampling of ultrafine particles (UFP) was performed at 33 worksites in parallel with the collection of respirable particles. Personal sampling of respirable and inhalable particles was carried out in the breathing zone of 241 welders. Median mass concentrations were 2.48 mg m−3 for inhalable and 1.29 mg m−3 for respirable particles when excluding 26 users of powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs). Mass concentrations were highest when flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) with gas was applied (median of inhalable particles: 11.6 mg m−3). Measurements of particles were frequently below the limit of detection (LOD), especially inside PAPRs or during tungsten inert gas welding (TIG). However, TIG generated a high number of small particles, including UFP. We imputed measurements inhalable fraction of the welding fume (expressed as their mass) remains challenging. PMID:22539559

  14. COMPARTMENTALIZATION OF THE INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE TO INHALED GRAIN DUST

    EPA Science Inventory


    Interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and the secreted form of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1RA) are involved in the inflammatory response to inhaled grain dust. Previously, we found considerable production of these cytokines in the lower...

  15. INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND INHALATION EXPOSURE - SIMULATION TOOL KIT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Microsoft Windows-based indoor air quality (IAQ) simulation software package is presented. Named Simulation Tool Kit for Indoor Air Quality and Inhalation Exposure, or IAQX for short, this package complements and supplements existing IAQ simulation programs and is desi...

  16. SPRY1 promotes the degradation of uPAR and inhibits uPAR-mediated cell adhesion and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiufeng; Lan, Yan; Zhang, Di; Wang, Kai; Wang, Yao; Hua, Zi-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a GPI anchored cell surface protein that is closely associated with invasion, migration, and metastasis of cancer cells. Many functional extracellular proteins and transmembrane receptors interact with uPAR. However, few studies have examined the association of uPAR with cytoplasm proteins. We previously used yeast two-hybrid screening to isolate several novel uPAR-interacting cytoplasmic proteins, including Sprouty1 (SPRY1), an inhibitor of the (Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase) MAPK pathway. In this study, we show that SPRY1 interacts with uPAR and directs it toward lysosomal-mediated degradation. Overexpression of SPRY1 decreased the cell surface and cytoplasmic uPAR protein level. Moreover, SPRY1 overexpression augmented uPAR-induced cell adhesion to vitronectin as well as proliferation of cancer cells. Our results also further support the critical role of SPRY1 contribution to tumor growth. In a subcutaneous tumor model, overexpression of SPRY1 in HCT116 or A549 xenograft in athymic nude mice led to great suppression of tumor growth. These results show that SPRY1 may affect tumor cell function through direct interaction with uPAR and promote its lysosomal degradation. PMID:25520860

  17. The rapid and effective administration of a beta 2-agonist to horses with heaves using a compact inhalation device and metered-dose inhalers.

    PubMed Central

    Tesarowski, D B; Viel, L; McDonell, W N; Newhouse, M T

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to administer therapeutic aerosol generated by metered-dose inhalers to horses exhibiting clinical signs of heaves using a compact inhalation device developed for human medicine. It was fitted to a custom face mask in order to study the effect of an inhaled beta 2-agonist, fenoterol. Pulmonary function testing was performed on six horses following an acute exacerbation of heaves, characterized by tachypnea, wheezes, crackles, and spasmodic cough. Horses inhaled fenoterol in 1 mg increments administered as one 200 microgram puff every 5-10 s with the recording of data 5 min after the cessation of drug inhalation. A significant effect of fenoterol was shown for maximum change in transpulmonary pressure, dynamic compliance, lung resistance, and work of breathing, and the wheezes and crackles disappeared when auscultation was performed at the end of the test. This study demonstrates a novel, highly effective method for the rapid administration of inhaled medication in horses. PMID:8055432

  18. Application of short-term inhalation studies to assess the inhalation toxicity of nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A standard short-term inhalation study (STIS) was applied for hazard assessment of 13 metal oxide nanomaterials and micron-scale zinc oxide. Methods Rats were exposed to test material aerosols (ranging from 0.5 to 50 mg/m3) for five consecutive days with 14- or 21-day post-exposure observation. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and histopathological sections of the entire respiratory tract were examined. Pulmonary deposition and clearance and test material translocation into extra-pulmonary organs were assessed. Results Inhaled nanomaterials were found in the lung, in alveolar macrophages, and in the draining lymph nodes. Polyacrylate-coated silica was also found in the spleen, and both zinc oxides elicited olfactory epithelium necrosis. None of the other nanomaterials was recorded in extra-pulmonary organs. Eight nanomaterials did not elicit pulmonary effects, and their no observed adverse effect concentrations (NOAECs) were at least 10 mg/m3. Five materials (coated nano-TiO2, both ZnO, both CeO2) evoked concentration-dependent transient pulmonary inflammation. Most effects were at least partially reversible during the post-exposure period. Based on the NOAECs that were derived from quantitative parameters, with BALF polymorphonuclear (PMN) neutrophil counts and total protein concentration being most sensitive, or from the severity of histopathological findings, the materials were ranked by increasing toxic potency into 3 grades: lower toxic potency: BaSO4; SiO2.acrylate (by local NOAEC); SiO2.PEG; SiO2.phosphate; SiO2.amino; nano-ZrO2; ZrO2.TODA; ZrO2.acrylate; medium toxic potency: SiO2.naked; higher toxic potency: coated nano-TiO2; nano-CeO2; Al-doped nano-CeO2; micron-scale ZnO; coated nano-ZnO (and SiO2.acrylate by systemic no observed effect concentration (NOEC)). Conclusion The STIS revealed the type of effects of 13 nanomaterials, and micron-scale ZnO, information on their toxic potency, and the location and reversibility of effects

  19. Modèle de comportement dynamique d'un matériau en présence de l'endommagement par cisaillement adiabatique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longère, P.; Dragon, A.; Trumel, H.; de Resseguier, T.; Deprince, X.; Petitpas, E.

    2002-12-01

    L'objectif industriel du travail dans lequel s'inscrit ce papier est la simulation numérique de la réponse de structures à l'impact. Or, pour un grand nombre de matériaux métalliques à haute résistance soumis à des sollicitations à grande vitesse, le cisaillement adiabatique constitue un processus endommageant conduisant souvent à la ruine par macrofissuration. Nous présentons ici un modèle continu qui, construit sur des bases thermodynamiques, rend compte du comportement thermo-élasto/viscoplastique du matériau sain et de l'anisotropie mécanique (dégradation directionnelle des modules élastiques et viscoplastiques induite par la présence des bandes de cisaillement adiabatique dans le matériau endommagé. Dans notre démarche de modélisation qui tend à refléter les constats expérimentaux, la population de bandes est représentée par une variable tensorielle d'endommagement au sein d'un matériau homogène équivalent. Le modèle est formulé dans le cadre des transformations finies élasto-plastiques avec prise en compte de l'anisotropie induite. Sa particularisation au cas des petites perturbations est illustrée pour certains processus homogènes.

  20. Assessment of hospice nurses' technique in the use of inhalers and nebulizers.

    PubMed

    Scarpaci, Laura T; Tsoukleris, Mona G; McPherson, Mary Lynn

    2007-06-01

    Dyspnea, a common distressing end-of-life symptom, is treated with oral (i.e., opioids and anxiolytics) and inhaled medications (anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator agents). Health care providers and patients have demonstrated an inability to use inhaler devices correctly, which can lead to suboptimal drug delivery and poor symptom relief. Hospice nurses are the primary health care providers educating patients, making it critical that they convey accurate device technique. This study assessed hospice nurses' ability to demonstrate proper inhaler device technique and their knowledge of agents used to treat dyspnea. Forty-seven nurses participated. Participants completed a written questionnaire, which gathered demographic data, as well as information regarding previous training with an inhaler device, administration, pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, patient assessment, and nursing technique. Additionally, each nurse demonstrated the use of a metered dose inhaler, spacer, dry powder inhaler, and a nebulizer, while being observed by a pharmacist trained in the use of inhalers. A standardized evaluation form was used to ensure consistency between evaluators and subjects. Percentage of steps completed correctly by the study participants ranged from 34.9% with the dry powder inhaler to 67.6% with the metered dose inhaler. Years of experience, presence of hospice certification, personal use of inhaler, and nursing comfort level significantly impacted ability to use inhalation devices. This study demonstrated the existence of knowledge gaps regarding patient assessment, pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of inhaled medications, and inhalation device technique among hospice nurses. Formal education of hospice practitioners regarding inhaled medications and inhalation delivery devices is needed. PMID:17592978

  1. Disjonction symphysaire après un accouchement par voie basse dystocique: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Laadioui, Meriem; Slimani, Wafae; Jayi, Sofia; Alaoui, Fatimazahra Fdili; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, Moulay Aabdelilah

    2014-01-01

    La disjonction symphysaire est une affection rare, qui se définie par un élargissement au niveau de l'articulation inter-symphysaire estimé supérieur à 10 mm. Cette affection nécessite une prise en charge spécialisée en cas de douleurs sévères et invalidantes. Nous rapportant le cas d'une patiente présentant des douleurs pelviennes intense avec impotence du MI gauche à J2 d'un accouchement dystocique, l'examen clinique a objectivé une douleur exquise à la palpation de la symphyse pubienne. Le diagnostic a été confirmé par une radiologie du bassin de face objectivant un élargissement de la symphyse pubienne de 15 mm, la prise en charge thérapeutique a consisté en une mise sous décharge et anti-coagulation préventive avec un traitement antalgique à base de paracétamol et AINS. L’évolution était favorable. A travers notre cas, nous insisterons sur les caractéristiques de cette pathologie notamment pronostic, ce qui permettra au praticien de comprendre l'intérêt du diagnostic et prise en charge précoce de cette entité qu'elle évoquer devant toute douleurs pelviennes survenant au cours de la grossesse ou en post partum. PMID:24932344

  2. Inhaled Amikacin for Treatment of Refractory Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Pamela A.; Glaser, Tanya S.; Bhattacharyya, Darshana; Fleshner, Michelle; Brewer, Carmen C.; Zalewski, Christopher K.; Folio, Les R.; Siegelman, Jenifer R.; Shallom, Shamira; Park, In Kwon; Sampaio, Elizabeth P.; Zelazny, Adrian M.; Holland, Steven M.; Prevots, D. Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Treatment of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria, especially Mycobacterium abscessus, requires prolonged, multidrug regimens with high toxicity and suboptimal efficacy. Options for refractory disease are limited. Objectives: We reviewed the efficacy and toxicity of inhaled amikacin in patients with treatment-refractory nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease. Methods: Records were queried to identify patients who had inhaled amikacin added to failing regimens. Lower airway microbiology, symptoms, and computed tomography scan changes were assessed together with reported toxicity. Measurements and Main Results: The majority (80%) of the 20 patients who met entry criteria were women; all had bronchiectasis, two had cystic fibrosis and one had primary ciliary dyskinesia. At initiation of inhaled amikacin, 15 were culture positive for M. abscessus and 5 for Mycobacterium avium complex and had received a median (range) of 60 (6, 190) months of mycobacterial treatment. Patients were followed for a median of 19 (1, 50) months. Eight (40%) patients had at least one negative culture and 5 (25%) had persistently negative cultures. A decrease in smear quantity was noted in 9 of 20 (45%) and in mycobacterial culture growth for 10 of 19 (53%). Symptom scores improved in nine (45%), were unchanged in seven (35%), and worsened in four (20%). Improvement on computed tomography scans was noted in 6 (30%), unchanged in 3 (15%), and worsened in 11 (55%). Seven (35%) stopped amikacin due to: ototoxicity in two (10%), hemoptysis in two (10%), and nephrotoxicity, persistent dysphonia, and vertigo in one each. Conclusions: In some patients with treatment-refractory pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, the addition of inhaled amikacin was associated with microbiologic and/or symptomatic improvement; however, toxicity was common. Prospective evaluation of inhaled amikacin for mycobacterial disease is warranted. PMID:24460437

  3. A collaborative European study of personal inhalable aerosol sampler performance.

    PubMed

    Kenny, L C; Aitken, R; Chalmers, C; Fabriès, J F; Gonzalez-Fernandez, E; Kromhout, H; Lidén, G; Mark, D; Riediger, G; Prodi, V

    1997-04-01

    Following the adoption of new international sampling conventions for inhalable, thoracic and respirable aerosol fractions, a working group of Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN) drafted a standard for the performance of workplace aerosol sampling instruments. The present study was set up to verify the experimental, statistical and mathematical procedures recommended in the draft performance standard and to check that they could be applied to inhalable aerosol samplers. This was achieved by applying the tests to eight types of personal inhalable aerosol sampler commonly used for workplace monitoring throughout Europe. The study led to recommendations for revising the CEN draft standard, in order to simplify the tests and reduce their cost. However, some further work will be needed to develop simpler test facilities and methods. Several of the samplers tested were found to perform adequately with respect to the inhalable sampling convention, at least over a limited range of typical workplace conditions. In general the samplers were found to perform best in low external wind speeds, which are the test conditions thought to be closest to those normally found in indoor workplaces. The practical implementation of the CEN aerosol sampling conventions requires decisions on which sampling instruments to use, estimation of the likely impact that changing sampling methods could have on apparent exposures, and adjustment where necessary of exposure limit values. The sampler performance data obtained in this project were affected by large experimental errors, but are nevertheless a useful input to decisions on how to incorporate the CEN inhalable sampling convention into regulation, guidance and occupational hygiene practice. PMID:9155236

  4. Evidence of validity of an inhalant-craving questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Matías, Lizeth; Páez-Martínez, Nayeli; Reyes-Zamorano, Ernesto; González-Olvera, Jorge J

    2015-01-01

    Inhalants are substances widely used as recreational drugs: their addictive potential has been demonstrated by many studies. There is no reported measurable evidence of craving in inhalant users. The main goal of this study was to design and obtain evidence of validity of the score of a questionnaire for the evaluation of inhalant craving (ICQ) in a Mexican population sample. The ICQ is a type of visual analog scale with ten items. Face validity was evaluated by a group of experts in the addiction field. Reviewers considered the completeness, semantics, and sentence structure to guarantee a conceptual representation of the items. The final ICQ was applied to a sample of 520 Mexican high school students, 46% women and 54% men, between 12-19 years of age (M=15.18; SD=1.48), from 7th to 12th grades. The internal consistency of the ICQ showed a Cronbach's Alpha of 0.947. The 10 items were grouped into one single factor, with a factor loading above 0.74 for each of them. ROC analysis breakpoint was located at 18.5 mm with a sensitivity of 0.855 and specificity of 0.753. Thirty-three per cent (n= 172) of the student population evaluated reported the use of inhalants at some point in their lifetimes, with an average of misuse beginning at 13.6 years of age. The ICQ showed adequate psychometric properties, suggesting that the instrument may be considered a useful tool for screening for craving in young inhalant users. PMID:26706810

  5. Acute inhalation toxicity testing: considerations of technical and regulatory aspects.

    PubMed

    Pauluhn, J; Bury, D; Föst, U; Gamer, A; Hoernicke, E; Hofmann, T; Kunde, M; Neustadt, T; Schlede, E; Schnierle, H; Wettig, K; Westphal, D

    1996-01-01

    The EU regulatory statute for the acute hazard identification of chemicals requires selection of the two most appropriate routes of administration. Testing employing the oral route is mandatory, whereas selection of the dermal or inhalation route requires expert judgement, i.e. considerations of structural alerts with regard to the inherent acute inhalation toxicity as well as the likelihood of dermal and inhalation exposure, respectively. Currently, testing of chemicals requires acute inhalation exposure of 4-h and 1-h durations according the EU classification and labelling and UN Transport Guidelines, respectively. The analysis made revealed that 1-h exposures appear to add little knowledge in addition to existing 4-h LC50 values and a default value of 4 should be used for conversion of 4-h to 1-h LC50 values, independently of the physical state of the chemical. Therefore, also the unit of concentration of exposure atmospheres should be independent of nominal features of the test substance. Hence, the preferred dose metric is mass (mg/liter air) rather than volume (ppm). Taking into account the overall variability of acute toxicity data the recommendations given are classification into the following groups of 4-h LC50 values: < or = 0.05, > 0.05-0.2, > 0.2-1, > 1-5 and > 5.0 mg/l. No distinction should be made concerning vapours and aerosols with regard to units and conversion factors from 4-h to 1-h LC50 values and the default factor of 4 appears to be most suitable. Further differentiation of classification is not indicated due to technical variability of acute inhalation testing and resolution of the acute bioassay. PMID:9010579

  6. Control of cleavage spindle orientation in Caenorhabditis elegans: The role of the genes par-2 and par-3

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, N.N.; Kirby, C.M.; Kemphues, K.J.

    1995-02-01

    Polarized asymmetric divisions play important roles in the development of plants and animals. The first two embryonic cleavages of Caenorhabditis elegans provide an opportunity to study the mechanisms controlling polarized asymmetric divisions. The first cleavage is unequal, producing daughters with different sizes and fates. The daughter blastomeres divide with different orientations at the second cleavage; the anterior blastomere divides equally across the long axis of the egg, whereas the posterior blastomere divides unequally along the long axis. We report here the results of our analysis of the genes par-2 and par-3 with respect to their contribution to the polarity of these divisions. Strong loss-of-function mutations in both genes lead to an equal first cleavage and an altered second cleavage. Interestingly, the mutations exhibit striking gene-specific differences at the second cleavage. The par-2 mutations lead to transverse spindle orientations in both blastomeres, whereas par-3 mutations lead to longitudinal spindle orientations in both blastomeres. The spindle orientation defects correlate with defects in centrosome movements during both the first and the second cell cycle. Temperature shift experiments with par-2 (it5ts) indicate that the par-2(+) activity is not required after the two-cell stage. Analysis of double mutants shows that par-3 is epistatic to par-2. We propose a model wherein par-2(+) and par-3(+) act in concert during the first cell cycle to affect asymmetric modification of the cytoskeleton. This polar modification leads to different behaviors of centrosomes in the anterior and posterior and leads ultimately to blastomere-specific spindle orientations at the second cleavage. 44 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute annual report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Belinsky, S. A.; Hoover, M. D.; Bradley, P. L.

    1994-11-01

    This document from the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute includes annual reports in the following general areas: (I) Aerosol Technology and Characterization of Airborne Materials; (II) Deposition, transport, and clearance of inhaled Toxicants; (III) Metabolism and Markers of Inhaled Toxicants; (IV) Carcinogenic Responses to Toxicants; (V) Mechanisms of carcinogenic response to Toxicants; (VI) Non carcinogenic responses to inhaled toxicants; (VII) Mechanisms of noncarcinogenic Responses to Inhaled Toxicants; (VIII) The application of Mathematical Modeling to Risk Estimates. 9 appendices are also included. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Inhalation injury in severely burned children does not augment the systemic inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Jeschke, Marc G

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Inhalation injury in combination with a severe thermal injury increases mortality. Alterations in inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines, contribute to the incidence of multi-organ failure and mortality. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of inhalation injury on cytokine expression in severely burned children. Methods Thirty severely burned pediatric patients with inhalation injury and 42 severely burned children without inhalation injury were enrolled in the study. Inhalation injury was diagnosed by bronchoscopy during the first operation. Blood was collected within 24 hours of admission and again at five to seven days following admission. Cytokine expression was profiled using multi-plex antibody-coated beads. Significance was accepted at a p value of less than 0.05. Results The mean percentages of total body surface area burned were 67% ± 4% (56% ± 6%, third-degree burns) in the inhalation injury group and 60% ± 3% (45% ± 3%, third-degree burns) in the non-inhalation injury group (p value not significant [NS]). Mean age was 9 ± 1 years in the inhalation injury group and 8 ± 1 years in the non-inhalation injury group (p value NS). Time from burn to admission in the inhalation injury group was 2 ± 1 days compared to 3 ± 1 days in the non-inhalation injury group (p value NS). Mortalities were 40% in the inhalation injury group and 12% in the non-inhalation injury group (p < 0.05). At the time of admission, serum interleukin (IL)-7 was significantly increased in the non-inhalation injury group, whereas IL-12p70 was significantly increased in the inhalation injury group compared to the non-inhalation injury group (p < 0.05). There were no other significant differences between groups. Five to seven days following admission, all cytokines decreased with no differences between the inhalation injury and non-inhalation injury cohorts. Conclusion In the present study, we show that an inhalation injury causes alterations in IL-7

  9. Wetting and energetics of solid Au and Au-Ge/SiC interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Wynblatt, P.

    1998-09-01

    A solid state wetting technique has been used to investigate the effects of alloying Au with Ge on the wetting and energetics of Au/SiC interfaces at 1123 K. Germanium was found to segregate to the Au/SiC interface, thereby lowering the contact angle of Au on SiC from 133 to 110, and doubling the work of adhesion of Au on SiC. Calculations based on a monolayer model predict a segregation of 0.89 monolayers of Ge at the Au/SiC interface for Au containing 2.3 at.% Ge. This agrees reasonably well with a coverage of 0.6 monolayers Ge at the Au/SiC interface obtained by direct measurements based on the crater edge profiling technique. The work also demonstrates that simple models of interfacial composition can be combined with the Gibbs adsorption isotherm to provide reliable estimates of interfacial composition at complex four-component interfaces.

  10. Gold nanowired: a linear (Au25)(n) polymer from Au25 molecular clusters.

    PubMed

    De Nardi, Marco; Antonello, Sabrina; Jiang, De-en; Pan, Fangfang; Rissanen, Kari; Ruzzi, Marco; Venzo, Alfonso; Zoleo, Alfonso; Maran, Flavio

    2014-08-26

    Au25(SR)18 has provided fundamental insights into the properties of clusters protected by monolayers of thiolated ligands (SR). Because of its ultrasmall core, 1 nm, Au25(SR)18 displays molecular behavior. We prepared a Au25 cluster capped by n-butanethiolates (SBu), obtained its structure by single-crystal X-ray crystallography, and studied its properties both experimentally and theoretically. Whereas in solution Au25(SBu)18(0) is a paramagnetic molecule, in the crystal it becomes a linear polymer of Au25 clusters connected via single Au-Au bonds and stabilized by proper orientation of clusters and interdigitation of ligands. At low temperature, [Au25(SBu)18(0)]n has a nonmagnetic ground state and can be described as a one-dimensional antiferromagnetic system. These findings provide a breakthrough into the properties and possible solid-state applications of molecular gold nanowires. PMID:25088331

  11. Pt{sub 3}Au and PtAu clusters: Electronic states and potential energy surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, D.; Balasubramanian, K.

    1994-03-15

    We carried out complete active space multiconfiguration self-consistent-field calculations followed by multireference singles+doubles configuration interaction with the Davidson correction which included up to 3.55 million configurations employing relativistic effective core potentials on Pt{sub 3}+Au and PtAu clusters. Four low-lying electronic states were identified for Pt{sub 3}+Au. The {sup 2}{ital A}{sub 2} electronic state ({ital C}{sub 3{ital v}}) was found to be the ground state of Pt{sub 3}Au. Spin--orbit effects were found to be significant. We also computed six low-lying electronic states of PtAu and four low-lying electronic states of PtAu{sup +}. The 5/2 ({sup 2}{Delta}) and 0{sup +}({sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}) states were found to be the ground states of PtAu and PtAu{sup +}, respectively.

  12. Inhalable PEGylated Phospholipid Nanocarriers and PEGylated Therapeutics for Respiratory Delivery as Aerosolized Colloidal Dispersions and Dry Powder Inhalers

    PubMed Central

    Muralidharan, Priya; Mallory, Evan; Malapit, Monica; Hayes Jr., Don; Mansour, Heidi M.

    2014-01-01

    Nanomedicine is making groundbreaking achievements in drug delivery. The versatility of nanoparticles has given rise to its use in respiratory delivery that includes inhalation aerosol delivery by the nasal route and the pulmonary route. Due to the unique features of the respiratory route, research in exploring the respiratory route for delivery of poorly absorbed and systemically unstable drugs has been increasing. The respiratory route has been successfully used for the delivery of macromolecules like proteins, peptides, and vaccines, and continues to be examined for use with small molecules, DNA, siRNA, and gene therapy. Phospholipid nanocarriers are an attractive drug delivery system for inhalation aerosol delivery in particular. Protecting these phospholipid nanocarriers from pulmonary immune system attack by surface modification by polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylation, enhancing mucopenetration by PEGylation, and sustaining drug release for controlled drug delivery are some of the advantages of PEGylated liposomal and proliposomal inhalation aerosol delivery. This review discusses the advantages of using PEGylated phospholipid nanocarriers and PEGylated therapeutics for respiratory delivery through the nasal and pulmonary routes as inhalation aerosols. PMID:24955820

  13. Development of a High Efficiency Dry Powder Inhaler: Effects of Capsule Chamber Design and Inhaler Surface Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Behara, Srinivas R.B.; Farkas, Dale R.; Hindle, Michael; Longest, P. Worth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to explore the performance of a high efficiency dry powder inhaler (DPI) intended for excipient enhanced growth (EEG) aerosol delivery based on changes to the capsule orientation and surface modifications of the capsule and device. Methods DPIs were constructed by combining newly designed capsule chambers (CC) with a previously developed three-dimensional (3D) rod array for particle deagglomeration and a previously optimized EEG formulation. The new CCs oriented the capsule perpendicular to the incoming airflow and were analyzed for different air inlets at a constant pressure drop across the device. Modifications to the inhaler and capsule surfaces included use of metal dispersion rods and surface coatings. Aerosolization performance of the new DPIs was evaluated and compared with commercial devices. Results The proposed capsule orientation and motion pattern increased capsule vibrational frequency and reduced the aerosol MMAD compared with commercial/modified DPIs. The use of metal rods in the 3D array further improved inhaler performance. Coating the inhaler and capsule with PTFE significantly increased emitted dose (ED) from the optimized DPI. Conclusions High efficiency performance is achieved for EEG delivery with the optimized DPI device and formulation combination producing an aerosol with MMAD < 1.5 µm, FPF<5µm/ED > 90%, and ED > 80%. PMID:23949304

  14. Interplanetary dust between 1 and 5 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, J. E.; Singer, S. F.; Alvarez, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Analyses of data from the Meteoroid Detection Experiment (MDE) and the Imaging Photopolarimeter (IPP) aboard Pioneer 10 and 11 have led to contradictory conclusions. While the MDE indicates a significant particle environment in the outer solar system (out to at least 5 AU), the IPP sees no zodiacal light (therefore implying no small particles) past 3.3 AU. These two results are reconciled by noting that the spectral index p (relating particle radius and particle concentration) is not a constant in the solar system but changes from less than 2 near 1 AU to more than 2.5 at 5 AU for particles in the range of 10 microns.

  15. Effect of compression pressure on inhalation grade lactose as carrier for dry powder inhalations

    PubMed Central

    Raut, Neha Sureshrao; Jamaiwar, Swapnil; Umekar, Milind Janrao; Kotagale, Nandkishor Ramdas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study focused on the potential effects of compression forces experienced during lactose (InhaLac 70, 120, and 230) storage and transport on the flowability and aerosol performance in dry powder inhaler formulation. Materials and Methods: Lactose was subjected to typical compression forces 4, 10, and 20 N/cm2. Powder flowability and particle size distribution analysis of un-compressed and compressed lactose was evaluated by Carr's index, Hausner's ratio, the angle of repose and by laser diffraction method. Aerosol performance of un-compressed and compressed lactose was assessed in dispersion studies using glass twin-stage-liquid-impenger at flow rate 40-80 L/min. Results: At compression forces, the flowability of compressed lactose was observed same or slightly improved. Furthermore, compression of lactose caused a decrease in in vitro aerosol dispersion performance. Conclusion: The present study illustrates that, as carrier size increases, a concurrent decrease in drug aerosolization performance was observed. Thus, the compression of the lactose fines onto the surfaces of the larger lactose particles due to compression pressures was hypothesized to be the cause of these observed performance variations. The simulations of storage and transport in an industrial scale can induce significant variations in formulation performance, and it could be a source of batch-to-batch variations. PMID:27014618

  16. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer is a death signal

    PubMed Central

    Andrabi, Shaida A.; Kim, No Soo; Yu, Seong-Woon; Wang, Hongmin; Koh, David W.; Sasaki, Masayuki; Klaus, Judith A.; Otsuka, Takashi; Zhang, Zhizheng; Koehler, Raymond C.; Hurn, Patricia D.; Poirier, Guy G.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2006-01-01

    Excessive activation of the nuclear enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) plays a prominent role in various of models of cellular injury. Here, we identify poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer, a product of PARP-1 activity, as a previously uncharacterized cell death signal. PAR polymer is directly toxic to neurons, and degradation of PAR polymer by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) or phosphodiesterase 1 prevents PAR polymer-induced cell death. PARP-1-dependent, NMDA excitotoxicity of cortical neurons is reduced by neutralizing antibodies to PAR and by overexpression of PARG. Neuronal cultures with reduced levels of PARG are more sensitive to NMDA excitotoxicity than WT cultures. Transgenic mice overexpressing PARG have significantly reduced infarct volumes after focal ischemia. Conversely, mice with reduced levels of PARG have significantly increased infarct volumes after focal ischemia compared with WT littermate controls. These results reveal PAR polymer as a signaling molecule that induces cell death and suggests that interference with PAR polymer signaling may offer innovative therapeutic approaches for the treatment of cellular injury. PMID:17116882

  17. Suboptimal inhaler medication adherence and incorrect technique are common among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    PubMed

    Sriram, Krishna B; Percival, Matthew

    2016-02-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are routinely prescribed one or more inhaled medications. Adherence to inhaler medications and correct inhaler device technique are crucial to successful COPD management. The goals of this study were to estimate adherence and inhaler technique in a cohort of COPD patients. This was an observational study conducted on a sample of 150 COPD patients. Medication adherence was assessed using the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS). Inhaler technique was assessed using standardized checklists. Clinical data were collected using a proforma. Of the 150 patients (mean age 70.3 years, 52% male), 58% reported suboptimal adherence (MARS ≤ 24). High adherence to therapy (MARS = 25) was associated with older age (p = 0.001), but not any of the other studied variables. Medication non-adherence was not associated with COPD exacerbations. Errors (≥ 1) in inhaler technique were common across all of the types of inhaler devices reportedly used by patients, with the highest proportion of errors among Turbuhaler users (83%) and the least proportion of errors among Handihaler users (50%). No clinical variables were associated with errors in inhaler technique. Suboptimal adherence and errors in inhaler technique are common among COPD patients. No clinical variables to assist in the prediction of medication non-adherence and poor inhaler technique were identifiable. Consequently, regular assessment of medication adherence and inhaler technique should be incorporated into routine clinical practice to facilitate improved health outcomes among patients with COPD. PMID:26396159

  18. Inter-professional education unveiling significant association between asthma knowledge and inhaler technique

    PubMed Central

    Basheti, Iman A.; Hamadi, Salim A.; Reddel, Helen K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore whether an association exists between health care professionals’ (HCPs) asthma knowledge and inhaler technique demonstration skills. Methods: HCPs’ asthma knowledge and inhaler technique demonstration skills were assessed at baseline at an inter-professional educational workshop focusing on asthma medication use. Asthma knowledge was assessed via a published questionnaire. Correct inhaler technique for the three inhalers, the Accuhaler, Turbuhaler and pressurized Metered Dose Inhaler (pMDI) was assessed using published checklists. Results: Two hundred HCPs agreed to participate: 10 specialists (medical doctors specialized in respiratory diseases) (5%), 46 general practitioners (23%), 79 pharmacists (39%), 15 pharmacists’ assistants (8%), 40 nurses (20%) and 10 respiratory therapists (5%). Backwards stepwise multiple regression conducted to determine predictors of HCPs’ inhaler technique, showed that out of many independent variables (asthma knowledge score, profession, age, gender, place of work, years in practice and previous personal use of the study inhaler/s), asthma knowledge score was the only variable showing significant association with inhaler technique (R2=0.162, p<0.001). Conclusion: This study revealed significant associations between asthma knowledge and inhaler technique scores for all HCPs. Providing inter-professional workshops for all HCPs involved integrating education on asthma knowledge and practice of inhaler technique skills are looked-for. PMID:27011779

  19. Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of epinephrine administered using a mobile inhaler.

    PubMed

    Frechen, Sebastian; Suleiman, Ahmed Abbas; Mohammad Nejad Sigaroudi, Ali; Wachall, Bertil; Fuhr, Uwe

    2015-12-01

    Inhaled epinephrine is a potential alternative to self-administered intramuscular epinephrine in imminent anaphylactic reactions. The objective was to develop a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model describing exposure and effects on heart rate of inhaled epinephrine. Data from a 4-phase cross-over clinical trial in 9 healthy volunteers including 0.3 mg intramuscular epinephrine, two doses of inhaled epinephrine (4 mg/mL solution administered during [mean] 18 and 25 min, respectively) using a mobile pocket inhaler, and an inhaled placebo were analyzed using mixed-effects modeling. Inhaled epinephrine was available almost immediately and more rapidly than via the intramuscular route (absorption half-live 29 min). Epinephrine plasma concentrations declined rapidly after terminating inhalation (elimination half-life 4.1 min) offering the option to stop exposure in case of adverse events. While the expected maximum concentration was higher for inhaled epinephrine, this was not associated with safety concerns due to only moderate additional hemodynamic effects compared to intramuscular administration. Bioavailability after inhalation (4.7%) was subject to high interindividual and interoccasional variability highlighting that training of inhalation would be essential for patients. The proposed model suggests that the use of a highly concentrated epinephrine solution via inhalation may offer an effective treatment option in anaphylaxis, while efficacy in patients remains to be shown. PMID:26615448

  20. Etude séro-épidémiologique de la leishmaniose canine au centre du Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Fellah, Hajiba; Doughmi, Oursula; Maniar, Saâd; Lalami, Abdelhakim El Ouali

    2014-01-01

    Dans le monde, la leishmaniose viscérale humaine est connue pour avoir comme principale source d'infection les Canidés domestiques et sauvages. Au centre du Maroc, les données épidémiologiques, cliniques et parasitologiques sur la leishmaniose canine, sont quasiment inexistantes. Ce travail traite une étude prospective au cours de laquelle 61 sérums canins ont été analysés par un test rapide et par l'immunofluorescence indirecte. La sensibilité du test rapide par rapport à celle de l'immunofluorescence indirecte (IFI) est de 33,33%. La fréquence de la maladie chez les chiens s’élève à 9,83% (Test Rapide) et 24,59% (IFI). 73,33% des cas canins positifs à la sérologie sont asymptomatiques. Ce sont les jeunes chiens de moins de 5 ans qui sont les plus fréquemment atteints avec une sensibilité de la race Berger Allmand à l'infection. Cette étude a permis de mettre en évidence la présence de chiens leishmaniens (15 chiens séropositifs parmi 61) et de prouver l'existence du réservoir canin. Une stratégie de prévention active doit être mise en place. PMID:25852791