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1

[Medico-legal assessment of systemic sclerosis].  

PubMed

Diagnosis and management of the rare disease systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) is a challenge for the physician, not least due to the possible multitude of organ systems involved. The medico-legal assessment is important for the patient claiming insurance benefits or applying for early retirement due to scleroderma. Both the specialist for sclerosis and the impartial medico-legal assessor have to cooperate and understand the respective partner's requirements and terminology. Evaluations of individual organ impairments, handicaps and disabilities have to be taken into account when assessing the degree of impairment of occupational activity. PMID:17851670

Graninger, M

2007-10-01

2

Theophylline absorption by effervescent activated charcoal (Medicoal).  

PubMed

Plasma theophylline concentrations were measured in six volunteers given 675 mg of a sustained-release preparation (Phyllocontin). Significant reductions in both the mean recorded peak theophylline plasma concentrations and the mean 12-hour theophylline bioavailability were observed after the administration of effervescent activated charcoal (Medicoal) in single and multiple doses. These results indicate the potential use of activated charcoal in the management of theophylline poisoning. PMID:7238997

Helliwell, M; Berry, D

1981-01-01

3

[Medico-psychology centres and prevention].  

PubMed

The local sector policy put in place by the circular of 15th March 1960 remains an efficient public health tool in that it supports the whole community and not just patients. It is developed around three main areas--prevention, treatment and rehabilitation. By encouraging patients to become actively involved in their treatment programme, it corresponds to the objective of community-based healthcare of which the medico-psychology centre remains a linchpin. PMID:21574305

Faucon-Martin, Hélène

2011-04-01

4

Medico-legal implications of traumatic cataract.  

PubMed

Traumatic cataract is due to lens damage when mechanical, irradiative, electrical or chemical agents injury the globe. The appearance of a traumatic cataract is typically short and unilateral with rare spontaneous resolution and often involves other ocular anatomical areas. Medico-legal evaluation of the appearance and the consequences of a traumatic cataract requires a correct methodological approach with the support of qualified ophthalmological competences. PMID:23357390

Moreschi, Carlo; Da Broi, Ugo; Lanzetta, Paolo

2012-06-27

5

Medico-legal aspects of doping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abuse of anabolic steroids is an increasing problem not only among athletes but also body-builders and teenagers. A fast-developing black market has been established since the opening of the borders to eastern Europe. Medico-legal aspects of doping are addressed with particular reference to toxicology and pathology. Constituents of anabolic steroids bought on the black market were identified using gas chromatography\\/mass

B Madea; W Grellner; F Musshoff; R Dettmeyer

1998-01-01

6

Medico-legal aspects of mesothelioma.  

PubMed

The Authors, reviewing the Literature on asbestos-related Malignant Mesothelioma (MM), found that because of its very peculiar characteristics, the causal link between professional asbestos exposure and the development of this tumour is very difficult to define in respect to: diagnosis, causal link and individuation of possible culpable conducts. The evaluation of causal link in different medico-legal areas is studied by different criteria. In civil law the criterion of weak causality is followed to allow compensation for damages. For institutional purposes in INAIL, the definition of causal link is particularly facilitated by the legal presumption of origin. In fact it is sufficient, that asbestos-related lesions are ascertained in individuals who are or were exposed at any time of their professional life to the risk of inhaling asbestos fibres. In criminal law, the current approach of the Supreme Court is to demand evidence of strong causality, with a high logical probability and rational credibility, and beyond reasonable doubt, because criminal liability is personal as established in article 27 of the Italian Constitution. It is worth pointing out that all the levels of evidence indicated above must pass the test of scientific suitability or possibility. PMID:18338548

Partemi, Sara; De Giorgio, Fabio

7

Medico-legal aspects of doping.  

PubMed

Abuse of anabolic steroids is an increasing problem not only among athletes but also body-builders and teenagers. A fast-developing black market has been established since the opening of the borders to eastern Europe. Medico-legal aspects of doping are addressed with particular reference to toxicology and pathology. Constituents of anabolic steroids bought on the black market were identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; the products did not contain the expected ingredients in 35% of cases. Long-term effects and fatalities because of anabolic steroid abuse are reported here based on our own case material and a literature review. In our own cases, severe cardiovascular side-effects developed after long-term abuse of Dianabol (methandrostenolone) and Oral-Turinabol (chlordehydromethyltestosterone), i.e. myocardial infarction, stroke, organomegaly and/or severe atherosclerosis. The pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications (cardiotoxic effect, risk of atherosclerosis, thrombogenic risk) is discussed based on the available literature reports following fatal outcome after the abuse of anabolic steroids. PMID:15335551

Madea, B; Grellner, W; Musshoff, F; Dettmeyer, R

1998-03-01

8

Contemporary medico-legal dental radiology.  

PubMed

The advent of extraoral radiology in general dental practice has become more widespread since 2000, particularly with digital systems. With this comes a range of medico-legal risks for dentists not adverted to previously. These risks include a higher than expected radiation dose for some surveys, and the risk of a 'loss of a chance' for a patient whereby the images may disclose pathology not diagnosed by general dental practitioners using OPG and CBVT radiology. Practitioners need to apply relevant legal principles in deciding which surveys to order and record, and also need to explain to patients the dosages of the radiation that they will likely receive. Practitioners also need to assess whether the resultant survey ought to be interpreted by a radiologist to diagnose any wider pathology with which a general practitioner may not be familiar. Extra caution needs to be used in ordering high dose radiology in paediatric patients. Dentists should not assume patients fully understand the nature of CBVT and MCT, and its risks and benefits. Consideration ought to be given to the volume of CBVT ordered dependent on factors such as patient age, symptoms, history and procedural intent. PMID:22376092

Wright, Brad

2012-03-01

9

iDoctor app to help new medicos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resident at Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital and The University of Notre Dame Australia medical graduate, Dr Rhys Clark, has developed iDoctor, an iPhone application designed to assist training medicos to keep track of their professional development and patient caseloads.\\u000aThe internationally-rated, 4.5 star iTunes application allows users to log hospital cases and export them to Excel and other spreadsheet programs.

Andrea Barnard

2010-01-01

10

The importance of medico-legal evaluation in a case with intraabdominal gossypiboma.  

PubMed

Data concerning the incidence of gossypiboma tend to fluctuate and is difficult to estimate because of a low reporting rate lest medico-legal implication. Gossypiboma is frequently located in the abdominal and pelvic cavities after gynecologic and upper abdominal surgical operations but can also follow thoracic, orthopedic, and urological and neurosurgical procedures. In medical literature, there are few articles about the medico-legal evaluation of gossypiboma although it is typically subjected to a medico-legal process. In this article, we reported a 22-year-old female case with intraabdominal gossypiboma following a cesarean procedure and discussed the importance of medico-legal evaluation of gossypiboma. PMID:20163926

Uluçay, Tarik; Dizdar, Mustafa Gökhan; SunayYavuz, Mehmet; A?irdizer, Mahmut

2010-02-16

11

Original Article Medico-Legal assessment of sexual assault victims in Lahore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of the study was the medico-legal assessment of sexual assault victims in Lahore, and to know the characteristics of the assailants in these cases. Methods: This study included all 123 female cases of alleged sexual assault that presented for medical examination at the office of the surgeon medico-legal Punjab at Lahore during 2002. Results: Around 64% of

Qudsia Hassan; M. Zahid Bashir; Mian Mujahid; Anjum Zia Munawar; Muhammad Aslam; Murad Zafar Marri

12

Gender identity disorder and its medico-legal considerations.  

PubMed

The general belief among behavioural scientists and physicians is that gender identity disorder or transsexualism is an identifiable and incapacitating disease which can be diagnosed and successfully treated by reassignment surgery in carefully selected patients. Although many advances have been made in the reassignment surgery techniques, phalloplasty still remains a major challenge; to date, no ideal technique has been developed. The new gender created by the reassignment surgery has, in turn, led to many legal complications for post-operative transsexuals because, in many developed and the developing countries, transsexuals are not given a legal identity, thereby adding to their agonies and miseries. This article examines the historical perspective, genesis and management of gender identity disorder, or transsexualism, and draws attention to the medico-legal considerations. PMID:17345887

Sharma, B R

2007-01-01

13

Alcohol in a series of medico-legally autopsied deaths in northern Norway 1973–1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that use of alcohol increases the risk of fatal injuries. The presence of blood alcohol in autopsied deaths is regularly encountered in medico-legal practices. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and concentration of alcohol in 1539 medico-legal autopsies in two counties in northern Norway in the period 1973–1992, and the reporting of

Ivar Nordrum; Tor J Eide; Leif Jørgensen

2000-01-01

14

Medico - historical study of "Vis?cik?" (Cholera).  

PubMed

The Sanskrit word Vis?cik? refers to a condition in which vitiated v?ta d??a causes pain like pricking with a needle over the body. It occurs in a person suffering with aj?rna (indigestion) and its detailed description is available in Ayurvedic literature. This disease has its existence in India since ancient times; it has also been referred in Mah?h?rata and Tripitikas. Its etiology, signs, symptoms, complications, prognosis and treatment etc. as described in Ayurveda may be correlated with the disease Cholera, which is commonly known as "Haiza" in Hindi. In Greek language, the word Cholera means a flow of bile or the bilious disease. Cholera is an acute infectious diarrheal disease, caused by comma bacillus or vibrio cholerae sero groups 01 or 0139. Aretaetus, Benjamin Rush, Chadwick, John Snow, Robert Koch, etc. were some of the pioneers in Cholera research. Medico- historical importance of Cholera, its transmission, description and references from Ayurvedic texts etc., are being presented in this article. PMID:17333658

Prasad, P V V

15

Postmortem alcohol analysis of the synovial fluid and its availability in medico-legal practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol analyses using the synovial fluid of the knee joint (synovial alcohol concentration, SAC) as well as blood (BAC) and urine (UAC) were performed by the pulse heating-gas chromatographic method in 12 medico-legal autopsy cases. In 11 of the 12 cases, the regression analysis showed that BAC and UAC had a fairly linear relationship with SAC, and the average ratios

Tohru Ohshima; Toshikazu Kondo; Yasunori Sato; Tatsunori Takayasu

1997-01-01

16

Neurological and medico-social problems of spina bifida patients in adolescence and adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronological changes in the neurological manifestations of spina bifida are well recognized in the early developmental periods: fetal, neonatal, infantile, pre-school and school life. However, little has been written about the medical and medico-social problems of spina bifida patients in adulthood. Patients now in this age group had the condition diagnosed and managed in an era when modern neurosurgical concepts

Shizuo Oi; Osamu Sato; Satoshi Matsumoto

1996-01-01

17

The medico-professional quality of GP consultations assessed by analysing patient records  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the medico-professional quality of consultations by analysing textual data from patient records. Design Qualitative analyse of textual data. Setting Four primary health care centres using electronic patient records (EPR) in Finland. Subjects EPR and paired questionnaires of 175 consultations filled in by GPs and their patients independently. Main outcome measures Medico-professional quality of consultations, quality of care of acute respiratory infections, and hypertension. Results The medico-professional quality of the consultations was quite good. However, 9% of the records could not been assessed at all because of missing or poor documentation and 9% were assessed as poor. The treatment of acute respiratory infections and hypertension is not in line with current care guidelines. Smoking habits or other health behaviour or lifestyle factors were seldom recorded. Conclusions The medico-professional quality of the consultation was quite good. Quality improvement is needed in the treatment of acute respiratory infections and hypertension. User-friendly EPR systems would improve the content of patient records.

Kuusela, Maisa; Koivisto, Anna-Liisa; Vainiomaki, Paula; Vahlberg, Tero; Rautava, Paivi

2011-01-01

18

[Anxiety and anxiety disorders--differential diagnosis, etiology and medico-legal assessment].  

PubMed

Psychiatric disorders including anxiety disorders, are becoming more and more important in medico-legal assessment. Anxiety disorders are frequent in the general population. However, they may not be reliably diagnosed even by psychiatric experts because the disorders' symptoms may fail to manifest themselves during the examination. Functional impairments related to anxiety disorders are similarly problematic to assess. Finally, given the existence of effective therapies, it is hard to explain why patients with anxiety disorders have to be assessed at all. This report discusses the various and quite heterogeneous concepts associated with the word "anxiety". Anxiety disorder as a disease is differentiated from anxiety as a physiological emotion. Evidence concerning the etiology of anxiety disorders is compiled and strategies for medico-legal assessment, including the efficacy of therapies, are presented. PMID:22808641

Licha, Christina; Stevens, Andreas

2012-06-01

19

[Medico-social characteristics of patients with septic complications after penetrating thoracic wounds].  

PubMed

232 cases of septic complications after penetrating thoracic injury were analyzed. All patients were divided into groups according to the injury mechanism and inhabitancy. Patients with medico-social deviations, as well as patients with hemocontact infections, mental insanity and social deviations were marked out. 75% of patients were reported to have any medico-social deviations. Among them the distributing was as follows: persons with no fixed abode (100%), women (91%), patients over 50 years (86.2%) and patients after knife thoracic injury (77.4%). Among patients with hemocontact infection the majority were incomers from the near-abroad countries (37%), victims of assault (20%) and patients aged 31-40 years (18.4%). PMID:23887259

2013-01-01

20

Cauda equina syndrome: a review of the current clinical and medico-legal position  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a rare condition with a disproportionately high medico-legal profile. It occurs most frequently\\u000a following a large central lumbar disc herniation, prolapse or sequestration. Review of the literature indicates that around\\u000a 50–70% of patients have urinary retention (CES-R) on presentation with 30–50% having an incomplete syndrome (CES-I). The latter\\u000a group, especially if the history is less

Alan Gardner; Edward Gardner; Tim Morley

2011-01-01

21

Medico-Legal Evaluation of Adolescent Parricide Offenders: Thirty Nine Cases from Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parricide which is defined as the murder of one’s parents is a rare event. We describe a consecutive series of adolescent\\u000a parricide offenders referred to the Council of Forensic Medicine for medico-legal evaluation. Majority of the adolescent parricide\\u000a offenders were male with a frequency of 79.5%. Age of the offenders ranged from 12 to 18 years old with a median age

Yalcin Buyuk; Gulay Kurnaz; S. Murat Eke; Handan C. Ankarali; Gokhan Oral

2011-01-01

22

Modern forensic medicine and the medico-legal system in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of forensic medicine as it is practised today in Iran is described. Modern forensic medicine was not introduced into Iran until the 1850s. At present, there are two organizations in Iran involved in the forensic medicine field: 1) the Universities of Medical Sciences, 2) the Legal Medicine Organization (L.M.O.), and its Medico-Legal Centres (M.L.Cs) in the provinces and

Sanaei Zadeh Hossein

2002-01-01

23

Knitted fractures of the laryngopharynx framework as a medico-legal matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents the analysis of knitted trauma to the hyoid bone and laryngeal cartilages, revealed while searching for fresh fractures of the laryngopharynx skeleton for medico-legal purposes. Neck organocomplexes (n=440) were completely prepared after fixation in formalin. Old injuries were found in 17.3% of cases, and in 3.2% of cases two elements of the complex were formerly broken. More

Vladislav D Khokhlov

1999-01-01

24

Postmortem pericardial natriuretic peptides as markers of cardiac function in medico-legal autopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in the blood are clinical markers for the diagnosis of\\u000a cardiac failure. This study was a comprehensive analysis of the postmortem pericardial levels of the natriuretic peptides\\u000a in serial medico-legal autopsy cases (n=263, within 72 h postmortem) to assess their validity in investigating cardiac function. There was no significant relationship\\u000a of pericardial

Bao-Li Zhu; Takaki Ishikawa; Tomomi Michiue; Dong-Ri Li; Dong Zhao; Sayaka Tanaka; Yasunobu Kamikodai; Kohei Tsuda; Shuji Okazaki; Hitoshi Maeda

2007-01-01

25

"Cognac alibi" as a drunk-driving defense and medico-legal challenge.  

PubMed

Some drivers with positive forensic ethanol analyses, offer an explanation that they consumed alcohol a short time before a traffic accident or after driving. In medico legal practice this is commonly known as hip-flask defense, but to us as "cognac alibi" defense. In these cases, the lawyers require the medico legal experts to offer as much information as possible so that the court may come to the most reliable conclusions about the driver's blood alcohol concentration at the moment of the traffic accident (BAC(Acc)). At the Institute of Forensic Medicine our own analytical approach was established to study this medico legal problem. It consists of three inter-related phases in which it combines the obtained BAC values, with testimonies of the drunk driving suspect andalso witnesses. A specific algorithm was designed for calculating absorption and elimination of consumed alcohol. All the above-mentioned elements and blood-ethanol values calculated according to Widmark's method were inserted into appropriate cells of MS Excel software in order to calculate BAC in the function of time. The result is a relevant analysis of the drunk driving suspect's BAC in 5-minute intervals, as well as a graphic representation in chart form. PMID:15270476

Simic, M; Tasic, M; Stojiljkovic, G; Budakov, B; Vukovic, R

2004-01-01

26

Medico-Legal Education: A Pilot Curriculum to Fill the Identified Knowledge Gap  

PubMed Central

Purpose We sought to determine if a medico-legal educational curriculum designed to increase physicians' familiarity with the legal system in a nonthreatening environment—a didactic and interactive educational seminar—would positively influence learners' knowledge base and self-awareness. Methods Because neither the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education nor its Residency Review Committees specifically addresses medico-legal liability education, we designed a 2-day intensive medico-legal educational curriculum and piloted it in 2007 and 2008 at a large academic tertiary-referral medical center. Postcurriculum evaluations and precurriculum and postcurriculum testing were used to identify areas of common and/or persisting knowledge deficit. Results A total of 50 graduating residents, fellows, and community practitioners participated in the course. Common areas of knowledge deficit were “privilege,” “discovery,” statutes of limitations, and basic legal procedure. Discordance in physician interpretation of patient perspective and misunderstanding among physicians of the impact of the legal suit were evident. Conclusions Concentrated legal education at selected times during medical training may support physicians' motivations to improve the assurance of quality and continuity of care. We continue to revise the curriculum to address issues of lecturer style, lecture content, and overall attitudinal values related to clinical practice, legal education, long-term impact on practice patterns, job satisfaction and its effect on attention to quality and continuity-of-care issues, and health care provider attitudes about the provider's role within the legal system and the community. We plan to conduct follow-up of participants to assess retention and subsequent use of this knowledge.

Evans, Adele; Refrow-Rutala, Donna

2010-01-01

27

[The place of biographical writing in the contemporary medico-historical science].  

PubMed

The author sets forth the main statements about the place of the biography in the history of medicine today. The significant elements of the biographical writing are: the identity of the person described by the biographer, material fixing of the information about the character of the biography, the comprehension of the facts of the character's life by the biographer. It is shown how the sourceological methods, the social-historical, subject-logical and personal-psychological approaches were applied in the author's medico-historical scientific practice on the restoring of the biographies. PMID:11625818

Pietrowicz-Hryckiewicz, W

1999-01-01

28

[Validity of post-mortem computed tomography angiography (PMCTA) in medico-legal diagnostic management of stab and incised wounds].  

PubMed

The report presents an analysis of results of multi-phase post-mortem computed tomography angiography (MPMCTA) scans performed at the Chair of Forensic Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, in cases of stab wounds and incised wounds, as confronted with the results of conventional medico-legal autopsies. The analysis of the material points to a validity of PMCTA scans as supplementing post-mortem medico-legal examinations and being capable of providing significant data that affect final conclusions and adding new quality to recording post-mortem observations. PMID:23879012

Moska?a, Artur; Wo?niak, Krzysztof; Kluza, Piotr; Bolecha?a, Filip; Rzepecka-Wo?niak, Ewa; Ko?odziej, Jan; Latacz, Katarzyna

29

Cyclops - Expert System Shell for the Development of Applications in the Area of Medical Image Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

hlmanne-mail: J.Oehlmann@visolution.deKinderklinik Universitt LeipzigDr. Michael Achenbache-mail: Michael.Achenbach@rz.uni-jena.deCDPI - Centro de Diagnostico Medico Por Imagem, Rio de JanairoDr. Romeu Cortes Domingues, Dra. Fabiola Procaci KestelmanSonitec Diagnostico Medico por Imagem Ltda, FlorianopilisDra. Marcella SchaefferDMI - Diagnostico Medico por Imagem Ltda, Sao Jose - SCDr. Luiz Felipe Nobre2. General InformationThe Cyclops Project has been started as a...

Aldo Von Wangenheim; Michael M. Richter; Jorge Muniz Barreto; Dirk Krechel

1999-01-01

30

The Aberdeen Medico-Chirurgical Society 1789 to the present day: some leaders in medicine.  

PubMed

The Aberdeen Medico-Chirurgical Society was founded in 1789 based on a model of the Royal Medical Society of Edinburgh by Sir James McGrigor and 11 medical students. The objectives at that time, as at present, were to promote teaching, self education, the application of medical skills learned at the bedside, fellowship, and social intercourse. A number of examples of key leaders in the profession and members of the Medico-Chirurgical Society of Aberdeen are featured. These include Alexander Gordon (puerperal fever), Sir James McGrigor (founder of the British Army Medical Services), Sir Alexander Ogston (associated with Lister's theory of antisepsis in surgery and the discovery of the staphylococcus), Sir Patrick Manson (the father of tropical medicine), Prof JJR Macleod (Nobel Laureate and the discoverer of insulin), Prof Sir Matthew Hay (public health physician who offered the first description of typhus and its origins), and Sir Dugald Baird (the founder in the United Kingdom and Europe of modern-day maternity services). PMID:21292074

Galloway, David B

2011-02-01

31

Responsible use of cone beam computed tomography: minimising medico-legal risks.  

PubMed

This communication highlights some of the ethical and possible legal responsibilities which pertain to the taking, reading, reporting, and communication of findings from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. The importance of knowledge of head and neck anatomy and pathology to reduce the likelihood of incorrect interpretation is emphasised. Failure to detect critical findings in any diagnostic image can potentially result in medico-legal consequences. CBCT is no exception to this rule. Dental schools are advised to include CBCT imaging as a diagnostic tool in their under- and postgraduate curricula thereby equipping graduates to use 3D imaging in general and CBCT in particular. Existing dental practitioners are advised to seek continuing education on 3D imaging as part of their required lifelong learning. PMID:23971277

Noffke, C E E; Farman, A G; Van der Linde, A; Nel, S

2013-07-01

32

Chemical Construction of Polyfunctional Nanocomposites and Nanorobots for Medico-biological Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for preparation of magnetosensitive nanocomposites on the basis of surface-modified magnetite carrying immobilized cisplatin and monoclonal antibody CD 95 (a medico-biological nanorobot model) was developed. Adsorption and covalent immobilization of monoclonal antibody CD 95 and human normal immunoglobulin on nanocomposites comprising magnetite coated with poly(acryl amide) and ?-aminopropylsiloxane was studied. Isotherms of covalent attachment of oxidized immunoglobulin via formation of Schiff bases and non-specific (physical) adsorption of the normal immunoglobulin were compared. Kinetics of release of the immunoglobulin to a model environment was studied. Interaction of the prepared models of nanorobots with the cell line MCF-7 was studied. It was shown that use of magnetically driven nanocomposites carrying the anti-tumour drug and the monoclonal antibody CD 95 causes a synergic cytotoxic effect which exceeds the influence of the control doses up to 50%.

Gorbyk, P. P.; Dubrovin, I. V.; Petranovska, A. L.; Abramov, M. V.; Usov, D. G.; Storozhuk, L. P.; Turanska, S. P.; Turelyk, M. P.; Chekhun, V. F.; Lukyanova, N. Yu.; Shpak, A. P.; Korduban, O. M.

33

[Toxicological and medico-legal analyses of sudden deaths resulting from butane inhalation].  

PubMed

Butane is known to be a suffocating gas with narcotic activity, especially at high concentrations. Within the past five years, a few cases of sudden deaths in teenage boys who had inhaled butane, a component of gas for lighters, were investigated in the Forensic Medicine Department, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice. Analyses of biological materials secured at autopsies and evidence from places of deaths was carried out using GC/FID. Butane was found in blood, lung and brain samples of the deceased. Moreover, histopathological examinations were performed. Results of autopsies and additional analyses were appraised from the point of view of their significance and usefulness in giving medico-legal opinions on the cause of death. PMID:22117487

Nowicka, Joanna; Kulikowska, Joanna; Korczy?ska, Ma?gorzata; Celi?ski, Rafa?; Chowaniec, Czes?aw

34

"Against all hushing up and stamping down": the Medico-Psychological Clinic of London and the novelist May Sinclair.  

PubMed

May Sinclair (1863-1946) was one of the first modern novelists to appropriate psychoanalytic theories in her works. She was an early reader of the new psychoanalytic techniques but, rather than embracing its theories wholeheartedly and unquestioningly, she synthesized those that appealed to her own psychology of womanhood. Moreover, Sinclair's position was a unique one. As well as a highly acclaimed novelist with a respected public voice, she was closely associated with the setting up of one of the first psychotherapeutic centres in Britain, the Medico-Psychological Clinic of London. In this paper, I argue that the eclectic psychoanalytic situations in which Sinclair places her literary heroines mirror the eclectic and potentially feminist endeavours of the medico-Psychological Clinic. I draw upon archival material, hitherto unexamined by literary critics and medical historians, to reflect upon the turbulent lifespan of the Clinic and the attempts to curtail its controversial practices. PMID:21850804

Martindale, Philippa

2004-01-01

35

Self inflicted gunshot wound caused by a home-made gun--medico-legal and ballistic examination.  

PubMed

The reconstruction of the mechanism of a fatal gunshot wound inflicted with a zip gun is presented. The joint investigation of medico-legal team and firearms experts teams resulted in an explanation of the unusual distribution of gunpowder encountered around the entry wound. Although the use of crude home-made weapons associated with various criminal activities and suicide is widespread, the forensic literature on this subject is sparse especially concerning tests conducted on the weapon. PMID:15275012

Hiss, J; Shoshani, E; Zaitsew, K; Giverts, P; Kahana, T

2003-09-01

36

Music therapy in the treatment of autistic children. Medico-sociological data from the Federal Republic of Germany.  

PubMed

Related to the theoretical research on the use of music therapy in the treatment of autistic children there was made a postal survey about the attitude towards and the application of music therapy. The data of established paediatricians and paediatric institutions in FRG show that music therapy is already accepted in the treatment of autistic children. The implications of these medico-sociological data are discussed. PMID:1414349

Evers, S

1992-01-01

37

Unexplained and explained natural deaths among persons above 1 year of age in a series of medico-legal autopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to describe unexplained and explained natural deaths among deceased above 1 year of age in a series of medico-legal autopsies collected over a 20-year period (1972–1992). Unexplained natural deaths can be defined as those deaths where no cause-of-death is revealed after post-mortem and without circumstances indicating violent death. The death was considered to be

Ivar Nordrum; Tor J Eide; Leif Jørgensen

1998-01-01

38

Recoleccion de Muestras para Diagnostico de Enfermedades de los Animales (Collection and Delivery of Samples for Diagnosis of Animal Diseases).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The manual provides instructions for collecting and handling samples for diagnosis of 65 animal diseases. Livestock reviewed included sheep, beef cattle, horses, swine, dogs, poultry, alpacas. Also reviews analysis for parasites.

C. L. Ortecho M. Vasquez C. Marchinares

1967-01-01

39

A preliminary analysis of insects of medico-legal importance in Curitiba, State of Paraná.  

PubMed

A survey of the carrion fauna was made at two sites in Curitiba, State of Paraná, with the objective of describing the insects associated with carrion and setting up a preliminary data-base for medico-legal purposes in south Brazil. Vertebrate exclusion experiments were carried out in each season between 1994 and 1995 with a 250 g laboratory-bred rat (Rattus norvegicus). Five stages of decomposition were identified: fresh, bloated, decaying, dry and adipocere-like. Some species showed seasonal and site preference and so could be used to identify the probable place and season where death took place. Sarconesia chlorogaster (Diptera, Calliphoridae) was restricted to an open field site and to cooler months. Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Diptera, Calliphoridae) and Pattonella resona (Diptera, Sarcophagidae) were restricted to the forest site and warmer months. Phaenicia eximia (Diptera, Calliphoridae) and Oxyletrum discicolle (Coleoptera, Silphidae) were present at both sites throughout the year and could be useful for population level analysis. Dissochaetus murray (Coleoptera, Cholevidae) was present throughout the year at the forest site and was associated with the adipocere-like stage. Ants played an important role producing post-mortem injuries to the carcasses. Insects of 32 species are reported as being useful in community level approaches. PMID:9332590

Moura, M O; de Carvalho, C J; Monteiro-Filho, E L

40

Cauda equina syndrome: a review of the current clinical and medico-legal position.  

PubMed

Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a rare condition with a disproportionately high medico-legal profile. It occurs most frequently following a large central lumbar disc herniation, prolapse or sequestration. Review of the literature indicates that around 50-70% of patients have urinary retention (CES-R) on presentation with 30-50% having an incomplete syndrome (CES-I). The latter group, especially if the history is less than a few days, usually requires emergency MRI to confirm the diagnosis followed by prompt decompression by a suitably experienced surgeon. Every effort should be made to avoid CES-I with its more favourable prognosis becoming CES-R while under medical supervision either before or after admission to hospital. The degree of urgency of early surgery in CES-R is still not in clear focus but it cannot be doubted that earliest decompression removes the mechanical and perhaps chemical factors which are the causes of progressive neurological damage. A full explanation and consent procedure prior to surgery is essential in order to reduce the likelihood of misunderstanding and litigation in the event of a persistent neurological deficit. PMID:21193933

Gardner, Alan; Gardner, Edward; Morley, Tim

2010-12-31

41

Medico-ethical versus biological evaluationism, and the concept of disease.  

PubMed

According to the 'fact-plus-value' model of pathology propounded by K. W. M. Fulford, 'disease' is a value term that ought to reflect a 'balance of values' stemming from patients and doctors and other 'stakeholders' in medical nosology. In the present article I take issue with his linguistic-analytical arguments for why pathological status must be relative to such a kind of medico-ethical normativity. Fulford is right to point out that Boorse and other naturalists are compelled to utilize evaluative terminology when they characterize the nature of diseases and biological dysfunctions. But the relevant 'biofunctional judgements' are no less factual and empirical for that. While it is indeed evaluative to say that biological dysfunctions involve failures to execute naturally selected functions, such judgments are not bound to entail anything about what is good or bad for us, and what should be treated or not. In the last part of the paper I ruminate briefly on the relationship between 'biological evaluationism', on my construal, and descriptions of 'causal biology'. As I note in my conclusion, a strict bioevaluative concept of disease can be valid for every species on earth, and thus be of particular usefulness in general biological contexts. PMID:21837545

Lindstrøm, Jon A

2012-05-01

42

Medico-legal issues surrounding medical countermeasures used in the Gulf War--part 1.  

PubMed

When the multinational force deployed to the Gulf after Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990, military intelligence assessed the Iraqi's as possessing and being capable of using weapons of mass destruction. There was judged to be a real threat that chemical weapons, especially nerve agents, and certain biological weapons would be used. Coalition countries attempted to reduce the effects by the use of medical countermeasures. Since the Gulf conflict a series of medico legal problems from this policy have arisen; some of which have formed the basis of claims against MOD. In this paper I shall review how consent to treatment may have been modified in the military operational context and by the interface with military law. I shall look at the issues of clinical negligence and how duty of care may be affected. In the next article I shall look at relevant employment law; briefly review how medicines regulatory provision applies to medical countermeasures, whether they were properly licensed and whether in any case this applied to the Ministry of Defence in the context of deployment to the Gulf War. PMID:15241983

Galbraith, S N

2000-02-01

43

Medico-Legal Findings, Legal Case Progression, and Outcomes in South African Rape Cases: Retrospective Review  

PubMed Central

Background Health services for victims of rape are recognised as a particularly neglected area of the health sector internationally. Efforts to strengthen these services need to be guided by clinical research. Expert medical evidence is widely used in rape cases, but its contribution to the progress of legal cases is unclear. Only three studies have found an association between documented bodily injuries and convictions in rape cases. This article aims to describe the processing of rape cases by South African police and courts, and the association between documented injuries and DNA and case progression through the criminal justice system. Methods and Findings We analysed a provincially representative sample of 2,068 attempted and completed rape cases reported to 70 randomly selected Gauteng province police stations in 2003. Data sheets were completed from the police dockets and available medical examination forms were copied. 1,547 cases of rape had medical examinations and available forms and were analysed, which was at least 85% of the proportion of the sample having a medical examination. We present logistic regression models of the association between whether a trial started and whether the accused was found guilty and the medico-legal findings for adult and child rapes. Half the suspects were arrested (n?=?771), 14% (209) of cases went to trial, and in 3% (31) of adults and 7% (44) of children there was a conviction. A report on DNA was available in 1.4% (22) of cases, but the presence or absence of injuries were documented in all cases. Documented injuries were not associated with arrest, but they were associated with children's cases (but not adult's) going to trial (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for having genital and nongenital injuries 5.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.87–18.13, p?=?0.003). In adult cases a conviction was more likely if there were documented injuries, whether nongenital injuries alone AOR 6.25 (95% CI 1.14–34.3, p?=?0.036), ano-genital injuries alone (AOR 7.00, 95% CI 1.44–33.9, p?=?0.017), or both nongenital and ano-genital injuries (AOR 12.34, 95% CI 2.87–53.0, p?=?0.001). DNA was not associated with case outcome. Conclusions This is the first study, to our knowledge, to show an association between documentation of ano-genital injuries, trials commencing, and convictions in rape cases in a developing country. Its findings are of particular importance because they show the value of good basic medical practices in documentation of injuries, rather than more expensive DNA evidence, in assisting courts in rape cases. Health care providers need training to provide high quality health care responses after rape, but we have shown that the core elements of the medico-legal response require very little technology. As such they should be replicable in low- and middle-income country settings. Our findings raise important questions about the value of evidence that requires the use of forensic laboratories at a population level in countries like South Africa that have substantial inefficiencies in their police services. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Jewkes, Rachel; Christofides, Nicola; Vetten, Lisa; Jina, Ruxana; Sigsworth, Romi; Loots, Lizle

2009-01-01

44

[Medico-legal opinions in cases for annulment of testament. Part I. Characteristics of investigative material. Characteristics of testators].  

PubMed

A very important issue in preparing medico-legal opinions is the establishment whether the devisor had the ability to bequeath at the date of preparing a testament. The subsequent loss of the ability of bequeathing does not have any impact on execution of the previously prepared testament. Experts who pass opinions in testament cases evaluate: 1) the testament itself and the circumstances of its preparation, excluding, however, the reliability of records, 2) statements obtained while interrogating witnesses (descriptions of daily life, motivation to bequeath), 3) medical records (files, case histories, discharge records). The investigative material consisted of judicial files in 73 testament cases referred to the Chair and Department of Forensic Medicine (CDFM), University of Medical Sciences, Pozna?, by courts from all over Poland in the period 1990-2005 for formulation of medico-legal opinions based on these documents. In 63.0% of cases, CDFM in Pozna? was the first opinionating institution; in the remaining instances, previous medico-legal opinions had been given elsewhere; in six cases they were antagonistic. The investigative material included a predominant percentage (75.2%) of ordinary testaments (made before a notary and oligraphic) as opposed to 22% of informal testaments (oral only). Although in the majority of cases (67.2%) only one testament was drawn up, there were also instances (2.7%) where the devisor prepared as many as five testaments. The length of devisors survival following the drawing up of the final testament was generally short. In total, testaments not only in the oral form, but also made before a notary, were prepared by chronically ill individuals presenting with marked clinical symptoms, what was perceived by their family and caregivers as a sign of the imminent death. Hence, the testaments were often drawn up in a hospital room or in a notary office where the patient was taken between consecutive hospitalizations. PMID:17571498

Marcinkowski, Jerzy T; Klimberg, Aneta

45

Medico-legal autopsy in postoperative hemodynamic collapse following coronary artery bypass surgery.  

PubMed

Sudden unexpected postoperative hemodynamic collapse with a high mortality develops in 1-3% of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). The contribution of surgical graft complications to this serious condition is poorly known and their demonstration at autopsy is a challenging task. Isolated CABG was performed in 8,807 patients during 1988-1999. Of the patients, 76 (0.9%) developed sudden postoperative hemodynamic collapse resulting in subsequent emergency reopening of the median sternotomy and open cardiac massage. Further emergency reoperation could be performed in 62 (82%) whereas 14 patients died prior to reoperation and a further 21 did not survive the reoperation or died a few days later. All 35 (46%) patients who did not survive were subjected to medico-legal autopsy combined with postmortem cast angiography. By combining clinical data with autopsy and angiography data, various types of graft complications were observed in 27 (36%, 1.3 per patient) of the 76 patients with hemodynamic collapse. There were no significant differences in the frequency (33 vs. 40%) or number of complicated grafts per patient (1.2 vs. 1.4) between those who survived reoperation and who did not. Autopsy detected 25 major and minor findings not diagnosed clinically. Postmortem cast angiography visualized 2 graft twists not possible to detect by autopsy dissection only. Surgical graft complications were the most frequent single cause for sudden postoperative hemodynamic collapse in CABG patients leading to a fatal outcome in almost half of the cases. Postmortem angiography improved the accuracy of autopsy diagnostics of graft complications. PMID:20820949

Karhunen, Janne P; Karhunen, Pekka J; Raivio, Peter M; Sihvo, Eero I T; Vainikka, Tiina L S; Salminen, Ulla-Stina

2010-09-07

46

Medico-legal autopsy in postoperative hemodynamic collapse following coronary artery bypass surgery  

PubMed Central

Sudden unexpected postoperative hemodynamic collapse with a high mortality develops in 1–3% of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). The contribution of surgical graft complications to this serious condition is poorly known and their demonstration at autopsy is a challenging task. Isolated CABG was performed in 8,807 patients during 1988–1999. Of the patients, 76 (0.9%) developed sudden postoperative hemodynamic collapse resulting in subsequent emergency reopening of the median sternotomy and open cardiac massage. Further emergency reoperation could be performed in 62 (82%) whereas 14 patients died prior to reoperation and a further 21 did not survive the reoperation or died a few days later. All 35 (46%) patients who did not survive were subjected to medico-legal autopsy combined with postmortem cast angiography. By combining clinical data with autopsy and angiography data, various types of graft complications were observed in 27 (36%, 1.3 per patient) of the 76 patients with hemodynamic collapse. There were no significant differences in the frequency (33 vs. 40%) or number of complicated grafts per patient (1.2 vs. 1.4) between those who survived reoperation and who did not. Autopsy detected 25 major and minor findings not diagnosed clinically. Postmortem cast angiography visualized 2 graft twists not possible to detect by autopsy dissection only. Surgical graft complications were the most frequent single cause for sudden postoperative hemodynamic collapse in CABG patients leading to a fatal outcome in almost half of the cases. Postmortem angiography improved the accuracy of autopsy diagnostics of graft complications.

Karhunen, Pekka J.; Raivio, Peter M.; Sihvo, Eero I. T.; Vainikka, Tiina L. S.; Salminen, Ulla-Stina

2010-01-01

47

Resins and Gums in Historical Iatrosophia Texts from Cyprus - A Botanical and Medico-pharmacological Approach  

PubMed Central

This study explores historical iatrosophia texts from Cyprus from a botanical and medico-pharmacological point of view focusing on remedies containing resins and gums. The iatrosophia are a genre of Greek medical literature of Byzantine origin and can be described as medicine handbooks which serve as therapeutic repositories containing recipes or advice. To extract and analyze information on plant usage in such sources – which are largely unedited texts and so far have not been translated – we investigate (i) the relationship of the iatrosophia to Dioscorides’ De Materia Medica as well as historic pharmaceutical books or standard texts on modern phytotherapy and (ii) the validity of the remedies by comparing them to modern scientific data on reported biological activities. In the six texts investigated 27 substances incorporating plant exudates are mentioned. They are obtained from over 43 taxa of higher plants and in particular are used to treat dermatological, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tract conditions. The comparison to historic pharmaceutical books and phytotherapy texts reflects the gradual decline of the use of plant exudates in Western medicine. While remarkable parallels to Dioscorides’ text exist, the non-Dioscoridean influence suggests a complex pattern of knowledge exchange. Overall, this resulted in an integration of knowledge from so far poorly understood sources. The comparison with bioscientific data reveals a fragmentary picture and highlights the potential of these unexplored substances and their uses. Where relevant bioscientific data are available, we generally found a confirmation. This points to a largely rational use of the associated remedies. Taken together, the iatrosophia are a valuable resource for ethnopharmacological and natural product research. Most importantly they contribute to the understanding of the development of herbal medicines in the (Eastern) Mediterranean and Europe.

Lardos, Andreas; Prieto-Garcia, Jose; Heinrich, Michael

2011-01-01

48

I marcatori biochimici di tumore associati alle tecniche per immagini medico-nucleari come esempi di integrazione diagnostica: i carcinomi della mammella, della prostata e dell'ovaio  

Microsoft Academic Search

L'iter diagnostico dei pazienti con neoplasia prevede l'impiego di diversi metodi tra cui molto importanti sono i test di laboratorio e le tecniche per immagini. L'interpretazione combinata dei test per i marcatori tumorali associati alle metodiche per immagini offre alcuni vantaggi che si traducono in una migliore accuratezza diagnostica. I marcatori tumorali forniscono una generica indicazione di presenza di malattia,

Carlo Villano; Flavio Crippa; Emilio Bombardieri

49

Medico-economic evaluation of health products in the context of the Social Security Financing Act for 2012.  

PubMed

The participants in round table 6 of the Giens Workshops 2012 drafted recommendations based on the collective interpretation of important elements of the decree concerning the medico-economic evaluation of health products published a few days earlier (02 October 2012). The medico-economic evaluation (MEE), becomes an additional determinant for fixing the prices of health products by the Health products economic committee (Comité économique des produits de santé, CEPS) via the hierarchisation of treatment strategies, and thus modifies the market access conditions. Limiting the analysis to medicinal products and medical devices for which a major, important or moderate improvement in the medical service rendered (ASMR) or of the expected service (ASA) has been requested and presenting a significant budget impact on the Social Security expenses, excludes health products with ASMR or ASA with a lower level requested which often create complex price fixing problems and often have a major budget impact. This latter concept remains to be defined in detail. The MEE envisaged for the first registration must include the need to confirm or refute the initial hypotheses especially concerning the actual position in the therapeutic strategy at the time of renewal of the registration. For the first registration, the conventional reference to European prices guaranteeing a minimum price to innovative medicinal products, the medico-economic models submitted by the industry to the French Drug Authority (Haute autorité de santé, HAS) must be used to guide the compilation of new data to be requested at the time of the registration renewal and to negotiate the level of the discounts in the framework of a price-volume agreement, if applicable. The MEE will allow comparing the result of the analysis to the model hypothesis at the time of the renewal of the registration, which may contribute to the renegotiation (either up or down) of the price of health goods. The costs related to obtaining new data must be controlled. In order for the MEE to allow confirming the relationship between the price requested and the benefit expected, the group privileges the definition of reference values with an indicative and non-normative value, likely to evolve with time rather than a threshold. Concerning the evaluation procedure: the time to market access must not be lengthened; while the possibility of regular meetings between the industry and the HAS is recommended to avoid methodological divergences. A transitory period should allow the implementation of the entire evaluation procedure which must also take into account the specificities of health products registered before the 3 October 2013. PMID:23981264

Dervaux, Benoît; Baseilhac, Eric; Fagon, Jean-Yves; Ameye, Véronique; Angot, Pierre; Audry, Antoine; Becquemont, Laurent; Borel, Thomas; Cazeneuve, Béatrice; Courtois, Jocelyn; Detournay, Bruno; Favre, Pascal; Granger, Muriel; Josseran, Anne; Lassale, Catherine; Louvet, Olivier; Pinson, Jean; de Pouvourville, Gérard; Rochaix, Lise; Rumeau-Pichon, Catherine; de Saab, Rima; Schwarzinger, Mickaël; Sun, Aristide

2013-08-28

50

Ethno-medico-botanical investigations in Kerala I. Some primitive tribals of western ghats and their herbal medicine.  

PubMed

Ethno-medico-botanical investigations of seven primitive tribals, Cholanaikken, Pathinaikken, Paniyan, Kuruman, Irular, Adiyan and Kurichan, living in the densely forested high-lands of western ghats in Kerala were carried out. One of the tribes, Cholanaikken, is the most primitive tribe known in the Indian subcontinent. Ethnically they appear close to the Australian aboriginals. All other tribes of Kerala have mixed features of Veddoids, Negroids, Australian aboriginals and Dravidian races suggesting the mixing of these races at various periods of Kerala's historical past. All the tribals investigated practice their own traditional system of medicine. The medical treatment of diseases of most of these tribals involves mysticism, magical incantations, sacrificial practices and divining. They also utilize a wide variety of herbs in treating the physical symptoms. These medicinal herbs were collected, identified and some of the interesting plants for which new medicinal uses were claimed by the tribals are described here. PMID:6471881

Pushpangadan, P; Atal, C K

1984-06-01

51

From stack-firing to pyromania: medico-legal concepts of insane arson in British, US and European contexts, c. 1800-1913. Part I.  

PubMed

This article surveys evolving and competing medico-legal concepts of pyromania and insane arson. Exploiting evidence from medical jurisprudence, medico-legal publications, medical lexicography and case histories, it seeks to explicate the key positions in contemporary professional debates concerning arson and mental derangement. A major focus is the application of the doctrines of moral and partial insanity, monomania, instinctive insanity and irresistible impulse to understandings of pyromania and insane arson. The limited extent to which mental defect provided a satisfactory diagnosis and exculpatory plea for morbid arson is also explored. Additionally, this article compares and contrasts contemporary debates about other special manias, especially kleptomania. Part 2 will be published in the next issue, History of Psychiatry 21 (4). PMID:21879685

Andrews, Jonathan

2010-09-01

52

The role of the Irish Division of the Royal Medico-Psychological Association in the development of intellectual disability nursing in Ireland.  

PubMed

The development of a specialist intellectual disability workforce in independent Ireland by the Royal Medico-Psychological Association was influenced by nursing regulatory bodies and Catholic religious orders, the latter of which provided lay residential education to people with intellectual disabilities. Although the RMPA shaped curriculum and examinations, practice scope, clinical assessment and practical skills were weighted more heavily towards bedside nursing, psychology and education due to the input of the religious orders and nursing board. PMID:21595365

Sweeney, J F

2011-01-01

53

[The role, objectives and usefulness of medico-legal determinations in post-accidental procedures in traumatic deaths in hard coal-mining industry].  

PubMed

The underground hard coal-mining sector demonstrates one of the highest rates of fatal accidents, in spite of a decline in coal-mining over the last few years. Post-accidental investigations, including forensic medical expertise, continue to present a significant problem. The objective of the research was to evaluate the role, tasks and usefulness of medico-legal determinations in post-accidental procedures in traumatic deaths in hard coal-mining industry. The study was carried out retrospectively by investigating files and autopsy reports, with attention focusing on the scope of necessary activities and medico-legal examinations in order to determine the cause and manner of death, and on identification of fatalities, especially in the cases of collective occupational accidents. Complex medico-legal determinations (identification, autopsy), supplemented by additional investigations (toxicology, histopathology and hemogenetics) provide a valuable source of evidence for legal authorities and post-accidental commissions. Mutual cooperation of the experts representing various branches of science is the basis of executing appropriate procedures after a traumatic death in the coal mine. PMID:20073259

Skowronek, Rafa?; Chowaniec, Czes?aw

54

Remaking the medico-legal scene: a social history of the late-Victorian coroner in Oxford.  

PubMed

There have been wide-ranging debates about medicine and the law encapsulated in the figure of the coroner in Victorian England. Recently the historical literature on coroners has been enriched by macro-studies. Despite this important research, the social lives of coroners and their daily interactions remain relatively neglected in standard historical accounts. This article redresses that issue by examining the working life of the coroner for Oxford during the late-Victorian era. Edward Law Hussey kept very detailed records of his time in office as coroner. New research material makes it feasible to trace his professional background, from doctor of the sick poor, to hospital house surgeon and then busy coroner. His career trajectory, personal interactions, and professional disputes, provide an important historical prism illuminating contemporary debates that occupied coroners in their working lives. Hussey tried to improve his medico-legal reach and the public image of his coroner's office by reducing infanticide rates, converting a public mortuary, and acquiring a proper coroner's court. His campaigns had limited success because the social scene in which he worked was complicated by the dominance of health and welfare agencies that resented his role as an expanding arm of the Victorian information state. PMID:20008864

Hurren, Elizabeth T

2009-12-14

55

[Statistical survey of medico-legal activities for the murderous and accidental death (40 cases) by use of fire arms].  

PubMed

A total number of judicial autopsies conducted in the Department of Legal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine during the period of Jan 1963 and Mar 1987 was recorded 1,157 cases including 40 cases caused by the fire arms. This indicates 3.4% of total numbers of death resulting from subject accidents, and the outline thereof is following. 1) Murder case-35, accidental case-5, suicide case-none. 2) Lethal weapons used for the murder: Pistol-26 cases, hunting gun-8 cases, joint use of illicitly hand-made fowling piece and pistol-1 case. All 5 accidental cases of the above were caused by wrong use of hunting guns. 3) The age of victims: Thirties-17 cases, Forties-10 cases, Fifties-4 cases, Teens-4 cases. Twenties-3 cases, one year and downward and from sixty years up-1 case respectively. 4) The entry wound and exit wound caused by the use of fire arms and other several matters in regard to medico-legal investigations and views thereof were taken up in consideration from various angles. PMID:2629473

Tsuda, R; Ito, Y; Inoue, T; Hara, M

1989-03-01

56

The medico-legal prerequisite for initiating quarantine and isolation practices in public health emergency management in hospitals in Ghana.  

PubMed

Hospitals and other health facilities in Ghana do not appear to have standardized practices for quarantine and isolation in public health emergency management. This paper reviews the legislative framework governing the medico-legal prerequisites for initiating quarantine and isolation procedures as articulated in the Infectious Disease Act (Cap 78) 1908 amended, 1935, the Quarantine Act (Cap 77) 1915 amended, 1938, the Emergency Powers Act of 1994, (Act 472), and the National Disaster Management Act, 1996, (Act 517) in consonance with the 1992 Constitution of Ghana. The findings provide that (1) The legislative framework outlines systematic standards and protocols to be followed in the committal of person or persons in quarantine and isolation during public health emergencies. (2) These standards and protocols consider as imperative, the creation of standardized national templates for the initiation of quarantine and isolation measures. (3) The non-compliance of the standards and protocols renders vulnerable medical facilities and hospitals with their personnel to the threat of medical malpractice suits and breach of professional ethics. This paper provides suggestions to hospital administrators and medical personnel of how to develop administrative templates in compliance with the law in managing public health emergencies. It also provides examples of such templates for possible adoption by hospitals and other health administrators. PMID:22359423

Norman, I D; Aikins, M; Binka, F N

2011-12-01

57

[Logico-semantic modeling of the structure of the hardware and software of medico-biological measurements].  

PubMed

An optimal correlation between the development tendencies, the popular use of reliable, practically checked technical novelties, the creation and mastering of principally new types of technique and technology is of great value in the development of science and technology programme. This task is solved by logico-semantic modelling. The prospects of the stated approach are conditioned by the possibilities of automatization of the purpose-supposing approach, that during the elaboration of medical scientific and technical programmes leads to reduction of expenditures for carrying out this function, allows to raise the demands for structure and order of program realisation, removes the duplication of search operations and information transmission in the preparatory period, that finally reduces the elaboration time and increases the quality of scientific and technical programme, provides complex approach to medical information problems. The possibilities of the method of logico-semantic modelling are described on the example of structure of the branch scientific and technical programme formation, directed to elaboration of technical and program methods of the system of automatization of medico-biological measuring. PMID:2728597

Ostapiuk, S F; Grum-Grzhima?lo, Iu V; Ionov, B V

1989-01-01

58

EVALUACION CRITICA DEL TEST DE TOLERANCIA ORAL A LA GLUCOSA PARA EL DIAGNOSTICO DE RESISTENCIA INSULINICA EN PACIENTES CON SINDROME DE OVARIO POLIQUISTICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palabras clave: síndrome de ovario poliquístico, resistencia insulínica, test de tolerancia a la glucosa Abstract Critical evaluation of the oral glucose tolerance test for the diagnosis of insulin resistance in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is the most commonly used method to evaluate insulin resistance (IR) in the clinical practice. Our objective was to evaluate

CECILIA E. CALVAR; SONIA V. BENGOLEA; RICARDO HERMES; MARCELO LOYATO; Servicio de Endocrinología; J. A. Fernández

59

[Medico-legal assessment of selected cases of perinatal complications resulting in death of the woman during childbirth. Medical error or therapeutic failure?].  

PubMed

Medico-legal estimation of therapeutic management in cases of perinatal complications, especially those resulting in death of the women during childbirth is usually very difficult. The authors have investigated medical documentation supported by the results of autopsies of cases chosen from the casuistry of the Forensic Medicine Department, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice. Considering the limits of professional liability and legal responsibility of physicians, close attention was paid to standard therapeutic management and increased risk in treatment with regard to that relating to typical salubrious complications. The presented cases of deaths of women during childbirth can be the succeeding opinion in broad discussion on medical errors as well as an attempt to standardise and differentiate the medical error from therapeutic failure which occurred within the reach of risk in the undertaken treatment. PMID:16080426

Chowaniec, Ma?gorzata; Chowaniec, Czes?aw; Jab?o?ski, Christian; Nowak, Agnieszka

60

From stack-firing to pyromania: medico-legal concepts of insane arson in British, US and European contexts, c. 1800-1913. Part 2 .  

PubMed

The second part of this paper explores deepening doubts about pyromania as a special insanity, British debates post-1890, and pyromania's supplanting with the broader diagnostic category of insane incendiarism. It assesses the conceptual importance of revenge and morbid-motivations for arson, and the relationship of Victorian and Edwardian concepts of arson to more modern psychiatric research.The main objective is to ascertain the extent to which Victorian and Edwardian medico-psychologists and medical legists arrived at meaningful and workable definitions of criminal insanity linked to arson. It concludes by emphasizing the limitations, contentiousness and inconsistencies in the use of technical terms such as'pyromania', contrasted with the qualified success of authorities in arriving at more viable and broadly acceptable explanations of insane firesetting. PMID:21877418

Andrews, Jonathan

2010-12-01

61

[Report on medico-legal data from the mass-investigation performed by the Medico-Legal Society of Japan (XIV). Autopsy cases of traffic accidents in Japan (1990-1994). Planning and Development Committee of The Medico-Legal Society of Japan].  

PubMed

Autopsy findings in 3, 185 cases of death due to traffic accidents obtained from all institutions belong to the Medico-Legal Society of Japan between 1990 and 1994 were analyzed statistically. The results are summarized as follows: 1) The annual number of autopsy cases related to traffic accidents was stable and accounted for 10% of all autopsy cases examined. The autopsy cases also accounted for only 6% of all deaths due to traffic accidents. Cases requiring judicial autopsy are few despite the fact that deaths due to traffic accidents are considered deaths resulting from professional negligence. 2) The purposes of autopsy were, in a decreasing order of frequency, (1) to examine whether the accident was a hit-and-run case, (2) to examine whether the case was multiple accidents, and (3) to clarify the relationship of death with the accident. 3) According to the age, those who were involved in accidents while they were on foot overwhelmingly aged 70 years or above, and those who were involved in accidents while they were riding motorcycles were predominantly in their teens to the 20's. Concerning the situation of the accident, run-over cases, were frequently those in their 40's, and collision cases were predominantly those in their 70's. Among those who died in cars, the drivers were most frequently those in their 50's, followed by those in their 20's. 4) The degree of external and internal injuries was compared. About half the victims sustained severe injuries both internally and externally, and the remaining half sustained mild external injuries and severe internal injuries. Run-over cases generally had severe injuries both internally and externally, but collision cases tended to have mild external injuries and severe internal injuries. 5) The most frequent cause of death was brain injury, followed by loss of blood and traumatic shock. 6) Tire marks were observed in 23% of the run-over cases, and they were observed in the head, face, neck, and thoracoabdominal region in most cases. 7) Of the collision cases, collision injuries were observed in 55.6%, and the sites of collision injuries were the crural and femoral regions. 8) Of those who died in the car, about 46% were the drivers. 9) Deaths while driving due to internal causes accounted for 3% of all autopsy cases who died in traffic accidents, and ischemic heart disease was the most frequent of the internal causes. 10) Concerning injuries caused by safety devices, 3.5% of the drivers and 4.4% of non-driver passengers were injured by the seat belts, and 3.9% of those who were riding motorcycles were injured by the helmets. 11) Alcohol was detected from 47.7% of the cadavers examined, and the alcohol level was 0.5 mg/ml or above in 19% of those driving and 50.2% of those on foot. 12) Stimulants were detected in 5 (3.8%) of 132 cases examined, and thinner was detected in 17 (13.0%) of 131 cases examined. PMID:9184023

1997-04-01

62

[Medico-legal autopsy case of an infant suffering anaphylactic shock during dental treatment. Potential hazards in the use of a rubber-dam-sheet for infants].  

PubMed

We report a medico-legal autopsy of a 4-year-old girl without any history of allergies, who died following anaphylactic shock due to local anesthesia with lidocaine during dental treatment. The shock symptoms were overlooked due to a rubber-dam-sheet covering her face. The autopsy revealed laryngeal edema, secretory fluid filling the trachea, severe pulmonary congestion and edema. An immunohistochemical investigation showed numerous mast cells releasing histamine in lungs, and the fluids in the pulmonary alveoli and veins also showed positive staining. In addition, the plasma concentration of histamine in the heart blood showed a high value. From these findings, the cause of death was determined to be respiratory failure due to anaphylactic shock induced by lidocaine. In this case, her death was considered to be due to medical malpractice; adequate life support had not been performed, because anaphylactic shock was overlooked until the rubber-dam-sheet removed. In addition, due to two previous autopsy case reports that described infantile fatalities involved with the misusage of a rubber-dam-sheet for the patients under local anesthesia, we therefore recommend immediate improvements in rubber-dam-sheets and/or better applications of them in pediatric dentistry. PMID:17134013

Masuda, Tomoo; Murayama, Takako; Takada, Yuzo; Mukaida, Masahiro

2006-10-01

63

Social isolation and delayed discovery of bodies in houses: the value of forensic pathology, anthropology, odontology and entomology in the medico-legal investigation.  

PubMed

The bodies of socially isolated people may remain undiscovered in their own houses for prolonged periods. Occasionally the body is in situ for sufficient time to become skeletonised, or partially so. Medico-legal investigation of these cases is complicated by degradation and contamination of evidence. Thus, a multidisciplinary forensic investigation is recommended. The potential contributions of forensic pathology, anthropology, odontology and entomology are outlined here with reference to two cases that occurred in Victoria, Australia, in 2003. Forensic pathologists are often unable to determine the cause of death in skeletonised bodies, however, they may find evidence to support either a natural or unnatural mode of death, and they may describe skeletal pathology or trauma, and identify skeletal features to support radiological identification of the deceased. Anthropologists can provide supplementary evidence of skeletal trauma. Additionally, they can assess age, sex, stature and racial affiliation from skeletal remains. Odontologists can identify individuals through comparison with ante-mortem dental records; however, potential difficulties exist in identifying the treating dentist of a socially isolated person. Odontologists may also examine the teeth and oro-facial skeleton for trauma. Entomologists may estimate minimum death time and/or season of death. Entomological examination of insect remains may also confirm that a body has lain in situ for a considerable period. PMID:15939160

Archer, M S; Bassed, R B; Briggs, C A; Lynch, M J

2005-07-16

64

David Murray Morton: father figure of surgery at St Vincent's Hospital, bush lawyer and thwarted reformer of the medico-legal system.  

PubMed

When the first Golden Age of surgery at St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne (a period covering the first 25 years of the twentieth century) is discussed, the names that spring to mind are usually those of Sir Thomas Dunhill, Sir Hugh Devine, Sir Douglas Shields and Julian Smith. A name which is often overlooked, and by now almost forgotten, is that of David Murray Morton. Murray -Morton's career both as a medical student, general practitioner, anaesthetist and surgeon coincided with a revolution in the practice of medicine. He witnessed the progression from Listerian antisepsis to asepsis in surgical practice, the improvements in anaesthesia, the introduction of antibiotics and, before he died in 1959, the beginnings of organ transplants and open heart surgery. Morton was fond of saying that he grew up with the hospital. From the time of his first appointment as an anaesthetist in l896 to the time of his retirement from St Vincent's as senior surgeon in 1931, Morton, admired by all as a highly competent surgeon and a man of incorruptible probity, can rightly be described as the father figure of surgery during the formative years of St Vincent's Hospital. His innate sense of justice and fair play formed the basis of his distinguished tenure of the Presidency of the Medical Defence Association of Victoria, where his constructive attempts at reform of the medico-legal system were only thwarted by the predictable opposition of the legal profession and politicians. PMID:12190734

Vellar, Ivo D

2002-08-01

65

[Medico-legal opinions in cases for annulment of testament. Part II. Final conclusions of opinions. Quality of medical documentation. Evaluation of witnesses' testimonies].  

PubMed

The percentage of cases, in which devisors were unable to devise properly was high, what was mostly associated with the frequent drawing up of testaments by chronically ill individuals immediately before death. Grounds for pronouncing the devisor lacking in testamentary capacity were observed in 46.6% of cases, while 39.7% of devisors were found to lack free expression of will. Medical records were available in all the cases, including psychiatric records in 20.5% of cases and neurological records in 20.5%. In the majority of instances, the low quality of medical records hindered formulating expert opinions. The fact that in the majority of cases, the testimonies of witnesses were highly divergent indicated that they were either unable to assess the mental state of the devisor or else were themselves interested in the settlement of the case. Frequently, attending physicians from non-psychiatric wards were unable to answer questions on the mental state of the devisor, what resulted from their focusing on the somatic cause of hospitalization and the fact that their contact with the patient was very limited in time. Problems with certification on the basis of medical records were mainly associated with lacking psychiatric or neurological consults performed at the time the testament was drawn up; in some instances, the entire medical records from that period were missing. For this reason, individuals desiring to prepare a last will should be advised to undergo voluntary psychiatric assessment in this period. Medico-legal opinions in testament cases are difficult and time-consuming, but pleading one's case before the court is even more tedious and difficult. PMID:17571499

Marcinkowski, Jerzy T; Klimberg, Aneta

66

Para Agricultores  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... P. ¿Qué pasaría si las granjas se las ven diciles para cumplir con los requerimientos finales? ¿Se puede per- mir empo extra? ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation

67

Conversado con su Medico: Consejos para Lograr una Buena Comunicacion Entre las Personas de la Tercera Edad y su Doctor (Talking With Your Doctor: A Guide for Older People).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

How well you and your doctor talk to each other is one of the most important parts of getting good health care. A good patient-doctor relationship is a partnership. You and your doctor can work as a team, along with nurses, physician assistants, pharmacis...

2004-01-01

68

Medico-legal problems in gynaecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every gynaecologist should study the law applicable to their practice. This involves knowledge of civil law, especially the tort of negligence, and criminal law as well as the related Acts. The application of legal principles has become a part of everyday practice ranging from the signing of consent forms to risk management and incident reporting. There is considerable overlap with

V. P Argent

2003-01-01

69

Panduroga: a medico-historical study.  

PubMed

According to Ayurveda the word 'Pandu' denotes pale or yellowish white colour. Panduroga (anaemia) is a disease in which man becomes pallor due to deficiency of Rakta dhatu (blood) in the body. Rakta dhatu is mentioned among the Saptadhatus of the body. Historical importance of Panduroga and the comparative study regarding its Nidana-Samprapti, Lakshanas, Upadravas and Chikitsa etc. as found in Athavaveda, Mahabharata, Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, Chakradatta and Basava Rajeeyam etc. are being presented in this paper. PMID:12578000

Prasad, P V

70

The medico historical perspective of vitiligo (Switra).  

PubMed

The history of Switra is as old as the human civilization. The earliest medical literature has given the description of Switra in rgav?da and Atharvav?da. Switra is also narrated in Mah?bh?rat and in Vinayap??ika. A Roman physician known as Celsus first introduced the term Vitiligo in the second century A.D. Vitiligo is also known as Leucoderma. The history of psychosocial repercussion was described in Vedic literature and it is also found in our society. A population-based study was presented to understand the social implication of this disease. The detailed description of etiological factors and modalities of treatment is found in all ayurv?dic classics. Bakuci (Psoralia cordifolia) is still continuing as a photosensitizing drug in the treatment of Switra from the time of Caraka. PMID:17333661

Panda, Ashok Kumar

71

Seguridad alimentaria para futuras mamás: Seguridad ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Seguridad alimentaria para futuras mamás: Seguridad alimentaria para toda la vida. Seguridad alimentaria para futuras ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/peopleatrisk

72

Orientação para o Setor Hortifrutícola Guia para Minimização ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Significa a aplicação cumulativa de calor ou produtos químicos em superfícies de contato com alimento limpas, que é suficiente para reduzir as ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation

73

Las bases de datos bibliográficas españolas, un instrumento para el conocimiento y la difusión de la producción científica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bibliographic databases have become increasingly widely used in the Internet age and are currently an essential tool for awareness and dissemination of scientific production. Major databases In the Spanish environment of health sciences are the Spanish Medical Index (Indice Medico Español [IME]), the Spanish Bibliographic Index in Health Sciences (Indice Bibliográfico Español en Ciencias de la salud [IBECS]) and MEDES

Elena Primo-Peña; José-Manuel Estrada-Lorenzo

2009-01-01

74

Produce para-xylene economically  

SciTech Connect

During the last three years, some startling changes have occurred in the para-xylene market. Faced with a steady growth in demand and a shortfall in supply, the market saw spot and contract prices rise from $400/MT to historically high levels of $2,000 and $800/MT, respectively. This increase propelled the installation of a significant amount of new capacity in the form of grassroots units and expansions of existing facilities. In the first half of 1996, destocking downstream in the polyester chain began to soften the demand for para-xylene. This destocking, coupled with more aggressive positions being taken by buyers in anticipation of new capacity coming on-stream, caused para-xylene prices to fall almost as precipitously as they rose. Although the fundamental drivers for para-xylene demand remain strong, para-xylene producers are again in the position of having to compete for market share on the basis of product quality, low cost of production, and economics of scale. This situation is exacerbated by tight feedstock supply and the changing demand for some of the key byproducts of para-xylene production.

D`Auria, J.H.; Stoodt, T.J. [UOP, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

1997-04-01

75

Tomografía computarizada (TC) y exploraciones para cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Hoja informativa que describe el procedimiento y la tecnología de exploraciones con tomografía computarizada así como sus usos para el diagnóstico, para exámenes de detección y para tratamiento del cáncer.

76

DIABETE MELLITO E DEFICIT ERETTILE: AGGIORNAMENTO DIAGNOSTICO-TERAPEUTICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Il deficit erettile colpisce la popolazione diabetica più precocemente rispetto alla popolazione generale ed è un'importante concausa della riduzione della qualità della vita del paziente stesso. La prevalenza di deficit eret- tile nel diabete in Italia è del 35,8%; i fattori di rischio principali, oltre alla durata della patologia diabetica, sono il grado di compenso glicometabolico e la presenza di

M. TAGLIABUE; L. ROLLE; F. RAGNI; C. DI BISCEGLIE

77

Proyecto para prestación de servicios \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esta presentación fue expuesta durante el Tercer Encuentro Técnico de Capacitación en Materia de Estructuración de Proyectos de Asociación Público-Privada, llevado a cabo en Mérida, Yucatán, México, el 20, 21 y 22 de enero de 2010. El Plan de Desarrollo del Estado de México 2005-2011 establece que se debe generar un acceso de calidad a los servicios de salud, para

Miguel Donovan

2010-01-01

78

Seguridad alimentaria para futuras mamás: Seguridad ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... alimentaria para futuras mamás: Seguridad alimentaria para futuras mamás: Alimentos seguros - Comer fuera y llevar comida preparada a casa. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/peopleatrisk

79

Seguridad alimentaria para futuras mamás: Alimentos ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... “Escuché hablar acerca de la Listeria en relación con el embarazo. ¿Qué hace que esta bacteria sea más nociva para mí y para mi bebé que otras ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/peopleatrisk

80

[Medico-psychological rehabilitation practices: the reflexive technologies].  

PubMed

We have developed a socio-psychological model of healing that is focused on the integrated health indicators and coordinated with the idea of holism in medicine. The holistic principle implies a system of medical care giving priority to health as an integral indicator of the completeness of physical, social, and psychological well-being. The essence of the proposed socio-psychological model is the use of the technology of "assembly" of the subjects of healing that implies the relationship between the physician and the patient based on the mutual trust, dialogue, cooperation, and responsibility. The model can be fully extrapolated to the practical situations of medicopsychological rehabilitation. PMID:22693745

Kachurovski?, I A; Filipchenkova, S I

81

Medico-Legal Employability Assessment: Myths, Mistakes and Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The onset of injury and disability can have a significant negative effect on individuals' social, interpersonal and vocational participation. This in turn impacts on individuals' current and future earning capacity. An objective assessment of post-injury work capacity is often sought through legal processes to determine the extent of this…

Pryor, Robert G. L.; Hawkins, Trevor K.

2009-01-01

82

Eugenic Sterilization: Medico-Legal and Sociological Aspects  

PubMed Central

The court-ordered sterilization of a normal 18-year-old black female in North Carolina focused attention on the unfortunate impact of eugenic statutes that allow sterilization as a method of social control. The existence of these laws in many states allows misapplication and abuse of authority which, not infrequently, is directed liberally to blacks and other minority groups. Eugenic sterilization is, at this time, a legally accepted form of “medical treatment.” The justification of such sterilization is the vague concept that the presumed “mentally deficient” individual is probably a potential parent of socially inadequate offspring who would likewise be socially inadequate. Since there never has been factual substantiation of whether the sterilization of these individuals will diminish the incidence of mental retardation, it is necessary to focus attention on the concept of eugenic sterilization and point out its many fallacies.

Robinson, Felipe C.; Robinson, Shirley W.; Williams, Loretta J.

1979-01-01

83

An expert experiment--medico-legal expert testimony.  

PubMed

For the past eight years, Radiology Associates of Albuquerque has provided physician expert testimony to plaintiff and defense attorneys. Initially, the business was confined to radiology consultation only. The division has expanded; it now includes more than 35 specialties and a national client base. This article will include a history of the division's growth and lessons learned as well as a look at the future of expert testimony in light of increasing emphasis on standards of care. Medical marketing in the present as well as in the future will also be addressed. PMID:10436737

Stevenson, J R

1999-01-01

84

Medico-Economic Considerations: Money Does Not Buy Happiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hip arthritis is one of the most disabling diseases in the world. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates half a million\\u000a total hip replacements per annum in 2030. Health care systems around the world differ but all have a common need to spend\\u000a limited resources wisely. There is an intrinsic confl ict between science and economy. The stakeholders include: patients,

Jens Boldt

85

Postoperative Analgesia in Abdominal Surgery: a Medico-economic Study  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Extended Ileal Resection Under Laparotomy; Total Proctocolectomy Under Laparotomy; Colectomy Left/Right/Total Under Laparotomy; Rectosigmoidal Resection Under Laparotomy; Anterior Resection of Rectum Under Laparotomy; Abdomino-perineal Amputation Under Laparotomy

2013-04-16

86

Medico-legal interaction in disability and fatal claims.  

PubMed

This article relates primarily to the causes of disability or death in the context of claims for damages, workers' compensation, motor vehicle insurance benefits, disability insurance, claims under some other types of insurance, military pensions for disabilities and deaths resulting from military service, compensation for the victims of crime, and claims under some other social insurance or social security systems. The focus is on expert evidence in such cases, the demand for "scientific proof", and related problems. The article is particularly relevant to disabilities or deaths that were caused by some event or exposure that occurred decades earlier. PMID:20552945

Ison, Terence G

2010-05-01

87

Fatal alcohol poisoning: medico-legal practices and mortality statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compilation of mortality statistics from death certificate data is based on international and national conventions which in certain situations result in the underlying cause-of-death other than that established and reported by the physician.The present study compares all fatal alcohol poisonings in 1997 as registered on forensic toxicological grounds at the accredited central laboratory and as presented in the national cause-of-death

R. A Lahti; E Vuori

2002-01-01

88

Fatal drug poisonings: medico-legal reports and mortality statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The entire fatal drug poisoning panorama in Finland is considered in terms of three categories: accidental, self-inflicted and undetermined (whether accidental or with intent to harm) deaths. The study material consisted of all 500 deaths in 1997 that medical examiners, after examination(s) at the Forensic Toxicology Division (FTD) of the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, officially certified as

R. A. Lahti; E. Vuori

2003-01-01

89

[Standardization of di-chlor-di-para-xylilene, di-bromine-di-para-xylilene and di-para-xylilene].  

PubMed

Studied were the new components of dielectric coatings: di-para-xylilene, di-bromine-di-para-xylilene, dichlor-di-para-xylilene, which manifested themselves as low-toxicity compounds free from irritating, sensitizing and fibrogenous effects. The acute action thresholds for aerosols of the paraxylilenes were established at 10 mg/m3 (with regard to general and embryotoxicity), at 5 mg/m3 for the maximal inactive concentrations. PMID:1817083

Frolova, A D; Minkina, N A; Vasil'kovski?, V G; Kuznetsova, O A; Dolgopolova, E L; Shaposhnikova, E S; Martinson, T G

1991-01-01

90

?-Cyclodextrin- para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex formation of ?-cyclodextrin with para-aminosalicylic acid in buffer solutions is studied by UV spectroscopy. It is found that the stoichiometric proportion of the components in the ?-cyclodextrin-para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complex is 1:1. The Ketelar equation is used to calculate the stability constants of the inclusion complexes at different temperatures. The thermodynamic parameters of the complex formation process (?G, ?H, ?S) are calculated using the van't Hoff equation. The 1:1 ?-cyclodextrin-para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complex is prepared in solid form and its characteristics are determined by IR spectroscopic and x-ray diffraction techniques.

Roik, N. V.; Belyakova, L. A.; Oranskaya, E. I.

2010-11-01

91

Seguridad alimentaria para futuras mamás: Puntos ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Eventos de otoño ¡Bienvenida al otoño, la época para celebrar la cosecha, Halloween, el Día de Acción de Gracias y sus eventos deportivos ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/peopleatrisk

92

Orientación preliminar para la industria: Preguntas y ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... de: Oficina de Seguridad de los Alimentos, Comunicación y Respuesta ante una Emergencia, HFS-005 Centro para la Seguridad Alimentaria y la ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation

93

10. Apéndice B: Requisitos adicionales para nutrientes ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Afirmaciones que utilizan el término "antioxidante". Para las afirmaciones que caracterizan el nivel de nutrientes antioxidantes de un alimento: ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation

94

Seguridad alimentaria para futuras mamás: Puntos ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... En épocas de calor, coloque los comestibles en el compartimiento para pasajeros con aire acondicionado de su auto en lugar de hacerlo en la ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/peopleatrisk

95

Seguridad alimentaria para futuras mamás: Seguridad ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... nocivas se multipliquen. En agua fría. Cambie el agua cada media hora para mantener el agua fría. Usando el microondas ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/peopleatrisk

96

Seguridad alimentaria para futuras mamás: Recursos  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Seguridad alimentaria para futuras mamás, Aquí encontrará información de contacto y una lista de enlaces a sitios Web sobre seguridad ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/peopleatrisk

97

Una técnica para filtrar patrones de fringing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se presenta una nueva técnica para filtrar los patrones de fringing producidos en los CCDs tipo RCA. El método consiste en construir un mapa con los ángulos de inclinación de las franjas en cada punto de la imagen. Este mapa es ulteriormente utilizado para alinear con el patrón de interferencia una ventana estrecha, sobre la que se aplica un filtro de mediana. Este procedimiento permite eliminar la mayor parte del ruido del patrón de fringing sin destruirlo.

Ostrov, P. G.

98

SSH-Enabled ParaView  

Microsoft Academic Search

ParaView is a very powerful visualization tool used by many in the Department of Defense (DoD) high performance computing (HPC) community. It is both fast and flexible. It performs well on a user's desktop, but it can also scale to take advantage of clusters and large shared memory machines. Recently, ParaView has been adapted to run on the Linux clusters

Joel P. Martin; Rhonda J. Vickery; S. Ziegeler; R. Angelini

2009-01-01

99

Process for para-ethyltoluene dehydrogenation  

SciTech Connect

A process is described of dehydrogenating para-ethyltoluene to selectively form para-methylstyrene comprising contacting to para-ethyltoluene under dehydrogenation reaction conditions with a catalyst composition comprising: (a) from about 30% to 60% by weight of iron oxide, calculated as ferric oxide; (b) from about 13% to 48% by weight of a potassium compound, calculated as potassium oxide; and (c) from about 0% to 5% by weight of a chromium compound, calculated as chromic oxide. The improvement is described comprising dehydrogenating the para-ethyltoluene with a catalyst composition comprising, in addition to the components (a), (b) and (c), a modifying component (d) capable of rendering the para-methylstyrene-containing dehydrogenation reaction effluent especially resistant to the subsequent formation of popcorn polymers when the dehydrogenation of para-ethyltoluene is conducted over the modified catalyst, the modifying component (d) being a bismuth compound present to the extent of from about 1% to 20% by weight of the catalyst composition, calculated as bismuth trioxide.

Chu, C.C.

1986-06-03

100

Desenvolvimento de ímãs para sensor de velocidade para motor de arranque de avião  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Este trabalho teve por objetivo o desenvolvimento de ímãs de ferrita a serem utilizados em sensor de velocidade para motor de arranque de um avião, fabricado pela empresa Aeromot de Canoas - RS. Dois tipos de ímãs foram solicitados pela empresa: na forma de cilindro e na forma de anel. Para a confecção dos ímãs, foi utilizada uma matéria-prima

Moisés de Mattos Dias; Lírio Schaeffer; Arão de Matos Dias; José Lesina Cezar; José Carlos; Krause de Verney

101

Para-hydrogen perspectives in hyperpolarized NMR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first instance of para-hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) in an NMR experiment was serendipitously observed in the 1980s while investigating a hydrogenation reaction (Seldler et al., 1983; Bowers and Weitekamp, 1986, 1987; Eisenschmid et al., 1987) [1–4]. Remarkably a theoretical investigation of the applicability of para-hydrogen as a hyperpolarization agent was being performed in the 1980's thereby quickly providing a theoretical basis for the PHIP-effect (Bowers and Weitekamp, 1986) [2]. The discovery of signal amplification by a non-hydrogenating interaction with para-hydrogen has recently extended the interest to exploit the PHIP effect, as it enables investigation of compounds without structural alteration while retaining the advantages of spectroscopy with hyperpolarized compounds [5]. In this article we will place more emphasis of the future applications of the method while only briefly discussing the efforts that have been made in the understanding of the phenomenon and the development of the method so far.

Glöggler, Stefan; Colell, Johannes; Appelt, Stephan

2013-10-01

102

¿Y PARA QUÉ ME VALE A MÍ LA HISTORIA?  

Microsoft Academic Search

La historia se sitúa como un instrumento idóneo para el desarrollo, no ya sólo de los conocidos como países poco desarrollados, sino también para los denominados desarrollados. Aparece como una herramienta de integración de conocimientos y que arma al ciudadano con destrezas propias y necesarias para su desarrollo personal, pero también para el desarrollo colectivo de la sociedad. Podemos usarla

Antonio Manuel Luna González

2009-01-01

103

The para radiation effects current simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Parametric Analysis of Radiation effects software development is given the general title PARA. This report describes the development of algorithms and source codes for the simulation of radiation effects on CMOS ICs. The project concentrated on the simulation of total dose effects and the ways to establish\\/predict the operational lifetime and radiation tolerance of ICs. The switch level simulator

Bharat Bhuva; Sherra Kerns

1992-01-01

104

Para-hydrogen perspectives in hyperpolarized NMR.  

PubMed

The first instance of para-hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) in an NMR experiment was serendipitously observed in the 1980s while investigating a hydrogenation reaction (Seldler et al., 1983; Bowers and Weitekamp, 1986, 1987; Eisenschmid et al., 1987) [1-4]. Remarkably a theoretical investigation of the applicability of para-hydrogen as a hyperpolarization agent was being performed in the 1980's thereby quickly providing a theoretical basis for the PHIP-effect (Bowers and Weitekamp, 1986) [2]. The discovery of signal amplification by a non-hydrogenating interaction with para-hydrogen has recently extended the interest to exploit the PHIP effect, as it enables investigation of compounds without structural alteration while retaining the advantages of spectroscopy with hyperpolarized compounds [5]. In this article we will place more emphasis of the future applications of the method while only briefly discussing the efforts that have been made in the understanding of the phenomenon and the development of the method so far. PMID:23932399

Glöggler, Stefan; Colell, Johannes; Appelt, Stephan

2013-07-24

105

Planificación para la etapa final de la vida  

Cancer.gov

Información para pacientes, sus familiares y amigos sobre el cuidado del paciente terminal, la planificación para el final de la vida, y la aflicción, el duelo y manejo de la pérdida de un ser querido.

106

¿Qué es VAERS? El Sistema para Reportar Reacciones ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... www.vaers.hhs.gov Sistema Sistema para para Reportar Reportar Reacciones Reacciones Adversas Adversas aa las las Vacunas Vacunas ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/safetyavailability

107

The para radiation effects current simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Parametric Analysis of Radiation effects software development is given the general title PARA. This report describes the development of algorithms and source codes for the simulation of radiation effects on CMOS ICs. The project concentrated on the simulation of total dose effects and the ways to establish/predict the operational lifetime and radiation tolerance of ICs. The switch level simulator incorporates the capability to assign bias dependent post-irradiation drive parameters to transistors within a microcircuit and to calculate propagation delays based on those parameters. This permits test vectors to be assigned based on worst case post-irradiation propagation delays.

Bhuva, Bharat; Kerns, Sherra

1992-01-01

108

Para-Bose oscillator as a deformed Bose oscillator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that a single para-Bose oscillator may be regarded as a deformed Bose oscillator. We construct a nonlinear realization of the single-mode para-Bose algebra in terms of a single boson. This is in contrast to the Green decomposition that expresses a single para-Bose oscillator in terms of p anticommuting bosons. We also construct an operator canonically conjugate to the para-Bose annihilation operator that permits us to carry over familiar constructions to the para-Bosonic case.

Chaturvedi, S.; Srinivasan, V.

1991-12-01

109

On q-DEFORMED Para Oscillators and PARA-q Oscillators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three generalized commutation relations for a single mode of the harmonic oscillator which contains para-bose and q oscillator commutation relations are constructed. These are shown to be inequivalent. The coherent states of the annihilation operator for these three cases are also constructed.

Kumari, M. Krishna; Shanta, P.; Chaturvedi, S.; Srinivasan, V.

110

IMPORTANCIA DE LA RESTRICCIÓN PRESUPUESTRIA INTERTEMPORAL EN UNA ECONOMÍA ABIERTA: CASO COLOMBIANO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este documento analizó la importancia de la restricción presupuestaria intertemporal y la relevancia que cobra en medio de una coyuntura de incertidumbre y volatilidad como herramienta de diagnostico de la sostenibilidad internacional de los países; fue elaborado como una reflexión de investigación sobre los patrones de endeudamiento aplicando al caso de nuestro país. Para el análisis de los conceptos sobre

RAÚL QUEJADA PÉREZ; RONNY SIBAJA MORALES; SANDRA PATRICIA MOLINA PALENCIA

2010-01-01

111

New strategies maximize para-xylene production  

SciTech Connect

Strong consumption growth and the shutdown of some capacity in 1992 have completely eliminated the surplus of para-xylene (p-xylene) capacity, which existed from 1990 to 1993. p-Xylene supplies are becoming tight and market prices have risen dramatically over the last several months, sparking considerable interest in new p-xylene production capacity. However, adding new capacity does not necessarily mean building new grassroots facilities. Additional capacity can be found'' by creative use of existing BTX (benzene, toluene and xylenes) resources. Options include: debottleneck existing units, reload with new catalysts, convert idle units to new services and diversify into new feedstocks. By making the most of existing facilities, producers can capitalize on the current upswing of the p-xylene market cycle. The paper describes this high demand chemical and how it is integrated with BTX complexes, then discusses short-, medium-, and long-term strategies for increased production.

Jeanneret, J.J.; Low, C.D.; Zukauskas, V. (UOP, Des Plaines, IL (United States))

1994-06-01

112

[A large para-renal PEComa].  

PubMed

We report the case of a 45-year-old man with a voluminous para-renal mass. The tumor was composed of epithelioid or spindle-shaped eosinophilic and clear cells with some atypia and an elevated mitotic count. The immunohistochemical study was positive for anti-HMB45 antibodies and anti-actin-antibodies and negative for epithelial markers and PS100 antibodies. The diagnosis of epithelioid AML (PEComa) was established. Two years later, recurrence was observed with a voluminous mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen, with high cellular density and the same immunohistochemical features. This tumor belongs to the PEComa and is not easy to diagnose clinically and morphologically. The immunohistochemical phenotype is characteristic. AML are usually benign but some epithelioid AMLS outcome can be unfavorable with metastatic dissemination. Criteria of malignancy are not clearly defined in the literature. This case shows that the mitotic count and the tumor size are probably important. PMID:15480264

Audard, Virginie; Dorel-Le Théo, Maryline; Trincard, Marie-Dominique; Charitanski, Didier; Selmas, Valérie Barn; Vieillefond, Annick

2004-06-01

113

INCUBACION ANAEROBICA DEL SUELO COMO DIAGNOSTICO DE LA RESPUESTA A NITROGENO DEL MAIZ BAJO SIEMBRA DIRECTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

-1 then the yield increment = 72,5 - 1,38 Nan, if Nan > 48.mg kg -1 the yield increment = 6 %). Nan was related with the time (years) since the last pasture (r 2 = 0.39). These results suggest that Nan probably is associated with light carbon fractions and can be used to explain the response of maize to

PA CALVIÑO; HE ECHEVERRÍA

114

Prontuário Eletrônico Para Pacientes De Hanseníase Via Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - Este artigo apresenta a proposta de um Prontuário Eletrônico Via WEB para pacientes que sofrem de Hanseníase (PEPHANS), tendo como objetivo dar suporte à tomada de decisão pelos gestores da área da saúde envolvidos no controle e tratamento da doença. Com o PEPHANS evitar-se-à duplicidade de dados, permitindo o reaproveitamento do cadastro de pacientes, gerando alertas para auxiliar

Flávia de Queiroz Fadel; Andreia Malucelli; Laudelino Cordeiro Bastos

115

Narcotráfico, violencia y desigualdad: una hipótesis para el caso colombiano  

Microsoft Academic Search

El propósito del ensayo es analizar los factores que explican la violencia en Colombia; para ello, el autor, retoma elementos fundamentalmente en el neoinstitucionalismo, en el narcotráfico y en la desigualdad. González, después de explorara los tres elementos antes enunciados, plantea la hipótesis de que la desigualdad es, a su juicio, el factor que más se aproxima para interpretar la

Jorge Iván González

2001-01-01

116

La negociación, una competencia fundamental para el diálogo social  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo plantea que una adecuada implementación del diálogo social requiere de actores competentes para negociar y construir consensos. Un marco legal adecuado y la buena disposición de los actores son condiciones necesarias pero no suficientes para un diálogo social efectivo. Es indispensable el desarrollo de habilidades y competencias, como la negociación, que lo hagan posible. Con base en diversas

María Clara Jaramillo Jaramillo

2011-01-01

117

Preguntas para el doctor si tiene un cáncer avanzado  

Cancer.gov

Serie de preguntas que los pacientes con cáncer pueden hacerle al médico sobre las opciones de tratamiento si el cáncer es avanzado, las formas de controlar los síntomas y cómo prepararse para la etapa final de la vida.

118

III. Presentación de Proceso para todos los Métodos de ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... No use las palabras “still” (estacionario), “agitating” (agitación), “hydorstatic” (hidrostático), "flame" (llama) en el nombre del esterilizador.Para ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/foodfacilityregistration

119

ParaDiS-FEM dislocation dynamics simulation code primer  

SciTech Connect

The ParaDiS code is developed to study bulk systems with periodic boundary conditions. When we try to perform discrete dislocation dynamics simulations for finite systems such as thin films or cylinders, the ParaDiS code must be extended. First, dislocations need to be contained inside the finite simulation box; Second, dislocations inside the finite box experience image stresses due to the free surfaces. We have developed in-house FEM subroutines to couple with the ParaDiS code to deal with free surface related issues in the dislocation dynamics simulations. This primer explains how the coupled code was developed, the main changes from the ParaDiS code, and the functions of the new FEM subroutines.

Tang, M; Hommes, G; Aubry, S; Arsenlis, A

2011-09-27

120

Medicamentos sin receta: ¿Cual es adecuado para usted?  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... sin receta sellan la mayoría de los productos indicadores de manipulación indebida para ayudar a proteger contra la manipulación criminal de las ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou

121

Revisión Previa a la Concesión de la Licencia para las ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. Revisión Previa a la Concesión de la Licencia para las Vacunas Preventivas DIAPOSITIVA 1 Esta presentación ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/internationalactivities

122

No mundo de hoje é importante estar ALERTA para proteger ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... and Prevention (Centros para Controlo e Prevenção de Doenças dos EUA) US Department of Agriculture (Departamento de Agricultura dos EUA) More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/fooddefense

123

IV. Presentación de Proceso para Sistemas en Envasado ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Asigne un de SID único para cada formulario de presentación de proceso, en el formato YY-MM-DD/SSS basado en la fecha en que presenta el ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/foodfacilityregistration

124

Hypervalent iodine mediated para-selective fluorination of anilides.  

PubMed

A metal-free method for the direct regioselective fluorination of anilides has been developed. In the presence of bis(tert-butylcarbonyloxy)iodobenzene (PhI(OPiv)(2)) and hydrogen fluoride-pyridine, the para-fluorination products of anilides were obtained in moderate to good yields. Because of its operational safety and the use of readily available reagents, this new procedure provides facile access to a variety of para-fluorinated anilides. PMID:23228030

Tian, Tian; Zhong, Wen-He; Meng, Shuai; Meng, Xiang-Bao; Li, Zhong-Jun

2012-12-18

125

ParaWeb: towards world-wide supercomputing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the design of a system, called ParaWeb, for utilizing Internet or intra-net computing resources in a seamless fashion. The goal is to allow users to execute serial programs on faster compute servers or parallel programs on a variety of possibly heterogeneous hosts. ParaWeb provides extensions to the Java programming environment (through a parallel class library)

Tim Brecht; Harjinder S. Sandhu; Meijuan Shan; Jimmy Talbot

1996-01-01

126

Ortho- and para-hydrogen in neutron thermalization  

SciTech Connect

The large difference in neutron scattering cross-section at low neutron energies between ortho- and para-hydrogen was recognized early on. In view of this difference (more than an order of magnitude), one might legitimately ask whether the ortho/para ratio has a significant effect on the neutron thermalization properties of a cold hydrogen moderator. Several experiments performed in the 60`s and early 70`s with a variety of source and (liquid hydrogen) moderator configurations attempted to investigate this. The results tend to show that the ortho/para ratio does indeed have an effect on the energy spectrum of the neutron beam produced. Unfortunately, the results are not always consistent with each other and much unknown territory remains to be explored. The problem has been approached from a computational standpoint, but these isolated efforts are far from having examined the ortho/para-hydrogen problem in neutron moderation in all its complexity. Because of space limitations, the authors cannot cover, even briefly, all the aspects of the ortho/para question here. This paper will summarize experiments meant to investigate the effect of the ortho/para ratio on the neutron energy spectrum produced by liquid hydrogen moderators.

Daemen, L.L.; Brun, T.O.

1998-09-01

127

40 CFR 721.9520 - Methylated-para-rosaniline salt of a trisulfonated triarylmethane dye (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Methylated-para-rosaniline salt of a trisulfonated triarylmethane dye...9520 Methylated-para-rosaniline salt of a trisulfonated triarylmethane dye...generically as methylated-para-rosaniline salt of a trisulfonated triarylmethane...

2013-07-01

128

A study of medico social profile of under five children suffering from diarrhoeal diseases.  

PubMed

In India, 76 of 290 children (26.2%) under five admitted to the pediatric wards of Command Hospital Pune during April-October 1986 suffered from various diarrheal diseases. Boys were more likely to be afflicted with a diarrheal disease than girls (63.16% vs. 36.84%). Health workers made home visits after hospital discharge. Diarrheal illness was more frequent among the lower socioeconomic classes than the upper classes (65.81% for social class III and 22.37% for social class IV vs. 3.94-7.88 for social classes I-II; p 0.001). The incidence of diarrhea was inversely proportional to maternal literacy status (42.1% for illiteracy, 32.89% for primary school, 10.53% for middle school, 9.21% for secondary school, and 5.27% for higher education). A family size of no more than 4 was associated with a higher incidence of diarrhea than larger family sizes (72.36% vs. 25% for 5-6; 2.64% for 6; p 0.05). Yet, diarrhea was more common in overcrowded households than in non-crowded households (73.68% vs. 26.32%; p 0.05). The most common signs and symptoms in children with diarrheal diseases were dehydration (78.95%), fever (75%), and vomiting (73.68%). Children younger than 24 months who were exclusively breast fed made up a smaller proportion of diarrhea cases than their counterparts who were not exclusively breast fed (20.75% vs. 79.25%). Most diarrheal disease cases (67-92%) suffered from various grades of malnutrition. Laboratory personnel isolated pathogenic organisms from only 36.84% of cases. The most common pathogens were Ascaris lumbricoides (10.54% of all cases), Giardia lamblia (7.89%), and Campylobacter jejuni (5.26%). 50% of mothers did not know anything about oral rehydration therapy (ORT). Of the mothers who did know about it, only 26.32% were using ORT. These findings highlight the great need for health education on ORT for mothers. PMID:12288790

Mahendraker, A G; Dutta, P K; Urmil, A C; Moorthy, T S

1991-01-01

129

Exorcising excision: medico-legal issues arising from male and female genital surgery in Australia.  

PubMed

Genital surgery is one of the most controversial and contested practices, yet it is frequently described and referred to with little or no attention to cultural and social context. This article examines the practice, performed on both men and women, and the extent to which it clashes with issues of consent and capacity, as well as multicultural concepts of toleration for minority group practices. It then questions why female genital surgery, unlike male genital surgery, is legally prohibited in Australia. It argues that such legal gender bias stems from a liberal conception of "tolerance" and the limits of consent in Australia, placing female genital surgery in an "unacceptable" category and male genital surgery in an "acceptable" category. PMID:12116672

Mason, C

2001-08-01

130

[Oocyte and embryo donation and surrogacy. Religious, medico-social, ethical, financial and legal problems].  

PubMed

The authors quote and discuss the postulates of the Orthodox, Jewish, Catholic and Islamic religions towards ART as well as worldwide legislations and standards and the attitude of female students of medicine in Varna. Indications of oocyte and embryo donation and surrogacy are proposed but all kinds or surrogacy should be permitted. The ART legislation and standards in Bulgaria should be thoroughly revised. PMID:20734677

Kozovski, I; Kovachev, M; Angelova, K; Alexandrov, K; Kozovski, G; Markova, V

2010-01-01

131

Abortion laws and medical developments: a medico-legal anomaly in Queensland.  

PubMed

In October 2010 the District Court sitting in Cairns, Queensland, found Tegan Leach not guilty of attempting to procure her own abortion and Sergie Brennan not guilty of supplying Leach with the drugs Mifepristone and Misoprostol to procure an abortion. Brennan obtained the drugs from his sister in the Ukraine through the regular postal system. R v Brennan and Leach was the first case in Queensland's history where a woman was charged with procuring her own abortion. The drugs are accepted by the medical profession worldwide for medical abortions. A prosecution witness gave evidence that Mifepristone is not harmful or injurious to the health of a woman and it is listed as an essential medicine by the World Health Organisation and approved for use by the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration. The jury found the defendants not guilty because they were not satisfied beyond reasonable doubt that the combination of the drugs Mifepristone and Misoprostol was a "noxious" substance under the Criminal Code (Old). This article concludes that there is no regulatory miracle which will stop the traffic of Mifepristone and Misoprostol into Australia and therefore an intelligent regulatory response is required which would make it unnecessary for women to seek Mifepristone and Misoprostol from overseas networks and the internet. Among other things, this would include the repeal of confusing, inappropriate and ineffective abortion laws. PMID:21528743

Petersen, Kerry

2011-03-01

132

[A method for preparation of DNA suitable for medico-genetic studies from heparinized blood samples].  

PubMed

Heparin traditionally used as an anticoagulant for blood preparations is one of the most powerful inhibitors of the polymerase chain reaction. The molecular genetic analysis for the purpose of forensic medical expertise encounters difficulties when DNA preparations obtained from heparinized samples have to be used. In our practical work, we were faced with the necessity to use heparin-treated blood samples. It turned out impossible to eliminated heparin from DNA isolated from these samples by the known methods. In order to obviate this difficulty, we have developed a special method for obtaining DNA from heparinized blood preparations suitable for the purpose of forensic medical expertise. The new technique includes the stages of preliminary extraction and purification of the blood cell fraction. PMID:21404528

Ivanov, P L; Leonov, S N

133

Medico-Legal Aspects of Asbestos-Induced Pleural Plaques: The Issue of Worker's Compensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As pleural plaques are the most frequent sequela found in individuals formerly exposed to asbestos, and as asbestos is a known carcinogen, there is debate as to whether they are an occupationally related condition which should be com pensated. In order to get an idea on how the issue of compensation is dealt with in a series of European countries,

M. Rüegger; R. Schütz

1997-01-01

134

From episodes of care to diagnosis codes: automatic text categorization for medico-economic encoding.  

PubMed

We report on the design and evaluation of an original system to help assignment ICD (International Classification of Disease) codes to clinical narratives. The task is defined as a multi-class multi-document classification task. We combine a set of machine learning and data-poor methods to generate a single automatic text categorizer, which returns a ranked list of ICD codes. The combined ranking system currently obtains a precision of 75% at high ranks and a recall of about 63% for the top twenty returned codes for a theoretical upper bound of about 79% (inter-coder agreement). The performance of the data-poor classifier is weak, whereas the use of tempo-rally-typed contents such as anamnesis and prescription free text sections results in a statistically significant improvement. PMID:18999206

Ruch, Patrick; Gobeilla, Julien; Tbahritia, Imad; Geissbühlera, Antoine

2008-11-06

135

Mycetoma caused by Madurella mycetomatis: a completely neglected medico-social dilemma.  

PubMed

Mycetoma is a debilitating disease with a highly particular geographical distribution. The mycetoma belt circles the entire world just above the equator and defines the region with the highest prevalence and incidence. Although the disease is seen in Central America, India and all across Africa, Sudan seems to be the homeland of mycetoma. Mycetoma is an infectious disease caused either by bacteria (actinomycetoma) or true fungi (eumycetoma). In Sudan most cases are caused by the fungal species Madurella mycetomatis. The precise natural habitat of this fungus is still an enigma, but its DNA can easily be found in soil and plant samples in endemic areas. Although the entire human population in these areas are in regular contact with the fungus, most individuals are unaffected. Thus mycetoma is an ideal clinical and experimental model system for the study of host-pathogen interactions. Also, given its relative importance locally, improvements in clinical and laboratory diagnostics and knowledge of the epidemiology of the disease are badly needed. This chapter describes the current state of affairs in the field of eumycetoma caused by M. mycetomatis. The value of laboratory research on this disease and future perspective for control and prevention of the infection are discussed. PMID:23654067

van Belkum, Alex; Fahal, Ahmed; van de Sande, Wendy W J

2013-01-01

136

Medico-Economic Analysis of Diacerein With or Without Standard Therapy in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This 9-month pragmatic study compared 2 therapeutic regimens in the management of osteoarthritis of the hip and knee. Patients received either diacerein 100 mg\\/day plus standard osteoarthritic therapy for 6 months, followed by a 3-month monitoring period without diacerein, or standard therapy alone for the entire 9-month period. A total of 207 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee and hip

Francis Fagnani; Gilles Bouvenot; Jean-Pierre Valat; Thomas Bardin; Laurent Berdah; Antoine Lafuma; Isabelle Bono; Evelyne Eschwege

1998-01-01

137

Project MEDICO; Model Experiment in Drug Indexing by Computer. First Progress Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes Phase 1 of a research project with the over-all objective of exploring the applicability of automatic methods in the indexing of drug information appearing in English natural language text. Two major phases of the research have been completed: (1) development of the automatic indexing method and its implementation on the test…

Artandi, Susan; Baxendale, Stanley

138

Pressure sores: epidemiology, medico-legal implications and forensic argumentation concerning causality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present investigation was to identify the frequency and grading of pressure sores in a large series of unselected\\u000a consecutive deceased subjects before cremation and to discuss aspects of the forensic argumentation concerning causality.\\u000a A total of 10222 corpses were examined prospectively over a 1-year-period (1998) for the occurrence, localization and grading\\u000a of pressure sores. Epidemiological aspects

M. Tsokos; A. Heinemann; K. Püschel

2000-01-01

139

[The issue of medico-legal assessment of noise induced hearing loss: comparison of methods].  

PubMed

Audiogram classification is crucial for hearing protection of workers occupationally exposed to noise. The methods that have been proposed are based on two principles: the morphological evaluation of the audiometric curve (eg. Merluzzi-Pira-Bosio--MPB) or the average hearing loss on different frequencies (eg. Albera-Beatrice--AB). The purpose of this study was to classify audiograms compatible with chronic acoustic trauma performed at the Occupational Medicine Outpatient Clinic of CTO Hospital in Turin from 2004 to 2011 with the methods outlined in Guidelines published by SIMLII. A substantial agreement among the methods was observed. While MPB is the most appropriate method for secondary prevention, the AB would seem more appropriate for the verification of a permanent weakening that has to be reported to the competent legal authorities. PMID:23393823

Bosio, D; Coggiola, M; Baracco, A; Andreis, P; Perrelli, F

140

Private space: The contrasting nature of clinical and medico-legal access to the self  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinicians face demands to assess or detain people who are perceived to be a danger to society when little or nothing that is clinically possible can ameliorate the risk of future violence. This creates significant conflict in the clinician's role between the needs of the individual and the needs of society. Such assessments require clinical observation and testimony regarding the

Ceri Evans

2005-01-01

141

IGF-1 abuse in sport: clinical and medico-legal aspects.  

PubMed

The frequent revisions of prohibited substances list established by WADA are aimed at keeping up with those drugs that, being increasingly used in medicine and in sports, play on one side a therapeutic role and, on the other, a doping role. Among the various hormone substances widely used in sports, the authors draw particular attention on IGF-1, a growth factor that is rapidly widespreading among athletes. Moreover, IGF-1 diffusion is not exclusively correlated with the doping phenomenon, being various the pathological conditions that may require the therapeutic use of this substance. As a consequence, during pathologies or medical treatments of various nature, the athletes should be informed of the IGF-1 administration because, if they are not duly apprised, they risk undergoing unjust sanctions from the competent authority. In fact, the athlete is given the possibility of communicating, before using, he is taking a medication of the WADA list for therapeutic reasons by applying for a TUE (Therapeutic Use Exemption). If this application is accepted on certified clinical grounds, the athlete will be allowed to use that substance even during sports competitions. However, the IGF-1 detection in the athlete's body shows, at the present state-of-art, two different problems: the first one has a technical character and concerns the differential diagnosis between the quantity of the physiologically produced substance and the quantity of the exogenously administrated substance; the second problem has an economic character and regards to the high cost of the analysis and, consecutively, the necessity of finding a well-equipped laboratory centre. PMID:21178942

Molinelli, A; Bonsignore, A; Cicconi, M; Cioè, A; Traverso, A

2010-12-01

142

Paranormal experience in a medico-swimming rescue: a case study.  

PubMed

This study looks at the case of a 20-year-old fisherman, who was speared in the head, the spear entering at his jaw and protruding from the top of his scull, while he was swimming unaccompanied; he was rescued, admitted to the intensive care unit for an operation, remained in a coma for a few days and then had a full recovery. About 10 days before the rescue, he had visited a monk who, intuited and functioning as channel of the divine spirit, had told him that he 'should not be afraid of anything', rubbing the top of his scull and his jaw exactly at the points through which the 40-inch spear passed. After the incident, the monk prescience again the exact day on which he would recover from the coma. It is concluded that the survival of the fisherman can be attributed to a paranormal event. The monk's prescience permit the assumption that a divine spirit was pervasive throughout the universe and present in this life-threatening situation, endeavouring to assist the lifeguard, the neurosurgeons and the young fisherman. PMID:21424176

Avramidis, Stathis

2013-06-01

143

Radiological informed consent in cardiovascular imaging: towards the medico-legal perfect storm?  

PubMed Central

Use of radiation for medical examinations and tests is the largest manmade source of radiation exposure. No one can doubt the immense clinical and scientific benefits of imaging to the modern practice of medicine. Every radiological and nuclear medicine examination confers a definite (albeit low) long-term risk of cancer, but patients undergoing such examinations often receive no or inaccurate information about radiological dose exposure and corresponding risk directly related to the radiological dose received. Too detailed information on radiological dose and risk may result in undue anxiety, but information "economical with the truth" may violate basic patients' rights well embedded in ethics (Oviedo convention 1997) and law (97/43 Euratom Directive 1997). Informed consent is a procedure needed to establish a respectful and ethical relation between doctors and patients. Nevertheless, in an "ideal" consent process, the principle of patient autonomy in current radiological practice might be reinforced by making it mandatory to obtain explicit and transparent informed consent form for radiological examination with high exposure (? 500 chest x-rays). The form may spell-out the type of examination, the exposure in effective dose (mSv), derived from reference values in guidelines or – better – from actual values from their department. The dose equivalent might be also expressed in number of chest radiographs and the risk of cancer as number of extra cases in the exposed population, derived from most recent and authorative guidelines (e.g., BEIR VII Committee, release 2006). Common sense, deontological code, patients'rights, medical imaging guidelines, Euratom law, all coherently and concordantly encourage and recommend a justified, optimized, responsible and informed use of testing with ionizing radiation. Although the idea of informed consent for radiation dose does not seem to be on the immediate radar screen at least in the US, the current practice clashes against these guidelines and laws.

Bedetti, Gigliola; Lore, Cosimo

2007-01-01

144

Medico-legal autopsies as a source of information to improve patient safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clear data on the epidemiology of medical malpractice are missing, at least for Germany. Especially data on the frequency of malpractice claims in penal and civil law are not available. However, from epidemiological and healthcare research some data on the frequency of adverse events (AE), preventable adverse events (PAE) and negligent adverse events (NAE) are available. According to a review

Burkhard Madea

2009-01-01

145

Medico-Legal Aspects of Using Tissue Plasminogen Activator in Acute Ischemic Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Intravenous alteplase or tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has been the standard of care with proven efficacy for acute ischemic\\u000a stroke for over a decade. Despite this, only a small fraction of potentially eligible stroke patients receive this medication.\\u000a There seems to be a fear among practitioners of legal repercussions as a result of an increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage

Nhu T. Bruce; William P. Neil; Justin A. Zivin

2011-01-01

146

[Practice of medicine in the medico-social context in the year 2000].  

PubMed

This study discusses the conviction that the qualitative change which is going to be taking place over the next few decades with regard to the practice of medicine as far as the four governing aspects which bear an impact on medical practice are concerned: pure applied science; health-care policies; the economy and ethics. Medical science's know-how is going to be applied based on scientific evidence, the empirical scientific approach that has characterized medical practice over the past century being replaced. The health care policies from the organized society (Public Health Care System) are going to be changing its centralized models, handing over management authorities to the health-care professionals proper working at the public medical centers oriented toward health-care objectives. In turn, the health-care administration is going to be demanding a greater deal of strictness with regard to the honoring of health-care benefits based on scientific proof. The health-care economy of the Public Health-Care System is going to be requiring that the prescribing of medical procedures and the implementation of new technologies be dealt with based on results-based proven effectiveness related to health and, therefore, efficiency in management terms is going to be replaced by cost-effectiveness. Finally, the trend in individual medical ethics is going to continue evolving due to the many different individual and group ethics, which, in defense of the very nature (physis) of the medical practice is going to be requiring the development of informed consent, conscientious objection and a consensus being reached regarding new codes of professional conduct of a universal scope. PMID:10224877

Cervera Soto, S; Viñes Rueda, J J

147

[Medico-historical monuments in Hungary from the times of Matthias Hunyadi].  

PubMed

Author attempted to collect all available medical data of the period of the reign of Mathias Corvinus (1443-1490) who ruled Hungary for 32 years. First part of this article outlines the general medical history of this era. In the 15th century the flourishing Kingdom of Hungary was inhabited by 3-3.2 million people. Under the rule of King Matthias epidemies were frequent visitors, plague e.g. was registered 11 times, while sudor anglicus once (in 1485). The ca. 120 hospitals of the era were founded mostly in towns and market-towns. At the same time 12 leprosories worked throughout the country. Strikingly many dates and details could be collected concerning medical doctors and surgeons working in Hungary. A list of 69 medical doctors and surgeons (60 physicians and 9 surgeons) of this era known by their names is attached to the article. The second and third part of the treatise is a medical history of King Matthias of his relatives and of his court. We can read here a report on the illnesses and death of Janus Pannonius and of Joannes Vitéz who both played an important role in Hungarian culture. Author's further inquiry is focused on diseases and death of the king. Cause of his death was--according to contemporary sources and our present-day knowledge--a cerebral apoplexy. On 6th April 1490 Matthias died suddenly but not unexpected, since his health had already been deteriorated critically during the previous two years, and he had long been crippled by gout. The king's condition had been worsened probably as an effect of factors caused by visceral form of gout. These factors were cardiovascular and renal damages and hypertension, which resulted the fatal cerebral apoplexy causing the king's sudden death. PMID:20481108

Varjassy, Péter

2009-01-01

148

Medico-technical basis of multichannel apparatus for estimation of anaesthetic aids adequacy and quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of the considered requirements one can conclude: 1. The system of reliable monitoring of anesthesia adequacy can include three (and more) information channels: EEG, rheography and rhythmocardiogram; 2. The input of the processed information has to be carried out in recommendation mode with automatic control by infusators and by the medical specialist consent

V. Maneev; A. N. Rybakov

2001-01-01

149

[Specific features of medico-diagnostic strategy for cholesterosis of the gallbladder].  

PubMed

The work shows the incidence, criteria of the diagnosis and indications for surgical treatment of patients with cholesterosis of the gallbladder. An analysis of the results of examination and treatment of 3426 patients with diseases of the gallbladder has shown that the ultrasonic method of diagnostics allows detection of the cholesterosis form and determination of treatment strategy. PMID:21674929

Mispakhov, G B; Borisov, A E; Akimov, V P; Nazarenko, A A

2011-01-01

150

[Legal and medico-legal assessment of medical errors in obstetrics].  

PubMed

The authors review the doctrine of criminal law and the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in search of a starting point for the legal protection of human life and health. In cases of medical errors in obstetrics concerning a fetus, an act of a perpetrator can be classified as manslaughter or exposure to direct danger of loss of life or great bodily injury depending on whether the fetus is recognized as "a human being". The authors criticize the doctrinal criteria of the beginning of legal protection: spatial, physiological, obstetric, and developmental, pointing to the possibilities of decriminalization of medical errors of omission. A solution to this situation is the presented evolution of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. It moves towards establishing the beginning of legal and criminal protection of life and health at the "moment of emergence of objective grounds to necessitate delivery". PMID:22715678

Jurek, Tomasz; Swiatek, Barbara; Rorat, Marta; Drozd, Rados?aw

151

Medico - botanical study of Yercaud hills in the eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

The study reports medicinal plant survey was conceded in Yercaud hills ranges of Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. The study primarily based on field surveys conducted throughout the hills, where dwellers provided information on plant species used as medicine, plant parts used to prepare the remedies and ailments to which the remedies were prescribed. The study resulted about 48- plant species belonging to 45- genera and 29- families of medicinal plants related to folk medicine used by the local people. Among them the most common plants viz., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Cissus quadrangularis L., Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br., Justisia adhatoda L., Ocimum sanctum L., Phyllanthes amarus Schum. & Thonn., Piper nigrum L., Solanum nigrum L., Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, Tridax procumbens L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe which are used in their daily life to cure various ailments.

Parthipan, M; Aravindhan, V; Rajendran, A

2011-01-01

152

`ADHD patient' or `illicit drug user'? Managing medico-moral membership categories in drug dependence services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amphetamine-dependent patients seeking treatment are diagnosed with ADHD at a significantly higher rate than members of the general population. To study this relationship as it is constructed in everyday life, we draw on membership categorization analysis to examine how individuals account for their candidate memberships in two social categories — `illicit amphetamine user' and `ADHD patient'. We analyse interviews with

Sarah J. Schubert; Susan Hansen; Kyle R. Dyer; Mark Rapley

2009-01-01

153

Hox and paraHox genes in bivalve molluscs.  

PubMed

In this study, we sought the presence and analysed the sequences of the Hox and ParaHox genes in bivalve molluscs. The clustered Hox genes play a central role in anterior-posterior axial patterning in bilaterian metazoa, whereas the ParaHox gene cluster is a paralogue (evolutionary sister) of the Hox cluster. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approaches, we isolated nine different sequences in five species belonging to three of the main bivalve subclasses: Ensis ensis and Tapes philippinarum (Heterodonta), Pecten maximus and Mytilus galloprovincialis (Pteriomorphia), and Yoldia eightsi (Protobranchia). Comparison with the Hox and ParaHox genes of other bilaterians, particularly lophotrochozoans, allowed us to attribute six of these sequences to the Hox gene cluster (one to paralog group [PG] 3 class, and five to the central class), two to the ParaHox cluster and one to the Gbx gene family. The results of our investigation seem to indicate that homeotic Hox and ParaHox gene clusters are homogeneous for both presence and characteristics in molluscs. PMID:14604796

Barucca, Marco; Olmo, Ettore; Canapa, Adriana

2003-10-23

154

[Erythema multiforme-like reaction to para-phenylenediamine].  

PubMed

A case of a 15 year-old girl who developed an erythema multiforme-like reaction to para-phenylenediamine (PPD) after Henna tattoos is described. The patient was treated successfully with oral prednisolone and highly potent topical corticosteroids. The patient developed a long-lasting post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Potential hyperreactive response was prevented by applying the PPD patch for only 30 minutes, but still there was a significantly positive reaction. This case highlights the need to ban the use of para-phenylenediamine and its derivates in dyes. PMID:21199625

Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer; Liljefred, Frederik; Mikkelsen, Dorthe Bisgaard

2011-01-01

155

Plasma\\/blood pharmacokinetics and metabolism after dermal exposure to para-aminophenol or para-phenylenediamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pharmacokinetics and metabolism following dermal application of [14C]-para-aminophenol (PAP) or [14C]-para-phenylenediamine (PPD) were investigated. Groups of rats were treated under occlusion for 24h with 12.5mg\\/kg [14C]-PAP, or for 4h with 50mg\\/kg [14C]-PPD on 10% or 20% of their body surface area, respectively. A female minipig was also treated dermally (24h, occlusion) with 4.7mg\\/kg [14C]-PAP on 10% of its body

William E. Dressler; Terence Appelqvist

2006-01-01

156

Computational study of substituent effect in para substituted platinabenzene complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic structure and properties of the platinabenzene and para substituted platinabenzenes have been investigated using the hybrid density functional mpw1pw91 theory. The substituent effect in structure parameters, frontier orbital energies, aromaticity indexes, and hyperpolarizability has been studied. The calculations show that, in all molecules HOMO ? LUMO transition makes the major contribution in the most intense electronic transition.

Ghiasi, Reza; Pasdar, Hoda

2013-06-01

157

Analyzing and Visualizing Cosmological Simulations with ParaView  

SciTech Connect

The advent of large cosmological sky surveys - ushering in the era of precision cosmology - has been accompanied by ever larger cosmological simulations. The analysis of these simulations, which currently encompass tens of billions of particles and up to a trillion particles in the near future, is often as daunting as carrying out the simulations in the first place. Therefore, the development of very efficient analysis tools combining qualitative and quantitative capabilities is a matter of some urgency. In this paper, we introduce new analysis features implemented within ParaView, a fully parallel, open-source visualization toolkit, to analyze large N-body simulations. A major aspect of ParaView is that it can live and operate on the same machines and utilize the same parallel power as the simulation codes themselves. In addition, data movement is in a serious bottleneck now and will become even more of an issue in the future; an interactive visualization and analysis tool that can handle data in situ is fast becoming essential. The new features in ParaView include particle readers and a very efficient halo finder that identifies friends-of-friends halos and determines common halo properties, including spherical overdensity properties. In combination with many other functionalities already existing within ParaView, such as histogram routines or interfaces to programming languages like Python, this enhanced version enables fast, interactive, and convenient analyses of large cosmological simulations. In addition, development paths are available for future extensions.

Woodring, Jonathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Heitmann, Katrin [ORNL; Ahrens, James P [ORNL; Fasel, Patricia [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hsu, Chung-Hsing [ORNL; Habib, Salman [ORNL; Pope, Adrian [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

2011-01-01

158

On the microscopic interaction of para-chlorofluorobenzene with water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isolated (1:1) complex of para-chlorofluorobenzene with water has been investigated by IR/R2PI depletion spectroscopy and ab initio calculations on the geometry and IR spectra. Whereas three different isomers (?F, ?Cl, ?) were located by theory, in the molecular beam experiments only the two ? isomers have been observed.

Riehn, C.; Reimann, B.; Buchhold, K.; Vaupel, S.; Barth, H.-D.; Brutschy, B.; Tarakashwar, P.; Kim, Kwang S.

2001-12-01

159

Instrumentos económicos para la gestión de residuos sólidos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esta presentación discute industria del reciclaje, incluye el caso de botellas PET en Río de Janeiro y el caso de sistema reciclaje de la Municipalidad de La Reina, Santiago; mercado de servicios, incluye el caso de apertura del mercado para usuarios no residenciales en Río de Janeiro y el caso de participación privada en Santiago; gestión integral, incluye el caso

Jorge Ducci

2003-01-01

160

ParaView and visualization on the TeraGrid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Overview on starting and running ParaView on the TeraGrid. With provided data, the tutorial instructs how to load the data, change the display mode, and edit the color map. It also shows how to add isosurfaces and cutting planes.

Teragrid

161

Zur Behandlung der Keratitis dendritica mit para-Fluorphenylalanin  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 53 in der Mehrzahl ambulant behandelten Patienten mit einer Keratitis dendritica wurde der therapeutische Effekt von para-Fluorphenylalanin (pFPA) und von 5-Jod-2-deoxyuridin (IDU) in Form einer 0,1 % igen Salbe vergleichend untersucht. Beide Präparate erwiesen sich als gleichermaßen gut wirksam.

K. Graupner; F. Müller

1968-01-01

162

Analyzing and Visualizing Cosmological Simulations with ParaView  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent of large cosmological sky surveys—ushering in the era of precision cosmology—has been accompanied by ever larger cosmological simulations. The analysis of these simulations, which currently encompass tens of billions of particles and up to a trillion particles in the near future, is often as daunting as carrying out the simulations in the first place. Therefore, the development of very efficient analysis tools combining qualitative and quantitative capabilities is a matter of some urgency. In this paper, we introduce new analysis features implemented within ParaView, a fully parallel, open-source visualization toolkit, to analyze large N-body simulations. A major aspect of ParaView is that it can live and operate on the same machines and utilize the same parallel power as the simulation codes themselves. In addition, data movement is in a serious bottleneck now and will become even more of an issue in the future; an interactive visualization and analysis tool that can handle data in situ is fast becoming essential. The new features in ParaView include particle readers and a very efficient halo finder that identifies friends-of-friends halos and determines common halo properties, including spherical overdensity properties. In combination with many other functionalities already existing within ParaView, such as histogram routines or interfaces to programming languages like Python, this enhanced version enables fast, interactive, and convenient analyses of large cosmological simulations. In addition, development paths are available for future extensions.

Woodring, Jonathan; Heitmann, Katrin; Ahrens, James; Fasel, Patricia; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Habib, Salman; Pope, Adrian

2011-07-01

163

Implantable direct current stimulation in para-axial cervical arthrodesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This retrospective, case-controlled pilot study was designed to examine the efficacy and safety of an implantable direct current\\u000a bone growth stimulator (IDCBGS) as an adjunct to cervical arthrodesis in patients at high risk for nonunion after undergoing\\u000a cervical fusion in region from the occiput to C3. Twenty patients underwent para-axial cervical arthrodesis (involving posterior\\u000a spine fusion and instrumentation using standard

William C. Welch; Shari L. Willis; Peter C. Gerszten

2004-01-01

164

Decreased production of para -hydroxypenicillin V in penicillin V fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Penicillin V (phenoxymethyl penicillin) is produced by industrial strains ofPenicillium chrysogenum in the presence of phenoxyacetic acid (POAc), a side-chain precursor for the penicillin V molecule. The wild-type strain ofP. chrysogenum produces an undesirable penicillin byproduct,para-hydroxypenicillin V (p-OH penicillin V), in addition to penicillin V, viapara-hydroxylation of POAc and subsequent incorporation of thep-OH phenoxyacetic acid into the penicillin molecule.

L. T. Chang; E. L. McGrory; R. P. Elander; D. J. Hook

1991-01-01

165

Colorimetric Analysis of the Acrosin Inhibitor Para-Aminobenzamidine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for the colorimetric assay of para-aminobenzamidine (PAB) in blood. Essentially, the PAB in trichloroacetic acid extracts is coupled to N-(l-napthyl)ethylenediamine in a typical diazotization reaction. The colored complex formed exhibits a peak absorption at 540 nm. This complex in distilled water is very stable and loses less than 5% of its absorptivity over a 24 hour

L. L. Rolf Jr; D. F. Hudgins

1979-01-01

166

Process for para selective alkylation of aromatic hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for the selective alkylation of monoalkylbenzene into dialkylbenzenes wherein the para isomer of the disubstituted product is present in a concentration greater than in an thermodynamic equilibrium, comprising: passing the monoalkylbenzene and an alkylating agent capable of methylation, ethylation or propylation under conversion conditions through a reaction zone containing an unmodified crystalline silica catalyst of the silicalite type having the monoclinic symmetry.

Debras, G.L.G.; DeClippeleir, G.E.M.J.; Cahen, R.M.

1986-07-08

167

Paraphrasing invariance coefficient: measuring para-query invariance of search engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paraphrasing is the restatement (or reuse) of text which preserves its meaning in another form. A para-query is a para-phrase of a search query. Humans easily recognize para-queries, but search engines are still far away from it. We claim that in order for a search engine to be called semantic it is necessary that it recognizes para-queries by returning the

Tomasz Imielinski; Jinyun Yan; Yihan Fang; Kurt Eldridge; Huiwen Yu; Peter Kelly

2010-01-01

168

Herramientas de simulación de código abierto para l a mejora del aprendizaje en Ingeniería Eléctrica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo describe una iniciativa para el uso d e herramientas de simulación como un procedimiento para mejorar el aprendizaje en los es tudios de ingeniería, concretamente en la asignatura de máquinas eléctricas. Estos métodos pe rmiten que los estudiantes mejoren la comprensión de los fenómenos físicos subyacentes y sus habilidades para resolver problemas con unos

A. Domínguez; M. Yusta

169

Ortho-to-para ratio of interstellar heavy water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Despite the low elemental deuterium abundance in the Galaxy, enhanced molecular D/H ratios have been found in the environments of low-mass star-forming regions, and in particular the Class 0 protostar IRAS 16293-2422. Aims: The CHESS (Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions) key program aims to study the molecular complexity of the interstellar medium. The high sensitivity and spectral resolution of the Herschel/HIFI instrument provide a unique opportunity to observe the fundamental 11,1-00,0 transition of the ortho-D2O molecule, which is inaccessible from the ground, and determine the ortho-to-para D2O ratio. Methods: We detected the fundamental transition of the ortho-D2O molecule at 607.35 GHz towards IRAS 16293-2422. The line is seen in absorption with a line opacity of 0.62 ± 0.11 (1?). From the previous ground-based observations of the fundamental 11,0-10,1 transition of para-D2O seen in absorption at 316.80 GHz, we estimate a line opacity of 0.26 ± 0.05 (1?). Results: We show that the observed absorption is caused by the cold gas in the envelope of the protostar. Using these new observations, we estimate for the first time the ortho-to-para D2O ratio to be lower than 2.6 at a 3? level of uncertainty, which should be compared with the thermal equilibrium value of 2:1. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

Vastel, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Caux, E.; Coutens, A.; Cernicharo, J.; Bottinelli, S.; Demyk, K.; Faure, A.; Wiesenfeld, L.; Scribano, Y.; Bacmann, A.; Hily-Blant, P.; Maret, S.; Walters, A.; Bergin, E. A.; Blake, G. A.; Castets, A.; Crimier, N.; Dominik, C.; Encrenaz, P.; Gérin, M.; Hennebelle, P.; Kahane, C.; Klotz, A.; Melnick, G.; Pagani, L.; Parise, B.; Schilke, P.; Wakelam, V.; Baudry, A.; Bell, T.; Benedettini, M.; Boogert, A.; Cabrit, S.; Caselli, P.; Codella, C.; Comito, C.; Falgarone, E.; Fuente, A.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Helmich, F.; Henning, T.; Herbst, E.; Jacq, T.; Kama, M.; Langer, W.; Lefloch, B.; Lis, D.; Lord, S.; Lorenzani, A.; Neufeld, D.; Nisini, B.; Pacheco, S.; Pearson, J.; Phillips, T.; Salez, M.; Saraceno, P.; Schuster, K.; Tielens, X.; van der Tak, F.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Viti, S.; Wyrowski, F.; Yorke, H.; Cais, P.; Krieg, J. M.; Olberg, M.; Ravera, L.

2010-10-01

170

Tireoidite auto-imune bociogenica. Aspectos do diagnostico clinico e laboratorial. (Autoimmune thyroiditis goitrogenic. Aspects of clinical and laboratorial diagnosis).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To asses the accuracy achieved by the A.C.A.T. and other clinical and laboratorial criterion in the diagnoses of T.A.I.B. we investigated twenty patients with goiter and antimicrossomal antibodies titres of 1/1.600 or more. Analysing the parameters useful...

H. F. Z. Costa

1986-01-01

171

ParaText : scalable text analysis and visualization.  

SciTech Connect

Automated analysis of unstructured text documents (e.g., web pages, newswire articles, research publications, business reports) is a key capability for solving important problems in areas including decision making, risk assessment, social network analysis, intelligence analysis, scholarly research and others. However, as data sizes continue to grow in these areas, scalable processing, modeling, and semantic analysis of text collections becomes essential. In this paper, we present the ParaText text analysis engine, a distributed memory software framework for processing, modeling, and analyzing collections of unstructured text documents. Results on several document collections using hundreds of processors are presented to illustrate the exibility, extensibility, and scalability of the the entire process of text modeling from raw data ingestion to application analysis.

Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

2010-07-01

172

Persistent Molecular Superfluid Response in Doped Para-Hydrogen Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct observation of superfluid response in para-hydrogen (p-H2) remains a challenge because of the need for a probe that would not induce localization and a resultant reduction in superfluid fraction. Earlier work [H. Li, R. J. Le Roy, P.-N. Roy, and A. R. W. McKellar, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-9007 105, 133401 (2010)10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.133401] has shown that carbon dioxide can probe the effective inertia of p-H2 although larger clusters show a lower superfluid response due to localization. It is shown here that the lighter carbon monoxide probe molecule allows one to measure the effective inertia of p-H2 clusters while maintaining a maximum superfluid response with respect to dopant rotation. Microwave spectroscopy and a theoretical analysis based on Feynman path-integral simulations are used to support this conclusion.

Raston, P. L.; Jäger, W.; Li, H.; Le Roy, R. J.; Roy, P.-N.

2012-06-01

173

Tautomeric equilibria of para-bromophenyl substituted arylhydrazones of ?-diketones  

Microsoft Academic Search

New arylhydrazone derivatives of ?-diketones, 2-(4-bromophenylhydrazono)-5,5-dimethylcyclohexane-1,3-dione (1), 5-(4-bromophenylhydrazono)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (2) and (E)-2-(4-bromophenylhydrazono)-1-phenylbutane-1,3-dione (3), were prepared by coupling of ?-diketone with the respective para-bromophenyldiazonium chloride, and characterized by IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectra. The IR and NMR spectral data disclose an effective intramolecular hydrogen bonding in all the cases. The single crystal X-ray analysis of 3-(4-bromophenyl-hydrazono)pentane-2,4-dione (4) evidences the intramolecular resonance-assisted

Kamran T. Mahmudov; Abel M. Maharramov; Rafiga A. Aliyeva; Famil M. Chyragov; Rizvan K. Askerov; Parvin Q. Hasanov; Maximilian N. Kopylovich; Armando J. L. Pombeiro

174

Pneumatic protection applied to an airbag for para-gliders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a theory of pneumatic protection based on the laws of thermodynamics, elasticity and fluid mechanics. A general pneumatic protection system is made up of several communicating compartments, the differences in pressure of the compartments generating a transfer of mass and energy between them. The transfer offers interesting possibilities to improve the performance of the system. An example of this type of protection in aerial sport is the airbag for para-gliders, it is used in this paper to illustrate the theory. As the pressure in the airbag depends uniquely on its volume, the geometric model in the theory can be simplified. Experiments carried out with crash-test dummies equipped with sensors have confirmed the theoretical predictions.

Raievski, V.; Valladas, G.

1998-02-01

175

Para-Sexiphenyl Layers Grown On Light Sensitive Polymer Substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution the deposition of Para-sexiphenyl (PSP) layers on poly (diphenyl bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dicarboxylate) (PPNB) by Hot Wall Epitaxy (HWE) is reported. It is demonstrated that pre-treating the substrate by UV-illumination induces a clear change in the morphology of the grown PSP films due to the polarity modification of the substrate surface. PPNB surface polarity increases when illuminated by UV via photo-Fries rearrangement. By detailed atomic force microscopy analysis the influence on the growth kinetics by the substrate temperature, deposition time and particularly by the UVtreatment of the substrate was investigated. A high crystalline order of the films is underlined by the observation of growth spirals and terraced islands, providing mono-layer step heights of standing PSP-molecules.

Hernandez-Sosa, G.; Simbrunner, C.; Höfler, T.; Moser, A.; Werzer, O.; Kunert, B.; Trimmel, G.; Kern, W.; Resel, R.; Sitter, H.

176

Cosmoeducação: uma proposta para o ensino de astronomia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entende-se por cosmoeducação o desenvolvimento vivencial da unidade homem-cosmo. Este conceito é norteado pela psicologia transpessoal, que estuda o ser humano em sua totalidade, onde suas relações ecológicas e cósmicas são de grande importância. Constata-se uma necessidade latente no ser humano moderno em resgatar uma relação holística com o Universo. Neste trabalho exploramos meios de cultivar a consciência de que o ser humano constitui parte integrante do cosmo e se relaciona com este com o objetivo de promover em si uma percepção ambiental mais ampla. Nossa hipótese de trabalho inicial foi que o ensino de conteúdos básicos em astronomia realizado através de uma abordagem holística, que incorpore práticas vivenciais correlacionadas àqueles conteúdos, pode despertar no indivíduo sua identidade cósmica. O método que utilizamos é o fenomenológico e o universo desta pesquisa é um grupo de estudantes da disciplina de Astronomia (Curso de Licenciatura em Geografia/UFRN), onde realizamos observação participante, entrevistas, depoimentos e as práticas vivenciais mencionadas. Neste caso estamos desenvolvendo e adaptando exercícios de algumas técnicas terapêuticas de psicologia transpessoal, que um de nós (LALM) tem aplicado no contexto clínico, para trabalhar aspectos cognitivos envolvidos naquele processo de conscientização cósmica. Resultados parciais claramente referendam a hipótese inicial. Um resultado a destacar é fruto de uma dinâmica de representação corporal interiorizada do eclipse lunar, envolvendo um pequeno grupo daqueles estudantes, na qual conteúdos míticos afloraram de maneira espontânea e contundente para todos, sugerindo ressonância, ou pelo menos isomorfismo, entre o macro e o microcosmo. Este e outros resultados são discutidos em detalhe neste trabalho. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP).

Medeiros, L. A. L.; Jafelice, L. C.

2003-08-01

177

Estimación de las funciones de costo marginal de abatimiento de material particulado para fuentes fijas en el Valle de Aburrá  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo tiene como objetivo principal estimar las funciones de costo marginal de abatimiento de material particulado para fuentes fijas en el Valle de Aburrá. Esta información es necesaria si se desea establecer in Sistema de Permisos de Emisión Tranasables para el área Metropolitana, como política ambiental para el control de contaminación atmosférica por material particulado. Para la estimulación de

Milena Eveyde Mejía Giraldo; Iván David Oviedo Restrepo

2006-01-01

178

Under the skin: Biotransformation of para-aminophenol and para-phenylenediamine in reconstructed human epidermis and human hepatocytes.  

PubMed

We investigated the biotransformation of the oxidative arylamine (AA) hair dye ingredients [14C]-para-aminophenol (PAP) and [14C]-para-phenylenediamine (PPD) in reconstructed human epidermis and human hepatocytes. Human epidermis quantitatively transformed PAP to its N-acetylated derivative (APAP), whereas hepatocytes transformed PAP to sulfate or glucuronic acid conjugates of APAP or PAP as well as free APAP. Epidermis and hepatocytes converted PPD to N-mono- (MAPPD) and N,N'-di-acetylated (DAPPD) derivatives. At higher concentrations of PPD (250-1000 microM), epidermis or hepatocytes produced more of the MAPPD, whereas concentrations below 250 microM and lower favoured formation of the DAPPD metabolite. When compared with epidermis, human hepatocytes had a three-fold or eight-fold greater capacity for generation of MAPPD or DAPPD, respectively. No evidence of transformation of PAP or PPD to N-hydroxylated derivatives was found in epidermis or hepatocytes. Our results suggest that (i) after dermal absorption of PAP or PPD, humans are systemically exposed to acetylated derivatives; (ii) current in vitro skin absorption studies may be inadapated for determination of human systemic exposure to AAs due to reduced or absent metabolic capacity of non-viable skin; (iii) due to qualitative differences between dermal and hepatic metabolism, oral toxicity studies may be unsuited for the hazard assessment of dermal exposure to AAs; and (iv) use of induced rodent liver S9 metabolic activation systems for in vitro genotoxicity studies may produce misleading results on the hazard of human dermal exposure to AAs. In conclusion, our data support the growing evidence that AAs are transformed in human skin and suggest that current practices of safety assessment of AAs should take these findings into account. PMID:15890478

Nohynek, Gerhard J; Duche, Daniel; Garrigues, Alexia; Meunier, Pierre-Alain; Toutain, Herve; Leclaire, Jacques

2005-09-15

179

ParaTimer: a progress indicator for MapReduce DAGs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-oriented progress estimation for parallel queries is a challenging problem that has received only limited attention. In this paper, we present ParaTimer, a new type of time-remaining indicator for parallel queries. Several parallel data processing systems exist. ParaTimer targets environments where declarative queries are translated into ensembles of MapReduce jobs. ParaTimer builds on previous techniques and makes two key contributions.

Kristi Morton; Magdalena Balazinska; Dan Grossman

2010-01-01

180

Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and\\/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified

Frances H. Arnold; Jeffrey C. Moore

1999-01-01

181

Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and\\/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified

Frances H. Arnold; Jeffrey C. Moore

1998-01-01

182

Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is disclosed for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases. These enzymes exhibit improved stability and\\/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which

F. H. Arnold; J. C. Moore

1998-01-01

183

Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is disclosed for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and\\/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes

F. H. Arnold; J. C. Moore

1999-01-01

184

Use of UV ParaLens Adapter for Detection of Acid-Fast Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auramine-stained mycobacterial smears from 136 clinical specimens were interpreted by using the UV ParaLens adapter (Beckton Dickinson), and results were compared with smear interpretations using a traditionalfluorescentmicroscopeandculture.ThesensitivityandspecificityoftheParaLenswere84and93%, respectively. Smears yielding discrepant results were overstained by the Kinyoun method. Overall, the sensitivity of auramine-stained smears interpreted with the UV ParaLens was comparable to that of Kinyoun-stained smears. The recent increase in

KIMBERLEY V. PATTERSON; CLIFFORD L. MCDONALD; BRENDA F. MILLER; ANDKIMBERLE C. CHAPIN

185

Glycine conjugation of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA): A quantitative test of liver function  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate glycine conjugation of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) to the hippurated metabolites, para-aminohippuric acid (PAHA), and para-acetamidohippuric acid (PAAHA) as a quantitative liver function test in patients with liver disease.Serum concentrations of PABA and metabolites were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography in 24 controls and 50 patients with hepatobiliary disease.Hippurate formation was significantly decreased in all patient groups with

Katryn N. Furuya; Peter R. Durie; Eve A. Roberts; Steven J. Soldin; Zul Verjee; Linda Yung-Jato; Esther Giesbrecht; Lynda Ellis

1995-01-01

186

Ortho–Para Mixing Hyperfine Interaction in the H2O+ Ion and Nuclear Spin Equilibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ortho to para conversion of water ion, H2O+, due to the interaction between the magnetic moments of the unpaired electron and protons has been theoretically studied to calculate the spontaneous emission lifetime between the ortho- and para-levels. The electron spin-nuclear spin interaction term, Tab(Sa-Ib + Sb-Ia) mixes ortho (I = 1) and para (I = 0) levels to cause the -forbidden- ortho to para |-I| = 1 transition. The mixing term with Tab = 72.0 MHz is 4 orders of magnitude higher for H2O+ than for its neutral counterpart H2O where the magnetic field interacting with proton spins is by molecular rotation rather than the free electron. The resultant 108 increase of ortho to para conversion rate possibly makes the effect of conversion in H2O+ measurable in laboratories and possibly explains the anomalous ortho to para ratio recently reported by Herschel heterodyne instrument for the far-infrared (HIFI) observation. Results of our calculations show that the ortho - para mixings involving near-degenerate ortho and para levels are high (-10-3), but they tend to occur at high energy levels, -300 K. Because of the rapid spontaneous emission, such high levels are not populated in diffuse clouds unless the radiative temperature of the environment is very high. The low-lying 101 (para) and 111 (ortho) levels of H2O+ are mixed by -10-4 making the spontaneous emission lifetime for the para 101 - ortho 000 transition 520 years and 5200 years depending on the F value of the hyperfine structure. Thus the ortho - para conversion due to the unpaired electron is not likely to seriously affect thermalization of interstellar H2O+ unless either the radiative temperature is very high or number density of the cloud is very low.

Tanaka, Keiichi; Harada, Kensuke; Oka, Takeshi

2013-10-01

187

Ortho-Para Mixing Hyperfine Interaction in the H2O(+) Ion and Nuclear Spin Equilibration.  

PubMed

The ortho to para conversion of water ion, H2O(+), due to the interaction between the magnetic moments of the unpaired electron and protons has been theoretically studied to calculate the spontaneous emission lifetime between the ortho- and para-levels. The electron spin-nuclear spin interaction term, Tab(Sa?Ib + Sb?Ia) mixes ortho (I = 1) and para (I = 0) levels to cause the "forbidden" ortho to para |?I| = 1 transition. The mixing term with Tab = 72.0 MHz is 4 orders of magnitude higher for H2O(+) than for its neutral counterpart H2O where the magnetic field interacting with proton spins is by molecular rotation rather than the free electron. The resultant 10(8) increase of ortho to para conversion rate possibly makes the effect of conversion in H2O(+) measurable in laboratories and possibly explains the anomalous ortho to para ratio recently reported by Herschel heterodyne instrument for the far-infrared (HIFI) observation. Results of our calculations show that the ortho ? para mixings involving near-degenerate ortho and para levels are high (?10(-3)), but they tend to occur at high energy levels, ?300 K. Because of the rapid spontaneous emission, such high levels are not populated in diffuse clouds unless the radiative temperature of the environment is very high. The low-lying 101 (para) and 111 (ortho) levels of H2O(+) are mixed by ?10(-4) making the spontaneous emission lifetime for the para 101 ? ortho 000 transition 520 years and 5200 years depending on the F value of the hyperfine structure. Thus the ortho ? para conversion due to the unpaired electron is not likely to seriously affect thermalization of interstellar H2O(+) unless either the radiative temperature is very high or number density of the cloud is very low. PMID:23530629

Tanaka, Keiichi; Harada, Kensuke; Oka, Takeshi

2013-04-25

188

LA RAZA COMO DETERMINANTE DEL ACCESO A UN EMPLEO DE CALIDAD: UN ESTUDIO PARA CALI  

Microsoft Academic Search

La discriminación laboral por raza ha sido un tema ampliamente analizado en la economía del trabajo a partir de la estimación de ecuaciones de ingreso para determinar diferenciales en el salario, pero la influencia de este factor en el acceso a un empleo de calidad no se ha explorado lo suficiente. Realizar este análisis cobra vital importancia para una ciudad

CHRISTIAN DAVID BUSTAMANTE; SANTIAGO ARROYO

2008-01-01

189

Escolha de locais para instalação de torres de detecção de incêndio com auxílio do SIG  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um teste metodológico para avaliar as potencialidad es de um sistema de informações geográficas e suas rotinas no planejamento de distribuição de torres de incêndio e na determinação do número ótimo de torres para visualização de uma área de estudo. A área estudada foi de 441,81 ha, em Belo Oriente-MG, compreendendo povoamentos

Gilciano Saraiva Nogueira; Guido Assunção Ribeiro; Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares Ribeiro; Evandro Pereira Silva

2002-01-01

190

Modeling and control system design of an industrial crystallizer train for para-xylene recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic process model of an industrial crystallizer train for para-xylene production, which consists of five scraped surface crystallizers, two hydrocyclone separators, and two centrifugal separators, is developed for control system design, and the model parameters are estimated from real plant data. Based on the identified model, steady state optimal operation policy, which considers maximization of para-xylene recovery and load

Hiroya Seki; Souichi Amano; Genichi Emoto

2010-01-01

191

Un índice de carencias en la niñez. Una aproximación por Dpartamentos para Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN En este trabajo se construye un indicador sintético, denominado Índice de Carencias para la Niñez Colombiana (ICNC). El ICNC resume el acceso a un conjunto de bienes y servicios en áreas clave para el bienestar y cumplimiento de los derechos del niño. En particular, las carencias que mide el ICNC tienen el objeto de dar a conocer si los

Luis Fernando Aguado Quintero; Ana María Osorio Mejía; Carlos Alberto García González

2009-01-01

192

La Liga de Alumnos Amigos: Desarrollo de las habilidades sociales del alumnado para prestar apoyo socioemocional  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: Integrado en el proyecto subvencionado por la Unión Europea Training and Mobility for Researchers para el estudio y la prevención de los malos tratos entre iguales y por el Proyecto Sócrates Comenius I, se desa- rrolla el Programa de Educación para la Convivencia en Contextos Educativos (EC- CE) destinado a combatir y prevenir el maltrato entre iguales. Una de

Juan Luís Benítez Muñoz; Ana María Tomás de Almeida; Fernando Justicia Justicia

2007-01-01

193

Experiences Using the ParaScope Editor: an Interactive Parallel Programming Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ParaScope Editor is an interactive parallel pro- gramming tool that assists knowledgeable users in de- veloping scientific Fortran programs. It displays the re- sults of sophisticated program analyses, provides a set of powerful interactive transformations, and supports program editing. This paper summarizes experiences of scientific programmers and tool designers using the ParaScope Editor. We evaluate existing features and describe

Mary W. Hall; Timothy J. Harvey; Ken Kennedy; Nathaniel McIntosh; Kathryn S. McKinley; Jeffrey D. Oldham; Michael H. Paleczny; Gerald Roth

1993-01-01

194

Experiences using the ParaScope Editor: an interactive parallel programming tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ParaScope Editor is an interactive parallel programming tool that assists knowledgeable users in developing scientific Fortran programs. It displays the results of sophisticated program analyses, provides a set of powerful interactive transformations, and supports program editing. This paper summarizes experiences of scientific programmers and tool designers using the ParaScope Editor. We evaluate existing features and describe enhancements in three

Mary W. Hallt; Timothy J. Harvey; Ken Kennedy; Nathaniel McIntosh; Kathryn S. McKinley; Jeffrey D. Oldham; Michael H. Paleczny; Gerald Roth

1993-01-01

195

Brachytherapy versus prostatectomy in localized prostate cancer: Results of a French multicenter prospective medico-economic study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To prospectively compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL), patient-reported treatment-related symptoms, and costs of iodine-125 permanent implant interstitial brachytherapy (IB) with those of radical prostatectomy (RP) during the first 2 years after these treatments for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 435 men with localized low-risk prostate cancer, from 11 French hospitals, treated with IB (308) or RP (127), were offered to complete the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer core Quality of Life Questionnaire QLQ-C30 version 3 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the prostate cancer specific EORTC QLQ-PR25 module before and at the end of treatment, 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after treatment. Repeated measures analysis of variance and analysis of covariance were conducted on HRQOL changes. Comparative cost analysis covered initial treatment, hospital follow-up, outpatient and production loss costs. Results: Just after treatment, the decrease of global HRQOL was less pronounced in the IB than in the RP group, with a 13.5 points difference (p < 0.0001). A difference slightly in favor of RP was observed 6 months after treatment (-7.5 points, p = 0.0164) and was maintained at 24 months (-8.2 points, p = 0.0379). Impotence and urinary incontinence were more pronounced after RP, whereas urinary frequency, urgency, and urination pain were more frequent after IB. Mean societal costs did not differ between IB ( Euro 8,019 at T24) and RP ( Euro 8,715 at T24, p = 0.0843) regardless of the period. Conclusions: This study suggests a similar cost profile in France for IB and RP but with different HRQOL and side effect profiles. Those findings may be used to tailor localized prostate cancer treatments to suit individual patients' needs.

Buron, Catherine [Department of Medical Information, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Le Vu, Beatrice [Department of Medical Information, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Cosset, Jean-Marc [Department of Oncology/Radiotherapy, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Pommier, Pascal [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Peiffert, Didier [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Alexis Vautrin, Nancy (France); Delannes, Martine [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Flam, Thierry [Department of Urology, Hopital Cochin, Paris (France); Guerif, Stephane [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Poitiers (France); Salem, Naji [Department of Radiotherapy, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille (France); Chauveinc, Laurent [Department of Radiotherapy, Clinique Hartmann, Neuilly sur Seine (France); Livartowski, Alain [Department of Medical Information, Institut Curie, Paris (France)]. E-mail: alain.livartowski@curie.net

2007-03-01

196

[Medico-genetic study of myopathies in a population of Pamir and Karategin valley of the Tadzhik SSR].  

PubMed

The clinic-genealogical and population-genetical studies were undertaken to reveal the myopathia patients. The frequency of myopathies in a population of Tajiks, their clinical polymorphism and the course of the pathologic process, depending on factors of environment were studied. In the population of Pamir people, who were exposed to external conditions, 25 patients with the neural amyotrophy, 8 patients with shoulder, shoulder-blade and face form of progressive muscle distrophy, 4 patients with Erba's PMD and 3 with the pseudohypertrophic Dushen form were revealed. High frequency of the neural amyotrophy was connected with the marriage election of the population, its isolation and accumulation of heterozygote carriers. Earlier onset of progressive muscle distrophy was connected with sharp change in climate and great physical burdens which led to the disarrangement of the adaptation system. It was established that 17 patients with the shoulder-blade and face form of the PMD, 5 patients with the sporadic form of the neural amyotrophy, 3 patients with the Dushen's PMD, 2 patients with the Erba's PMD and 1 patient with the spinal amyotrophy inhabited Karategin valley having the continental climate. The high level of migration of these populations resulted in dissemination of the gene in the valley regions. The quantity of abortions and still-borns in families suffering from myopathy is fewer than in Pamir. PMID:2959589

Radzhabaliev, Sh

1987-08-01

197

L'affaticamento psico-fisico nelle lavoratrici ospedaliere e l'intervento del medico del lavoro  

Microsoft Academic Search

RIASSUNTO. L'affaticamento è un tema di grande attualità, che sfugge ad una classificazione univoca, poiché coinvolge l'intero organismo sia con le sue componenti fisiologiche (sistema nervoso autonomo, parametri biochimici…) sia con quelle affettive, cognitive, comportamentali. Gli autori propongono di considerare la fatica come un' emozione. L'emozione è un oggetto della ricerca psicologica che riunisce in sé tutti questi differenti aspetti.

G. Guerra; G. Cangiano; S. Calicchia; B. Papaleo

198

La comunicazione tra medico e paziente con scompenso cardiaco cronico può aiutare ad ottenere gli obiettivi terapeutici. Come renderla efficace?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adherence; Assistance; Communication skills; Doctor-patient relationship; Heart failure. In the management of chronic heart failure there is increasing evidence that effective communi- cation with the patient is an important tool in health care since it permits the achievement of thera- peutic goals and the patient's satisfaction in terms of the quality of health assistance received. In fact, the variations in

Marinella Sommaruga; Ornella Bettinardi; Cristina Opasich

199

Test de Evaluacion de Conocimientos Medicos-CIIPME (Test of Evaluation of Medical Knowledge-CIIPME). Publication No. 42.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research is to build a test for the evaluation of the knowledge needed by medical students before entering clinical courses in medical school. The criterion for this was provided by teachers in both the pre-clinical and clinical subjects. The Pilot instrument consisted of 335 items that covered 8 sections. Each one of these…

Alfici, C.; And Others

200

Management Guide to Asbestos: Medico-Legal, Regulatory, and Hazard Abatement Considerations. (Final Report, July 1985 - July 1986.)  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was done to develop an authoritative and comprehensive guide to asbestos which would provide management with the knowledge necessary to identify and control asbestos hazards within institutions under their control. Key topics covered by the gui...

K. A. Pollard

1986-01-01

201

[A brief statistical survey on medico-legal activities during the period of two decades four years].  

PubMed

Records maintained indicate that Department of Legal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine has handled 1,275 cases in total including 1,157 judicial autopsies and 118 cases other than those during the period of 24 years and 3 months (Jan 1963-Mar 1987). (1) Judicial autopsy cases Infanticide: 86 cases (7.4%, 40 male, 44 female and 2 sex unidentified cases), and a total number of autopsies carried out on other than infanticide were 1,071 cases (92.6%, 743 male and 328 female cases). The 1,071 cases were further brokendown into 496 homicidal, 278 traffic accidental, 169 except-traffic accidental and casualties, 74 natural death, 44 suicidal, 9 accidental poisoning death groups, and 1 unidentified case. The cases and means of homicidal cases were classified by cutlery and pointed weapons: 243 cases, strangulation and throttling: 104 cases, blunt or similar ones: 96 cases, fire arms (pistol or hunting gun): 35 cases, poisoning: 8 cases, murder by fire: 4 cases, and 6 other cases. (2) Investigations with exception of judicial autopsy cases. Determination by 46 substance (blood-stains, murderous weapons and others): 38 cases by parentage, 21 cases by documents (clinical anamnesis, clinical diary and testimony records), and other 13 cases. (3) Some remarks to be taken account in performance of investigations for adequate determination. PMID:2629471

Hara, M; Inoue, T; Tsuda, R; Ito, Y

1989-03-01

202

On Being Insane in Medico-Legal Places: The Importance of Taking a Complete History in Forensic Mental Health Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosenhan's experiment (1973) showed that it is not difficult to simulate symptoms of psychiatric illness. A Parliamentary Committee in New South Wales and research from overseas have shown that, in the medicolegal context, such practices continue to exist. To illustrate the argument, there will be a discussion of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. It is argued that such practices not only

Peter C. Gaughwin

2005-01-01

203

[Medico-legal opinion in establishing "exposure to direct danger of death or grave detriment to health"].  

PubMed

This paper deals with the problem of competence of the forensic expert opinions on the exposure to "direct danger of death or grave detriment to health". According to the analysis of judicial verdicts and the comments of lawyers "direct danger" depends closely on the probability, time and number of occurrences between the behavior of the perpetrator and the threatening act. The competence of the forensic expert does not allow for the legal qualification of the act but for the assessment of from the medicolegal point of view, defining the threat and possible outcomes in a descriptive fashion. The assessment of "direct danger" should be the result of close cooperation between the judicial representative and forensic expert. PMID:15984124

Jurek, Tomasz; Maksymowicz, Krzysztof

204

Test de Evaluacion de Conocimientos Medicos-CIIPME (Test of Evaluation of Medical Knowledge-CIIPME). Publication No. 42.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this research is to build a test for the evaluation of the knowledge needed by medical students before entering clinical courses in medical school. The criterion for this was provided by teachers in both the pre-clinical and clinical subjects. The Pilot instrument consisted of 335 items that covered 8 sections. Each one of these…

Alfici, C.; And Others

205

An image of sudden death: utility of routine post-mortem computed tomography scanning in medico-legal autopsy practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-mortem computed tomography (CT) is an established technique at Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine (VIFM) used to assist pathologists in determining cause and manner of death. It also plays an important role in identification of deceased individuals as exemplified by the 2009 “Black Saturday” Victorian bushfires in which the remains of 164 individuals were subjected to disaster victim identification procedures.

Chris O’Donnell

2010-01-01

206

[Diagnostic usefulness of the beta-hydroxybutyrate/acetone ratio in medico-legal diagnostics of sudden deaths].  

PubMed

Our previous studies demonstrated the usefulness of screening determinations of acetone as an initial diagnostic criterion in deaths due to hypothermia, alcoholic ketoacidosis, diabetes mellitus, starvation and some poisonings. In alcoholemia, particularly in cases of prolonged ethanol consumption, the above-mentioned conditions may not result in acetonemia, despite marked concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate acid (beta-HBA). Therefore, for the purpose of the present study, the method of beta-HBA determination was modified using GC-MS-EI and applied to analyze 47 autopsy blood samples of individuals who died suddenly due to unknown causes. In 15 cases, the concentration of beta-HBA was higher than 1000 micromol/l; in six subjects from this group, the acetone concentration was lower than 250 micromol/l. In some cases, thus, the use of beta-HBA as an additional diagnostic criterion allows for explaining the pathomechanism of premortal metabolic disturbances. PMID:17907621

Buszewicz, Grzegorz; Teresi?ski, Grzegorz; Ba?ka, Krzysztof; Madro, Roman

207

[Medico-legal studies on the deaths from coal-mine accidents. 2. Exogenous findings (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Thirty-four deceased who were killed from twenty cases of coal-mine accidents during fourteen years from 1965 to 1978 were autopsied in our laboratory and the following conclusions have been obtained, summarizing the exogenous findings on the bodies. At the explosion of methane gas and coal dust chemical energy stored in coal or methane is converted to mechanical energy and thermal energy which act upon the human bodies. Mechanical energy produces diverse injuries in the human bodies, among which only the coal-particle impression demonstrates directionality. Thermal energy produces burns when it acts directly upon the human bodies and among diverse substances produced by heat from the explosion coal-tar like substance adheres to the skin, soot adheres to the inside of the air passage, carbon monoxide produces carbon-monoxide hemoglobin after entering the blood through the lung. At gas spurt mechanical energy stored in methane which is adsorbed on coal under high pressure is set free to produce injuries on the human bodies, but thermal energy does not develop. The action of diverse sorts of energy upon the body differs extraordinarily according to the distance from an epicenter or the irregularities of pit, producing various exogenous findings on the bodies. Accordingly, general rules cannot be established to assume the sort and mode of an accident and it should be considered on a case-by-case basis. PMID:527935

Suzutani, T; Ishibashi, H; Takatori, T

1979-09-01

208

COD, para-chlorophenol and toxicity removal from para-chlorophenol containing synthetic wastewater in an activated sludge unit.  

PubMed

Chlorinated phenolic compounds present in some chemical industry wastewaters cause severe toxic effects on the organisms and often are resistant to biological degradation. Synthetic wastewater containing different concentrations of para-chlorophenol (4-chlorophenol, 4-CP) was biologically treated in an activated sludge unit for COD, 4-CP and toxicity removal. Effects of feed 4-CP concentration on COD, 4-CP, toxicity removals and on sludge volume index were investigated at a constant sludge age of 20 days and hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 25 h. Resazurin method based on dehydrogenase activity was used for determination of the toxicity of the feed and effluent wastewater. COD and 4-CP removals were not affected by the presence of 4-CP in the wastewater up to feed 4-CP concentration of 925 mg l(-1) because of almost complete degradation of 4-CP yielding lower than 50 mg l(-1) 4-CP in the aeration tank. Percent COD, 4-CP and toxicity removals decreased and the effluent COD, 4-CP and toxicity levels increased with further increases in the feed 4-CP concentrations above 925 mg l(-1) because of inhibitory concentrations of 4-CP in the reactor. Biomass concentration in the aeration tank decreased and the sludge volume index (SVI) increased with feed 4-CP concentrations above 925 mg l(-1) resulting in lower COD and 4-CP removal rates. The rates of COD and 4-CP removals indicated substrate (4-CP) inhibition for the feed 4-CP concentrations above 925 mg l(-1) corresponding to the reactor 4-CP of above 200 mg l(-1). The system should be operated at the feed 4-CP concentrations of less than 900 mg l(-1) (4-CP(R) < 200 mg l(-1)) in order to obtain high rates and extents of COD, 4-CP and toxicity removals at a sludge age of 20 days and HRT of 25 h. PMID:16257114

Kargi, Fikret; Konya, Isil

2005-10-27

209

Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media  

DOEpatents

A method for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase.

Arnold, Frances H. (Pasadena, CA); Moore, Jeffrey C. (Pasadena, CA)

1998-01-01

210

Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media  

DOEpatents

A method for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase.

Arnold, Frances H. (Pasadena, CA); Moore, Jeffrey C. (Pasadena, CA)

1999-01-01

211

Modelos Teoricos de Linhas de Recombinacao EM Radio Frequencias Para Regioes H II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foram feitos modelos de linhas de recombinção provenientes de regiões HII nas frequências de rádio para distintos números quãnticos. Estes modelos consideram regrões H II esfericamente simétricas com variações radiais na densidade e temperatura eletrônica, efeitos de colisoes inelásticas dos eletrons (alargarnento por pressão), e afastarnento do equiliíbrio termodinâmico local. 0 bojetivo é construir o perfil da linha para cada ponto da nuvern e obter o valor médio resultante da sua convoluçã com o feixe da antena de tarnanho comparável corn o tarnanho angular da nuvern para posterIor cornpara o corn

Abraham, Z.; Cancoro, A. C. O.

1987-05-01

212

Aplicación del Teorema de Nekhorochev para tiempos de estabilidad en Mecánica Celeste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

En Mecánica Celeste, uno de los problemas centrales consiste en la determinación de los tiempos de estabilidad. El teorema de Nekhorochev proporciona un método para dicho estudio, para un sistema determinado por un hamiltoniano descripto en las variables acción-ángulo. El trabajo consiste en la acotación tanto del potencial perturbador y de la matriz hessiana del hamiltoniano integrable para determinar luego el tiempo de estabilidad de dicho sistema, donde por estabilidad se entiende la separación en norma infinito en el espacio de las acciones.

Miloni, O.; Núñez, J.; Brunini, A.

213

Binary recombination of para- and ortho-H3+ with electrons at low temperatures.  

PubMed

Results of an experimental study of binary recombination of para- and ortho-H(3)(+) ions with electrons are presented. Near-infrared cavity-ring-down absorption spectroscopy was used to probe the lowest rotational states of H(3)(+) ions in the temperature range of 77-200?K in an H(3)(+)-dominated afterglow plasma. By changing the para/ortho abundance ratio, we were able to obtain the binary recombination rate coefficients for pure and para-H(3)(+) and ortho-H(3)(+). The results are in good agreement with previous theoretical predictions. PMID:23028157

Dohnal, P; Hejduk, M; Varju, J; Rubovic, P; Roucka, S; Kotrík, T; Plasil, R; Johnsen, R; Glosík, J

2012-11-13

214

All the three ParaHox genes are present in Nuttallochiton mirandus (Mollusca: polyplacophora): evolutionary considerations.  

PubMed

The ParaHox gene cluster contains three homeobox genes, Gsx, Xlox and Cdx and has been demonstrated to be an evolutionary sister of the Hox gene cluster. Among deuterostomes the three genes are found in the majority of taxa, whereas among protostomes they have so far been isolated only in the phylum Sipuncula. We report the partial sequences of all three ParaHox genes in the polyplacophoran Nuttallochiton mirandus, the first species of the phylum Mollusca where all ParaHox genes have been isolated. This finding has phylogenetic implications for the phylum Mollusca and for its relationships with the other lophotrochozoan taxa. PMID:16331637

Barucca, Marco; Biscotti, Maria A; Olmo, Ettore; Canapa, Adriana

2006-03-15

215

ParaBIT-1: 60Gb\\/s-throughput parallel optical interconnect module  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously proposed ParaBIT (parallel inter-board optical interconnection technology), and developed a prototype front-end module, called ParaBIT-0, with a total throughput of 28 Gb\\/s (700 Mb\\/s×40 ch). Aiming at higher throughput, lower cost, and further miniaturization, we are now developing a version, called ParaBIT-1, which is designed to achieve a total throughput of 60 Gb\\/s (1.25 Gbit\\/s×480-ch). To achieve a

Mitsuo Usui; Nobuo Sato; Akira Ohki; Nobuaki Matsuura; Nobuyuki Tanaka; Koji Enbutsu; Michiyuki Amano; Makoto Hikita; Toshiaki Kagawa; Kohsuke Katsura; Yasuhiro Ando

2000-01-01

216

Simultaneous Determination of Inulin and Para-Aminohippuric Acid in Plasma and Urine by an Automated Technique.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An automated technique is described for the simultaneous determination of inulin and para-aminohippuric acid in plasma and urine. Inulin is determined by the indolylacetic acid reaction in the presence of concentrated hydrochloric acid. Para-aminohippuric...

P. Z. Sobocinski

1972-01-01

217

MÉTODO SIMPLE PARA LA DETECCIÓN MÚLTIPLE DE VIROIDES DE CÍTRICOS A SIMPLE METHOD FOR THE MULTIPLE DETECTION OF CITRUS VIROIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

La detección de viroides mediante RT-PCR en México es de uso común en los laboratorios de acreditación para determinar la calidad sanitaria de plantas de cítricos, cuando se van a utilizar árboles madre para propagar plantas de vivero. En el presente trabajo se describe una metodología simple para la detección múltiple de los viroides Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), CVd II,

Isidro H. Almeyda-León; Mario A. Rocha-Peña; M. Magdalena Iracheta-Cárdenas; Fermín Orona-Castro; Craig J. Kahlke

218

Contextual Factors that Foster or Inhibit Para-Teacher Professional Development: The Case of an Indian, Non-Governmental Organization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The appointment of para-professionals to overcome skill shortages and/or make efficient use of expensive resources is well established in both developing and developed countries. The present research concerns para-teachers in India. The literature on para-teachers is dominated by training for special needs settings, largely in developed…

Raval, Harini; McKenney, Susan; Pieters, Jules

2012-01-01

219

Para-Hydroxybenzoate as an Intermediate in the Anaerobic Transformation of Phenol to Benzoate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anaerobic phenol transformation was studied using a consortium which transformed phenol to benzoate without complete mineralization of benzoate. Products of monofluorophenol transformation indicated para-carboxylation. Phenol and benzoate were detected du...

B. R. Sharak Genthner G. T. Townsend P. J. Chapman

1991-01-01

220

Elementos para una reforma del sector público en el contexto de una economía de mercado  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se propone un conjunto de elementos básicos que deben ser considerados para el diseño de cualquier estrategia de reforma del sector público en el Perú, abordando cuestiones de carácter económico, social, político y de organización institucional.

Claudio Herzka

1996-01-01

221

Communications: Development and characterization of a source of rotationally cold, enriched para-H3+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to develop a source of H3+ that is almost entirely in a single quantum state (J=K=1), we have successfully generated a plasma that is enriched to ~83% in para-H3+ at a rotational temperature of 80 K. This enrichment is a result of the nuclear spin selection rules at work in hydrogenic plasmas, which dictate that only para-H3+ will form from para-H2, and that para-H3+ can be converted to ortho-H3+ by subsequent reaction with H2. This is the first experimental study in which the H2 and H3+ nuclear spin selection rules have been observed at cold temperatures. The ions were produced from a pulsed solenoid valve source, cooled by supersonic expansion, and interrogated via continuous-wave cavity ringdown spectroscopy.

Tom, Brian A.; Mills, Andrew A.; Wiczer, Michael B.; Crabtree, Kyle N.; McCall, Benjamin J.

2010-02-01

222

Thermal characterization of para- tert-butylphenol formaldehyde epoxy-acrylic resin cured with reactive diluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal decomposition of para-tert-butylphenol formaldehyde epoxy-acrylic resin as such or in the presence of reactive diluents based on glycidyl ethers of phenol and para-alkyl substituted phenols has been studied using pyrolysis in combination with gas chromatography and thermogravimetric techniques. The samples analysed in the range of temperatures between 200 and 600°C degrade statistically by a radical mechanism. The decomposition

C. N. Ca?caval; D. Ro?u; A. Stoleriu

2000-01-01

223

ParaHox gene expression in the polychaete annelid Capitella sp. I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hox and ParaHox genes are transcriptional regulators vital for many aspects of embryonic development in bilaterian animals and are considered\\u000a to have originated from one ancestral proto-Hox\\/ParaHox cluster. Hox genes are clustered in the genome of both protostomes and deuterostomes, and there is a specific relationship between the\\u000a position of a gene in the cluster and the position of its

Andreas C. Fröbius; Elaine C. Seaver

2006-01-01

224

Laparoscopic Para-aortic and Pelvic Lymphadenectomy: Experience with 150 Patients and Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective.The clinical usefulness of laparoscopic pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy for staging and therapy of gynecological cancer was analyzed prospectively.Method.Laparoscopic para-aortic and pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed in 150 patients with cervical (n= 96), endometrial (n= 41), or ovarian cancer (n= 13). Lymphadenectomy was combined with laparoscopically assisted vaginal radical hysterectomy in 70 patients, with laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy and\\/or bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy

Marc Possover; Norman Krause; Karin Plaul; Rosemarie Kühne-Heid; Achim Schneider

1998-01-01

225

The ParaPhrase Project: Parallel Patterns for Adaptive Heterogeneous Multicore Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the ParaPhrase project, a new 3-year targeted research project funded under EU Framework 7 Objective 3.4 (Computer Systems), starting in October 2011. ParaPhrase aims to follow a new approach to introducing parallelism using advanced refactoring techniques coupled with high-level parallel design patterns. The refactoring approach will use these design patterns to restructure pro- grams defined as networks

Kevin Hammond; Marco Aldinucci; Chris Brown; Francesco Cesarini; Marco Danelutto; Horacio Gonz'alez-V'elez; Peter Kilpatrick; Rainer Keller; Michael Rossbory; Gilad Shainer

2013-01-01

226

Observation of Ortho-Para H+3 Selection Rules in Plasma Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensity ratios of infrared spectral lines of ortho- and para- H+3 have been measured in hydrogen plasmas using normal and para- H2. Large dependences of the intensity ratios on the parent gases have been observed, indicating the spin memory of protons even after chemical reactions. The results clearly demonstrate the existence of selection rules on nuclear spin modifications in chemical reactions theoretically anticipated by M. Quack [Mol. Phys. 34, 477 (1977)].

Uy, Dairene; Cordonnier, Michel; Oka, Takeshi

1997-05-01

227

Definição de um Ambiente para apoiar a Gerência de Conhecimento para Projeto de Banco de Dados utilizando um Framework Conceitual e Padrões de Análise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Uma das grandes dificuldades no desenvolvimento de software é que, muitas vezes, os desenvolvedores não estão familiarizados com o domínio para o qual o software está sendo desenvolvido. A necessidade de apoiar o desenvolvimento de software em domínio específicos tem sido endereçada tanto por Ambientes de Desenvolvimento de Software Orientados a Domínio (ADSODs), como pelo uso de gerência do

Viviane C. Dias; Carlos A. M. Pietrobon; Mário Fabiano Alves

228

Vínculos observacionais para o processo-S em estrelas gigantes de Bário  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estrelas de bário são gigantes vermelhas de tipo GK que apresentam excessos atmosféricos dos elementos do processo-s. Tais excessos são esperados em estrelas na fase de pulsos térmicos do AGB (TP-AGB). As estrelas de bário são, no entanto, menos massivas e menos luminosas que as estrelas do AGB, assim, não poderiam ter se auto-enriquecido. Seu enriquecimento teria origem em uma estrela companheira, inicialmente mais massiva, que evolui pelo TP-AGB, se auto-enriquece com os elementos do processo-s e transfere material contaminado para a atmosfera da atual estrela de bário. A companheira evolui então para anã branca deixando de ser observada diretamente. As estrelas de bário são, portanto, úteis como testes observacionais para teorias de nucleossíntese pelo processo-s, convecção e perda de massa. Análises detalhadas de abundância com dados de alta qualidade para estes objetos são ainda escassas na literatura. Neste trabalho construímos modelos de atmosferas e, procedendo a uma análise diferencial, determinamos parâmetros atmosféricos e evolutivos de uma amostra de dez gigantes de bário e quatro normais. Determinamos seus padrões de abundância para Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu e Gd, concluindo que algumas estrelas classificadas na literatura como gigantes de bário são na verdade gigantes normais. Comparamos dois padrões médios de abundância, para estrelas com grandes excessos e estrelas com excessos moderados, com modelos teóricos de enriquecimento pelo processo-s. Os dois grupos de estrelas são ajustados pelos mesmos parâmetros de exposição de nêutrons. Tal resultado sugere que a ocorrência do fenômeno de bário com diferentes intensidades não se deve a diferentes exposições de nêutrons. Discutimos ainda efeitos nucleossintéticos, ligados ao processo-s, sugeridos na literatura para os elementos Cu, Mn, V e Sc.

Smiljanic, R. H. S.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; da Silva, L.

2003-08-01

229

Performance of an ortho-para concentration measurement cryostat for hydrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the results of the performance tests of an ortho-para analyzer for hydrogen are presented. The measurement is based on the easy and reliable gauging of the adiabatic heat of conversion between the hydrogen allotropes. A hydrogen gas flow is brought to a defined temperature first by the means of a liquid nitrogen bath at 77 K. Subsequently it is led through a catalyst bed inside an adiabatic cell. The ortho-para ratio can be derived from a precise temperature measurement before and after the catalytic induced conversion. Vice versa, with a known para content of the hydrogen feed, the activity of a given catalyst sample can be determined. The discussion of the results of the performance tests includes a chapter for the essential proper preparation of the necessary ortho-para catalyst material and the use of a suitable database for the thermodynamic properties of orthohydrogen and parahydrogen. A slight drawback of this method is the relative large amount of hydrogen gas required compared to other ortho-para concentration measurements.

Essler, Juergen; Haberstroh, Christoph

2012-06-01

230

On the Ortho:Para Ratio of H+ 3 in Diffuse Molecular Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The excitation temperature T 01 derived from the relative intensities of the J = 0 (para) and J = 1 (ortho) rotational levels of H2 has been assumed to be an accurate measure of the kinetic temperature in interstellar environments. In diffuse molecular clouds, the average value of T 01 is ~70 K. However, the excitation temperature T(H+ 3) derived from the (J, K) = (1, 1) (para) and (1, 0) (ortho) rotational levels of H+ 3 has been observed to be ~30 K in the same types of environments. In this work, we present observations of H+ 3 in three additional diffuse cloud sight lines for which H2 measurements are available, showing that in four of five cases T 01 and T(H+ 3) are discrepant. We then examine the thermalization mechanisms for the ortho:para ratios of H+ 3 and H2, concluding that indeed T 01 is an accurate measure of the cloud kinetic temperature, while the ortho:para ratio of H+ 3 need not be thermal. By constructing a steady-state chemical model taking into account the nuclear spin dependence of reactions involving H+ 3, we show that the ortho:para ratio of H+ 3 in diffuse molecular clouds is likely governed by a competition between dissociative recombination with electrons and thermalization via reactive collisions with H2. Based in part on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla or Paranal Observatories under program ID 384.C-0618.

Crabtree, Kyle N.; Indriolo, Nick; Kreckel, Holger; Tom, Brian A.; McCall, Benjamin J.

2011-03-01

231

Allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine in a tattoo: a case report.  

PubMed

It is highly popular among children and young adults to have temporary henna tattoos on their bodies in different colors and figures. Henna is a greenish natural powder obtained from the flowers and dry leaves of Lawsonia alba plant and its allergenicity is very low. Henna is also used in combination with other coloring substances such as para-phenylenediamine in order to darken the color and create a permanent tattoo effect. Para-phenylenediamine is a substance with high allergenicity potential and may cause serious allergic reactions. Here, we aimed to draw attention to the potential harms of para-phenylenediamine containing temporary tattoos by presenting a child patient who developed allergic contact dermatitis after having a scorpion-shaped temporary tattoo on his forearm. PMID:22909181

Turan, Hakan; Okur, Mesut; Kaya, Ertugrul; Gun, Emrah; Aliagaoglu, Cihangir

2012-08-22

232

Irritant contact dermatitis from a black henna tattoo without sensitization to para-phenylendiamine.  

PubMed

Allergic contact dermatitis from nonpermanent black henna tattoos has been frequently reported, particularly in children. Contamination or adulteration of the dyes with para-phenylendiamine has been identified as major cause of active sensitization and elicitation of severe allergic contact dermatitis. Sequelae include permanent sensitization, hyper- or hypopigmentation, scarring, keloids, and hypertrichosis. We report a rare case of irritant dermatitis to an unknown ingredient in a black henna tattoo with consecutive hypopigmentation. Sensitization to para-phenylendiamine and other para-compounds was excluded by patch test evaluation. This is relevant for future exposure to consumer products such as hair dyes or in occupational settings. Generally, black henna tattoos, particularly if done with dyes of unknown composition, should be strongly discouraged. PMID:23690526

Kind, Fabiola; Hofmeier, Kathrin Scherer; Bircher, Andreas J

2013-05-20

233

Superfluid Effects in PARA-H_2 Clusters Probed by CO_2 Rotation-Vibration Transitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prospect of directly observing superfluidity in para-H_2 is a tantalizing but elusive goal. Like ^4He, para-H_2 is a light zero-spin boson. However, H_2-H_2 intermolecular interactions, though weak, are stronger than He-He interactions, and hydrogen is a solid below about 14 K. This makes detection of superfluidity in bulk hydrogen problematical, to say the least. But there are still possibilities for para-H_2 in the form of clusters or in nano-confined environments, and superfluid transition temperatures as high as ˜6 K have been predicted. Spectroscopic observations of (para-H_2)_N-CO_2 clusters were at first very difficult to interpret for N > 5. However, with the help of path integral Monte Carlo simulations and an accurate new H_2-CO_2 intermolecular potential surface which explicitly incorporates dependence on the CO_2 ?b{3} asymmetric stretch, it is now possible to achieve a remarkably consistent picture of (para-H_2)_N-CO_2 clusters in the size range N = 1 ˜ 20. By combining the experimental spectroscopic measurements and theoretical simulations, we determine the size evolution of the superfluid response of the CO_2-doped para-H_2 clusters, which peaks for the "magic" number N = 12. V. L. Ginzburg and A. A. Sobyanin, JETP Lett. 15, 343 (1972). A. R. W. McKellar, Paper WH04, 63rd OSU International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, June 16-20, 2008. H. Li, P.-N. Roy, and R. J. Le Roy, J. Chem. Phys., submitted.

Li, Hui; Le Roy, Robert J.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas; McKellar, A. R. W.

2010-06-01

234

Um supressor de fundo térmico para a câmara infravermelha CamIV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels na câmara infravermelha do NexGal (CamIV) que operamos no OPD/LNA contém contribuições provenientes do sistema de coleta de fluxo propriamente dito - sendo esta a parte que interessa para as medidas astronômicas - e contribuições da obstrução central, sistema de suporte do espelho secundário e região exterior à pupila de entrada do telescópio. Estas últimas contribuições são devi-das à emissão de corpo negro à temperatura ambiente e aumentam exponencialmente para comprimentos de onda maiores que 2 micra (banda K, no infravermelho próximo). Embora a resultante pode ser quantificada e subtraída dos sinais relevantes, sua variância se adiciona à variância do sinal, e pode ser facilmente a contribuição domi-nante para a incerteza final das medidas, tornando ineficiente o processo de extração de informação e degradando a sensibilidade da câmara. A maneira clássica de resolver esse problema em sistemas ópticos que operam no infravermelho, onde os efeitos da emissão térmica do ambiente são importantes, é restringir o ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels individuais exclusivamente aos raios provenientes do sistema óptico. Para tanto, projeta-se uma imagem real, bastante reduzida, da pupila de entrada do sistema óptico num anteparo que transmita para o sistema de imageamento só o que interessa, bloqueando as contribuições das bordas externas à pupila de entrada, obstrução central do telescópio e sistema de suporte. Como a projeção é realizada em ambiente criogênico, a contribuição térmica espúria é efetivamente eliminada. Nós optamos por um sistema do tipo Offner para implementar na prática esta função. Trata-se de um sistema baseado em espelhos esféricos, bastante compacto e ajustado por construção. A opção por espelhos do mesmo material que o sistema de suporte (Alumínio) minimiza a dilatação diferencial, crítica nesse tipo de aplicação. Apresentamos as soluções detalhadas do projeto óptico-mecânico, bem como uma análise de flexões e desempenho em termos de qualidade de imagem.

Jablonski, F.; Laporte, R.

2003-08-01

235

Use of thiosemicarbazone and para-nitrobenzoic acid in screening tests for anonymous mycobacteria  

PubMed Central

In screening for anonymous mycobacteria the use of thiosemicarbazone (10?g./ml.) may give rise to false positive results. Although these can usually be overcome by further tests, additional time and effort is required, which seriously limits the value of thiosemicarbazone as a true screening agent. Para-nitrobenzoic acid (500 ?g./ml.) has proved more satisfactory in our hands; no false positive results have been obtained and it has the additional advantage that strains of M. kansasii (usually thiosemicarbazone sensitive) are resistant to para-nitrobenzoic acid.

Barrie, John D.

1967-01-01

236

Quantum rotation of ortho and para-water encapsulated in a fullerene cage  

PubMed Central

Inelastic neutron scattering, far-infrared spectroscopy, and cryogenic nuclear magnetic resonance are used to investigate the quantized rotation and ortho–para conversion of single water molecules trapped inside closed fullerene cages. The existence of metastable ortho-water molecules is demonstrated, and the interconversion of ortho-and para-water spin isomers is tracked in real time. Our investigation reveals that the ground state of encapsulated ortho water has a lifted degeneracy, associated with symmetry-breaking of the water environment.

Beduz, Carlo; Carravetta, Marina; Chen, Judy Y.-C.; Concistre, Maria; Denning, Mark; Frunzi, Michael; Horsewill, Anthony J.; Johannessen, Ole G.; Lawler, Ronald; Lei, Xuegong; Levitt, Malcolm H.; Li, Yongjun; Mamone, Salvatore; Murata, Yasujiro; Nagel, Urmas; Nishida, Tomoko; Ollivier, Jacques; Rols, Stephane; Room, Toomas; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Turro, Nicholas J.; Yang, Yifeng

2012-01-01

237

Para-magneto- and electro-optic microcavities for blue wavelength modulation.  

PubMed

We report on microcavities comprising para-magnetic garnet and electro-optic films (MPMEO) for modulation of the polarization rotation angle of light at near-UV wavelengths with a slight intensity change, with applying a low voltage. The MPMEO are composed of para-magnetic garnet and electro-optic films sandwiched between two Bragg mirrors. The microcavity states in MPMEO are split and yield both the large rotation angle and high optical efficiency. Significant enhancement and modulation by applied voltages are verified through a conventional matrix calculation approach. High optical efficiency (>90%) and large modulation (~90 degree) of the polarization rotation are proved. PMID:24105511

Goto, Taichi; Isogai, Ryosuke; Inoue, M

2013-08-26

238

ParaGraph-RTS: A parallel reduction-based run-time system  

SciTech Connect

We are investigating the use of the functional programming paradigm on multiprocessor computers. We have developed a parallel graph reduction run-time system called ParaGraph-RTS (Parallel Graph Reduction) that provides both significant amounts of exploitable parallelism and the robustness to support development of large scientific codes. This system allows us to empirically investigate the functional programming paradigm within computationally intensive application domains. In this paper, we describe an implementation of ParaGraph-RTS on a shared-memory multiprocessor. The implementation strategy reflects insights gained through performance characterizations of the reduction process. Preliminary performance results and analyses are presented. 8 refs., 4 figs.

Yantis, B.; Rich, D.; Michelsen, R.

1989-01-01

239

Currículo, competências e habilidades para o mercado de trabalho: estudo de caso  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Este estudo analisa a dinâmica curricular do curso de Administração de uma instituição de ensino superior de cunho privado localizada em Brasília, com o objetivo de investigar a compatibilidade dos currículos do curso de graduação em administração com as diretrizes curriculares para o curso e com as competências e habilidades exigidas pelo mercado de trabalho. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa,

Jacira da Silva Câmara

240

Beard dermatitis due to para-phenylenediamine use in Arabic men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common active ingredient in hair coloring is para-phenylenediamine (PPDA), which can produce contact dermatitis, particularly in persons who dye their scalp hair and in hairdressers. We have identified another group of patients also at risk, namely men from Arab countries, who commonly grow beards and dye them. We searched the computerized patient database at the Mayo Clinic for

Te-Shao Hsu; Mark D. P. Davis; Rokea el-Azhary; John F. Corbett; Lawrence E. Gibson

2001-01-01

241

Irradiation of para-aortic lymph node metastases from carcinoma of the cervix or endometrium  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-two patients with biopsy-proved para-aortic lymph node metastases from carcinoma of the cervix (15 patients) or endometrium (7 patients) received a median dose of 5,000 rad/25 fractions. Para-aortic nodal metastases were controlled in 77% of cases. Control was significantly lower following radical retroperitoneal lymph node dissection than less extensive sampling procedures. Obstruction of the small bowel developed in 3 patients with tumor recurrence in the para-aortic region. Eight of the 10 patients who were disease-free at 2 years received >5,000 rad. Three patients were still alive without disease at 129, 63, and 60 months, respectively. The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 40% for cervical cancer and 60% for endometrial cancer: in the former group, it was significantly different depending on whether the para-aortic nodes were irradiated (40%) or not (0%). The authors suggest that 5,000-5,500 rad in 5-5.5 weeks is well tolerated and can control aortic nodal metastases in cervical and possibly endometrial cancer.

Komaki, R.; Mattingly, R.F.; Hoffman, R.G.; Barber, S.W.; Satre, R.; Greenberg, M.

1983-04-01

242

para-Connected cyclophenylenes and hemispherical polyarenes: building blocks for single-walled carbon nanotubes?  

PubMed

Carbon nanotubes by design? Cyclo-para-phenylenes are monomers for the synthesis of armchair carbon nanotubes (see picture, right), and are also attractive fluorophores that display size-dependent emission properties. Geodesic polyarenes represent a realistic alternative for the rational design of carbon nanotubes through the chemical elongation of the hydrocarbon template (left). PMID:22549829

Bunz, Uwe H F; Menning, Sebastian; Martín, Nazario

2012-04-30

243

Para-Professionals in Further Education: Changing Roles in Vocational Delivery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Roles and structures within further education colleges seem to be in constant change and development; roles are becoming blurred, and lecturers are taking on more management tasks. Alongside this has been the development of para-professional roles, using non-lecturers to undertake teaching tasks. This can allow for the greater involvement of…

Scott, Gill

2005-01-01

244

REVISÃO DE ESTUDOS CLÍNICOS DE ENFERMAGEM: UTILIZAÇÃO DE PAPAÍNA PARA O TRATAMENTO DE FERIDAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: RESUMO: RESUMO: RESUMO: RESUMO: A papaína tem sido utilizada pelo enfermeiro para o tratamento de diversas feridas. No entanto, necessita-se de evidências que demonstrem seu efeito no desbridamento e aceleração da cicatrização. Esta investigação, por meio de revisão de literatura, teve como objetivo compilar estudos realizados por enfermeiros brasileiros ou graduandos de enfermagem na literatura nacional e indexados nos

Adriano Menis Ferreira; Kleber Aparecido de Oliveira; Luiz Carlos Vieira; James da Luz Rol

245

‘Madrinas’: snitching\\/para?policing and the illegal support of police work in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the institutional role of informal para?police groups in Mexico known as ‘madrinas.’ The specific characteristics of ‘madrinas’ are that they are run as complex?structured networks with hierarchies, they actively participate in police activities, and they are an alternative way of gaining entry into the police institution. However, their key function is intelligence work within the police agency

Gustavo Fondevila

2011-01-01

246

SIGNIFICANT STRUCTURE THEORY OF LIQUID HYDROGEN IN ITS VARIOUS ORTHO-PARA AND ISOTOPIC FORMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significant structure theory of liquids was extended to include ; liquid hydrogen in its various ortho-para and isotopic forms. It was assumed ; that liquid hydrogen has a quasi-lattice structure in which the latiicc sites'' ; are occupied either by hydrogen molecules or holes of molecular size. Such a ; hole will confer gas-like properties on a molecule which

Douglas Henderson; Henry Eyring; Dale Felix

1962-01-01

247

ACTIVIDADES PARA DESARROLLAR LA EXPRESIÓN ORAL Y ESCRITA DEL TÉCNICO MEDIO EN CONTABILIDAD  

Microsoft Academic Search

El siguiente trabajo responde a un problema que enfrenta el C\\/P Osvaldo Socarrás Martínez, relacionado con las insuficiencias que afectan el desarrollo de la Lengua Materna en los estudiantes, por lo que el objetivo de la misma es el de la elaboración de actividades para favorecer la expresión oral y escrita en los estudiantes del segundo año de técnico medio

Orlando Martínez Cuba; Lisandra Ávila Arzuaga

2010-01-01

248

Notes on a Critical Edition of Para las seis cuerdas by Jorge Luis Borges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jorge Luis Borges orchestrated the canonization of his work, culminating in his Obras completas. The traces of this editorial endeavor are effaced in what Borges conceived as his complete works. The analysis of the various editions of Para las seis cuerdas demonstrates that the rationale behind the editorial changes is a conscious effort to present a collection of milongas with

Robert Folger

2001-01-01

249

Para-ferrimagnetic transition in strong coupling paramagnetic systems: Landau theory approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider here the continuous Landau model describing the para-ferrimagnetic transition, in two strongly coupled Pauli-paramagnetic sublattices, with respective magnetic moments m and M. The free energy of the system contains, in addition to quadratic and quartic terms in both moments m and M, a coupling term — CmM, where C < 0 is the coupling constant between the two

B. El Houari; M. Benhamou; M. El Hafidi; G. Chouteau

1997-01-01

250

Adubação verde como alternativa agroecológica para recuperação da fertilidade do solo  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recuperação da fertilidade do solo, especialmente do nutriente fósforo (P) tem custo bastante elevado, principalmente quando utilizadas fontes de adubos solúveis. Portanto, é necessário encontrar alternativas de menor custo para recuperação da fertilidade-P. O objetivo desse trabalho foi de avaliar o potencial de produtividade de fi tomassa de espécies de adubos verdes de verão e de inverno submetidas a

Cristiano André Pott; Marcelo Marques; Lopes Müller; Patrick Batista Bertelli

251

ANÁLISE ECONÔMICA DE SUCESSÕES DE CULTURAS PARA MILHO, COM NÍVEIS DE NITROGÊNIO EM COBERTURA  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - O milho é uma cultura presente em todas as regiões brasileiras; nos últimos anos, seus custos de produção aumentaram. Técnicas que proporcionem economia, sem perda de produtividade, podem incentivar seu cultivo, tão importante no sistema de rota- ção de culturas. Os adubos verdes são opções para a redução de custos, principalmente em relação ao nitrogênio. Utilizaram-se dados de

DENIS AUGUSTO DA SILVA; CARLOS FERREIRA DE SOUZA

252

Cuadro de mando y sistemas de información: herramientas estratégicas para la gestión medioambiental corporativa  

Microsoft Academic Search

En la actualidad protección del ambiente es un nuevo e importante objetivo estratégico de las empresas cubanas y del mundo. La información medioambiental se vuelve cada vez más relevante para las decisiones económicas, por lo que es necesario manejarla de manera oportuna. Muchas entidades presentan Sistemas de Gestión Medioambientales según NC ISO 14000 que se quedan en fases meramente declarativas

Frank Medel; Lourdes García; Liesby Gómez; Rebeca Pentón

2011-01-01

253

Spontaneous Reactivation of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibited with Para-Substituted Phenyl Methylphosphonochloridates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four para-substituted phenyl methylphosphonochloridates (H, I; CH3O, II; NO2, III; and CN, IV) were prepared by reaction of excess methyl phosphonodichloridate with the appropriate phenol. The rates of hydrolysis of I-IV were determined at pH 4.90 and sho...

J. W. Hovanec C. N. Lieske

1972-01-01

254

Chiral aryl iodide catalysts for the enantioselective synthesis of para-quinols.  

PubMed

Molecular modelling of an iodine(III) phenoxide was used as a starting point in the design of chiral aryl iodide catalysts for stereoselective oxidative dearomatization reactions. Using this approach, catalysts derived from 8-iodotetralone and tartaric acid were constructed and used to synthesize enantioenriched para-quinols from phenols. PMID:23463273

Volp, Kelly A; Harned, Andrew M

2013-04-14

255

The accountability of para-governmental organizations (bonyads): the case of Iranian foundations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to explain the emergence and development of para-governmental organizations (bonyads) in Iran and demonstrate their contradictory position in the Iranian political economy. These organizations represent the dual power structure in Iran which reinforces the financial authority of religious leaders without accountability. By analyzing the functions of these organizations, the paper sets out to probe their economic policies

Ali A. Saeidi

2004-01-01

256

Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de

T. Jimenez; K. Olson

1999-01-01

257

Interrupting Commemoration: Thinking with Art, Thinking through the Strictures of Argentina's "Espacio para la memoria"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, a few buildings within the "Espacio para la memoria" in Buenos Aires have been designated as a UNESCO Centre where, amongst other educational activities, evidentiary materials of the past repression are to be stored and displayed. Another building in the complex houses a Community Centre operated by the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo,…

Paolantonio, Mario Di

2011-01-01

258

Triadic analysis of substituent effects—gas-phase acidity of para-substituted phenols  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large variety of para-substituted phenols was examined and their acidities in the gas-phase were rationalized by a triadic formula, which is capable of delineating the initial, intermediate and final state effects in the deprotonation process. It is shown that triadic analysis is equivalent to the homodesmotic reactions approach, while being much more informative at the same time. The applied

Robert Vianello; Zvonimir B. Maksi?

2006-01-01

259

Programação de uma Rede de Sensores para o Corpo Humano por meio de uma Interface Gráfica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palavras-chave: Redes de Sensores para o Corpo Humano (RSCH), autômatos, multiprogramação, Java Abstract - The inherent characteristics of the Body Sensor Networks (BSN) have a great potential to influence clinical applications for the next decades. It can promote a new paradigm for health monitoring based on wearable systems. The handling of a BSN through a command-line programming interface may not

Talles M. G. A. Barbosa; Iwens G. Sene Jr; F. Rocha; Francisco A. O. Nascimento; S. Carvalho

260

EFECTO DE LA NUTRICIÓN Y OTROS FACTORES PARA ASEGURAR UN CRECIMIENTO ÓPTIMO EN EL POTRO  

Microsoft Academic Search

El objetivo de criar potros puede ser venderlos, presentarlos en concursos morfológicos o quedarse con ellos para luego presentarlos a una competición. Sea cual sea el futuro del potro, hay que asegurarse que el animal goza de salud y puede llegar a ser un atleta con un esqueleto y un cuerpo que aguante el trabajo suficientemente. Existen muchos factores que

Pat Harris

261

MONITORAMENTO DOS NINHOS ARTIFICIAIS INSTALADOS PARA AS ARARAS-AZUIS (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ameaçada de extinção e com baixa taxa reprodutiva, um dos fatores limitantes à reprodução da arara-azul Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, no Pantanal é a escassez de cavidades em árvores. Além disso, no mesmo período de reprodução das araras-azuis outras espécies de aves estão se reproduzindo e a disputa pelos ninhos é grande. Para minimizar este fator, instalamos 70 ninhos artificiais, no período

Rua Klaus Sturk; Jd Mansur; Neiva Maria; R. Guedes; Torborg Berge; Vanessa M. B; Márcia M. Volpe; Carolina Ribas; Arara Azul

262

Novas perspectivas para o diagnóstico da artrite reumatóide New perspectives for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

SINOPSE Este artigo consiste em uma revisão da literatura médica sobre o diagnóstico da artri- te reumatóide, com ênfase sobre as novas perspectivas para o mesmo. Dentre essas novas possibilidades, vários marcadores sorológicos têm-se destacado, principalmente os auto- anticorpos antiperinuclear (fator antiperinuclear - FAP) e antiqueratina (anticorpo anti- queratina - AKA), pela alta especificidade. Esses podem auxiliar no diagnóstico inicial

Lia Andrade Zorzi

263

Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)  

SciTech Connect

Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.

Jimenez, T.; Olson, K.

1999-07-28

264

Salud Para Su Corazón: A Community-Based Latino Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Outreach Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for Latinos living in the United States. This population is generally unaware of important lifestyle or behavioral changes that can prevent CVD. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) designed and implemented Salud para su Corazón (Health for Your Heart), a culturally appropriate, community-based, theory-driven intervention model. NHLBI's goals were:

Rina Alcalay; Matilde Alvarado; Hector Balcazar; Eileen Newman; Elmer Huerta

1999-01-01

265

Hacia la implementación de una guía de práctica clínica para el tratamiento del asma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Dados los esfuerzos que el personal sanitario hace para la definición de guías de práctica clínica (CPG) por su elevado impacto en la calidad de los cuidados y la dificultad de su implantación, hemos considerado necesario desarrollar una,solución efectivade cara a laimplantación de CPGsmediante Sistemas de Ayuda a la Toma de Decisiones (DSS). Por la importancia de lo antedicho,

Pikatza F. J; Lopez de Ipiña

266

Evaluación paramétrica y no paramétrica del desempleo pesquero en Marruecos: Una aplicación para el caso andaluz  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN El principal objetivo es el análisis de las medidas que las diferentes administraciones pusieron en marcha para reducir las altas tasas de desempleo en la población andaluza afectada por la paralización de la actividad pesquera como consecuencia de la finalización del Acuerdo de Pesca entre la Unión Europea y Marruecos desde el 30 de noviembre de 1999. Mediante la

Encarnación Cordón Lagares; Félix García Ordaz

2010-01-01

267

El desarrollo de la escucha como habilidad para comprender, a partir de la asignatura inglés  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo aborda una problemática actual al profundizar en el desarrollo de la habilidad Escuchar como habilidad para comprender, se hace una sistematización de conocimientos teóricos sobre la temática, se intenta mostrar cómo una actividad común de audición encontrada en la mayoría de los libros de texto modernos de la enseñanza del EFL (inglés como idioma extranjero), puede ser explotada

Rafael Lorenzo Hechavarría Pérez

2011-01-01

268

Validez y confiabilidad de tres escalas para evaluar conductas sociales en preescolares y escolares  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: Estudiamos la validez y confiabilidad de tres escalas para eva- luar conductas sociales niños y niñas costarricenses de preescolar y primer grado (n=262). Una de las escalas evalúa el comportamiento prosocial (ECPRO), otra evalúa la habilidad de explotar la experticia de los demás (EXHAD), y una más evalúa el comportamiento maquiavélico (EMach) en el ámbito escolar. Las escalas son

Odir Rodríguez Villagra; Michael Padilla Mora; Jaime Fornaguera Trías

2010-01-01

269

The Role of Adsorption in the Catalytic Para-Ortho-Hydrogen Conversion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Adsorption isotherms were determined for two para-ortho-hydrogen conversion catalysts, hydrous ferric oxide gel and nickel oxide silicate, at temperatures from 63K to 196K and at pressures from 1 to 10 atmospheres. For the catalysts studied, Langmuir's Is...

H. R. Lander

1967-01-01

270

REDE ISOBUS PARA CONTROLE E COMUNICAÇÃO DE DADOS DE UM ROBÔ AGRÍCOLA MÓVEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Diante da grande necessidade de se projetar máquinas e implementos agrícolas cada vez mais automatizadas, uma forte tendência atual é o desenvolvimento de robôs móveis e veículos autônomos para área agrícola. Estes robôs e veículos, implementados com as mesmas tecnologias existentes em máquinas agrícolas, desempenham tarefas específicas com grande eficiência, originado ganhos de operação quando comparados a utilização de

EDUARDO PACIÊNCIA GODOY; GIOVANA TRIPOLONI TANGERINO; RAFAEL VIEIRA DE SOUSA; ARTHUR JOSÉ VIEIRA PORTO; RICARDO YASSUSHI INAMASU

271

Dielectric relaxation of para polar liquids under high frequency electric field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural and associational aspects of nonspherical para polar liquids (j) in nonpolar solvents (i) are studied through high frequency conductivities ?ij's of solutions. The relaxation time ? of the respective liquids under 3cm. wavelength electric field at various experimental temperatures in °C are estimated from the slope of individual variations of real ??ij and imaginary ??ij parts of hf

N Ghosh; R. C Basak; S. K Sit; S Acharyya

2000-01-01

272

Intact cluster and chordate-like expression of ParaHox genes in a sea star  

PubMed Central

Background The ParaHox genes are thought to be major players in patterning the gut of several bilaterian taxa. Though this is a fundamental role that these transcription factors play, their activities are not limited to the endoderm and extend to both ectodermal and mesodermal tissues. Three genes compose the ParaHox group: Gsx, Xlox and Cdx. In some taxa (mostly chordates but to some degree also in protostomes) the three genes are arranged into a genomic cluster, in a similar fashion to what has been shown for the better-known Hox genes. Sea urchins possess the full complement of ParaHox genes but they are all dispersed throughout the genome, an arrangement that, perhaps, represented the primitive condition for all echinoderms. In order to understand the evolutionary history of this group of genes we cloned and characterized all ParaHox genes, studied their expression patterns and identified their genomic loci in a member of an earlier branching group of echinoderms, the asteroid Patiria miniata. Results We identified the three ParaHox orthologs in the genome of P. miniata. While one of them, PmGsx is provided as maternal message, with no zygotic activation afterwards, the other two, PmLox and PmCdx are expressed during embryogenesis, within restricted domains of both endoderm and ectoderm. Screening of a Patiria bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library led to the identification of a clone containing the three genes. The transcriptional directions of PmGsx and PmLox are opposed to that of the PmCdx gene within the cluster. Conclusions The identification of P. miniata ParaHox genes has revealed the fact that these genes are clustered in the genome, in contrast to what has been reported for echinoids. Since the presence of an intact cluster, or at least a partial cluster, has been reported in chordates and polychaetes respectively, it becomes clear that within echinoderms, sea urchins have modified the original bilaterian arrangement. Moreover, the sea star ParaHox domains of expression show chordate-like features not found in the sea urchin, confirming that the dynamics of gene expression for the respective genes and their putative regulatory interactions have clearly changed over evolutionary time within the echinoid lineage.

2013-01-01

273

More constraint on ParaHox than Hox gene families in early metazoan evolution.  

PubMed

Hox and ParaHox (H/P) genes belong to evolutionary-sister clusters that arose through duplication of a ProtoHOX cluster early in animal evolution. In contrast to bilaterians, cnidarians express, beside PG1, PG2 and Gsx orthologs, numerous Hox-related genes with unclear origin. We characterized from marine hydrozoans three novel Hox-related genes expressed at medusa and polyp stages, which include a Pdx/Xlox ParaHox ortholog induced 1 day later than Gsx during embryonic development. To reconstruct H/P genes' early evolution, we performed multiple systematic comparative phylogenetic analyses, which identified derived sequences that blur the phylogenetic picture, recorded dramatically different evolutionary rates between ParaHox and Hox in cnidarians and showed the unexpected grouping of [Gsx-Pdx/Xlox-PG2-PG3] families in a single metagroup distinct from PG1. We propose a novel more parsimonious evolutionary scenario whereby H/P genes originated from a [Gsx-Pdx/Xlox-PG2-PG3]-related ProtoHox gene, the "posterior" and "anterior" H/P genes appearing secondarily. The ProtoHOX cluster would have contained the three Gsx/PG2, Pdx/PG3, Cdx/PG9 paralogs and produced through tandem duplication the primordial HOX and ParaHOX clusters in the Cnidaria-Bilateria ancestor. The stronger constraint on cnidarian ParaHox genes suggests that the primary function of pre-bilaterian H/P genes was to drive cellular evolutionary novelties such as neurogenesis rather than axis specification. PMID:19389364

Quiquand, Manon; Yanze, Nathalie; Schmich, Jürgen; Schmid, Volker; Galliot, Brigitte; Piraino, Stefano

2009-01-27

274

ParA2, a Vibrio cholerae chromosome partitioning protein, forms left-handed helical filaments on DNA  

PubMed Central

Most bacterial chromosomes contain homologs of plasmid partitioning (par) loci. These loci encode ATPases called ParA that are thought to contribute to the mechanical force required for chromosome and plasmid segregation. In Vibrio cholerae, the chromosome II (chrII) par locus is essential for chrII segregation. Here, we found that purified ParA2 had ATPase activities comparable to other ParA homologs, but, unlike many other ParA homologs, did not form high molecular weight complexes in the presence of ATP alone. Instead, formation of high molecular weight ParA2 polymers required DNA. Electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction revealed that ParA2 formed bipolar helical filaments on double-stranded DNA in a sequence-independent manner. These filaments had a distinct change in pitch when ParA2 was polymerized in the presence of ATP versus in the absence of a nucleotide cofactor. Fitting a crystal structure of a ParA protein into our filament reconstruction showed how a dimer of ParA2 binds the DNA. The filaments formed with ATP are left-handed, but surprisingly these filaments exert no topological changes on the right-handed B-DNA to which they are bound. The stoichiometry of binding is one dimer for every eight base pairs, and this determines the geometry of the ParA2 filaments with 4.4 dimers per 120 ? pitch left-handed turn. Our findings will be critical for understanding how ParA proteins function in plasmid and chromosome segregation.

Hui, Monica P.; Galkin, Vitold E.; Yu, Xiong; Stasiak, Alicja Z.; Stasiak, Andrzej; Waldor, Matthew K.; Egelman, Edward H.

2010-01-01

275

MECANISMOS PARA LA CREACIÓN DE HÉROES Y ANTI HÉROES PARA LA OPINIÓN PÚBLICA INTERNACIONAL EN PERIODOS DE GUERRA HOW MEDIA CREATES HEROS AND ANTIHEROS FOR THE INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC OPINION IN WAR PERIODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

La intención principal de esta investigación es encontrar las claves que se utilizan a diario en los medios de comunicación para crear, de cara a la opinión pública, héroes y anti -héroes en periodos de crisis internacional como los que se vienen viendo desde el pasado 11 de septiembre. Para plantear esta investigación partimos de dos ideas. La primera de

García Gordillo

276

SISTEMA DE ACTIVIDADES PARA FORTALECER LA PREPARACIÓN DE LOS PROFESIONALES EN EL LABORATORIO CLÍNICO ROSA ELENA SIMEÓN DE LA SIERPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los laboratorios de análisis clínicos constituyen un área en la cual coinciden muchos agentes potencialmente agresivos, tanto para la salud del personal y de las personas que acuden a recibir los servicios que se prestan, así como para las propias instalaciones. Debido a ello, todos los procedimientos analíticos conllevan a un riesgo, que aumenta con la introducción de nuevas tecnologías,

José Sánchez Díaz; Caridad Milanés Reyes; Osvel García Riverón

2011-01-01

277

PROPUESTA DE ESTRATEGIA DIDÁCTICA PARA EL DESARROLLO DE HABILIDADES PROFESIONALES EN LA CARRERA DE INGENIERÍA EN PROCESOS AGROINDUSTRIALES  

Microsoft Academic Search

En el presente artículo se expone una propuesta de estrategia didáctica para el uso de las Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones (TIC) en la Carrera de Ingeniería de Procesos Agroindustriales en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje semipresencial. En el trabajo se muestran elementos que constituyen un importante soporte para el desarrollo de la docencia y la apropiación de conocimientos

Marilin Teruel Mulet; Xiomara Maritza Rodríguez Tamayo; Yimmy Omar Acedo Martín

2010-01-01

278

Un nuevo estudio de terapias dirigidas para cáncer de mama establece un modelo de estudios clínicos a nivel mundial  

Cancer.gov

Dos medicamentos dirigidos, diseñados para tratar una forma agresiva de cáncer de seno o mama, están siendo probados en un estudio nuevo que incluye a 8 000 participantes en 50 países de seis continentes. Éste será un estudio clínico que los investigadores esperan proporcionará un nuevo modelo para la investigación del cáncer a nivel mundial. Preguntas y respuestas

279

FARINHA MISTA DE MANDIOCA COM CASTANHA-DO-BRASIL: UMA ALTERNATIVA AGROECOLÓGICA PARA A RESERVA EXTRATIVISTA CAZUMBÁ-IRACEMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A farinha de mandioca é o principal produto em importância alimentar servindo como fonte de energia e geração de renda para os agricultores familiares da Amazônia. A castanha-do-brasil é uma das principais fontes de proteína vegetal, geração de emprego e renda para os extrativistas da Amazônia. Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o arranjo produtivo local da farinha mista de

Amauri Siviero; Carlo Filipe E. Raimundo; Lauro Saraiva Lessa; Thiago Andres Delunardo; Oscar Borreani Pardinas

2008-01-01

280

Impact of para-phenylenediamine on cyclooxygenases expression and prostaglandin formation in human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

para-Phenylenediamine, a monocyclic arylamine, is a frequently used chemical and ingredient of oxidative hair coloring products. Thus exposure occurs predominantly via skin. Cyclooxygenases, the key enzymes in prostaglandin synthesis, exhibit manifold physiological and pathophysiologial functions in skin and skin cells such as keratinocytes. We studied if para-phenylenediamine impacts on the expression of enzymes in the cyclooxygenase pathway in human immortalized

Ruth Moeller; Jutta Lichter; Brunhilde Blömeke

2008-01-01

281

Zoneamento agrícola e época de semeadura para trigo no Brasil Agricultural zoning and sowing dates for wheat in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - Um Programa de Zoneamento Agrícola para o Brasil, subsidiando a política de crédito e securidade rural, começou a ser posto em prática pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA) a partir da safra de inverno de 1996, com a cultura de trigo no sul do Brasil. Este artigo apresenta uma síntese dos trabalhos sobre zoneamento agrícola para

Gilberto Rocca da Cunha; João Carlos Haas; Jaime Ricardo; Tavares Maluf; Paulo Henrique Caramori; Eduardo Delgado Assad; Hugo José Braga; Jurandir Zullo Jr; Cláudio Lazzarotto; Sérgio Gonçalves; Marcos Wrege; Dionísio Brunetta; Sérgio Roberto Dotto; Hilton Silveira Pinto; Orivaldo Brunini; Vera Magali; Radtke Thomé; Sérgio Luiz Zampieri; Aldemir Pasinato; Márcia Barrocas Moreira Pimentel; Cristina Pandolfo

2001-01-01

282

Reciclagem de sucata de jóias para a recuperação hidrometalúrgica de prata Jewel scrap recycling for the silver hydrometallurgical recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muitos resíduos valiosos gerados na fabricação de jóias se perdem pela falta de conhecimento técnico para a recuperação dos metais preciosos utilizados na sua elaboração. Esse trabalho apresenta os resultados experimentais do uso de uma rota hidrometalúrgica, em escala de bancada laboratorial, para tratar amostras de sucatas de jóias à base de ouro (Au) com teores de prata (Ag) acima

Carol Elizabeth; Barrientos Rojas; Afonso Henriques Martins

2009-01-01

283

DETERMINACIÓN Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE MICROORGANISMOS PRESENTES EN LA MASA PARA TORTILLA DE MAÍZ EN TORTILLERIAS DEL MUNICIPIO DE SALTILLO, COAHUILA  

Microsoft Academic Search

La tortilla es un producto alimenticio derivado del maíz y es de muy alto consumo en nuestro país. La elaboración de la masa para tortilla esta constituida por las siguientes materias primas como es el maíz, agua y óxido de calcio (Cal). 5 La otra manera más sencilla para preparar la masa es mediante la mezcla de harinas instantáneas y

Q. F. B. Flores; Chávez Héctor; Q. F. B. Zamora de los; Villarreal López

284

La política brasileña para los residuos sólidos urbanos. Los planteamientos de catadores y empresarios en sus páginas electrónicas  

Microsoft Academic Search

El gobierno brasileño señala la posibilidad de aprobar la política nacional para los residuos sólidos urbanos (PNRS). La propuesta del Proyecto de Ley 1991\\/07 está en trámite en la cámara de los diputados desde el año 1991. Los senadores mantuvieron una charla con los catadores, empresarios del reciclaje y empresarios de servicios de gestión de residuos sólidos urbanos para conocer

Fábio Fonseca Figueiredo

2008-01-01

285

COMPARACIÓN DE VARIOS MÉTODOS PARA LA REPRESENTACIÓN CARTOGRÁFICA DE INFORMACIÓN CLIMÁTICA EN ZONAS ALTAS DEL ESTADO LARA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se compararon tres métodos cartográficos diferentes para la representación de aspectos climáticos (temperatura y precipitación) en zonas altas del estado Lara. Se usó conjuntamente A) Representación analógica (en papel), B) Mapas digitalizados de coberturas mediante el software para Sistema de Información Geográfica (SIG) ArcInfo y C) Modelos numéricos interpolados mediante software de aplicación geoestadística (SURFER), empleando el modelo de interpolación

Jorge López Márquez; Rigoberto Andressen

2001-01-01

286

Cómo medir la quiebra de las empresas en Santander, el modelo logístico: una herramienta para evaluar el riesgo de quiebra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Las propuestas contenidas en el documento del Nuevo Acuerdo de Capital de Basilea, para medir el riesgo de crédito, sirven de base para medir también el riesgo de quiebra de las empresas con base en la utilización de ratios financieros internos. En la práctica se presentan situaciones en la que es necesario tomar decisiones de acuerdo con el comportamiento de

José Joaquín Alzate Marín

2008-01-01

287

H2CS abundances and ortho-to-para ratios in interstellar clouds.  

PubMed

Several H2CS ortho and para transitions have been observed toward interstellar molecular clouds, including cold, dark clouds and star-forming regions. We derive H2CS fractional abundances f(H2CS) approximately 1-2 10(-9) relative to molecular hydrogen towards TMC-1, Orion A, and NGC 7538, and approximately 5 10(-10) for L134N. The H2CS ortho-to-para ratios in TMC-1 are approximately 1.8 towards the cyanopolyyne peak and the ammonia peak, which may indicate the thermalization of H2CS on 10 K grains. We derive a ratio of approximately 3, the statistical value, for Orion (3N, 1E) and NGC 7538, while we find a value approximately 2 for Orion (KL). PMID:11538284

Minh, Y C; Irvine, W M; Brewer, M K

1991-01-01

288

Molecular characterization of neurally expressing genes in the para sodium channel gene cluster of Drosophila  

SciTech Connect

To elucidate the mechanisms regulating expression of para, which encodes the major class of sodium channels in the Drosophila nervous system, we have tried to locate upstream cis-acting regulatory elements by mapping the transcriptional start site and analyzing the region immediately upstream of para in region 14D of the polytene chromosomes. From these studies, we have discovered that the region contains a cluster of neurally expressing genes. Here we report the molecular characterization of the genomic organization of the 14D region and the genes within this region, which are: calnexin (Cnx), actin related protein 14D (Arp14D), calcineurin A 14D (CnnA14D), and chromosome associated protein (Cap). The tight clustering of these genes, their neuronal expression patterns, and their potential functions related to expression, modulation, or regulation of sodium channels raise the possibility that these genes represent a functionally related group sharing some coordinate regulatory mechanism. 76 refs., 11 figs.

Hong, Chang-Sook; Ganetzky, B. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1996-03-01

289

Sasaki-Einstein and paraSasaki-Einstein metrics from (?,?)-structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove that every contact metric (?,?)-space admits a canonical ?-Einstein Sasakian or ?-Einstein paraSasakian metric. An explicit expression for the curvature tensor fields of those metrics is given and we find the values of ? and ? for which such metrics are Sasaki-Einstein and paraSasaki-Einstein. Conversely, we prove that, under some natural assumptions, a K-contact or K-paracontact manifold foliated by two mutually orthogonal, totally geodesic Legendre foliations admits a contact metric (?,?)-structure. Furthermore, we apply the above results to the geometry of tangent sphere bundles and we discuss some geometric properties of (?,?)-spaces related to the existence of Einstein-Weyl and Lorentzian-Sasaki-Einstein structures.

Cappelletti-Montano, Beniamino; Carriazo, Alfonso; Martín-Molina, Verónica

2013-11-01

290

pH-dependent nitration of para-hydroxyphenylacetic acid in the stomach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major urinary metabolite of nitrotyrosine is 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (3-Nitro-HPA). However, recent animal studies have shown that the majority of urinary 3-Nitro-HPA is derived from nitration of endogenous para-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HPA), a metabolite of tyrosine. One potential site for the formation of 3-Nitro-HPA is the stomach, where nitrous acid is formed by the reaction of nitrite in saliva with gastric

Ananth S. Pannala; Ali R. Mani; Catherine A. Rice-Evans; Kevin P. Moore

2006-01-01

291

Mercury Exposures in Riverside Amazon Communities in ParaH , Brazil1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-sectional studies were conducted in three riverside communities in the state of ParaH in the Amazon Region of Brazil. Two of these communi- ties, Bras1H lia Legal and Sa8 oL u1H s do TapajoH s, are located in a watershed exposed to mercury pollu- tion from artisanal gold mining, and the third, San- tana do Ituqui, is outside this area.

Elisabeth C. de Oliveira Santos; Iracina Maura de Jesus; Edilson da Silva Brabo; Edvaldo C. Brito Loureiro; Artur F. da Silva Mascarenhas

292

Structure of and electric conduction in metal–polymer poly- para -xylylene–Ag nanocomposite films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processes of formation of metal-polymer poly-para-xylylene-Ag nanocomposites by solidphase cryochemical synthesis are studied. The temperature dependences of the electrical\\u000a resistivity of the composites measured in the course of polymerization, which involves heating the cocondensate of p-xylylene monomer and metal particles, and on completion of the polymerization are presented. The findings are correlated\\u000a to the results of the structural investigation

I. A. Boginskaya; A. V. Gusev; K. A. Mailyan; S. N. Ozerin; A. V. Pebalk; I. A. Ryzhikov; M. V. Sedova; S. N. Chvalun

2011-01-01

293

Raman, surface-enhanced Raman scattering and DFT study of para-nitro-aniline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raman spectra of para-nitro-aniline (pNA), a molecule with high applicability potential in molecular electronics, were recorded in solid state and in ethanol solution. Complete assignment of the experimental spectra was made by using the B3LYP\\/6-31G(d) theoretical results. The calculated molecular electrostatic potential shows a high negative charge localized on the nitro group of pNA and the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)

Vasile Chi?; Monica M. Venter; Nicolae Leopold; Onuc Cozar

2008-01-01

294

Significado de los cambios en los senos: Guía para la salud de la mujer  

Cancer.gov

E-book que describe los cambios o padecimientos específicos de los senos e incluye información sobre cómo se detectan, diagnostican y tratan estos cambios. Aquí se explica que si bien la mayoría de los cambios en los senos no son cancerosos, estos deben ser examinados por un médico. También se ofrece información sobre los pasos a seguir después de un resultado anormal de una mamografía y se incluye una lista de preguntas para el doctor.

295

Parallel Visualization and Analysis with ParaView on a Cray XT4  

SciTech Connect

Scienti c data sets produced by modern supercomputers like ORNL s Cray XT 4, Jaguar, can be extremely large, making visualization and analysis more di cult as moving large resultant data to dedicated analysis systems can be pro- hibitively expensive. We share our continuing work of integrating a parallel visu- alization system, ParaView, on ORNL s Jaguar system and our e orts to enable extreme scale interactive data visualization and analysis. We will discuss porting challenges and present performance numbers.

Patchett, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Ahrens, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Ahern, Sean [ORNL; Pugmire, Dave [ORNL

2009-01-01

296

A rapid HPLC method for determination of Sudan dyes and Para Red in red chilli pepper  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system consisting of an ultraviolet-visible (UV–VIS) detector was developed for the separation and determination of Sudan dyes (I, II, III, and IV) and Para Red in red chilli peppers. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a reverse phase C18 column with isocratic elution, using a mobile phase of acetonitrile\\/methanol (80:20, v\\/v); detector was set

Erdal Erta?; Hayrettin Özer; Cesarettin Alasalvar

2007-01-01

297

D2 Lymphadenectomy Alone or with Para-aortic Nodal Dissection for Gastric Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy is the standard treatment for curable gastric cancer in eastern Asia. Whether the addition of para-aortic nodal dissection (PAND) to D2 lymphadenectomy for stage T2, T3, or T4 tumors improves survival is contro- versial. We conducted a randomized, controlled trial at 24 hospitals in Japan to com- pare D2 lymphadenectomy alone with D2 lymphadenectomy plus

Mitsuru Sasako; Takeshi Sano; Seiichiro Yamamoto; Yukinori Kurokawa; Atsushi Nashimoto; Akira Kurita; Masahiro Hiratsuka; Toshimasa Tsujinaka; Taira Kinoshita; Kuniyoshi Arai; Yoshitaka Yamamura; Kunio Okajima

2008-01-01

298

Characterization of the Role of para-Aminobenzoic Acid Biosynthesis in Folate Production by Lactococcus lactis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pab genes for para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) biosynthesis in Lactococcus lactis were identified and characterized. In L. lactis NZ9000, only two of the three genes needed for pABA production were initially found. No gene coding for 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase (pabC) was initially annotated, but detailed analysis revealed that pabC was fused with the 3 end of the gene coding for chorismate

Arno Wegkamp; Wietske van Oorschot; Willem M. de Vos; Eddy J. Smid

2007-01-01

299

Para-ferrimagnetic transition in strong coupling paramagnetic systems: Landau theory approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider here the continuous Landau model describing the para-ferrimagnetic transition, in two strongly coupled Pauli-paramagnetic sublattices, with respective magnetic moments m and M. The free energy of the system contains, in addition to quadratic and quartic terms in both moments m and M, a coupling term -CmM, where C < 0 is the coupling constant between the two sublattices.

B. El Houari; M. Benhamou; M. El Hafidi; G. Chouteau

1997-01-01

300

Passivation of iron-based alloys in para-toluene sulfonic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potentiodynamic and surface analysis techniques were applied to investigate the passivation of metals in para-toluene sulfonic acids (PTSA). The diffusion-limiting current density was used to calculate the ferrous ion concentration which causes the precipitation of a pseudopassive film. From the surface analysis data, the Cr\\/Fe ratio in the passive film increases in order of 430, 304, and 316 stainless steels.

Iuan-Jou Yang; Mao Ying Teng

1993-01-01

301

Sorption of water vapors by high-strength para-aramid fibres  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water vapor sorption isotherms were measured for different types of high-strength fibres based on carbocyclic and heterocyclic\\u000a para-aramids: Rusar (copolymers of amidobenzimidazole and p-phenylene terephthalamide), Twaron and Kevlar (poly-p-phenylene\\u000a terephthalamide), and for comparison, capron (polycaproamide). The parameters of the thermal sorption equation and the thermodynamic\\u000a characteristics of sorption of water vapor were calculated with previously obtained sorption data with

K. E. Perepelkin; S. F. Grebennikov; N. P. Lebedeva

2007-01-01

302

Influence of Avatar Creation on Attitude, Empathy, Presence, and Para-Social Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper focuses on the influence of avatar creation in a video game. More specifically, this study investigates\\u000a the effects of avatar creation on attitude towards avatar, empathy, presence, and para-social interaction of female non-game\\u000a users. As a cyber-self, an avatar is a graphic character representing a user in cyberspace. Avatars are primarily used in\\u000a the entertainment industry as

Donghun Chung; Brahm Daniel Debuys; Chang S. Nam

2007-01-01

303

Effect of antioxidants on para-aminophenol-induced toxicity in LLC-PK 1 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present studies were designed to investigate the susceptibility of LLC-PK1 cells to cytotoxicity induced by para-aminophenol (PAP) and the ability of antioxidants to prevent PAP-induced cytotoxicity. LLC-PK1 cells were incubated for 4 h with varying concentrations of PAP (0–0.2 mM). Incubation was continued for 20 h and viability was monitored at 24 h after initial exposure to PAP. For

Mark A. Hallman; Ruy Tchao; Joan B. Tarloff

2000-01-01

304

Microsystems for determining the heterogeniety of head and neck cancer cell populations by para-magnetophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is focused on the design, fabrication and characterization of a continuous flow magnetophoretic microseparator for the separation of selectively tagged cells using para-magnetophoresis. The microseparator was characterized experimentally using head and neck cells lines 212LN and 686LN-M4E as a case study. The microfluidic separation system can separate the selectively tagged cancer cells depending on their membrane protein expression

Y. Jung; D. Wang; G. Chen; D. Shin; K. H. Han; A. B. Frazier

2009-01-01

305

Autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa with preserved para-arteriolar retinal pigment epithelium.  

PubMed

Retinitis pigmentosa with preserved para-arteriolar retinal pigment epithelium is a rare form of retinitis pigmentosa that starts early in life with preservation of retinal pigment epithelium adjacent to and under the retinal arterioles and that has hitherto been described as an isolated form. We examined 22 patients from one large family, together with two isolated patients, and confirmed the presumed autosomal recessive mode of inheritance in this type of retinitis pigmentosa. New findings associated with retinitis pigmentosa with preserved para-arteriolar retinal pigment epithelium were asteroid hyalosis in four (17%) of 24 patients, tortuosity of retinal arterioles in 11 (46%) of 24 patients, peripheral regions of opacified vessels in eight (33%) of 24 patients, and preservation not only of the para-arteriolar pigment epithelium, but also of the peripheral retinal pigment epithelium in 13 (54%) of 24 patients. Previously reported signs present in these patients were nystagmus in six (25%) of 24 patients, hypermetropia in 23 (96%) of 24 patients, optic nerve head drusen in nine (38%) of 24 patients, vascular sheathing in 11 (46%) of 24 patients, maculopathy in all 24 patients (100%), yellow round deposits in the posterior pole in nine (38%) of 24 patients, exudates resembling those in Coats' disease in two (8%) of 24 patients, visual field defects in all 24 patients (100%), and nondeductible electroretinograms in 21 (91%) of 23 patients. Linkage analysis carried out in the large family resulted in the assignment of a gene for retinitis pigmentosa with preserved para-arteriolar retinal pigment epithelium to chromosome 1q31-q32.1. PMID:7943119

van den Born, L I; van Soest, S; van Schooneveld, M J; Riemslag, F C; de Jong, P T; Bleeker-Wagemakers, E M

1994-10-15

306

Hydroformylation of endocyclic double bonds in para-menthenic terpenes under mild conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhodium-catalyzed hydroformylation of a series of para-menthenic terpenes, i.e., terpinolene (1), ?-terpinene (2), and ?-terpinene (3), has been studied. The hydroformylation of conjugated diene 3 can be performed at a reasonable rate using triphenylphosphine as an auxiliary ligand (P\\/Rh=20), whereas non-conjugated dienes 1 and 2 have showed an extremely low reactivity in the Rh\\/PPh3 system. The use of a bulky

José G. da Silva; Camila G. Vieira; Eduardo N. dos Santos; Elena V. Gusevskaya

2009-01-01

307

Health promotion programs related to the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic games  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Olympic Games constitute a first-class opportunity to promote athleticism and health messages. Little is known, however on the impact of Olympic Games on the development of health-promotion programs for the general population. Our objective was to identify and describe the population-based health-promotion programs implemented in relation to the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic Games. METHODS: A cross-sectional

Elpidoforos S Soteriades; Christos Hadjichristodoulou; Jeni Kremastinou; Fotini C Chelvatzoglou; Panagiotis S Minogiannis; Matthew E Falagas

2006-01-01

308

Significado de los cambios en los senos: Guía para la salud de la mujer  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre cambios o padecimientos específicos de los senos y cómo se detectan, diagnostican y tratan estos cambios. Aquí se explica que si bien la mayoría de los cambios en los senos no son cancerosos, estos deben ser examinados por un médico. También se ofrece información sobre los pasos a seguir después de un resultado anormal de una mamografía y se incluye una lista de preguntas para el doctor.

309

Ironía, nostalgia y deconstrucción en Canciones para después de una guerra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canciones para después de una guerra (Martín\\u000aPatino, 1971) comprises an ironic archive documentary\\u000aabout Spain during the forties. Using different editing\\u000astrategies —such as re-location of materials, fusion between sound and image, figures of speech and montage effects—, the film proposes an alternative view to thedominant one offered by Franco’s official media. The movie provides a re-reading of the

Alberto Nahum García Martínez

2007-01-01

310

ParaDock: a flexible non-specific DNA--rigid protein docking algorithm  

PubMed Central

Accurate prediction of protein–DNA complexes could provide an important stepping stone towards a thorough comprehension of vital intracellular processes. Few attempts were made to tackle this issue, focusing on binding patch prediction, protein function classification and distance constraints-based docking. We introduce ParaDock: a novel ab initio protein–DNA docking algorithm. ParaDock combines short DNA fragments, which have been rigidly docked to the protein based on geometric complementarity, to create bent planar DNA molecules of arbitrary sequence. Our algorithm was tested on the bound and unbound targets of a protein–DNA benchmark comprised of 47 complexes. With neither addressing protein flexibility, nor applying any refinement procedure, CAPRI acceptable solutions were obtained among the 10 top ranked hypotheses in 83% of the bound complexes, and 70% of the unbound. Without requiring prior knowledge of DNA length and sequence, and within <2?h per target on a standard 2.0?GHz single processor CPU, ParaDock offers a fast ab initio docking solution.

Banitt, Itamar; Wolfson, Haim J.

2011-01-01

311

The rotational excitation of the interstellar HNC by para- and ortho-H2.  

PubMed

Rotational excitation of the interstellar HNC due to collisions with H(2) is investigated. We present a new four dimensional (4D) potential energy surface for the HNC-H(2) collisional system. Both molecules were treated as rigid rotors. Interaction energy was obtained from the electronic structure calculations using a single and double-excitation coupled cluster method with perturbative contributions from connected triple excitations [CCSD(T)]. The five atoms were described using the aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets. Bond functions were placed at mid-distance between the HNC center of mass and the center of mass of H(2) for a better description of the van der Waals interaction. Close coupling calculations of the inelastic integral cross sections of HNC in collisions with para-H(2) and ortho-H(2) were calculated for kinetic energies up to 800 cm(-1). After Boltzmann thermal averaging, rate coefficients were obtained for temperatures ranging from 5 to 100 K. Significant differences exist between para- and ortho-H(2) results. The strongest collision-induced rotational HNC transitions are the transitions with ?j = 1 for collisions with para-H(2) and with ortho-H(2). The new rate coefficients should induce important consequences on the determination of HNC abundance in the interstellar medium. In particular, we expect that they will help to solve the interstellar problem of relative abundance of the HCN and HNC isomers. PMID:21298130

Dumouchel, Fabien; K?os, Jacek; Lique, François

2011-02-04

312

Quantum chemical and experimental study of 1,2,4-trihydroxy-para-menthane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conformational analysis of the para-menthane (PM) and 1,2,4-trihydroxy-para-menthane (TPM) is performed using the quantum chemical density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio Møller-Plesset perturbation theory up to the second order (MP2). In TPM, three hydroxyl groups generate eight stereoisomers comparing to the four para-menthane stereoisomers. From the thermodynamics point of view, the most preferred conformations show the chair-shaped configuration of the cyclohexane ring. The obtained energy barriers for the isopropyl group rotation in the chair-shaped stereoisomers are between 35 and 45 kJ mol?1. The crystal structure as well as the solvated TPM stereoisomer isolated from the Tea tree oil, Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel, were investigated experimentally. Isolated stereoisomer corresponds to the most energetically preferred conformation and the calculated structural data agree very well with the results from the X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. Finally, the influence of the conformation and the presence of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds on the homolytic OH bond dissociation enthalpies and proton affinities were also discussed with respect to the simple alcohols (methanol, iso-propanol, iso-pentanol, tert-butanol, cyclohexanol) and phenol.

Rottmannová, Lenka; Lukeš, Vladimír; Il?in, Michal; Fodran, Peter; Herich, Peter; Kožíšek, Jozef; Liptaj, Tibor; Klein, Erik

2013-10-01

313

Para-GMRF: parallel algorithm for anomaly detection of hyperspectral image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hyperspectral imager is capable of collecting hundreds of images corresponding to different wavelength channels for the observed area simultaneously, which make it possible to discriminate man-made objects from natural background. However, the price paid for the wealthy information is the enormous amounts of data, usually hundreds of Gigabytes per day. Turning the huge volume data into useful information and knowledge in real time is critical for geoscientists. In this paper, the proposed parallel Gaussian-Markov random field (Para-GMRF) anomaly detection algorithm is an attempt of applying parallel computing technology to solve the problem. Based on the locality of GMRF algorithm, we partition the 3-D hyperspectral image cube in spatial domain and distribute data blocks to multiple computers for concurrent detection. Meanwhile, to achieve load balance, a work pool scheduler is designed for task assignment. The Para-GMRF algorithm is organized in master-slave architecture, coded in C programming language using message passing interface (MPI) library and tested on a Beowulf cluster. Experimental results show that Para-GMRF algorithm successfully conquers the challenge and can be used in time sensitive areas, such as environmental monitoring and battlefield reconnaissance.

Dong, Chao; Zhao, Huijie; Li, Na; Wang, Wei

2007-11-01

314

The ortho:para-H_2 ratio in C- and J-type shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have computed extensive grids of models of both C- and J-type planar shock waves, propagating in dark, cold molecular clouds, in order to study systematically the behaviour of the ortho:para-H_2 ratio. Careful attention was paid to both macroscopic (dynamical) and microscopic (chemical reactions and collisional population transfer in H_2) aspects. We relate the predictions of the models to observational determinations of the ortho:para-H_2 ratio using both pure rotational lines and rovibrational lines. As an illustration, we consider ISO and ground-based H_2 observations of HH 54. Neither planar C-type nor planar J-type shocks appear able to account fully for these observations. Given the additional constraints provided by the observed ortho:para H_2 ratios, a C-type bowshock, or a C-type precursor followed by a J-type shock, remain as plausible models. Tables~2a-f and 4a-f are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Wilgenbus, D.; Cabrit, S.; Pineau des Forêts, G.; Flower, D. R.

2000-04-01

315

Surgical resection of a solitary para-aortic lymph node metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Lymph node (LN) metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are considered uncommon. We describe the surgical resection of a solitary para-aortic LN metastasis from HCC. A 65-year-old Japanese man with B-type liver cirrhosis was admitted for the evaluation of a liver tumor. He had already undergone radiofrequency ablation, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, and percutaneous ethanol injection therapy for HCC. Despite treatment, viable regions remained in segments 4 and 8. We performed a right paramedian sectionectomy with partial resection of the left paramedian section of the liver. Six months later, serum concentrations of alpha-fetoprotein (189 ng/mL) and PIVKA-2 (507 mAU/mL) increased. Enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a tumor (20 mm in diameter) on the right side of the abdominal aorta. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed an increased standard uptake value. There was no evidence of recurrence in other regions. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy revealed no malignant tumor in the gastrointestinal tract. Para-aortic LN metastasis from HCC was thus diagnosed. We performed lymphadenectomy. Histopathological examination revealed that the tumor was largely necrotic, with poorly differentiated HCC on its surface, which confirmed the suspected diagnosis. After 6 mo tumor marker levels were normal, with no evidence of recurrence. Our experience suggests that a solitary para-aortic LN metastasis from HCC can be treated surgically.

Ueda, Junji; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Mamada, Yasuhiro; Taniai, Nobuhiko; Mineta, Sho; Yoshioka, Masato; Kawano, Youichi; Shimizu, Tetsuya; Hara, Etsuko; Kawamoto, Chiaki; Kaneko, Keiko; Uchida, Eiji

2012-01-01

316

Comparação de modelos para o cálculo de perturbações orbitais devidas à maré terrestre  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aplicações recentes de satélites artificiais com finalidades geodinâmicas requerem órbitas determinadas com bastante precisão. Em particular marés terrestres influenciam o potencial terrestre causando perturbações adicionais no movimento de satélites artificiais, as quais tem sido medidas por diversos processos. A atração exercida pela lua e pelo sol sobre a terra produz deslocamentos elásticos em seu interior e uma protuberância em sua superfície. O resultado é uma pequena variação na distribuição da massa na terra, consequentemente no geopotencial. As perturbações nos elementos orbitais de satélites artificiais terrestres devidas a maré terrestre podem ser estudadas a partir das equações de Lagrange, considerando-se um conveniente potencial. Por outro lado, como tem sido feito pelo IERS, as mudanças induzidas pela maré terrestre no geopotencial podem ser convenientemente modeladas como variações nos coeficientes Cnm e Snm do geopotencial. As duas teorias ainda não foram comparados para um mesmo satélite. Neste trabalho são apresentadas e comparadas as variações de longo período e seculares nas perturbações orbitais devidas à maré terrestre, calculadas por um modelo simples, o de Kozai, e pelo modelo do IERS. Resultados preliminares mostram, para os satélites SCD2 e CBERS1, e para a Lua em movimento elíptico e precessionando, as perturbações seculares no argumento do perigeu e na longitude do nodo ascendente.

Vieira Pinto, J.; Vilhena de Moraes, R.

2003-08-01

317

Enhanced mitigation of para-chlorophenol using stratified activated carbon adsorption columns.  

PubMed

The adsorptive removal of toxic para-chlorophenol using activated carbon adsorption columns is a proven effective engineering process. This paper examined the possibility to stratify an adsorbent bed into layers, in order to enhance the adsorption process performance in terms of increased column service time and adsorbent bed saturation. Four different types of fixed-bed adsorption columns are used and compared under the same operating conditions, but with the variation of column geometry and activated carbon particle size stratification. The Type 3 column - a cylindrical column with particle stratification packing, is found to be the most efficient choice, as the extent of column service time and adsorbent bed saturation are the largest. This could eventually decrease the frequency of adsorbent replacement/regeneration and hence reduce the operating cost of the fixed-bed adsorption process. The Homogeneous Surface Diffusion Model (HSDM) was applied successfully to describe the dynamic adsorption of para-chlorophenol onto Filtrasorb 400 (F400) activated carbon in different types of columns. The Redlich-Peterson isotherm model equation, an experimentally derived external mass transfer correlation and a constant surface diffusivity are used in the HSDM. The optimised surface diffusivity of para-chlorophenol is found to be 1.20E-8 cm(2)/s, which is in good agreement with other phenolics/F400 carbon diffusing systems in literature. PMID:22154109

Sze, Michael Fan Fu; McKay, Gordon

2011-11-19

318

Madres para la Salud: Design of a Theory-based Intervention for Postpartum Latinas  

PubMed Central

Background Weight gain in young women suggests that childbearing may be an important contributor to the development of obesity in women. Depressive symptoms can interfere with resumption of normal activity levels following childbirth or with the initiation of or adherence to physical activity programs essential for losing pregnancy weight. Depression symptoms may function directly to promote weight gain through a physiologic mechanism. Obesity and its related insulin resistance may contribute to depressed mood physiologically. Although physical activity has well-established beneficial effects on weight management and depression, women tend to under participate in physical activity during childbearing years. Further, the mechanisms underpinning the interplay of overweight, obesity, physical activity, depression, and inflammatory processes are not clearly explained. Objectives This report describes the theoretical rationale, design considerations, and cultural relevance for “Madres para la Salud” [Mothers for Health]. Design and Methods Madres para la Salud is a 12 month prospective, randomized controlled trial exploring the effectiveness of a culturally specific intervention using “bouts” of physical activity to effect changes in body fat, systemic and fat tissue inflammation, and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary postpartum Latinas. Summary The significance and innovation of Madres para la Salud includes use of a theory-driven approach to intervention, specification and cultural relevance of a social support intervention, use of a Promotora model to incorporate cultural approaches, use of objective measures of physical activity in post partum Latinas women, and the examination of biomarkers indicative of cardiovascular risk related to physical activity behaviors in postpartum Latinas.

Keller, Colleen; Records, Kathie; Ainsworth, Barbara; Belyea, Michael; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean; Vega-Lopez, Sonia; Nagle-Williams, Allison

2011-01-01

319

Dysregulated expression of HOX and ParaHOX genes in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Homeobox genes function as master regulators in embryonic morphogenesis. We hypothesized that homeobox genes are essential to maintain tissue- or organ-specificity even in adult body and that the dysregulated expression of homeobox genes results in tumor development and progression. To better understand the roles of homeobox genes in development and progression of esophageal cancer, we analyzed the expression patterns of 39 HOX genes and 4 ParaHOX (CDX1, CDX2, CDX4 and PDX1) genes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and normal esophageal mucosa tissues. A total of 48 primary ESCC tissues and 7 normal esophageal mucosa tissues were resected from patients who underwent radical surgery without any preoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The expression of HOX and ParaHOX genes were analyzed by a quantitative real-time RT-PCR method and immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of 24 HOX genes, CDX1, CDX2 and PDX1 were significantly higher in ESCC compared to normal mucosa (p<0.01, Mann-Whitney U test). The Immunohistochemical study revealed that HOXA5 and D9 proteins were more cytoplasmic in ESCC than normal mucosa cells. Our data indicate that the disordered expression of HOX and ParaHOX genes are involved in the development of ESCC or its malignancy. PMID:17342311

Takahashi, Osamu; Hamada, Jun-Ichi; Abe, Motoki; Hata, Shinya; Asano, Toshimichi; Takahashi, Yoko; Tada, Mitsuhiro; Miyamoto, Masaki; Kondo, Satoshi; Moriuchi, Tetsuya

2007-04-01

320

Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Infrared Spectra of CO_2-(para-H_2)_2 Trimers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infrared spectra of several isotopologues of the CO_2-(para-H_2)_2 trimer have been predicted by applying exact basis-set calculations to a global potential energy surface which is defined as a sum of the accurately known two-body para-H_2--CO_2 and para-H_2--para-H_2 potentials. These results are compared with new spectroscopic measurements, for which sixteen transitions have been assigned. A reduced-dimension treatment of the para-H_2 rotation has been employed by performing an exact hindered-rotor average. Three-body effects and the quality of the potential are discussed. We present a new technique for representing the three-dimensional para-H_2 density in the body-fixed frame. It shown the two para-H_2 molecules are localized much more closely together than is the case for the two He atoms in the analogous CO_2--(He)_2 system. H. Li, P.-N. Roy and R.J. Le Roy, J. Chem. Phys. (2010, submitted); K. Patkowski, W. Cencek, P. Jankowski, K. Szalewicz, J.B. Mehl, G. Garberoglio and A.H. Harvey, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 094304 (2010). H. Li, P.-N. Roy and R.J. Le Roy, J. Chem. Phys. (2010 submitted).

Li, Hui; McKellar, A. R. W.; Le Roy, Robert J.; Roy, Andpierre-Nicholas

2010-06-01

321

A sensitive and selective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the analysis of Para red in foods.  

PubMed

Para red is a synthetic dye and a potential genotoxic carcinogen. A hapten mimicking Para red structure was synthesized by introducing a carboxyl to the naphthol part of Para red and coupled to carrier protein to form an immunogen for the production of specific antibodies. A sensitive and selective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of Para red in food samples. The limit of detection and inhibition half-maximum concentrations of Para red in phosphate buffered saline with 10% methanol were 0.06 and 2.2 ng mL(-1), respectively. Cross-reactivity values of the ELISA with the tested compounds including Sudan red I, II, III, IV, and G, sunset yellow, 2-naphthol, and 4-nitroaniline were ?0.2%. This assay was used to determine Para red in tomato sauce, chilli sauce, chilli powder and sausage samples after ultrasonic extraction, cleanup and concentration steps. The average recoveries, repeatability (intraday extractions and analysis), and intra-laboratory reproducibility (interday extractions and analysis) were in the range 90-108%, 4-12% and 8-17%, respectively. This assay was compared to a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for 28 samples, displaying a good correlation (R(2) = 0.95). Para red residues in 53 real world samples determined by ELISA were below the limit of detection. PMID:22439137

Wang, Jia; Wei, Keyi; Li, Hao; Li, Qing X; Li, Ji; Xu, Ting

2012-03-21

322

ParA encoded on chromosome II of Deinococcus radiodurans binds to nucleoid and inhibits cell division in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Bacterial genome segregation and cell division has been studied mostly in bacteria harbouring single circular chromosome and low-copy plasmids. Deinococcus radiodurans, a radiation-resistant bacterium, harbours multipartite genome system. Chromosome I encodes majority of the functions required for normal growth while other replicons encode mostly the proteins involved in secondary functions. Here, we report the characterization of putative P-loop ATPase (ParA2) encoded on chromosome II of D. radiodurans. Recombinant ParA2 was found to be a DNA-binding ATPase. E. coli cells expressing ParA2 showed cell division inhibition and mislocalization of FtsZ-YFP and those expressing ParA2-CFP showed multiple CFP foci formation on the nucleoid. Although, in trans expression of ParA2 failed to complement SlmA loss per se, it could induce unequal cell division in slmAminCDE double mutant. These results suggested that ParA2 is a nucleoid-binding protein, which could inhibits cell division in E. coli by affecting the correct localization of FtsZ and thereby cytokinesis. Helping slmAminCDE mutant to produce minicells, a phenotype associated with mutations in the 'Min' proteins, further indicated the possibility of ParA2 regulating cell division by bringing nucleoid compaction at the vicinity of septum growth. PMID:23938382

Charaka, Vijaya Kumar; Mehta, Kruti P; Misra, H S

2013-09-01

323

ParaDyn Implementation in the US Navy's DYSMAS Simulation System: FY08 Progress Report  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to increase the computational efficiency and capacity of the Navy's DYSMAS simulation system for full ship shock response to underwater explosion. Specifically, this project initiates migration to a parallel processing capability for the structural portion of the overall fluid-structure interaction model. The capstone objective for the first phase is to demonstrate operation of the DYSMAS simulation engine with a production model on a Naval Surface Warfare Center (IHD) parallel platform using the ParaDyn code for parallel processing of the structural dynamics. This year saw a successful launch to integrate ParaDyn, the high-parallel structural dynamics code from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), into the DYSMAS system for simulating the response of ship structures to underwater explosion (UNDEX). The current LLNL version of DYNA3D, representing ten years of general development beyond the source branch used to initiate DYNA-N customization for DYSMAS, was first connected to the GEMINI flow code through DYSMAS Standard Coupler Interface (SCI). This permitted an early 'sanity check' by Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division (NSWC-IHD) personnel that equivalent results were generated for their standard UNDEX test problems, thus ensuring the Verification & Validation pedigree they have developed remains intact. The ParaDyn code was then joined to the SCI in a manner requiring no changes to GEMINI. Three NSWC-IHD engineers were twice hosted at LLNL to become familiar with LLNL computer systems, the execution of the prototype software system, and to begin assessment of its accuracy and performance. Scaling data for the flow solver GEMINI was attained up to a one billion cell, 1000 processor run. The NSWC-IHD engineers were granted privileges to continue their evaluations through remote connections to LLNL's Open Computing Facility. Finally, the prototype changes were integrated into the mainline ParaDyn source repository and issued as part of its Version 8.1 beta release. This source was transmitted to NSWC-IHD and in collaboration with LLNL personnel the entire ParaDyn software suite successfully installed and demonstrated on its new SGI Altix machine. The ability of even minor numbers of processors for the structural dynamics to impact overall time-to-solution for DYSMAS has been demonstrated. Assessments of combined parallel efficiencies are beginning to highlight areas for further DYSMAS optimizations.

Ferencz, R M; DeGroot, A J; Lin, J I; Zywicz, E; Durrenberger, J K; Sherwood, R J; Corey, I R

2008-07-29

324

A single amino acid change in the para sodium channel protein is associated with knockdown-resistance ( kdr) to pyrethroid insecticides in German cockroach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous genetic and pharmacological studies suggest that knockdown-resistance (kdr) to pyrethroid insecticides likely results from a mutation(s) in the para sodium channel gene. In this study, para sodium channel genes from an insecticide-susceptible German cockroach strain, CSMA, and a kdr-type German cockroach strain, Ectiban-R, were cloned and sequenced. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of paraCSMA and paraEctiban-R revealed two nucleotide

Ke Dong

1997-01-01

325

75 FR 34943 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Para-Aramid Fibers and Yarns Manufactured in a...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics with regard to the acquisition of items containing para-aramid...the textile manufacturing that remains has moved into high performance and niche specialty areas. This respondent stated that...

2010-06-21

326

Unique para-effect in electron ionization mass spectra of bis(perfluoroacyl) derivatives of bifunctional aminobenzenes.  

PubMed

A new kind of 'para-effect' under electron ionization (EI) conditions has been discovered for a series of bis(perfluoroacyl) derivatives of o-, m- and p-phenylenediamines, -hydroxybenzeneamines and -mercaptobenzeneamines of a common structure RCOX-C(6)H(4)-NHCOR (X = NH, S, O; R = CF(3), C(2)F(5), C(3)F(7)). Only the para-isomers showed successive loss of a radical RCO* and a molecule RCN, leading to very intense peaks in the EI spectra. The composition and the origin of the [M-COR-NCR](+) ions were confirmed by exact mass measurements and linked scan experiments. The proposed mechanism of their formation takes into account likely para-quinoid structures of the precursor ions. A similar rearrangement has not been observed for para-isomers in the series of bis(perfluoroacyl) derivatives of benzenediols, mercaptophenols and dimercaptobenzenes. PMID:20740526

Tretyakov, Kirill V; Todua, Nino G; Borisov, Roman S; Zaikin, Vladimir G; Stein, Stephen E; Mikaia, Anzor I

2010-09-15

327

Pressure induced phase transitions in pentacene doped para-terphenyl probed by changes in the impurity absorption spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pressure dependence (0–10 kbar) of the low temperature (15 K) absorption spectrum of pentacene impurities in a para-terphenyl host crystal is used to investigate the pressure and\\/or temperature induced triclinic to monoclinic phase change of the para-terphenyl host crystal. Due to the characteristic absorption spectrum of pentacene in these two crystal phases, the pentacene impurity proves to be a

Bruce J. Baer; Eric L. Chronister

1993-01-01

328

The effect of pressure on the fluorescence lifetime of pentacene in para-terphenyl at low temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time resolved fluorescence measurements are presented as a function of pressure for pentacene in para-terphenyl at low temperature. A photosite specific pressure effect is observed at low temperature for the triclinic (P?5.5 kbar) phase of para-terphenyl. In addition, the fluorescence lifetime of pentacene in the monoclinic (high pressure) crystal phase at low temperature is obtained. We also observe unique fluorescence

Bruce J. Baer; Eric L. Chronister

1994-01-01

329

The Use of Para-Aminobenzoic Acid (PABA) as a Compliance Measure for Large, Long-Term Feeding Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To analyze the use of para-aminobenzoic acid for large long-term feeding studies as a measure of compliance.Metabolic diets are precisely designed to meet each feeding studies’ unique protocol. Valid results are solely dependent upon the total consumption of each prescribed diet. Therefore, compliance is a major concern. Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) is a non-metabolized marker that can be incorporated

M. L. Barkate; M. M. Windhauser; F. M. Ramezanzadeh; S. Richard; R. Tulley

1997-01-01

330

Fabrication and electro chemical properties of poly vinyl alcohol\\/para toluene sulfonic acid membranes for the applications of DMFC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The novel acid–base membranes composed of para toluene sulfonic acid (pTSA) as an acidic compound, and poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) as a basic compound were fabricated. The morphological and structural properties of the prepared membranes were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Infra red spectroscopy. Inclusion of Glutaraldehyde (GLA) and para toluene sulfonic acid (pTSA) promotes the amorphous character of

G. Gnana Kumar; Periyayya Uthirakumar; Kee Suk Nahm; R. Nimma Elizabeth

2009-01-01

331

Point mutations in the Drosophila sodium channel gene para associated with resistance to DDT and pyrethroid insecticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene para in Drosophila melanogaster encodes an ? subunit of voltage-activated sodium channels, the presumed site of action of DDT and pyrethroid insecticides.\\u000a We used an existing collection of Drosophila para mutants to examine the molecular basis of target-site resistance to pyrethroids and DDT. Six out of thirteen mutants tested\\u000a were associated with a largely dominant, 10- to 30-fold

B. Pittendrigh; R. Reenan; R. H. ffrench-Constant; B. Ganetzky

1997-01-01

332

A computa»c~ao numerica como ferramenta para o professor de F¶‡sica do Ensino Medio  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proposta deste trabalhoe apresentar ao professor de F¶‡sica do ensino medio uma forma de empregar recur- sos computacionais para esclarecer e aprofundar conceitos de F¶‡sica que s~ao explorados de forma limitada por n~ao se poder recorrer ao Calculo Diferencial e Integral. O p^endulo simplese usado como prototipo para o trata- mento sugerido. Mostramos que apenas com o aux¶‡lio de

Augusto Cesar; Claudio Gon; Marcus Vinicius; Tovar Costa

333

Local and official forms of symbolic control: an Australian case study of the pedagogic work of para-educational personnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an analysis is undertaken of the accounts of pedagogic work provided by para-educational personnel working in two government-funded schools situated in a low socio-economic area of an Australian city. Specifically, the paper examines the accounts of two para-educational personnel who identified as Samoan\\/Pacific Islander and worked to improve the educational outcomes of students from the local Samoan\\/Pacific

Parlo Singh

2000-01-01

334

ParaSight-F rapid manual diagnostic test of Plasmodium falciparum infection.  

PubMed

The ParaSight(R)-F test is a qualitative diagnostic test of Plasmodium falciparum, which is based on the detection by a monoclonal antibody of a species-specific soluble antigen (histidine-rich protein (HRP-II)) in whole blood and which can be performed without special equipment. A visual reading is given by a polyclonal antibody coupled with dye-loaded liposomes; when positive, a pink line appears. The test has been compared with microscopic examination of thin blood smears and with Quantitative Buffy Coat malaria test (QBC(R) in a single-blind study. A total of 358 patients who had returned to France from malarial areas and consulted their doctor with symptoms or for a routine examination were enrolled in the study; 33 of them were found to have a falciparum malaria infection by the diagnostic test. On the day of consultation, the specificity of the ParaSight(R)-F test was 99% and its sensitivity 94%. The follow-up of infected patients after treatment showed that the test became negative later than the other reference tests. There was no correlation between antigen persistence and the intensity of the ParaSight(R)-F signal or circulating parasitaemia. No cross-reaction was noted for seven malaria cases due to other Plasmodium species. The test was performed quickly (10 tests in 20 minutes), was easy to read, and required minimal space. For cases of imported malaria, the test's specificity and low threshold for detection could make it a valuable adjunct test. However, in its present form, it cannot replace microscopic techniques which are species-specific and quantitative. In endemic areas, the test seems to be very promising by its results and ease of use according to published field studies. PMID:8846490

Uguen, C; Rabodonirina, M; De Pina, J J; Vigier, J P; Martet, G; Maret, M; Peyron, F

1995-01-01

335

Haze, Methane And Para-hydrogen Distributions On Uranus And Neptune  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of aerosols, methane, and molecular hydrogen-para fraction on Uranus and Neptune are investigated from spatially resolved near-IR spectra. For reasons not yet understood, Neptune is one of the most meteorologically active planets in the solar system. Uranus, which appeared relatively featureless in Voyager 2 images, has shown increased activity in recent years [1], presumably revealing seasonal changes. The advent of the HST and adaptive optics technology has allowed researchers to map clouds and retrieve chemical abundances [2,3], providing clues to the dynamics driving these worlds. For this study, latitude resolved H- and K-band spectra and images were obtained using adaptive optics on the 200” Hale telescope at the Palomar Observatory. Data was acquired nearly annually from 1999 to 2007, with several longitudes covered each year. We use an objective, systematic retrieval algorithm (using singular value decomposition) to minimize differences between observed and modeled spectra. Best fitting vertical profiles of aerosol and methane abundance are retrieved, along with the molecular hydrogen para-fraction. Most observations suggest two layers of aerosols, with a stratospheric depletion of methane, and roughly equilibrium para-fractions, each varying with latitude. These parameters are tracers of atmospheric motions and can provide insight into the atmospheric circulations. Variations in latitude suggest regions of stronger upwelling while temporal changes suggest seasonal change. This project was funded under the NASA Outer Planets Research program. [1] Rages, K.A., H.B. Hammel and A.J. Friedson, 2004. Evidence for temporal change at Uranus’ south pole. Icarus, 172, 548-554. [2] Sromovsky, L.A. and P.M.Fry, 2008. The methane abundance and structure of Uranus’ cloud bands inferred from spatially resolved 2006 Keck grism spectra. Icarus, 193, 252-266 [3] Karkoschka, E., 2011. Neptune’s cloud and haze variations 1994-2008 from 500 HST-WFPC2 images. Icarus 215. 759-773.

Roman, Michael; Banfield, D.; Gierasch, P. J.; Stam, D. M.

2012-10-01

336

A Introdução de Astronomia Básica para Estudantes de 5 e 6 Séries do Ensino Fundamental  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Com intuito de despertar o interesse pelo estudo da astronomia, desenvolveu-se entre 2003 e 2006 no Centro Educacional do Serviço Social da Indústria situado no município de Mauá, São Paulo, um trabalho com duração de 12 meses para turmas de 11 e 12 anos, sendo três turmas por período (2003 / 2004, 2004 / 2005 e 2005 / 2006). O trabalho realizado, objetivando a introdução da astronomia básica com observações de constelações e das fases da Lua, permitindo estender-se a outros corpos celestes, iniciou-se com visita ao planetário Mundo Estelar, localizado no Ipiranga, São Paulo levantou-se a questão da importância do estudo da astronomia e foi lançado aos estudantes um trabalho de observação, com a proposta de localizar as constelações e compreender as fases da Lua, para o registro de tais observações, foram distribuídos mapas celestes, pastas, planilhas de anotações com lacunas para, constelações, fases da Lua e relatos, onde os estudantes acrescentaram pesquisas e relatórios. Os resultados dos 346 estudantes foram que 86,7% (300) concluíram a etapa de observação, destes 300 estudantes 43,3% (130) pesquisaram sobre as constelações e 19,0% (57) localizaram até quatro constelações. Dos 346 estudantes, 44,2% (153) registraram as fases da Lua equivocadamente e 10,4% (36) anexaram reportagens sobre astronomia. Conclui-se que os estudantes se dividiram em pesquisadores, sendo os estudantes que registraram e anexaram informações e, os observadores que preencheram as planilhas de observações, além de desenvolverem habilidades e competências relacionadas ao estudo da astronomia.

Gonzaga, E. P.; Voelzke, M. R.

2008-09-01

337

Ortho/Para Ratio of H2O+ Toward Sagittarius B2(M) Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HIFI instrument aboard the Herschel satellite has allowed the observation and characterization of light hydrides, the building blocks of interstellar chemistry. In this article, we revisit the ortho/para ratio for H2O+ toward the Sgr B2(M) cloud core. The line of sight toward this star forming region passes through several spiral arms and the gas in the Bar potential in the inner Galaxy. In contrast to earlier findings, which used fewer lines to constrain the ratio, we find a ratio of 3, which is uniformly consistent with high-temperature formation of the species. In view of the reactivity of this ion, this matches the expectations.

Schilke, Peter; Lis, Dariusz C.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Higgins, Ronan; Comito, Claudia

2013-10-01

338

Diophantine properties of the zeros of certain Laguerre and para-Jacobi polynomials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matrices \\underline{A} and \\underline{B} of arbitrary rank N, given by simple expressions in terms of the N zeros of certain Laguerre or para-Jacobi polynomials of degree N, feature a Diophantine property. In the Laguerre case, this property states that the 2N zeros of the polynomial p_{2N}\\left( \\lambda \\right) =\\det \\left[ \\lambda ^{2}+\\lambda \\underline{A} +\\underline{B}\\right] are all integers; indeed we conjecture that \\det \\left[ \\lambda ^{2}+\\lambda \\underline{A}+\\underline{B}\\right] =\\prod \

Calogero, Francesco; Yi, Ge

2012-03-01

339

First order optical nonlinearities ? for organic nanofibers from functionalized para-phenylenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical frequency doubling is demonstrated from nanoscaled, parallely oriented needle-like organic aggregates (‘nanofibers’) that have been grown on mica surfaces from unsymmetrically functionalized para-quaterphenylene organic molecules. Wavelength dependent absolute values of the first order non-linear susceptibility, ?zzz(2), are measured for nanofibers from six differently functionalized molecules. These quantitative measurements are enabled by combining relative second-harmonic intensity measurements with reference to a quartz crystal with morphological information on the individual nanoaggregates gathered from atomic force microscopy images. Values up to that of KDP(d36) are found for nanofibers from specific functionalized molecules.

Brewer, J.; Schiek, M.; Wallmann, I.; Rubahn, H.-G.

2008-07-01

340

Low-threshold blue lasing in epitaxially grown para-sexiphenyl nanofibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random laser action and amplified spontaneous emission are observed near 425nm in self-assembled para-sexiphenyl nanofibers following subpicosecond optical pumping. The threshold excitation fluence (photoexcited density) is as low as 0.5?J\\/cm2 (6×1016cm?3). The high degree of material crystallinity results in a very large singlet–singlet annihilation rate of ?10?7cm3\\/s. In stationary conditions, assuming a standard singlet-to-triplet density ratio of 0.3 and bimolecular

F. Quochi; A. Andreev; F. Cordella; R. Orru; A. Mura; G. Bongiovanni; H. Sitterb Hoppe; H. Sitter; N. S. Sariciftci

2005-01-01

341

The Ortho:Para Ratio of H3+ in Diffuse Molecular Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since its first interstellar detection in the mid 1990s, H3+ has proved to be a powerful probe of astrophysical conditions. In cold molecular clouds, only the lowest two rotational energy levels of H3+ are populated: the (J,K) = (1,1) para state and the (1,0) ortho state. The relative populations of these levels can be used to calculate an excitation temperature, Tex. In dense molecular clouds, Tex agrees well with the estimated cloud kinetic temperature. However, in diffuse molecular clouds, Tex is found to be 30 K, while the kinetic temperature, as determined from the excitation temperature T01 (given by the relative populations of the J = 0 and J = 1 rotational levels of H2) is on average 60-70 K in these environments. Because the (1,1) state of H3+ is the lower-energy state, this indicates that there is more para-H3+ in diffuse molecular clouds than would be expected based on the cloud kinetic temperature. To understand the excess para-H3+ (or the lower-than-expected Tex), we have constructed a chemical model that takes into account the nuclear spin dependence of H3+ formation, proton scrambling via collisions with H2, and dissociative recombination with electrons. At the heart of this model is the reaction H3+ + H2 ? H2 + H3+ , which can proceed by one of three pathways: the identity, proton hop, and hydrogen exchange. The branching fractions for the three pathways, Sid, Shop, and Sexch, influence the nature and extent of the proton scrambling. We use the microcanonical statistical model of Park and Light (J. Chem. Phys. 126, 044305, 1997) to calculate nuclear-spin-dependent rate coefficients that describe the extent of proton scrambling as a function of temperature and the aforementioned branching fractions. As a result, our model predicts, based on these parameters, what the observed Tex should be for a certain cloud kinetic temperature. Our model suggests that on its own, the H3+ + H2 reaction would effectively thermalize the ortho:para H3+ ratio (i.e., Tex = T01). However, dissociative recombination is taken into account, this thermalization is incomplete, and the resultant competition between thermalization and dissociative recombination seems to reproduce the astronomical observations for Sid ~ 0.8-0.9. However, the details of the spin-dependence of H3+ dissociative recombination are important, and at present, experimentally uncertain. More information about this process is needed to determine the validity of our modeling results.

Crabtree, Kyle N.; Indriolo, Nick; Kreckel, Holder; Tom, Brian A.; McCall, Benjamin J.

2010-11-01

342

Photophysical and acid-base properties of para-substituted N,N-dimethylanilines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultraviolet absorption and fluorescence spectra were collected for para-substituted N,N-dimethylanilines in aqueous solution at various pH conditions. Two fluorescing forms were observed for all studied compounds, one protonated (ANsH+) and the second unprotonated (ANs) each of them with specific spectroscopic properties. Changing pH of solution results in the displacement of the equilibrium between two forms. It was found that protonated aniline derivatives in aqueous solutions undergo very fast excited-state proton dissociation and the pKa values obtained from absorption and fluorescence spectra are similar. The excited state pKa? values were calculated using the Förster cycle method.

Szabelski, Mariusz; Bojarski, Piotr; Wieczorek, Zbigniew

2013-05-01

343

On linear differential equations with variable coefficients involving a para-Grassmann variable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear differential equations with constant coefficients involving a para-Grassmann variable have been considered recently in the work of Mansour and Schork [Symmetry, Integr. Geom.: Methods Appl. 5, 73 (2009)]. In the present paper, this treatment is extended to linear differential equations with variable coefficients. For the equation of first order, an explicit formula for the solution is given. For the equations of higher order, it is shown how the solutions may be determined in terms of the solutions of ``ordinary'' differential equations (i.e., involving only ``bosonic'' variables). Some examples of these differential equations are discussed and analogs for the trigonometric functions are introduced.

Mansour, Toufik; Schork, Matthias

2010-04-01

344

Electron delocalization in CrII complexes checked by ortho- into para-positronium conversion reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The metal electron delocalization caused by ligands in 3d complexes may be evaluated by means of the empirical equation ?=1-tMhL where tM and hL are constants depending on metal ion and ligand types, respectively. tM and hL are till now derived by UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy. By applying a completely different approach, i.e. the correlation found between ? and the rate constants of the ortho- into para-positronium spin conversion reactions, the tM value of CrII was determined and that of NiII checked.

Lazzarini, A. L. F.; Lazzarini, E.; Mariani, M.

1999-03-01

345

Para-aminosalicylic acid-induced hypoglycaemia in a patient with diabetic nephropathy.  

PubMed

A 62-year-old Indian with diabetic nephropathy controlled with metformin, developed miliary tuberculosis for which he was treated with rifampicin, isoniazid and ethambutol. Soon afterwards he developed cholestatic hepatitis and visual disturbance. Rifampicin and ethambutol were stopped. Streptomycin caused vertigo and had to be stopped. The introduction of para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) led to hypoglycaemic coma. Metformin was stopped. Hypoglycaemic coma recurred. PAS was stopped and the patient's blood glucose concentrations became normal. Treatment with isoniazid and ethambutol led to total recovery from pulmonary tuberculosis. The induction of hypoglycaemia with PAS in this patient suggests a potential role for PAS in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:7393795

Dandona, P; Greenbury, E; Beckett, A G

1980-02-01

346

Para-aminosalicylic acid-induced hypoglycaemia in a patient with diabetic nephropathy.  

PubMed Central

A 62-year-old Indian with diabetic nephropathy controlled with metformin, developed miliary tuberculosis for which he was treated with rifampicin, isoniazid and ethambutol. Soon afterwards he developed cholestatic hepatitis and visual disturbance. Rifampicin and ethambutol were stopped. Streptomycin caused vertigo and had to be stopped. The introduction of para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) led to hypoglycaemic coma. Metformin was stopped. Hypoglycaemic coma recurred. PAS was stopped and the patient's blood glucose concentrations became normal. Treatment with isoniazid and ethambutol led to total recovery from pulmonary tuberculosis. The induction of hypoglycaemia with PAS in this patient suggests a potential role for PAS in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Dandona, P.; Greenbury, E.; Beckett, A. G.

1980-01-01

347

Experimental and theoretical investigation of 5-para-nitro-benzylidene-thiazolidine-2-thione-4-one molecule  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental methods (FT-IR, Raman and NMR spectroscopies, and X-ray diffraction technique) coupled with quantum chemical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) are used for structural and electronic characterization of 5-para-nitro-benzylidene-thiazolidine-2-thione-4-one (5pN-BTT).X-ray diffraction technique indicates that this compound crystallizes with one tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent molecule, forming a 1:1 5pN-BTT·THF complex, in the monoclinic space group C2\\/c, with Z=8 and cell

Adrian Pîrnau; Vasile Chis; Laszlo Szabo; Onuc Cozar; Mihai Vasilescu; Ovidiu Oniga; Richard A. Varga

2009-01-01

348

Salud Para Su Corazon (Health for Your Heart) Community Health Worker Model  

PubMed Central

This article describes 6 Salud Para Su Corazon (SPSC) family of programs that have addressed cardiovascular disease risk reduction in Hispanic communities facilitated by community health workers (CHWs) or Promotores de Salud (PS). A synopsis of the programs illustrates the designs and methodological approaches that combine community-based participatory research for 2 types of settings: community and clinical. Examples are provided as to how CHWs can serve as agents of change in these settings. A description is presented of a sustainability framework for the SPSC family of programs. Finally, implications are summarized for utilizing the SPSC CHW/PS model to inform ambulatory care management and policy.

Balcazar, H.; Alvarado, M.; Ortiz, G.

2012-01-01

349

Photoisomerization of the green fluorescence protein chromophore and the meta- and para-amino analogues.  

PubMed

The Z --> E photoisomerization and fluorescence quantum yields for the wild-type green fluorescence protein (GFP) chromophore (p-HBDI) and its meta- and para-amino analogues (m-ABDI and p-ABDI) in aprotic solvents (hexane, THF, and acetonitrile) and protic solvents (methanol and 10-20% H(2)O in THF) are reported. The dramatic decrease in the quantum yields on going from aprotic to protic solvents indicates the important role of solvent-solute hydrogen bonding in the nonradiative decay pathways. The enhanced fluorescence of m-ABDI is also discussed. PMID:18389128

Yang, Jye-Shane; Huang, Guan-Jhih; Liu, Yi-Hung; Peng, Shie-Ming

2008-01-18

350

Molecular dynamics simulations of the growth of poly(chloro-para-xylylene) films.  

PubMed

Parylene C, poly(chloro-para-xylylene) is the most widely used member of the parylene family due to its excellent chemical and physical properties. In this work we analyzed the formation of the parylene C film using molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics methods. A five unit chain is necessary to create a stable hydrophobic cluster and to adhere to a covered surface. Two scenarios were deemed to take place. The obtained results are consistent with a polymer film scaling growth mechanism and contribute to the description of the dynamic growth of the parylene C polymer. PMID:21547549

Gieldon, Artur; Czaplewski, Cezary; Smalara, Krzysztof; Bobrowski, Maciej

2011-05-06

351

Frequency-dependent polarizability of —CC— linked para-nitroaniline monomer through pentamer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using atomic orbital basis sets calibrated in an earlier study on the monomer and dimer and employing the direct atomic-integral driven strategy of the DISCO program package, we performed self-consistent field level calculations of the frequency-dependent polarizabilities of the monomer through pentamer of —CC— linked para-nitroaniline. These computations, which were performed in parallel using seven IBM RS6000 model 560 workstations, involved up to 612 atomic basis functions and 10 11 two-electron integrals, and required solution of linear response equations whose dimensions ranged up to 132000.

Nichols, Jeff; Simons, Jack

1993-07-01

352

Para-hyoid ectopic parathyroid adenoma localized by Tc-99m MIBI SPECT.  

PubMed

A 64-year-old woman with a history of I-131 ablation for Graves hyperthyroidism and bilateral parathyroid exploration with resection of a left inferior parathyroid adenoma presented 2 years after surgery with marked fatigue, irritability, and joint pain. Laboratory testing revealed an elevated calcium and parathyroid hormone levels suspicious for hyperparathyroidism. The ultrasound indicated no evidence of a parathyroid adenoma. Tc-99m-MIBI SPECT demonstrated a focus of uptake posteroinferior to the right submandibular gland, suspicious for a parathyroid adenoma. Repeat ultrasound and CT confirmed the presence of a para-hyoid adenoma inferior to the right submandibular gland. PMID:19033797

Rajagopalan, Malolan S; Narla, Vinod V; Kanderi, Tanuja; Muthukrishnan, Ashok

2008-12-01

353

Asymmetric Top Rotors in Superfluid Para-Hydrogen Nano-Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first simulation study of bosonic clusters doped with an asymmetric top molecule. A variation of the path-integral Monte Carlo method is developed to study a para-water (pH_2O) impurity in para-hydrogen (pH_2) clusters. The growth pattern of the doped clusters is similar in nature to that of the pure clusters. The pH_2O molecule appears to rotate freely in the cluster due to its large rotational constants and the lack of adiabatic following. The presence of pH_2O substantially quenches the superfluid response of pH_2 with respect to the space fixed frame. We also study the behaviour of a sulphur dioxide (32S16O_2) dopant in the pH_2 clusters. For such a heavy rotor, the adiabatic following of the pH_2 molecules is established and the superfluid renormalization of the rotational constants is observed. The rotational structure of the SO_2-p(H_2)_N clusters' ro-vibrational spectra is predicted. The connection between the superfluid response respect to the external boundary rotation and the dopant rotation is discussed.

Zeng, Tao; Li, Hui; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

2012-06-01

354

Ortho-Para Conversion in Collisions of H2 with H2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular hydrogen is the main constituent of the atmospheres of the gas giant planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The relative abundances of ortho- and parahydrogen are inferred from infrared spectra of the S(1) and S(0) quadrupole transitions near 17 and 28 microns, which sample conditions in the stratosphere and upper troposphere [1,2]. At most altitudes and latitudes the ortho/para ratio is not in statistical equilibrium at the local temperature, which is interpreted as resulting from vertical transport from lower hotter regions. In order to make inferences about atmospheric circulation we need reliable information about the rate of ortho-para conversion. Atmospheric modelers estimate that it takes 30 to 100 years [1,2]. The two candidate mechanisms are collisions with paramagnetic aerosols and with weak magnetic moment of ortho-H2. The better known mechanisms involving ions or H atoms are inoperative at the relevant low altitudes and low temperatures. Here we review the available information and conclude that magnetic interactions between hydrogen molecules will lead to interconversion in only about 5 years. We also outline theoretical procedures for quantum coupled channels calculations. [1] B. J. Conrath and P. J. Gierasch, Icarus 57, 184 (1984). [2] T. Fouchet, E. Lellouch, and H. Feuchtgruber, Icarus 161, 127 (2003).

Huestis, D. L.

2003-05-01

355

The ortho : para ratio of H3+ in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.  

PubMed

In diffuse molecular clouds, the nuclear spin temperature of H(3)(+) (approx. 30?K) is much lower than the cloud kinetic temperature (approx. 70?K). To understand this temperature discrepancy, we have measured the ratio of the hop to exchange pathways (?) in the H(3)(+) + H(2) --> H(2) + H(3)(+) reaction (which interconverts ortho- and para-H(3)(+)) using high-resolution spectroscopy of the ?(2) fundamental band of H(3)(+) in a hydrogenic plasma. We find that ? decreases from 1.6±0.1 at 350?K to its statistical value of 0.5±0.1 at 135?K. We use this result to model the steady-state chemistry of diffuse molecular clouds, finding good agreement with astronomical data provided the dissociative recombination rates of ortho- and para-H(3)(+) are equal and the identity branching fraction for the H(3)(+) + H(2) reaction is large. Our results highlight the need for further studies of the H(3)(+) + H(2) reaction as well as state-selective measurements of H(3)(+) dissociative recombination. PMID:23028153

Crabtree, Kyle N; McCall, Benjamin J

2012-11-13

356

The rapid manual ParaSight-F test. A new diagnostic tool for Plasmodium falciparum infection.  

PubMed

A rapid manual test for Plasmodium falciparum, the ParaSight-F test, has been used on a series of patients in a holoendemic malaria area of coastal Tanzania. The test, which is an antigen capture test detecting trophozoite-derived histidine rich protein-II, is simple to perform and provides a definitive answer in about 10 min. It requires no special equipment and is read using a single drop of blood. When compared with 272 thick blood films examined microscopically by 2 observers and confirmed by the QBC malaria test, the ParaSight-F test had 88.9% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity. Detectable antigenaemia in a group of 40 people declined following treatment with Fansidar and by 10 d after treatment all but 4 individuals were antigen free. The remaining 4, although clear of peripheral parasitaemia, remained antigenaemic for 14 d. The test shows great promise for rapid effective diagnosis of P. falciparum in clinics and village health centres where there is no facility for microscopy. Because of its accuracy and rapid action it may even obviate the need for microscopical examination of blood films to diagnose P. falciparum malaria. PMID:8296363

Shiff, C J; Premji, Z; Minjas, J N

357

Ortho-to-Para Ratio in Interstellar Water on the Sightline toward Sagittarius B2(N).  

PubMed

The determination of the water ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) is of great interest for studies of the formation and thermal history of water ices in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disk environments. We present new Herschel observations of the fundamental rotational transitions of ortho- and para-water on the sightline toward Sagittarius B2(N), which allow improved estimates of the measurement uncertainties due to instrumental effects and assumptions about the excitation of water molecules. These new measurements, suggesting a spin temperature of 24-32 K, confirm the earlier findings of an OPR below the high-temperature value on the nearby sightline toward Sagittarius B2(M). The exact implications of the low OPR in the galactic center molecular gas remain unclear and will greatly benefit from future laboratory measurements involving water freeze-out and evaporation processes under low-temperature conditions, similar to those present in the galactic interstellar medium. Given the specific conditions in the central region of the Milky Way, akin to those encountered in active Galactic nuclei, gas-phase processes under the influence of strong X-ray and cosmic ray ionization also have to be carefully considered. We summarize some of the latest laboratory measurements and their implications here. PMID:23656468

Lis, Dariusz C; Bergin, Edwin A; Schilke, Peter; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

2013-05-22

358

The NiCEST approach: nickel(II) paraCEST MRI contrast agents.  

PubMed

Paramagnetic Ni(II) complexes are shown here to form paraCEST MRI contrast agents (paraCEST = paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer; NiCEST = Ni(II) based CEST agents). Three azamacrocycles with amide pendent groups bind Ni(II) to form stable NiCEST contrast agents including 1,4,7-tris(carbamoylmethyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (L1), 1,4,8,11-tetrakis(carbamoylmethyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (L2), and 7,13-bis(carbamoylmethyl)-1,4,10-trioxa-7,13-diazacyclopentadecane (L3). [Ni(L3)](2+), [Ni(L1)](2+), and [Ni(L2)](2+) have CEST peaks attributed to amide protons that are shifted 72, 76, and 76 ppm from the bulk water resonance, respectively. Both CEST MR images and CEST spectroscopy show that [Ni(L3)](2+) has the largest CEST effect in 100 mM NaCl, 20 mM HEPES pH 7.4 at 37 °C. This larger CEST effect is attributed to the sharper proton resonances of the complex which arise from a rigid structure and low relaxivity. PMID:23102112

Olatunde, Abiola O; Dorazio, Sarina J; Spernyak, Joseph A; Morrow, Janet R

2012-11-02

359

Theoretical study of the preferential solvation effect on the solvatochromic shifts of para-nitroaniline.  

PubMed

The origin of the nonlinear solvatochromic shift of para-nitroaniline was investigated using a mean-field sequential QM/MM method, with electron transitions computed at the CASPT2/cc-pVDZ level. Experimental data shows that the solvatochromic shift has a strong nonlinear behavior in certain solvent mixtures. We studied the case of cyclohexane-triethylamine mixtures. The results are in good agreement with the experiments and correctly reproduce the nonlinear variation of the solvent shift. Preferential solvation is clearly observed, where the local solvent composition in the neighborhood of the solute is significantly different from the bulk. It is found that even at low triethylamine concentrations a strong hydrogen bond is formed between para-nitroaniline and triethylamine, and cyclohexane is practically absent from the first solvation layer already at a molar fraction of 0.6 in triethylamine. The hydrogen bond formed is sufficiently long-lived to determine an asymmetric environment around the solute molecule. The resulting nonlinear solvent effect is mainly due to this hydrogen bond influence, although there is also a small contribution from dielectric enrichment. PMID:23343382

Frutos-Puerto, Samuel; Aguilar, Manuel A; Fdez Galván, Ignacio

2013-02-13

360

Photoinduced reactions of para-quinones with bicyclopropylidene leading to diverse polycyclic compounds with spirocyclopropanes.  

PubMed

Photoinduced reactions of bicyclopropylidene (BCP) with para-quinones (p-quinones) including benzoquinones, naphthoquinones, and anthraquinones were found to proceed via different cycloaddition pathways and lead to diverse polycyclic products bearing spiropropyl moiety. Photocycloaddition of BCP with benzoquinones gave spirooxetanes as the primary products, which upon irradiation were able to rearrange into the spiro[4.5]deca-6,9-diene-2,8-diones as secondary photoproducts. Chemoselectivity of the photocycloaddition of BCP with naphthoquinones relies largely on the substitution groups linked to the C?C in between the two carbonyl groups to give different types of products. Photoreaction of BCP with 9,10-anthraquinone gave not only the spirooxetane product, but also a novel spiro[indan-1,1'-phthalan]-3'-one product whose formation might be initiated by a transannular attack of the C4 cyclopropyl radical to the para-carbonyl group. Mechanisms involved in the formation of diverse primary or secondary products in the photoreactions of BCP with p-quinones were proposed. Some of the photoreactions also hold potentials as useful synthetic protocols for important spiropolycyclic compounds such as sesquiterpenes. PMID:23692405

Wang, Wei; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Wang, Lei; Quah, Ching Kheng; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Xu, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Yan

2013-06-03

361

Construction and characterization of two recombinant bacteria that grow on ortho- and para-substituted chlorobiphenyls  

SciTech Connect

Cloning and expression of the aromatic ring dehalogenation genes in biphenyl-growing, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-cometabolizing Comamonas testosteroni VP44 resulted in recombinant pathways allowing growth on ortho- and para-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) as a sole carbon source. The recombinant variants were constructed by transformation of strain VP44 with plasmids carrying specific genes for dehalogenation of chlorobenzoates (CBAs). Plasmid pE43 carries the Pseudomonas aeruginosa 142 ohb genes coding for the terminal oxygenase (ISP{sub OHB}) of the ortho-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase, whereas plasmid pPC3 contains the Arthrobacter globiformis KZT1 fcb genes, which catalyze the hydrolytic para-dechlorination of 4-CBA. The parental strain, VP44, grew only on low concentrations of 2- and 4-CB by using the products from the fission of the nonchlorinated ring of the CBs (pentadiene) and accumulated stoichiometric amounts of the corresponding CBAs. The recombinant strains VP44(pPC3) and VP44(pE43) grew on, and completely dechlorinated high concentrations (up to 10 mM), of 4-CBA and 4-CB and 2-CBA and 2-CB, respectively. Cell protein yield corresponded to complete oxidation of both biphenyl rings, thus confirming mineralization of the CBs. Hence, the use of CBA dehalogenase genes appears to be an effective strategy for construction of organisms that will grow on at least some congeners important for remediation of PCBs.

Hrywna, Y.; Tsoi, T.V.; Maltseva, O.V.; Quensen, J.F. III; Tiedje, J.M. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

1999-05-01

362

affyPara--a Bioconductor Package for Parallelized Preprocessing Algorithms of Affymetrix Microarray Data  

PubMed Central

Microarray data repositories as well as large clinical applications of gene expression allow to analyse several hundreds of microarrays at one time. The preprocessing of large amounts of microarrays is still a challenge. The algorithms are limited by the available computer hardware. For example, building classification or prognostic rules from large microarray sets will be very time consuming. Here, preprocessing has to be a part of the cross-validation and resampling strategy which is necessary to estimate the rule’s prediction quality honestly. This paper proposes the new Bioconductor package affyPara for parallelized preprocessing of Affymetrix microarray data. Partition of data can be applied on arrays and parallelization of algorithms is a straightforward consequence. The partition of data and distribution to several nodes solves the main memory problems and accelerates preprocessing by up to the factor 20 for 200 or more arrays. affyPara is a free and open source package, under GPL license, available form the Bioconductor project at www.bioconductor.org. A user guide and examples are provided with the package.

Schmidberger, Markus; Vicedo, Esmeralda; Mansmann, Ulrich

2009-01-01

363

The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic  

PubMed Central

The inaugural IgM event entitled “The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic” brought together the increasingly active and growing IgM antibody community to discuss recent advances and challenges facing the discovery and development of IgM antibody therapies and technologies. Researchers, clinicians and biomanufacturing experts delivered 21 talks on the basic science and isolation of IgM, upstream and downstream development, and formulation and clinical development of the molecules. Participants networked around topics aimed at exploring the full potential of IgM antibodies. The meeting was held at DECHEMA Gesellschaft für Chemische Technik und Biotechnologie e. V. (Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology), a non-profit scientific and technical society based in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The meeting was sponsored by Patrys, Laureate Biopharma, Bio-Rad Laboratories, BIA Separations, Percivia and the Bio Affinity Company (BAC). The second New ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic meeting, will be held on April 23–24, 2013 in Frankfurt, Germany.

Hanala, Sherif

2012-01-01

364

Ortho-to-Para Ratio in Interstellar Water on the Sightline toward Sagittarius B2(N)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of the water ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) is of great interest for studies of the formation and thermal history of water ices in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disk environments. We present new Herschel observations of the fundamental rotational transitions of ortho- and para-water on the sightline toward Sagittarius B2(N), which allow improved estimates of the measurement uncertainties due to instrumental effects and assumptions about the excitation of water molecules. These new measurements, suggesting a spin temperature of 24-32 K, confirm the earlier findings of an OPR below the high-temperature value on the nearby sightline toward Sagittarius B2(M). The exact implications of the low OPR in the galactic center molecular gas remain unclear and will greatly benefit from future laboratory measurements involving water freeze-out and evaporation processes under low-temperature conditions, similar to those present in the galactic interstellar medium. Given the specific conditions in the central region of the Milky Way, akin to those encountered in active Galactic nuclei, gas-phase processes under the influence of strong X-ray and cosmic ray ionization also have to be carefully considered. We summarize some of the latest laboratory measurements and their implications here.

Lis, Dariusz C.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Schilke, Peter; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

2013-10-01

365

PFI-ZEKE (Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy) para el estudio de iones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entre las áreas hacia donde ha evolucionado la Química en los últimos años están los estudios de sistemas con especies reactivas de alta energía y los dominados por fuerzas intermoleculares débiles, con energías de unas pocas kcal/mol. En efecto, el estudio de las propiedades de los iones, comenzando por su relación con la molécula neutra de la que procede, la energía de ionización, los estados vibracionales y rotacionales, energías de enlace de Van der Waals entre el ión y una amplia variedad de otras moléculas, sus confórmeros o isómeros y sus reacciones o semi-reacciones químicas están en la raíz de la necesidad de la espectroscopía conocida como PFI-ZEKE, Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy. Entre las aplicaciones que requieren estos conocimientos se encuentran la generación de plasmas para la fabricación de semiconductores, memorias magnéticas, etc, así como los sistemas astrofísicos, la ionosfera terrestre, etc. La espectroscopía ZEKE es una evolución de las de fluorescencia inducida por láser, LIF, ionización multifotónica acrecentada por resonancia, REMPI, con uno y dos colores y acoplada a un sistema de tiempo de vuelo, REMPI-TOF-MS, y las espectroscopías de doble resonancia IR-UV y UV-UV. Sus espectros y la ayuda de cálculos ab inicio permite determinar las energías de enlace de complejos de van der Waals en estados fundamental y excitados, identificar confórmeros e isómeros, obtener energías de ionización experimentales aproximadas (100 cm-1) y otras variables de interés. Al igual que con LIF, REMPI y dobles resonancias, es posible utilizar muestras gaseosas, pero los espectros están muy saturados de bandas y su interpretación es difícil o imposible. Se evitan estas dificultades estudiando las moléculas o complejos en expansiones supersónicas, donde la T de los grados de libertad solo alcanzan unos pocos K. Para realizar experimentos de ZEKE hay que utilizar una propiedad recientemente descubierta, que va en contra de lo esperado en otros sistemas físicos y que consiste en que los altos estados Rydberg de átomos, moléculas y sus complejos de van der Waals (o de los iones) tienen tiempos de vida de centenas de ? s. En resumen, el experimento y la espectroscopía ZEKE consiste en excitar un átomo, molécula o cluster sucesivamente a dos estados excitados selectivos de manera que el final sea un estado Rydberg. A continuación se aplica un campo eléctrico variable que lo ioniza y después de un cierto retraso se aplica un campo eléctrico de extracción, tanto para el electrón como para el ión. El espectro de los iones, es un espectro ZEKE. Hay varias alternativas para hacer este último proceso. El estudio de la espectroscopía y propiedades de iones y sus clusters requiere el conocimiento detallado de la espectroscopía de la molécula neutra, los estados Rydberg, de los confórmeros y sus complejos. Todo ello implica el haber estudiado los sistemas por LIF, REMPI y doble resonancia (hole burning IR-UV, UV-UV). Además solo es posible interpretar los resultados y obtener la información contenida en los espectros con ayuda de cálculos cuánticos ab initio. Hasta el momento hemos aplicado tanto el ZEKE como el conjunto de técnicas mencionadas anteriormente, a varias molécula de interés químico general como anilina y sus derivados, así como sus complejos con agua y amoniaco. Sin embargo, el método es muy versátil y puede aplicarse a iones de átomos, iones múltiples, moléculas sencillas y sus clusters así como a sus semi-reacciones. Como ejemplo de uno de estos espectros PFI-ZEKE se presenta aquí el caso del amonibenzonitrilo, ABN y solamente en su estado fundamental. En la conferencia se presentarán espectros ZEKE del ABN y moléculas similares en estados vibracionales intermedios (islas de estabilidad), así como la determinación de potenciales de ionización precisos, energías de enlace de compuestos del ión con varios disolventes y otras propiedades de interés, discutiendo sus resultados.

Castaño, F.; Fernández, J. A.; Basterretxea, A. Longarte. F.; Sánchez Rayo, M. N.; Martínez, R.

366

Dissection of the ATPase active site of P1 ParA reveals multiple active forms essential for plasmid partition.  

PubMed

The segregation, or partition, of bacterial plasmids is driven by the action of plasmid-encoded partition ATPases, which work to position plasmids inside the cell. The most common type of partition ATPase, generally called ParA, is represented by the P1 plasmid ParA protein. ParA interacts with P1 ParB (the site-specific DNA binding protein that recognizes the parS partition site), and interacts with the bacterial chromosome via an ATP-dependent nonspecific DNA binding activity. ParA also regulates expression of the par genes by acting as a transcriptional repressor. ParA requires ATP for multiple steps and in different ways during the partition process. Here, we analyze the properties of mutations in P1 ParA that are altered in a key lysine in the Walker A motif of the ATP binding site. Four different residues at this position (Lys, Glu, Gln, Arg) result in four different phenotypes in vivo. We focus particularly on the arginine substitution (K122R) because it results in a worse-than-null and dominant-negative phenotype called ParPD. We show that ParAK122R binds and hydrolyzes ATP, although the latter activity is reduced compared with wild-type. ParAK122R interacts with ParB, but the consequences of the interaction are damaged. The ability of ParB to stimulate the ATPase activity of ParA in vitro and its repressor activity in vivo is defective. The K122R mutation specifically damages the disassembly of ParA-ParB-DNA partition complexes, which we believe explains the ParPD phenotype in vivo. PMID:23632076

Vecchiarelli, Anthony G; Havey, James C; Ing, Lori L; Wong, Erin O Y; Waples, William G; Funnell, Barbara E

2013-04-30

367

ParaHox gene expression in larval and postlarval development of the polychaete Nereis virens (Annelida, Lophotrochozoa)  

PubMed Central

Background Transcription factors that encode ANTP-class homeobox genes play crucial roles in determining the body plan organization and specification of different organs and tissues in bilaterian animals. The three-gene ParaHox family descends from an ancestral gene cluster that existed before the evolution of the Bilateria. All three ParaHox genes are reported from deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans, but not to date from any ecdysozoan taxa, and there is evidence that the ParaHox genes, like the related Hox genes, were ancestrally a single chromosomal cluster. However, unlike the Hox genes, there is as yet no strong evidence that the ParaHox genes are expressed in spatial and temporal order during embryogenesis. Results We isolated fragments of the three Nereis virens ParaHox genes, then used these as probes for whole-mount in situ hybridization in larval and postlarval worms. In Nereis virens the ParaHox genes participate in antero-posterior patterning of ectodermal and endodermal regions of the digestive tract and are expressed in some cells in the segment ganglia. The expression of these genes occurs in larval development in accordance with the position of these cells along the main body axis and in postlarval development in accordance with the position of cells in ganglia along the antero-posterior axis of each segment. In none of these tissues does expression of the three ParaHox genes follow the rule of temporal collinearity. Conclusion In Nereis virens the ParaHox genes are expressed during antero-posterior patterning of the digestive system (ectodermal foregut and hindgut, and endodermal midgut) of Nereis virens. These genes are also expressed during axial specification of ventral neuroectodermal cell domains, where the expression domains of each gene are re-iterated in each neuromere except for the first parapodial segment. These expression domains are probably predetermined and may be directed on the antero-posterior axis by the Hox genes, whose expression starts much earlier during embryogenesis. Our results support the hypothesis that the ParaHox genes are involved in antero-posterior patterning of the developing embryo, but they do not support the notion that these genes function only in the patterning of endodermal tissues.

Kulakova, Milana A; Cook, Charles E; Andreeva, Tatiana F

2008-01-01

368

Compilação de dados atômicos e moleculares do UV ao IV próximo para uso em síntese espectral  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Espectros sintéticos são utéis em uma grande variedade de aplicações, desde análise de abundâncias em espectros estelares de alta resolução ao estudo de populações estelares em espectros integrados. A confiabilidade de um espectro sintético depende do modelo de atmosfera adotado, do código de formação de linhas e da qualidade dos dados atômicos e moleculares que são determinantes no cálculo das opacidades da fotosfera. O nosso grupo no departamento de Astronomia no IAG tem utilizado espectros sintéticos há mais de 15 anos, em aplicações voltadas principalmente para a análise de abundâncias de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas. Ao longo desse tempo, as listas de linhas vieram sendo construídas e atualizadas continuamente, e alguns acréscimos recentes podem ser citados: Castilho (1999, átomos e moléculas no UV), Schiavon (1998, bandas moleculares de TiO) e Melendez (2001, átomos e moléculas no IV próximo). Com o intuito de calcular uma grade de espectros do UV ao IV próximo para uso no estudo de populações estelares velhas, se fazia necessário compilar e homogeneizar as diversas listas em apenas uma lista atômica e uma molecular. Nesse processo, a nova lista compilada foi correlacionada com outras bases de dados (NIST, Kurucz Database, O' Brian et al. 1991) para atualização dos parâmetros que caracterizam a transição atômica (comprimento de onda, log gf e potencial de excitação). Adicionalmente as constantes de interação C6 foram calculadas segundo a teoria de Anstee & O'Mara (1995) e artigos posteriores. As bandas moleculares de CH e CN foram recalculadas com o programa LIFBASE (Luque & Crosley 1999). Nesse poster estão detalhados os procedimentos citados acima, as comparações entre espectros calculados com as novas listas e espectros observados em alta resolução do Sol e de Arcturus, e uma análise do impacto decorrente da utilização de diferentes modelos de atmosfera no espectro sintético. Ao final, temos uma lista de linhas atômicas com mais de 24.000 linhas e uma lista molecular com as moléculas CN, CH, OH, NH, MgH, C2, TiO Gama, CO, FeH, adequadas ao estudo de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas.

Coelho, P.; Barbuy, B.; Melendez, J.; Allen, D. M.; Castilho, B.

2003-08-01

369

Determination of the Ortho to Para Ratio of H2Cl+ and H2O+ from Submillimeter Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The opening of the submillimeter sky with the Herschel Space Observatory has led to the detection of new interstellar molecular ions, H2O+, H2Cl+, and HCl+, which are important intermediates in the synthesis of water vapor and hydrogen chloride. In this paper, we report new observations of H2O+ and H2Cl+ performed with both Herschel and ground-based telescopes, to determine the abundances of their ortho and para forms separately and derive the ortho-to-para ratio. At the achieved signal-to-noise ratio, the observations are consistent with an ortho-to-para ratios of 3 for both H2O+ and H2Cl+, in all velocity components detected along the lines-of-sight to the massive star-forming regions W31C and W49N. We discuss the mechanisms that contribute to establishing the observed ortho-to-para ratio and point to the need for a better understanding of chemical reactions, which are important for establishing the H2O+ and H2Cl+ ortho-to-para ratios.

Gerin, Maryvonne; de Luca, Massimo; Lis, Dariusz C.; Kramer, Carsten; Navarro, Santiago; Neufeld, David; Indriolo, Nick; Godard, Benjamin; Le Petit, Franck; Peng, Ruisheng; Phillips, Thomas G.; Roueff, Evelyne

2013-10-01

370

Para-NO-aspirin inhibits NF-?B and induces apoptosis in B-cell progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

Although patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) usually achieve complete remission, disease relapse is common and difficult to treat. Para-NO-aspirin (para-NO-ASA) is a novel drug with demonstrated efficacy against a number of solid tumors and most recently chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In this study, we used ALL cell lines to assess the effects on cell viability by flow cytometry and investigated the mechanism of cell death using chemical inhibitors of key molecules and assessed the effects by flow cytometry, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, Western blotting, and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Para-NO-ASA induced cell death in the pre-B ALL cell lines in association with increased reactive oxygen species, and suppression of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activity. Chemical inhibitors of NF-?B similarly induced apoptosis in ALL cells, suggesting a role for suppression of NF-?B in para-NO-ASA-induced cell death. Modulation of NF-?B was not via regulation of I?B but potentially through suppression of ROCK1 and loss of reduced glutathione. Our results demonstrate that para-NO-ASA potently induces apoptosis in B-lineage ALL cells via a reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism that is associated with suppression of NF-?B activity. PMID:22100881

Khan, Naveed I; Cisterne, Adam; Baraz, Rana; Bradstock, Kenneth F; Bendall, Linda J

2011-11-17

371

Public appraisal of government efforts and participation intent in medico-ethical policymaking in Japan: a large scale national survey concerning brain death and organ transplant  

PubMed Central

Background Public satisfaction with policy process influences the legitimacy and acceptance of policies, and conditions the future political process, especially when contending ethical value judgments are involved. On the other hand, public involvement is required if effective policy is to be developed and accepted. Methods Using the data from a large-scale national opinion survey, this study evaluates public appraisal of past government efforts to legalize organ transplant from brain-dead bodies in Japan, and examines the public's intent to participate in future policy. Results A relatively large percentage of people became aware of the issue when government actions were initiated, and many increasingly formed their own opinions on the policy in question. However, a significant number (43.3%) remained unaware of any legislative efforts, and only 26.3% of those who were aware provided positive appraisals of the policymaking process. Furthermore, a majority of respondents (61.8%) indicated unwillingness to participate in future policy discussions of bioethical issues. Multivariate analysis revealed the following factors are associated with positive appraisals of policy development: greater age; earlier opinion formation; and familiarity with donor cards. Factors associated with likelihood of future participation in policy discussion include younger age, earlier attention to the issue, and knowledge of past government efforts. Those unwilling to participate cited as their reasons that experts are more knowledgeable and that the issues are too complex. Conclusions Results of an opinion survey in Japan were presented, and a set of factors statistically associated with them were discussed. Further efforts to improve policy making process on bioethical issues are desirable.

Sato, Hajime; Akabayashi, Akira; Kai, Ichiro

2005-01-01

372

The medico-legal investigation of sudden, unexpected and\\/or unexplained infant deaths in South Africa: where are we—and where are we going?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) has been reported to be the leading cause of death in infants under 1 year of age in many\\u000a countries. Unfortunately, a paucity of published research data exists in South Africa, with regard to the incidence of and\\u000a investigation into the circumstances surrounding Sudden Unexplained Deaths in Infants (SUDI) and\\/or SIDS. Currently, even\\u000a though most academic

L. du Toit-Prinsloo; J. J. Dempers; S. A. Wadee; G. Saayman

2011-01-01

373

Violent crime and substance abuse: a medico-legal comparison between deceased users of anabolic androgenic steroids and abusers of illicit drugs.  

PubMed

Several case reports and survey studies have indicated that abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) often leads to increased aggressiveness and feelings of hostility that may occasionally trigger violent behaviour. Other observations indicate that many users of AAS also abuse alcohol and/or various illegal substances. Since substance abuse is a well-known risk factor for violent behaviour, it could be that violence committed by AAS users might, at least in many cases, actually be caused by abuse of other drugs. In order to examine this possibility further here, the criminal histories (in terms of incidences of convictions) of deceased users of AAS with (AASpos-subst.pos) and without (AASpos-subst.neg) signs of abuse of other illegal substances were compared to the corresponding histories of deceased users of illicit substances testing negatively for AAS (subst.pos-AASneg) at the time of autopsy. The risk of being convicted for a crime against property was significantly higher in the subst.pos-AASneg group than in either the AASpos-subst.neg or AASpos-subst.pos groups (RR=0.048 versus 0.408). At the same time, the risk of being convicted for a crime of violence was at least as high for the two AAS-positive groups as for the AAS-negative group. Furthermore, when compared with the first 3 years after the first criminal conviction, a pronounced increase in the proportion of incidence of violent crimes and a marked reduction in the proportion of incidence of crime against property was observed during the 3-year period immediately preceding death only among the AASpos-subst.neg subjects. In conclusion, the incidence of violent crime among users of AAS without signs of other drug abuse was comparable to the corresponding incidences for drug addicts without AAS use. This observation suggests that the violent criminality observed among AAS users is not confounded in any systematic fashion by abuse of other drugs. The findings also indicate that use of AAS in certain predisposed individuals might cause a high rate of violent crimes, especially if the use of AAS is combined with the use of other illegal substances. PMID:17337333

Klötz, Fia; Petersson, Anna; Isacson, Dag; Thiblin, Ingemar

2007-03-02

374

Public appraisal of government efforts and participation intent in medico-ethical policymaking in Japan: a large scale national survey concerning brain death and organ transplant  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Public satisfaction with policy process influences the legitimacy and acceptance of policies, and conditions the future political process, especially when contending ethical value judgments are involved. On the other hand, public involvement is required if effective policy is to be developed and accepted. METHODS: Using the data from a large-scale national opinion survey, this study evaluates public appraisal of

Hajime Sato; Akira Akabayashi; Ichiro Kai

2005-01-01

375

Eight cases of suicide by self-cutting or stabbing: consideration from medico-legal viewpoints of differentiation between suicide and homicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article describes eight cases of suicide by self-cutting or -stabbing. Seven of the deceased had a history of psychiatric problems. In every case, sharp weapon injuries were observed at typical sites of self-inflicted injury. The self-inflicted injuries varied in severity from a single stab wound to multiple cut wounds. In four cases, hesitation marks were found. Among the

Tohru Ohshima; Toshikazu Kondo

1997-01-01

376

Current status of prenatal management of fetal spina bifida in the world: worldwide cooperative survey on the medico-ethical issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe management of congenital CNS anomalies differs among countries. This paper reports on a worldwide survey of individual experience and regimens for treating spina bifida (SB) in different patient populations and cultural backgrounds. Ten representative members of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery (ISPN) in individual countries registered their experience, prenatal management, and care system for SB. The information collected

Shizuo Oi

2003-01-01

377

Violent crime and substance abuse: A medico-legal comparison between deceased users of anabolic androgenic steroids and abusers of illicit drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several case reports and survey studies have indicated that abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) often leads to increased aggressiveness and feelings of hostility that may occasionally trigger violent behaviour. Other observations indicate that many users of AAS also abuse alcohol and\\/or various illegal substances. Since substance abuse is a well-known risk factor for violent behaviour, it could be that

Fia Klötz; Anna Petersson; Dag Isacson; Ingemar Thiblin

2007-01-01

378

[Questions from a medico-legal viewpoint on the planned law dealing with removal and transfer of organs (transplantation law) in West Germany].  

PubMed

Within the framework of the planned law concerning the removal and transfer of organs (transplantation law) in the Federal Republic of Germany, and taking as a basis the draft of a prototype law by the federal states dated February 1st 1994 and the draft bill of the states of Bremen and Hessen dated June 30th 1994, the speech addresses itself primarily to the question of whether, when no consent of the decreased can be identified, and when the next-of-kin have been informed by the doctor in attendance and given an appropriate time-limit, the next-of-kin in order of succession or any close relative can object to organ removal for the purpose of transplant surgery. Because of the highly personal nature of the postmortal personal rights transferred to the next-of-kin as well as their custodial rights, and with regard to the particularly sensitive nature of this decision, it is suggested that the next-of-kin be informed not only of their right of refusal but also-in view of their responsibility toward other relatives-be instructed on the meaning, substance and legal consequences of such a refusal. It is furthermore suggested that sufficient organs could be obtained by organisational measures such as requests to driving licence applicants, which would lead to a higher preparedness to donate organs, while, at the same time, sparing the next-of-kin unnecessary emotional pain. From a medical point of view, it should be recognised that the complete and irreversible loss of all brain functions, in spite of artificially maintained heart and circulatory functions, is a sure sign of death. In closing, it is pointed out that a change to the currently valid [symbol: see text] 168 StGB would mean that a violation of the right of refusal could lead to criminal prosecution. PMID:9340792

Dufková, J

1997-05-01

379

Medico-economic approach to the management of uterine myomas: a 6-month cost-effectiveness study of pelvic embolization versus vaginal hysterectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Uterine artery embolization is a technique that has been recently proposed for the management of uterine myomas an alternative to vaginal hysterectomy. The results provided by the first published studies demonstrate a significant decrease in symptoms in 70–95% of cases. The aim of our study was to compare the cost-effectiveness ratios for pelvic embolization and vaginal hysterectomy looked at

Xavier J. L. Pourrat; Florence Fourquet; Fabrice Guerif; Nelly Viratelle; Denis Herbreteau; Henry Marret

2003-01-01

380

Number of addictive substances used related to increased risk of unnatural death: A combined medico-legal and case-record study  

PubMed Central

Background Substance use disorders have repeatedly been found to lead to premature death, i.e. drug-related death by disease, fatal intoxications, or trauma (accidents, suicide, undetermined suicide, and homicide). The present study examined the relationship between multi-drug substance use and natural and unnatural death. Methods All consecutive, autopsied patients who had been in contact with the Addiction Centre in Malmö University Hospital from 1993 to 1997 inclusive were investigated. Drug abuse was investigated blindly in the case records and related to the cause of death in 387 subjects. Results Every substance apart from alcohol used previously in life added to the risk of unnatural death in a linear way. There were independent increased risks of fatal heroin overdoses or undetermined suicide. Death by suicide and violent death were unrelated to additional abuse. Conclusion The number of drugs used was related to an increased risk of unnatural death by undetermined suicide (mainly fatal intoxications) and heroin overdose.

Bradvik, Louise; Berglund, Mats; Frank, Arne; Lindgren, Anna; Lowenhielm, Peter

2009-01-01

381

Creation and evolution of net proton hyperpolarization arising from para-hydrogenation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a hydrogenation reaction is carried out with gaseous hydrogen enriched in its para- isomer in the earth magnetic field (prior to adiabatic insertion of the sample in the NMR magnet), enhanced proton longitudinal order (represented by 2IzAIzB) is created but also difference of enhanced polarizations (IzA-IzB). In a first part, it is shown theoretically and experimentally that the longitudinal relaxation time of this polarization difference is roughly twice the ones of individual polarizations. The second part is devoted to a pulse sequence designed for transforming this difference into net hyperpolarization. The evolution of this global hyperpolarization is studied experimentally in a third part and it is observed that a fraction of hyperpolarization possesses an effective longitudinal relaxation time similar to the one of the initial polarization difference. Those experimental results are interpreted by numerical calculations based on Solomon-type equations including the longitudinal order and possibly dipolar-csa cross correlation rates.

Reineri, Francesca; Bouguet-Bonnet, Sabine; Canet, Daniel

2011-05-01

382

A method to obtain a well-defined fraction of respirable para-aramid fibers.  

PubMed

We developed a preparation method to obtain respirable-sized fractions of para-aramid fibers. The procedure, based on floatability, consists of stirring and subsequent settling of p-aramid pulp in distilled water. Two distinct phases are obtained, with small fibers in the upper part of the suspension, which represents about 33% of the total volume. Optimal results were obtained when 2.0 g pulp was stirred for 15 hr in 800 ml distilled water containing 0.125% ethanol and settled for 5 hr. The mass yield ranged between 0.4 and 0.6%, more than 90% of the particles had an aspect ratio > or = 3:1. The mean fiber length was about 6 microns, and the mean fiber diameter was about 0.4 microns as determined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The number of fibers obtained was 4 x 10(6) fibers/micrograms under our standard conditions. PMID:8119251

Schins, R P; Gaudichet, A; Jaurand, M C

1993-10-01

383

ACT-asthma control y tratamiento para niños: a progress report.  

PubMed

A randomized clinical trial is in progress to evaluate an asthma educational program for Latino children and their parents. The intervention, "ACT-Asma Control y Tratamiento Para Niños," was adapted from ACT for Kids, an asthma self-management program for English-speaking families. Results of a pilot study indicated that socioeconomic status was a critical variable to be considered in the design of such programs. Latino children and parents encounter significant barriers to access and continuity of medical care. Therefore, the intervention was redesigned to include "linkages" using a nurse to reduce barriers and to coordinate care. The lesson plans emphasize concrete, experimental learning experiences, with repetition of key points in each session. PMID:3654235

Lewis, M A; de la Sota, A; Rachelefsky, G; Lewis, C E; Quinones, H; Richards, W

1987-01-01

384

Puncture injection of para-toluenesulfonamide combined with chemoembolization for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is difficult to eradicate due to its resilient nature. Portal vein is often involved in tumors of large size, which exclude the patient from surgical resection and local ablative therapy, such as percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) because they were considered neither effective nor safe. Currently, there is almost no effective treatment for HCC of such condition. As a unique antitumor agent in form of lipophilic fluid for local injection, para-toluenesulfonamide (PTS) produces mild side effects while necrotizing the tumor tissues quickly and efficiently. Being largely different from both PEI and RFA therapies, PTS can disseminate itself in tumors more easily than other caustic agents, such as alcohol. So PTS may offer additional benefit to HCCs with vascular involvement. We herein describe a 70-year-old HCC patient who was treated with the combination of PTS injection and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, resulting in a significantly improved clinical prognosis.

He, Qing; Kuang, An-Ren; Guan, Yong-Song; Liu, Yue-Qing

2012-01-01

385

Passivation of iron-based alloys in para-toluene sulfonic acid  

SciTech Connect

Potentiodynamic and surface analysis techniques were applied to investigate the passivation of metals in para-toluene sulfonic acids (PTSA). The diffusion-limiting current density was used to calculate the ferrous ion concentration which causes the precipitation of a pseudopassive film. From the surface analysis data, the Cr/Fe ratio in the passive film increases in order of 430, 304, and 316 stainless steels. To analyze the differences, a correction was made to the data so that the observed difference in the oxide film composition is not attributed simply to the Cr and Fe contents of the alloys. This method also was applied to correct the Ni/Fe ratio in the passive film. The authors conclude that the preferential dissolution of Ni and Fe leads to a Cr enrichment in the passive film.

Iuan Jou Yang; Mao Ying Teng (Materials Research Labs., Chutung, Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China))

1993-06-01

386

Para-aminosalicylic acid acts as an alternative substrate of folate metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Folate biosynthesis is an established anti-infective target, and the antifolate para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) was one of the first anti-infectives introduced into clinical practice on the basis of target-based drug discovery. Fifty years later, PAS continues to be used to treat tuberculosis. PAS is assumed to inhibit dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by mimicking the substrate p-aminobenzoate (PABA). However, we found that sulfonamide inhibitors of DHPS inhibited growth of M. tuberculosis only weakly because of their intracellular metabolism. In contrast, PAS served as a replacement substrate for DHPS. Products of PAS metabolism at this and subsequent steps in folate metabolism inhibited those enzymes, competing with their substrates. PAS is thus a prodrug that blocks growth of M. tuberculosis when its active forms are generated by enzymes in the pathway they poison. PMID:23118010

Chakraborty, Sumit; Gruber, Todd; Barry, Clifton E; Boshoff, Helena I; Rhee, Kyu Y

2012-11-01

387

Searching for Auxetics with DYNA3D and ParaDyn  

SciTech Connect

We sought to simulate auxetic behavior by carrying out dynamic analyses of mesoscopic model structures. We began by generating nearly periodic cellular structures. Four-node 'Shell' elements and eight-node 'Brick' elements are the basic building blocks for each cell. The shells and bricks obey standard elastic-plastic continuum mechanics. The dynamical response of the structures was next determined for a three-stage loading process: (1) homogeneous compression; (2) viscous relaxation; (3) uniaxial compression. The simulations were carried out with both serial and parallel computer codes--DYNA3D and ParaDyn--which describe the deformation of the shells and bricks with a robust contact algorithm. We summarize the results found here.

Hoover, W G; Hoover, C G

2004-09-11

388

Understanding the relationship between gas and ice : experimental investigations on ortho-para ratios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous hydrogenated molecules observed in comets and the interstellar medium present nuclear spin isomers. The non-thermal ortho: para ratios measured in space are believed to be of high diagnostic value, allowing remote measurement of physical conditions prevailing in the past, such as the initial temperature associated with a molecular formation or condensation. The lack of laboratory studies on interactions at the gas-solid interface limits our current interpretation of observations. Recent progress in nuclear spin conversion (NSC) dynamics are discussed in this paper. Results on water and methane in cryogenic matrices illustrate the conversion mechanisms within the condensed phase at very low temperatures. NSC of molecular hydrogen at the surface of 10 K Amorphous Solid Water (ASW) shows surface mediated conversion processes for molecular hydrogen. NSC involving molecular ices are discussed in the light of few recent studies, including UV photodesorption investigations.

Fillion, J.-H.; Bertin, M.; Lekic, A.; Moudens, A.; Philippe, L.; Michaut, X.

2012-02-01

389

Excited-state switching by per-fluorination of para-oligophenylenes.  

PubMed

Fluorination has become a versatile route to tune the electronic and optical properties of organic conjugated materials. Herein we report a new phenomenon, excited-state switching by per-fluorination of para-oligophenylenes, placing a low intensity 1(1)B(2) state below the 1(1)B(1) state, giving rise to large Stokes shifts. The switching is attributed to the specific impact of fluorine on the delocalized and localized frontier orbitals as elucidated by quantum-chemical calculations. The sterical demands of the fluorine atom additionally diminish efficient conjugation along the chain, leading to hypsochromic shifts with respect to the unsubstituted counterparts and to a weak chain length dependence of the absorption and unstructured emission spectra and enhanced internal conversion. PMID:21974537

Milián-Medina, Begoña; Varghese, Shinto; Ragni, Roberta; Boerner, Herbert; Ortí, Enrique; Farinola, Gianluca M; Gierschner, Johannes

2011-09-28

390

The analysis of para-cresol production and tolerance in Clostridium difficile 027 and 012 strains  

PubMed Central

Background Clostridium difficile is the major cause of antibiotic associated diarrhoea and in recent years its increased prevalence has been linked to the emergence of hypervirulent clones such as the PCR-ribotype 027. Characteristically, C. difficile infection (CDI) occurs after treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics, which disrupt the normal gut microflora and allow C. difficile to flourish. One of the relatively unique features of C. difficile is its ability to ferment tyrosine to para-cresol via the intermediate para-hydroxyphenylacetate (p-HPA). P-cresol is a phenolic compound with bacteriostatic properties which C. difficile can tolerate and may provide the organism with a competitive advantage over other gut microflora, enabling it to proliferate and cause CDI. It has been proposed that the hpdBCA operon, rarely found in other gut microflora, encodes the enzymes responsible for the conversion of p-HPA to p-cresol. Results We show that the PCR-ribotype 027 strain R20291 quantitatively produced more p-cresol in-vitro and was significantly more tolerant to p-cresol than the sequenced strain 630 (PCR-ribotype 012). Tyrosine conversion to p-HPA was only observed under certain conditions. We constructed gene inactivation mutants in the hpdBCA operon in strains R20291 and 630?erm which curtails their ability to produce p-cresol, confirming the role of these genes in p-cresol production. The mutants were equally able to tolerate p-cresol compared to the respective parent strains, suggesting that tolerance to p-cresol is not linked to its production. Conclusions C. difficile converts tyrosine to p-cresol, utilising the hpdBCA operon in C. difficile strains 630 and R20291. The hypervirulent strain R20291 exhibits increased production of and tolerance to p-cresol, which may be a contributory factor to the virulence of this strain and other hypervirulent PCR-ribotype 027 strains.

2011-01-01

391

Constraining the ortho-to-para ratio of H2 with anomalous H_2CO absorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: The ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of molecular hydrogen is a fundamental parameter in understanding the physics and chemistry of molecular clouds. In dark and cold regions, however, H2 is not directly observable and the OPR of H2 in these sources has so far remained elusive. Aims: We show that the 6 cm absorption line of ortho-formaldehyde (H2CO) can be employed to constrain both the density and the OPR of H2 in dark clouds. Methods: Green Bank Telescope (GBT) observations of ortho-H2CO toward the molecular cloud Barnard 68 (B68) are reported. Non-LTE radiative transfer calculations combined with the well-constrained structure of B68 are then employed to derive the physical conditions in the absorption region. Results: We provide the first firm confirmation of the Townes & Cheung mechanism: propensity rules for the collisions of H2CO with H2 molecules are responsible for the sub-2.7 K cooling of the 6 cm doublet. Non-LTE calculations show that in the absorption region of B68, the kinetic temperature is ˜ 10 K, the ortho-H2CO column density amounts to ˜ 2.2× 1013 cm-2, the H2 density is in the range 1.4{-}2.4× 10 4 cm-3, and the OPR of H2 is close to zero. Our observations thus provide fresh evidence that H2 is mostly in its para form in the cold gas, as expected from theoretical considerations. Our results also suggest that formaldehyde absorption originates in the edge of B68, at visual extinctions A_V? 0.5 mag. This work has been inspired by our colleague and friend Pierre Valiron, who passed away in August 2008. This paper is dedicated to his memory.

Troscompt, N.; Faure, A.; Maret, S.; Ceccarelli, C.; Hily-Blant, P.; Wiesenfeld, L.

2009-11-01

392

Self-assembled catalytic DNA nanostructures for synthesis of para-directed polyaniline.  

PubMed

Templated synthesis has been considered as an efficient approach to produce polyaniline (PANI) nanostructures. The features of DNA molecules enable a DNA template to be an intriguing template for fabrication of emeraldine PANI. In this work, we assembled HRP-mimicking DNAzyme with different artificial DNA nanostructures, aiming to manipulate the molecular structures and morphologies of PANI nanostructures through the controlled DNA self-assembly. UV-vis absorption spectra were used to investigate the molecular structures of PANI and monitor kinetic growth of PANI. It was found that PANI was well-doped at neutral pH and the redox behaviors of the resultant PANI were dependent on the charge density of the template, which was controlled by the template configurations. CD spectra indicated that the PANI threaded tightly around the helical DNA backbone, resulting in the right handedness of PANI. These reveal the formation of the emeraldine form of PANI that was doped by the DNA. The morphologies of the resultant PANI were studied by AFM and SEM. It was concluded from the imaging and spectroscopic kinetic results that PANI grew preferably from the DNAzyme sites and then expanded over the template to form 1D PANI nanostructures. The strategy of the DNAzyme-DNA template assembly brings several advantages in the synthesis of para-coupling PANI, including the region-selective growth of PANI, facilitating the formation of a para-coupling structure and facile regulation. We believe this study contributes significantly to the fabrication of doped PANI nanopatterns with controlled complexity, and the development of DNA nanotechnology. PMID:23272944

Wang, Zhen-Gang; Zhan, Pengfei; Ding, Baoquan

2013-01-02

393

Salud para su Corazón: a community-based Latino cardiovascular disease prevention and outreach model.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for Latinos living in the United States. This population is generally unaware of important lifestyle or behavioral changes that can prevent CVD. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) designed and implemented Salud para su Corazón (Health for Your Heart), a culturally appropriate, community-based, theory-driven intervention model. NHLBI's goals were: (1) to design an intervention model appropriate to Latino populations; (2) to pilot test the model in a specific community with the objectives of increasing awareness about heart disease, raising knowledge about CVD prevention, and promoting heart-healthy lifestyles; and (3) to disseminate the model and the materials developed to other communities with similar needs. An agency-community partnership, under the leadership of the Community Alliance for Heart Health, guided all stages of the community intervention project. The multimedia bilingual community intervention included television telenovela format public service announcements (PSAs), radio programs, brochures, recipe booklets, charlas, a promotores training manual, and motivational videos. An evaluation survey assessed the impact of the intervention. A pre-post intervention survey was conducted with more than 300 participants, and results showed that the respondents were substantially more aware of risk factors for CVD, and had greatly increased their knowledge of ways to prevent heart disease. Dissemination efforts have resulted in numerous requests by health organizations, universities, and health maintenance organizations (HMOs) for educational materials and communication strategies produced by Salud para su Corazón. In addition, Univision, the largest Spanish-language broadcast television network, is airing the initiative's PSAs. Also, training seminars for promotores are being conducted in different regions of the United States, and several locations are planning to replicate this study. PMID:10555925

Alcalay, R; Alvarado, M; Balcazar, H; Newman, E; Huerta, E

1999-10-01

394

Silver(I) and mercury(II) complexes of meta- and para -xylyl linked bis(imidazol-2-ylidenes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mononuclear silver and mercury complexes bearing bis-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands with linear coordination modes have been prepared and structurally characterised. The\\u000a complexes form metallocyclic structures that display rigid solution behaviour. A larger metallocycle of the form [L2Ag2]2+ [where L = para-bis(N-methylimidazolylidene)xylylene] has been isolated from the reaction of para-xylylene-bis(N-methylimidazolium) chloride and Ag2O. Reaction of silver- and mercury-NHC complexes with Pd(NCCH3)2Cl2 affords palladium-NHC

Murray V. Baker; David H. Brown; Rosenani A. Haque; Brian W. Skelton; Allan H. White

2009-01-01

395

Evaluation of para-dichlorobenzene emissions from solid moth repellant as a source of indoor air pollution  

SciTech Connect

The paper reports results of dynamic and static chamber tests to evaluate para-dichlorobenzene emission rates from mothcakes. The data were analyzed by a model that assumes that the emission rate is controlled by gas-phase mass transfer. Results indicate that the para-dichlorobenzene emission from mothcakes is a temperature-sensitive sublimation process. Full-scale house tests were also conducted to measure mass transfer coefficients based on the model developed. The values of the mass transfer coefficient obtained are very comparable to those estimated by theoretical heat transfer studies.

Chang, J.C.S.; Krebs, K.A.

1992-01-01

396

Rotational excitation of 45 levels of ortho/para-H2O by excited ortho/para-H2 from 5 K to 1500 K: state-to-state, effective, and thermalized rate coefficients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: This work deals with the rotational excitation of ortho/para-H2O with para/ortho-H2 so that thermalized de-(excitation) rate coefficients up to 1500 K for the first 45th level of ortho/para-H2O are provided. Results are available in BASECOL with state-to-state rate coefficients, their fitting coefficients, and effective rate coefficients. In addition, we provide a routine that combines all data in order to create thermalized rate coefficients. Methods: Calculations were performed with the close coupling (CC) method over the whole energy range, using the same 5D potential energy surface (PES) as the one employed in previous papers. The current CC results were compared with thermalized quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations using the same PES and with previous quantum calculations obtained between T = 20 K and T = 140 K with a different PES. The relative strengths of water excitation rate coefficients when water is excited with ortho-H2 versus para-H2 was also analyzed. Results: For collision with para-H2, the rotation-rotation process is found to be the dominant process for inelastic transfer for some water transitions, implying that calculations must include the j2 = 2 level. An important result of this paper is that j2 = 1 and j2 = 2 effective rate coefficients are very similar so that either j2 = 1 or j2 = 2 need to be calculated for astrophysical applications. In addition, at high temperature ratios of j2 = 2 (1) over j2 = 0, effective rate coefficients converge towards one to within a few percent. This study confirms that j2 = 3 effective rate coefficients are within 20% to j2 = 1 effective rate coefficients. Conclusions: For astrophysical applications, these results imply that future collisional excitation of light molecules with H2 should be carried out with para-H2, including j2 = 2, so as to obtain correct effective j2 = 0 effective rate coefficients and using the j2 = 2 effective rate coefficients for all excited j2 effective rate coefficients. In contrast, collisional excitation of heavy molecules with H2 might be restricted to para-H2 with j2 = 0 and to ortho-H2 with j2 = 1, using the j2 = 1 rate coefficients for all excited j2 effective rate coefficients. These conclusions should simplify the future methodological choice for collisional excitation calculations applied to interstellar/circumstellar media.

Daniel, F.; Dubernet, M.-L.; Grosjean, A.

2011-12-01

397

Gestión por competencias: importante para las pymes maquila de pantalón en índigo en la ciudad de Bogotá  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo presenta una revisión de literatura internacional y nacional, sobre temas como el de competencias, los tipos de competencias, competencias laborales y proceso de implementación de la gestión por competencias. Adicionalmente, se muestra la reseña sobre la gestión por competencias en Colombia, así como la metodología utilizada para el trabajo de campo con relación al tema del artículo y

Nathalia Andrea Martínez Valero; Juan Carlos Rincón Gaviria

2010-01-01

398

Ultrastructural study shows morphologic features of apoptosis and para-apoptosis in megakaryocytes from patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate whether altered megakaryo- cyte morphology contributes to reduced platelet production in idiopathic thrombo- cytopenic purpura (ITP), ultrastructural analysis of megakaryocytes was per- formed in 11 ITP patients. Ultrastructural abnormalities compatible with (para-)apo- ptosis were present in 78% 14% of ITP megakaryocytes, which could be reversed by in vivo treatment with prednisone and intravenous immunoglobulin. Immunohis- tochemistry of bone

Ewout J. Houwerzijl; Nel R. Blom; Johannes J. L. van der Want; Mariet T. Esselink; Jan J. Koornstra; Jan W. Smit; Henk Louwes; Edo Vellenga; Joost Th; M. de Wolf

399

LA UTILIZACIÓN DE MAPAS CONCEPTUALES COMO ESTRATEGIA DIDÁCTICA PARA LA CONSTRUCCIÓN Y ORGANIZACIÓN DEL PENSAMIENTO EN EDAD PREESCOLAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuación se exponen los resultados y conclusiones de una investigación, basada en la implementación de una propuesta metodológica innovadora para la construcción de Mapas Conceptuales en edad preescolar. Esta experiencia tuvo lugar en dos jardines Infantiles estatales de la ciudad de Cartago, Costa Rica. La población infantil la conformó un grupo de niños y niñas con edades entre los

Jenny Brenes; Ana Sofía Coto; Gloria Hurtado

400

Millimeter-Wave Spectroscopy of S2Cl2: A Candidate Molecule for Measuring Ortho-Para Transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

S2Cl2 is a candidate for the observation of ortho-para transition. To estimate the ortho-para mixing in a hyperfine-resolved rotational state, pure rotational transitions were measured by millimeter-wave (mm-wave) spectroscopy using two different experimental set-ups. The transitions from the term value around 20 K was measured with a supersonic jet and those around 200 K were measured with a dry ice cooled gas cell. Several hundred peaks were assigned for the naturally abundant S235Cl2 and S235Cl37Cl isotopic species and the rotational molecular parameters including the fourth-order and sixth-order centrifugal distortion constants were determined. The hyperfine structures were partly resolved in some Q-branch transitions, which were well described with the hyperfine constants determined by FTMW spectroscopy in the centimeter-wave region. With the new rotational constants determined in our study and the previous hyperfine constants, it will be possible to obtain a more reliable ortho-para mixing ratio and to narrow down the possible candidate transitions in the mm-wave region for the observation of ortho-para transition.

Dehghani, Zeinab Tafti; Ota, Shinji; Mizoguchi, Asao; Kanamori, Hideto

2013-10-01

401

Organización del trabajo y diseño del sistema de pago para la actividad de preparacion de materia prima  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente trabajo fue realizado con el objetivo de resolver o disminuir el efecto negativo de dos problemas fundamentales que existían en la Fábrica de Tabacos Torcidos a mano para la Exportación Camajuaní, los cuales consistían en : 1ro La mala calidad de la materia prima y 2do El salario recibido por el grupo de trabajadores encargados de la preparación

Alexis Águila Espinosa; Silvia López Hernández

2010-01-01

402

Hysteretic sorption of light gases by a porous metal-organic framework containing tris(para-carboxylated) triphenylphosphine oxide.  

PubMed

The porous metal-organic framework (MOF) PCM-4, based on tris(para-carboxylated) triphenylphosphine oxide, contains atypical, polar organic substituents; the material exhibits a hysteretic sorption of Ar, N2 and O2, and demonstrates the advantage of ligands of this type. PMID:18566715

Humphrey, Simon M; Oungoulian, Shaunt E; Yoon, Ji Woong; Hwang, Young Kyu; Wise, Erica R; Chang, Jong-San

2008-04-21

403

The Role Of Women In Popular Education In Bolivia: A Case Study Of The "Oficina Juridica Para La Mujer"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines how the Education Office of the "Oficina Juridica Para la Mujer" [Women's Legal Office] , a community-based popular education organization in Cochabamba, Bolivia, works with women to address personal, legal, and policy issues through local leadership training and popular education methodology. We investigate the…

Kollins, Judith M.; Hansman, Catherine A.

2005-01-01

404

Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Devices: Performance Characteristics of the ParaSight F Device Determined in a Multisite Field Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microscopic detection of parasites has been the reference standard for malaria diagnosis for decades. However, difficulty in maintaining required technical skills and infrastructure has spurred the development of several nonmicroscopic malaria rapid diagnostic devices based on the detection of malaria parasite antigen in whole blood. The ParaSight F test is one such device. It detects the presence of Plasmodium falciparum-specific

J. RUSS FORNEY; ALAN J. MAGILL; CHANSUDA WONGSRICHANALAI; JEERAPHAT SIRICHAISINTHOP; CHRISTIAN T. BAUTISTA; D. GRAY HEPPNER; R. SCOTT MILLER; CHRISTIAN F. OCKENHOUSE; ALEX GUBANOV; ROBYN SHAFER; CAROLINE CADY DEWITT; HIGINIO A. QUINO-ASCURRA; KENT E. KESTER; KEVIN C. KAIN; DOUGLAS S. WALSH; W. RIPLEY BALLOU

2001-01-01

405

ParaCalc ®—A novel tool to evaluate the economic importance of worm infections on the dairy farm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subclinical infections with gastrointestinal nematodes and liver fluke are important causes of production losses in grazing cattle. Although there is an extensive compilation of literature describing the effect of these infections on animal performance, only a few attempts have been made to convert these production losses to an economic cost. Here, we propose a novel tool (ParaCalc®), available as a

Johannes Charlier; Mariska Van der Voort; Henk Hogeveen; Jozef Vercruysse

2012-01-01

406

Millimeter-Wave Spectroscopy of S2Cl2: A Candidate Molecule for Measuring Ortho-Para Transition.  

PubMed

S2Cl2 is a candidate for the observation of ortho-para transition. To estimate the ortho-para mixing in a hyperfine-resolved rotational state, pure rotational transitions were measured by millimeter-wave (mm-wave) spectroscopy using two different experimental set-ups. The transitions from the term value around 20 K was measured with a supersonic jet and those around 200 K were measured with a dry ice cooled gas cell. Several hundred peaks were assigned for the naturally abundant S2(35)Cl2 and S2(35)Cl(37)Cl isotopic species and the rotational molecular parameters including the fourth-order and sixth-order centrifugal distortion constants were determined. The hyperfine structures were partly resolved in some Q-branch transitions, which were well described with the hyperfine constants determined by FTMW spectroscopy in the centimeter-wave region. With the new rotational constants determined in our study and the previous hyperfine constants, it will be possible to obtain a more reliable ortho-para mixing ratio and to narrow down the possible candidate transitions in the mm-wave region for the observation of ortho-para transition. PMID:23634992

Dehghani, Zeinab Tafti; Ota, Shinji; Mizoguchi, Asao; Kanamori, Hideto

2013-05-29

407

Communications: Development and characterization of a source of rotationally cold, enriched para-H{sub 3}{sup +}  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to develop a source of H{sub 3}{sup +} that is almost entirely in a single quantum state (J=K=1), we have successfully generated a plasma that is enriched to {approx}83% in para-H{sub 3}{sup +} at a rotational temperature of 80 K. This enrichment is a result of the nuclear spin selection rules at work in hydrogenic plasmas, which dictate that only para-H{sub 3}{sup +} will form from para-H{sub 2}, and that para-H{sub 3}{sup +} can be converted to ortho-H{sub 3}{sup +} by subsequent reaction with H{sub 2}. This is the first experimental study in which the H{sub 2} and H{sub 3}{sup +} nuclear spin selection rules have been observed at cold temperatures. The ions were produced from a pulsed solenoid valve source, cooled by supersonic expansion, and interrogated via continuous-wave cavity ringdown spectroscopy.

Tom, Brian A.; Mills, Andrew A.; Wiczer, Michael B.; Crabtree, Kyle N. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); McCall, Benjamin J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2010-02-28

408

Solvent and concentration effects on the visible spectra of tri- para-dialkylamino-substituted triarylmethane dyes in liquid solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have characterized the spectroscopy properties of crystal violet (CV+) and ethyl violet (EV+) in liquid solutions as a function of the solvent type and dye concentration. The analysis of how solvent properties and dye concentration affects the electronic spectra of these tri-para-dialkylamino substituted tryarylmethane (TAM+) dyes was performed on the basis of two spectroscopic parameters, namely the difference in

Carla S. Oliveira; Kerlley P. Branco; Mauricio S. Baptista; Guilherme L. Indig

2002-01-01

409

DERECHO E INNOVACIÓN METODOLÓGICA PARA LA ADQUISICIÓN DE LAS COMPETENCIAS Y HABILIDADES EN EL TITULO DE GRADO EN TRABAJO SOCIAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

El artículo presenta, en primer lugar, la estrecha relación entre el Derecho y el Trabajo Social y, en segundo lugar, la metodología innovadora en la docencia de las prácticas curriculares del Titulo de Grado de Trabajo Social de la Universidad de Murcia que aglutina la cooperación docente, profesional e institucional. El objetivo del Titulo es formar profesionales preparados para desarrollar

Enrique Pastor Seller

2011-01-01

410

Las lenguas como elementos de cohesión social. Del multilingüismo al desarrollo de habilidades para la comunicación intercultural  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen La lengua, entendida como factor de cohesión social, ha sido considerada desde diversas perspectivas asimilacionistas como necesaria y prioritaria para la integración en una sociedad receptora de quienes proceden de otras comunidades lingüísticas y culturales. Este artículo propone una reflexión sobre la diversidad como elemento ineludible en la construcción de una nueva ciudadanía multicultural en la que la lengua

Martina Tuts; Colectivo Yedra

411

Expectativas, volatilidad del mercado de capitales y comportamiento de la inversión privada. Teoría y evidencia empírica para Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

La investigación que se resume en este trabajo representa la primera etapa de un esfuerzo que pretende analizar algunos aspectos importantes de la interacción entre el mercado accionario y el comportamiento de la inversión de las empresas, para un número de países en desarrollo endeudados. El presente trabajo analiza el caso de Brasil y presenta algunos resultados de estimaciones preliminares

Mansoor Dailami

412

Estudio para la prevención del cáncer necesita voluntarias: El Estudio del Tamoxifeno y Raloxifeno (STAR) se realiza en Norteamérica  

Cancer.gov

El Estudio del Tamoxifeno y Raloxifeno (STAR, por sus siglas en inglés), uno de los estudios más importantes realizados para la prevención del cáncer del seno, está ahora reclutando voluntarias en más de 400 centros en los Estados Unidos, Puerto Rico y Canadá.

413

Conservation of ParaHox genes' function in patterning of the digestive tract of the marine gastropod Gibbula varia  

PubMed Central

Background Presence of all three ParaHox genes has been described in deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans, but to date one of these three genes, Xlox has not been reported from any ecdysozoan taxa and both Xlox and Gsx are absent in nematodes. There is evidence that the ParaHox genes were ancestrally a single chromosomal cluster. Colinear expression of the ParaHox genes in anterior, middle, and posterior tissues of several species studied so far suggest that these genes may be responsible for axial patterning of the digestive tract. So far, there are no data on expression of these genes in molluscs. Results We isolated the complete coding sequences of the three Gibbula varia ParaHox genes, and then tested their expression in larval and postlarval development. In Gibbula varia, the ParaHox genes participate in patterning of the digestive tract and are expressed in some cells of the neuroectoderm. The expression of these genes coincides with the gradual formation of the gut in the larva. Gva-Gsx patterns potential neural precursors of cerebral ganglia as well as of the apical sensory organ. During larval development this gene is involved in the formation of the mouth and during postlarval development it is expressed in the precursor cells involved in secretion of the radula, the odontoblasts. Gva-Xolx and Gva-Cdx are involved in gut patterning in the middle and posterior parts of digestive tract, respectively. Both genes are expressed in some ventral neuroectodermal cells; however the expression of Gva-Cdx fades in later larval stages while the expression of Gva-Xolx in these cells persists. Conclusions In Gibbula varia the ParaHox genes are expressed during anterior-posterior patterning of the digestive system. This colinearity is not easy to spot during early larval stages because the differentiated endothelial cells within the yolk permanently migrate to their destinations in the gut. After torsion, Gsx patterns the mouth and foregut, Xlox the midgut gland or digestive gland, and Cdx the hindgut. ParaHox genes of Gibbula are also expressed during specification of cerebral and ventral neuroectodermal cells. Our results provide additional support for the ancestral complexity of Gsx expression and its ancestral role in mouth patterning in protostomes, which was secondarily lost or simplified in some species.

2010-01-01

414

Quantification of para-phenylenediamine and heavy metals in henna dye.  

PubMed

Henna (Lawsonia inermis, family Lythraceae) is a shrub cultivated in India, Sri Lanka and North Africa and contains the active dye lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone). Henna dye is obtained from the dried leaves, which are powdered and mixed with oil or water and are used to prepare hair and body dyes. Temporary henna tattoos are readily available worldwide, last on the skin for several weeks and offer a self-limited, convenient alternative to a permanent tattoo. The addition of para-phenylenediamine (PPD), which is widely recognised as a sensitizer, increases the risk of allergic contact dermatitis from henna tattoo mixtures, and a number of cases have been reported. We examined 15 henna samples available in Korea for the presence of PPD and heavy metals such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, lead and mercury using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), mercury analyser and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. PPD, nickel and cobalt were detected in 3, 11 and 4 samples, respectively. PMID:16842550

Kang, Ik-Joon; Lee, Mu-Hyoung

2006-07-01

415

Determination of para-Phenylenediamine (PPD) in Henna in the United Arab Emirates  

PubMed Central

Henna is very popular in the United Arab Emirates (UAE); it is part of the culture and traditions. Allergy to natural henna is not usual; however the addition of para-phenylenediamine (PPD) to the natural henna increases the risk of allergic contact dermatitis. The objectives of the study were to identify the presence and concentration of PPD in henna available in UAE. Fifteen henna salons were selected randomly from three cities in UAE. Twenty five henna samples were acquired from these selected salons. The presence of PPD in henna samples was determined qualitatively and quantitatively using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The study showed that PPD was present in all of the black henna samples at concentrations ranging between 0.4% and 29.5% and higher than that recommended for hair dyes in most of the black henna samples. The presence of PPD in the black henna increases the risk of allergic contact dermatitis among users of black henna and a number of cases have already been reported in UAE.

Al-Suwaidi, Ayesha; Ahmed, Hafiz

2010-01-01

416

Hematopathology in Sprague-Dawley rats following sub-chronic topical application of para-phenylenediamine.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to analyze the hematological profile of male SD rats treated topically with aqueous solution of para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a component of almost all hair dye formulations. The rats were painted with different concentration of PPD (0, 1, 2 and 3 mg Kg(-1) Day(-1)) for 90 days and then sacrificed. The hematological profile indicated severe anemia characterized by significant (p < 0.05, 0.001) reduction of total RBC count (59%), packed cell volume (PCV, 50%) and haemoglobin level (70%) in the peripheral blood of PPD treated animals when compared to control group. The leucocytes profile exhibited an overall elevation of around twofold as compared to the control group with significant lymphocytosis (44.4%) and a higher percentage of blast cells (8.5%) as well as smudge (10.3%) and hairy cells (6.2%) in the peripheral blood of treated animals. Histopathological examination of spleen from treated rat's exhibit red pulp congestion, expansion of the germinal centre, hyperplasia of the membrane capsule and extensive accumulation of hemosidderin pigments in the red pulp of the spleen. Overall this study indicated an abnormal pathophysiological condition indicating adverse effect of PPD in the treated animal groups. The risk assessment of hair dye formulation needs to be reviewed in view of widespread usage of paraphenylenediamine in almost all hair dye formulation. PMID:22886424

Bharali, Manuj Kr; Dutta, Karabi

2012-08-11

417

Foco Nasmyth para el telescopio 2,15mts. de CASLEO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

En principio, este proyecto intenta lograr el mayor aprovechamiento posible del instrumental que se dispone, buscando la manera de optimizar y hacer más eficiente el servicio que brinda el CASLEO a la comunidad astronómica. El mismo consiste en utilizar dispositivos ya existentes en el telescopio, y darle una utilidad. Tal es el caso del camino óptico destinado al foco Coude. Si tenemos en cuenta que disponemos de un tercer espejo Coude, con todos sus mecanismos automatizados, (actualmente sin uso), una distancia apropiada del plano focal, el espacio y el lugar físico necesario para instalar un periférico, es posible la habilitación de un foco Nasmyth en el telescopio 2,15mts. El hecho de contar con este nuevo foco, redundará en importantes beneficios. En primer lugar, posibilitará la observación, casi simultánea, con dos instrumentos. Otro aspecto a tener en cuenta, es que disminuirá el frecuente cambio del instrumental periférico, motivo este que degrada su ideal puesta a punto. Por último, también de interés, es de destacar su escaso costo de ejecución.

Casagrande, A. R.

418

From clusters to fibers: Parameters for discontinuous para-hexaphenylene thin film growth  

SciTech Connect

All relevant steps of discontinuous thin film growth of para-hexaphenylene on muscovite mica (0 0 1) from wetting layer over small and large clusters to nanofibers are observed and investigated in detail by a combined polarized fluorescence and atomic force microscopy study. From a variation of film thickness and surface temperature, we determine effective activation energies for cluster growth of 0.17 eV, for nanofiber length growth of 0.46 eV, for width growth of 0.19 eV, and for height growth of 0.07 eV. The corresponding exponential prefactors for the nanofiber growth are 1x10{sup 9}, 6x10{sup 4}, and 3x10{sup 2} nm. Polarized fluorescence studies reveal that nanofibers grow along the grooves of the mica surface and that they do not change direction if they cross an even number of mica surface steps, while they change direction by 120 deg. for an odd number of steps. These results are taken as an input for a model of the unidirectional growth process on mica. Absolute parameters allowing one to grow nanofibers of predetermined morphology via organic molecular beam epitaxy are also given.

Kankate, Laxman; Balzer, Frank; Niehus, Horst [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Rubahn, Horst-Guenter [Mads Clausen Institute, NanoSYD, Syddansk Universitet, DK-6400 Soenderborg (Denmark)

2008-02-28

419

Serotypes associated with the development of pneumococcal para-pneumonic effusion in adults.  

PubMed

Serotypes 1, 3, 7F and 19A are implicated in childhood pneumococcal para-pneumonic effusion (PPE). It is not known whether the same is true for adult PPE. A prospective cohort study was conducted over a 2-year period. Consecutive adults admitted with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) were studied. Pneumococcal serotype was identified from urine samples using a multiplex immunoassay. Of 920 patients recruited, 366 had pneumococcal CAP; 100 of these had PPE and a serotype was determined in 73 patients. Factors associated with PPE were age, pneumonia severity index score and serotype. Serotypes most associated with PPE were 1 (18 (45%) out of 40), 19A (9 (45%) out of 20) and 3 (8 (40%) out of 20). Serotypes common in childhood PPE were independently associated with adult PPE (adjusted OR 2.3; p = 0.003). Serotypes not included in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) were more likely to be associated with PPE (OR 2.1; p = 0.024) compared with those in the vaccine. Serotypes included in PCV-13 were as likely to be associated with PPE as those that are not (OR 0.8; p = 0.301). Serotypes 1, 3, 7F and 19A are independently associated with adult PPE, a similar finding to childhood PPE. Serotype replacement following pneumococcal vaccine implementation may influence the spectrum of clinical disease. PMID:23258784

Bewick, Thomas; Sheppard, Carmen; Greenwood, Sonia; Slack, Mary; Trotter, Caroline; George, Robert; Lim, Wei Shen

2012-12-20

420

Level anti-crossings in ParaHydrogen Induced Polarization experiments with Cs-symmetric molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperpolarization by means of ParaHydrogen Induced Polarization (PHIP) has found increasing applications since its discovery. However, in the last decade only a few experiments have been reported describing the hydrogenation of symmetric molecules. A general AA?BB? system is studied here. Calculations of the spin dynamics with the density matrix formalism support the experimental findings, providing profound understanding of the experiments in Cs-symmetric molecules. Level anti-crossings between states related to the triplet and the singlet state of one pair of the protons are identified as being responsible for hyperpolarization transfer in a PHIP experiment, when the former p-H2 protons occupy the sites AA?.The hydrogenation of acetylene dicarboxylic acid dimethylester with parahydrogen is used to illustrate the case. The theoretical treatment applied to this particular reaction explains the signal enhancements in both groups of protons in the spectrum when the sample is placed in the proper magnetic field strength, including the phase inversion of the signal of the methyl group.The treatment described here can be extended to every molecule which can be approximated as an AA?BB? system.

Buljubasich, L.; Franzoni, M. B.; Spiess, H. W.; Münnemann, K.

2012-06-01

421

Coarse-grain model of the benzene ring with para-substituents in the molecule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new two-site coarse-grain model of the benzene ring with substituents in the para-position is proposed for use with multiscale simulations. The model uses a modified Lennard-Jones potential and introduces an additional shifting parameter to the description of the atom-atom interactions. Furthermore, the model separates sets of parameters of Van-der-Waals interactions into inter- and intramolecular. The shifting parameter is specified separately for each pair of atom types for both inter- and intramolecular interactions. The model itself consists of two superatoms. It allows for high speed calculations, ``remembers'' the benzene ring orientation in multiscale simulations, and can be used together with well-known sets of ``united atoms'' potentials. This model was tested on p-xylene, 1-ethyl-4-methylbenzene, and 1-methyl-4-propylbenzene. Structural properties for all three substances in the full-atomic model, the ``united atoms'' model, and the suggested coarse-grained model are discussed. The results demonstrate that the local structure derived from the coarse-grained model is very similar to that derived from the ``united atoms'' model.

Neverov, Vladimir S.; Komolkin, Andrei V.

2012-03-01

422

A method to obtain a well-defined fraction of respirable para-aramid fibers.  

PubMed Central

We developed a preparation method to obtain respirable-sized fractions of para-aramid fibers. The procedure, based on floatability, consists of stirring and subsequent settling of p-aramid pulp in distilled water. Two distinct phases are obtained, with small fibers in the upper part of the suspension, which represents about 33% of the total volume. Optimal results were obtained when 2.0 g pulp was stirred for 15 hr in 800 ml distilled water containing 0.125% ethanol and settled for 5 hr. The mass yield ranged between 0.4 and 0.6%, more than 90% of the particles had an aspect ratio > or = 3:1. The mean fiber length was about 6 microns, and the mean fiber diameter was about 0.4 microns as determined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The number of fibers obtained was 4 x 10(6) fibers/micrograms under our standard conditions. Images p414-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3.

Schins, R P; Gaudichet, A; Jaurand, M C

1993-01-01

423

Tensile behavior of porous scaffolds made from poly(para phenylene) - biomed 2013.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to fabricate and mechanically characterize a high-strength porous polymer scaffold for potential use as an orthopedic device. Poly(para-phenylene) (PPP) is an excellent candidate due to its exceptional strength and stiffness and relative inertness, but has never been explicitly investigated for use as a biomedical device. PPP has strength values 3 to 10 times higher and an elastic modulus nearly an order of magnitude higher than traditional polymers such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polycaprolactone (PCL), ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), and polyurethane (PU) and is significantly stronger and stiffer than polyetheretherketone (PEEK). By utilizing PPP we can overcome the mechanical limitations of traditional porous polymeric scaffolds since the outstanding stiffness of PPP allows for a highly porous structure appropriate for osteointegration that can match the stiffness of bone (100-250 MPa), while maintaining suitable mechanical properties for soft-tissue fixation. Porous samples were manufactured by powder sintering followed by particle leaching. The pore volume fraction was systematically varied from 50?80 vol% for a pore sizes from150-500 µm, as indicated by previous studies for optimal osteointegration. The tensile modulus of the porous samples was compared to the rule of mixtures, and closely matches foam theory up to 70 vol%. The experimental modulus for 70 vol% porous samples matches the stiffness of bone and contains pore sizes optimal for osteointegration. PMID:23686195

Dirienzo, Amy L; Yakacki, Christopher M; Safranski, David L; Frick, Carl P

2013-01-01

424

Tailoring the film morphology of para-hexaphenyl on KCl(001) by surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra-thin films of para-hexaphenyl (6P) were prepared on potassium chloride(001) utilising physical vapour deposition under well-defined ultra-high-vacuum conditions. The 6P growth characteristics were studied as a function of substrate temperature. For this purpose, in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in combination with thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was applied to reveal the kinetics of the layer growth. Ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the film morphology. At the initial growth stage the film grows in the form of needle-like islands with a high aspect ratio and, subsequently, when a certain coverage is reached, terraced mounds of 6P are formed. It is shown that this ‘certain coverage’ strongly depends on the substrate temperature and that the morphology of the film can be tailored easily by changing the surface temperature. Combined XPS and TDS investigations were carried out to obtain information on the stability of these films. It is shown that films grown at low temperature (90 K) rearrange during heating and this rearrangement could also be made visible by AFM.

Frank, P.; Winkler, A.

2008-03-01

425

Passivation of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes by the Plasma Polymerized para-Xylene Thin Film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma-polymerized para-xylene (PPpX) thin films deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) were used to passivate the organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). For OLEDs, indium-tin-oxide, N,N\\prime-diphenyl-N,N\\prime-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1?-diphenyl-4,4?-diamine, tris-8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum and aluminum were used as the anode, the hole transport layer, the emitting layer and the cathode, respectively. The OLED device with the PPpX passivation film (passivated device) showed similar electrical and optical characteristics to those of the OLED device without the PPpX passivation film (control device), indicating that the PECVD process did not degrade the performance of the OLEDs notably. Although PPpX passivation did not enhance the lifetime of the OLEDs significantly, the PPpX film was, to some extent, effective as a passivation layer of the OLEDs. The lifetime of the passivated device was two times longer than that of the control device. Passivation of OLEDs with PPpX films also suppressed the growth of dark spots. The density and size of dark spots of the passivated device were much smaller than those of the control device.

Kho, Samil; Cho, Daeyong; Jung, Donggeun

2002-11-01

426

Kinetic decomposition of ozone and para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA) during catalytic ozonation.  

PubMed

The decomposition of ozone and para-chlorobezoic acid (pCBA) using ozone and ozone/goethite were investigated under various conditions to define the characteristics of ozonation and catalytic ozonation. A continuous analysis of the kinetics of the reaction between ozone and pCBA was established, and the decay rate of ozone and pCBA with/without goethite was determined. The decay rate of ozone in the presence of goethite was much higher than in the absence of goethite and was strongly pH dependent due to the reactivities of ozone with the three surface species ( identical with FeOH(2)(+), identical with FeOH, identical with FeO(-)) of goethite. The removal pattern of ionized pCBA at different pHs agreed well with the instantaneous ozone demand. The removal rate of pCBA and instantaneous ozone demand with/without t-butanol at different pHs were compared to elucidate the reaction mechanisms associated with the three reaction sites: (i) on the surface of the catalyst, (ii) at the catalyst-solution interface, and (iii) in the bulk solution. PMID:15142789

Park, Jong-Sup; Choi, Heechul; Cho, Jaewon

2004-05-01

427

Refresher training and continuing education for para-medical ophthalmic assistants.  

PubMed

This paper describes a refresher training and continuing education programme in clinical and community ophthalmology for para-medical ophthalmic assistants (PMOAs) conducted by the Lions Aravind Institute of Community Ophthalmology. The course participants included 60 PMOAs working either in district hospitals, primary health centres or mobile units from the districts in Maharashtra. Each training programme was spread over 43 hours in 4 days and included lectures, practical demonstrations, and hands-on training in the outpatient, inpatient, and operation theatre of the training institution. Participants were given exposure to outreach activities in an eye camp and a satellite eye centre resembling a district hospital. The PMOAs found the training to be useful and it was seen that areas like patient counselling, instrument and equipment maintenance, and assistance in the operation theatre for newer surgical procedures which were lacking in the basic training were fulfilled in this training programme. Regional Institutes of Ophthalmology, upgraded medical colleges, and other eye-care institutions which have facilities and manpower could organise similar refresher and continuing education programmes for PMOAs so that they could be utilised more efficiently in the blindness-control activities in the country. PMID:16130288

Shamanna, B R; Rao, R S; Premarajan, K C; Saravanan, S; Thulasiraj, R D; Venkataswamy, G

1999-03-01

428

Cobalt-Schiff base complex catalyzed oxidation of para-substituted phenolics. Preparation of benzoquinones  

SciTech Connect

Para-substituted phenolics, serving as models for lignin (a renewable source of carbon), are oxidized to the corresponding benzoquinone with oxygen in the presence of catalytic amounts of Co-Schiff base complexes. The reaction products observed depend on the structure of the catalyst. The 5-coordinate catalysts (pyridine)[bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine]cobalt[(pyr)Co(salen)]and[bis(salicylideneamino)ethylamine]cobalt [Co(n-Me salpr)] convert syringyl alcohol (3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol) to 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone in high yield. In contrast, syringaldehyde (3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) is unreactive toward these catalysts. However, the 4-coordinate Co(salen) converts syringaldehyde to 2,6-dimethoxybenzoiquinone in 72% isolated yield. Phenols bearing a single methoxy group on the ring are unreactive toward any catalyst in MeOH. However, vanillyl alcohol (3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol) is converted to 2-methoxybenzo-quinone with Co(N-Me salpr) and oxygen in 43% yield in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and 58% yield in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} in the presence of 1% CuCl{sub 2}. The success of the oxidations appears to be related to the ease of removal of the phenolic hydrogen by the Co/O{sub 2} complex. Competitive deactivation of the catalyst occurs with substrates of lower reactivity. 84 tabs.

Bozell, J.J.; Hames, B.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Dimmel, D.R. [Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1995-04-21

429

Origin of the low-energy emission band in epitaxially grown para-sexiphenyl nanocrystallites.  

PubMed

A comparative study of steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence of para-sexiphenyl (PSP) films grown by organic molecular beam epitaxy (OMBE) and hot wall epitaxy (HWE) under comparable conditions is presented. Using different template substrates [mica(001) and KCl(001) surfaces] as well as different OMBE growth conditions has enabled us to vary greatly the morphology of the PSP crystallites while keeping their chemical structure virtually untouched. We prove that the broad redshifted emission band has a structure-related origin rather than being due to monomolecular oxidative defects. We conclude that the growth conditions and type of template substrate impacts substantially on the film morphology (measured by atomic force microscopy) and emission properties of the PSP films. The relative intensity of the defect emission band observed in the delayed spectra was found to correlate with the structural quality of PSP crystallites. In particular, the defect emission has been found to be drastically suppressed when (i) a KCl template substrate was used instead of mica in HWE-grown films, and (ii) in the OMBE-grown films dominated by growth mounds composed of upright standing molecules as opposed to the films consisting of crystallites formed by molecules lying parallel to the substrate. PMID:19256621

Kadashchuk, A; Schols, S; Heremans, P; Skryshevski, Yu; Piryatinski, Yu; Beinik, I; Teichert, C; Hernandez-Sosa, G; Sitter, H; Andreev, A; Frank, P; Winkler, A

2009-02-28

430

Oxidation of ortho- and para-aminobenzoic acid. A pulse radiolysis- and gamma radiolysis study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oxidation of anthranilic acid (ortho-aminobenzoic acid, ANA) and para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) by •OH, N3• and O•- in basic solution was studied by pulse radiolysis. The kinetic and spectroscopic characteristics of the intermediate transients were determined. For ANA the site attack of the OH radicals was established to be ˜50% on the -NH2 moiety and ˜50% on the aromatic ring with an overall rate constant k(•OH+ANA)=(5.5×109) dm3 mol-1 s-1. The rate constant of PABA was k(•OH+PABA)=8×109 dm3 mol-1 s-1. The OH-adducts of both compounds showed a first order decay of 0.8×105 and 1.2×105 s-1, respectively, whereby the corresponding anilino-radicals were formed. The rate constant of ANA with solvated electrons was k(e-aq+ANA)=2.9×109 dm3 mol-1 s-1. The radiation induced decomposition of both substrates was studied by gamma radiolysis as a function of the absorbed dose. They exhibited a distinct radiation resistance, the initial degradation yields were ˜0.16 ?mol J-1, i.e. only 28% of the •OH radicals contributed to their decomposition. The hydroxylation process was of minor importance, the yield of hydroxylated aminobenzoic acids was?0.01 ?mol J-1.

Solar, Sonja; Getoff, Nikola; Zona, Robert; Solar, Wolfgang

2011-09-01

431

Coarse-grain model of the benzene ring with para-substituents in the molecule.  

PubMed

A new two-site coarse-grain model of the benzene ring with substituents in the para-position is proposed for use with multiscale simulations. The model uses a modified Lennard-Jones potential and introduces an additional shifting parameter to the description of the atom-atom interactions. Furthermore, the model separates sets of parameters of Van-der-Waals interactions into inter- and intramolecular. The shifting parameter is specified separately for each pair of atom types for both inter- and intramolecular interactions. The model itself consists of two superatoms. It allows for high speed calculations, "remembers" the benzene ring orientation in multiscale simulations, and can be used together with well-known sets of "united atoms" potentials. This model was tested on p-xylene, 1-ethyl-4-methylbenzene, and 1-methyl-4-propylbenzene. Structural properties for all three substances in the full-atomic model, the "united atoms" model, and the suggested coarse-grained model are discussed. The results demonstrate that the local structure derived from the coarse-grained model is very similar to that derived from the "united atoms" model. PMID:22401424

Neverov, Vladimir S; Komolkin, Andrei V

2012-03-01

432

Virilizing para-adrenocortical adenoma associated with idiopathic-acquired generalized anhidrosis in an adolescent girl.  

PubMed

Adrenocortical tumors are rare in childhood and adolescence. Virilization, alone or in combination with signs of overproduction of other adrenal hormones, is the most common clinical presentation. Here we report an unusual case of an African-American female adolescent presenting with idiopathic acquired generalized anhidrosis, dysregulation of body temperature, absence of adult body odor and dry skin in the face of a virilizing para-adrenocortical adenoma. Virilization signs regressed soon after removal of the tumor, but normalization of the 3alpha-androstenediol glucuronide (3alpha-AG) took longer compared to other measurable androgens; accompanied by anhidrosis. The association of remitting anhidrosis with normalized levels of 3alpha-AG suggests it might be a possible mechanism for anhidrosis. High 3alpha-AG levels might implicate the increased peripheral conversion of weak pro-androgens with different biochemical structure. We recommend obtaining 3alpha-AG beside other androgens in virilized patients with atypical dermatological symptoms in the face of hyperandrogenism. PMID:21648301

Gumus, Pinar; Luquette, Mark; Haymon, Marie Louise; Valerie, Evans; Morales, Jaime; Vargas, Alfonso

2011-01-01

433

From clusters to fibers: parameters for discontinuous para-hexaphenylene thin film growth.  

PubMed

All relevant steps of discontinuous thin film growth of para-hexaphenylene on muscovite mica (0 0 1) from wetting layer over small and large clusters to nanofibers are observed and investigated in detail by a combined polarized fluorescence and atomic force microscopy study. From a variation of film thickness and surface temperature, we determine effective activation energies for cluster growth of 0.17 eV, for nanofiber length growth of 0.46 eV, for width growth of 0.19 eV, and for height growth of 0.07 eV. The corresponding exponential prefactors for the nanofiber growth are 1 x 10(9), 6 x 10(4), and 3 x 10(2) nm. Polarized fluorescence studies reveal that nanofibers grow along the grooves of the mica surface and that they do not change direction if they cross an even number of mica surface steps, while they change direction by 120 degrees for an odd number of steps. These results are taken as an input for a model of the unidirectional growth process on mica. Absolute parameters allowing one to grow nanofibers of predetermined morphology via organic molecular beam epitaxy are also given. PMID:18315074

Kankate, Laxman; Balzer, Frank; Niehus, Horst; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

2008-02-28

434

About long-lived nuclear spin states involved in para-hydrogenated molecules.  

PubMed

This study deals with a spin system constituted of three nonequivalent protons, two of them originating from para-hydrogen (p-H(2)) after a hydrogenation reaction carried out in the earth magnetic field. It is shown that three singlet states are created provided indirect (J) couplings exist between the three spins, implying hyperpolarization transfer toward the third spin. Upon insertion of the sample in the NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) high field magnet, the following events occur: (i) the longitudinal two-spin orders which are parts of the singlet states survive; (ii) the other two terms (of these singlet states) tend to be destroyed by magnetic field gradients but at the same time are partly converted into differences of longitudinal polarizations. Nuclear spin relaxation is studied by appropriate NMR measurements when evolution takes place in the high field magnet or in the earth field. In the former case, relaxation is classical although complicated by numerous relaxation rates associated with both longitudinal two-spin orders and longitudinal polarizations. In the latter case, an equilibration between the singlet states first occur, their disappearance being thereafter driven by relaxation rates which remain very small because of the absence of any dipolar contribution. Thus, even in the case of a three-spin system, long-lived states exist; this unexpected property could be very useful for many applications. PMID:17263430

Canet, Daniel; Bouguet-Bonnet, Sabine; Aroulanda, Christie; Reineri, Francesca

2007-02-01

435

Creation and evolution of net proton hyperpolarization arising from para-hydrogenation.  

PubMed

When a hydrogenation reaction is carried out with gaseous hydrogen enriched in its para- isomer in the earth magnetic field (prior to adiabatic insertion of the sample in the NMR magnet), enhanced proton longitudinal order (represented by 2I(z)(A)I(z)(B)) is created but also difference of enhanced polarizations (I(z)(A)-I(z)(B)). In a first part, it is shown theoretically and experimentally that the longitudinal relaxation time of this polarization difference is roughly twice the ones of individual polarizations. The second part is devoted to a pulse sequence designed for transforming this difference into net hyperpolarization. The evolution of this global hyperpolarization is studied experimentally in a third part and it is observed that a fraction of hyperpolarization possesses an effective longitudinal relaxation time similar to the one of the initial polarization difference. Those experimental results are interpreted by numerical calculations based on Solomon-type equations including the longitudinal order and possibly dipolar-csa cross correlation rates. PMID:21402486

Reineri, Francesca; Bouguet-Bonnet, Sabine; Canet, Daniel

2011-02-23

436

OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

2003-08-01

437

Health promotion programs related to the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic games  

PubMed Central

Background The Olympic Games constitute a first-class opportunity to promote athleticism and health messages. Little is known, however on the impact of Olympic Games on the development of health-promotion programs for the general population. Our objective was to identify and describe the population-based health-promotion programs implemented in relation to the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic Games. Methods A cross-sectional survey of all stakeholders of the Games, including the Athens 2004 Organizing Committee, all ministries of the Greek government, the National School of Public Health, all municipalities hosting Olympic events and all official private sponsors of the Games, was conducted after the conclusion of the Games. Results A total of 44 agencies were surveyed, 40 responded (91%), and ten (10) health-promotion programs were identified. Two programs were implemented by the Athens 2004 Organizing Committee, 2 from the Greek ministries, 2 from the National School of Public Health, 1 from municipalities, and 3 from official private sponsors of the Games. The total cost of the programs was estimated at 943,000 Euros; a relatively small fraction (0.08%) of the overall cost of the Games. Conclusion Greece has made a small, however, significant step forward, on health promotion, in the context of the Olympic Games. The International Olympic Committee and the future hosting countries, including China, are encouraged to elaborate on this idea and offer the world a promising future for public health.

Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Kremastinou, Jeni; Chelvatzoglou, Fotini C; Minogiannis, Panagiotis S; Falagas, Matthew E

2006-01-01

438

Seizure of illicitly produced para-fluorofentanyl: quantitative analysis of the content of capsules and tablets.  

PubMed

A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method for the quantification of para-fluorofentanyl (pFF) in powder and powdered samples was developed and validated. The method was applied on a seizure of capsules and tablets, that had been confiscated at an illicit production site in the Netherlands. The investigated capsules and tablets contained pFF in the range of 33.8-408.7 microg. As caffeine was detected as being an adulterant, a HPLC/UV method for the quantification of caffeine in capsules and tablets was also validated and applied. Caffeine was detected in the range of 25.6-108 mg per capsule or tablet. Based on an extrapolation of pharmacological and toxicological data of fentanyl, it can be argued that the highest detected single dose of pFF could be lethal, when administered orally. However, the large variability of the doses observed for pFF could mislead abusers, potentially leading to multiple doses and thus overdosing. PMID:12615244

de Boer, D; Goemans, W-P J; Ghezavat, V R; van Ooijen, R D; Maes, R A A

2003-03-10

439

Treatment of post-catheterization femoral artery pseudo-aneurysm with para-aneurysmal saline injection.  

PubMed

Femoral artery pseudoaneurysm is a common complication associated with cardiac catheterization procedures. Ultrasound-based techniques (e.g., mechanical compression, thrombin injection) and open surgical intervention are frequently used in the management of pseudoaneurysm. The investigators report their prospective experience with a novel method for the treatment of pseudoaneurysm after cardiac catheterization using ultrasound-guided, para-aneurysmal injection of physiologic saline. Sixty-four consecutive patients with pseudoaneurysms after cardiac catheterization were treated using normal saline (0.9% sodium chloride 25 to 60 ml) injected into the tissue surrounding the tract connecting the pseudoaneurysm with the femoral artery, followed by manual pressure of short duration. In none of the patients was concomitant antithrombotic therapy (aspirin [n = 63], clopidogrel [n = 45], unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin [n = 23], and warfarin [n = 5]) discontinued during the closure attempt. Fifty-nine of the 64 pseudoaneurysms (92%) were successfully occluded using saline injection. In 5 patients in whom saline injection failed, the pseudoaneurysms were successfully treated with thrombin injection (n = 4) or ultrasound-guided compression (n = 1). In all 64 patients, pseudoaneurysm closure was confirmed by ultrasound at 24 hours. The procedure was very well tolerated by the patients, and no side effects or complications were noted. In conclusion, ultrasound-guided saline injection affords a simple, safe, and effective alternative treatment for the closure of postcatheterization pseudoaneurysms. PMID:18471452

Finkelstein, Ariel; Bazan, Shmuel; Halkin, Amir; Herz, Izhak; George, Jacob; Miller, Hylton I; Keren, Gad; Banai, Shmuel

2008-03-17

440

Force field of para- and metabenzyne diradicals: a multireference coupled-cluster study.  

PubMed

The reduced multireference (RMR) coupled-cluster (CC) method with singles and doubles (RMR CCSD) that exploits a modest size MR CISD wave function as an external source for a small subset of the most important (primary) triples and quadruples to account for quasidegeneracy due to a MR nature of the states considered, as well as its RMR CCSD(T) version corrected for the secondary triples, are employed to compute fundamental vibrational frequencies for the para- and metabenzene diradicals. A comparison is made with the available experimental data and with other methods, namely, the state selective or Mukherjee CCSD and completely renormalized, size-extensive version of CCSD(T), the so-called CR-CC(2,3), methods. Both the restricted Hartree-Fock and multiconfiguration self-consistent-field (MCSCF) molecular orbitals (MOs) are employed. The four-reference RMR CCSD using MCSCF MOs gives particularly satisfactory results. The breakdown of CCSD(T) and shortcomings of some other approaches are pointed out and the role of invariance with respect to MO rotation is analyzed. Correlation with triplet-singlet splittings is also pointed out. PMID:20331277

Li, Xiangzhu; Paldus, Josef

2010-03-21

441

Tetrathiafulvalene-oligo(para-phenyleneethynylene) conjugates: formation of multiple mixed-valence complexes upon electrochemical oxidation.  

PubMed

Short monodisperse oligo- (para-phenyleneethynylene) (pOPE) units bearing laterally attached tetrathio-substituted tetrathiofulvalene (TTF) units have been synthesised from functionalised aromatic building blocks by using the Sonogashira cross-coupling methodology. The unusual redox properties of these TTF-pOPE conjugates were observed by employing electrochemical methods, such as cyclic voltammetry and exhaustive electrolysis. We found that formally one half of the TTF units in the pOPE monomer 1, dimer 2, and trimer 3 (with 2, 4, and 6 TTF units, respectively) are electrochemically silent during the first-step oxidation at 0.49?V. We propose the formation of persistent mixed-valence complexes from the TTF and TTF(+·) units present in an equal ratio. Such mixed-valence dyads (single or multiple in the partially oxidised 1-3) exhibit an unusual stability towards oxidation until the potential of the second oxidation at 0.84?V is achieved. This finding suggests that below this potential the oxidation of the respective mix-valence complexes is extremely slow. PMID:23495131

Lipnická, Šárka; B?lohradský, Martin; Kolivoška, Viliam; Pospíšil, Lubomír; Hromadová, Magdaléna; Pohl, Radek; Chocholoušová, Jana Vacek; Vacek, Jaroslav; Fiedler, Jan; Stará, Irena G; Starý, Ivo

2013-03-13

442

BUDDA (Bulge/Disk Decomposition Analysis) - um novo programa para análise estrutural de galáxias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tem sido prática comum nos últimos anos estudar a distribuição de luminosidade em galáxias fazendo uso da informação contida em toda a imagem da galáxia, já que esta técnica tem se mostrado muito mais confiável do que o simples ajuste de perfis radiais de luminosidade. Através destes estudos bidimensionais, melhores resultados tem sido obtidos na análise e.g. do Plano Fundamental, de correlações entre os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias, de sub-estruturas como barras e anéis nucleares etc. Apresentamos um novo código bidimensional, o BUDDA, de análise estrutural de galáxias, que será disponibilizado para a comunidade. Desenvolvido por nós, o código determina os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias de forma prática e robusta, e pode ser aplicado genericamente em qualquer estudo sobre a formação, evolução e estrutura de galáxias. O programa ainda permite a avaliação direta de sub-estruturas, através de imagens residuais que são obtidas ao se subtrair, das imagens originais, bojo e disco sintéticos que melhor representam essas componentes da galáxia sob consideração. Será apresentada a forma de utilização do código, bem como séries de testes que atestam a sua funcionalidade. Além disso, os resultados da aplicação do código em uma amostra de 51 galáxias serão expostos como exemplo prático, e do seu enorme potencial de uso.

Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.; Dos Anjos, S.

2003-08-01

443

Origin of the low-energy emission band in epitaxially grown para-sexiphenyl nanocrystallites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative study of steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence of para-sexiphenyl (PSP) films grown by organic molecular beam epitaxy (OMBE) and hot wall epitaxy (HWE) under comparable conditions is presented. Using different template substrates [mica(001) and KCl(001) surfaces] as well as different OMBE growth conditions has enabled us to vary greatly the morphology of the PSP crystallites while keeping their chemical structure virtually untouched. We prove that the broad redshifted emission band has a structure-related origin rather than being due to monomolecular oxidative defects. We conclude that the growth conditions and type of template substrate impacts substantially on the film morphology (measured by atomic force microscopy) and emission properties of the PSP films. The relative intensity of the defect emission band observed in the delayed spectra was found to correlate with the structural quality of PSP crystallites. In particular, the defect emission has been found to be drastically suppressed when (i) a KCl template substrate was used instead of mica in HWE-grown films, and (ii) in the OMBE-grown films dominated by growth mounds composed of upright standing molecules as opposed to the films consisting of crystallites formed by molecules lying parallel to the substrate.

Kadashchuk, A.; Schols, S.; Heremans, P.; Skryshevski, Yu.; Piryatinski, Yu.; Beinik, I.; Teichert, C.; Hernandez-Sosa, G.; Sitter, H.; Andreev, A.; Frank, P.; Winkler, A.

2009-02-01

444

Conservation of Hox/ParaHox-related genes in the early development of a cnidarian.  

PubMed

To clarify the relationship between axial patterning in cnidarians and bilaterians, we have investigated the embryonic development of the hydrozoan Podocoryne carnea. The expression of Hox-like homeobox genes was analyzed by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. Cnox1-Pc, an anterior Hox gene, is a maternal message. It is present throughout larval development, first weakly in all blastomeres and later restricted mostly to the anterior pole of the planula. Gsx, an anterior ParaHox gene, is first seen in the anterior endoderm but also extends into posterior regions. Cnox4-Pc, an orphan Hox-like gene, is expressed in the egg as a ring-shaped cloud around the germinal vesicle. After fertilization, the message remains in most animal blastomeres. When the embryo elongates in late blastula, staining is restricted to a few cells at the posterior pole where gastrulation will start. However, once gastrulation starts, the Cnox4-Pc signal disappears and is absent in later stages of larval development. Phylogenetic analysis shows that not all cnidarian Hox-like genes have recognizable orthologues in bilaterian groups. However, the expression analysis of Cnox1-Pc and Gsx correlates to some extent with the expression pattern of cognate genes of bilaterians, confirming the conservation of genes involved in organizing animal body plans and their putative common ancestral origin. PMID:11456446

Yanze, N; Spring, J; Schmidli, C; Schmid, V

2001-08-01

445

USO DE LA WEB PARA EL APOYO DEL PROCESO ENSEÑANZA-APRENDIZAJE EN LA DISCIPLINA SANIDAD VEGETAL EN LA CARRERA DE INGENIERÍA AGRONÓMICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo resume la utilización de una página web como complemento de los medios tradicionales (impresos y audiovisuales), empleado para el desarrollo del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de la disciplina Sanidad Vegetal en la formación de ingenieros agrónomos. Como principales resultados se contribuye al logro de las habilidades necesarias propias de la disciplina, las cuales son indispensables para el futuro profesional

Carlos Pupo Feria; Gladia González Ramírez

2010-01-01

446

CARACTERIZAÇÃO GEOTÉCNICA EXPEDITA DO GRANITO DO PORTO PARA FINS DE ESCAVAÇÃO DE TÚNEIS SWIFT GEOTECHNICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF OPORTO GRANITE FOR TUNNELING EXCAVATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Os critérios sugeridos por diversos autores para a caracterização geotécnica dos maciços rochosos não são de fácil e expedita aplicação, visto que nela intervêm várias propriedades geotécnicas que quantificam características geológicas, geomecânicas e geofísicas dos maciços e rochas constituintes e a determinação de tais parâmetros é difícil e morosa. O presente artigo tem por objectivo apontar critérios para uma

Dinis da Gama

447

HERRAMIENTAS GERENCIALES PARA EL POSICIONAMIENTO DE LA EMPRESA SOSTENIBLE Y EL MARKETING ECOLÓGICO Management tools and positioning of sustainable enterprises and marketing ecological  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN La civilización humana está direccionando su acción comercial hacia el componente ecológico, tomando como principio la gerencia para proyectarse al mercado verde es decir, productos que generen menor impacto ambiental. La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar las herramientas gerenciales para el posicionamiento de la empresa sostenible y el marketing ecológico. Este trabajo de investigación fue descriptivo, transeccional y

Dalia Plata de Plata

448

QUANTOS PONTOS DE CONCORDÂNCIA SÃO NECESSÁRIOS PARA SE OBTER UMA IDENTIFICAÇÃO ODONTOLEGAL POSITIVA? HOW MANY POINTS OF CONCORDANCE ARE NECESSARY TO OBTAIN A POSITIVE FORENSIC DENTAL IDENTIFICATION?  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO O presente trabalho representa um estudo de caso sobre identificação humana com técnica comparativa, por meio de um método odontolegal, em que se discutem os aspectos de quantidade e qualidade de pontos de concordância necessários para se obter uma identificação positiva. É ressaltado que, apesar de alguns trabalhos estabelecerem um mínimo de doze pontos convergentes, assim como preconizado para

Rhonan Ferreira da Silva; Mauro Machado do Prado; Henrique César; Marçal de Oliveira; Eduardo Daruge Júnior

449

CAIXAS INCUBADORAS PARA A FORMAÇÃO E OBSERVAÇÃO DE COLÔNIAS DE ABELHAS SEM FERRÃO (Apidae: Meliponina) INCUBATOR HIVES FOR FORMATION AND OBSERVATION OF STINGLESS BEES (Apidae: Meliponina) COLONIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Diversos estudos sobre biologia e manejo de meliponíneos têm utilizado caixas que mantém colônias em condição ideal de temperatura, aproximadamente 30°C, para incubação das crias. O presente estudo descreve um sistema de caixas incubadoras, elaborado com a finalidade de auxiliar no desenvolvimento de novas colônias, formadas com pouco material biológico, visando à produção de ninhos para a meliponicultura, bem

Luciano COSTA; Giorgio Cristino VENTURIERI

450

De las capacidades dinámicas como enfoque de la estrategia a la integración de competencias para la construcción de un entorno colaborativo Univ - Emp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo intenta mostrar la importancia de avanzar de un enfoque de capacidades dinámicas a uno de competencias, para construir una estrategia de entornos colaborativos que permita aprovechar los esfuerzos y las oportunidades de la relación universidad- empresa. Para tal fin, el documento está organizado en tres partes: la primera, es una revisión amplia de las perspectivas desde las cuales

Patricia Roncancio R

2011-01-01

451

Involvement of the Azorhizobial Chromosome Partition Gene (parA) in the Onset of Bacteroid Differentiation during Sesbania rostrata Stem Nodule Development ? †  

PubMed Central

A parA gene in-frame deletion mutant of Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571 (ORS571-?parA) was constructed to evaluate the roles of the chromosome-partitioning gene on various bacterial traits and on the development of stem-positioned nodules. The ?parA mutant showed a pleiomorphic cell shape phenotype and was polyploid, with differences in nucleoid sizes due to dramatic defects in chromosome partitioning. Upon inoculation of the ?parA mutant onto the stem of Sesbania rostrata, three types of immature nodule-like structures with impaired nitrogen-fixing activity were generated. Most showed signs of bacteroid early senescence. Moreover, the ?parA cells within the nodule-like structures exhibited multiple developmental-stage phenotypes. Since the bacA gene has been considered an indicator for bacteroid formation, we applied the expression pattern of bacA as a nodule maturity index in this study. Our data indicate that the bacA gene expression is parA dependent in symbiosis. The presence of the parA gene transcript was inversely correlated with the maturity of nodule; the transcript was switched off in fully mature bacteroids. In summary, our experimental evidence demonstrates that the parA gene not only plays crucial roles in cellular development when the microbe is free-living but also negatively regulates bacteroid formation in S. rostrata stem nodules.

Liu, Chi-Te; Lee, Kyung-Bum; Wang, Yu-Sheng; Peng, Min-Hua; Lee, Kung-Ta; Suzuki, Shino; Suzuki, Tadahiro; Oyaizu, Hiroshi

2011-01-01

452

Electron diffraction study of meta- and para-fluoronitrobenzene using results from quantum chemical calculations. Trends in the carbon–halogen bond length found in ortho-, meta- and para-halonitrobenzenes (Halo=F, Cl, Br, I)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular geometry of meta- and para-fluoronitrobenzene has been determined by gas electron diffraction and quantum chemical calculations using HF, MP2 and DFT, and 6-311G**, 6-311++G** and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The obtained geometrical parameters (rg, in Å, ?? in degrees) for meta-fluoronitrobenzene are: r(C–C)av=1.397(4), r(N–O)av=1.227(3), r(C–N)=1.484(3), r(C–F)=1.333(8), r(C–H)av=1.107(16), ?C1C2N=118.3(6), ?C5C6F=120.6(24), ?ONO=125.3(37), ?C1C2C3=122.9(24), ?C3C4C5=119.2(18) and ?(C–N)=0 (fixed) and for para-fluoronitrobenzene: r(C–C)av=1.393(2),

Igor F. Shishkov; Lyudmila V. Khristenko; Svein Samdal; Snefrid Gundersen; Hans V. Volden; Lev V. Vilkov

2004-01-01

453

Liquid chromatographic determination of para-toluenesulfonamide in edible fillet tissues from three species of fish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chloramine-T (N-sodium-N-chloro-p-toluene-sulfonamide) is a candidate therapeutic drug for treating bacterial gill disease, a predominant disease of a variety of fish species. Research has been initiated to obtain the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) approval for the use of chloramine-T on a variety of fish species. An attribute of a therapeutic aquaculture drug that must be characterized before the FDA approves its use is depletion of the drug's marker residue (the drug's parent compound or metabolite of highest concentration in an edible tissue). Para-Toluenesulfonamide (p-TSA) is the primary degradation product and marker residue for chloramine-T in rainbow trout. To conduct residue depletion studies for chloramine-T in fish, a robust analytical method sensitive and specific for p-TSA residues in edible fillet tissue from a variety of fish was required. Homogenized fillet tissues from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were fortified at nominal p-TSA concentrations of 17, 67, 200, 333, and 1000 ng/g. Samples were analyzed by isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) with absorbance detection at 226 nm. Mean recoveries of p-TSA ranged from 77 to 93.17%; relative standard deviations ranged from 1.5 to 14%; method quantitation limits ranged from 13 to 18 ng/g; and method detection limits ranged from 3.8 to 5.2 ng/g. The LC parameters produced p-TSA peaks without coelution of endogenous compounds and excluded chromatographic interference from at least 20 chemicals and drugs of potential use in aquaculture.

Meinertz, J. R.; Schmidt, L. J.; Stehly, G. R.; Gingerich, W. H.

1999-01-01

454

A review of inhalation toxicology studies with para-aramid fibrils.  

PubMed

The paper summarizes the results of inhalation toxicology studies associated with para-aramid (p-aramid) fibrils. The review is subdivided into two categories: the results of inhalation toxicity studies and mechanistic inhalation studies. Keratin-associated lesions were observed in the lungs of female rats following chronic exposure to high concentrations of p-aramid. These lesions were originally interpreted as cystic keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas (CKSCC). In recent years, this keratinizing lesion has been observed in the lungs of rats with greater regularity in numerous chronic inhalation studies following exposures to a variety of dusts. In an attempt to reach a consensus on an appropriate diagnosis for this lesion, an international panel of pathologists was convened to evaluate the morphological aspects of this lesion. The panel considered that the most appropriate diagnosis for this lesion was 'proliferative keratin cyst' (PKC), the biological potential of the PKC remains controversial, but it appears to be unique to the rat species and has little relevance for humans. Mechanistic studies with p-aramid have demonstrated that acute inhalation of high concentrations of fibrils produces a potent but transient pulmonary inflammatory and cell labelling response. The inhaled fibrils have low durability in the lungs of rats as evidenced by a progressive decrease in median fibre lengths with increasing residence time in the lung. In contrast, in a comparative study, size-separated chrysotile asbestos produced a sustained increase over controls in cellular proliferation responses of terminal airways, parenchyma, subpleural and mesothelial regions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8526399

Warheit, D B

1995-10-01

455

Genes, enzymes, and regulation of para-cresol metabolism in Geobacter metallireducens.  

PubMed

In aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria, the degradation of para-cresol (p-cresol) involves the initial hydroxylation to p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol by water catalyzed by the soluble, periplasmatic flavocytochrome p-cresol methylhydroxylase (PCMH; alpha(2)beta(2) composition). In denitrifying bacteria the further metabolism proceeds via oxidation to p-hydroxybenzoate, the formation of p-hydroxybenzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA), and the subsequent dehydroxylation of the latter to benzoyl-CoA by reduction. In contrast, the strictly anaerobic Desulfobacterium cetonicum degrades p-cresol by addition to fumarate, yielding p-hydroxybenzylsuccinate. In this work, in vitro enzyme activity measurements revealed that the obligately anaerobic Geobacter metallireducens uses the p-cresol degradation pathway of denitrifying bacteria. Surprisingly, PCMH, which is supposed to catalyze both p-cresol hydroxylation and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol oxidation to the corresponding aldehyde, was located in the membrane fraction. The alpha subunit of the enzyme was present in two isoforms, suggesting an alphaalpha'beta(2) composition. We propose that the unusual asymmetric architecture and the membrane association of PCMH might be important for alternative electron transfer routes to either cytochrome c (in the case of p-cresol oxidation) or to menaquinone (in the case of p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol oxidation). Unusual properties of further enzymes of p-cresol metabolism, p-hydroxybenzoate-CoA ligase, and p-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA reductase were identified and are discussed. A proteomic approach identified a gene cluster comprising most of the putative structural genes for enzymes involved in p-cresol metabolism (pcm genes). Reverse transcription-PCR studies revealed a different regulation of transcription of pcm genes and the corresponding enzyme activities, suggesting the presence of posttranscriptional regulatory elements. PMID:17449613

Peters, Franziska; Heintz, Dimitri; Johannes, Jörg; van Dorsselaer, Alain; Boll, Matthias

2007-04-20

456

Long-term health-enhancing physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis - the PARA 2010 study  

PubMed Central

Background People with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) suffer increased risk of disability andpremature mortality. Health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) could be one importantfactor to reduce this risk. Rising health care costs call for the development and evaluation ofnew modes of rehabilitation, including physical activity in settings outside the health caresystem. Methods/Design This cohort study targets 450 patients with RA that do not currently meet HEPA recommendations, recruited from six hospitals reporting to the Swedish Rheumatology Quality Registers (SRQ). We have developed a two-year real-life intervention program including a minimum of twice-weekly circuit training, moderately intense physical activity the remaining days of the week and group meetings to support behavior change every other week. Our hypothesis is that increased physical activity and exercise will improve perceived health, reduce pain and fatigue, increase muscle function and aerobic capacity, impact psychosocial factors and prevent future cardiovascular events. Research questions regard outcomes, retention rates, dose–response matters and the exploration of responder characteristics. This protocol outlines recruitment procedure, design, assessment methods and the intervention program of the study. Discussion The PARA 2010 project is designed to expand the knowledge on HEPA in RA by a progressive approach regarding population, setting, intervention, time frames and outcome measures. To our knowledge this is the first long-term HEPA program based on Social Cognitive Theory, and performed in a real life environment to demonstrate if this new setting can promote increased and maintained physical activity in people with RA. Trial registration number ISRCTN25539102

2012-01-01

457

Initial stages of a para-hexaphenyl film growth on amorphous mica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Para-hexaphenyl (6P) molecules were deposited in the submonolayer range on a sputter- modified muscovite mica(001) surface by physical vapor deposition under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The ultrathin films were investigated in situ by thermal desorption spectroscopy and ex situ by atomic force microscopy. On the sputter-modified amorphous mica surface the 6P molecules form two-dimensional islands of standing molecules. From the island size and capture zone distribution, as well as from the island density as a function of deposition rate and substrate temperature, all relevant parameters, characterizing the nucleation process, could be deduced. The critical island size was determined to be two and/or three molecules. The preexponential factor for surface diffusion of the monomers was determined to be 2 × 1017 s-1. The binding energy of a critical nucleus with i = 3 was found to be 1.5 eV, using the calculated value of 0.02 eV for the diffusion energy barrier. This is in good agreement with our calculations of the binding energy for a critical cluster consisting of three lying molecules. Furthermore, the calculations show that the critical clusters are lying flat on the surface; they transform into islands of standing molecules only after the incorporation of further molecules. The shape of the islands is slightly dendritic at low surface temperature and becomes more dendritic with increasing temperature. This unusual behavior, which is the opposite of the frequently observed temperature dependence of metal islands, is also discussed in some detail.

Potocar, T.; Lorbek, S.; Nabok, D.; Shen, Q.; Tumbek, L.; Hlawacek, G.; Puschnig, P.; Ambrosch-Draxl, C.; Teichert, C.; Winkler, A.

2011-02-01

458

Origin of the bimodal island size distribution in ultrathin films of para-hexaphenyl on mica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrathin films of para-hexaphenyl (6P) were prepared on freshly cleaved and sputter-amorphized mica(001) by physical vapor deposition. Ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed a bimodal island size distribution for the films on both surfaces. On freshly cleaved mica long needlelike islands exist, which are surrounded by small crystallites. On the sputter-amorphized substrates, large dendritic islands exist which are again surrounded by small, compact islands. We could prove by thermal desorption spectroscopy that the small islands are the result of adsorbate-induced subsequent nucleation, when the films were exposed to air. In case of the freshly cleaved mica, islands grow on a wetting layer in vacuum. This layer dewets and forms the small islands upon venting, due to the adsorption of water. In the case of the amorphous mica substrate an equilibrium exists between the islands and a two-dimensional gas phase in the sub-monolayer regime. Again, the latter phase nucleates after venting. In a particular coverage range, islands due to nucleation during deposition and subsequent nucleation coexist on the substrate, leading to the bimodal island size distribution. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations were performed to model the nucleation process after venting on the sputter-modified mica substrate. The density of the subsequently nucleated islands just depends on the initial coverage and the critical island size. A critical cluster size of i = 7 molecules was determined for 6P on amorphized mica, by comparing the KMC results with the AFM images in case of adsorbate-induced nucleation. Furthermore, the experimentally obtained island size distributions could be well reproduced by KMC simulations.

Tumbek, L.; Gleichweit, C.; Zojer, K.; Winkler, A.

2012-08-01

459

Chelation Therapy of Manganese Intoxication with para-Aminosalicylic Acid (PAS) in Sprague-Dawley Rats  

PubMed Central

Para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), an FDA-approved anti-tuberculosis drug, has been used successfully in the treatment of severe manganese (Mn)-induced Parkinsonism in humans (Jiang et al., JOEM 48:644, 2006). This study was conducted to explore the capability of PAS in reducing Mn concentrations in body fluids and tissues of Mn-exposed animals. Sprague-Dawley rats received daily intraperitoneally (i.p.) injections of 6 mg Mn/kg, 5 d/wk for 4 wks, followed by a daily subcutaneously (sc.) dose of PAS (100 and 200 mg/kg as the PAS-L and PAS-H group, respectively) for another 2, 3 or 6 wks. Mn exposure significantly increased the concentrations of Mn in plasma, red blood cells (RBC), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), brain and soft tissues. Following PAS-H treatment for 3 wks, Mn levels in liver, heart, spleen and pancreas were significantly reduced by 25 to 33%, while 3 wks of PAS-L treatment did not show any effect. Further therapy with PAS-H for 6 wk reduced Mn levels in striatum, thalamus, choroid plexus, hippocampus and frontal cortex by 16 to 29% (p<0.05). Mn exposure greatly increased iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) concentrations in CSF, brain and liver. Treatment with PAS-H restored Fe and Cu levels comparable with control. These data suggest that PAS likely acts as a chelating agent to mobilize and remove tissue Mn. A high-dose and prolonged PAS treatment appears necessary for its therapeutic effectiveness.

Zheng, Wei; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Zhang, Yanshu; Jiang, Wendy; Wang, Xueqian; Cowan, Dallas M.

2008-01-01

460

Long-term health-enhancing physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis - the PARA 2010 study.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: People with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) suffer increased risk of disability and premature mortality. Health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) could be one important factor to reduce this risk. Rising health care costs call for the development and evaluation of new modes of rehabilitation, including physical activity in settings outside the health care system. METHODS: This cohort study targets 450 patients with RA that do not currently meet HEPA recommendations, recruited from six hospitals reporting to the Swedish Rheumatology Quality Registers (SRQ). We have developed a two-year real-life intervention program including a minimum of twice-weekly circuit training, moderately intense physical activity the remaining days of the week and group meetings to support behavior change every other week. Our hypothesis is that increased physical activity and exercise will improve perceived health, reduce pain and fatigue, increase muscle function and aerobic capacity, impact psychosocial factors and prevent future cardiovascular events. Research questions regard outcomes, retention rates, dose-response matters and the exploration of responder characteristics. This protocol outlines recruitment procedure, design, assessment methods and the intervention program of the study. DISCUSSION: The PARA 2010 project is designed to expand the knowledge on HEPA in RA by a progressive approach regarding population, setting, intervention, time frames and outcome measures. To our knowledge this is the first long-term HEPA program based on Social Cognitive Theory, and performed in a real life environment to demonstrate if this new setting can promote increased and maintained physical activity in people with RA. Trial registration number ISRCTN25539102. PMID:22656861

Nordgren, Birgitta; Fridén, Cecilia; Demmelmaier, Ingrid; Bergström, Gunnar; Opava, Christina H

2012-06-01

461

OrthoParaMap: Distinguishing orthologs from paralogs by integrating comparative genome data and gene phylogenies  

PubMed Central

Background In eukaryotic genomes, most genes are members of gene families. When comparing genes from two species, therefore, most genes in one species will be homologous to multiple genes in the second. This often makes it difficult to distinguish orthologs (separated through speciation) from paralogs (separated by other types of gene duplication). Combining phylogenetic relationships and genomic position in both genomes helps to distinguish between these scenarios. This kind of comparison can also help to describe how gene families have evolved within a single genome that has undergone polyploidy or other large-scale duplications, as in the case of Arabidopsis thaliana – and probably most plant genomes. Results We describe a suite of programs called OrthoParaMap (OPM) that makes genomic comparisons, identifies syntenic regions, determines whether sets of genes in a gene family are related through speciation or internal chromosomal duplications, maps this information onto phylogenetic trees, and infers internal nodes within the phylogenetic tree that may represent local – as opposed to speciation or segmental – duplication. We describe the application of the software using three examples: the melanoma-associated antigen (MAGE) gene family on the X chromosomes of mouse and human; the 20S proteasome subunit gene family in Arabidopsis, and the major latex protein gene family in Arabidopsis. Conclusion OPM combines comparative genomic positional information and phylogenetic reconstructions to identify which gene duplications are likely to have arisen through internal genomic duplications (such as polyploidy), through speciation, or through local duplications (such as unequal crossing-over). The software is freely available at .

Cannon, Steven B; Young, Nevin D

2003-01-01

462

Reversible dissociation of cortisol-transcortin complex by sodium para-chloromercuribenzoate.  

PubMed

Mercurials are considered as sulphydryl group specific reagents and one of them, sodium para-chloromercuribenzoate (PCMB), is currently used for SH titration. It has been shown that cellular steroid receptors are reversibly inactivated by mercurials even when the binding site is occupied by the steroid (Coty, W.A. (1980) J. Biol. Chem. 255, 8035-8037). This is a striking difference with alky