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  1. Traitement de 46 malades porteurs de stades IV ORL par radiochimiothérapie concomitante selon un protocole permettant une radiosensibilisation de toutes les séances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baillet, F.; Dessard-Diana, B.; Diana, C.; Simon, J. M.; Mazeron, J. J.; Pierga, J. Y.; Dendale, R.

    1998-04-01

    An external beam therapy with two fractions a day giving 48Gy with 16fractions and 45days, initialy palliative, has been shown to be well adapted for a simultaneous radiosensitizing chemotherapy employment. Associated to a cisplatin, fluorouracyl, etoposide and hydrea based chemotherapy, it has been applyed to 46patients with inoperable stages IV ORL tumors including 91% T4, 9% T3, 48% N2N3, 72% performans status equal or less than2. With a 30months observation median delay a clinical complete response at 4months is observed in 93%, with further locoregional relapses in 38%. One year survival is 58%, 2years 40%, 3years 35%. These results are equal or better than those obtained with hyperfractionnated, accelerated, hyper-fractionnated and accelerated, and classical radiotherapy. Une radiothérapie bifractionnée donnant 48 Gy en 16 séances et 45 jours, initialement palliative, s'est révélée bien adaptée pour l'emploi simultané d'une chimiothérapie radiosensibilisante. Associée à une chimiothérapie à base de cisplatine, fluoro-uracile, etoposide et hydrea, elle a été appliquée à 46 malades porteurs de cancers ORL de stade IV inopérables comprenant 91 % de T4, 9 % de T3, 48 % de N2N3, 72 % de performans status égaux ou inférieurs à 2. Avec un délai médian d'observation de 30 mois on observe 93 % de réponses cliniques complètes à 4 mois avec 38 % de récidives locorégionales ultérieures. La survie est de 58 % à 1 an, 40 % à 2 ans et de 35 % à 3 ans. Ces résultats sont égaux ou supérieurs à ceux qui ont été obtenus avec des radiothérapies hyperfractionnées, accélérées, hyperfractionnées et accélérées, et classiques.

  2. La pelade par plaques

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre les schémas thérapeutiques et les résultats des traitements pour la pelade par plaques, de même que les aider à identifier les patients pour qui une demande de consultation en dermatologie pourrait s’imposer. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant le traitement de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte pileuse qui touche à la fois les enfants et les adultes. Même s’il n’y a pas de mortalité associée à la maladie, la morbidité découlant des effets psychologiques de la perte des cheveux peut être dévastatrice. Lorsque la pelade par plaques et le sous-type de la maladie sont identifiés, un schéma thérapeutique approprié peut être amorcé pour aider à arrêter la chute des cheveux et possiblement faire commencer la repousse. Les traitements de première intention sont la triamcinolone intralésionnelle avec des corticostéroïdes topiques ou du minoxidil ou les 2. Les médecins de famille peuvent prescrire ces traitements en toute sécurité et amorcer ces thérapies. Les cas plus avancés ou réfractaires pourraient avoir besoin de diphénylcyclopropénone topique ou d’anthraline topique. On peut traiter la perte de cils avec des analogues de la prostaglandine. Les personnes ayant subi une perte de cheveux abondante peuvent recourir à des options de camouflage ou à des prothèses capillaires. Il est important de surveiller les troubles psychiatriques en raison des effets psychologiques profonds de la perte de cheveux. Conclusion Les médecins de famille verront de nombreux patients qui perdent leurs cheveux. La reconnaissance de la pelade par plaques et la compréhension du processus pathologique sous-jacent permettent d’amorcer un schéma thérapeutique approprié. Les cas plus graves ou r

  3. Prise en Charge du Syndrome de Lyell ou Necrolyse Epidermique Toxique

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Baite, A.; Bakkali, H.; Atmani, M.; Ababou, K.; Ihrai, H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Le syndrome de Lyell ou nécrolyse épidermique toxique (NET) est une pathologie très grave des dermatoses bulleuses d'étiologie médicamenteuse. Il se caractérise par une nécrose aiguë de l'épiderme sur toute la hauteur du corps muqueux. L'aspect clinique de la NET est celui d'une brûlure étendue du deuxième degré profond. A ce tableau s'associent constamment des lésions muqueuses et une atteinte multiviscérale qui aggrave le pronostic. Nous rapportons deux cas de NET qui illustrent l'importance d'une prise en charge précoce et multidisciplinaire de ces patients atteints au sein d'un service de réanimation des brûlés, dont les fondements reposent sur l'asepsie rigoureuse, l'apport hydroélectrolytique et nutritionnel, la prévention de l'infection et son traitement par une antibiothérapie adaptée, et un nursing et des soins locaux. L'efficacité supposée des immunoglobulines intraveineuses ne repose que sur des cas isolés et il n'y a pas encore d'études randomisées. PMID:21991170

  4. Rupture bilatérale des tendons rotuliens chez un sujet jeune sans notion de maladies systémiques ou de traitement par les corticostéroïdes: à propos d'un cas et revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Chagou, Aniss; Rhanim, Abdelkarim; Berrady, Mohammed Ali; Lamrani, Moulay Omar; Oudghiri, Mohammed; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Les lésions du tendon rotulien sont moins communes que celles du tendon quadricipital. Les lésions bilatérales sont encore plus rares et sont souvent associées à une notion de tendinopathie, d'injection de corticoïdes ou de maladies systémiques tels que le lupus érythémateux, l'ostéomalacie ou l'insuffisance rénale chronique. Nous rapportons le cas d'un patient de 26 ans victime d'une rupture bilatérale du tendon rotulien suite à une réception de saut. Le patient n'avait pas d'antécédents de tendinopathie ni de maladies systémiques. Le diagnostic a été suspecté devant une position anormalement haute des deux rotules avec une impossibilité d'extension active des deux jambes. L’échographie a confirmé le diagnostic. Le patient a été traité par la technique de laçage selon Judet protégée par un cadrage. La rupture bilatérale du tendon rotulien est rare. La plupart des patients rapportent une notion de maladie systémique ou un antécédents de chirurgie du genou. Nous rapportons le cas d'une lésion rare dans la littérature, une rupture bilatérale des tendons rotuliens sans notions de maladies auto-immunes ni de traitement avec des corticostéroïdes. Les lésions bilatérales présentent certaines particularités diagnostiques et thérapeutiques. En effet l'objectivation d'une rotule haute peut être rendu difficile par un aspect controlatéral semblable. Concernant le volet thérapeutique, deux difficultés sont à noter la première réside dans l'absence de référence comparative pour la hauteur patellaire. La deuxième difficulté est l'obligation de différer l'appui à 45 jours. Ce qui est contraignant pour le patient. La technique de laçage décrite par judet couplée à un cadrage provisoire protégeant la suture nous a donné des résultats satisfaisants. PMID:25667711

  5. La pelade par plaques

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, l’histologie et l’approche clinique au diagnostic de la pelade par plaques. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant la pathogenèse, le diagnostic et le pronostic de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme de perte pileuse auto-immune dont la prévalence durant une vie est d’environ 2 %. Des antécédents personnels ou familiaux de troubles auto-immuns concomitants, comme le vitiligo ou une maladie de la thyroïde, peuvent être observés dans un petit sous-groupe de patients. Le diagnostic peut souvent être posé de manière clinique en se fondant sur la perte de cheveux non cicatricielle et circulaire caractéristique, accompagnée de cheveux en « point d’exclamation » en périphérie chez ceux dont le problème en est aux premiers stades. Le diagnostic des cas plus complexes ou des présentations inhabituelles peut être facilité par une biopsie et un examen histologique. Le pronostic varie largement et de mauvais résultats sont associés à une apparition à un âge précoce, une perte importante, la variante ophiasis, des changements aux ongles, des antécédents familiaux ou des troubles auto-immuns concomitants. Conclusion La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte de cheveux périodiquement observée en soins primaires. Les médecins de famille sont bien placés pour identifier la pelade par plaques, déterminer la gravité de la maladie et poser le diagnostic différentiel approprié. De plus, ils sont en mesure de renseigner leurs patients à propos de l’évolution clinique de la maladie ainsi que du pronostic général selon le sous-type de patients.

  6. Lignes directrices sur l’aiguillage des cas soupçonnés de cancer colorectal par un médecin de famille ou autre professionnel des soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Del Giudice, M. Elisabeth; Vella, Emily T.; Hey, Amanda; Simunovic, Marko; Harris, William; Levitt, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Ces lignes directrices ont pour but d’aider les médecins de famille et les autres professionnels des soins primaires à reconnaître les caractéristiques qui devraient susciter leurs soupçons quant à la présence d’un cancer colorectal (CCR) chez leurs patients. Composition du comité Les membres du comité ont été choisis parmi les dirigeants régionaux des soins primaires au sein du Réseau provincial des soins primaires et de la lutte contre le cancer, les membres du Comité consultatif sur le dépistage du cancer colorectal de l’Ontario et les membres du Groupe sur le siège de la maladie, Cancer gastrointestinal, d’Action Cancer Ontario. Méthodes Ces lignes directrices sont le fruit d’une revue systématique et d’une synthèse des données probantes, ainsi que d’un examen formel par des intervenants canadiens pour valider la pertinence des recommandations. Rapport Des lignes directrices fondées sur des données probantes ont été élaborées pour améliorer la prise en charge des patients qui présentent des caractéristiques cliniques d’un CCR et ce, dans le contexte canadien. Conclusion Un équilibre judicieux entre une suspicion de CCR et le niveau de risque d’un tel cancer devrait favoriser une demande de consultation en temps opportun par les médecins de famille et les professionnels des soins primaires. Ces lignes directrices pourraient aussi orienter les décisions de demander une consultation à des programmes d’évaluation diagnostique du CCR.

  7. Lignes directrices sur l’aiguillage des cas soupçonnés de cancer du poumon par un médecin de famille ou autre professionnel des soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Del Giudice, M. Elisabeth; Young, Sheila-Mae; Vella, Emily T.; Ash, Marla; Bansal, Praveen; Robinson, Andrew; Skrastins, Roland; Ung, Yee; Zeldin, Robert; Levitt, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Les présentes lignes directrices visent à aider les médecins de famille et autres généralistes à reconnaître les manifestations cliniques devant éveiller les soupçons quant à la présence d’un cancer du poumon chez les patients. Composition du comité Les membres du comité ont été choisis parmi les leaders régionaux en soins primaires du Réseau provincial des soins primaires et de la lutte contre le cancer d’Action Cancer Ontario et parmi les membres du Groupe sur le siège de la maladie, Cancer du poumon d’Action Cancer Ontario. Méthodes Les présentes lignes directrices sont le fruit d’une revue systématique des données probantes, d’une synthèse des données et d’un examen externe formel effectué par des intervenants canadiens qui ont validé la pertinence des recommandations. Rapport Ces lignes directrices fondées sur des données probantes ont été formulées pour améliorer la prise en charge en contexte canadien des patients qui présentent des manifestations cliniques du cancer du poumon. Conclusion Le dépistage et l’aiguillage précoces des patients atteints de cancer du poumon pourraient en fin de compte aider à réduire les morbidités et mortalités liées au cancer. Ces lignes directrices pourraient aussi s’avérer utiles dans la mise sur pied de programmes de diagnostic du cancer du poumon et pour aider les décideurs à veiller à ce que les ressources appropriées soient en place.

  8. Loren Pope Touted "No Name" Colleges in a Brand-Name World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This article profiles Loren Pope, a college consultant and a former education editor at "The New York Times" who touted "no name" colleges and called the nation's most famous university, Harvard University, a rip-off. In his influential book "Colleges That Change Lives" (Penguin, 1996), Mr. Pope profiled 40 institutions--most of them small…

  9. Manifestations neuropsychiatriques révélant une hémorragie cérébro-méningée causée par un accident d’électrisation: à propos d'une observation et revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Bugeme, Marcellin; Mukuku, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Le courant électrique est susceptible de léser tout tissu de l'organisme rencontré lors de son passage, de manière transitoire ou définitive. Les hémorragies cérébro-méningées secondaires à un accident d’électrisation par courant électrique à haute tension sont très rarement rapportées dans la littérature. Nous rapportons un cas d'hémorragie cérébro-méningée révélée par des manifestations neuropsychiatriques causée par un AE par courant électrique à haute tension observée chez un enfant âgé de 6 ans à Lubumbashi, en République Démocratique du Congo. La particularité que présente notre observation est les manifestations neuropsychiatriques observées tardivement. PMID:25419328

  10. Le diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par l'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH): à propos des premiers tests réalisés au Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Lamzouri, Afaf; Natiq, Abdelhafid; Tajir, Mariam; Sendid, Mohamed; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Le but de cette étude était de présenter les premiers résultats de diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique d'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH) au Maroc et discuter son intérêt dans le diagnostic rapide de cette aneuploïdie. Méthodes Ce travail a été réalisé chez 23 femmes avec des grossesses à haut risque de trisomie 21. La moyenne d’âge des gestantes étaient de 37,43 ans avec des extrêmes de 21 et 43 ans. Toutes étaient musulmanes mariées, mariage légitimé par la Charia, dont trois mariages consanguins, sauf une originaire de la République Démocratique du Congo qui était chrétienne et concubine. La majorité des femmes étaient fonctionnaires et avaient un niveau de scolarisation moyen à élevé. Toutes les patientes ont bénéficié d'une consultation de génétique médicale au cours de laquelle il leur a été donné des informations sur la technique, son intérêt et ses limites. Il s'agit de femmes enceintes qui avaient soit un âge maternel élevé ou des signes d'appel échographiques et/ ou biochimiques. Une des patientes était porteuse d'une translocation robertsonienne t(14;21) équilibrée. Une amniocentèse a été réalisée chez toutes les gestantes et aucun avortement n'a était induit par ce geste invasif. L’âge gestationnel moyen à la première consultation était de 14 semaines d'aménorrhée (SA) et à l'amniocentèse était de 16 SA et 5 jours. L'analyse FISH a été réalisée, après consentement des couples, sur des cellules non cultivées à partir des échantillons de liquides amniotiques, en utilisant des sondes spécifiques du chromosome 21. Résultats Parmi les 23 patientes qui ont bénéficiées d'un diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique FISH, nous avons pu rassurer 21 d'entre elles, et nous avons détecté deux cas de trisomie 21 fœtal. Conclusion La technique FISH permet un diagnostic anténatal rapide, en moins de 48h, de la trisomie 21 sur

  11. Entérite lupique récidivante améliorée par Azathioprine

    PubMed Central

    Marzouk, Sameh; Garbaa, Saida; Cherif, Yosra; Jallouli, Moez; Bahri, Fathi; Bahloul, Zouhir

    2015-01-01

    Les manifestations gastro-intestinales observées au cours du lupus érythémateux systémique sont fréquentes et peuvent intéresser n'importe quel segment du tractus digestif. L'entérite lupique constitue l'une des manifestations responsable de douleurs abdominales. Son traitement est basé essentiellement sur les corticoïdes. Le recours aux immunosuppresseurs est réservé aux formes récidivantes ou en cas d’échec des corticoïdes. Nous rapportons une nouvelle observation d'entérite lupique récidivante améliorée par azathioprine. Il s'agissait d'une femme âgée de 30 ans chez laquelle le diagnostic du lupus a été retenu en 2004. Un an après, elle a présenté des douleurs abdominales, des vomissements et des diarrhées. Les explorations ont conclu à une entérite lupique après élimination de toute autre cause notamment infectieuse. Elle a été traitée par des corticoïdes à forte dose. Cependant à chaque tentative de dégression, elle présentait la même symptomatologie. En 2010 l'azathioprine a été associé permettant de juguler la maladie et de diminuer la corticothérapie. PMID:26113946

  12. Disjonction symphysaire après un accouchement par voie basse dystocique: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Laadioui, Meriem; Slimani, Wafae; Jayi, Sofia; Alaoui, Fatimazahra Fdili; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, Moulay Aabdelilah

    2014-01-01

    La disjonction symphysaire est une affection rare, qui se définie par un élargissement au niveau de l'articulation inter-symphysaire estimé supérieur à 10 mm. Cette affection nécessite une prise en charge spécialisée en cas de douleurs sévères et invalidantes. Nous rapportant le cas d'une patiente présentant des douleurs pelviennes intense avec impotence du MI gauche à J2 d'un accouchement dystocique, l'examen clinique a objectivé une douleur exquise à la palpation de la symphyse pubienne. Le diagnostic a été confirmé par une radiologie du bassin de face objectivant un élargissement de la symphyse pubienne de 15 mm, la prise en charge thérapeutique a consisté en une mise sous décharge et anti-coagulation préventive avec un traitement antalgique à base de paracétamol et AINS. L’évolution était favorable. A travers notre cas, nous insisterons sur les caractéristiques de cette pathologie notamment pronostic, ce qui permettra au praticien de comprendre l'intérêt du diagnostic et prise en charge précoce de cette entité qu'elle évoquer devant toute douleurs pelviennes survenant au cours de la grossesse ou en post partum. PMID:24932344

  13. La place de l'imagerie par résonance magnétique dans le carcinome lobulaire du sein

    PubMed Central

    Bouzoubaa, Wail; Laadioui, Meryem; Alaoui, Fatime Zahra Fdili; Jayi, Sofia; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, Moulay Abdelilah

    2014-01-01

    Le carcinome lobulaire reste une entité histologique peu fréquente du cancer du sein, toute fois la place qu'occupe le cancer du sein actuellement dans la cancérologie féminine, justifie la connaissance des particularités de ce type de cancer mammaire. Le diagnostic paraclinique est basée sur le couple écho-mammographie a la recherche de multifocalité, multicentricité ou bilatéralité, d'où l'intérêt de l'IRM qui est la technique la plus sensible pour la mise en évidence de ces lésions et qui est devenue un examen de pratique courante dans le carcinome lobulaire du sein. Par le présent travail, et sous la lumière de la revue de la littérature, nous allons essayer de dégager les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques, et paracliniques, du carcinome lobulaire du sein, et insister sur les indications et l'intérêt de l'IRM dans la prise en charge de ce type histologique. PMID:25368710

  14. La projection par plasma : une revue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauchais, P.; Grimaud, A.; Vardelle, A.; Vardelle, M.

    are presented in the fields of aeronautics and mechanics. La qualité d'un dépôt projete par plasma dépend de nombreux paramètres que l'on commence à mieux appréhender du fait des progrès de la modélisation et de la métrologie tant des écoulements plasmas que des transferts plasma-particules ou que des conditions d'écrasement et de refroidissement des particules lors de leur impact sur le substrat ou les couches déjà déposées. Les techniques de mesure utilisdes et leurs limitations sont d'abord rappelées tant pour les jets de plasma que pour les particules en vol et l'importance des différents phénomènes intervenant dans les transferts plasma-particules est soulignée : gradients de température et de concentration d'espèces chimiques très élevés autour des particules, effets de propagation de la chaleur, notamment pour les particules céramiques, effet d'évaporation, effet de raréfaction sensible dès la pression atmosphérique. Les problèmes de distribution de taille et de vitesse d'injection des particules sont également abordés car ils conditionnent les distributions de trajectoires et donc le traitement des particules dans le jet de plasma. La génération du plasma montre d'une part 1'influence considérable de l'injection du gaz, de sa nature, du dessin de la chambre d'arc et de la tuyère ainsi que du pompage de l'air ambiant sur la longueur des jets de plasma d'arc et d'autre part les problèmes d'injection pour éviter le couplage avec la décharge dans les jets de plasmas R.E Tout ceci est illustré avec des exemples de dépôt d'alumine, de zircone, de cermet carbure et de nickel. L'écrasement des particules est ensuite abordé avec les problèmes de réactions chimiques, de trempe ultra-rapide et donc de structure cristalline des dépôts, d'adhdsion mais aussi de containtes résiduelles et de leur contrôle via les gradients de température dans les dépôts pendant le tir. Enfin quelques applications actuelles sont pr

  15. Pars Injuries in Athletes.

    PubMed

    Oren, Jonathan H; Gallina, Jason M

    2016-03-01

    Pars injuries are common causes of low back pain in adolescent athletes. Workup traditionally has included lumbar radiographs with oblique views and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). However, recent literature has demonstrated the accuracy of MRI as a diagnostic modality. Acute injuries may be amenable to bracing with the goal of a healed lesion. Most cases of spondylolysis will result in asymptomatic non-union, though pars repair is an option for symptomatic pars defects without spondylolisthesis. PMID:26977552

  16. Modelisation par elements finis du muscle strie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Mathieu

    Ce present projet de recherche a permis. de creer un modele par elements finis du muscle strie humain dans le but d'etudier les mecanismes engendrant les lesions musculaires traumatiques. Ce modele constitue une plate-forme numerique capable de discerner l'influence des proprietes mecaniques des fascias et de la cellule musculaire sur le comportement dynamique du muscle lors d'une contraction excentrique, notamment le module de Young et le module de cisaillement de la couche de tissu conjonctif, l'orientation des fibres de collagene de cette membrane et le coefficient de poisson du muscle. La caracterisation experimentale in vitro de ces parametres pour des vitesses de deformation elevees a partir de muscles stries humains actifs est essentielle pour l'etude de lesions musculaires traumatiques. Le modele numerique developpe est capable de modeliser la contraction musculaire comme une transition de phase de la cellule musculaire par un changement de raideur et de volume a l'aide des lois de comportement de materiau predefinies dans le logiciel LS-DYNA (v971, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Livermore, CA, USA). Le present projet de recherche introduit donc un phenomene physiologique qui pourrait expliquer des blessures musculaires courantes (crampes, courbatures, claquages, etc.), mais aussi des maladies ou desordres touchant le tissu conjonctif comme les collagenoses et la dystrophie musculaire. La predominance de blessures musculaires lors de contractions excentriques est egalement exposee. Le modele developpe dans ce projet de recherche met ainsi a l'avant-scene le concept de transition de phase ouvrant la porte au developpement de nouvelles technologies pour l'activation musculaire chez les personnes atteintes de paraplegie ou de muscles artificiels compacts pour l'elaboration de protheses ou d'exosquelettes. Mots-cles Muscle strie, lesion musculaire, fascia, contraction excentrique, modele par elements finis, transition de phase

  17. Nonconsecutive Pars Interarticularis Defects.

    PubMed

    Elgafy, Hossein; Hart, Ryan C; Tanios, Mina

    2015-12-01

    Lumbar spondylolysis is a well-recognized condition occurring in adolescents because of repetitive overuse in sports. Nonconsecutive spondylolysis involving the lumbar spine is rare. In contrast to single-level pars defects that respond well to conservative treatment, there is no consensus about the management of multiple-level pars fractures; a few reports indicated that conservative management is successful, and the majority acknowledged that surgery is often required. The current study presents a rare case of pars fracture involving nonconsecutive segments and discusses the management options. In this case report, we review the patient's history, clinical examination, radiologic findings, and management, as well as the relevant literature. An 18-year-old man presented to the clinic with worsening lower back pain related to nonconsecutive pars fractures at L2 and L5. After 6 months of conservative management, diagnostic computed tomography-guided pars block was used to localize the symptomatic level at L2, which was treated surgically; the L5 asymptomatic pars fracture did not require surgery. At the last follow-up 2 years after surgery, the patient was playing baseball and basketball, and denied any back pain. This article reports a case of rare nonconsecutive pars fractures. Conservative management for at least 6 months is recommended. Successful management depends on the choice of appropriate treatment for each level. Single-photon emission computed tomography scan, and computed tomography-guided pars block are valuable preoperative tools to identify the symptomatic level in such a case. PMID:26665257

  18. Une alternative au cobalt pour la synthese de nanotubes de carbone monoparoi par plasma inductif thermique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrier, Jean-Francois

    Les nanotubes de carbone de type monoparoi (C-SWNT) sont une classe recente de nanomateriaux qui ont fait leur apparition en 1991. L'interet qu'on leur accorde provient des nombreuses proprietes d'avant-plan qu'ils possedent. Leur resistance mecanique serait des plus rigide, tout comme ils peuvent conduire l'electricite et la chaleur d'une maniere inegalee. Non moins, les C-SWNT promettent de devenir une nouvelle classe de plateforme moleculaire, en servant de site d'attache pour des groupements reactifs. Les promesses de ce type particulier de nanomateriau sont nombreuses, la question aujourd'hui est de comment les realiser. La technologie de synthese par plasma inductif thermique se situe avantageusement pour la qualite de ses produits, sa productivite et les faibles couts d'operation. Par contre, des recherches recentes ont permis de mettre en lumiere des risques d'expositions reliees a l'utilisation du cobalt, comme catalyseur de synthese; son elimination ou bien son remplacement est devenu une preoccupation importante. Quatre recettes alternatives ont ete mises a l'essai afin de trouver une alternative plus securitaire a la recette de base; un melange catalytique ternaire, compose de nickel, de cobalt et d'oxyde d'yttrium. La premiere consiste essentiellement a remplacer la proportion massique de cobalt par du nickel, qui etait deja present dans la recette de base. Les trois options suivantes contiennent de nouveaux catalyseurs, en remplacement au Co, qui sont apparus dans plusieurs recherches scientifiques au courant des dernieres annees: le dioxyde de zircone (ZrO2), dioxyde de manganese (MnO2) et le molybdene (Mo). La methode utilisee consiste a vaporiser la matiere premiere, sous forme solide, dans un reacteur plasma a haute frequence (3 MHz) a paroi refroidi. Apres le passage dans le plasma, le systeme traverse une section dite de "croissance", isolee thermiquement a l'aide de graphite, afin de maintenir une certaine plage de temperature favorable a la

  19. Caractérisation expérimentale de la dynamique des roues aubagées de turbomachines par mesures optiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombard, J.-P.; Seinturier, E.; Raynaud, J.-L.

    2002-12-01

    La conception dynamique des roues aubagées consiste à éviter que les modes de la structure ne soient excités par des harmoniques du régime moteur (coïncidences prédites à partir de l'analyse d'un diagramme de Campbell). En pratique, il est impossible d'éviter toute coïncidence sur l'ensemble de la plage de fonctionnement. Un essai moteur est effectué à la fin du cycle de conception pour déterminer les niveaux vibratoires. A partir de cet essai et du modèle EF validé, le concepteur vérifie ses marges fréquentielles et sait déterminer si la roue aubagée est soumise ou non au risque de fatigue vibratoire (HCF). Cette analyse nécessite plusieurs calculs EF dont les modèles ont été recalés par rapport à des essais partiels de distribution de contrainte (mesurée à l'aide de jauges de déformation). Une des limitations de ce type de mesure réside dans le caractère intrusif de l'instrumentation qui perturbe le comportement dynamique des aubes, notamment pour les modes de rang élevé. L'application de mesures optiques non intrusives sur des aubes est présentée ici, et met en évidence la précision qu'il est possible d'obtenir sur la mesure des déformées modales. De plus, ce papier illustre l'intérêt de borner la précision des mesures obtenues par exemple dans la caractérisation des dispersions en fréquence aube à aube, dispersions qui se traduisent par une amplification de la réponse aéroélastique de la structure.

  20. Par Pond water balance

    SciTech Connect

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

    1996-06-01

    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs.

  1. uPAR

    PubMed Central

    Uhrin, Pavel; Breuss, Johannes M.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-initiated angiogenesis requires both coordinated proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrix provided by the urokinase plasminogen activator/urokinase receptor (uPA/uPAR) system and regulation of cell-migration provided by integrin–matrix interaction. Previously we have shown that stimulation of pericellular proteolysis induced by VEGF occurs via the VEGF receptor-2 leading to redistribution of uPAR to focal adhesions at the leading edge of endothelial cells. In our recent work published in Cardiovascular Research, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the uPAR-dependent modulation of VEGF-induced endothelial migration. By applying a micropatterning technique we described that VEGF stimulation results in complex formation between uPAR and α5β1-integrin on the cell surface. The subsequent internalization of this complex, important for receptor redistribution, was demonstrated by flow-cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Targeting of the interaction site between uPAR and α5β1 impairs receptor internalization and leads to the inhibition of endothelial cell migration in vitro and in an angiogenesis model in vivo. This proof-of-principle that the interface of uPAR and α5β1-integrin may represent a promising site to therapeutically target tumor angiogenesis raises hope for the development of an anti-angiogenic approach that is limited to only the mobilizing effect of VEGF to endothelial cells, and does not interfere with the inarguably positive effect of VEGF as survival factor. PMID:23076213

  2. THE MEASURES PAR PROJECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouin, R. J.; Franz, B.

    2009-12-01

    The solar energy available for photosynthesis, known as PAR, controls the growth of phytoplankton and, therefore, regulates the composition and evolution of marine ecosystems. Knowing the spatial and temporal distribution of PAR over the oceans is critical to understanding biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nutrients, and oxygen, and to address important climate and global change issues such as the fate of anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide. In view of this, a 12-year time series of PAR at the ocean surface, starting in September 1997, is being produced by the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group from SeaWiFS, MODIS-Terra, and MODIS-Aqua data. The product covers the global oceans, with a spatial resolution of about 9.3x9.3 km (equal area grid) and a temporal resolution of one day. PAR is computed as the difference between the 400-700 nm solar flux incident on the top of the atmosphere (known) and reflected back to space by the atmosphere and surface (derived from satellite radiance), taking into account atmospheric absorption (modeled). Knowledge of pixel composition is not required, eliminating the need for cloud screening and arbitrary assumptions about sub-pixel cloudiness. Combining data from satellite sensors with different equatorial crossing times accounts for the diurnal variability of clouds and, therefore, increases accuracy on a daily time scale. The processing system, including routine check of accuracy and control of quality, is designed to operate during the entire lifetime of SeaWiFS and MODIS, and to accommodate future sensors with ocean-color capabilities. Maps of daily, weekly, and monthly PAR obtained from individual sensors are presented, as well as merged products. Accuracy is quantified in comparisons with other satellite estimates, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis product, and in-situ measurements from fixed buoys and platforms. The good statistical performance makes the satellite PAR product suitable for large

  3. Facteurs prédictifs de la réponse à la CERA chez les hémodialysés chroniques naïfs de traitement par agent stimulant l’érythropoïèse

    PubMed Central

    Ezziani, Mariam; Najdi, Adil; Mikou, Souad; Hanin, Hakim; Arrayhani, Mohammed; Houssaini, Tarik Sqalli

    2015-01-01

    La correction et la stabilité du taux d'hémoglobine est un objectif majeur du traitement de l'anémie chez les hémodialysés chroniques. Toutefois, la cible d'hémoglobine > 11g/dl fixée par les recommandations demeure difficile à atteindre dans notre contexte. Le but de cette étude est d’évaluer la réponse au traitement par CERA (continuous erythropoietin receptor activator) chez une population d'hémodialysés chroniques naïfs de tout traitement par agent stimulant de l’érythropoïèse et étudier les différents facteurs associés à une mauvaise réponse au traitement. Il s'agit une étude prospective mono centrique faite au sein d'une population d’ hémodialysés chroniques. Ont été inclus les patients en hémodialyse depuis plus de 12 mois, naïfs de tout traitement par agent stimulant de l’érythropoïèse (ASE) et ayant un taux d'hémoglobine(Hb) < 10g/dl. L'administration régulière de la CERA et l'ajustement des doses ont été faits selon les recommandations. L’évaluation de la réponse, en fin de traitement, a porté sur l'atteinte ou non d'un taux d'hémoglobine cible > 11g/dl. Sur 87 patients en hémodialyse périodique, 22 (25,3%) sont naïfs de tout traitement par ASE. Il s'agit de 13 hommes et 9 femmes avec un âge moyen de 46 ± 19 ans et une ancienneté en hémodialyse de 67 ± 59 mois. Le taux initial d'hémoglobine est de 7,8 ± 1,3 g/dl. Au bout de 4 mois de traitement régulier par la CERA, le taux final d'Hb est de 10,9 ± 2,1g/dl et 63,6% des patients ont atteint la cible d'Hb > 11g/dl. La dose moyenne de CERA à la fin de l’étude est de 0,89 ± 0,35 µg/kg/15j. L'analyse des facteurs prédictifs montre que la réponse finale dépend du taux d'Hb initial (p = 0,002). En effet, quand le taux d'Hb initial est > 8 g/dl, le taux de réponse est de 88% vs 46% lorsque le taux d'Hb < 8g/dl (p1-3]. Cette complication commune de la maladie rénale chronique est multifactorielle dont le déficit en érythropoïétine est le

  4. Traumatismes Oculaires par Petards: Bilan sur Trois Annees

    PubMed Central

    Zouaoui-Kesraoui, N.; Derdour, A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Les accidents dus aux pétards sont des accidents graves. Leur recrudescence ces dernières années en Algérie, essentiellement durant les fêtes du Mawlid Ennabaoui (fête de la naissance du prophète), mérite à notre sens d'entreprendre des bilans exhaustifs dont celui-ci dans le but d'une sensibilisation de toutes les compétences concernées. Nous avons réuni sur trois années consécutives (2002, 2003, 2004) 60 dossiers de malades ayant subi des accidents oculaires par pétards. Nos patients sont répartis en 42 consultations pour blessures légères et 18 hospitalisations pour blessures graves. Parmi ces derniers, neuf ont présenté des complications et séquelles graves (cinq cas de cécité par atrophie du globe oculaire, trois cas de cécité cornéenne et un cas de cécité par trou maculaire). Dans tous ces cas l'incapacité permanente partielle est au minimum de 30%. Au vu de ces données nous proposons des mesures d'éducation sanitaire et une sensibilisation du grand public aux traumatismes oculaires, par le biais de mé dias appropriés: radio, télévision, affiches. PMID:21991157

  5. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)1, PAR2 and PAR4 expressions in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LI, Si-Man; JIANG, Ping; XIANG, Yang; WANG, Wei-Wei; ZHU, Yue-Chun; FENG, Wei-Yang; LI, Shu-De; YU, Guo-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Here, we used reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and western blot to detect protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1, PAR 2 and PAR 4 expression in cancer tissues and cell lines of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and investigated the co-relationship between PAR expression and clinic-pathological data for esophageal cancer. The methylation of PAR4 gene promoter involved in esophageal carcinoma was also analyzed. By comparing the mRNA expressions of normal esophageal tissue and human esophageal epithelial cells (HEEpiC), we found that among the 28 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, PAR1 (60%) and PAR2 (71%) were elevated in 17 and 20 cases, respectively, and PAR4 (68%) expression was lowered in 19 cases. Whereas, in human esophageal squamous cells (TE-1 and TE-10), PAR1 and PAR2 expression was increased but PAR4 was decreased. Combined with clinical data, the expression of PAR1 in poorly differentiated (P=0.016) and middle and lower parts of the esophagus (P=0.016) was higher; expression of PAR4 in poorly differentiated carcinoma was lower (P=0.049). Regarding TE-1 and TE-10 protein expression, we found that in randomized esophageal carcinoma, PAR1 (P=0.027) and PAR2 (P=0.039) expressions were increased, but lowered for PAR4 (P=0.0001). In HEEpiC, TE-1, TE-10, esophageal and normal esophagus tissue samples (case No. 7), the frequency of methylation at the 19 CpG loci of PAR4 was 35.4%, 95.2%, 83.8%, 62.6% and 48.2%, respectively. Our results indicate that the expression of PAR1 and PAR2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is increased but PAR4 is decreased. Hypermethylation of the promoter of the PAR4 gene may contribute to reduced expression of PAR4 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25297082

  6. Par Pond vegetation status 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  7. Immunopathogenic Background of Pars Planitis.

    PubMed

    Przeździecka-Dołyk, Joanna; Węgrzyn, Agnieszka; Turno-Kręcicka, Anna; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Pars planitis is defined as an intermediate uveitis of unknown background of systemic disease with characteristic formations such as vitreous snowballs, snowbanks and changes in peripheral retina. The incidence of pars planitis varies 2.4-15.4 % of the uveitis patients. The pathogenesis of the disease is to be determined in future. Clinical and histopathological findings suggest an autoimmune etiology, most likely as a reaction to endogenous antigen of unknown source, with T cells predominant in both vitreous and pars plana infiltrations. T cells subsets play an important role as a memory-effector peripheral cell. Snowbanks are formed as an effect of post inflammatory glial proliferation of fibrous astrocytes. There is also a genetic predisposition for pars planitis by human leukocyte antigen and several other genes. A coexistence of multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis has been described in numerous studies. Epiretinal membrane, cataract, cystoid macular edema, retinal detachment, retinal vasculitis, neovascularization, vitreous peripheral traction, peripheral hole formation, vitreous hemorrhage, disc edema are common complications observed in pars planitis. There is a need to expand the knowledge of the pathogenic and immunologic background of the pars planitis to create an accurate pharmacological treatment. PMID:26438050

  8. Exploration of locomotion in the ParA/ParB system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindal, Lavisha; Emberly, Eldon

    2015-03-01

    In many bacteria the ParA/ParB system is responsible for actively segregating DNA during replication. ParB precessively moves by hydrolyzing DNA bound ParA-ATP forming a depleted ParA region in its wake. Recent in-vitro experiments have shown that a ParB covered bead can traverse a ParA bound DNA substrate. It has been suggested that the formation of a gradient in ParA leads to diffusion-ratchet like motion of the ParB bead but its origin and potential consequences requires investigation. We have developed a deterministic model for the in-vitro ParA/ParB system and show that any amount of spatial noise in ParA can lead to the spontaneous formation of its gradient. The velocity of the bead is independent of this noise but depends on the scale over which ParA exerts a force on the bead and the scale over which ParB hydrolyzes ParA from the substrate. There is a particular ratio of these scales at which the velocity is a maximum. We also explore the effects of cooperative vs independent rebinding of ParA to the substrate. Our model shows how the driving force for ParB originates and highlights necessary conditions for directed motion in the in-vitro system that may provide insight into the in-vivo behaviour of the ParA/ParB system.

  9. Le domaine des co-infections et des maladies concomitantes du Réseau canadien pour les essais VIH des IRSC : lignes directrices canadiennes pour la prise en charge et le traitement de la co-infection par le VIH et l’hépatite C chez les adultes

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Mark; Giguère, Pierre; Klein, Marina; Shafran, Stephen; Tseng, Alice; Côté, Pierre; Poliquin, Marc; Cooper, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    HISTORIQUE : De 20 % à 30 % des Canadiens qui vivent avec le VIH sont co-infectés par le virus de l’hépatite C (VHC), lequel est responsable d’une morbidité et d’une mortalité importantes. La prise en charge du VIH et du VHC est plus complexe en raison de l’évolution accélérée de la maladie hépatique, du choix et des critères d’initiation de la thérapie antirétrovirale et du traitement anti-VHC, de la prise en charge de la santé mentale et des toxicomanies, des obstacles socioéconomiques et des interactions entre les nouvelles thérapies antivirales à action directe du VHC et les antirétroviraux OBJECTIF : Élaborer des normes nationales de prise en charge des adultes co-infectés par le VHC et le VIH dans le contexte canadien. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Le Réseau canadien pour les essais VIH des Instituts de recherche en santé du Canada a réuni un groupe d’experts possédant des compétences cliniques en co-infection par le VIH et le VHC pour réviser les publications à jour ainsi que les lignes directrices et les protocoles en place. Après une vaste sollicitation afin d’obtenir des points de vue, le groupe de travail a approuvé des recommandations consensuelles, qu’il a caractérisées au moyen d’une échelle de qualité des preuves fondée sur la classe (bienfaits par rapport aux préjudices) et sur la catégorie (degré de certitude). RÉSULTATS : Toutes les personnes co-infectées par le VIH et le VHC devraient subir une évaluation en vue de recevoir un traitement du VHC. Les personnes qui ne sont pas en mesure d’entreprendre un traitement du VHC devraient être soignées pour le VIH afin de ralentir l’évolution de la maladie hépatique. La norme de traitement du VHC de génotype 1 est un régime comprenant de l’interféron pégylé et de la ribavirine dosée en fonction du poids, associés à un inhibiteur de la protéase du VHC. Pour les génotypes 2 ou 3, une bithérapie classique est recommandée pendant 24 semaines s

  10. [Physiology of protease-activated receptors (PARs): involvement of PARs in digestive functions].

    PubMed

    Kawabata, A; Kuroda, R; Hollenberg, M D

    1999-10-01

    The protease-activated receptor (PAR), a G protein-coupled receptor present on cell surface, mediates cellular actions of extracellular proteases. Proteases cleave the extracellular N-terminal of PAR molecules at a specific site, unmasking and exposing a novel N-terminal, a tethered ligand, that binds to the body of receptor molecules resulting in receptor activation. Amongst four distinct PARs that have been cloned, PARs 1, 3 and 4 are activated by thrombin, but PAR-2 is activated by trypsin or mast cell tryptase. Human platelets express two distinct thrombin receptors, PAR-1 and PAR-4, while murine platelets express PAR-3 and PAR-4. Apart from roles of PARs in platelet activation, PARs are distributed to a number of organs in various species, predicting their physiological importance. We have been evaluating agonists specific for each PAR, using multiple procedures including a HEK cell calcium signal receptor desensitization assay. Using specific agonists that we developed, we found the following: 1) the salivary glands express PAR-2 mRNA and secret saliva in response to PAR-2 activation; 2) pancreatic juice secretion occurs following in vivo PAR-2 activation; 3) PAR-1 and PAR-2 modulate duodenal motility. Collectively, PAR plays various physiological and/or pathophysiological roles, especially in the digestive systems, and could be a novel target for drug development. PMID:10629876

  11. Tunable, nonlinear Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehri, D.; Pletyukhov, M.; Gritsev, V.; Blatter, G.; Schmidt, S.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the two-photon scattering properties of a Jaynes-Cummings (JC) nonlinearity consisting of a two-level system (qubit) interacting with a single-mode cavity, which is coupled to two waveguides, each containing a single incident photon wave packet initially. In this scattering setup, we study the interplay between the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect arising due to quantum interference and effective photon-photon interactions induced by the presence of the qubit. We calculate the two-photon scattering matrix of this system analytically and identify signatures of interference and interaction in the second-order auto- and cross-correlation functions of the scattered photons. In the dispersive regime, when qubit and cavity are far detuned from each other, we find that the JC nonlinearity can be used as an almost linear, in situ tunable beam splitter giving rise to ideal Hong-Ou-Mandel interference, generating a highly path-entangled two-photon NOON state of the scattered photons. The latter manifests itself in strongly suppressed waveguide cross-correlations and Poissonian photon number statistics in each waveguide. If the two-level system and the cavity are on resonance, the JC nonlinearity strongly modifies the ideal HOM conditions leading to a smaller degree of path entanglement and sub-Poissonian photon number statistics. In the latter regime, we find that photon blockade is associated with bunched autocorrelations in both waveguides, while a two-polariton resonance can lead to bunched as well as antibunched correlations.

  12. Bimodal Hong-Ou-Mandel Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundarraman, Deepika; Gilliss, Thomas; Leary, Cody

    2013-03-01

    We investigate two-photon Hong-Ou-Mandel interference in several interferometric systems, in which each of the two interfering input photons exist in arbitrary linear superpositions of the first-order Hermite-Gaussian modes HG10 and HG01 . We find that if both input photons are in balanced superpositions of the HG10 and HG01 modes, the resulting two-photon interference can be engineered to transform these diagonal Hermite-Gaussian inputs into output modes of the Laguerre Gaussian type, which are entangled with respect to both output path and transverse spatial mode. We show that such two-photon interference effects can occur even if the input photons are prepared with distinguishable transverse spatial states. This work was supported in part by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

  13. Atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, R.; Imanaliev, A.; Aspect, A.; Cheneau, M.; Boiron, D.; Westbrook, C. I.

    2015-04-01

    Two-particle interference is a fundamental feature of quantum mechanics, and is even less intuitive than wave-particle duality for a single particle. In this duality, classical concepts--wave or particle--are still referred to, and interference happens in ordinary space-time. On the other hand, two-particle interference takes place in a mathematical space that has no classical counterpart. Entanglement lies at the heart of this interference, as it does in the fundamental tests of quantum mechanics involving the violation of Bell's inequalities. The Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment is a conceptually simpler situation, in which the interference between two-photon amplitudes also leads to behaviour impossible to describe using a simple classical model. Here we report the realization of the Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment using atoms instead of photons. We create a source that emits pairs of atoms, and cause one atom of each pair to enter one of the two input channels of a beam-splitter, and the other atom to enter the other input channel. When the atoms are spatially overlapped so that the two inputs are indistinguishable, the atoms always emerge together in one of the output channels. This result opens the way to testing Bell's inequalities involving mechanical observables of massive particles, such as momentum, using methods inspired by quantum optics, and to testing theories of the quantum-to-classical transition. Our work also demonstrates a new way to benchmark non-classical atom sources that may be of interest for quantum information processing and quantum simulation.

  14. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

  15. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C.; Liu, Jian

    The segregation of DNA prior to cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of the low-copy-number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of ParA ATPase and its stimulator protein ParB. Recent experiments suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion-ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. We develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA-nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB bound cargo. Paradoxically, the resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work sheds light on a new emergent phenomenon in which non-motor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos -- an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria.

  16. The ParB-parS Chromosome Segregation System Modulates Competence Development in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Attaiech, Laetitia; Minnen, Anita; Kjos, Morten; Gruber, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT ParB proteins bind centromere-like DNA sequences called parS sites and are involved in plasmid and chromosome segregation in bacteria. We previously showed that the opportunistic human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae contains four parS sequences located close to the origin of replication which are bound by ParB. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we found here that ParB spreads out from one of these parS sites, parS(−1.6°), for more than 5 kb and occupies the nearby comCDE operon, which drives competence development. Competence allows S. pneumoniae to take up DNA from its environment, thereby mediating horizontal gene transfer, and is also employed as a general stress response. Mutating parS(−1.6°) or deleting parB resulted in transcriptional up-regulation of comCDE and ssbB (a gene belonging to the competence regulon), demonstrating that ParB acts as a repressor of competence. However, genome-wide transcription analysis showed that ParB is not a global transcriptional regulator. Different factors, such as the composition of the growth medium and antibiotic-induced stress, can trigger the sensitive switch driving competence. This work shows that the ParB-parS chromosome segregation machinery also influences this developmental process. PMID:26126852

  17. Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-06-30

    The parallel analysis toolkit (ParCAT) provides parallel statistical processing of large climate model simulation datasets. ParCAT provides parallel point-wise average calculations, frequency distributions, sum/differences of two datasets, and difference-of-average and average-of-difference for two datasets for arbitrary subsets of simulation time. ParCAT is a command-line utility that can be easily integrated in scripts or embedded in other application. ParCAT supports CMIP5 post-processed datasets as well as non-CMIP5 post-processed datasets. ParCAT reads and writes standard netCDF files.

  18. Brulure par Foudre. A Propos d’une Observation

    PubMed Central

    Mradmi, W.; Fassi-Fihri, J.; Mehaji, G.; Ezzoubi, M.; Diouri, M.; Bahechar, N.; Boukind, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Summary Aussi loin que l’on remonte dans la littérature, on retrouve des récits relatant des accidents consécutifs à la fulguration chez l’homme. La foudre était alors associée à la colère des dieux ou à la notion de châtiment. La fulguration correspond à un transfert d’énergie entre un cumulonimbus de charge négative et un objet de charge positive se trouvant au niveau du sol. Les lésions déterminées sont à la fois thermiques et électrothermiques. Bien que l’arrêt cardiorespiratoire soit une cause bien documentée de décès, la plupart des cas rapportés dans la littérature décrivent un éventail très disparate des séquelles qui surviennent suite à cet accident. Les Auteurs rapportent le cas d’un patient atteint par la foudre en insistant particulièrement sur les complications neurologiques qui sont survenues en cours d’évolution. Se basant sur cette observation et sur une revue de la littérature, les Auteurs soulignent que le pronostic des patients atteints par la foudre est plus favorable que généralement rapporté. PMID:21990993

  19. L’administration postnatale de corticoïdes pour traiter ou prévenir les affections pulmonaires chroniques chez les prématurés

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Le présent énoncé est conçu à l’intention des professionnels de la santé qui soignent des nouveau-nés et de jeunes nourrissons. Il vise à examiner les effets à court et à long terme de l’administration postnatale de corticoïdes systémiques et par inhalation pour prévenir ou traiter une affection pulmonaire chronique évolutive ou établie et à faire des recommandations quant à l’usage de corticoïdes chez les nourrissons à très faible poids de naissance. Le recours systématique à la dexaméthasone systémique pour prévenir ou traiter une affection pulmonaire chronique n’est pas recommandé chez les nourrissons à très faible poids de naissance.

  20. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C; Liu, Jian

    2015-12-22

    The segregation of DNA before cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of low-copy number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and its stimulator protein ParB. The ParA/ParB system drives directed and persistent movement of DNA cargo both in vivo and in vitro. Filament-based models akin to actin/microtubule-driven motility were proposed for plasmid segregation mediated by ParA. Recent experiments challenge this view and suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. Here, we develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA-nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB-bound cargo. Paradoxically, this resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work thus sheds light on an emergent phenomenon in which nonmotor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos-an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria. PMID:26647183

  1. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C.; Liu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The segregation of DNA before cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of low-copy number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and its stimulator protein ParB. The ParA/ParB system drives directed and persistent movement of DNA cargo both in vivo and in vitro. Filament-based models akin to actin/microtubule-driven motility were proposed for plasmid segregation mediated by ParA. Recent experiments challenge this view and suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. Here, we develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA–nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB-bound cargo. Paradoxically, this resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work thus sheds light on an emergent phenomenon in which nonmotor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos—an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria. PMID:26647183

  2. Role of PAR-4 in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Meynier, Sonia; Kramer, Marianne; Ribaux, Pascale; Tille, Jean-Christophe; Delie, Florence; Petignat, Patrick; Cohen, Marie

    2015-09-01

    Prostate apoptosis response-4 (PAR-4) is considered as a tumour suppressor due to its ability to selectively induce cell apoptosis in most cancer cells. However little is known about the role of PAR-4 in ovarian cancer. In this study, we investigated for the first time the role of PAR-4 in ovarian carcinogenesis. We showed that PAR-4 mRNA level is not significantly different between healthy and cancer ovarian cells. Immunohistochemistry on ovarian tissue showed that ovarian cancer cells are positive for PAR-4 nuclear and cytoplasmic staining whereas ovarian healthy cells are negative for PAR-4 nuclear staining. We then studied the role of PAR-4 in cell apoptosis. We determined that PAR-4 induces cell apoptosis in response to stimuli, in vitro, but is also involved in the relocation of GRP78 from endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface of ovarian cancer cell line (SKOV-3 cells). In ovo, PAR-4 decreases ovarian tumour development and increases the response to taxol treatment. These observations suggest that PAR-4 is a very interesting therapeutic target against ovarian carcinogenesis. PMID:26246468

  3. Role of PAR-4 in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meynier, Sonia; Kramer, Marianne; Ribaux, Pascale; Tille, Jean-Christophe; Delie, Florence; Petignat, Patrick; Cohen, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Prostate apoptosis response-4 (PAR-4) is considered as a tumour suppressor due to its ability to selectively induce cell apoptosis in most cancer cells. However little is known about the role of PAR-4 in ovarian cancer. In this study, we investigated for the first time the role of PAR-4 in ovarian carcinogenesis. We showed that PAR-4 mRNA level is not significantly different between healthy and cancer ovarian cells. Immunohistochemistry on ovarian tissue showed that ovarian cancer cells are positive for PAR-4 nuclear and cytoplasmic staining whereas ovarian healthy cells are negative for PAR-4 nuclear staining. We then studied the role of PAR-4 in cell apoptosis. We determined that PAR-4 induces cell apoptosis in response to stimuli, in vitro, but is also involved in the relocation of GRP78 from endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface of ovarian cancer cell line (SKOV-3 cells). In ovo, PAR-4 decreases ovarian tumour development and increases the response to taxol treatment. These observations suggest that PAR-4 is a very interesting therapeutic target against ovarian carcinogenesis. PMID:26246468

  4. Pars triangularis asymmetry and language dominance.

    PubMed Central

    Foundas, A L; Leonard, C M; Gilmore, R L; Fennell, E B; Heilman, K M

    1996-01-01

    The pars triangular is a portion of Broca's area. The convolutions that form the inferior and caudal extent of the pars triangularis include the anterior horizontal and anterior ascending rami of the sylvian fissure, respectively. To learn if there are anatomic asymmetries of the pars triangularis, these convolutions were measured on volumetric magnetic resonance imaging scans of 11 patients who had undergone selective hemispheric anesthesia (Wada testing) to determine hemispheric speech and language lateralization. Of the 10 patients with language lateralized to the left hemisphere, 9 had a leftward asymmetry of the pars triangularis. The 1 patient with language lateralized to the right hemisphere had a significant rightward asymmetry of the pars triangularis. Our data suggest that asymmetries of the pars triangularis may be related to speech-language lateralization. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8570622

  5. Manipulation quantique de la lumière par un amplificateur non linéaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symul, T.; Bencheikh, K.; Levenson, J. A.

    2002-06-01

    Nous proposons un dispositif original, appelé Amplificateur Non Linéaire (ANL), permettant la génération et la manipulation d'états quantiques de la lumière. Ce dispositif permet une compression du bruit quantique de la lumière en dessous de la limite quantique standard plus efficace que celle obtenue par interactions non linéaires du second ordre ou du troisième ordre. Il permet également d'inverser les fluctuations quantiques en intensité de la lumière, et de produire des photons jumeaux ayant des corrélations quantiques plus élevées et plus robustes que ceux produits par un amplificateur paramétrique seul.

  6. PAR for the Course: A Congruent Pedagogical Approach for a PAR Methods Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Joyce D.; Hicks, Maria; Kalman, Rowenn; Miller, Jason

    2005-01-01

    In the past two years, three graduate students and a senior faculty member have co-taught a participatory action research (PAR) course to undergraduate and graduate students. In this article the co-teachers advocate a set of pedagogical principles and practices in a PAR-oriented classroom that establishes congruency with community PAR projects in…

  7. La structure de l'eau liquide: Une etude thermique par spectroscopie infrarouge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larouche, Pascal

    mesures de diffraction des rayons X ont aussi ete analysees. Les abondances tirees de l'analyse par facteurs des spectres infrarouges permettent de calculer les fonctions de distributions radiales des deux especes. Ces fonctions offrent la possibilite de connaitre les distances relatives entre les atomes. Avec ces distances en main, l'architecture des deux especes peut etre schematisee. Ces resultats originaux, combines a ceux issus de la spectroscopie infrarouge, permettent de montrer que la premiere espece est bien organisee, c'est-a-dire que le cube defini par un atome d'oxygene et les quatre autres atomes d'oxygene avec lesquels il est en liens-H est regulier, alors que pour l'espece chaude, les dimensions du cubes sont irregulieres. La comparaison entre les deux especes montre qu'elles etablissent toujours quatre liens-H et que leurs differences resident uniquement dans la geometrie des cubes. Finalement, deux hypotheses sont formulees comme fondement d'un modele de la structure de l'eau liquide. Premierement, l'empilement des cubes des deux especes permet de representer l'eau a toutes les temperatures, l'espece froide etant garante de la stabilite du liquide, alors que l'espece chaude a un effet destabilisant; et deuxiemement, le saut du proton stabilise les liens-H, de telle sorte que lorsque l'espece chaude devient trop abondante, ces defauts provoquent un arret des sauts de protons et les liens-H ainsi affaiblis se brisent et le liquide s'evapore.

  8. Etude par Imagerie à faible Niveau dans le proche Infrarouge d'une Emission de la haute Atmosphère

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pautet, Pierre-Dominique

    2000-12-01

    Le travail effectué a eu pour but la mise en place d'un protocole d'observation et de traitement des images, ainsi que les outils appropriés, visant à l'étude d'une émission de la haute atmosphère terrestre dans le proche infrarouge. Il existe actuellement des télescopes comme le VLT (Very Large Telescope), installé au Chili, qui permettent d'observer des astres et des galaxies distants de plusieurs millions de parsecs. A cause de l'expansion de l'Univers, des objets situés aussi loin s'éloignent très rapidement de nous. Le spectre de leur émission qui nous parvient alors est décalé vers le rouge ou l'infrarouge, du fait de l'effet Doppler. Il faut donc observer ces objets dans des longueurs d'onde appropriées. Malheureusement, l'atmosphère terrestre qui nous sépare d'eux est aussi le siège de nombreuses émissions qui peuvent venir perturber les mesures. De toutes ces émissions, la principale est due au radical OH dont les raies de rotation-vibration couvrent tout le spectre entre 0,7 et 2,5 microns. Cette émission a lieu au niveau d'une couche assez fine de la haute atmosphère appelée mésopause et située à environ 85 kilomètres d'altitude. Le travail effectué a eu pour but de mettre en évidence les principales caractéristiques de cette émission qui n'est pas uniforme et constante dans le temps. Un programme d'observations dans le proche infrarouge a été élaboré. Plusieurs algorithmes de traitement d'image ont été développés. Un programme d'inversion de perspective a été mis au point pour une utilisation en temps réel sur le terrain. Les caractéristiques des images peuvent être ensuite analysées. La première partie du mémoire comporte une description des différentes émissions lumineuses que l'on peut observer la nuit lorsque l'on regarde la voûte céleste. Ces émissions peuvent avoir deux origines: astronomique ou atmosphérique. Le problème de l'absorption atmosphérique et plus précisément les conditions

  9. Biopuces pour le traitement de cellules vivantes : micromanipulation des cellules par voie électrique ou microfluidique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pioufle, Bruno; Frénéa, Marie; Tixier, Agnès

    2004-06-01

    After a brief overview of the state of the art in the domain of cell biochips, and more particularly, the usual methods for cell placement and characterization on a chip, our research on highly parallelized cell placement on a chip is presented. Single cell arraying methods, using dielectrophoresis effects, or microfluidic effects produced by bulk micromachined sub-micrometric capillaries are compared. Target applications of such cell biochips cover the domain of gene transfer on a large population of cells, parallelized cell sorting, or drug high-throughput screening on living cells. To cite this article: B. Le Pioufle et al., C. R. Physique 5 (2004).

  10. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  11. Lait humain provenant d’une banque de dons ou acheté en ligne?

    PubMed Central

    St-Onge, Maude; Chaudhry, Shahnaz; Koren, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question Une de mes patientes m’a demandé si elle pourrait se procurer du lait humain par Internet pour allaiter son nourrisson s’il le fallait. L’usage de lait humain provenant d’une banque de dons est-il plus sécuritaire que son achat en ligne? Réponse L’Organisation mondiale de la Santé et l’American Academy of Pediatrics recommandent d’utiliser des dons de lait humain comme choix à privilégier lorsque le lait maternel n’est pas disponible. Cependant, la Société canadienne de pédiatrie n’approuve pas le partage de lait humain non traité. Le lait humain entreposé dans les banques de lait diffère de celui qu’on peut se procurer par Internet en raison du processus rigoureux de sélection des donneuses, des fréquentes inspections de la qualité, des procédés de transport règlementés et du processus de pasteurisation conforme aux directives établies par l’Agence canadienne d’inspection des aliments. La plupart des échantillons achetés en ligne contiennent des bactéries à gram négatif ou comptent au total plus de 104 unités formant colonies de bactéries aérobiques par millilitre; ils renferment aussi en moyenne au décompte total plus de bactéries aérobiques, de bactéries à gram négatif, de coliformes et de Staphylococcus spp que les échantillons des banques de lait. La croissance de la plupart des espèces de bactéries est associée au nombre de jours en transit, ce qui porte à croire que les conditions de collecte, d’entreposage et de transport sont médiocres pour le lait acheté en ligne.

  12. Etude par spectroscopie de Coulomb de points quantiques lateraux individuels et couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pioro-Ladriere, Michel

    Des points quantiques contenant un nombre discret et variable d'electrons sont formes dans un gaz bi-dimensionnel d'electrons a l'aide de grilles metalliques. Le transport electrique, le blocage de spin et la detection de charge sont employes comme outils spectroscopiques permettant de sonder les proprietes de ces nanostructures. Ces techniques permettent aussi de controler exactement le nombres d'electrons confines dans des points quantiques individuels et couples en utilisant un patron de grille judicieux. Une technique de refroidissement en tension est developpee afin de minimiser les effets parasites du bruit telegraphique. Ce type de bruit de charge deteriore la stabilite des nanostructures laterales par l'activation d'un minuscule courant de fuite entre les grilles et le gaz bi-dimensionnel. Un modele expliquant le role du refroidissement en tension sur le courant de fuite est presente. L'activation du courant de fuite est confirmee par detection de charge. Les effets des interactions entre les electrons pieges dans un point quantique sont ensuite etudies dans un regime ou il est possible de comparer les resulats experimentaux avec ceux obtenus par diagonalisation exacte. L'etude demontre que la phase associee au facteur de remplissage nu = 2 est instable au-dessus d'un nombre critique d'electrons. Cette instabilite est confirmee experimentalement par blocage de spin. On demontre aussi l'existence d'etats correles dans le regime des renversements de spin, associe au passage de la phase nu = 2 a nu = 1. Les etats correles sont identifies par spectroscopie en transport non lineaire. Cette caracterisation du diagramme de phase de points individuels permet de coupler deux points quantiques configures a nu = 2. Pour ce regime, la nanostructure se comporte comme un systeme a deux niveaux pouvant contenir entre un et quatre electrons de valence et ce, meme si le nombre total d'electrons est plus eleve. Les degres de liberte de charge et de spin des deux points

  13. ParAB Partition Dynamics in Firmicutes: Nucleoid Bound ParA Captures and Tethers ParB-Plasmid Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Lioy, Virginia S.; Volante, Andrea; Soberón, Nora E.; Lurz, Rudi; Ayora, Silvia; Alonso, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    In Firmicutes, small homodimeric ParA-like (δ2) and ParB-like (ω2) proteins, in concert with cis-acting plasmid-borne parS and the host chromosome, secure stable plasmid inheritance in a growing bacterial population. This study shows that (ω:YFP)2 binding to parS facilitates plasmid clustering in the cytosol. (δ:GFP)2 requires ATP binding but not hydrolysis to localize onto the cell’s nucleoid as a fluorescent cloud. The interaction of (δ:CFP)2 or δ2 bound to the nucleoid with (ω:YFP)2 foci facilitates plasmid capture, from a very broad distribution, towards the nucleoid and plasmid pairing. parS-bound ω2 promotes redistribution of (δ:GFP)2, leading to the dynamic release of (δ:GFP)2 from the nucleoid, in a process favored by ATP hydrolysis and protein-protein interaction. (δD60A:GFP)2, which binds but cannot hydrolyze ATP, also forms unstable complexes on the nucleoid. In the presence of ω2, (δD60A:GFP)2 accumulates foci or patched structures on the nucleoid. We propose that (δ:GFP)2 binding to different nucleoid regions and to ω2-parS might generate (δ:GFP)2 gradients that could direct plasmid movement. The iterative pairing and unpairing cycles may tether plasmids equidistantly on the nucleoid to ensure faithful plasmid segregation by a mechanism compatible with the diffusion-ratchet mechanism as proposed from in vitro reconstituted systems. PMID:26161642

  14. Un lymphangiome kystique rétropéritonéal révélé par des coliques néphrétiques

    PubMed Central

    El anzaoui, Jihad; Ghoundale, Omar; Touiti, Driss; El barni, Rachid; Mejdane, Abdelhadi; Fihri, Jawad Fassi; Lahkim, Mohammed; Achour, Abdsamad

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Le lymphangiome kystique (LK) est une tumeur rare des voies lymphatiques caractérisée par son évolution bénigne. La fréquence de la localisation rétropéritonéale est controversée. La découverte se fait le plus souvent dès l’enfance. L’évolution de la maladie peut être marquée par des complications graves, notamment compressives. Nous faisons état de l’observation médicale d’une femme de 30 ans chez qui l’on a découvert, à la suite de l’apparition de coliques néphrétiques récidivantes, un LK énorme occupant tout l’espace rétropéritonéal droit. Le diagnostic a été évoqué par l’urotomodensitométrie et confirmé par l’histologie. L’évolution après exérèse chirurgicale de la masse a été favorable, avec la disparition des coliques néphrétiques. PMID:25844099

  15. L’identification et traitement du trouble panique avec ou sans agoraphobie

    PubMed Central

    Foldes-Busque, Guillaume; Marchand, André; Landry, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ OBJECTIF Renseigner les médecins de première ligne au sujet de l’identification précoce, du diagnostic et du traitement du trouble panique avec ou sans agoraphobie (TP/A). QUALITÉ DES DONNÉES Les données et recommandations présentées proviennent d’une recension des écrits scientifiques réalisée via les banques de données PsycLIT, PsyINFO et MEDLINE (1985 à 2006) en utilisant les descripteurs panic disorder, psychotherapy, psychosocial treatment, treatment et pharmacotherapy. Les recommandations formulées par les auteurs s’appuient sur des données probantes provenant d’études d’excellente qualité. Les informations concernant le diagnostic et l’évaluation du TP/A proviennent d’études épidémiologiques récentes, de consensus et d’opinions d’experts. PRINCIPAL MESSAGE Le TP/A est un trouble psychiatrique souvent rencontré en médecine de première ligne, mais il est fréquemment sous-diagnostiqué et sous-traité. L’identification précoce de ce trouble demande une attention particulière aux symptômes médicalement inexpliqués et, le cas échéant, le médecin doit utiliser des questions spécifiques permettant d’identifier d’éventuelles attaques de panique et de cerner leur signification pour le patient. Le traitement de premier choix pour ce trouble est une psychothérapie d’orientation cognitivo-comportementale administrée par un psychologue ou un psychiatre spécialisé. Si de telles ressources ne sont pas disponibles, le médecin peut opter pour un traitement psychopharmacologique. CONCLUSION Les médecins de famille peuvent jouer un rôle central dans l’identification et le traitement des patients souffrant d’un TP/A. PMID:17934032

  16. Congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction: physiopathology, decoupling of tout court pelvic dilatation-obstruction semantic connection, biomarkers to predict renal damage evolution.

    PubMed

    Alberti, C

    2012-02-01

    The widespread use of fetal ultrasonography results in a frequent antenatally observation of hydronephrosis, ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) accounting for the greatest fraction of congenital obstructive nephropathy. UPJO may be considered, in most cases, as a functional obstructive condition, depending on defective fetal smooth muscle/nerve development at this level, with lack of peristaltic wave propagation--aperistaltic segment--and, therefore, poor urine ejection from the renal pelvis into the ureter. The UPJO-related physiopathologic events are, at first, the compliant dilatation of renal pelvis that, acting as hydraulic buffer, protects the renal parenchyma from the rising intrapelvic pressure-related potential damages, and, subsequently, beyond such phase of dynamic balance, the tubular cell stretch-stress induced by increased intratubular pressure and following parenchymal inflammatory lesions: inflammatory infiltrates, fibroblast proliferation, activation of myofibroblasts, tubulo-interstitial fibrosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), several chemo- and cytokines, growth factors, prostaglandins and eicosanoids, angiotensin-II are the main pathogenetic mediators of the obstructive nephropathy. Apoptosis of tubular cells is the major cause of the tubular atrophy, together with epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation. Some criticisms on tout court semantic renal pelvis dilatation-obstruction connection have been raised considering that the renal pelvis expansion isn't, in any case, linked to an ostructive condition, as it may be verified by diuretic (furosemide) renogram together with scintiscan-based evaluation of differential renal function. In this regard, rather than repetitive invasive nuclear procedures that expose the children to ionizing radiations, an intriguing noninvasive strategy, based on the evaluation of urinary biomarkers and urinary proteome, can define the UPJO-related possible progress of parenchymal lesions

  17. Comparative cactus architecture and par interception

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, G.N.; Nobel, P.S. )

    1987-07-01

    Because CO{sup 2} uptake by cacti can be limited by low levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and because plant form affects PAR interception, various cactus forms were studied using a computer model, field measurements, and laboratory phototropic studies. Model predictions indicated that CO{sub 2} uptake by individual stems at an equinox was greatest when the stem were vertical, but at the summer and the winter solstice CO{sub 2} uptake was greatest for stems titled 30{degree} away from the equator. Stem tilting depended on form and taxonomic group. Not only can the shape of cacti be affected by PAR, but also shape influences PAR interception and hence CO{sub 2} uptake.

  18. Radioecological implications of the Par Pond drawdown

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, H.; Whicker, F.W.

    1991-12-05

    The drawdown of the Par Pond reservoir created dramatic alterations in this formerly stable lentic ecosystem. In addition, the radiation environment at Par Pond has changed significantly because of the exposure of Cesium 137-contaminated sediments and the appearance of new transport pathways to the terrestrial environment. In response to this situation, SREL was asked to study the radioecological implications of the reservoir drawdown. This report contains the objectives, methods, and results of the SREL study.

  19. Structural analysis of the ParR/parC plasmid partition complex.

    PubMed

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ringgaard, Simon; Mercogliano, Christopher P; Gerdes, Kenn; Löwe, Jan

    2007-10-17

    Accurate DNA partition at cell division is vital to all living organisms. In bacteria, this process can involve partition loci, which are found on both chromosomes and plasmids. The initial step in Escherichia coli plasmid R1 partition involves the formation of a partition complex between the DNA-binding protein ParR and its cognate centromere site parC on the DNA. The partition complex is recognized by a second partition protein, the actin-like ATPase ParM, which forms filaments required for the active bidirectional movement of DNA replicates. Here, we present the 2.8 A crystal structure of ParR from E. coli plasmid pB171. ParR forms a tight dimer resembling a large family of dimeric ribbon-helix-helix (RHH)2 site-specific DNA-binding proteins. Crystallographic and electron microscopic data further indicate that ParR dimers assemble into a helix structure with DNA-binding sites facing outward. Genetic and biochemical experiments support a structural arrangement in which the centromere-like parC DNA is wrapped around a ParR protein scaffold. This structure holds implications for how ParM polymerization drives active DNA transport during plasmid partition. PMID:17898804

  20. Infection par le virus de l’hépatite E durant la grossesse

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Shahnaz A.; Verma, Natasha; Koren, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question Plusieurs de mes patientes sont originaires de l’Asie du Sud-Est où le virus de l’hépatite E est assez commun. Quelles précautions puis-je leur suggérer de prendre avant de voyager dans cette région et quels sont les risques d’une infection par le VHE durant la grossesse? Réponse L’hépatite E est un pathogène présent dans l’eau qui se transmet par voie oro-fécale. Afin de réduire le risque de contracter le VHE lors de voyages dans des régions endémiques, il est important de maintenir des pratiques d’hygiène telles que se laver les mains avec de l’eau potable, particulièrement avant de manipuler de la nourriture, éviter de boire de l’eau ou d’utiliser des glaçons de pureté inconnue et ne pas manger de fruits ou de légumes non pelés. Actuellement, il n’existe aucun vaccin disponible au Canada pour le VHE. Une infection à l’hépatite E durant la grossesse, surtout durant le troisième trimestre, se caractérise par une infection plus sévère qui se transforme parfois en hépatite fulminante, augmentant ainsi les risques de mortalité et de morbidité maternelles et fœtales.

  1. Techniques for measuring intercepted and absorbed PAR in corn canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, K. P.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1984-01-01

    The quantity of radiation potentially available for photosynthesis that is captured by the crop is best described as absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Absorbed PAR (APAR) is the difference between descending and ascending fluxes. The four components of APAR were measured above and within two planting densities of corn (Zea mays L.) and several methods of measuring and estimating APAR were examined. A line quantum sensor that spatially averages the photosynthetic photon flux density provided a rapid and portable method of measuring APAR. PAR reflectance from the soil (Typic Argiaquoll) surface decreased from 10% to less than 1% of the incoming PAR as the canopy cover increased. PAR reflectance from the canopy decreased to less than 3% at maximum vegetative cover. Intercepted PAR (1 - transmitted PAR) generally overestimated absorbed PAR by less than 4% throughout most of the growing season. Thus intercepted PAR appears to be a reasonable estimate of absorbed PAR.

  2. Griffe cubitale d'origine lépreuse traitée par transfert tendineux de Lasso Zancolli: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    El Alaoui, Adil; Sbiyaa, Mouhcine; Bah, Aliou; Rabhi, Ilyas; mezzani, Amine; Marzouki, Amine; Boutayeb, Fawzi

    2015-01-01

    La lèpre est une maladie infectieuse due à une mycobactérie (M. Leprae, Bacille de Hansen, ou BH) dont le tropisme nerveux est destructeur pour les cellules de Schwann. La localisation préférentielle des neuropathies tronculaire secondaire à la lèpre restent dominé par les zones ou les troncs nerveux traversent les défilés ostéo-ligamentaires inextensibles comme le défilé rétro-épitrochléen ou passe le nerf ulnaire. De nombreux travaux ont été consacrés à la souffrance nerveuse secondaire à la lèpre et surtout l'atteinte du nerf ulnaire qui se manifeste par une griffe des doigts. Le traitement dans ce cas est palliatif et fait appel à plusieurs techniques décrites dans la littérature. Nous rapportons dans ce travail un cas de griffe cubitale chez un patient lépreux traité par transfert tendineux de Lasso Zancolli. PMID:26985277

  3. ParCAT: Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brian E.; Steed, Chad A.; Shipman, Galen M.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Thornton, Peter E.; Wehner, Michael; Williams, Dean N.

    2013-01-01

    Climate science is employing increasingly complex models and simulations to analyze the past and predict the future of Earth s climate. This growth in complexity is creating a widening gap between the data being produced and the ability to analyze the datasets. Parallel computing tools are necessary to analyze, compare, and interpret the simulation data. The Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT) provides basic tools to efficiently use parallel computing techniques to make analysis of these datasets manageable. The toolkit provides the ability to compute spatio-temporal means, differences between runs or differences between averages of runs, and histograms of the values in a data set. ParCAT is implemented as a command-line utility written in C. This allows for easy integration in other tools and allows for use in scripts. This also makes it possible to run ParCAT on many platforms from laptops to supercomputers. ParCAT outputs NetCDF files so it is compatible with existing utilities such as Panoply and UV-CDAT. This paper describes ParCAT and presents results from some example runs on the Titan system at ORNL.

  4. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation.

    PubMed

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Jakimowicz, Dagmara

    2016-04-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800

  5. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation

    PubMed Central

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces. To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800

  6. Teaching quantum mechanics with the Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armendáriz, Gustavo; Cravioto-Lagos, Jorge; Velázquez, Victor; Grether, Marcela; López-Moreno, Enrique; Galvez, E. J.

    2014-07-01

    The Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer is an optical device which allows us to prove experimentally the quantum nature of light via the quantum amplitude superposition of two indistinguishable photons. We have implemented this experiment as an advanced undergraduate laboratory experience. We were able to overcome well known difficulties with this experiment using recently reported techniques by Thomas et al. [Rev. Sci. Instr. 80, 036101 (2009), ].

  7. Eielson Air Force Base OU-1 baseline risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, M.T.; Jarvis, T.T.; Van Houten, N.C.; Lewis, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment report is the second volume in a set of three volumes for operable Unit 1 (OU-1). The companion documents contain the Remedial Investigation and the Feasibility Study. Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) is one of several groups of hazardous waste sites located at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, Alaska. The operable units at Eielson are typically characterized by petroleum, oil, lubricant/solvent contamination, and by the presence of organics floating at the water table. In 1989 and 1990, firms under contract to the Air Force conducted field studies to gather information about the extent of chemical contamination in soil, groundwater, and soil air pore space (soil gas) at the site. This report documents the results of a baseline risk assessment, which uses the 1989 and 1991 site characterization database to quantify the potential human health risk associated with past Base industrial activities in the vicinity of OU-1. Background data collected in 1992 were also used in the preparation of this report.

  8. Par-4: A New Activator of Myosin Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Vetterkind, Susanne; Lee, Eunhee; Sundberg, Eric; Poythress, Ransom H.; Tao, Terence C.; Preuss, Ute

    2010-01-01

    Myosin phosphatase (MP) is a key regulator of myosin light chain (LC20) phosphorylation, a process essential for motility, apoptosis, and smooth muscle contractility. Although MP inhibition is well studied, little is known about MP activation. We have recently demonstrated that prostate apoptosis response (Par)-4 modulates vascular smooth muscle contractility. Here, we test the hypothesis that Par-4 regulates MP activity directly. We show, by proximity ligation assays, surface plasmon resonance and coimmunoprecipitation, that Par-4 interacts with the targeting subunit of MP, MYPT1. Binding is mediated by the leucine zippers of MYPT1 and Par-4 and reduced by Par-4 phosphorylation. Overexpression of Par-4 leads to increased phosphatase activity of immunoprecipitated MP, whereas small interfering RNA knockdown of endogenous Par-4 significantly decreases MP activity and increases MYPT1 phosphorylation. LC20 phosphorylation assays demonstrate that overexpression of Par-4 reduces LC20 phosphorylation. In contrast, a phosphorylation site mutant, but not wild-type Par-4, interferes with zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK)-mediated MP inhibition. We conclude from our results Par-4 operates through a “padlock” model in which binding of Par-4 to MYPT1 activates MP by blocking access to the inhibitory phosphorylation sites, and inhibitory phosphorylation of MYPT1 by ZIPK requires “unlocking” of Par-4 by phosphorylation and displacement of Par-4 from the MP complex. PMID:20130087

  9. suPAR and Team Nephrology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) accounts for nearly 10 % of patients who require renal replacement therapy. Elevated circulating levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) have been identified as a biomarker to discriminate primary FSGS from other glomerulopathies. Subsequent reports have questioned the diagnostic utility of this test. In a study in BMC Medicine, Huang et al. demonstrate that urinary soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) excretion assists in distinguishing primary FSGS from other glomerular diseases, and that high plasma suPAR concentrations are not directly linked to a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This observation suggests that further investigation of suPAR is warranted in patients with FSGS. It should be interpreted in light of a recent report that B7-1 is expressed in the podocytes of a subset of patients with FSGS, and that blocking this molecule may represent the first successful targeted intervention for this disease. These advances highlight the rapid pace of scientific progress in the field of nephrology. Nephrologists should work together, share resources, and expedite the design of protocols to evaluate these novel biomarkers in a comprehensive and scientifically valid manner. Please see related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/81. PMID:24885021

  10. suPAR and Team Nephrology.

    PubMed

    Trachtman, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) accounts for nearly 10 % of patients who require renal replacement therapy. Elevated circulating levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) have been identified as a biomarker to discriminate primary FSGS from other glomerulopathies. Subsequent reports have questioned the diagnostic utility of this test. In a study in BMC Medicine, Huang et al. demonstrate that urinary soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) excretion assists in distinguishing primary FSGS from other glomerular diseases, and that high plasma suPAR concentrations are not directly linked to a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This observation suggests that further investigation of suPAR is warranted in patients with FSGS. It should be interpreted in light of a recent report that B7-1 is expressed in the podocytes of a subset of patients with FSGS, and that blocking this molecule may represent the first successful targeted intervention for this disease. These advances highlight the rapid pace of scientific progress in the field of nephrology. Nephrologists should work together, share resources, and expedite the design of protocols to evaluate these novel biomarkers in a comprehensive and scientifically valid manner. PMID:24885021

  11. Protection des ions organiques contre les dommages induits a l'ADN par les electrons de basse energie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Ariane

    Il a ete demontre que les electrons de basse energie (EBE) peuvent induire des cassures simple brin (CSB) a l'ADN, via la formation d'anions transitoires qui decroissent par attachement dissociatif, ou dans d'autres etats electroniques dissociatifs menant a la fragmentation. Afin d'effectuer une etude complete des effets des electrons de basse energie sur la matiere biologique, il est necessaire de comprendre leur mecanismes d'interaction non seulement avec l'ADN, mais avec les constituants de son environnement. Les histones sont une composante importante de l'environnement moleculaire de l'ADN. Leur charge positive leur permet de s'associer aux groupements phosphate anionique de l'ADN. Le role principal de ces proteines basiques consiste a organiser l'ADN et l'empaqueter afin de former la chromatine. Les cations sont une autre composante importante de la cellule; ils jouent un role dans la stabilisation de la conformation B de l'ADN in vitro par leurs interactions avec les petits et grands sillons de l'ADN, ainsi qu'avec le groupement phosphate charge negativement. Avec les histones, ils participent egalement a la compaction de l'ADN pour former la chromatine. Cette etude a pour but de comprendre comment la presence d'ions organiques (sous forme de Tris et d'EDTA) a proximite de l'ADN modifie le rendement de cassures simple brin induit par les electrons de basse energie. Le Tris et l'EDTA ont-ete choisis comme objet d'etude, puisqu'en solution, ils forment le tampon standard pour solubiliser l'ADN dans les experiences in vitro (10mM Tris, 1mM EDTA). De plus, la molecule Tris possede un groupement amine alors que l'EDTA possede 4 groupements carboxyliques. Ensembles, ils peuvent se comporter comme un modele simple pour les acides amines. Le ratio molaire de 10 :1 de Tris par rapport a l'EDTA a pour but d'imiter le comportement des histones qui sont riches en arginine et lysine, acides amines possedant un groupement amine charge positivement additionnel. Des films d

  12. View from east to west of PAR site storage building; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from east to west of PAR site storage building; formerly PAR dispensary - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Storage Building, Across street from Family Housing Units 110 & 111, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  13. View from west to east of PAR site resident engineer's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from west to east of PAR site resident engineer's office building (REOB) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Resident Engineers Office Building, Southeast of intersection of PAR Access Road & Fourth Avenue, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  14. A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    B Chaudhuri; S Gupta; V Urban; M Chance; R DMello; L Smith; K Lyons; J Gee

    2011-12-31

    Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

  15. A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, Barnali; Gupta, Sayan; Urban, Volker S; Chance, Mark; D'Mello, Rhijuta; Smith, Lauren; Lyons, Kelly; Gee, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

  16. Facteurs de risque de mortalité par tuberculose pulmonaire

    PubMed Central

    Janah, Hicham; Souhi, Hicham; Kouismi, Hatim; Mark, Karima; Zahraoui, Rachida; Benamor, Jouda; Soualhi, Mona; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    La tuberculose est une maladie infectieuse transmissible provoquée par myco-bacterium tuberculosis (bacille de Koch ou BK). Elle représente, selon les estimations del'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS), l'une des pathologies infectieuses causant le plus de décès au niveau mondial avec plus de 1 million de décès par an. Pour déterminer les facteurs de risque de mortalité au cours de la tuberculose pulmonaire à microscopie positive nous avons mené une étude rétrospective portant sur tous les cas de tuberculose pulmonaire à microscopie positive et qui étaient décédés au cours de leur hospitalisation. Cette étude a colligé 1803 cas de tuberculose sur une période de 2 ans et demi dont 46 sont décédés. La prévalence de décès est de 2,55%. La population se répartit en 32 hommes et 14 femmes. L’âge moyen était de 53ans ± 17 ans. Le tabagisme était retrouvé chez la moitié des cas. Une comorbidité était retrouvée dans 43%, avec 17% de diabète. Le délai de diagnostic avait une médiane de 60 jours avec percentile (30j; 105j). La symptomatologie clinique était dominée par la toux, la dyspnée et les expectorations soit respectivement: 97,8%, 69,6% et 67,4% des cas. Sur le plan radiologique les lésions étaient diffuses et bilatérales dans 76,1% des cas. Tous les patients étaient mis sous SRHZ. 11% avaient présenté une toxicité aux antibacillaires (de type hépatiques dans 3 cas et neurologiques dans 2 cas). Le délai médian de décès était de 8,5 jours (5j; 17j). Les causes de décès retrouvées étaient: Une hépatite fulminante (3 cas), une décompensation acido-cétosique (3 cas), un SDRA (2 cas), des hémoptysies foudroyantes (2 cas), et respectivement un cas secondaire à une décompensation de BPCO, une décompensation cardiaque, une hypoglycémie et un tableau d'anasarque. Cette étude suggère que le terrain, le retard diagnostique et les effets secondaires du traitement sont les principaux facteurs de risque de

  17. Electron and hole Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonckheere, T.; Rech, J.; Wahl, C.; Martin, T.

    2012-09-01

    We consider the electronic analog of the quantum optics Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer in a realistic condensed matter device based on single electron emission in chiral edge states. For electron-electron collisions we show that the measurement of the zero-frequency current correlations at the output of a quantum point contact produces a dip giving precious information on the electronic wave packets and coherence. As a feature truly unique to Fermi statistics and condensed matter, we show that two-particle interferences between electron and hole in the Fermi sea can produce a positive peak in the current correlations, which we study for realistic experimental parameters.

  18. Lens implant surgery in pars planitis.

    PubMed

    Michelson, J B; Friedlaender, M H; Nozik, R A

    1990-08-01

    Intraocular lens (IOL) implantation is usually contraindicated in eyes with active inflammation, but patients with "burned-out" pars planitis also may be considered as candidates. Fifteen of 16 eyes in eight patients underwent extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with posterior chamber IOL (PC IOL) implantation combined with pars plana vitrectomy for both cataracts and chronic cystoid macular edema (CME); 60% achieved visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Even with "low-grade" inflammation in these patients, however, a persistent veil of debris accumulated over the posterior and anterior surface of the IOL. One patient (patient 2) required 27 YAG procedures for two eyes, and another required 11 YAG procedures and eventual removal of the IOL. Another patient required surgical "brushing-off" of the IOL and vitrectomy. Even in eyes with "burned-out" uveitis, a continual low-grade inflammation may complicate the use of IOL implantation. PMID:2402411

  19. Par Pond refill water quality sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column.

  20. Combined DSEK and Transconjunctival Pars Plana Vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Sane, Mona; Shaikh, Naazli

    2016-01-01

    We report here three patients who underwent combined Descemet's stripping with endothelial keratoplasty and transconjunctival pars plana vitrectomy for bullous keratopathy and posterior segment pathology. A surgical technique and case histories are described. Anatomic and visual outcomes of combined Descemet's stripping with endothelial keratoplasty and vitrectomy were excellent. Our experience provides technical guidelines and limitations. The combined minimally invasive techniques allow for rapid anatomical recovery and return of function and visual acuity in a single sitting. PMID:27413563

  1. Mesure du taux de la capture radiative du muon par l'hydrogene liquide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonkmans, Guy

    À basse énergie, l'interaction faible entre leptons et quarks est décrite par une interaction de la forme courant × courant de type V - A. La présence de l'interaction forte induit des couplages additionnels qui doivent être déterminés expérimentalement. De ceux-ci, le couplage pseudoscalaire induit, gp , est mesuré avec la plus grande incertitude et fait l'objet de la présente recherche. L'hypothèse du Courant Axial Partiellement Conservé (CAPC) et l'usage de la relation de Goldberger-Treiman relie gp au couplage axial ga . Cette relation a été vérifiée traditionnellement par la Capture Ordinaire du Muon (COM) à une valeur fixe du moment de transfert q. La Capture Radiative du Muon (CRM), m- p-->nnmg , est un meilleur outil pour l'étude de gp à cause de sa dépendance variable en q2 qui offre une plus grande sensibilité dans la partie à haute énergie du spectre des photons. Toutefois, le petit rapport d'embranchement (~10-8) de la CRM par rapport à la désintégration du muon a retardé cette mesure jusqu'à ce jour. La théorie et les difficultés expérimentales associées à la détection des photons de CRM sont présentées au deuxième chapitre. On décrit ensuite, au troisième chapitre, les composantes du système de détection. Ce détecteur est un spectromètre à paires de grand angle solide (~3p) et qui permet l'observation des photons par l'analyse des électrons et des positrons de photo-conversion. Ainsi, le bruit de fond important des neutrons de la COM ne constitue pas un problème pour cette mesure. Nous décrivons, au quatrième chapitre, toutes les étapes de l'analyse, nécessaires pour la réduction des multiples bruits de fond. Le cinquième chapitre présente le calcul des efficacités ainsi que l'estimation des erreurs systématiques. Le sixième chapitre démontre comment l'on extrait le rapport d'embranchement pour la CRM ainsi que la valeur ae gp . On insiste sur la dépendance de gp en fonction de la valeur de

  2. Mechanisms of apoptosis by the tumor suppressor Par-4.

    PubMed

    Hebbar, Nikhil; Wang, Chi; Rangnekar, Vivek M

    2012-12-01

    Par-4 is a pro-apoptotic, tumor suppressor protein that induces apoptosis selectively in cancer cells. Endoplasmic reticulum-stress and higher levels of protein kinase A in tumor cells confer the coveted feature of cancer selective response to extracellular and intracellular Par-4, respectively. Recent studies have shown that systemic Par-4 confers resistance to tumor growth in mice, and that tumor-resistance is transferable by bone-marrow transplantation. Moreover, recombinant Par-4 inhibits the growth of tumors in mice. As systemic Par-4 induces apoptosis via cell surface GRP78, strategies that promote GRP78 trafficking to the cell surface are expected sensitize cancer cells to circulating levels of Par-4. This review illustrates the domains and mechanisms by which Par-4 orchestrates the apoptotic process in both cell culture models and in physiological settings. PMID:22552839

  3. A Single parS Sequence from the Cluster of Four Sites Closest to oriC Is Necessary and Sufficient for Proper Chromosome Segregation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Jecz, Paulina; Bartosik, Aneta A.; Glabski, Krzysztof; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

    2015-01-01

    Among the mechanisms that control chromosome segregation in bacteria are highly-conserved partitioning systems comprising three components: ParA protein (a deviant Walker-type ATPase), ParB protein (a DNA-binding element) and multiple cis-acting palindromic centromere-like sequences, designated parS. Ten putative parS sites have been identified in the P. aeruginosa PAO1 genome, four localized in close proximity of oriC and six, diverged by more than one nucleotide from a perfect palindromic sequence, dispersed along the chromosome. Here, we constructed and analyzed P. aeruginosa mutants deprived of each single parS sequence and their different combinations. The analysis included evaluation of a set of phenotypic features, chromosome segregation, and ParB localization in the cells. It was found that ParB binds specifically to all ten parS sites, although with different affinities. The P. aeruginosa parS mutant with all ten parS sites modified (parSnull) is viable however it demonstrates the phenotype characteristic for parAnull or parBnull mutants: slightly slower growth rate, high frequency of anucleate cells, and defects in motility. The genomic position and sequence of parS determine its role in P. aeruginosa biology. It transpired that any one of the four parS sites proximal to oriC (parS1 to parS4), which are bound by ParB with the highest affinity, is necessary and sufficient for the parABS role in chromosome partitioning. When all these four sites are mutated simultaneously, the strain shows the parSnull phenotype, which indicates that none of the remaining six parS sites can substitute for these four oriC-proximal sites in this function. A single ectopic parS2 (inserted opposite oriC in the parSnull mutant) facilitates ParB organization into regularly spaced condensed foci and reverses some of the mutant phenotypes but is not sufficient for accurate chromosome segregation. PMID:25794281

  4. Rachitisme patent révélé par la perte du contrôle des convulsions chez un garçon infirme moteur cérébral

    PubMed Central

    Awa, Hubert Désiré Mbassi; Chelo, David; Kinkela, Mina Njiki; Ndombo, Paul Olivier Koki

    2013-01-01

    La perte du contrôle des crises chez un patient compliant au traitement est toujours source de préoccupations diagnostiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques. Nous rapportons un cas de rachitisme chez un patient de 4 ans, infirme moteur cérébral et épileptique sous traitement par phénobarbital depuis 2 ans; rachitisme découvert à la faveur d'une perte du contrôle épileptique. Le patient était admis pour des convulsions répétées en contexte afébrile. L'observance thérapeutique était bonne, et aucune convulsion n'avait été observée pendant les 12 mois précédents. Il ne recevait pas de vitamine D. Le rachitisme était suspecté cliniquement, et confirmé par les trouvailles radiologiques et biologiques. Le contrôle des crises était retrouvé dès le 3ème jour d'hospitalisation après apports de calcium intraveineux et de vitamine D. Les convulsions étaient imputées à une hypocalcémie sur rachitisme. La prise prolongée de phénobarbital sans supplémentation en vitamine D, ainsi qu'une exposition solaire insuffisante étaient incriminées. Avant toute escalade thérapeutique, des convulsions hypocalcémiques et un rachitisme doivent toujours être exclus devant une perte du contrôle des crises chez tout patient épileptique à mobilité réduite. Par ailleurs, une supplémentation en vitamine D et une exposition suffisante au soleil devront être recommandées pour certains traitements antiépileptiques au long cours. PMID:23503922

  5. Coinfection pulmonaire par pneumocystis jirovecii et pseudomonas aeruginosa au cours du SIDA: à propos de deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Mamoudou, Savadogo; Bellaud, Guillaume; Ana, Canestri; Gilles, Pialoux

    2015-01-01

    Rapporter deux cas cliniques de coinfections pulmonaires par Pneumocystis jirovecii et par Pseudomonas aeruginosa chez des patients vivant avec le VIH. Les deux patients étaient âgés respectivement de 32 ans et 46 ans. Un patient a été pris en charge à l'hôpital Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou au Burkina Faso et l'autre a été pris en charge à l'hôpital Ténon de Paris, en France. Les deux souffraient de pneumopathie confirmée à la radiographie et à la tomodensitométrie. L'un des patients était sévèrement immuno déprimé, contrairement à l'autre. L'examen bactériologique dans les crachats avait permis d'isoler Pseudomonas aeruginosa et Pneumocystis jirovecii chez les deux patients. Sous traitement, l’évolution a été favorable. Les coinfections morbides sont relativement fréquentes chez les patients vivant avec le VIH. Devant une symptomatologie respiratoire du sujet vivant avec le VIH, il faut savoir rechercher en plus du Bacille de Koch, Pneumocystis jirovecii et Pseudomonas aeruginosa par un lavage broncho alvéolaire. PMID:26516396

  6. Escherichia coli low-copy-number plasmid R1 centromere parC forms a U-shaped complex with its binding protein ParR

    PubMed Central

    Hoischen, C.; Bussiek, M.; Langowski, J.; Diekmann, S.

    2008-01-01

    The Escherichia coli low-copy-number plasmid R1 contains a segregation machinery composed of parC, ParR and parM. The R1 centromere-like site parC contains two separate sets of repeats. By atomic force microscopy (AFM) we show here that ParR molecules bind to each of the 5-fold repeated iterons separately with the intervening sequence unbound by ParR. The two ParR protein complexes on parC do not complex with each other. ParR binds with a stoichiometry of about one ParR dimer per each single iteron. The measured DNA fragment lengths agreed with B-form DNA and each of the two parC 5-fold interon DNA stretches adopts a linear path in its complex with ParR. However, the overall parC/ParR complex with both iteron repeats bound by ParR forms an overall U-shaped structure: the DNA folds back on itself nearly completely, including an angle of ∼150°. Analysing linear DNA fragments, we never observed dimerized ParR complexes on one parC DNA molecule (intramolecular) nor a dimerization between ParR complexes bound to two different parC DNA molecules (intermolecular). This bacterial segrosome is compared to other bacterial segregation complexes. We speculate that partition complexes might have a similar overall structural organization and, at least in part, common functional properties. PMID:18056157

  7. Douleurs induites par les soins: la réalité au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Befelatanana Antananarivo, Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Mahavivola, Ernestho-Ghoud Indretsy; Olivah, Razanaparany Miarisoa Mireille; Mihary, Dodo; Hendriniaina, Rakotoharivelo; Lalao, Randriamboavonjy Rado; Henintsoa, Rakotonirainy Oliva; Fahafahantsoa, Rapelanoro Rabenja

    2014-01-01

    La douleur induite par les soins correspond à la douleur survenant lors des actes à visé diagnostique et/ou thérapeutique. A notre connaissance, nous n'avons pas encore des données disponibles pour les douleurs induites par les soins à l'Hôpital de Befelatanana. Nos objectifs étaient de décrire le profil épidémiologique de la douleur induite par les soins, d'identifier les principaux facteurs influençant sur l'intensité de la douleur et leurs retentissements chez les patients. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective, transversale type un jour donné menée dans les douze services de Médecines au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Befelatanana en Novembre 2013. Cent deux patients ont été retenus dans l’étude et trois cent vingt trois actes douloureux étaient enregistrés. La fréquence de la douleur induite par les soins était de 69,86%. Le genre féminin prédominait dans 52% des cas (n = 53) avec un sex-ratio à 0,92. L’âge moyen était de 46 ans. Les ponctions vasculaires étaient l'acte prédominant dans 49,54% (n = 109) des cas. Les infirmiers réalisaient les soins dans 47,05% (n = 48) des cas. L'information verbale était la mesure préventive utilisée dans 57,84% des cas (n = 59). Le transport par marche à pied et au dos représentait 16,67% des cas (n = 17). Les patients naïfs des gestes étaient plus anxieux. Ces patients gardaient de mauvais souvenir dans 64,71% des cas (n = 66). La fréquence de douleur induite par les soins était trop élevée. Un effort important est nécessaire pour réduire la douleur induite par les soins PMID:25932071

  8. Mesusage du tramadol par les adolescents et jeunes adultes en situation de rue

    PubMed Central

    Maiga, Djibo Douma; Seyni, Houdou; Moussa, Ali Ousmane; Sidikou, Amadou

    2012-01-01

    L’objectif de cette étude transversale et descriptive était de décrire quelques caractéristiques de l’addiction au Tramadol chez les adolescents et jeunes adultes en situation de rue, rattachés aux centres d’écoute du Service Educatif, Judiciaire et préventif (SEJUP) de Niamey. Le recueil des données a porté sur les variables sociodémographiques et la consommation de tramadol. L’analyse des données a calculé les moyennes, minima, maxima et écarts types. Les résultats indiquent que : trois centres d’écoute sur huit participaient à l’étude. L’échantillon constituait 61 adolescents et jeunes adultes dont l’âge moyen était de 17,49 ans. L’analyse indique que 47 adolescents et jeunes adultes de toutes les catégories sociodémographiques (sexe, niveau d’instruction, provenance familiale ; région de provenance ; antécdents médicaux; antécédents judiciaires) étaient usagers du Tramadol. 46 étaient dépendants du Tramadol. La quantité moyenne consommée était de 1455,31 ± 901,4mg. Le mésusage du tramadol par les jeunes en situation de rue est probablement une des conséquences de la vente illicite et libre des médicaments, dont il est urgent de préciser les données médicales et sociales. PMID:23330046

  9. Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference with a Single Atom

    PubMed Central

    Ralley, K. A.; Lerner, I. V.; Yurkevich, I. V.

    2015-01-01

    The Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect is widely regarded as the quintessential quantum interference phenomenon in optics. In this work we examine how nonlinearity can smear statistical photon bunching in the HOM interferometer. We model both the nonlinearity and a balanced beam splitter with a single two-level system and calculate a finite probability of anti-bunching arising in this geometry. We thus argue that the presence of such nonlinearity would reduce the visibility in the standard HOM setup, offering some explanation for the diminution of the HOM visibility observed in many experiments. We use the same model to show that the nonlinearity affects a resonant two-photon propagation through a two-level impurity in a waveguide due to a “weak photon blockade” caused by the impossibility of double-occupancy and argue that this effect might be stronger for multi-photon propagation. PMID:26365761

  10. Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference with a Single Atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralley, K. A.; Lerner, I. V.; Yurkevich, I. V.

    2015-09-01

    The Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect is widely regarded as the quintessential quantum interference phenomenon in optics. In this work we examine how nonlinearity can smear statistical photon bunching in the HOM interferometer. We model both the nonlinearity and a balanced beam splitter with a single two-level system and calculate a finite probability of anti-bunching arising in this geometry. We thus argue that the presence of such nonlinearity would reduce the visibility in the standard HOM setup, offering some explanation for the diminution of the HOM visibility observed in many experiments. We use the same model to show that the nonlinearity affects a resonant two-photon propagation through a two-level impurity in a waveguide due to a “weak photon blockade” caused by the impossibility of double-occupancy and argue that this effect might be stronger for multi-photon propagation.

  11. Evaluation of the PAR corneal topography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindal, Prateek; Cheung, Susan; Pirouzian, Amir; Keates, Richard H.; Ren, Qiushi

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the raster photogrammetry based Corneal Topography System by determining: inter-operator variability, reproducibility of images, effects of defocused and decentered images, and the precision of data at different optical zones. 4 human cadaver eyes were used to study the inter-operator variability. To study the reproducibility of images, 3 human cadaver eyes and a test surface doped with flourescine (provided by PAR Vision Systems Corporation) were focused and their images taken four successive times. Defocused and decentered images were taken of 4 human cadaver eyes and four times of the test surface mentioned above. The precision of defocused/decentered cadaver eyes was evaluated at the following optical zones: 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm. All human cadaver eyes used in the above experiments had their epithelial layer removed before imaging. Average inter-operator variability was 0.06 D. In reproducibility attempts, there was an average deviation of 0.28 D for the human cadaver eyes and 0.04 D for the test surface. The defocused and decentered test surface gave an average deviation of 0.09 D. Defocused and decentered cadaver eyes resulted in an average deviation of 0.52 D, 0.37 D, 0.24 D, and 0.22 D at optical zones of 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm, respectively. The imaging method employed by PAR Vision Systems Corporation virtually eliminates inter-operator variability. The PAR Corneal Topography System's clinical usefulness, however, could be improved by improving the reproducibility of images, decreasing the sensitivity to spatial alignment, and increasing accuracy over smaller optical zones.

  12. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Oued Mya basin, Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Benamrane, O.; Messaoudi, M.; Messelles, H. )

    1993-09-01

    The Oued Mya hydrocarbon system is located in the Sahara basin. It is one of the best producing basins in Algeria, along with the Ghadames and Illizi basins. The stratigraphic section consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic, and is about 5000 m thick. This intracratonic basin is limited to the north by the Toughourt saddle, and to the west and east it is flanked by regional arches, Allal-Tilghemt and Amguid-Hassi Messaoud, which culminate in the super giant Hassi Messaoud and Hassi R'mel hydrocarbon accumulations, respectively, producing oil from the Cambrian sands and gas from the Trissic sands. The primary source rock in this basin is lower Silurian shale, with an average thickness of 50 m and a total organic carbon of 6% (14% in some cases). Results of maturation modeling indicate that the lower Silurian source is in the oil window. The Ordovician shales are also source rocks, but in a second order. Clastic reservoirs are in the Trissic sequence, which is mainly fluvial deposits with complex alluvial channels, and the main target in the basin. Clastic reservoirs in the lower Devonian section have a good hydrocarbon potential east of the basin through a southwest-northwest orientation. The Late Trissic-Early Jurassic evaporites that overlie the Triassic clastic interval and extend over the entire Oued Mya basin, are considered to be a super-seal evaporite package, which consists predominantly of anhydrite and halite. For paleozoic targets, a large number of potential seals exist within the stratigraphic column. This super seal does not present oil dismigration possibilities. We can infer that a large amount of the oil generated by the Silurian source rock from the beginning of Cretaceous until now still is not discovered and significantly greater volumes could be trapped within structure closures and mixed or stratigraphic traps related to the fluvial Triassic sandstones, marine Devonian sands, and Cambrian-Ordovician reservoirs.

  13. Traitement par plasma thermique d'une liqueur caustique pour la destruction des cyanures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Luc

    L'objectif principal de cette recherche est d'evaluer la possibilite de traiter le lixiviat de brasques usees produit par le procede LCL&L (Lixiviation a bas caustique et chaulage) par contact direct avec un jet de plasma thermique. L'utilisation d'un chalumeau au plasma permet d'eliminer les problemes de reaction avec les produits de combustion relies a l'utilisation de chalumeaux conventionnels (e.g. carbonatation du NaOH en Na2CO3). Le fait de se servir de ce type de chalumeau en mode submerge pour le traitement d'une solution liquide constitue l'originalite du projet. Les essais effectues dans le cadre de ce travail experimental sont realises a l'echelle banc d'essai dans un premier temps. Ils visent a determiner le taux de decomposition des cyanures contenus dans le lixiviat sous des conditions de plasma thermique en fonction de differents parametres et a faire la mise a l'echelle d'un reacteur pilote. La puissance electrique fournie au chalumeau, la temperature et la pression d'operation, le point d'addition d'eau, le volume de lixiviat traite et l'addition de peroxyde d'hydrogene (H2O2) comme co-reactif ont tous un impact sur le taux de destruction des cyanures trouve. Sous toutes les conditions etudiees, le reacteur plasma offre un taux de destruction plus rapide qu'un reacteur agite sous pression pour une meme concentration en cyanures. Ainsi, la comparaison de la constante cinetique obtenue pour le reacteur agite avec une constante similaire pour le reacteur plasma (pente du graphique -ln(C/C0) en fonction du temps) est de 0.04x10-3 s-1 vs 0.59x10-3 s-1 a 100°C et de 1.85x10-3 s-1' vs 3x10 -3 s-1s a 170°C. Ces resultats confirment que le plasma joue un role important sur la decomposition des cyanures et qu'il contribue a en augmenter le taux de destruction. Suite aux connaissances acquises sur le banc d'essai, un reacteur pilote est concu. Un chalumeau au plasma d'une puissance de 60 kW-150 kW et fonctionnant avec l'air comme gaz plasmagene y est

  14. A Conserved Mode of Protein Recognition and Binding in a ParD−ParE Toxin−Antitoxin Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, Kevin M.; Crosson, Sean

    2010-05-06

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems form a ubiquitous class of prokaryotic proteins with functional roles in plasmid inheritance, environmental stress response, and cell development. ParDE family TA systems are broadly conserved on plasmids and bacterial chromosomes and have been well characterized as genetic elements that promote stable plasmid inheritance. We present a crystal structure of a chromosomally encoded ParD-ParE complex from Caulobacter crescentus at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution. This TA system forms an {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 2} heterotetramer in the crystal and in solution. The toxin-antitoxin binding interface reveals extensive polar and hydrophobic contacts of ParD antitoxin helices with a conserved recognition and binding groove on the ParE toxin. A cross-species comparison of this complex structure with related toxin structures identified an antitoxin recognition and binding subdomain that is conserved between distantly related members of the RelE/ParE toxin superfamily despite a low level of overall primary sequence identity. We further demonstrate that ParD antitoxin is dimeric, stably folded, and largely helical when not bound to ParE toxin. Thus, the paradigmatic model in which antitoxin undergoes a disorder-to-order transition upon toxin binding does not apply to this chromosomal ParD-ParE TA system.

  15. A conserved mode of protein recognition and binding in a ParD-ParE toxin-antitoxin complex†

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Kevin M.; Crosson, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems form a ubiquitous class of prokaryotic proteins with functional roles in plasmid inheritance, environmental stress response, and cell development. ParDE-family TA systems are broadly conserved on plasmids and bacterial chromosomes, and have been well characterized as genetic elements that promote stable plasmid inheritance. We present a crystal structure of a chromosomally-encoded ParD-ParE complex from Caulobacter crescentus at 2.6 Å resolution. This TA system forms an α2β2 heterotetramer in the crystal and in solution. The toxin-antitoxin binding interface reveals extensive polar and hydrophobic contacts of ParD antitoxin helices with a conserved recognition and binding groove on the ParE toxin. A cross-species comparison of this complex structure with related toxin structures identified an antitoxin recognition and binding sub-domain that is conserved between distantly-related members of the RelE/ParE toxin superfamily despite low overall primary sequence identity. We further demonstrate that ParD antitoxin is dimeric, stably folded, and largely helical when not bound to ParE toxin. Thus, the paradigmatic model in which antitoxin undergoes a disorder-to-order transition upon toxin binding does not apply to this chromosomal ParD-ParE TA system. PMID:20143871

  16. Fairy-Tale Physics Farewell to Reality Bankrupting Physics: Baggott-Unzicker-Jones Critiques Shame Physics' Shameless Media-Hype P.R. Spin-Doctoring Touting Sci-Fi Veracity-Abandonment ``Show-Biz'' Spectacle: Caveat Emptor!!!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Edward

    2014-03-01

    Baggott[Farewell to Reality: How Fairy-Tale Physics Betrayed Search For Scientific Truth]-Unzicker [Bankrupting Physics: How Top Scientists Are Gambling Away Credibility] shame physics shameless rock-star media-hype P.R. spin-doctoring veracity-abandoning touting sci-fi show-biz aided by online proliferation of uncritical pop-sci science-writers verbal diarrhea, all spectacle vs little truth, lacking Kant-Popper skepticism/falsification, lemming-like stampedes to truth abandonment, qualified by vague adverbs: might, could, should, may,...vs factual is! Physics, motivated by financial greed, swept up in its very own hype, touts whatever next big thing/cutting-edge bombast ad infinitum/ad nauseum, turning it into mere trendy carney sideshow, full of fury(FOF) but signifying absolutely nothing! Witness: GIGO claims string-theory holographic-universe causes cuprates optical conductivity; failed Anderson RVB cuprates theory vs. Keimer discovery all cuprates ``paramagnons'' bosons aka Overhauser SDWs; Overbye NYT holographic-universe jargonial-obfuscation comments including one from APS journals editor-in-chief re. its unintelligibility, FOF but signifying absolutely nothing INTELLIGIBLE!; Bak/BNL SOC tad late rediscovery of F =ma mere renaming of Siegel acoustic-emission!; 2007 physics Nobel-prize Fert-Gruenberg rediscovery of Siegel[JMMM 7,312(78); https://www.flickr.com/search/?q=GIANT-MAGNETORESISTANCE] GMR. Each trendy latest big thing modulo lack of prior attribution aka out and out bombastic chicanery! Siegel caveat emptor ``Buzzwordism, Bandwagonism, Sloganeering for Fun Profit Survival Ego'' sociological-dysfunctionality thrives!

  17. Fairy-Tale Physics Farewell to Reality Bankrupting Physics: Baggott-Unzicker-Jones Critiques Shame Physics' Shameless Media-Hype P.R. Spin-Doctoring Touting Sci-Fi Veracity-Abandonment ``Show-Biz'' Spectacle: Caveat Emptor!!!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Edward

    2014-03-01

    Baggott[Farewell to Reality: How Fairy-Tale Physics Betrayed Search For Scientific Truth]-Unzicker [Bankrupting Physics: How Top Scientists Are Gambling Away Credibility] shame physics shameless rock-star media-hype P.R. spin-doctoring veracity-abandoning touting sci-fi show-biz aided by online proliferation of uncritical pop-sci science-writers verbal diarrhea, all spectacle vs little truth, lacking Kant-Popper skepticism/ falsification, lemming-like stampedes to truth abandonment, qualified by vague adverbs: might, could, should, may,...vs factual is! Physics, motivated by financial greed, swept up in its very own hype, touts whatever next big thing/cutting-edge bombast ad infinitum/ad nauseum, turning it into mere trendy carney sideshow, full of fury(FOF) but signifying absolutely nothing! Witness: GIGO claims string-theory holographic-universe causes cuprates optical conductivity; failed Anderson RVB cuprates theory vs. Keimer discovery all cuprates ``paramagnons'' bosons aka Overhauser SDWs; Overbye NYT holographic-universe jargonial-obfuscation comments including one from APS journals editor-in-chief re. its unintelligibility, FOF but signifying absolutely nothing INTELLIGIBLE!; Bak/BNL SOC tad late rediscovery of F =ma mere renaming of Siegel acoustic-emission!; 2007 physics Nobel-prize Fert-Gruenberg rediscovery of Siegel[JMMM 7,312(78); https://www.flickr.com/search/?q = GIANT-MAGNETORESISTANCE] GMR. Each trendy latest big thing modulo lack of prior attribution aka out and out bombastic chicanery! Siegel caveat emptor ``Buzzwordism, Bandwagonism, Sloganeering for Fun Profit Survival Ego'' sociological-dysfunctionality thrives!

  18. Historic macrophyte development in Par Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, J.B.

    1985-08-01

    Aerial photographs from 1975, 1980, and 1983 were examined to evaluate the changes that have occurred in the wetland vegetation of Par Pond, a reactor-cooling reservoir. Evaluation of the aerial photographs was based on comparisons with ground-level vegetation maps made during July 1984. Comparisons of photographs from August and December of 1983 revealed the main seasonal change in the aerial coverage of wetland vegetation to be the wintertime loss of non-persistent emergent species such as Nelumbo lutea and Nymphaea odorata. Comparisons between September 1980 and August 1983 revealed that the lakeward extent of non-persistent macrophytes has increased by an average of 8.2 m, though not all sites have changed equally. For persistent macrophytes (principally Typha), the average increase in lakeward extent between December 1975 and August 1983 was 3.48 m. The extensive development of wetland vegetation in Par Pond as well as the substantial spread of vegetation over only a few years time indicates the high suitability of this habitat for the growth of wetland plants.

  19. A Par-1-Par-3-Centrosome Cell Polarity Pathway and Its Tuning for Isotropic Cell Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; McKinley, R F Andrew; McGill, Melanie A; Angers, Stephane; Harris, Tony J C

    2015-10-19

    To form regulated barriers between body compartments, epithelial cells polarize into apical and basolateral domains and assemble adherens junctions (AJs). Despite close links with polarity networks that generate single polarized domains, AJs distribute isotropically around the cell circumference for adhesion with all neighboring cells [1-3]. How AJs avoid the influence of polarity networks to maintain their isotropy has been unclear. In established epithelia, trans cadherin interactions could maintain AJ isotropy [4], but AJs are dynamic during epithelial development and remodeling [5, 6], and thus specific mechanisms may control their isotropy. In Drosophila, aPKC prevents hyper-polarization of junctions as epithelia develop from cellularization to gastrulation [7]. Here, we show that aPKC does so by inhibiting a positive feedback loop between Bazooka (Baz)/Par-3, a junctional organizer [5, 8-10], and centrosomes. Without aPKC, Baz and centrosomes lose their isotropic distributions and recruit each other to single plasma membrane (PM) domains. Surprisingly, our loss- and gain-of-function analyses show that the Baz-centrosome positive feedback loop is driven by Par-1, a kinase known to phosphorylate Baz and inhibit its basolateral localization [8, 11, 12]. We find that Par-1 promotes the positive feedback loop through both centrosome microtubule effects and Baz phosphorylation. Normally, aPKC attenuates the circuit by expelling Par-1 from the apical domain at gastrulation. The combination of local activation and global inhibition is a common polarization strategy [13-16]. Par-1 seems to couple both effects for a potent Baz polarization mechanism that is regulated for the isotropy of Baz and AJs around the cell circumference. PMID:26455305

  20. Le fibromatosis colli ou torticolis congénital: son diagnostic et sa prise en charge à propos de deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Tchaou, Mazamaesso; Pegbessou, Plaodezina Essobozou; Sonhaye, Lantam; Ahouanssou, Patricia Yékpé; Amadou, Abdoulatif; Kolou, Beresa; Kama, Lidi Bessi; Garba, Nouhou Mahamadou; Koussema, Lama Kegdigoma Agoda; N'dakéna, Koffi

    2015-01-01

    Le fibromatosis colli (FC) est pseudotumeur rare du muscle sterno-cléido-mastoïdien (SCM), à l'origine d'un torticolis dit congénital chez le nouveau-né ou le nourrisson. Le mécanisme étio-pathogénique de sa survenue est sujet à controverse. Son diagnostic fait appel à l’échographie qui permet de mettre en évidence un épaississement caractéristique du muscle. Nous rapportons deux cas diagnostiqués par l’échographie avec pour un cas une notion de malposition intra-utérine et pour l'autre cas une absence totale de malposition et de traumatisme obstétrical qui pourtant est évoqué comme élément du mécanisme de survenue du FC. PMID:26834927

  1. 2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

  2. Transcriptome profiling reveals links between ParS/ParR, MexEF-OprN, and quorum sensing in the regulation of adaptation and virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ParS/ParR two component regulatory system plays critical roles for multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It was demonstrated that in the presence of antimicrobials, ParR enhances bacterial survival by distinct mechanisms including activation of the mexXY efflux genes, enhancement of lipopolysaccharide modification through the arn operon, and reduction of the expression of oprD porin. Results In this study, we report on transcriptomic analyses of P. aeruginosa PAO1 wild type and parS and parR mutants growing in a defined minimal medium. Our transcriptomic analysis provides the first estimates of transcript abundance for the 5570 coding genes in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Comparative transcriptomics of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and par mutants identified a total of 464 genes regulated by ParS and ParR. Results also showed that mutations in the parS/parR system abolished expression of the mexEF-oprN operon by down-regulating the regulatory gene mexS. In addition to the known effects on drug resistance genes, transcript abundances of the quorum sensing genes (rhlIR and pqsABCDE-phnAB) were higher in both parS and parR mutants. In accordance with these results, a significant portion of the ParS/ParR regulated genes belonged to the MexEF-OprN and quorum sensing regulons. Deletion of the par genes also led to increased phenazine production and swarming motility, consistent with the up-regulation of the phenazine and rhamnolipid biosynthetic genes, respectively. Conclusion Our results link the ParS/ParR two component signal transduction system to MexEF-OprN and quorum sensing systems in P. aeruginosa. These results expand our understanding of the roles of the ParS/ParR system in the regulation of gene expression in P. aeruginosa, especially in the absence of antimicrobials. PMID:24034668

  3. Taare Zameen Par and dyslexic savants.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Ambar

    2009-04-01

    The film Taare Zameen Par (Stars upon the Ground) portrays the tormented life at school and at home of a child with dyslexia and his eventual success after his artistic talents are discovered by his art teacher at the boarding school. The film hints at a curious neurocognitive phenomenon of creativity in the midst of language disability, as exemplified in the lives of people like Leonardo da Vinci and Albert Einstein, both of whom demonstrated extraordinary creativity even though they were probably affected with developmental learning disorders. It has been hypothesized that a developmental delay in the dominant hemisphere most likely 'disinhibits' the nondominant parietal lobe, unmasking talents-artistic or otherwise-in some such individuals. It has been suggested that, in remedial training, children with learning disorders be encouraged to develop such hidden talents to full capacity, rather than be subjected to the usual overemphasis on the correction of the disturbed coded symbol operations. PMID:20142854

  4. Taare Zameen Par and dyslexic savants

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Ambar

    2009-01-01

    The film Taare Zameen Par (Stars upon the Ground) portrays the tormented life at school and at home of a child with dyslexia and his eventual success after his artistic talents are discovered by his art teacher at the boarding school. The film hints at a curious neurocognitive phenomenon of creativity in the midst of language disability, as exemplified in the lives of people like Leonardo da Vinci and Albert Einstein, both of whom demonstrated extraordinary creativity even though they were probably affected with developmental learning disorders. It has been hypothesized that a developmental delay in the dominant hemisphere most likely ‘disinhibits’ the nondominant parietal lobe, unmasking talents—artistic or otherwise—in some such individuals. It has been suggested that, in remedial training, children with learning disorders be encouraged to develop such hidden talents to full capacity, rather than be subjected to the usual overemphasis on the correction of the disturbed coded symbol operations. PMID:20142854

  5. Biased signaling: potential agonist and antagonist of PAR2.

    PubMed

    Kakarala, Kavita Kumari; Jamil, Kaiser

    2016-06-01

    Protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) has emerged as one of the promising therapeutic targets to inhibit rapidly metastasizing breast cancer cells. However, its elusive molecular mechanism of activation and signaling has made it a difficult target for drug development. In this study, in silico methods were used to unfold PAR2 molecular mechanism of signaling based on the concept of GPCR receptor plasticity. Although, there are no conclusive evidences of the presence of specific endogenous ligands for PAR2, the efficacy of synthetic agonist and antagonist in PAR2 signaling has opened up the possibilities of ligand-mediated signaling. Furthermore, it has been proved that ligands specific for one GPCR can induce signaling in GPCRs belonging to other subfamilies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify potential agonists and antagonists from the GPCR ligand library (GLL), which may induce biased signaling in PAR2 using the concept of existence of multiple ligand-stabilized receptor conformations. The results of our in silico study suggest that PAR2 may show biased signaling mainly with agonists of serotonin type 1, β-adrenergic type 1,3 and antagonists of substance K (NK1), serotonin type 2, dopamine type 4, and thromboxane receptors. Further, this study also throws light on the putative ligand-specific conformations of PAR2. Thus, the results of this study provide structural insights to putative conformations of PAR2 and also gives initial clues to medicinal chemists for rational drug design targeting this challenging receptor. PMID:26295578

  6. Proteases in agricultural dust induce lung inflammation through PAR-1 and PAR-2 activation.

    PubMed

    Romberger, Debra J; Heires, Art J; Nordgren, Tara M; Souder, Chelsea P; West, William; Liu, Xiang-de; Poole, Jill A; Toews, Myron L; Wyatt, Todd A

    2015-08-15

    Workers exposed to aerosolized dust present in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are susceptible to inflammatory lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Extracts of dust collected from hog CAFOs [hog dust extract (HDE)] are potent stimulators of lung inflammatory responses in several model systems. The observation that HDE contains active proteases prompted the present study, which evaluated the role of CAFO dust proteases in lung inflammatory processes and tested whether protease-activated receptors (PARs) are involved in the signaling pathway for these events. We hypothesized that the damaging proinflammatory effect of HDE is due, in part, to the proteolytic activation of PARs, and inhibiting the proteases in HDE or disrupting PAR activation would attenuate HDE-mediated inflammatory indexes in bronchial epithelial cells (BECs), in mouse lung slices in vitro, and in a murine in vivo exposure model. Human BECs and mouse lung slice cultures stimulated with 5% HDE released significantly more of each of the cytokines measured (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, keratinocyte-derived chemokine/CXC chemokine ligand 1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2/CXC chemokine ligand 2) than controls, and these effects were markedly diminished by protease inhibition. Inhibition of PARs also blunted the HDE-induced cytokine release from BECs. In addition, protease depletion inhibited HDE-induced BEC intracellular PKCα and PKCε activation. C57BL/6J mice administered 12.5% HDE intranasally, either once or daily for 3 wk, exhibited increased total cellular and neutrophil influx, bronchial alveolar fluid inflammatory cytokines, lung histopathology, and inflammatory scores compared with mice receiving protease-depleted HDE. These data suggest that proteases in dust from CAFOs are important mediators of lung inflammation, and these proteases and their receptors may provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention in CAFO dust-induced airways disease. PMID

  7. Cancer-selective apoptosis by tumor suppressor par-4.

    PubMed

    Hebbar, Nikhil; Shrestha-Bhattarai, Tripti; Rangnekar, Vivek M

    2014-01-01

    Tumor suppressor genes play an important role in preventing neoplastic transformation and maintaining normal tissue homeostasis. Par-4 is one such tumor suppressor which is unique in its ability to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells while leaving the normal cells unaffected. The cancer cell specific activity of Par-4 is elicited through intracellular as well as extracellular mechanisms. Intracellularly Par-4 acts through the inhibition of pro-survival pathways and activation of Fas mediated apoptosis whereas extracellular (secreted Par-4) acts by binding to cell surface GRP78 leading to activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Many studies have highlighted the importance of Par-4 not only in preventing cancer development/recurrence but also as a promising anticancer therapeutic agent. PMID:25001535

  8. PAR-3 and PAR-1 Inhibit LET-99 Localization to Generate a Cortical Band Important for Spindle Positioning in Caenorhabditis elegans Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jui-Ching

    2007-01-01

    The conserved PAR proteins are localized in asymmetric cortical domains and are required for the polarized localization of cell fate determinants in many organisms. In Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, LET-99 and G protein signaling act downstream of the PARs to regulate spindle positioning and ensure asymmetric division. PAR-3 and PAR-2 localize LET-99 to a posterior cortical band through an unknown mechanism. Here we report that LET-99 asymmetry depends on cortically localized PAR-1 and PAR-4 but not on cytoplasmic polarity effectors. In par-1 and par-4 embryos, LET-99 accumulates at the entire posterior cortex, but remains at low levels at the anterior cortex occupied by PAR-3. Further, PAR-3 and PAR-1 have graded cortical distributions with the highest levels at the anterior and posterior poles, respectively, and the lowest levels of these proteins correlate with high LET-99 accumulation. These results suggest that PAR-3 and PAR-1 inhibit the localization of LET-99 to generate a band pattern. In addition, PAR-1 kinase activity is required for the inhibition of LET-99 localization, and PAR-1 associates with LET-99. Finally, examination of par-1 embryos suggests that the banded pattern of LET-99 is critical for normal posterior spindle displacement and to prevent spindle misorientation caused by cell shape constraints. PMID:17761536

  9. Étude par analogie électrique de différents types de tubes à gaz pulsé : modélisation et expérience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halouane, A.; Maréchal, J.-C.; David, M.

    1998-10-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to explain the operation of pulse tubes refrigerators (PTR) by a network theory approach: the voltage and the current represent respectively the hydrodynamic parameters pressure P and mass flow rate m of the system. Each impedance is treated as a circuit of equivalent electrical element: resistance, capacitance or inductance. At the hot end of the PTR, different phase shift systems are modelled in the same way and could be compared, as the orifice pulse tube refrigerator (OPTR), the double inlet pulse tube refrigerator (DIPTR), the modified pulse tube refrigerator (MPTR) whose phasor is a moving piston at the hot end, the hybrid pulse tube refrigerator (HPTR) with a sequential orifice opening and the OPTR with inertance (IOPTR). By combining the network approach with the thermal analysis of the regenerator and the thermodynamic analysis of the tube it is possible to predict the energy balance at the cold end: extracted power, regenerator and tube losses and the influence of dead volumes. Different solutions were pointed out to treat this model. If the parameters are not sinusoidal the system might be treated at an order greater than 1. This modelling was used to design a miniature PTR operating at high frequency (20-50) Hz and pressure higher than 2 MPa, developed in collaboration with “Air Liquide" firm. The rotary or linear compressor used has 1 cm3 swept-volume and is similar to that used on Stirling refrigerator and generate a quasi-sinusoidal pressure wave. Under a mean pressure of 3 MPa and a 27.5 Hz operating frequency, the lower temperature reached is 49 K with an available power of 1 W at 84 K, in a double inlet mode. Le principal objectif de cet article est de présenter le fonctionnement des tubes à gaz pulsé (TGP) par une analogie électrique [CITE] où la tension et le courant représentent les paramètres hydrodynamiques pression P et débit massique m du système. Toute impédance peut être traitée comme un

  10. Recombination in the Human Pseudoautosomal Region PAR1

    PubMed Central

    Hinch, Anjali G.; Altemose, Nicolas; Noor, Nudrat; Donnelly, Peter; Myers, Simon R.

    2014-01-01

    The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is a short region of homology between the mammalian X and Y chromosomes, which has undergone rapid evolution. A crossover in the PAR is essential for the proper disjunction of X and Y chromosomes in male meiosis, and PAR deletion results in male sterility. This leads the human PAR with the obligatory crossover, PAR1, to having an exceptionally high male crossover rate, which is 17-fold higher than the genome-wide average. However, the mechanism by which this obligatory crossover occurs remains unknown, as does the fine-scale positioning of crossovers across this region. Recent research in mice has suggested that crossovers in PAR may be mediated independently of the protein PRDM9, which localises virtually all crossovers in the autosomes. To investigate recombination in this region, we construct the most fine-scale genetic map containing directly observed crossovers to date using African-American pedigrees. We leverage recombination rates inferred from the breakdown of linkage disequilibrium in human populations and investigate the signatures of DNA evolution due to recombination. Further, we identify direct PRDM9 binding sites using ChIP-seq in human cells. Using these independent lines of evidence, we show that, in contrast with mouse, PRDM9 does localise peaks of recombination in the human PAR1. We find that recombination is a far more rapid and intense driver of sequence evolution in PAR1 than it is on the autosomes. We also show that PAR1 hotspot activities differ significantly among human populations. Finally, we find evidence that PAR1 hotspot positions have changed between human and chimpanzee, with no evidence of sharing among the hottest hotspots. We anticipate that the genetic maps built and validated in this work will aid research on this vital and fascinating region of the genome. PMID:25033397

  11. Recombination in the human Pseudoautosomal region PAR1.

    PubMed

    Hinch, Anjali G; Altemose, Nicolas; Noor, Nudrat; Donnelly, Peter; Myers, Simon R

    2014-07-01

    The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is a short region of homology between the mammalian X and Y chromosomes, which has undergone rapid evolution. A crossover in the PAR is essential for the proper disjunction of X and Y chromosomes in male meiosis, and PAR deletion results in male sterility. This leads the human PAR with the obligatory crossover, PAR1, to having an exceptionally high male crossover rate, which is 17-fold higher than the genome-wide average. However, the mechanism by which this obligatory crossover occurs remains unknown, as does the fine-scale positioning of crossovers across this region. Recent research in mice has suggested that crossovers in PAR may be mediated independently of the protein PRDM9, which localises virtually all crossovers in the autosomes. To investigate recombination in this region, we construct the most fine-scale genetic map containing directly observed crossovers to date using African-American pedigrees. We leverage recombination rates inferred from the breakdown of linkage disequilibrium in human populations and investigate the signatures of DNA evolution due to recombination. Further, we identify direct PRDM9 binding sites using ChIP-seq in human cells. Using these independent lines of evidence, we show that, in contrast with mouse, PRDM9 does localise peaks of recombination in the human PAR1. We find that recombination is a far more rapid and intense driver of sequence evolution in PAR1 than it is on the autosomes. We also show that PAR1 hotspot activities differ significantly among human populations. Finally, we find evidence that PAR1 hotspot positions have changed between human and chimpanzee, with no evidence of sharing among the hottest hotspots. We anticipate that the genetic maps built and validated in this work will aid research on this vital and fascinating region of the genome. PMID:25033397

  12. Circulating suPAR in Two Cohorts of Primary FSGS

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Changli; Trachtman, Howard; Li, Jing; Dong, Chuanhui; Friedman, Aaron L.; Gassman, Jennifer J.; McMahan, June L.; Radeva, Milena; Heil, Karsten M.; Trautmann, Agnes; Anarat, Ali; Emre, Sevinc; Ghiggeri, Gian M.; Ozaltin, Fatih; Haffner, Dieter; Gipson, Debbie S.; Kaskel, Frederick; Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane; Schaefer, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Overexpression of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) causes pathology in animal models similar to primary FSGS, and one recent study demonstrated elevated levels of serum suPAR in patients with the disease. Here, we analyzed circulating suPAR levels in two cohorts of children and adults with biopsy-proven primary FSGS: 70 patients from the North America–based FSGS clinical trial (CT) and 94 patients from PodoNet, the Europe-based consortium studying steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Circulating suPAR levels were elevated in 84.3% and 55.3% of patients with FSGS patients in the CT and PodoNet cohorts, respectively, compared with 6% of controls (P<0.0001); inflammation did not account for this difference. Multiple regression analysis suggested that lower suPAR levels associated with higher estimated GFR, male sex, and treatment with mycophenolate mofetil. In the CT cohort, there was a positive association between the relative reduction of suPAR after 26 weeks of treatment and reduction of proteinuria, with higher odds for complete remission (P=0.04). In the PodoNet cohort, patients with an NPHS2 mutation had higher suPAR levels than those without a mutation. In conclusion, suPAR levels are elevated in geographically and ethnically diverse patients with FSGS and do not reflect a nonspecific proinflammatory milieu. The associations between a change in circulating suPAR with different therapeutic regimens and with remission support the role of suPAR in the pathogenesis of FSGS. PMID:23138488

  13. Circulating suPAR in two cohorts of primary FSGS.

    PubMed

    Wei, Changli; Trachtman, Howard; Li, Jing; Dong, Chuanhui; Friedman, Aaron L; Gassman, Jennifer J; McMahan, June L; Radeva, Milena; Heil, Karsten M; Trautmann, Agnes; Anarat, Ali; Emre, Sevinc; Ghiggeri, Gian M; Ozaltin, Fatih; Haffner, Dieter; Gipson, Debbie S; Kaskel, Frederick; Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane; Schaefer, Franz; Reiser, Jochen

    2012-12-01

    Overexpression of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) causes pathology in animal models similar to primary FSGS, and one recent study demonstrated elevated levels of serum suPAR in patients with the disease. Here, we analyzed circulating suPAR levels in two cohorts of children and adults with biopsy-proven primary FSGS: 70 patients from the North America-based FSGS clinical trial (CT) and 94 patients from PodoNet, the Europe-based consortium studying steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Circulating suPAR levels were elevated in 84.3% and 55.3% of patients with FSGS patients in the CT and PodoNet cohorts, respectively, compared with 6% of controls (P<0.0001); inflammation did not account for this difference. Multiple regression analysis suggested that lower suPAR levels associated with higher estimated GFR, male sex, and treatment with mycophenolate mofetil. In the CT cohort, there was a positive association between the relative reduction of suPAR after 26 weeks of treatment and reduction of proteinuria, with higher odds for complete remission (P=0.04). In the PodoNet cohort, patients with an NPHS2 mutation had higher suPAR levels than those without a mutation. In conclusion, suPAR levels are elevated in geographically and ethnically diverse patients with FSGS and do not reflect a nonspecific proinflammatory milieu. The associations between a change in circulating suPAR with different therapeutic regimens and with remission support the role of suPAR in the pathogenesis of FSGS. PMID:23138488

  14. Condensation and localization of the partitioning protein ParB on the bacterial chromosome.

    PubMed

    Broedersz, Chase P; Wang, Xindan; Meir, Yigal; Loparo, Joseph J; Rudner, David Z; Wingreen, Ned S

    2014-06-17

    The ParABS system mediates chromosome segregation and plasmid partitioning in many bacteria. As part of the partitioning mechanism, ParB proteins form a nucleoprotein complex at parS sites. The biophysical basis underlying ParB-DNA complex formation and localization remains elusive. Specifically, it is unclear whether ParB spreads in 1D along DNA or assembles into a 3D protein-DNA complex. We show that a combination of 1D spreading bonds and a single 3D bridging bond between ParB proteins constitutes a minimal model for a condensed ParB-DNA complex. This model implies a scaling behavior for ParB-mediated silencing of parS-flanking genes, which we confirm to be satisfied by experimental data from P1 plasmids. Furthermore, this model is consistent with experiments on the effects of DNA roadblocks on ParB localization. Finally, we show experimentally that a single parS site is necessary and sufficient for ParB-DNA complex formation in vivo. Together with our model, this suggests that ParB binding to parS triggers a conformational switch in ParB that overcomes a nucleation barrier. Conceptually, the combination of spreading and bridging bonds in our model provides a surface tension ensuring the condensation of the ParB-DNA complex, with analogies to liquid-like compartments such as nucleoli in eukaryotes. PMID:24927534

  15. Developpement de mesures non destructives, par ondes ultrasonores, d'epaisseurs de fronts de solidification dans les reacteurs metallurgiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floquet, Jimmy

    Dans les cuves d'electrolyse d'aluminium, le milieu de reaction tres corrosif attaque les parois de la cuve, ce qui diminue leur duree de vie et augmente les couts de production. Le talus, qui se forme sous l'effet des pertes de chaleur qui maintiennent un equilibre thermique dans la cuve, sert de protection naturelle a la cuve. Son epaisseur doit etre controlee pour maximiser cet effet. Advenant la resorption non voulue de ce talus, les degats generes peuvent s'evaluer a plusieurs centaines de milliers de dollars par cuve. Aussi, l'objectif est de developper une mesure ultrasonore de l'epaisseur du talus, car elle serait non intrusive et non destructive. La precision attendue est de l'ordre du centimetre pour des mesures d'epaisseurs comprenant 2 materiaux, allant de 5 a 20 cm. Cette precision est le facteur cle permettant aux industriels de controler l'epaisseur du talus de maniere efficace (maximiser la protection des parois tout en maximisant l'efficacite energetique du procede), par l'ajout d'un flux thermique. Cependant, l'efficacite d'une mesure ultrasonore dans cet environnement hostile reste a demontrer. Les travaux preliminaires ont permis de selectionner un transducteur ultrasonore a contact ayant la capacite a resister aux conditions de mesure (hautes temperatures, materiaux non caracterises...). Differentes mesures a froid (traite par analyse temps-frequence) ont permis d'evaluer la vitesse de propagation des ondes dans le materiau de la cuve en graphite et de la cryolite, demontrant la possibilite d'extraire l'information pertinente d'epaisseur du talus in fine. Fort de cette phase de caracterisation des materiaux sur la reponse acoustique des materiaux, les travaux a venir ont ete realises sur un modele reduit de la cuve. Le montage experimental, un four evoluant a 1050 °C, instrumente d'une multitude de capteurs thermique, permettra une comparaison de la mesure intrusive LVDT a celle du transducteur, dans des conditions proches de la mesure

  16. SPRY1 promotes the degradation of uPAR and inhibits uPAR-mediated cell adhesion and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiufeng; Lan, Yan; Zhang, Di; Wang, Kai; Wang, Yao; Hua, Zi-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a GPI anchored cell surface protein that is closely associated with invasion, migration, and metastasis of cancer cells. Many functional extracellular proteins and transmembrane receptors interact with uPAR. However, few studies have examined the association of uPAR with cytoplasm proteins. We previously used yeast two-hybrid screening to isolate several novel uPAR-interacting cytoplasmic proteins, including Sprouty1 (SPRY1), an inhibitor of the (Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase) MAPK pathway. In this study, we show that SPRY1 interacts with uPAR and directs it toward lysosomal-mediated degradation. Overexpression of SPRY1 decreased the cell surface and cytoplasmic uPAR protein level. Moreover, SPRY1 overexpression augmented uPAR-induced cell adhesion to vitronectin as well as proliferation of cancer cells. Our results also further support the critical role of SPRY1 contribution to tumor growth. In a subcutaneous tumor model, overexpression of SPRY1 in HCT116 or A549 xenograft in athymic nude mice led to great suppression of tumor growth. These results show that SPRY1 may affect tumor cell function through direct interaction with uPAR and promote its lysosomal degradation. PMID:25520860

  17. Traitement des fractures des plateaux externes par vissage percutané assisté par arthroscopie

    PubMed Central

    Abouchane, Merouane; Belmoubarik, Amine; Benameur, Hamza; Haddoun, Ahmed Reda; Nechad, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Le but de notre étude est d'évaluer les résultats de fractures des plateaux tibiaux externes traitées par ostéosynthèse percutanée assistée par arthroscopie. Dix patients (8 hommes et 2 femmes) de 32 ans en moyenne ont subi cette intervention afin de réparer des fractures des plateaux tibiaux Schatzker I-III. Après avoir appliqué un garrot pneumatique, nous avons réduit et fixé la fracture au moyen de vis cannelées souschondrales. Lésions associées retrouvent deux lésions partielles du ménisque externe ont été retrouvé, traitées par résection partielle. Une orthèse de genou été de mise à but antalgique et protectrice pendant six semaines avec béquillage et interdiction de l'appui pour une durée de douze semaines avec reprise d'appui partiel au delà. La durée d'hospitalisation été d'une moyenne de cinq jours. La rééducation passive a été commence le lendemain de l'intervention et continuait dans chez un kinésithérapeute à la sortie du patient du service. Le suivi été à J7, J15, 1mois, 3mois, 6 mois puis tous les 6 mois. Neuf de nos patients ont été revu régulièrement sauf un perdu de vue. Le recul moyen de notre série été de 16 mois (10 et 24 mois). Le score de Lysholm a été utilisé pour évaluer les résultats cliniques chez nos neuf patients: excellent chez trois patients bons chez trois moyen chez un seul et mauvais chez deux patients. Tous nos neuf patients ont consolidé (figure 10 contrôle scopique d un article). Aucune gonarthrose n'a été note chez nos neuf patients due essentiellement au recul moyen faible de 16 mois. Le traitement des fractures des plateaux tibiaux externes assisté par arthroscopie produit des résultats satisfaisants et peut être accepté comme solution de rechange efficace au traitement des fractures des plateaux tibiaux causées par un choc de faible énergie. PMID:26587137

  18. Control of cleavage spindle orientation in Caenorhabditis elegans: The role of the genes par-2 and par-3

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, N.N.; Kirby, C.M.; Kemphues, K.J.

    1995-02-01

    Polarized asymmetric divisions play important roles in the development of plants and animals. The first two embryonic cleavages of Caenorhabditis elegans provide an opportunity to study the mechanisms controlling polarized asymmetric divisions. The first cleavage is unequal, producing daughters with different sizes and fates. The daughter blastomeres divide with different orientations at the second cleavage; the anterior blastomere divides equally across the long axis of the egg, whereas the posterior blastomere divides unequally along the long axis. We report here the results of our analysis of the genes par-2 and par-3 with respect to their contribution to the polarity of these divisions. Strong loss-of-function mutations in both genes lead to an equal first cleavage and an altered second cleavage. Interestingly, the mutations exhibit striking gene-specific differences at the second cleavage. The par-2 mutations lead to transverse spindle orientations in both blastomeres, whereas par-3 mutations lead to longitudinal spindle orientations in both blastomeres. The spindle orientation defects correlate with defects in centrosome movements during both the first and the second cell cycle. Temperature shift experiments with par-2 (it5ts) indicate that the par-2(+) activity is not required after the two-cell stage. Analysis of double mutants shows that par-3 is epistatic to par-2. We propose a model wherein par-2(+) and par-3(+) act in concert during the first cell cycle to affect asymmetric modification of the cytoskeleton. This polar modification leads to different behaviors of centrosomes in the anterior and posterior and leads ultimately to blastomere-specific spindle orientations at the second cleavage. 44 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Pseudo-HELLP syndrome par carence en folates et/ou en vitamine B12: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Benali, Mechaal; Bouassida, Mahdi; Dhouib, Firas; Bouzeidi, Kaled

    2014-01-01

    Plusieurs pathologies médicales peuvent interférer avec la grossesse et mimer le tableau biologique de HELLP syndrome. L’évolution naturelle de ce syndrome est d'une particulière gravité pour la mère et le fœtus, il convient d’éliminer rapidement les autres diagnostics afin d’éviter une extraction fœtale prématurée injustifiée. Nous rapportons le cas d'une parturiente qui s'est présentée avec un tableau évocateur d'un HELLP syndrome, rapporté finalement à une carence en folates et en vitamine B12. PMID:25404961

  20. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer is a death signal

    PubMed Central

    Andrabi, Shaida A.; Kim, No Soo; Yu, Seong-Woon; Wang, Hongmin; Koh, David W.; Sasaki, Masayuki; Klaus, Judith A.; Otsuka, Takashi; Zhang, Zhizheng; Koehler, Raymond C.; Hurn, Patricia D.; Poirier, Guy G.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2006-01-01

    Excessive activation of the nuclear enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) plays a prominent role in various of models of cellular injury. Here, we identify poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer, a product of PARP-1 activity, as a previously uncharacterized cell death signal. PAR polymer is directly toxic to neurons, and degradation of PAR polymer by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) or phosphodiesterase 1 prevents PAR polymer-induced cell death. PARP-1-dependent, NMDA excitotoxicity of cortical neurons is reduced by neutralizing antibodies to PAR and by overexpression of PARG. Neuronal cultures with reduced levels of PARG are more sensitive to NMDA excitotoxicity than WT cultures. Transgenic mice overexpressing PARG have significantly reduced infarct volumes after focal ischemia. Conversely, mice with reduced levels of PARG have significantly increased infarct volumes after focal ischemia compared with WT littermate controls. These results reveal PAR polymer as a signaling molecule that induces cell death and suggests that interference with PAR polymer signaling may offer innovative therapeutic approaches for the treatment of cellular injury. PMID:17116882

  1. Multi-scale photoacoustic remote sensing (PARS) (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji Reza, Parsin; Bell, Kevan; Shi, W.; Zemp, Roger J.

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a novel multi-scale photoacoustic remote sensing (PARS) imaging system. Our system can provide optical resolution details for superficial structures as well as acoustic resolution for deep-tissue imaging down to 5 cm, in a non-contact setting. PARS system does not require any contact with the sample or ultrasound coupling medium. The optical resolution PARS (OR-OARS) system uses optically focused pulsed excitation with optical detection of photoacoustic signatures using a long-coherence interrogation beam co-focused and co-scanned with the excitation spot. In the OR-PARS initial pressures are sampled right at their subsurface origin where acoustic pressures are largest. The Acoustic resolution PARS (AR-PARS) picks up the surface oscillation of the tissue caused by generated photoacoustic signal using a modified version of Michelson interferometry. By taking advantage of 4-meters polarization maintaining single-mode fiber and a green fiber laser we have generated a multi-wavelength source using stimulated Raman scattering. Remote functional imaging using this multi-wavelength excitation source and PARS detection mechanism has been demonstrated. The oxygen saturation estimations are shown for both phantom and in vivo studies. Images of blood vessel structures for an In vivo chicken embryo model is demonstrated. The Phantom studies indicates ~3µm and ~300µm lateral resolution for OR-PARS and AR-PARS respectively. To the best of our knowledge this is the first dual modality non-contact optical and acoustic resolution system used for in vivo imaging.

  2. Protease-Activated Receptor (PAR)2, but Not PAR1, Is Involved in Collateral Formation and Anti-Inflammatory Monocyte Polarization in a Mouse Hind Limb Ischemia Model

    PubMed Central

    Nossent, Anne Yael; van Oeveren-Rietdijk, Annemarie M.; de Vries, Margreet R.; Spek, C. Arnold; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Hamming, Jaap F.; de Boer, Hetty C.; Versteeg, Henri H.; Quax, Paul H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims In collateral development (i.e. arteriogenesis), mononuclear cells are important and exist as a heterogeneous population consisting of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory/repair-associated cells. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)1 and PAR2 are G-protein-coupled receptors that are both expressed by mononuclear cells and are involved in pro-inflammatory reactions, while PAR2 also plays a role in repair-associated responses. Here, we investigated the physiological role of PAR1 and PAR2 in arteriogenesis in a murine hind limb ischemia model. Methods and Results PAR1-deficient (PAR1-/-), PAR2-deficient (PAR2-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice underwent femoral artery ligation. Laser Doppler measurements revealed reduced post-ischemic blood flow recovery in PAR2-/- hind limbs when compared to WT, while PAR1-/- mice were not affected. Upon ischemia, reduced numbers of smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive collaterals and CD31-positive capillaries were found in PAR2-/- mice when compared to WT mice, whereas these parameters in PAR1-/- mice did not differ from WT mice. The pool of circulating repair-associated (Ly6C-low) monocytes and the number of repair-associated (CD206-positive) macrophages surrounding collaterals in the hind limbs were increased in WT and PAR1-/- mice, but unaffected in PAR2-/- mice. The number of repair-associated macrophages in PAR2-/- hind limbs correlated with CD11b- and CD115-expression on the circulating monocytes in these animals, suggesting that monocyte extravasation and M-CSF-dependent differentiation into repair-associated cells are hampered. Conclusion PAR2, but not PAR1, is involved in arteriogenesis and promotes the repair-associated response in ischemic tissues. Therefore, PAR2 potentially forms a new pro-arteriogenic target in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. PMID:23637930

  3. Novel Role for Proteinase-activated Receptor 2 (PAR2) in Membrane Trafficking of Proteinase-activated Receptor 4 (PAR4)*

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Margaret R.; McIntosh, Kathryn A.; Pediani, John D.; Robben, Joris; Cooke, Alexandra E.; Nilsson, Mary; Gould, Gwyn W.; Mundell, Stuart; Milligan, Graeme; Plevin, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors 4 (PAR4) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) recognized through the ability of serine proteases such as thrombin and trypsin to mediate receptor activation. Due to the irreversible nature of activation, a fresh supply of receptor is required to be mobilized to the cell surface for responsiveness to agonist to be sustained. Unlike other PAR subtypes, the mechanisms regulating receptor trafficking of PAR4 remain unknown. Here, we report novel features of the intracellular trafficking of PAR4 to the plasma membrane. PAR4 was poorly expressed at the plasma membrane and largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a complex with the COPI protein subunit β-COP1. Analysis of the PAR4 protein sequence identified an arginine-based (RXR) ER retention sequence located within intracellular loop-2 (R183AR → A183AA), mutation of which allowed efficient membrane delivery of PAR4. Interestingly, co-expression with PAR2 facilitated plasma membrane delivery of PAR4, an effect produced through disruption of β-COP1 binding and facilitation of interaction with the chaperone protein 14-3-3ζ. Intermolecular FRET studies confirmed heterodimerization between PAR2 and PAR4. PAR2 also enhanced glycosylation of PAR4 and activation of PAR4 signaling. Our results identify a novel regulatory role for PAR2 in the anterograde traffic of PAR4. PAR2 was shown to both facilitate and abrogate protein interactions with PAR4, impacting upon receptor localization and cell signal transduction. This work is likely to impact markedly upon the understanding of the receptor pharmacology of PAR4 in normal physiology and disease. PMID:22411985

  4. Novel role for proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in membrane trafficking of proteinase-activated receptor 4 (PAR4).

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Margaret R; McIntosh, Kathryn A; Pediani, John D; Robben, Joris; Cooke, Alexandra E; Nilsson, Mary; Gould, Gwyn W; Mundell, Stuart; Milligan, Graeme; Plevin, Robin

    2012-05-11

    Proteinase-activated receptors 4 (PAR(4)) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) recognized through the ability of serine proteases such as thrombin and trypsin to mediate receptor activation. Due to the irreversible nature of activation, a fresh supply of receptor is required to be mobilized to the cell surface for responsiveness to agonist to be sustained. Unlike other PAR subtypes, the mechanisms regulating receptor trafficking of PAR(4) remain unknown. Here, we report novel features of the intracellular trafficking of PAR(4) to the plasma membrane. PAR(4) was poorly expressed at the plasma membrane and largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a complex with the COPI protein subunit β-COP1. Analysis of the PAR(4) protein sequence identified an arginine-based (RXR) ER retention sequence located within intracellular loop-2 (R(183)AR → A(183)AA), mutation of which allowed efficient membrane delivery of PAR(4). Interestingly, co-expression with PAR(2) facilitated plasma membrane delivery of PAR(4), an effect produced through disruption of β-COP1 binding and facilitation of interaction with the chaperone protein 14-3-3ζ. Intermolecular FRET studies confirmed heterodimerization between PAR(2) and PAR(4). PAR(2) also enhanced glycosylation of PAR(4) and activation of PAR(4) signaling. Our results identify a novel regulatory role for PAR(2) in the anterograde traffic of PAR(4). PAR(2) was shown to both facilitate and abrogate protein interactions with PAR(4), impacting upon receptor localization and cell signal transduction. This work is likely to impact markedly upon the understanding of the receptor pharmacology of PAR(4) in normal physiology and disease. PMID:22411985

  5. Participation of Chromosome Segregation Protein ParAI of Vibrio cholerae in Chromosome Replication▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kadoya, Ryosuke; Baek, Jong Hwan; Sarker, Arnab; Chattoraj, Dhruba K.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae carries homologs of plasmid-borne parA and parB genes on both of its chromosomes. The par genes help to segregate many plasmids and chromosomes. Here we have studied the par genes of V. cholerae chromosome I. Earlier studies suggested that ParBI binds to the centromeric site parSI near the origin of replication (oriI), and parSI-ParBI complexes are placed at the cell poles by ParAI. Deletion of parAI and parSI caused the origin-proximal DNA to be less polar. Here we found that deletion of parBI also resulted in a less polar localization of oriI. However, unlike the deletion of parAI, the deletion of parBI increased the oriI number. Replication was normal when both parAI and parBI were deleted, suggesting that ParBI mediates its action through ParAI. Overexpression of ParAI in a parABI-deleted strain also increased the DNA content. The results are similar to those found for Bacillus subtilis, where ParA (Soj) stimulates replication and this activity is repressed by ParB (SpoOJ). As in B. subtilis, the stimulation of replication most likely involves the replication initiator DnaA. Our results indicate that control of chromosomal DNA replication is an additional function of chromosomal par genes conserved across the Gram-positive/Gram-negative divide. PMID:21257772

  6. Predicted PAR1 inhibitors from multiple computational methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Jinfeng; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Lujia; He, Xiao; Zhang, John Z. H.

    2016-08-01

    Multiple computational approaches are employed in order to find potentially strong binders of PAR1 from the two molecular databases: the Specs database containing more than 200,000 commercially available molecules and the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) database. By combining the use of popular docking scoring functions together with detailed molecular dynamics simulation and protein-ligand free energy calculations, a total of fourteen molecules are found to be potentially strong binders of PAR1. The atomic details in protein-ligand interactions of these molecules with PAR1 are analyzed to help understand the binding mechanism which should be very useful in design of new drugs.

  7. Characterization and flocculability of a novel proteoglycan produced by Talaromyces trachyspermus OU5.

    PubMed

    Fang, Di; Shi, Cuicui

    2016-01-01

    A filamentous fungus strain OU5 was isolated from a soil sample for its ability to produce rich exopolymers (EPS), with high flocculation capability towards kaolin suspension and swine wastewater, at low-carbon source conditions. EPS from strain OU5 was extracted and characterized to determine its flocculating behavior and active constituents involved in the flocculation. Strain OU5 was identified as Talaromyces trachyspermus by 18S rDNA-ITS gene sequencing and morphological observation. The extracted EPS was a novel proteoglycan (designated as BF-OU5) composed of 84.6% (w/w) polysaccharides and 15.2% (w/w) proteins. The enzymatic digestion tests revealed that the polysaccharides in BF-OU5, composed of 67% glucose, 16.4% mannose, 8.6% xylose and 8% galactose, contributed to 99.7% of flocculating capacity and were the major active ingredients in the flocculation. By contrast, the proteins in BF-OU5 only had minor roles in the flocculation. The presence of hydroxyl, amide, carboxyl and methoxyl functional groups in BF-OU5, and the high molecular weight (1.053 × 10(5)-2.970 × 10(5) Da) as well as the structure of a spherical conformation with inner pores and channels made of cross-linked netted textures contributed to the flocculation. A dosage of 20 mg/l BF-OU5 initiated more than 92.5% of flocculating efficiency towards kaolin suspension without any added coagulants; its flocculability was stable over a wide range of pH (4.0-8.0) and temperature (20°C-100°C). Treatment of swine wastewater using BF-OU5 achieved 52.1% flocculating removal for chemical oxygen demand, 39.7% for Kjeldahl nitrogen, 18.6% for NH4(+)-N, 21.5% for total phosphorus, and 75% for turbidity. PMID:26073312

  8. Compression de l'artère iliaque externe par armature de kerboull: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Elkoumiti, Nabil; El Hyaoui, Hicham; Achkoun, Abdessalam; Messoudi, Abdeljabar; Rahmi, Mohamed; Garch, Abdelhak

    2015-01-01

    Les complications vasculaires après arthroplastie totale de hanche sont exceptionnelles. Elles doivent être constamment redoutées car elles engagent à la fois le pronostic vital et le pronostic fonctionnel du membre opéré. Nous rapportons le cas d'une compression de l'artère iliaque externe diagnostiquée par angioTDM à 2 ans d'une reprise de prothése totale de la hanche, devant une symptomatologie atypique. Le mécanisme en cause était une compression de l'artère par une armature de Kerboul enfoncée en endo-pelvien. Une revue de la littérature des complications vasculaires survenant après une arthroplastie totale de hanche a permis de mettre en évidence la multiplicité des mécanismes et des présentations cliniques que peut avoir ce type de complications. La plupart de ces complications peuvent être au mieux prévenues ou traitées plus efficacement moyennant un bilan préopératoire et une surveillance postopératoire attentive. PMID:26958114

  9. View from northeast to southwest of PAR site sentry station; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from northeast to southwest of PAR site sentry station; formerly the bachelor's enlisted men's quarter (BEQ) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Sentry Station, North of Second Avenue & West of Electrical Switch Station No. 2, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  10. View from southwest to northeast of PAR site fresh water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from southwest to northeast of PAR site fresh water pump house - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Fresh Water Pump House, In Limited Access Area, on Patrol Road next to Open Storage Reservoir No. 736, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  11. PARS: Programs for Analysis and Resizing of Structures, user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haftka, R. T.; Prasad, B.; Tsach, U.

    1979-01-01

    PARS processors and their use, flutter analysis, sensitivity analysis for stresses, and resizing are presented. Design variable definition and interface with finite element model, static constraints and their derivatives, flutter derivatives, and optimization are discussed.

  12. La reconstruction du sourcil par greffon composite du cuir chevelu: une astuce pour faciliter la technique

    PubMed Central

    El Omari, Mounia; El Mazouz, Samir; Gharib, Noureddine; EL Abbassi, Abdallah

    2015-01-01

    Les sourcils jouent un rôle important dans l’équilibre esthétique du visage. Leur reconstruction ou ophriopoïése, après séquelle de brûlure fait partie intégrante du programme de réhabilitation de la face brûlée. Plusieurs techniques ont été décrites. Nous insistons ici sur l'intérêt d'une technique simple, à la portée de tous les chirurgiens, et dont la méthode et les résultats peuvent être améliorés par un dessin bien planifié des zones donneuse et receveuse: la greffe composite prélevée au niveau du cuir chevelu dessinée à l'aide d'un calque du sourcil controlatéral. PMID:26401195

  13. La prévention de l’infection par le virus respiratoire syncytial

    PubMed Central

    Samson, L

    2009-01-01

    L’infection par le virus respiratoire syncytial (VRS) est la principale cause d’infection des voies respiratoires inférieures chez les jeunes enfants et pour cette raison, bon nombre des prématurés et des enfants présentant d’autres facteurs de risque doivent être hospitalisés chaque année au Canada. Le palivizumab, un anticorps monoclonal anti-VRS, peut réduire le taux d’hospitalisation et la gravité de la maladie d’un petit groupe de prématurés ou de nourrissons à haut risque pendant leur première saison de VRS. Le présent document de principes contient une analyse des publications ainsi que des recommandations à l’intention des médecins canadiens au sujet de son utilisation chez les prématurés et les autres nourrissons à risque.

  14. Par-4 secretion: stoichiometry of 3-arylquinoline binding to vimentin.

    PubMed

    Sviripa, Vitaliy M; Burikhanov, Ravshan; Obiero, Josiah M; Yuan, Yaxia; Nickell, Justin R; Dwoskin, Linda P; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Liu, Chunming; Tsodikov, Oleg V; Rangnekar, Vivek M; Watt, David S

    2016-01-01

    Advanced prostate tumors usually metastasize to the lung, bone, and other vital tissues and are resistant to conventional therapy. Prostate apoptosis response-4 protein (Par-4) is a tumor suppressor that causes apoptosis in therapy-resistant prostate cancer cells by binding specifically to a receptor, Glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP78), found only on the surface of cancer cells. 3-Arylquinolines or "arylquins" induce normal cells to release Par-4 from the intermediate filament protein, vimentin and promote Par-4 secretion that targets cancer cells in a paracrine manner. A structure-activity study identified arylquins that promote Par-4 secretion, and an evaluation of arylquin binding to the hERG potassium ion channel using a [(3)H]-dofetilide binding assay permitted the identification of structural features that separated this undesired activity from the desired Par-4 secretory activity. A binding study that relied on the natural fluorescence of arylquins and that used the purified rod domain of vimentin (residues 99-411) suggested that the mechanism behind Par-4 release involved arylquin binding to multiple sites in the rod domain. PMID:26548370

  15. Croissance epitaxiale de GaAs sur substrats de Ge par epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belanger, Simon

    La situation energetique et les enjeux environnementaux auxquels la societe est confrontee entrainent un interet grandissant pour la production d'electricite a partir de l'energie solaire. Parmi les technologies actuellement disponibles, la filiere du photovoltaique a concentrateur solaire (CPV pour concentrator photovoltaics) possede un rendement superieur et mi potentiel interessant a condition que ses couts de production soient competitifs. La methode d'epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques (CBE pour chemical beam epitaxy) possede plusieurs caracteristiques qui la rendent interessante pour la production a grande echelle de cellules photovoltaiques a jonctions multiples a base de semi-conducteurs III-V. Ce type de cellule possede la meilleure efficacite atteinte a ce jour et est utilise sur les satellites et les systemes photovoltaiques a concentrateur solaire (CPV) les plus efficaces. Une des principales forces de la technique CBE se trouve dans son potentiel d'efficacite d'utilisation des materiaux source qui est superieur a celui de la technique d'epitaxie qui est couramment utilisee pour la production a grande echelle de ces cellules. Ce memoire de maitrise presente les travaux effectues dans le but d'evaluer le potentiel de la technique CBE pour realiser la croissance de couches de GaAs sur des substrats de Ge. Cette croissance constitue la premiere etape de fabrication de nombreux modeles de cellules solaires a haute performance decrites plus haut. La realisation de ce projet a necessite le developpement d'un procede de preparation de surface pour les substrats de germanium, la realisation de nombreuses sceances de croissance epitaxiale et la caracterisation des materiaux obtenus par microscopie optique, microscopie a force atomique (AFM), diffraction des rayons-X a haute resolution (HRXRD), microscopie electronique a transmission (TEM), photoluminescence a basse temperature (LTPL) et spectrometrie de masse des ions secondaires (SIMS). Les experiences ont permis

  16. Niveau socioéconomique et processus du recours aux soins par les familles de patients souffrant de troubles psychiques au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Yaogo, Ahmed; Sommer, Alain; Moulaï, Pierre; Chebili, Saïd; Abaoub-Germain, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le Burkina Faso a connu une amélioration constante depuis deux décennies de l'offre de soins en psychiatrie. De même, le taux d'alphabétisation sans cesse croissant s'accompagne d'une profonde modification des conceptions et des comportements. La présente étude visait à déterminer l′impact des déterminants socioéconomiques sur le processus du recours aux soins par les familles. Méthodes Il s'est agi d'une enquête transversale portant sur 200 familles, menée dans le service de psychiatrie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou. Variable à expliquer: premier recours aux soins par les familles (guérisseur traditionnel ou prières religieuses vs. consultations psychiatrique ou médicale). Variable explicative: catégorie socioprofessionnelle classée en suivant la nomenclature des professions et catégories socioprofessionnelles; niveau d’études. L'analyse statistique a été effectuée à l'aide du logiciel SAS version 9.2. Le test du Khi deux a été utilisé. Résultats Il existait une association entre le choix du premier recours et la Profession et la catégorie socioprofessionnelledu « décideur » (p = 0.0006) ainsi que leniveau d’études du « décideur » (p = 0.0001). Conclusion La Profession et Catégorie Sociale et le niveau d'instruction scolaire pourraient être un marqueur important dans les politiques visant à optimiser les processus de recours aux soins des patients dans le circuit de soins. PMID:25161751

  17. Dynamique sédimentaire comparative dans les bassins stéphano-permiens des Ida Ou Zal et Ida Ou Ziki, haut Atlas Occidental, MarocDynamic sedimentology of two Upper Stephano-Lower Permian basins: Ida Ou Zal and Ida Ou Ziki, western High Atlas, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, H.; El-Wartiti, M.; Broutin, J.

    2001-05-01

    The intra-mountainous Ida Ou Zal Basin developed as a graben during the Stephanian (Carboniferous) and Lower Permian. Along its borders from east to west are the remnants of basal conglomerates. Passing laterally towards the centre of the basin are fine-grained fluvial-lacustrine sediments or flood-plain deposits. The important accumulation (1800 m) of sediments, associated with climatic and tectonic changes, caused substantial subsidence in a late orogenic setting. The remnants of sporadic volcanic products (shards) found in the Ida Ou Zal and the Ida Ou Zika Basins suggest nearby simultaneous magmatic activity. A comparison between the basins of Ida Ou Zal and Ida Ou Ziki suggest that the two basins formed a single unit, called the Souss Basin, ultimately terminated between the Lower Permian and Upper Permian times by a sinistral movement of the N70-80° Agadir Ou Anzizen Fault (west branch of the Tizi N'Test Fault) at the very end of the Hercynian Orogeny in Morocco.

  18. Approche au diagnostic de la maladie cœliaque chez les patients ayant une faible densité minérale osseuse ou des fractures de fragilité

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Lorena P.; Khan, Aliya; Sultan, Muhammad; McAssey, Karen; Fouda, Mona A.; Armstrong, David

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux cliniciens une mise à jour sur le diagnostic de la maladie cœliaque (MC), ainsi que des recommandations sur les indications de procéder au dépistage de la MC chez les patients présentant une faible densité minérale osseuse (DMO) ou des fractures de fragilité. Qualité des données Un groupe de travail multidisciplinaire a élaboré des questions cliniquement pertinentes relativement au diagnostic de la MC servant de fondement à une recherche documentaire dans les bases de données MEDLINE, EMBASE et CENTRAL (de janvier 2000 à janvier 2009) à l’aide des mots clés en anglais celiac disease, osteoporosis, osteopenia, low bone mass et fracture. Les ouvrages scientifiques existants comportent des études de niveaux I et II. Message principal La prévalence estimée de la MC asymptomatique est de 2 % à 3 % chez les personnes qui ont une faible DMO. Par ailleurs, un dépistage ciblé est recommandé pour les patients qui ont des T-scores de −1,0 ou moins à la colonne vertébrale ou aux hanches ou des antécédents de fractures de fragilité associées à des symptômes ou à des problèmes reliés à la MC, des antécédents familiaux de MC ou de bas niveaux de calcium urinaire, une insuffisance en vitamine D et des niveaux à la hausse d’hormones parathyroïdiennes en dépit d’un apport suffisant en calcium et en vitamine D. Le dépistage de la MC devrait se faire pendant que le sujet consomme un régime alimentaire contenant du gluten. On procède au dépistage initial par le dosage d’immunoglobuline (Ig) A antitransglutaminase en utilisant la transglutaminase tissulaire humaine recombinante ou une autre transglutaminase tissulaire, en association avec l’immunofluorescence des IgA anti-endomysium. Une biopsie du duodénum est nécessaire pour confirmer le diagnostic de la MC. Le typage des antigènes des leucocytes humains peut aider à confirmer ou à exclure le diagnostic de la MC dans les cas où la s

  19. Déclenchement du travail à terme par le misoprostol: expérience d'une maternité tunisienne

    PubMed Central

    Ouerdiane, Nadia; Tlili, Nihel; Othmani, Kaouther; Daaloul, Walid; Masmoudi, Abdelwaheb; Hamouda, Sonia Ben; Bouguerra, Badreddine

    2016-01-01

    Evaluer l'efficacité et l'innocuité de l'utilisation du misoprostol par voie vaginale pour le déclenchement du travail à terme. Etude prospective réalisée au service de gynécologie obstétrique B de l'hôpital Charles Nicolle de Tunis sur une durée de 4 mois. La population sélectionnée concernait les patientes à terme devant bénéficier d'une maturation cervicale. Le misoprostol à la dose de 50 µg par voie vaginale toutes les 12 h était utilisé. Les paramètres étudiés étaient les anomalies contractiles, les anomalies du RCF, le mode d'accouchement, le délai d'accouchement et l’état néonatal. 44 patientes ont bénéficié d'une maturation cervicale par misoprostol. Le terme moyen était de 40 SA. Le taux de nullipare était de 23/44 (52%). Le taux d'accouchement par voie basse était de 31/44 (70.4%). 84% des patientes ont reçu une seule dose de misoprostol. Les anomalies du RCF ont été notées dans 14/44 (32%). Le taux de liquides méconiaux était de 12/44 (27%). Un score d'Apgar à 5 mn inférieur à 7 était noté chez 7/44 (16%). Un cas de rupture utérine était survenue chez une primipare et ce après une seule prise de misoprostol. Nos résultats sont décevants en raison de la survenue d'une rupture utérine et d'une morbidité néonatale importante. D'autres études prospectives multicentriques restent utiles pour mieux s'assurer de l'efficacité mais surtout de l'innocuité du misoprostol à dose faible pour le déclenchement du travail à terme. PMID:27583092

  20. Imagerie Resolue dans le Temps des Photons et Neutres Metastables Emis D'une Surface Par Stimulation Electronique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, Gregoire

    L'appareil que nous presentons ici a ete mis au point pour permettre d'accumuler des images numeriques, resolues dans le temps, de la desorption par stimulation electronique (DSE) d'ions positifs et negatifs, de photons et de neutres metastables, tout en conservant des capacites de base de diffraction d'electrons lents (DEL) et de transmission d'electrons lents (TEL). Le spectrometre comporte un monochromateur d'electrons a secteur cylindrique de 127^ circ dont l'optique de sortie permet la focalisation du faisceau d'electrons sur une large gamme d'energies. Le detecteur consiste en un empilement de galettes de microcanaux et d'une anode resistive a encodage de division de charges. La reponse spatiale du detecteur a ete calibree et plusieurs causes de non-linearite ont ete localisees et corrigees. Des methodes de correction materielle et logicielle des distorsions spatiales sont presentees. La resolution temporelle des evenements est obtenue en pulsant le faisceau d'electrons, et de facon synchrone la detection, laquelle est couplee a un micro-ordinateur. La premiere partie de ce travail est consacree a la caracterisation du spectrometre et la presentation de nombreux parametres operationnels, obtenus soit au moment de la conception, soit experimentalement. Suit la presentation de donnees de DEL et de DSE pour le systeme Ar/Pt(111) en films minces a 15K. Les sequences temporelles d'images de metastables d'Ar desorbes ont revele la presence de plusieurs populations distinctes, ayant des distributions angulaires et distributions d'energie cinetique que nous avons pu separer. Les fonctions d'excitation de l'emission de photons et de la desorption de differentes composantes de metastables, ainsi que la dependance de ces signaux sur l'epaisseur des films d'Ar, sont aussi presentees et analysees. Les techniques que nous avons developpees ont permis de cerner les mecanismes en jeu pour la desorption et la luminescence.

  1. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned.

  2. Pars Planitis: Epidemiology, Clinical Characteristics, Management and Visual Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Ozdal, Pinar Cakar; Berker, Nilufer; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur

    2015-01-01

    Pars planitis is an idiopathic chronic intermediate uveitis which predominantly affects children and adolescents, and accounts for 5-26.7% of pediatric uveitis. Although an autoimmune process with a genetic predisposition has been suggested, its etiology still remains unknown. The most common presenting symptoms are floaters and blurred vision. Diffuse vitreous cells, haze, snowballs and snowbanks are typical findings of pars planitis. Peripheral retinal vasculitis, optic disc edema and anterior segment inflammation are other well-known findings. Although pars planitis is known to be a benign form of uveitis in most cases, it may become a potentially blinding disease due to complications including cataract, cystoid macular edema, vitreous opacities and optic disc edema. Cystoid macular edema is the most common cause of visual morbidity. Band keratopathy, epiretinal membrane formation, vitreous condensation, neovascularizations, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, cyclitic membranes, glaucoma and amblyopia may develop as a consequence of the chronic course of the disease. Exclusion of infectious and non-infectious causes which may present with intermediate uveitis is of utmost importance before starting treatment. Treatment of pars planitis has been a controversial issue. There is no consensus specifically for treatment of cases with minimal inflammation and relatively good visual acuity. However, current experience shows that pars planitis may cause severe inflammation and needs an aggressive treatment. A stepladder approach including corticosteroids, immunosupressive agents, anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha and pars plana vitrectomy and/or laser photocoagulation is the most commonly used method for treatment of pars planitis. Adequate control of inflammation and prompt detection of associated complications are crucial in order to improve the overall prognosis of the disease. PMID:27051493

  3. Combined pars plana vitrectomy-scleral buckle versus pars plana vitrectomy for proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Lai, Frank H P; Lo, Ernie C F; Chan, Vesta C K; Brelen, Mårten; Lo, Wai Ling; Young, Alvin L

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the surgical outcomes of combined pars plana vitrectomy-scleral buckle (PPV-SB) versus pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment complicated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). One thousand one hundred and seventy four patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery between January 2002 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with grade C PVR treated with either combined PPV-SB or PPV alone were included in the study. Study outcomes included single surgery anatomic success rate and postoperative visual outcome at 12 months postoperatively. Seventy-seven patients with grade C PVR were identified for analysis. At the end of 12-month follow-up, 80.5 % eyes (33/41) in the PPV-SB group and 58.3 % eyes (21/36) in the PPV group achieved single surgery anatomical success. In a multiple logistic regression model, none of the baseline variables (age, gender, macula status, grade of PVR, extent of detachment, presence of vitreous hemorrhage, lens status, status of high myopia) nor types of retinal detachment surgery (use of scleral buckle, barrier endolaser, 360 degree endolaser, cryopexy, retinectomy, tamponade agent, phacoemulsification) had significant effect on single surgery anatomical success. The post-treatment mean logMAR visual acuity of the PPV-SB group was 1.58 ± 0.58 and the PPV group was 1.57 ± 0.61. There was no significant difference in the postoperative visual acuity between the two groups (P = 0.849). For patients with grade C PVR, PPV-SB did not demonstrate a superiority over PPV alone in achieving single surgery anatomical success. PMID:26260357

  4. Charges convectées par écoulements laminaires et turbulents dans des tubes de section rectangulaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touchard, G.; Dominguez, G.; Madani, K.

    1991-07-01

    This study relates the phenomenon of streaming currents by flow in a pipe of rectangular cross section. We compute at first the velocity profile in the case of a laminar flow. Then with the assumption of a weak space charge density an analytical solution for the space charge density profile in such pipe and for that kind of flow is also obtained. Thus we give the expression of the space charge density convected by a laminar flow. In the case of a turbulent flow the space charge convected is computed in the case of two parallel walls. At least, the experimental conditions and the confrontation between experiments and theoretical predictions are presented. Dans cette étude, nous analysons le phénomène de transport de charges électriques par convection dans un tube de section rectangulaire. Il nous faut tout d'abord définir le champ des vitesses hydrodynamiques. Dans le cas laminaire, une solution analytique peut être obtenue, aussi bien pour la vitesse que pour la densité volumique de charge en faisant l'hypothèse des faibles densités. A partir de ces résultats, nous calculons alors la densité volumique de charge transportée par un écoulement laminaire. Dans le cas d'un écoulement turbulent, la complexité du phénomène aussi bien hydrodynamique que d'électrisation, nous oblige à nous ramener au cas monodimensionnel de deux plans parallèles. Une expression de la vitesse moyenne axiale et de la vitesse fluctuante transversale est proposée ainsi qu'une modélisation de la nouvelle répartition de la charge. Les courants d'écoulement en turbulent peuvent alors être calculés. Nous présentons ensuite les conditions expérimentales ainsi qu'une confrontation entre les expériences réalisées en écoulement laminaire et turbulent avec les prévisions théoriques.

  5. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- September survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this mid-September survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys during the late growing seasons of 1995, and throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  6. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- October survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-11-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this late October survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maiden cane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  7. PAR-1 phosphorylates Mind bomb to promote vertebrate neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ossipova, Olga; Ezan, Jerome; Sokol, Sergei Y.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Generation of neurons in the vertebrate central nervous system requires complex transcriptional regulatory network and signaling processes in polarized neuroepithelial progenitor cells. Here we demonstrate that neurogenesis in the Xenopus neural plate in vivo and mammalian neural progenitors in vitro involves intrinsic antagonistic activities of the polarity proteins PAR-1 and aPKC. Furthermore, we show that Mind bomb (Mib), a ubiquitin ligase that promotes Notch ligand trafficking and activity, is a crucial molecular substrate for PAR-1. The phosphorylation of Mib by PAR-1 results in Mib degradation, repression of Notch signaling and stimulation of neuronal differentiation. These observations suggest a conserved mechanism for neuronal fate determination that might operate during asymmetric divisions of polarized neural progenitor cells. PMID:19686683

  8. Bacterial actin: architecture of the ParMRC plasmid DNA partitioning complex.

    PubMed

    Salje, Jeanne; Löwe, Jan

    2008-08-20

    The R1 plasmid employs ATP-driven polymerisation of the actin-like protein ParM to move newly replicated DNA to opposite poles of a bacterial cell. This process is essential for ensuring accurate segregation of the low-copy number plasmid and is the best characterised example of DNA partitioning in prokaryotes. In vivo, ParM only forms long filaments when capped at both ends by attachment to a centromere-like region parC, through a small DNA-binding protein ParR. Here, we present biochemical and electron microscopy data leading to a model for the mechanism by which ParR-parC complexes bind and stabilise elongating ParM filaments. We propose that the open ring formed by oligomeric ParR dimers with parC DNA wrapped around acts as a rigid clamp, which holds the end of elongating ParM filaments while allowing entry of new ATP-bound monomers. We propose a processive mechanism by which cycles of ATP hydrolysis in polymerising ParM drives movement of ParR-bound parC DNA. Importantly, our model predicts that each pair of plasmids will be driven apart in the cell by just a single double helical ParM filament. PMID:18650930

  9. Influence d'une substitution partielle du ciment par du laitier de hauts fourneaux sur la résistance des mortiers en milieu acide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achoura, D.; Lanos, Ch.; Jauberthie, R.; Redjel, B.

    2004-11-01

    Le stockage de produits chimiques dans du béton présente souvent des problèmes de durabilité dus aux attaques chimiques. Inévitablement les concentrations élevées sont les plus dangereuses. Le but de notre étude est de déterminer les changements de phases qui apparaissent dans le béton lorsqu'on substitue une partie du ciment par du laitier de haut fourneaux. Les échantillons sont conservés dans des solutions acides différents anions (HCl, H{2}SO{4}, H{3}PO{4} et CH{3}COOH) et différentes concentrations (0,1; 0,25 et 0,5M). Les formations qui apparaissent sont déterminées par diffraction X et observées au MEB. Les solutions sulfatiques conduisent à une formation de gypse en surface et d'ettringite au contact de la matrice cimentaire. Avec l'acide acétique, il y a formation de calcium acétate hydrate sous forme spongieuse tandis que, avec l'acide phosphatique, la formation de calcium hydrogeno phosphate hydrate est très superficielle. Enfin, avec l'acide chlorhydrique, la surface du mortier est recouverte de chlorure de calcium dihydrate et d'hydroxyde de fer. Les résistances mécaniques sont plus ou moins affectées par la concentration mais aussi et surtout par la nature des acides avec dans l'ordre le plus agressif H{2}SO{4} puis HCl et CH{3}COOH enfin peu de modification pour H{3}PO{4}.

  10. The Hong-Ou-Mandel effect in the context of few-photon scattering.

    PubMed

    Longo, Paolo; Cole, Jared H; Busch, Kurt

    2012-05-21

    The Hong-Ou-Mandel effect is studied in the context of two-photon transport in a one-dimensional waveguide with a single scatterer. We numerically investigate the scattering problem within a time-dependent, wave-function-based framework. Depending on the realization of the scatterer and its properties, we calculate the joint probability of finding both photons on either side of the waveguide after scattering. We specifically point out how Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometry techniques could be exploited to identify effective photon-photon interactions which are mediated by the scatterer. The Hong-Ou-Mandel dip is discussed in detail for the case of a single two-level atom embedded in the waveguide, and dissipation and dephasing are taken into account by means of a quantum jump approach. PMID:22714220

  11. Infection par le VIH chez les patientes atteintes de cancer du sein en Guinée (Afrique de l'Ouest)

    PubMed Central

    Traore, Bangaly; Diane, Solomana; Sow, Mamadou Saliou; Keita, Mamady; Conde, Mamoudou; Traore, Fodé Amara; Kourouma, Tidiane

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif était de déterminer la prévalence de l'infection à VIH chez les patientes atteintes de cancer du sein et de comparer les caractéristiques anatomocliques et thérapeutiques de ces cancers du sein par rapports aux patientes non infectées par le VIH. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective et analytique comparant les dossiers de patientes atteintes de cancers du sein histologiquement confirmés, infectées ou non par le VIH à l'unité de chirurgie oncologique de Donka, CHU de Conakry, de 2007 à 2012. Nous avons colligé 278 patientes présentant un cancer du sein dont 14 (5,0%) infectées par le VIH et 264 (95,0%) non infectées par le VIH. Les différences observées entre ces deux groupes de patientes étaient respectivement: âge médian (36,8 vs 49,0 ans), la ménopause (21,4% vs 53,4%), le nombre des patientes traitées (50,0% contre 77,1%) et la survenue de décès (78,6% vs 50,8%). Aucune différence n'a été notée dans la présentation clinique, histologique et le retard de consultation. Dans notre étude, la prévalence de l'infection à VIH chez les patients atteints de cancer du sein est élevée. L’âge jeune des patients, la faible accessibilité au traitement et la mortalité élevée doivent être confirmés par une étude sur un échantillon plus large. PMID:26523196

  12. PH motifs in PAR1&2 endow breast cancer growth

    PubMed Central

    Kancharla, A.; Maoz, M.; Jaber, M.; Agranovich, D.; Peretz, T.; Grisaru-Granovsky, S.; Uziely, B.; Bar-Shavit, R.

    2015-01-01

    Although emerging roles of protease-activated receptor1&2 (PAR1&2) in cancer are recognized, their underlying signalling events are poorly understood. Here we show signal-binding motifs in PAR1&2 that are critical for breast cancer growth. This occurs via the association of the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain with Akt/PKB as a key signalling event of PARs. Other PH-domain signal-proteins such as Etk/Bmx and Vav3 also associate with PAR1 and PAR2 through their PH domains. PAR1 and PAR2 bind with priority to Etk/Bmx. A point mutation in PAR2, H349A, but not in R352A, abrogates PH-protein association and is sufficient to markedly reduce PAR2-instigated breast tumour growth in vivo and placental extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion in vitro. Similarly, the PAR1 mutant hPar1-7A, which is unable to bind the PH domain, reduces mammary tumours and EVT invasion, endowing these motifs with physiological significance and underscoring the importance of these previously unknown PAR1 and PAR2 PH-domain-binding motifs in both pathological and physiological invasion processes. PMID:26600192

  13. PH motifs in PAR1&2 endow breast cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Kancharla, A; Maoz, M; Jaber, M; Agranovich, D; Peretz, T; Grisaru-Granovsky, S; Uziely, B; Bar-Shavit, R

    2015-01-01

    Although emerging roles of protease-activated receptor1&2 (PAR1&2) in cancer are recognized, their underlying signalling events are poorly understood. Here we show signal-binding motifs in PAR1&2 that are critical for breast cancer growth. This occurs via the association of the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain with Akt/PKB as a key signalling event of PARs. Other PH-domain signal-proteins such as Etk/Bmx and Vav3 also associate with PAR1 and PAR2 through their PH domains. PAR1 and PAR2 bind with priority to Etk/Bmx. A point mutation in PAR2, H349A, but not in R352A, abrogates PH-protein association and is sufficient to markedly reduce PAR2-instigated breast tumour growth in vivo and placental extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion in vitro. Similarly, the PAR1 mutant hPar1-7A, which is unable to bind the PH domain, reduces mammary tumours and EVT invasion, endowing these motifs with physiological significance and underscoring the importance of these previously unknown PAR1 and PAR2 PH-domain-binding motifs in both pathological and physiological invasion processes. PMID:26600192

  14. Aqueous misdirection following pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil injection

    PubMed Central

    Ghoraba, Hammouda H; Ghali, Ali Ahmed; Mansour, Hosam Othman

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report a retrospective series of seven phakic eyes of seven patients suffering from a malignant glaucoma-like syndrome following pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil (SO) injection. Materials and methods Seven eyes with retinal detachment treated with pars plana vitrectomy with or without scleral buckling with SO tamponade. This was followed by cataract extraction to manage the elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Results This was a retrospective review of seven cases that received pars plana vitrectomy and SO with or without scleral buckling for different causes of retinal detachment (three were rhegmatogenous and four were tractional). After a period ranging from 1 week to 1 month, they presented with malignant glaucoma-like manifestations; high IOP, shallow axial anterior chamber, and remarkable decrease of visual acuity. Atropine eye drops and anti-glaucoma medical treatment (topical and systemic) had been tried but failed to improve the condition. Dramatic decrease of IOP and deepening of the axial anterior chamber was observed in all cases in the first postoperative day after phacoemulsification and posterior chamber foldable intraocular lens implantation with posterior capsulotomy. Conclusion Aqueous misdirection syndrome may be observed following pars plana vitrectomy and SO tamponade. This must be differentiated from other causes of post vitrectomy glaucoma. Cataract extraction with posterior capsulotomy controls the condition. PMID:26056429

  15. The Pars Triangularis in Dyslexia and ADHD: A Comprehensive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibby, Michelle Y.; Kroese, Judith M.; Krebbs, Hillery; Hill, Crystal E.; Hynd, George W.

    2009-01-01

    Limited research has been conducted on the structure of the pars triangularis (PT) in dyslexia despite functional neuroimaging research finding it may play a role in phonological processing. Furthermore, research to date has not examined PT size in ADHD even though the right inferior frontal region has been implicated in the disorder. Hence, one…

  16. Radiological impact of Par Pond drawdown from liquid effluent pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-10-25

    The water level of Par Pond has been lowered over the past several months to reduce the effects in the event of catastrophic dam failure while assessing the condition of the dam and determining if repairs are necessary. In lowering the level of Par Pond, 60 billion liters of water containing low levels of tritium and cesium-137 were discharged to several onsite streams. SRS surface streams flow to the Savannah River. An assessment made to determine the total amount of tritium and Cs-137 discharged and to estimate the consequences to downstream Savannah River users. It is estimated that a total of 160 curies of tritium were displaced from Par Pond to the Savannah River between June 28, 1991 and September 19, 1991. This release could hypothetically result in a maximum individual dose of 3. 2{times}10{sup {minus}4} mrem and a total (80-km and drinking water populations) population dose of 1.4{times}10{sup {minus}2} person-rem. Likewise, a maximum individual dose of 5.0{times}10{sup {minus}2} mrem and a total population dose of 1.7{times}10{sup {minus}1} person- rem are predicted as a result of an estimated 0.21 curies of Cs-137 being discharged from Par Pond to the Savannah River.

  17. Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily (Nymphaea odorata), and watershield (Brasenia schreberi) are now extensive and well established. In addition, within isolated coves, extensive beds of water lilies and spike-rush (Eleocharis sp.) are common. Cattail occurrence has increased since refill, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Invasion of willow (Salix sp.) and red maple (Acer rubrum) occurred along the lake shoreline during drawdown. The red maples along the present shoreline are beginning to show evidence of stress and mortality from flooding over the past four months. Some of the willows appear to be stressed as well. The loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), which were flooded in all but the shallow shoreline areas, are now dead. Future surveys are planned for the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data for mapping the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond.

  18. BOREAS RSS-10 TOMS Circumpolar One-Degree PAR Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, Dennis G.; Holben, Brent; Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-10 team investigated the magnitude of daily, seasonal, and yearly variations of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) from ground and satellite observations. This data set contains satellite estimates of surface-incident PAR (400-700 nm, MJ/sq m) at one-degree spatial resolution. The spatial coverage is circumpolar from latitudes of 41 to 66 degrees north. The temporal coverage is from May through September for years 1979 through 1989. Eleven-year statistics are also provided: (1) mean, (2) standard deviation, and (3) coefficient of variation for 1979-89. The PAR estimates were derived from the global gridded ultraviolet reflectivity data product (average of 360, 380 nm) from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Image mask data are provided for identifying the boreal forest zone, and ocean/land and snow/ice-covered areas. The data are available as binary image format data files. The PAR data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  19. Results of peripheral laser photocoagulation in pars planitis.

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, J S; Mieler, W F; Walton, D; Kuhn, E; Postel, E; Hartz, A; Jampol, L M; Weinberg, D V; Logani, S

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the effect of peripheral retinal laser photocoagulation (PLP) on visual acuity, intraocular inflammation, and other ocular findings, including retinal neovascularization in eyes with pars planitis. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of eyes with pars planitis that had undergone PLP. RESULTS: Twenty-two eyes in 17 patients with pars planitis had undergone treatment with PLP at 2 centers. The mean age at the time of treatment was 19.3 years. Following treatment, mean follow-up was 16.3 months (range, 6 to 37 months). Mean visual acuity was 20/60 preoperatively and 20/50 postoperatively. This level of improvement was not statistically significant (P > .10), but there was a statistically significant decrease in the use of corticosteroids between the preoperative examination and the last postoperative examination (86% versus 27%, P < .05). There was also a statistically significant decrease in vitritis at the last follow-up (P = .0008) and a decrease in neovascularization of the vitreous base (P = .03) and in clinically apparent cystoid macular edema (P = .02). Epiretinal membranes were noted in 23% of eyes preoperatively and in 45% of eyes postoperatively. Only one of these epiretinal membranes was considered to be visually significant. One eye developed a tonic dilated pupil, which slowly improved. CONCLUSIONS: Although the long-term natural history of clinical findings in pars planitis is not well documented, PLP appears to decrease the need for corticosteroids while stabilizing visual acuity. It also appears to decrease vitreous inflammation. PLP has few complications and should be considered in patients with pars planitis who are unresponsive or have adverse reactions to corticosteroids. PMID:10360286

  20. PHYSICAL MAPS OF 'AUTOGRAPHA CALIFORNICA' AND 'RACHIPLUSIA OU' NUCLEAR POLYHEDROSIS VIRUS RECOMBINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    TN-368 cells were infected simultaneously with the closely related Autographa californica (AcMNPV) and Rachiplusia ou (RoMNPV) nuclear polyhedrosis viruses. Progeny viral isolates were plaque purified, and their DNAs were analyzed with restriction endonucleases. Of 100 randomly c...

  1. FIELD SCALE EVALUATION OF TREATMENT OF TCE IN A BIOWALL AT THE OU-1 SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A passive reactive barrier (Biowall) was installed at the OU-1 site at Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma to treat TCE contamination in ground water from a landfill. Depth to ground water varies from 1.8 to 2.4 meters below land surface. To intercept and treat the plume of contamin...

  2. Les fractures de jambe à fibula intact: traitement orthopédique ou enclouage centromédullaire? (étude comparative à propos de 60 cas)

    PubMed Central

    Abouchane, Merouane; Fadili, Assia; Belmoubarik, Amine; EL Andaloussi, Yassir; Nechad, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    La fracture de jambe à fibula intact (FJFI) est caractérisée par un potentiel de déplacement minime ainsi le pronostic semble bon, souvent associées à des difficultés de réduction de consolidation ou de cal vicieux. Notre but est de comparer les résultats du traitement orthopédique et de l'enclouage centromédullaire (ECM). Entre janvier 2006 et janvier 2011, on a traité 60 fractures de jambe à fibula intact. 31 patients ont bénéficié d'un ECM, dont 14 fois était statique, 16 fois dynamique et simple une fois, avec un appui compris entre le 2eme jour (pour la plupart des patients) et la sixième semaine. 29 patients ont bénéficiés d'un traitement orthopédique après réduction par plâtre cruro-pédieux avec libération du genou après 4 semaines avec appui total chez la plupart des patients. La durée de consolidation été de 4 mois en moyenne pour les patients traites par ECM et de 6 mois pour les patients traites orthopédiquement. On a noté 3 cas de pseudarthrose dans notre série d’étude soit 5%: 2 observées chez le groupe de l'ECM soit 6,4% et un cas pour le groupe du traitement orthopédique soit 3,8%. 6 cas de déplacement secondaires ont été note chez les patients traites orhtopédiquement à j15 du traitement, pour 5 patients le déplacement été jugé tolérable et pour un seul patient (trouble angulaire supérieur à 10°) ayant nécessité un ECM. 13 cas soit 54% de cal vicieux angulaire supérieur à 10 dans notre série tous traités orthopédiquement versus aucun cas de cal vicieux chez les patients du groupe du traitement par ECM. Cliniquement: tous les patients traités par ECM ont présenté une mobilité du genou et de la cheville normale. Les patients traités orthopédiquement ont tous bénéficié d'une rééducation du genou libération du genou et confection d'un plâtre type Sarmiento et celle de la cheville après son ablation définitive, ainsi aucun de nos patients n'a gardé une raideur après avoir termin

  3. The role of pars flaccida in human middle ear sound transmission.

    PubMed

    Aritomo, H; Goode, R L; Gonzalez, J

    1988-04-01

    The role of the pars flaccida in middle ear sound transmission was studied with the use of twelve otoscopically normal, fresh, human temporal bones. Peak-to-peak umbo displacement in response to a constant sound pressure level at the tympanic membrane was measured with a noncontacting video measuring system capable of repeatable measurements down to 0.2 micron. Measurements were made before and after pars flaccida modifications at 18 frequencies between 100 and 4000 Hz. Four pars flaccida modifications were studied: (1) acoustic insulation of the pars flaccida to the ear canal with a silicone rubber baffle, (2) stiffening the pars flaccida with cyanoacrylate cement, (3) decreasing the tension of the pars flaccida with a nonperforating incision, and (4) perforation of the pars flaccida. All of the modifications (except the perforation) had a minimal effect on umbo displacement; this seems to imply that the pars flaccida has a minor acoustic role in human beings. PMID:3132684

  4. Gas physical conditions and kinematics of the giant outflow Ou4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, Romano L. M.; Grosso, Nicolas; Acker, Agnès; Greimel, Robert; Guillout, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    Context. The recently discovered bipolar outflow Ou4 has a projected size of more than one degree in the plane of the sky. It is apparently centred on the young stellar cluster - whose most massive representative is the triple system HR 8119 - inside the H ii region Sh 2-129. The driving source, the nature, and the distance of Ou4 are not known. Aims: The basic properties of Ou4 and its environment are investigated to shed light on the origin of this remarkable outflow. Methods: Deep narrow-band imagery of the whole nebula at arcsecond resolution was obtained to study the details of its morphology. Long-slit spectroscopy of the bipolar lobe tips was secured to determine the gas ionisation mechanism, physical conditions, and line-of-sight velocities. An estimate of the proper motions at the tip of the south lobe using archival plate images was attempted. The existing multi-wavelength data for Sh 2-129 and HR 8119 were also comprehensively reviewed. Results: The observed morphology of Ou4, its emission-line spatial distribution, line flux ratios, and the kinematic modelling developed adopting a bow-shock parabolic geometry, illustrate the expansion of a shock-excited fast collimated outflow. The observed radial velocities of Ou4 and its reddening are consistent with those of Sh 2-129 and HR 8119. The improved determination of the distance to HR 8119 (composed of two B0 V and one B0.5 V stars) and Sh 2-129 is 712 pc. We identify in WISE images at 22 μm an emission bubble of 5' radius (1 pc at the distance above) emitted by hot (107 K) dust grains, located inside the central part of Ou4 and corresponding to several [O iii] emission features of Ou4. Conclusions: The apparent position of Ou4 and the properties studied in this work are consistent with the hypothesis that Ou4 is located inside the Sh 2-129 H ii region, suggesting that it was launched some 90 000 yr ago by HR 8119. The outflow total kinetic energy is estimated to be ≈4 × 1047 ergs. However, we cannot

  5. Troubles psychotiques précipités par le mariage : étude de trois observations

    PubMed Central

    Jaweher, Masmoudi; Kammoun, Mohamed Faouzi; Inès, Feki; Imen, Baati; Rim, Sallami; Abdelaziz, Jaoua

    2013-01-01

    Le mariage est un évènement très investi dans notre culture arabo-musulmane. Il présente une situation à grande charge émotionnelle et ayant un vécu stressant. C'est ainsi qu'il peut être à l'origine de la décompensation de certains troubles psychiatriques. Ce moment particulier de déclenchement de la pathologie peut altérer significativement l'adaptation familiale et sociale du patient en question, le rendant dépendant en partie ou en totalité à une institution. Dans ce travail, nous proposons d’étudier certains facteurs psychiques, sociaux et culturels pouvant aboutir à la précipitation des manifestations psychotiques par le mariage. Il s'agit de l’étude de trois observations cliniques, deux hommes et une femme, hospitalisés dans le service de psychiatrie A du CHU Hédi Chaker de Sfax et qui ont développés des manifestations psychotiques de façon concomitante à leur mariage. La durée moyenne de survenue des crises a été de vingt ans, le diagnostic retenu a été celui de trouble bipolaire dans deux cas et d'une schizophrénie indifférenciée chez le troisième patient. L’évolution s'est faite vers une chronicisation de deux malades et une dépendance institutionnelle dans le troisième cas. La précipitation des troubles psychotiques par le mariage, reste un phénomène en relation intime avec les composantes culturelles, elles-mêmes sont déterminantes dans la prise en charge ultérieure de ces patients. PMID:23785551

  6. Cas rare de rupture bilatérale des tendons d'Achille sans notion de tendinopathie ou de chirurgie de la cheville chez un jeune sportif: à propos d'un cas et revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Belmoubarik, Amine; Abouchane, Merouane; Mahraoui, Mohamed Amine

    2015-01-01

    Les lésions du tendon d'Achille sont plus fréquentes que celles du tendon quadricipital ou patellaire. Les lésions bilatérales sont par contre plus rares et sont souvent associées à une notion de tendinopathie, d'injection de corticoïdes ou de maladies systémiques tels que le lupus érythémateux, l'ostéomalacie ou l'insuffisance rénale chronique. Nous rapportons le cas d'un patient de 34 ans victime d'une rupture bilatérale des tendons d'Achille suite à une réception de saut lors de la pratique de gymnastique. Le patient n’était pas suivi pour maladie de système ou mis sous corticothérapie ou fluoroquinolones. Le diagnostic a été suspecté devant une dépression anormalement creusant le relief sous cutané des deux tendons d'Achille avec une impossibilité de flexion dorsale des deux chevilles en association à un signe de Thompson bilatéralement positif. L’échographie a confirmé le diagnostic. Le patient a été traité par laçage et suture tendineuse à ciel ouvert. La rupture bilatérale du tendon d'Achille est rare. La plupart des patients rapportent une notion de maladie systémique ou un antécédent de chirurgie du genou. Nous rapportons le cas d'une lésion rare dans la littérature, une rupture bilatérale des tendons achiléens sans notions de maladies auto-immunes ni de traitement aux corticoïdes. Les lésions bilatérales présentent certaines particularités thérapeutiques et évolutives. En effet, deux difficultés sont à noter la première réside dans l'absence de référence comparative pour régler et apprécier l’équin physiologique lors de la réparation tendineuse. La deuxième difficulté est l'obligation de différer l'appui à 45 jours. Ce qui est contraignant pour le patient. La technique de réparation à ciel ouvert couplée à une immobilisation en équin protégeant la suture nous a donné des résultats satisfaisants. PMID:26140066

  7. The Role of Prostate Apoptosis Response-4 (Par-4) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infected Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Han, Ji-Ye; Lim, Yun-Ji; Choi, Ji-Ae; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Jo, Sung-Hee; Oh, Sung-Man; Song, Chang-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a tumor suppressor protein that forms a complex with glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) to induce apoptosis. Previously, we reported that ER stress-induced apoptosis is a critical host defense mechanism against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We sought to understand the role of Par-4 during ER stress-induced apoptosis in response to mycobacterial infection. Par-4 and GRP78 protein levels increased in response Mtb (strain: H37Ra) infection. Furthermore, Par-4 and GRP78 translocate to the surface of Mtb H37Ra-infected macrophages and induce apoptosis via caspase activation. NF-κB activation, Mtb-mediated ER stress, and Par-4 production were significantly diminished in macrophages with inhibited ROS production. To test Par-4 function during mycobacterial infection, we analyzed intracellular survival of Mtb H37Ra in macrophages with Par-4 overexpression or knockdown. Mtb H37Ra growth was significantly reduced in Par-4 overexpressing macrophages and increased in knockdown macrophages. We also observed increased Par-4, GRP78, and caspases activation in Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-infected prostate cancer cells. Our data demonstrate that Par-4 is associated with ER stress-induced apoptosis resulting in reduced intracellular survival of mycobacteria. BCG treatment increases Par-4-dependent caspase activation in prostate cancer cells. These results suggest ER stress-induced Par-4 acts as an important defense mechanism against mycobacterial infection and regulates cancer. PMID:27552917

  8. The Role of Prostate Apoptosis Response-4 (Par-4) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infected Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ji-Ye; Lim, Yun-Ji; Choi, Ji-Ae; Lee, Jung-hwan; Jo, Sung-Hee; Oh, Sung-Man; Song, Chang-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a tumor suppressor protein that forms a complex with glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) to induce apoptosis. Previously, we reported that ER stress-induced apoptosis is a critical host defense mechanism against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We sought to understand the role of Par-4 during ER stress-induced apoptosis in response to mycobacterial infection. Par-4 and GRP78 protein levels increased in response Mtb (strain: H37Ra) infection. Furthermore, Par-4 and GRP78 translocate to the surface of Mtb H37Ra-infected macrophages and induce apoptosis via caspase activation. NF-κB activation, Mtb-mediated ER stress, and Par-4 production were significantly diminished in macrophages with inhibited ROS production. To test Par-4 function during mycobacterial infection, we analyzed intracellular survival of Mtb H37Ra in macrophages with Par-4 overexpression or knockdown. Mtb H37Ra growth was significantly reduced in Par-4 overexpressing macrophages and increased in knockdown macrophages. We also observed increased Par-4, GRP78, and caspases activation in Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-infected prostate cancer cells. Our data demonstrate that Par-4 is associated with ER stress-induced apoptosis resulting in reduced intracellular survival of mycobacteria. BCG treatment increases Par-4-dependent caspase activation in prostate cancer cells. These results suggest ER stress-induced Par-4 acts as an important defense mechanism against mycobacterial infection and regulates cancer. PMID:27552917

  9. Is There an "F" in Your PAR? Understanding, Teaching and Doing Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzetti, Liza; Walsh, Christine Ann

    2014-01-01

    Participatory Action Research (PAR) is increasingly recognized within academic research and pedagogy. What are the benefits of including feminism within participatory action research and teaching? In responding to this question, we discuss the similarities and salient differences between PAR and feminist informed PAR (FPAR). There are eight themes…

  10. ParA resolvase catalyzes site-specific excision of DNA from the Arabidopsis genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small serine resolvase ParA from bacterial plasmids RK2 and RP4 catalyzes the recombination of two identical 133 bp recombination sites known as MRS. Previously, we reported that ParA is active in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this work, the parA recombinase gene was placed un...

  11. Detection of suPAR in the Saliva of Healthy Young Adults: Comparison with Plasma Levels

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Anna; Ajeti, Vjosa; Ljunggren, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has been detected in blood, plasma, serum, urine, ovarian cystic fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid. Elevated suPAR levels in plasma have been associated with negative outcomes in various diseases, such as bacteremia, sepsis, SIRS, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and tuberculosis. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether suPAR can be detected in saliva from healthy individuals and thus, if saliva suPAR can be related to plasma suPAR, CRP, BMI, or gender. Blood and unstimulated whole saliva was collected from 20 healthy individuals (10 female and 10 male, median age of 28 years; range 21–41). CRP and suPAR were measured with ELISA in saliva and serum/plasma. suPAR was detected in all saliva samples in the 5.2–28.1 ng/mL range, with a median value of 17.1 ng/mL. Saliva suPAR was significantly higher (P < 0.001) but not correlated to plasma suPAR in healthy young adults with normal plasma suPAR levels. suPAR and CRP levels were correlated in blood but not in saliva. No correlation was found between BMI, age, or gender and suPAR in saliva. PMID:22084570

  12. ParCAT: A Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugen, B.; Smith, B.; Steed, C.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Thornton, P. E.; Shipman, G.

    2012-12-01

    Climate science has employed increasingly complex models and simulations to analyze the past and predict the future of our climate. The size and dimensionality of climate simulation data has been growing with the complexity of the models. This growth in data is creating a widening gap between the data being produced and the tools necessary to analyze large, high dimensional data sets. With single run data sets increasing into 10's, 100's and even 1000's of gigabytes, parallel computing tools are becoming a necessity in order to analyze and compare climate simulation data. The Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT) provides basic tools that efficiently use parallel computing techniques to narrow the gap between data set size and analysis tools. ParCAT was created as a collaborative effort between climate scientists and computer scientists in order to provide efficient parallel implementations of the computing tools that are of use to climate scientists. Some of the basic functionalities included in the toolkit are the ability to compute spatio-temporal means and variances, differences between two runs and histograms of the values in a data set. ParCAT is designed to facilitate the "heavy lifting" that is required for large, multidimensional data sets. The toolkit does not focus on performing the final visualizations and presentation of results but rather, reducing large data sets to smaller, more manageable summaries. The output from ParCAT is provided in commonly used file formats (NetCDF, CSV, ASCII) to allow for simple integration with other tools. The toolkit is currently implemented as a command line utility, but will likely also provide a C library for developers interested in tighter software integration. Elements of the toolkit are already being incorporated into projects such as UV-CDAT and CMDX. There is also an effort underway to implement portions of the CCSM Land Model Diagnostics package using ParCAT in conjunction with Python and gnuplot. Par

  13. Minimally invasive pars approach for foraminal disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Hitchon, Patrick W; Awe, Olatilewa O; Close, Liesl; Sukkarieh, Hamdi G

    2015-07-01

    We present a retrospective cohort study on the outcome of patients with foraminal disc herniations (FDH) treated with partial pars resections using minimally invasive surgery (MIS) through a tube. FDH present a challenge due to the more lateral trajectory needed for their excision and thereby more muscle dissection and possibly facet resection. Forty patients, 19 women and 21 men with a mean age ± standard deviation of 58 ± 12 years, underwent MIS for FDH. Data on length of hospital stay, body mass index and outcomes were collected prospectively and reviewed retrospectively. Average length of stay following surgery was 1 ± 1 days. There was one wound infection and four unsatisfactory results. Using the Macnab score, good to excellent results were achieved in 89% of the patients. Based on these results, MIS surgery with partial pars resection is an attractive option in the treatment of FDH with low morbidity and short hospital stays. PMID:25882259

  14. The Pars Interarticularis Stress Reaction, Spondylolysis, and Spondylolisthesis Progression

    PubMed Central

    Motley, Gina; Nyland, John; Jacobs, Jake; Caborn, David N. M.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To review the classification, etiology, clinical and radiologic evaluation, and management of the pars interarticularis stress reaction, spondylolysis, and spondylolisthesis progression. Data Sources: Grateful Med was searched from 1980 to 1998 using the terms “spondylolysis,” “spondylolisthesis,” “female athlete” “spondylogenic,” and “pars interarticularis.” Data Synthesis: The progression from pars interarticularis stress reaction through spondylolysis to spondylolisthesis is common in adolescent athletes, and, because of hormonal influences and cheerleading and gymnastic maneuvers, females are particularly at risk. Proper diagnosis and management include a thorough evaluation, radiographs (possibly with technetium bone scan or single-photon emission computed tomography), activity modification, dietary counseling, a therapeutic exercise program focusing on proper trunk and hip muscle strength and extensibility balances, and education regarding proper back postures, positioning, lifting mechanics, and jump landings. Conclusions/Recommendations: The athletic trainer plays an integral part in managing this injury progression, particularly with identifying at-risk individuals and intervening appropriately. ImagesFigure 4. PMID:16558534

  15. Prise en charge d’un afflux massif de brûles lors d’une situation de catastrophe par incendie au Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Hatimi, E.M.; Ihrai, H.; Drissi Kamili, N.

    2012-01-01

    Summary La brûlure est l’une des lésions les plus fréquemment rencontrées lors de catastrophes naturelles ou lors de catastrophes d’origine humaine (incendies de lieux publics d’origine accidentelle, ou en temps de guerre ou encore lors d’attentats terroristes). La prise en charge et le triage de brûlés en nombre reste un problème difficile; ceci souligne la nécessité d’une réflexion et de prévisions de ces crises en insistant sur la formation des médecins et des soignants. Les défis à relever sont multiples: les soins aux brûlés requièrent un nombre important de personnel qualifié; les évacuations doivent être planifiées en fonction de la gravité de la brûlure et des lésions associées; les stocks et lots de dotation (en particulier en topiques anti-infectieux et en cristalloïdes) doivent être suffisants et adéquats. Les services hospitaliers de l’Hôpital Militaire d’Instruction Mohammed V de Rabat doivent pouvoir être rapidement adaptés pour accueillir et surtout isoler ces patients. L’hypothèse d’une catastrophe par incendie avec afflux massif de brûlés à l’hôpital militaire d’instruction Mohammed V de Rabat ne doit laisser place à aucune improvisation. PMID:23467075

  16. ParB Partition Proteins: Complex Formation and Spreading at Bacterial and Plasmid Centromeres

    PubMed Central

    Funnell, Barbara E.

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, active partition systems contribute to the faithful segregation of both chromosomes and low-copy-number plasmids. Each system depends on a site-specific DNA binding protein to recognize and assemble a partition complex at a centromere-like site, commonly called parS. Many plasmid, and all chromosomal centromere-binding proteins are dimeric helix-turn-helix DNA binding proteins, which are commonly named ParB. Although the overall sequence conservation among ParBs is not high, the proteins share similar domain and functional organization, and they assemble into similar higher-order complexes. In vivo, ParBs “spread,” that is, DNA binding extends away from the parS site into the surrounding non-specific DNA, a feature that reflects higher-order complex assembly. ParBs bridge and pair DNA at parS and non-specific DNA sites. ParB dimers interact with each other via flexible conformations of an N-terminal region. This review will focus on the properties of the HTH centromere-binding protein, in light of recent experimental evidence and models that are adding to our understanding of how these proteins assemble into large and dynamic partition complexes at and around their specific DNA sites. PMID:27622187

  17. Dynamic Filament Formation by a Divergent Bacterial Actin-Like ParM Protein

    PubMed Central

    Brzoska, Anthony J.; Jensen, Slade O.; Barton, Deborah A.; Davies, Danielle S.; Overall, Robyn L.; Skurray, Ronald A.; Firth, Neville

    2016-01-01

    Actin-like proteins (Alps) are a diverse family of proteins whose genes are abundant in the chromosomes and mobile genetic elements of many bacteria. The low-copy-number staphylococcal multiresistance plasmid pSK41 encodes ParM, an Alp involved in efficient plasmid partitioning. pSK41 ParM has previously been shown to form filaments in vitro that are structurally dissimilar to those formed by other bacterial Alps. The mechanistic implications of these differences are not known. In order to gain insights into the properties and behavior of the pSK41 ParM Alp in vivo, we reconstituted the parMRC system in the ectopic rod-shaped host, E. coli, which is larger and more genetically amenable than the native host, Staphylococcus aureus. Fluorescence microscopy showed a functional fusion protein, ParM-YFP, formed straight filaments in vivo when expressed in isolation. Strikingly, however, in the presence of ParR and parC, ParM-YFP adopted a dramatically different structure, instead forming axial curved filaments. Time-lapse imaging and selective photobleaching experiments revealed that, in the presence of all components of the parMRC system, ParM-YFP filaments were dynamic in nature. Finally, molecular dissection of the parMRC operon revealed that all components of the system are essential for the generation of dynamic filaments. PMID:27310470

  18. ParB Partition Proteins: Complex Formation and Spreading at Bacterial and Plasmid Centromeres.

    PubMed

    Funnell, Barbara E

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, active partition systems contribute to the faithful segregation of both chromosomes and low-copy-number plasmids. Each system depends on a site-specific DNA binding protein to recognize and assemble a partition complex at a centromere-like site, commonly called parS. Many plasmid, and all chromosomal centromere-binding proteins are dimeric helix-turn-helix DNA binding proteins, which are commonly named ParB. Although the overall sequence conservation among ParBs is not high, the proteins share similar domain and functional organization, and they assemble into similar higher-order complexes. In vivo, ParBs "spread," that is, DNA binding extends away from the parS site into the surrounding non-specific DNA, a feature that reflects higher-order complex assembly. ParBs bridge and pair DNA at parS and non-specific DNA sites. ParB dimers interact with each other via flexible conformations of an N-terminal region. This review will focus on the properties of the HTH centromere-binding protein, in light of recent experimental evidence and models that are adding to our understanding of how these proteins assemble into large and dynamic partition complexes at and around their specific DNA sites. PMID:27622187

  19. Structure of the ParM filament at 8.5 Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Gayathri, Pananghat; Fujii, Takashi; Namba, Keiichi; Löwe, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The actin-like protein ParM forms the cytomotive filament of the ParMRC system, a type II plasmid segregation system encoded by Escherichia coli R1 plasmid. We report an 8.5 Å resolution reconstruction of the ParM filament, obtained using cryo-electron microscopy. Fitting of the 3D density reconstruction with monomeric crystal structures of ParM provides insights into dynamic instability of ParM filaments. The structural analysis suggests that a ParM conformation, corresponding to a metastable state, is held within the filament by intrafilament contacts. This filament conformation of ParM can be attained only from the ATP-bound state, and induces a change in conformation of the bound nucleotide. The structural analysis also provides a rationale for the observed stimulation of hydrolysis upon polymerisation into the filament. PMID:23462100

  20. ParA resolvase catalyzes site-specific excision of DNA from the Arabidopsis genome.

    PubMed

    Thomson, James G; Yau, Yuan-Yeu; Blanvillain, Robert; Nunes, Wylla M; Chiniquy, Dawn; Thilmony, Roger; Ow, David W

    2009-04-01

    The small serine resolvase ParA from bacterial plasmids RK2 and RP4 catalyzes the recombination of two identical 133 bp recombination sites known as MRS. Previously, we reported that ParA is active in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this work, the parA recombinase gene was placed under the control of the Arabidopsis OXS3 promoter and introduced into Arabidopsis lines harboring a chromosomally integrated MRS-flanked target. The ParA recombinase excised the MRS-flanked DNA and the excision event was detected in subsequent generations in the absence of ParA, indicating germinal transmission of the excision event. The precise site-specific deletion by the ParA recombination system in planta demonstrates that the ParA recombinase can be used to remove transgenic DNA, such as selectable markers or other introduced transgenes that are no longer desired in the final product. PMID:18704739

  1. Spectral correlation measurements at the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference dip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerrits, T.; Marsili, F.; Verma, V. B.; Shalm, L. K.; Shaw, M.; Mirin, R. P.; Nam, S. W.

    2015-01-01

    We present an efficient tool capable of measuring the spectral correlations between photons emerging from a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer. We show that for our spectrally factorizable spontaneous down-conversion source, the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference visibility decreases as the photons' frequency spread is increased to a maximum of 165 nm. Unfiltered, we obtained a visibility of 92.0 %±0.2 %. The maximum visibility was 97 %±0.2 % after applying filtering. We show that the tool can be useful for the study of spectral correlations that impair high-visibility and high-fidelity multisource interference applications. The nature of this tool also allows for arbitrary post-selective spectral filtering and high-rate multiphoton spectral correlation measurements.

  2. Faut-il continuer à infiltrer le scalp par un anesthésique local pour une craniotomie?

    PubMed Central

    Doumiri, Mouhssine; Motiaa, Youssef; Razine, Rachid; Amor, Morad; Moussaoui, Abdelmajid; Kabbaj, Saad; Maazouzi, Wajdi

    2015-01-01

    'augmentation de la PAM était également significativement plus élevée dans le groupe placebo (96,45± 3,53mmHg vs 94,75± 3,76mmHg) (p = 0,041). Nous n'avons pas noté de troubles de rythme ou d'hypertension artérielle par les solutions adrénalinées à 1/200000. Par contre, six cas d'hypotension artérielle ont été notés (3cas dans chaque groupe) après 2 minutes de l'infiltration et ayant répandu au remplissage par 500 ml de sérum salé 0,9%. Conclusion L'infiltration par la lidocaïne procure une stabilité hémodynamique (PAM et FC) statistiquement significative. Les autres études rapportées dans la littérature et avec un échantillon réduit ont permis de retrouver une différence significative concernant uniquement la PAM et non la fréquence cardiaque. PMID:26759693

  3. Arthrose due au genu varum: traitement par osteotomie tibiale de valgisation

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Abdou Kadri; Lukulunga, Loubet Unyendje; Mahfoud, Mustapha; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Ismail, Farid; Kharmaz, Mohamed; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    clichés nous ont permis de classer l'arthrose du genou selon Ahlbäck. 72,5% des patients, présentaient une arthrose débutante. Le pangonogramme a été réalisé pour mesurer la déviation axiale du génu varum. La déviation angulaire: HKA (angle entre le centre de la tête fémorale et le milieu de la cheville) préopératoire a varié entre 163° et 176°, soit une moyenne de 175,46°. Une correction moyenne de déviation de 11,3° a été réalisée avec des extrêmes de 7 à 19°. Cet angle de correction (DAC) qui variait de 7 à 19° a été supérieur à 15° dans 57,39%s inférieur à 15° chez 38%. 27,4% des patients avaient une déviation angulaire importante avec une arthrose avancée. Après un bilan préopératoire et une planification opératoire 73% des patients ont été opérés sous anesthésie loco-régionale. Pour l'ostéotomie tibiale de fermeture, la voie d'abord a été la voie de Gernez antérolatérale, utilisée chez 56 cas (48,6%), l'ostéotomie tibiale d'ouverture (la voie d'abord était Gernez antéro-médiale) effectuée dans 20 cas (17,3%);et l'ostéotomie curviplane, a été réalisée par une voie d'abord longitudinale médiane dans 39%. Les ostéosynthèses ont été réalisées dans 51 cas (44,3%) par les agrafes de Blount, dans 54 cas (46,9%) par la plaque en T ou en L et dans 11 cas par une plaque en col de cygne. En per-opératoire nous avons enregistré deux (02) cas de fractures du plateau tibial médial, en post-opératoire on a eu 1 cas d'infection superficielle et comme complications tardives une raideur du genou (18,2%) et 3,4% de pseudarthrose, une récidive du génu varum dans 19,1% (n = 22) après 3 années de recul. Les résultats du traitement ont été bons dans 78,4% selon le score HSS. L'OTV sur genu varum a été réalisé chez des patients relativement âgés avec la prédominance du sexe féminin. Les techniques utilisées dépendaient de la préférence du chirurgien. Les résultats sont probants malgré la fr

  4. Détention provisoire des jeunes femmes accusées d'avortement clandestin ou d'infanticide au Sénégal

    PubMed Central

    Soumah, Mohamed Maniboliot; Pemba, Liliane Flore

    2012-01-01

    Introduction L'activité sexuelle chez les jeunes les expose à un accroissement du risque de contracter des grossesses non désirées. Le recours à l'avortement clandestin avec son corollaire de complications peut entrainer le décès de la jeune femme. Avortement et infanticide sont interdits et sanctionnés par la loi sénégalaise. Comment ces jeunes femmes vivent-elles leur détention? Existe-il des alternatives à la détention pour éviter leur désocialisation? Méthodes Cette étude rétrospective portait sur la maison d'arrêt des femmes de Dakar située à Liberté 6, un quartier de Dakar. Nous avons procédé à des entretiens avec des femmes détenues à la maison d'arrêt des femmes de Dakar et suspectées d'infanticide ou d'avortement clandestin. Résultats Les femmes de notre échantillon ont une moyenne d’âge inférieure à 25 ans avec parmi elles une fille mineure de 16 ans. Nous avons trouvé 18,51% de femmes suspectées d'infanticide ou d'avortement. Dans notre étude 50% des femmes sont originaires de la périphérie et de la banlieue de Dakar et presque 44% proviennent des autres régions du pays. La durée moyenne de détention provisoire est de neuf mois. Conclusion Malgré leur qualification distincte dans le code pénal: l'infanticide est un crime et l'avortement un délit, les femmes suspectées d'avoir commis ces actes sont soumises à de longues détentions préventives. PMID:22937189

  5. Is PAR a Good Investment? Understanding the Costs and Benefits of Teacher Peer Assistance and Review Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papay, John P.; Johnson, Susan Moore

    2012-01-01

    Peer Assistance and Review (PAR) is a local labor-management initiative designed to improve teacher quality. In PAR, expert "consulting teachers" mentor, support, and evaluate novice and underperforming veteran teachers. Evaluations under PAR can lead to dismissals. The authors examine the costs and benefits of PAR, both financial and…

  6. Par3 regulates invasion of pancreatic cancer cells via interaction with Tiam1.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xingjun; Wang, Min; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Xin; Shen, Ming; Zhu, Feng; Shi, Chengjian; Xu, Meng; Li, Xu; Peng, Feng; Zhang, Hang; Feng, Yechen; Xie, Yu; Xu, Xiaodong; Jia, Wei; He, Ruizhi; Jiang, Jianxin; Hu, Jun; Tian, Rui; Qin, Renyi

    2016-08-01

    The conserved polarity complex, which comprises partitioning-defective proteins Par3, Par6, and the atypical protein kinase C, affects various cell-polarization events, including assembly of tight junctions. Control of tight junction assembly is closely related to invasion and migration potential. However, as the importance of conserved polarity complexes in regulating pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis is unclear, we investigated their role and mechanism in pancreatic cancers. We first detect that the key protein of the conserved polarity complex finds that only Par3 is down-regulated in pancreatic cancer tissues while Par6 and aPKC show no difference. What is more, Par3 tissues level was significantly and positively associated with patient overall survival. Knocking-down Par3 promotes pancreatic cancer cells invasion and migration. And Par3 requires interaction with Tiam1 to affect tight junction assembly, and then affect invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer cells. Then, we find that tight junction marker protein ZO-1 and claudin-1 are down-regulated in pancreatic cancer tissues. And the relationship of the expression of Par3 and ZO-1 in pancreatic cancer tissue is linear correlation. We establish liver metastasis model of human pancreatic cancer cells in Balb/c nude mice and find that knocking down Par3 promotes invasion and metastasis and disturbs tight junction assembly in vivo. Taken together, these results suggest that the Par3 regulates invasion and metastasis in pancreatic cancers by controlling tight junction assembly. PMID:26084985

  7. An ELISA method detecting the active form of suPAR.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaolei; Xu, Mingming; Huang, Hailong; Mazar, Andrew; Iqbal, Zafar; Yuan, Cai; Huang, Mingdong

    2016-11-01

    Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) exists in a number of formats in human plasma, including soluble uPAR (suPAR) and uPAR fragments. We developed an ELISA method to detect specifically the active form suPAR, which binds to its natural ligand uPA. The intra CV and inter CV of this ELISA assay is 8.5% and 9.6% respectively, and the assay can recover 99.74% of added recombinant suPAR from 10% plasma. This assay is quite sensitive, capable of detecting down to 15pg/ml of suPAR, and can measure suPAR concentrations in the range of 0.031-8ng/ml with high linear relationship. Plasma samples from pregnant women were also measured for the active form of suPAR with this assay, giving an averaged level of 1.39ng/ml, slightly higher than the level of pooled plasma from healthy donors (0.96ng/ml). This study demonstrates the feasibility to measure the active form of suPAR, which will likely have value in clinical applications. PMID:27591605

  8. PAR1 is selectively over expressed in high grade breast cancer patients: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Norma A; Correa, Elma; Avila, Esther P; Vela, Teresa A; Pérez, Víctor M

    2009-01-01

    Background The protease-activated receptor (PAR1) expression is correlated with the degree of invasiveness in cell lines. Nevertheless it has never been directed involved in breast cancer patients progression. The aim of this study was to determine whether PAR1 expression could be used as predictor of metastases and mortality. Methods In a cohort of patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma studied longitudinally since 1996 and until 2007, PAR1 over-expression was assessed by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and flow citometry. Chi-square and log rank tests were used to determine whether there was a statistical association between PAR1 overexpression and metastases, mortality, and survival. Multivariate analysis was performed including HER1, stage, ER and nodes status to evaluate PAR1 as an independent prognostic factor. Results Follow up was 95 months (range: 2–130 months). We assayed PAR1 in a cohort of patients composed of 136 patients; we found PAR1 expression assayed by immunoblotting was selectively associated with high grade patients (50 cases of the study cohort; P = 0.001). Twenty-nine of 50 (58%) patients overexpressed PAR1, and 23 of these (46%) developed metastases. HER1, stage, ER and PAR1 overexpression were robustly correlated (Cox regression, P = 0.002, P = 0.024 and P = 0.002 respectively). Twenty-one of the 50 patients (42%) expressed both receptors (PAR1 and HER1 P = 0.0004). We also found a statistically significant correlation between PAR1 overexpression and increased mortality (P = 0.0001) and development of metastases (P = 0.0009). Conclusion Our data suggest PAR1 overexpression may be involved in the development of metastases in breast cancer patient and is associated with undifferentiated cellular progression of the tumor. Further studies are needed to understand PAR1 mechanism of action and in a near future assay its potential use as risk factor for metastasis development in high grade breast cancer patients. PMID:19538737

  9. Controle sismique d'un batiment en acier de 1 etage par amortisseurs elastomeres et contreventements en Chevron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Olivier

    Actuellement, le principe de dimensionnement a la capacite est fortement utilise dans le domaine du genie parasismique. De maniere simplifiee, cette methode de dimensionnement consiste a dissiper l'energie injectee a une structure lors d'une secousse sismique par la deformation inelastique d'un element structural sacrificiel. Cette methode de dimensionne-ment permet d'obtenir des structures economiques, car cette dissipation d'energie permet de reduire substantiellement les efforts qui se retrouvent a l'interieur de la structure. Or, la consequence de ce dimensionnement est la presence de degats importants a la structure qui suivent a la secousse sismique. Ces degats peuvent engendrer des couts superieurs aux couts d'erection de la structure. Bien entendu, sachant que les secousses sismiques d'importances sont des phenomenes rares, l'ingenieur est pret a accepter ce risque afin de diminuer les couts initiaux de construction. Malgre que cette methode ait permis d'obtenir des constructions economiques et securitaires, il serait interessant de developper un systeme qui permettrait d'obtenir des performances de controle des efforts sismiques comparables a un systeme dimensionne selon un principe de dimensionnement a la capacite sans les consequences negatives de ces systemes. En utilisant les principes d'isolation a la base, il a ete possible de developper un systeme de reprise des forces sismiques (SRFS). qui permet d'obtenir un controle des efforts sismiques concurrentiels tout en gardant une structure completement elastique. Ce systeme consiste u inserer un materiel elastomere entre l'assemblage de la poutre et des contreventements a l'interieur d'un cadre contrevente conventionnel. Cette insertion permet de diminuer substantiellement la rigidite laterale du batiment, ce qui a pour consequence d'augmenter la valeur de la periode fondamentale du batiment dans lequel ces cadres sont inseres. Ce phenomene est appele le saut de periode. Ce saut de periode permet de

  10. Emerging Roles of PAR-1 and PAFR in Melanoma Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Melnikova, Vladislava O.; Villares, Gabriel J.

    2008-01-01

    Melanoma growth, angiogenesis and metastatic progression are strongly promoted by the inflammatory tumor microenvironment due to high levels of cytokine and chemokine secretion by the recruited inflammatory and stromal cells. In addition, platelets and molecular components of procoagulant pathways have been recently emerging as critical players of tumor growth and metastasis. In particular, thrombin, through the activity of its receptor protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), regulates tumor cell adhesion to platelets and endothelial cells, stimulates tumor angiogenesis, and promotes tumor growth and metastasis. Notably, in many tumor types including melanoma, PAR-1 expression directly correlates with their metastatic phenotype and is directly responsible for the expression of interleukin-8, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and integrins. Another proinflammatory receptor–ligand pair, platelet-activating factor (PAF) and its receptor (PAFR), have been shown to act as important modulators of tumor cell adhesion to endothelial cells, angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis. PAF is a bioactive lipid produced by a variety of cells from membrane glycerophospholipids in the same reaction that releases arachidonic acid, and can be secreted by platelets, inflammatory cells, keratinocytes and endothelial cells. We have demonstrated that in metastatic melanoma cells, PAF stimulates the phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) and activating transcription factor 1 (ATF-1), which results in overexpression of MMP-2 and membrane type 1-MMP (membrane type 1-MMP). Since only metastatic melanoma cells overexpress CREB/ATF-1, we propose that metastatic melanoma cells are better equipped than their non-metastatic counterparts to respond to PAF within the tumor microenvironment. The evidence supporting the hypothesis that the two G-protein coupled receptors, PAR-1

  11. Emerging roles of PAR-1 and PAFR in melanoma metastasis.

    PubMed

    Melnikova, Vladislava O; Villares, Gabriel J; Bar-Eli, Menashe

    2008-12-01

    Melanoma growth, angiogenesis and metastatic progression are strongly promoted by the inflammatory tumor microenvironment due to high levels of cytokine and chemokine secretion by the recruited inflammatory and stromal cells. In addition, platelets and molecular components of procoagulant pathways have been recently emerging as critical players of tumor growth and metastasis. In particular, thrombin, through the activity of its receptor protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), regulates tumor cell adhesion to platelets and endothelial cells, stimulates tumor angiogenesis, and promotes tumor growth and metastasis. Notably, in many tumor types including melanoma, PAR-1 expression directly correlates with their metastatic phenotype and is directly responsible for the expression of interleukin-8, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and integrins. Another proinflammatory receptor-ligand pair, platelet-activating factor (PAF) and its receptor (PAFR), have been shown to act as important modulators of tumor cell adhesion to endothelial cells, angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis. PAF is a bioactive lipid produced by a variety of cells from membrane glycerophospholipids in the same reaction that releases arachidonic acid, and can be secreted by platelets, inflammatory cells, keratinocytes and endothelial cells. We have demonstrated that in metastatic melanoma cells, PAF stimulates the phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) and activating transcription factor 1 (ATF-1), which results in overexpression of MMP-2 and membrane type 1-MMP (membrane type 1-MMP). Since only metastatic melanoma cells overexpress CREB/ATF-1, we propose that metastatic melanoma cells are better equipped than their non-metastatic counterparts to respond to PAF within the tumor microenvironment. The evidence supporting the hypothesis that the two G-protein coupled receptors, PAR-1

  12. A systematic computation scheme of PAR-WIG cruising performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Shigenori

    1993-08-01

    A systematic computation scheme is presented for PAR-WIG cruising performance, on a FORTRAN program. It is suitable for implementation on PCs. Effects of many parameters on the transportation efficiency are explored. Two concepts are presented in three views and artist impressions. One is a smallest single-crewman vehicle for experiment, sports, or pleasure. The other is a large vehicle for civil transportation. Both have twin hulls, which are quite suitable for installing a 'SMALL-TAIL-WIG' or 'WIG-let' to establish longitudinal attitude stability.

  13. BOREAS TE-12 Incoming PAR Through the Forest Canopy Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Mesarch, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-12 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on shoot geometry, leaf optical properties, leaf water potential, and leaf gas exchange. The data were collected at the Southern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) site from 04-Jul-1996 to 25-Jul-1996. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  14. Ensemble des troubles causés par l'alcoolisation fœtale : lignes directrices canadiennes concernant le diagnostic

    PubMed Central

    Chudley, Albert E.; Conry, Julianne; Cook, Jocelynn L.; Loock, Christine; Rosales, Ted; LeBlanc, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Résumé LE DIAGNOSTIC DE L'ENSEMBLE DES TROUBLES CAUSÉS PAR L'ALCOOLISATION FÉTALE (ETCAF) est complexe et l'élaboration de lignes directrices concernant le diagnostic est justifiée. Un sous-comité du Comité consultatif national de l'Agence de santé publique du Canada sur l'Ensemble des troubles causés par l'alcoolisation fœtale a examiné, analysé et intégré les méthodes de diagnostic actuelles afin de parvenir à une méthode de diagnostic normalisée faisant le consensus au Canada. L'objet du présent document est d'examiner et de clarifier l'utilisation des systèmes de diagnostic actuels et de formuler des recommandations quant à leur application pour le diagnostic des déficiences liées à l'ETCAF chez des individus de tous les âges. Les lignes directrices sont fondées sur un vaste consensus de praticiens et d'autres intervenants spécialisés dans le domaine. Ces lignes directrices ont été organisées en sept catégories, soit le dépistage et l'orientation vers les spécialistes, l'examen physique et le diagnostic différentiel, l'évaluation du comportement neurologique, le traitement et le suivi, les antécédents de consommation d'alcool de la mère pendant la grossesse, les critères du diagnostic pour le syndrome d'alcoolisation fœtale (SAF), SAF partiel et troubles neurologiques du développement liés à l'alcool, l'harmonisation de l'Institute of Medicine (IOM) et des approches du Code diagnostique à 4 chiffres. Le diagnostic exige une évaluation complète des antécédents, ainsi qu'un examen physique et du comportement neurologique, tout en recourant à une approche multidisciplinaire. Les présentes lignes directrices pour le diagnostic du syndrome d'alcoolisation fœtale et des déficiences qui y sont associées sont les premières à avoir été élaborées au Canada et elles sont fondées sur la consultation d'un grand éventail de spécialistes du diagnostic.

  15. Evaluation du potentiel radiosensibilisateur ou radioprotecteur/antioxydant de quelques composes selectionnes par dosimetrie par gel de polyacrylamide et dosimetre de Fricke, et utilisation de la filamentation par impulsion laser infrarouge fenitoseconde comme un nouveau et puissant faisceau pour la radiotherapie du cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meesat, Ridthee

    In radiation treatment, a sufficiently high radiation dose must be delivered to the tissue volumes containing the tumor cells while the lowest possible dose should be deposited in surrounding healthy tissue. We developed an original approach that is fast and easy to implement for the early assessment of the efficiency of radiation sensitizers and protectors. In addition, we characterized a new femtosecond laser pulse irradiation technique. We are able to deposit a considerable dose with a very high dose rate inside a well-controlled macroscopic volume without deposition of energy in front or behind the target volume. The radioprotective efficiency was measured by irradiation of the Fricke solution incorporating a compound under study and measuring the corresponding production of ferric ions G(Fe3+). The production of ferric ions is most sensitive to the radical species produced in the radiolysis of water. We studied experimentally and simulated with a full Monte-Carlo computer code the radiation-induced chemistry of Fricke/cystamine solutions. Results clearly indicate that the protective effect of cystamine originates from its radical-capturing ability, which allows this compound to compete with the ferrous ions for the various free radicals - especially ·OH radicals and H· atoms - formed during irradiation of the surrounding water. The sensitizing capacity of radiation sensitizers was measured by irradiation of a polyacrylamide gel (PAG) dosimeter incorporating a compound under study and measuring the corresponding increase in the gradient between spin-spin relaxation rate (R2) and absorbed dose. We measured an irradiation energy-dependent increase in R 2-dose sensitivity for halogenated compounds or a decrease for radioprotectors. Finally, we studied a novel laser irradiation method called "filamentation". We showed that this phenomenon results in an unprecedented deposition of energy and the dose rate thus achieved exceeds by orders of magnitude values previously reported for the most intense clinical radiotherapy systems. Moreover, the length of the dose-free entrance region was adjusted by selecting the duration of femtosecond laser pulses. In addition, we provided evidence that the biological damage caused by this irradiation was similar to other ionizing radiation sources. Keywords: Radiotherapy, radiosensitization, radioprotection, laser, filamentation, dosimetry.

  16. Estimating Photosynthetically Available Radiation (PAR) at the Earth's surface from satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frouin, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Current satellite algorithms to estimate photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) at the earth' s surface are reviewed. PAR is deduced either from an insolation estimate or obtained directly from top-of-atmosphere solar radiances. The characteristics of both approaches are contrasted and typical results are presented. The inaccuracies reported, about 10 percent and 6 percent on daily and monthly time scales, respectively, are useful to model oceanic and terrestrial primary productivity. At those time scales variability due to clouds in the ratio of PAR and insolation is reduced, making it possible to deduce PAR directly from insolation climatologies (satellite or other) that are currently available or being produced. Improvements, however, are needed in conditions of broken cloudiness and over ice/snow. If not addressed properly, calibration/validation issues may prevent quantitative use of the PAR estimates in studies of climatic change. The prospects are good for an accurate, long-term climatology of PAR over the globe.

  17. Fluoroquinolone Resistance Mutations in the parC, parE, and gyrA Genes of Clinical Isolates of Viridans Group Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    González, Irene; Georgiou, Marios; Alcaide, Fernando; Balas, Delia; Liñares, Josefina; de la Campa, Adela G.

    1998-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of the parC and gyrA genes from seven ciprofloxacin-resistant (Cpr) isolates of viridans group streptococci (two high-level Cpr Streptococcus oralis and five low-level Cpr Streptococcus mitis isolates) were determined and compared with those obtained from susceptible isolates. The nucleotide sequences of the QRDRs of the parE and gyrB genes from the five low-level Cpr S. mitis isolates and from the NCTC 12261 type strain were also analyzed. Four of these low-level Cpr isolates had changes affecting the subunits of DNA topoisomerase IV: three in Ser-79 (to Phe or Ile) of ParC and one in ParE at a position not previously described to be involved in quinolone resistance (Pro-424). One isolate did not show any mutation. The two high-level Cpr S. oralis isolates showed mutations affecting equivalent residue positions of ParC and GyrA, namely, Ser-79 to Phe and Ser-81 to Phe or Tyr, respectively. The parC mutations were able to transform Streptococcus pneumoniae to ciprofloxacin resistance, while the gyrA mutations transformed S. pneumoniae only when mutations in parC were present. These results suggest that DNA topoisomerase IV is a primary target of ciprofloxacin in viridans group streptococci, DNA gyrase being a secondary target. PMID:9797205

  18. Evaluation des résultats après traitement des lésions intra épithéliales du col utérin par la cryothérapie: étude préliminaire au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Yaoundé: A propos de 21 cas

    PubMed Central

    Ndoua, Claude Cyrille Noa; Tebeu, Pierre Marie; Kemfang, Jean Dupont; Kasia, Jean Marie

    2015-01-01

    Nous rapportons les résultats d'une série de 21 cas de prise en charge par cryothérapie de lésions intra-épithéliales cervicales au Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire (CHU) de Yaoundé. Notre objectif principal était d’évaluer les résultats préliminaires de la prise en charge des lésions précancéreuses éligibles pour la cryothérapie. Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale descriptive qui s'est étalée sur 24 mois. Etaient inclus dans l’étude toutes les femmes traitées par cryothérapie. Nous avons exclu les patientes traitées par une autre méthode, les patientes perdues de vue et les dossiers incomplets. Le statut cervical a été déterminé à 6 semaines, 6 mois et 12 mois. Les complications précoces et tardives ont également été répertoriées. Au total 95.2% des lésions étaient cicatrisées à 6 semaines. A 6 mois, toutes les lésions avaient disparu et au 12ème mois, la guérison était effective chez 95.2% des patientes. Les saignements et l'hydrorrhée étaient les principales complications tardives avec des fréquences respectives de 66.7% et 95.2%. Aucun cas de sténose cervicale n'a été répertorié. La cryothérapie peut être utilisée comme méthode de traitement pour des lésions précancéreuses du col. PMID:26140068

  19. PAR2-dependent activation of GSK3β regulates the survival of colon stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Imen; Bonnet, Delphine; Zwarycz, Bailey; d'Aldebert, Emilie; Khou, Sokchea; Mezghani-Jarraya, Raoudha; Quaranta, Muriel; Rolland, Corinne; Bonnart, Chrystelle; Mas, Emmanuel; Ferrand, Audrey; Cenac, Nicolas; Magness, Scott; Van Landeghem, Laurianne; Vergnolle, Nathalie; Racaud-Sultan, Claire

    2016-08-01

    Protease-activated receptors PAR1 and PAR2 play an important role in the control of epithelial cell proliferation and migration. However, the survival of normal and tumor intestinal stem/progenitor cells promoted by proinflammatory mediators may be critical in oncogenesis. The glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) pathway is overactivated in colon cancer cells and promotes their survival and drug resistance. We thus aimed to determine PAR1 and PAR2 effects on normal and tumor intestinal stem/progenitor cells and whether they involved GSK3β. First, PAR1 and PAR2 were identified in colon stem/progenitor cells by immunofluorescence. In three-dimensional cultures of murine crypt units or single tumor Caco-2 cells, PAR2 activation decreased numbers and size of normal or cancerous spheroids, and PAR2-deficient spheroids showed increased proliferation, indicating that PAR2 represses proliferation. PAR2-stimulated normal cells were more resistant to stress (serum starvation or spheroid passaging), suggesting prosurvival effects of PAR2 Accordingly, active caspase-3 was strongly increased in PAR2-deficient normal spheroids. PAR2 but not PAR1 triggered GSK3β activation through serine-9 dephosphorylation in normal and tumor cells. The PAR2-triggered GSK3β activation implicates an arrestin/PP2A/GSK3β complex that is dependent on the Rho kinase activity. Loss of PAR2 was associated with high levels of GSK3β nonactive form, strengthening the role of PAR2 in GSK3β activation. GSK3 pharmacological inhibition impaired the survival of PAR2-stimulated spheroids and serum-starved cells. Altogether our data identify PAR2/GSK3β as a novel pathway that plays a critical role in the regulation of stem/progenitor cell survival and proliferation in normal colon crypts and colon cancer. PMID:27313176

  20. The polarity protein Par3 regulates APP trafficking and processing through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb.

    PubMed

    Sun, Miao; Asghar, Suwaiba Z; Zhang, Huaye

    2016-09-01

    The processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) into β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is a key step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and trafficking dysregulations of APP and its secretases contribute significantly to altered APP processing. Here we show that the cell polarity protein Par3 plays an important role in APP processing and trafficking. We found that the expression of full length Par3 is significantly decreased in AD patients. Overexpression of Par3 promotes non-amyloidogenic APP processing, while depletion of Par3 induces intracellular accumulation of Aβ. We further show that Par3 functions by regulating APP trafficking. Loss of Par3 decreases surface expression of APP by targeting APP to the late endosome/lysosome pathway. Finally, we show that the effects of Par3 are mediated through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb, and Par3 functions by interfering with the interaction between Numb and APP. Together, our studies show a novel role for Par3 in regulating APP processing and trafficking. PMID:27072891

  1. Common variants in the human platelet PAR4 thrombin receptor alter platelet function and differ by race

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, Leonard C.; Simon, Lukas M.; Lindsay, Cory R.; Kong, Xianguo; Teruel-Montoya, Raúl; Tourdot, Benjamin E.; Chen, Edward S.; Ma, Lin; Coughlin, Shaun; Nieman, Marvin; Holinstat, Michael; Shaw, Chad A.

    2014-01-01

    Human platelets express 2 thrombin receptors: protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR4. Recently, we reported 3.7-fold increased PAR4-mediated aggregation kinetics in platelets from black subjects compared with white subjects. We now show that platelets from blacks (n = 70) express 14% more PAR4 protein than those from whites (n = 84), but this difference is not associated with platelet PAR4 function. Quantitative trait locus analysis identified 3 common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PAR4 gene (F2RL3) associated with PAR4-induced platelet aggregation. Among these single nucleotide polymorphisms, rs773902 determines whether residue 120 in transmembrane domain 2 is an alanine (Ala) or threonine (Thr). Compared with the Ala120 variant, Thr120 was more common in black subjects than in white subjects (63% vs 19%), was associated with higher PAR4-induced human platelet aggregation and Ca2+ flux, and generated greater inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate in transfected cells. A second, less frequent F2RL3 variant, Phe296Val, was only observed in blacks and abolished the enhanced PAR4-induced platelet aggregation and 1,4,5-triphosphate generation associated with PAR4-Thr120. PAR4 genotype did not affect vorapaxar inhibition of platelet PAR1 function, but a strong pharmacogenetic effect was observed with the PAR4-specific antagonist YD-3 [1-benzyl-3(ethoxycarbonylphenyl)-indazole]. These findings may have an important pharmacogenetic effect on the development of new PAR antagonists. PMID:25293779

  2. Nonlinear optical effects and Hong-Ou-Mandel interference in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirza, Imran M.; van Enk, Steven J.

    Pure quantum interference among single photons is one of the key ingredients to perform linear optics quantum computation (LOQC). The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference (HOMI) [C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, (18), 2044-2046 (1987)] i.e. complete destructive interference between two identical and indistinguishable photons simultaneously entering input ports of a 50/50 beam splitter, is a well-known example in this context. In this talk, I'll present our theoretical study of HOMI in a coupled Jaynes-Cummings array. In particular and by applying quantum jump/trajectory formalism, I'll focus on how partial quantum interference between two photons survive both non-linearities produced by two-level emitter and spectral filtering due to optical cavities in our coupled cavity array setup [Imran M. Mirza and Steven J. van Enk, Opt. Comm. 343, 172-177 (2015)]. Along with LOQC, this work is crucial from the perspective of exploiting coupled cavity arrays to store single photons reliably (without altering their temporal and spectral traits) [Imran M. Mirza, Steven J. van Enk and Jeff Kimble, JOSA B, 10, 2640-2649, (2013)].

  3. Water quality assessment of a highly polluted Mediterranean River - Oued Fez (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, J.-L.; Bellarbi, M.; Raïs, N.; Chahinian, N.; Moulin, P.; Ijjaali, M.

    2012-04-01

    In the South of the Mediterranean basin, many rivers are characterized by an alternation of very long dry periods only cut by short flood events. Currently, the socio-economical development of these zones is limited by water scarcity and poor quality of the water resources. Indeed human activities, generally concentrated in overpopulated cities, generate large quantity of domestic and industrial effluents which are directly rejected in the environment without any treatment. In Morocco, the well known city of Fez illustrates perfectly this situation, observed in most developing countries. The oued Fez receives continuously the non-treated domestic and industrial effluents (90.000 m3/day) of the city and pollutes all the downstream water bodies. Indeed, it is a tributary of the Sebou River, a major body of great economical importance used for irrigation and freshwater supply. This study aims at characterising and quantifying the pollutant concentrations and fluxes in various points of oued Fez's hydrological network and assessing its impact on the Sebou River; this river's preservation being considered a national priority in Morocco. A coupled water quality-water quantity monitoring scheme has been implemented on oued Fez since 2008. In addition to basic hydrological data, water quality samples are collected at regular intervals at 8 locations where discharge is simultaneously measured using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). Water samples are analysed for different forms of nitrogen (nitrates, nitrites, ammonium and total nitrogen), phosphorus (soluble reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus) but also total chromium which is used in the leather tanning processes, one of the most important industrial production of the city of Fez, using a photospectrometer (Hach Lange DR 2800 VIS-photometer (Germany). The results of 17 sampling campaigns, carried out over 3 hydrological years, indicate that the rural areas contribute mostly to baseflow during the wet

  4. Le pronostic statural après une pseudo-puberté précoce par déficit en 11ß hydroxylase chez une fille de 7 ans: à propos d'un cas avec revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Latrech, Hanane; Gaouzi, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    L'hyperplasie congénitale des surrénales par déficit en 11ß hydroxylase se voit dans 5 à 10% des cas et est diagnostiquée, habituellement, devant des signes de virilisation d'un nouveau né ou d'un fœtus 46 XX et plus tard devant une HTA avec une hypokaliémie. Le pronostic de taille chez ces patients est très souvent compromis. Nous rapportons le cas d'un déficit en 11ß hydroxylase chez une enfant âgée de 7 ans révélé par une pseudo- puberté précoce traitée par hydrocortisone. La survenue d'une puberté précoce centrale complique encore plus la situation par la mise en jeu du pronostic de taille finale et nécessitant une prise en charge thérapeutique particulière. PMID:26113905

  5. Maladie de Horton révélée par une dyspnée

    PubMed Central

    Mahfoudhi, Madiha; Mamlouk, Habiba; Turki, Sami; Kheder, Adel

    2015-01-01

    Les manifestations pleuro-pulmonaires de la maladie de Horton sont rares et peu connues. Elles peuvent être inaugurales, à l'origine d'un retard à la prise en charge si elles sont méconnues. Il s'agissait d'un patient âgé de 75 ans, admis pour une dyspnée, une toux chronique et une fièvre. Il a reçu une antibiothérapie et a bénéficié d'une fibroscopie bronchique avec lavage broncho-alvéolaire à la recherche d'un germe, qui a révélé plutôt, une alvéolite lymphocytaire. L’évolution était marquée par la persistance des signes cliniques et du syndrome inflammatoire biologique. Un angio-scanner thoracique et une échographie cardiaque étaient sans anomalies. Une origine cardiaque, musculaire, hématologique, néoplasique, vasculaire ou métabolique de la dyspnée a été éliminée. Une maladie de Horton a été évoquée. La biopsie de l'artère temporale a confirmé le diagnostic d'une maladie de Horton. L’évolution sous corticothérapie était marquée par la disparition des signes cliniques et biologiques. Les manifestations pleuro-pulmonaires au cours de la maladie de Horton sont rares, et classiquement, rarement révélatrices de la maladie. La dyspnée peut initialement égarer le diagnostic vers d'autres étiologies notamment infectieuses. Le but de ce travail est d'insister sur le fait que la connaissance de ces différentes manifestations respiratoires au cours de la maladie de Horton (toux persistante, dyspnée, épanchement pleural) est utile au clinicien afin de prescrire une corticothérapie, chez un sujet le plus souvent âgé ayant un état fébrile et inflammatoire prolongé, permettant ainsi d’éviter l'apparition de complications. PMID:26161171

  6. Activation of protease-activated receptors (PARs)-1 and -2 promotes alpha-smooth muscle actin expression and release of cytokines from human lung fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Asokananthan, Nithiananthan; Lan, Rommel S; Graham, Peter T; Bakker, Anthony J; Tokanović, Ana; Stewart, Geoffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that protease-activated receptors (PARs) play an important role in various physiological processes. In the present investigation, we determined the expression of PARs on human lung fibroblasts (HLF-1) and whether they were involved in cellular differentiation and pro-inflammatory cytokine and prostaglandin (PGE2) secretion. PAR-1, PAR-2, PAR-3, and PAR-4 were detected in fibroblasts using RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry. Increased expression of PAR-4, but not other PARs, was observed in fibroblasts stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate. The archetypical activators of PARs, namely, thrombin and trypsin, as well as PAR-1 and PAR-2 agonist peptides, stimulated transient increases in intracellular Ca2+, and promoted increased α-smooth muscle actin expression. The proteolytic and peptidic PAR activators also stimulated the release of IL-6 and IL-8, as well as PGE2, with a rank order of potency of PAR-1 > PAR-2. The combined stimulation of PAR-1 and PAR-2 resulted in an additive release of both IL-6 and IL-8. In contrast, PAR-3 and PAR-4 agonist peptides, as well as all the PAR control peptides examined, were inactive. These results suggest an important role for PARs associated with fibroblasts in the modulation of inflammation and remodeling in the airway. PMID:25663523

  7. Secreted uPAR isoform 2 (uPAR7b) is a novel direct target of miR-221.

    PubMed

    Falkenberg, Natalie; Anastasov, Nataša; Schaub, Annalisa; Radulovic, Vanja; Schmitt, Manfred; Magdolen, Viktor; Aubele, Michaela

    2015-04-10

    miR-221/-222 and components of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator system (uPAS) are associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in breast cancer, including the triple-negative subtype (TNBC). Modification of components of uPAS and involved miRNAs may contribute to targeted therapy for breast cancer patients. miR-221-/-222-overexpressing or miR-221-depleted cells were employed for qRT-PCR and Western blots to show associations of uPAR with miR-221/-222. To substantiate direct targeting of miR-221/-222 within 3' UTR of the uPAR isoform 2, in silico analysesand in vitro assays were conducted. Significant associations between miR-221 and uPAR isoform 2 expressions were observed at the mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer cells representing TNBC. For the first time, the uPAR isoform 2 was demonstrated as direct target for miR-221/-222. Inhibition of miR-221 reduced uPAR protein expression and expression of the tumor cell invasion markers vimentin and RHOC. These results demonstrate a direct and positive regulation of the secreted uPAR isoform 2 by miR-221, increasing its protein expression, a prerequisite for malignancy, while the other uPAR isoforms (1, 3 and 4) are indirectly regulated through miR-10b and miR-221/-222. By targeting uPAR isoforms and/or miRNA-221/-222, the diagnosis and therapy of breast cancer, in particular in TNBC, could be significantly improved. PMID:25797271

  8. Résultats de la chirurgie avancée de la cataracte par tunnélisation: à propos de 262 cas réalisés au CHR de Banfora (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Djiguimdé, Pierre Windinmanégdé; Diomandé, Ibrahim Abib; Ahnoux-Zabsonré, Ahgbatouhabéba; Koffi, Konan Virgile; Meda, Tierinyê Armand; Diomandé, Gossé François; Sanou, Jerôme; Meda-Hien, Gertude; Sankara, Paté; Meda, Nonfounikoun

    2015-01-01

    La cataracte demeure la première cause de cécité dans les pays en voie de développement posant un problème de santé publique. Le but de cette étude est de faire le bilan d'une activité de chirurgie avancée de la cataracte par la technique dite de « phacoalternative » ou par tunnélisation. Il s'agissait d'une étude prospective de base réalisée au Burkina Faso portant sur la chirurgie de la cataracte par la technique de tunnélisation. L’âge moyen de nos patients atteints de cataracte était de 62,47 ± 12,77 ans avec un sex-ratio de 0,98. La majorité des patients opérés (82,82%) étaient des cultivateurs et des ménagères. L'acuité visuelle de loin était réduite à la perception lumineuse dans 68,70% des cas. La profondeur moyenne de la chambre antérieure était de 2,98 ± 0,53 mm. L’épaisseur moyenne du cristallin était de 3,55 ± 0,75 mm. La longueur axiale moyenne de l’œil de nos patients opérés de la cataracte était de 22,88 ± 0,90 mm. La puissance réfractive moyenne estimée de la cornée était de 43,21 ± 2,03 dioptries chez nos patients. La puissance moyenne estimée de l'implant intra oculaire (IOL) utilisé était de23,11 ± 2,35D. La majorité (79,6%) de nos patients avait une bonne acuité visuelle après la chirurgie de la cataracte par tunnélisation. La chirurgie de la cataracte par tunnélisation est une technique révolutionnaire adaptée aux pays pauvres d'Afrique. Elle permet une lutte efficace à moindre coût contre la cécité par cataracte dans nos régions. La tunnélisation est une technique chirurgicale adaptée pour lutter efficacement contre la cécité due à la cataracte en Afrique. PMID:27022426

  9. Poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) Binding to Apoptosis-Inducing Factor Is Critical For PAR Polymerase-1-Dependent Cell Death (Parthanatos)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingfei; Kim, No Soo; Haince, Jean-Francois; Kang, HoChul; David, Karen K.; Andrabi, Shaida A.; Poirier, Guy G.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrial protein apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) plays a pivotal role in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1)-mediated cell death (parthanatos), during which it is released from the mitochondria and translocates to the nucleus. Here, we show that AIF is a high affinity poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)–binding protein and that PAR binding to AIF is required for parthanatos both in vitro and in vivo. AIF bound PAR at a site distinct from AIF’s DNA binding site and this interaction triggered AIF release from the cytosolic side of the mitochondrial outer membrane. Mutation of the PAR binding site in AIF did not affect its NADH oxidase activity, its ability to bind FAD or DNA, or its ability to induce nuclear condensation. However, this AIF mutant was not released from mitochondria and did not translocate to the nucleus or mediate cell death following PARP-1 activation. These results suggest a mechanism for PARP-1 to initiate AIF-mediated cell death and indicate that AIF’s bioenergetic cell survival-promoting functions are separate from its effects as a mitochondrially-derived death effector. Interference with the PAR-AIF interaction or PAR signaling may provide unique opportunities for preventing cell death following activation of PARP-1. PMID:21467298

  10. Clinical outcomes of pars plicata anterior vitrectomy: 2-year results

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Priya; Agarwal, Amar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the safety and outcome of a surgical approach that uses pars plicata site for anterior vitrectomy during phacoemulsification procedure complicated by posterior capsule rupture and residual cortical matter. Design: Single center, retrospective, interventional, noncomparative study. Materials and Methods: Medical records of a consecutive series of 35 eyes of 35 patients who underwent pars plicata anterior vitrectomy (PPAV) were reviewed. The main outcome measures were corrected and uncorrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, UDVA), early and late postoperative complications and intraocular pressure (IOP). Ultrasound biomicroscopic (UBM) evaluation of sclerotomy site and spectral domain optical coherence tomography analysis for central macular thickness (CMT) was performed. The final visual outcome at 2 years was evaluated. Results: At 2 years follow-up, the mean postoperative UDVA (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR]) and CDVA (logMAR) was 0.49 ± 0.26 and 0.19 ± 0.14, respectively. There was no significant change in the IOP (P = 0.061) and the mean CMT at 2 years was 192.5 ± 5.54 μm. The postoperative UBM image of the sclerotomy site at 8 weeks demonstrated a clear wound without any vitreous adhesion or incarceration. Intraoperative hyphema was seen in 1 (2.8%) case and postoperative uveitis was seen in 2 (5.7%) cases, which resolved with medications. No case of an iatrogenic retinal break or retinal detachment was reported. Conclusions: PPAV enables a closed chamber approach, allows thorough cleanup of vitreous in the pupillary plane and anterior chamber and affords better access to the subincisional and retropupillary cortical remnant with a significant visual outcome and an acceptable complication rate. PMID:26632124

  11. Targeting Melanoma Growth and Metastasis with Systemic Delivery of Liposomal Incorporated PAR-1 siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Villares, Gabriel J.; Zigler, Maya; Wang, Hua; Melnikova, Vladislava O.; Wu, Hong; Friedman, Ran; Leslie, Michael C.; Vivas-Mejia, Pablo E.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Sood, Anil K.; Bar-Eli, Menashe

    2008-01-01

    The thrombin receptor (PAR-1, Protease-Activated-Receptor-1) is over-expressed in highly metastatic melanoma cell lines and in patients with metastatic lesions. Activation of PAR-1 leads to cell signaling and upregulation of genes involved in adhesion, invasion and angiogenesis. Herein, we stably silence PAR-1 through the use of lentiviral shRNA and found significant decreases in both tumor growth (P<.01) and metastasis (P<.001) of highly metastatic melanoma cell lines in vivo. The use of viruses for therapy is not ideal as it can induce toxic immune responses and possible gene alterations following viral integration. Therefore, we also utilized systemic delivery of PAR-1 siRNA incorporated into neutral liposomes (DOPC) to decrease melanoma growth and metastasis in vivo. Significant decreases in tumor growth, weight and metastatic lung colonies (P<.001 for all) were found in mice treated with PAR-1-siRNA-DOPC. The in vivo effects of PAR-1 on invasion and angiogenesis were analyzed via immunohistochemistry. Concomitant decreases in VEGF, IL-8, and MMP-2 expression levels, as well as decreased blood-vessel density (CD31), were found in tumor samples from PAR-1 siRNA-treated mice, suggesting that PAR-1 is a regulator of melanoma cell growth and metastasis by affecting angiogenic and invasive factors. We propose that siRNA incorporated into DOPC nanoparticles could be delivered systemically and used as a new modality for melanoma treatment. PMID:18974154

  12. 12 CFR 925.19 - Par value and price of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Par value and price of stock. 925.19 Section 925.19 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MEMBERS AND HOUSING ASSOCIATES MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.19 Par value and price of stock. The capital...

  13. Solar PAR and UVR modify the community composition and photosynthetic activity of sea ice algae.

    PubMed

    Enberg, Sara; Piiparinen, Jonna; Majaneva, Markus; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Autio, Riitta; Rintala, Janne-Markus

    2015-10-01

    The effects of increased photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on species diversity, biomass and photosynthetic activity were studied in fast ice algal communities. The experimental set-up consisted of nine 1.44 m(2) squares with three treatments: untreated with natural snow cover (UNT), snow-free (PAR + UVR) and snow-free ice covered with a UV screen (PAR). The total algal biomass, dominated by diatoms and dinoflagellates, increased in all treatments during the experiment. However, the smaller biomass growth in the top 10-cm layer of the PAR + UVR treatment compared with the PAR treatment indicated the negative effect of UVR. Scrippsiella complex (mainly Scrippsiella hangoei, Biecheleria baltica and Gymnodinium corollarium) showed UV sensitivity in the top 5-cm layer, whereas Heterocapsa arctica ssp. frigida and green algae showed sensitivity to both PAR and UVR. The photosynthetic activity was highest in the top 5-cm layer of the PAR treatment, where the biomass of the pennate diatom Nitzschia frigida increased, indicating the UV sensitivity of this species. This study shows that UVR is one of the controlling factors of algal communities in Baltic Sea ice, and that increased availability of PAR together with UVR exclusion can cause changes in algal biomass, photosynthetic activity and community composition. PMID:26310455

  14. The parA resolvase performs site-specific genomic excision in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have designed a site-specific excision detection system in Arabidopsis to study the in planta activity of the small serine recombinase ParA. Using a transient expression assay as well as stable transgenic plant lines, we show that the ParA recombinase is catalytically active and capable of perfo...

  15. The tumor suppressor Par-4 activates an extrinsic pathway for apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Burikhanov, Ravshan; Zhao, Yanming; Goswami, Anindya; Qiu, Shirley; Schwarze, Steven R; Rangnekar, Vivek M

    2009-07-23

    Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a proapoptotic protein with intracellular functions in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Unexpectedly, we noted Par-4 protein is spontaneously secreted by normal and cancer cells in culture, and by Par-4 transgenic mice that are resistant to spontaneous tumors. Short exposure to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducing agents further increased cellular secretion of Par-4 by a brefeldin A-sensitive pathway. Secretion occurred independently of caspase activation and apoptosis. Interestingly, extracellular Par-4 induced apoptosis by binding to the stress response protein, glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP78), expressed at the surface of cancer cells. The interaction of extracellular Par-4 and cell surface GRP78 led to apoptosis via ER stress and activation of the FADD/caspase-8/caspase-3 pathway. Moreover, apoptosis inducible by TRAIL, which also exerts cancer cell-specific effects, is dependent on extracellular Par-4 signaling via cell surface GRP78. Thus, Par-4 activates an extrinsic pathway involving cell surface GRP78 receptor for induction of apoptosis. PMID:19632185

  16. Questioning Our Questions: Assessing Question Asking Practices to Evaluate a yPAR Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Sarah; Langhout, Regina Day

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine question asking practices in a youth participatory action research (yPAR) after school program housed at an elementary school. The research question was: In which ways did the adult question asking practices in a yPAR setting challenge and/or reproduce conventional models of power in educational…

  17. Participatory Action Research (PAR) cum Action Research (AR) in Teacher Professional Development: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Marie Paz E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews Participatory Action Research as an approach to teacher professional development. It maps the origins of Participatory Action Research (PAR) and discusses the benefits and challenges that have been identified by other researchers in utilizing PAR approaches in conducting research. It draws ideas of combining the features of…

  18. Manual for the Use of the Pupil Activities Record--Revised (PAR-R).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligon, Glynn; And Others

    A comprehensive guide for observers using the Pupil Activities Record--Revised (PAR-R), this manual covers procedures followed in systematic observation of a student's classroom activities for the period of one instructional day. The manual provides general information about the purpose and design of the PAR and explains the revisions, which were…

  19. Contribution à la modélisation du soudage TIG des tôles minces d'acier austénitique 304L par un modèle source bi-elliptique, avec confrontation expérimentale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aissani, M.; Maza, H.; Belkessa, B.; Maamache, B.

    2005-05-01

    Ce travail contribue dans la modélisation du phénomène du soudage de l'acier inoxydable Austénitique 304L, afin d'étudier le comportement thermique d'un joint de soudure, obtenu par le procédé de soudage à l'arc électrique TIG (Tungsten-Inert-Gas). Le modèle simulant la source d'énergie de soudage, utilise une distribution surfacique Gaussienne du flux de chaleur provenant de l'arc électrique. La forme de cette source est supposée circulaire pour un premier cas et de forme bi-elliptique pour un second cas, tout en procédant à l'évaluation des champs et cycles thermiques à chaque instant, pour déterminer l'étendu des zones à risque, et l'effet de la vitesse de soudage sur ces dernières. Permettant ainsi de remonter par la suite, aux problèmes de contraintes résiduelles et déformations générées dans l'assemblage soudé. L'équation de chaleur régissant le problème est discrétisée par la méthode des volumes finis. Les calculs sont effectués en considérant que les propriétés physiques et thermiques ainsi que les conditions aux limites de convection et rayonnement, sont dépendante de la température. Pour évaluer la précision du modèle, une comparaison avec des mesures expérimentales de température d'un essai de soudage a été effectuée, les résultats indiquent un bon accord.

  20. Compression Myelopathy due to Proliferative Changes around C2 Pars Defects without Instability.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tetsuya; Sakai, Toshinori; Tezuka, Fumitake; Abe, Mitsunobu; Yamashita, Kazuta; Takata, Yoichiro; Higashino, Kosaku; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-06-01

    We report a case with compression myelopathy due to proliferative changes around the C2 pars defects without instability. A 69-year-old man presented with progressive clumsy hands and spastic gait. Plain radiographs showed bilateral spondylolysis (pars defects) at C2 and fusion between C2 and C3 spinous processes. Dynamic views revealed mobility through the pars defects, but there was no apparent instability. Computed tomography showed proliferative changes at the pars defects, which protruded into spinal canal. On magnetic resonance imaging, the spinal cord was compressed and intramedullary high signal change was found. A diagnosis of compression myelopathy due to proliferative changes around the C2 pars defects was made. We performed posterior decompression. Postoperatively, symptoms have been alleviated and images revealed sufficient decompression and no apparent instability. In patients with the cervical spondylolysis, myelopathy caused by instability or slippage have been periodically reported. The present case involving C2 spondylolysis is extremely rare. PMID:27340539

  1. Compression Myelopathy due to Proliferative Changes around C2 Pars Defects without Instability

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Tetsuya; Tezuka, Fumitake; Abe, Mitsunobu; Yamashita, Kazuta; Takata, Yoichiro; Higashino, Kosaku; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    We report a case with compression myelopathy due to proliferative changes around the C2 pars defects without instability. A 69-year-old man presented with progressive clumsy hands and spastic gait. Plain radiographs showed bilateral spondylolysis (pars defects) at C2 and fusion between C2 and C3 spinous processes. Dynamic views revealed mobility through the pars defects, but there was no apparent instability. Computed tomography showed proliferative changes at the pars defects, which protruded into spinal canal. On magnetic resonance imaging, the spinal cord was compressed and intramedullary high signal change was found. A diagnosis of compression myelopathy due to proliferative changes around the C2 pars defects was made. We performed posterior decompression. Postoperatively, symptoms have been alleviated and images revealed sufficient decompression and no apparent instability. In patients with the cervical spondylolysis, myelopathy caused by instability or slippage have been periodically reported. The present case involving C2 spondylolysis is extremely rare. PMID:27340539

  2. Interactions between the hydrology and hydrochemistry of an intermittent southern Mediterranean River- Oued Fez (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, J.-L.; Bellarbi, M.; Chahinian, N.; Raïs, N.; Moulin, P.; Ijjaali, M.

    2012-04-01

    Mediterranean catchments are often characterized by highly variable rainfall inputs and intermittent flows. In comparison to the existing knowledge on their hydrological behaviour, the interactions between flow conditions and pollution levels remain less documented. This study aims at filling that gap through a case study on Oued Fez (Morocco). Oued Fez is an intermittent river located in central-eastern Morocco. It has a 615 km2 catchment 10% of which corresponds to the city of Fez, the 3rd biggest in the kingdom (1.2 M inhabitants). Oued Fes is a tributary of the Sebou River, a major body of great economical importance used for irrigation and freshwater supply. A coupled water quality-water quantity monitoring scheme has been implemented on Oued Fez since 2008. In addition to basic hydrological data, water quality samples are collected at regular intervals at 8 locations where discharge is simultaneously measured using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). Water samples are analysed for different forms of nitrogen (nitrates, nitrites, ammonium and total nitrogen) and phosphorus (soluble reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus) using a photospectrometer (Hach Lange DR 2800 VIS-photometer (Germany). The results of the study indicate that, despite variations in annual rainfall, the catchment's hydrological response is controlled by the urban impervious zones during floods. The rural areas contribute mostly to baseflow during the wet period while non-treated anthropogenic inputs constitute most of the flow during the dry period. This in turn affects the water quality results. Indeed: - during low flow conditions the pollution levels are very high and total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations reach 45 mg/l N and 6.5 mg/l P respectively at the most polluted sites. - during average and high flow conditions the pollution levels decrease due to dilution. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations reach 32 mg/l N and 3.5 mg/l P respectively with

  3. Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment for temporal investigation of single-electron fractionalization

    PubMed Central

    Freulon, V.; Marguerite, A.; Berroir, J.-M.; Plaçais, B.; Cavanna, A.; Jin, Y.; Fève, G.

    2015-01-01

    Coulomb interaction has a striking effect on electronic propagation in one-dimensional conductors. The interaction of an elementary excitation with neighbouring conductors favours the emergence of collective modes, which eventually leads to the destruction of the Landau quasiparticle. In this process, an injected electron tends to fractionalize into separated pulses carrying a fraction of the electron charge. Here we use two-particle interferences in the electronic analogue of the Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment in a quantum Hall conductor at filling factor 2 to probe the fate of a single electron emitted in the outer edge channel and interacting with the inner one. By studying both channels, we analyse the propagation of the single electron and the generation of interaction-induced collective excitations in the inner channel. These complementary pieces of information reveal the fractionalization process in the time domain and establish its relevance for the destruction of the quasiparticle, which degrades into the collective modes. PMID:25896625

  4. Hong-Ou-Mandel atom interferometry in tunnel-coupled optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, Brian; Kaufman, Adam; Reynolds, Collin; Wall, Michael; Foss-Feig, Michael; Hazzard, Kaden; Rey, Ana Maria; Regal, Cindy

    2014-05-01

    We present recent work in which we demonstrate near-complete control over all the internal and external degrees of freedom of laser-cooled 87Rb atoms trapped in sub-micron optical tweezers. Utilizing this control for two atoms in two optical tweezers, we implement a massive-particle analog of the Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer where atom tunneling plays the role of the photon beamsplitter. The interferometer is used to probe the effect of atomic indistinguishability on the two-atom dynamics for a variety of initial conditions. These experiments demonstrate the viability of the optical tweezer platform for bottom-up generation of low-entropy quantum systems and pave the way toward the direct observation of quantum dynamics in more complex finite-sized systems.

  5. Measurement of photon indistinguishability to a quantifiable uncertainty using a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Peter J.; Cheung, Jessica Y.; Chunnilall, Christopher J.; Dunn, Malcolm H.

    2010-04-10

    We present a method for using the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference technique to quantify photon indistinguishability within an associated uncertainty. The method allows the relative importance of various experimental factors affecting the HOM visibility to be identified, and enables the actual indistinguishability, with an associated uncertainty, to be estimated from experimentally measured quantities. A measurement equation has been derived that accounts for the non-ideal performance of the interferometer. The origin of each term of the equation is explained, along with procedures for their experimental evaluation and uncertainty estimation. These uncertainties are combined to give an overall uncertainty for the derived photon indistinguishability. The analysis was applied to measurements from an interferometer sourced with photon pairs from a parametric downconversion process. The measured photon indistinguishably was found to be 0.954+/-0.036 by using the prescribed method.

  6. Interactions and Charge Fractionalization in an Electronic Hong-Ou-Mandel Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Claire; Rech, Jérôme; Jonckheere, Thibaut; Martin, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    We consider an electronic analog of the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interferometer, where two single electrons travel along opposite chiral edge states and collide at a quantum point contact. Studying the current noise, we show that because of interactions between copropagating edge states, the degree of indistinguishability between the two electron wave packets is dramatically reduced, leading to reduced contrast for the HOM signal. This decoherence phenomenon strongly depends on the energy resolution of the packets. Insofar as interactions cause charge fractionalization, we show that charge and neutral modes interfere with each other, leading to satellite dips or peaks in the current noise. Our calculations explain recent experimental results [E. Bocquillon, et al., Science 339, 1054 (2013)] where an electronic HOM signal with reduced contrast was observed.

  7. Multiparticle Correlations in Mesoscopic Scattering: Boson Sampling, Birthday Paradox, and Hong-Ou-Mandel Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbina, Juan-Diego; Kuipers, Jack; Matsumoto, Sho; Hummel, Quirin; Richter, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    The interplay between single-particle interference and quantum indistinguishability leads to signature correlations in many-body scattering. We uncover these with a semiclassical calculation of the transmission probabilities through mesoscopic cavities for systems of noninteracting particles. For chaotic cavities we provide the universal form of the first two moments of the transmission probabilities over ensembles of random unitary matrices, including weak localization and dephasing effects. If the incoming many-body state consists of two macroscopically occupied wave packets, their time delay drives a quantum-classical transition along a boundary determined by the bosonic birthday paradox. Mesoscopic chaotic scattering of Bose-Einstein condensates is, then, a realistic candidate to build a boson sampler and to observe the macroscopic Hong-Ou-Mandel effect.

  8. Laser cooling atoms to indistinguishability: Atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and entanglement through spin exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Adam

    2016-05-01

    Motional control of neutral atoms has a rich history and increasingly interest has turned to single-atom control. In my thesis work, we created a platform to individually prepare single bosonic atoms in highly pure quantum states, by developing methods to laser cool single atoms to the vibrational ground state of optical tweezer traps. Applying this toolset, we observe the atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel effect when we arrange for atom tunneling to play the role of a balanced beam splitter between two optical tweezers. In another experiment, we utilize spin exchange to create entanglement, which we then verify after spatially separating the atoms to observe their non-local correlations. Merging these results with our recent demonstration of deterministic loading of atomic arrays, our results establish the concept of quantum gas assembly, which could be applied to a variety of systems ranging from the production of single dipolar molecules to the assembly of low-entropy arrays of atoms.

  9. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of two phonons in trapped ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Kenji; Hiji, Ryoto; Noguchi, Atsushi; Urabe, Shinji

    2015-11-01

    The quantum statistics of bosons and fermions manifest themselves in the manner in which two indistinguishable particles interfere quantum mechanically. When two photons, which are bosonic particles, enter a beam-splitter with one photon in each input port, they bunch together at either of the two output ports. The corresponding disappearance of the coincidence count is the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect. Here we show the phonon counterpart of this effect in a system of trapped-ion phonons, which are collective excitations derived by quantizing vibrational motions that obey Bose-Einstein statistics. We realize a beam-splitter transformation of the phonons by employing the mutual Coulomb repulsion between ions, and perform a two-phonon quantum interference experiment using that transformation. We observe an almost perfect disappearance of the phonon coincidence between two ion sites, confirming that phonons can be considered indistinguishable bosonic particles. The two-particle interference demonstrated here is purely a quantum effect, without a classical counterpart, hence it should be possible to demonstrate the existence of entanglement on this basis. We attempt to generate an entangled state of phonons at the centre of the Hong-Ou-Mandel dip in the coincidence temporal profile, under the assumption that the entangled phonon state is successfully generated if the fidelity of the analysis pulses is taken into account adequately. Two-phonon interference, as demonstrated here, proves the bosonic nature of phonons in a trapped-ion system. It opens the way to establishing phonon modes as carriers of quantum information in their own right, and could have implications for the quantum simulation of bosonic particles and analogue quantum computation via boson sampling.

  10. Prévalence de l'hépatite B chez les personnes infectées par le VIH à Parakou au Bénin

    PubMed Central

    Dovonou, Comlan Albert; Amidou, Salimanou Ariyoh; Kpangon, Amadohoué Arsène; Traoré, Yacoubou Adam; Godjedo, Togbemabou Primous Martial; Satondji, Assongba Joseph; Wachinou, Ablo Prudence; Issa-Djibril, Fatioulaye Mahamadi; Fourn, Léonard; Zannou, Djimon Marcel; Gandaho, Prosper

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La co-infection avec l'hépatite B est l'un des défis majeurs de la prise en charge du VIH depuis l'amélioration de l'accès aux antirétroviraux en Afrique. La présente étude visait à estimer la prévalence de l'hépatite B chez les personnes séropositives au VIH à Parakou et décrire les facteurs associés. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude transversale menée de Mai 2011 à Juin 2012 dans le service de Médecine du CHU de Parakou. Ont été inclus tous les adultes séropositifs au VIH vus en consultation ou hospitalisés. Les données ont été collectées par interviews et dépouillement de dossiers médicaux. L'antigène HBs a été recherché par un test rapide et l'ALAT a été dosé. L'analyse des données a été faite avec le logiciel EpiInfo 3.5.1. Les proportions ont été comparées grâce au test de Chi-deux ou au test de Fisher au seuil de significativité de 5%. Un modèle de régression logistique multivariable a permis d'expliquer la prévalence de l'hépatite B. Résultats Sur les 744 sujets inclus on a dénombré 555 femmes. L’âge moyen était de 35,5 + 10,1 ans. La prévalence de l'hépatite B a été estimée à 16,9% (IC95: 14,3%-19,9%). Cette prévalence était plus élevée chez les sujets originaires du Borgou/Alibori et ceux au stade 4 de l'OMS. Conclusion La prévalence de la co-infection VIH/VHB au CHU Parakou est élevée. Le dispositif national de prise en charge et de prévention de l'hépatite B chez les personnes séropositives au VIH doit être renforcé. PMID:26097629

  11. La prise en charge des troubles de santé mentale par les omnipraticiens du Québec

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Farand, Lambert; Aubé, Denise; Imboua, Armelle

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Cette recherche vise à documenter la prise en charge des troubles mentaux (TM) par les omnipraticiens. Type d’étude Il s’agit d’une étude mixte intégrant un questionnaire auto-administré et des entrevues qualitatives. La banque de données administratives des actes médicaux de la Régie de l’assurance maladie du Québec a aussi été analysée. Contexte La province de Québec. Participants Un total de 1415 omnipraticiens de différents lieux de pratiques ont été sollicités pour le questionnaire; 970 ont été rejoints. Un sous-groupe de 60 omnipraticiens a été rejoint pour les entrevues. Principaux paramètres à l'étude La prévalence annuelle des consultations reliées à des TM courants (TMC) ou graves (TMG), les pratiques cliniques, les pratiques de collaboration, les facteurs facilitant ou entravant la prise en charge des TM, ainsi que les recommandations pour l’amélioration du système de soins. Résultats Le taux de réponse a été de 41% (n = 398 omnipraticiens) pour le questionnaire et de 63% (n = 60) pour les entrevues. Environ 25 % des visites chez les omnipraticiens sont associées à des TM. Presque tous les omnipraticiens prennent en charge des TMC et se sentent compétents pour le faire, à l’inverse de la situation retrouvée pour les TMG. Près de 20 % des TMC sont référés (principalement à des intervenants psychosociaux), alors que près de 75 % des TMG sont référés (surtout en psychiatrie et à l’urgence). Plus de 50 % des omnipraticiens affirment n’entretenir aucun contact avec l’une ou l’autre des ressources de santé mentale. Plusieurs facteurs influencent la prise en charge des TM: les profils des patients (complexité des TM, troubles concomitants); les caractéristiques des omnipraticiens (réseau informel, formation); la culture professionnelle (travail en silo, mécanismes cliniques formalisés); le milieu institutionnel (multidisciplinarité, salariat); l’organisation des

  12. Profiling Gene Expression Induced by Protease-Activated Receptor 2 (PAR2) Activation in Human Kidney Cells

    PubMed Central

    Suen, Jacky Y.; Gardiner, Brooke; Grimmond, Sean; Fairlie, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Protease-Activated Receptor-2 (PAR2) has been implicated through genetic knockout mice with cytokine regulation and arthritis development. Many studies have associated PAR2 with inflammatory conditions (arthritis, airways inflammation, IBD) and key events in tumor progression (angiogenesis, metastasis), but they have relied heavily on the use of single agonists to identify physiological roles for PAR2. However such probes are now known not to be highly selective for PAR2, and thus precisely what PAR2 does and what mechanisms of downstream regulation are truly affected remain obscure. Effects of PAR2 activation on gene expression in Human Embryonic Kidney cells (HEK293), a commonly studied cell line in PAR2 research, were investigated here by comparing 19,000 human genes for intersecting up- or down-regulation by both trypsin (an endogenous protease that activates PAR2) and a PAR2 activating hexapeptide (2f-LIGRLO-NH2). Among 2,500 human genes regulated similarly by both agonists, there were clear associations between PAR2 activation and cellular metabolism (1,000 genes), the cell cycle, the MAPK pathway, HDAC and sirtuin enzymes, inflammatory cytokines, and anti-complement function. PAR-2 activation up-regulated four genes more than 5 fold (DUSP6, WWOX, AREG, SERPINB2) and down-regulated another six genes more than 3 fold (TXNIP, RARG, ITGB4, CTSD, MSC and TM4SF15). Both PAR2 and PAR1 activation resulted in up-regulated expression of several genes (CD44, FOSL1, TNFRSF12A, RAB3A, COPEB, CORO1C, THBS1, SDC4) known to be important in cancer. This is the first widespread profiling of specific activation of PAR2 and provides a valuable platform for better understanding key mechanistic roles of PAR2 in human physiology. Results clearly support the development of both antagonists and agonists of human PAR2 as potential disease modifying therapeutic agents. PMID:21072196

  13. The different origins of magnetic fields and activity in the Hertzsprung gap stars, OU Andromedae and 31 Comae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, A.; Aurière, M.; Petit, P.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Charbonnel, C.; Drake, N. A.

    2016-06-01

    Context. When crossing the Hertzsprung gap, intermediate-mass stars develop a convective envelope. Fast rotators on the main sequence, or Ap star descendants, are expected to become magnetic active subgiants during this evolutionary phase. Aims: We compare the surface magnetic fields and activity indicators of two active, fast rotating red giants with similar masses and spectral class but different rotation rates - OU And (Prot = 24.2 d) and 31 Com (Prot = 6.8 d) - to address the question of the origin of their magnetism and high activity. Methods: Observations were carried out with the Narval spectropolarimeter in 2008 and 2013. We used the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique to extract Stokes V and I profiles with high signal-to-noise ratio to detect Zeeman signatures of the magnetic field of the stars. We then provide Zeeman-Doppler imaging (ZDI), activity indicators monitoring, and a precise estimation of stellar parameters. We use state-of-the-art stellar evolutionary models, including rotation, to infer the evolutionary status of our giants, as well as their initial rotation velocity on the main sequence, and we interpret our observational results in the light of the theoretical Rossby numbers. Results: The detected magnetic field of OU Andromedae (OU And) is a strong one. Its longitudinal component Bl reaches 40 G and presents an about sinusoidal variation with reversal of the polarity. The magnetic topology of OU And is dominated by large-scale elements and is mainly poloidal with an important dipole component, as well as a significant toroidal component. The detected magnetic field of 31 Comae (31 Com) is weaker, with a magnetic map showing a more complex field geometry, and poloidal and toroidal components of equal contributions. The evolutionary models show that the progenitors of OU And and 31 Com must have been rotating at velocities that correspond to 30 and 53%, respectively, of their critical rotation velocity on the zero age main sequence

  14. Modelisation numerique et validation experimentale d'un systeme de protection contre le givre par elements piezoelectriques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Derek

    Le degivrage au moyen d'actuateurs piezoelectriques est considere comme une avenue prometteuse pour le developpement de systemes a faible consommation d'energie applicables aux helicopteres legers. Ce type de systeme excite des frequences de resonances d'une structure pour produire des deformations suffisantes pour rompre l'adherence de la glace. Par contre, la conception de tel systeme demeure generalement mal comprise. Ce projet de maitrise etudie l'utilisation de methodes numeriques pour assister la conception des systemes de protection contre le givre a base d'elements piezoelectriques. La methodologie retenue pour ce projet a ete de modeliser differentes structures simples et de simuler l'excitation harmonique des frequences de resonance au moyen d'actuateurs piezoelectriques. Le calcul des frequences de resonances ainsi que la simulation de leur excitation a ensuite ete validee a l'aide de montages experimentaux. La procedure a ete realisee pour une poutre en porte-a-faux et pour une plaque plane a l'aide du logiciel de calcul par elements finis, Abaqus. De plus, le modele de la plaque plane a ete utilise afin de realiser une etude parametrique portant sur le positionnement des actuateurs, l'effet de la rigidite ainsi que de l'epaisseur de la plaque. Finalement, la plaque plane a ete degivree en chambre climatique. Des cas de degivrage ont ete simules numeriquement afin d'etudier la possibilite d'utiliser un critere base sur la deformation pour predire le succes du systeme. La validation experimentale a confirme la capacite du logiciel a calculer precisement a la fois les frequences et les modes de resonance d'une structure et a simuler leur excitation par des actuateurs piezoelectriques. L'etude revele que la definition de l'amortissement dans le modele numerique est essentiel pour l'obtention de resultats precis. Les resultats de l'etude parametrique ont demontre l'importance de minimiser l'epaisseur et la rigidite afin de reduire la valeur des frequences

  15. The 14-3-3 protein PAR-5 regulates the asymmetric localization of the LET-99 spindle positioning protein.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jui-Ching; Espiritu, Eugenel B; Rose, Lesilee S

    2016-04-15

    PAR proteins play important roles in establishing cytoplasmic polarity as well as regulating spindle positioning during asymmetric division. However, the molecular mechanisms by which the PAR proteins generate asymmetry in different cell types are still being elucidated. Previous studies in Caenorhabditis elegans revealed that PAR-3 and PAR-1 regulate the asymmetric localization of LET-99, which in turn controls spindle positioning by affecting the distribution of the conserved force generating complex. In wild-type embryos, LET-99 is localized in a lateral cortical band pattern, via inhibition at the anterior by PAR-3 and at the posterior by PAR-1. In this report, we show that the 14-3-3 protein PAR-5 is also required for cortical LET-99 asymmetry. PAR-5 associated with LET-99 in pull-down assays, and two PAR-5 binding sites were identified in LET-99 using the yeast two-hybrid assay. Mutation of these sites abolished binding in yeast and altered LET-99 localization in vivo: LET-99 was present at the highest levels at the posterior pole of the embryo instead of a band in par-5 embryos. Together the results indicate that PAR-5 acts in a mechanism with PAR-1 to regulate LET-99 cortical localization. PMID:26921457

  16. Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) – focus on receptor-receptor-interactions and their physiological and pathophysiological impact

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with four members, PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, playing critical functions in hemostasis, thrombosis, embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation and cancer progression. PARs are characterized by a unique activation mechanism involving receptor cleavage by different proteinases at specific sites within the extracellular amino-terminus and the exposure of amino-terminal “tethered ligand“ domains that bind to and activate the cleaved receptors. After activation, the PAR family members are able to stimulate complex intracellular signalling networks via classical G protein-mediated pathways and beta-arrestin signalling. In addition, different receptor crosstalk mechanisms critically contribute to a high diversity of PAR signal transduction and receptor-trafficking processes that result in multiple physiological effects. In this review, we summarize current information about PAR-initiated physical and functional receptor interactions and their physiological and pathological roles. We focus especially on PAR homo- and heterodimerization, transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and receptor serine/threonine kinases (RSTKs), communication with other GPCRs, toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors, ion channel receptors, and on PAR association with cargo receptors. In addition, we discuss the suitability of these receptor interaction mechanisms as targets for modulating PAR signalling in disease. PMID:24215724

  17. Spectrometrie de resines par essais d'impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, R. H.

    1991-12-01

    éthodes se complètent. Elles évitent tout échauffement du milieu. Elles viennent combler une lacune entre les méthodes vibratoires et ultrasonores en fournissant leurs résultats dans une bande de fréquence de une et demi à deux décades dans la gamme des fréquences audibles, 20Hz-20kHz.

  18. CERCLA interim action at the Par Pond unit: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, H.M.; Matthews, S.S.; Neal, L.W.; Weiss, W.R.

    1993-11-01

    The Par Pond unit designated under CERCLA consists of sediments within a Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling water reservoir. The sediments are contaminated with radionuclides and nonradioactive constituents from nuclear production reactor operations. The mercury in Par Pond is believed to have originated from the Savannah River. Because of Par Pond Dam safety Issues, the water level of the reservoir was drawn down, exposing more than 1300 acres of contaminated sediments and triggering the need for CERCLA interim remedial action. This paper presents the interim action approach taken with Par Pond as a case study. The approach considered the complexity of the Par Pond ecosystem, the large size of Par Pond, the volume of contaminated sediments, and the institutional controls existing at SRS. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers units with large volumes of low-concentration wastes, as is the case with Par Pond, to be {open_quotes}special sites.{close_quotes} Accordingly, EPA guidance establishes that the range of alternatives developed focus primarily on containment options and other remedial approaches that mitigate potential risks associated with the {open_quotes}special site.{close_quotes} The remedial alternatives, according to EPA, are not to be prohibitively expensive or difficult to implement. This case study also is representative of the types of issues that will need to be addressed within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex as nuclear facilities are transitioned to inactive status and corrective/remedial actions are warranted.

  19. Improved Satellite-based Photosysnthetically Active Radiation (PAR) for Air Quality Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pour Biazar, A.; McNider, R. T.; Cohan, D. S.; White, A.; Zhang, R.; Dornblaser, B.; Doty, K.; Wu, Y.; Estes, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    One of the challenges in understanding the air quality over forested regions has been the uncertainties in estimating the biogenic hydrocarbon emissions. Biogenic volatile organic compounds, BVOCs, play a critical role in atmospheric chemistry, particularly in ozone and particulate matter (PM) formation. In southeastern United States, BVOCs (mostly as isoprene) are the dominant summertime source of reactive hydrocarbon. Despite significant efforts in improving BVOC estimates, the errors in emission inventories remain a concern. Since BVOC emissions are particularly sensitive to the available photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), model errors in PAR result in large errors in emission estimates. Thus, utilization of satellite observations to estimate PAR can help in reducing emission uncertainties. Satellite-based PAR estimates rely on the technique used to derive insolation from satellite visible brightness measurements. In this study we evaluate several insolation products against surface pyranometer observations and offer a bias correction to generate a more accurate PAR product. The improved PAR product is then used in biogenic emission estimates. The improved biogenic emission estimates are compared to the emission inventories over Texas and used in air quality simulation over the period of August-September 2013 (NASA's Discover-AQ field campaign). A series of sensitivity simulations will be performed and evaluated against Discover-AQ observations to test the impact of satellite-derived PAR on air quality simulations.

  20. PAR-1, -4, and the mTOR Pathway Following Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lekic, Tim; Krafft, Paul R; Klebe, Damon; Flores, Jerry; Rolland, William B; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2016-01-01

    Germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) is the most common cause of neurological complications of prematurity and has lasting implications. PAR-1 and PAR-4 receptors are involved with upstream signaling pathways following brain hemorrhage in adult models of stroke, of which the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a potential downstream mediator. Therefore, we hypothesized a role for PAR-1, -4/ mTOR signaling following GMH brain injury. Postnatal day 7 Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to GMH through stereotactic infusion of collagenase into the right ganglionic eminence. Rodents were euthanized at 72 h (short term), or 4 weeks (long term). Short-term mTOR expression was evaluated by Western blot in the context of PAR-1 (SCH-79797) and PAR-4 (P4pal10) inhibition. Pups in the long-term group were administered the selective mTOR inhibitor (rapamycin) with neurobehavioral and brain pathological examinations performed at 4 weeks. Pharmacological PAR-1, -4 antagonism normalized the increased mTOR expression following GMH. Early inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin improved long-term outcomes in rats. Mammalian-TOR signaling plays an important role in brain injury following neonatal GMH, possibly involving upstream PAR-1, -4 mechanisms. PMID:26463951

  1. Cathepsin S Signals via PAR2 and Generates a Novel Tethered Ligand Receptor Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Ethan A.

    2014-01-01

    Protease-activated receptor-2 is widely expressed in mammalian epithelial, immune and neural tissues. Cleavage of PAR2 by serine proteases leads to self-activation of the receptor by the tethered ligand SLIGRL. The contribution of other classes of proteases to PAR activation has not been studied in detail. Cathepsin S is a widely expressed cysteine protease that is upregulated in inflammatory conditions. It has been suggested that cathepsin S activates PAR2. However, cathepsin S activation of PAR2 has not been demonstrated directly nor has the potential mechanism of activation been identified. We show that cathepsin S cleaves near the N-terminus of PAR2 to expose a novel tethered ligand, KVDGTS. The hexapeptide KVDGTS generates downstream signaling events specific to PAR2 but is weaker than SLIGRL. Mutation of the cathepsin S cleavage site prevents receptor activation by the protease while KVDGTS retains activity. In conclusion, the range of actions previously ascribed to cysteine cathepsins in general, and cathepsin S in particular, should be expanded to include molecular signaling. Such signaling may link together observations that had been attributed previously to PAR2 or cathepsin S individually. These interactions may contribute to inflammation. PMID:24964046

  2. Quinolone-resistant mutants of escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase IV parC gene.

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Y; Kato, J I; Hoshino, K; Akasaka, T; Sato, K; Ikeda, H

    1996-01-01

    Escherichia coli quinolone-resistant strains with mutations of the parC gene, which codes for a subunit of topoisomerase IV, were isolated from a quinolone-resistant gyrA mutant of DNA gyrase. Quinolone-resistant parC mutants were also identified among the quinolone-resistant clinical strains. The parC mutants became susceptible to quinolones by introduction of a parC+ plasmid. Introduction of the multicopy plasmids carrying the quinolone-resistant parC mutant gene resulted in an increase in MICs of quinolones for the parC+ and quinolone-resistant gyrA strain. Nucleotide sequences of the quinolone-resistant parC mutant genes were determined, and missense mutations at position Gly-78, Ser-80, or Glu-84, corresponding to those in the quinolone-resistance-determining region of DNA gyrase, were identified. These results indicate that topoisomerase IV is a target of quinolones in E. coli and suggest that the susceptibility of E. coli cells to quinolones is determined by sensitivity of the targets, DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. PMID:8851598

  3. Par-4/NF-κB Mediates the Apoptosis of Islet β Cells Induced by Glucolipotoxicity.

    PubMed

    QiNan, Wu; XiaGuang, Gan; XiaoTian, Lei; WuQuan, Deng; Ling, Zhang; Bing, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis of islet β cells is a primary pathogenic feature of type 2 diabetes, and ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play important roles in this process. Previous research has shown that prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4)/NF-κB induces cancer cell apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the mechanism by which Par-4/NF-κB induces islet β cell apoptosis remains unknown. We used a high glucose/palmitate intervention to mimic type 2 diabetes in vitro. We demonstrated that the high glucose/palmitate intervention induced the expression and secretion of Par-4. It also causes increased expression and activation of NF-κB, which induced NIT-1 cell apoptosis and dysfunction. Overexpression of Par-4 potentiates these effects, whereas downregulation of Par-4 attenuates them. Inhibition of NF-κB inhibited the Par-4-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, these effects occurred through the ER stress cell membrane and mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Our findings reveal a novel role for Par-4/NF-κB in islet β cell apoptosis and type 2 diabetes. PMID:27340675

  4. Par3A is dispensable for the function of the glomerular filtration barrier of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Sybille; Tellkamp, Frederik; Niessen, Carien M; Bloch, Wilhelm; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Schermer, Bernhard; Benzing, Thomas; Brinkkoetter, Paul T

    2016-07-01

    Polarity signaling through the atypical PKC (aPKC)-Par polarity complex is essential for the development and maintenance of the podocyte architecture and the function of the glomerular filtration barrier of the kidney. To study the contribution of Par3A in this complex, we generated a novel Pard3 podocyte-specific knockout mouse model by targeting exon 6 of the Pard3 gene. Genetic deletion of Pard3a did not impair renal function, neither at birth nor later in life. Even challenging the animals did not result in glomerular disease. Despite its well-established role in aPKC-mediated signaling, Par3A appears to be dispensable for the function of the glomerular filtration barrier. Moreover, its homolog Pard3b, and not Pard3a, is the dominant Par3 gene expressed in podocytes and found at the basis of the slit diaphragm, where it partially colocalizes with podocin. In conclusion, Par3A function is either dispensable for slit diaphragm integrity, or compensatory mechanisms and a high redundancy of the different polarity proteins, including Par3B, Lgl, or PALS1, maintain the function of the glomerular filtration barrier, even in the absence of Par3A. PMID:27122542

  5. Evidence for a DNA-relay mechanism in ParABS-mediated chromosome segregation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hoong Chuin; Surovtsev, Ivan Vladimirovich; Beltran, Bruno Gabriel; Huang, Fang; Bewersdorf, Jörg; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The widely conserved ParABS system plays a major role in bacterial chromosome segregation. How the components of this system work together to generate translocation force and directional motion remains uncertain. Here, we combine biochemical approaches, quantitative imaging and mathematical modeling to examine the mechanism by which ParA drives the translocation of the ParB/parS partition complex in Caulobacter crescentus. Our experiments, together with simulations grounded on experimentally-determined biochemical and cellular parameters, suggest a novel 'DNA-relay' mechanism in which the chromosome plays a mechanical function. In this model, DNA-bound ParA-ATP dimers serve as transient tethers that harness the elastic dynamics of the chromosome to relay the partition complex from one DNA region to another across a ParA-ATP dimer gradient. Since ParA-like proteins are implicated in the partitioning of various cytoplasmic cargos, the conservation of their DNA-binding activity suggests that the DNA-relay mechanism may be a general form of intracellular transport in bacteria. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02758.001 PMID:24859756

  6. Par-4/NF-κB Mediates the Apoptosis of Islet β Cells Induced by Glucolipotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    QiNan, Wu; XiaGuang, Gan; XiaoTian, Lei; WuQuan, Deng; Ling, Zhang; Bing, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis of islet β cells is a primary pathogenic feature of type 2 diabetes, and ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play important roles in this process. Previous research has shown that prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4)/NF-κB induces cancer cell apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the mechanism by which Par-4/NF-κB induces islet β cell apoptosis remains unknown. We used a high glucose/palmitate intervention to mimic type 2 diabetes in vitro. We demonstrated that the high glucose/palmitate intervention induced the expression and secretion of Par-4. It also causes increased expression and activation of NF-κB, which induced NIT-1 cell apoptosis and dysfunction. Overexpression of Par-4 potentiates these effects, whereas downregulation of Par-4 attenuates them. Inhibition of NF-κB inhibited the Par-4-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, these effects occurred through the ER stress cell membrane and mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Our findings reveal a novel role for Par-4/NF-κB in islet β cell apoptosis and type 2 diabetes. PMID:27340675

  7. Epidémiologie et prise en charge des infections du per-partum à la maternité du centre hospitalier départemental de l'Ouémé-Plateau au Bénin

    PubMed Central

    Saizonou, Jacques; Ouédraogo, Laurent; Paraiso, Moussiliou Noël; Ayélo, Paul; Kpozèhouen, Alphonse; Daraté, René; Traoré, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Introduction La présente étude avait pour objectif de mesurer l'ampleur des infections du per-partum à la maternité du Centre Hospitalier Départemental de l'Ouémé-Plateau d'analyser les conditions de survenue et de prise en charge dans la perspective de l'amélioration des soins et services maternels et néonataux. Méthodes Une étude descriptive et analytique a été conduite de Août 2009 à Février 2010 et a impliqué 110 mères victimes d'infections du per-partum; elles ont été soumises à un questionnaire durant tout leur séjour hospitalier; des observations des pratiques de prise en charge des prestataires de soins ont été menées et des registres et autres supports de données sanitaires ont été exploités. L'analyse des données a été effectuée à l'aide du logiciel Epi Info 6.4 dans sa version française. Résultats L'incidence des infections du per-partum était de 5,9 pour 100 accouchements (110/ 1875); les types d'infections les plus incriminés étaient les endométrites (27,3%), les chorioamniotites (18,2%), les infections du site opératoire (12,7%) et les infections urinaires (2,7%). Les examens cliniques ont été relativement acceptables. En revanche, les examens biologiques ont été très insuffisants expliquant l'imprécision importante au niveau des diagnostics. L'antibiothérapie a été instaurée systématiquement. Le taux de mortinaissance était de 25,6% et les enfants de petit poids représentaient 23,2%. Conclusion L'incidence des infections du per-partum dans la présente étude était assez élevée. Des efforts de préventions et de dépistage de ces infections sont nécessaire afin d'améliorer la qualité des soins PMID:25120854

  8. KSHV-Mediated Regulation of Par3 and SNAIL Contributes to B-Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jha, Hem C; Sun, Zhiguo; Upadhyay, Santosh K; El-Naccache, Darine W; Singh, Rajnish K; Sahu, Sushil K; Robertson, Erle S

    2016-07-01

    Studies have suggested that Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and transformation is an important step in progression to cancer. Par3 (partitioning-defective protein) is a crucial factor in regulating epithelial cell polarity. However, the mechanism by which the latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA) encoded by Kaposi's Sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) regulates Par3 and EMTs markers (Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition) during viral-mediated B-cell oncogenesis has not been fully explored. Moreover, several studies have demonstrated a crucial role for EMT markers during B-cell malignancies. In this study, we demonstrate that Par3 is significantly up-regulated in KSHV-infected primary B-cells. Further, Par3 interacted with LANA in KSHV positive and LANA expressing cells which led to translocation of Par3 from the cell periphery to a predominantly nuclear signal. Par3 knockdown led to reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptotic induction. Levels of SNAIL was elevated, and E-cadherin was reduced in the presence of LANA or Par3. Interestingly, KSHV infection in primary B-cells led to enhancement of SNAIL and down-regulation of E-cadherin in a temporal manner. Importantly, knockdown of SNAIL, a major EMT regulator, in KSHV cells resulted in reduced expression of LANA, Par3, and enhanced E-cadherin. Also, SNAIL bound to the promoter region of p21 and can regulate its activity. Further a SNAIL inhibitor diminished NF-kB signaling through upregulation of Caspase3 in KSHV positive cells in vitro. This was also supported by upregulation of SNAIL and Par3 in BC-3 transplanted NOD-SCID mice which has potential as a therapeutic target for KSHV-associated B-cell lymphomas. PMID:27463802

  9. KSHV-Mediated Regulation of Par3 and SNAIL Contributes to B-Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Hem C.; Sun, Zhiguo; Upadhyay, Santosh K.; El-Naccache, Darine W.; Singh, Rajnish K.; Sahu, Sushil K.; Robertson, Erle S.

    2016-01-01

    Studies have suggested that Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and transformation is an important step in progression to cancer. Par3 (partitioning-defective protein) is a crucial factor in regulating epithelial cell polarity. However, the mechanism by which the latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA) encoded by Kaposi's Sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) regulates Par3 and EMTs markers (Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition) during viral-mediated B-cell oncogenesis has not been fully explored. Moreover, several studies have demonstrated a crucial role for EMT markers during B-cell malignancies. In this study, we demonstrate that Par3 is significantly up-regulated in KSHV-infected primary B-cells. Further, Par3 interacted with LANA in KSHV positive and LANA expressing cells which led to translocation of Par3 from the cell periphery to a predominantly nuclear signal. Par3 knockdown led to reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptotic induction. Levels of SNAIL was elevated, and E-cadherin was reduced in the presence of LANA or Par3. Interestingly, KSHV infection in primary B-cells led to enhancement of SNAIL and down-regulation of E-cadherin in a temporal manner. Importantly, knockdown of SNAIL, a major EMT regulator, in KSHV cells resulted in reduced expression of LANA, Par3, and enhanced E-cadherin. Also, SNAIL bound to the promoter region of p21 and can regulate its activity. Further a SNAIL inhibitor diminished NF-kB signaling through upregulation of Caspase3 in KSHV positive cells in vitro. This was also supported by upregulation of SNAIL and Par3 in BC-3 transplanted NOD-SCID mice which has potential as a therapeutic target for KSHV-associated B-cell lymphomas. PMID:27463802

  10. PAR-2 elicits afferent arteriolar vasodilation by NO-dependent and NO-independent actions.

    PubMed

    Trottier, Greg; Hollenberg, Morley; Wang, Xuemei; Gui, Yu; Loutzenhiser, Kathy; Loutzenhiser, Rodger

    2002-05-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are a novel class of G protein-coupled receptors that respond to signals through endogenous proteinases. PAR activation involves enzymatic cleavage of the extracellular NH(2)-terminal domain and unmasking of a new NH(2) terminus, which serves as an anchored ligand to activate the receptor. At least four PAR subtypes have been identified. In the present study, we used the in vitro perfused hydronephrotic rat kidney to examine the effects of activating PAR-2 on the afferent arteriole. The synthetic peptide SLIGRL-NH(2), which corresponds to the exposed ligand sequence and selectively activates PAR-2, did not alter basal afferent arteriolar diameter but caused a concentration-dependent vasodilation (3-30 microM) of arterioles preconstricted by angiotensin II (0.1 nM). A modified peptide sequence (LSIGRL-NH(2), inactive at PAR-2) had no effect. This vasodilation was characterized by an initial transient component followed by a smaller sustained response. A similar pattern of vasodilation was seen when SLIGRL-NH(2) was administered to isolated perfused normal rat kidney. The sustained component of the PAR-2-induced afferent arteriolar vasodilation was eliminated by nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibition (100 microM nitro-L-arginine methyl ester). In contrast, the transient vasodilation persisted under these conditions. This transient response was not observed when afferent arterioles were preconstricted with elevated KCl, suggesting involvement of an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor. Finally, RT-PCR revealed the presence of PAR-2 mRNA in isolated afferent arterioles. These findings indicate that PAR-2 is expressed in the afferent arteriole and that its activation elicits afferent arteriolar vasodilation by NO-dependent and NO-independent mechanisms. PMID:11934700

  11. Par-complex aPKC and Par3 cross-talk with innate immunity NF-κB pathway in epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Forteza, Radia; Wald, Flavia A.; Mashukova, Anastasia; Kozhekbaeva, Zhanna; Salas, Pedro J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Components of the Par-complex, atypical PKC and Par3, have been found to be downregulated upon activation of NF-κB in intestinal epithelial cells. To determine their possible role in pro-inflammatory responses we transduced Caco-2 human colon carcinoma cells with constitutively active (ca) PKCι or anti-Par3 shRNA-expressing lentiviral particles. Contrary to previous reports in other cell types, ca-PKCι did not activate, but rather decreased, baseline NF-κB activity in a luminiscence reporter assay. An identical observation applied to a PB1 domain deletion PKCι, which fails to localize to the tight-junction. Conversely, as expected, the same ca-PKCι activated NF-κB in non-polarized HEK293 cells. Likewise, knockdown of Par3 increased NF-κB activity and, surprisingly, greatly enhanced its response to TNFα, as shown by transcription of IL-8, GRO-1, GRO-2 and GRO-3. We conclude that aPKC and Par3 are inhibitors of the canonical NF-κB activation pathway, although perhaps acting through independent pathways, and may be involved in pro-inflammatory responses. PMID:24244864

  12. Aspergillus fumigatus Endophthalmitis with Necrotizing Scleritis following Pars Plana Vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Felicity; Graham, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of Aspergillus fumigatus endophthalmitis complicated by necrotizing scleritis in a 68-year-old man with diet-controlled diabetes, after retinal detachment repair. He was initially treated with systemic steroids for surgically induced necrotizing scleritis following routine pars plana vitrectomy. An additional diagnosis of endophthalmitis was made when the patient developed a hypopyon. Repeat vitreous culture isolated Aspergillus fumigatus. Symptoms improved following antifungal treatment leaving the patient with scleromalacia and an advanced postoperative cataract. Fungal scleritis and endophthalmitis are rare complications of intraocular surgery with sight-threatening consequences, and, as this case demonstrates, may even occur concomitantly. The overlapping features of both conditions can make differentiating one from the other difficult. A fungal aetiology should be considered in cases of postoperative scleritis and endophthalmitis that are protracted and refractory to standard therapy. Even in cases of early diagnosis and treatment, visual outcomes in Aspergillus endophthalmitis and scleritis are variable and often disappointing, not infrequently necessitating enucleation of a painful blind eye. PMID:27379189

  13. Aspergillus fumigatus Endophthalmitis with Necrotizing Scleritis following Pars Plana Vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Gruener, Anna M; Allen, Felicity; Stanford, Miles R; Graham, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of Aspergillus fumigatus endophthalmitis complicated by necrotizing scleritis in a 68-year-old man with diet-controlled diabetes, after retinal detachment repair. He was initially treated with systemic steroids for surgically induced necrotizing scleritis following routine pars plana vitrectomy. An additional diagnosis of endophthalmitis was made when the patient developed a hypopyon. Repeat vitreous culture isolated Aspergillus fumigatus. Symptoms improved following antifungal treatment leaving the patient with scleromalacia and an advanced postoperative cataract. Fungal scleritis and endophthalmitis are rare complications of intraocular surgery with sight-threatening consequences, and, as this case demonstrates, may even occur concomitantly. The overlapping features of both conditions can make differentiating one from the other difficult. A fungal aetiology should be considered in cases of postoperative scleritis and endophthalmitis that are protracted and refractory to standard therapy. Even in cases of early diagnosis and treatment, visual outcomes in Aspergillus endophthalmitis and scleritis are variable and often disappointing, not infrequently necessitating enucleation of a painful blind eye. PMID:27379189

  14. Plaies des membres par agression: analyse de 245 dossiers

    PubMed Central

    Boufettal, Monsef; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Ismael, Farid; Kharmaz, Mohamed; Bardouni, Ahmed El; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; Yaacoubi, Moradh El

    2015-01-01

    Il s'agit d'une étuderétrospective, analytique, monocentrique rentrant dans le cadre d'une étude épidémiologique s’étalant sur une période de trois années (de 2010 à 2012) durant laquelle nous avons revu les dossiers de 245 patients victimes de violence et d'agression. Nous avons exclu les lésions simples traitées en ambulatoire. Par conséquent, nous nous sommes limités aux cas de blessures ayant nécessité une prise en charge spécialisée au bloc opératoire. Les objectifs de notre travail étaient de connaitre la fréquence des agressions au service de traumatologie du CHU de Rabat, classer les différents types de lésions, évaluer leur gravité, mettre la lumière sur les populations les plus touchées et enfin montrer les différentes modalités de prise en charge thérapeutiques. PMID:26918078

  15. Incidence du carcinome hépatocellulaire lors de l'infection chronique par le virus de l'hépatite B

    PubMed Central

    Ntagirabiri, Rénovat; Munezero, Bélyse; Kaze, Hippolyte; Ndirahisha, Eugène; Manirakiza, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Le virus de l'hépatite B (VHB) est incriminé comme cause de cancer primitif du foie. Le stade de fibrose et d'autres facteurs environnementaux et génétiques seraient intriqués. Le but de notre travail était de déterminer l'incidence du carcinome hépatocellulaire (CHC) lors d'une infection chronique par le VHB et estimer le risque relatif (RR) de CHC lié au stade de la fibrose hépatique. Méthodes Étude prospective de suivi d'une cohorte de patients porteurs chroniques du VHB sur une période de 5 ans (2009 à 2014). Etaient inclus les patients consécutifs qui ont subi un dosage de la charge virale B, une évaluation de la fibrose hépatique et un suivi régulier de tous les 6 à 12 mois par une échographie hépatique. Résultats Au total 194 patients ont été retenus. L’âge moyen était de 39,1 ans. Parmi eux 112 étaient des hommes. L'incidence cumulée de CHC a été de 8,8% dans la population d’étude soit une incidence annuelle de 1,8%. Selon le stade de fibrose, 31 patients avaient une fibrose sévère ou une cirrhose (score Fibrotest >0,73). Parmi eux, l'incidence cumulée de CHC était de 35,5% soit une incidence annuelle estimée à 7,10%. Parmi 163 patients ayant une fibrose mineure, l'incidence cumulée de CHC était de 3,7% soit une incidence annuelle de 0,7%. Le RR lié à la cirrhose était de 9,7; IC 95%: (3,8-24,1%). Conclusion Le VHB expose au CHC jusqu’à 10 fois. La fibrose sévère et la cirrhose constituent des facteurs prédictifs de CHC chez le porteur chronique du VHB. Evaluer systématiquement la fibrose pour traiter précocement les malades pourra prévenir l’évolution vers la cirrhose et par là réduire la survenue du CHC. PMID:26113910

  16. Evaluation du niveau de connaissance des patients sur la gestion du traitement par les antis vitamines K dans le service de cardiologie de Ouagadougou

    PubMed Central

    Samadoulougou, André; Temoua Naibe, Dangwé; Mandi, Germain; Yameogo, Relwendé Aristide; Kabore, Elisé; Millogo, Georges; Yameogo, Nobila Valentin; Kologo, Jonas Koudougou; Thiam/Tall, Anna; Toguyeni, Boubacar Jean Yves; Zabsonre, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Les antivitamines K (AVK), traitement anticoagulant oral le plus largement prescrit, posent un réel problème de santé publique du fait de leur risque iatrogène. L'objectif de cette étude était de préciser le niveau de connaissance des patients sur la gestion de leur traitement par les AVK. Méthodes Il s'est agi d'une enquête transversale descriptive réalisée au CHU-Yalgado Ouédraogo, sur une période de 03 mois : du 1er mars au 31 mai 2012. Un questionnaire a été administré aux patients bénéficiant d'un traitement AVK depuis au moins un mois. Résultats Soixante-dix patients ont été inclus dans l'étude dont 30 hommes. L'âge moyen était de 49 ans ± 16 ans. Les cardiopathies et la maladie thromboembolique veineuse justifiant l'institution du traitement AVK étaient retrouvées respectivement dans 58,6% et 41,4% des cas. Le nom de l'AVK et la raison exacte du traitement étaient connus respectivement dans 91,4% et 67,1% des cas. Plus de la moitié des patients (68,6%) savaient que les AVK rendaient le sang plus fluide. Quarante-six patients (65,7%) citaient l'INR comme examen biologique de surveillance du traitement et seulement 28 patients (40%) connaissaient les valeurs cibles. La majorité des patients ne connaissait pas les risques encourus en cas de surdosage (72,8%) et de sous-dosage (71,4%). Une automédication par anti-inflammatoire non stéroïdien était signalée par 18 patients (25,7%). Les choux (74,3%) et la laitue (62,9%), aliments à consommer avec modération, étaient les plus cités. Conclusion Les connaissances des patients sur la gestion des AVK étaient fragmentaires et insuffisantes pour assurer la sécurité et l'efficacité du traitement. La création d'un programme d'éducation thérapeutique sur les AVK s'avère alors nécessaire. PMID:25870741

  17. Landslide susceptibility modelling using Fuzzy Logic in the oued Larbaa basin (Oriental Rif, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zezere, J. L.; Sadiki, A.; Faleh, A.; Elkoulali, E.; Garcia, R. A. C.; Oliveira, S. C.

    2009-04-01

    Together with flash floods and soil erosion, landslides are relevant natural hazards that affect marly slopes in the oued Larbaa basin, located in the Oriental Rif, Morocco. Landslides have been generated important economic, social and ecological effects, by the destruction of farming lands, and by the collapse and interruption of roads and other human infrastructures (e.g., houses). The reduction of socio-economic losses due to landslide activity needs to be accomplished through the implementation of a comprehensive mitigation landslide risk program. The first task of this program is the definition of landslide susceptible areas based on the study of relationships between spatial distribution of past landslides and the cartographic set of landslide predisposing factors. Therefore, the major aim of this work is to create a landslide susceptibility map for the study area. The oued Larbaa basin, located northwards the Taza city, has an area of 245 km2 and the elevation ranges between 450 m and 1300 m. Morphology is characterized by rounded hills cutting marly formations essentially of Cretaceous age. Land use is dominated by cereal cultures and a few sparse tree plantations. Natural vegetation shows a very high level of degradation and usually appears as shrub tufts. The inventory of instability events has been made for the study area and it includes both rainfall-triggered rotational and shallow translational slides. These landslides were included into a GIS database that comprises also the following landslide predisposing factors: slope angle, aspect and curvature, inverse wetness index, lithology and land use. The susceptibility assessment was carried out for each type of landslide (rotational slides and shallow translational slides) under the assumption that future landslides will occur under the same environmental patterns that generated landslides in the past. The modelling of landslide susceptibility was made using the Fuzzy Logic method (Fuzzy Algebraic

  18. Parents, Teachers Tout Classroom Councils to Boost Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    A local Early Head Start parent recently traveled to Washington, DC, to share a new parent engagement strategy with White House officials. Nastassia Jackson and her children's teachers hope the time is ripe for the idea to catch on. Their pitch: A parent board, like a miniature local school council, that "administrates alongside the teachers" and…

  19. Test Touted as 2 Studies Question Its Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basken, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Two years after many colleges resisted attempts by the Bush administration to impose more rigorous methods of student assessment, a leading coalition of private institutions is pressing its members to adopt an increasingly popular standardized achievement test. The push to adopt the assessment comes as the test faces new questions over its…

  20. PAR-1 and thrombin: the ties that bind the microenvironment to melanoma metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zigler, Maya; Kamiya, Takafumi; Brantley, Emily C; Villares, Gabriel J; Bar-Eli, Menashe

    2011-11-01

    Progression of melanoma is dependent on cross-talk between tumor cells and the adjacent microenvironment. The thrombin receptor, protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), plays a key role in exerting this function during melanoma progression. PAR-1 and its activating factors, which are expressed on tumor cells and the surrounding stroma, induce not only coagulation but also cell signaling, which promotes the metastatic phenotype. Several adhesion molecules, cytokines, growth factors, and proteases have recently been identified as downstream targets of PAR-1 and have been shown to modulate interactions between tumor cells and the microenvironment in the process of melanoma growth and metastasis. Inhibiting such interactions by targeting PAR-1 could potentially be a useful therapeutic modality for melanoma patients. PMID:22009534

  1. PAR-1 and Thrombin: The Ties that Bind the Microenvironment to Melanoma Metastasis*

    PubMed Central

    Zigler, Maya; Kamiya, Takafumi; Brantley, Emily C.; Villares, Gabriel J.; Bar-Eli, Menashe

    2011-01-01

    Progression of melanoma is dependent on cross-talk between tumor cells and the adjacent microenvironment. The thrombin receptor, Protease Activated Receptor-1 (PAR-1) plays a key role in exerting this function during melanoma progression. PAR-1 and its activating factors, which are expressed on tumor cells and the surrounding stroma, induce not only coagulation, but also cell signaling which promotes the metastatic phenotype. Several adhesion molecules, cytokines, growth factors and proteases have recently been identified as downstream targets of PAR-1 and have been shown to modulate interactions between tumor cells and the microenvironment in the process of melanoma growth and metastasis. Inhibition of these interactions by targeting PAR-1 could be utilized as a potential therapeutic modality for melanoma patients. PMID:22009534

  2. The Emerging Role of the Thrombin Receptor (PAR-1) in Melanoma Metastasis - a Possible Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Villares, Gabriel J.; Zigler, Maya; Bar-Eli, Menashe

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma remains as the deadliest form of skin cancer with limited and inefficient treatment options available for patients with metastatic disease. Within the last decade, the thrombin receptor, Protease Activated Receptor-1, has been described as an essential gene involved in the progression of human melanoma. PAR-1 is known to activate adhesive, invasive and angiogenic factors to promote melanoma metastasis. It is overexpressed not only in metastatic melanoma cell lines but is also highly expressed in metastatic lesions as compared to primary nevi and normal skin. Recently, PAR-1 has been described to regulate the gap junction protein Connexin 43 and the tumor suppressor gene Maspin to promote the metastatic melanoma phenotype. Herein, we review the role of PAR-1 in the progression of melanoma as well as utilizing PAR-1-regulated genes as potential therapeutic targets for melanoma treatment. PMID:21378407

  3. PAR3 acts as a molecular organizer to define the apical domain of chick neuroepithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Cristina; Henrique, Domingos

    2006-10-15

    Neural progenitors in the vertebrate nervous system are fully polarized epithelial cells, with intercellular junctions at the apical region. These progenitor cells remain within the neuroepithelium throughout neurogenesis, and will ultimately give rise to all the neurons in the mature nervous system. We have addressed the role of the PAR polarity complex in vertebrate neuroepithelial polarity and show that PAR3 functions as the initial scaffold to assemble and organize the PAR complex at the apical region of neuroepithelial cells, coordinating also the recruitment of additional polarity complexes and junction-associated proteins to the same region, while restricting other polarity proteins to the basolateral membrane. We propose that PAR3 acts as a molecular organizer to connect the acquisition of apico-basal polarity with the positioning and formation of junctional structures in neuroepithelial cells, a function of upmost importance for the morphogenesis of embryonic neural tissue and the process of neurogenesis. PMID:17003110

  4. Exchange cart and par level supply distribution systems: form follows function.

    PubMed

    Perrin, R A

    1994-02-01

    This article examines the various types of distribution systems, such as exchange cart, par level, and just-in-time, to assist material managers in controlling costs and maximizing patient care. PMID:10131700

  5. Integrated quantum photonic sensor based on Hong-Ou-Mandel interference.

    PubMed

    Basiri-Esfahani, Sahar; Myers, Casey R; Armin, Ardalan; Combes, Joshua; Milburn, Gerard J

    2015-06-15

    Photonic-crystal-based integrated optical systems have been used for a broad range of sensing applications with great success. This has been motivated by several advantages such as high sensitivity, miniaturization, remote sensing, selectivity and stability. Many photonic crystal sensors have been proposed with various fabrication designs that result in improved optical properties. In parallel, integrated optical systems are being pursued as a platform for photonic quantum information processing using linear optics and Fock states. Here we propose a novel integrated Fock state optical sensor architecture that can be used for force, refractive index and possibly local temperature detection. In this scheme, two coupled cavities behave as an "effective beam splitter". The sensor works based on fourth order interference (the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect) and requires a sequence of single photon pulses and consequently has low pulse power. Changes in the parameter to be measured induce variations in the effective beam splitter reflectivity and result in changes to the visibility of interference. We demonstrate this generic scheme in coupled L3 photonic crystal cavities as an example and find that this system, which only relies on photon coincidence detection and does not need any spectral resolution, can estimate forces as small as 10(-7) Newtons and can measure one part per million change in refractive index using a very low input power of 10(-10)W. Thus linear optical quantum photonic architectures can achieve comparable sensor performance to semiclassical devices. PMID:26193575

  6. Matter-wave quantum interference in the Hong-Ou-Mandel setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis-Swan, Robert; Kheruntsyan, Karen

    2014-05-01

    We propose an experiment to realize a matter-wave analog of the optical Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect. This is achieved by utilizing a pair of colliding Bose-Einstein condensates of ultracold atoms to generate a scattering halo of pair-correlated atoms via spontaneous four-wave mixing, analogous to optical parametric down-conversion used in the optical experiment to generate pairs of indistinguishable photons. Coupling the pair-correlated atoms by a π and π / 2 Bragg pulse realises the atom-optics analogs of mirror and beam-splitter elements of the optical HOM interferometer. We use a stochastic (positive- P representation) Bogoliubov approach to simulate the full dynamics of the experiment and by proposing a measurement protocol appropriate for the multimode nature of the scattering halo we predict a HOM-dip visibility of ~ 69 %, indicating strong quantum correlations between the scattered atoms and paves the way for a possible demonstration of a Bell inequality violation with matter-waves in a related Rarity-Tapster setup.

  7. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference with two independent weak coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Chen; Xue-Bi, An; Juan, Wu; Zhen-Qiang, Yin; Shuang, Wang; Wei, Chen; Zhen-Fu, Han

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference between two independent weak coherent pulses (WCPs) has been paid much attention due to the measurement-device-independent (MDI) quantum key distribution (QKD). Using classical wave theory, articles reported before show that the visibility of this kind of HOM-type interference is ≤ 50%. In this work, we analyze this kind of interference using quantum optics, which reveals more details compared to the wave theory. Analyses confirm the maximum visibility of 50%. And we conclude that the maximum visibility of 50% comes from the two single-photon states in WCPs, without considering the noise. In the experiment, we successfully approach the visibility of 50% by using WCPs splitting from the single pico-second laser source and phase scanning. Since this kind of HOM interference is immune to slow phase fluctuations, both the realized and proposed experiment designs can provide stable ways of high-resolution optical distance detection. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grants Nos. 2011CBA00200 and 2011CB921200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61201239, 61205118, 11304397, and 61475148) and the “Strategic Priority Research Program (B)” of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB01030100 and XDB01030300).

  8. Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference with Atomic Many-Body States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Rajibul; Lukin, Alexander; Ma, Ruichao; Preiss, Philipp; Rispoli, Matthew; Tai, M. Eric; Greiner, Markus

    2015-05-01

    Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference experiments are a powerful probe for the indistinguishability and underlying quantum statistics of particles. In the classic HOM experiment, a pair of identical photons incident on different input ports of a beamsplitter exits via the same output port. Using the precise control and readout afforded by our quantum gas microscope, we present an implementation of this classic experiment using massive bosons in a doublewell optical potential. Identical states are prepared on each site of the doublewell and by lowering the tunnel coupling between the sites for specific times, we drive a beam splitter operation between the sites. For single-atom Fock input states, we have realized a high fidelity beamsplitter operation and observed an HOM interference contrast of >90%. By generalizing to more complex initial states on the input ports, we have been able to establish HOM experiment protocols as a robust approach towards studying the indistinguishability of many-body states as well as probe interaction-induced effects. These techniques open a path towards the measurement of purity in a quantum system and entanglement entropy in many-body states.

  9. Electronic Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometry in two-dimensional topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, D.; Wahl, C.; Rech, J.; Jonckheere, T.; Martin, T.

    2014-02-01

    The edge states of a two-dimensional topological insulator are characterized by their helicity, a very remarkable property which is related to the time-reversal symmetry and the topology of the underlying system. We theoretically investigate a Hong-Ou-Mandel-type setup as a tool to probe it. Collisions of two electrons with the same spin show a Pauli dip, analogous to the one obtained in the integer quantum Hall case. Moreover, the collisions between electrons of opposite spin also lead to a dip, known as Z2 dip, which is a direct consequence of the constraints imposed by time-reversal symmetry. In contrast to the integer quantum Hall case, the visibility of these dips is reduced by the presence of the additional edge channels, and crucially depends on the properties of the quantum point contact. As a unique feature of this system, we show the possibility of three-electron interference, which leads to a total suppression of the noise independently of the point contact configuration. This is assured by the peculiar interplay between Fermi statistics and topology. This work intends to extend the domain of applicability of electron quantum optics.

  10. Model parameterization to simulate and compare the PAR absorption potential of two competing plant species

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Brenner; Roos, Kristin; Göttlicher, Dietrich Otto; Rollenbeck, Rütger; Nauß, Thomas; Beck, Erwin

    2009-01-01

    Mountain pastures dominated by the pasture grass Setaria sphacelata in the Andes of southern Ecuador are heavily infested by southern bracken (Pteridium arachnoideum), a major problem for pasture management. Field observations suggest that bracken might outcompete the grass due to its competitive strength with regard to the absorption of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). To understand the PAR absorption potential of both species, the aims of the current paper are to (1) parameterize a radiation scheme of a two-big-leaf model by deriving structural (LAI, leaf angle parameter) and optical (leaf albedo, transmittance) plant traits for average individuals from field surveys, (2) to initialize the properly parameterized radiation scheme with realistic global irradiation conditions of the Rio San Francisco Valley in the Andes of southern Ecuador, and (3) to compare the PAR absorption capabilities of both species under typical local weather conditions. Field data show that bracken reveals a slightly higher average leaf area index (LAI) and more horizontally oriented leaves in comparison to Setaria. Spectrometer measurements reveal that bracken and Setaria are characterized by a similar average leaf absorptance. Simulations with the average diurnal course of incoming solar radiation (1998–2005) and the mean leaf–sun geometry reveal that PAR absorption is fairly equal for both species. However, the comparison of typical clear and overcast days show that two parameters, (1) the relation of incoming diffuse and direct irradiance, and (2) the leaf–sun geometry play a major role for PAR absorption in the two-big-leaf approach: Under cloudy sky conditions (mainly diffuse irradiance), PAR absorption is slightly higher for Setaria while under clear sky conditions (mainly direct irradiance), the average bracken individual is characterized by a higher PAR absorption potential. (∼74 MJ m−2 year−1). The latter situation which occurs if the maximum daily

  11. Model parameterization to simulate and compare the PAR absorption potential of two competing plant species.

    PubMed

    Bendix, Jörg; Silva, Brenner; Roos, Kristin; Göttlicher, Dietrich Otto; Rollenbeck, Rütger; Nauss, Thomas; Beck, Erwin

    2010-05-01

    Mountain pastures dominated by the pasture grass Setaria sphacelata in the Andes of southern Ecuador are heavily infested by southern bracken (Pteridium arachnoideum), a major problem for pasture management. Field observations suggest that bracken might outcompete the grass due to its competitive strength with regard to the absorption of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). To understand the PAR absorption potential of both species, the aims of the current paper are to (1) parameterize a radiation scheme of a two-big-leaf model by deriving structural (LAI, leaf angle parameter) and optical (leaf albedo, transmittance) plant traits for average individuals from field surveys, (2) to initialize the properly parameterized radiation scheme with realistic global irradiation conditions of the Rio San Francisco Valley in the Andes of southern Ecuador, and (3) to compare the PAR absorption capabilities of both species under typical local weather conditions. Field data show that bracken reveals a slightly higher average leaf area index (LAI) and more horizontally oriented leaves in comparison to Setaria. Spectrometer measurements reveal that bracken and Setaria are characterized by a similar average leaf absorptance. Simulations with the average diurnal course of incoming solar radiation (1998-2005) and the mean leaf-sun geometry reveal that PAR absorption is fairly equal for both species. However, the comparison of typical clear and overcast days show that two parameters, (1) the relation of incoming diffuse and direct irradiance, and (2) the leaf-sun geometry play a major role for PAR absorption in the two-big-leaf approach: Under cloudy sky conditions (mainly diffuse irradiance), PAR absorption is slightly higher for Setaria while under clear sky conditions (mainly direct irradiance), the average bracken individual is characterized by a higher PAR absorption potential. (approximately 74 MJ m(-2) year(-1)). The latter situation which occurs if the maximum daily

  12. Lensectomy using a bimanual microincision cataract surgery technique during pars plana vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Suk Ho; Kwon, Oh W

    2009-01-01

    Lens extraction during vitrectomy is sometimes necessary to obtain an adequate view of the retina. Currently, phacoemulsification through a clear corneal incision with implantation of a foldable intraocular lens has become the preferred technique for cataract extraction during pars plana vitrectomy. The authors described the technique of lensectomy using a bimanual microincisional cataract surgery technique during pars plana vitrectomy and insertion of the intraocular lens at the end of surgery, which has several advantages over conventional coaxial phacoemulsification procedures. PMID:19205506

  13. Psychodopygus complexus, a new vector of Leishmania braziliensis to humans in Pará State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza, A; Ishikawa, E; Braga, R; Silveira, F; Lainson, R; Shaw, J

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the finding of 4 specimens of Psychodopygus complexus, captured in the Paragominas region of Pará State, Brazil, naturally infected with trypanosomatids that were positively identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. Attention is drawn to the importance of this species as a vector since it is highly anthropophilic and has a very extensive geographical distribution in the lower Amazon region of Pará State south of the Amazon river, including the island of Marajó. PMID:8761563

  14. Molecular mechanism of bundle formation by the bacterial actin ParM

    SciTech Connect

    Popp, David; Narita, Akihiro; Iwasa, Mitsusada; Robinson, Robert C.

    2010-01-22

    The actin homolog ParM plays a microtubule-like role in segregating DNA prior to bacterial cell division. Fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy have shown that ParM forms filament bundles between separating DNA plasmids in vivo. Given the lack of ParM bundling proteins it remains unknown how ParM bundles form at the molecular level. Here we show using time-lapse TIRF microscopy, under in vitro molecular crowding conditions, that ParM-bundle formation consists of two distinct phases. At the onset of polymerization bundle thickness and shape are determined in the form of nuclei of short helically disordered filaments arranged in a liquid-like lattice. These nuclei then undergo an elongation phase whereby they rapidly increase in length. At steady state, ParM bundles fuse into one single large aggregate. This behavior had been predicted by theory but has not been observed for any other cytomotive biopolymer, including F-actin. We employed electron micrographs of ParM rafts, which are 2-D analogs of 3-D bundles, to identify the main molecular interfilament contacts within these suprastructures. The interface between filaments is similar for both parallel and anti-parallel orientations and the distribution of filament polarity is random within a bundle. We suggest that the interfilament interactions are not due to the interactions of specific residues but rather to long-range, counter ion mediated, electrostatic attractive forces. A randomly oriented bundle ensures that the assembly is rigid and that DNA may be captured with equal efficiency at both ends of the bundle via the ParR binding protein.

  15. Ambroise Paré IV: The early history of artificial limbs (from robotic to prostheses).

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2013-06-01

    One of the earliest written references to prosthetics is found in a book published in France in 1579. That year, French surgeon Ambroise Paré (1510-1590) published his complete works, part of which described some of the artificial limbs he fitted on his amputees. As a military surgeon, Paré had removed many a soldier's shattered arm or leg, and he eventually began designing and building artificial limbs to help the men who had been maimed. PMID:23604214

  16. PAR-WIG performance prediction during acceleration from water-borne to air-borne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Shigenori; Kato, Michiyo

    1991-11-01

    Take-off performance is calculated for PAR-WIG which utilizes propeller-slipstream. For this purpose, a quick automatic computation scheme is developed for performance of 'engine-propeller combination system'. Example calculations are presented, which show that the hump drag is completely removed with PAR effect. It is noted that variable-geometry of wing-end-plates is desirable and variable-camber of main-wing is essential.

  17. Unitary synaptic connections among substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Matthew H; Wilson, Charles J

    2016-06-01

    Neurons in substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) are synaptically coupled by local axon collaterals, providing a potential mechanism for local signal processing. Because SNr neurons fire spontaneously, these synapses are constantly active. To investigate their properties, we recorded spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) from SNr neurons in brain slices, in which afferents from upstream nuclei are severed, and the cells fire rhythmically. The sIPSC trains contained a mixture of periodic and aperiodic events. Autocorrelation analysis of sIPSC trains showed that a majority of cells had one to four active unitary inputs. The properties of the unitary IPSCs (uIPSCs) were analyzed for cells with one unitary input, using a model of periodic presynaptic firing and stochastic synaptic transmission. The inferred presynaptic firing rates and coefficient of variation of interspike intervals (ISIs) corresponded well with direct measurements of spiking in SNr neurons. Methods were developed to estimate the success probability, amplitude distributions, and kinetics of the uIPSCs, while removing the contribution from aperiodic sIPSCs. The sIPSC amplitudes were not increased upon release from halorhodopsin silencing, suggesting that most synapses were not depressed at the spontaneous firing rate. Gramicidin perforated-patch recordings indicated that the average reversal potential of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic potentials was -64 mV. Because of the change in driving force across the ISI, the unitary inputs are predicted to have a larger postsynaptic impact when they arrive late in the ISI. Simulations of network activity suggest that this very sparse inhibitory coupling may act to desynchronize the activity of SNr neurons while having only a small effect on firing rate. PMID:26961101

  18. Mesencephalic origin of the rostral Substantia nigra pars reticulata.

    PubMed

    Madrigal, M Pilar; Moreno-Bravo, Juan A; Martínez-López, Jesús E; Martínez, Salvador; Puelles, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    In embryonic development, the neurons that will constitute a heterogeneous nucleus may have distinct origins. The different components of these populations reach their final location by radial and tangential migrations. The Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) presents a high level of neuronal heterogeneity. It is composed by GABAergic neurons located in the mes-diencephalic basal plate. These inhibitory neurons usually display tangential migrations and it has been already described that the caudal SNR is colonized tangentially from rhombomere 1. Our aim is to unveil the origin of the rostral SNR. We have localized a Nkx6.2 positive ventricular domain located in the alar midbrain. Nkx6.2 derivatives' fate map analysis showed mainly a rostral colonization of this GABAergic neuronal population. We confirmed the mesencephalic origin by the expression of Six3. Both transcription factors are sequentially expressed along the differentiation of these neurons. We demonstrated the origin of the rostral SNR; our data allowed us to postulate that this nucleus is composed by two neuronal populations distributed in opposite gradients with different origins, one from rhombomere 1, caudal to rostral, and the other from the midbrain, rostral to caudal. We can conclude that the SNR has multiple origins and follows complex mechanisms of specification and migration. Our results support vital information for the study of genetic modifications in these extremely complex processes that result in devastating behavioral alterations and predisposition to psychiatric diseases. Understanding the development, molecular identity and functional characteristics of these diverse neuronal populations might lead to better diagnosis and treatment of several forms of neurological and psychiatric disease. PMID:25579066

  19. [Diabetics in population of patients treated by pars plana vitrectomy].

    PubMed

    Bezdésová-Bohunická, N; Skorkovská, S; Synek, S; Kanovský, R; Masková, Z; Synková, M

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate visual and anatomic outcomes following pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for complications of diabetic retinopathy (DR), and to assess risk factors that might influence the visual outcome after successful PPV. The medical records of 35 diabetic patients of both types 1 and 2 of diabetes, who underwent vitrectomy for complications of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) between 2004 and 2005, were analyzed retrospectively. Certain preoperative systemic and ophthalmic variables, intraoperative variables and postoperative complications with negative influence on visual outcome after PPV were recorded. The postoperative follow-up time was 6 months. The collected data as well as visual outcomes after PPV were statistically analyzed. Statistically significant visual improvement was achieved in 51.4 % of the patients; visual acuity (VA) deteriorated in 25.7% of the patients and remained unchanged in 22.9 % of the patients. Preoperative median of VA was 0.0167, changed to 0.1 postoperatively and remained stable on 0.1 level during the 6 months follow-up. VA > or = 0.1 was achieved in 60 % of the patients 6 months after PPV. Some of the followed variables associated with deteriorated or unchanged postoperative VA can be considered as risk factors of an unfavorable prognosis. Evaluated risk factors include preoperative VA worse than 0.1, presence of systemic complications of DM accompanying ocular complications, postoperative occurrence of iris neovascularization and neovascular glaucoma. In conclusion, anatomically successful PPV in diabetic patients is not always followed by an improvement of VA. The optimal timing of vitrectomy is very important not only in order to obtain good visual acuity but also to maintain good visual function for long time. We suppose that an adequate control of DM, sufficient screening for DR and timely laser intervention of DR might decrease the progression of DR and onset of sight threatening complications

  20. Structural Polymorphism of the ParM Filament and Dynamic Instability

    PubMed Central

    Galkin, Vitold E.; Orlova, Albina; Rivera, Chris; Mullins, R. Dyche; Egelman, Edward H.

    2009-01-01

    Segregation of the R1 plasmid in bacteria relies on ParM, an actin homolog that segregates plasmids by switching between cycles of polymerization and depolymerization. We find similar polymerization kinetics and stability in the presence of either ATP or GTP and a 10-fold affinity preference for ATP over GTP. We used electron cryo-microscopy to evaluate the heterogeneity within ParM filaments. In addition to variable twist ParM has variable axial rise, and both parameters are coupled. Subunits in the same ParM filaments can exist in two different structural states, with the nucleotide-binding cleft closed or open, and the bound nucleotide biases the distribution of states. The interface between protomers is different between these states, and in neither state is it similar to F-actin. Our results suggest that the closed state of the cleft is required but not sufficient for ParM polymerization, and provide a structural basis for the dynamic instability of ParM filaments. PMID:19748346

  1. Breaking the epithelial polarity barrier in cancer: the strange case of LKB1/PAR-4

    PubMed Central

    Partanen, Johanna I.; Tervonen, Topi A.; Klefström, Juha

    2013-01-01

    The PAR clan of polarity regulating genes was initially discovered in a genetic screen searching for genes involved in asymmetric cell divisions in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. Today, investigations in worms, flies and mammals have established PAR proteins as conserved and fundamental regulators of animal cell polarization in a broad range of biological phenomena requiring cellular asymmetries. The human homologue of invertebrate PAR-4, a serine–threonine kinase LKB1/STK11, has caught attention as a gene behind Peutz–Jeghers polyposis syndrome and as a bona fide tumour suppressor gene commonly mutated in sporadic cancer. LKB1 functions as a master regulator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and 12 other kinases referred to as the AMPK-related kinases, including four human homologues of PAR-1. The role of LKB1 as part of the energy sensing LKB1-AMPK module has been intensively studied, whereas the polarity function of LKB1, in the context of homoeostasis or cancer, has gained less attention. Here, we focus on the PAR-4 identity of LKB1, discussing the weight of evidence indicating a role for LKB1 in regulation of cell polarity and epithelial integrity across species and highlight recent investigations providing new insight into the old question: does the PAR-4 identity of LKB1 matter in cancer? PMID:24062587

  2. PAR3-aPKC regulates Tiam1 by modulating suppressive internal interactions

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzawa, Kenji; Akita, Hiroki; Watanabe, Takashi; Kakeno, Mai; Matsui, Toshinori; Wang, Shujie; Kaibuchi, Kozo

    2016-01-01

    Tiam1 is one of the most extensively analyzed activators of the small GTPase Rac. However, fundamental aspects of its regulation are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that Tiam1 is functionally suppressed by internal interactions and that the PAR complex participates in its full activation. The N-terminal region of Tiam1 binds to the protein-binding and catalytic domains to inhibit its localization and activation. Atypical PKCs phosphorylate Tiam1 to relieve its intramolecular interactions, and the subsequent stabilization of its interaction with PAR3 allows it to exert localized activity. By analyzing Tiam1 regulation by PAR3-aPKC within the context of PDGF signaling, we also show that PAR3 directly binds PDGF receptor β. Thus we provide the first evidence for the negative regulation of Tiam1 by internal interactions, elucidate the nature of Tiam1 regulation by the PAR complex, and reveal a novel role for the PAR complex in PDGF signaling. PMID:26941335

  3. Organization, evolution and functions of the human and mouse Ly6/uPAR family genes.

    PubMed

    Loughner, Chelsea L; Bruford, Elspeth A; McAndrews, Monica S; Delp, Emili E; Swamynathan, Sudha; Swamynathan, Shivalingappa K

    2016-01-01

    Members of the lymphocyte antigen-6 (Ly6)/urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) superfamily of proteins are cysteine-rich proteins characterized by a distinct disulfide bridge pattern that creates the three-finger Ly6/uPAR (LU) domain. Although the Ly6/uPAR family proteins share a common structure, their expression patterns and functions vary. To date, 35 human and 61 mouse Ly6/uPAR family members have been identified. Based on their subcellular localization, these proteins are further classified as GPI-anchored on the cell membrane, or secreted. The genes encoding Ly6/uPAR family proteins are conserved across different species and are clustered in syntenic regions on human chromosomes 8, 19, 6 and 11, and mouse Chromosomes 15, 7, 17, and 9, respectively. Here, we review the human and mouse Ly6/uPAR family gene and protein structure and genomic organization, expression, functions, and evolution, and introduce new names for novel family members. PMID:27098205

  4. Control of Smc Coiled Coil Architecture by the ATPase Heads Facilitates Targeting to Chromosomal ParB/parS and Release onto Flanking DNA.

    PubMed

    Minnen, Anita; Bürmann, Frank; Wilhelm, Larissa; Anchimiuk, Anna; Diebold-Durand, Marie-Laure; Gruber, Stephan

    2016-03-01

    Smc/ScpAB promotes chromosome segregation in prokaryotes, presumably by compacting and resolving nascent sister chromosomes. The underlying mechanisms, however, are poorly understood. Here, we investigate the role of the Smc ATPase activity in the recruitment of Smc/ScpAB to the Bacillus subtilis chromosome. We demonstrate that targeting of Smc/ScpAB to ParB/parS loading sites is strictly dependent on engagement of Smc head domains and relies on an open organization of the Smc coiled coils. We find that dimerization of the Smc hinge domain stabilizes closed Smc rods and hinders head engagement as well as chromosomal targeting. Conversely, the ScpAB sub-complex promotes head engagement and Smc rod opening and thereby facilitates recruitment of Smc to parS sites. Upon ATP hydrolysis, Smc/ScpAB is released from loading sites and relocates within the chromosome-presumably through translocation along DNA double helices. Our findings define an intermediate state in the process of chromosome organization by Smc. PMID:26904953

  5. Control of Smc Coiled Coil Architecture by the ATPase Heads Facilitates Targeting to Chromosomal ParB/parS and Release onto Flanking DNA

    PubMed Central

    Minnen, Anita; Bürmann, Frank; Wilhelm, Larissa; Anchimiuk, Anna; Diebold-Durand, Marie-Laure; Gruber, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Summary Smc/ScpAB promotes chromosome segregation in prokaryotes, presumably by compacting and resolving nascent sister chromosomes. The underlying mechanisms, however, are poorly understood. Here, we investigate the role of the Smc ATPase activity in the recruitment of Smc/ScpAB to the Bacillus subtilis chromosome. We demonstrate that targeting of Smc/ScpAB to ParB/parS loading sites is strictly dependent on engagement of Smc head domains and relies on an open organization of the Smc coiled coils. We find that dimerization of the Smc hinge domain stabilizes closed Smc rods and hinders head engagement as well as chromosomal targeting. Conversely, the ScpAB sub-complex promotes head engagement and Smc rod opening and thereby facilitates recruitment of Smc to parS sites. Upon ATP hydrolysis, Smc/ScpAB is released from loading sites and relocates within the chromosome—presumably through translocation along DNA double helices. Our findings define an intermediate state in the process of chromosome organization by Smc. PMID:26904953

  6. Intercomparison of Groundwater Flow Monitoring Technologies at Site OU 1, Former Fort Ord, California

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, P F; Jantos, J; Pedler, W H; Mandell, W A

    2005-09-20

    This report presents an intercomparison of three groundwater flow monitoring technologies at a trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume at Operational Unit 1 (OU 1) adjacent to the former Fritzsche Army Airfield at the former Fort Ord Army Base, located on Monterey Bay in northern Monterey County, California. Soil and groundwater at this site became contaminated by fuels and solvents that were burned on a portion of OU 1 called the Fire Drill Area (FDA) as part of firefighter training from 1962 and 1985. Cont Contamination is believed to be restricted to the unconfined A-aquifer, where water is reached at a depth of approximately 60 to 80 feet below the ground surface; the aquifer is from 15 to 20 feet in thickness, and is bounded below by a dense clay layer, the Salinas Valley Aquitard. Soil excavation and bioremediation were initiated at the site of fire training activities in the late 1980s. Since that time a pump-and-treat operation has been operated close to the original area of contamination, and this system has been largely successful at reducing groundwater contamination in this source area. However, a trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume extends approximately 3000 ft (900 m) to the northwest away from the FDA. In this report, we have augmented flow monitoring equipment permanently installed in an earlier project (Oldenburg et al., 2002) with two additional flow monitoring devices that could be deployed in existing monitoring wells, in an effort to better understand their performance in a nearly ideal, homogeneous sand aquifer, that we expected would exhibit laminar groundwater flow owing to the site's relatively simple hydrogeology. The three flow monitoring tools were the Hydrotechnics{reg_sign} In In-Situ Permeable Flow Sensor (ISPFS), the RAS Integrated Subsurface Evaluation Hydrophysical Logging tool (HPL), and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Scanning Colloidal Borescope Flow Meter (SCBFM). All three devices produce groundwater flow

  7. Targeting of peptide conjugated magnetic nanoparticles to urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expressing cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Line; Unmack Larsen, Esben Kjær; Nielsen, Erik Holm; Iversen, Frank; Liu, Zhuo; Thomsen, Karen; Pedersen, Michael; Skrydstrup, Troels; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Ploug, Michael; Kjems, Jørgen

    2013-08-01

    Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles are currently being used as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent in vivo, mainly by their passive accumulation in tissues of interest. However, a higher specificity can ideally be achieved when the nanoparticles are targeted towards cell specific receptors and this may also facilitate specific drug delivery by an enhanced target-mediated endocytosis. We report efficient peptide-mediated targeting of magnetic nanoparticles to cells expressing the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a surface biomarker for poor patient prognosis shared by several cancers including breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers. Conjugation of a uPAR specific targeting peptide onto polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated USPIO nanoparticles by click chemistry resulted in a five times higher uptake in vitro in a uPAR positive cell line compared to nanoparticles carrying a non-binding control peptide. In accordance with specific receptor-mediated recognition, a low uptake was observed in the presence of an excess of ATF, a natural ligand for uPAR. The uPAR specific magnetic nanoparticles can potentially provide a useful supplement for tumor patient management when combined with MRI and drug delivery.Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles are currently being used as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent in vivo, mainly by their passive accumulation in tissues of interest. However, a higher specificity can ideally be achieved when the nanoparticles are targeted towards cell specific receptors and this may also facilitate specific drug delivery by an enhanced target-mediated endocytosis. We report efficient peptide-mediated targeting of magnetic nanoparticles to cells expressing the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a surface biomarker for poor patient prognosis shared by several cancers including breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers. Conjugation of a uPAR specific

  8. Estimation of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) from OCEANSAT-I OCM using a simple atmospheric radiative transfer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Madhumita; Raman, Mini; Chauhan, Prakash

    2015-10-01

    Photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) is an important variable for radiation budget, marine and terrestrial ecosystem models. OCEANSAT-1 Ocean Color Monitor (OCM) PAR was estimated using two different methods under both clear and cloudy sky conditions. In the first approach, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and cloud optical depth (COD) were estimated from OCEANSAT-1 OCM TOA (top-of-atmosphere) radiance data on a pixel by pixel basis and PAR was estimated from extraterrestrial solar flux for fifteen spectral bands using a radiative transfer model. The second approach used TOA radiances measured by OCM in the PAR spectral range to compute PAR. This approach also included surface albedo and cloud albedo as inputs. Comparison between OCEANSAT-1 OCM PAR at noon with in situ measured PAR shows that root mean square difference was 5.82% for the method I and 7.24% for the method II in daily time scales. Results indicate that methodology adopted to estimate PAR from OCEANSAT-1 OCM can produce reasonably accurate PAR estimates over the tropical Indian Ocean region. This approach can be extended to OCEANSAT-2 OCM and future OCEANSAT-3 OCM data for operational estimation of PAR for regional marine ecosystem applications.

  9. PAR6, A Potential Marker for the Germ Cells Selected to Form Primordial Follicles in Mouse Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jing; Zhang, Hua; Li, Ge; Mao, Guanping; Chen, Xiufen; Wang, Jianwei; Guo, Meng; Mu, Xinyi; Ouyang, Hong; Zhang, Meijia; Xia, Guoliang

    2009-01-01

    Partitioning-defective proteins (PAR) are detected to express mainly in the cytoplast, and play an important role in cell polarity. However, we showed here that PAR6, one kind of PAR protein, was localized in the nuclei of mouse oocytes that formed primordial follicles during the perinatal period, suggesting a new role of PAR protein. It is the first time we found that, in mouse fetal ovaries, PAR6 appeared in somatic cell cytoplasm and fell weak when somatic cells invaded germ cell cysts at 17.5 days post coitus (dpc). Meanwhile, the expression of PAR6 was observed in cysts, and became strong in the nuclei of some germ cells at 19.5 dpc and all primordial follicular oocytes at 3 day post parturition (dpp), and then obviously declined when the primordial follicles entered the folliculogenic growth phase. During the primordial follicle pool foundation, the number of PAR6 positive germ cells remained steady and was consistent with that of formed follicles at 3 dpp. There were no TUNEL (apoptosis examination) positive germ cells stained with PAR6 at any time studied. The number of follicles significantly declined when 15.5 dpc ovaries were treated with the anti-PAR6 antibody and PAR6 RNA interference. Carbenoxolone (CBX, a known blocker of gap junctions) inhibited the expression of PAR6 in germ cells and the formation of follicles. Our results suggest that PAR6 could be used as a potential marker of germ cells for the primordial follicle formation, and the expression of PAR6 by a gap junction-dependent process may contribute to the formation of primordial follicles and the maintenance of oocytes at the diplotene stage. PMID:19809506

  10. Ocular trauma treated with pars plana vitrectomy: early outcome report

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Mohammad Reza; Tabatabaei, Seyed Ali; Soleimani, Mohammad; Kiarudi, Mohammad Yaser; Molaei, Saber; Rouzbahani, Mehdi; Mireshghi, Meysam; Zaeferani, Mohsen; Ghasempour, Mehrbod

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate demographic variables and visual outcomes, among patients with ocular injuries involving the posterior segment, managed with pars plana vitrectomy. METHODS The records of patients were studied retrospectively from March to September 2010, to determine the age, gender, place of occurrence of trauma, visual acuity, anatomical site, nature of injury, wound length, the presence of an afferent pupillary defect, and the timing of vitrectomy. The Ocular Trauma Score was measured. The minimum follow-up from presentation was 6mo. RESULTS Ninety patients (77 males, 13 females), with a mean age of 32.7±15.8y were included over the 6-month period. The majority of cases occurred in the workplace (47 patients), followed by home (14 patients). The mean visual acuity (logMAR) of patients significantly improved from 2.36±0.72 preoperatively to 1.50±1.14 postoperatively. Twenty-three patients had preoperative vision better than 2.0 logMAR, the postoperative visual acuity was significantly better among these patients than patients with worse than 2.0 logMAR (P<0.001). Visual improvement between groups with early vitrectomy (<7d) and delayed vitrectomy (>7d) was not significantly different (P=0.66). Postoperative visual acuity was not significantly different between patients with injury in Zone I and II (P=0.64), but patients with injury in Zone III had significantly poorer visual acuity (P=0.02). Patients with relative afferent pupillary defect had significantly poorer postoperative visual acuity (P=0.02). Preoperative visual acuity, the difference of preoperative and postoperative visual acuity, and postoperative visual acuity were significantly different between groups with different ocular trauma scores (P<0.001). CONCLUSION Trauma is more likely to occur in men under 40y of age and in the workplace. The favorable final visual outcome is associated with the absence of afferent pupillary defect, ocular trauma score and presenting visual acuity as well as the zone

  11. 200-DV-1OU Sediment and Pore Water Analysis and Report for Samples at Borehole C8096

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Michael J.

    2011-10-01

    This is an analytical data report for sediment samples received at 200-DV-1 OU. On August 30, 2011 sediment samples were received from 200-DV-1 OU Borehole C8096 for geochemical studies. The analyses for this project were performed at the 331 building located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The analyses were performed according to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) approved procedures and/or nationally recognized test procedures. The data sets include the sample identification numbers, analytical results, estimated quantification limits (EQL), and quality control data. The preparatory and analytical quality control requirements, calibration requirements, acceptance criteria, and failure actions are defined in the on-line QA plan 'Conducting Analytical Work in Support of Regulatory Programs' (CAW). This QA plan implements the Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD) for PNNL.

  12. A method for estimating the diffuse attenuation coefficient (KdPAR)from paired temperature sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Read, Jordan S.; Rose, Kevin C.; Winslow, Luke A.; Read, Emily Kara

    2015-01-01

    A new method for estimating the diffuse attenuation coefficient for photosynthetically active radiation (KdPAR) from paired temperature sensors was derived. We show that during cases where the attenuation of penetrating shortwave solar radiation is the dominant source of temperature changes, time series measurements of water temperatures at multiple depths (z1 and z2) are related to one another by a linear scaling factor (a). KdPAR can then be estimated by the simple equation KdPAR ln(a)/(z2/z1). A suggested workflow is presented that outlines procedures for calculating KdPAR according to this paired temperature sensor (PTS) method. This method is best suited for conditions when radiative temperature gains are large relative to physical noise. These conditions occur frequently on water bodies with low wind and/or high KdPARs but can be used for other types of lakes during time periods of low wind and/or where spatially redundant measurements of temperatures are available. The optimal vertical placement of temperature sensors according to a priori knowledge of KdPAR is also described. This information can be used to inform the design of future sensor deployments using the PTS method or for campaigns where characterizing sub-daily changes in temperatures is important. The PTS method provides a novel method to characterize light attenuation in aquatic ecosystems without expensive radiometric equipment or the user subjectivity inherent in Secchi depth measurements. This method also can enable the estimation of KdPAR at higher frequencies than many manual monitoring programs allow.

  13. ParsEval: parallel comparison and analysis of gene structure annotations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate gene structure annotation is a fundamental but somewhat elusive goal of genome projects, as witnessed by the fact that (model) genomes typically undergo several cycles of re-annotation. In many cases, it is not only different versions of annotations that need to be compared but also different sources of annotation of the same genome, derived from distinct gene prediction workflows. Such comparisons are of interest to annotation providers, prediction software developers, and end-users, who all need to assess what is common and what is different among distinct annotation sources. We developed ParsEval, a software application for pairwise comparison of sets of gene structure annotations. ParsEval calculates several statistics that highlight the similarities and differences between the two sets of annotations provided. These statistics are presented in an aggregate summary report, with additional details provided as individual reports specific to non-overlapping, gene-model-centric genomic loci. Genome browser styled graphics embedded in these reports help visualize the genomic context of the annotations. Output from ParsEval is both easily read and parsed, enabling systematic identification of problematic gene models for subsequent focused analysis. Results ParsEval is capable of analyzing annotations for large eukaryotic genomes on typical desktop or laptop hardware. In comparison to existing methods, ParsEval exhibits a considerable performance improvement, both in terms of runtime and memory consumption. Reports from ParsEval can provide relevant biological insights into the gene structure annotations being compared. Conclusions Implemented in C, ParsEval provides the quickest and most feature-rich solution for genome annotation comparison to date. The source code is freely available (under an ISC license) at http://parseval.sourceforge.net/. PMID:22852583

  14. Transcription factor network downstream of protease activated receptors (PARs) modulating mouse bladder inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Saban, Ricardo; Simpson, Cindy; Davis, Carole A; Dozmorov, Igor; Maier, Julie; Fowler, Ben; Ihnat, Michael A; Hurst, Robert E; Wershil, Barry K; Saban, Marcia R

    2007-01-01

    Background All four PARs are present in the urinary bladder, and their expression is altered during inflammation. In order to search for therapeutic targets other than the receptors themselves, we set forth to determine TFs downstream of PAR activation in the C57BL/6 urinary bladders. Methods For this purpose, we used a protein/DNA combo array containing 345 different TF consensus sequences. Next, the TF selected was validated by EMSA and IHC. As mast cells seem to play a fundamental role in bladder inflammation, we determined whether c-kit receptor deficient (Kitw/Kitw-v) mice have an abrogated response to PAR stimulation. Finally, TFEB antibody was used for CHIP/Q-PCR assay and revealed up-regulation of genes known to be downstream of TFEB. Results TFEB, a member of the MiTF family of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper, was the only TF commonly up-regulated by all PAR-APs. IHC results confirm a correlation between inflammation and TFEB expression in C57BL/6 mice. In contrast, Kitw/Kitw-v mice did not exhibit inflammation in response to PAR activation. EMSA results confirmed the increased TFEB binding activity in C57BL/6 but not in Kitw/Kitw-v mice. Conclusion This is the first report describing the increased expression of TFEB in bladder inflammation in response to PAR activation. As TFEB belongs to a family of TFs essential for mast cell survival, our findings suggest that this molecule may influence the participation of mast cells in PAR-mediated inflammation and that targeting TFEB/MiTF activity may be a novel approach for the treatment of bladder inflammatory disorders. PMID:17705868

  15. Detecting Plant Photoprotective Response to Water Stress Through Variation In PAR Reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zygielbaum, A. I.; Arkebauer, T. J.; Walter-Shea, E.

    2012-12-01

    Published papers over several decades have shown increasing leaf-level optical reflectance with decreasing leaf water content. Our experimental results using maize and sorghum showed this increase consistently, caused by variation in optical absorption, in the visible (photosynthetically active radiation - PAR) and middle infrared (MIR) spectral regions. Relatively smaller response, driven by variation in optical scatter, was observed in near infrared (NIR). The concomitant increasing reflectance in the PAR and MIR regions is perplexing. PAR reflectance is dominated by chlorophyll absorption while MIR reflectance is dominated by water molecule absorption. However, changes in chlorophyll concentration, determined by chemical extraction, were too small to account for the variation in PAR reflectance. PAR and MIR reflectances were also influenced by the strength of incident light. Hence PAR reflectance appears to be modulated not only by pigment concentration, the classical description, but also by the strength of incident light and the severity of water deficit. We previously reported that these findings were consistent with chloroplast avoidance movement, a plant photoprotective response, which limits light absorption by pigments. We report here our continuing investigation of this phenomenon. In addition to reflectance measurements, time-lapse microscope images of leaves under increasing water deficit conditions were obtained. These show a brightening between veins which strongly supports our assertion that changes in PAR reflectance accompanying water deficit are caused primarily by chloroplast avoidance movement. Our results suggest that leaf, and possibly canopy, reflectance can therefore be used to detect and measure plant stress. These results also indicate that chloroplast avoidance movement may cause poor estimates of leaf chlorophyll content using techniques based on fluoresced, reflected or transmitted light.

  16. Cortical Polarity of the RING Protein PAR-2 Is Maintained by Exchange Rate Kinetics at the Cortical-Cytoplasmic Boundary.

    PubMed

    Arata, Yukinobu; Hiroshima, Michio; Pack, Chan-Gi; Ramanujam, Ravikrishna; Motegi, Fumio; Nakazato, Kenichi; Shindo, Yuki; Wiseman, Paul W; Sawa, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J; Brandão, Hugo B; Shibata, Tatsuo; Sako, Yasushi

    2016-08-23

    Cell polarity arises through the spatial segregation of polarity regulators. PAR proteins are polarity regulators that localize asymmetrically to two opposing cortical domains. However, it is unclear how the spatially segregated PAR proteins interact to maintain their mutually exclusive partitioning. Here, single-molecule detection analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos reveals that cortical PAR-2 diffuses only short distances, and, as a result, most PAR-2 molecules associate and dissociate from the cortex without crossing into the opposing domain. Our results show that cortical PAR-2 asymmetry is maintained by the local exchange reactions that occur at the cortical-cytoplasmic boundary. Additionally, we demonstrate that local exchange reactions are sufficient to maintain cortical asymmetry in a parameter-free mathematical model. These findings suggest that anterior and posterior PAR proteins primarily interact through the cytoplasmic pool and not via cortical diffusion. PMID:27524610

  17. Towards an Improved LAI Collection Protocol via Simulated and Field-Based PAR Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Wei; Kelbe, David; van Leeuwen, Martin; Romanczyk, Paul; van Aardt, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In support of NASA’s next-generation spectrometer—the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI)—we are working towards assessing sub-pixel vegetation structure from imaging spectroscopy data. Of particular interest is Leaf Area Index (LAI), which is an informative, yet notoriously challenging parameter to efficiently measure in situ. While photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR) sensors have been validated for measuring crop LAI, there is limited literature on the efficacy of PAR-based LAI measurement in the forest environment. This study (i) validates PAR-based LAI measurement in forest environments, and (ii) proposes a suitable collection protocol, which balances efficiency with measurement variation, e.g., due to sun flecks and various-sized canopy gaps. A synthetic PAR sensor model was developed in the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model and used to validate LAI measurement based on first-principles and explicitly-known leaf geometry. Simulated collection parameters were adjusted to empirically identify optimal collection protocols. These collection protocols were then validated in the field by correlating PAR-based LAI measurement to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) extracted from the “classic” Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-C) data (R2 was 0.61). The results indicate that our proposed collecting protocol is suitable for measuring the LAI of sparse forest (LAI < 3–5 (m2/m2)). PMID:27428969

  18. PAR-1 mediated apoptosis of breast cancer cells by V. cholerae hemagglutinin protease.

    PubMed

    Ray, Tanusree; Pal, Amit

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial toxins have emerged as promising agents in cancer treatment strategy. Hemagglutinin (HAP) protease secreted by Vibrio cholerae induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells and regresses tumor growth in mice model. The success of novel cancer therapies depends on their selectivity for cancer cells with limited toxicity for normal tissues. Increased expression of Protease Activated Receptor-1 (PAR-1) has been reported in different malignant cells. In this study we report that HAP induced activation and over expression of PAR-1 in breast cancer cells (EAC). Immunoprecipitation studies have shown that HAP specifically binds with PAR-1. HAP mediated activation of PAR-1 caused nuclear translocation of p50-p65 and the phosphorylation of p38 which triggered the activation of NFκB and MAP kinase signaling pathways. These signaling pathways enhanced the cellular ROS level in malignant cells that induced the intrinsic pathway of cell apoptosis. PAR-1 mediated apoptosis by HAP of malignant breast cells without effecting normal healthy cells in the same environment makes it a good therapeutic agent for treatment of cancer. PMID:26897170

  19. Novel mechanism of apoptosis resistance in cancer mediated by extracellular PAR-4.

    PubMed

    Burikhanov, Ravshan; Shrestha-Bhattarai, Tripti; Qiu, Shirley; Shukla, Nidhi; Hebbar, Nikhil; Lele, Subodh M; Horbinski, Craig; Rangnekar, Vivek M

    2013-01-15

    Tumor suppressor PAR-4 acts in part by modulating sensitivity to apoptosis, but the basis for its activity is not fully understood. In this study, we describe a novel mechanism of antiapoptosis by NF-κB, revealing that it can block PAR-4-mediated apoptosis by downregulating trafficking of the PAR-4 receptor GRP78 from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Mechanistic investigations revealed that NF-κB mediated this antiapoptotic mechanism by upregulating expression of UACA, a proinflammatory protein in certain disease settings. In clinical specimens of cancer, a strong correlation existed between NF-κB activity and UACA expression, relative to normal tissues. UACA bound to intracellular PAR-4 in diverse cancer cells, where it prevented translocation of GRP78 from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. This pathway of antiapoptosis could be inhibited by suppressing levels of NF-κB or UACA expression, which enhanced endoplasmic reticulum stress and restored GRP78 trafficking to the cell surface, thereby sensitizing cancer cells to apoptosis by extracellular PAR-4 or GRP78 agonistic antibody. In summary, our results identify a novel intracellular pathway of apoptosis mediated by NF-κB through UACA elevation, which by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress and GRP78 translocation to the cell surface can blunt the sensitivity of cancer cells to apoptosis. PMID:23204231

  20. Microtubule-like Properties of the Bacterial Actin Homolog ParM-R1*

    PubMed Central

    Popp, David; Narita, Akihiro; Lee, Lin Jie; Larsson, Mårten; Robinson, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    In preparation for mammalian cell division, microtubules repeatedly probe the cytoplasm to capture chromosomes and assemble the mitotic spindle. Critical features of this microtubule system are the formation of radial arrays centered at the centrosomes and dynamic instability, leading to persistent cycles of polymerization and depolymerization. Here, we show that actin homolog, ParM-R1 that drives segregation of the R1 multidrug resistance plasmid from Escherichia coli, can also self-organize in vitro into asters, which resemble astral microtubules. ParM-R1 asters grow from centrosome-like structures consisting of interconnected nodes related by a pseudo 8-fold symmetry. In addition, we show that ParM-R1 is able to perform persistent microtubule-like oscillations of assembly and disassembly. In vitro, a whole population of ParM-R1 filaments is synchronized between phases of growth and shrinkage, leading to prolonged synchronous oscillations even at physiological ParM-R1 concentrations. These results imply that the selection pressure to reliably segregate DNA during cell division has led to common mechanisms within diverse segregation machineries. PMID:22908230

  1. Mammalian Par3 regulates progenitor cell asymmetric division via Notch signaling in the developing neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Bultje, Ronald S.; Castaneda-Castellanos, David R.; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh-Nung; Kriegstein, Arnold R.; Shi, Song-Hai

    2009-01-01

    Asymmetric cell division of radial glial progenitors produces neurons while allowing self-renewal; however, little is known about the mechanism that generates asymmetry in daughter cell fate specification. Here we found that mammalian partition defective protein 3 (mPar3), a key cell polarity determinant, exhibits dynamic distribution in radial glial progenitors. While it is enriched at the lateral membrane domain in the ventricular endfeet during interphase, mPar3 becomes dispersed and shows asymmetric localization as cell cycle progresses. Either removal or ectopic expression of mPar3 prevents radial glial progenitors from dividing asymmetrically yet generates different outcomes in daughter cell fate specification. Furthermore, the expression level of mPar3 affects Notch signaling, and manipulations of Notch signaling or Numb expression suppress mPar3 regulation of radial glial cell division and daughter cell fate specification. These results reveal a critical molecular pathway underlying asymmetric cell division of radial glial progenitors in the mammalian neocortex. PMID:19640478

  2. Participatory Action Research (PAR) in Middle School: Opportunities, Constraints, and Key Processes

    PubMed Central

    Ritterman, Miranda L.; Wanis, Maggie G.

    2010-01-01

    Late childhood and early adolescence represent a critical transition in the developmental and academic trajectory of youth, a time in which there is an upsurge in academic disengagement and psychopathology. PAR projects that can promote youth’s sense of meaningful engagement in school and a sense of efficacy and mattering can be particularly powerful given the challenges of this developmental stage. In the present study, we draw on data from our own collaborative implementation of PAR projects in secondary schools to consider two central questions: (1) How do features of middle school settings and the developmental characteristics of the youth promote or inhibit the processes, outcomes, and sustainability of the PAR endeavor? and (2) How can the broad principles and concepts of PAR be effectively translated into specific intervention activities in schools, both within and outside of the classroom? In particular, we discuss a participatory research project conducted with 6th and 7th graders at an urban middle school as a means of highlighting the opportunities, constraints, and lessons learned in our efforts to contribute to the high-quality implementation and evaluation of PAR in diverse urban public schools. PMID:20676754

  3. Towards an Improved LAI Collection Protocol via Simulated and Field-Based PAR Sensing.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wei; Kelbe, David; Leeuwen, Martin van; Romanczyk, Paul; Aardt, Jan van

    2016-01-01

    In support of NASA's next-generation spectrometer-the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI)-we are working towards assessing sub-pixel vegetation structure from imaging spectroscopy data. Of particular interest is Leaf Area Index (LAI), which is an informative, yet notoriously challenging parameter to efficiently measure in situ. While photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR) sensors have been validated for measuring crop LAI, there is limited literature on the efficacy of PAR-based LAI measurement in the forest environment. This study (i) validates PAR-based LAI measurement in forest environments, and (ii) proposes a suitable collection protocol, which balances efficiency with measurement variation, e.g., due to sun flecks and various-sized canopy gaps. A synthetic PAR sensor model was developed in the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model and used to validate LAI measurement based on first-principles and explicitly-known leaf geometry. Simulated collection parameters were adjusted to empirically identify optimal collection protocols. These collection protocols were then validated in the field by correlating PAR-based LAI measurement to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) extracted from the "classic" Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-C) data ( R 2 was 0.61). The results indicate that our proposed collecting protocol is suitable for measuring the LAI of sparse forest (LAI < 3-5 ( m 2 / m 2 )). PMID:27428969

  4. uPAR-induced cell adhesion and migration: vitronectin provides the key

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Chris D.; Ferraris, Gian Maria Sarra; Andolfo, Annapaola; Cunningham, Orla; Sidenius, Nicolai

    2007-01-01

    Expression of the membrane receptor uPAR induces profound changes in cell morphology and migration, and its expression correlates with the malignant phenotype of cancers. To identify the molecular interactions essential for uPAR function in these processes, we carried out a complete functional alanine scan of uPAR in HEK293 cells. Of the 255 mutant receptors characterized, 34 failed to induce changes in cell morphology. Remarkably, the molecular defect of all of these mutants was a specific reduction in integrin-independent cell binding to vitronectin. A membrane-tethered plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, which has the same binding site in vitronectin as uPAR, replicated uPAR-induced changes. A direct uPAR–vitronectin interaction is thus both required and sufficient to initiate downstream changes in cell morphology, migration, and signal transduction. Collectively these data demonstrate a novel mechanism by which a cell adhesion molecule lacking inherent signaling capability evokes complex cellular responses by modulating the contact between the cell and the matrix without the requirement for direct lateral protein–protein interactions. PMID:17548516

  5. Lambeaux autofermants pour le traitement des brulures electriques du scalp par haut voltage

    PubMed Central

    Hafidi, J.; El Mazouz, S.; El Mejatti, H.; Fejjal, N.; Gharib, N.E.; Abbassi, A.; Belmahi, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Les brûlures électriques par haut voltage sont responsables de gros dégâts tissulaires en immédiat et dans les jours suivant l’accident du fait de la chaleur importante dégagée par effet joule et de la thrombose microvasculaire évolutive. Les pertes de substances du scalp secondaires à ces brûlures nécessitent une couverture par lambeaux vu la destruction du périoste et du calvarium en regard. De juin 1997 à juin 2008, 15 patients ont été traités pour des pertes de substance du scalp secondaires à des brûlures électriques par haut voltage de diamètre allant de 8 à 11 cm et siégeant dans la région tonsurale. Ces patients ont été opérés dans la première semaine suivant l’accident. Les pertes de substance du scalp de taille moyenne secondaires à ces brûlures peuvent être couvertes per primam de façon fiable par des lambeaux locaux axialisés et multiples. Nous relatons l’expérience du Service de Chirurgie Plastique du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Ibn-Sina, Rabat, Maroc, dans la gestion et la prise en charge de ces brûlures. PMID:22262963

  6. "It was like reading a detective novel": Using PAR to work together for culture change.

    PubMed

    Fortune, Darla; McKeown, Janet; Dupuis, Sherry; de Witt, Lorna

    2015-08-01

    Participatory action research (PAR), with its focus on engagement and collaboration, is uniquely suited to enhancing culture change initiatives in dementia care. Yet, there is limited literature of its application to culture change approaches in care settings, and even less in dementia specific care contexts. To address these gaps in the literature, the purpose of this paper is to examine the complexities of a PAR project aimed at changing the culture of dementia care in two diverse dementia care settings, including a long term care (LTC) and community care setting. Drawing from data gathered throughout the PAR process, we unpack the challenges experienced by participants working together to guide culture change within their respective care settings. These challenges include: overextending selves through culture change participation; fluctuating group membership; feeling uncertainty, confusion and apprehension about the process; frustratingly slow process; and seeking diverse group representation in decision making. We also highlight the potential for appreciative inquiry (AI) to be integrated with PAR to guide a process whereby participants involved in culture change initiatives can develop strategies to mitigate challenges they experience. We view the challenges and strategies shared here as being constructive to would-be culture change agents and hope this paper will move others to consider the use of PAR when engaging in culture change initiatives. PMID:26162724

  7. Towards an improved LAI collection protocol via simulated field-based PAR sensing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yao, Wei; Van Leeuwen, Martin; Romanczyk, Paul; van Aardt, Jan; Kelbe, David

    2016-07-14

    In support of NASA’s next-generation spectrometer—the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI)—we are working towards assessing sub-pixel vegetation structure from imaging spectroscopy data. Of particular interest is Leaf Area Index (LAI), which is an informative, yet notoriously challenging parameter to efficiently measure in situ. While photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR) sensors have been validated for measuring crop LAI, there is limited literature on the efficacy of PAR-based LAI measurement in the forest environment. This study (i) validates PAR-based LAI measurement in forest environments, and (ii) proposes a suitable collection protocol, which balances efficiency with measurement variation, e.g., due to sun flecks and various-sized canopymore » gaps. A synthetic PAR sensor model was developed in the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model and used to validate LAI measurement based on first-principles and explicitly-known leaf geometry. Simulated collection parameters were adjusted to empirically identify optimal collection protocols. Furthermore, these collection protocols were then validated in the field by correlating PAR-based LAI measurement to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) extracted from the “classic” Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-C) data (R2 was 0.61). The results indicate that our proposed collecting protocol is suitable for measuring the LAI of sparse forest (LAI < 3–5 ( m2/m2)).« less

  8. Protease-activated receptors (PARs) in cancer: Novel biased signaling and targets for therapy.

    PubMed

    Bar-Shavit, R; Maoz, M; Kancharla, A; Jaber, M; Agranovich, D; Grisaru-Granovsky, S; Uziely, B

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate numerous physiological processes and represent targets for therapeutics for a vast array of diseases, their role in tumor biology is under appreciated. Protease-activated receptors (PARs) form a family which belongs to GPCR class A. PAR1&2 emerge with a central role in epithelial malignancies. Although the part of PAR1&2 in cancer is on the rise, their underlying signaling events are poorly understood. We review hereby past, present, and future cancer-associated PAR biology. Mainly, their role in physiological (placenta-cytotophobalst) and patho-physiological invasion processes. The identification and characterization of signal pleckstrin homology (PH)-domain-binding motifs established critical sites for breast cancer growth in PAR1&2. Among the proteins found to harbor important PH-domains and are involved in PAR biology are Akt/PKB as also Etk/Bmx and Vav3. A point mutation in PAR2, H349A, but not R352A, abrogated PH-protein association and is sufficient to markedly reduce PAR2-instigated breast tumor growth in vivo as also placental extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion in vitro is markedly reduced. Similarly, the PAR1 mutant hPar1-7A, which is unable to bind PH-domain, inhibits mammary tumors and EVT invasion, endowing these motifs with physiological significance and underscoring the importance of these previously unknown PAR1 and PAR2 PH-domain-binding motifs in both pathological and physiological invasion processes. PMID:26928551

  9. Streptococcal SpeB Cleaved PAR-1 Suppresses ERK Phosphorylation and Blunts Thrombin-Induced Platelet Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Ender, Miriam; Andreoni, Federica; Zinkernagel, Annelies Sophie; Schuepbach, Reto Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background The family of 4 related protease-activated receptors (PAR-1, 2, 3 & 4) expressed by mammalian cells allow to sense for and react to extracellular proteolytic activity. Since major human bacterial pathogens secret a wide array of protease(-s) we investigated whether they interfere with human PAR function. Methodology/Principal Findings Supernatants from cultures of major human bacterial pathogens were assayed for the presence of protease(-s) capable to cleave overexpressed human PAR-1, 2, 3 and 4 reporter constructs. Group A streptococcus (GAS) was found to secret a PAR-1-cleaving protease. Experiments involving genetical and pharmacological gain and loss of function identified streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B SpeB as the protease responsible. On the host’s side analysis of overexpressed PAR-1 carrying alanine substitutions and deletions showed the amino acid residue leucine44 on PAR-1’s extracellular N-terminus to be the only cleavage site. Complementary studies on endogenously expressed PAR-1 using PAR-1 blocking antibodies further supported our conclusion. Through PAR-1 cleavage SpeB efficiently blunted thrombin-induced induction of the ERK-pathway in endothelial cells and prevented platelets aggregation in response to thrombin. Conclusions/Significance Our results identify a novel function of the streptococcal virulence factor SpeB. By cleaving human PAR-1 at the N-terminal amino acid residue leucine44 SpeB rendered endothelial cells unresponsive to thrombin and prevented human platelets from thrombin-induced aggregation. These results suggest that by blunting PAR-1 signaling, SpeB modulates various innate host responses directed against invasive GAS potentially helping the invasive bacteria to escape. This may allow to tailor additional treatments in the future since upon invasion of the blood stream endothelial cells as well as platelets and mononuclear cells respond to PAR-1 agonists aiming to prevent further bacterial dissemination. PMID

  10. Prescription d’examens de santé préventifs par des résidents en médecine familiale

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Daisy; Schabort, Inge; MacLean, Catherine A.; Asrar, Farhan M.; Khory, Ayesha; Vandermeer, Ben; Michael Allan, G.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Déterminer quels sont les examens de dépistage prescrits par les résidents en médecine familiale dans le cadre des soins de santé préventifs. Conception Une enquête transversale. Contexte Alberta et Ontario. Participants Résidents en médecine familiale de première et de deuxième année à l’Université de l’Alberta à Edmonton, à l’Université de Calgary en Alberta et à l’Université McMaster à Hamilton en Ontario, durant l’année universitaire 2011–2012. Principaux paramètres d’évaluation Données démographiques, scores à l’échelle de Likert évaluant les habitudes de prescription et sélections parmi une liste de 38 examens pouvant être prescrits en soins préventifs à un échantillon de patients de sexe féminin et masculin de 38 et de 55 ans. Les statistiques descriptives et comparatives ont été calculées. Résultats Au total, 318 résidents sur 482 (66 %) ont répondu au sondage. Les examens recommandés ou appropriés ont été prescrits par 82 % (pour la cytologie cervicale) à 95 % (pour la glycémie à jeun) des résidents. Parmi les différents patients de l’échantillon, les résidents ont prescrit en moyenne 3,3 à 5,7 examens inappropriés par patient, et 58 à 92 % ont prescrit au moins 1 examen inapproprié par patient. Les coûts excédentaires moyens ont été estimés à 38,39 $ pour un homme de 38 ans et à 106,46 $ pour une femme de 55 ans. Le recours plus fréquent à une grille de référence des examens médicaux périodiques n’a pas amélioré la situation (p = 0,88). Conclusion En général, les résidents ont raisonnablement bien prescrit les examens médicaux préventifs appropriés, mais ils ont aussi prescrit en moyenne 3,3 à 5,7 examens inappropriés à chaque patient. Les programmes de formation doivent mieux préparer les étudiants à reconnaître le dépistage approprié et doivent s’efforcer d’inculquer des comportements de prescription exemplaires avant que les r

  11. Hook2, a microtubule-binding protein, interacts with Par6α and controls centrosome orientation during polarized cell migration.

    PubMed

    Pallesi-Pocachard, Emilie; Bazellieres, Elsa; Viallat-Lieutaud, Annelise; Delgrossi, Marie-Hélène; Barthelemy-Requin, Magali; Le Bivic, André; Massey-Harroche, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Polarity protein complexes function during polarized cell migration and a subset of these proteins localizes to the reoriented centrosome during this process. Despite these observations, the mechanisms behind the recruitment of these polarity complexes such as the aPKC/PAR6α complex to the centrosome are not well understood. Here we identify Hook2 as an interactor for the aPKC/PAR6α complex that functions to localize this complex at the centrosome. We first demonstrate that Hook2 is essential for the polarized Golgi re-orientation towards the migration front. Depletion of Hook2 results in a decrease of PAR6α at the centrosome during cell migration, while overexpression of Hook2 in cells induced the formation of aggresomes with the recruitment of PAR6α, aPKC and PAR3. In addition, we demonstrate that the interaction between the C-terminal domain of Hook2 and the aPKC-binding domain of PAR6α localizes PAR6α to the centrosome during cell migration. Our data suggests that Hook2, a microtubule binding protein, plays an important role in the regulation of PAR6α recruitment to the centrosome to bridge microtubules and the aPKC/PAR complex. This data reveals how some of the polarity protein complexes are recruited to the centrosome and might regulate pericentriolar and microtubule organization and potentially impact on polarized migration. PMID:27624926

  12. Substituted indoles as selective protease activated receptor 4 (PAR-4) antagonists: Discovery and SAR of ML354.

    PubMed

    Wen, Wandong; Young, Summer E; Duvernay, Matthew T; Schulte, Michael L; Nance, Kellie D; Melancon, Bruce J; Engers, Julie; Locuson, Charles W; Wood, Michael R; Daniels, J Scott; Wu, Wenjun; Lindsley, Craig W; Hamm, Heidi E; Stauffer, Shaun R

    2014-10-01

    Herein we report the discovery and SAR of an indole-based protease activated receptor-4 (PAR-4) antagonist scaffold derived from a similarity search of the Vanderbilt HTS collection, leading to MLPCN probe ML354 (VU0099704). Using a novel PAC-1 fluorescent αIIbβ3 activation assay this probe molecule antagonist was found to have an IC50 of 140nM for PAR-4 with 71-fold selectivity versus PAR-1 (PAR-1IC50=10μM). PMID:25176330

  13. Identificabilidade e estabilidade dos parâmetros no método Grade of Membership (GoM): considerações metodológicas e práticas

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Caetano, André Junqueira; Machado, Carla Jorge; Brondízio, Eduardo Sonewend

    2011-01-01

    O método Grade of Membership (GoM) tem sido cada vez mais utilizado por demógrafos brasileiros e tem a vantagem de possuir um parâmetro que mensura a heterogeneidade individual, com base nas correlações não-observáveis entre as categorias de resposta das variáveis de interesse, gerando um medida do grau de pertencimento de cada indivíduo a perfis extremos. Alguns autores, contudo, chamam atenção para questões importantes na calibragem dos modelos finais que utilizam o programa GoM versão 3.4, como o problema de identificabilidade – soluções múltiplas para parâmetros estimados. Neste artigo, é sugerido um procedimento capaz de identificar um modelo final com solução única que descreva os tipos puros mais fidedignos à base de dados, em uma tentativa de otimização. Para ilustrar esse processo, utilizou-se uma base de dados correspondente a um levantamento econômico e sociodemográfico de uma população de pequenos agricultores residentes ao longo da Rodovia Transamazônica, no Estado do Pará. Também identificou-se a existência de instabilidade nos parâmetros estimados pelo programa GoM 3.4, sendo proposto um método de estabilização de seus valores. Com esses procedimentos combinados, os usuários do programa GoM 3.4 poderão descrever sua base de dados de forma mais adequada e responder às críticas sobre questões de identificabilidade e estabilidade dos modelos resultantes. Essas soluções empíricas são relevantes por afetarem cálculos de prevalência e de incidência de eventos de interesse, além de trazerem consequências importantes sobre o ponto e o momento corretos para intervenções de políticas públicas ou de planejamento prospectivo em análises de projeção. PMID:21709732

  14. Potential Ecological Effects of Contaminants in the Exposed Par Pond Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-08-01

    Sediment and small mammal samples were collected from the exposed sediments of Par Pond in early 1995, shortly before the reservoir was refilled after a 4-year drawdown. Sampling was confined to elevations between 58 and 61 meters (190 and 200 feet) above mean sea level, which includes the sediments likely to be exposed if the Par Pond water level is permitted to fluctuate naturally. Both soil and small mammal samples were analyzed for a number of radionuclides and metals. Some of the soil samples were also analyzed for organic contaminants. The objective of the study was to determine if contaminant levels in the Par Pond sediments were high enough to cause deleterious ecological effects.

  15. Paraplégie compliquant une plaie abdominale antérieure par arme blanche

    PubMed Central

    Elahmadi, Brahim; Awab, Almahdi; El Moussaoui, Rachid; El Hijri, Ahmed; Azzouzi, Abderrahim; Alilou, Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    Les traumatismes médullaires sont des complications rares des plaies abdominales antérieures par arme blanche. Son diagnostic est difficile parfois retardé. L'imagerie par résonance magnétique reste l'examen de choix. Le traitement dépend du tableau clinique et de la gravité de la souffrance médullaire. Le pronostic est corrélé à l’étendue et à la nature de la lésion médullaire. Nous rapportons un cas exceptionnel d'un traumatisme médullaire chez une patiente victime d'une plaie abdominale antérieure par arme blanche. PMID:25995808

  16. Expression of uPAR in human trophoblast and its role in trophoblast invasion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuai; Zheng, Qin; Cui, Xin-Yuan; Dai, Kui-Xing; Yang, Xue-Song; Li, Fa-Sheng; Yan, Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Placental trophoblast cells differentiate into invasive trophoblasts or syncytiotrophoblasts. Abnormal trophoblast invasion results in pregnancy-associated disease and abortion. uPAR is a cell membrane-bound glycosylated protein, involved in physiological and pathological processes. However, uPAR expression in villi during threatened abortion and its role in trophoblast differentiation are unclear. We determined that, uPAR expression in the villi was reduced in threatened abortion patients than that in normal pregnancy. uPARsiRNA inhibited the potential for trophoblast migration and invasion in explants culture and HTR8/SVneo cells. It also enhanced forskolin-induced fusion of HTR8/SVneo cells. Overall, this study provides a possible reason for abortion. PMID:26823748

  17. Stress reaction of the pars interarticularis leading to spondylolysis. A cause of adolescent low back pain.

    PubMed

    Weir, M R; Smith, D S

    1989-11-01

    We report an adolescent with progression from a stress reaction of the pars interarticularis without radiographic findings, to radiographic fracture and spondylolysis, illustrating the evolution of spondylolysis in an athletically active early adolescent. Gymnastics, diving, pole vaulting, or collision/contact sports such as football, soccer, hockey, and la crosse are common sports with a disproportional frequency of spondylolysis. Rotational forces around the long axis of the spine with load bearing hyperextension are important in etiology. Low back pain in the active adolescent or preadolescent, even with normal oblique lumbar radiographs, may have a treatable origin--stress reaction or fracture of a lumbar pars interarticularis. Screening evaluation is the standing one-leg extension maneuver. Liberal use of nuclear studies for minimal back symptoms in athletic adolescents may help exclude this relatively common, potentially treatable condition, spondylolysis of the pars interarticularis. PMID:2532632

  18. Factor Xa stimulates fibroblast procollagen production, proliferation, and calcium signaling via PAR{sub 1} activation

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc-Brude, Olivier P. . E-mail: olivier.blanc-brude@larib.inserm.fr; Archer, Fabienne; Leoni, Patricia; Derian, Claudia; Bolsover, Steven; Laurent, Geoffrey J.; Chambers, Rachel C.

    2005-03-10

    Fibroblast proliferation and procollagen production are central features of tissue repair and fibrosis. In addition to its role in blood clotting, the coagulation cascade proteinase thrombin can contribute to tissue repair by stimulating fibroblasts via proteolytic activation of proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR{sub 1}). During hemostasis, the coagulation cascade proteinase factor X is converted into factor Xa. We have previously shown that factor Xa upregulates fibroblast proliferation via production of autocrine PDGF. In this study, we further examined the effects of factor Xa on fibroblast function and aimed to identify its signaling receptor. We showed that factor Xa stimulates procollagen promoter activity and protein production by human and mouse fibroblasts. This effect was independent of PDGF and thrombin production, but dependent on factor Xa proteolytic activity. We also showed that PAR{sub 1}-deficient mouse fibroblasts did not upregulate procollagen production, mobilize cytosolic calcium, or proliferate in response to factor Xa. Desensitization techniques and PAR{sub 1}-specific agonists and inhibitors were used to demonstrate that PAR{sub 1} mediates factor Xa signaling in human fibroblasts. This is the first report that factor Xa stimulates extracellular matrix production. In contrast with endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts appear to be the only cell type in which the effects of factor Xa are mediated mainly via PAR{sub 1} and not PAR{sub 2}. These findings are critical for our understanding of tissue repair and fibrotic mechanisms, and for the design of novel approaches to inhibit the profibrotic effects of the coagulation cascade without compromising blood hemostasis.

  19. First-in-human uPAR PET: Imaging of Cancer Aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Persson, Morten; Skovgaard, Dorthe; Brandt-Larsen, Malene; Christensen, Camilla; Madsen, Jacob; Nielsen, Carsten H; Thurison, Tine; Klausen, Thomas Levin; Holm, Søren; Loft, Annika; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Ploug, Michael; Pappot, Helle; Brasso, Klaus; Kroman, Niels; Højgaard, Liselotte; Kjaer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A first-in-human clinical trial with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in patients with breast, prostate and bladder cancer, is described. uPAR is expressed in many types of human cancers and the expression is predictive of invasion, metastasis and indicates poor prognosis. uPAR PET imaging therefore holds promise to be a new and innovative method for improved cancer diagnosis, staging and individual risk stratification. The uPAR specific peptide AE105 was conjugated to the macrocyclic chelator DOTA and labeled with (64)Cu for targeted molecular imaging with PET. The safety, pharmacokinetic, biodistribution profile and radiation dosimetry after a single intravenous dose of (64)Cu-DOTA-AE105 were assessed by serial PET and computed tomography (CT) in 4 prostate, 3 breast and 3 bladder cancer patients. Safety assessment with laboratory blood screening tests was performed before and after PET ligand injection. In a subgroup of the patients, the in vivo stability of our targeted PET ligand was determined in collected blood and urine. No adverse or clinically detectable side effects in any of the 10 patients were found. The ligand exhibited good in vivo stability and fast clearance from plasma and tissue compartments by renal excretion. In addition, high uptake in both primary tumor lesions and lymph node metastases was seen and paralleled high uPAR expression in excised tumor tissue. Overall, this first-in-human study therefore provides promising evidence for safe use of (64)Cu-DOTA-AE105 for uPAR PET imaging in cancer patients. PMID:26516369

  20. First-in-human uPAR PET: Imaging of Cancer Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Morten; Skovgaard, Dorthe; Brandt-Larsen, Malene; Christensen, Camilla; Madsen, Jacob; Nielsen, Carsten H.; Thurison, Tine; Klausen, Thomas Levin; Holm, Søren; Loft, Annika; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Ploug, Michael; Pappot, Helle; Brasso, Klaus; Kroman, Niels; Højgaard, Liselotte; Kjaer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A first-in-human clinical trial with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in patients with breast, prostate and bladder cancer, is described. uPAR is expressed in many types of human cancers and the expression is predictive of invasion, metastasis and indicates poor prognosis. uPAR PET imaging therefore holds promise to be a new and innovative method for improved cancer diagnosis, staging and individual risk stratification. The uPAR specific peptide AE105 was conjugated to the macrocyclic chelator DOTA and labeled with 64Cu for targeted molecular imaging with PET. The safety, pharmacokinetic, biodistribution profile and radiation dosimetry after a single intravenous dose of 64Cu-DOTA-AE105 were assessed by serial PET and computed tomography (CT) in 4 prostate, 3 breast and 3 bladder cancer patients. Safety assessment with laboratory blood screening tests was performed before and after PET ligand injection. In a subgroup of the patients, the in vivo stability of our targeted PET ligand was determined in collected blood and urine. No adverse or clinically detectable side effects in any of the 10 patients were found. The ligand exhibited good in vivo stability and fast clearance from plasma and tissue compartments by renal excretion. In addition, high uptake in both primary tumor lesions and lymph node metastases was seen and paralleled high uPAR expression in excised tumor tissue. Overall, this first-in-human study therefore provides promising evidence for safe use of 64Cu-DOTA-AE105 for uPAR PET imaging in cancer patients. PMID:26516369

  1. Parádsasvárite, a new member of the malachite-rosasite group from Parádsasvár, Mátra Mountains, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehér, Béla; Szakáll, Sándor; Zajzon, Norbert; Mihály, Judith

    2015-08-01

    Parádsasvárite (IMA No. 2012-077) was found in the Nagy-Lápafő area, Parádsasvár, Mátra Mountains, Hungary. It forms pale beige, globular aggregates up to 0.2 mm in diameter on calcite. Associated secondary minerals are smithsonite, hemimorphite, hydrozincite, aurichalcite and rosasite. The mineral was formed as an alteration product of sphalerite and chalcopyrite in a carbonate-rich environment. Parádsasvárite is translucent with a weakly vitreous, dull or silky lustre and white streak. Its Mohs hardness is about 2-3, cleavage and parting were not observed. It is brittle; the fracture is finely fibrous. Average of nine electron-microprobe analyses gave ZnO 58.08, CuO 12.60, PbO 1.27, CO2 (calc.) 19.50, H2O (calc.) 7.94, total 99.39 wt.%, corresponding to the empirical formula (Zn0.62Cu0.36Pb0.01)Σ0.99Zn1.00(CO3)(OH)2. The seven strongest lines in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern are [dhkl in Å (Iobs %, hkl)] 6.054 (67, 200), 5.085 (100, 210), 3.703 (87, 310 and 220), 3.021 (25, 400 and 130), 2.971 (25, -211 and 001), 2.603 (62, -221) and 2.539 (36, 420). According to its X-ray powder diffraction data and chemical formula, parádsasvárite belongs to the malachite-rosasite group and it is isostructural with rosasite. It is monoclinic, space group P21/ a, a = 12.92(1), b = 9.372(7), c = 3.159(4) Å, β = 110.4(1)°, V = 358.5(5) Å3, Z = 4.

  2. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring reports, second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    During second quarter 1992, the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were sampled for analyses required each quarter or annually by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13, 173. This report includes the results of those analyses. None of the analyzed constituents exceeded the Primary Drinking Water Standard or the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria at either the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site or the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site.

  3. PARma: identification of microRNA target sites in AGO-PAR-CLIP data.

    PubMed

    Erhard, Florian; Dölken, Lars; Jaskiewicz, Lukasz; Zimmer, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    PARma is a complete data analysis software for AGO-PAR-CLIP experiments to identify target sites of microRNAs as well as the microRNA binding to these sites. It integrates specific characteristics of the experiments into a generative model. The model and a novel pattern discovery tool are iteratively applied to data to estimate seed activity probabilities, cluster confidence scores and to assign the most probable microRNA. Based on differential PAR-CLIP analysis and comparison to RIP-Chip data, we show that PARma is more accurate than existing approaches. PARma is available from http://www.bio.ifi.lmu.de/PARma. PMID:23895117

  4. PARma: identification of microRNA target sites in AGO-PAR-CLIP data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    PARma is a complete data analysis software for AGO-PAR-CLIP experiments to identify target sites of microRNAs as well as the microRNA binding to these sites. It integrates specific characteristics of the experiments into a generative model. The model and a novel pattern discovery tool are iteratively applied to data to estimate seed activity probabilities, cluster confidence scores and to assign the most probable microRNA. Based on differential PAR-CLIP analysis and comparison to RIP-Chip data, we show that PARma is more accurate than existing approaches. PARma is available from http://www.bio.ifi.lmu.de/PARma PMID:23895117

  5. Using Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) Observations to Estimate Potential Evaporation with Combination Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Freyberg, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    Estimating potential evaporation with combination equations typically depends on observations of solar radiation. In situations where only photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) observations are available, a conversion model is required. We use coincident observations of solar radiation and PAR to build a conversion model for the Santa Cruz Mountains region of California, USA. The model takes advantage of the strong seasonality in cloud cover and albedo, using two seasonal sub-models to improve performance. We examine the uncertainty induced by model error in predictions of potential evaporation and reference crop evaporation using locally calibrated combination equations, and compare with direct observations of pan evaporation and inferred estimates of lake evaporation.

  6. La symphysite pubienne du post-partum: un diagnostic difficile

    PubMed Central

    Kehila, Mehdi; Majdoub, Manel; Zegha, Dorra; Khedher, Sonia Ben; Cheour, Elhem; Mahjoub, Sami

    2013-01-01

    La symphysite pubienne est une localisation rare de l'arthrite septique. Son association à la grossesse est exceptionnelle. Nous rapportons un cas de symphysite pubienne survenant dans les suites d'un accouchement par voie basse. Le diagnostic est difficile en post-partum. Il faut savoir l'évoquer devant toute douleur pubienne atypique dans sa présentation ou dans son évolution. Le diagnostic doit être posé de façon précoce car l'évolution peut se faire dans le cas contraire vers la chronicité. PMID:24498463

  7. [Hemorrhagic form of dengue fever observed at the Infectious Diseases Department CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo, Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Mamoudou, Savadogo; Boushab, Boushab Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a re-emerging arboviral disease in tropical countries. Haemorrhagic form may be associated with circulatory failure and produce hypovolemic shock, which is often fatal. We report a series of three cases of hemorrhagic dengue observed at the Infectious Diseases Department CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo, Ouagadougou, in order to describe its epidemiological, clinical, and evolutive characteristics. Our study included young females who had an onset age of between 35 years and 45 years, residing in the city of Ouagadougou. Despite multiple concentrated platelets transfusions and symptomatic treatment, we mourned a death. The development of antivirals and of new vaccines is a silver lining to prevent dengue lethality. PMID:27303584

  8. MtPAR MYB transcription factor acts as an on switch for proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Verdier, Jerome; Zhao, Jian; Torres-Jerez, Ivone; Ge, Shujun; Liu, Chenggang; He, Xianzhi; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Dixon, Richard A; Udvardi, Michael K

    2012-01-31

    MtPAR (Medicago truncatula proanthocyanidin regulator) is an MYB family transcription factor that functions as a key regulator of proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis in the model legume Medicago truncatula. MtPAR expression is confined to the seed coat, the site of PA accumulation. Loss-of-function par mutants contained substantially less PA in the seed coat than the wild type, whereas levels of anthocyanin and other specialized metabolites were normal in the mutants. In contrast, massive accumulation of PAs occurred when MtPAR was expressed ectopically in transformed hairy roots of Medicago. Transcriptome analysis of par mutants and MtPAR-expressing hairy roots, coupled with yeast one-hybrid analysis, revealed that MtPAR positively regulates genes encoding enzymes of the flavonoid-PA pathway via a probable activation of WD40-1. Expression of MtPAR in the forage legume alfalfa (Medicago sativa) resulted in detectable levels of PA in shoots, highlighting the potential of this gene for biotechnological strategies to increase PAs in forage legumes for reduction of pasture bloat in ruminant animals. PMID:22307644

  9. The Rac-GAP Bcr is a novel regulator of the Par complex that controls cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Anjana S.; Reyes, Steve B.; Um, Kyongmi; McCarty, Joseph H.; Tolias, Kimberley F.

    2013-01-01

    Cell polarization is essential for many biological processes, including directed cell migration, and loss of polarity contributes to pathological conditions such as cancer. The Par complex (Par3, Par6, and PKCζ) controls cell polarity in part by recruiting the Rac-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor T-lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (Tiam1) to specialized cellular sites, where Tiam1 promotes local Rac1 activation and cytoskeletal remodeling. However, the mechanisms that restrict Par-Tiam1 complex activity to the leading edge to maintain cell polarity during migration remain unclear. We identify the Rac-specific GTPase-activating protein (GAP) breakpoint cluster region protein (Bcr) as a novel regulator of the Par-Tiam1 complex. We show that Bcr interacts with members of the Par complex and inhibits both Rac1 and PKCζ signaling. Loss of Bcr results in faster, more random migration and striking polarity defects in astrocytes. These polarity defects are rescued by reducing PKCζ activity or by expressing full-length Bcr, but not an N-terminal deletion mutant or the homologous Rac-GAP, Abr, both of which fail to associate with the Par complex. These results demonstrate that Bcr is an integral member of the Par-Tiam1 complex that controls polarized cell migration by locally restricting both Rac1 and PKCζ function. PMID:24152735

  10. aPKC Inhibition by Par3 CR3 Flanking Regions Controls Substrate Access and Underpins Apical-Junctional Polarization.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Erika V; Ivanova, Marina E; Fletcher, Georgina; Riou, Philippe; Knowles, Philip P; Barnouin, Karin; Purkiss, Andrew; Kostelecky, Brenda; Saiu, Peter; Linch, Mark; Elbediwy, Ahmed; Kjær, Svend; O'Reilly, Nicola; Snijders, Ambrosius P; Parker, Peter J; Thompson, Barry J; McDonald, Neil Q

    2016-08-22

    Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) is a key apical-basal polarity determinant and Par complex component. It is recruited by Par3/Baz (Bazooka in Drosophila) into epithelial apical domains through high-affinity interaction. Paradoxically, aPKC also phosphorylates Par3/Baz, provoking its relocalization to adherens junctions (AJs). We show that Par3 conserved region 3 (CR3) forms a tight inhibitory complex with a primed aPKC kinase domain, blocking substrate access. A CR3 motif flanking its PKC consensus site disrupts the aPKC kinase N lobe, separating P-loop/αB/αC contacts. A second CR3 motif provides a high-affinity anchor. Mutation of either motif switches CR3 to an efficient in vitro substrate by exposing its phospho-acceptor site. In vivo, mutation of either CR3 motif alters Par3/Baz localization from apical to AJs. Our results reveal how Par3/Baz CR3 can antagonize aPKC in stable apical Par complexes and suggests that modulation of CR3 inhibitory arms or opposing aPKC pockets would perturb the interaction, promoting Par3/Baz phosphorylation. PMID:27554858

  11. Loss of Hep Par 1 immunoreactivity in the livers of patients with carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Maki; Kataoka, Tatsuki R; Shibayama, Takahiro; Fukuda, Akinari; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Minamiguchi, Sachiko; Sakurai, Takaki; Miyagawa-Hayashino, Aya; Yorifuji, Toru; Kasahara, Mureo; Uemoto, Shinji; Haga, Hironori

    2016-06-01

    The hepatocyte paraffin 1 (Hep Par 1) antibody is widely used as a hepatocyte marker, recognizing carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1), an essential component of the urea cycle. Various missense, nonsense, and frameshift mutations occur in the CPS1 gene. In neonatal patients with homozygous CPS1 deficiency (CPS1D), urea cycle defects with resulting severe hyperammonemia can be fatal, though liver transplantation provides a complete cure for CPS1D. We performed Hep Par 1 immunostaining in the explanted livers of 10 liver transplant patients with CPS1D. Seven were negative for Hep Par 1 in the hepatocytes and the other three showed normal diffuse granular cytoplasmic staining. As expected, all three Hep Par 1-positive patients had at least one missense mutation, and all four patients who had only nonsense or frameshift mutations were Hep Par 1-negative. The other three patients were unexpectedly negative for Hep Par 1, even though each had one missense mutation. These results suggest that CPS1D can be related to the loss of Hep Par 1 reactivity due to the loss of protein production, a one amino acid substitution resulting in an abortive protein product, or both. Hep Par 1 immunohistochemistry can be used as a simple method to confirm CPS1D. PMID:27150549

  12. Plant-derived SAC domain of PAR-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4) exhibits growth inhibitory effects in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Shayan; Jain, Sumeet; Rai, Vineeta; Sahoo, Dipak K.; Raha, Sumita; Suklabaidya, Sujit; Senapati, Shantibhusan; Rangnekar, Vivek M.; Maiti, Indu B.; Dey, Nrisingha

    2015-01-01

    The gene Par-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4) was originally identified in prostate cancer cells undergoing apoptosis and its product Par-4 showed cancer specific pro-apoptotic activity. Particularly, the SAC domain of Par-4 (SAC-Par-4) selectively kills cancer cells leaving normal cells unaffected. The therapeutic significance of bioactive SAC-Par-4 is enormous in cancer biology; however, its large scale production is still a matter of concern. Here we report the production of SAC-Par-4-GFP fusion protein coupled to translational enhancer sequence (5′ AMV) and apoplast signal peptide (aTP) in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN plants under the control of a unique recombinant promoter M24. Transgene integration was confirmed by genomic DNA PCR, Southern and Northern blotting, Real-time PCR, and Nuclear run-on assays. Results of Western blot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP protein and it was as high as 0.15% of total soluble protein. In addition, we found that targeting of plant recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP to the apoplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was essential for the stability of plant recombinant protein in comparison to the bacterial derived SAC-Par-4. Deglycosylation analysis demonstrated that ER-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP-SEKDEL undergoes O-linked glycosylation unlike apoplast-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP. Furthermore, various in vitro studies like mammalian cells proliferation assay (MTT), apoptosis induction assays, and NF-κB suppression suggested the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of plant-derived SAC-Par-4-GFP against multiple prostate cancer cell lines. Additionally, pre-treatment of MAT-LyLu prostate cancer cells with purified SAC-Par-4-GFP significantly delayed the onset of tumor in a syngeneic rat prostate cancer model. Taken altogether, we proclaim that plant made SAC-Par-4 may become a useful alternate therapy for effectively alleviating cancer in the new era. PMID:26500666

  13. Reemergence of vaccinia virus during Zoonotic outbreak, Pará State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Assis, Felipe L; Vinhote, Wagner M; Barbosa, José D; de Oliveira, Cairo H S; de Oliveira, Carlos M G; Campos, Karinny F; Silva, Natália S; Trindade, Giliane de Souza

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, vaccinia virus caused an outbreak of bovine vaccinia that affected dairy cattle and rural workers in Pará State, Brazil. Genetic analyses identified the virus as distinct from BeAn58058 vaccinia virus (identified in 1960s) and from smallpox vaccine virus strains. These findings suggest spread of autochthonous group 1 vaccinia virus in this region. PMID:24274374

  14. Extending from PARs in Caenorhabditis elegans to homologues in Haemonchus contortus and other parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, S; Gasser, R B

    2007-04-01

    Signal transduction molecules play key roles in the regulation of developmental processes, such as morphogenesis, organogenesis and cell differentiation in all organisms. They are organized into 'pathways' that represent a coordinated network of cell-surface receptors and intracellular molecules, being involved in sensing environmental stimuli and transducing signals to regulate or modulate cellular processes, such as gene expression and cytoskeletal dynamics. A particularly important group of molecules implicated in the regulation of the cytoskeleton for the establishment and maintenance of cell polarity is the PAR proteins (derived from partition defective in asymmetric cell division). The present article reviews salient aspects of PAR proteins involved in the early embryonic development and morphogenesis of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and some other organisms, with an emphasis on the molecule PAR-1. Recent advances in the knowledge and understanding of PAR-1 homologues from the economically important parasitic nematode, Haemonchus contortus, of small ruminants is summarized and discussed in the context of exploring avenues for future research in this area for parasitic nematodes. PMID:17107637

  15. Crystal Structure of Thrombin Bound to the Uncleaved Extracellular Fragment of PAR1

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhi, Prafull S.; Chen, Zhiwei; Di Cera, Enrico

    2010-05-11

    Abundant structural information exists on how thrombin recognizes ligands at the active site or at exosites separate from the active site region, but remarkably little is known about how thrombin recognizes substrates that bridge both the active site and exosite I. The case of the protease-activated receptor PAR1 is particularly relevant in view of the plethora of biological effects associated with its activation by thrombin. Here, we present the 1.8 {angstrom} resolution structure of thrombin S195A in complex with a 30-residue long uncleaved extracellular fragment of PAR1 that documents for the first time a productive binding mode bridging the active site and exosite I. The structure reveals two unexpected features of the thrombin-PAR1 interaction. The acidic P3 residue of PAR1, Asp{sup 39}, does not hinder binding to the active site and actually makes favorable interactions with Gly{sup 219} of thrombin. The tethered ligand domain shows a considerable degree of disorder even when bound to thrombin. The results fill a significant gap in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of recognition by thrombin in ways that are relevant to other physiological substrates.

  16. INHIBITION OF PS II PHOTOCHEMISTRY BY PAR AND UV RADIATION IN NATURAL PHYTOPLANKTON COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of PAR and UV radiation on PS II photochemistry were examined in natural phytoplankton communities from coastal waters off Rhode Island (USA) and the subtropical Pacific. he photochemical energy conversion efficiency, the functional absorption cross section and the ki...

  17. [Attenuation of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) in Meiliang Bay under different winds and waves].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunlin; Qin, Boqiang; Chen, Weimin; Hu, Weiping; Gao, Guang; Zhu, Guangwei; Luo, Liancong

    2005-06-01

    Based on the successive underwater irradiance measurement in situ from Jul. 12 to 17 in 2003, the attenuation of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) and euphotic depth in Meiliang Bay were analyzed under different winds and waves. The results showed that the downward PAR attenuation coefficients ranged from 2.63 to 4.7 m(-1), with an average of 3.63 +/- 0.47 x m(-1), and the corresponding euphotic depth ranged from 0.98 to 1.75 m, with an average of 1.29 +/- 0.18 m, which demonstrated that phytoplankton and macrophyte could not grow below 1.5 m due to the lack of adequate solar radiation. The total suspended solids resulted from wind and wave increased the attenuation of light, with the downward attenuation coefficients of PAR being 2.63, 3.72 and 4.37 x m(-1) under small, medium and large wind and wave, respectively. Significant linear correlations were found between transparence, PAR attenuation coefficient, euphotic depth and total suspended solid, especially inorganic suspended solid, while chlorophyll a was the most nonsignificant light attenuator. Multiple stepwise linear regressions showed that inorganic suspended solid was the most important light attenuator dominating the light attenuation in wind-exposed Meiliang Bay. PMID:16180769

  18. CALiPER Report 20.3: Robustness of LED PAR38 Lamps

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-12-30

    A small sample of each of the CALiPER Application Summary Report 20 PAR38 lamp types underwent stress testing that included substantial temperature and humidity changes, electrical variation, and vibration. The results do not directly address expected lifetime, but can be compared with one another, as well as with benchmark conventional products, to assess the relative robustness of the product designs.

  19. Bayesian hidden Markov models to identify RNA-protein interaction sites in PAR-CLIP.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jonghyun; Wang, Tao; Xiao, Guanghua

    2014-06-01

    The photoactivatable ribonucleoside enhanced cross-linking immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) has been increasingly used for the global mapping of RNA-protein interaction sites. There are two key features of the PAR-CLIP experiments: The sequence read tags are likely to form an enriched peak around each RNA-protein interaction site; and the cross-linking procedure is likely to introduce a specific mutation in each sequence read tag at the interaction site. Several ad hoc methods have been developed to identify the RNA-protein interaction sites using either sequence read counts or mutation counts alone; however, rigorous statistical methods for analyzing PAR-CLIP are still lacking. In this article, we propose an integrative model to establish a joint distribution of observed read and mutation counts. To pinpoint the interaction sites at single base-pair resolution, we developed a novel modeling approach that adopts non-homogeneous hidden Markov models to incorporate the nucleotide sequence at each genomic location. Both simulation studies and data application showed that our method outperforms the ad hoc methods, and provides reliable inferences for the RNA-protein binding sites from PAR-CLIP data. PMID:24571656

  20. Cortical PAR polarity proteins promote robust cytokinesis during asymmetric cell division.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Shawn N; Davies, Tim; Zhuravlev, Yelena; Dumont, Julien; Shirasu-Hiza, Mimi; Canman, Julie C

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinesis, the physical division of one cell into two, is thought to be fundamentally similar in most animal cell divisions and driven by the constriction of a contractile ring positioned and controlled solely by the mitotic spindle. During asymmetric cell divisions, the core polarity machinery (partitioning defective [PAR] proteins) controls the unequal inheritance of key cell fate determinants. Here, we show that in asymmetrically dividing Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, the cortical PAR proteins (including the small guanosine triphosphatase CDC-42) have an active role in regulating recruitment of a critical component of the contractile ring, filamentous actin (F-actin). We found that the cortical PAR proteins are required for the retention of anillin and septin in the anterior pole, which are cytokinesis proteins that our genetic data suggest act as inhibitors of F-actin at the contractile ring. Collectively, our results suggest that the cortical PAR proteins coordinate the establishment of cell polarity with the physical process of cytokinesis during asymmetric cell division to ensure the fidelity of daughter cell formation. PMID:26728855

  1. Cortical PAR polarity proteins promote robust cytokinesis during asymmetric cell division

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Shawn N.; Davies, Tim; Zhuravlev, Yelena; Dumont, Julien; Shirasu-Hiza, Mimi

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinesis, the physical division of one cell into two, is thought to be fundamentally similar in most animal cell divisions and driven by the constriction of a contractile ring positioned and controlled solely by the mitotic spindle. During asymmetric cell divisions, the core polarity machinery (partitioning defective [PAR] proteins) controls the unequal inheritance of key cell fate determinants. Here, we show that in asymmetrically dividing Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, the cortical PAR proteins (including the small guanosine triphosphatase CDC-42) have an active role in regulating recruitment of a critical component of the contractile ring, filamentous actin (F-actin). We found that the cortical PAR proteins are required for the retention of anillin and septin in the anterior pole, which are cytokinesis proteins that our genetic data suggest act as inhibitors of F-actin at the contractile ring. Collectively, our results suggest that the cortical PAR proteins coordinate the establishment of cell polarity with the physical process of cytokinesis during asymmetric cell division to ensure the fidelity of daughter cell formation. PMID:26728855

  2. Participation and Participatory Action Research (PAR) in Environmental Education Processes: For What Are People Empowered?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grange, Lesley

    2009-01-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) derived from anti-colonial struggles in the third world in the 1960s. Traditionally it has been a method of the margins because of its commitment to linking social justice to research. Because of its counter-hegemonic tendency it has had great appeal among environmental educators advocating a socially critical…

  3. ParCYCLIC: finite element modelling of earthquake liquefaction response on parallel computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jun; Lu, Jinchi; Law, Kincho H.; Elgamal, Ahmed

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents the computational procedures and solution strategy employed in ParCYCLIC, a parallel non-linear finite element program developed based on an existing serial code CYCLIC for the analysis of cyclic seismically-induced liquefaction problems. In ParCYCLIC, finite elements are employed within an incremental plasticity, coupled solid-fluid formulation. A constitutive model developed for simulating liquefaction-induced deformations is a main component of this analysis framework. The elements of the computational strategy, designed for distributed-memory message-passing parallel computer systems, include: (a) an automatic domain decomposer to partition the finite element mesh; (b) nodal ordering strategies to minimize storage space for the matrix coefficients; (c) an efficient scheme for the allocation of sparse matrix coefficients among the processors; and (d) a parallel sparse direct solver. Application of ParCYCLIC to simulate 3-D geotechnical experimental models is demonstrated. The computational results show excellent parallel performance and scalability of ParCYCLIC on parallel computers with a large number of processors. Copyright

  4. Leuconychie transversale induite par la manucurie: y a-t-il un apport de la dermoscopie?

    PubMed Central

    Gallouj, Salim; Mernissi, Fatima Zahra

    2014-01-01

    La leuconychie transversale induite par la manucurie est une leuconychie secondaire au microtraumatisme transmis à la matrice unguéale. Nous rapportant une observation où la dermoscopie avait un intérêt considérable pour l'orientation diagnostic. PMID:25368728

  5. The Utility of Clinicians Ratings of Anxiety Using the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Keeton, Courtney P.; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Riddle, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Clinician ratings of anxiety hold the promise of clarifying discrepancies often found between child and parent reports of anxiety. The Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) is a clinician-administered instrument that assesses the frequency, severity, and impairment of common pediatric anxiety disorders and has been used as a primary outcome…

  6. Appropriately Targeting Group Interventions for Academic Success Adopting the Clinical Model and PAR Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Craig W.; Johnson, Ronald; Steigman, Michael; Odo, Chioma; Vijayan, Suvendra; Tata, Devadatta V.

    2016-01-01

    Prevalence of academic risk (PAR) group profiles provide data enabling empirically based group-specialized prescriptions for targeted academic success interventions to increase student retention, completion, and graduation rates, while improving allocation of institutional resources. Postsecondary student attrition engenders student debt,…

  7. Serum uPAR as Biomarker in Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Mathematical Model

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Wenrui; Friedman, Avner

    2016-01-01

    There are currently over 2.5 million breast cancer survivors in the United States and, according to the American Cancer Society, 10 to 20 percent of these women will develop recurrent breast cancer. Early detection of recurrence can avoid unnecessary radical treatment. However, self-examination or mammography screening may not discover a recurring cancer if the number of surviving cancer cells is small, while biopsy is too invasive and cannot be frequently repeated. It is therefore important to identify non-invasive biomarkers that can detect early recurrence. The present paper develops a mathematical model of cancer recurrence. The model, based on a system of partial differential equations, focuses on tissue biomarkers that include the plasminogen system. Among them, only uPAR is known to have significant correlation to its concentration in serum and could therefore be a good candidate for serum biomarker. The model includes uPAR and other associated cytokines and cells. It is assumed that the residual cancer cells that survived primary cancer therapy are concentrated in the same location within a region with a very small diameter. Model simulations establish a quantitative relation between the diameter of the growing cancer and the total uPAR mass in the cancer. This relation is used to identify uPAR as a potential serum biomarker for breast cancer recurrence. PMID:27078836

  8. The interaction between uPAR and vitronectin triggers ligand-independent adhesion signalling by integrins

    PubMed Central

    Ferraris, Gian Maria Sarra; Schulte, Carsten; Buttiglione, Valentina; De Lorenzi, Valentina; Piontini, Andrea; Galluzzi, Massimiliano; Podestà, Alessandro; Madsen, Chris D; Sidenius, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a non-integrin vitronectin (VN) cell adhesion receptor linked to the plasma membrane by a glycolipid anchor. Through structure–function analyses of uPAR, VN and integrins, we document that uPAR-mediated cell adhesion to VN triggers a novel type of integrin signalling that is independent of integrin–matrix engagement. The signalling is fully active on VN mutants deficient in integrin binding site and is also efficiently transduced by integrins deficient in ligand binding. Although integrin ligation is dispensable, signalling is crucially dependent upon an active conformation of the integrin and its association with intracellular adaptors such as talin. This non-canonical integrin signalling is not restricted to uPAR as it poses no structural constraints to the receptor mediating cell attachment. In contrast to canonical integrin signalling, where integrins form direct mechanical links between the ECM and the cytoskeleton, the molecular mechanism enabling the crosstalk between non-integrin adhesion receptors and integrins is dependent upon membrane tension. This suggests that for this type of signalling, the membrane represents a critical component of the molecular clutch. PMID:25168639

  9. Protease Activated Receptor-1 (PAR-1) Mediated Platelet Aggregation is Dependant on Clopidogrel Response

    PubMed Central

    Kreutz, Rolf P.; Breall, Jeffrey A.; Kreutz, Yvonne; Owens, Janelle; Lu, Deshun; Bolad, Islam; von der Lohe, Elisabeth; Sinha, Anjan; Flockhart, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Clopidogrel inhibits ADP mediated platelet aggregation through inhibition of the P2Y12 receptor by its active metabolite. Thrombin induces platelet aggregation by binding to protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), and inhibition of PAR-1 has been evaluated in patients treated with clopidogrel to reduce ischemic events after acute coronary syndromes. Residual PAR-1 mediated platelet aggregation may be dependent on extent of clopidogrel response. Material and Methods Platelet aggregation was measured in 55 patients undergoing elective PCI at 16-24 hours after 600mg clopidogrel loading dose by light transmittance aggregometry using ADP 20μM and thrombin receptor agonist peptide (TRAP) at 15 μM and 25 μM as agonists. Genomic DNA was genotyped for common CYP2C19 variants. Results Increasing quartiles of 20 μM ADP induced platelet aggregation after clopidogrel loading were associated with increasing levels of TRAP mediated platelet aggregation. Patients in the highest quartile (clopidogrel non-responders) of post treatment ADP aggregation had significantly higher TRAP mediated aggregation than the patients in the lowest quartile (clopidogrel responders) [TRAP 15 μM: 79.6±5% vs. 69.5±8%, p<0.001]. Conclusions Non-responders to clopidogrel show increased residual platelet aggregation induced by TRAP, whereas clopidogrel responders exhibit attenuated response to TRAP. Addition of PAR-1 antiplatelet drugs may be most effective in patients with reduced clopidogrel response and high residual TRAP mediated platelet aggregation. PMID:22459907

  10. Serum uPAR as Biomarker in Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Mathematical Model.

    PubMed

    Hao, Wenrui; Friedman, Avner

    2016-01-01

    There are currently over 2.5 million breast cancer survivors in the United States and, according to the American Cancer Society, 10 to 20 percent of these women will develop recurrent breast cancer. Early detection of recurrence can avoid unnecessary radical treatment. However, self-examination or mammography screening may not discover a recurring cancer if the number of surviving cancer cells is small, while biopsy is too invasive and cannot be frequently repeated. It is therefore important to identify non-invasive biomarkers that can detect early recurrence. The present paper develops a mathematical model of cancer recurrence. The model, based on a system of partial differential equations, focuses on tissue biomarkers that include the plasminogen system. Among them, only uPAR is known to have significant correlation to its concentration in serum and could therefore be a good candidate for serum biomarker. The model includes uPAR and other associated cytokines and cells. It is assumed that the residual cancer cells that survived primary cancer therapy are concentrated in the same location within a region with a very small diameter. Model simulations establish a quantitative relation between the diameter of the growing cancer and the total uPAR mass in the cancer. This relation is used to identify uPAR as a potential serum biomarker for breast cancer recurrence. PMID:27078836

  11. Participatory Action Research: Reflections on Critical Incidents in a PAR Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelli, Betsy; Singer, George H. S.; DiVenere, Nancy; Ginsberg, Connie; Powers, Laurie E.

    1998-01-01

    This article describes a participatory action research (PAR) project designed to evaluate Parent to Parent programs in five states. The process of developing a shared understanding of the program and of the purpose for evaluating them, along with an on-going willingness of parents and researchers to compromise, led to creative solutions to…

  12. Split Scenes, Converging Visions: The Ethical Terrains where PAR and Borderlands Scholarship Meet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayala, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines theoretical linkages between Anzaldua's borderland scholarship, in particular the notion of mestiza consciousness, and participatory action research. Two studies with high school and college co-researchers falling along different points of the PAR spectrum are described to illustrate these conceptual linkages. Points in the…

  13. UTILITY OF A WIDE SPECTRUM LIGHT METER AS AN UNDERWATER SENSOR OF PHOTOSYNTHETICALLY ACTIVE RADIATION (PAR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The strong attenuation of infra red wavelengths (>700 nm) in coastal waters is suggestive that some instruments with broad spectral responses might be useful, inexpensive substitutes for PAR sensors in studies of estuarine plant dynamics. Wide spectrum (350-1100 nm) light intensi...

  14. Serologically Defined Variations in Malaria Endemicity in Pará State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Maristela G.; Silva, Eliane S.; Sepúlveda, Nuno; Costa, Sheyla P. T.; Saboia, Tiago C.; Guerreiro, João F.; Póvoa, Marinete M.; Corran, Patrick H.; Riley, Eleanor; Drakeley, Chris J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Measurement of malaria endemicity is typically based on vector or parasite measures. A complementary approach is the detection of parasite specific IgG antibodies. We determined the antibody levels and seroconversion rates to both P. vivax and P. falciparum merozoite antigens in individuals living in areas of varying P. vivax endemicity in Pará state, Brazilian Amazon region. Methodology/Principal Findings The prevalence of antibodies to recombinant antigens from P. vivax and P. falciparum was determined in 1,330 individuals. Cross sectional surveys were conducted in the north of Brazil in Anajás, Belém, Goianésia do Pará, Jacareacanga, Itaituba, Trairão, all in the Pará state, and Sucuriju, a free-malaria site in the neighboring state Amapá. Seroprevalence to any P. vivax antigens (MSP1 or AMA-1) was 52.5%, whereas 24.7% of the individuals were seropositive to any P. falciparum antigens (MSP1 or AMA-1). For P. vivax antigens, the seroconversion rates (SCR) ranged from 0.005 (Sucuriju) to 0.201 (Goianésia do Pará), and are strongly correlated to the corresponding Annual Parasite Index (API). We detected two sites with distinct characteristics: Goianésia do Pará where seroprevalence curve does not change with age, and Sucuriju where seroprevalence curve is better described by a model with two SCRs compatible with a decrease in force of infection occurred 14 years ago (from 0.069 to 0.005). For P. falciparum antigens, current SCR estimates varied from 0.002 (Belém) to 0.018 (Goianésia do Pará). We also detected a putative decrease in disease transmission occurred ∼29 years ago in Anajás, Goianésia do Pará, Itaituba, Jacareacanga, and Trairão. Conclusions We observed heterogeneity of serological indices across study sites with different endemicity levels and temporal changes in the force of infection in some of the sites. Our study provides further evidence that serology can be used to measure and monitor transmission of both major

  15. Project Plan 7930 Cell G PaR Remote Handling System Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, Kathryn A

    2009-10-01

    For over 40 years the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have made Californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) available for a wide range of industries including medical, nuclear fuels, mining, military and national security. The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) located within the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) processes irradiated production targets from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Operations in Building 7930, Cell G provide over 70% of the world's demand for {sup 252}Cf. Building 7930 was constructed and equipped in the mid-1960s. Current operations for {sup 252}Cf processing in Building 7930, Cell G require use of through-the-wall manipulators and the PaR Remote Handling System. Maintenance and repairs for the manipulators is readily accomplished by removal of the manipulator and relocation to a repair shop where hands-on work can be performed in glove boxes. Contamination inside cell G does not currently allow manned entry and no provisions were created for a maintenance area inside the cell. There has been no maintenance of the PaR system or upgrades, leaving operations vulnerable should the system have a catastrophic failure. The Cell G PaR system is currently being operated in a run to failure mode. As the manipulator is now 40+ years old there is significant risk in this method of operation. In 2006 an assessment was completed that resulted in recommendations for replacing the manipulator operator control and power centers which are used to control and power the PaR manipulator in Cell G. In mid-2008 the chain for the bridge drive failed and subsequent examinations indicated several damaged links (see Figure 1). To continue operations the PaR manipulator arm is being used to push and pull the bridge as a workaround. A retrieval tool was fabricated, tested and staged inside Cell G that will allow positioning of the bridge and manipulator arm for removal from the cell should the PaR system completely fail. A fully

  16. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor bafetinib inhibits PAR2-induced activation of TRPV4 channels in vitro and pain in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Grace, M S; Lieu, T; Darby, B; Abogadie, F C; Veldhuis, N; Bunnett, N W; McIntyre, P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is expressed on nociceptive neurons, and can sensitize transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels to amplify neurogenic inflammation and pain. The mechanisms by which this occurs are not fully understood. PAR2 causes receptor-operated activation of TRPV4 channels and TRPV4 null mice have attenuated PAR2-stimulated neurogenic inflammation and mechanical hyperalgesia. Here we investigate the intracellular signalling mechanisms underlying PAR2-induced TRPV4 channel activation and pain. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Responses of non-transfected and TRPV4-transfected HEK293 cells to agonists of PAR2 (trypsin and SLIGRL) and TRPV4 channels (GSK1016790A) were determined using calcium imaging. Inhibitors of TRPV4 channels (HC067047), sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium transport ATPase (thapsigargin), Gαq (UBO-QIC), tyrosine kinases (bafetinib and dasatinib) or PI3 kinases (wortmannin and LY294002) were used to investigate signalling mechanisms. In vivo effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors on PAR2-induced mechanical hyperalgesia were assessed in mice. KEY RESULTS In non-transfected HEK293 cells, PAR2 activation transiently increased intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i). Functional expression of TRPV4 channels caused a sustained increase of [Ca2+]i, inhibited by HC067047, bafetinib and wortmannin; but not by thapsigargin, UBO-QIC, dasatinib or LY294002. Bafetinib but not dasatinib inhibited PAR2-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in vivo. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS This study supports a role for tyrosine kinases in PAR2-mediated receptor-operated gating of TRPV4 channels, independent of Gαq stimulation. The ability of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor to diminish PAR2-induced activation of TRPV4 channels and consequent mechanical hyperalgesia identifies bafetinib (which is in development in oncology) as a potential novel analgesic therapy. PMID:24779362

  17. A novel repressor, par-4, modulates transcription and growth suppression functions of the Wilms' tumor suppressor WT1.

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, R W; See, R H; Sells, S F; Wang, J; Muthukkumar, S; Englert, C; Haber, D A; Licht, J D; Sugrue, S P; Roberts, T; Rangnekar, V M; Shi, Y

    1996-01-01

    The tumor suppressor WT1 represses and activates transcription. The loss and/or imbalance of the dual transcriptional activity of WT1 may contribute to Wilms' tumor. In this study, we identified par-4 (for prostate apoptosis response) as a WT1-interacting protein that itself functions as a transcriptional repressor. par-4 contains a putative leucine zipper domain and is specifically upregulated during apoptosis of prostate cells (S. F. Sells, D. P. Wood, Jr., S. S. Joshi-Barve, S. Muthukkumar, R. J. Jacob, S. A. Crist, S. Humphreys, and V. M. Rangnekar, Cell Growth Differ. 5:457-466, 1994). The leucine repeat domain of par-4 was shown to interact with the zinc finger DNA binding domain of WT1. Immunoprecipitation-Western blot (immunoblot) analyses demonstrated in vivo WT1-par-4 interactions. par-4 was ubiquitously expressed, and the protein was found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Functionally, par-4 inhibited transcription activated by WT1, but not by the related protein EGR1. Inhibition of WT1-mediated transcription was dependent on the domain of par-4 that mediates its physical association with WT1. In addition, par-4 augmented WT1-mediated repression, possibly by contributing an additional repression domain. Consistent with these results, par-4 functioned as a transcriptional repressor when brought to a promoter via a heterologous DNA binding domain. Significantly, par-4, but not a mutant unable to interact with WT1, rescued growth suppression caused by WT1. Thus, we identified a novel repressor that modulates transcription as well as growth suppression functions of WT1. PMID:8943350

  18. Water quality assessment of highly polluted rivers in a semi-arid Mediterranean zone Oued Fez and Sebou River (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, J. L.; Raïs, N.; Chahinian, N.; Moulin, P.; Ijjaali, M.

    2014-03-01

    Oued Fez (one of the Sebou River tributaries - Morocco) allowed us to study and quantify the effect of the lack of wastewater treatment on surface water quality in semi-arid hydrological context. The analysis is based on field data collected from June 2009 to December 2011. Concentration and load patterns of nitrogen, phosphorus and chromium (used in the processing of leather) are compared in stable hydrological conditions during low flow and high flow periods in an eight-location sampling network. The Oued Fez and the Sebou River are characterised by severe pollution downstream from the city of Fez, particularly TN (mainly NH4 and Norg), TP (mainly Ppart) and TCr. The most polluted sites are those directly under the influence of domestic and industrial waste water inputs, particularly tannery effluents. Obviously, the concentrations measured at these locations are above all environmental quality standards. Pollutant loads are very heavy in the Sebou River and can contaminate the river course for kilometres. Moreover, as the water of the Sebou River is used for the irrigation of vegetables, serious problems of public health could arise. A better understanding of contaminant dynamics and self-purifying processes in these rivers will help implement actions and steps aimed at improving water quality in the Sebou River, which is the primary water supply source in Morocco and is used for agricultural and industrials purposes as well as for drinking water.

  19. Analysis of Aquifer Response, Groundwater Flow, and PlumeEvolution at Site OU 1, Former Fort Ord, California

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Preston D.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Su, Grace W.

    2005-02-24

    This report presents a continuation from Oldenburg et al. (2002) of analysis of the hydrogeology, In-Situ Permeable Flow Sensor (ISPFS) results, aquifer response, and changes in the trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume at Operational Unit 1 (OU 1) adjacent to the former Fritzsche Army Airfield at the former Fort Ord Army Base, located on Monterey Bay in northern Monterey County. Fuels and solvents were burned on a portion of OU 1 called the Fire Drill Area (FDA) during airport fire suppression training between 1962 and 1985. This activity resulted in soil and groundwater contamination in the unconfined A-aquifer. In the late 1980's, soil excavation and bioremediation were successful in remediating soil contamination at the site. Shortly thereafter, a groundwater pump, treat, and recharge system commenced operation. This system has been largely successful at remediating groundwater contamination at the head of the groundwater plume. However, a trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume extends approximately 3000 ft (900 m) to the northwest away from the FDA. In the analyses presented here, we augment our prior work (Oldenburg et al., 2002) with new information including treatment-system totalizer data, recent water-level and chemistry data, and data collected from new wells to discern trends in contaminant migration and groundwater flow that may be useful for ongoing remediation efforts. Some conclusions from the prior study have been modified based on these new analyses, and these are pointed out clearly in this report.

  20. Diffractométrie de poudres d'alliages de tungstène nanostructurées par mécanosynthèse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avettand-Fènoël, M.-N.; Taillard, R.; Dhers, J.; Parmentier, Ph.; Foct, J.

    2002-07-01

    High energy ball milling carried out in a planetary ball mill is generally used to alloy elementary powders and to obtain nanostructures. The latter advantages urge us to elaborate pure tungsten or blends of tungsten and yttria powders by means of this process. The obtained powders are then sintered in order to achieve creepproof materials at high temperature. The ball-to-powder ratio is constant during the experiments. The effects of different milling parameters (number of balls: 2, 16, 92 ; milling time: 5mn, 20mn, 40mn, 80mn, rotational speed: 200 or 300 or 400rpm, nature of the milling system: stainless steel or tungsten carbide system) and of the composition of blends (volumetric content of second phase) are examined. The results concern nanocrystals in the powder particles, the strain level of powder particles, the formation of alloys and the oxide particles dispersion. The difficulties and advantages of the characterization techniques are developed. The consequences of structural changes are outlined and the mechanisms of the alloy evolution discussed. Le broyage à haute énergie effectué dans un broyeur planétaire de type Fritsch Pulvérisette 6 permet à la fois de mettre en alliage des poudres élémentaires mais aussi d'obtenir une nanostructure. Ces avantages privilégient l'emploi de cette technique pour l'élaboration de poudres à partir de particules de tungstène pur, ou de mélanges de particules de tungstène et d'oxyde d'yttrium. Les poudres obtenues sont ensuite frittées dans le but d'obtenir des matériaux à forte résistance au fluage à haute température. Le rapport entre la masse des billes et celle de la poudre déformée, a été maintenue constante au cours des expériences. Les effets des différents paramètres de broyage (nombre de billes : 2, 16, 92 ; durée de broyage: 5 mn, 20 mn, 40 mn, 80 mn ; vitesse de broyage: 200, 300, 400 tours par minute ; nature du système de broyage système en acier inoxydable ou en carbure de

  1. Impacts of Light Use Efficiency and fPAR Parameterization on Gross Primary Production Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Yen-Ben; Zhang, Qingyuan; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of parameterization of two variables, light use efficiency (LUE) and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR or fAPAR), on gross primary production(GPP) modeling. Carbon sequestration by terrestrial plants is a key factor to a comprehensive under-standing of the carbon budget at global scale. In this context, accurate measurements and estimates of GPP will allow us to achieve improved carbon monitoring and to quantitatively assess impacts from cli-mate changes and human activities. Spaceborne remote sensing observations can provide a variety of land surface parameterizations for modeling photosynthetic activities at various spatial and temporal scales. This study utilizes a simple GPP model based on LUE concept and different land surface parameterizations to evaluate the model and monitor GPP. Two maize-soybean rotation fields in Nebraska, USA and the Bartlett Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA were selected for study. Tower-based eddy-covariance carbon exchange and PAR measurements were collected from the FLUXNET Synthesis Dataset. For the model parameterization, we utilized different values of LUE and the fPAR derived from various algorithms. We adapted the approach and parameters from the MODIS MOD17 Biome Properties Look-Up Table (BPLUT) to derive LUE. We also used a site-specific analytic approach with tower-based Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) and PAR to estimate maximum potential LUE (LUEmax) to derive LUE. For the fPAR parameter, the MODIS MOD15A2 fPAR product was used. We also utilized fAPAR chl, a parameter accounting for the fAPAR linked to the chlorophyll-containing canopy fraction. fAPAR chl was obtained by inversion of a radiative transfer model, which used the MODIS-based reflectances in bands 1-7 produced by Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm. fAPAR chl exhibited seasonal dynamics more similar with the flux tower based GPP than MOD15A2 fPAR, especially

  2. Modélisation de la dynamique de la chaîne peptidique des protéines en solution par RMN à travers les couplages dipolaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvignies, G.; Bernadó, P.; Blackledge, M.

    2005-11-01

    L'activité d'une protéine est liée non seulement à sa structure, mais également à sa dynamique, et il est important de connaître la nature de ses mouvements pour comprendre sa fonction biologique. La résonance magnétique nucléaire est particulièrement utile pour étudier la dynamique d'une molécule en solution sur une gamme de temps de corrélation très large. En particulière, la relaxation des spins 15N ou 13C donne accès aux mouvements moléculaires avec les temps caractéristiques entre les dizaines de picosecondes et le temps de corrélation rotationelle de la molécule (autour de 10ns pour une protéine monomérique de 20 kD à 300 K). Les vitesses de relaxation dépendent de la flexibilité de chaque site, et peuvent être caractérisé en termes d'amplitude et de temps caractéristique locale. La précision de ces paramètres et sa compréhension en termes de fonction exigent que la réorientation globale de la molécule soit correctement prise en compte. Ces méthodes expérimentales, qui seront présentées ici brièvement, font maintenant partie de la panoplie d'expériences appliquées dans l'étude de la relation structure-dynamique d'une protéine et ses partenaires. Néanmoins les mouvements plus lents, entre la nano et la milliseconde, sont plus difficiles à étudier, et il y a très peu d'information disponible sur la nature de la dynamique de la chaîne peptidique dans cette gamme de temps par RMN. Très récemment de nouvelles méthodologies ont été proposées, basées sur l'alignement préférentiel d'une protéine par rapport au champ magnétique, induit par dissolution de la molécule dans un cristal liquide très dilué. Dans ces conditions les changements conformationels sur des temps caractéristique plus lents (jusqu'au millisecondes) peuvent être étudiés. Nous présenterons cette technique, et quelques résultats, comparant la dynamique rapide (ps-ns), et plus lente le long de la chaîne peptidique de quatre protéines.

  3. Cross-talk between toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is involved in vascular function

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, M; Vellecco, V; Harrington, L; Brancaleone, V; Roviezzo, F; Mattace Raso, G; Ianaro, A; Lungarella, G; De Palma, R; Meli, R; Cirino, G

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) and toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in innate immune responses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible cross-talk between PAR2 and TLR4 in vessels in physiological condition and how it varies following stimulation of TLR4 by using in vivo and ex vivo models. Experimental Approach Thoracic aortas were harvested from both naïve and endotoxaemic rats for in vitro studies. Arterial blood pressure was monitored in anaesthetized rats in vivo. LPS was used as a TLR4 agonist while PAR2 activating peptide (AP) was used as a PAR2 agonist. Aortas harvested from TLR4–/– mice were also used to characterize the PAR2 response. Key Results PAR2, but not TLR4, expression was enhanced in aortas of endotoxaemic rats. PAR2AP-induced vasorelaxation was increased in aortic rings of LPS-treated rats. TLR4 inhibitors, curcumine and resveratrol, reduced PAR2AP-induced vasorelaxation and PAR2AP-induced hypotension in both naïve and endotoxaemic rats. Finally, in aortic rings from TLR4–/– mice, the expression of PAR2 was reduced and the PAR2AP-induced vasodilatation impaired compared with those from wild-type mice and both resveratrol and curcumine were ineffective. Conclusions and Implications Cross-talk between PAR2 and TLR4 contributes to vascular homeostasis. PMID:22957757

  4. Relationship between urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and the invasion of human prenatal hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiangguo; Fu, Gang; Huang, Gang; Lian, Xiaohua; Yu, Jin; Yang, Tian

    2010-08-01

    During the morphogenesis of hair follicles, the invasive migration of basal keratinocytes resembles cell's dissemination of tissue remodeling. The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) appears to be a key molecule in the metastasis. In order to elucidate the relationship between uPAR and the invasion of the human hair follicle, immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, plasmids transfection, and western blot were used. The results showed that uPAR was expressed in the outermost epithelial cells of the hair follicle and the basal keratinocytes of epidermis, and that the expression decreased with the development of the hair follicle. The cells of the outer root sheath (ORS) and interfollicle epidermis, which overexpressed uPAR, acquired increased invasiveness; however, they showed decreased invasion with overexpression of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator amino terminal fragment (uPA ATF), which inhibited the combination of uPAR and uPA competitively, and the cell invasive migration with overexpressed uPAR was required activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). These results implied that overexpression of uPAR promote the invasive migration of hair follicle into the dermis in uPA-dependent and independent manner during human prenatal development. PMID:20012874

  5. Characterization of a point mutation in the parC gene of Mycoplasma bovirhinis associated with fluoroquinolone resistance.

    PubMed

    Hirose, K; Kawasaki, Y; Kotani, K; Abiko, K; Sato, H

    2004-05-01

    Quinolone-resistant (QR) mutants of Mycoplasma bovirhinis strain PG43 (type strain) were generated by stepwise selection in increasing concentrations of enrofloxacin (ENR). An alteration was found in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of the parC gene coding for the ParC subunit of topoisomerase IV from these mutants, but not in the gyrA, gyrB, and parE gene coding for the GyrA and GyrB subunits of DNA gyrase and the ParE subunit of topoisomerase IV. Similarly, such an alteration in QRDR of parC was found in the field isolates of M. bovirhinis, which possessed various levels of QR. The substitution of leucine (Leu) by serine (Ser) at position 80 of QRDR of ParC was observed in both QR-mutants and QR-isolates. This is the first report of QR based on a point mutation of the parC gene in M. bovirhinis. PMID:15228551

  6. A site for direct integrin αvβ6·uPAR interaction from structural modelling and docking.

    PubMed

    Sowmya, Gopichandran; Khan, Javed Mohammed; Anand, Samyuktha; Ahn, Seong Beom; Baker, Mark S; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2014-03-01

    Integrin αvβ6 is an epithelially-restricted heterodimeric transmembrane glycoprotein, known to interact with the urokinase plasminogen activating receptor (uPAR), playing a critical role in cancer progression. While the X-ray crystallographic structures of segments of other integrin heterodimers are known, there is no structural information for the complete αvβ6 integrin to assess its direct interaction with uPAR. We have performed structural analysis of αvβ6·uPAR interactions using model data with docking simulations to pinpoint their interface, in accord with earlier reports of the β-propeller region of integrin α-chain interacting with uPAR. Interaction of αvβ6·uPAR was demonstrated by our previous study using immunoprecipitation coupled with proteomic analysis by mass spectrometry. Recently this interaction was validated with proximity ligation assays and peptide arrays. The data suggested that two potential peptide regions from domain II and one peptide region from domain III of uPAR, interact with αvβ6 integrin. Only the peptide region from domain III is consistent with the three-dimensional interaction site proposed in this study. The molecular basis of integrin αvβ6·uPAR binding using structural data is discussed for its implications as a potential therapeutic target in cancer management. PMID:24423664

  7. Relationships between high resolution RapidEye based fPAR and MODIS vegetation indices in a heterogeneous agricultural region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, Sebastian; Machwitz, Miriam; Conrad, Christopher; Dech, Stefan

    2011-11-01

    The Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides operational products of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), and the fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPAR). FPAR can be used in productivity models, but agricultural applications depend on sub-pixel heterogeneity. Examples for heterogeneous areas are the irrigation systems of the inner Aral Sea Basin, where the 1 km fPAR product proved less suited. An alternative can be to upscale fPAR to the 250 m scale, but there are few studies evaluating this approach. In this study, the use of MODIS 250 m NDVI and EVI for this approach was investigated in an irrigation system in western Uzbekistan. The analysis was based on high resolution fPAR maps and a crop map for the growing season 2009, derived from ground measurements and multitemporal RapidEye data. The data was used to explore statistical relationships between RapidEye fPAR and MODIS NDVI/EVI with respect to spatial heterogeneity. The correlations varied between products (daily NDVI, 8-day NDVI, 16-day NDVI/EVI), with results suggesting that 8-day NDVI performed best. The analyses and the compiled fPAR maps show that, compared to 1 km MODIS fPAR, the 250 m scale is more homogeneous, allows for crop-specific analyses, and better captures the spatial patterns in the study region.

  8. Comparative analysis of a plant pseudoautosomal region (PAR) in Silene latifolia with the corresponding S. vulgaris autosome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The sex chromosomes of Silene latifolia are heteromorphic as in mammals, with females being homogametic (XX) and males heterogametic (XY). While recombination occurs along the entire X chromosome in females, recombination between the X and Y chromosomes in males is restricted to the pseudoautosomal region (PAR). In the few mammals so far studied, PARs are often characterized by elevated recombination and mutation rates and high GC content compared with the rest of the genome. However, PARs have not been studied in plants until now. In this paper we report the construction of a BAC library for S. latifolia and the first analysis of a > 100 kb fragment of a S. latifolia PAR that we compare to the homologous autosomal region in the closely related gynodioecious species S. vulgaris. Results Six new sex-linked genes were identified in the S. latifolia PAR, together with numerous transposable elements. The same genes were found on the S. vulgaris autosomal segment, with no enlargement of the predicted coding sequences in S. latifolia. Intergenic regions were on average 1.6 times longer in S. latifolia than in S. vulgaris, mainly as a consequence of the insertion of transposable elements. The GC content did not differ significantly between the PAR region in S. latifolia and the corresponding autosomal region in S. vulgaris. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the usefulness of the BAC library developed here for the analysis of plant sex chromosomes and indicate that the PAR in the evolutionarily young S. latifolia sex chromosomes has diverged from the corresponding autosomal region in the gynodioecious S. vulgaris mainly with respect to the insertion of transposable elements. Gene order between the PAR and autosomal region investigated is conserved, and the PAR does not have the high GC content observed in evolutionarily much older mammalian sex chromosomes. PMID:22681719

  9. Par-4 dependent modulation of cellular β-catenin by medicinal plant natural product derivative 3-azido Withaferin A.

    PubMed

    Amin, Hina; Nayak, Debasis; Ur Rasool, Reyaz; Chakraborty, Souneek; Kumar, Anmol; Yousuf, Khalid; Sharma, Parduman Raj; Ahmed, Zabeer; Sharma, Neelam; Magotra, Asmita; Mukherjee, Debaraj; Kumar, Lekha Dinesh; Goswami, Anindya

    2016-05-01

    Here, we provide evidences that natural product derivative 3-azido Withaferin A (3-AWA) abrogated EMT and invasion by modulating β-catenin localization and its transcriptional activity in the prostate as well as in breast cancer cells. This study, for the first time, reveals 3-AWA treatment consistently sequestered nuclear β-catenin and augmented its cytoplasmic pool as evidenced by reducing β-catenin transcriptional activity in these cells. Moreover, 3-AWA treatment triggered robust induction of pro-apoptotic intracellular Par-4, attenuated Akt activity and rescued Phospho-GSK3β (by Akt) to promote β-catenin destabilization. Further, our in vitro studies demonstrate that 3-AWA treatment amplified E-cadherin expression along with sharp downregulation of c-Myc and cyclin D1 proteins. Strikingly, endogenous Par-4 knock down by siRNA underscored 3-AWA mediated inhibition of nuclear β-catenin was Par-4 dependent and suppression of Par-4 activity, either by Bcl-2 or by Ras transfection, restored the nuclear β-catenin level suggesting Par-4 mediated β-catenin regulation was not promiscuous. In vivo results further demonstrated that 3-AWA was effective inhibitor of tumor growth and immunohistochemical studies indicated that increased expression of total β-catenin and decreased expression of phospho-β-catenin and Par-4 in breast cancer tissues as compared to normal breast tissue suggesting Par-4 and β-catenin proteins are mutually regulated and inversely co-related in normal as well as cancer condition. Thus, strategic regulation of intracellular Par-4 by 3-AWA in diverse cancers could be an effective tool to control cancer cell metastasis. Conclusively, this report puts forward a novel approach of controlling deregulated β-catenin signaling by 3-AWA induced Par-4 protein. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25969134

  10. PAR-1 antagonist SCH79797 ameliorates apoptosis following surgical brain injury through inhibition of ASK1-JNK in rats

    PubMed Central

    Manaenko, Anatol; Sun, Xuejun; Kim, Cherine; Yan, Junhao; Ma, Qingyi

    2012-01-01

    Neurosurgical procedures inevitably produce intraoperative hemorrhage. The subsequent entry of blood into the brain parenchyma results in the release of large amounts of thrombin, a known contributor to perihematomal edema formation and apoptosis after brain injury. The present study seeks to test 1) the effect of surgically induced brain injury (SBI) on thrombin activity, expression of thrombin’s receptor PAR-1, and PAR-1 mediated apoptosis; 2) the effect of thrombin inhibition by argatroban and PAR-1 inhibition by SCH79797 on the development of secondary brain injury in the SBI model on rats. A total of 88 Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into sham, vehicle-, argatroban-, or SCH79797-treated groups. SBI involved partial resection of the right frontal lobe under inhalation isoflurane anesthesia. Sham-operated animals received only craniotomy. Thrombin activity, brain water content, and neurological deficits were measured at 24 hours following SBI. Involvement of the Ask1/JNK pathway in PAR-1-induced post-SBI apoptosis was characterized by using Ask1 or JNK inhibitors. We observed that SBI increased thrombin activity, yet failed to demonstrate any effect on PAR-1 expression. Argatroban and SCH79797 reduced SBI-induced brain edema and neurological deficits in a dose-dependent manner. SBI-induced apoptosis seemed mediated by the PAR-1/Ask1/JNK pathways. Administration of SCH79797 ameliorated the apoptosis following SBI. Our finding indicate that PAR-1 antagonist protects against secondary brain injury after SBI by decreasing both brain edema and apoptosis by inactivating PAR-1/Ask1/JNK pathway. The anti-apoptotic effect of PAR-1 antagonists may provide a promising path for therapy following SBI. PMID:23000356

  11. Stabilizing a flexible interdomain hinge region harboring the SMB binding site drives uPAR into its closed conformation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baoyu; Gandhi, Sonu; Yuan, Cai; Luo, Zhipu; Li, Rui; Gårdsvoll, Henrik; de Lorenzi, Valentina; Sidenius, Nicolai; Huang, Mingdong; Ploug, Michael

    2015-03-27

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a multidomain glycolipid-anchored membrane protein, which facilitates extracellular matrix remodeling by focalizing plasminogen activation to cell surfaces via its high-affinity interaction with uPA. The modular assembly of its three LU (Ly6/uPAR-like) domains is inherently flexible and binding of uPA drives uPAR into its closed conformation, which presents the higher-affinity state for vitronectin thus providing an allosteric regulatory mechanism. Using a new class of epitope-mapped anti-uPAR monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), we now demonstrate that the reciprocal stabilization is indeed also possible. By surface plasmon resonance studies, we show that these mAbs and vitronectin have overlapping binding sites on uPAR and that they share Arg91 as hotspot residue in their binding interfaces. The crystal structure solved for one of these uPAR·mAb complexes at 3.0Å clearly shows that this mAb preselects the closed uPAR conformation with an empty but correctly assembled large hydrophobic binding cavity for uPA. Accordingly, these mAbs inhibit the uPAR-dependent lamellipodia formation and migration on vitronectin-coated matrices irrespective of the conformational status of uPAR and its occupancy with uPA. This is the first study to the best of our knowledge, showing that the dynamic assembly of the three LU domains in uPARwt can be driven toward the closed form by an external ligand, which is not engaging the hydrophobic uPA binding cavity. As this binding interface is also exploited by the somatomedin B domain of vitronectin, therefore, this relationship should be taken into consideration when exploring uPAR-dependent cell adhesion and migration in vitronectin-rich environments. PMID:25659907

  12. Secretory prostate apoptosis response (Par)-4 sensitizes multicellular spheroids (MCS) of glioblastoma multiforme cells to tamoxifen-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Jagtap, Jayashree C.; Parveen, D.; Shah, Reecha D.; Desai, Aarti; Bhosale, Dipali; Chugh, Ashish; Ranade, Deepak; Karnik, Swapnil; Khedkar, Bhushan; Mathur, Aaishwarya; Natesh, Kumar; Chandrika, Goparaju; Shastry, Padma

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant form of brain tumor and is associated with resistance to conventional therapy and poor patient survival. Prostate apoptosis response (Par)-4, a tumor suppressor, is expressed as both an intracellular and secretory/extracellular protein. Though secretory Par-4 induces apoptosis in cancer cells, its potential in drug-resistant tumors remains to be fully explored. Multicellular spheroids (MCS) of cancer cells often acquire multi-drug resistance and serve as ideal experimental models. We investigated the role of Par-4 in Tamoxifen (TAM)-induced cell death in MCS of human cell lines and primary cultures of GBM tumors. TCGA and REMBRANT data analysis revealed that low levels of Par-4 correlated with low survival period (21.85 ± 19.30 days) in GBM but not in astrocytomas (59.13 ± 47.26 days) and oligodendrogliomas (58.04 ± 59.80 days) suggesting low PAWR expression as a predictive risk factor in GBM. Consistently, MCS of human cell lines and primary cultures displayed low Par-4 expression, high level of chemo-resistance genes and were resistant to TAM-induced cytotoxicity. In monolayer cells, TAM-induced cytotoxicity was associated with enhanced expression of Par-4 and was alleviated by silencing of Par-4 using specific siRNA. TAM effectively induced secretory Par-4 in conditioned medium (CM) of cells cultured as monolayer but not in MCS. Moreover, MCS were rendered sensitive to TAM-induced cell death by exposure to conditioned medium (CM)-containing Par-4 (derived from TAM-treated monolayer cells). Also TAM reduced the expression of Akt and PKCζ in GBM cells cultured as monolayer but not in MCS. Importantly, combination of TAM with inhibitors to PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) or PKCζ resulted in secretion of Par-4 and cell death in MCS. Since membrane GRP78 is overexpressed in most cancer cells but not normal cells, and secretory Par-4 induces apoptosis by binding to membrane GRP78, secretory Par-4 is an

  13. Inferring total canopy APAR from PAR bidirectional reflectances and vegetation indices in tallgrass prairie. [Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    1992-01-01

    The fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by a vegetated canopy (APARc) or landscape (APARs) is a critical parameter in climate processes. A grassland study examined: 1) whether APARs can be estimated from PAR bidirectional exitance fractions; and 2) whether APARs is correlated with spectral vegetation indices (SVIs). Data were acquired with a high resolution continuous spectroradiometer at 4 sun angles on grassland sites. APARs was computed from the scattered surface PAR exitance fractions. The nadir APARs value was the most variable diurnally; it provided a good estimate of the average surface APARs at 95 percent. APARc was best represented by exitance factors between 30-60* forward.

  14. Quinolone resistance locus nfxD of Escherichia coli is a mutant allele of the parE gene encoding a subunit of topoisomerase IV.

    PubMed Central

    Breines, D M; Ouabdesselam, S; Ng, E Y; Tankovic, J; Shah, S; Soussy, C J; Hooper, D C

    1997-01-01

    The locus nfxD, which contributes to high-level quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli KF111b (gyrAr nfxB nfxD), is only expressed in the presence of a gyrA mutation, and maps to the region of the parC and parE genes, was outcrossed into strain KF130, creating strain DH161 (gyrAr nfxD). DNA sequence analysis of DH161 revealed no changes in the topoisomerase IV parC quinolone resistance-determining region but did identify a single T-to-A mutation in parE at codon 445, leading to a change from Leu to His. Full-length cloned parE+ partially complemented the resistance phenotype in KF111b and DH161, but did not complement the resistance phenotype in strain KF130 (gyrAr). No complementation was seen with cloned, truncated parE+. To confirm these findings, gyrAr was first outcrossed from KF130 into E. coli W3110parE10 [parE temperature sensitive(Ts)] and KL16. The transduced strains KL16 and W3110parE10 were subsequently transformed with plasmids containing cloned parE from DH161 or KL16. Cloned parE from DH161 increased norfloxacin resistance in the parE(Ts) background twofold at 30 degrees C and fourfold at 42 degrees C compared to those for cloned parE from KL16. The same experiment with a non-Ts background revealed a twofold increase in the norfloxacin MIC at both 30 and 42 degrees C. These data identify the nfxD conditional resistance locus as a mutant allele of parE. This report is the first of a quinolone-resistant parE mutant and confirms the role of topoisomerase IV as a secondary target of norfloxacin in E. coli. PMID:8980775

  15. Loss-tolerant state engineering for quantum-enhanced metrology via the reverse Hong-Ou-Mandel effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulanov, Alexander E.; Fedorov, Ilya A.; Sychev, Demid; Grangier, Philippe; Lvovsky, A. I.

    2016-06-01

    Highly entangled quantum states, shared by remote parties, are vital for quantum communications and metrology. Particularly promising are the N00N states--entangled N-photon wavepackets delocalized between two different locations--which outperform coherent states in measurement sensitivity. However, these states are notoriously vulnerable to losses, making them difficult to both share them between remote locations and recombine in order to exploit interference effects. Here we address this challenge by utilizing the reverse Hong-Ou-Mandel effect to prepare a high-fidelity two-photon N00N state shared between two parties connected by a lossy optical medium. We measure the prepared state by two-mode homodyne tomography, thereby demonstrating that the enhanced phase sensitivity can be exploited without recombining the two parts of the N00N state. Finally, we demonstrate the application of our method to remotely prepare superpositions of coherent states, known as Schrödinger's cat states.

  16. Loss-tolerant state engineering for quantum-enhanced metrology via the reverse Hong-Ou-Mandel effect.

    PubMed

    Ulanov, Alexander E; Fedorov, Ilya A; Sychev, Demid; Grangier, Philippe; Lvovsky, A I

    2016-01-01

    Highly entangled quantum states, shared by remote parties, are vital for quantum communications and metrology. Particularly promising are the N00N states-entangled N-photon wavepackets delocalized between two different locations-which outperform coherent states in measurement sensitivity. However, these states are notoriously vulnerable to losses, making them difficult to both share them between remote locations and recombine in order to exploit interference effects. Here we address this challenge by utilizing the reverse Hong-Ou-Mandel effect to prepare a high-fidelity two-photon N00N state shared between two parties connected by a lossy optical medium. We measure the prepared state by two-mode homodyne tomography, thereby demonstrating that the enhanced phase sensitivity can be exploited without recombining the two parts of the N00N state. Finally, we demonstrate the application of our method to remotely prepare superpositions of coherent states, known as Schrödinger's cat states. PMID:27324115

  17. Résultats fonctionnels de la chirurgie de la cataracte par phacoalternative avec implantation en chambre postérieure: à propos de 300 cas à Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Jean Wenceslas; Meda, Nonfounikoun; Ahnoux-Zabsonre, Ahgbatouhabéba; Yameogo, Claudette; Dolo, Mariam; Sanou, Jérôme; Daboue, Arsène

    2015-01-01

    La cataracte est la première cause de cécité curable dans le monde. Son traitement est chirurgical. Le but de notre travail a été d’évaluer les résultats de la phacoalternative ou la chirurgie de la cataracte à petite incision. Il s'est agi d'une étude transversale descriptive à collecte prospective allant du 1er janvier au 31 septembre 2014, chez des patients âgés d'au moins 40 ans. Les données socio-démographiques, l'acuité visuelle, l'astigmatisme et les complications ont été évalués. Nous avons inclus 300 yeux de 286 patients. L’âge moyen était de 66 ans (écart type 9,93) avec une prédominance masculine de 57,7%. Les co-morbidités étaient dominées par l'hypertension artérielle 30,33% des cas. L'acuité visuelle pré-opératoire était de moins de 1/20è dans 70, 7% des cas. En biométrie, la puissance moyenne était de 21,50 dioptries. L'implant posé a été adéquat dans 60%. Les principales complications per-opératoires étaient le chémosis post-anesthésie 4,67% et l'issue de vitrée moins de 2% des cas. Les complications post opératoires précoces ont été dominées par l’œdème de cornée 26,33%, et les complications tardives par la cataracte secondaire. L'astigmatisme induit était de 1, 12 dioptrie en moyenne (écart type 1,26). Sans correction, les résultats visuels étaient mauvais dans moins de 1%, limites dans 31%, et bons 68% suivants les normes de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé. La phacoalternative donne des résultats satisfaisants, avec peu de complications. L'amélioration du plateau technique et la disponibilité d'implants adéquats pourraient les améliorer. PMID:26140073

  18. Rabies in humans and non-human in the state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Marcus Emanuel Barroncas; Costa, Lanna Jamile Corrêa da; Andrade, Fernanda Atanaena Gonçalves de; Silva, Lucila Pereira

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the relationship of positive cases of rabies with the continuing expansion of livestock production, and analyse the trends of this zoonosis in human population in the state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon. The distribution of rabies cases was recorded between 1999 and 2004. Of 148 cases of rabies, 21% were in humans and 79% in non-human mammals. The rapid growth in livestock numbers seems to be associated with the increase of positive cases in bovine livestock transmitted by vampire bats. This idea is supported by positive and significant relationship of both events in time (p<0.01), but failed when spatial distribution among regions of the state was considered. However, rabies cases tend to occur toward the northeastern of the state of Pará, where rabies cases are proportionally five times greater than other mesoregions, suggesting that increased livestock production may influence the increase of this zoonosis. PMID:23477765

  19. Perianesthetic development of diaphragmatic hernia in a horse with equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID)

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Molly K.; Lee, Wesley L.; Eggleston, Randy B.

    2015-01-01

    A 21-year-old Thoroughbred gelding with a history of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) presented with priapism of 2 days’ duration. The horse received a caudal morphine epidural and then underwent corpus cavernosum lavage and phallectomy under general anesthesia. The patient’s recovery featured multiple unsuccessful attempts to stand and his respiratory distress persisted for several hours until he acutely developed severe colic and was euthanized. Necropsy findings revealed a pituitary adenoma of the pars intermedia, bilateral adrenal cortical hyperplasia, and diaphragmatic herniation. This report suggests that horses with PPID may present a greater risk for diaphragmatic hernia under general anesthesia or during procedures placing stress on the diaphragm, including anesthetic recovery. PMID:25565714

  20. Hydraulic and hydrologic evaluation of PAR Pond Dam. Technical evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, M.; Wang, P.C.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Bezler, P.

    1993-10-01

    The PAR Pond Dam at Savannah River Plant was constructed in 1958--1959. Seepage, depressions, boils and spring flow were observed in varying locations on the dam in the last few years. Comprehensive geotechnical and hydraulic investigations pertaining to the effects of the above observations on the abilities of the dam to withstand future floods were made in 1991 and early 1993 where dam capacity to survive flooding and seismic events were evaluated. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was asked by the Department of Energy (EH) to carry out an independent review of the PAR Pond Dam response to future flooding and seismic events. This report addresses the studies made to evaluate the capacity of the dam to survive floods. A companion report will summarize the evaluations performed to assess the seismic capacity of the dam.

  1. BOREAS TE-9 PAR and Leaf Nitrogen Data for NSA Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Dang, Qinglai; Margolis, Hank; Coyea, Marie

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-9 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected several data sets related to chemical and photosynthetic properties of leaves in boreal forest tree species. This data set describes the relationship between photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) levels and foliage nitrogen in samples from six sites in the BOREAS Northern Study Area (NSA) collected during the three 1994 intensive field campaigns (IFCs). This information is useful for modeling the vertical distribution of carbon fixation for these different forest types in the boreal forest. The data were collected to quantify the relationship between PAR and leaf nitrogen of black spruce, jack pine, and aspen. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  2. Disrupting the right pars opercularis with electrical stimulation frees the song: case report.

    PubMed

    Herbet, Guillaume; Lafargue, Gilles; Almairac, Fabien; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Bonnetblanc, François; Duffau, Hugues

    2015-12-01

    The authors report the first case of a strikingly unusual speech impairment evoked by intraoperative electrostimulation in a 36-year-old right-handed patient, a well-trained singer, who underwent awake surgery for a right fronto-temporo-insular low-grade glioma. Functionally disrupting the pars opercularis of the right inferior frontal gyrus led the patient to automatically switch from a speaking to a singing mode of language production. Given the central role of the right pars opercularis in the inhibitory control network, the authors propose that this finding may be interpreted as possible evidence for a competitive and independent neurocognitive subnetwork devoted to the melodically intoned articulation of words (normal language-based vs singing-based) in subjects with high expertise. From a more clinical perspective, such data may have implications for awake neurosurgery, especially to preserve the quality of life for singers. PMID:26140496

  3. Estimation of Downstream Cesium Concentrations Following a Postulated PAR Pond Dam Break

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.F.

    2002-07-08

    Following a postulated PAR Pond dam break, some of the PAR Pond sediment including the cesium could be eroded and be transported downstream to the Savannah River through the Lower Three Runs Creek. Studies showed that most of the eroded sediment including the cesium would deposit in the Lower Three Runs Creek and the remainder would discharge to the Savannah River from the mouth of Lower Three Runs Creek. A WASP5 model was developed to simulate the eroded sediment and cesium transport from the Lower Three Runs Creek mouth to the Atlantic coast. The dissolved cesium concentrations at the Highway 301 bridge and near the City of Savannah Industrial and Domestic Water Supply Plant are 30 and 27 pCi/l, respectively. The concentrations at both locations are less than the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standard of 200 pCi/l.

  4. PARalyzer: definition of RNA binding sites from PAR-CLIP short-read sequence data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) protocols have made it possible to identify transcriptome-wide RNA-protein interaction sites. In particular, PAR-CLIP utilizes a photoactivatable nucleoside for more efficient crosslinking. We present an approach, centered on the novel PARalyzer tool, for mapping high-confidence sites from PAR-CLIP deep-sequencing data. We show that PARalyzer delineates sites with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Motif finding identifies the sequence preferences of RNA-binding proteins, as well as seed-matches for highly expressed microRNAs when profiling Argonaute proteins. Our study describes tailored analytical methods and provides guidelines for future efforts to utilize high-throughput sequencing in RNA biology. PARalyzer is available at http://www.genome.duke.edu/labs/ohler/research/PARalyzer/. PMID:21851591

  5. Contribution to the study of pollution of soil and water in Oued El Maleh area (Mohammedia, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El hajjaji, Souad; Dahchour, Abdelmalek; Belhsaien, Kamal; Zouahri, Abdelmjid; Moussadek, Rachid; Douaik, Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    In Morocco, diffuse ground and surface water pollution in irrigated areas has caused an increase in the risk of water and soil quality deterioration. This has generated a health and environmental risks. The present study was carried out in the Oued El Maleh region located 65 Km to the south of Rabat on the Moroccan Atlantic coast. It covers a surface area of 310 km2 where agriculture constitutes the main activity of the population. This region is considered as a very important agricultural area, known nationally for its high potential for market gardening. This intensification has been accompanied by an excessive use of agrochemical inputs and poor control of irrigation and drainage. Consequently, salinization phenomena and deterioration of soil structure as well as water are about to create an alarming situation. In order to assess the state of pollution of waters and soil in the region, our study focuses on the determination of physicochemical parameters for the quality of water and soil. The obtained results from sampled wells and surface water show relatively higher values of nitrate and conductivity exceeding Moroccan national standards and revealing net degradation of water quality; therefore the water can be considered not suitable for human consumption and can induce a degradation of soil. The results of the studied soil show that the pH of these soils is weakly to moderately basic; they are usually non-saline with organic matter content moderately filled. Moreover, very high concentrations of nutrients (potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen) were recorded, highlighting poor management fertilizing vegetable crops in the region of Oued El Maleh.

  6. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report, Third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    During third quarter 1992, the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were sampled for analyses required each quarter or annually by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and for base-neutral/acid semivolatile constituents. None of the analytical results exceeded standards.

  7. A drug carrier targeting murine uPAR for photodynamic therapy and tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaolei; Zheng, Ke; Li, Rui; Chen, Zhuo; Yuan, Cai; Hu, Ping; Chen, Jincan; Xue, Jinping; Huang, Mingdong

    2015-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used as an effective therapeutical modality for tumors. In PDT, a photosensitizer was used to capture the light of specific wavelength, leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species and cytotoxicity surrounding the photosensitizer. Modifications of photosensitizers to enhance tumor specificity are common approaches to increase the efficacy and reduce the side effects of PDT. Previously, we developed a human serum albumin (HSA)-based drug carrier fused with the human amino-terminal fragment (hATF), which binds to a tumor surface marker (urokinase receptor, uPAR). However, hATF-HSA binds to murine uPAR much weaker (79-fold) than to human uPAR, and is not optimal for applications on murine tumor models. In this study, we developed a murine version of the drug carrier (mATF-HSA). A photosensitizer (mono-substituted β-carboxy phthalocyanine zinc, CPZ) was loaded into this carrier, giving a rather stable macromolecule (mATF-HSA:CPZ) that was shown to bind to murine uPAR in vitro. In addition, we evaluated both the photodynamic therapy efficacy and tumor retention capability of the macromolecule (at a dose of 0.05mg CPZ/kg mouse body weight) on murine hepatoma-22 (H22) tumor bearing mouse model. mATF-HSA:CPZ showed more accumulation in tumors compared to its human counterpart (hATF-HSA:CPZ) measured by quantitative fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT). Besides, mATF-HSA:CPZ exhibited a higher tumor killing efficacy than hATF-HSA:CPZ. Together, the macromolecule mATF-HSA is a promising tumor-specific drug carrier on murine tumor models and is an useful tool to study tumor biology on murine tumor models. PMID:26004218

  8. CALiPER Application Summary Report 20. LED PAR38 Lamps

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-11-01

    This report analyzes the independently tested photometric performance of 38 LED PAR38 lamps. The test results indicate substantial improvement versus earlier CALiPER testing of similar products, and performance comparable to recent data from LED Lighting Facts and ENERGY STAR. Additional testing that focuses on performance attributes beyond those covered by LM-79-08 is planned for this group of lamps, and will be presented in subsequent reports.

  9. Magnétométrie à hélium par pompage laser: le bilan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles, H.; Hamel, J.; Monfort, Y.

    2002-06-01

    Depuis 1986, l'équipe Physique Atomique et Capteurs du CIRIL-ISMRA de Caen étudie les magnétomètres à hélium par pompage laser. On présente ici le bilan de ces travaux de recherche et les performances des deux prototypes (hélium4 et hélium3) réalisés au Laboratoire.

  10. La fracture de Hahn Steinthal traitée par vissage d'Herbert: 3 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bienvenu, Bouhelo-Pam Kevin Parfait; Amine, El Rhazi; Khalid, Chmali; Mohamed, Azarkane; Mohamed, El Idrissi; Mohamed, Shimi; Abdelhalim, El Ibrahimi; Abdelmajid, El Mrini

    2015-01-01

    Les fractures du capitulum sont rares. Leur prise en charge initiale doit être précoce et efficace en raison des risques engendrés sur le coude: rigidité, instabilité, arthrose. De nombreux traitements ont été proposés. Notre étude décrit le vissage par vis d'Herbert pratiqué chez trois patientes recensées entre 2012 et 2013. Elles ont été inclues selon les critères de traumatisme du coude avec douleur exquise externe avec un trait de fracture radiologique frontal du condyle huméral externe emportant la joue externe de la trochlée. Le diagnostic a été orienté par l'examen clinique et confirmé à la radiographie de face, de profil et des ¾ internes. Les lésions ont été classées selon Bryan et Morrey. Les patients ont été opérés en urgence par abord postéro-latéral de Kocher, réduction à ciel ouvert puis stabilisation par vis de Herbert enfouies. Le recul moyen a été de un an. La récupération fonctionnelle totale moyenne a été de 3,6 mois. L’évaluation fonctionnelle a été jugée excellente selon le score MEPI (Mayo Elbow Performance Index) pour les trois patients. Il n'y a pas eu de démontage de matériel. La consolidation osseuse moyenne a été de 2,6 mois. PMID:26015850

  11. Seismic analysis of the Par Pond Dam: Study of slope failure and liquefaction. Technical evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Simos, N.; Reich, M.

    1994-07-01

    Stability concerns of the Par Pond Dam, an embankment structure in the Savannah River Site complex, resulted in a comprehensive evaluation of the state of its integrity. Specifically, excessive seepage through the embankment, slope failure due to an earthquake event as well as liquefaction potential of the embankment and the foundation are addressed and the potential of failure is evaluated. Lastly, remedial benefits of the addition of a berm structure are also assessed.

  12. ViPAR: a software platform for the Virtual Pooling and Analysis of Research Data

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Kim W; Carter, KW; Francis, RW; Bresnahan, M; Gissler, M; Grønborg, TK; Gross, R; Gunnes, N; Hammond, G; Hornig, M; Hultman, CM; Huttunen, J; Langridge, A; Leonard, H; Newman, S; Parner, ET; Petersson, G; Reichenberg, A; Sandin, S; Schendel, DE; Schalkwyk, L; Sourander, A; Steadman, C; Stoltenberg, C; Suominen, A; Surén, P; Susser, E; Sylvester Vethanayagam, A; Yusof, Z

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research studies exploring the determinants of disease require sufficient statistical power to detect meaningful effects. Sample size is often increased through centralized pooling of disparately located datasets, though ethical, privacy and data ownership issues can often hamper this process. Methods that facilitate the sharing of research data that are sympathetic with these issues and which allow flexible and detailed statistical analyses are therefore in critical need. We have created a software platform for the Virtual Pooling and Analysis of Research data (ViPAR), which employs free and open source methods to provide researchers with a web-based platform to analyse datasets housed in disparate locations. Methods: Database federation permits controlled access to remotely located datasets from a central location. The Secure Shell protocol allows data to be securely exchanged between devices over an insecure network. ViPAR combines these free technologies into a solution that facilitates ‘virtual pooling’ where data can be temporarily pooled into computer memory and made available for analysis without the need for permanent central storage. Results: Within the ViPAR infrastructure, remote sites manage their own harmonized research dataset in a database hosted at their site, while a central server hosts the data federation component and a secure analysis portal. When an analysis is initiated, requested data are retrieved from each remote site and virtually pooled at the central site. The data are then analysed by statistical software and, on completion, results of the analysis are returned to the user and the virtually pooled data are removed from memory. Conclusions: ViPAR is a secure, flexible and powerful analysis platform built on open source technology that is currently in use by large international consortia, and is made publicly available at [http://bioinformatics.childhealthresearch.org.au/software/vipar/]. PMID:26452388

  13. uPAR-targeted multimodal tracer for pre- and intraoperative imaging in cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    van Willigen, Danny M.; Stammes, Marieke A.; Prevoo, Hendrica A.J.M.; Tummers, Quirijn R.J.G.; Mazar, Andrew P.; Beekman, Freek J.; Kuppen, Peter J.K.; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; Löwik, Clemens W.G.M.; Frangioni, John V.; van Leeuwen, Fijs W.B.; Sier, Cornelis F.M.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.

    2015-01-01

    Pre- and intraoperative diagnostic techniques facilitating tumor staging are of paramount importance in colorectal cancer surgery. The urokinase receptor (uPAR) plays an important role in the development of cancer, tumor invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis and over-expression is found in the majority of carcinomas. This study aims to develop the first clinically relevant anti-uPAR antibody-based imaging agent that combines nuclear (111In) and real-time near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent imaging (ZW800-1). Conjugation and binding capacities were investigated and validated in vitro using spectrophotometry and cell-based assays. In vivo, three human colorectal xenograft models were used including an orthotopic peritoneal carcinomatosis model to image small tumors. Nuclear and NIR fluorescent signals showed clear tumor delineation between 24h and 72h post-injection, with highest tumor-to-background ratios of 5.0 ± 1.3 at 72h using fluorescence and 4.2 ± 0.1 at 24h with radioactivity. 1-2 mm sized tumors could be clearly recognized by their fluorescent rim. This study showed the feasibility of an uPAR-recognizing multimodal agent to visualize tumors during image-guided resections using NIR fluorescence, whereas its nuclear component assisted in the pre-operative non-invasive recognition of tumors using SPECT imaging. This strategy can assist in surgical planning and subsequent precision surgery to reduce the number of incomplete resections. PMID:25895028

  14. Preliminary Results for the PAR-PRO: A Measure of Home and Community Participation

    PubMed Central

    Ostir, Glenn V.; Granger, Carl V.; Black, Terrie; Roberts, Pamela; Burgos, Laura; Martinkewiz, Paula; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To develop a measure of home and community participation related to the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Design Cross-sectional analysis of survey data. Setting Nine medical inpatient rehabilitation facilities from 6 states. Participants A total of 594 patients of mixed impairment type admitted for inpatient rehabilitation in 2002. Mean age was 74.0 years and 61.4% were women. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Reliability and validity of the participation instrument. Results A 20-item instrument of home and community participation was developed (PAR-PRO). The instrument showed good internal consistency and good Rasch person and item fit statistics. Four subfactors were identified beyond the unidimensional construct of participation including domestic management, socialization, physical vigor, and generative activities. The PAR-PRO total participation score correlated inversely with age (r=−.31, P<.001) but did not differ by sex. Conclusions The 20-item PAR-PRO instrument of home and community participation displayed good psychometric characteristics. The instrument shows promise as a broad measure of home and community involvement for persons with disabilities. Further work is needed to support its application for people without disability. PMID:16876548

  15. MPDZ EXPRESSION IN THE CAUDOLATERAL SUBSTANTIA NIGRA PARS RETICULATA IS CRUCIALLY INVOLVED IN ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, L.C.; Walter, N.A.R.; Buck, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Association studies implicate the multiple PDZ domain protein (MUPP1/MPDZ) gene in risk for alcoholism in humans and alcohol withdrawal in mice. Although manipulation of the Mpdz gene by homologous recombination and bacterial artificial chromosome transgenesis has suggested that its expression affects alcohol withdrawal risk, the potential confounding effects of linked genes and developmental compensation currently limit interpretation. Here, using RNA interference, we directly test the impact of Mpdz expression on alcohol withdrawal severity and provide brain regional mechanistic information. Lentiviral-mediated delivery of Mpdz short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to the caudolateral substantia nigra pars reticulata significantly reduces Mpdz expression and exacerbates alcohol withdrawal convulsions compared to control mice delivered a scrambled shRNA. Neither baseline nor pentylenetetrazol enhanced convulsions differed between Mpdz shRNA and control animals, indicating that Mpdz expression in the caudolateral substantia nigra pars reticulata does not generally affect seizure susceptibility. To our knowledge, these represent the first in vivo Mpdz RNA interference analyses, and provide the first direct evidence that Mpdz expression impacts behavior. Our results confirm that Mpdz is a quantitative trait gene for alcohol withdrawal and demonstrate that its expression in the caudolateral substantia nigra pars reticulata is crucially involved in risk for alcohol withdrawal. PMID:25109596

  16. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report: Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    During second quarter 1993, samples from the three monitoring wells at the K-Area site (KSS series) and the three monitoring wells at the Par Pond site (PSS series) were analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. This report describes monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the SRS flagging criteria. During second quarter 1993, no constituents exceeded the final PDWS or any other flagging criteria at the K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites. During first quarter 1993, aluminum and iron exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criteria in one or more of the KSS and the PSS wells. These constituents were not analyzed second quarter 1993. In the KSS well series, the field measurement for alkalinity ranged as high as 35 mg/L in well KSS 1D. Alkalinity measurements were zero in the PSS wells, except for a single measurement of 1 mg/L in well PSS 1D. Historical and current water-level elevations at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site indicate that the groundwater flow direction is south to southwest (SRS grid coordinates). The groundwater flow direction at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site could not be determined second quarter 1993.

  17. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-04-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from the three monitoring wells at the K-Area site (KSS series) and the three monitoring wells at the Par Pond site (PSS series) were analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13, 173 and for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. This report describes monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the SRS flagging criteria. During fourth quarter 1992, no constituents analyzed exceeded the PDWS or the SRS Flag 2 criteria at the K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites. In the KSS well series, the field measurement for alkalinity ranged as high as 26 mg/L in well KSS 1D. Alkalinity measurements were zero in the PSS wells. Historical and current water-level elevations at the K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site indicate that the groundwater flow directions are south to southwest (SRS grid coordinates).

  18. uPAR-targeted multimodal tracer for pre- and intraoperative imaging in cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Boonstra, Martin C; van Driel, Pieter B A A; van Willigen, Danny M; Stammes, Marieke A; Prevoo, Hendrica A J M; Tummers, Quirijn R J G; Mazar, Andrew P; Beekman, Freek J; Kuppen, Peter J K; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Löwik, Clemens W G M; Frangioni, John V; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B; Sier, Cornelis F M; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L

    2015-06-10

    Pre- and intraoperative diagnostic techniques facilitating tumor staging are of paramount importance in colorectal cancer surgery. The urokinase receptor (uPAR) plays an important role in the development of cancer, tumor invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis and over-expression is found in the majority of carcinomas. This study aims to develop the first clinically relevant anti-uPAR antibody-based imaging agent that combines nuclear (111In) and real-time near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent imaging (ZW800-1). Conjugation and binding capacities were investigated and validated in vitro using spectrophotometry and cell-based assays. In vivo, three human colorectal xenograft models were used including an orthotopic peritoneal carcinomatosis model to image small tumors. Nuclear and NIR fluorescent signals showed clear tumor delineation between 24h and 72h post-injection, with highest tumor-to-background ratios of 5.0 ± 1.3 at 72h using fluorescence and 4.2 ± 0.1 at 24h with radioactivity. 1-2 mm sized tumors could be clearly recognized by their fluorescent rim. This study showed the feasibility of an uPAR-recognizing multimodal agent to visualize tumors during image-guided resections using NIR fluorescence, whereas its nuclear component assisted in the pre-operative non-invasive recognition of tumors using SPECT imaging. This strategy can assist in surgical planning and subsequent precision surgery to reduce the number of incomplete resections. PMID:25895028

  19. Polycystin-1 binds Par3/aPKC and controls convergent extension during renal tubular morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Maddalena; Boca, Manila; Chiaravalli, Marco; Ramalingam, Harini; Rowe, Isaline; Distefano, Gianfranco; Carroll, Thomas; Boletta, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Several organs, including the lungs and kidneys, are formed by epithelial tubes whose proper morphogenesis ensures correct function. This is best exemplified by the kidney, where defective establishment or maintenance of tubular diameter results in polycystic kidney disease, a common genetic disorder. Most polycystic kidney disease cases result from loss-of-function mutations in the PKD1 gene, encoding Polycystin-1, a large receptor of unknown function. Here we demonstrate that PC-1 has an essential role in the establishment of correct tubular diameter during nephron development. Polycystin-1 associates with Par3 favouring the assembly of a pro-polarizing Par3/aPKC complex and it regulates a programme of cell polarity important for oriented cell migration and for a convergent extension-like process during tubular morphogenesis. Par3 inactivation in the developing kidney results in defective convergent extension and tubular morphogenesis, and in renal cyst formation. Our data define Polycystin-1 as central to cell polarization and to epithelial tube morphogenesis and homeostasis. PMID:24153433

  20. Polycystin-1 binds Par3/aPKC and controls convergent extension during renal tubular morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Maddalena; Boca, Manila; Chiaravalli, Marco; Ramalingam, Harini; Rowe, Isaline; Distefano, Gianfranco; Carroll, Thomas; Boletta, Alessandra

    2013-10-01

    Several organs, including the lungs and kidneys, are formed by epithelial tubes whose proper morphogenesis ensures correct function. This is best exemplified by the kidney, where defective establishment or maintenance of tubular diameter results in polycystic kidney disease, a common genetic disorder. Most polycystic kidney disease cases result from loss-of-function mutations in the PKD1 gene, encoding Polycystin-1, a large receptor of unknown function. Here we demonstrate that PC-1 has an essential role in the establishment of correct tubular diameter during nephron development. Polycystin-1 associates with Par3 favouring the assembly of a pro-polarizing Par3/aPKC complex and it regulates a programme of cell polarity important for oriented cell migration and for a convergent extension-like process during tubular morphogenesis. Par3 inactivation in the developing kidney results in defective convergent extension and tubular morphogenesis, and in renal cyst formation. Our data define Polycystin-1 as central to cell polarization and to epithelial tube morphogenesis and homeostasis.

  1. Repositioning of glaucoma tubes into the pars plana for refractory malignant glaucoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Malignant glaucoma occurs when the intraocular pressure elevates in the setting of a shallow anterior chamber and patent iridectomy. We describe a case in which malignant glaucoma that was refractory to conventional treatment and complete vitrectomy was successfully managed by rerouting the glaucoma tubes into the pars plana. Case presentation A 47-year-old Latino man had a history of neovascular glaucoma and subsequent peripheral anterior synechiae. He was status post-two glaucoma drainage devices. He developed pupillary block. Laser iridotomy was performed without complications. He subsequently developed malignant glaucoma that was refractory to yttrium aluminum garnet capsulohyaloidotomy of the anterior hyaloid. He underwent pars plana vitrectomy with successful control of his intraocular pressure. After 2 weeks, the malignant glaucoma recurred. He underwent repositioning of the tubes into the pars plana with successful control of his intraocular pressure. Conclusion In rare cases of malignant glaucoma refractive to yttrium aluminum garnet hyaloidotomy and vitrectomy, placement of glaucoma drainage devices is a reasonable alternative. PMID:23577950

  2. Allosteric activation of the Par-6 PDZ via a partial unfolding transition

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Dustin S.; Peterson, Francis C.; Kovrigin, Evgenii L.; Volkman, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Proteins exist in a delicate balance between the native and unfolded states, where thermodynamic stability may be sacrificed to attain the flexibility required for efficient catalysis, binding or allosteric control. Par-6 regulates the Par polarity complex by transmitting a GTPase signal through the CRIB-PDZ module that alters PDZ lig-and binding. Allosteric activation of the PDZ is achieved by local rearrangement of the L164 and K165 side chains to stabilize the interdomain CRIB-PDZ interface and reposition a conserved element of the ligand binding pocket. However, microsecond to millisecond dynamics measurements revealed that L164/K165 exchange requires a larger rearrangement than expected. The margin of thermodynamic stability for the PDZ domain is modest (~3 kcal/mol) and further reduced by transient interactions with the disordered CRIB domain. Measurements of local structural stability revealed that tertiary contacts within the PDZ are disrupted by a partial unfolding transition that enables interconversion of the L/K switch. The unexpected participation of partial PDZ unfolding in the allosteric mechanism of Par-6 suggests that native-state unfolding may be essential for the function of other marginally stable proteins. PMID:23705660

  3. Four Possible Itching Pathways Related to the TRPV1 Channel, Histamine, PAR-2 and Serotonin

    PubMed Central

    NAKAGAWA, Hiroshi; HIURA, Akio

    2013-01-01

    The following four possible pathways for itching sensation have been suggested by recent reports. 1) Histaminergic TRPV1-positive pathway: Although histamine-positive nerve fibers cannot strictly be classified as “itch specific” due to their excitation also by pure algogens (making them itch-selective), the existence of a subpopulation of nociceptors responsible for itching is strongly suggested. Moreover, the TRPV1-expressing neurons have been suggested to be the main sensors and mediators of itching. 2) Histaminergic TRPV1-negative pathway: The scratching behavior caused by itching was not different between capsaicin-pre-treated and vehicle-treated (control) mast cell-rich NC mice. This result suggests the existence of a capsaicin-insensitive (TRPV1-negative) histaminergic pathway. 3) Non-histaminergic PAR-2 pathway: Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) has been shown to play a role in the itching of atopic dermatitis (AD). The itch evoked by cowhage (a non-histaminergic pruritogen that activates PAR-2) is very similar in characteristics to the itch evoked by conditions such as AD. 4) Non-histaminergic serotonin (5-HT) pathway: 5-HT alone applied to the human skin evokes an itching sensation and has been suggested to be involved in the itching associated with pruritic diseases, such as polycythemia vera and cholestasis. PMID:24043991

  4. On PAR with PARP: cellular stress signaling through poly(ADP-ribose) and PARP-1

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xin; Kraus, W. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Cellular stress responses are mediated through a series of regulatory processes that occur at the genomic, transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels. These responses require a complex network of sensors and effectors from multiple signaling pathways, including the abundant and ubiquitous nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). PARP-1 functions at the center of cellular stress responses, where it processes diverse signals and, in response, directs cells to specific fates (e.g., DNA repair vs. cell death) based on the type and strength of the stress stimulus. Many of PARP-1's functions in stress response pathways are mediated by its regulated synthesis of PAR, a negatively charged polymer, using NAD+ as a donor of ADP-ribose units. Thus, PARP-1's functions are intimately tied to nuclear NAD+ metabolism and the broader metabolic profile of the cell. Recent studies in cell and animal models have highlighted the roles of PARP-1 and PAR in the response to a wide variety of extrinsic and intrinsic stress signals, including those initiated by oxidative, nitrosative, genotoxic, oncogenic, thermal, inflammatory, and metabolic stresses. These responses underlie pathological conditions, including cancer, inflammation-related diseases, and metabolic dysregulation. The development of PARP inhibitors is being pursued as a therapeutic approach to these conditions. In this review, we highlight the newest findings about PARP-1's role in stress responses in the context of the historical data. PMID:22391446

  5. The emerging role of the thrombin receptor (PAR-1) in melanoma metastasis--a possible therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Villares, Gabriel J; Zigler, Maya; Bar-Eli, Menashe

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma remains as the deadliest form of skin cancer with limited and inefficient treatment options available for patients with metastatic disease. Within the last decade, the thrombin receptor, Protease Activated Receptor-1, has been described as an essential gene involved in the progression of human melanoma. PAR-1 is known to activate adhesive, invasive and angiogenic factors to promote melanoma metastasis. It is overexpressed not only in metastatic melanoma cell lines but is also highly expressed in metastatic lesions as compared to primary nevi and normal skin. Recently, PAR-1 has been described to regulate the gap junction protein Connexin 43 and the tumor suppressor gene Maspin to promote the metastatic melanoma phenotype. Herein, we review the role of PAR-1 in the progression of melanoma as well as utilizing PAR-1-regulated genes as potential therapeutic targets for melanoma treatment. PMID:21378407

  6. Complication rare de la coloscopie chez un patient sous anticoagulant: hemopéritoine par rupture d'un hématome sous capsulaire de la rate, cas clinique

    PubMed Central

    Sbai, Hicham; Boukatta, Brahim; El Bouazzaoui, Abderahim; Youssfi, Mounia; Mellouki, Ihsane; Benajeh, Dafr Allah; Bobo, Meriem; Bohadouti, Hicham; Tizniti, Siham; Ibrahimi, Adil; Taleb, Khalid Ait; Kanjaa, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    La coloscopie à visée diagnostique et/ou thérapeutique est un examen invasif fréquemment pratiquée de nos jours. La perforation colique et l'hémorragie digestive en sont les principales complications. La survenue d'un hémopéritoine par rupture d'un hématome sous-capsulaire splénique est une complication extrêmement rare et potentiellement mortelle de la coloscopie. Un traumatisme splénique minime passé inaperçu et la prise d'anticoagulant en sont des facteurs favorisants. Nous présentons le cas d'une rupture d'un hématome sous-capsulaire de la rate après une coloscopie, survenue chez un patient de 70 ans porteur d'une valve mitrale mécanique sous acénocoumarol à dose hypocaogulante. La nécessité d'obtention d'une anti coagulation rapidement efficace et l'instabilité hémodynamique avaient justifiée la réalisation d'une splénectomie. L’évolution était favorable. A travers cette observation clinique nous discutons les mécanismes et les modalités de prise en charge devant cette complication. PMID:26523174

  7. Disentangling the confounding effects of PAR and air temperature on net ecosystem exchange in time and scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    yang, Z.; Chen, J.; Becker, R.; Chu, H.; Xie, J.; Shao, C.

    2013-12-01

    Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) in temperate forests is modulated by microclimatic factors. The effects of those factors differ at different time scales and during different time periods. Some of them are correlated across a number of time scales, so their effects on NEE are confounded by each other. PAR and air temperature (Ta) are among the two most important drivers of NEE in temperate forests, and among the two most correlated microclimatic factors. PAR and Ta have similar daily, seasonal, and annual cycles. Their influence on NEE is confounded by each other and entangled together especially at those scales. In this study, we tried to disentangle the confounding effects of them on NEE at different time scales and during different time periods. To accomplish this objective, we applied the innovative spectral analysis techniques including Continuous Wavelet Transformation (CWT), Cross Wavelet Transformation (XWT), Wavelet Coherent (WTC), and Partial Wavelet Coherence (PWC) on seven years time series (2004-2010) of PAR, Ta and NEE from the Ohio Oak Openings site (N 41.5545°, W 83.8438°), USA for spectral analysis. We found that PAR is the major driver at short time scales (e.g. semidiurnal and daily) and Ta is the major driver at long time scales (e.g. seasonal and annual). At daily scale during growing seasons, PAR is anti-phase with NEE with no time delay while Ta lagged PAR about 2-3 hours, which could be explained by the strong dependence of photosynthesis on PAR and a 2-3 hours lags of the daily course of Ta to PAR. At daily scale during non-growing season, NEE has little variation and thus neither Ta nor PAR has high common wavelet power and significant coherence with NEE. At annual scale, Ta is anti-phase with NEE and PAR leads NEE about 34 days, which could be explained by the strong dependence of LAI dynamics on Ta and the lag between the LAI/biomass development and the progress of sunlight. We also found that NEE distributes most of its variation

  8. Apparent PS II absorption cross-section and estimation of mean PAR in optically thin and dense suspensions of Chlorella.

    PubMed

    Klughammer, Christof; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical prediction of effective mean PAR in optically dense samples is complicated by various optical effects, including light scattering and reflections. Direct information on the mean rate of photon absorption by PS II is provided by the kinetics of the fluorescence rise induced upon onset of strong actinic illumination (O-I1 rise). A recently introduced kinetic multi-color PAM fluorometer was applied to study the relationship between initial slope and cell density in the relatively simple model system of suspensions of Chlorella. Use of a curve fitting routine was made which was originally developed for assessment of the wavelength-dependent absorption cross-section of PS II, σ II(λ), in dilute suspensions. The model underlying analysis of the O-I1 rise kinetics is outlined and data on the relationship between fitted values of σ II(λ) and PAR in dilute samples are presented. With increasing cell density, lowering of apparent cross-section, <σ>(λ), with respect to σ II(λ), relates to a decrease of effective mean PAR, <PAR>(λ), relative to incident PAR(λ). When ML and AL are applied in the same direction, the decline of <σ>(λ)/σ II(λ) with increasing optical density is less steep than that of the theoretically predicted <PAR>(λ)/PAR(λ). It approaches a value of 0.5 when the same colors of ML and AL are used, in agreement with theory. These observations open the way for estimating mean PAR in optically dense samples via measurements of <σ>(λ)/σ II(λ)). PMID:25218266

  9. Peroxynitrite-induced thymocyte apoptosis: the role of caspases and poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) activation.

    PubMed Central

    Virág, L; Scott, G S; Cuzzocrea, S; Marmer, D; Salzman, A L; Szabó, C

    1998-01-01

    The mechanisms by which immature thymocyte apoptosis is induced during negative selection are poorly defined. Reports demonstrated that cross-linking of T-cell receptor leads to stromal cell activation, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and, subsequently, to thymocyte apoptosis. Therefore we examined, whether NO directly or indirectly, through peroxynitrite formation, causes thymocyte apoptosis. Immuno-histochemical detection of nitrotyrosine revealed in vivo peroxynitrite formation in the thymi of naive mice. Nitrotyrosine, the footprint of peroxynitrite, was predominantly found in the corticomedullary junction and the medulla of naive mice. In the thymi of mice deficient in the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase, considerably less nitrotyrosine was found. Exposure of thymocytes in vitro to low concentrations (10 microM) of peroxynitrite led to apoptosis, whereas higher concentrations (50 microM) resulted in intense cell death with the characteristics of necrosis. We also investigated the effect of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) inhibition on thymocyte apoptosis. Using the PARS inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), or thymocytes from PARS-deficient animals, we established that PARS determines the fate of thymocyte death. Suppression of cellular ATP levels, and the cellular necrosis in response to peroxynitrite were prevented by PARS inhibition. Therefore, in the absence of PARS, cells are diverted towards the pathway of apoptotic cell death. Similar results were obtained with H2O2 treatment, while apoptosis induced by non-oxidative stimuli such as dexamethasone or anti-FAS antibody was unaffected by PARS inhibition. In conclusion, we propose that peroxynitrite-induced apoptosis may play a role in the process of thymocyte negative selection. Furthermore, we propose that the physiological role of PARS cleavage by apopain during apoptosis may serve as an energy-conserving step, enabling the cell to complete the process of apoptosis

  10. Factor XII stimulates ERK1/2 and Akt through uPAR, integrins, and the EGFR to initiate angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    LaRusch, Gretchen A.; Mahdi, Fakhri; Shariat-Madar, Zia; Adams, Gregory; Sitrin, Robert G.; Zhang, Wan Ming; McCrae, Keith R.

    2010-01-01

    Factor XII (FXII) and high molecular weight kininogen (HK) mutually block each other's binding to the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). We investigated if FXII stimulates cells by interacting with uPAR. FXII (3-62nM) with 0.05mM Zn2+ induces extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2; mitogen-activated protein kinase 44 [MAPK44] andMAPK42) and Akt (Ser473) phosphorylation in endothelial cells. FXII-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 or Akt is a zymogen activity, not an enzymatic event. ERK1/2 or Akt phosphorylation is blocked upstream by PD98059 or Wortmannin or LY294002, respectively. An uPAR signaling region for FXII is on domain 2 adjacent to uPAR's integrin binding site. Cleaved HK or peptides from HK's domain 5 blocks FXII-induced ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation. A β1 integrin peptide that binds uPAR, antibody 6S6 to β1 integrin, or the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor AG1478 blocks FXII-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt. FXII induces endothelial cell proliferation and 5-bromo-2′deoxy-uridine incorporation. FXII stimulates aortic sprouting in normal but not uPAR-deficient mouse aorta. FXII produces angiogenesis in matrigel plugs in normal but not uPAR-deficient mice. FXII knockout mice have reduced constitutive and wound-induced blood vessel number. In sum, FXII initiates signaling mediated by uPAR, β1 integrin, and the EGFR to induce human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation, growth, and angiogenesis. PMID:20228268

  11. Row orientation effect on UV-B, UV-A and PAR solar irradiation components in vineyards at Tuscany, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grifoni, D.; Carreras, G.; Zipoli, G.; Sabatini, F.; Dalla Marta, A.; Orlandini, S.

    2008-11-01

    Besides playing an essential role in plant photosynthesis, solar radiation is also involved in many other important biological processes. In particular, it has been demonstrated that ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation plays a relevant role in grapevines ( Vitis vinifera) in the production of certain important chemical compounds directly responsible for yield and wine quality. Moreover, the exposure to UV-B radiation (280-320 nm) can affect plant-disease interaction by influencing the behaviour of both pathogen and host. The main objective of this research was to characterise the solar radiative regime of a vineyard, in terms of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and UV components. In this analysis, solar spectral UV irradiance components, broadband UV (280-400 nm), spectral UV-B and UV-A (320-400 nm), the biological effective UVBE, as well as the PAR (400-700 nm) component, were all considered. The diurnal patterns of these quantities and the UV-B/PAR and UV-B/UV-A ratios were analysed to investigate the effect of row orientation of the vineyard in combination with solar azimuth and elevation angles. The distribution of PAR and UV irradiance at various heights of the vertical sides of the rows was also studied. The results showed that the highest portion of plants received higher levels of daily radiation, especially the UV-B component. Row orientation of the vines had a pronounced effect on the global PAR received by the two sides of the rows and, to a lesser extent, UV-A and UV-B. When only the diffused component was considered, this geometrical effect was greatly attenuated. UV-B/PAR and UV-A/PAR ratios were also affected, with potential consequences on physiological processes. Because of the high diffusive capacity of the UV-B radiation, the UV-B/PAR ratio was significantly lower on the plant portions exposed to full sunlight than on those in the shade.

  12. Effet Hall et Magnetisme des Alliages Amorphes Nickel-Zirconium Fabriques Par Pulverisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, Robert

    Cette these se situe dans le cadre d'une etude des proprietes electroniques et structurales des alliages metalliques amorphes, en cours depuis quelques annees a l'Universite de Montreal. Ce programme nous a entre autres amene a caracteriser la magnetoresistivite et l'effet Hall d'alliages FeZr, CoZr et NiZr, ce qui a permis de mettre en evidence deux caracteristiques de l'effet Hall: Dans les alliages amorphes ferromagnetiques, la resistivite elevee engendre un effet Hall extraordinaire beaucoup plus important que celui enregistre dans les metaux cristallins. La polarisation des spins entrai ne une asymetrie de la diffusion qui, tant dans les phases cristalline et amorphe, est tenue responsable de cette contribution. L'autre particularite du comportement de Hall de ces systemes est le renversement de signe du coefficient de Hall ordinaire, qui passe du negatif au positif dans les echantillons plus riches en zirconium. Dans les metaux cristallins, un modele d'electrons libres predit un signe negatif a moins que la conduction ne soit dominee par les trous. Or, dans un milieu desordonne les memes concepts sont difficilement applicables et de nouvelles theories ont du etre elaborees pour expliquer ce phenomene. Jusqu'a maintenant, l'etude des alliages amorphes nickel-zirconium s'est faite surtout a partir d'echantillons fabriques par trempe sur roue. Malheureusement cette technique ne permet pas la fabrication d'alliages contenant plus de 70% de nickel, a l'exception du seul compose Ni _{90}Zr_{10 }. Pour pallier a cette lacune et etendre nos connaissance a l'ensemble de la gamme de compositions, nous avons fabrique par pulverisation cathodique des echantillons NiZr amorphes--et quelques alliages cristallins tres riches en nickel--couvrant une bonne partie de la gamme interdite par la technique de trempe sur roue. Dans un premier temps, par comparaison avec les resultats connus nous avons mis en evidence les similitudes et les differences entre les alliages obtenus par

  13. Increased Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) Levels in Plasma of Suicide Attempters

    PubMed Central

    Ventorp, Filip; Gustafsson, Anna; Träskman-Bendz, Lil; Westrin, Åsa; Ljunggren, Lennart

    2015-01-01

    The soluble form of the urokinase receptor, suPAR, has been suggested as a novel biomarker of low-grade inflammation. Activation of the immune system has been proposed to contribute to the development of depression and suicidal behavior. In order to identify depressed and suicidal individuals who could benefit from an anti-inflammatory treatment, a reliable biomarker of low-grade inflammation is vital. This study evaluates plasma suPAR levels as a biomarker of low-grade inflammation in patients with major depressive disorder and in patients who recently attempted suicide. The plasma suPAR and an established biomarker, C reactive protein (CRP) of suicide attempters (n = 54), depressed patients (n = 19) and healthy controls (n = 19) was analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The biomarker attributes of sensitivity and sensibility were evaluated using ROC curve analysis. Both the depressed patients and suicide attempters had increased plasma suPAR. The levels of suPAR discriminated better between controls and suicide attempters than did CRP. In the future, plasma suPAR might be a superior prognosticator regarding outcome of treatment applying conventional antidepressants in conjunction with anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:26451727

  14. Discovery of 2-aryloxy-4-amino-quinazoline derivatives as novel protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) antagonists.

    PubMed

    Cho, Nam-Chul; Cha, Ji Hyoun; Kim, Hyojin; Kwak, Jinsook; Kim, Dohee; Seo, Seung-Hwan; Shin, Ji-Sun; Kim, TaeHun; Park, Ki Duk; Lee, Jiyoun; No, Kyoung Tai; Kim, Yun Kyung; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Pae, Ae Nim

    2015-12-15

    Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is a member of G protein-coupled receptor and its activation initiates diverse inflammatory responses. Recent studies suggest that antagonists of PAR2 may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for inflammatory diseases. In this study, we have developed a series of 2-aryloxy-4-amino-quinazoline derivatives as PAR2 antagonists and examined their effects against LPS-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Among these derivatives, compound 2f displayed the greatest antagonistic activity with the IC50 value of 2.8μM. Binding modes of the newly identified PAR2 antagonists were analyzed by molecular docking using IFD/MM-GBSA methods in the putative binding site of PAR2 homology model. Moreover, 2f demonstrated significant inhibitory effects on the LPS-activated pro-inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) through the regulation of various intracellular signaling pathways involving nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), activator protein 1 (AP-1) and the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). Furthermore, administration of 2f significantly reduced the mortality of LPS-induced sepsis in mice. These results provide useful insights into the development of novel PAR2 antagonists with anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26631441

  15. Utility of the Plasma Level of suPAR in Monitoring Risk of Mortality during TB Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rabna, Paulo; Andersen, Andreas; Wejse, Christian; Oliveira, Ines; Gomes, Victor Francisco; Haaland, Maya Bonde; Aaby, Peter; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether changes in the plasma level of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) can be used to monitor tuberculosis (TB) treatment efficacy. Design This prospective cohort study included 278 patients diagnosed with active pulmonary TB and followed throughout the 8-month treatment period. Results Mortality during treatment was higher in the highest inclusion quartile of suPAR (23%) compared to the lowest three quartiles (7%), the risk ratio being 3.1 (95% CI 1.65–6.07). No association between early smear conversion and subsequent mortality or inclusion suPAR was observed. After 1 and 2 months of treatment, an increase in suPAR compared to at diagnosis was associated with a Mortality Rate Ratio (MRR) of 4.5 (95%CI: 1.45–14.1) and 2.1 (95%CI 0.62–6.82), respectively, for the remaining treatment period. Conclusions The present study confirmed that elevated suPAR level at time of initiation of TB treatment is associated with increased risk of mortality. Furthermore, increased suPAR levels after one month of treatment was associated with increased risk of mortality during the remaining 7-month treatment period. PMID:22937128

  16. Structure par RMN d'un complexe AlcR(1-60)-ADN: Reconnaissance du petit sillon par la partie N-terminale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahuzac, B.; Félenbok, B.; Guittet, E.

    1999-10-01

    Aspergillus nidulans is a filamentous fungus able to use ethanol as sole energy source. The activation of the ethanol regulon genes expression is mediated by the AlcR protein. Its DNA-binding domain is located in the N-terminus (residues 1 to 60), and its NMR solution structure shows a global zinc binuclear cluster fold, with two helices in addition to the basic binuclear motif. A small number of crystallographic structures of DNA complexes of binuclear cluster proteins is yet known, and points out the major groove and the first helix as the principal sites of interaction on the DNA and the protein respectively. In this article we show evidences that the N-terminus of the protein is involved in binding to the minor groove. Aspergillus nidulans est un champignon filamenteux capable d'utiliser l'éthanol comme source unique d'énergie. La protéine AlcR est responsable de l'activation de l'expression des gènes du régulon éthanol. Le domaine de liaison à l'ADN est situé dans la partie N-terminale de la protéine (a.a. 1 à 60), et sa structure déterminée par RMN en solution montre un repliement global en bouquet binucléaire à zinc, avec deux hélices supplémentaires par rapport au motif de base. Alors que les structures déjà connues de complexes ADN - bouquets binucléaires permettent de situer dans le grand sillon la quasi-totalité des interactions, nous montrons dans la présente étude l'implication du début de la séquence dans la reconnaissance du petit sillon de l'ADN (a.a. 5 et 6).

  17. Horizontal portion of arcuate fasciculus fibers track to pars opercularis, not pars triangularis, in right and left hemispheres: A DTI study

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Elina; Naeser, Margaret A.; Martin, Paula I.; Ho, Michael; Wang, Yunyan; Baker, Errol; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    The arcuate fasciculus (AF) is a white matter pathway traditionally considered to connect left Broca’s area with posterior language zones. We utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in eight healthy subjects (5M) to track pathways in the horizontal mid-portion of the AF (hAF) to subregions of Broca’s area - pars triangularis (PTr) and pars opercularis (POp); and to ventral premotor cortex (vPMC) in the right and left hemispheres (RH, LH). These pathways have previously been studied in the LH, but not in the RH. Only 1/8 subjects showed fiber tracts between PTr and hAF in the RH (also, only 1/8 in the LH). In contrast to PTr, 5/8 subjects showed fiber tracts between POp and hAF in the RH (8/8 in the LH). Fiber tracts for vPMC were similar to those of POp, where 7/8 subjects showed fiber tracts between vPMC and hAF in the RH (8/8 in the LH). Our designated hAF could have included some of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) III, because it is difficult to separate the two fiber bundles. The SLF III has been previously reported to connect supramarginal gyrus with POp and vPMC in the LH. Thus, although the present DTI study showed almost no pathways between PTr and hAF in the RH (and in the LH), robust pathways were observed between POp and/or vPMC with hAF in the RH (and in LH). These results replicate previous studies for the LH, but are new, for the RH. They could contribute to better understanding of recovery in aphasia. PMID:20438853

  18. Les manifestations oculaires au cours de la pré-éclampsie sévère ou l’éclampsie au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sourô Sanou de Bobo Dioulasso

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Jean Wenceslas; Méda, Nonfounikoun; Ahnoux-Zabsonré, Ahgbatouhabéba; Ouattara, Souleymane; Yanogo, Armande; Tougouma, Somnoma Jean Baptiste; Somé, Der; Sanou, Jérôme; Dolo, Mariam

    2015-01-01

    La pré-éclampsie sévère est un problème de santé publique. L'atteinte oculaire est une de ses nombreuses complications. Le but de notre travail était de décrire les atteintes oculaires chez les patientes présentant une pré-éclampsie et/ou éclampsie afin de contribuer à leur meilleure prise en charge. Il s'est agi d'une étude transversale descriptive à collecte prospective allant du 1er novembre 2013 au 31 juillet 2014, chez les patientes ayant souffert de pré-éclampsie sévère/éclampsie. Nous avons inclus 127 patientes dans notre étude. La moyenne d’âge des patientes de notre étude était de 26,37 ans (ET= 6,8 ans), avec des extrêmes de 15 et 40 ans. Les tranches d’âge les plus représentées étaient celles de 26 à 30 ans avec 29,1% des cas et celle des 15 à 20 ans avec 25,2%. Le diagnostic de pré-éclampsie sévère a été retenu dans 69,3% des cas. Les primigestes représentaient 40,9% de la population. Les troubles visuels à type de phosphènes ont été observés chez 33,1% des patientes. Nous avons noté un courant granulaire conjonctival dans 41,7%, des lésions du segment postérieur chez 32,3% des patientes. Ces résultats ont été discutés par rapport à la littérature, et nous notons plus de cas d'atteinte rétinienne. Nous n'avons pas trouvé de lien statistiquement significatif entre la tension artérielle à l'admission et le stade de la rétinopathie hypertensive. Les complications oculaires de la pré-éclampsie sévère sont très fréquentes et souvent ignorées. Les atteintes rétiniennes sont fréquentes mais de bon pronostic. PMID:26405485

  19. PAR1 participates in the ability of multidrug resistance and tumorigenesis by controlling Hippo-YAP pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Daisuke; Ueda, Yuki; Hirono, Yasuo; Goi, Takanori; Yamaguchi, Akio

    2015-01-01

    The Hippo pathway significantly correlates with organ size control and tumorigenesis. The activity of YAP/TAZ, a transducer of the Hippo pathway, is required to sustain self-renewal and tumor-initiation capacities in cancer stem cells (CSCs). But, upstream signals that control the mammalian Hippo pathway have not been well understood. Here, we reveal a connection between the Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) signaling pathway and the Hippo-YAP pathway in gastric cancer stem-like cells. The selective PAR1 agonist TFLLR-NH2 induces an increase in the fraction of side population cells which is enriched in CSCs, and promotes tumorigenesis, multi cancer drug resistance, cell morphological change, and cell invasion which are characteristics of CSCs. In addition, PAR1 activation inhibits the Hippo-YAP pathway kinase Lats via Rho GTPase. Lats kinase inhibition in turn results in increased nuclear localization of dephosphorylated YAP. Furthermore, PAR1 activation confers CSCs related traits via the Hippo-YAP pathway, and the Hippo-YAP pathway correlates with epithelial mesenchymal transition which is induced by PAR1 activation. Our research suggests that the PAR1 signaling deeply participates in the ability of multi drug resistance and tumorigenesis through interactions with the Hippo-YAP pathway signaling in gastric cancer stem-like cells. We presume that inhibited YAP is a new therapeutic target in the treatment human gastric cancer invasion and metastasis by dysregulated PAR1 or its agonists. The Hippo pathway significantly correlates with organ size control and tumorigenesis. The activity of YAP/TAZ, a transducer of the Hippo pathway, is required to sustain self-renewal and tumor-initiation capacities in cancer stem cells (CSCs). But, upstream signals that control the mammalian Hippo pathway have not been well understood. Here, we reveal a connection between the Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) signaling pathway and the Hippo-YAP pathway in gastric cancer stem

  20. Influence of rainfall space-time variability over the Ouémé basin in Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascon, T.; Vischel, T.; Lebel, T.; Quantin, G.; Pellarin, T.; Quatela, V.; Leroux, D.; Galle, S.

    2015-05-01

    In West Africa, the concomitant occurrence of extreme droughts and damaging floods points to the urgent need for linking the climate variability at various time scales (daily to decadal) to its impact in terms of water related risks. While hydrological models are key tools to do so, their use in this part of the world is strongly limited by the scarcity of rainfall data. Satellite precipitation products can be used as rainfall input to models in order to make up for this shortage of appropriate surface data. However, these satellite products have their own weaknesses, both in terms of accuracy and resolution. While the accuracy of satellite rainfall estimates has already received a fair amount of attention, little published work deals with the resolution issue. The study presented here is motivated by this lack of attention to the resolution issue. It makes use of the data produced by a very dense rainfall network covering the Ouémé catchment in Benin (14 600 km2), to study the impact of varying the space-time resolution of input rainfields on the output produced by DHSVM (Distributed Hydrology Soils and Vegetation Model), thus mimicking the resolution-induced errors associated with using satellite rainfall input for such physically-based models. The major result of this sensitivity analysis is that the model output is much more sensitive to the time resolution than to the space resolution, at least for this region and for the range of resolutions tested.

  1. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference experiment of two independent heralded single photon sources in an optical fiber with birefringence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tianyi; Zhou, Qiang; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong; Cui, Xiaowei; Lu, Mingquan; Feng, Zhenming

    2012-11-01

    Single photon sources (SPSs) play important roles in quantum communication and quantum information processing. Spontaneous four wave mixing (SFWM) in optical fibers provides a promising way to realize practical heralded single photon sources (HSPSs), since it is compatible with current techniques of optical communications. In this paper, two independent HSPSs at 1.5μm band are realized in one polarization maintaining dispersion shifted fiber (PM-DSF) utilizing its large birefringence. When pulsed pump light passes through an optical fiber, two kinds of SFWM will take place simultaneously. One is scalar processes, in which two annihilated pump photons and generated photon pair are all polarized along the same fiber polarization axis. The other is vector processes, in which two annihilated pump photons are polarized along different fiber polarization axes, either for the two photons of the generated pair. In the PM-DSF, the large birefringence generates obvious walk-off effect on the two pump polarization components, which leads to an effective suppression of the vector processes. Hence, by proper pump polarization, correlated photon pairs (CPPs) with different polarization directions can be generated independently by the two scalar processes, which can be used to realize two independent HSPSs. The indistinguishability of the heralded photons generated by the two independent sources is demonstrated by an experiment of Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference. Using a fiber coupler as the beam splitter, a visibility of HOM dip of 76% is achieved, showing their potential on quantum information.

  2. Spatial assessment and source identification of trace metal pollution in stream sediments of Oued El Maadene basin, northern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ayari, J; Agnan, Y; Charef, A

    2016-07-01

    An extensive spatial survey was conducted on trace metal content in stream sediments from Oued El Maadene basin, northern Tunisia. Our objectives were to evaluate the level of trace metal pollution and associated ecological risk and identify the major sources of metal pollution. A total of 116 stream sediment samples were collected and analysed for total As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, and Zr concentrations. The results showed that concentrations of Cr, Ni, V, and Zr were close to natural levels. In contrast, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn had elevated concentrations and enrichment factors compared to other contaminated regions in northern Tunisia. Ecological risk to aquatic ecosystems was highlighted in most areas. Principal component analysis showed that Cr, Ni, V, and Zr mainly derived from local soil and bedrock weathering, whilst As, Cd, Pb, and Zn originated from mining wastes. Trace metals could be dispersed downstream of tailings, possibly due to surface runoff during the short rainy season. Surprisingly, Cu, and to a lesser extent As, originated from agricultural activities, related to application of Cu-based fungicides in former vineyards and orchards. This study showed that, despite the complete cessation of mining activities several decades ago, metal pollution still impacts the local environment. This large pollution, however, did not mask other additional sources, such as local agricultural applications of fungicides. PMID:27270485

  3. Laser-cooling atoms to indistinguishability: Atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and entanglement through spin-exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Adam

    In this thesis, I describe the development of and scientific results from a new platform for creating ultracold atoms via single-atom control. We employ Raman-sideband cooling to isolated bosonic 87Rb atoms confined within sub-micron optical tweezers, yielding single particle three- dimensional ground-state fractions of 90%. We create multiple, independent, mobile optical tweezers, which simultaneously allows multi-particle studies with single-atom microscopy and highly tunable length-scales. We employ this toolset in both of the main experiments discussed in this thesis. In one experiment, we observe Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of two bosonic atoms, each of which is independently prepared in spatially separated optical tweezers. The interference we observe is a direct consequence of the purity of the single particle quantum states produced, and the indistinguishability of the atoms. In a second experiment, we introduce a spin-degree of freedom and exploit spin-exchange dynamics, driven by the quantum-statistics of the particles, to create a spin-entangled pair of spatially separated atoms.

  4. Peptide-Based Optical uPAR Imaging for Surgery: In Vivo Testing of ICG-Glu-Glu-AE105

    PubMed Central

    Juhl, Karina; Christensen, Anders; Persson, Morten; Ploug, Michael; Kjaer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared intra-operative optical imaging is an emerging technique with clear implications for improved cancer surgery by enabling a more distinct delineation of the tumor margins during resection. This modality has the potential to increase the number of patients having a curative radical tumor resection. In the present study, a new uPAR-targeted fluorescent probe was developed and the in vivo applicability was evaluated in a human xenograft mouse model. Most human carcinomas express high level of uPAR in the tumor-stromal interface of invasive lesions and uPAR is therefore considered an ideal target for intra-operative imaging. Conjugation of the flourophor indocyanine green (ICG) to the uPAR agonist (AE105) provides an optical imaging ligand with sufficiently high receptor affinity to allow for a specific receptor targeting in vivo. For in vivo testing, human glioblastoma xenograft mice were subjected to optical imaging after i.v. injection of ICG-AE105, which provided an optimal contrast in the time window 6–24 h post injection. Specificity of the uPAR-targeting probe ICG-AE105 was demonstrated in vivo by 1) no uptake of unconjugated ICG after 15 hours, 2) inhibition of ICG-AE105 tumor uptake by a bolus injection of the natural uPAR ligand pro-uPA, and finally 3) the histological colocalization of ICG-AE105 fluorescence and immunohistochemical detected human uPAR on resected tumor slides. Taken together, our data supports the potential use of this probe for intra-operative optical guidance in cancer surgery to ensure complete removal of tumors while preserving adjacent, healthy tissue. PMID:26828431

  5. Caenorhabditis elegans PIG-1/MELK acts in a conserved PAR-4/LKB1 polarity pathway to promote asymmetric neuroblast divisions.

    PubMed

    Chien, Shih-Chieh; Brinkmann, Eva-Maria; Teuliere, Jerome; Garriga, Gian

    2013-03-01

    Asymmetric cell divisions produce daughter cells with distinct sizes and fates, a process important for generating cell diversity during development. Many Caenorhabditis elegans neuroblasts, including the posterior daughter of the Q cell (Q.p), divide to produce a larger neuron or neuronal precursor and a smaller cell that dies. These size and fate asymmetries require the gene pig-1, which encodes a protein orthologous to vertebrate MELK and belongs to the AMPK-related family of kinases. Members of this family can be phosphorylated and activated by the tumor suppressor kinase LKB1, a conserved polarity regulator of epithelial cells and neurons. In this study, we present evidence that the C. elegans orthologs of LKB1 (PAR-4) and its partners STRAD (STRD-1) and MO25 (MOP-25.2) regulate the asymmetry of the Q.p neuroblast division. We show that PAR-4 and STRD-1 act in the Q lineage and function genetically in the same pathway as PIG-1. A conserved threonine residue (T169) in the PIG-1 activation loop is essential for PIG-1 activity, consistent with the model that PAR-4 (or another PAR-4-regulated kinase) phosphorylates and activates PIG-1. We also demonstrate that PIG-1 localizes to centrosomes during cell divisions of the Q lineage, but this localization does not depend on T169 or PAR-4. We propose that a PAR-4-STRD-1 complex stimulates PIG-1 kinase activity to promote asymmetric neuroblast divisions and the generation of daughter cells with distinct fates. Changes in cell fate may underlie many of the abnormal behaviors exhibited by cells after loss of PAR-4 or LKB1. PMID:23267054

  6. Improvement of DNA minicircle production by optimization of the secondary structure of the 5'-UTR of ParA resolvase.

    PubMed

    Šimčíková, Michaela; Alves, Cláudia P A; Brito, Liliana; Prather, Kristala L J; Prazeres, Duarte M F; Monteiro, Gabriel A

    2016-08-01

    The use of minicircles in gene therapy applications is dependent on the availability of high-producer cell systems. In order to improve the performance of minicircle production in Escherichia coli by ParA resolvase-mediated in vivo recombination, we focus on the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) of parA messenger RNA (mRNA). The arabinose-inducible PBAD/araC promoter controls ParA expression and strains with improved arabinose uptake are used. The 27-nucleotide-long 5'-UTR of parA mRNA was optimized using a predictive thermodynamic model. An analysis of original and optimized mRNA subsequences predicted a decrease of 8.6-14.9 kcal/mol in the change in Gibbs free energy upon assembly of the 30S ribosome complex with the mRNA subsequences, indicating a more stable mRNA-rRNA complex and enabling a higher (48-817-fold) translation initiation rate. No effect of the 5'-UTR was detected when ParA was expressed from a low-copy number plasmid (∼14 copies/cell), with full recombination obtained within 2 h. However, when the parA gene was inserted in the bacterial chromosome, a faster and more effective recombination was obtained with the optimized 5'-UTR. Interestingly, the amount of this transcript was 2.6-3-fold higher when compared with the transcript generated from the original sequence, highlighting that 5'-UTR affects the level of the transcript. A Western blot analysis confirmed that E. coli synthesized higher amounts of ParA with the new 5'-UTR (∼1.8 ± 0.7-fold). Overall, these results show that the improvements made in the 5'-UTR can lead to a more efficient translation and hence to faster and more efficient minicircle generation. PMID:27147534

  7. The microRNA miR-17-3p inhibits mouse cardiac fibroblast senescence by targeting Par4.

    PubMed

    Du, William W; Li, Xianmin; Li, Tianbi; Li, Haoran; Khorshidi, Azam; Liu, Fengqiong; Yang, Burton B

    2015-01-15

    The microRNA miR-17-92 cluster plays a fundamental role in heart development. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a member of this cluster, miR-17, on cardiac senescence. We examined the roles of miR-17 in senescence and demonstrated that miR-17-3p attenuates cardiac aging in the myocardium by targeting Par4 (also known as PAWR). This upregulates the downstream proteins CEBPB, FAK, N-cadherin, vimentin, Oct4 and Sca-1 (also known as stem cell antigen-1), and downregulates E-cadherin. Par4 has been reported as a tumor suppressor gene that induces apoptosis in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Repression of Par4 by miR-17-3p enhances the transcription of CEBPB and FAK, which promotes mouse cardiac fibroblast (MCF) epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and self-renewal, resulting in cellular senescence and apoptosis resistance. We conclude that Par4 can bind to the CEBPB promoter and inhibit its transcription. Decreased Par4 expression increases the amount of CEBPB, which binds to the FAK promoter and enhances FAK transcription. Par4, CEBPB and FAK form a senescence signaling pathway, playing roles in modulating cell survival, growth, apoptosis, EMT and self-renewal. Through this novel senescence signaling axis, miR-17-3p represses Par4 expression, acting pleiotropically as a negative modulator of cardiac aging and cardiac fibroblast cellular senescence. PMID:25472717

  8. An aerial radiological survey of Par Pond and associated drainage pathways of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The first of a three-phase effort to radiologically monitor the lowering of Par Pond and associated drainage pathways was conducted over three areas of the Savannah River Site (SRS). The areas surveyed during this first phase included Par Pond, the Savannah River swamp from Steel Creek to Little Hell Landing, and Lower Three Runs Creek from the mouth of Lower Three Runs to the Highway 301 Bridge. The first phase was conducted to coincide with the lowering of the water level of Par Pond to an elevation of 190 feet above sea level. Additional surveys were conducted when the water level was at an elevation of 180 feet and prior to refill. The first survey began August 19, 1991, and was completed September 11, 1991. The second survey was conducted in October/November, 1991, during the SRS site-wide survey, and the third survey was conducted in August/September, 1992. Only the Par Pond area itself was surveyed during the third and final phase. The radiation detected over the Creek Plantation portion of the Savannah River swamp and Lower Three Runs areas during the August 1991 survey was consistent with the spatial distribution, quantity, and kinds of radionuclides detected during the 1983 and 1986 surveys. No migration of man-made gamma emitting materials was detected when compared to the prior surveys. The major differences occurred along the Par Pond shoreline where lowered water levels exposed the contaminated pond bed. The activity in the pond bed was attenuated by the water cover prior to the start of the lowering of Par Pond in June 1991. The data collected during each survey were processed in the field and were presented to SRS. A comparison report is being generated after the completion of each survey. A final report will be generated for the three surveys and will include a quantitative comparison of the three surveys in the Par Pond area only.

  9. A prospective study on postoperative discomfort after 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ji-guo; Ni, Fang; Xiang, Yi; Feng, Yi-fan; Wang, Jue; Fu, Xun-an

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate postoperative pain and other irritation symptoms after 20-gauge (20G) pars plana vitrectomy. Materials and methods A total of 110 consecutive patients were enrolled in our studies, and 87 patients who underwent the conventional 20G pars plana vitrectomy were included in the final analysis. All vitrectomies were performed using the same surgical technique by the same surgeon. Patients were examined before surgery and 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, 1 month, and 2 months postoperatively. The main outcome measures include patient age and sex, intraocular pressure (IOP), ocular pain, pain score, pain medication use, and other irritation symptoms comprising itching, foreign body sensation, burning, photophobia, and dryness. The pain was evaluated using the Numerical Rating Scale scored from 0 to 10. Results Postoperative pain was relatively common during the first day after surgery, as it was reported by 43 (49.4%) patients. Then, the prevalence gradually decreased to eleven (12.6%) patients at 2 months. Most patients reported mild or moderate pain, with a pain score of 1–5, but only four patients were given analgesics for ocular pain. A postoperative rise of IOP was noted in 25 patients at day 1. Most of these patients with high IOP reported moderate pain. Other ocular irritation symptoms were varied after surgery. There was still one-quarter of patients that had foreign body sensation and dryness symptoms at month 2 after surgery. Conclusion Mild and moderate ocular pain were relatively common after 20G vitrectomy, which is more often associated with elevated IOP. Other irritation symptoms were also presented after surgery and could affect the life quality of patients. Therefore, the discomforts after 20G pars plana vitrectomy should be of concern, and timely management should be provided as part of routine postoperative care. PMID:26244010

  10. Les Brulures Electriques par Haut Voltage - A Propos de 10 Cas

    PubMed Central

    Belmir, R.; Fejjal, N.; El Omari, M.; El Mazouz, S.; Gharib, N.; Abassi, A.; Belmahi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Les accidents électriques par haute tension (AEHT) provoquent des brûlures profondes par effet Joule le long des axes vasculo-nerveux entre les points d'entrée et de sortie, qui sont le siège de lésions délabrantes. Les Auteurs rapportent une série de dix cas d'AEHT admis au service de chirurgie réparatrice et de brûlés de l'Hôpital Ibn Sina de Rabat à travers laquelle ils étudient les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, cliniques et thérapeutiques. Tous les patients étaient des adultes de sexe masculin dont l'âge moyen était de 31 ans. Dans 70% des cas, ces brûlures étaient secondaires à un contact avec les distributeurs d'électricité avec une surface brûlée inférieure à 20%. Le traitement des lésions électrothermiques a nécessité des interventions itératives avec amputation des segments de membres nécrosés dans 70% des cas, dont les suites étaient marquées par des séquelles fonctionnelles invalidantes. La prévention des AEHT, en particulier pour les accidents du travail au sein des professions exposées, reste fondamentale. PMID:21991124

  11. Vasodilator-Stimulated Phosphoprotein Deficiency Potentiates PAR-1-induced Increase in Endothelial Permeability in Mouse Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Profirovic, Jasmina; Han, Jingyan; Andreeva, Alexandra V.; Neamu, Radu F.; Pavlovic, Sasha; Vogel, Stephen M.; Walter, Ulrich; Voyno-Yasenetskaya, Tatyana A.

    2010-01-01

    Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) is implicated in the protection of the endothelial barrier in vitro and in vivo. VASP function in thrombin signaling in the endothelial cells (ECs) is not known. For the first time we studied the effects of VASP deficiency on EC permeability and pulmonary vascular permeability in response to thrombin receptor stimulation. We provided the evidence that VASP deficiency potentiates the increase in endothelial permeability induced by activation of thrombin receptor in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and isolated mouse lungs. Using transendothelial resistance measurement, we showed that siRNA-mediated VASP downregulation in HUVECs leads to a potentiation of thrombin- and protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) agonist-induced increase in endothelial permeability. Compared to control cells, VASP-deficient HUVECs had delayed endothelial junctional reassembly and abrogated VE-cadherin cytoskeletal anchoring in the recovery phase after thrombin stimulation, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence studies and cell fractionation analysis, respectively. Measurement of the capillary filtration coefficient in isolated mouse lungs demonstrated that VASP−/− mice have increased microvascular permeability in response to infusion with PAR-1 agonist compared to wild type mice. Lack of VASP led to decreased Rac1 activation both in VASP-deficient HUVECs after thrombin stimulation and VASP−/− mouse lungs after PAR-1 agonist infusion, indicating that VASP effects on thrombin signaling may correlated with changes in Rac1 activity. This study demonstrates that VASP may play critical and complex role in the regulation of thrombin-dependent disruption of the endothelial barrier function. PMID:20945373

  12. Clinical efficacy of modified partial pars plana vitrectomy combined with phacoemulsification for malignant glaucoma.

    PubMed

    He, F; Qian, Z; Lu, L; Jiang, J; Fan, X; Wang, Z; Xu, X

    2016-08-01

    ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical effects of modified partial pars plana vitrectomy together with phacoemulsification, intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, posterior capsulectomy, and zonulohyaloidectomy for patients with malignant glaucoma after trabeculectomy or cataract surgery.DesignRetrospective, cohort study.ParticipantsThirty consecutive patients (30 eyes) with malignant glaucoma after trabeculectomy surgery or ultrasonic phacoemulsification of cataract between January 2008 and September 2014 were enrolled.MethodsA retrospective analysis of 30 eyes with malignant glaucoma after trabeculectomy surgery for angle-closure glaucoma or ultrasonic phacoemulsification of cataract was performed. All patients underwent modified partial pars plana vitrectomy with zonulohyaloidectomy. Phacoemulsification and IOL implantation was performed in 25 patients with no previous cataract surgery. Pre-operative and post-operative ocular parameters were recorded in detail.Main outcome measuresClinical features, anterior chamber depth, best-corrected visual acuity, and intraocular pressure (IOP).ResultsIn these 30 patients, 25 had undergone trabeculectomy surgery and 5 had undergone cataract surgery. The mean axial length was 21.3±0.8 mm. After surgery, mean IOP decreased from 34±8.3 mm Hg to 10.5±4.1 mm Hg (P<0.001), and mean anterior chamber depth increased from 0.8±0.4 mm to 2.7±0.3 mm (P<0.001). No severe complications occurred.ConclusionsModified partial pars plana vitrectomy combined with phacoemulsification, IOL implantation, posterior capsulectomy, and zonulohyaloidectomy not only simplifies the process of traditional vitrectomy, but effectively resolves the ciliary block and corrects the misdirection of aqueous humor in malignant glaucoma. PMID:27229700

  13. Senescent Fibroblasts Enhance Early Skin Carcinogenic Events via a Paracrine MMP-PAR-1 Axis

    PubMed Central

    Malaquin, Nicolas; Vercamer, Chantal; Bouali, Fatima; Martien, Sébastien; Deruy, Emeric; Wernert, Nicolas; Chwastyniak, Maggy; Pinet, Florence; Abbadie, Corinne; Pourtier, Albin

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of carcinoma increases greatly with aging, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this correlation are only partly known. It is established that senescent fibroblasts promote the malignant progression of already-transformed cells through secretion of inflammatory mediators. We investigated here whether the senescent fibroblast secretome might have an impact on the very first stages of carcinogenesis. We chose the cultured normal primary human epidermal keratinocyte model, because after these cells reach the senescence plateau, cells with transformed and tumorigenic properties systematically and spontaneously emerge from the plateau. In the presence of medium conditioned by autologous senescent dermal fibroblasts, a higher frequency of post-senescence emergence was observed and the post-senescence emergent cells showed enhanced migratory properties and a more marked epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Using pharmacological inhibitors, siRNAs, and blocking antibodies, we demonstrated that the MMP-1 and MMP-2 matrix metalloproteinases, known to participate in late stages of cancer invasion and metastasis, are responsible for this enhancement of early migratory capacity. We present evidence that MMPs act by activating the protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1), whose expression is specifically increased in post-senescence emergent keratinocytes. The physiopathological relevance of these results was tested by analyzing MMP activity and PAR-1 expression in skin sections. Both were higher in skin sections from aged subjects than in ones from young subjects. Altogether, our results suggest that during aging, the dermal and epidermal skin compartments might be activated coordinately for initiation of skin carcinoma, via a paracrine axis in which MMPs secreted by senescent fibroblasts promote very early epithelial-mesenchymal transition of keratinocytes undergoing transformation and oversynthesizing the MMP-activatable receptor PAR-1. PMID:23675494

  14. Enquete sur les aspects toxicologiques de la phytotherapie utilisee par un herboriste à Fes, Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Zeggwagh, Ali Amine; Lahlou, Younes; Bousliman, Yassir

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dans le but d'étudier l'aspect toxicologique des plantes médicinales utilisées en médecine traditionnelle, une étude ethnobotanique a été réalisée à la ville de Fès au centre du Maroc. Méthodes Ont été inclus dans l'étude tous les patients ayant bénéficié d'une prescription par l'herboriste de plantes à visée thérapeutique. La discussion de nos résultats s'est faite sur la base d'une revue de la littérature avec identification des principales plantes toxiques utilisées en phytothérapie au Maroc. L'approche bibliographique a permis de compléter les informations. Résultats L'âge moyen des patients traités par des plantes (38 femmes, 32 hommes) était de 35 ± 18 ans. L'enquête ethnobotanique à révélé que la majorité des plantes médicinales étaient utilisées contre les affections urinaires (21%), suivi des maladies de l'appareil digestif (19.6%) et des maladies rhumatologiques (18.2%). Le nombre de plantes prescrits par l'herboriste a été de 53 dont 5 sont potentiellement toxiques. L'identification taxonomique des plantes prescrites a recensé 30 familles dont les plus représentées sont les Lamiaceae (23.33%), les Apiaceae (13,33%) et les Asteraceae (10%). La prescription des plantes considérées comme toxiques a concerné 7,1% des consultants traités par les plantes médicinales. Aucune complication inhérente aux plantes prescrites n'a été déplorée. Conclusion Malgré les résultats encourageants de notre enquête sur le compte de la phytothérapie, la pratique de la phytothérapie est laissée à la vulgarisation et à l'oubli scientifique, législatif et universitaire. PMID:23734270

  15. Mesure de coefficients d'absorption de plasmas créés par laser nanoseconde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thais, F.; Chenais-Popovics, C.; Eidmann, K.; Bastiani, S.; Blenski, T.; Gilleron, F.

    2005-06-01

    La mesure des coefficients d'absorption dans les plasmas chauds est particulièrement utile dans le domaine de la fusion par confinement inertiel ainsi que dans divers contextes en astrophysique. Le développement des calculs de physique atomique qui y sont associés repose sur des hypothèses qu'il est nécessaire de vérifier dans la plus large gamme possible de conditions physiques. Nous présentons ici la méthode de mesure et d'analyse employée en nous appuyant sur l'exemple des cibles multicouches nickel/aluminium.

  16. Atypical presentation of acute-onset endophthalmitis after uncomplicated pars plana vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Gayatri S; Garfinkel, Richard A; Melamud, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    A 70-year-old woman presented with signs of acute-onset endophthalmitis within 24 hours of surgery, with retinal hemorrhages and vascular changes in the absence of pain or significant inflammation. She had undergone uncomplicated 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy for epiretinal membrane with presenting visual acuity of 20/40- and significant distortion. Vitreous culture revealed Staphylococcus epidermidis. Final visual acuity was no light perception with persistent pain, and the patient ultimately underwent enucleation. Although rarely, acute-onset postoperative endophthalmitis can present as retinal vasculitis with intraretinal hemorrhages and mild inflammation. PMID:25856829

  17. Helicobacter pylori CagA Inhibits PAR1-MARK Family Kinases by Mimicking Host Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Nesic, D.; Miller, M; Quinkert, Z; Stein, M; Chait, B; Stebbins, C

    2010-01-01

    The CagA protein of Helicobacter pylori interacts with numerous cellular factors and is associated with increased virulence and risk of gastric carcinoma. We present here the cocrystal structure of a subdomain of CagA with the human kinase PAR1b/MARK2, revealing that a CagA peptide mimics substrates of this kinase family, resembling eukaryotic protein kinase inhibitors. Mutagenesis of conserved residues central to this interaction renders CagA inactive as an inhibitor of MARK2.

  18. [Occurrence of Aedes albopictus in the state of Pará, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Segura, Maria de Nazaré de Oliveira; Monteiro, Hamilton Antonio de Oliveira; Lopes, Ernani da Silva; da Silva, Orlando Vaz; Castro, Francisco Corrêa; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2003-06-01

    It is first reported the detection of Aedes (Stg) albopictus mosquitoes in state of Par , Brazil, in the urban area of Medicil ndia, a municipality far 90 km from Altamira, where 42 adult mosquitoes were baited using human attraction. All mosquitoes were pooled and inoculated into C6/36 and suckling mice in attempts for virus isolation. No virus was isolated. The occurrence of Aedes albopictus in urban areas of the Amazon region is of concern since dengue and yellow fever viruses are endemic in the Amazon and thus there is a potential risk for this mosquito species to become infected with both viruses. PMID:12792693

  19. Etude du processus de changement vecu par des familles ayant decide d'adopter volontairement des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Michel T.

    recension des ecrits sur le changement de comportement en environnement. Nous explorons egalement la famille comme systeme fonctionnel de sorte a mieux comprendre ce contexte d'action environnementale qui est, a notre connaissance, peu etudie. Dans le deuxieme article, nous presentons nos resultats de recherche concernant les facteurs d'influence observes ainsi que les competences manifestees au cours du processus d'adoption de nouveaux comportements environnementaux dans trois familles. Enfin, le troisieme article presente les resultats du cas d'une quatrieme famille ou les membres vivent depuis longtemps des modes de vie ecologique. Dans le cadre d'une demarche d'analyse par theorisation ancree, l'etude de ce cas modele nous a permis d'approfondir les categories conceptuelles identifiees dans le deuxieme article de sorte a produire une modelisation de l'integration de comportements environnementaux dans le contexte de la famille. Les conclusions degagees grace a la recension des ecrits nous ont permis d'identifier les elements qui pourraient influencer l'adoption de comportements environnementaux dans des familles. La recension a aussi permis une meilleure comprehension des divers facteurs qui peuvent affecter l'adoption de comportements environnementaux et, enfin, elle a permis de mieux cerner le phenomene de changement de comportement dans le contexte de la famille consideree comme un systeme. En appliquant un processus d'analyse inductif, a partir de nos donnees qualitatives, les resultats de notre etude multi-cas nous ont indique que deux construits conceptuels semblent influencer l'adoption de comportements environnementaux en famille : 1) les valeurs biospheriques communes au sein de la famille et 2) les competences collectivement mises a profit collectivement durant l'essai de nouveaux comportements environnementaux. Notre modelisation du processus de changement dans des familles indique aussi qu'une dynamique familiale collaborative et la presence d'un groupe de

  20. Caractérisation de l'état de surface et des contraintes résiduelles engendrées par meulage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gognau, D.; Blehaut, H.; Dürr, J.; Hariri, S.; Khouchaf, L.; Flahaut, P.

    2002-07-01

    grinding operations are generally used to prepare surfaces or improve surface state before or after welding. These operations, when carried out manually with portable machines, induce superficial work hardening, modification of the structure of material and residual stresses. An experimental study about the influence of grinding has been carried out on two metallic materials, a low carbon steel (A42-CP) and an austenitic stainless steel (316L), in order to characterise the grinding effects. Manual grinding being difficult to control (no repeatable effects), a test rig using a portable machine has been made. This test rig enables to control the grinding parameters in order to obtain repeatable grinding operations. Characterisation of the ground surfaces was made by 2D profilometry and measurements of residual stresses have been carried out with a Set-X Elphyse apparatus. The profiles of residual stresses obtained show, on the one hand, that on each material, identical grindings generate identical states of stresses and on the other hand, that materials have not the same behaviour, From a metallurgical point of view, we also observe that the grinding effects are different for both materials. The grinding of the A42 steel highlights a crushing of the grain near the surface while the 316L stainless steel grinding reveals sliding bands. Des opérations de meulage sont régulièrement effectuées sur des matériaux métalliques pour préparer les surfaces ou pour améliorer l'état de ces surfaces après soudage. Ces opérations réalisées manuellement engendrent un écrouissage superficiel, une modification de la structure du matériau et par conséquent des contraintes résiduelles. Une étude expérimentale a été menée sur un acier à bas carbone (A42-CP) et un acier inoxydable austénitique (316L) afin de caractériser les effets du meulage. Le meulage manuel étant difficile à maîtriser (effets non reproductibles), un banc d'essai utilisant une machine

  1. Étude comparative des techniques d'analyse par fluorescence X à dispersion d'énergie (ED-XRF) et à dispersion de longueur d'onde (WD-XRF), et par spectrométrie d'émission atomique à source plasma couplée par induction (ICP-AES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, A.; Benyaïch, F.; Bounakhla, M.; Bilal, E.; Moutte, J.; Gruffat, J. J.; Zahry, F.

    2004-11-01

    Dans ce travail, nous présentons une étude comparative des techniques d'analyse par fluorescence X à dispersion d'énergie (ED-XRF) et à dispersion de longueur d'onde (WD-XRF), et par spectrométrie d'émission atomique à source plasma couplée par induction (ICP-AES). Les résultats de la calibration des spectromètres à dispersion d'énergie, à excitation par sources radioactives (55Fe, 109Cd et 241Am) et à excitation secondaire (cible secondaire Mo et Cu) du Centre National pour l'Energie, les Sciences et les Techniques Nucléaires (CNESTEN, Rabat, Maroc) sur des échantillons étalons de références de l'Agence International de l'Energie Atomique (AIEA) et du Community Bureau of Référence (BCR) ont été comparés aux résultats d'analyse des mêmes échantillons étalons par la spectrométrie X à dispersion de longueur d'onde (WD-XRF) et par spectrométrie d'émission atomique à source plasma couplé par induction (ICP-AES) au département GENERIC du centre SPIN à l'Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne (France). Les trois techniques d'analyse utilisées donnent des résultats comparables pour le dosage des éléments majeurs, alors que pour les traces on note des déviations importantes à cause des effets de matrice qui sont difficiles à corriger dans le cas de la fluorescence X.

  2. Melanoma cell therapy: Endothelial progenitor cells as shuttle of the MMP12 uPAR-degrading enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Laurenzana, Anna; Biagioni, Alessio; D'Alessio, Silvia; Bianchini, Francesca; Chillà, Anastasia; Margheri, Francesca; Luciani, Cristina; Mazzanti, Benedetta; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Torre, Eugenio; Danese, Silvio; Calorini, Lido; Rosso, Mario Del; Fibbi, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    The receptor for the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPAR) accounts for many features of cancer progression, and is therefore considered a target for anti-tumoral therapy. Only full length uPAR mediates tumor progression. Matrix-metallo-proteinase-12 (MMP12)-dependent uPAR cleavage results into the loss of invasion properties and angiogenesis. MMP12 can be employed in the field of “targeted therapies” as a biological drug to be delivered directly in patient's tumor mass. Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) are selectively recruited within the tumor and could be used as cellular vehicles for delivering anti-cancer molecules. The aim of our study is to inhibit cancer progression by engeneering ECFCs, a subset of EPC, with a lentivirus encoding the anti-tumor uPAR-degrading enzyme MMP12. Ex vivo manipulated ECFCs lost the capacity to perform capillary morphogenesis and acquired the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenetic activity. In vivo MMP12-engineered ECFCs cleaved uPAR within the tumor mass and strongly inhibited tumor growth, tumor angiogenesis and development of lung metastasis. The possibility to exploit tumor homing and activity of autologous MMP12-engineered ECFCs represents a novel way to combat melanoma by a “personalized therapy”, without rejection risk. The i.v. injection of radiolabelled MMP12-ECFCs can thus provide a new theranostic approach to control melanoma progression and metastasis. PMID:25003596

  3. Melanoma cell therapy: Endothelial progenitor cells as shuttle of the MMP12 uPAR-degrading enzyme.

    PubMed

    Laurenzana, Anna; Biagioni, Alessio; D'Alessio, Silvia; Bianchini, Francesca; Chillà, Anastasia; Margheri, Francesca; Luciani, Cristina; Mazzanti, Benedetta; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Torre, Eugenio; Danese, Silvio; Calorini, Lido; Del Rosso, Mario; Fibbi, Gabriella

    2014-06-15

    The receptor for the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPAR) accounts for many features of cancer progression, and is therefore considered a target for anti-tumoral therapy. Only full length uPAR mediates tumor progression. Matrix-metallo-proteinase-12 (MMP12)-dependent uPAR cleavage results into the loss of invasion properties and angiogenesis. MMP12 can be employed in the field of "targeted therapies" as a biological drug to be delivered directly in patient's tumor mass. Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) are selectively recruited within the tumor and could be used as cellular vehicles for delivering anti-cancer molecules. The aim of our study is to inhibit cancer progression by engeneering ECFCs, a subset of EPC, with a lentivirus encoding the anti-tumor uPAR-degrading enzyme MMP12. Ex vivo manipulated ECFCs lost the capacity to perform capillary morphogenesis and acquired the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenetic activity. In vivo MMP12-engineered ECFCs cleaved uPAR within the tumor mass and strongly inhibited tumor growth, tumor angiogenesis and development of lung metastasis. The possibility to exploit tumor homing and activity of autologous MMP12-engineered ECFCs represents a novel way to combat melanoma by a "personalized therapy", without rejection risk. The i.v. injection of radiolabelled MMP12-ECFCs can thus provide a new theranostic approach to control melanoma progression and metastasis. PMID:25003596

  4. Par2 inactivation inhibits early production of TSLP, but not cutaneous inflammation, in Netherton syndrome adult mouse model.

    PubMed

    Briot, Anaïs; Lacroix, Matthieu; Robin, Aurélie; Steinhoff, Martin; Deraison, Céline; Hovnanian, Alain

    2010-12-01

    Netherton syndrome (NS) is a severe genodermatosis characterized by abnormal scaling and constant atopic manifestations. NS is caused by mutations in SPINK5 (Serine Protease INhibitor Kazal-type 5), which encodes LEKTI (LymphoEpithelial Kazal Type-related Inhibitor). Lack of LEKTI causes stratum corneum detachment secondary to epidermal proteases hyperactivity. Whereas a skin barrier defect is generally regarded as a major cause for atopy, we previously identified a cell-autonomous signaling cascade that triggers pro-Th2 cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) production in LEKTI-deficient epidermis. This signaling is initiated by unrestricted kallikrein 5 (KLK5) activity, which directly activates proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2)-mediated expression of TSLP and favors a cutaneous proallergic microenvironment independently of the environment and of the adaptive immune system. To further confirm these results in vivo, we generated Spink5/Par2 double knockout (DKO) mice. At embryonic day 19.5, these mice display a dramatic decrease in TSLP expression, although stratum corneum detachment persists, confirming the role of the KLK5-PAR2 cascade in TSLP-mediated early proallergic signaling. However, deletion of Par2 in adult DKO-grafted skin does not rescue the inflammatory phenotype probably resulting from stratum corneum detachment. We conclude that several mechanisms trigger and maintain the inflammatory phenotype in NS. These include skin barrier impairment, mechanical stress secondary to stratum corneum detachment, as well as protease-induced proinflammatory and proallergic pathways, including PAR2-mediated overexpression of TSLP. PMID:20703245

  5. Comparison between Limbal and Pars Plana Approaches Using Microincision Vitrectomy for Removal of Congenital Cataracts with Primary Intraocular Lens Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Zheng, Tianyu; Zhou, Xingtao; Lu, Yi; Zhou, Peng; Fan, Fan; Luo, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the surgical outcomes of limbal versus pars plana vitrectomy using the 23-gauge microincision system for removal of congenital cataracts with primary intraocular lens implantation. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed all eyes that underwent cataract removal through limbal or pars plana incision. Main outcome measures included visual outcomes and complications. Results. We included 40 eyes (26 patients) in the limbal group and 41 eyes (30 patients) in the pars plana group. The mean age was 46 months. There was no significant difference in best-corrected visual acuity between the two groups (P = 0.64). Significantly, more eyes had at least one intraoperative complication in the limbal group than in the pars plana group (P = 0.03) that were mainly distributed at 1.5–3 years of age (P = 0.01). The most common intraoperative complications were iris aspiration, iris prolapse, and iris injury. More eyes in the limbal group had postoperative complications and required additional intraocular surgery, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.19). Conclusions. The visual results were encouraging in both approaches. We recommend the pars plana approach for lower incidence of complications. The limbal approach should be reserved for children older than 3 years of age and caution should be exercised to minimize iris disturbance. PMID:27313872

  6. HER2 and uPAR cooperativity contribute to metastatic phenotype of HER2-positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Vineesh Indira; Eppenberger-Castori, Serenella; Venkatesh, Thejaswini; Vine, Kara Lea; Ranson, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-positive breast carcinoma is highly aggressive and mostly metastatic in nature though curable/manageable in part by molecular targeted therapy. Recent evidence suggests a subtype of cells within HER2-positive breast tumors that concomitantly expresses the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) with inherent stem cell/mesenchymal-like properties promoting tumor cell motility and a metastatic phenotype. This HER-positive/uPAR-positive subtype may be partially responsible for the failure of HER2-targeted treatment strategies. Herein we discuss and substantiate the cumulative preclinical and clinical evidence on HER2-uPAR cooperativity in terms of gene co-amplification and/or mRNA/protein co-overexpression. We then propose a regulatory signaling model that we hypothesize to maintain upregulation and cooperativity between HER2 and uPAR in aggressive breast cancer. An improved understanding of the HER2/uPAR interaction in breast cancer will provide critical biomolecular information that may help better predict disease course and response to therapy. PMID:25897424

  7. Comparison between Limbal and Pars Plana Approaches Using Microincision Vitrectomy for Removal of Congenital Cataracts with Primary Intraocular Lens Implantation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Zheng, Tianyu; Zhou, Xingtao; Lu, Yi; Zhou, Peng; Fan, Fan; Luo, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the surgical outcomes of limbal versus pars plana vitrectomy using the 23-gauge microincision system for removal of congenital cataracts with primary intraocular lens implantation. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed all eyes that underwent cataract removal through limbal or pars plana incision. Main outcome measures included visual outcomes and complications. Results. We included 40 eyes (26 patients) in the limbal group and 41 eyes (30 patients) in the pars plana group. The mean age was 46 months. There was no significant difference in best-corrected visual acuity between the two groups (P = 0.64). Significantly, more eyes had at least one intraoperative complication in the limbal group than in the pars plana group (P = 0.03) that were mainly distributed at 1.5-3 years of age (P = 0.01). The most common intraoperative complications were iris aspiration, iris prolapse, and iris injury. More eyes in the limbal group had postoperative complications and required additional intraocular surgery, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.19). Conclusions. The visual results were encouraging in both approaches. We recommend the pars plana approach for lower incidence of complications. The limbal approach should be reserved for children older than 3 years of age and caution should be exercised to minimize iris disturbance. PMID:27313872

  8. Differences in PAR-2 activating potential by king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus), salmon (Salmo salar), and bovine (Bos taurus) trypsin

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Salmon trypsin is shown to increase secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-8 from human airway epithelial cells through activation of PAR-2. Secretion of IL-8 induced by king crab trypsin is observed in a different concentration range compared to salmon trypsin, and seems to be only partially related to PAR-2 activation. This report aim to identify differences in the molecular structure of king crab trypsin (Paralithodes camtschaticus) compared to salmon (Salmo salar) and bovine trypsin (Bos taurus) that might influence the ability to activate protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2). Results During purification king crab trypsin displayed stronger binding capacity to the anionic column used in fast protein liquid chromatography compared to fish trypsins, and was identified as a slightly bigger molecule. Measurements of enzymatic activity yielded no obvious differences between the trypsins tested. Molecular modelling showed that king crab trypsin has a large area with strong negative electrostatic potential compared to the smaller negative areas in bovine and salmon trypsins. Bovine and salmon trypsins also displayed areas with strong positive electrostatic potential, a feature lacking in the king crab trypsin. Furthermore we have identified 3 divergent positions (Asp196, Arg244, and Tyr247) located near the substrate binding pocket of king crab trypsin that might affect the binding and cleavage of PAR-2. Conclusion These preliminary results indicate that electrostatic interactions could be of importance in binding, cleavage and subsequent activation of PAR-2. PMID:23870109

  9. Architecture and Assembly of a Divergent Member of the ParM Family of Bacterial Actin-like Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Christopher R.; Kollman, Justin M.; Polka, Jessica K.; Agard, David A.; Mullins, R. Dyche

    2011-01-01

    Eubacteria and archaea contain a variety of actin-like proteins (ALPs) that form filaments with surprisingly diverse architectures, assembly dynamics, and cellular functions. Although there is much data supporting differences between ALP families, there is little data regarding conservation of structure and function within these families. We asked whether the filament architecture and biochemical properties of the best-understood prokaryotic actin, ParM from plasmid R1, are conserved in a divergent member of the ParM family from plasmid pB171. Previous work demonstrated that R1 ParM assembles into filaments that are structurally distinct from actin and the other characterized ALPs. They also display three biophysical properties thought to be essential for DNA segregation: 1) rapid spontaneous nucleation, 2) symmetrical elongation, and 3) dynamic instability. We used microscopic and biophysical techniques to compare and contrast the architecture and assembly of these related proteins. Despite being only 41% identical, R1 and pB171 ParMs polymerize into nearly identical filaments with similar assembly dynamics. Conservation of the core assembly properties argues for their importance in ParM-mediated DNA segregation and suggests that divergent DNA-segregating ALPs with different assembly properties operate via different mechanisms. PMID:21339292

  10. Genetic evidence for a role of parC mutations in development of high-level fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Heisig, P

    1996-04-01

    Fifteen strains of Escherichia coli with MICs of ciprofloxacin (CIP) between 0.015 and 256 micrograms/ml were examined for the presence of mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of the gyrA gene and in an analogous region of the parC gene. No mutation was found in a susceptible isolate (MIC of CIP, 0.015 microgram/ml). Four moderately resistant strains (MIC of CIP 0.06 to 4 micrograms/ml) carried one gyrA mutation affecting serine 83, but in only one strain was an additional parC mutation (Gly-78 to Asp) detected. All ten highly resistant strains examined (MIC of CIP, > 4 micrograms/ml) carried two gyrA mutations affecting residues serine 83 and aspartate 87, and at least one parC mutation. These parC mutations included alterations of serine 80 to arginine or isoleucine and glutamate 84 to glycine or lysine. The parC+ and two mutant alleles (parCI-80 and parCI-80,G-84) were inserted into the mobilizable vector pBP507. Transfer of a plasmid-coded parC+ allele into parC+ strains did not alter the susceptibilities towards ciprofloxacin or nalidixic acid, while a significant increase in susceptibility was detectable for parC mutants. This increase, however, did not restore wild-type susceptibility, whereas transfer of a plasmid-coded gyrA+ allele alone or in combination with parC+ did. These data are in agreement with the view that topoisomerase IV is a secondary, less sensitive target for quinolone action in Escherichia coli and that the development of high-level fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli requires at least one parC mutation in addition to the gyrA mutation(s). PMID:8849244

  11. Prevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies in cattle from Santarém, Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Minervino, Antonio H H; Ragozo, Alessandra M A; Monteiro, Renata M; Ortolani, Enrico L; Gennari, Solange M

    2008-04-01

    Prevalence of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies was measured in serum samples randomly collected from dairy (40 cows from four farms) and beef cattle (120 animals from 12 farms) from the municipality of Santarém, Pará State, Brazil, calculated by using the Win Episcope 2.0 statistical program. The presence of anti-N. caninum antibodies was determined by indirect immunofluorescence-antibody test with a cut-off value of 1:100. We found that 13 farms (81.25%) showed infection rates above 10%, which indicates widespread distribution of N. caninum in the region. The frequency per animal was 19%. No difference was observed between the prevalence values in dairy and beef animals or between farms, which was probably due to the small number of dairy farms examined. The results confirm, for the first time, the presence of anti-N. caninum antibodies in cattle from Pará State and the necessity to further investigate the epidemiology of N. caninum in the Amazon region. PMID:17619028

  12. Mammalian aPKC/Par polarity complex mediated regulation of epithelial division orientation and cell fate

    SciTech Connect

    Vorhagen, Susanne; Niessen, Carien M.

    2014-11-01

    Oriented cell division is a key regulator of tissue architecture and crucial for morphogenesis and homeostasis. Balanced regulation of proliferation and differentiation is an essential property of tissues not only to drive morphogenesis but also to maintain and restore homeostasis. In many tissues orientation of cell division is coupled to the regulation of differentiation producing daughters with similar (symmetric cell division, SCD) or differential fate (asymmetric cell division, ACD). This allows the organism to generate cell lineage diversity from a small pool of stem and progenitor cells. Division orientation and/or the ratio of ACD/SCD need to be tightly controlled. Loss of orientation or an altered ratio can promote overgrowth, alter tissue architecture and induce aberrant differentiation, and have been linked to morphogenetic diseases, cancer and aging. A key requirement for oriented division is the presence of a polarity axis, which can be established through cell intrinsic and/or extrinsic signals. Polarity proteins translate such internal and external cues to drive polarization. In this review we will focus on the role of the polarity complex aPKC/Par3/Par6 in the regulation of division orientation and cell fate in different mammalian epithelia. We will compare the conserved function of this complex in mitotic spindle orientation and distribution of cell fate determinants and highlight common and differential mechanisms in which this complex is used by tissues to adapt division orientation and cell fate to the specific properties of the epithelium.

  13. Fine structure and photoperiodical seasonal changes in Pars tuberalis of hibernating bats.

    PubMed

    Azzali, Giacomo; Arcari, Maria Luisa; Cacchioli, Antonio; Toni, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    In Pars tuberalis (PT) of pituitary gland of hibernating bats, extending cranially along the ventral face of the hypothalamic median eminence, around the hypophyseal stalk, and caudally continuing in the Pars distalis (PD), pt specific cells, follicular cells and gonadotropic cells were distinguished. Pt specific cells contain peculiar secretory granules positive to lectin WGA and negative to lectins LFA and PNA, positive to S-100 protein labeling and to PD hormones antisera. During hibernation they present a low numerical density of both secretory granules and melatonin binding sites. After light exposure, on the other hand, the latter increase in density and are associated with marked secretion synthetic activity and exocytosis. These aspects result to be more balanced in animals sacrificed during summer. These changes seem to support the hypothesis of marked annual changes even in animal species with seasonal rhythmicity of metabolisms and gonads. Follicular cells, organized in closed follicles, have slightly developed RER and Golgi apparatus during hibernation, whereas they seem to show an increased secretory activity after light exposure and during summer. In perinuclear and supranuclear cytoplasm, glycogen particles clusters (peculiar of hibernation), cilia 9+2 and multivesicular bodies were identified. Concerning FSH cells, a reduced numerical density during hibernation, the secretory granules morphological characteristics and their probable involvement in photoperiod-linked reproductive functions are investigated. PMID:12737515

  14. Parameterization of PAR vertical profile within horizontally uniform forest canopies for use in environmental modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalic, Branislava; Firanj, Ana; Mihailovic, Dragutin T.; Podrascanin, Zorica

    2013-08-01

    radiation transfer within the forest canopy plays crucial role in energy balance and turbulent transfer processes. Objective of this study is to suggest a new relation for vertical profile of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in case of horizontally uniform forest canopy. It is based on (i) the Lambert-Beer law relationship and (ii) new parameterization of leaf area density (LAD) profile. We have supposed that absorption coefficient μ varies with height and depends on LAD distribution. To check validity of the relation proposed, we have compared calculated values with the observations using data sets assimilated during Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study experiment at two observational sites located in Reserva Jaru and Reserva Ducke (Brazil) with different types of forest. Among all available measurements, 615 profiles observed between 08 and 18 local mean time for 72 days at 2 locations were selected. For comparison study, two more profiles based on constant- and variable-LAD approximation were introduced. Obtained results indicate that suggested relation: (i) well reproduces PAR profile within the forest in comparison with observations and (ii) shows better agreement with observations in comparison with two other profiles used in this study.

  15. Traitement chirurgical des fractures articulaires du calcanéum par plaque vissée

    PubMed Central

    Hammou, Nassreddine; Abid, Hatim; Shimi, Mohammed; El Ibrahimi, Abdelhalim; El Mrini, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Les fractures du calcanéum sont peu fréquentes mais le plus souvent graves. Le traitement chirurgical par plaque vissée est ardemment défendu. L'objectif de notre travail rétrospectif est d’évaluer les résultats du traitement chirurgical des fractures articulaires du calcanéum à travers une série de 12 patients opérée aux service d'orthopédie du CHU Hassan II de Fès sur une durée de 3 ans, et les comparer aux données de la littérature. L’âge moyen dans notre série était de 34 ans, le geste opératoire était réalisé au 7ème jour. Tous nos patient ont bénéficie d'une réduction à foyer ouvert avec une ostéosynthèse par plaques vissées. Le recul moyen était de 12 mois et les résultats fonctionnels ont été évaluer selon le score de Kitaoka. PMID:26161214

  16. Par@Graph - a parallel toolbox for the construction and analysis of large complex climate networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihshaish, H.; Tantet, A.; Dijkzeul, J. C. M.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present Par@Graph, a software toolbox to reconstruct and analyze complex climate networks having a large number of nodes (up to at least O (106)) and of edges (up to at least O (1012)). The key innovation is an efficient set of parallel software tools designed to leverage the inherited hybrid parallelism in distributed-memory clusters of multi-core machines. The performance of the toolbox is illustrated through networks derived from sea surface height (SSH) data of a global high-resolution ocean model. Less than 8 min are needed on 90 Intel Xeon E5-4650 processors to construct a climate network including the preprocessing and the correlation of 3 × 105 SSH time series, resulting in a weighted graph with the same number of vertices and about 3 × 106 edges. In less than 5 min on 30 processors, the resulted graph's degree centrality, strength, connected components, eigenvector centrality, entropy and clustering coefficient metrics were obtained. These results indicate that a complete cycle to construct and analyze a large-scale climate network is available under 13 min. Par@Graph therefore facilitates the application of climate network analysis on high-resolution observations and model results, by enabling fast network construction from the calculation of statistical similarities between climate time series. It also enables network analysis at unprecedented scales on a variety of different sizes of input data sets.

  17. Par@Graph - a parallel toolbox for the construction and analysis of large complex climate networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihshaish, H.; Tantet, A.; Dijkzeul, J. C. M.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present Par@Graph, a software toolbox to reconstruct and analyze complex climate networks having a large number of nodes (up to at least 106) and edges (up to at least 1012). The key innovation is an efficient set of parallel software tools designed to leverage the inherited hybrid parallelism in distributed-memory clusters of multi-core machines. The performance of the toolbox is illustrated through networks derived from sea surface height (SSH) data of a global high-resolution ocean model. Less than 8 min are needed on 90 Intel Xeon E5-4650 processors to reconstruct a climate network including the preprocessing and the correlation of 3 × 105 SSH time series, resulting in a weighted graph with the same number of vertices and about 3.2 × 108 edges. In less than 14 min on 30 processors, the resulted graph's degree centrality, strength, connected components, eigenvector centrality, entropy and clustering coefficient metrics were obtained. These results indicate that a complete cycle to construct and analyze a large-scale climate network is available under 22 min Par@Graph therefore facilitates the application of climate network analysis on high-resolution observations and model results, by enabling fast network reconstruct from the calculation of statistical similarities between climate time series. It also enables network analysis at unprecedented scales on a variety of different sizes of input data sets.

  18. Vector analysis of chemical variation in the lavas of Parícutin volcano, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miesch, A.T.

    1979-01-01

    Compositional variations in the lavas of Parícutin volcano, Mexico, have been examined by an extended method of Q-mode factor analysis. Each sample composition is treated as a vector projected from an original eight-dimensional space into a vector system of three dimensions. The compositions represented by the vectors after projection are closely similar to the original compositions except for Na2Oand Fe2O3.The vectors in the three-dimensional system cluster about three different planes that represent three stages of compositional change in the Parícutin lavas. Because chemical data on the compositions of the minerals in the lavas are presently lacking, interpretations of the mineral phases that may have been involved in fractional crystallization are based on CIPW norm calculations. Changes during the first stage are attributed largely to the fractional crystallization of plagioclase and olivine. Changes during the second stage can be explained by the separation of plagioclase and pyroxene. Changes during the final stage may have resulted mostly from the assimilation of a granitic material, as previously proposed by R. E. Wilcox.

  19. Stress injuries of the pars interarticularis: Radiologic classification and indications for radionuclide imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pennell, R.; Maurer, A.R.; Bonakdarpour, A.

    1984-01-01

    Lumbar spine radiographs and radionuclide images were compared and correlated with clinical histories of 20 athletes with low back pain. Radiographs were classified as: Normal (Type 0); showing a healing stress fracture (an irregular lucent line) with sclerosis (Type I); as an evolving or healed stress injury with either sclerosis, narrowing, or demineralization (Type II); and as a chronic fracture showing a large lucency with well-defined margins classically referred to as spondylolysis (Type III). Patients were grouped clinically on the basis of their pain: acute onset (Group A, n = 7), acute superimposed on chronic (Group B, n = 9), and chronic pain without an acute event (Group C, n = 4). Radiographic abnormalities were present in 95% (19/20) of the patients and radionuclide studies were positive in 60% (12/20). Scintigraphy was positive most often with Type I pars abnormalities (77%, 10/13) and negative most often with Type III abnormalities (91%, 11/12). Of all positive scintigraphy 12/14 (86%) were in pts in Groups A and B (acute symptoms). The authors' findings support theories that radiographic pars abnormalities exist which correspond to stages in the healing of stress induced fractures. With acute symptoms radionuclide imaging need not be obtained if a Type I radiographic abnormality is seen. Radionuclide imaging is indicated with either Type 0, II or III radiographs to confirm or rule out recent stress injury.

  20. Retrieval of PAR-estimates using remote sensing data and radiation transfer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fistric, Sascha; Gesell, Gerhard; Guenther, Kurt P.

    2003-04-01

    A new method is proposed for retrieving the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) using remote sensing data (AVHRR) and a radiation transfer model (libRadtran). The approach applicable for clear and cloudy sky conditions takes into account atmospheric parameters affecting the radiation transfer through the atmosphere, namely, extinction by aerosols and clouds. Due to the high temporal variability of cloud distribution and cloud properties, a geostationary satellite as e.g. the future Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) with SEVIRI on board is proposed to derive inter-daily variation of cloud parameters. The upcoming SEVIRI sensor will deliver spectral information of clouds and atmosphere every 15 minutes. The spectral information content of SEVIRI is simulated by the existing polar orbiting sensor Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on board of the NOAA satellites. Our first results are validated with ground truth data from the European Light Dosimeter Network (ELDONET). Up to 8 stations distributed over Europe are available for validation purposes. It is shown that for heterogeneous atmospheric conditions a good correlation exist between measured and estimated PAR values. Processing more AVHRR data over a longer time period and fine-adjustment of the algorithms combined with extended validation will consolidate our findings in the future.

  1. Activated protein C promotes breast cancer cell migration through interactions with EPCR and PAR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulieu, Lea M.; Church, Frank C. . E-mail: fchurch@email.unc.edu

    2007-02-15

    Activated protein C (APC) is a serine protease that regulates thrombin (IIa) production through inactivation of blood coagulation factors Va and VIIIa. APC also has non-hemostatic functions related to inflammation, proliferation, and apoptosis through various mechanisms. Using two breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435, we investigated the role of APC in cell chemotaxis and invasion. Treatment of cells with increasing APC concentrations (1-50 {mu}g/ml) increased invasion and chemotaxis in a concentration-dependent manner. Only the active form of APC increased invasion and chemotaxis of the MDA-MB-231 cells when compared to 3 inactive APC derivatives. Using a modified 'checkerboard' analysis, APC was shown to only affect migration when plated with the cells; therefore, APC is not a chemoattractant. Blocking antibodies to endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) and protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) attenuated the effects of APC on chemotaxis in the MDA-MB-231 cells. Finally, treatment of the MDA-MB-231 cells with the proliferation inhibitor, Na butyrate, showed that APC did not increase migration by increasing cell number. Therefore, APC increases invasion and chemotaxis of cells by binding to the cell surface and activating specific signaling pathways through EPCR and PAR-1.

  2. Par-baked Bread Technology: Formulation and Process Studies to Improve Quality.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Eveline Lopes; Steel, Caroline Joy; Chang, Yoon Kil

    2016-01-01

    Extending the shelf-life of bakery products has been an important requirement resulting from the mechanization of this industry and the need to increase the distance for the distribution of final products, caused by the increase in production and consumer demand. Technologies based on the interruption of the breadmaking process represent an alternative to overcome product staling and microbiological deterioration. The production of par-baked breads is one of these technologies. It consists of baking the bread in two stages, and due to the possibility of retarding the second stage, it can be said that the bread can always be offered fresh to the consumer. The technology inserts logistics as part of the production process and creates the "hot point" concept, these being the locations where the bread is finalized, such as in the consumers' homes or sales locations. In this work, a review of the papers published on this subject was carried out, and aspects related to both the formulation and the process were considered. This technology still faces a few challenges, such as solving bread quality problems that appear due to process modifications, and these will also be considered. The market for these breads has grown rapidly and the bakery industry searches innovations related to par-baked bread technology. PMID:25000472

  3. miR-219 regulates neural progenitors by dampening apical Par protein-dependent Hedgehog signaling.

    PubMed

    Hudish, Laura I; Galati, Domenico F; Ravanelli, Andrew M; Pearson, Chad G; Huang, Peng; Appel, Bruce

    2016-07-01

    The transition of dividing neuroepithelial progenitors to differentiated neurons and glia is essential for the formation of a functional nervous system. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a mitogen for spinal cord progenitors, but how cells become insensitive to the proliferative effects of Shh is not well understood. Because Shh reception occurs at primary cilia, which are positioned within the apical membrane of neuroepithelial progenitors, we hypothesized that loss of apical characteristics reduces the Shh signaling response, causing cell cycle exit and differentiation. We tested this hypothesis using genetic and pharmacological manipulation, gene expression analysis and time-lapse imaging of zebrafish embryos. Blocking the function of miR-219, a microRNA that downregulates apical Par polarity proteins and promotes progenitor differentiation, elevated Shh signaling. Inhibition of Shh signaling reversed the effects of miR-219 depletion and forced expression of Shh phenocopied miR-219 deficiency. Time-lapse imaging revealed that knockdown of miR-219 function accelerates the growth of primary cilia, revealing a possible mechanistic link between miR-219-mediated regulation of apical Par proteins and Shh signaling. Thus, miR-219 appears to decrease progenitor cell sensitivity to Shh signaling, thereby driving these cells towards differentiation. PMID:27226318

  4. Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients Show Accumulation of Genetic Variants in PARS2

    PubMed Central

    Henmyr, Viktor; Lind-Halldén, Christina; Halldén, Christer; Säll, Torbjörn; Carlberg, Daniel; Bachert, Claus; Cardell, Lars-Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Genetic studies of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) have identified a total of 53 CRS-associated SNPs that were subsequently evaluated for their reproducibility in a recent study. The rs2873551 SNP in linkage disequilibrium with PARS2 showed the strongest association signal. The present study aims to comprehensively screen for rare variants in PARS2 and evaluate for accumulation of such variants in CRS-patients. Sanger sequencing and long-range PCR were used to screen for rare variants in the putative promoter region and coding sequence of 310 CRS-patients and a total of 21 variants were detected. The mutation spectrum was then compared with data from European populations of the 1000Genomes project (EUR) and the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC). The CRS population showed a significant surplus of low-frequency variants compared with ExAC data. Haplotype analysis of the region showed a significant excess of rare haplotypes in the CRS population compared to the EUR population. Two missense mutations were also genotyped in the 310 CRS patients and 372 CRS-negative controls, but no associations with the disease were found. This is the first re-sequencing study in CRS research and also the first study to show an association of rare variants with the disease. PMID:27348859

  5. Multiple IgE recognition on the major allergen of the Parietaria pollen Par j 2.

    PubMed

    Longo, Valeria; Costa, Maria Assunta; Cibella, Fabio; Cuttitta, Giuseppina; La Grutta, Stefania; Colombo, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    The interaction between IgE antibodies and allergens is a key event in triggering an allergic reaction. The characterization of this region provides information of paramount importance for diagnosis and therapy. Par j 2 Lipid Transfer Protein is one of the most important allergens in southern Europe and a well-established marker of sensitization in Parietaria pollen allergy. The main aim of this study was to map the IgE binding regions of this allergen and to study the pattern of reactivity of individual Parietaria-allergic patients. By means of gene fragmentation, six overlapping peptides were expressed in Escherichia coli, and their IgE binding activity was evaluated by immunoblotting in a cohort of 79 Parietaria-allergic patients. Our results showed that Pj-allergic patients display a heterogeneous pattern of IgE binding to the different recombinant fragments, and that patients reacted simultaneously against several protein domains spread all the over the molecule, even in fragments which do not contain structural features resembling the native allergen. Our results reveal the presence of a large number of linear and conformational epitopes on the Par j 2 sequence, which probably explains the high allergenic activity of this allergen. PMID:25284812

  6. Urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR)-mediated Regulation of WNT/β-Catenin Signaling Is Enhanced in Irradiated Medulloblastoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Gondi, Christopher S.; Nalla, Arun Kumar; Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Gorantla, Bharathi; Rao, Jasti S.

    2012-01-01

    Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is known to promote invasion, migration, and metastasis in cancer cells. In this report, we showed that ionizing radiation (IR)-induced uPAR has a role in WNT-β-catenin signaling and mediates induction of cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties in medulloblastoma cell lines UW228 and D283. We observed that IR induced the expression of uPAR and CSC markers, such as Musashi-1 and CD44, and activated WNT-7a-β-catenin signaling molecules. Overexpression of uPAR alone or with IR treatment led to increased WNT-7a-β-catenin-TCF/LEF-mediated transactivation, thereby promoting cancer stemness. In contrast, treatment with shRNA specific for uPAR (pU) suppressed WNT-7a-β-catenin-TCF/LEF-mediated transactivation both in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin, a potent WNT/β-catenin inhibitor, suppressed uPAR and uPAR-mediated WNT/β-catenin activation, and furthermore, addition of recombinant human WNT-7a protein induced uPAR, indicating the existence of a mutual regulatory relationship between uPAR and WNT/β-catenin signaling. We showed that uPAR was physically associated with the WNT effector molecule β-catenin on the membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus of IR-treated cells and CSC. Most interestingly, we demonstrated for the first time that localization of uPAR in the nucleus was associated with transcription factors (TF) and their specific response elements. We observed from uPAR-ChIP, TF protein, and protein/DNA array analyses that uPAR associates with activating enhancer-binding protein 2α (AP2a) and mediates β-catenin gene transcription. Moreover, association of uPAR with the β-catenin·TCF/LEF complex and various other TF involved during embryonic development and cancer indicates that uPAR is a potent activator of stemness, and targeting of uPAR in combination with radiation has significant therapeutic implications. PMID:22511755

  7. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR)-mediated regulation of WNT/β-catenin signaling is enhanced in irradiated medulloblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Gondi, Christopher S; Nalla, Arun Kumar; Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Gorantla, Bharathi; Rao, Jasti S

    2012-06-01

    Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is known to promote invasion, migration, and metastasis in cancer cells. In this report, we showed that ionizing radiation (IR)-induced uPAR has a role in WNT-β-catenin signaling and mediates induction of cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties in medulloblastoma cell lines UW228 and D283. We observed that IR induced the expression of uPAR and CSC markers, such as Musashi-1 and CD44, and activated WNT-7a-β-catenin signaling molecules. Overexpression of uPAR alone or with IR treatment led to increased WNT-7a-β-catenin-TCF/LEF-mediated transactivation, thereby promoting cancer stemness. In contrast, treatment with shRNA specific for uPAR (pU) suppressed WNT-7a-β-catenin-TCF/LEF-mediated transactivation both in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin, a potent WNT/β-catenin inhibitor, suppressed uPAR and uPAR-mediated WNT/β-catenin activation, and furthermore, addition of recombinant human WNT-7a protein induced uPAR, indicating the existence of a mutual regulatory relationship between uPAR and WNT/β-catenin signaling. We showed that uPAR was physically associated with the WNT effector molecule β-catenin on the membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus of IR-treated cells and CSC. Most interestingly, we demonstrated for the first time that localization of uPAR in the nucleus was associated with transcription factors (TF) and their specific response elements. We observed from uPAR-ChIP, TF protein, and protein/DNA array analyses that uPAR associates with activating enhancer-binding protein 2α (AP2a) and mediates β-catenin gene transcription. Moreover, association of uPAR with the β-catenin·TCF/LEF complex and various other TF involved during embryonic development and cancer indicates that uPAR is a potent activator of stemness, and targeting of uPAR in combination with radiation has significant therapeutic implications. PMID:22511755

  8. ParC subunit of DNA topoisomerase IV of Streptococcus pneumoniae is a primary target of fluoroquinolones and cooperates with DNA gyrase A subunit in forming resistance phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, R; De La Campa, A G

    1996-01-01

    The genes encoding the ParC and ParE subunits of topoisomerase IV of Streptococcus pneumoniae, together with the region encoding amino acids 46 to 172 (residue numbers are as in Escherichia coli) of the pneumococcal GyrA subunit, were partially characterized. The gyrA gene maps to a physical location distant from the gyrB and parC loci on the chromosome, whereas parC is closely linked to parE. Ciprofloxacin-resistant (Cpr) clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae had mutations affecting amino acid residues of the quinolone resistance-determining region of ParC (low-level Cpr) or in both quinolone resistance-determining regions of ParC and GyrA (high-level Cpr). Mutations were found in residue positions equivalent to the serine at position 83 and the aspartic acid at position 87 of the E. coli GyrA subunit. Transformation experiments suggest that ParC is the primary target of ciprofloxacin. Mutation in parC appears to be a prerequisite before mutations in gyrA can influence resistance levels. PMID:8891124

  9. Assimilation of SMOS soil moisture products to improve streamflow simulations on the Ouémé catchment in Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroux, Delphine; Pellarin, Thierry; Vischel, Théo; Gascon, Tania; Kerr, Yann

    2015-04-01

    The Ouémé catchment is located in the central part of Benin in West Africa. Its climate, extremely dry in winter and heavy rains in summer, makes the water cycle a true challenge to model, especially for the water management in the agricultural areas. DHSVM (Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model) is a physically based and distributed hydrological model that solves the energy and water balance at each time step. This model simulates the soil moisture at each soil layer, the snow quantity, the evapotranspiration, the runoff and the streamflow. It was used with an hourly time step at a 1 km resolution. Model parameters have been calibrated using 2005 in situ streamflow measurements along with in situ precipitations. When using satellite precipitation observations, the streamflow simulations are no longer in agreement with in situ measurements. The goal of this work is to assimilate the SMOS soil moisture product into the hydrological model DHSVM using a Kalman filter for a better constraint on the water cycle model when using satellite precipitation observations. First results tend to show an improvement of the simulated streamflow using the SMOS assimilation into DHSVM. SMOS acts on the system by adding or removing some water when satellite observations are either under or overestimating the precipitations. The ESA's SMOS mission was launched in November 2009 and has been providing Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity data for the last five years. Soil moisture products are available at a 25 km resolution with a 3-day global coverage (Level 3 data). Besides the choice of the assimilation method, the difference in spatial resolutions is also being taken care of by using an influence circle area. Highlights are mainly put on the impacts of the assimilation on the soil moisture and on the streamflow. Furthermore, DHSVM also models the water table depth and a first attempt to estimate groundwater volume for the entire watershed is presented in this study.

  10. Démonstration expérimentale d'une distribution quantique de clé par codage temporel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, W.; Debuisschert, T.

    2006-10-01

    Nous avons démontré expérimentalement la transmission quantique de clé par codage temporel. Alice envoie des impulsions cohérentes atténuées. La clé est codée dans l'instant de détection des photons chez Bob. Une mesure de la durée de cohérence par moyen interférométrique permet d'assurer un fonctionnement en régime quantique. Nous avons mesuré un taux d'erreur quantique de 3.3% et une chute relative de contraste de l'interféromètre de 8.4%. Ces valeurs permettent d'évaluer un avantage d'information de 0.49 bit/impulsion pour Alice et Bob par rapport à un espion éventuel.

  11. Par Pond phytoplankton in association with refilling of the pond: Final Report for sampling from February 1995 -- September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.; Johnson, M.A.; Cody, W.C.

    1996-12-31

    This report describes the results of phytoplankton analyses from Par Pond samples collected between February 1995 and September 1996. The principal objective of the study was to determine the effect of refilling of Par Pond following repair of the dam on the phytoplankton community. Algal blooms are often responsible for fish kills and other detrimental effects in ponds and lakes, and it was postulated that decaying vegetation from formerly exposed sediments might trigger algal blooms that could result in fish kills in Par Pond following the refill. Sporadic algal blooms involving blue-green algae were detected, especially during the summer of 1996. However, the data derived from the study demonstrates that overall, the refilling effort caused no significant negative impact to the pond attributable to phytoplankton dynamics.

  12. RalA and the exocyst complex influence neuronal polarity through PAR-3 and aPKC.

    PubMed

    Lalli, Giovanna

    2009-05-15

    Neuronal polarization requires localized cytoskeletal changes and polarized membrane traffic. Here, I report that the small GTPase RalA, previously shown to control neurite branching, also regulates neuronal polarity. RalA depletion, or ectopic expression of constitutively active RalA in cultured neurons inhibit axon formation. However, expression of a constitutively active RalA mutant that is unable to interact with the exocyst complex has no effect on neuronal polarization. Furthermore, depletion of the Sec6, Sec8 or Exo84 subunits of the exocyst complex also leads to unpolarized neurons. Early stages of neuronal polarization are accompanied by increasing levels of interaction of the exocyst complex with PAR-3 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), and by the RalA-dependent association of the exocyst complex with PAR-3. Thus, neuronal polarization involves a RalA-regulated association between mediators of vesicle trafficking (exocyst complex) and cell polarity (PAR-3). PMID:19383721

  13. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the C-terminal domain of Par-4 (PAWR)

    PubMed Central

    Tiruttani Subhramanyam, Udaya Kumar; Kubicek, Jan; Eidhoff, Ulf B.; Labahn, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Prostate apoptosis response-4 protein is an intrinsically disordered pro-apoptotic protein with tumour suppressor function. Par-4 is known for its selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells only and its ability to interact with various apoptotic proteins via its C-terminus. Par-4, with its unique function and various interacting partners, has gained importance as a potential target for cancer therapy. The C-terminus of the rat homologue of Par-4 was crystallized and a 3.7 Å resolution X-ray diffraction data set was collected. Preliminary data analysis shows the space group to be P41212. The unit-cell parameters are a = b = 115.351, c = 123.663 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. PMID:25195896

  14. Results of submerged sediment core sampling and analysis on Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake: July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Friday, G.P.

    1996-06-01

    Sediment cores from shallow and deep water locations in Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake were collected and analyzed in 1995 for radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. This core analysis was conducted to develop a defensible characterization of contaminants found in the sediments of Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake. Mercury was the only nonradiological constituent with a nonestimated quantity that was detected above the U.S Environmental Protection Agency Region IV potential contaminants of concern screening criteria. It was detected at a depth of 0.3--0.6 meters (1.0--2.0 feet) at one location in L Lake. Cesium-137, promethium-146, plutonium-238, and zirconium-95 had significantly higher concentrations in Par Pond sediments than in sediments from the reference sites. Cobalt-60, cesium-137, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and strontium-90 had significantly higher concentrations in L-Lake sediments than sediments from the reference sites.

  15. Identification of a Novel Regulatory Mechanism of Nutrient Transport Controlled by TORC1-Npr1-Amu1/Par32.

    PubMed

    Boeckstaens, Mélanie; Merhi, Ahmad; Llinares, Elisa; Van Vooren, Pascale; Springael, Jean-Yves; Wintjens, René; Marini, Anna Maria

    2015-07-01

    Fine-tuning the plasma-membrane permeability to essential nutrients is fundamental to cell growth optimization. Nutritional signals including nitrogen availability are integrated by the TORC1 complex which notably regulates arrestin-mediated endocytosis of amino-acid transporters. Ammonium is a ubiquitous compound playing key physiological roles in many, if not all, organisms. In yeast, it is a preferred nitrogen source transported by three Mep proteins which are orthologues of the mammalian Rhesus factors. By combining genetic, kinetic, biochemical and cell microscopy analyses, the current study reveals a novel mechanism enabling TORC1 to regulate the inherent activity of ammonium transport proteins, independently of arrestin-mediated endocytosis, identifying the still functional orphan Amu1/Par32 as a selective regulator intermediate. We show that, under poor nitrogen supply, the TORC1 effector kinase' Npr1' promotes phosphorylation of Amu1/Par32 which appears mainly cytosolic while ammonium transport proteins are active. Upon preferred nitrogen supplementation, like glutamine or ammonium addition, TORC1 upregulation enables Npr1 inhibition and Amu1/Par32 dephosphorylation. In these conditions, as in Npr1-lacking cells, hypophosphorylated Amu1/Par32 accumulates at the cell surface and mediates the inhibition of specific ammonium transport proteins. We show that the integrity of a conserved repeated motif of Amu1/Par32 is required for the interaction with these transport proteins. This study underscores the diversity of strategies enabling TORC1-Npr1 to selectively monitor cell permeability to nutrients by discriminating between transporters to be degraded or transiently inactivated and kept stable at the plasma membrane. This study further identifies the function of Amu1/Par32 in acute control of ammonium transport in response to variations in nitrogen availability. PMID:26172854

  16. Par4 is required for platelet thrombus propagation but not fibrin generation in a mouse model of thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Vandendries, Erik R.; Hamilton, Justin R.; Coughlin, Shaun R.; Furie, Bruce; Furie, Barbara C.

    2007-01-01

    Thrombin, a central mediator of hemostasis and thrombosis, converts fibrinogen to fibrin and is a potent platelet activator. Activated platelets provide a surface for assembly of the tenase and prothrombinase complexes required for thrombin generation. The role of thrombin-induced platelet activation in platelet accumulation and its interplay with fibrin deposition during thrombus assembly has not been fully defined. We studied these processes during laser-induced thrombus formation by using real-time digital fluorescence microscopy in mice lacking protease-activated receptor-4 (Par4), which is necessary for thrombin responsiveness in mouse platelets. Juxtamural platelet accumulation immediately after laser injury was not different in wild-type and Par4−/− mice. However, subsequent growth of platelet thrombi was markedly diminished in Par4−/− mice. At the time of maximal thrombus size in wild type, platelet accumulation was more than 10-fold higher in wild type than in Par4−/− mice. P-selectin expression, a marker of platelet activation, was reduced and delayed in Par4−/− thrombi. In contrast to platelet activation and accumulation, the rate and amount of fibrin deposition, predominantly intramural and juxtamural in this model, were indistinguishable in Par4−/− and wild-type mice. These results suggest that platelet activation by thrombin is necessary for normal propagation of a platelet thrombus at a distance from the injured vessel wall and hence for normal thrombus growth. However, platelet activation by thrombin is unnecessary for initial and limited accumulation of platelets at or near the vessel wall, and this limited accumulation of platelets and/or platelet-independent mechanism(s) of thrombin generation are sufficient for normal fibrin deposition in this model. PMID:17190826

  17. In vitro synthesis of ACTH- and beta-endorphin-related substances in the pars distalis of Anolis carolinensis.

    PubMed

    Dores, R M; Surprenant, A

    1984-10-01

    In order to investigate the biosynthesis of ACTH- and beta-endorphin-related substances in the pars distalis of Anolis carolinensis, explants of pars distali were incubated for 24 hr in a complete medium which contained [3H]tyrosine. Acid extracts of the incubates were immunoprecipitated with either an affinity-purified ACTH antiserum or an affinity-purified beta-endorphin antiserum and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Three distinct peaks of ACTH-related material were detected. The major peak comigrated with human ACTH(1-39), while two minor peaks corresponded in apparent molecular weight to ACTH biosynthetic intermediate and precursor-sized material. Three peaks of beta-endorphin-related material were also detected. The major peak comigrated with beta-endorphin(1-31), while two minor peaks corresponded to beta-lipotropin (LPH) and precursor-sized material. Sequential immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that the precursor-sized material had antigenic determinants for both ACTH and beta-endorphin. In addition this peak was identical in apparent molecular weight to the common precursor for alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and beta-endorphin in the pars intermedia of A. carolinensis (R.M. Dores, Peptides 3, 925-935). Analysis of extracts of reptile pars distalis by gel-filtration chromatography revealed a single peak of naloxone-reversible opiate bioactivity which coeluted with the peak of beta-endorphin-sized immunoreactivity. On a molar basis there is tenfold more opiate bioactivity in the reptile pars distalis than in the reptile pars intermedia. PMID:6092211

  18. Identification of a Novel Regulatory Mechanism of Nutrient Transport Controlled by TORC1-Npr1-Amu1/Par32

    PubMed Central

    Boeckstaens, Mélanie; Merhi, Ahmad; Llinares, Elisa; Van Vooren, Pascale; Springael, Jean-Yves; Wintjens, René; Marini, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Fine-tuning the plasma-membrane permeability to essential nutrients is fundamental to cell growth optimization. Nutritional signals including nitrogen availability are integrated by the TORC1 complex which notably regulates arrestin-mediated endocytosis of amino-acid transporters. Ammonium is a ubiquitous compound playing key physiological roles in many, if not all, organisms. In yeast, it is a preferred nitrogen source transported by three Mep proteins which are orthologues of the mammalian Rhesus factors. By combining genetic, kinetic, biochemical and cell microscopy analyses, the current study reveals a novel mechanism enabling TORC1 to regulate the inherent activity of ammonium transport proteins, independently of arrestin-mediated endocytosis, identifying the still functional orphan Amu1/Par32 as a selective regulator intermediate. We show that, under poor nitrogen supply, the TORC1 effector kinase' Npr1' promotes phosphorylation of Amu1/Par32 which appears mainly cytosolic while ammonium transport proteins are active. Upon preferred nitrogen supplementation, like glutamine or ammonium addition, TORC1 upregulation enables Npr1 inhibition and Amu1/Par32 dephosphorylation. In these conditions, as in Npr1-lacking cells, hypophosphorylated Amu1/Par32 accumulates at the cell surface and mediates the inhibition of specific ammonium transport proteins. We show that the integrity of a conserved repeated motif of Amu1/Par32 is required for the interaction with these transport proteins. This study underscores the diversity of strategies enabling TORC1-Npr1 to selectively monitor cell permeability to nutrients by discriminating between transporters to be degraded or transiently inactivated and kept stable at the plasma membrane. This study further identifies the function of Amu1/Par32 in acute control of ammonium transport in response to variations in nitrogen availability. PMID:26172854

  19. Pharmacological inhibition of PAR2 with the pepducin P2pal-18S protects mice against acute experimental biliary pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Michael, E S; Kuliopulos, A; Covic, L; Steer, M L; Perides, G

    2013-03-01

    Pancreatic acinar cells express proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) that is activated by trypsin-like serine proteases and has been shown to exert model-specific effects on the severity of experimental pancreatitis, i.e., PAR2(-/-) mice are protected from experimental acute biliary pancreatitis but develop more severe secretagogue-induced pancreatitis. P2pal-18S is a novel pepducin lipopeptide that targets and inhibits PAR2. In studies monitoring PAR2-stimulated intracellular Ca(2+) concentration changes, we show that P2pal-18S is a full PAR2 inhibitor in acinar cells. Our in vivo studies show that P2pal-18S significantly reduces the severity of experimental biliary pancreatitis induced by retrograde intraductal bile acid infusion, which mimics injury induced by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). This reduction in pancreatitis severity is observed when the pepducin is given before or 2 h after bile acid infusion but not when it is given 5 h after bile acid infusion. Conversely, P2pal-18S increases the severity of secretagogue-induced pancreatitis. In vitro studies indicate that P2pal-18S protects acinar cells against bile acid-induced injury/death, but it does not alter bile acid-induced intracellular zymogen activation. These studies are the first to report the effects of an effective PAR2 pharmacological inhibitor on pancreatic acinar cells and on the severity of experimental pancreatitis. They raise the possibility that a pepducin such as P2pal-18S might prove useful in the clinical management of patients at risk for developing severe biliary pancreatitis such as occurs following ERCP. PMID:23275617

  20. Protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) enhances Src-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of NMDA receptor in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Zhen-Zhen; Zhang, Feng; Li, Feng-Ying; Luan, Yi-Fei; Guo, Peng; Li, Yi-Hang; Liu, Yong; Qi, Su-Hua

    2016-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that Src could modulate NMDA receptor, and PAR1 could also affect NMDAR signaling. However, whether PAR1 could regulate NMDAR through Src under ICH has not yet been investigated. In this study, we demonstrated the role of Src-PSD95-GluN2A signaling cascades in rat ICH model and in vitro thrombin challenged model. Using the PAR1 agonist SFLLR, antagonist RLLFS and Src inhibitor PP2, electrophysiological analysis showed that PAR1 regulated NMDA-induced whole-cell currents (INMDA) though Src in primary cultured neurons. Both in vivo and in vitro results showed the elevated phosphorylation of tyrosine in Src and GluN2A and enhanced interaction of the Src-PSD95-GluN2A under model conditions. Treatment with the PAR1 antagonist RLLFS, AS-PSD95 (Antisense oligonucleotide against PSD95) and Src inhibitor PP2 inhibited the interaction among Src-PSD95-GluN2A, and p-Src, p-GluN2A. Co-application of SFLLR and AS-PSD95, PP2, or MK801 (NMDAR inhibitor) abolished the effect of SF. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that activated thrombin receptor PAR1 induced Src activation, enhanced the interaction among Src-PSD95-GluN2A signaling modules, and up-regulated GluN2A phosphorylation after ICH injury. Elucidation of such signaling cascades would possibly provide novel targets for ICH treatment. PMID:27385592

  1. Méningo-vascularite bactérienne révélant un adénome hypophysaire

    PubMed Central

    Bouchal, Siham; Razzouki, Hanane; Elkhyat, Salma Ibn; Maaroufi, Mustafa; El Ouali, Ouarda; Messouak, Ouafae; Belahsen, Mohammed Faouzi

    2015-01-01

    Un macroadénome à prolactine se présente généralement par un syndrome hormonal associé à un syndrome tumoral. Une méningite bactérienne compliquant un macroprolactinome en dehors de toute thérapie médicale ou chirurgicale est rarement rapporté dans la littérature. Mme R.C âgée de 48 ans s'est présentée aux urgences pour trouble de conscience fébrile. La ponction lombaire a révélé une méningite bactérienne. L'imagerie cérébrale a mis en évidence un aspect de vascularite cérébrale et un processus de la loge sellaire avec lyse du plancher faisant évoquer une brèche ostéoméningée. Le bilan biologique a montré une hyperprolactinémie à 200 mg/dl. La patiente est mise sous antibiothérapie à dose méningée et une corticothérapie associée à un traitement par la Cabergoline. Le traitement chirurgical de la brèche ostéoméningée s'est fait par voie endonasale. L’évolution est marquée par une nette amélioration clinique et biologique et l'absence de récidive de la méningite après un recul de 14 mois. Un macroprolactinome peut provoquer une brèche ostéoméningée en dehors de tout traitement médical ou chirurgical et avoir comme première manifestation une méningite infectieuse. PMID:25995804

  2. Les considérations éthiques relatives à la désadoption d'aspects inefficaces ou nuisibles des soins de santé.

    PubMed

    Niven, Daniel J; Leigh, Jeanna Parsons; Stelfox, Henry T

    2016-09-01

    La désadoption désigne l'abandon d'une pratique médicale ou d'un service de santé inefficace ou nuisible après une période d'adoption. Tandis que les dépenses croissantes en matière de santé menacent de paralyser les sociétés qui les financent, le fait de faciliter la désadoption peut faire partie intégrante de systèmes de santé durables qui prodiguent des soins de qualité. Le présent article explore des enjeux éthiques qui se rapportent à la désadoption, y compris les principes sous-jacents de bénéficience, de non-maléficience, de justice et d'autonomie. PMID:27576859