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  1. Crisis in medico-legal death investigation.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Joye M.

    2002-01-01

    There is a crisis in the field of medico-legal death investigation! This medical practice is one that most physicians do not think about until they are called in the middle of the night and informed that their patient has died and medical history is requested. Worse still, the trauma surgeon may need to explain why the patient did not survive the life-saving techniques used at his or her medical institution. The worst-case scenario is when the clinician is hit with a malpractice lawsuit. PMID:11837352

  2. JWARA (fever)- a medico historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Prasad, P V

    2001-01-01

    "JWARA" is important and critical among all the diseases, because it affects each and every living being. Hence, it has been given first place in the classical texts of Ayurveda. Atharvaveda (AV) has also referred Jwara with the name Takman (son of God Varuna) and drugs like Kustha, Jangida and Anjana have been prescribed for its management. References with regard to Jwara are also found in other non-medical literature Viz., Mahābhārata, Purānas etc. Acārya Suśruta has mentioned that, man comes to this world with Jwara and departs with it. Jwara affects the whole body, the organs of senses and also the mind. According to mythology, Jwara was originated from the hot and destructive breath of Lord Siva, which was produced from his nostrils during the paroxysms of grief and rage on the death of his wife, Durga. It attacks all persons of all ages and in all conditions. Jwara is the king of all diseases, destroyer of all creatures and severe hence a physician should be practically cautious in treating it. All these medico-historical aspects of Jwara have been presented in this article. PMID:12841176

  3. Contemporary medico-legal dental radiology.

    PubMed

    Wright, Brad

    2012-03-01

    The advent of extraoral radiology in general dental practice has become more widespread since 2000, particularly with digital systems. With this comes a range of medico-legal risks for dentists not adverted to previously. These risks include a higher than expected radiation dose for some surveys, and the risk of a 'loss of a chance' for a patient whereby the images may disclose pathology not diagnosed by general dental practitioners using OPG and CBVT radiology. Practitioners need to apply relevant legal principles in deciding which surveys to order and record, and also need to explain to patients the dosages of the radiation that they will likely receive. Practitioners also need to assess whether the resultant survey ought to be interpreted by a radiologist to diagnose any wider pathology with which a general practitioner may not be familiar. Extra caution needs to be used in ordering high dose radiology in paediatric patients. Dentists should not assume patients fully understand the nature of CBVT and MCT, and its risks and benefits. Consideration ought to be given to the volume of CBVT ordered dependent on factors such as patient age, symptoms, history and procedural intent. PMID:22376092

  4. Phytol in a pharma-medico-stance.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Torequl; de Alencar, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros; da Conceição Machado, Katia; da Conceição Machado, Keylla; de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia; de Sousa, Damiao Pergentino; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to review phytol (PYT), through published articles, periodicals, magazines and patents, which were retrieved from the PM, SD, WS, SP; DII, WIPO, CIPO, USPTO and INPI databases. Among the 149 articles and 62 patents, 27.52% articles and 87.09% patients were found on the searched topic, PYT and its sources and synthesis and metabolism; then followed by 15.44% and 14.77% articles on PYT in cytotoxicity/cancer/mutagenicity/teratogenicity and PYT in neurological diseases, respectively. In the pharma-medico viewpoint, PYT and its derivatives have been evident to have antimicrobial, cytotoxic, antitumorous, antimutagenic, anti-teratogenic, antibiotic-chemotherapeutic, antidiabetic, lipid lowering, antispasmodic, anticonvulsant, antinociceptive, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, antidepressant, immunoadjuvancy, hair growth facilitator, hair fall defense and antidandruff activities. Otherwise, the important biometebolite of PYT is phytanic acid (PA). Evidence shows PA to have cytotoxic, anticancer, antidiabetic, lipid lowering and aniteratogenic activities. In addition, it may be considered as an important biomarker for some diseases such as Refsum's Disease (RD), Sjögren Larsson syndrome (SLS), rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RZCP), chronic polyneuropathy (CP), Zellweger's disease hyperpipecolic academia (ZDHA) and related diseases. Thus, phytol may be considered as a new drug candidate. PMID:26296761

  5. Current medico-legal death investigation system in China.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lin; Zhang, Baosheng; Yan, Ping; Fowler, David; Li, Ling

    2011-07-01

    Medico-legal death investigation in China has a long history that can be traced back to the Chhin era in the third century BC. We conducted a national study on the current medico-legal death investigation system in China. Our study showed that, at present, medico-legal death investigations in China are conducted by c. 12,000 forensic medical experts mainly within five relatively independent agencies: the police organizations, the prosecutors' offices, the departments/divisions of forensic medicine/science in medical colleges and universities, the Institute of Forensic Science in the Ministry of Justice, and the government or private forensic societies. Owing to China's large population and area, the medico-legal death investigation is largely based on the administrative divisions. There is a wide variation in the scope, extent, and quality of investigations among the agencies and at the different levels of county/district, municipal, and provincial governments. This article gives a general overview of medicolegal death investigation in modern China. PMID:21496020

  6. Medico-legal aspects of the use of posterior composites.

    PubMed

    Collins, M R

    1989-01-01

    Although there has been a significant rise in litigation involving dental treatment and an increase in the number of disciplinary actions being taken against dental surgeons, the Medical Defence Union has no evidence of a higher incidence of complaints when treatment has included the use of posterior composite restorations. The medico-legal implications in respect of posterior composites are no different from those for any other aspect of dental treatment when provided as part of treatment not carried out under National Health Service (General Dental Service) Regulations, however, the medico-legal implications of providing posterior composites as part of treatment carried out under National Health Service Regulations is much more complicated and the present situation is problematical for both the dentist and the patient. A full realisation of regulatory problems in respect of posterior composites is essential for those involved in the teaching of posterior composites. PMID:2732372

  7. The future for Medico-Legal disputes - a patient perspective.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Peter

    2014-03-01

    This article, taken from a presentation to the Medico-Legal Society, discusses the prospects for patient safety and access to justice in the wake of the Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust public inquiry and the Legal Aid Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act. Particular reference is made to the arguments for and against a statutory Duty of Candour; clinical negligence litigation; patient complaints and specialist advice and support for people affected by medical accidents. PMID:24619842

  8. [[Medico-historical findings of (neuro-) prosthetics: an online survey].

    PubMed

    Ohnemus, Dirk; Otte, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an online survey on medico-historical (neuro-)prostheses. Important findings of the past 3000 years are outlined: toe prostheses from ancient Egypt, the Capua leg prosthesis, Götz von Berlichingen's artificial hands and Sauerbruch's prosthetic arm. These historical examples are compared with modern neuroprosthetics. It is also shown that historical prostheses were in no way primitive and, even more, that ancient people already used first intelligent medical engineering approaches. PMID:26548022

  9. Imaging of body packing: errors and medico-legal issues.

    PubMed

    Reginelli, Alfonso; Russo, Anna; Urraro, Fabrizio; Maresca, Duilia; Martiniello, Ciro; D'Andrea, Alfredo; Brunese, Luca; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Body packing is the ingestion or insertion in the human body of packed illicit substances. Over the last 20 years, drug smuggling has increased global and new means of transport of narcotics have emerged. Among these, the most frequent one is the gastrointestinal tract: from mouth to anus, vagina, and ears. Cocaine is one of the most traded drugs, followed by heroin. Condoms, latex gloves, and balloons are typically used as drug packets for retention in the body. There are different radiologic modalities to detect illicit drugs in body packing: Plain radiography, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and magnetic resonance. Current protocols recommend the use of radiography to confirm packet retention and, in case of doubt, the use of abdominal CT scan with reduced mAs. In case of packet rupture, catastrophic effects can occur. Management of patients carrying packets of drugs is a recurrent medico-legal problem. To improve diagnostic accuracy and prevent hazardous complications, radiologists and emergency physicians should be familiar with radiologic features of body packing. The radiologist plays both a social and a medico-legal role in their assessment, and it should not be limited only to the identification of the packages but must also provide accurate information about their number and their exact location. In this review, we focus on diagnostic errors and medico-legal issues related to the radiological assessment of body packers. PMID:26063072

  10. Fatal drug poisonings: medico-legal reports and mortality statistics.

    PubMed

    Lahti, R A; Vuori, E

    2003-09-01

    The entire fatal drug poisoning panorama in Finland is considered in terms of three catergories: accidental, self-inflicted and undetermined (whether accidental or with intent to harm) deaths. The study material consisted of all 500 deaths in 1997 that medical examiners, after examination(s) at the Forensic Toxicology Division (FTD) of the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, officially certified as resulting from drug poisoning. These deaths were matched with data on the same deaths registered at Statistics Finland (SF), the national mortality statistics office. The SF register included 72 additional instances of deaths resulting from drug poisoning. In all but two of these cases, the cause-of-death determination was based on a medico-legal inquest with autopsy and forensic toxicological examination(s) and was certified, in most of the cases, as due to the alcohol component in multiple-toxicant combinations. Reclassifying these deaths at SF to the category of drug component is in accordance with current International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) regulation of coding "to the medicinal agent when combined with alcohol"; the principle and practice, which is recommended to be amended to equalize the status of alcohol and drug when explicitly stated by a forensic examiner as the principal toxicant in combined poisonings. With regard to manner-of-death, the agreement rates between medico-legally proven deaths from drug poisoning and those registered at SF were 79.8% for accidents, 98.5% for suicides and 0% (nil) for undetermined deaths, at the level of three-character external cause codes (E-code). All deaths originally certified as undetermined were re-assigned, most frequently to the category of accidental death. Since within an advanced and sophisticated medico-legal system, a medical examiner's evidence-based statement, even when the conclusion reached is undetermined (as to intent), should be taken as a compelling argument, the practice of reclassification cannot be considered advisable because assembled information is lost. Concerning the assigned drug-specific groups, the agreement according to the manner-of-death between certifications and registrations was fairly good. From among the accidents, however, opioid poisonings were re-assigned in 11 (29.7%) cases, mostly to the drug abuse/dependence categories, i.e. they were considered as natural deaths by the statistics office. The drug-specific observations were possible only by using the codes from the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification of drugs. This is why the incorporation of ATC codes into the ICD system, whenever reasonable, is recommended. PMID:12969618

  11. Doctor Zander's Medico-Mechanical Institute in Opatija.

    PubMed

    Fischinger, Janez; Fischinger, Ales; Fischinger, Dusa

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, there were different kinds of medical institutions in the health and seaside spa resort Abbazia (nowadays Opatija). The Opatija Guidebooks (1904-1914) praised the three sanatoriums and Zander's Medico-Mechanical Institute, which was owned by Dr. Isor Stein. Dr. Zander, who is not well-known today, has been the main topic of the authors' research. The authors have found out that Dr. Gustav Zander (1835-1920) worked as a teacher of gymnastics, a physician, and a university lecturer about the remedial gymnastics at the University of Stockholm. He constructed several devices which enabled constant and regular movement of individual parts of the human body, as well as certain devices that replaced the manual massage. Zander started his first institute in Stockholm in 1865. People could do exercise using his apparatus. He gained international fame by exhibiting his devices at the International Exhibitions in Brussels and Philadelphia in 1876 and in Paris in 1878. Several Zander's medico-mechanical institutes were established around the world and they were all named after him. There were two hundred and two Zander's Institutes in 1911 when his success and fame reached its peak. Zander's Institute in Opatija was constructed already in 1904 and it was located on the ground floor of Stein's mansion, known as Vila Stein, nowadays Vila Dora. The First World War changed the fundamental role of Zander's Institutes and the Great Depression in 1929 destroyed them. It seems the Institute in Opatija closed down at that time too, even thought we have not found out the precise date. The modern fitness studios started to emerge in Europe in the 1950s, a few decades after Zander's medico-mechanical institutes ceased to exist. Many modern professional fitness devices are basically derived from the apparatus that was recommended, constructed and launched into the society already by Dr. Gustav Zander. The authors of this article presume that it was Dr. Zander who already used the methods of physiotherapy and fitness that are generally used today. PMID:20500008

  12. [Some medico-psychological perspectives on sexual homicides. Three cases].

    PubMed

    Bénézech, M

    1995-10-01

    While sexual murders are widely reported in the media, there are almost no reports on these major crimes in the French medico-psychological literature. After a brief historical and legal overview, the author discusses the forensic definition of sexual homicides, parent-to-child transmission of sexual violence, the distinction between paraphilic and non-paraphilic sexual offenders, criminal affects, and the classification of aggressors in violent homicides. He confirms that particularly violent murderers may be divided into two psychiatric and behavioral categories. Next, the six main causes of sexual homicide are presented together with three clinical observations of such cases: 1) one with homosexual connotations; 2) another through hate for women; 3) and a third where rage was not specifically directed. Finally, the author concludes that there should be systematic criminologic research in France into sexual murders. PMID:8561394

  13. Knowledge and Perceptions of Health Workers’ Training on Ethics, Confidentiality and Medico-Legal Issues

    PubMed Central

    Barnie, Bernard Asamoah; Forson, Paa Kobina; Opare-Addo, Mercy Naa Aduele; Appiah-Poku, John; Rhule, Gyikua Plange; Oduro, George; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Donkor, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Health care delivery in recent times has become more complicated, as patients expect health personnel to not only provide professional services but be accountable as well. It is thus imperative that health personnel are aware of their responsibility to the patient and also sensitive to medico legal issues if quality health care is to be assured. Objective The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and perception of health care workers on their training in ethics, confidentiality and medico-legal issues. It was expected that the results would inform policy on the training of the health workers. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted among some categories of health workers (Doctors, Nurses and Health care assistants) at the Accident and Emergency directorate of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Ghana. A self-administered questionnaire was used to elicit information on ethics, confidentiality and medico- legal issues. Data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results A total of 103 health care workers were enrolled on the study representing 96% response rate. The study revealed that 74% had knowledge on ethics, confidentiality and medico- legal concepts; and 35.4% of the respondents indicated that health workers attitudes to ethics, confidentiality and medico- legal concepts was inadequate. About 28.3% indicated that their attitudes were good while 26.3% indicated attitudes were adequate with only 2% indicating that attitudes were very good. Nearly, 49% of the respondents also indicated that training on medico-legal issues should be taught during formal training and also on-the-job. Conclusion Knowledge of health workers on ethics confidentiality and medico-legal issues is high and their perceptions are positive. However, regular training to update their knowledge will be necessary in order to ensure continuous improvement of the quality of health care delivery.

  14. Medico-ecological zoning of the territory of the Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubovtseva, Yu. S.; Kagan, A. I.; Pyatigina, O. O.; Voronova, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    The medico-ecological state of Russian regions has been analyzed on the basis of statistical data. It is found that the incidence of different groups of diseases varies significantly in different regions. The regions of Russia are classified according to their medico-ecological parameters; the zones of maximal health risk caused by environmental pollutions, including air, water and soil pollution, are determined. The proposed methods for zoning by health level and the estimate of medico-ecological conditions in different administrative units provide the basis for the development of measures for the adaptation of population. These data can be used for the control of sanitary measures planned by regional organizations for the social-ecological protection of the population.

  15. The medico-legal scene in Dubai: 2002-2007.

    PubMed

    Benomran, Fawzi A

    2009-08-01

    Various characteristics of the medico-legal scene in Dubai are described, along with an overview of all cases examined over a period of 6 years. During the period of study, a total of 17,683 cases were examined in the Department of Forensic Medicine of Dubai Police General Headquarters. This constituted a yearly average of (2947.16). The average annual increment was 11.13%, the percentage of increase between 2002 and 2007 being 68.96%. Of these 10,165 (57.48%) were clinical cases of injuries, 5404 (30.56%) postmortem examinations, 1525 (8.62%) clinical cases of sexual crimes, 409 (2.3%) age estimations, 58 (0.32%) medical responsibility, 20 (0.11%) criminal abortion, 61 (0.34%) civil actions and 38 (0.21%) miscellaneous cases. Of postmortem examinations, 4846 (89.7%) of them were males and 558 (10.3%) females. The age ranged from (0-90) years, with a mean age of 40.5 years. The peak incidence was in the age group (20-50) years, where the extremes of age were least represented (Fig. 1). Only in 361 cases (6.68% of the grand total) the deceased was a local citizen. Autopsies amounted to 394 cases, which constituted 7.29% of the total deaths examined. The four manners of death in descending order of frequency were natural 3003 (55.57%), accidental 1727 (32%), suicidal 498 (9.2%), homicidal 164 (3%). The manner was undetermined in 12 (0.22%) of the cases over the 6 year period. PMID:19573843

  16. The shifting sands of medico-legal intra-partum Ctg (I-P Ctg) monitoring.

    PubMed

    Buttigieg, George G

    2016-03-01

    Intra-partum (IP) surveillance of the unborn child by cardiotacography (CTG) monitoring is the commonest obstetric procedure in the developed world.(1) It is also the most medico-legally contested obstetric procedure in labour. In 2011, 'birth asphyxia' comprised 50% of the UK National Health Service (NHS) litigation costs,(2) and in the 2000-2010 decade, the same NHS paid out £3.1 billion for maternity medico-legal claims (the highest of any speciality), mostly involving cerebral palsy and CTG misinterpretation.(3) This article looks at a number of characteristics of IP CTG monitoring which argue for its questionable solidity of base in court proceedings. PMID:26275850

  17. The medico-legal investigation of abandoned fetuses and newborns-a review of cases admitted to the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory, South Africa.

    PubMed

    du Toit-Prinsloo, L; Pickles, C; Smith, Z; Jordaan, J; Saayman, G

    2016-03-01

    There is a dearth of literature on the extent of fetal or newborn abandonment or "dumping" and the medico-legal investigation procedures these cases require. This is despite the fact that these occurrences are a worldwide phenomenon and by definition involve criminal law concerns such as illegal abortion, concealment of birth, murder, or neonaticide, depending on the country concerned. This article contributes to current literature in both respects and provides a retrospective case audit for the period 2004-2008 pertaining to all abandoned newborns and fetuses admitted to the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory (PMLL) in South Africa. Demographic details, scope, and nature of the medico-legal investigation as well as formulation of cause of death were recorded. A total of 289 cases were identified for inclusion in this study, 57 % of which were considered to have been non-viable fetuses, while 45 of the viable fetuses were deemed to have been stillborn. These instances involve the crimes of concealment of birth and at times illegal abortion, yet prosecution of these cases are relatively unheard of. Signs of live birth were identified in 38 of the cases in the study. Of these infants, 9 were deemed to have died from injuries they have sustained, and in a further 9 cases, no anatomical cause of death could be identified. Homicidal cases should be brought in cases where death ensued as a result of abandonment; however, it is not known how many cases were prosecuted. A comparatively large number of cases were found to have been admitted to the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory. This is alarming because South African abortion laws are liberal and services are free at point of access in the public health care sector. A substantial percentage of cases of abandoned infants were found to have shown signs of life after birth implying a homicidal manner of death or death by abandonment, but it seems these cases are merely shelved. PMID:25935238

  18. Death and AIDS: A Review of the Medico-Legal Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Jeffrey T.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that diagnosis of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) continues to denote death sentence. Contends that AIDS is unique terminal illness in that no other single disease in history of American legal system has generated more litigation than AIDS. Examines medico-legal issues associated with AIDS-related death: estate planning,…

  19. Barriers to the effective use of medico-legal findings in sexual assault cases worldwide.

    PubMed

    Mont, Janice Du; White, Deborah

    2013-09-01

    Despite the increasing implementation of standardized rape kits across jurisdictions, the medico-legal findings generated by these tools are often not related to positive criminal justice outcomes. Given that there has been no global investigation of the factors that might impede their successful use in cases of sexual assault, we conducted a review of relevant scholarly and "grey" literature from industrialized and less-developed regions. One key theme to emerge from the analysis concerned certain problematic practices and behaviors of professional groups involved in the various stages of the post-sexual assault process. We found that a lack of competence in handling sexual assault cases, contempt for women who have been victimized, and corruption among some forensic examiners, police, scientists, and legal personnel often have shaped the collection, processing, analysis, and use of medico-legal evidence. We discuss recent initiatives and future directions for research that might serve to address these issues. PMID:23935160

  20. Medico-legal investigations of the Airbus, A320 crash upon Mount Ste-Odile, France.

    PubMed

    Ludes, B; Tracqui, A; Pfitzinger, H; Kintz, P; Levy, F; Disteldorf, M; Hutt, J M; Kaess, B; Haag, R; Memheld, B

    1994-09-01

    The authors present the medico-legal investigations and identification after the aircrash of the Airbus A320 upon the Mount Sainte-Odile (France). The identification team comprising investigators from the gendarmerie, forensic pathologists, odontologists, and scientists of the Institute from Legal Medecine rapidly retrieved and identified 85 of the 87 victims, with 17 being identified through DNA typing, three through fingerprints and the remaining through dental records and specific physical or X-ray findings. Full autopsies were performed on all fatalities to determine patterns of injury and cause of death. Results lead us to point out the importance of a multidisciplinary team of forensic practitioners especially trained for managing medico-legal investigation in mass disaster and the ability of DNA technology to solve complex identification problems. PMID:7964560

  1. Skeleton used for anatomical study brought for medico-legal autopsy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, D N; Millo, T; Lalwani, S

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of human anatomy is essential for all those practising medicine. The human skeleton is invariably used to study the anatomy of body structures. For this, many human skeletons are obtained from the market by students and teachers and are kept at home or in hostel rooms. However, after use the skeleton has to be disposed off properly. In the present case, a human skeleton used for study purposes was thrown away in garbage and someone informed the police about presence of skeletal remains in the garbage. The case was registered by the police and the skeletal remains were brought for medico-legal autopsy. PMID:17345897

  2. Extrusion of Endodontic Filling Materials: Medico-Legal Aspects. Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Valeria; Lozito, Piercarlo; Donno, Antonio De; Grassi, Felice Roberto; Introna, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The Authors describe two cases of alleged malpractice due to overfilling. The aim of this article is to underline some medico-legal aspects regarding the quantity of extruded material which may be considered acceptable and the consequent damage to the patient. Two cases are presented here: In the first case, the dentist’s liability is clear due to excessive extrusion of endodontic material beyond the apical region combined with incomplete obturation of the canals. In the second case however, because two different dentists were involved, establishing the connection of causality between their work and the damage reported by the patient was not easy. This situation makes it difficult to establish the limits of potential responsibility, coupled with the complete absence of radiographic signs of periapical rarefaction and the small quantities of material beyond the apex. From a medico-legal point of view, a dentist may be held responsible for compensation and financial expenses of a patient for restoration of damage resulting from a dental procedure. Italian guidelines offer no indications as to when overfilling should be considered the result of a procedural error, or if it fits within the range labelled as “acceptable” and this gap offers extremely subjective interpretations of legal consultants. So, it would therefore be useful to adopt more precise qualitative/dimensional parameters, keeping in mind that the guidelines offer therapeutic recommendations and are not rigid protocols. PMID:19543544

  3. The Aberdeen Medico-Chirurgical Society 1789 to the present day: some leaders in medicine.

    PubMed

    Galloway, David B

    2011-02-01

    The Aberdeen Medico-Chirurgical Society was founded in 1789 based on a model of the Royal Medical Society of Edinburgh by Sir James McGrigor and 11 medical students. The objectives at that time, as at present, were to promote teaching, self education, the application of medical skills learned at the bedside, fellowship, and social intercourse. A number of examples of key leaders in the profession and members of the Medico-Chirurgical Society of Aberdeen are featured. These include Alexander Gordon (puerperal fever), Sir James McGrigor (founder of the British Army Medical Services), Sir Alexander Ogston (associated with Lister's theory of antisepsis in surgery and the discovery of the staphylococcus), Sir Patrick Manson (the father of tropical medicine), Prof JJR Macleod (Nobel Laureate and the discoverer of insulin), Prof Sir Matthew Hay (public health physician who offered the first description of typhus and its origins), and Sir Dugald Baird (the founder in the United Kingdom and Europe of modern-day maternity services). PMID:21292074

  4. Witnesses of the body: medico-legal cases in seventeenth-century Rome.

    PubMed

    De Renzi, Silvia

    2002-06-01

    Studying early modern medico-legal testimonies can enrich our understanding of witnessing, the focus of much research in the history of science. Expert testimonies were well established in the Roman Cannon law, but the sphere of competence of expert witnesses - one of the grounds on which seventeenth-century physicians claimed social and intellectual authority- troubled contemporary jurists. By reconstructing these debates in Counter Reformation Rome, and by placing in them the testimonies given by Poalo Zacchia, one of the founding fathers of legal medicine, this article discusses the epistemological and social issues surrounding the definition of expertise about the body in court. It shows how a high-ranking expert witness would define his competence versus the legal authority on the one hand, lower-status expert witnesses on the other. But it also explores the interactions between specific legal constraints, for example about eye witnessing, and the ways in which different kinds of witnesses would use the body as a source of evidence for testimony. While engaging with medico-legal issues including the ambiguous signs of childbirth and the (in)visibility of pain, the article examines their meanings within Counter Reformation social controversies, including control over sexuality, imposition of discipline and the social status of physicians. PMID:12240683

  5. [Brazil-Medico and the contributions of medical-hygienist thought to the scientific bases of Brazilian physical education].

    PubMed

    Mendes, Maria Isabel Brandão de Souza; da Nóbrega, Terezinha Petrucia

    2008-01-01

    The end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth were emblematic in the 'scientifization' of physical education in Brazil. This examination of the journal Brazil-Medico during 1887-1923 seeks to identify views of the body and health as well as contributions to the scientific bases of physical education in Brazil. PMID:19241681

  6. When range of motion is not enough: towards an evidence-based approach to medico-legal reporting in whiplash injury.

    PubMed

    Worsfold, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Whiplash injury medico-legal reporting has traditionally been focused upon identifying restrictions in range of motion and identifying the presence of tender areas in the cervical spine in an effort both to diagnose the condition and to offer a prognosis. There have been considerable advances in this field over the last decade however that calls into question such a diminutive approach. This paper reviews the contemporary evidence base for the medico-legal assessment of whiplash injury and identifies a body of literature that strongly implicates a Claimant's physiological and psychological stress response as a key medico-legal marker in predicting prognosis following whiplash injury. PMID:24931872

  7. [Infections associated with percutaneous arterial closure devices: medico-legal issues].

    PubMed

    Gaultier, C J; Houselstein, T

    2014-12-01

    Percutaneous suture closure devices have reduced the time needed for manual compression and hospital stays, but several meta-analysis emphasized a higher risk of vascular damages compared to manual compression. Two cases of infections on percutaneous suture closure devices were analyzed; which had medico-legal issues. Beyond the medical point of view, the patient's complaints, the way lawyers and medical experts have examined the cases were analyzed and resulted in physicians and hospitals being sentenced. Rather than stigmatizing those devices, we just want to invite cardiologists not to underestimate this serious risk. Before using those devices, physicians should balance the risk-benefit ratio, follow prevention guidelines, and most of all, be aware of any single signs of emerging infection to detect and treat them early, and thus reduce the severity of infections thanks to a targeted antibiotic treatment adapted to the antibiogram and an active role of vascular surgeons. PMID:25440766

  8. Medico-legal autopsy of abandoned foetuses and newborns in India.

    PubMed

    Behera, C; Sikary, Asit Kumar; Krishna, Karthik; Garg, Aayushi; Chopra, Saurav; Gupta, S K

    2016-06-01

    Foeticide and the abandonment of newborns are important, albeit frequently neglected, issues. Concealment of childbirth is often seen in the setting of unwanted pregnancy which has been recognised as one of the most important factors in both cases. This study highlights the medico-legal autopsy findings of 238 abandoned foetuses and newborns over a period of 17 years (1996-2012) from the region of South Delhi, India. There was no sex predilection. The majority of the cases were full term. Nearly 35% of the foetuses were still born, about 29% were live born and the remainder were non-viable. Among the live born, death by homicide was more common than a natural death and most were left by the roadside. The abandoning and killing of newborns needs urgent attention, and strict measures are needed to save thousands of innocent lives. PMID:26857075

  9. A satisfaction survey conducted on patients of a medico-legal consultation.

    PubMed

    Romain-Glassey, Nathalie; Gut, Melody; Cathieni, Federico; Hofner, Marie-Claude; Mangin, Patrice

    2011-05-01

    In 2006, a medico-legal consultation service devoted to adult victims of interpersonal violence was set up at the Lausanne University Hospital Centre, Switzerland: the Violence Medical Unit. Patients are received by forensic nurses for support, forensic examination (in order to establish medical report) and community orientation. In 2008, a telephone survey was conducted on patients. The objectives of the survey were to estimate the degree of patients' satisfaction and to document the use of the medical report by six questions. Among the 476 patients admitted to the VMU in 2007, 132 were interviewed. Their overall satisfaction was high with an average mark of 8.7/10. The medical report was used extensively by the interviewed victims (81%) for its primary function - to be produced as evidence. As the consultations are financed by public funds, these results were of interest for advocacy of long-lasting financial support. PMID:21550564

  10. A new ethical and medico-legal issue: vascular surgery and the postoperative cognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Setacci, C; Sirignano, A; Ricci, G; Spagnolo, A G; Pugliese, F; Speziale, F

    2015-08-01

    Patients undergoing major surgery are at risk for postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). The consciousness of the POCD arises new ethical and medico-legal issues that should be identified, managed and, if possible, prevented. Elderly patients still represent a real challenge for physicians and medical science. This challenge can be surmounted not only through technical progress but also by safeguarding the correct ethical behavior at the base of each relationship between a patient and his physician. Effective communication with the elderly patient is a prerequisite for clear and complete information, involving family members and caregivers when necessary. In every case, the identification of patients with pre-existing risk factors of POCD, shortening the period of time preceding the surgery and a proper technique of the procedure as well as physical and intellectual exercises, nutrition and medication play an important role in decreasing the incidence of neurocognitive deficits in the elderly. PMID:25216219

  11. Teledermatology and clinical photography: safeguarding patient privacy and mitigating medico-legal risk.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Paul; Finnane, Anna R; Soyer, H Peter

    2016-03-21

    Capturing clinical images is becoming more prevalent in everyday clinical practice, and dermatology lends itself to the use of clinical photographs and teledermatology. "Store-and-forward", whereby clinical images are forwarded to a specialist who later responds with an opinion on diagnosis and management is a popular form of teledermatology. Store-and-forward teledermatology has proven accurate and reliable, accelerating the process of diagnosis and treatment and improving patient outcomes. Practitioners' personal smartphones and other devices are often used to capture and communicate clinical images. Patient privacy can be placed at risk with the use of this technology. Practitioners should obtain consent for taking images, explain how they will be used, apply appropriate security in their digital communications, and delete images and other data on patients from personal devices after saving these to patient health records. Failing to use appropriate security precautions poses an emerging medico-legal risk for practitioners. PMID:26985853

  12. Chemical Construction of Polyfunctional Nanocomposites and Nanorobots for Medico-biological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbyk, P. P.; Dubrovin, I. V.; Petranovska, A. L.; Abramov, M. V.; Usov, D. G.; Storozhuk, L. P.; Turanska, S. P.; Turelyk, M. P.; Chekhun, V. F.; Lukyanova, N. Yu.; Shpak, A. P.; Korduban, O. M.

    A method for preparation of magnetosensitive nanocomposites on the basis of surface-modified magnetite carrying immobilized cisplatin and monoclonal antibody CD 95 (a medico-biological nanorobot model) was developed. Adsorption and covalent immobilization of monoclonal antibody CD 95 and human normal immunoglobulin on nanocomposites comprising magnetite coated with poly(acryl amide) and γ-aminopropylsiloxane was studied. Isotherms of covalent attachment of oxidized immunoglobulin via formation of Schiff bases and non-specific (physical) adsorption of the normal immunoglobulin were compared. Kinetics of release of the immunoglobulin to a model environment was studied. Interaction of the prepared models of nanorobots with the cell line MCF-7 was studied. It was shown that use of magnetically driven nanocomposites carrying the anti-tumour drug and the monoclonal antibody CD 95 causes a synergic cytotoxic effect which exceeds the influence of the control doses up to 50%.

  13. [Medico-social aspects of epidemiology of tuberculosis in the Extreme North].

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, A V; Golubeva, T M; Zolotukhin, V A; Galkin, V B; Lebedev, V B

    1992-01-01

    Tuberculosis is still of top priority in health care of the not numerous peoples of the Extreme North and will preserve its importance as a prevalent infection for the nearest ten years. All aborigines must be included in high-risk groups of tuberculosis and the system of its control should be based on a state status, which supposes the immediate solution of socio-economic and medico-biological problems. It is advisable to organize the interdepartmental committee for tuberculosis at the Association of northern peoples and envisage additional assignments, including foreign currency, to be spent on research work, fluorographic++ technology, diagnostic means and equipment and medicaments. Under conditions of a new economic mechanism and market economy assignments aimed at anti-tuberculosis aid should include donations brought by the leading industrial branches; separate enterprises and state structures. PMID:1488439

  14. Danger points, complications and medico-legal aspects in endoscopic sinus surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hosemann, W.; Draf, C.

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopic endonasal sinus surgery represents the overall accepted type of surgical treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis. Notwithstanding raised and still evolving quality standards, surgeons performing routine endoscopic interventions are faced with minor complications in 5% and major complications in 0.5–1%. A comprehensive review on all minor and major complications of endoscopic surgery of the paranasal sinuses and also on the anterior skull base is presented listing the actual scientific literature. The pathogenesis, signs and symptoms of each complication are reviewed and therapeutic regimens are discussed in detail relating to actual publication references. Potential medico-legal aspects are explicated and recent algorithms of avoidance are mentioned taking into account options in surgical training and education. PMID:24403974

  15. Medico-legal aspects of dental treatment of the ageing and aged patient.

    PubMed

    Story, R D

    2015-03-01

    The medico-legal aspects of the dental management of ageing and aged patients relate mainly to the assessment of the patient's competence and the role of substitute decision makers. Dentists will assess whether or not a patient is competent to give informed consent to treatment. Lawyers use the word 'capacity' when deciding whether a person can make an important decision about their life. Competence and capacity mean the same thing. Assessment of competence and the role of substitute decision makers rests firmly on a sound understanding of the ethical basis of dental practice. This article will discuss the ethical basis of dental practice; the assessment of competence and the gaining of informed consent; the role of substitute decision makers and the nature of the decisions that are made at the end of life. PMID:25762043

  16. Medico-legal aspects of traumatic injury of the vertebrobasilar artery.

    PubMed

    Hiraiwa, Kouichi; Sato, Taku; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Mizusawa, Ikubumi; Nata, Masayuki; Kodama, Namio

    2005-11-01

    Based on our experiences with medico-legal autopsies, we analyzed traumatic injury of the vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) in traffic accident victims. VBA rupture occurred in six cases with traumatic medullary lesions, but in none with cervical cord injury. A relatively small external force applied to the head or neck can induce isolated traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which accounts for approximately 11% of fatal head injuries. We examined the relationship between site of impact and site of vascular injury in 16 cases of isolated traumatic SAH. The results showed that the vertebral artery (VA) on the side of impact tended to be longitudinally injured in victims experiencing an external force equivalent to that of a fist punch to the head or face. There was no clear relationship between the site of impact and the site of vascular injury in victims who had sustained an external force greater than that of a fist punch. However, our results suggest that an external force causing rotation of the head was likely to cause tearing of the artery. In cases in which an external force equivalent to that of a fist punch was applied to the head, a raised blood alcohol level was a significant risk factor for artery rupture. Furthermore, a difference in the diameters of the left and right VAs was a risk factor for artery rupture. To determine why the VA, the most frequent site of arterial dissection, is also frequently the site of injury, we histologically examined normal and dissected VBAs. We also discuss medico-legal issues of the causal relationship between external force applied and rupture or dissection of the VA. PMID:16308512

  17. To err is human: Quality management practices in surgical oral pathology, a safety net for medico-legal complications

    PubMed Central

    Venkatraman, Narayan T; Bhadranna, Abhishek; Shenoy, Sadhana; Mohanty, Leeky

    2013-01-01

    Reading a slide and rendering a diagnosis is not only a science but also requires us to appreciate the constant artifact that is introduced in a controlled manner by tissue processing and obtaining a stained tissue section. There are a number of steps involved in getting the final stained tissue section and all these procedures if not performed properly have the potential to give rise to erroneous picture on the slide. Simple errors in judgments can lead to wrong diagnosis and unwarranted treatment. Such mistakes can put us at risk for Medico-Legal problems. The subject of Medico-Legal issues and practice of pathology has been neglected and amount of information available to the practicing professional in India is scarce. This paper focuses on standardized procedures for the various histopathology laboratory exercises. The paper highlights the importance of proper record maintenance with reporting protocols. A list of do's and don’ts for an Oral Pathologist is provided to help him/her in reducing the probable Medico-Legal issues. It does not in any way address the issue of individual competence and diagnostic abilities: That is an aspect for each individual to introspect upon and take remedial action. PMID:24250085

  18. To err is human: Quality management practices in surgical oral pathology, a safety net for medico-legal complications.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Narayan T; Bhadranna, Abhishek; Shenoy, Sadhana; Mohanty, Leeky

    2013-05-01

    Reading a slide and rendering a diagnosis is not only a science but also requires us to appreciate the constant artifact that is introduced in a controlled manner by tissue processing and obtaining a stained tissue section. There are a number of steps involved in getting the final stained tissue section and all these procedures if not performed properly have the potential to give rise to erroneous picture on the slide. Simple errors in judgments can lead to wrong diagnosis and unwarranted treatment. Such mistakes can put us at risk for Medico-Legal problems. The subject of Medico-Legal issues and practice of pathology has been neglected and amount of information available to the practicing professional in India is scarce. This paper focuses on standardized procedures for the various histopathology laboratory exercises. The paper highlights the importance of proper record maintenance with reporting protocols. A list of do's and don'ts for an Oral Pathologist is provided to help him/her in reducing the probable Medico-Legal issues. It does not in any way address the issue of individual competence and diagnostic abilities: That is an aspect for each individual to introspect upon and take remedial action. PMID:24250085

  19. Humans in Space: Summarizing the Medico-Biological Results of the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risin, Diana; Stepaniak, P. C.; Grounds, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of Gagarin's flight that opened the era of Humans in Space we also commemorate the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) which was triumphantly completed by the flight of STS-135 on July 21, 2011. These were great milestones in the history of Human Space Exploration. Many important questions regarding the ability of humans to adapt and function in space were answered for the past 50 years and many lessons have been learned. Significant contribution to answering these questions was made by the SSP. To ensure the availability of the Shuttle Program experiences to the international space community NASA has made a decision to summarize the medico-biological results of the SSP in a fundamental edition that is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2011 beginning 2012. The goal of this edition is to define the normal responses of the major physiological systems to short-duration space flights and provide a comprehensive source of information for planning, ensuring successful operational activities and for management of potential medical problems that might arise during future long-term space missions. The book includes the following sections: 1. History of Shuttle Biomedical Research and Operations; 2. Medical Operations Overview Systems, Monitoring, and Care; 3. Biomedical Research Overview; 4. System-specific Adaptations/Responses, Issues, and Countermeasures; 5. Multisystem Issues and Countermeasures. In addition, selected operational documents will be presented in the appendices. The chapters are written by well-recognized experts in appropriate fields, peer reviewed, and edited by physicians and scientists with extensive expertise in space medical operations and space-related biomedical research. As Space Exploration continues the major question whether humans are capable of adapting to long term presence and adequate functioning in space habitats remains to be answered We expect that the comprehensive review of the medico-biological results of the SSP along with the data collected during the missions on the space stations (Mir and ISS) provides a good starting point in seeking the answer to this question.

  20. Risk Factors and Medico-Economic Effect of Pancreatic Fistula after Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Renping; Liu, Bing; Chen, Hua; Bai, Xuewei; Kong, Rui; Wang, Gang; Wang, Yongwei; Sun, Bei; Guan, Yinghui

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to uncover the risk factors for the new defined pancreatic fistula (PF) and clinical related PF (CR-PF) after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) surgery and to evaluate the medico-economic effect of patients. A total of 412 patients were classified into two groups according to different criteria, PF and NOPF according to PF occurrence: CR-PF (grades B and C) and NOCR-PF (grade A) based on PF severity. A total of 28 factors were evaluated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression test. Hospital charges and stays of these patients were assessed. The results showed that more hospital stages and charges are needed for patients in PF and CR-PF groups than in NOPF and NOCR-PF groups (P < 0.05). The excessive drinking, soft remnant pancreas, preoperative albumin, and intraoperative blood transfusion are risk factors affecting both PF and CR-PF incidence. More professional surgeons can effectively reduce the PF and CR-PF incidence. Patients with PF and CR-PF need more hospital costs and stages than that in NOPF and NOCR-PF groups. It is critical that surgeons know the risk factors related to PF and CR-PF so as to take corresponding therapeutic regimens for each patient. PMID:25788941

  1. The medico-legal evaluation of injuries from falls in pediatric age groups.

    PubMed

    Kafadar, Safiye; Kafadar, Hüseyin

    2015-04-01

    Blunt trauma from accidental falls or intentional jumping from great heights occurs frequently in forensic medicine. The goal of this study was to investigate injuries due to falls in children under 19 years of age. Injuries from falls are the leading cause of visits to emergency departments and to deaths due to injuries. Various methods are used in the classification of falls. In this study, we have classified falls as "high-level" (≥ 5 m), "low-level" (<5 m) and "ground-level". We have retrospectively evaluated 814 boys (61.18%) and 512 girls (38.62%), making up a total of 1326 children (under 19 years old) with the mean age of 7.85 ± 3.46, that were admitted to State Hospital between January 2009 and December 2013 due to falls from heights and falls on ground-level. Falls were low-level in 738 cases, high-level in 176 cases, and ground-level in 412 cases. Cases were categorized by gender, age, age group, fall height, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), injured body part(s), mortality rate, and distribution according to months. In conclusion, falls merit attention because of their high risk of mortality and morbidity, as well as their burden on medical budgets. If the medico-legal aspects of falls were evaluated with regard to preventive event or death, the importance of the topic could be better understood. PMID:25735785

  2. [The Medico-Social Cardiology Center of Coimbra. History and epilogue].

    PubMed

    Lopes, M R

    1998-03-01

    The Medico-Social Cardiology Center of Coimbra, designed and founded by Joo Porto in 1941, played a remarkable (and pioneering) role in helping cardiac patients in the central part of Portugal. Its work was made possible by the commitment of many doctors, nurses and Social Center Bulletins. For a quarter of a century the number of medical and social interventions in favor of cardiac patients is truly remarkable. Meanwhile, improvements in the national social services--easier access to medical services, free semiology exams, subsidized drugs, state illness subsidies--caused a reduction of monetary contributions from both partners and wealthier and healthier cardiac patients. Little by little the Center's activity was reduced, which ultimately led to its recent dissolution. The Center's books were placed in the Archive of the University and its assets (bank deposits) were donated to the Association for the Development of Cardiology at the University Hospital in Coimbra. As its name suggests, the main goal of this non-profit association consists in the promotion of scientific and technological improvement of the Cardiology Department at the University Hospital of Coimbra. PMID:9608822

  3. Medico-ethical versus biological evaluationism, and the concept of disease.

    PubMed

    Lindstrøm, Jon A

    2012-05-01

    According to the 'fact-plus-value' model of pathology propounded by K. W. M. Fulford, 'disease' is a value term that ought to reflect a 'balance of values' stemming from patients and doctors and other 'stakeholders' in medical nosology. In the present article I take issue with his linguistic-analytical arguments for why pathological status must be relative to such a kind of medico-ethical normativity. Fulford is right to point out that Boorse and other naturalists are compelled to utilize evaluative terminology when they characterize the nature of diseases and biological dysfunctions. But the relevant 'biofunctional judgements' are no less factual and empirical for that. While it is indeed evaluative to say that biological dysfunctions involve failures to execute naturally selected functions, such judgments are not bound to entail anything about what is good or bad for us, and what should be treated or not. In the last part of the paper I ruminate briefly on the relationship between 'biological evaluationism', on my construal, and descriptions of 'causal biology'. As I note in my conclusion, a strict bioevaluative concept of disease can be valid for every species on earth, and thus be of particular usefulness in general biological contexts. PMID:21837545

  4. Deaths on board ships assisted by the Centro Internazionale Radio Medico in the last 25 years.

    PubMed

    Grappasonni, Iolanda; Petrelli, Fabio; Amenta, Francesco

    2012-07-01

    Data on occupational diseases of seafarers and of causes of death during their career are sparse. The causes of deaths on board ships assisted by Centro Internazionale Radio Medico (CIRM), the Italian Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service (TMAS) were reviewed by examining 29,146 files of patients treated from 1986 to 2010. In the 25 years, 383 deaths occurred (1.31%). Diseases of the circulation were the most frequent, followed by external causes such as accidents and violence, infectious and parasitic diseases, alcohol and drug addiction, respiratory system diseases. Cardiovascular and external causes were the principal causes of deaths among seafarers. This investigation is the first study on the causes of death on board ships obtained from data of a maritime telemedical centre, that has assisted seafarers when they were alive or immediately after their death. The fact that diseases of the circulatory system are the first cause of death of sailing seafarers deserves specific initiatives. They should include campaigns for adequate lifestyles and the availability on ships of medical devices useful for diagnostic purposes, resuscitation as well as for verification of death. PMID:22819258

  5. Sudden adult death: a medico-legal series of 77 cases between 1995 and 2000.

    PubMed

    de la Grandmaison, G Lorin; Durigon, M

    2002-07-01

    Among all the autopsies performed between 1995 and 2000 in our Department, 77 adult cases of sudden death were selected. Sex, age, place of death, circumstances of death, causes of death and heart weight were reported from these 77 post-mortem records. A complete forensic autopsy was performed in every case. Sudden death occurred more frequently in males at rest. Strenuous activity was rarely involved in sudden death and 72.7% of the cases died from cardiovascular disease, mainly coronary atherosclerosis. Non-cardiac causes were dominated by pulmonary and neurological diseases. Cardiomegaly was a frequent finding in cases who died from cardiac pathology. This study underlines the importance of complete medico-legal investigations in case of sudden death. Multiple heart samples are required in order to detect focal microscopic lesions, such as myocarditis and some forms of cardiomyopathy with minimal gross abnormalities. The post-mortem diagnosis of such cardiomyopathies is very important because the family of the deceased may undergo a possible screening. Toxicology is useful in the diagnosis of epileptic seizure and in identifying drugs like metamphetamine as a risk factor for some lethal cardiovascular pathologies such as aortic dissection. Molecular biology can also be helpful when limits of morphological diagnosis have been reached. PMID:12201067

  6. Urologia: aspetti medico-legali. Cosa l'urologo non può non sapere.

    PubMed

    Rizzotto, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    Medico-legal notes in urologyIn recent years, claims for damages for medical liability have significantly increased. This implies that urologists need to know at least some basic concepts and updates regarding Forensic Medicine. Hence it is mandatory that, beyond the requirements of the law, every physician is covered by insurance liability for medical professionals. With the aim to protect and help the urologist in response to a claim for damages, the Italian Society of Urology has established and activated a "urological first aid", which any member can turn to in a moment of need. In the case of an accident, urologists can contact the "urological first aid" otherwise they can send a letter within 3 days to his/her insurance company, which will analyze the complaint and prepare a brief statement of defence and choose a civil lawyer specializing in medical professional liability. In this paper we will deal with some concepts of forensic medicine, distinguishing between public-liability and penal setting. PMID:25451877

  7. Medico-Legal Findings, Legal Case Progression, and Outcomes in South African Rape Cases: Retrospective Review

    PubMed Central

    Jewkes, Rachel; Christofides, Nicola; Vetten, Lisa; Jina, Ruxana; Sigsworth, Romi; Loots, Lizle

    2009-01-01

    Background Health services for victims of rape are recognised as a particularly neglected area of the health sector internationally. Efforts to strengthen these services need to be guided by clinical research. Expert medical evidence is widely used in rape cases, but its contribution to the progress of legal cases is unclear. Only three studies have found an association between documented bodily injuries and convictions in rape cases. This article aims to describe the processing of rape cases by South African police and courts, and the association between documented injuries and DNA and case progression through the criminal justice system. Methods and Findings We analysed a provincially representative sample of 2,068 attempted and completed rape cases reported to 70 randomly selected Gauteng province police stations in 2003. Data sheets were completed from the police dockets and available medical examination forms were copied. 1,547 cases of rape had medical examinations and available forms and were analysed, which was at least 85% of the proportion of the sample having a medical examination. We present logistic regression models of the association between whether a trial started and whether the accused was found guilty and the medico-legal findings for adult and child rapes. Half the suspects were arrested (n = 771), 14% (209) of cases went to trial, and in 3% (31) of adults and 7% (44) of children there was a conviction. A report on DNA was available in 1.4% (22) of cases, but the presence or absence of injuries were documented in all cases. Documented injuries were not associated with arrest, but they were associated with children's cases (but not adult's) going to trial (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for having genital and nongenital injuries 5.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.87–18.13, p = 0.003). In adult cases a conviction was more likely if there were documented injuries, whether nongenital injuries alone AOR 6.25 (95% CI 1.14–34.3, p = 0.036), ano-genital injuries alone (AOR 7.00, 95% CI 1.44–33.9, p = 0.017), or both nongenital and ano-genital injuries (AOR 12.34, 95% CI 2.87–53.0, p = 0.001). DNA was not associated with case outcome. Conclusions This is the first study, to our knowledge, to show an association between documentation of ano-genital injuries, trials commencing, and convictions in rape cases in a developing country. Its findings are of particular importance because they show the value of good basic medical practices in documentation of injuries, rather than more expensive DNA evidence, in assisting courts in rape cases. Health care providers need training to provide high quality health care responses after rape, but we have shown that the core elements of the medico-legal response require very little technology. As such they should be replicable in low- and middle-income country settings. Our findings raise important questions about the value of evidence that requires the use of forensic laboratories at a population level in countries like South Africa that have substantial inefficiencies in their police services. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:19823567

  8. [Total permanent or major permanent inability to work in profession. Remarks about the possibility of criteria verification in medico-legal opinionating in criminal cases].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Agnieszka; Chowaniec, Czesław; Chowaniec, Małgorzata; Rygol, Krystian

    2008-01-01

    Despite the fact that some criteria of medico-legal certification in criminal proceedings have been established, there are still some areas that--parallel to changes occurring in contemporary society--have started to be controversial. This phenomenon has prompted the authors to attempt establishing new criteria for certification in total/major permanent inability to work in profession. This work is a continuation of a cycle devoted to interpretation of article 156 of the Penal Code to meet the needs of medico-legal opinionating. PMID:19338196

  9. A retrospective analysis of alcohol in medico-legal autopsied deaths in Pretoria over a 1 year period.

    PubMed

    Ehmke, Ursula; Toit-Prinsloo, Lorraine du; Saayman, Gert

    2014-10-15

    The misuse of alcohol has a particularly detrimental effect and is one of the most significant public health problems in South Africa and it also has an impact on the criminal justice system with evidence of association between high levels of alcohol and risk-taking behaviour, committing crimes, or being a victim of crime. A global trend has been set worldwide with alcohol being one of the most common drugs found in post mortem specimens and especially with regard to cases admitted for medico-legal autopsies. The influence of alcohol on the cause of death is either a contributory or an underlying factor in a substantial number of violent deaths. We retrospectively reviewed 1455 cases, in which alcohol was taken, of 2344 medico-legal autopsies done in 2009. We found that 47% of the cases tested positive for alcohol, with the reported blood alcohol concentrations varying from 0.01 to 0.95g per 100ml (mean=0.16±0.11g per 100ml) with the highest proportion being in the 0.10-0.19g per 100ml range. A breakdown of the results showed that road traffic accidents, assaults and firearm-related deaths predominated the alcohol-positive cases. The results showed that there was a definite correlation between alcohol consumption and the incidence of other that natural deaths. PMID:25447167

  10. The medico-legal observation of an aggressive urogenital fibromatosis with isolated development not related to any traumatic event.

    PubMed

    Muccino, Enrico; Gentile, Guendalina; Mantero, Stefano; Marchesi, Matteo; Rancati, Alessandra; Zoja, Riccardo

    2016-03-01

    Desmoid tumor is a fibroproliferative neoplasm with an intermediate malignancy and it can be localized in every bodily district: some locations are considered exceptional, like the urogenital localization. The Author point out a rare case of giant idiopathic scrotal fibromatosis that was found during an autopsy. A widower, that lived alone in poor hygienic conditions, was found dead in his house. The Judicial Authority ordered the autopsy, that was performed two days later at the Medico-Legal Section of Milan University. External examinations revealed only the considerable dimension of the scrotum (cm 2441). The cause of death was fixed in a cardiac tamponade due to a natural heart laceration localized in correspondence of a transmural infarction. The toxicological exam resulted negative, while the histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis qualify the scrotal mass as a desmoids tumor. Due to the absence of predisposing conditions and of fibroproliferative infiltration in bladder and retroperitoneal space, the neoplasm was configured as an idiopathic desmoid tumor. The presented case gives the reason for the discussion concerning medico-legal aspects that are typical of rare neoplasms. PMID:26786144

  11. Medico-economic evaluation of health products in the context of the Social Security Financing Act for 2012.

    PubMed

    Dervaux, Benoît; Baseilhac, Eric; Fagon, Jean-Yves; Ameye, Véronique; Angot, Pierre; Audry, Antoine; Becquemont, Laurent; Borel, Thomas; Cazeneuve, Béatrice; Courtois, Jocelyn; Detournay, Bruno; Favre, Pascal; Granger, Muriel; Josseran, Anne; Lassale, Catherine; Louvet, Olivier; Pinson, Jean; de Pouvourville, Gérard; Rochaix, Lise; Rumeau-Pichon, Catherine; de Saab, Rima; Schwarzinger, Mickaël; Sun, Aristide

    2013-01-01

    The participants in round table 6 of the Giens Workshops 2012 drafted recommendations based on the collective interpretation of important elements of the decree concerning the medico-economic evaluation of health products published a few days earlier (02 October 2012). The medico-economic evaluation (MEE), becomes an additional determinant for fixing the prices of health products by the Health products economic committee (Comité économique des produits de santé, CEPS) via the hierarchisation of treatment strategies, and thus modifies the market access conditions. Limiting the analysis to medicinal products and medical devices for which a major, important or moderate improvement in the medical service rendered (ASMR) or of the expected service (ASA) has been requested and presenting a significant budget impact on the Social Security expenses, excludes health products with ASMR or ASA with a lower level requested which often create complex price fixing problems and often have a major budget impact. This latter concept remains to be defined in detail. The MEE envisaged for the first registration must include the need to confirm or refute the initial hypotheses especially concerning the actual position in the therapeutic strategy at the time of renewal of the registration. For the first registration, the conventional reference to European prices guaranteeing a minimum price to innovative medicinal products, the medico-economic models submitted by the industry to the French Drug Authority (Haute autorité de santé, HAS) must be used to guide the compilation of new data to be requested at the time of the registration renewal and to negotiate the level of the discounts in the framework of a price-volume agreement, if applicable. The MEE will allow comparing the result of the analysis to the model hypothesis at the time of the renewal of the registration, which may contribute to the renegotiation (either up or down) of the price of health goods. The costs related to obtaining new data must be controlled. In order for the MEE to allow confirming the relationship between the price requested and the benefit expected, the group privileges the definition of reference values with an indicative and non-normative value, likely to evolve with time rather than a threshold. Concerning the evaluation procedure: the time to market access must not be lengthened; while the possibility of regular meetings between the industry and the HAS is recommended to avoid methodological divergences. A transitory period should allow the implementation of the entire evaluation procedure which must also take into account the specificities of health products registered before the 3 October 2013. PMID:23981264

  12. Drug-related deaths with evidences of body packing: Two case reports and medico-legal issues.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Simone; Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Bottoni, Edoardo; Fiore, Paola Antonella; Straccamore, Marco; Umani Ronchi, Federica; De Mari, Guido Maria; Ciallella, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    Body packing is a general term used to indicate the internal transportation of drug packages, mainly cocaine, heroin, amphetamines, and methamphetamine, within the gastrointestinal tract. We described two cases of accidental drug intoxication, observed over the last year period, with evidence of intracorporeal drug concealment. The first case concerned a body packer transporting 69 drug packages of heroin adulterated with piracetam. The second body packer transported 16 drug packages of cocaine adulterated with levamisole. For both cases, forensic examination and toxicological analysis of drug packages and biological samples were carried out. Authors also wants to highlight the main medico-legal issues that commonly arise in cases of suspected or ascertained body packers. PMID:27161917

  13. Ethno-medico-botanical investigations in Kerala I. Some primitive tribals of western ghats and their herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Pushpangadan, P; Atal, C K

    1984-06-01

    Ethno-medico-botanical investigations of seven primitive tribals, Cholanaikken, Pathinaikken, Paniyan, Kuruman, Irular, Adiyan and Kurichan, living in the densely forested high-lands of western ghats in Kerala were carried out. One of the tribes, Cholanaikken, is the most primitive tribe known in the Indian subcontinent. Ethnically they appear close to the Australian aboriginals. All other tribes of Kerala have mixed features of Veddoids, Negroids, Australian aboriginals and Dravidian races suggesting the mixing of these races at various periods of Kerala's historical past. All the tribals investigated practice their own traditional system of medicine. The medical treatment of diseases of most of these tribals involves mysticism, magical incantations, sacrificial practices and divining. They also utilize a wide variety of herbs in treating the physical symptoms. These medicinal herbs were collected, identified and some of the interesting plants for which new medicinal uses were claimed by the tribals are described here. PMID:6471881

  14. Visualizing sexual assault: an exploration of the use of optical technologies in the medico-legal context.

    PubMed

    White, Deborah; Du Mont, Janice

    2009-01-01

    This article is an exploration of the visualization of sexual assault in the context of adult women. In investigating the production of visual evidence, we outline the evolution of the specialized knowledge of medico-legal experts and describe the optical technologies involved in medical forensic examinations. We theorize that the principles and practices characterizing medicine, science and the law are mirrored in the medico-legal response to sexual assault. More specifically, we suggest that the demand for visual proof underpins the positivist approach taken in the pursuit of legal truth and that the generation of such evidence is based on producing discrete and decontextualized empirical facts through what are perceived to be objective technologies. Drawing on interview and focus group data with 14 sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs) in Ontario, Canada, we examine perceptions and experiences of the role of the visual in sexual assault. Certain of their comments appear to lend support to our theoretical assumptions, indicating a sense of the institutional overemphasis placed on physical damage to sexually assaulted women's bodies and the drive towards the increased technologization of visual evidence documentation. They also noted that physical injuries are frequently absent and that those observed through more refined tools of microvisualization such as colposcopes may be explained away as having resulted from either vigorous consensual sex or a "trivial" sexual assault. Concerns were expressed regarding the possibly problematic ways in which either the lack or particular nature of visual evidence may play out in the legal context. The process of documenting external and internal injuries created for some an uncomfortable sense of fragmenting and objectifying the bodies of those women they must simultaneously care for. We point to the need for further research to enhance our understanding of this issue. PMID:18952339

  15. From stack-firing to pyromania: medico-legal concepts of insane arson in British, US and European contexts, c. 1800-1913. Part I.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jonathan

    2010-09-01

    This article surveys evolving and competing medico-legal concepts of pyromania and insane arson. Exploiting evidence from medical jurisprudence, medico-legal publications, medical lexicography and case histories, it seeks to explicate the key positions in contemporary professional debates concerning arson and mental derangement. A major focus is the application of the doctrines of moral and partial insanity, monomania, instinctive insanity and irresistible impulse to understandings of pyromania and insane arson. The limited extent to which mental defect provided a satisfactory diagnosis and exculpatory plea for morbid arson is also explored. Additionally, this article compares and contrasts contemporary debates about other special manias, especially kleptomania. Part 2 will be published in the next issue, History of Psychiatry 21 (4). PMID:21879685

  16. Padova Charter on personal injury and damage under civil-tort law : Medico-legal guidelines on methods of ascertainment and criteria of evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Santo Davide; Baccino, Eric; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Comandè, Giovanni; Domenici, Ranieri; Hernandez-Cueto, Claudio; Gulmen, Mete Korkut; Mendelson, George; Montisci, Massimo; Norelli, Gian Aristide; Pinchi, Vilma; Ranavaya, Mohammed; Shokry, Dina A; Sterzik, Vera; Vermylen, Yvo; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Viel, Guido; Zoja, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Compensation for personal damage, defined as any pecuniary or non-pecuniary loss causally related to a personal injury under civil-tort law, is strictly based on the local jurisdiction and therefore varies significantly across the world. This manuscript presents the first "International Guidelines on Medico-Legal Methods of Ascertainment and Criteria of Evaluation of Personal Injury and Damage under Civil-Tort Law". This consensus document, which includes a step-by-step illustrated explanation of flow charts articulated in eight sequential steps and a comprehensive description of the ascertainment methodology and the criteria of evaluation, has been developed by an International Working Group composed of juridical and medico-legal experts and adopted as Guidelines by the International Academy of Legal Medicine (IALM). PMID:26342285

  17. [Pharmacological, toxicological, deontologic, and medico-legal aspects of the use of appetite suppressant agents in "weight-loss cures"].

    PubMed

    Carolei, L; Ermio, G; Accorinti, N; Meo, G; Lamberti, V; De Sarro, G

    1997-01-01

    The pharmacological, deontologic and medico-legal aspects in the use of appetite suppressant drugs have been evaluated. Appetite suppressant drugs used in the treatment of obesity are divided into 2 broad pharmacological categories: those acting via brain catecholamine pathways and those acting via serotonin pathways. Of the former group, amphetamines and phenimetrazines are no longer used because of their stimulant properties and addictive potential. The remaining drugs of this group have some sympathomimetic and stimulant properties. Anorectic drugs which promote serotonin neurotransmission have no such stimulant or sympathomimetic properties. They reduce appetite and food intake and are effective in the treatment of obesity. If they are not used appropriately, appetite suppressants can be of no therapeutic benefit and cause marked health risks. As regards to anorectic drugs, the 13/4/1995 act "Rules and limits in preparing drugs containing anorectic substances", precisely defines rules about selling and use of those substances. Behavior of health care personnel neglecting observance of the rule, could be interpreted as "imprudence", "negligence" and "inexpertness" in designing and managing a fat-reducing diet, that may imply, in case of damage to the patient, a professional fault. PMID:9304076

  18. The medico-legal prerequisite for initiating quarantine and isolation practices in public health emergency management in hospitals in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Norman, I D; Aikins, M; Binka, F N

    2011-12-01

    Hospitals and other health facilities in Ghana do not appear to have standardized practices for quarantine and isolation in public health emergency management. This paper reviews the legislative framework governing the medico-legal prerequisites for initiating quarantine and isolation procedures as articulated in the Infectious Disease Act (Cap 78) 1908 amended, 1935, the Quarantine Act (Cap 77) 1915 amended, 1938, the Emergency Powers Act of 1994, (Act 472), and the National Disaster Management Act, 1996, (Act 517) in consonance with the 1992 Constitution of Ghana. The findings provide that (1) The legislative framework outlines systematic standards and protocols to be followed in the committal of person or persons in quarantine and isolation during public health emergencies. (2) These standards and protocols consider as imperative, the creation of standardized national templates for the initiation of quarantine and isolation measures. (3) The non-compliance of the standards and protocols renders vulnerable medical facilities and hospitals with their personnel to the threat of medical malpractice suits and breach of professional ethics. This paper provides suggestions to hospital administrators and medical personnel of how to develop administrative templates in compliance with the law in managing public health emergencies. It also provides examples of such templates for possible adoption by hospitals and other health administrators. PMID:22359423

  19. Trends in domestic animal medico-legal pathology cases submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory 1998-2010.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Beverly J

    2012-09-01

    Pathologists at veterinary diagnostic laboratories receive medico-legal cases from a variety of animal species for postmortem examination. A search of computerized records of the Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada from 1998 to 2010 identified 1706 medicolegal cases. These were categorized according to the history as criminal investigations, anesthetic-related deaths, insurance, litigation, malpractice cases, and regulatory cases. Statistically significant linear trends in the proportion of medicolegal cases for all animals and criminal cases for companion animals were identified over the 12 year period. Companion animals had significantly greater odds of being a medicolegal case in all categories except for insurance and regulatory cases, compared to noncompanion animals. Based on pathology reports for the 271 criminal cases, 43.1% were consistent with neglect, 29.2% were compatible with non-accidental injury, 4.80% were poisonings, 10.7% were deemed to be due to natural disease, and 11.43% were inconclusive. PMID:22458814

  20. Remaking the medico-legal scene: a social history of the late-Victorian coroner in Oxford.

    PubMed

    Hurren, Elizabeth T

    2010-04-01

    There have been wide-ranging debates about medicine and the law encapsulated in the figure of the coroner in Victorian England. Recently the historical literature on coroners has been enriched by macro-studies. Despite this important research, the social lives of coroners and their daily interactions remain relatively neglected in standard historical accounts. This article redresses that issue by examining the working life of the coroner for Oxford during the late-Victorian era. Edward Law Hussey kept very detailed records of his time in office as coroner. New research material makes it feasible to trace his professional background, from doctor of the sick poor, to hospital house surgeon and then busy coroner. His career trajectory, personal interactions, and professional disputes, provide an important historical prism illuminating contemporary debates that occupied coroners in their working lives. Hussey tried to improve his medico-legal reach and the public image of his coroner's office by reducing infanticide rates, converting a public mortuary, and acquiring a proper coroner's court. His campaigns had limited success because the social scene in which he worked was complicated by the dominance of health and welfare agencies that resented his role as an expanding arm of the Victorian information state. PMID:20008864

  1. Interpersonal violence in road rage. Cases from the Medico-Legal Center for Victims of Violence in Hamburg.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Joost-Levin; Pueschel, Klaus; Seifert, Dragana

    2016-04-01

    Aggressive behavior in traffic is a widespread phenomenon. Up to 90% of the population are involved in mild forms such as shouting or gesturing. More dramatic cases with injury to individuals affect at least 1100 people in the US annually. Certain factors such as a male sex, a young age and an urban residency have been identified to contribute to the likelihood of road rage. Central to this analysis is the determination of specific features regarding the conflicting parties, the crime scene and the injury pattern in violent offenses related to traffic. In a retrospective study spanning 10 years, cases of road rage-linked injuries were identified amongst patients at the Medico-Legal Center of the Institute of Legal Medicine in Hamburg, Germany. The data were digitized and then analyzed using descriptive statistics via SPSS. There are disproportionately large numbers of males (85.7%) and motorists (61.2%) amongst road rage perpetrators. Usually the conflicting parties have no prior relationship (89.7%). In 68.1% of the cases, the violence applied was exclusively physical. Objects were utilized in 31.0% of all cases, and in more than half (55.6%) of these cases the vehicle was used as a weapon. The resulting trauma in road rage is mostly blunt and applied to the face and the extremities. There are characteristic features regarding the demographics, time and place of incident, as well as severity and pattern of injury in road rage associated offenses. Identifying these factors may lead to appropriate measures in the reduction of road rage. PMID:26817969

  2. Resins and Gums in Historical Iatrosophia Texts from Cyprus – A Botanical and Medico-pharmacological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lardos, Andreas; Prieto-Garcia, José; Heinrich, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study explores historical iatrosophia texts from Cyprus from a botanical and medico-pharmacological point of view focusing on remedies containing resins and gums. The iatrosophia are a genre of Greek medical literature of Byzantine origin and can be described as medicine handbooks which serve as therapeutic repositories containing recipes or advice. To extract and analyze information on plant usage in such sources – which are largely unedited texts and so far have not been translated – we investigate (i) the relationship of the iatrosophia to Dioscorides’ De Materia Medica as well as historic pharmaceutical books or standard texts on modern phytotherapy and (ii) the validity of the remedies by comparing them to modern scientific data on reported biological activities. In the six texts investigated 27 substances incorporating plant exudates are mentioned. They are obtained from over 43 taxa of higher plants and in particular are used to treat dermatological, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tract conditions. The comparison to historic pharmaceutical books and phytotherapy texts reflects the gradual decline of the use of plant exudates in Western medicine. While remarkable parallels to Dioscorides’ text exist, the non-Dioscoridean influence suggests a complex pattern of knowledge exchange. Overall, this resulted in an integration of knowledge from so far poorly understood sources. The comparison with bioscientific data reveals a fragmentary picture and highlights the potential of these unexplored substances and their uses. Where relevant bioscientific data are available, we generally found a confirmation. This points to a largely rational use of the associated remedies. Taken together, the iatrosophia are a valuable resource for ethnopharmacological and natural product research. Most importantly they contribute to the understanding of the development of herbal medicines in the (Eastern) Mediterranean and Europe. PMID:21772820

  3. Comparison of injuries due to lethal weapons during and after civil strife in Sri Lanka: A medico-legal study

    PubMed Central

    Vidanapathirana, Muditha; Ruwanpura, Rohan P; Amararatne, Sriyantha RRG; Ratnaweera, Ajith RHI

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: “Injuries due to lethal weapons” has emerged as a subject of public discussion in Sri Lanka. This study was conducted to describe the nature and characteristics of injuries due to lethal weapons during civil strife and to compare those with injuries after civil strife. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on patients reported with injuries caused by lethal weapons from 2004 to 2014. Periods before and after May 19, 2009 were considered as during and after civil strife periods, respectively. A total of 21,210 medico-legal examination forms were studied. Results: There were 358 (1.7%) injuries caused by lethal weapons. Of them, 41% (n = 148) were during and 59% (n = 210) were after the civil strife. During civil strife, 63% occurred during daytime (P < 0.05). Types of lethal weapons that caused injuries were sharp weapons (n = 282), explosives (n = 49), and firearms (n = 27). Of them, 32% of during and 01% of after civil strife were explosive injuries (P < 0.01). Regarding severity, 73% of during and 57% of after civil strife injuries were severe (P < 0.05). During civil strife, 34% injuries were in lower limbs (P < 0.01) and after civil strife, 37% were in upper limbs (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The presence of many similarities indicated that both groups learnt their basis in a society that breeds violence. During civil strife, more injuries occurred during daytime, to lower limbs by explosive weapons and after the civil strife during nighttime, to upper limbs by nonexplosive weapons. Nonexplosive lethal weapon use after civil strife needs further investigation to develop evidence-based interventions. PMID:27127743

  4. A contextual analysis of nervous force in medico-scientific and literary writings in English of the nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries.

    PubMed

    Lazar, J Wayne

    2015-01-01

    This study concerns the context of use of the term "nervous force," as it appears in scientific and literary publications in English over the course of the nineteenth century and the first two decades of the twentieth century. The context of use, loss, or waste of nervous force and the context of nervous force as an expression of an attribute are analyzed in 189 scientific and 105 literary writings. Both contexts appeared in literary writings, where nervous force expresses the attributes of strength, forcefulness, vigor, or energy and use, loss or waste of nervous force explains such nonmorbid conditions as why someone is tired or needs rest. Only the context of use-loss-waste appeared in the medico-scientific literature, but here it explained both nonmorbid conditions (for example, effects of old age) and morbid conditions (like epilepsy). Changes in the number of these references give insights into the medico-scientific and the literary disciplines. Discussions include why nervous force is associated with explanation of disease, the persistence of its use in this capacity, and its influence on a similar use in literary writings. PMID:25297565

  5. Medico-economic evaluation of healthcare products. Methodology for defining a significant impact on French health insurance costs and selection of benchmarks for interpreting results.

    PubMed

    Dervaux, Benoît; Baseilhac, Eric; Fagon, Jean-Yves; Biot, Claire; Blachier, Corinne; Braun, Eric; Debroucker, Frédérique; Detournay, Bruno; Ferretti, Carine; Granger, Muriel; Jouan-Flahault, Chrystel; Lussier, Marie-Dominique; Meyer, Arlette; Muller, Sophie; Pigeon, Martine; De Sahb, Rima; Sannié, Thomas; Sapède, Claudine; Vray, Muriel

    2014-01-01

    Decree No. 2012-1116 of 2 October 2012 on medico-economic assignments of the French National Authority for Health (Haute autorité de santé, HAS) significantly alters the conditions for accessing the health products market in France. This paper presents a theoretical framework for interpreting the results of the economic evaluation of health technologies and summarises the facts available in France for developing benchmarks that will be used to interpret incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. This literature review shows that it is difficult to determine a threshold value but it is also difficult to interpret then incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) results without a threshold value. In this context, round table participants favour a pragmatic approach based on "benchmarks" as opposed to a threshold value, based on an interpretative and normative perspective, i.e. benchmarks that can change over time based on feedback. PMID:25230355

  6. Medico-Artistic Complicities on Swedish Stages: The Boys in the Band and the Regulation of Gay Male Representation in the Welfare State.

    PubMed

    Gindt, Dirk

    2016-05-01

    Seeking to understand the highly unfavorable conditions for the development of gay male theater in Sweden, this essay engages in a historical study of the national opening of Mart Crowley's The Boys in the Band at Malmö City Theatre in 1970. Propelled by a Foucauldian-inspired theoretical approach, it identifies the subtle, yet highly effective, measures of control that the, at the time, social democratic welfare state exercised over representations of homosexuality on stage. State representatives, who complied with the official political and medical doctrine that homosexuality was a mental illness and posed a potential threat to social stability, interfered at various levels of the production, including the rehearsal process and post-performance talks between cast members and audiences. This alliance between Swedish theaters and members of the medical, psychological, and sexological professions constituted a medico-artistic complicity that supervised and regulated early attempts of gay representation on stage. PMID:26565769

  7. From stack-firing to pyromania: medico-legal concepts of insane arson in British, US and European contexts, c.1800–1913. Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The second part of this paper1 explores deepening doubts about pyromania as a special insanity, British debates post-1890, and pyromania’s supplanting with the broader diagnostic category of insane incendiarism. It assesses the conceptual importance of revenge and morbid-motivations for arson, and the relationship of Victorian and Edwardian concepts of arson to more modern psychiatric research. The main objective is to ascertain the extent to which Victorian and Edwardian medico-psychologists and medical legists arrived at meaningful and workable definitions of criminal insanity linked to arson. It concludes by emphasizing the limitations, contentiousness and inconsistencies in the use of technical terms such as ‘pyromania’, contrasted with the qualified success of authorities in arriving at more viable and broadly acceptable explanations of insane firesetting. PMID:21877418

  8. From stack-firing to pyromania: medico-legal concepts of insane arson in British, US and European contexts, c. 1800-1913. Part 2 .

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jonathan

    2010-12-01

    The second part of this paper explores deepening doubts about pyromania as a special insanity, British debates post-1890, and pyromania's supplanting with the broader diagnostic category of insane incendiarism. It assesses the conceptual importance of revenge and morbid-motivations for arson, and the relationship of Victorian and Edwardian concepts of arson to more modern psychiatric research.The main objective is to ascertain the extent to which Victorian and Edwardian medico-psychologists and medical legists arrived at meaningful and workable definitions of criminal insanity linked to arson. It concludes by emphasizing the limitations, contentiousness and inconsistencies in the use of technical terms such as'pyromania', contrasted with the qualified success of authorities in arriving at more viable and broadly acceptable explanations of insane firesetting. PMID:21877418

  9. [Application of hair analysis of selected psychoactive substances for medico-legal purposes. Part I. Segmental hair analysis in cases of fatal opioids and amphetamines poisoning].

    PubMed

    Rojek, Sebastian; Kłys, Małgorzata; Konopka, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    The present experimental investigations were inspired by the necessity of standardizing the procedures and analytical methods employed in hair analysis aiming at a retrospective evaluation of ingestion of various xenobiotics. Thus, in keeping with the principal premises, the main objective of the study was development of unique, novel chemico-toxicological procedures for analyzing hair content of psychoactive substances in two basic groups of substances of abuse: opioids (morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, codeine) and amphetamines (amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA, MDMA, MDEA) by HPLC-APCI-MS-MS, followed by verification of the thus worked out procedures in medico-legal practice through opinionating in selected group of patients deceased due to fatal psychoactive substance poisoning (cause of death determination). Determinations of opioids and amphetamines in the hair biological matrix were performed using high performance liquid chromatography - atmospheric pressure chemical ionization - tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI-MS-MS). In the group of fatal poisonings by ,,Polish heroine", hair segmental analysis confirmed the abuse profile of the opiate or mixed (opiate-amphetamine) type, which to some measure is characteristic of Polish drug addiction, indicating the presence of these xenobiotics in the investigating hair samples in the premortem period. PMID:20860298

  10. David Murray Morton: father figure of surgery at St Vincent's Hospital, bush lawyer and thwarted reformer of the medico-legal system.

    PubMed

    Vellar, Ivo D

    2002-08-01

    When the first Golden Age of surgery at St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne (a period covering the first 25 years of the twentieth century) is discussed, the names that spring to mind are usually those of Sir Thomas Dunhill, Sir Hugh Devine, Sir Douglas Shields and Julian Smith. A name which is often overlooked, and by now almost forgotten, is that of David Murray Morton. Murray -Morton's career both as a medical student, general practitioner, anaesthetist and surgeon coincided with a revolution in the practice of medicine. He witnessed the progression from Listerian antisepsis to asepsis in surgical practice, the improvements in anaesthesia, the introduction of antibiotics and, before he died in 1959, the beginnings of organ transplants and open heart surgery. Morton was fond of saying that he grew up with the hospital. From the time of his first appointment as an anaesthetist in l896 to the time of his retirement from St Vincent's as senior surgeon in 1931, Morton, admired by all as a highly competent surgeon and a man of incorruptible probity, can rightly be described as the father figure of surgery during the formative years of St Vincent's Hospital. His innate sense of justice and fair play formed the basis of his distinguished tenure of the Presidency of the Medical Defence Association of Victoria, where his constructive attempts at reform of the medico-legal system were only thwarted by the predictable opposition of the legal profession and politicians. PMID:12190734

  11. [Medico-legal assessment in neurological malpractice based on casework material collected at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Białystok].

    PubMed

    Ptaszyńska-Sarosiek, Iwona; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Janica, Jerzy; Dopierała, Tomasz; Załuski, Janusz; Wardaszka, Zofia

    2007-01-01

    Medical malpractice results from inadequate professional knowledge, incompliance to the present state of medical knowledge or negligence and inattention. The aim of the paper was the analysis of medical malpractice cases based on material in the field of neurology. The cases were assessed according to the number and type in 32 medico-legal opinions issued by specialist teams of forensic medicine and neurology in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Białystok in the years 2001-2006. In 11 cases (34%) medical malpractice was concluded with reference to improper treatment after head injury or brain pathology, inadequate care at neurology unit, lacked or delayed diagnostics of head pathology and injury, non-referral to hospital by neurologists. In the material analysed diagnostic errors predominated. Majority of them originated from the open health care system. Incompetence of neurologists with regard to differential diagnostics resulting in misdiagnosis and improper therapy was noted. In one third of the overall cases medical malpractice was concluded. The most common causes included misinterpretation of disease signs and symptoms, misapplication of available diagnostic potential and unjustified delay before commencing diagnostics. PMID:20143678

  12. Social isolation and delayed discovery of bodies in houses: the value of forensic pathology, anthropology, odontology and entomology in the medico-legal investigation.

    PubMed

    Archer, M S; Bassed, R B; Briggs, C A; Lynch, M J

    2005-07-16

    The bodies of socially isolated people may remain undiscovered in their own houses for prolonged periods. Occasionally the body is in situ for sufficient time to become skeletonised, or partially so. Medico-legal investigation of these cases is complicated by degradation and contamination of evidence. Thus, a multidisciplinary forensic investigation is recommended. The potential contributions of forensic pathology, anthropology, odontology and entomology are outlined here with reference to two cases that occurred in Victoria, Australia, in 2003. Forensic pathologists are often unable to determine the cause of death in skeletonised bodies, however, they may find evidence to support either a natural or unnatural mode of death, and they may describe skeletal pathology or trauma, and identify skeletal features to support radiological identification of the deceased. Anthropologists can provide supplementary evidence of skeletal trauma. Additionally, they can assess age, sex, stature and racial affiliation from skeletal remains. Odontologists can identify individuals through comparison with ante-mortem dental records; however, potential difficulties exist in identifying the treating dentist of a socially isolated person. Odontologists may also examine the teeth and oro-facial skeleton for trauma. Entomologists may estimate minimum death time and/or season of death. Entomological examination of insect remains may also confirm that a body has lain in situ for a considerable period. PMID:15939160

  13. [Permanent essential defacement--remarks on the possibilities of verification of the accepted criteria in medico-legal certification in criminal and civil law proceedings].

    PubMed

    Chowaniec, Czesław; Nowak, Agnieszka; Jabłoński, Christian; Neniczka, Stanisława

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that some criteria of medico-legal certification in criminal and civil proceedings have been established, there are still some topics which are controversial and thus require modification. This is also true of the notion of "permanent essential defacement". In the opinion of the authors, changes in social conventions that are occurring nowadays, as well as a highly diversified, subjective perception of esthetic values indicate the need for discussing a possible modification of the presently obligatory criteria. Apart from the assessment of posttraumatic changes, an important problem is posed by defining the notion of "a part of the body customarily open to the view ". Additionally, the authors bring up for discussion the issue of experts taking into consideration the age and sex of the victims while assessing damages. A separate problem lies in difficulties in assessing the degree of detriment to health because of defacement due to the fact that official tables for evaluating permanent or long-term detriment to health do not include relevant information. PMID:17571513

  14. Selective culturing and genus-specific PCR detection for identification of Aeromonas in tissue samples to assist the medico-legal diagnosis of death by drowning.

    PubMed

    Huys, Geert; Coopman, Vera; Van Varenbergh, Dirk; Cordonnier, Jan

    2012-09-10

    The detection of autochthonous aquatic bacteria in tissue samples from drowning cases is increasingly considered as an alternative approach to assist the medico-legal diagnosis of death by drowning. Bacteria belonging to the genus Aeromonas may be suitable candidates for this application as they are ubiquitous in natural aquatic environments but are generally not part of the human microbiota. The research aims of this study were (i) to develop a sensitive, specific and rapid screening and confirmation method for Aeromonas species in tissue samples and (ii) to evaluate aseptic sternal puncture as a post-mortem sample technique and bone marrow as an alternative matrix to provide evidence of death by drowning. The presence of Aeromonas in tissue samples was verified by cultivation using the selective media Ampicillin Dextrin Agar (ADA) and Ryan's Aeromonas Medium. The use of ADA medium was found most optimal for the sensitive, inexpensive and quick detection of aeromonads in human tissue samples. Positive culture plates were confirmed by harvesting all colonies for DNA extraction and subsequent PCR amplification using Aeromonas genus-specific primers. Aeromonads were detected in lung swab, blood and bone marrow of drowned bodies (n=3), but were negative in these three matrices for all negative controls (n=90) tested. Bone marrow proved to be a suitable alternative matrix and can be sampled post-mortem by an aseptic sternal puncture. In conclusion, this study confirms previous indications that aeromonads in cultures from blood of water bodies can be considered a potential marker for drowning. Given the fact that the number of immersed bodies (drowned and non-drowned) included in this study is statistically not significant, however, more tissue samples need to be investigated to confirm the validity of these methods to aid the diagnosis of death by wet drowning. PMID:22497704

  15. [Iatrogenic biliary ducts lesions after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a medical technical error or a therapeutic failure in a routinely performed procedure. A medico-legal evaluation of selected cases].

    PubMed

    Chowaniec, Czesław; Chowaniec, Małgorzata; Kobek, Mariusz; Nowak, Agnieszka

    2007-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to cholelithiasis is associated with a higher risk of intraoperative lesions of biliary duct in comparison to classic surgery. Technical difficulties, a limited access to operating area, the presence of cholecystic adhesions and inflammatory lesions, as well as possible anomalies or anatomical variations of the extrahepatic biliary ducts pose the risk of damaging the biliary tract. At times, laparoscopic procedures are performed by surgeons with insufficient operator skills and qualifications. The medico-legal evaluation of intraoperative damage to the biliary tract with resulting complications--the so-called "biliary damage"--is very difficult. The presented analysis included six cases of intraoperative biliary ducts lesions evaluated by the Forensic Medicine Department, Medical University, Katowice. Three instances were associated with investigations carried out by public prosecutors in medical error cases, and in three others, civil cases were brought in the court, with the plaintiffs advancing a claim. While defining the scope of the management--both diagnostic, therapeutic and decision-making--in the pre-, intra- and postoperative period, attention was drawn to the prescriptive character of patient management in such cases, including indications for laparoscopic surgery, an increased potential therapeutic risk that also included a possibility of the patient developing "normal, typical" complications, referring the above factors to the scope and limits of the physician's professional and criminal liability and analyzing them to assess whether a medical error had been committed, or else the events had represented a therapeutic failure within the limits of the accepted therapeutic risk. A separate problem emphasized by the authors focused on difficulties in objective evaluation of health-associated consequences that might be defined in a tabular manner as long-term or permanent detriment to health. PMID:17571494

  16. [Werner Leibbrand, Annemarie Wettley and controversies on "euthanasia" the background of medico-historical and ethical debates in the Post World War II era].

    PubMed

    Wiesinger, Christine; Frewer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatrists and medical historians Werner Leibbrand (1896 - 1974) and Annemarie Wettley (1913 - 1996) are amongst the most striking figures in the field of history of medicine. Leibbrand was appointed director of the "Heil- und Pflegeanstalt" in Erlangen shortly after the war. Fuelled by his own experiences of suppression and persecution during the Nazi era he promised to unearth the crimes and atrocities which had happened under watch of the Nazi regime. He was joined by Annemarie Wettley, who worked as a physician at the hospital and had developed an increasing interest in the history of medicine. In 1946 they published "Um die Menschenrechte der Geisteskranken" ("Human Rights of the Mentally Ill") about the "euthanasia" campaign of the Nazi regime. Although a number of substantial works followed, Leibbrand and Wettley failed to inform in more depth on crimes and atrocities, for instance killings of patients and forced malnutrition. Doubts and charges against Wettley regarding her role in dietary programmes at the Erlangen hospital and against Leibbrand regarding special expert's reports--both had a short-term arrest warrant--might have contributed to stagnation in their efforts. In 1953 Leibbrand accepted the offer of a chair at the University in Munich, Wettley followed and habilitated in history of medicine; in the year 1962 they married. Contacts and exchange amongst medico-historical experts shed light on developments during the post-war era; still, a critical and fundamental review of the crimes within the medical system of the Nazi regime did not take place during this time. PMID:25980306

  17. For mothers and sisters: care of the reproductive female body in the medico-ritual world of early and medieval Japan.

    PubMed

    Triplett, Katja

    2014-01-01

    While married female members of the Japanese aristocracy followed the ideal of bearing children, female Buddhist novices and ordained women, often belonging to the aristocracy themselves, had to abstain from sexual activity and reproduction in accordance with the ordination rules. Infertility was considered with disdain by the first group, whereas not bearing children was the utmost expression of leading a virtuous life for the second group. However, both groups were concerned with keeping their physical bodies healthy: some to become mothers, the others to live as nuns or religious sisters. Focusing on the early medieval period, this paper examines various sources to illuminate the ways in which women were cared for and the kind of views and ideas that informed this care. Instead of looking at the ancient methods of treatment through a modern "scientific" lens and sorting them into "proto-scientific" and "superstitious" categories, medico-ritual and religious views on the female body are explored as facets of the worldview prevalent in the period under consideration. Special attention is paid to relevant chapters of the first medical work produced in Japan, the Ishinpō, compiled by a court physician, Tanba no Yasuyori, in the late 10th century CE. The investigation of other sources, such as Buddhist legends and doctrinal texts, suggests that women were recommended to seek to overcome their femaleness altogether by transforming their female bodies into male bodies in order to reach ultimate "healing" in terms of salvation. In lay circles, however, the Buddhist divinities and other powerful deities were worshipped to ensure this-worldly "healing" in terms of successful procreation and continuation of the family line. PMID:25481966

  18. Tuberculosis: Medico-Legal Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Vetrugno, G.; De-Giorgio, F.; D’Alessandro, F.; Scafetta, I.; Berloco, F.; Buonsenso, D.; Abbate, F.; Scalise, G.; Pascali, V.L.; Valentini, P

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a diffusive infectious disease whose typical behaviour differentiates it from other infectious diseases spread by human-to-human transmission (flu, chicken pox, cholera, etc.) that follow a classic epidemic pattern. Indeed, in the presence of a known source of Koch bacilli that is capable of spreading the bacteria by air, not all exposed individuals inhale the bacteria, not all those who inhale them absorb them, not all those who absorb the bacteria are unable to eliminate them, not all who are able to eliminate them do so using delayed hypersensitivity, not all those who react with delayed hypersensitivity suffer lasting tissue damage (among other things, minor), not all who suffer tissue damage have anatomical sequelae, and not all those who have anatomical sequelae, however minimal, become carriers of bacilli in the latent period. The vast majority (90–95%) of the latter – which are in any case a portion, not the totality of those exposed – remain asymptomatic throughout their lives and never develop active tuberculosis. Based on these biological characteristics and the legal concepts of “epidemic” and “disease,” it becomes highly problematic, if not impossible, to assert both that tuberculosis can cause events of sufficient magnitude to be associated with the crime of “epidemic,” and that the mere diagnosis of a latent tuberculosis infection is sufficient to assume the presence of an illness legally prosecutable in criminal proceedings or a disability prosecutable in civil proceedings. Furthermore, clinically apparent tuberculosis is a temporarily—and in some cases permanently—disabling condition, and in certain work environments, even with the difficulties caused by the lack of available effective diagnostic tools and the insidious behaviour of the disease in the early stages, targeted monitoring to identify other persons who may become ill is appropriate. PMID:24804006

  19. Tuberculosis: medico-legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Vetrugno, G; De-Giorgio, F; D'Alessandro, F; Scafetta, I; Berloco, F; Buonsenso, D; Abbate, F; Scalise, G; Pascali, V L; Valentini, P

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a diffusive infectious disease whose typical behaviour differentiates it from other infectious diseases spread by human-to-human transmission (flu, chicken pox, cholera, etc.) that follow a classic epidemic pattern. Indeed, in the presence of a known source of Koch bacilli that is capable of spreading the bacteria by air, not all exposed individuals inhale the bacteria, not all those who inhale them absorb them, not all those who absorb the bacteria are unable to eliminate them, not all who are able to eliminate them do so using delayed hypersensitivity, not all those who react with delayed hypersensitivity suffer lasting tissue damage (among other things, minor), not all who suffer tissue damage have anatomical sequelae, and not all those who have anatomical sequelae, however minimal, become carriers of bacilli in the latent period. The vast majority (90-95%) of the latter - which are in any case a portion, not the totality of those exposed - remain asymptomatic throughout their lives and never develop active tuberculosis. Based on these biological characteristics and the legal concepts of "epidemic" and "disease," it becomes highly problematic, if not impossible, to assert both that tuberculosis can cause events of sufficient magnitude to be associated with the crime of "epidemic," and that the mere diagnosis of a latent tuberculosis infection is sufficient to assume the presence of an illness legally prosecutable in criminal proceedings or a disability prosecutable in civil proceedings. Furthermore, clinically apparent tuberculosis is a temporarily-and in some cases permanently-disabling condition, and in certain work environments, even with the difficulties caused by the lack of available effective diagnostic tools and the insidious behaviour of the disease in the early stages, targeted monitoring to identify other persons who may become ill is appropriate. PMID:24804006

  20. Obesity surgery: French medico-legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Manaouil, Cecile; Gignon, Maxime; Jardé, Olivier

    2011-06-01

    The demand for bariatric surgery is expected to increase. It is a procedure that carries a high surgical risk, and a risk of postoperative complications due to the pathologies associated with obesity. Obesity surgery is not classified as plastic surgery, but may subsequently lead to plastic surgery-type operations. Malpractices in the field of obesity surgery are most frequently at the pre-operative stage. In the absence of any fault, a patient may obtain indemnification by "national solidarity". Physicians and surgeons have an obligation to be able to prove that they informed their patients properly. PMID:21877467

  1. Tiempo para un cambio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woltjer, L.

    1987-06-01

    En la reunion celebrada en diciembre dei ano pasado informe al Consejo de mi deseo de terminar mi contrato como Director General de la ESO una vez que fuera aprobado el proyecto dei VLT, que se espera sucedera hacia fines de este aAo. Cuando fue renovada mi designacion hace tres aAos, el Consejo conocia mi intencion de no completar los cinco aAos dei contrato debido a mi deseo de disponer de mas tiempo para otras actividades. Ahora, una vez terminada la fase preparatoria para el VLT, Y habiendose presentado el proyecto formalmente al Consejo el dia 31 de marzo, y esperando su muy probable aprobacion antes dei termino de este ano, me parece que el 10 de enero de 1988 presenta una excelente fecha para que se produzca un cambio en la administracion de la ESO.

  2. Produce para-xylene economically

    SciTech Connect

    D`Auria, J.H.; Stoodt, T.J.

    1997-04-01

    During the last three years, some startling changes have occurred in the para-xylene market. Faced with a steady growth in demand and a shortfall in supply, the market saw spot and contract prices rise from $400/MT to historically high levels of $2,000 and $800/MT, respectively. This increase propelled the installation of a significant amount of new capacity in the form of grassroots units and expansions of existing facilities. In the first half of 1996, destocking downstream in the polyester chain began to soften the demand for para-xylene. This destocking, coupled with more aggressive positions being taken by buyers in anticipation of new capacity coming on-stream, caused para-xylene prices to fall almost as precipitously as they rose. Although the fundamental drivers for para-xylene demand remain strong, para-xylene producers are again in the position of having to compete for market share on the basis of product quality, low cost of production, and economics of scale. This situation is exacerbated by tight feedstock supply and the changing demand for some of the key byproducts of para-xylene production.

  3. Nonrelativistic para-Lorentzian mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, J. G.

    1981-04-01

    After reviewing the foundations of special relativity and the room left for rival theories, a set of nonrelativistic para-Lorentzian transformations is derived uniquely, based on (a) a weaker first principle, (b) the requirement that the transformations sought do not give rise to the clock “paradox” (in a refined version), and (c) the compliance of the transformations with the classical experiments of Michelson-Morley, Kennedy-Thorndike, and Ives-Stilwell. The corresponding dynamics is developed. Most of the experimental support of special relativity is reconsidered in the light of the new theory. It is concluded that the relativity of simultaneity has so far not been tested.

  4. Postoperative Analgesia in Abdominal Surgery: a Medico-economic Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-13

    Extended Ileal Resection Under Laparotomy; Total Proctocolectomy Under Laparotomy; Colectomy Left/Right/Total Under Laparotomy; Rectosigmoidal Resection Under Laparotomy; Anterior Resection of Rectum Under Laparotomy; Abdomino-perineal Amputation Under Laparotomy

  5. The use of propofol by gastroenterologists: medico-legal issues.

    PubMed

    Axon, Andrew E

    2010-01-01

    The increasing use of non-anesthesiologist-administered propofol for sedation during gastrointestinal endoscopy has both clinical and legal consequences. As medical practices develop, the law of clinical negligence will be applied in the context of such developments. While the law will recognize the desirability of advanced techniques and methods, in circumstances where an injury or adverse outcome occurs, the facts of a particular case will be scrutinized to determine whether or not the duty of care between patient and clinician has been breached. This paper considers a number of specific matters likely to arise in the context of a clinical negligence/malpractice claim resulting from the use of non-anesthesiologist-administered propofol, in particular the role and standard of care expected of gastroenterologist and/or anesthetic provider, the relevance of FDA labeling, the implementation and use of protocols, the importance of patient selection and informed consent. PMID:20407258

  6. Medico-Legal Employability Assessment: Myths, Mistakes and Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Robert G. L.; Hawkins, Trevor K.

    2009-01-01

    The onset of injury and disability can have a significant negative effect on individuals' social, interpersonal and vocational participation. This in turn impacts on individuals' current and future earning capacity. An objective assessment of post-injury work capacity is often sought through legal processes to determine the extent of this

  7. Eugenic Sterilization: Medico-Legal and Sociological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Felipe C.; Robinson, Shirley W.; Williams, Loretta J.

    1979-01-01

    The court-ordered sterilization of a normal 18-year-old black female in North Carolina focused attention on the unfortunate impact of eugenic statutes that allow sterilization as a method of social control. The existence of these laws in many states allows misapplication and abuse of authority which, not infrequently, is directed liberally to blacks and other minority groups. Eugenic sterilization is, at this time, a legally accepted form of “medical treatment.” The justification of such sterilization is the vague concept that the presumed “mentally deficient” individual is probably a potential parent of socially inadequate offspring who would likewise be socially inadequate. Since there never has been factual substantiation of whether the sterilization of these individuals will diminish the incidence of mental retardation, it is necessary to focus attention on the concept of eugenic sterilization and point out its many fallacies. PMID:480398

  8. The irresponsible criminal in Norwegian medico-legal discourse.

    PubMed

    Skålevåg, Svein Atle

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses discourses on criminal responsibility in Norway in the 19th and 20th centuries, in light of Michel Foucault's regimes of power and knowledge: the apparatuses of law, discipline and security. The passing of two criminal codes, in 1842 and 1902 marks a development from neo-classical law to a law influenced by positivist criminology. In these consecutive ways of thinking law, the figure of the irresponsible criminal constituted a contentious issue. From being a figure marking the limits of the law, the irresponsible criminal became an object to be disciplined and a security threat. This redefinition of criminal responsibility created or was created by new groups of experts speaking from positions increasingly close to the criminals. The most important professional group was of course the psychiatrists, that emerged in Norway as a distinct professional group in the second half of the 19th century, and whose influence in the legislative process culminated in the 1920s. PMID:24145064

  9. Ensino Medico e Desenvolvimento (Secondary Education and Development).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouveia, Aparecida Joly; Havinghurst, Robert J.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a study about secondary education with particular reference to students; it essentially treats the relationship between economics and education in the context of Brazilian society. From the sociological point of view; the study is characterized by concentration on certain…

  10. [Chronic pain: medico-biologic and sotsio-economic aspects].

    PubMed

    Iakhno, N N; Kukushkin, M L

    2012-01-01

    In this article the role of neurobiological, psychological and social factors in pathogenesis of chronic pain is analyzed. The chronic pain is considered not as a symptom of damage of tissue and as independent illness due to non-adequate neuroplasticity of systems involved into regulation of pain sensitivity. The major role in development and maintenance of chronic pain is devoted to the primary genetically determined and/or secondary disturbance of interaction between nociceptive and antinociceptive systems at various levels--from peripheral neuron to central structures--that provides pain perception and painful behaviour development. PMID:23210173

  11. Risk Management and Medico-Legal Issues in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ward, Charles J; Green, Victoria L

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer is a leading source of malpractice claims for radiologists and gynecologists. Delay in or failure to diagnosis was the second most common cause for allegations of malpractice and failure to diagnosis breast cancer accounted for the majority of these claims. The amount paid in indemnity for such claims was only second to claims paid for neurologically impaired newborns. Issues involved in documentation and communication are reviewed with a focus on specific medical legal cases. Obstetrician gynecologists must remain cognizant of the potential for liability. PMID:27101242

  12. Medico-legal claims against English radiologists: 1995–2006

    PubMed Central

    Halpin, S F S

    2009-01-01

    A list of claims against radiologists from 1995–2006 was obtained from the NHS Litigation Authority. It shows a total of 440 claims. The largest number of claims (199) related to delayed or missed diagnoses of cancer, and 73 claims related to breast radiology. There is a trend for a mild increase in the number of claims each year. 30 claims were made after a false-positive diagnosis of cancer. Just under £8.5 million has so far been paid in damages, with a further £5 million in legal fees. A claim for multiple missed diagnoses of breast cancer led to a pay-out of £464 000 (£673 000 after legal fees); the largest sum awarded following a delay in the diagnosis of an individual cancer was £300 000. The subtle legal distinction between error and negligence is reviewed here. The reason why breast radiologists are more likely to be sued than any other type of British radiologist is also discussed, along with the implications for UK radiological practice, particularly in light of the recent Chief Medical Officer's report on revalidation. A method is proposed that may protect radiologists from allegations of clinical negligence in the future. PMID:19470570

  13. Basic rules of Ramadan: A medico-religious perspective.

    PubMed

    Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Ashraf, Hamid

    2015-05-01

    Fasting during the month of Ramadan is obligatory for all adult Muslims with few exceptions. The person observing a fast does not eat, drink, and smoke from dawn to dusk. Google and Medline search was undertaken for the articles related to basic rules of fasting-religious and medical perspectives in the previous 24 years using following key words: Islamic fasting, fasting and diabetes, fasting and endocrine system. There are clear cut guidelines regarding fasting in healthy people and exemptions have been emphasized. Some alterations in pulmonary, cardiac, gastrointestinal and neuropsychiatric systems are observed which do not harm a normal person. A risk strategy has been devised for people with diabetes regarding management during Ramadan fasting. Rules regarding adherence to fasting and concessions during the month of Ramadan are clear. Minor alterations in different body systems are observed in normal people during Ramadan. PMID:26013776

  14. Applications of ortho-para hydrogen catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    The underlying theory of hydrogen Ortho-Para conversion has long been known, but the specifics of non-linear heat of conversion from normal to para hydrogen have not been widely disseminated in the cryogenic literature. These factors are reviewed and thermally efficient applications in liquefiers and back conversion cooling systems are illustrated.

  15. Functional Expression of Drosophila para Sodium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Warmke, Jeffrey W.; Reenan, Robert A.G.; Wang, Peiyi; Qian, Su; Arena, Joseph P.; Wang, Jixin; Wunderler, Denise; Liu, Ken; Kaczorowski, Gregory J.; Ploeg, Lex H.T. Van der; Ganetzky, Barry; Cohen, Charles J.

    1997-01-01

    The Drosophila para sodium channel α subunit was expressed in Xenopus oocytes alone and in combination with tipE, a putative Drosophila sodium channel accessory subunit. Coexpression of tipE with para results in elevated levels of sodium currents and accelerated current decay. Para/TipE sodium channels have biophysical and pharmacological properties similar to those of native channels. However, the pharmacology of these channels differs from that of vertebrate sodium channels: (a) toxin II from Anemonia sulcata, which slows inactivation, binds to Para and some mammalian sodium channels with similar affinity (Kd ≅ 10 nM), but this toxin causes a 100-fold greater decrease in the rate of inactivation of Para/TipE than of mammalian channels; (b) Para sodium channels are >10-fold more sensitive to block by tetrodotoxin; and (c) modification by the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin is >100-fold more potent for Para than for rat brain type IIA sodium channels. Our results suggest that the selective toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides is due at least in part to the greater affinity of pyrethroids for insect sodium channels than for mammalian sodium channels. PMID:9236205

  16. The ParaScope parallel programming environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Keith D.; Hall, Mary W.; Hood, Robert T.; Kennedy, Ken; Mckinley, Kathryn S.; Mellor-Crummey, John M.; Torczon, Linda; Warren, Scott K.

    1993-01-01

    The ParaScope parallel programming environment, developed to support scientific programming of shared-memory multiprocessors, includes a collection of tools that use global program analysis to help users develop and debug parallel programs. This paper focuses on ParaScope's compilation system, its parallel program editor, and its parallel debugging system. The compilation system extends the traditional single-procedure compiler by providing a mechanism for managing the compilation of complete programs. Thus, ParaScope can support both traditional single-procedure optimization and optimization across procedure boundaries. The ParaScope editor brings both compiler analysis and user expertise to bear on program parallelization. It assists the knowledgeable user by displaying and managing analysis and by providing a variety of interactive program transformations that are effective in exposing parallelism. The debugging system detects and reports timing-dependent errors, called data races, in execution of parallel programs. The system combines static analysis, program instrumentation, and run-time reporting to provide a mechanical system for isolating errors in parallel program executions. Finally, we describe a new project to extend ParaScope to support programming in FORTRAN D, a machine-independent parallel programming language intended for use with both distributed-memory and shared-memory parallel computers.

  17. Oxidative para-triflation of acetanilides.

    PubMed

    Pialat, Amélie; Liégault, Benoît; Taillefer, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Direct triflation of acetanilide derivatives with silver triflate has been accomplished under mild iodine(III)-mediated oxidative conditions. The reaction shows excellent regioselectivity for the para position and tolerates a range of ortho and meta substituents on the aromatic ring. This method is also compatible with the preparation of arylnonaflates in synthetically useful yields. PMID:23534500

  18. Centro para la Salud Mundial (CGH) del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    El Centro para la Salud Mundial (CGH) del NCI coordina actividades de investigación y trabaja con socios nacionales e internacionales para comprender y enfrentar la carga que representa el cáncer a nivel mundial.

  19. Para-methylstyrene from toluene and acetaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Innes, R.A.; Occelli, M.L.

    1984-08-01

    High yields of para-methylstyrene (PMS) were obtained in this study by coupling toluene and acetaldehyde then cracking the resultant 1,1-ditolylethane (DTE) to give equimolar amounts of PMS and toluene. In the first step, a total DTE and ''trimer'' yield of 98% on toluene and 93% on acetaldehyde was obtained using 98% sulfuric acid as catalyst at 5-10/sup 0/C. In the second step, a choline chloride-offretite cracked DTE with 84.0% conversion and 91% selectivity to PMS and toluene. Additional PMS can be obtained by cracking the by-product ''trimer'' formed by coupling DTE and toluene with acetaldehyde. Zeolite Rho was as active but yielded less PMS (86%) and produced more para-ethyltoluene (PET), an undesirable by-product.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David; Chow, Elizabeth T

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to hair dye is the most frequent route of sensitisation to para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a common contact allergen. International studies have examined the profile of PPD, but Australian-sourced information is lacking. Patients are often dissatisfied with advice to stop dyeing their hair. This study examines patients' characteristics, patch test results and outcomes of PPD allergy from a single Australian centre, through a retrospective analysis of patch test data from 2006 to 2013 at the Liverpool Hospital Dermatology Department. It reviews the science of hair dye allergy, examines alternative hair dyes and investigates strategies for hair dyeing. Of 584 patients, 11 were allergic to PPD. Our PPD allergy prevalence rate of 2% is at the lower end of international reported rates. About half these patients also react to para-toluenediamine (PTD). Affected patients experience a significant lifestyle disturbance. In all, 78% tried alternative hair dyes after the patch test diagnosis and more than half continued to dye their hair. Alternative non-PPD hair dyes are available but the marketplace can be confusing. Although some patients are able to tolerate alternative hair dyes, caution is needed as the risk of developing an allergy to other hair dye ingredients, especially PTD, is high. PMID:25302475

  1. New strategies maximize para-xylene production

    SciTech Connect

    Jeanneret, J.J.; Low, C.D.; Zukauskas, V. )

    1994-06-01

    Strong consumption growth and the shutdown of some capacity in 1992 have completely eliminated the surplus of para-xylene (p-xylene) capacity, which existed from 1990 to 1993. p-Xylene supplies are becoming tight and market prices have risen dramatically over the last several months, sparking considerable interest in new p-xylene production capacity. However, adding new capacity does not necessarily mean building new grassroots facilities. Additional capacity can be found'' by creative use of existing BTX (benzene, toluene and xylenes) resources. Options include: debottleneck existing units, reload with new catalysts, convert idle units to new services and diversify into new feedstocks. By making the most of existing facilities, producers can capitalize on the current upswing of the p-xylene market cycle. The paper describes this high demand chemical and how it is integrated with BTX complexes, then discusses short-, medium-, and long-term strategies for increased production.

  2. Time domain para hydrogen induced polarization.

    PubMed

    Ratajczyk, Tomasz; Gutmann, Torsten; Dillenberger, Sonja; Abdulhussaein, Safaa; Frydel, Jaroslaw; Breitzke, Hergen; Bommerich, Ute; Trantzschel, Thomas; Bernarding, Johannes; Magusin, Pieter C M M; Buntkowsky, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Para hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) is a powerful hyperpolarization technique, which increases the NMR sensitivity by several orders of magnitude. However the hyperpolarized signal is created as an anti-phase signal, which necessitates high magnetic field homogeneity and spectral resolution in the conventional PHIP schemes. This hampers the application of PHIP enhancement in many fields, as for example in food science, materials science or MRI, where low B(0)-fields or low B(0)-homogeneity do decrease spectral resolution, leading to potential extinction if in-phase and anti-phase hyperpolarization signals cannot be resolved. Herein, we demonstrate that the echo sequence (45-?-180-?) enables the acquisition of low resolution PHIP enhanced liquid state NMR signals of phenylpropiolic acid derivatives and phenylacetylene at a low cost low-resolution 0.54 T spectrometer. As low field TD-spectrometers are commonly used in industry or biomedicine for the relaxometry of oil-water mixtures, food, nano-particles, or other systems, we compare two variants of para-hydrogen induced polarization with data-evaluation in the time domain (TD-PHIP). In both TD-ALTADENA and the TD-PASADENA strong spin echoes could be detected under conditions when usually no anti-phase signals can be measured due to the lack of resolution. The results suggest that the time-domain detection of PHIP-enhanced signals opens up new application areas for low-field PHIP-hyperpolarization, such as non-invasive compound detection or new contrast agents and biomarkers in low-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Finally, solid-state NMR calculations are presented, which show that the solid echo (90y-?-90x-?) version of the TD-ALTADENA experiment is able to convert up to 10% of the PHIP signal into visible magnetization. PMID:22365288

  3. Spirocyclopropanation Reaction of para-Quinone Methides with Sulfonium Salts: The Synthesis of Spirocyclopropanyl para-Dienones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang-Zhi; Du, Ji-Yuan; Deng, Yu-Hua; Chu, Wen-Dao; Yan, Xu; Yu, Ke-Yin; Fan, Chun-An

    2016-03-18

    A novel DBU-mediated stereoselective spirocyclopropanation of para-quinone methides with sulfonium salts has been developed on the basis of the mode involving a 1,6-conjugate addition/intramolecular dearomatizing cyclization cascade. This reaction provides a mild and effective method for the assembly of synthetically and structurally interesting spirocyclopropanyl para-dienones. The feasibility for the enantioselective access to such functionalized para-dienones has also been explored by using the axially chiral sulfonium salt. Importantly, the regioselective ring openings of the related spirocyclopropanyl para-dienones have been achieved divergently. PMID:26892163

  4. Requisitos para utilizar el enlace | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan español y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la División de Investigación para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.

  5. Towards a double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Vaisman, Izu

    2013-12-15

    In a previous paper, we have shown that the geometry of double field theory has a natural interpretation on flat para-Kähler manifolds. In this paper, we show that the same geometric constructions can be made on any para-Hermitian manifold. The field is interpreted as a compatible (pseudo-)Riemannian metric. The tangent bundle of the manifold has a natural, metric-compatible bracket that extends the C-bracket of double field theory. In the para-Kähler case, this bracket is equal to the sum of the Courant brackets of the two Lagrangian foliations of the manifold. Then, we define a canonical connection and an action of the field that correspond to similar objects of double field theory. Another section is devoted to the Marsden-Weinstein reduction in double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds. Finally, we give examples of fields on some well-known para-Hermitian manifolds.

  6. a New Equation of State for Solid para-HYDROGEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lecheng; Le Roy, Robert J.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    Solid para-H_2 is a popular accommodating host for impurity spectroscopy due to its unique softness and the spherical symmetry of para-H_2 in its J}=0 rotational level. To simulate the properties of impurity-doped solid para-H_2, a reliable model for the `soft' pure solid para-H_2 at different pressures is highly desirable. While a couple of experimental and theoretical studies aimed at elucidating the equation of state (EOS) of solid para-H_2 have been reported, the calculated EOS was shown to be heavily dependent on the potential energy surface (PES) between two para-H_2 that was used in the simulations. The current study also demonstrates that different choices of the parameters governing the Quantum Monte Carlo simulation could produce different EOS curves. To obtain a reliable model for pure solid para-H_2, we used a new 1-D para-H_2 PES reported by Faruk et al. that was obtained by averaging over Hinde's highly accurate 6-D H_2--H_2 PES. The EOS of pure solid para-H_2 was calculated using the PIMC algorithm with periodic boundary conditions (PBC). To precisely determine the equilibrium density of solid para-H_2, both the value of the PIMC time step (τ) and the number of particles in the PBC cell were extrapolated to convergence. The resulting EOS agreed well with experimental observations, and the hcp structured solid para-H_2 was found to be more stable than the fcc one at 4.2K, in agreement with experiment. The vibrational frequency shift of para-H_2 as a function of the density of the pure solid was also calculated, and the value of the shift at the equilibrium density is found to agree well with experiment. T. Momose, H. Honshina, M. Fushitani and H. Katsuki, Vib. Spectrosc. 34, 95(2004). M. E. Fajardo, J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 13504 (2013). I. F. Silvera, Rev. Mod. Phys. 52, 393(1980). F. Operetto and F. Pederiva, Phys. Rev. B 73, 184124(2006). T. Omiyinka and M. Boninsegni, Phys. Rev. B 88, 024112(2013). N. Faruk, M. Schmidt, H. Li, R. J. Le Roy, and P.-N. Roy, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 014310(2014). R. J. Hinde, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 154308(2008).

  7. O Diagnostico do Curso de Farmacia da UNIMEP (Diagnosis of the Pharmacy Course of UNIMEP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Olney Leite; do Carmo, Thais Adriana; Polacow, Maria Luiza O.; Meneghetti, Rosa Gitana K.; Dedalo, Maria de Fatima Nepomuceno; Alves, Maria Izalina F.; da Silva, Jadson Oliveira; Carvalho, Maria Eliza C.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the experience of the pharmacy course at UNIMEP (Methodist University of Piracicaba (Brazil)) in diagnosing itself. Offers models for the elaboration of an innovative curriculum which is the desire of those who make up the course. (BT)

  8. ParaDiS-FEM dislocation dynamics simulation code primer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, M; Hommes, G; Aubry, S; Arsenlis, A

    2011-09-27

    The ParaDiS code is developed to study bulk systems with periodic boundary conditions. When we try to perform discrete dislocation dynamics simulations for finite systems such as thin films or cylinders, the ParaDiS code must be extended. First, dislocations need to be contained inside the finite simulation box; Second, dislocations inside the finite box experience image stresses due to the free surfaces. We have developed in-house FEM subroutines to couple with the ParaDiS code to deal with free surface related issues in the dislocation dynamics simulations. This primer explains how the coupled code was developed, the main changes from the ParaDiS code, and the functions of the new FEM subroutines.

  9. Cooling by conversion of para to ortho-hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The cooling capacity of a solid hydrogen cooling system is significantly increased by exposing vapor created during evaporation of a solid hydrogen mass to a catalyst and thereby accelerating the endothermic para-to-ortho transition of the vapor to equilibrium hydrogen. Catalyst such as nickel, copper, iron or metal hydride gels of films in a low pressure drop catalytic reactor are suitable for accelerating the endothermic para-to-ortho conversion.

  10. Para hydrogen equilibration in the atmospheres of the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrath, Barney J.

    1986-01-01

    The thermodynamic behavior of the atmospheres of the Jovian planets is strongly dependent on the extent to which local thermal equilibration of the ortho and para states of molecular hydrogen is achieved. Voyager IRIS data from Jupiter imply substantial departures of the para hydrogen fraction from equilibrium in the upper troposphere at low latitudes, but with values approaching equilibrium at higher latitudes. Data from Saturn are less sensitive to the orth-para ratio, but suggest para hydrogen fractions near the equilibrium value. Above approximately the 200 K temperature level, para hydrogen conversion can enhance the efficiency of convection, resulting in a substantial increase in overturning times on all of the outer planets. Currently available data cannot definitively establish the ortho-para ratios in the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune, but suggest values closer to local equilibrium than to the 3.1 normal ratio. Modeling of sub-millimeter wavelength measurements of these planets suggest thermal structures with frozen equilibrium lapse rates in their convective regions.

  11. ParaText : scalable text modeling and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-06-01

    Automated processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text (news documents, web content, journal articles, etc.) is a key task in many data analysis and decision making applications. As data sizes grow, scalability is essential for deep analysis. In many cases, documents are modeled as term or feature vectors and latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used to model latent, or hidden, relationships between documents and terms appearing in those documents. LSA supplies conceptual organization and analysis of document collections by modeling high-dimension feature vectors in many fewer dimensions. While past work on the scalability of LSA modeling has focused on the SVD, the goal of our work is to investigate the use of distributed memory architectures for the entire text analysis process, from data ingestion to semantic modeling and analysis. ParaText is a set of software components for distributed processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text. The ParaText source code is available under a BSD license, as an integral part of the Titan toolkit. ParaText components are chained-together into data-parallel pipelines that are replicated across processes on distributed-memory architectures. Individual components can be replaced or rewired to explore different computational strategies and implement new functionality. ParaText functionality can be embedded in applications on any platform using the native C++ API, Python, or Java. The ParaText MPI Process provides a 'generic' text analysis pipeline in a command-line executable that can be used for many serial and parallel analysis tasks. ParaText can also be deployed as a web service accessible via a RESTful (HTTP) API. In the web service configuration, any client can access the functionality provided by ParaText using commodity protocols ... from standard web browsers to custom clients written in any language.

  12. [Practice of medicine in the medico-social context in the year 2000].

    PubMed

    Cervera Soto, S; Viñes Rueda, J J

    1999-01-01

    This study discusses the conviction that the qualitative change which is going to be taking place over the next few decades with regard to the practice of medicine as far as the four governing aspects which bear an impact on medical practice are concerned: pure applied science; health-care policies; the economy and ethics. Medical science's know-how is going to be applied based on scientific evidence, the empirical scientific approach that has characterized medical practice over the past century being replaced. The health care policies from the organized society (Public Health Care System) are going to be changing its centralized models, handing over management authorities to the health-care professionals proper working at the public medical centers oriented toward health-care objectives. In turn, the health-care administration is going to be demanding a greater deal of strictness with regard to the honoring of health-care benefits based on scientific proof. The health-care economy of the Public Health-Care System is going to be requiring that the prescribing of medical procedures and the implementation of new technologies be dealt with based on results-based proven effectiveness related to health and, therefore, efficiency in management terms is going to be replaced by cost-effectiveness. Finally, the trend in individual medical ethics is going to continue evolving due to the many different individual and group ethics, which, in defense of the very nature (physis) of the medical practice is going to be requiring the development of informed consent, conscientious objection and a consensus being reached regarding new codes of professional conduct of a universal scope. PMID:10224877

  13. Newer implications of medico-legal and consent issues in plastic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Atulkumar K.

    2014-01-01

    The social impact of entire cadre of medical graduates admitted through donation and management seats is yet to arrive. What has arrived are the burdens of complying with various acts and facing legal challengesduring medical practice. This article deals with some recent legal requirements for catering to plastic and cosmetic surgery patients. PMID:25190914

  14. [Medico-historical monuments in Hungary from the times of Matthias Hunyadi].

    PubMed

    Varjassy, Péter

    2009-01-01

    Author attempted to collect all available medical data of the period of the reign of Mathias Corvinus (1443-1490) who ruled Hungary for 32 years. First part of this article outlines the general medical history of this era. In the 15th century the flourishing Kingdom of Hungary was inhabited by 3-3.2 million people. Under the rule of King Matthias epidemies were frequent visitors, plague e.g. was registered 11 times, while sudor anglicus once (in 1485). The ca. 120 hospitals of the era were founded mostly in towns and market-towns. At the same time 12 leprosories worked throughout the country. Strikingly many dates and details could be collected concerning medical doctors and surgeons working in Hungary. A list of 69 medical doctors and surgeons (60 physicians and 9 surgeons) of this era known by their names is attached to the article. The second and third part of the treatise is a medical history of King Matthias of his relatives and of his court. We can read here a report on the illnesses and death of Janus Pannonius and of Joannes Vitéz who both played an important role in Hungarian culture. Author's further inquiry is focused on diseases and death of the king. Cause of his death was--according to contemporary sources and our present-day knowledge--a cerebral apoplexy. On 6th April 1490 Matthias died suddenly but not unexpected, since his health had already been deteriorated critically during the previous two years, and he had long been crippled by gout. The king's condition had been worsened probably as an effect of factors caused by visceral form of gout. These factors were cardiovascular and renal damages and hypertension, which resulted the fatal cerebral apoplexy causing the king's sudden death. PMID:20481108

  15. Current trends for medico-legal disputes related to functional nasal surgery in Italy.

    PubMed

    Motta, S; Nappi, S

    2014-06-01

    The problem of professional liability in case of adverse outcomes or failures secondary to surgery is very sensitive in many countries of the European Community. In Italy, a recent sentence of the Supreme Court concerning a patient who underwent septoplasty raised considerable doubts in relation to the guidance to be followed in disputes related to an alleged professional liability, further exacerbating the juridical orientation of recent years in this context. This ruling involves any surgery, as well as rhinologic surgery, and calls into question most regulatory and legal principles that have traditionally been adopted by the Italian Civil Law. The sentence states that the plaintiff is only required to document the failure of surgical treatment, but not the breach of the duty of care by the surgeon, thus shifting the burden of proof to the physician-debtor. It also considers that, in assessing the degree of negligence, reference should be made to the qualifications of the surgeon, according to principles that are not covered by current regulations, denying that in general surgery (i.e., not with aesthetic purposes) the surgeon must only to act with diligence and need not guarantee a favourable outcome. This series of statements, complementing one another and evolving more unfavourably towards physicians, facilitate legal disputes for speculative purposes through complainants, with obvious health and socio-economic implications. PMID:24882932

  16. Sleep disorders and driving licence: the current Italian legislation and medico-legal issues.

    PubMed

    Masullo, A; Feola, A; Marino, V; Iadevaia, C; Trabucco Aurilio, M; Marsella, L T

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic accidents (RTA) are a serious issue in all industrialized countries and have dramatic social and healthcare-related implications. Fatigue (sleepiness) is the principal identifiable and preventable cause of road traffic accidents. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) and narcolepsy are two of the leading causes of excessive daytime sleepiness. In this article, the authors analyze the current Italian legislation regarding driving licence issuance and fitness to drive, in order to evaluate the potential implications of sleep disorders, particularly OSAS and narcolepsy. In European Legislation and in Italy, OSAS and narcolepsy are not included among the illnesses or invalidating conditions that limit the fitness to drive for driving licence issuance purposes. In fact, they are not included in the Annex III of the European Council Directive 91/439/EEC of the 29th of July 1991 on driving licences. Some Countries of the European Union (Belgium, France, Finland, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Spain and Sweden) had implemented the 91/439/EEC Directive with national restrictions on driving licence issuance policies in case of OSAS and narcolepsy. Given the well-established scientific evidence available, in Italy, the lack of legislation regulating the assessment of the psychophysical requisites for the issuance and renewal of driving licences of individuals affected by sleep disorders seems extremely worrying. Furthermore, the current lack of legal obligation in Italy for healthcare facilities to disclose such diagnoses to the organs responsible for issuing driving licences (such as the Motorizzazione Civile - the Department of motor vehicles) remains the subject of heated debate. PMID:25366956

  17. A study of medico-social problems of the inmates of a leprosy colony in Mysore.

    PubMed

    Vasundhra, M K; Siddalingappa, A S; Srinivasan, B S

    1983-07-01

    A study of the inmates of a leprosy colony in Mysore revealed that there were more male cases and that the deformities were also more common among the male patients. There was no cases among inmates below 20 years of age group 31-50 years. 93.2% of the inmates were illiterate and 96.6% of the patients were ignorant of the cause, spread, prognosis of the disease and prevention of disabilities. This indicated an urgent need of health education among the leprosy patients and their families. All the inmates, including the apparently healthy relatives reported loss of income due to disease and disabilities. Rehabilitation of the inmates by raising poultry, breeding sheep and sericulture activities must be encouraged. PMID:6656213

  18. Occupational death due to bilateral carotid artery occlusion - a medico-legal case report.

    PubMed

    Das, Siddhartha; Patra, Ambika Prasad; Shaha, Kusa Kumar; Sukumar, Sanjay; Chaudhari, Vinod Ashok; Rahman, Nisreen Abdul

    2015-05-01

    Occupational deaths are work-related deaths and usually occur in the work place of an individual. A case of occupational death in a female factory worker has been described, where the saree she was wearing accidentally got entangled in the moving belt and caused ligature strangulation. She was unconscious throughout indicating bilateral occlusion of the carotids and died a day after the incident. The authors have described the correlation between the distribution of the injuries on the body and the manner a saree is worn. Investigation of the workplace revealed that the place where she was standing was located between two machines, and the space was inadequate for normal movement. Some suggestions have been offered which may decrease the incidences of occupational ligature strangulation due to entanglement of dress materials in the moving machineries. PMID:25882146

  19. Whiplash-Associated Disorders : Clinical and medico-legal guidelines on the methods of ascertainment.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, S D; Ananian, V; Baccino, E; Banczerowski, P; Bordignon, D; Boscolo-Berto, R; Domenici, R; Gorriz Quevedo, J; Graw, M; Hell, W; Hernandez Cueto, C; Knudsen, P J T; Masiero, S; Montisci, M; Norelli, G A; Pinchi, V; Raudys, R; Raul, J S; Sterzik, V; Tessitore, E; Tuusov, J; Vanezis, P; Vermylen, Y; Vieira, D N; Viel, G; Viero, A; Villanueva, E; Zoia, R

    2016-01-01

    The manuscript presents the International Guidelines developed by the Working Group on Personal Injury and Damage under the patronage of the International Academy of Legal Medicine (IALM) regarding the Methods of Ascertainment of any suspected Whiplash-Associated Disorders (WAD).The document includes a detailed description of the logical and methodological steps of the ascertainment process as well as a synoptic diagram in the form of Flow Chart. PMID:26342284

  20. Paranormal experience in a medico-swimming rescue: a case study.

    PubMed

    Avramidis, Stathis

    2013-06-01

    This study looks at the case of a 20-year-old fisherman, who was speared in the head, the spear entering at his jaw and protruding from the top of his scull, while he was swimming unaccompanied; he was rescued, admitted to the intensive care unit for an operation, remained in a coma for a few days and then had a full recovery. About 10 days before the rescue, he had visited a monk who, intuited and functioning as channel of the divine spirit, had told him that he 'should not be afraid of anything', rubbing the top of his scull and his jaw exactly at the points through which the 40-inch spear passed. After the incident, the monk prescience again the exact day on which he would recover from the coma. It is concluded that the survival of the fisherman can be attributed to a paranormal event. The monk's prescience permit the assumption that a divine spirit was pervasive throughout the universe and present in this life-threatening situation, endeavouring to assist the lifeguard, the neurosurgeons and the young fisherman. PMID:21424176

  1. Pressure sores: epidemiology, medico-legal implications and forensic argumentation concerning causality.

    PubMed

    Tsokos, M; Heinemann, A; Püschel, K

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to identify the frequency and grading of pressure sores in a large series of unselected consecutive deceased subjects before cremation and to discuss aspects of the forensic argumentation concerning causality. A total of 10,222 corpses were examined prospectively over a 1-year-period (1998) for the occurrence, localization and grading of pressure sores. Epidemiological aspects (e.g. age, sex, underlying and contributing causes of death, place of death etc.) were taken from the death certificate. The mean prevalence of pressure sores was 11.2% (87.1% isolated sores; predominant localization of advanced grades on the sacrum in 69.6%). There was a positive correlation between the prevalence of sores and advanced age resulting in a clear female predominance in the age group of 80 years and over because of differences in life expectancy. A significant correlation was found between the prevalence of pressure sores and certain underlying diseases, e.g. trauma, senile dementia, neurological diseases, apoplexy and marasmus. Pressure sores of all grades were more frequently found in the deceased when a senior citizen's or nursing home was given on the death certificate as the domicile in the last period of life. The forensic argumentation for the causal relationship of a pressure sore as the focus of fatal infectious complications or septicemia has to be based on the results of clinical expertises and forensic investigations (evaluation of the institutional documentation of the patient's course, autopsy findings, histology, immunohistochemistry). The vast majority of physicians seem to pay only little attention to the potentially fatal outcome of pressure sores and fatalities associated with this condition are clearly underreported. From the point of view of social medicine, the prevalence of pressure sores in a defined population can be seen as a parameter for the quality of nursing and medical care. In bringing these fatalities to light, the field of legal medicine contributes to a general quality control of standards of nursing and medical care. PMID:11009064

  2. Medico-Science and School Hygiene: A Contribution to a History of the Senses in Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milewski, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    This article takes as its inspiration Ian Grosvenor's conjectural essay presented for the symposium "Historiography of the Future: Looking Back to the Future" held at the International Standing Conference for History of Education (ISCHE) 33 in July 2011 in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. It contributes to a sensory history of schooling by…

  3. Medico-legal autopsies as a source of information to improve patient safety.

    PubMed

    Madea, Burkhard

    2009-04-01

    Clear data on the epidemiology of medical malpractice are missing, at least for Germany. Especially data on the frequency of malpractice claims in penal and civil law are not available. However, from epidemiological and healthcare research some data on the frequency of adverse events (AE), preventable adverse events (PAE) and negligent adverse events (NAE) are available. According to a review of the German Alliance of Patient Safety adverse events can be expected in 5-10%, preventable adverse events in 2-4%, negligent adverse events in about 1% and lethal outcome in about 0.1% of hospitalized patients. However, these data are not compatible with figures from civil and penal law and there seems to be a great "litigation gap". Data on malpractice cases are available from the files of the arbitration committees on medical malpractice, files of liability insurance companies and files of the institutes of forensic medicine. However, these files are not complete and data sources may have some interferences. The arbitration committees are, however, mainly dealing with living patients. Lethal cases are a special subgroup and the best available data source are the files of the institutes of forensic medicine. This subgroup is of special importance since death is the most severe outcome of medical malpractice and the reproach to have caused the death of a patient by medical negligence is the most severe malpractice claim. From a retrospective multicentre study on autopsies performed in cases of medical malpractice claims (altogether 101.358 autopsies, 4450 due to medical malpractice claims) the most important data will be presented (disciplines concerned, cause of accusation, classification of accusation, causes of preliminary proceedings, occupational group and number of approved medical malpractice, outcome of medical malpractice proceedings). However, these data are not only of a descriptive value but have utmost importance also for risk analysis and to increase patient safety. A thorough evaluation of serious incidences, although less sophisticated than a root cause analysis, produces far more information than the usual hospital reporting system. Identification and evaluation of errors as well as reporting of errors may also contribute to the prevention of errors which is among other medical disciplines also a task of forensic medicine. PMID:19289305

  4. MEDICO – BOTANY OF ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS – IV (AYURVEDIC DRUGS – 2)

    PubMed Central

    Nair, K. Vasudevan; Gopakumar, K.; Yoganarasimhan, S. N.; Shantha, T. R.; Keshavamurthy, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    Details on 33 plants / drugs belonging to 30 genera and 22 families are provided in this paper; ayurvedic drug name, botanical sources in the island, short description of the species occurring in the islands, chemical constituents, ayurvedic preparations and therapeutic properties are elucidated. PMID:22557524

  5. Abortion laws and medical developments: a medico-legal anomaly in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Kerry

    2011-03-01

    In October 2010 the District Court sitting in Cairns, Queensland, found Tegan Leach not guilty of attempting to procure her own abortion and Sergie Brennan not guilty of supplying Leach with the drugs Mifepristone and Misoprostol to procure an abortion. Brennan obtained the drugs from his sister in the Ukraine through the regular postal system. R v Brennan and Leach was the first case in Queensland's history where a woman was charged with procuring her own abortion. The drugs are accepted by the medical profession worldwide for medical abortions. A prosecution witness gave evidence that Mifepristone is not harmful or injurious to the health of a woman and it is listed as an essential medicine by the World Health Organisation and approved for use by the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration. The jury found the defendants not guilty because they were not satisfied beyond reasonable doubt that the combination of the drugs Mifepristone and Misoprostol was a "noxious" substance under the Criminal Code (Old). This article concludes that there is no regulatory miracle which will stop the traffic of Mifepristone and Misoprostol into Australia and therefore an intelligent regulatory response is required which would make it unnecessary for women to seek Mifepristone and Misoprostol from overseas networks and the internet. Among other things, this would include the repeal of confusing, inappropriate and ineffective abortion laws. PMID:21528743

  6. Medico-botanical study of Yercaud hills in the eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Parthipan, M; Aravindhan, V; Rajendran, A

    2011-04-01

    The study reports medicinal plant survey was conceded in Yercaud hills ranges of Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. The study primarily based on field surveys conducted throughout the hills, where dwellers provided information on plant species used as medicine, plant parts used to prepare the remedies and ailments to which the remedies were prescribed. The study resulted about 48- plant species belonging to 45- genera and 29- families of medicinal plants related to folk medicine used by the local people. Among them the most common plants viz., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Cissus quadrangularis L., Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br., Justisia adhatoda L., Ocimum sanctum L., Phyllanthes amarus Schum. & Thonn., Piper nigrum L., Solanum nigrum L., Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, Tridax procumbens L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe which are used in their daily life to cure various ailments. PMID:22557438

  7. Survey of medico-legal investigation of homicide in the region of Epirus (Northwest Greece).

    PubMed

    Fragkouli, Kleio; Boumba, Vassiliki; Vougiouklakis, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the forensic features of homicides in North-West Greece (Epirus) from 1998 to 2013, a borderland area between Greece and Albania. Although Greece is critically influenced by both the increasing flow of refugees and the current socioeconomic crisis, very little information has been published regarding the patterns of homicide in the country. Fifty-eight autopsied victims (36 males; 22 females) were investigated. The median age was 37 years old. The average annual homicide rate was 0.85 per 100,000 inhabitants and showed remarkable fluctuation, with largest increase during Greek financial downturn. Sixteen victims were not Greek citizens. The most common method of commitment was the use of firearm (40%). The main motives were economical causes (26%) and passion (14%). Four cases were categorized as matricide (7%), 3 as homicide-suicide (5%), 2 as patricide (3%) and 1 as infanticide (2%). Toxicological analysis proved negative for ethanol and other psychotropic substances in the majority of the victims (50%). There is an urgent need for public actions both in Epirus and in Greece, with the application of effective strategies against criminality. PMID:26580723

  8. MEDICO-BOTANY OF ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS – III AYURVEDIC DRUGS – I

    PubMed Central

    Nair, K.V.; Yoganarasimhan, S.N.; Murthy, K.R. Kesava; Shantha, T.R.

    1984-01-01

    Ayurveda is not exploited to the maximum extent in the islands. In order to provide a basic data for establishing Ayurvedic and allied pharmaceutical based industries, information of on fortyfour drugs available in the islands are provided in this first paper of the series PMID:22557452

  9. Medico-Science and School Hygiene: A Contribution to a History of the Senses in Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milewski, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    This article takes as its inspiration Ian Grosvenor's conjectural essay presented for the symposium "Historiography of the Future: Looking Back to the Future" held at the International Standing Conference for History of Education (ISCHE) 33 in July 2011 in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. It contributes to a sensory history of schooling by

  10. Medical negligence or diagnostic conundrum? A medico-legal case study.

    PubMed

    Satpathy, Sidhartha; Satapathy, Sujata

    2002-01-01

    India is a signatory to the UN backed Consumer Protection Resolution, and has enacted the Consumer Protection Act in 1986 to promote and protect the rights of consumers. A land-mark judgment of the Supreme Court of India in 1996, has paved the way for a number of lawsuits involving the public sector, including an eminent tertiary care medical institution. The case described in this study was filed with the State Consumer Dispute Redressal Commission in June 2000. The complainant was a fifty year old female who noticed a lump in her right breast; which was diagnosed as malignant by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC); and was treated by surgery and adjuvantradio-therapy (brachytherapy). Subsequently, the tissue sent for histo-pathological study was reported to be 'benign phyllodes tumour'; which was confirmed by other centres in India and the UK. The complaint filed for total damages amounting to Rupees 19 lacs (approx. 27,300 UK pounds) along with interest from the date of operation. Review of the relevant literature suggests that phyllodes tumour of the breast has various sub-types;and even borderline cases can develop malignancy at a later date. It is also clear that false positive cases had been reported previously in cases diagnosed by FNAC. Finally, avenues to minimise litigation through in-house mechanisms and a new concept of mediation have been explored. PMID:12437194

  11. Fetal laceration during caesarean section and its medico-legal sequelae.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Ciro; Escolino, Maria; Paternoster, Mariano; Buccelli, Claudio; Graziano, Vincenzo; Falco, Marianna; Alicchio, Francesca; Cerulo, Mariapina; Settimi, Alessandro; Savanelli, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Fetal laceration is a recognized complication of caesarean delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, type, location, risk factors and long-term consequences of accidental fetal incised wounds during caesarean delivery. During a five-year period, we observed 25 cases of fetal lacerations caused by the scalpel during hysterotomy. In 20 of these cases, we observed these lesions as consultants for the Neonatologic Care Unit; the other five cases came under our care after an insurance claim for damages against the gynaecologist. All the infants had a lesion located to the head. In only 5 of the 25 cases the lesion was reported in the operative summary, and only 16 of the 25 mothers had signed an informed consent before surgery. With regard to the 20 cases diagnosed at the Neonatologic Care Unit, the lesion was closed using single stitches in nine cases, and with biological glue in 11 cases. Concerning the five cases that underwent legal proceedings against the gynaecologist, a clinical examination was performed by an expert in Public Health and Social Security in collaboration with a paediatric surgeon to evaluate the degree of biological damage. In all five cases, the result of the legal challenge was monetary compensation for the physical and moral damage caused by the gynaecologists to the patients and their parents. Accidental fetal lesions may occur during caesarean delivery; the incidence is significantly higher during emergency caesarean delivery compared to elective procedures. Patients should sign an informed consent in which they should be informed about the risk of the occurrence of fetal lacerations during caesarean delivery in order to avoid legal complications. PMID:24644228

  12. THE MEDICO-SCIENTIFIC MARGINALISATION OF HOMEOPATHY: INTERNATIONAL LEGAL AND REGULATORY DEVELOPMENTS.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2015-09-01

    The 2010 report of the United Kingdom Science and Technology Committee of the House of Commons and the 2015 report of the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council have overtaken in significance the uncritical Swiss report of 2012 and have gone a long way to changing the environment of tolerance toward proselytising claims of efficacy in respect of homeopathy. The inquiry being undertaken in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration during 2015 may accelerate this trend. An outcome of the reports and inquiries has been a series of decisions from advertising regulators and by courts rejecting medically unjustifiable claims in respect of the efficacy of homeopathy. Class actions have also been initiated in North America against manufacturers of homeopathic products. The changing legal and regulatory environment is generating an increasingly scientifically marginalised existence for homeopathy. That new environment is starting to provide effective inhibition of assertions on behalf of homeopathy and other health modalities whose claims to therapeutic efficacy cannot be justified by reference to the principles of evidence-based health care. This has the potential to reduce the financial support that is provided by insurers and governments toward homeopathy and to result in serious liability exposure for practitioners, manufacturers and those who purvey homeopathic products, potentially including pharmacists. In addition, it may give a fillip to a form of regulation of homeopaths if law reform to regulate unregistered health practitioners gathers momentum, as is taking place in Australia. PMID:26554194

  13. Project MEDICO; Model Experiment in Drug Indexing by Computer. First Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artandi, Susan; Baxendale, Stanley

    This report describes Phase 1 of a research project with the over-all objective of exploring the applicability of automatic methods in the indexing of drug information appearing in English natural language text. Two major phases of the research have been completed: (1) development of the automatic indexing method and its implementation on the test…

  14. Breakdowns in communication of radiological findings: an ethical and medico-legal conundrum

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Daniel R.; Singh, Hardeep

    2016-01-01

    Communication problems in diagnostic testing have increased in both number and importance in recent years. The medical and legal impact of failure of communication is dramatic. Over the past decades, the courts have expanded and strengthened the duty imposed on radiologists to timely communicate radiologic abnormalities to referring physicians and perhaps the patients themselves in certain situations. The need to communicate these findings goes beyond strict legal requirements: there is a moral imperative as well. The Code of Medical Ethics of the American Medical Association points out that “Ethical values and legal principles are usually closely related, but ethical obligations typically exceed legal duties.” Thus, from the perspective of the law, radiologists are required to communicate important unexpected findings to referring physicians in a timely fashion, or alternatively to the patients themselves. From a moral perspective, radiologists should want to effect such communications. Practice standards, moral values, and ethical statements from professional medical societies call for full disclosure of medical errors to patients affected by them. Surveys of radiologists and non-radiologic physicians reveal that only few would divulge all aspects of the error to the patient. In order to encourage physicians to disclose errors to patients and assist in protecting them in some manner if malpractice litigation follows, more than 35 states have passed laws that do not allow a physician’s admission of an error and apologetic statements to be revealed in the courtroom. Whether such disclosure increases or decreases the likelihood of a medical malpractice lawsuit is unclear, but ethical and moral considerations enjoin physicians to disclose errors and offer apologies.

  15. Medico legal and epidemiological aspects of femicide in a judicial district of north eastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Moreschi, Carlo; Da Broi, Ugo; Zamai, Valentina; Palese, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Femicide is the intentional killing of a woman because she is female, and often occurs when there are pre-existing relations, intimate or otherwise, between the victim and the murderer. A retrospective epidemiological study was made of 34 female homicides recorded in a university departmental register of post-mortems, pertaining to a judicial district of about 700,000 inhabitants in north eastern Italy, during a 21-year period from January 1st 1993 to December 31st 2013. The temporal trend, the socio-demographic characteristics of victims and perpetrators, the circumstances surrounding the crime and the risk factors for femicide were studied with the aim of identifying and developing preventive strategies. PMID:26854852

  16. [Melancholia and cancer: changes in the psychosomatic interpretation of cancer from the medico-historical viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Schwarz, R

    1987-01-01

    Specialized literature and belles lettres have been dealing increasingly with psychographs and biographies of cancer victims for whom a psychopathological condition is assumed to have paved the way for illness. In support of this assumption, authors cite what is supposed to be an unbroken chain of reports on the relationship between melancholy and cancer since antiquity. The fact that the views of ancient medicine have little in common with current understanding of such key concepts as melancholy and hypochondria is revealed by comparing the explanations of these terms from different periods. "Melancholy", when defined as a risk factor in the development of cancer, comprehends the following: a psychosomatic syndrome, a particular personality type, mental suffering as a result of stress and strain, disturbances of personality of a depressive nature with echoes of a thymo-alexic syndrome. The evaluation of historical documented arguments in support of a theory of psychosomatic oncogenesis is designed to call attention to the danger of false interpretations on the one hand and to the need for critical examination of present-day utterances on the subject on the other. PMID:3296532

  17. [Oocyte and embryo donation and surrogacy. Religious, medico-social, ethical, financial and legal problems].

    PubMed

    Kozovski, I; Kovachev, M; Angelova, K; Alexandrov, K; Kozovski, G; Markova, V

    2010-01-01

    The authors quote and discuss the postulates of the Orthodox, Jewish, Catholic and Islamic religions towards ART as well as worldwide legislations and standards and the attitude of female students of medicine in Varna. Indications of oocyte and embryo donation and surrogacy are proposed but all kinds or surrogacy should be permitted. The ART legislation and standards in Bulgaria should be thoroughly revised. PMID:20734677

  18. Intimate partner violence against women in Spain: A medico-legal and criminological study.

    PubMed

    Regueira-Diéguez, Antía; Pérez-Rivas, Natalia; Muñoz-Barús, José Ignacio; Vázquez-Portomeñe, Fernando; Rodríguez-Calvo, María Sol

    2015-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant worldwide problem whose magnitude and risk factors vary across different settings and cultures. Nowadays, it is a priority to improve the knowledge on this issue in order to formulate better evidence-based policy responses. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of non-fatal IPV against women in Spain. A retrospective analysis of IPV cases with a final judicial decision was carried out. The period under study extended from January 2005 to December 2012, with a total of 582 files included in the investigation. Most IPV victims were young adult women of Spanish origin, either married or single, with children, unemployed and with a low family income level. The majority of alleged perpetrators were young adults, employed, with a middle-low income level, a history of alcohol consumption/abuse, but no criminal records. Most victims had previous history of IPV, were engaged in a long-term relationship with their abuser and lived with him at the time of assault. The combination of psychological and physical abuse was the most frequent form of violence. The most common mechanisms of assault consisted in minor acts of physical violence, which resulted in mild injuries, most of them in the upper limbs and face. Nearly half of women sought medical care, but physician's injury report was only made in about a quarter of these cases, even though it is mandatory for health professionals. The majority of criminal proceedings were initiated by the victim's report and ended in conviction, most of them being considered occasional mistreatment. This study confirms the heterogeneity of the phenomenon of intimate partner violence. The importance of adopting standard IPV concepts and promoting the recognition and assessment of this form of violence amongst health care professionals, criminal investigators and forensic personnel is emphasized. PMID:26165670

  19. Los torturadores medicos: medical collusion with human rights abuses in Argentina, 1976-1983.

    PubMed

    Perechocky, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    Medical collaboration with authoritarian regimes historically has served to facilitate the use of torture as a tool of repression and to justify atrocities with the language of public health. Because scholarship on medicalized killing and biomedicalist rhetoric and ideology is heavily focused on Nazi Germany, this article seeks to expand the discourse to include other periods in which medicalized torture occurred, specifically in Argentina from 1976 to 1983, when the country was ruled by the Proceso de Reorganización Nacional military regime. The extent to which medical personnel embedded themselves within the Proceso regime's killing apparatus has escaped full recognition by both scholars and human rights activists. This article reconstructs the narrative of the Proceso's human rights abuses to argue that health professionals knowingly and often enthusiastically facilitated, oversaw, and participated in every phase of the "disappearance," torture, and mass murder process. PMID:24996628

  20. Hacer frente - Para la familia y los amigos

    Cancer.gov

    Si usted ayuda a su familiar o amigo durante el tratamiento del cáncer, usted es quien le cuida. Estar al cuidado de una persona con cáncer puede incluir muchas tensiones. Sugerencias para que se cuide usted cuando cuida a otros.

  1. Leucemia—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de la leucemia, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  2. Delirio (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del delirio como una complicación del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se tratan enfoques de los cuidados médicos de apoyo y los abordajes farmacológicos para el manejo del delirio.

  3. Fatiga (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la fatiga, una afección caracterizada por extremo cansancio e incapacidad para funcionar por la falta de energía, que a menudo se observa como una complicación del cáncer y su tratamiento.

  4. Mensaje para alumnos y padres - Duration: 3 minutes, 1 second.

    NASA Video Gallery

    El astronauta de la NASA José Hernández alienta a los estudiantes a que sigan sus sueños. Hernández también habla acerca del papel que juegan los padres para ayudar a que sus hijos hagan realidad s...

  5. Tumores cerebrales—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de los tumores cerebrales, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con estos tipos de cáncer.

  6. "Espanol para ti": A Video Program That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Elena; Johnson, Holly

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of "Espanol para ti," a video program for teaching Spanish at the elementary school level. The program was designed for use in Clark County, Nevada elementary schools and is taught by a certified Spanish teacher via video twice a week, utilizing comprehensible input through visuals, games, and songs that are conducive to…

  7. ACUTE TOXICITY OF PARA-NONYLPHENOL TO SALTWATER ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ?para-Nonylphenol (PNP), a mixture of alkylphenols used in producing nonionic surfactants, is distributed widely in surface waters and aquatic sediments, where it can affect saltwater species. This article describes a database for acute toxicity of PNP derived for calculating a n...

  8. Retinoblastoma—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del retinoblastoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  9. Analyzing and Visualizing Cosmological Simulations with ParaView

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, Jonathan; Heitmann, Katrin; Ahrens, James P; Fasel, Patricia; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Habib, Salman; Pope, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    The advent of large cosmological sky surveys - ushering in the era of precision cosmology - has been accompanied by ever larger cosmological simulations. The analysis of these simulations, which currently encompass tens of billions of particles and up to a trillion particles in the near future, is often as daunting as carrying out the simulations in the first place. Therefore, the development of very efficient analysis tools combining qualitative and quantitative capabilities is a matter of some urgency. In this paper, we introduce new analysis features implemented within ParaView, a fully parallel, open-source visualization toolkit, to analyze large N-body simulations. A major aspect of ParaView is that it can live and operate on the same machines and utilize the same parallel power as the simulation codes themselves. In addition, data movement is in a serious bottleneck now and will become even more of an issue in the future; an interactive visualization and analysis tool that can handle data in situ is fast becoming essential. The new features in ParaView include particle readers and a very efficient halo finder that identifies friends-of-friends halos and determines common halo properties, including spherical overdensity properties. In combination with many other functionalities already existing within ParaView, such as histogram routines or interfaces to programming languages like Python, this enhanced version enables fast, interactive, and convenient analyses of large cosmological simulations. In addition, development paths are available for future extensions.

  10. Mesotelioma maligno—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento y las causas del mesotelioma maligno, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  11. Linfoma—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del linfoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  12. Neuroblastoma—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento y los exámenes de detección del neuroblastoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  13. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Cassegrain IAC80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    El proyecto de instrumentación de mayor importancia que ha tenido el Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias en los últimos afios ha sido el diseflo y construcción del te1escopio IAC8O. Este requería del esfuerzo con junto en mec´nica, óptica y electrónica, lo que facilitó la estructuración y el crecimiento de los respectivos grupos de trabajo, que posteriormente se integraron en departamentos En su origen (1977), el telescopio IAC80 fue concebido como un sistema clásico tipo Cassegrain, con una razón focal F/i 1.3 para el sistema Casse grain y una razón focal F/20 para el sistema Coudé. Posteriormente, aunque se mantuvo la filosofia de que el sistema básico fuera el F/11.3, se consideró conveniente el diseño de secundarios para razones focales F/16 y F/32, y se eliminó el de F/20. Sin embargo, dada la importancia relativa que un foco estrictamente fotográfico tiene en un telescopio moderno, diseñado básicamente para fotometría fotoeléctrica y con un campo util mínimamente de 40 minutos de arco, se decídió Ilevar a cabo el diseño de un secundario F/8 con un sistema corrector de campo, pero que estuviera formado únicamente por lentes con superficies esféricas para que asl su construcción fuera posible en España ó en México. La creciente utilización de detectores bidimensionales para fines de investigación astron6mica y la viabilidad de que en un futuro cercano éstos tengan un área sensible cada vez mayor, hicieron atractiva la idea de tener diseñado un sistema corrector de campo para el foco primario (F/3), con un campo útil mínimo de un grado, y también con la limitante de que sus componentes tuvieron sólamente supérficies esféricas. Ambos diseños de los sis-temas correctores de campo se llevaron a cabo, en gran medida, como parte de un proyecto de colaboración e intercambio en el área de diseño y evaluación de sistemas ópticos.

  14. Contribuciones tecnicas para la medida de la contaminacion electromagnetica de microondas. Estudio en diversas poblaciones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segura Garcia, Jaume

    La contaminacion ambiental por campos electromagneticos ha resultado ser en estos ultimos anos uno de los problemas mas acuciantes del panorama tecnologico y de salud publica. En el primero de los casos porque las inversiones realizadas son enormes y en el segundo porque cada vez es mayor el numero de articulos, "technical reports" e informes medicos que afirman la existencia de una cierta causalidad, aunque sea debil, entre los campos electromagneticos y ciertos cuadros sintomatologicos. En nuestro caso, hemos dedicado bastantes esfuerzos a investigar el llamado "sindrome de radiofrecuencia / microondas", denominado asi en la literatura cientifica por presentarse en operarios de estaciones de radar y en trabajadores de potentes emisoras de radio y television. En esta memoria presentamos un resumen del trabajo realizado durante los ultimos anos en la medida de la contaminacion electromagnetica ambiental asociado a las comunicaciones inalambricas. En ella se recogen los fundamentos fisicos y propiedades de las ondas electromagneticas, la tecnologia empleada en los sistemas de telefonia celular y los antecedentes relativos a la investigacion de la interaccion de las ondas electromagneticas con organismos vivos. Se desarrolla un procedimiento de medida que ha conducido a la elaboracion de los primeros "mapas de radiofrecuencia" similares, en el aspecto descriptivo, a los mapas de ruido desarrollados en el area de la contaminacion acustica. Por ultimo, se analiza la respuesta subjetiva de los residentes, personas que viven en el entorno de cobertura de las estaciones base de telefonia movil y que se ven sometidos a determinados niveles de radiacion electromagnetica, con el fin de situar este fenomeno al nivel que le corresponde en el ambito de la respuesta subjetiva ciudadana.

  15. CHARACTERISTICS OF PARA-INFLUENZA 1 (HA-2) VIRUS III.

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Elliot C.; Mogabgab, William J.

    1962-01-01

    Dick, Elliot C. (Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, La.) and William J. Mogabgab. Characteristics of para-influenza 1 (HA-2) virus. III. Antigenic relationships, growth, interaction with erythrocytes, and physical properties. J. Bacteriol. 83:561–571. 1962—Hemagglutination-inhibition tests with rabbit and rooster immune sera showed HA-2-like strains of para-influenza 1 to be nearly as closely related antigenically to para-influenza 3 (HA-1) virus as to the Sendai strain of para-influenza 1; however, convalescent sera from humans infected with para influenza 1 virus exhibited four-fold or greater increases in antibody to HA-2 and Sendai viruses, but seldom to HA-1. Para-influenza 1 (HA-2) infectivity was destroyed within 2 hr at temperatures approaching 50 C; at 36 C, infective virus disappeared by 80 hr. At a temperature of 44 C or below, the hemagglutinin (HA) titer remained unchanged for 100 hr; but at temperatures above this, hemagglutinin was destroyed rapidly. Virus infectivity was found to be most stable at very slightly acid or neutral pH and to be increasingly labile at pH values more extreme than 5.7 and 8.7. Hemagglutinin was generally more resistant than infectivity to extremes of reaction; this was most notable in the alkaline range. In primary monkey-kidney tissue culture, virus was adsorbed in 5 hr, new infective virus was noted in 11 to 15 hr, and maximal amounts were detected at 60 hr and maintained through 132 hr. Production of hemagglutinin paralleled that of infectivity. The tcid50/HA ratio was approximately 4.5. With human type “O” erythrocytes, the HA titer of Copenhagen 222 virus suspensions was raised two- to fourfold by increasing the temperature of reaction and sedimentation from 4 C to room temperature. It could not be demonstrated that this thermal effect was due either to an increased total adsorption at an elevated temperature or to a greater rate of adsorption; the rate of hemagglutination was, however, increased by fourfold at the higher temperature. PMID:13886172

  16. Conversion of para and ortho hydrogen in the Jovian planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massie, S. T.; Hunten, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanism is proposed which partially equilibrates the para and ortho rotational levels of molecular hydrogen in the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. Catalytic reactions between the free-radical surface sites of aerosol particles and hydrogen modecules yield significant equilibration near 1 bar pressure, if the efficiency of conversion per collision is between 10 to the -8th and 10 to the -10th and the effective eddy mixing coefficient is 10,000 sq cm/sec. At lower pressures the ortho-para ratio retains the value at the top of the cloud layer, except for a very small effect from conversion in the thermosphere. The influence of conversion on the specific heat and adiabatic lapse rate is also investigated. The effect is found to be generally small, though is can rise to 10% inside the aerosol layer.

  17. Para-Sasakian geometry in thermodynamic fluctuation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravetti, A.; Lopez-Monsalvo, C. S.

    2015-03-01

    In this work we tie concepts derived from statistical mechanics, information theory and contact Riemannian geometry within a single consistent formalism for thermodynamic fluctuation theory. We derive the concrete relations characterizing the geometry of the thermodynamic phase space stemming from the relative entropy and the Fisher-Rao information matrix. In particular, we show that the thermodynamic phase space is endowed with a natural para-contact pseudo-Riemannian structure derived from a statistical moment expansion which is para-Sasaki and η-Einstein. Moreover, we prove that such manifold is locally isomorphic to the hyperbolic Heisenberg group. In this way we show that the hyperbolic geometry and the Heisenberg commutation relations on the phase space naturally emerge from classical statistical mechanics. Finally, we argue on the possible implications of our results.

  18. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA

    PubMed Central

    Litewka, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos. Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems. PMID:21625326

  19. Para rubber seed oil: new promising unconventional oil for cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Sucontphunt, Apirada; Ondee, Thunnicha

    2014-01-01

    Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 ± 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly. PMID:24976614

  20. ParaGlide: interactive parameter space partitioning for computer simulations.

    PubMed

    Bergner, Steven; Sedlmair, Michael; Möller, Torsten; Abdolyousefi, Sareh Nabi; Saad, Ahmed

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce ParaGlide, a visualization system designed for interactive exploration of parameter spaces of multidimensional simulation models. To get the right parameter configuration, model developers frequently have to go back and forth between setting input parameters and qualitatively judging the outcomes of their model. Current state-of-the-art tools and practices, however, fail to provide a systematic way of exploring these parameter spaces, making informed decisions about parameter configurations a tedious and workload-intensive task. ParaGlide endeavors to overcome this shortcoming by guiding data generation using a region-based user interface for parameter sampling and then dividing the model's input parameter space into partitions that represent distinct output behavior. In particular, we found that parameter space partitioning can help model developers to better understand qualitative differences among possibly high-dimensional model outputs. Further, it provides information on parameter sensitivity and facilitates comparison of models. We developed ParaGlide in close collaboration with experts from three different domains, who all were involved in developing new models for their domain. We first analyzed current practices of six domain experts and derived a set of tasks and design requirements, then engaged in a user-centered design process, and finally conducted three longitudinal in-depth case studies underlining the usefulness of our approach. PMID:23846095

  1. Electronic structure of the para-benzoquinone radical anion revisited.

    PubMed

    Kunitsa, Alexander A; Bravaya, Ksenia B

    2016-01-27

    Photoinduced dynamics of the para-benzoquinone anion features a subtle interplay between autodetachment and non-adiabatic transitions involving a dense manifold of resonances. We report the results of a multistate multireference perturbation theory study of the electronic structure of the para-benzoquinone anion in the ground, several low-lying excited electronic states, and in the lowest electron-detached state (the ground state of the neutral molecule). The electronic structure calculations revealed non-planar equilibrium geometry of the (2)Au excited state of the anion, but the effects of non-planarity on the shape of the absorption spectrum are found to be minor. Despite the large differences in the vertical excitation energies for the two lowest bright excited states, (2)Au (2.55 eV) and (2)B3u (2.93 eV), the simulated absorption spectra significantly overlap for the photon energies below 2.7 eV. Relevant minimum energy crossing points have been located using the CASSCF method. Excited-state deactivation channels are discussed in the context of accurate energetics and recent spectroscopic studies of the para-benzoquinone anion. PMID:26750380

  2. Creating and managing lookmarks in ParaView.

    SciTech Connect

    Kegelmeyer, W. Philip, Jr.; Stanton, Eric T.

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes the integration of lookmarks into the ParaView visualization tool. Lookmarks are pointers to views of specific parts of a dataset. They were so named because lookmarks are to a visualization tool and dataset as bookmarks are to a browser and the World Wide Web. A lookmark can be saved and organized among other lookmarks within the context of ParaView. Then at a later time, either in the same ParaView session or in a different one, it can be regenerated, displaying the exact view of the data that had previously been saved. This allows the user to pick up where they left off, to continue to adjust the view or otherwise manipulate the data. Lookmarks facilitate collaboration between users who wish to share views of a dataset. They enable more effective data comparison because they can be applied to other datasets. They also serve as a way of organizing a user's data. Ultimately, a lookmark is a time-saving tool that automates the recreation of a complex view of the data.

  3. Control del dolor: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Contiene información sobre las medicinas contra el dolor para pacientes con cáncer, los planes para controlarlo, cómo hablar con su equipo de atención médica sobre el dolor que usted siente y qué hacer para controlar los efectos físicos y emocionales del

  4. ParA resolvase catalyzes site-specific excision of DNA from the Arabidopsis genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small serine resolvase ParA from bacterial plasmids RK2 and RP4 catalyzes the recombination of two identical 133 bp recombination sites known as MRS. Previously, we reported that ParA is active in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this work, the parA recombinase gene was placed un...

  5. The Regulation of para-Nitrophenol Degradation in Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiongzhen; Tu, Hui; Luo, Xue; Zhang, Biying; Huang, Fei; Li, Zhoukun; Wang, Jue; Shen, Wenjing; Wu, Jiale; Cui, Zhongli

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4 can efficiently degrade para-nitrophenol and its intermediate metabolite hydroquinone. The regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation was studied, and PNP induced a global change in the transcriptome of P. putida DLL-E4. When grown on PNP, the wild-type strain exhibited significant downregulation of 2912 genes and upregulation of 845 genes, whereas 2927 genes were downregulated and 891 genes upregulated in a pnpR-deleted strain. Genes related to two non-coding RNAs (ins1 and ins2), para-nitrophenol metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the outer membrane porin OprB, glucose dehydrogenase Gcd, and carbon catabolite repression were significantly upregulated when cells were grown on para-nitrophenol plus glucose. pnpA, pnpR, pnpC1C2DECX1X2, and pnpR1 are key genes in para-nitrophenol degradation, whereas pnpAb and pnpC1bC2bDbEbCbX1bX2b have lost the ability to degrade para-nitrophenol. Multiple components including transcriptional regulators and other unknown factors regulate para-nitrophenol degradation, and the transcriptional regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation is complex. Glucose utilization was enhanced at early stages of para-nitrophenol supplementation. However, it was inhibited after the total consumption of para-nitrophenol. The addition of glucose led to a significant enhancement in para-nitrophenol degradation and up-regulation in the expression of genes involved in para-nitrophenol degradation and carbon catabolite repression (CCR). It seemed that para-nitrophenol degradation can be regulated by CCR, and relief of CCR might contribute to enhanced para-nitrophenol degradation. In brief, the regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation seems to be controlled by multiple factors and requires further study. PMID:27191401

  6. ORTHO-PARA SELECTION RULES IN THE GAS-PHASE CHEMISTRY OF INTERSTELLAR AMMONIA

    SciTech Connect

    Faure, A.; Hily-Blant, P.; Le Gal, R.; Rist, C.

    2013-06-10

    The ortho-para chemistry of ammonia in the cold interstellar medium is investigated using a gas-phase chemical network. Branching ratios for the primary reaction chain involved in the formation and destruction of ortho- and para-NH{sub 3} were derived using angular momentum rules based on the conservation of the nuclear spin. We show that the 'anomalous' ortho-to-para ratio of ammonia ({approx}0.7) observed in various interstellar regions is in fact consistent with nuclear spin selection rules in a para-enriched H{sub 2} gas. This ratio is found to be independent of temperature in the range 5-30 K. We also predict an ortho-to-para ratio of {approx}2.3 for NH{sub 2}. We conclude that a low ortho-to-para ratio of H{sub 2} naturally drives the ortho-to-para ratios of nitrogen hydrides below the statistical values.

  7. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA.

    PubMed

    Litewka, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos.Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems. PMID:21625326

  8. Amazon Land Wars in the South of Para

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Cynthia S.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Aldrich, Stephen P.; Caldas, Marcellus M.

    2007-01-01

    The South of Para, located in the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, has become notorious for violent land struggle. Although land conflict has a long history in Brazil, and today impacts many parts of the country, violence is most severe and persistent here. The purpose of this article is to examine why. Specifically, we consider how a particular Amazonian place, the so-called South of Para has come to be known as Brazil's most dangerous badland. We begin by considering the predominant literature, which attributes land conflict to the frontier expansion process with intensified struggle emerging in the face of rising property values and demand for private property associated with capitalist development. From this discussion, we distill a concept of the frontier, based on notions of property rights evolution and locational rents. We then empirically test the persistence of place-based violence in the region, and assess the frontier movement through an analysis of transportation costs. The findings from the analyses indicate that the prevalent theorization of frontier violence in Amazonia does little to explain its persistent and pervasive nature in the South of Para. To fill this gap in understanding, we develop an explanation based the geographic conception of place, and we use contentious politics theory heuristically to elucidate the ways in which general processes interact with place specific history to engender a landscape of violence. In so doing, we focus on environmental, cognitive, and relational mechanisms (and implicated structures), and attempt to deploy them in an explanatory framework that allows direct observation of the accumulating layers of the region's tragic history. We end by placing our discussion within a political ecological context, and consider the implications of the Amazon Land War for the environment.

  9. Ortho-to-para ratio of interstellar heavy water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vastel, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Caux, E.; Coutens, A.; Cernicharo, J.; Bottinelli, S.; Demyk, K.; Faure, A.; Wiesenfeld, L.; Scribano, Y.; Bacmann, A.; Hily-Blant, P.; Maret, S.; Walters, A.; Bergin, E. A.; Blake, G. A.; Castets, A.; Crimier, N.; Dominik, C.; Encrenaz, P.; Gérin, M.; Hennebelle, P.; Kahane, C.; Klotz, A.; Melnick, G.; Pagani, L.; Parise, B.; Schilke, P.; Wakelam, V.; Baudry, A.; Bell, T.; Benedettini, M.; Boogert, A.; Cabrit, S.; Caselli, P.; Codella, C.; Comito, C.; Falgarone, E.; Fuente, A.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Helmich, F.; Henning, T.; Herbst, E.; Jacq, T.; Kama, M.; Langer, W.; Lefloch, B.; Lis, D.; Lord, S.; Lorenzani, A.; Neufeld, D.; Nisini, B.; Pacheco, S.; Pearson, J.; Phillips, T.; Salez, M.; Saraceno, P.; Schuster, K.; Tielens, X.; van der Tak, F.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Viti, S.; Wyrowski, F.; Yorke, H.; Cais, P.; Krieg, J. M.; Olberg, M.; Ravera, L.

    2010-10-01

    Context. Despite the low elemental deuterium abundance in the Galaxy, enhanced molecular D/H ratios have been found in the environments of low-mass star-forming regions, and in particular the Class 0 protostar IRAS 16293-2422. Aims: The CHESS (Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions) key program aims to study the molecular complexity of the interstellar medium. The high sensitivity and spectral resolution of the Herschel/HIFI instrument provide a unique opportunity to observe the fundamental 11,1-00,0 transition of the ortho-D2O molecule, which is inaccessible from the ground, and determine the ortho-to-para D2O ratio. Methods: We detected the fundamental transition of the ortho-D2O molecule at 607.35 GHz towards IRAS 16293-2422. The line is seen in absorption with a line opacity of 0.62 ± 0.11 (1σ). From the previous ground-based observations of the fundamental 11,0-10,1 transition of para-D2O seen in absorption at 316.80 GHz, we estimate a line opacity of 0.26 ± 0.05 (1σ). Results: We show that the observed absorption is caused by the cold gas in the envelope of the protostar. Using these new observations, we estimate for the first time the ortho-to-para D2O ratio to be lower than 2.6 at a 3σ level of uncertainty, which should be compared with the thermal equilibrium value of 2:1. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  10. Laparoscopic para-aortic lymph node dissection for patients with primary colorectal cancer and clinically suspected para-aortic lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sung Ho; Park, Soo Yeun; Park, Jun Seok; Kim, Hye Jin; Yang, Chun-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Treatment of patients with para-aortic lymph node metastasis from colorectal cancer is controversial. The goal of this study was to investigate the technical feasibility of laparoscopic intrarenal para-aortic lymph node dissection in patients with colorectal cancer and clinically suspected para-aortic lymph node dissection. Methods The inclusion criteria for the laparoscopic approach were patients with infrarenal para-aortic lymph node metastasis from colorectal cancer. Patients who had any other distant metastatic lesion or metachronous para-aortic lymph node metastasis were excluded from this study. Perioperative outcomes and survival outcomes were analyzed. Results Between November 2004 and October 2013, 40 patients underwent laparoscopic para-aortic lymph node dissection. The mean operating time was 192.3 ± 68.8 minutes (range, 100-400 minutes) and the mean estimated blood loss was 65.6 ± 52.6 mL (range, 20-210 mL). No patient required open conversion. The postoperative complication rate was 15.0%. Sixteen patients (40.0%) had pathologically positive lymph nodes. In patients with metastatic para-aortic lymph nodes, the 3-year overall survival rate and disease-free survival rate were 65.7% and 40.2%, respectively. Conclusion The results of our study suggest that a laparoscopic approach for patients with colorectal cancer with metastatic para-aortic lymph nodes can be a reasonable option for selected patients. PMID:26793690

  11. Centro para la Salud Mundial del NCI anuncia becas de investigación para tecnologías portátiles

    Cancer.gov

    El Centro para la Salud Mundial del NCI (CGH) anunció el otorgamiento de subvenciones que apoyarán el desarrollo y la validación de tecnologías portátiles y de bajo costo para mejorar la detección temprana, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento del cáncer.

  12. RVA: A Plugin for ParaView 3.14

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-09-04

    RVA is a plugin developed for the 64-bit Windows version of the ParaView 3.14 visualization package. RVA is designed to provide support in the visualization and analysis of complex reservoirs being managed using multi-fluid EOR techniques. RVA, for Reservoir Visualization and Analysis, was developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, with contributions from the Illinois State Geological Survey, Department of Computer Science and National Center for Supercomputing Applications. RVA was designed to utilize andmore » enhance the state-of-the-art visualization capabilities within ParaView, readily allowing joint visualization of geologic framework and reservoir fluid simulation model results. Particular emphasis was placed on enabling visualization and analysis of simulation results highlighting multiple fluid phases, multiple properties for each fluid phase (including flow lines), multiple geologic models and multiple time steps. Additional advanced functionality was provided through the development of custom code to implement data mining capabilities. The built-in functionality of ParaView provides the capacity to process and visualize data sets ranging from small models on local desktop systems to extremely large models created and stored on remote supercomputers. The RVA plugin that we developed and the associated User Manual provide improved functionality through new software tools, and instruction in the use of ParaView-RVA, targeted to petroleum engineers and geologists in industry and research. The RVA web site (http://rva.cs.illinois.edu) provides an overview of functions, and the development web site (https://github.com/shaffer1/RVA) provides ready access to the source code, compiled binaries, user manual, and a suite of demonstration data sets. Key functionality has been included to support a range of reservoirs visualization and analysis needs, including: sophisticated connectivity analysis, cross sections through simulation results between selected wells, simplified volumetric calculations, global vertical exaggeration adjustments, ingestion of UTChem simulation results, ingestion of Isatis geostatistical framework models, interrogation of joint geologic and reservoir modeling results, joint visualization and analysis of well history files, location-targeted visualization, advanced correlation analysis, visualization of flow paths, and creation of static images and animations highlighting targeted reservoir features.« less

  13. RVA: A Plugin for ParaView 3.14

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-04

    RVA is a plugin developed for the 64-bit Windows version of the ParaView 3.14 visualization package. RVA is designed to provide support in the visualization and analysis of complex reservoirs being managed using multi-fluid EOR techniques. RVA, for Reservoir Visualization and Analysis, was developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, with contributions from the Illinois State Geological Survey, Department of Computer Science and National Center for Supercomputing Applications. RVA was designed to utilize and enhance the state-of-the-art visualization capabilities within ParaView, readily allowing joint visualization of geologic framework and reservoir fluid simulation model results. Particular emphasis was placed on enabling visualization and analysis of simulation results highlighting multiple fluid phases, multiple properties for each fluid phase (including flow lines), multiple geologic models and multiple time steps. Additional advanced functionality was provided through the development of custom code to implement data mining capabilities. The built-in functionality of ParaView provides the capacity to process and visualize data sets ranging from small models on local desktop systems to extremely large models created and stored on remote supercomputers. The RVA plugin that we developed and the associated User Manual provide improved functionality through new software tools, and instruction in the use of ParaView-RVA, targeted to petroleum engineers and geologists in industry and research. The RVA web site (http://rva.cs.illinois.edu) provides an overview of functions, and the development web site (https://github.com/shaffer1/RVA) provides ready access to the source code, compiled binaries, user manual, and a suite of demonstration data sets. Key functionality has been included to support a range of reservoirs visualization and analysis needs, including: sophisticated connectivity analysis, cross sections through simulation results between selected wells, simplified volumetric calculations, global vertical exaggeration adjustments, ingestion of UTChem simulation results, ingestion of Isatis geostatistical framework models, interrogation of joint geologic and reservoir modeling results, joint visualization and analysis of well history files, location-targeted visualization, advanced correlation analysis, visualization of flow paths, and creation of static images and animations highlighting targeted reservoir features.

  14. Biodegradation of Para Amino Acetanilide by Halomonas sp. TBZ3

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Nader; Sefidi Heris, Youssof; Zununi Vahed, Sepideh; Vallipour, Javad; Hejazi, Mohammad Amin; Golabi, Sayyed Mahdi; Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim; Hejazi, Mohammad Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aromatic compounds are known as a group of highly persistent environmental pollutants. Halomonas sp. TBZ3 was isolated from the highly salty Urmia Lake of Iran. In this study, characterization of a new Halomonas isolate called Halomonas sp. TBZ3 and its employment for biodegradation of para-amino acetanilide (PAA), as an aromatic environmental pollutant, is described. Objectives: This study aimed to characterize the TBZ3 isolate and to elucidate its ability as a biodegradative agent that decomposes PAA. Materials and Methods: Primarily, DNA-DNA hybridization between TBZ3, Halomonas denitrificans DSM18045T and Halomonas saccharevitans LMG 23976T was carried out. Para-amino acetanilide biodegradation was assessed using spectrophotometry and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Parameters effective on biodegradation of PAA were optimized by the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Results: The DNA-DNA hybridization experiments between isolate TBZ3, H. denitrificans and H. saccharevitans revealed relatedness levels of 57% and 65%, respectively. According to GC-MS results, TBZ3 degrades PAA to benzene, hexyl butanoate, 3-methyl-1-heptanol and hexyl hexanoate. Temperature 32.92°C, pH 6.76, and salinity 14% are the optimum conditions for biodegradation with a confidence level of 95% (at level α = 0.05). Conclusions: According to our results, Halomonas sp. TBZ3 could be considered as a biological agent for bioremediation of PAA and possibly other similar aromatic compounds. PMID:26495103

  15. CYP96T1 of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus Catalyzes Formation of the Para-Para' C-C Phenol Couple in the Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Kilgore, Matthew B.; Augustin, Megan M.; May, Gregory D.; Crow, John A.; Kutchan, Toni M.

    2016-01-01

    The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids are a family of amino acid derived alkaloids with many biological activities; examples include haemanthamine, haemanthidine, galanthamine, lycorine, and maritidine. Central to the biosynthesis of the majority of these alkaloids is a C-C phenol-coupling reaction that can have para-para', para-ortho', or ortho-para' regiospecificity. Through comparative transcriptomics of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus, Galanthus sp., and Galanthus elwesii we have identified a para-para' C-C phenol coupling cytochrome P450, CYP96T1, capable of forming the products (10bR,4aS)-noroxomaritidine and (10bS,4aR)-noroxomaritidine from 4′-O-methylnorbelladine. CYP96T1 was also shown to catalyzed formation of the para-ortho' phenol coupled product, N-demethylnarwedine, as less than 1% of the total product. CYP96T1 co-expresses with the previously characterized norbelladine 4′-O-methyltransferase. The discovery of CYP96T1 is of special interest because it catalyzes the first major branch in Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis. CYP96T1 is also the first phenol-coupling enzyme characterized from a monocot. PMID:26941773

  16. Para-Hydrogen-Enhanced Gas-Phase Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, Louis-S.; Kovtunov, Kirill V.; Burt, Scott R.; Anwar,M. Sabieh; Koptyug, Igor V.; Sagdeev, Renad Z.; Pines, Alexander

    2007-02-23

    Herein, we demonstrate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) inthe gas phase using para-hydrogen (p-H2)-induced polarization. A reactantmixture of H2 enriched in the paraspin state and propylene gas is flowedthrough a reactor cell containing a heterogenized catalyst, Wilkinson'scatalyst immobilized on modified silica gel. The hydrogenation product,propane gas, is transferred to the NMR magnet and is spin-polarized as aresult of the ALTADENA (adiabatic longitudinal transport and dissociationengenders net alignment) effect. A polarization enhancement factor of 300relative to thermally polarized gas was observed in 1D1H NMR spectra.Enhancement was also evident in the magnetic resonance images. This isthe first demonstration of imaging a hyperpolarized gaseous productformed in a hydrogenation reaction catalyzed by a supported catalyst.This result may lead to several important applications, includingflow-through porous materials, gas-phase reaction kinetics and adsorptionstudies, and MRI in low fields, all using catalyst-free polarizedfluids.

  17. Sensitization to para-phenylenediamine from a streetside temporary tattoo.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, Danielle; Couture-Trudel, Pierre-Marc; Riboulet-Delmas, Gisèle; Sasseville, Denis

    2002-01-01

    "Temporary" henna tattoos (skin painting or pseudotattooing) are in vogue among American and European youngsters, particularly when vacationing. A 17-year-old girl presented with a severe contact dermatitis of her scalp and face after having dyed her hair with a permanent oxidative hair dye. She denied previous use of oxidative hair dye. Eight months earlier she had a "temporary" henna tattoo applied on her shoulder by a transient artist in downtown Montreal and developed an acute, erythematous, edematous eruption that resolved with residual, prolonged hyperpigmentation. As henna tattooing is a lengthy and tedious procedure, para-phenylenediamine (PPD) may be added to the mixture to accelerate the process, to darken, and to give more precision to the design. This short-lived fad can have longer-term sequelae then expected, ranging from postinflammatory hyperpigmentation of the tattoo site to permanent sensitization to PPD and related compounds. PMID:12437549

  18. ParaText : scalable text analysis and visualization.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-07-01

    Automated analysis of unstructured text documents (e.g., web pages, newswire articles, research publications, business reports) is a key capability for solving important problems in areas including decision making, risk assessment, social network analysis, intelligence analysis, scholarly research and others. However, as data sizes continue to grow in these areas, scalable processing, modeling, and semantic analysis of text collections becomes essential. In this paper, we present the ParaText text analysis engine, a distributed memory software framework for processing, modeling, and analyzing collections of unstructured text documents. Results on several document collections using hundreds of processors are presented to illustrate the exibility, extensibility, and scalability of the the entire process of text modeling from raw data ingestion to application analysis.

  19. Pneumatic protection applied to an airbag for para-gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raievski, V.; Valladas, G.

    1998-02-01

    We present a theory of pneumatic protection based on the laws of thermodynamics, elasticity and fluid mechanics. A general pneumatic protection system is made up of several communicating compartments, the differences in pressure of the compartments generating a transfer of mass and energy between them. The transfer offers interesting possibilities to improve the performance of the system. An example of this type of protection in aerial sport is the airbag for para-gliders, it is used in this paper to illustrate the theory. As the pressure in the airbag depends uniquely on its volume, the geometric model in the theory can be simplified. Experiments carried out with crash-test dummies equipped with sensors have confirmed the theoretical predictions.

  20. Wave intensity analysis of para-aortic counterpulsation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Pong-Jeu; Yang, Chi-Fu Jeffrey; Wu, Meng-Yu; Hung, Chun-Hao; Chan, Ming-Yao; Hsu, Tzu-Cheng

    2012-04-01

    Wave intensity analysis (WIA) was used to delineate and maximize the efficacy of a newly developed para-aortic blood pump (PABP). The intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) was employed as the comparison benchmark. Acute porcine experiments using eight pigs, randomly divided into IABP (n = 4) and PABP (n = 4) groups, were conducted to compare the characteristics of intra- and para-aortic counterpulsation. We measured pressure and velocity with probes installed in the left anterior descending coronary artery and aorta, during and without PABP assistance. Wave intensity for aortic and left coronary waves were derived from pressure and flow measurements with synchronization correction applied. To achieve maximized support efficacy, deflation timings ranging from 25 ms ahead of to 35 ms after the R-wave were tested. Similar to those associated with IABP counterpulsation, the PABP-generated backward-traveling waves predominantly drove aortic and coronary blood flows. However, in contrast with IABP counterpulsation, the nonocclusive nature of the PABP allowed systolic unloading to be delayed into early systole, which resulted in near elimination of coronary blood steal without diminution of systolic left ventricular ejection wave intensities. WIA can elucidate subtleties among different counterpulsatile support means with high sensitivity. Total accelerating wave intensity (TAWI), which was defined as the sum of the time integration of accelerated parts of the positive and negative wave intensities, was used to quantify counterpulsation efficacy. In general, the larger the TAWI gain, the better the counter-pulsatile support efficacy. However, when PABP deflation timings were delayed to after the R-wave, the TAWI was found to be inversely correlated with coronary perfusion. In this delayed deflation timing setting, greater wave cancellation occurred, which led to decreased TAWI but increased coronary perfusion attributed to blood regurgitation reduction. PMID:22227124

  1. Features of the ancestral bilaterian inferred from Platynereis dumerilii ParaHox genes

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Jerome HL; Raible, Florian; Korchagina, Natalia; Dray, Nicolas; Samain, Sylvie; Magdelenat, Ghislaine; Jubin, Claire; Segurens, Béatrice; Balavoine, Guillaume; Arendt, Detlev; Ferrier, David EK

    2009-01-01

    Background The ParaHox gene cluster is the evolutionary sister to the Hox cluster. Whilst the role of the Hox cluster in patterning the anterior-posterior axis of bilaterian animals is well established, and the organisation of vertebrate Hox clusters is intimately linked to gene regulation, much less is known about the more recently discovered ParaHox cluster. ParaHox gene clustering, and its relationship to expression, has only been described in deuterostomes. Conventional protostome models (Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans) are secondarily derived with respect to ParaHox genes, suffering gene loss and cluster break-up. Results We provide the first evidence for ParaHox gene clustering from a less-derived protostome animal, the annelid Platynereis dumerilii. Clustering of these genes is thus not a sole preserve of the deuterostome lineage within Bilateria. This protostome ParaHox cluster is not entirely intact however, with Pdu-Cdx being on the opposite end of the same chromosome arm from Pdu-Gsx and Pdu-Xlox. From the genomic sequence around the P. dumerilii ParaHox genes the neighbouring genes are identified, compared with other taxa, and the ancestral arrangement deduced. Conclusion We relate the organisation of the ParaHox genes to their expression, and from comparisons with other taxa hypothesise that a relatively complex pattern of ParaHox gene expression existed in the protostome-deuterostome ancestor, which was secondarily simplified along several invertebrate lineages. Detailed comparisons of the gene content around the ParaHox genes enables the reconstruction of the genome surrounding the ParaHox cluster of the protostome-deuterostome ancestor, which existed over 550 million years ago. PMID:19627570

  2. Ortho-para mixing hyperfine interaction in the H2O+ ion and nuclear spin equilibration.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Harada, Kensuke; Oka, Takeshi

    2013-10-01

    The ortho to para conversion of water ion, H2O(+), due to the interaction between the magnetic moments of the unpaired electron and protons has been theoretically studied to calculate the spontaneous emission lifetime between the ortho- and para-levels. The electron spin-nuclear spin interaction term, Tab(SaΔIb + SbΔIa) mixes ortho (I = 1) and para (I = 0) levels to cause the "forbidden" ortho to para |ΔI| = 1 transition. The mixing term with Tab = 72.0 MHz is 4 orders of magnitude higher for H2O(+) than for its neutral counterpart H2O where the magnetic field interacting with proton spins is by molecular rotation rather than the free electron. The resultant 10(8) increase of ortho to para conversion rate possibly makes the effect of conversion in H2O(+) measurable in laboratories and possibly explains the anomalous ortho to para ratio recently reported by Herschel heterodyne instrument for the far-infrared (HIFI) observation. Results of our calculations show that the ortho ↔ para mixings involving near-degenerate ortho and para levels are high (∼10(-3)), but they tend to occur at high energy levels, ∼300 K. Because of the rapid spontaneous emission, such high levels are not populated in diffuse clouds unless the radiative temperature of the environment is very high. The low-lying 101 (para) and 111 (ortho) levels of H2O(+) are mixed by ∼10(-4) making the spontaneous emission lifetime for the para 101 → ortho 000 transition 520 years and 5200 years depending on the F value of the hyperfine structure. Thus the ortho ↔ para conversion due to the unpaired electron is not likely to seriously affect thermalization of interstellar H2O(+) unless either the radiative temperature is very high or number density of the cloud is very low. PMID:23530629

  3. Para-meatal urethral cyst with bladder calculi: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Patil, Siddangouda B; Patil, Nikhil Ashok; Kundargi, Vinay S; Biradar, Ashok N

    2015-01-01

    Para-meatal urethral cyst or median raphe cyst of the glans penis is a benign cystic lesion uncommonly encountered in prepubertal age group. Approximately, about 50 cases have been reported till date in the world literature. Herein we report a case of para-meatal urethral cyst concurrent with urinary bladder calculi. PMID:26539378

  4. Para-meatal urethral cyst with bladder calculi: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Siddangouda B.; Patil, Nikhil Ashok; Kundargi, Vinay S.; Biradar, Ashok N.

    2015-01-01

    Para-meatal urethral cyst or median raphe cyst of the glans penis is a benign cystic lesion uncommonly encountered in prepubertal age group. Approximately, about 50 cases have been reported till date in the world literature. Herein we report a case of para-meatal urethral cyst concurrent with urinary bladder calculi. PMID:26539378

  5. Primer registro para Peru del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae: Cicadellini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    En este articulo se reporta por primera vez para el Peru una especies del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977, de material procedente del Departamento de Tumbes. El genero ha sido reportada anteriormente de Ecuador, como unico registro para Sudamerica, y America Central. El unico especimen hembra encontra...

  6. The parA resolvase performs site-specific genomic excision in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have designed a site-specific excision detection system in Arabidopsis to study the in planta activity of the small serine recombinase ParA. Using a transient expression assay as well as stable transgenic plant lines, we show that the ParA recombinase is catalytically active and capable of perfo...

  7. Anise oil as para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA) precursor.

    PubMed

    Waumans, Dieter; Bruneel, Noël; Tytgat, Jan

    2003-04-23

    These days, MDMA is one of the most popular drugs of abuse. Due to its illegality, MDMA and its chemical precursors are watched by governmental organizations in many countries. To avoid conflicts with legal instances, underground chemists have tried to market several new unregulated amphetamine analogues, such as 4-MTA. Para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA), on the other hand, is regulated by law but its precursors are easily obtained since they are cheap and unwatched. This article presents such a case, namely the large scale synthesis of PMA using anethole, a main constituent of anise oil, as precursor. Anethole has been converted to its phenyl acetone analogue via peracid oxidation, while PMA itself has been synthesized using this ketone as precursor in the Leuckart synthesis. The synthesis of PMA using anethole as starting product has been investigated applying GC/MS and GC-HSPME/MS techniques, hereby discovering new specific (4-methoxyphenol) and already identified synthesis impurities (4-methyl-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine, N-(beta-4-methoxyphenylisopropyl)-4-methoxybenzyl methyl ketimine, 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-methylethyl-2-propanamine, 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-methyl-N-(2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-methylethyl-2-propanamine, N-(beta-4-methoxyphenylisopropyl)-4-methoxybenzaldimine). The new impurity 4-methoxyphenol is specific for the application of a peracid oxidation method where anethole is used as precursor. PMID:12742705

  8. Conformation of ionizable poly Para phenylene ethynylene in dilute solutions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wijesinghe, Sidath; Maskey, Sabina; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2015-11-03

    The conformation of dinonyl poly para phenylene ethynylenes (PPEs) with carboxylate side chains, equilibrated in solvents of different quality is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. PPEs are of interest because of their tunable electro-optical properties, chemical diversity, and functionality which are essential in wide range of applications. The polymer conformation determines the conjugation length and their assembly mode and affects electro-optical properties which are critical in their current and potential uses. The current study investigates the effect of carboxylate fraction on PPEs side chains on the conformation of chains in the dilute limit, in solvents of different quality. The dinonylmore » PPE chains are modeled atomistically, where the solvents are modeled both implicitly and explicitly. Dinonyl PPEs maintained a stretched out conformation up to a carboxylate fraction f of 0.7 in all solvents studied. The nonyl side chains are extended and oriented away from the PPE backbone in toluene and in implicit good solvent whereas in water and implicit poor solvent, the nonyl side chains are collapsed towards the PPE backbone. Thus, rotation around the aromatic ring is fast and no long range correlations are seen within the backbone.« less

  9. A para-canalicular abscess resembling an inflamed chalazion.

    PubMed

    Almaliotis, Diamantis; Nakos, Elias; Siempis, Thomas; Koletsa, Triantafyllia; Kostopoulos, Ioannis; Chatzipantazi, Maria; Karampatakis, Vasileios

    2013-01-01

    Background. Lacrimal infections by Actinomyces are rare and commonly misdiagnosed for long periods of time. They account for 2% of all lacrimal diseases. Case Report. We report a case of a 70-year-old female patient suffering from a para-canalicular abscess in the medial canthus of the left eye, beside the lower punctum lacrimale, resembling a chalazion. Purulence exited from the punctum lacrimale due to inflammation of the inferior canaliculus (canaliculitis). When pressure was applied to the mass, a second exit of purulence was also observed under the palpebral conjunctiva below the lacrimal caruncle. A surgical excision was performed followed by administration of local antibiotic therapy. The histopathological examination of the extracted mass revealed the existence of actinomycosis. Conclusion. Persistent or recurrent infections and lumps of the eyelids should be thoroughly investigated. Actinomyces as a causative agent should be considered. Differential diagnosis is broad and should include canaliculitis, chalazion, and multiple types of neoplasias. For this reason, in nonconclusive cases, a histopathological examination should be performed. PMID:23762696

  10. Evidence for para Dechlorination of Polychlorobiphenyls by Methanogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ye, D.; Quensen, JF I.; Tiedje, J. M.; Boyd, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    When microorganisms eluted from upper Hudson River sediment were cultured without any substrate except polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-free Hudson River sediment, methane formation was the terminal step of the anaerobic food chain. In sediments containing Aroclor 1242, addition of eubacterium-inhibiting antibiotics, which should have directly inhibited fermentative bacteria and thereby should have indirectly inhibited methanogens, resulted in no dechlorination activity or methane production. However, when substrates for methanogenic bacteria were provided along with the antibiotics (to free the methanogens from dependence on eubacteria), concomitant methane production and dechlorination of PCBs were observed. The dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 was from the para positions, a pattern distinctly different from, and more limited than, the pattern observed with untreated or pasteurized inocula. Both methane production and dechlorination in cultures amended with antibiotics plus methanogenic substrates were inhibited by 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid. These results suggest that the methanogenic bacteria are among the physiological groups capable of anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs, but that the dechlorination observed with methanogenic bacteria is less extensive than the dechlorination observed with more complex anaerobic consortia. PMID:16535042

  11. A Para-Canalicular Abscess Resembling an Inflamed Chalazion

    PubMed Central

    Almaliotis, Diamantis; Nakos, Elias; Siempis, Thomas; Koletsa, Triantafyllia; Kostopoulos, Ioannis; Chatzipantazi, Maria; Karampatakis, Vasileios

    2013-01-01

    Background. Lacrimal infections by Actinomyces are rare and commonly misdiagnosed for long periods of time. They account for 2% of all lacrimal diseases. Case Report. We report a case of a 70-year-old female patient suffering from a para-canalicular abscess in the medial canthus of the left eye, beside the lower punctum lacrimale, resembling a chalazion. Purulence exited from the punctum lacrimale due to inflammation of the inferior canaliculus (canaliculitis). When pressure was applied to the mass, a second exit of purulence was also observed under the palpebral conjunctiva below the lacrimal caruncle. A surgical excision was performed followed by administration of local antibiotic therapy. The histopathological examination of the extracted mass revealed the existence of actinomycosis. Conclusion. Persistent or recurrent infections and lumps of the eyelids should be thoroughly investigated. Actinomyces as a causative agent should be considered. Differential diagnosis is broad and should include canaliculitis, chalazion, and multiple types of neoplasias. For this reason, in nonconclusive cases, a histopathological examination should be performed. PMID:23762696

  12. Evidence for para dechlorination of polychlorobiphenyls by methanogenic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, D.; Quensen, J.F.; Tiedje, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    When microorganisms eluted from upper Hudson River sediment were cultured without any substrate except polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-free Hudson River sediment, methane formation was the terminal step of the anaerobic food chain. In sediments containing Aroclor 1242, addition of eubacterium-inhibiting antibiotics, which should have directly inhibited fermentative bacteria and thereby should have indirectly inhibited methanogens, resulted in no dechlorination activity or methane production. However, when substrates for methanogenic bacteria were provided along with the antibiotics (to free the methanogens from dependence on eubacteria), concomitant methane production and dechlorination of PCBs were observed. The dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 was from the para positions, a pattern distinctly different from, and more limited than, the pattern observed with untreated or pasteurized inocula. Both methane production and dechlorination in cultures amended with antibiotics plus methanogenic substrates were inhibited by 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid. These results suggest that the methanogenic bacteria are among the physiological groups capable of anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs, but that the dechlorination observed with methanogenic bacteria is less extensive than the dechlorination observed with more complex anaerobic consortia. 27 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. DYNA3D/ParaDyn Regression Test Suite Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J I

    2011-01-25

    The following table constitutes an initial assessment of feature coverage across the regression test suite used for DYNA3D and ParaDyn. It documents the regression test suite at the time of production release 10.1 in September 2010. The columns of the table represent groupings of functionalities, e.g., material models. Each problem in the test suite is represented by a row in the table. All features exercised by the problem are denoted by a check mark in the corresponding column. The definition of ''feature'' has not been subdivided to its smallest unit of user input, e.g., algorithmic parameters specific to a particular type of contact surface. This represents a judgment to provide code developers and users a reasonable impression of feature coverage without expanding the width of the table by several multiples. All regression testing is run in parallel, typically with eight processors. Many are strictly regression tests acting as a check that the codes continue to produce adequately repeatable results as development unfolds, compilers change and platforms are replaced. A subset of the tests represents true verification problems that have been checked against analytical or other benchmark solutions. Users are welcomed to submit documented problems for inclusion in the test suite, especially if they are heavily exercising, and dependent upon, features that are currently underrepresented.

  14. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, F.H.; Moore, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    A method is disclosed for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases. These enzymes exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase. 43 figs.

  15. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Moore, Jeffrey C.

    1999-01-01

    A method for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase.

  16. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Moore, Jeffrey C.

    1998-01-01

    A method for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase.

  17. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, F.H.; Moore, J.C.

    1999-05-25

    A method is disclosed for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase. 43 figs.

  18. Quantum fluctuations increase the self-diffusive motion of para-hydrogen in narrow carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Gauden, Piotr A; Terzyk, Artur P; Furmaniak, Sylwester

    2011-05-28

    Quantum fluctuations significantly increase the self-diffusive motion of para-hydrogen adsorbed in narrow carbon nanotubes at 30 K comparing to its classical counterpart. Rigorous Feynman's path integral calculations reveal that self-diffusive motion of para-hydrogen in a narrow (6,6) carbon nanotube at 30 K and pore densities below ∼29 mmol cm(-3) is one order of magnitude faster than the classical counterpart. We find that the zero-point energy and tunneling significantly smoothed out the free energy landscape of para-hydrogen molecules adsorbed in a narrow (6,6) carbon nanotube. This promotes a delocalization of the confined para-hydrogen at 30 K (i.e., population of unclassical paths due to quantum effects). Contrary the self-diffusive motion of classical para-hydrogen molecules in a narrow (6,6) carbon nanotube at 30 K is very slow. This is because classical para-hydrogen molecules undergo highly correlated movement when their collision diameter approached the carbon nanotube size (i.e., anomalous diffusion in quasi-one dimensional pores). On the basis of current results we predict that narrow single-walled carbon nanotubes are promising nanoporous molecular sieves being able to separate para-hydrogen molecules from mixtures of classical particles at cryogenic temperatures. PMID:21503294

  19. In vitro dehalogenation of para-substituted aromatic halides in rat liver preparations.

    PubMed

    Scott, M T; Sinsheimer, J E

    1984-08-01

    The in vitro dehalogenation of a series of para-substituted halobenzenes was studied using HPLC separation followed by scintillation counting or neutron-activation analysis. Microsomal and cytosolic deiodination were established for iodobenzene substrates whose para-substituents were CO2H, CHO, NO2, OH, and C6H5 but not for para-iodobenzonitrile. A nonglutathione cytosolic deiodinase was only indicated with 4-iodobiphenyl as the substrate. In vitro dehalogenation could not be established for 4-bromobiphenyl using neutron-activation analysis. PMID:6387082

  20. Endovascular Treatment of a Ruptured Para-Anastomotic Aneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Sfyroeras, Giorgos S.; Lioupis, Christos Bessias, Nikolaos; Maras, Dimitris; Pomoni, Maria; Andrikopoulos, Vassilios

    2008-07-15

    We report a case of a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm treated with implantation of a bifurcated stent-graft. A 72-year-old patient, who had undergone aortobifemoral bypass for aortoiliac occlusive disease 16 years ago, presented with a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm. A bifurcated stent-graft was successfully deployed into the old bifurcated graft. This is the first report of a bifurcated stent-graft being placed through an 'end-to-side' anastomosed old aortobifemoral graft. Endovascular treatment of ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysms can be accomplished successfully, avoiding open surgery which is associated with increased mortality and morbidity.

  1. All the three ParaHox genes are present in Nuttallochiton mirandus (Mollusca: polyplacophora): evolutionary considerations.

    PubMed

    Barucca, Marco; Biscotti, Maria A; Olmo, Ettore; Canapa, Adriana

    2006-03-15

    The ParaHox gene cluster contains three homeobox genes, Gsx, Xlox and Cdx and has been demonstrated to be an evolutionary sister of the Hox gene cluster. Among deuterostomes the three genes are found in the majority of taxa, whereas among protostomes they have so far been isolated only in the phylum Sipuncula. We report the partial sequences of all three ParaHox genes in the polyplacophoran Nuttallochiton mirandus, the first species of the phylum Mollusca where all ParaHox genes have been isolated. This finding has phylogenetic implications for the phylum Mollusca and for its relationships with the other lophotrochozoan taxa. PMID:16331637

  2. Measurement of the formaldehyde ortho to para ratio in three molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahane, C.; Lucas, R.; Frerking, M. A.; Langer, W. D.; Encrenaz, P.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of ortho and para H2CO in two types of clouds, a warm cloud (Orion A) and two cold clouds (L183 and TMC1), are presented. The ortho to para ratio in Orion deduced from the H2(C-13)O data is about three, while that for TMC1 is about one and that for L183 is 1-2. The former value is in agreement with the value calculated from chemical models of ortho and para H2CO production. The values for the cold clouds are consistent with thermal equilibrium at a temperature slightly smaller than 10 K.

  3. Contextual Factors that Foster or Inhibit Para-Teacher Professional Development: The Case of an Indian, Non-Governmental Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raval, Harini; McKenney, Susan; Pieters, Jules

    2012-01-01

    The appointment of para-professionals to overcome skill shortages and/or make efficient use of expensive resources is well established in both developing and developed countries. The present research concerns para-teachers in India. The literature on para-teachers is dominated by training for special needs settings, largely in developed societies.…

  4. Pd-on-Si catalysts prepared via galvanic displacement for the selective hydrogenation of para-chloronitrobenzene.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qian; Shi, Yu-Sheng; Sun, Ke-Qiang; Xu, Bo-Qing

    2016-02-01

    The direct redox reaction (galvanic displacement) between Pd(2+) and substrate Si was used to deposit Pd on Si, and the Pd-Si catalysts enabled a chemoselective hydrogenation of para-chloronitrobenzene with the selectivity for para-chloroaniline higher than 99.9% at complete conversion of para-chloronitrobenzene. PMID:26788556

  5. Carcinoma de tumor primario desconocido—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del carcinoma de tumor primario desconocido, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  6. Measurements of an ortho-para effect in muon-catalyzed fusion in solid deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, A.; Ishida, K.; Shimomura, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Higemoto, W.; Nakamura, S. N.; Matsuzaki, T.; Nagamine, K.

    2001-06-01

    In order to investigate the dependence of the rate of muon-catalyzed fusion (μCF) on the ortho-para state (in this case, the nuclear spin state) of deuterium molecules, the fusion protons produced in the μCF in solid deuterium with a controlled ortho-para ratio were observed. The measurements were carried out at a temperature of 3.5 K and ratios of ortho deuterium of 66.7% and 99.9%. The ortho-para effect observed in this work was small (the relative difference of fusion proton yield in the converted (ortho 99.9%) case to that in the normal case is /-0.100(117)), suggesting evidence against a proposed solid-state effect that is strongly dependent on the ortho-para ratio (also, the rotational state) of deuterium molecules.

  7. Tumores carcinoides gastrointestinales—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor carcinoide gastrointestinal, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  8. Genomic organisation of the seven ParaHox genes of coelacanths

    PubMed Central

    Mulley, John F; Holland, Peter WH

    2014-01-01

    Human and mouse genomes contain six ParaHox genes implicated in gut and neural patterning. In coelacanths and cartilaginous fish, an additional ParaHox gene existsPdx2that dates back to the genome duplications in early vertebrate evolution. Here we examine the genomic arrangement and flanking genes of all ParaHox genes in coelacanths, to determine the full complement of these genes. We find that coelacanths have seven ParaHox genes in total, in four chromosomal locations, revealing that five gene losses occurred soon after vertebrate genome duplication. Comparison of intergenic sequences reveals that some Pdx1 regulatory regions associated with development of pancreatic islets are older than tetrapods, that Pdx1 and Pdx2 share few if any conserved non-coding elements, and that there is very high sequence conservation between coelacanth species. PMID:23775937

  9. Diffusion Monte Carlo Study of Para-Diiodobenzene Polymorphism Revisited.

    PubMed

    Hongo, Kenta; Watson, Mark A; Iitaka, Toshiaki; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Maezono, Ryo

    2015-03-10

    We revisit our investigation of the diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) simulation of para-diiodobenzene (p-DIB) molecular crystal polymorphism. [See J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 1789-1794.] We perform, for the first time, a rigorous study of finite-size effects and choice of nodal surface on the prediction of polymorph stability in molecular crystals using fixed-node DMC. Our calculations are the largest that are currently feasible using the resources of the K-computer and provide insights into the formidable challenge of predicting such properties from first principles. In particular, we show that finite-size effects can influence the trial nodal surface of a small (1 × 1 × 1) simulation cell considerably. Therefore, we repeated our DMC simulations with a 1 × 3 × 3 simulation cell, which is the largest such calculation to date. We used a density functional theory (DFT) nodal surface generated with the PBE functional, and we accumulated statistical samples with ∼6.4 × 10(5) core hours for each polymorph. Our final results predict a polymorph stability that is consistent with experiment, but they also indicate that the results in our previous paper were somewhat fortuitous. We analyze the finite-size errors using model periodic Coulomb (MPC) interactions and kinetic energy corrections, according to the CCMH scheme of Chiesa, Ceperley, Martin, and Holzmann. We investigate the dependence of the finite-size errors on different aspect ratios of the simulation cell (k-mesh convergence) in order to understand how to choose an appropriate ratio for the DMC calculations. Even in the most expensive simulations currently possible, we show that the finite size errors in the DMC total energies are much larger than the energy difference between the two polymorphs, although error cancellation means that the polymorph prediction is accurate. Finally, we found that the T-move scheme is essential for these massive DMC simulations in order to circumvent population explosions and large time-step biases. PMID:26579744

  10. Two anaerobic polychlorinated biphenyl-dehalogenating enrichments that exhibit different para-dechlorination specificities.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Q; Wiegel, J

    1997-01-01

    Two anaerobic polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-dechlorinating enrichments with distinct substrate specificities were obtained: a 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorobiphenyl (2346-CB) para-dechlorinating enrichment derived from Aroclor 1260-contaminated Woods Pond (Lenox, Mass.) sediment and a 2,4,6-trichlorobiphenyl (246-CB) unflanked para-dechlorinating enrichment derived from PCB-free Sandy Creek Nature Center (Athens, Ga.) sediment. The enrichments have been successfully transferred to autoclaved soil slurries over 20 times by using 300 to 350 microM 2346-CB or 246-CB. Both enrichments required soil for successful transfer of dechlorination activity. The 2346-CB enrichment para dehalogenated, in the absence or presence of 2346-CB, only 4 of 25 tested para halogen-containing congeners: 234-CB, 2345-CB, 2346-CB, and 2,4,6-tribromobiphenyl (246-BrB). In the presence of 246-CB, the 246-CB enrichment para dehalogenated 23 of the 25 tested congeners. However, only three congeners (34-CB, 2346-CB, and 246-BrB) were dehalogenated in the absence of 246-CB, indicating that these specific congeners initiate dehalogenation in this enrichment culture. The addition of the 2346-CB (para)-dechlorinating enrichment did not further stimulate the 2346-CB-primed dechlorination of the Aroclor 1260 residue in Woods Pond sediment samples. Compared to the addition of the primer 246-CB or the 246-CB unflanked para-dechlorinating enrichment alone, the addition of both 246-CB (300 microM) and the 246-CB enrichment stimulated the unflanked para dechlorination of the Aroclor 1260 residue in Woods Pond sediments. These results indicate that the two enrichments contain different PCB-dechlorinating organisms, each with high substrate specificities. Furthermore, bioaugmentation with the enrichment alone did not stimulate the desired dechlorination in PCB-contaminated Woods Pond sediment. PMID:9406402

  11. Efficient ortho-para conversion of H2 on interstellar grain surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bron, Emeric; Le Petit, Franck; Le Bourlot, Jacques

    2016-04-01

    Context. Fast surface conversion between ortho- and para-H2 has been observed in laboratory studies, and it has been proposed that this mechanism plays a role in the control of the ortho-para ratio in the interstellar medium. Observations of rotational lines of H2 in photo-dissociation regions (PDRs) have indeed found significantly lower ortho-para ratios than expected at equilibrium. The mechanisms controlling the balance of the ortho-para ratio in the interstellar medium thus remain incompletely understood, while this ratio can affect the thermodynamical properties of the gas (equation of state, cooling function). Aims: We aim to build an accurate model of ortho-para conversion on dust surfaces based on the most recent experimental and theoretical results, and to validate it by comparison to observations of H2 rotational lines in PDRs. Methods: We propose a statistical model of ortho-para conversion on dust grains with fluctuating dust temperatures. It is based on a master equation approach. This computation is then coupled to full PDR models and compared to PDR observations. Results: We show that the observations of rotational H2 lines indicate a high conversion efficiency on dust grains and that this high efficiency can be accounted for if taking dust temperature fluctuations into account with our statistical model of surface conversion. Simpler models that neglect the dust temperature fluctuations do not reach the high efficiency deduced from the observations. Moreover, this high efficiency induced by dust temperature fluctuations is very insensitive to the values of the model's microphysical parameters. Conclusions: Ortho-para conversion on grains is thus an efficient mechanism in most astrophysical conditions and can play a significant role in controlling the ortho-para ratio.

  12. Plastic debris ingestion by sea turtle in Paraíba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Rita; Santos, Robson; Zeppelini, Douglas

    2004-08-01

    Coastal gill net entanglement and debris intake are important threats to the survival of sea turtles. Two sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea and Chelonia mydas) were found stranded along the coast of Paraíba. After necropsy, plastic debris were found in the stomach. The debris is described. This is the first record of this sort of problem for the Paraíba littoral. PMID:15341830

  13. Comparisons of the interactions of health care delivery and medico-legal practice between Australia and Singapore.

    PubMed

    Kandiah, D

    2006-09-01

    Australia and Singapore have similar standards of health care. The one major difference in the two health care systems is the cost to the patient at the point of care. The Medicare system in Australia provides partial to complete subsidy for health care delivery in the public hospitals. In Singapore, the patient has to bear the cost of their health care when needed, with some government subsidies. Studies in the variations between two health care systems, where the costs to the government and individuals are clearly dissimilar, but the health outcomes are similar, can be educational for health law specialists. The methods in which patients obtain recompense for their grievances can help both countries understand how to determine and improve standards of health care communication. Having worked in both systems, the relative values of each and their effects on medical litigation will be discussed. PMID:17078520

  14. A study of sudden natural deaths in medico legal autopsies in University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra; San, Kang Pei; Idwan, Anuar; Shah, Norazlan; Hajar, Siti; Norkahfi, Mohamad

    2007-04-01

    The main aim of this study is to determine the causes and the epidemiological aspects of sudden natural deaths. Data were collected from 545 sudden natural autopsies in UMMC, Kuala Lumpur over a five-year period, from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2004. There were 475 males and 70 females. The largest number of sudden natural deaths was in the age group of 41-50 years. 35.8%, 30.5% and 11.7% of the patients were Chinese, Indian and Malay, respectively. A majority of the patients were married (59.8%) and came from the semiskilled-unskilled group (30.6%). The monthly distribution was almost constant. Cardiovascular diseases were the most important cause contributing 64.9% in sudden natural deaths. PMID:16914354

  15. [Improvement of the system of medico-evacuational interventions in the troops with the help of mobile specialized elements].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ia; Vlasov, A Iu; Sushil'nikov, S I; Bulatov, M R

    2013-07-01

    Taking into account the historical experience the authors considered the main principles of improvement of the system of preventive and curative interventions in the troops with the help of mobile functional elements. The authors suggested to develop medical reinforcement groups which satisfy requirements of high mobility and self-contained operations. 3 types of functional elements must be developed: 17 specialized doctor-nurse teams of the central military--treatment facilities, 10 doctor-nurse teams of district military (navy) clinical hospitals, 11 doctor-nurse teams of branches of district military hospitals. Assignment of air transport with the following reconversion in evacuation transport with the medical air station and medical helicopter station is concerned. PMID:24341003

  16. Brachytherapy versus prostatectomy in localized prostate cancer: Results of a French multicenter prospective medico-economic study

    SciTech Connect

    Buron, Catherine; Le Vu, Beatrice; Cosset, Jean-Marc; Peiffert, Didier; Delannes, Martine; Flam, Thierry; Guerif, Stephane; Salem, Naji; Chauveinc, Laurent; Livartowski, Alain . E-mail: alain.livartowski@curie.net

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To prospectively compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL), patient-reported treatment-related symptoms, and costs of iodine-125 permanent implant interstitial brachytherapy (IB) with those of radical prostatectomy (RP) during the first 2 years after these treatments for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 435 men with localized low-risk prostate cancer, from 11 French hospitals, treated with IB (308) or RP (127), were offered to complete the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer core Quality of Life Questionnaire QLQ-C30 version 3 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the prostate cancer specific EORTC QLQ-PR25 module before and at the end of treatment, 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after treatment. Repeated measures analysis of variance and analysis of covariance were conducted on HRQOL changes. Comparative cost analysis covered initial treatment, hospital follow-up, outpatient and production loss costs. Results: Just after treatment, the decrease of global HRQOL was less pronounced in the IB than in the RP group, with a 13.5 points difference (p < 0.0001). A difference slightly in favor of RP was observed 6 months after treatment (-7.5 points, p = 0.0164) and was maintained at 24 months (-8.2 points, p = 0.0379). Impotence and urinary incontinence were more pronounced after RP, whereas urinary frequency, urgency, and urination pain were more frequent after IB. Mean societal costs did not differ between IB ( Euro 8,019 at T24) and RP ( Euro 8,715 at T24, p = 0.0843) regardless of the period. Conclusions: This study suggests a similar cost profile in France for IB and RP but with different HRQOL and side effect profiles. Those findings may be used to tailor localized prostate cancer treatments to suit individual patients' needs.

  17. Laboratory Automation and Intra-Laboratory Turnaround Time: Experience at the University Hospital Campus Bio-Medico of Rome.

    PubMed

    Angeletti, Silvia; De Cesaris, Marina; Hart, Jonathan George; Urbano, Michele; Vitali, Massimiliano Andrea; Fragliasso, Fulvio; Dicuonzo, Giordano

    2015-12-01

    Intra-laboratory turnaround time (TAT) is a key indicator of laboratory performance. Improving TAT is a complex task requiring staff education, equipment acquisition, and adequate TAT monitoring. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intra-laboratory TAT after laboratory automation implementation (June 2013-June 2014) and to compare it to that in the preautomation period (July 2012-May 2013). Intra-laboratory TAT was evaluated both as the mean TAT registered and the percentage of outlier (OP) exams. The mean TAT was 36, 38, and 34 min during the study periods, respectively. These values respected the goal TAT established at 45 min. The OP, calculated at 45 min as well as at 60 min, decreased from 26 to 21 and from 11 to 5, respectively. From a focused analysis on blood count cell, troponin I, and prothrombin (PT) test, TAT improvement was more evident for tests requiring longer preanalytical process. The follow-up of TAT from June 2013 to June 2014 revealed the reduction of the mean TAT as well as of the OP exams after automation implementation and that automation more strongly affects the test in the preanalytical phase including centrifugation of the sample, such as troponin I and PT. PMID:25609253

  18. Test de Evaluacion de Conocimientos Medicos-CIIPME (Test of Evaluation of Medical Knowledge-CIIPME). Publication No. 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfici, C.; And Others

    The purpose of this research is to build a test for the evaluation of the knowledge needed by medical students before entering clinical courses in medical school. The criterion for this was provided by teachers in both the pre-clinical and clinical subjects. The Pilot instrument consisted of 335 items that covered 8 sections. Each one of these…

  19. The Deployment of the Medico-Psychological Gaze and Disability Expertise in Relation to Children with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mckenzie, Judith Anne; Macleod, Catriona Ida

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we adopt the concepts of Michel Foucault on the medical gaze and Nikolas Rose on psychological expertise to differentiate between two forms of expertise evident in the education of intellectually disabled children. We draw on a discourse analytic study carried out in South Africa on intellectual disability in relation to educational…

  20. Challenges experienced by service providers in the delivery of medico-legal services to survivors of sexual violence in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ajema, C; Mukoma, W; Kilonzo, N; Bwire, B; Otwombe, K

    2011-05-01

    While much discussion has been devoted to defining the standards of care required when offering services to survivors of sexual violence, much less attention has been given to procedures for evidence collection to allow the successful prosecution of perpetrators. In Kenya there are no comprehensive guidelines that outline the roles of the survivor, the community, health care workers, and the police with regard to the handling of forensic evidence, a deficit that contributes to delays in prosecuting, or even a failure to prosecute sex offenders. This study examines some of the obstacles in Kenya to the adequate handling of forensic evidence in sexual violence cases. It was based on in-depth interviews with respondents drawn from health facilities, police stations, civil society organizations and with the Government Chemist in three Kenyan provinces. The study's objective was to examine the existing policy requirements regarding the maintenance of an evidence chain by the health and criminal justice systems, and how effectively they are being implemented. The findings indicate that the quality of the evidence obtained by the health care workers was often deficient, depending on the time elapsed before the rape survivor reports to the health facility; the equipment available at the health facility; the age of the survivor; and the level of knowledge of the service provider regarding the types of evidence to be collected from survivors of sexual violence. PMID:21550565

  1. Medico-legal evaluation of firearm injuries--an original study from India with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Alok; Sachan, Rahul; Verma, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Firearm (FA) injuries pose great health burden and presents enormous challenge for health and national economies. This study was undertaken to analyze the characteristics of fatal gunshot injuries, their pattern, associated factors, and postmortem findings in central India, to provide data for such fatalities in this region, which has not been reported earlier. This is a descriptive, retrospective cross-sectional study carried out on the victims of FA injuries referred to the mortuary. Of the autopsies conducted during study, 2.09% were firearm-related deaths. Of the cases, males (92.42%) notably outnumbered females in a ratio of 12.2:1. Homicidal attacks were maximum, and unlicensed, illegal country-made weapons were the preferred choice. Suicides were least. Result signifies that illegal country-made weapons should be strictly limited to save the precious lives. A holistic approach encompassing public awareness, behavioral modification, and stringent management of law and order is the need of the hour. PMID:25381843

  2. [Medico-legal investigation of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): differential diagnosis between natural and unnatural death].

    PubMed

    Ventura, F; Portunato, F; Celesti, R

    2010-04-01

    The sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden dead of every infant or small child (usually within the first year of life). It is an unexpected event, according to the anamnesis of the subject, and the necroscopic examination of the event does not allow to demonstrate with success the proper cause of death. The careful forensic medical appraisal of the death scene and the clinician and anamnestic data, together with the anatomoistopatologic findings, are essential elements to make a correct diagnosis and discriminate between natural and violent causes of death, even if with remarkable interpretative difficulties. Only in rare cases (with variable statistical data), in spite of the scrupulous application of the surveying protocol, it is not possible to define the exact cause of the death. In these cases, generally characterized by an unspecific anossic anatomopathologic picture, the accepted diagnosis of death is exactly that of SIDS, reasoning by elimination. The study of the phenomenon must be based on a multidisciplinary approach, in which the legal surgeon's cooperation with other specialists, such as the anatomopathologist and the pediatrician, plays an important role. PMID:20440240

  3. para-C-H Borylation of Benzene Derivatives by a Bulky Iridium Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yutaro; Segawa, Yasutomo; Itami, Kenichiro

    2015-04-22

    A highly para-selective aromatic C-H borylation has been accomplished. By a new iridium catalyst bearing a bulky diphosphine ligand, Xyl-MeO-BIPHEP, the C-H borylation of monosubstituted benzenes can be affected with para-selectivity up to 91%. This catalytic system is quite different from the usual iridium catalysts that cannot distinguish meta- and para-C-H bonds of monosubstituted benzene derivatives, resulting in the preferred formation of meta-products. The para-selectivity increases with increasing bulkiness of the substituent on the arene, indicating that the regioselectivity of the present reaction is primarily controlled by steric repulsion between substrate and catalyst. Caramiphen, an anticholinergic drug used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, was converted into five derivatives via our para-selective borylation. The present [Ir(cod)OH]2/Xyl-MeO-BIPHEP catalyst represents a unique, sterically controlled, para-selective, aromatic C-H borylation system that should find use in streamlined, predictable chemical synthesis and in the rapid discovery and optimization of pharmaceuticals and materials. PMID:25860511

  4. Spontaneous Emission Between - and Para-Levels of Water-Ion H_2O^+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Harada, Kensuke; Nanbu, Shinkoh; Oka, Takeshi

    2012-06-01

    Nuclear spin conversion interaction of water ion, H_2O^+, has been studied to derive spontaneous emission lifetime between ortho- and para-levels. H_2O^+ is a radical ion with the ^2B_1 electronic ground state. Its off-diagonal electron spin-nuclear spin interaction term, Tab(S_aΔ I_b + S_bΔ I_a), connects para and ortho levels, because Δ I = I_1 - I_2 has nonvanishing matrix elements between I = 0 and 1. The mixing by this term with Tab = 72 MHz predicted by ab initio theory in the MRD-CI/Bk level, is many orders of magnitude larger than for closed shell molecules because of the large magnetic interaction due to the un-paired electron. Using the molecular constants reported by Mürtz et al. by FIR-LMR, we searched for ortho and para coupling channels below 1000 cm-1 with accidental near degeneracy between para and ortho levels. For example, hyperfine components of the 42,2(ortho) and 33,0(para) levels mix by 1.2 × 10-3 due to their near degeneracy (Δ E = 0.417 cm-1), and give the ortho-para spontaneous emission lifetime of about 0.63 year. The most significant low lying 10,1(para) and 11,1(ortho) levels, on the contrary, mix only by 8.7 × 10-5 because of their large separation (Δ E = 16.267 cm-1) and give the spontaneous emission lifetime from 10,1(para) to 00,0(ortho) of about 100 year.These results qualitatively help to understand the observed high ortho- to para- H_2O^+ ratio of 4.8 ± 0.5 toward Sgr B2 but they are too slow to compete with the conversion by collision unless the number density of the region is very low (n ˜1 cm-3) or radiative temperature is very high (T_r > 100 K). M. Staikova, B. Engels, M. Peric, and S.D. Peyerimhoff, Mol. Phys. 80, 1485 (1993) P. Mürtz, L.R. Zink, K.M. Evenson, and J.M. Brown J. Chem. Phys. 109, 9744 (1998). LP. Schilke, et al., A&A 521, L11 (2010).

  5. ParaDIS: A relational database for the consistent documentation and analysis of metamorphic mineral assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmatz, D. R.; Engi, M.; Lieberman, J. E.

    1995-11-01

    A set of integrated computer programs has been developed to optimize documentation, storage, and analysis of petrological data. Primary petrographic and mineral chemistry data, as well as petrological results (such as stability diagrams) derived from these data, are documented by a relational database named ParaDIS (Paragenetic Data Inventory System). ParaDIS is implemented using INGRES ™, a commercial relational database-management system running under UNIX on Sun computers. Two user-friendly applications, forms-based and menu-operated, allow for entry, retrieval, and various manipulations of any amount of petrological data. In the current version, ParaDIS is interfaced with external thermobarometric programs (e.g. TWEEQU, PTAX) based on consistent thermodynamic models, allowing for coherent interpretation of metamorphic assemblages. The results (e.g. P-T- or T-X-graphs) can be directed back into ParaDIS for further analysis and to document the interpretations. P-T-data derived for particular field areas also can be fed into graphics programs or Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for further manipulation, such as P-T-contouring, and display. Data architecture and storage structure of ParaDIS are presented in detail.

  6. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Ritchey-Chretien UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Galan, M. J.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2 fue inaugurado hace siete aos y concebido para trabajar en las razones focales: f/7.5, F/13.5, F/27 y F/98. El diseo Ritchey-Chretin corresponde a la razn focal F/7.5 y el foco primario (F/2.286) no se consider como utilizable para fotografa directa. En el Instituto de Astronoma de la UNAM, se dise y construy un sistema corrector de campo para la razn focal F/7.5, que actualmente est en funcionamiento. Dentro de un programa de colaboracin en diseflo y evaluacin de sistemas pticos, entre el Instituto de Astrofsica de Canarias y el Instituto de Astronoma de la UNAM, decidimos intentar el diseo de una correctora de campo para el foco primario del t?lescopio UNAM212 bajo la consideracin de que no son insalvables los problemas que implicara su instalacin y de que es muy posible que, en un futuro relativamente cercano, podamom tener un detector bidimenmional tipo Mepsicrn cuya rea sensible haga tentadora la idea de construir la cmara directa para foco primario

  7. ParaPep: a web resource for experimentally validated antiparasitic peptide sequences and their structures

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Divya; Anand, Priya; Kumar, Vineet; Joshi, Anshika; Mathur, Deepika; Singh, Sandeep; Tuknait, Abhishek; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Gautam, Shailendra K.; Gautam, Ankur; Varshney, Grish C.; Raghava, Gajendra P.S.

    2014-01-01

    ParaPep is a repository of antiparasitic peptides, which provides comprehensive information related to experimentally validated antiparasitic peptide sequences and their structures. The data were collected and compiled from published research papers, patents and from various databases. The current release of ParaPep holds 863 entries among which 519 are unique peptides. In addition to peptides having natural amino acids, ParaPep also consists of peptides having d-amino acids and chemically modified residues. In ParaPep, most of the peptides have been evaluated for growth inhibition of various species of Plasmodium, Leishmania and Trypanosoma. We have provided comprehensive information about these peptides that include peptide sequence, chemical modifications, stereochemistry, antiparasitic activity, origin, nature of peptide, assay types, type of parasite, mode of action and hemolytic activity. Structures of peptides consisting of natural, as well as modified amino acids have been determined using state-of-the-art software, PEPstr. To facilitate users, various user-friendly web tools, for data fetching, analysis and browsing, have been integrated. We hope that ParaPep will be advantageous in designing therapeutic peptides against parasitic diseases. Database URL: http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/parapep/ PMID:24923818

  8. The formaldehyde ortho/para ratio as a probe of dark cloud chemistry and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickens, J. E.; Irvine, W. M.

    1999-01-01

    We present measurements of the H2CO ortho/para ratio toward four star-forming cores, L723, L1228, L1527, and L43, and one quiescent core, L1498. Combining these data with earlier results by Minh et al., three quiescent cores are found to have ortho/para ratios near 3, the ratio of statistical weights expected for gas-phase formation processes. In contrast, ortho/para ratios are 1.5-2.1 in five star-forming cores, suggesting thermalization at a kinetic temperature of 10 K. We attribute modification of the ortho/para ratio in the latter cores to formation and/or equilibration of H2CO on grains with sub-sequent release back into the gas phase due to the increased energy inputs from the forming star and outflow. We see accompanying enhancements in the H2CO abundance relative to H, to support this idea. The results suggest that the formaldehyde ortho/para ratio can differentiate between quiescent cores and those in which low-mass star formation has occurred.

  9. Electrical detection of ortho-para conversion in fullerene-encapsulated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Benno; Mamone, Salvatore; Concistr, Maria; Alonso-Valdesueiro, Javier; Krachmalnicoff, Andrea; Whitby, Richard J.; Levitt, Malcolm H.

    2015-08-01

    Water exists in two spin isomers, ortho and para, that have different nuclear spin states. In bulk water, rapid proton exchange and hindered molecular rotation obscure the direct observation of two spin isomers. The supramolecular endofullerene H2O@C60 provides freely rotating, isolated water molecules even at cryogenic temperatures. Here we show that the bulk dielectric constant of this substance depends on the ortho/para ratio, and changes slowly in time after a sudden temperature jump, due to nuclear spin conversion. The attribution of the effect to ortho-para conversion is validated by comparison with nuclear magnetic resonance and quantum theory. The change in dielectric constant is consistent with an electric dipole moment of 0.51+/-0.05 Debye for an encapsulated water molecule, indicating the partial shielding of the water dipole by the encapsulating cage. The dependence of bulk dielectric constant on nuclear spin isomer composition appears to be a previously unreported physical phenomenon.

  10. Study of Muon-Catalyzed Fusion in Ortho Para Controlled Solid Deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, A.; Ishida, K.; Shimomura, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Higemoto, W.; Nakamura, S. N.; Matsuzaki, T.; Nagamine, K.

    2001-12-01

    We observed the dependence of the rate of the muon-catalyzed fusion (μCF) on the ortho para state (the nuclear spin state) of deuterium in order to investigate the source of the surprising contradiction of the resonant formation rate of a ddμ molecule in solid between experiments and theories. The ortho para dependence of the molecular formation rate and the dμ hyperfine transition rate was clearly observed for the first time. The rate of the hyperfine transition by scattering was determined and was smaller than that of the theoretical prediction. The back decay rate was experimentally determined for the first time. Also, new insight for phenomena of the dd μCF in solid was presented by interpreting the observed ortho para dependence.

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine in a tattoo: a case report.

    PubMed

    Turan, Hakan; Okur, Mesut; Kaya, Ertugrul; Gun, Emrah; Aliagaoglu, Cihangir

    2013-06-01

    It is highly popular among children and young adults to have temporary henna tattoos on their bodies in different colors and figures. Henna is a greenish natural powder obtained from the flowers and dry leaves of Lawsonia alba plant and its allergenicity is very low. Henna is also used in combination with other coloring substances such as para-phenylenediamine in order to darken the color and create a permanent tattoo effect. Para-phenylenediamine is a substance with high allergenicity potential and may cause serious allergic reactions. Here, we aimed to draw attention to the potential harms of para-phenylenediamine containing temporary tattoos by presenting a child patient who developed allergic contact dermatitis after having a scorpion-shaped temporary tattoo on his forearm. PMID:22909181

  12. Superfluid Effects in PARA-H_2 Clusters Probed by CO_2 Rotation-Vibration Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Le Roy, Robert J.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas; McKellar, A. R. W.

    2010-06-01

    The prospect of directly observing superfluidity in para-H_2 is a tantalizing but elusive goal. Like ^4He, para-H_2 is a light zero-spin boson. However, H_2-H_2 intermolecular interactions, though weak, are stronger than He-He interactions, and hydrogen is a solid below about 14 K. This makes detection of superfluidity in bulk hydrogen problematical, to say the least. But there are still possibilities for para-H_2 in the form of clusters or in nano-confined environments, and superfluid transition temperatures as high as 6 K have been predicted. Spectroscopic observations of (para-H_2)_N-CO_2 clusters were at first very difficult to interpret for N > 5. However, with the help of path integral Monte Carlo simulations and an accurate new H_2-CO_2 intermolecular potential surface which explicitly incorporates dependence on the CO_2 ?b{3} asymmetric stretch, it is now possible to achieve a remarkably consistent picture of (para-H_2)_N-CO_2 clusters in the size range N = 1 20. By combining the experimental spectroscopic measurements and theoretical simulations, we determine the size evolution of the superfluid response of the CO_2-doped para-H_2 clusters, which peaks for the "magic" number N = 12. V. L. Ginzburg and A. A. Sobyanin, JETP Lett. 15, 343 (1972). A. R. W. McKellar, Paper WH04, 63rd OSU International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, June 16-20, 2008. H. Li, P.-N. Roy, and R. J. Le Roy, J. Chem. Phys., submitted.

  13. Quantum rotation of ortho and para-water encapsulated in a fullerene cage

    PubMed Central

    Beduz, Carlo; Carravetta, Marina; Chen, Judy Y.-C.; Concistrè, Maria; Denning, Mark; Frunzi, Michael; Horsewill, Anthony J.; Johannessen, Ole G.; Lawler, Ronald; Lei, Xuegong; Levitt, Malcolm H.; Li, Yongjun; Mamone, Salvatore; Murata, Yasujiro; Nagel, Urmas; Nishida, Tomoko; Ollivier, Jacques; Rols, Stéphane; Rõõm, Toomas; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Turro, Nicholas J.; Yang, Yifeng

    2012-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering, far-infrared spectroscopy, and cryogenic nuclear magnetic resonance are used to investigate the quantized rotation and ortho–para conversion of single water molecules trapped inside closed fullerene cages. The existence of metastable ortho-water molecules is demonstrated, and the interconversion of ortho-and para-water spin isomers is tracked in real time. Our investigation reveals that the ground state of encapsulated ortho water has a lifted degeneracy, associated with symmetry-breaking of the water environment. PMID:22837402

  14. New Insights in Muon-Catalyzed dd Fusion by using Ortho-Para Controlled Solid Deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Akihisa; Ishida, Katsuhiko; Shimomura, Koichiro; Nakamura, Satoshi N.; Matsuda, Yasuyuki; Higemoto, Wataru; Matsuzaki, Teiichiro; Nagamine, Kanetada

    2003-06-01

    For the first time, we observed the dependence of the ddμ formation rate and the dμ hyperfine-transition rate on the ortho-para state in muon-catalyzed fusion in the solid D2 state, and found that the effect is even opposite to a recent theoretical prediction. We also determined the back-decay rate and the hyperfine-transition rate via scattering in solid state by using the ortho-para dependence. A theory to describe properly our experimental result is called for to understand the nature of muon-catalyzed fusion in the solid state.

  15. Evaluation of an immobilized cell bioreactor for degradation of meta- and para-nitrobenzoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peretti, Steven W.; Thomas, Stuart M.

    1994-01-01

    Meta- and para-nitrobenzoic acid are pollutants found in waste streams from metal-stripping processes using cyanide-free solvents. The Kelly AFB industrial Waste Treatment Plant (IWTP) is currently incapable of removing these compounds from its wastewaters because of the presence of significant quantities of ethylenediamine, a preferred substrate and upper limit of 4-5 hours on the hydraulic residence time in the IWTP. This report describes the enrichment and preliminary characterization of a microbial consortium capable of utilizing both Meta- and Para-Nitrobenzoate as sole carbon sources.

  16. Experiments at Scale with In-Situ Visualization Using ParaView/Catalyst in RAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Kares, Robert John

    2014-10-31

    In this paper I describe some numerical experiments performed using the ParaView/Catalyst in-situ visualization infrastructure deployed in the Los Alamos RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code to produce images from a running large scale 3D ICF simulation on the Cielo supercomputer at Los Alamos. The detailed procedures for the creation of the visualizations using ParaView/Catalyst are discussed and several images sequences from the ICF simulation problem produced with the in-situ method are presented. My impressions and conclusions concerning the use of the in-situ visualization method in RAGE are discussed.

  17. Le lipome para testiculaire: à propos d'un cas rare

    PubMed Central

    Lasri, Abdelouahed; Lamchahab, Hamza; Lahyani, Mounir; Karmouni, Tarik; Elkhader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdellatif; Andaloussi, Ahmed Ibn Attya

    2015-01-01

    Les tumeurs para testiculaires sont des tumeurs rares et complexes qui ont une symptomatologie insidieuse et pauvre. Les formes bénignes représentent 70%. Le lipome para testiculaire étant le type le plus fréquent. L'examen clinique est peu spécifique. L'examen échographique est la pierre angulaire pour assoir le diagnostic. Le traitement chirurgical s'impose en cas de tumeur symptomatique, l'histologie étant habituellement typique permet la confirmation diagnostique. Le pronostic est bon malgré d’éventuelles récidives. PMID:26175802

  18. Organocatalyzed Asymmetric 1,6-Conjugate Addition of para-Quinone Methides with Dicyanoolefins.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuanyi; Xu, Xiuyan; Wei, Weiwei; Lin, Aijun; Yao, Hequan

    2016-02-01

    A chiral thiourea catalyzed asymmetric 1,6-conjugate addition of para-quinone methides with dicyanoolefins has been developed. The reaction provided an efficient approach to the synthesis of chiral diarylmethine skeletons in good yields (up to 99% yield) with high diastereo- and enantioselectivity (>20:1 dr and up to 99.5:0.5 er), also on a gram scale. The preliminary mechanistic study showed that the remote stereocontrol was achieved through intermolecular hydrogen-bond interaction between the chiral thiourea catalyst and the para-quinone methides directly for the first time. PMID:26760214

  19. Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, T.; Olson, K.

    1999-07-28

    Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.

  20. Preguntas para hacerle al doctor acerca del cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Serie de preguntas, organizadas por tema, que los pacientes con cáncer pueden hacer al médico o a otros miembros de su equipo de atención médica para conocer más acerca de su tipo de cáncer y lo que pueden esperar.

  1. Estudios ALCHEMIST para el cáncer de pulmón en estadio inicial

    Cancer.gov

    ALCHEMIST comprende tres estudios clínicos integrados de medicina de precisión diseñados para identificar a personas con cáncer de pulmón en estadio inicial cuyos tumores tienen ciertos cambios genéticos poco comunes.

  2. Resultados de estudio para cáncer de pulmón indica

    Cancer.gov

    El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) da a conocer hoy resultados iniciales de un estudio de gran envergadura sobre métodos de detección para reducir el número de muertes por cáncer de pulmón al detectar cánceres en estadios relativamente iniciales.

  3. Ortho-para conversion of endohedral water in the fullerene C60 at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugai, Anna; Nagel, U.; Rõõm, T.; Mamone, S.; Concistrè, M.; Meier, B.; Krachmalnicoff, A.; Whitby, R. J.; Levitt, M. H.; Lei, Xuegong; Li, Yongjun; Turro, N. J.

    2015-03-01

    Water displays the phenomenon of spin isomerism in which the two proton spins either couple to form a triplet (ortho water, I = 1) or a singlet nuclear spin state (para water, I = 0). Here we study the interconversion of para and ortho water. The exact mechanism of this process is still not fully understood. In order to minimize interactions between molecules we use a sample where a single H2O is trapped in the C60 molecular cage (H2O@C60)andH2O@C60iscrystallized.H2O@C60 has long-lived ortho state and ortho-para conversion kinetics is non-exponential at LHeT. We studied mixtures of H2O@C60, D2O@C60 and C60 using IR absorption, NMR and dielectric measurements. We saw the speeding up of the interconversion with the growth of H2O@C60 concentration in C60 or when D2O@C60 was added. At some temperatures the kinetics is exponential. Models are discussed in order to explain the T and concentration dependence of ortho-para interconversion kinetics. This work was supported by institutional research funding IUT23-3 of the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research.

  4. Cáncer colorrectal—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de colon y recto, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas.

  5. Cáncer de intestino delgado—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de intestino delgado, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  6. Cáncer de riñón—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de riñón, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  7. Cáncer de piel—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de piel, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas.

  8. Fatiga (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la fatiga, una afección caracterizada por extremo cansancio e incapacidad para funcionar por la falta de energía, que a menudo se observa como una complicación del cáncer y su tratamiento.

  9. Cannabis y canabinoides (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre el uso del Cannabis y canabinoides para el tratamiento de los efectos secundarios relacionados con el tratamiento del cáncer como la náusea y el vómito.

  10. Cannabis y canabinoides (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre el uso del Cannabis y canabinoides para el tratamiento de los efectos secundarios relacionados con el tratamiento del cáncer, como la náusea y el vómito.

  11. Delirio (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del delirio como una complicación a causa del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten los enfoques de los cuidados médicos de apoyo, asi como farmacológicos para el manejo del delirio.

  12. Interrupting Commemoration: Thinking with Art, Thinking through the Strictures of Argentina's "Espacio para la memoria"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paolantonio, Mario Di

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a few buildings within the "Espacio para la memoria" in Buenos Aires have been designated as a UNESCO Centre where, amongst other educational activities, evidentiary materials of the past repression are to be stored and displayed. Another building in the complex houses a Community Centre operated by the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo,…

  13. Conformerism, enantiomorphism and double catemer motifs in para-substituted nostoclide analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Róbson Ricardo; Barbosa, Luiz Claudio Almeida; Valero Antolinez, Isabel; de Souza Corrêa, Rodrigo; Martins, Felipe Terra; Doriguetto, Antônio Carlos

    2016-02-01

    We have here elucidated the crystal structures of five nostoclide analogues. A common feature in all compounds is a substituent at the para-position of the benzylidene group. Compounds with either bromine (3) or hydroxyl (4) as para-substituent crystallizes with Z' = 2 as result of conformerism. It was also observed that Z' > 1 in the compound with a para-dimethylamino substituent (1). However, its four crystallographically independent molecules are conformationally similar. They are not related by crystallographic symmetry due to the offset packing of their C-H … Odbnd C nonclassical hydrogen bonded double chains. This compound (1) has also crystallized in a chiral space group (P21) despite the lack of a stereocenter. Such enantiomorphism phenomenon is related to the presence of only one of the two mirror benzyl conformations with phenyl ring at the equatorial position opposite the lactone oxygen atom. The molecular mean plane of nostoclide analogues has been featured by high level of planarity, except in the brominated compound where two twisted conformations occurred due to rotations on the single bond axis into benzylidene group. The benzyl conformation has been the greatest difference between the two crystallographically independent molecules of the para-hydroxylated compound (4). The crystal packing of the compounds is marked by double catemer motif assembled through C-H … Odbnd C non-classical hydrogen bonds, although C-H … π interactions do play an important role in stabilizing the crystal packing of some compounds of the series.

  14. Cáncer de paratiroides—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de paratiroides, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  15. Cáncer de vagina—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de vagina, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  16. Cáncer de pene—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de pene, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  17. Cáncer de páncreas—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de páncreas, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  18. Factor Structure of the "Escala de Autoeficacia para la Depresion en Adolescentes" (EADA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Santos, Mirella; Cumba-Aviles, Eduardo; Bernal, Guillermo; Rivera-Medina, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The current concept and measures of self-efficacy for depression in adolescents do not consider developmental and cultural aspects essential to understand and assess this construct in Latino youth. We examined the factor structure of the "Escala de Autoeficacia para la Depresion en Adolescentes" (EADA), a Spanish instrument designed to assess this…

  19. Fabrication of multipotent poly-para-xylylene particles in controlled nanoscopic dimensions.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ruei-Hung; Li, Yi-Jye; Sun, Ho-Yi; Wu, Chih-Yu; Guan, Zhen-Yu; Ho, Hsin-Ying; Fang, Cheng-Yuan; Chen, Hsien-Yeh

    2016-03-01

    In this study, poly-para-xylylene-based multifunctional nanoparticles (PPX-NPs) were fabricated. Based on the solubility characteristics determined for asymmetrically substituted poly-para-xylylenes in polar solvents, well-dispersed nanocolloids with a controllable size ranging from 50 to 800nm were produced in solution by the displacement of the solvent (water). These size ranges were found to have acceptable cellular compatibility through examinations of cultured 3T3 fibroblasts and adipose-derived stem cells treated with the PPX-NPs. In addition, these nanoscale PPX-NPs exhibited versatile bioconjugation properties in that a variety of available functional groups can be adopted from their counterpart, thin-film poly-para-xylylenes, during the production of these nanoparticles. For instance, bifunctional PPX-NPs with maleimide and benzoyl moieties were produced to enable immobilization via a maleimide-thiol reaction concurrent with a photochemical reaction. A cleavable PPX-NP was also produced with a thiol-exchangeable surface property. Additionally, by performing electrohydrodynamic jetting of parallel polymer solutions of selected poly-para-xylylenes, Janus-type or multicompartment PPX-NPs were created. The PPX-NPs can potentially be used for various biomedical applications such as combined diagnostics and drug delivery, multiplexing of detection, multiple-drug loading, and the targeted delivery of biomolecules or drugs. PMID:26724467

  20. Tumores de hipófisis—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor de hipófisis, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados.

  1. Tumores extracraneales de células germinativas—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor extracraneal de células germinativas en los niños, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  2. Antimicrobial effect of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid esters containing substituted N-phenylpiperazine moiety

    PubMed Central

    Malík, Ivan; Bukovský, Marián; Andriamainty, Fils; Gališinová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In current research, nine basic esters of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid with incorporated 4-(4-fluoro-/3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazin-1-yl fragment, 6i–6m and 8f–8i, were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Taking into account the minimum inhibitory concentration assay (MIC), as the most active against given yeast was evaluated 8i (MIC = 0.20 mg/mL), the most lipophilic structure containing para-butoxy and trifluoromethyl substituents. Investigating the efficiency of the compounds bearing only a single atom of fluorine and appropriate para-alkoxy side chain against Candida albicans, the cut-off effect was observed. From evaluated homological series, the maximum of the effectiveness was noticed for the stucture 6 k (MIC = 0.39 mg/mL), containing para-propoxy group attached to phenylcarbamoyloxy fragment, beyond which the compounds ceased to be active. On the contrary, all the tested molecules were against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (MICs > 1.00 mg/mL) practically inactive. PMID:24294237

  3. Experimental and theoretical investigation of para-aminophenol ionization in corona discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, H.; Salehabadi, H.

    2015-03-01

    Ionization of para-aminophenol was investigated using an ion mobility spectrometer equipped with a corona discharge as ionization source. The experimental results were confirmed with the use of theoretical method, based on density functional theory. Two peaks were observed in the ion mobility spectrum in the positive ion mode which was corresponded to the protonated isomers of para-aminophenol. It was observed that the relative intensities of the peaks depend on the sample concentration and the nature of the reactant ions. The relative energies of ions derived from protonation of para-aminophenol and its topical proton affinities were determined for different sites in the gas phase. The peak with the lower drift time was assigned to the oxygen protonated isomer and the other peak was ascribed to the nitrogen protonated isomer of para-aminophenol. The calculated dipole moment and localized charge of each isomer were used to verify the ion mobility peak separation. It was shown that combination of theoretical and experimental tools leads to reliable prediction of reactive protonation sites of chemicals in a corona discharge.

  4. Can para-aryl-dithiols cross-link two plasmonic noble nanoparticles as monolayer dithiolate spacers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Para-aryl-dithiols (PADTs, HS-(C6H4)n-SH, n = 1, 2, and 3) have been used extensively in molecular electronics, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and quantum electron tunneling between two gold or silver nanoparticles (AuNPs and AgNPs). One popular belief is that these dithiols cross-link ...

  5. Sarcoma de tejido blando—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del sarcoma de tejido blando, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  6. Irradiation of para-aortic lymph node metastases from carcinoma of the cervix or endometrium

    SciTech Connect

    Komaki, R.; Mattingly, R.F.; Hoffman, R.G.; Barber, S.W.; Satre, R.; Greenberg, M.

    1983-04-01

    Twenty-two patients with biopsy-proved para-aortic lymph node metastases from carcinoma of the cervix (15 patients) or endometrium (7 patients) received a median dose of 5,000 rad/25 fractions. Para-aortic nodal metastases were controlled in 77% of cases. Control was significantly lower following radical retroperitoneal lymph node dissection than less extensive sampling procedures. Obstruction of the small bowel developed in 3 patients with tumor recurrence in the para-aortic region. Eight of the 10 patients who were disease-free at 2 years received >5,000 rad. Three patients were still alive without disease at 129, 63, and 60 months, respectively. The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 40% for cervical cancer and 60% for endometrial cancer: in the former group, it was significantly different depending on whether the para-aortic nodes were irradiated (40%) or not (0%). The authors suggest that 5,000-5,500 rad in 5-5.5 weeks is well tolerated and can control aortic nodal metastases in cervical and possibly endometrial cancer.

  7. The Acquisition of Lexical Meaning in a Study Abroad Context: The Spanish Prepositions "por" and "para."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Ryan, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of the development of form/function relations of the prepositions "por" and "para" at different levels of proficiency in the interlanguage of study-abroad students in Granada, Spain, revealed "noncanonical" as well as "canonical" uses of these prepositions. The most common noncanonical uses were as substitutions for other prepositions…

  8. Fatiga (PDQ)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la fatiga, una afección caracterizada por extremo cansancio e incapacidad para funcionar por la falta de energía, que a menudo se observa como una complicación del cáncer y su tratamiento.

  9. Autoguía para el telescopio 2,15 mts de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aballay, J. A.; Casagrande, A. R.; Pereyra, P. F.; Marún, A. H.

    Se está desarrollando un sistema de autoguía para el telescopio de 2,15 mts. El mismo se realizará aprovechando el Offset Guider. Al ocular móvil de éste se vinculará alguna cámara digital (ST4-ST7-CH250) para lograr la visión del objeto. El funcionamiento del equipo será el siguiente: primero, dadas las coordenadas del objeto a observar, se tomarán las coordenadas del telescopio para que, a través de una base de datos, se determine un campo de objetos que sirvan para la cámara de visión, luego, la PC obtendrá el offset entre la estrella de observación y la estrella seleccionada como guía, este valor será trasladado a los motores que posicionarán en forma automática el ocular. Una vez que la estrella es visualizada en la cámara (monitor de PC ) se correrá el programa que guiará el telescopio automáticamente.

  10. Cáncer de vulva—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de vulva, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  11. Cáncer de uretra—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de uretra, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  12. Cáncer de útero—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer uterino, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas.

  13. Cáncer de vejiga—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de vejiga, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas.

  14. Cáncer de hueso—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de hueso (óseo), así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  15. Cáncer de ano—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de ano, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  16. Cáncer de tiroides—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de tiroides, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  17. Cáncer de testículo—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de testículo, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas.

  18. Cáncer de la corteza suprarrenal—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del carcinoma de corteza suprarrenal, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  19. Frontispiece: Shaped Ceria Nanocrystals Catalyze Efficient and Selective Para-Hydrogen-Enhanced Polarization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Evan W; Zheng, Haibin; Zhou, Ronghui; Hagelin-Weaver, Helena E; Bowers, Clifford R

    2015-11-23

    NMR Spectroscopy. C. R. Bowers, H. E. Hagelin-Weaver et al. describe in their Communication on page 14270 ff. how intense NMR signals are induced by incorporating para-H2 into propene and propane over octahedron-, cube-, or rod-shaped ceria nanocrystals. PMID:26768110

  20. Terapia hormonal para la menopausia y el cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa acerca de los resultados de los estudios sobre el uso de la terapia hormonal para la menopausia. Incluye información sobre el efecto de esta terapia en el cuerpo y explica los riesgos y beneficios del uso de hormonas.

  1. Intact cluster and chordate-like expression of ParaHox genes in a sea star

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ParaHox genes are thought to be major players in patterning the gut of several bilaterian taxa. Though this is a fundamental role that these transcription factors play, their activities are not limited to the endoderm and extend to both ectodermal and mesodermal tissues. Three genes compose the ParaHox group: Gsx, Xlox and Cdx. In some taxa (mostly chordates but to some degree also in protostomes) the three genes are arranged into a genomic cluster, in a similar fashion to what has been shown for the better-known Hox genes. Sea urchins possess the full complement of ParaHox genes but they are all dispersed throughout the genome, an arrangement that, perhaps, represented the primitive condition for all echinoderms. In order to understand the evolutionary history of this group of genes we cloned and characterized all ParaHox genes, studied their expression patterns and identified their genomic loci in a member of an earlier branching group of echinoderms, the asteroid Patiria miniata. Results We identified the three ParaHox orthologs in the genome of P. miniata. While one of them, PmGsx is provided as maternal message, with no zygotic activation afterwards, the other two, PmLox and PmCdx are expressed during embryogenesis, within restricted domains of both endoderm and ectoderm. Screening of a Patiria bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library led to the identification of a clone containing the three genes. The transcriptional directions of PmGsx and PmLox are opposed to that of the PmCdx gene within the cluster. Conclusions The identification of P. miniata ParaHox genes has revealed the fact that these genes are clustered in the genome, in contrast to what has been reported for echinoids. Since the presence of an intact cluster, or at least a partial cluster, has been reported in chordates and polychaetes respectively, it becomes clear that within echinoderms, sea urchins have modified the original bilaterian arrangement. Moreover, the sea star ParaHox domains of expression show chordate-like features not found in the sea urchin, confirming that the dynamics of gene expression for the respective genes and their putative regulatory interactions have clearly changed over evolutionary time within the echinoid lineage. PMID:23803323

  2. Vínculos observacionais para o processo-S em estrelas gigantes de Bário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiljanic, R. H. S.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; da Silva, L.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas de bário são gigantes vermelhas de tipo GK que apresentam excessos atmosféricos dos elementos do processo-s. Tais excessos são esperados em estrelas na fase de pulsos térmicos do AGB (TP-AGB). As estrelas de bário são, no entanto, menos massivas e menos luminosas que as estrelas do AGB, assim, não poderiam ter se auto-enriquecido. Seu enriquecimento teria origem em uma estrela companheira, inicialmente mais massiva, que evolui pelo TP-AGB, se auto-enriquece com os elementos do processo-s e transfere material contaminado para a atmosfera da atual estrela de bário. A companheira evolui então para anã branca deixando de ser observada diretamente. As estrelas de bário são, portanto, úteis como testes observacionais para teorias de nucleossíntese pelo processo-s, convecção e perda de massa. Análises detalhadas de abundância com dados de alta qualidade para estes objetos são ainda escassas na literatura. Neste trabalho construímos modelos de atmosferas e, procedendo a uma análise diferencial, determinamos parâmetros atmosféricos e evolutivos de uma amostra de dez gigantes de bário e quatro normais. Determinamos seus padrões de abundância para Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu e Gd, concluindo que algumas estrelas classificadas na literatura como gigantes de bário são na verdade gigantes normais. Comparamos dois padrões médios de abundância, para estrelas com grandes excessos e estrelas com excessos moderados, com modelos teóricos de enriquecimento pelo processo-s. Os dois grupos de estrelas são ajustados pelos mesmos parâmetros de exposição de nêutrons. Tal resultado sugere que a ocorrência do fenômeno de bário com diferentes intensidades não se deve a diferentes exposições de nêutrons. Discutimos ainda efeitos nucleossintéticos, ligados ao processo-s, sugeridos na literatura para os elementos Cu, Mn, V e Sc.

  3. Ancient origins of axial patterning genes: Hox genes and ParaHox genes in the Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, J R; Martindale, M Q

    1999-01-01

    Among the bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic animals (the Bilateria), a conserved set of developmental regulatory genes are known to function in patterning the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. This set includes the well-studied Hox cluster genes, and the recently described genes of the ParaHox cluster, which is believed to be the evolutionary sister of the Hox cluster (Brooke et al. 1998). The conserved role of these axial patterning genes in animals as diverse as frogs and flies is believed to reflect an underlying homology (i.e., all bilaterians derive from a common ancestor which possessed an AP axis and the developmental mechanisms responsible for patterning the axis). However, the origin and early evolution of Hox genes and ParaHox genes remain obscure. Repeated attempts have been made to reconstruct the early evolution of Hox genes by analyzing data from the triphoblastic animals, the Bilateria (Schubert et al. 1993; Zhang and Nei 1996). A more precise dating of Hox origins has been elusive due to a lack of sufficient information from outgroup taxa such as the phylum Cnidaria (corals, hydras, jellyfishes, and sea anemones). In combination with outgroup taxa, another potential source of information about Hox origins is outgroup genes (e.g., the genes of the ParaHox cluster). In this article, we present cDNA sequences of two Hox-like genes (anthox2 and anthox6) from the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that anthox2 (= Cnox2) is homologous to the GSX class of ParaHox genes, and anthox6 is homologous to the anterior class of Hox genes. Therefore, the origin of Hox genes and ParaHox genes occurred prior to the evolutionary split between the Cnidaria and the Bilateria and predated the evolution of the anterior-posterior axis of bilaterian animals. Our analysis also suggests that the central Hox class was invented in the bilaterian lineage, subsequent to their split from the Cnidaria. PMID:11324016

  4. Hox and ParaHox gene expression in early body plan patterning of polyplacophoran mollusks.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Martin; Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Molecular developmental studies of various bilaterians have shown that the identity of the anteroposterior body axis is controlled by Hox and ParaHox genes. Detailed Hox and ParaHox gene expression data are available for conchiferan mollusks, such as gastropods (snails and slugs) and cephalopods (squids and octopuses), whereas information on the putative conchiferan sister group, Aculifera, is still scarce (but see Fritsch et al., 2015 on Hox gene expression in the polyplacophoran Acanthochitona crinita). In contrast to gastropods and cephalopods, the Hox genes in polyplacophorans are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence similar to the condition in annelids and other bilaterians. Here, we present the expression patterns of the Hox genes Lox5, Lox4, and Lox2, together with the ParaHox gene caudal (Cdx) in the polyplacophoran A. crinita. To localize Hox and ParaHox gene transcription products, we also investigated the expression patterns of the genes FMRF and Elav, and the development of the nervous system. Similar to the other Hox genes, all three Acr-Lox genes are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence. Transcripts of Acr-Cdx are seemingly present in the forming hindgut at the posterior end. The expression patterns of both the central class Acr-Lox genes and the Acr-Cdx gene are strikingly similar to those in annelids and nemerteans. In Polyplacophora, the expression patterns of the Hox and ParaHox genes seem to be evolutionarily highly conserved, while in conchiferan mollusks these genes are co-opted into novel functions that might have led to evolutionary novelties, at least in gastropods and cephalopods. PMID:27098677

  5. Rotational excitation of HCN by para- and ortho-H{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, Mario Hernández; Kalugina, Yulia; Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Stoecklin, Thierry; Lique, François

    2014-06-14

    Rotational excitation of the hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecule by collisions with para-H{sub 2}( j = 0, 2) and ortho-H{sub 2}( j = 1) is investigated at low temperatures using a quantum time independent approach. Both molecules are treated as rigid rotors. The scattering calculations are based on a highly correlated ab initio 4-dimensional (4D) potential energy surface recently published. Rotationally inelastic cross sections among the 13 first rotational levels of HCN were obtained using a pure quantum close coupling approach for total energies up to 1200 cm{sup −1}. The corresponding thermal rate coefficients were computed for temperatures ranging from 5 to 100 K. The HCN rate coefficients are strongly dependent on the rotational level of the H{sub 2} molecule. In particular, the rate coefficients for collisions with para-H{sub 2}( j = 0) are significantly lower than those for collisions with ortho-H{sub 2}( j = 1) and para-H{sub 2}( j = 2). Propensity rules in favor of even Δj transitions were found for HCN in collisions with para-H{sub 2}( j = 0) whereas propensity rules in favor of odd Δj transitions were found for HCN in collisions with H{sub 2}( j ⩾ 1). The new rate coefficients were compared with previously published HCN-para-H{sub 2}( j = 0) rate coefficients. Significant differences were found due the inclusion of the H{sub 2} rotational structure in the scattering calculations. These new rate coefficients will be crucial to improve the estimation of the HCN abundance in the interstellar medium.

  6. ParaHox genes in pancreatic cell cultures: effects on the insulin promoter regulation

    PubMed Central

    Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi; Marfany, Gemma

    2008-01-01

    The gene encoding PDX1 (pancreatic duodenum homeobox 1), the main transcription factor regulating the glucose-dependent transactivation of the insulin promoter in pancreatic β-cells, clusters with two closely related homeobox genes (Gsh1 and Cdx2/3), all of them belonging to the ParaHox gene family. The ParaHox gene evolutionary history in the vertebrate lineage involved duplications of the cluster and subsequent loss of some members, so that eventually, the human and murine genomes contain only 6 ParaHox genes. The crucial role of PDX1 in pancreas development, beta-cell formation and insulin transcription regulation has long been established. There is some data on CDX2/3 function in α-cells, but remarkably, nothing is known on the role of the other ParaHox genes, which are also expressed in the endocrine pancreas. Homeobox transcription factors that belong to the same family show high conservation of the homeodomain and share similar target sites and oligomeric partners, and thus may act redundantly, synergistically or antagonistically on the same promoters. Therefore, we explored the effects of the Parahox proteins (GSH1, GSH2, CDX1, CDX2/3 and CDX4) on the regulation of the insulin promoter in transfected α- and β- cultured cell lines at different glucose concentrations and compared them to those of PDX1. Noticeably, several ParaHox transcription factors are able to transactivate or inhibit the insulin promoter, depending on the cell type and glucose concentration, thus suggesting their possible participation in the regulation of similar target genes, such as insulin, either by silencing or activating them, in the absence of PDX1. PMID:18274620

  7. Strong electron donation induced differential nonradiative decay pathways for para and meta GFP chromophore analogues.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tanmay; Mandal, Mrinal; Gude, Venkatesh; Bag, Partha Pratim; Mandal, Prasun K

    2015-08-28

    Z-E Isomerisation because of rotation around the exocyclic double bond (known as the τ-twist) and not any other internal conversion has been reported to be the major nonradiative decay channel for non-hydroxylic unconstrained para and meta GFP chromophore analogues. The equation Φf + 2ΦZE = 1 has been shown to hold well for both para and meta GFP chromophore analogues. If the above equation holds true, then upon reducing the extent of Z-E isomerisation (ΦZE), the fluorescence quantum yield (Φf) should increase. To probe the above proposition two sets of non-hydroxylic unconstrained para and meta GFP chromophore analogues were synthesized. Quite interestingly by introducing the strongly electron donating -NEt2 group to the benzenic moiety these para and meta GFP chromophore analogues were shown to exhibit differential optical behaviour w.r.t. the extent of the solvatochromic shift, Φf, ΦZE, and τf. For the first time it has been shown that the well accepted equation Φf + 2ΦZE = 1 does not hold at all for these non-hydroxylic unconstrained meta analogues. Although ΦZE has been shown to be <10%, Φf is much lower than the expected near unity value for these meta analogues. After detailed investigation into the nonradiative excited state decay channel, contrary to literature reports, energy gap law governed internal conversion and not Z-E isomerisation was shown to be the major nonradiative decay channel for these meta analogues. Two models are put forward to understand the differential optical behaviour of these para and meta GFP chromophore analogues. Support from X-ray crystal structures, NMR experiments, and computational calculations has also been provided. PMID:26176350

  8. EVALUATION OF PARA-DICHLOROBENZENE EMISSIONS FROM SOLID MOTH REPELLANT AS A SOURCE OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mothcakes made of para-dichlorobenzene have been widely available for the general population to be used as a moth repellant to protect garments from insect damage. Usually, a mothcake is expected to last for weeks or even months during which the para-dichlorobenzene emits slowly ...

  9. EVALUATION OF PARA-DICHLOROBENZENE EMISSIONS FROM SOLID MOTH REPELLANT AS A SOURCE OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports results of dynamic and static chamber tests to evaluate para-dichlorobenzene emission rates from mothcakes. he data were analyzed by a model that assumes that the para-dichlorobenzene emission from mothcakes is a temperature-sensitive sublimation process. ull-sc...

  10. Anatomic Distribution of Fluorodeoxyglucose-Avid Para-aortic Lymph Nodes in Patients With Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Takiar, Vinita; Fontanilla, Hiral P.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Jhingran, Anuja; Kelly, Patrick; Iyer, Revathy B.; Levenback, Charles F.; Zhang, Yongbin; Dong, Lei; Klopp, Ann

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Conformal treatment of para-aortic lymph nodes (PAN) in cervical cancer allows dose escalation and reduces normal tissue toxicity. Currently, data documenting the precise location of involved PAN are lacking. We define the spatial distribution of this high-risk nodal volume by analyzing fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid lymph nodes (LNs) on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We identified 72 PANs on pretreatment PET/CT of 30 patients with newly diagnosed stage IB-IVA cervical cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation. LNs were classified as left-lateral para-aortic (LPA), aortocaval (AC), or right paracaval (RPC). Distances from the LN center to the closest vessel and adjacent vertebral body were calculated. Using deformable image registration, nodes were mapped to a template computed tomogram to provide a visual impression of nodal frequencies and anatomic distribution. Results: We identified 72 PET-positive para-aortic lymph nodes (37 LPA, 32 AC, 3 RPC). All RPC lymph nodes were in the inferior third of the para-aortic region. The mean distance from aorta for all lymph nodes was 8.3 mm (range, 3-17 mm), and from the inferior vena cava was 5.6 mm (range, 2-10 mm). Of the 72 lymph nodes, 60% were in the inferior third, 36% were in the middle third, and 4% were in the upper third of the para-aortic region. In all, 29 of 30 patients also had FDG-avid pelvic lymph nodes. Conclusions: A total of 96% of PET positive nodes were adjacent to the aorta; PET positive nodes to the right of the IVC were rare and were all located distally, within 3 cm of the aortic bifurcation. Our findings suggest that circumferential margins around the vessels do not accurately define the nodal region at risk. Instead, the anatomical extent of the nodal basin should be contoured on each axial image to provide optimal coverage of the para-aortic nodal compartment.

  11. Saturns Tropospheric Temperatures and Para-Hydrogen Distribution from Ten Years of Cassini Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Irwin, Patrick G.; Sinclair, James; Giles, Rohini; Barstow, Joanna; Achterberg, Richard K.; Orton, Glenn S.

    2014-11-01

    Cassini/CIRS observations of Saturns 10-1400 cm-1 spectrum have been inverted to construct a global record of tropospheric temperature and para-hydrogen variability over the ten-year span of the Cassini mission. The data record the slow reversal of seasonal asymmetries in tropospheric conditions from northern winter (2004, Ls=293), through northern spring equinox (2009, Ls=0) to the present day (2014, Ls=60). Mid-latitude tropospheric temperatures have cooled by approximately 4-6 K in the south and warmed by 2-4 K in the north, with the seasonal contrast decreasing with depth. CIRS detected the north polar minimum 100-mbar temperatures 6-8 years after winter solstice, whereas the south polar maximum occurred 1-2 years after summer solstice, consistent with the lag times predicted by radiative equilibrium models. Warm polar cyclones and the northern hexagon persist throughout the mission, suggesting that they are permanent features of Saturns tropospheric circulation. The 200-mbar thermal enhancement (knee) that was strongest in the summer but weak or absent in winter in 2004-2006 (Fletcher et al., 2007, Icarus 189, p.457-478) has now shifted northward and is present globally in 2014, suggestive of radiative heating in Saturns tropospheric haze layer. Saturns para-H2 fraction, which serves as a tracer of both tropospheric mixing and the efficiency of re-equilibration between the ortho- and para-hydrogen states, is slowly altering: super-equilibrium conditions (para-H2 fraction exceeding equilibrium expectations and suggestive of subsiding airmasses) that dominated the southern summer hemisphere are now weakening, whereas the sub-equilibrium conditions (suggestive of uplift) of the northern winter are being replaced by equilibrium or super-equilibrium conditions in spring. The thermal knee and the para-H2 distribution are tracking both the increased spring illumination and the increasing tropospheric haze opacity of the springtime hemisphere observed via colour changes in visible light, suggesting a close connection between the tropospheric temperatures, para-H2 and haze characteristics.

  12. Astronomia para/com crianças carentes em Limeira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Oliveira, V. C.

    2003-08-01

    Em 2001, o Instituto Superior de Ciências Aplicadas (ISCA Faculdades de Limeira) iniciou um projeto pelo qual o Observatório do Morro Azul empreendeu uma parceria com o Centro de Promoção Social Municipal (CEPROSOM), instituição mantida pela Prefeitura Municipal de Limeira para atender crianças e adolescentes carentes. O CEPROSOM contava com dois projetos: Projeto Centro de Convivência Infantil (CCI) e Programa Criança e Adolescente (PCA), que atendiam crianças e adolescentes em Centros Comunitários de diversas áreas da cidade. Esses projetos têm como prioridades estabelecer atividades prazerosas para as crianças no sentido de retirá-las das ruas. Assim sendo, as crianças passaram a ter mais um tipo de atividade - as visitas ao observatório. Este painel descreve as várias fases do projeto, que envolveu: reuniões de planejamento, curso de Astronomia para as orientadoras dos CCIs e PCAs, atividades relacionadas a visitas das crianças ao Observatório, proposta de construção de gnômons e relógios de Sol nos diversos Centros Comunitários de Limeira e divulgação do projeto na imprensa. O painel inclui discussões sobre a aprendizagem de crianças carentes, relatos que mostram a postura das orientadoras sobre a pertinência do ensino de Astronomia, relatos do monitor que fez o atendimento no Observatório e o que o número de crianças atendidas representou para as atividades da instituição desde o início de suas atividades e, em particular, em 2001. Os resultados são baseados na análise de relatos das orientadoras e do monitor do Observatório, registros de visitas e matérias da imprensa local. Conclui com uma avaliação do que tal projeto representou para as Instituições participantes. Para o Observatório, em particular, foi feita uma análise com relação às outras modalidades de atendimentos que envolvem alunos de escolas e público em geral. Também é abordada a questão do compromisso social do Observatório na educação do público em questão.

  13. Dynamic interplay of ParA with the polarity protein, Scy, coordinates the growth with chromosome segregation in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Ditkowski, Bartosz; Holmes, Neil; Rydzak, Joanna; Donczew, Magdalena; Bezulska, Martyna; Ginda, Katarzyna; Kedzierski, Pawel; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Kelemen, Gabriella H; Jakimowicz, Dagmara

    2013-03-01

    Prior to bacterial cell division, the ATP-dependent polymerization of the cytoskeletal protein, ParA, positions the newly replicated origin-proximal region of the chromosome by interacting with ParB complexes assembled on parS sites located close to the origin. During the formation of unigenomic spores from multi-genomic aerial hyphae compartments of Streptomyces coelicolor, ParA is developmentally triggered to form filaments along the hyphae; this promotes the accurate and synchronized segregation of tens of chromosomes into prespore compartments. Here, we show that in addition to being a segregation protein, ParA also interacts with the polarity protein, Scy, which is a component of the tip-organizing centre that controls tip growth. Scy recruits ParA to the hyphal tips and regulates ParA polymerization. These results are supported by the phenotype of a strain with a mutant form of ParA that uncouples ParA polymerization from Scy. We suggest that the ParA-Scy interaction coordinates the transition from hyphal elongation to sporulation. PMID:23536551

  14. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation

    PubMed Central

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces. To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins.

  15. A Density Functional Approach to Para-hydrogen at Zero Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancilotto, Francesco; Barranco, Manuel; Navarro, Jesús; Pi, Marti

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a density functional (DF) which reproduces by constructing either the metastable liquid or the solid equation of state of bulk para-hydrogen, as derived from quantum Monte Carlo zero temperature calculations. As an application, we have used it to study the structure and energetics of small para-hydrogen clusters made of up to N=40 molecules. We compare our results for liquid clusters with diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) calculations and find a fair agreement between them. In particular, the transition found within DMC between hollow-core structures for small N values and center-filled structures at higher N values is reproduced. The present DF approach yields results for (pH_2 )_N clusters indicating that for small N values a liquid-like character of the clusters prevails, while solid-like clusters are instead energetically favored for N ≥ 15.

  16. Control of Photoluminescence of Carbon Nanodots via Surface Functionalization using Para-substituted Anilines

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Woosung; Do, Sungan; Kim, Ji-Hee; Seok Jeong, Mun; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanodots (C-dots) are a kind of fluorescent carbon nanomaterials, composed of polyaromatic carbon domains surrounded by amorphous carbon frames, and have attracted a great deal of attention because of their interesting properties. There are still, however, challenges ahead such as blue-biased photoluminescence, spectral broadness, undefined energy gaps and etc. In this report, we chemically modify the surface of C-dots with a series of para-substituted anilines to control their photoluminescence. Our surface functionalization endows our C-dots with new energy levels, exhibiting long-wavelength (up to 650 nm) photoluminescence of very narrow spectral widths. The roles of para-substituted anilines and their substituents in developing such energy levels are thoroughly studied by using transient absorption spectroscopy. We finally demonstrate light-emitting devices exploiting our C-dots as a phosphor, converting UV light to a variety of colors with internal quantum yields of ca. 20%. PMID:26218869

  17. Chirality driven crystallization behavior of ortho, meta, and para-cyanophenyl glycerol ethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredikhin, Alexander A.; Litvinov, Igor A.; Krivolapov, Dmitry B.; Fattahov, Bulat R.; Gubaidullin, Aidar T.; Akhatova, Flyura S.; Bredikhina, Zemfira A.

    2010-09-01

    Enantiopure and racemic samples of ortho, meta, and para CN-substituted phenyl glycerol ethers 1- 3 were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and single-crystal X-ray analysis. The absolute configuration for ( S)- 1 was established through Flack parameter method. Whereas ortho-derivative 1 demonstrates spontaneous resolution upon crystallization, homochiral lattice for scalemic meta-derivative 2 is exceeded in stability by heterochiral lattice of racemic compound. This tendency becomes all the more evident for the para-derivative 3, in which case the difference in Gibbs free energy between rac and scal lattices amounts Δ G0 = -4.48 kJ mol -1. Most of these phenomena could be understood by reference to crystal packing details.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Neurally Expressing Genes in the Para Sodium Channel Gene Cluster of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hong, C. S.; Ganetzky, B.

    1996-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms regulating expression of para, which encodes the major class of sodium channels in the Drosophila nervous system, we have tried to locate upstream cis-acting regulatory elements by mapping the transcriptional start site and analyzing the region immediately upstream of para in region 14D of the polytene chromosomes. From these studies, we have discovered that the region contains a cluster of neurally expressing genes. Here we report the molecular characterization of the genomic organization of the 14D region and the genes within this region, which are: calnexin (Cnx), actin related protein 14D (Arp14D), calcineurin A 14D (CnnA14D), and chromosome associated protein (Cap). The tight clustering of these genes, their neuronal expression patterns, and their potential functions related to expression, modulation, or regulation of sodium channels raise the possibility that these genes represent a functionally related group sharing some coordinate regulatory mechanism. PMID:8849894

  19. Development of an integrated remote monitoring technique and its application to para-stressing bridge system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Ayaho; Motoshita, Minoru; Casas, Joan R.

    2013-12-01

    Bridge monitoring system via information technology is capable of providing more accurate knowledge of bridge performance characteristics than traditional strategies. This paper describes not only an integrated Internet monitoring system that consists of a stand-alone monitoring system (SMS) and a Web-based Internet monitoring system (IMS) for bridge maintenance but also its application to para-stressing bridge system as an intelligent structure. IMS, as a Web-based system, is capable of addressing the remote monitoring by introducing measuring information derived from SMS into the system through Internet or intranet connected by either PHS or LAN. Moreover, the key functions of IMS such as data management system, condition assessment, and decision making with the proposed system are also introduced in this paper. Another goal of this study is to establish the framework of a para-stressing bridge system which is an intelligent bridge by integrating the bridge monitoring information into the system to control the bridge performance automatically.

  20. Sasaki-Einstein and paraSasaki-Einstein metrics from (κ,μ)-structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappelletti-Montano, Beniamino; Carriazo, Alfonso; Martín-Molina, Verónica

    2013-11-01

    We prove that every contact metric (κ,μ)-space admits a canonical η-Einstein Sasakian or η-Einstein paraSasakian metric. An explicit expression for the curvature tensor fields of those metrics is given and we find the values of κ and μ for which such metrics are Sasaki-Einstein and paraSasaki-Einstein. Conversely, we prove that, under some natural assumptions, a K-contact or K-paracontact manifold foliated by two mutually orthogonal, totally geodesic Legendre foliations admits a contact metric (κ,μ)-structure. Furthermore, we apply the above results to the geometry of tangent sphere bundles and we discuss some geometric properties of (κ,μ)-spaces related to the existence of Einstein-Weyl and Lorentzian-Sasaki-Einstein structures.

  1. Kyste géant para-urétral feminine

    PubMed Central

    Kassogué, Amadou; Coulibaly, Mamadou; Ouattara, Zanafon; Diarra, Alkadri; Tembely, Aly; Ouattara, Kalilou; Farih, My Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Le kyste géant para-urétral féminin infecté est rarement rapporté dans la littérature. Ce kyste est différent du diverticule sous urétral sur le plan clinique, diagnostique et thérapeutique. Sa pathogénie se confond avec celle des diverticules sous urétraux. Son traitement n'est pas bien codifié, vu sa rareté. Nous rapportons un cas atypique de kyste géant para urétral infecté chez une jeune femme de 26 ans. Le kyste était symptomatique et la patiente a eu un traitement chirurgical. Nous discutons les aspects cliniques, diagnostiques et thérapeutiques de cette entité rare à travers une revue de la littérature.

  2. Regioselective Enzymatic β-Carboxylation of para-Hydroxy- styrene Derivatives Catalyzed by Phenolic Acid Decarboxylases

    PubMed Central

    Wuensch, Christiane; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Steinkellner, Georg; Gross, Johannes; Fuchs, Michael; Hromic, Altijana; Lyskowski, Andrzej; Fauland, Kerstin; Gruber, Karl; Glueck, Silvia M; Faber, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    We report on a ‘green’ method for the utilization of carbon dioxide as C1 unit for the regioselective synthesis of (E)-cinnamic acids via regioselective enzymatic carboxylation of para-hydroxystyrenes. Phenolic acid decarboxylases from bacterial sources catalyzed the β-carboxylation of para-hydroxystyrene derivatives with excellent regio- and (E/Z)-stereoselectivity by exclusively acting at the β-carbon atom of the C=C side chain to furnish the corresponding (E)-cinnamic acid derivatives in up to 40% conversion at the expense of bicarbonate as carbon dioxide source. Studies on the substrate scope of this strategy are presented and a catalytic mechanism is proposed based on molecular modelling studies supported by mutagenesis of amino acid residues in the active site. PMID:26190963

  3. Copolymers containing meta-pyridylvinylene and para-arylenevinylene fragments: synthesis, quaternization reaction, and photophysical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barashkov, Nikolay N.; Olivos, Hernando J.; Ferraris, John P.

    1997-12-01

    We report the Wittig reaction of the diphosphonium salt of 2,6-bis(chloromethyl)pyridine with terephthaldehyde, 2.5- dioctyloxyterephthaldehyde, or 9,10-anthracenedicarbaldehyde to form conjugated copolymers with fragments of 2,6 - pyridylene and para-arylenevinylene. The protonation reaction of poly(para-arylenevinylene)-co-(meta- pyridylvinylene) with hydrochloric acid and the quaternization reaction of poly(2,5-dioctyloxy-1,4- phenylenevinylene)-co-(2,6-pyridylvinylene) with methyl triflate have been investigated by spectrophotometric and fluorescent methods. The absorption, excitation and fluorescence spectra of these copolymers as well as their corresponding model compounds were studied and compared. The photophysical properties of the investigated polymers suggest that these materials could be good candidates for the fabrication of efficient blue and green light-emitting diodes.

  4. Una propuesta para el desarrollo de un arreglo de síntesis de apertura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.

    Los estudios llevados a cabo en la transición del hidrógeno neutro a λ~21-cm han contribuído a incrementar nuestro conocimiento acerca de las propiedades globales del medio interestelar, sea este galáctico o extragaláctico. Avances en este campo han sido provocados, a menudo, por la puesta en servicio de radiotelescopios que poseen una mayor resolución angular. Aquí se presenta una propuesta para desarrollar un nuevo instrumento, un interferómetro, que permitirá abrir nuevas líneas de investigación. Este instrumento combinará la técnica de síntesis de apertura con la de espectroscopía de correlación digital, para alcanzar una resolución angular de 1' y un campo de visión de ~1o.7.

  5. H2CS abundances and ortho-to-para ratios in interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Irvine, W. M.; Brewer, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Several H2CS ortho and para transitions have been observed toward interstellar molecular clouds, including cold, dark clouds and star-forming regions. H2CS fractional abundances f(H2CS) about 1-2 10 to the -9th relative to molecular hydrogen toward TMC-1, Orion A, and NGC 7538, and about 5 10 to the -10th for L134N are derived. The H2CS ortho-to-para ratios in TMC-1 are about 1.8 toward the cyanopolyyne peak and the ammonia peak, which may indicate the thermalization of H2CS on 10 K grains. A ratio of about 3, the statistical value, for Orion (3N, 1E) and NGC 7538 is derived, while a value of about 2 for Orion (KL) is found.

  6. Molecular characterization of neurally expressing genes in the para sodium channel gene cluster of Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Chang-Sook; Ganetzky, B.

    1996-03-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms regulating expression of para, which encodes the major class of sodium channels in the Drosophila nervous system, we have tried to locate upstream cis-acting regulatory elements by mapping the transcriptional start site and analyzing the region immediately upstream of para in region 14D of the polytene chromosomes. From these studies, we have discovered that the region contains a cluster of neurally expressing genes. Here we report the molecular characterization of the genomic organization of the 14D region and the genes within this region, which are: calnexin (Cnx), actin related protein 14D (Arp14D), calcineurin A 14D (CnnA14D), and chromosome associated protein (Cap). The tight clustering of these genes, their neuronal expression patterns, and their potential functions related to expression, modulation, or regulation of sodium channels raise the possibility that these genes represent a functionally related group sharing some coordinate regulatory mechanism. 76 refs., 11 figs.

  7. ROTATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY OF THE CO-PARA-H{sub 2} MOLECULAR COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Potapov, A. V.; Surin, L. A.; Giesen, T. F.; Schlemmer, S.; Panfilov, V. A.; Dumesh, B. S.; Raston, P. L.; Jaeger, W.

    2009-10-01

    The rotational spectrum of the CO-para-H{sub 2} van der Waals complex, produced using a molecular jet expansion, was observed with two different techniques: OROTRON intracavity millimeter-wave spectroscopy and pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Thirteen transitions in the frequency range from 80 to 130 GHz and two transitions in the 14 GHz region were measured and assigned, allowing for a precise determination of the corresponding energy level positions of CO-para-H{sub 2}. The data obtained enable further radio astronomical searches for this molecular complex and provide a sensitive test of the currently best available intermolecular potential energy surface for the CO-H{sub 2} system.

  8. Identification of an intact ParaHox cluster with temporal colinearity but altered spatial colinearity in the hemichordate Ptychodera flava

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ParaHox and Hox genes are thought to have evolved from a common ancestral ProtoHox cluster or from tandem duplication prior to the divergence of cnidarians and bilaterians. Similar to Hox clusters, chordate ParaHox genes including Gsx, Xlox, and Cdx, are clustered and their expression exhibits temporal and spatial colinearity. In non-chordate animals, however, studies on the genomic organization of ParaHox genes are limited to only a few animal taxa. Hemichordates, such as the Enteropneust acorn worms, have been used to gain insights into the origins of chordate characters. In this study, we investigated the genomic organization and expression of ParaHox genes in the indirect developing hemichordate acorn worm Ptychodera flava. Results We found that P. flava contains an intact ParaHox cluster with a similar arrangement to that of chordates. The temporal expression order of the P. flava ParaHox genes is the same as that of the chordate ParaHox genes. During embryogenesis, the spatial expression pattern of PfCdx in the posterior endoderm represents a conserved feature similar to the expression of its orthologs in other animals. On the other hand, PfXlox and PfGsx show a novel expression pattern in the blastopore. Nevertheless, during metamorphosis, PfXlox and PfCdx are expressed in the endoderm in a spatially staggered pattern similar to the situation in chordates. Conclusions Our study shows that P. flava ParaHox genes, despite forming an intact cluster, exhibit temporal colinearity but lose spatial colinearity during embryogenesis. During metamorphosis, partial spatial colinearity is retained in the transforming larva. These results strongly suggest that intact ParaHox gene clustering was retained in the deuterostome ancestor and is correlated with temporal colinearity. PMID:23802544

  9. Stable self-trapping and ring formation in polydiacetylene para-toluene sulfonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Ewan M.; Lawrence, Brian L.; Torruellas, William; Stegeman, George

    1995-12-01

    Numerical simulations of two-dimensional beam propagation in polydiacetylene para-toluene sulfonate measured values for n2>0 and n3<0 , where Delta n=n2I+n 3I2 , predict stable self-trapping and a new phenomenon in which a spatial ring evolves from a Gaussian input beam. We interpret the numerical results theoretically, using the variational model of nonlinear Gaussian beam propagation.

  10. Iodine(III)-Mediated para-Selective Direct Imidation of Anilides.

    PubMed

    Pialat, Amélie; Bergès, Julien; Sabourin, Axel; Vinck, Robin; Liégault, Benoît; Taillefer, Marc

    2015-07-01

    The direct, nucleophilic imidation of acetanilide derivatives has been performed under mild, iodine(III)-mediated or -catalyzed conditions, employing lithium triflimide as the nitrogen source. The reaction exhibits exclusive regioselectivity for the para position and shows a good tolerance for varied functional groups at both the ortho or meta positions. Preliminary mechanistic data suggest that the LiNTf2 reagent plays a key role in the reactivity. PMID:26095155

  11. Towards physical interpretation of substituent effects: the case of meta- and para-substituted anilines.

    PubMed

    Szatylowicz, Halina; Siodla, Tomasz; Stasyuk, Olga A; Krygowski, Tadeusz M

    2016-04-28

    Quantum chemical modeling was used to investigate the electron-donating properties of the amino group in a series of meta- and para-X-substituted anilines (X = NMe2, NH2, OH, OMe, CH3, H, F, Cl, CF3, CN, CHO, COMe, CONH2, COOH, NO2, and NO). Different methods (HF, B3LYP, and M06-2X) and basis sets (6-31+G(d,p), 6-311++G(d,p), and aug-cc-pVDZ) were applied and compared with the MP2 approach. The B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method was chosen as the most appropriate one. The substituent properties were described by σ, cSAR(X) and SESE descriptors; the amino group was characterized by structural (dCN, dNH and ΣNH2) and electronic [δ(N) and cSAR(NH2)] parameters; whereas the transmitting moiety was characterized by aromaticity indices HOMA and NICS, as well as by QTAIM characteristics at the ring critical point. All the used parameters were found to be mutually interrelated with much better correlations for the para-derivatives than the meta-derivatives. It was numerically confirmed that sensitivity of the amino group to the substituent effect was greater by over three times when the substituent was located in the para-position. In the case of the meta-derivatives, variability of characteristics for both the reaction center and the substituent was small. The reverse substituent effect was clearly shown by comparison of the cSAR(X) characteristics for monosubstituted benzenes, and meta- and para-substituted anilines. PMID:26725941

  12. Cáncer de pulmón—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de pulmón, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas

  13. Cáncer de cuello uterino—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de cuello uterino, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados.

  14. Synthesis of icariin from kaempferol through regioselective methylation and para-Claisen-Cope rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Mei, Qinggang; Wang, Chun; Zhao, Zhigang; Yuan, Weicheng; Zhang, Guolin

    2015-01-01

    The hemisynthesis of the naturally occurring bioactive flavonoid glycoside icariin (1) has been accomplished in eleven steps with 7% overall yield from kaempferol. The 4'-OH methylation of kaempferol, the 8-prenylation of 3-O-methoxymethyl-4'-O-methyl-5-O-prenyl-7-O-benzylkaempferol (8) via para-Claisen-Cope rearrangement catalyzed by Eu(fod)3 in the presence of NaHCO3, and the glycosylation of icaritin (3) are the key steps. PMID:26425179

  15. Consistent assignment of the vibrations of symmetric and asymmetric para-disubstituted benzene molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrejeva, Anna; Gardner, Adrian M.; Tuttle, William D.; Wright, Timothy G.

    2016-03-01

    We give a description of the phenyl-ring-localized vibrational modes of the ground states of the para-disubstituted benzene molecules including both symmetric and asymmetric cases. In line with others, we quickly conclude that the use of Wilson mode labels is misleading and ambiguous; we conclude the same regarding the related ones of Varsányi. Instead we label the modes consistently based upon the Mulliken (Herzberg) method for the modes of para-difluorobenzene (pDFB). Since we wish the labelling scheme to cover both symmetrically- and asymmetrically-substituted molecules, we apply the Mulliken labelling under C2v symmetry. By studying the variation of the vibrational wavenumbers with mass of the substituent, we are able to identify the corresponding modes across a wide range of molecules and hence provide consistent assignments. Particularly interesting are pairs of vibrations that evolve from in- and out-of-phase motions in pDFB to more localized modes in asymmetric molecules. We consider the para isomers of the following: the symmetric dihalobenzenes, xylene, hydroquinone, the asymmetric dihalobenzenes, halotoluenes, halophenols and cresol.

  16. El diseño final del espectrógrafo de banco (EBASIM) para CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, J.; Levato, H.

    Utilizando el código de óptica ACCOS V se ha finalizado el diseño del espectrógrafo de banco para CASLEO. En una comunicación anterior habíamos indicado que utilizaríamos un colimador de 150 mm de diámetro con un radio de curvatura de 1540 mm. Para el espejo cámara, que tiene un diámetro de 200 mm, el radio de curvatura es de 1200 mm, ambos radios con una tolerancia no mayor a los 3 mm. En la presente, se informa sobre los detalles finales del cálculo del espectrógrafo que incluye el cómputo para 5 longitudes de onda diferentes y alrededor de 100 rayos. En todos los casos el 75 % de energía está dentro de un diámetro de 13 micrones. El diseño ha sido probado entre 3500 Å hasta 9000 Å con resultados satisfactorios.

  17. Base de linhas moleculares para síntese espectral estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, A.; Sanzovo, G.

    2003-08-01

    A análise das abundâncias quí micas fotosféricas em estrelas do tipo solar ou tardia, através do cálculo teórico de seus espectros, emprega a espectroscopia de alta resolução e necessita de uma base representativa de linhas atômicas e moleculares com suas respectivas constantes bem determinadas. Nesse trabalho, utilizamos como ponto de partida as extensas listas de linhas espectrais de sistemas eletrônicos de algumas moléculas diatômicas compiladas por Kurucz para a construção de uma base de linhas moleculares para a sí ntese espectral estelar. Revisamos as determinações dos fatores rotacionais de Honl-London das forças de oscilador das linhas moleculares, para cada banda vibracional de alguns sistemas eletrônicos, seguindo a regra usual de normalização. Usamos as forças de oscilador eletrônicas da literatura. Os fatores vibracionais de Franck-Condon de cada banda foram especialmente recalculados empregando-se novas constantes moleculares. Reproduzimos, com êxito, as absorções espectrais de determinadas bandas eletrônicas-vibracionais das espécies moleculares C12C12, C12N14 e Mg24H em espectros de estrelas de referência como o Sol e Arcturus.

  18. Enhanced mitigation of para-chlorophenol using stratified activated carbon adsorption columns.

    PubMed

    Sze, Michael Fan Fu; McKay, Gordon

    2012-03-01

    The adsorptive removal of toxic para-chlorophenol using activated carbon adsorption columns is a proven effective engineering process. This paper examined the possibility to stratify an adsorbent bed into layers, in order to enhance the adsorption process performance in terms of increased column service time and adsorbent bed saturation. Four different types of fixed-bed adsorption columns are used and compared under the same operating conditions, but with the variation of column geometry and activated carbon particle size stratification. The Type 3 column - a cylindrical column with particle stratification packing, is found to be the most efficient choice, as the extent of column service time and adsorbent bed saturation are the largest. This could eventually decrease the frequency of adsorbent replacement/regeneration and hence reduce the operating cost of the fixed-bed adsorption process. The Homogeneous Surface Diffusion Model (HSDM) was applied successfully to describe the dynamic adsorption of para-chlorophenol onto Filtrasorb 400 (F400) activated carbon in different types of columns. The Redlich-Peterson isotherm model equation, an experimentally derived external mass transfer correlation and a constant surface diffusivity are used in the HSDM. The optimised surface diffusivity of para-chlorophenol is found to be 1.20E-8 cm(2)/s, which is in good agreement with other phenolics/F400 carbon diffusing systems in literature. PMID:22154109

  19. Para-GMRF: parallel algorithm for anomaly detection of hyperspectral image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chao; Zhao, Huijie; Li, Na; Wang, Wei

    2007-12-01

    The hyperspectral imager is capable of collecting hundreds of images corresponding to different wavelength channels for the observed area simultaneously, which make it possible to discriminate man-made objects from natural background. However, the price paid for the wealthy information is the enormous amounts of data, usually hundreds of Gigabytes per day. Turning the huge volume data into useful information and knowledge in real time is critical for geoscientists. In this paper, the proposed parallel Gaussian-Markov random field (Para-GMRF) anomaly detection algorithm is an attempt of applying parallel computing technology to solve the problem. Based on the locality of GMRF algorithm, we partition the 3-D hyperspectral image cube in spatial domain and distribute data blocks to multiple computers for concurrent detection. Meanwhile, to achieve load balance, a work pool scheduler is designed for task assignment. The Para-GMRF algorithm is organized in master-slave architecture, coded in C programming language using message passing interface (MPI) library and tested on a Beowulf cluster. Experimental results show that Para-GMRF algorithm successfully conquers the challenge and can be used in time sensitive areas, such as environmental monitoring and battlefield reconnaissance.

  20. Electrical detection of ortho–para conversion in fullerene-encapsulated water

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Benno; Mamone, Salvatore; Concistrè, Maria; Alonso-Valdesueiro, Javier; Krachmalnicoff, Andrea; Whitby, Richard J.; Levitt, Malcolm H.

    2015-01-01

    Water exists in two spin isomers, ortho and para, that have different nuclear spin states. In bulk water, rapid proton exchange and hindered molecular rotation obscure the direct observation of two spin isomers. The supramolecular endofullerene H2O@C60 provides freely rotating, isolated water molecules even at cryogenic temperatures. Here we show that the bulk dielectric constant of this substance depends on the ortho/para ratio, and changes slowly in time after a sudden temperature jump, due to nuclear spin conversion. The attribution of the effect to ortho–para conversion is validated by comparison with nuclear magnetic resonance and quantum theory. The change in dielectric constant is consistent with an electric dipole moment of 0.51±0.05 Debye for an encapsulated water molecule, indicating the partial shielding of the water dipole by the encapsulating cage. The dependence of bulk dielectric constant on nuclear spin isomer composition appears to be a previously unreported physical phenomenon. PMID:26299447

  1. Theoretical study of the design of a catalyst for para to ortho hydrogen conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffman, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    The theory of Petzinger and Scalapino (1973) was thoroughly reviewed, and all of the basic equations for paramagnetic para to ortho hydrogen catalysis re-derived. There are only a few minor phase errors and errors of omission in the description of the theory. Three models (described by Petzinger and Scalapino) for the rate of para to ortho H2 catalysis were worked out, and uniform agreement obtained to within a constant factor of 2 pi. The analytical methods developed in the course of this study were then extended to two new models, which more adequately describe the process of surface catalysis including transfer of hydrogen molecules onto and off of the surface. All five equations for the para to ortho catalytic rate of conversion are described. The two new equations describe the catalytic rate for these models: H2 on the surface is a 2-D gas with lifetime tau; and H2 on the surface is a 2-D liquid undergoing Brownian motion (diffusion) with surface lifetime tau.

  2. The "drinking-buddy" scale as a measure of para-social behavior.

    PubMed

    Powell, Larry; Richmond, Virginia P; Cantrell-Williams, Glenda

    2012-06-01

    Para-social behavior is a form of quasi-interpersonal behavior that results when audience members develop bonds with media personalities that can resemble interpersonal social interaction, but is not usually applied to political communication. This study tested whether the "Drinking-Buddy" Scale, a simple question frequently used in political communication, could be interpreted as a single-item measure of para-social behavior with respect to political candidates in terms of image judgments related to interpersonal attraction and perceived similarity to self. The participants were college students who had voted in the 2008 election. They rated the candidates, Obama or McCain, as drinking buddies and then rated the candidates' perceived similarity to themselves in attitude and background, and also the social and task attraction to the candidate. If the drinking-buddy rating serves as a proxy measure for para-social behavior, then it was expected that participants' ratings for all four kinds of similarity to and attraction toward a candidate would be higher for the candidate they chose as a drinking buddy. The directional hypotheses were supported for interpersonal attraction, but not for perceived similarity. These results indicate that the drinking-buddy scale predicts ratings of interpersonal attraction, while voters may view perceived similarity as an important but not essential factor in their candidate preference. PMID:22897105

  3. Quantum chemical and experimental study of 1,2,4-trihydroxy-para-menthane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottmannová, Lenka; Lukeš, Vladimír; Ilčin, Michal; Fodran, Peter; Herich, Peter; Kožíšek, Jozef; Liptaj, Tibor; Klein, Erik

    2013-10-01

    The conformational analysis of the para-menthane (PM) and 1,2,4-trihydroxy-para-menthane (TPM) is performed using the quantum chemical density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio Møller-Plesset perturbation theory up to the second order (MP2). In TPM, three hydroxyl groups generate eight stereoisomers comparing to the four para-menthane stereoisomers. From the thermodynamics point of view, the most preferred conformations show the chair-shaped configuration of the cyclohexane ring. The obtained energy barriers for the isopropyl group rotation in the chair-shaped stereoisomers are between 35 and 45 kJ mol-1. The crystal structure as well as the solvated TPM stereoisomer isolated from the Tea tree oil, Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel, were investigated experimentally. Isolated stereoisomer corresponds to the most energetically preferred conformation and the calculated structural data agree very well with the results from the X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. Finally, the influence of the conformation and the presence of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds on the homolytic Osbnd H bond dissociation enthalpies and proton affinities were also discussed with respect to the simple alcohols (methanol, iso-propanol, iso-pentanol, tert-butanol, cyclohexanol) and phenol.

  4. Atlas de aves: Un metodo para documentar distribucion y seguir poblaciones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    Los Atlas de Aves son proyectos nacionales o regionalies para trazar en mapas la distribucion en reproduccion de cada especie de ave. Ese procedimiento se esta usando en Europa, Australia, Nueva Zelanda, Norteamerica, y partes de Africa. El tama?o de los cuadrados varia de medio grado de latitud y Iongitud hasta 5 x 5 km. El trabajo de campo de cada proyecto exige aproxlmadamente cinco a?os, pero los aficionados pueden llevar a cabo la mayor parte del trabajo. Es posible almacenar los resultados en un computador personal. Hay muchos beneficios: (I) se presenta la distribucion corriente de las aves de la nacion, del estado, o de la Iocalidad; (2) se desarrolla nueva informacion especialmente sobre especies raras o en peligro; (3) se descubren areas que tienen una avlfauna sobresaliente o habitats raros y ayuda a su proteccion, (4) se documentan cambios de dlstribucion; (5) se pueden usar para documentar cambios de poblacion, especialmente en los tropicos donde otros metodos son mas dificiles de usar porque hay muchas especies y no hay muchos observadores calificados en la identificacion de sonidos de las aves; (6) son proyectos buenos de investigacion para estudiantes graduados; (7) los turistas y los jefes de excursiones de historia natural pueden contribuir con muchas informaciones

  5. The ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, Kyle N.; Indriolo, Nick; Kreckel, Holger; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-22

    The discovery of H{sub 3}{sup +} in the diffuse interstellar medium has dramatically changed our view of the cosmic-ray ionization rate in diffuse molecular clouds. However, another surprise has been that the ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in these clouds is inconsistent with the temperature derived from the excitation of H{sub 2}, the dominant species in these clouds. In an effort to understand this discrepancy, we have embarked on an experimental program to measure the nuclear spin dependence of the dissociative electron recombination rate of H{sub 3}{sup +} using the CRYRING and TSR ion storage rings. We have also performed the first measurements of the reaction H{sub 3}{sup +}+H{sub 2}→H{sub 2}+H{sub 3}{sup +} below room temperature. This reaction is likely the most common bimolecular reaction in the universe, and plays an important role in interconverting ortho- and para-H{sub 3}{sup +}. Finally, we have constructed a steady-state chemical model for diffuse clouds, which takes into account the spin-dependence of the formation of H{sub 3}{sup +}, its electron recombination, and its reaction with H{sub 2}. We find that the ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in diffuse clouds is likely governed by a competition between dissociative recombination and thermalization by reactive collisions.

  6. Aplicación del Teorema de Nekhorochev para tiempos de estabilidad en Mecánica Celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O.; Núñez, J.; Brunini, A.

    En Mecánica Celeste, uno de los problemas centrales consiste en la determinación de los tiempos de estabilidad. El teorema de Nekhorochev proporciona un método para dicho estudio, para un sistema determinado por un hamiltoniano descripto en las variables acción-ángulo. El trabajo consiste en la acotación tanto del potencial perturbador y de la matriz hessiana del hamiltoniano integrable para determinar luego el tiempo de estabilidad de dicho sistema, donde por estabilidad se entiende la separación en norma infinito en el espacio de las acciones.

  7. ParaDyn Implementation in the US Navy's DYSMAS Simulation System: FY08 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferencz, R M; DeGroot, A J; Lin, J I; Zywicz, E; Durrenberger, J K; Sherwood, R J; Corey, I R

    2008-07-29

    The goal of this project is to increase the computational efficiency and capacity of the Navy's DYSMAS simulation system for full ship shock response to underwater explosion. Specifically, this project initiates migration to a parallel processing capability for the structural portion of the overall fluid-structure interaction model. The capstone objective for the first phase is to demonstrate operation of the DYSMAS simulation engine with a production model on a Naval Surface Warfare Center (IHD) parallel platform using the ParaDyn code for parallel processing of the structural dynamics. This year saw a successful launch to integrate ParaDyn, the high-parallel structural dynamics code from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), into the DYSMAS system for simulating the response of ship structures to underwater explosion (UNDEX). The current LLNL version of DYNA3D, representing ten years of general development beyond the source branch used to initiate DYNA-N customization for DYSMAS, was first connected to the GEMINI flow code through DYSMAS Standard Coupler Interface (SCI). This permitted an early 'sanity check' by Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division (NSWC-IHD) personnel that equivalent results were generated for their standard UNDEX test problems, thus ensuring the Verification & Validation pedigree they have developed remains intact. The ParaDyn code was then joined to the SCI in a manner requiring no changes to GEMINI. Three NSWC-IHD engineers were twice hosted at LLNL to become familiar with LLNL computer systems, the execution of the prototype software system, and to begin assessment of its accuracy and performance. Scaling data for the flow solver GEMINI was attained up to a one billion cell, 1000 processor run. The NSWC-IHD engineers were granted privileges to continue their evaluations through remote connections to LLNL's Open Computing Facility. Finally, the prototype changes were integrated into the mainline ParaDyn source repository and issued as part of its Version 8.1 beta release. This source was transmitted to NSWC-IHD and in collaboration with LLNL personnel the entire ParaDyn software suite successfully installed and demonstrated on its new SGI Altix machine. The ability of even minor numbers of processors for the structural dynamics to impact overall time-to-solution for DYSMAS has been demonstrated. Assessments of combined parallel efficiencies are beginning to highlight areas for further DYSMAS optimizations.

  8. Melhoramentos no código Wilson-Devinney para binárias eclipsantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, L. A.; Vaz, L. P. R.

    2003-08-01

    A análise de curvas de luz e velocidades radiais de sistemas binários eclipsantes pode ser feita por meio de vários modelos. Um desses é o Modelo Wilson-Devinney (WD). Ao longo dos anos, esse modelo sofreu várias alterações em seus códigos principais, com a finalidade de torná-lo mais consistente tanto fíisica como numericamente. O Modelo WD tem sido melhorado de várias maneiras em seus dois códigos: um para a predição das curvas de luz teórica e de velocidade radiais e outra para as soluções destas curvas. Teoricamente, na física do modelo, nós introduzimos a possibilidade de levar em conta os efeitos do movimento apsidal. Numericamente, nós introduzimos a possibilidade de usar o Método SIMPLEX no procedimento da solução, como uma alternativa para o já implementado Método de Mínimos Quadrados (Least Squares Method). Estas modificações, juntamente com outras já introduzidas pelo nosso grupo anteriormente, tornam o código mais eficiente na solução das curvas de luz e de velocidade radiais de binárias eclipsantes. Como o modelo tem sido usado para analisar sistemas com componentes pré-sequência principal (TY CrA, Casey et al. 1998, Vaz et al. 1998), SM 790, Stassun et al. 2003), este melhoramento beneficiará estes casos também. Apresentamos os resultados obtidos com a modificação do código WD por meio do uso de dados da estrela GL Carinae, comprovando, (1) que os parâmetros orbitais calculados por nós são coerentes com os obtidos anteriormente na literatura (Giménez & Clausen, 1986) e com os obtidos por Faria (1987), e (2) que a implementação do Método SIMPLEX torna o código mais lento mas completamente consistente internamente e evita os problemas gerados pelo uso do Método de Mínimos Quadrados, tais como imprecisão no cálculo das derivadas parciais e convergência para mínimos locais.

  9. El uso de la neuromodulación para el tratamiento del temblor

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Damián; Ajler, Pablo; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El temblor puede ser un desorden incapacitante y el tratamiento de primera línea para estos pacientes es farmacológico. Sin embargo, este tratamiento puede llevar a una reducción satisfactoria del temblor en sólo el 50% de los pacientes con temblor esencial. La talamotomía era el tratamiento de elección para el temblor refractario al tratamiento médico hasta que comenzó a utilizarse la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) del núcleo ventral intermedio (Vim) del tálamo. En la actualidad, raramente se realiza la talamotomía. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de las indicaciones, resultados, parámetros de programación y técnica quirúrgica de la ECP del Vim para el tratamiento del temblor. Resultados: Aunque los resultados clínicos son similares usando la talamotomía o la ECP del Vim, la primera causa más efectos adversos que la última. Además, la ECP puede ser usada bilateralmente, mientras que la talamotomía tiene un alto riesgo de causar disartria cuando se realiza de ambos lados. La ECP del Vim logró una adecuada mejoría del temblor en varias series de pacientes con temblor causado por temblor esencial, enfermedad de Parkinson o esclerosis múltiple. Además del Vim, hay otros blancos que están siendo usados por varios autores, tales como la zona incerta y las radiaciones prelemniscales. Conclusión: La ECP del Vim es un tratamiento útil para el temblor incapacitante refractario al tratamiento médico. Es esencial realizar una precisa selección de pacientes, así como utilizar una técnica quirúrgica correcta. Aún se desconoce el mejor blanco estereotáctico para el temblor, aunque el Vim es el más usado. PMID:25165613

  10. Implementação de um algoritmo para a limpeza de mapas da RCFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, C. L.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2003-08-01

    A Radiação Cósmica de Fundo em Microondas (RCFM), descoberta por Penzias e Wilson em 1965, é uma das ferramentas mais poderosas para o estudo da cosmologia. Com a descoberta de flutuações de temperatura na RCFM, da ordem de uma parte em 105, pelo COBE (1992), uma nova era teve início. Nos últimos onze anos, diversos instrumentos fizeram novas medidas de alta precisão, refinando os resultados apresentados pelo COBE, culminando com os resultados recentes do satélite WMAP. A análise de dados da RCFM, especialmente no caso de experimentos com pequena cobertura do céu, apresenta uma série de dificuldades devido a emissões de contaminantes externos, tais como a emissão da Galáxia e de fontes pontuais, e de ruídos intrínsecos tanto ao sistema de detecção quanto à estratégia de observação do céu. Uma das soluções típicas para a filtragem de dados brutos de um experimento para medir flutuações de temperatura é aplicar um gabarito (template) e um filtro passa alta ao produzir mapas simplificados (sem considerar matrizes de correlação ou covariância). No caso de experimentos que utilizam detectores HEMT, essa combinação de filtros remove, satisfatoriamente, ruídos do tipo 1/f gerados pela instabilidade no ganho do detector acoplado ao movimento do instrumento, definido pela estratégia de observação. Entretanto, o sinal resultante medido, tanto em simulações quanto em séries temporais reais, sugere que parte do sinal cosmológico pode estar sendo removido junto com o ruído dos detectores. Este trabalho descreve as etapas para a produção de um mapa típico (simulado) e os testes preliminares de um algoritmo para remover ruídos do tipo 1/f introduzidos pela estratégia de observação sem prejudicar a qualidade do sinal cosmológico presente no mapa.

  11. Identification and Characterization of Catabolic para-Nitrophenol 4-Monooxygenase and para-Benzoquinone Reductase from Pseudomonas sp. Strain WBC-3▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun-Jie; Liu, Hong; Xiao, Yi; Zhang, Xian-En; Zhou, Ning-Yi

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain WBC-3 utilizes para-nitrophenol (PNP) as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. In order to identify the genes involved in this utilization, we cloned and sequenced a 12.7-kb fragment containing a conserved region of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase genes. Of the products of the 13 open reading frames deduced from this fragment, PnpA shares 24% identity to the large component of a 3-hydroxyphenylacetate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida U and PnpB is 58% identical to an NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli. Both PnpA and PnpB were purified to homogeneity as His-tagged proteins, and they were considered to be a monomer and a dimer, respectively, as determined by gel filtration. PnpA is a flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent single-component PNP 4-monooxygenase that converts PNP to para-benzoquinone in the presence of NADPH. PnpB is a flavin mononucleotide-and NADPH-dependent p-benzoquinone reductase that catalyzes the reduction of p-benzoquinone to hydroquinone. PnpB could enhance PnpA activity, and genetic analyses indicated that both pnpA and pnpB play essential roles in PNP mineralization in strain WBC-3. Furthermore, the pnpCDEF gene cluster next to pnpAB shares significant similarities with and has the same organization as a gene cluster responsible for hydroquinone degradation (hapCDEF) in Pseudomonas fluorescens ACB (M. J. Moonen, N. M. Kamerbeek, A. H. Westphal, S. A. Boeren, D. B. Janssen, M. W. Fraaije, and W. J. van Berkel, J. Bacteriol. 190:5190-5198, 2008), suggesting that the genes involved in PNP degradation are physically linked. PMID:19218392

  12. Neoplasias mieloproliferativas y síndromes mielodisplásicos—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de las neoplasias mieloproliferativas, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  13. Conformational isomerism in the solid-state structures of tetracaine and tamoxifen with para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danylyuk, Oksana; Monachino, Melany; Lazar, Adina N.; Suwinska, Kinga; Coleman, Anthony W.

    2010-02-01

    The solid-state complexes between para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene and the drugs tamoxifen and tetracaine show an unusual 4:1 guest-host stoichiometry with formation of hydrophobic layer of drug molecules held between bilayers of para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene. In both structures each of the four independent drug molecules adopts different conformation due to the different mode of interaction with the anionic host, the neighbouring drug cations and water molecules.

  14. Supported transition metal catalysts for para- to ortho-hydrogen conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Christopher J.; Wang, Wei; Eyman, Darrell P.

    1994-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop and improve on existing catalysts for the conversion of ortho- to para-hydrogen. Starting with a commercially available Air Products nickel silicate, which had a beta value of 20, we were trying to synthesize catalysts that would be an improvement to AP. This was accomplished by preparing silicates with various metals as well as different preparation methods. We also prepared supported ruthenium catalysts by various techniques using several metal precursors to improve present technology. What was also found was that the activation conditions prior to catalytic testing was highly important for both the silicates and the supported ruthenium catalysts. While not the initial focus of the research, we made some interesting observations into the adsorption of H2 on ruthenium. This helped us to get a better understanding of how ortho- to para-H2 conversion takes place, and what features in a catalyst are important to optimize activity. Reactor design was the final area in which some interesting conclusions were drawn. As discussed earlier, the reactor catalyst bed must be constructed using straight 1/8 feet OD stainless steel tubing. It was determined that the use of 1/4 feet OD tubing caused two problems. First, the radius from the center of the bed to the wall was too great for thermal equilibrium. Since the reaction of ortho- to para-H2 is exothermic, the catalyst bed center was warmer than the edges. Second, the catalyst bed was too shallow using a 1/4 feet tube. This caused reactant blow-by which was thought to decrease the measured activity when the flow rate was increased. The 1/8 feet tube corrected both of these concerns.

  15. Contextual influence on the tilt after-effect in foveal and para-foveal vision.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Chen, Xianghui; Gao, Min; Yang, Qiong; Yan, Hongmei

    2015-06-01

    A sensory stimulus can only be properly interpreted in light of the stimuli that surround it in space and time. The tilt illusion (TI) and tilt after-effect (TAE) provide good evidence that the perception of a target depends strongly on both its spatial and temporal context. In previous studies, the TI and TAE have typically been investigated separately, so little is known about their co-effects on visual perception and information processing mechanisms. Here, we considered the influence of the spatial context and the temporal effect together and asked how center-surround context affects the TAE in foveal and para-foveal vision. Our results showed that different center-surround spatial patterns significantly affected the TAE for both foveal and para-foveal vision. In the fovea, the TAE was mainly produced by central adaptive gratings. Cross-oriented surroundings significantly inhibited the TAE, and iso-oriented surroundings slightly facilitated it; surround inhibition was much stronger than surround facilitation. In the para-fovea, the TAE was mainly decided by the surrounding patches. Likewise, a cross-oriented central patch inhibited the TAE, and an iso-oriented one facilitated it, but there was no significant difference between inhibition and facilitation. Our findings demonstrated, at the perceptual level, that our visual system adopts different mechanisms to process consistent or inconsistent central-surround orientation information and that the unequal magnitude of surround inhibition and facilitation is vitally important for the visual system to improve the detectability or discriminability of novel or incongruent stimuli. PMID:25895001

  16. Study of muon-catalyzed fusion in ortho-para controlled solid deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Akihisa; Ishida, Katsuhiko; Matsuzaki, Teiichirou; Nakamura, Satoshi; Matsuda, Yasuyuki; Shimomura, Kouichirou; Higemoto, Wataru; Nagamine, Kanetada

    2001-10-01

    The ortho deuterium is the state with a coupled nuclear spin I=0,2 and a rotational state J=even, and the para deuterium is the state with I=1 and J=odd. We studied the muon-catalyzed fusion (μCF) in solid deuterium with the ortho-para ratio controlled. Our measurements were carried out at 3.5 K and with ratios of ortho deuterium of 66.7% and 99.7%. A negative muon injected into deuterium enhances the dd fusion reaction through the resonant formation of ddμ: d + d + μ arrow (ddμ) arrow p + t + μ + 3.27 MeV or n + ^3He + μ + 4.03 MeV. This ddμ formation rate is the most important parameter to influence μCF phenomena. We clearly observed ortho-para dependence of the formation rate from the dμ hyperfine state F=3/2 (tildeλ_3/2) and that of the hyperfine transition rate from F=3/2 to 1/2 (tildeλ_3/21/2) for the first time. The rates tildeλ_3/2 and tildeλ_3/21/2 in 99.7%-ortho deuterium decreased by 25.8 ± 2.5% and 17.4 ± 3.1%, respectively, compared to those in 66.7%-ortho deuterium. Usual theories cannot explain this experimental result. A possible explanation will be presented at this talk.

  17. Madres para la Salud: Design of a Theory-based Intervention for Postpartum Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Colleen; Records, Kathie; Ainsworth, Barbara; Belyea, Michael; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean; Vega-López, Sonia; Nagle-Williams, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Background Weight gain in young women suggests that childbearing may be an important contributor to the development of obesity in women. Depressive symptoms can interfere with resumption of normal activity levels following childbirth or with the initiation of or adherence to physical activity programs essential for losing pregnancy weight. Depression symptoms may function directly to promote weight gain through a physiologic mechanism. Obesity and its related insulin resistance may contribute to depressed mood physiologically. Although physical activity has well-established beneficial effects on weight management and depression, women tend to under participate in physical activity during childbearing years. Further, the mechanisms underpinning the interplay of overweight, obesity, physical activity, depression, and inflammatory processes are not clearly explained. Objectives This report describes the theoretical rationale, design considerations, and cultural relevance for “Madres para la Salud” [Mothers for Health]. Design and Methods Madres para la Salud is a 12 month prospective, randomized controlled trial exploring the effectiveness of a culturally specific intervention using “bouts” of physical activity to effect changes in body fat, systemic and fat tissue inflammation, and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary postpartum Latinas. Summary The significance and innovation of Madres para la Salud includes use of a theory-driven approach to intervention, specification and cultural relevance of a social support intervention, use of a Promotora model to incorporate cultural approaches, use of objective measures of physical activity in post partum Latinas women, and the examination of biomarkers indicative of cardiovascular risk related to physical activity behaviors in postpartum Latinas. PMID:21238614

  18. ortho-, meta-, and para-dihydroindenofluorene derivatives as host materials for phosphorescent OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Romain, Maxime; Thiery, Sébastien; Shirinskaya, Anna; Declairieux, Céline; Tondelier, Denis; Geffroy, Bernard; Jeannin, Olivier; Rault-Berthelot, Joëlle; Métivier, Rémi; Poriel, Cyril

    2015-01-19

    This work reports the first structure-properties relationship study of ortho [2,1-c]-, meta [1,2-a]-, and para [1,2-b]dihydroindenofluorenes, highlighting the influence of bridge rigidification on the electronic properties. This study has made it possible to devise an extended π-conjugated molecule with both a high triplet state energy level and excellent thermal and morphological stability. As a proof of concept, dihydroindenofluorenes were used as the host in sky-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) with high performance. PMID:25469476

  19. Three-dimensional treatment planning for para-aortic node irradiation in patients with cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Munzenrider, J.E.; Doppke, K.P.; Brown, A.P.; Burman, C.; Cheng, E.; Chu, J.; Chui, C.; Drzymala, R.E.; Goitein, M.; Manolis, J.M. )

    1991-05-15

    Three-dimensional treatment planning has been used by four cooperating centers to prepare and analyze multiple treatment plans on two cervix cancer patients. One patient had biopsy-proven and CT-demonstrable metastasis to the para-aortic nodes, while the other was at high risk for metastatic involvement of para-aortic nodes. Volume dose distributions were analyzed, and an attempt was made to define the role of 3-D treatment planning to the para-aortic region, where moderate to high doses (50-66 Gy) are required to sterilize microscopic and gross metastasis. Plans were prepared using the 3-D capabilities for tailoring fields to the target volumes, but using standard field arrangements (3-D standard), and with full utilization of the 3-D capabilities (3-D unconstrained). In some but not all 3-D unconstrained plans, higher doses were delivered to the large nodal volume and to the volume containing gross nodal disease than in plans analyzed but not prepared with full 3-D capability (3-D standard). The small bowel was the major dose limiting organ. Its tolerance would have been exceeded in all plans which prescribed 66 Gy to the gross nodal mass, although some reduction in small bowel near-maximum dose was achieved in the 3-D unconstrained plans. All plans were able to limit doses to other normal organs to tolerance levels or less, with significant reductions seen in doses to spinal cord, kidneys, and large bowel in the 3-D unconstrained plans, as compared to the 3-D standard plans. A high probability of small bowel injury was detected in one of four 3-D standard plans prescribed to receive 50 Gy to the large para-aortic nodal volume; the small bowel dose was reduced to an acceptable level in the corresponding 3-D unconstrained plan. An optimum beam energy for treating this site was not identified, with plans using 4, 6, 10, 15, 18, and 25 MV photons all being equally acceptable. (Abstract Truncated)

  20. The Ortho:Para Ratio of H3+ in Diffuse Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, Kyle N.; Indriolo, Nick; Kreckel, Holder; Tom, Brian A.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2010-11-01

    Since its first interstellar detection in the mid 1990s, H3+ has proved to be a powerful probe of astrophysical conditions. In cold molecular clouds, only the lowest two rotational energy levels of H3+ are populated: the (J,K) = (1,1) para state and the (1,0) ortho state. The relative populations of these levels can be used to calculate an excitation temperature, Tex. In dense molecular clouds, Tex agrees well with the estimated cloud kinetic temperature. However, in diffuse molecular clouds, Tex is found to be 30 K, while the kinetic temperature, as determined from the excitation temperature T01 (given by the relative populations of the J = 0 and J = 1 rotational levels of H2) is on average 60-70 K in these environments. Because the (1,1) state of H3+ is the lower-energy state, this indicates that there is more para-H3+ in diffuse molecular clouds than would be expected based on the cloud kinetic temperature. To understand the excess para-H3+ (or the lower-than-expected Tex), we have constructed a chemical model that takes into account the nuclear spin dependence of H3+ formation, proton scrambling via collisions with H2, and dissociative recombination with electrons. At the heart of this model is the reaction H3+ + H2 → H2 + H3+ , which can proceed by one of three pathways: the identity, proton hop, and hydrogen exchange. The branching fractions for the three pathways, Sid, Shop, and Sexch, influence the nature and extent of the proton scrambling. We use the microcanonical statistical model of Park and Light (J. Chem. Phys. 126, 044305, 1997) to calculate nuclear-spin-dependent rate coefficients that describe the extent of proton scrambling as a function of temperature and the aforementioned branching fractions. As a result, our model predicts, based on these parameters, what the observed Tex should be for a certain cloud kinetic temperature. Our model suggests that on its own, the H3+ + H2 reaction would effectively thermalize the ortho:para H3+ ratio (i.e., Tex = T01). However, dissociative recombination is taken into account, this thermalization is incomplete, and the resultant competition between thermalization and dissociative recombination seems to reproduce the astronomical observations for Sid ~ 0.8-0.9. However, the details of the spin-dependence of H3+ dissociative recombination are important, and at present, experimentally uncertain. More information about this process is needed to determine the validity of our modeling results.

  1. Photophysical and acid-base properties of para-substituted N,N-dimethylanilines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabelski, Mariusz; Bojarski, Piotr; Wieczorek, Zbigniew

    2013-05-01

    Ultraviolet absorption and fluorescence spectra were collected for para-substituted N,N-dimethylanilines in aqueous solution at various pH conditions. Two fluorescing forms were observed for all studied compounds, one protonated (ANsH+) and the second unprotonated (ANs) each of them with specific spectroscopic properties. Changing pH of solution results in the displacement of the equilibrium between two forms. It was found that protonated aniline derivatives in aqueous solutions undergo very fast excited-state proton dissociation and the pKa values obtained from absorption and fluorescence spectra are similar. The excited state pKa? values were calculated using the Frster cycle method.

  2. Unprecedented new nonadecyl para-hydroperoxycinnamate isolated from Erythrina excelsa and its cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Kwamou, Guy M N; Sandjo, Louis P; Kuete, Victor; Wandja, Anaelle A K; Tankeo, Simplice B; Efferth, Thomas; Nkengfack, Augustin E

    2015-01-01

    A new unprecedented cinnamate derivative (1) was obtained from Erythrina excelsa (Leguminosae) and identified as nonadecyl para-hydroperoxycinnamate. This compound was isolated together with three known compounds, namely lupeol (2), mixture of sitosterol and stigmasterol (3), and isoneorautenol (4). Their structures were established on the basis of NMR and mass spectroscopic data in conjunction with those reported in the literature. Compound 1 was evaluated for its capability of inhibiting cancer cell lines and growth of a panel of microbial strains. It turned out that 1 is moderately to significantly cytotoxic against six cancer cell lines and shows weak to no antimicrobial activity. PMID:25220189

  3. Synthesis of icariin from kaempferol through regioselective methylation and para-Claisen–Cope rearrangement

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Qinggang; Wang, Chun; Zhao, Zhigang; Yuan, Weicheng

    2015-01-01

    Summary The hemisynthesis of the naturally occurring bioactive flavonoid glycoside icariin (1) has been accomplished in eleven steps with 7% overall yield from kaempferol. The 4′-OH methylation of kaempferol, the 8-prenylation of 3-O-methoxymethyl-4′-O-methyl-5-O-prenyl-7-O-benzylkaempferol (8) via para-Claisen–Cope rearrangement catalyzed by Eu(fod)3 in the presence of NaHCO3, and the glycosylation of icaritin (3) are the key steps. PMID:26425179

  4. Where does the electron go? The nature of ortho/para and meta group directing in electrophilic aromatic substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shubin

    2014-11-21

    Electrophilic aromatic substitution as one of the most fundamental chemical processes is affected by atoms or groups already attached to the aromatic ring. The groups that promote substitution at the ortho/para or meta positions are, respectively, called ortho/para and meta directing groups, which are often characterized by their capability to donate electrons to or withdraw electrons from the ring. Though resonance and inductive effects have been employed in textbooks to explain this phenomenon, no satisfactory quantitative interpretation is available in the literature. Here, based on the theoretical framework we recently established in density functional reactivity theory (DFRT), where electrophilicity and nucleophilicity are simultaneously quantified by the Hirshfeld charge, the nature of ortho/para and meta group directing is systematically investigated for a total of 85 systems. We find that regioselectivity of electrophilic attacks is determined by the Hirshfeld charge distribution on the aromatic ring. Ortho/para directing groups have most negative charges on the ortho/para positions, while meta directing groups often possess the largest negative charge on the meta position. Our results do not support that ortho/para directing groups are electron donors and meta directing groups are electron acceptors. Most neutral species we studied here are electron withdrawal in nature. Anionic systems are always electron donors. There are also electron donors serving as meta directing groups. We predicted ortho/para and meta group directing behaviors for a list of groups whose regioselectivity is previously unknown. In addition, strong linear correlations between the Hirshfeld charge and the highest occupied molecular orbital have been observed, providing the first link between the frontier molecular orbital theory and DFRT.

  5. Pumilio Binds para mRNA and Requires Nanos and Brat to Regulate Sodium Current in Drosophila Motoneurons

    PubMed Central

    Muraro, Nara I.; Weston, Andrew J.; Gerber, Andre P.; Luschnig, Stefan; Moffat, Kevin G.; Baines, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Homeostatic regulation of ionic currents is of paramount importance during periods of synaptic growth or remodelling. Our previous work has identified the translational repressor Pumilio (Pum) as a regulator of sodium current (INa) and excitability in Drosophila motoneurons. In this current study we show that Pum is able to bind directly the mRNA encoding the Drosophila voltage-gated sodium channel paralytic (para). We identify a putative binding site for Pum in the 3′ end of the para open reading frame (ORF). Characterisation of the mechanism of action of Pum, using whole-cell patch clamp and real time RT-PCR, reveals that the full length protein is required for translational repression of para mRNA. Additionally, the co-factor Nanos (Nos) is essential for Pum-dependent para repression, whereas the requirement for Brain Tumor (Brat) is cell-type specific. Thus, Pum-dependent regulation of INa in motoneurons requires both Nos and Brat, whilst regulation in other neuronal types seemingly requires only Nos but not Brat. We also show that Pum is able to reduce the level of nos mRNA and as such identify a potential negative-feedback mechanism to protect neurons from over-activity of Pum. Finally, we show coupling between INa (para) and IK (Shal) such that Pum-mediated change in para results in a compensatory change in Shal. The identification of para as a direct target of Pum represents the first ion channel to be translationally-regulated by this repressor and the location of the binding motif is the first example in an ORF rather than in the canonical 3′ untranslated region of target transcripts. PMID:18305244

  6. Ortho-to-para Ratio of Cometary Ammonia in Comet Hale-Bopp: What is Indicated by Ortho-to-para Ratio of Cometary Molecules?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakita, H.; Watanabe, J.

    The ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of cometary molecules is thought to be a primordial characteristic of comets. However, the real meaning of the OPR is not clear. A spin temperature derived from the OPR possibly reflects the formation conditions of the molecule. For the comet Hale-Bopp, there are many studies about the formation conditions of the comet and cometary materials, e.g., the OPR of water, D/H ratios in water and hydrogen cyanide, argon and neon abundances, and so on. We demonstrated that the OPR of ammonia could be determined from cometary NH2 observations for comet LINEAR (C/1999S4). In this presentation, we determine the OPR of cometary ammonia in comet Hale -Bopp based on the high-dispersion, optical spectra taken by Zhang et al. (2001). We compare the spin temperature of ammonia with that of water derived in comet Hale - Bopp, and the spin temperatures are compared with other temperature ranges indicated by other observations of the same comet.

  7. Genetic evidence that the degradation of para-cresol by Geobacter metallireducens is catalyzed by the periplasmic para-cresol methylhydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Holmes, Dawn E; Zhang, Tian

    2015-10-01

    Two pathways for para-cresol (p-cresol) degradation by anaerobic bacteria have been elucidated; one involves fumarate addition at the methyl group of p-cresol by a hydroxylbenzylsuccinate synthase protein while the other utilizes a methylhydroxylase protein (PCMH) to catalyze hydroxylation of the methyl group of p-cresol. In Geobacter metallireducens, in vitro enzymatic assays showed that p-cresol is degraded via the methylhydroxylation pathway. However, prior to this study these results had not been confirmed by genetic analyses. In this work, the gene coding for benzylsuccinate-CoA dehydrogenase (bbsG), an enzyme required for toluene degradation by G. metallireducens that is homologous to the p-hydroxybenzylsuccinyl-CoA dehydrogenase involved in p-cresol degradation by Desulfobacula toluolica Tol2 via fumarate addition, and the gene encoding the alpha prime subunit of PCMH (pcmI), were deleted to investigate the possibility of co-existing p-cresol degradation pathways in G. metallireducens. The absence of a functional PcmI protein completely inhibited p-cresol degradation, while deletion of the bbsG gene had little impact. These results further support the observation that G. metallireducens utilizes a PCMH-initiated pathway for p-cresol degradation. PMID:26316547

  8. Comparing the Well-Being of Para and Olympic Sport Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Macdougall, Hannah; O'Halloran, Paul; Shields, Nora; Sherry, Emma

    2015-07-01

    This systematic review included 12 studies that compared the well-being of Para and Olympic sport athletes. Meta-analyses revealed that Para athletes, compared with Olympic sport athletes, had lower levels of self-acceptance, indicated by athletic identity, d = 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.77, 0.16], and body-image perceptions, d = 0.33, 95% CI [0.59, 0.07], and differed from Olympic sport athletes in terms of their motivation, indicated by a greater mastery-oriented climate, d = 0.74, 95% CI [0.46, 1.03]. Given an inability to pool the remaining data for meta-analysis, individual standardized mean differences were calculated for other dimensions of psychological and subjective well-being. The results have implications for professionals and coaches aiming to facilitate the well-being needs of athletes under their care. Future research would benefit from incorporating established models of well-being based on theoretical rationale combined with rigorous study designs. PMID:26113553

  9. Ortho-to-para ratio in interstellar water on the sightline toward Sagittarius B2(N).

    PubMed

    Lis, Dariusz C; Bergin, Edwin A; Schilke, Peter; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2013-10-01

    The determination of the water ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) is of great interest for studies of the formation and thermal history of water ices in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disk environments. We present new Herschel observations of the fundamental rotational transitions of ortho- and para-water on the sightline toward Sagittarius B2(N), which allow improved estimates of the measurement uncertainties due to instrumental effects and assumptions about the excitation of water molecules. These new measurements, suggesting a spin temperature of 24-32 K, confirm the earlier findings of an OPR below the high-temperature value on the nearby sightline toward Sagittarius B2(M). The exact implications of the low OPR in the galactic center molecular gas remain unclear and will greatly benefit from future laboratory measurements involving water freeze-out and evaporation processes under low-temperature conditions, similar to those present in the galactic interstellar medium. Given the specific conditions in the central region of the Milky Way, akin to those encountered in active Galactic nuclei, gas-phase processes under the influence of strong X-ray and cosmic ray ionization also have to be carefully considered. We summarize some of the latest laboratory measurements and their implications here. PMID:23656468

  10. In-Situ Visualization Experiments with ParaView Cinema in RAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Kares, Robert John

    2015-10-15

    A previous paper described some numerical experiments performed using the ParaView/Catalyst in-situ visualization infrastructure deployed in the Los Alamos RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code to produce images from a running large scale 3D ICF simulation. One challenge of the in-situ approach apparent in these experiments was the difficulty of choosing parameters likes isosurface values for the visualizations to be produced from the running simulation without the benefit of prior knowledge of the simulation results and the resultant cost of recomputing in-situ generated images when parameters are chosen suboptimally. A proposed method of addressing this difficulty is to simply render multiple images at runtime with a range of possible parameter values to produce a large database of images and to provide the user with a tool for managing the resulting database of imagery. Recently, ParaView/Catalyst has been extended to include such a capability via the so-called Cinema framework. Here I describe some initial experiments with the first delivery of Cinema and make some recommendations for future extensions of Cinema’s capabilities.

  11. [Morbidity of pelvic lymphadenectomy and para-aortic lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer].

    PubMed

    Agar, Nicolas; Philippe, Anne-Cécile; Bourdel, Nicolas; Rabischong, Benoît; Canis, Michel; Le Bouedec, Guillaume; Mulliez, Aurélien; Dauplat, Jacques; Pomel, Christophe

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the complication rate of pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy in the management of endometrial cancer following the changes to the recommendations of INCa 2010. This is a retrospective study of 208 patients operated for endometrial cancer between July 2010 and March 2014 in two referral centers. Eighty lymphadenectomy were performed, 65 with hysterectomy and bilateral annexectomy and 18 lymphadenectomy were performed for restaging. Complications assessment is based on the Dindo Clavien classification. We report 17 severe complications (grade 3a and over) (P<0.001), including 14 among patients receiving lymphadenectomy. Morbidity increases with the number of lymphnodes removed and their positivity (P<0.001). The para-aortic lymphadenectomy is primarily responsible for complications (P <0.001). We describe 7 lower limbs lymphedema, 12 nerve injuries, 8 ileus, 5 venous or arterial thromboembolism, 17 blood transfusions, 13 lymphoceles including 9 infected. The rate of intraoperative complications on a first lymphadenectomy is 8% while it reached 22% for restaging. Restaging is significantly more at risk of serious complications (P=0.03) with two deaths. Twenty-four chronic disorders with impaired quality of life (2 without lymphadenectomy) are reported. They are present in 50% of restaging (P=0.033 compared to first lymphadenectomy). Lymphadenectomy is a source of severe morbidity (17.5%) with 2.5% mortality. The benefit of this surgery should probably be discussed again. PMID:25956349

  12. Triplet energies and excimer formation in meta- and para-linked carbazolebiphenyl matrix materials.

    PubMed

    Bagnich, Sergey A; Rudnick, Alexander; Schroegel, Pamela; Strohriegl, Peter; Köhler, Anna

    2015-06-28

    We present a spectroscopic investigation on the effect of changing the position where carbazole is attached to biphenyl in carbazolebiphenyl (CBP) on the triplet state energies and the propensity to excimer formation. For this, two CBP derivatives have been prepared with the carbazole moieties attached at the (para) 4- and 4(')-positions (pCBP) and at the (meta) 3- and 3(')-positions (mCBP) of the biphenyls. These compounds are compared to analogous mCDBP and pCDBP, i.e. two highly twisted carbazoledimethylbiphenyls, which have a high triplet energy at about 3.0 eV and tend to form triplet excimers in a neat film. This torsion in the structure is associated with localization of the excited state onto the carbazole moieties. We find that in mCBP and pCBP, excimer formation is prevented by localization of the triplet excited state onto the central moiety. As conjugation can continue from the central biphenyls into the nitrogen of the carbazole in the para-connected pCBP, emission involves mainly the benzidine. By contrast, the meta-linkage in mCBP limits conjugation to the central biphenyl. The associated shorter conjugation length is the reason for the higher triplet energy of 2.8 eV in mCBP compared with the 2.65 eV in pCBP. PMID:25987578

  13. The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic

    PubMed Central

    Hanala, Sherif

    2012-01-01

    The inaugural IgM event entitled “The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic” brought together the increasingly active and growing IgM antibody community to discuss recent advances and challenges facing the discovery and development of IgM antibody therapies and technologies. Researchers, clinicians and biomanufacturing experts delivered 21 talks on the basic science and isolation of IgM, upstream and downstream development, and formulation and clinical development of the molecules. Participants networked around topics aimed at exploring the full potential of IgM antibodies. The meeting was held at DECHEMA Gesellschaft für Chemische Technik und Biotechnologie e. V. (Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology), a non-profit scientific and technical society based in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The meeting was sponsored by Patrys, Laureate Biopharma, Bio-Rad Laboratories, BIA Separations, Percivia and the Bio Affinity Company (BAC). The second New ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic meeting, will be held on April 23–24, 2013 in Frankfurt, Germany. PMID:22864407

  14. Semantics-based distributed I/O with the ParaMEDIC framework.

    SciTech Connect

    Balaji, P.; Feng, W.; Lin, H.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Virginia Tech; North Carolina State Univ.

    2008-01-01

    Many large-scale applications simultaneously rely on multiple resources for efficient execution. For example, such applications may require both large compute and storage resources; however, very few supercomputing centers can provide large quantities of both. Thus, data generated at the compute site oftentimes has to be moved to a remote storage site for either storage or visualization and analysis. Clearly, this is not an efficient model, especially when the two sites are distributed over a wide-area network. Thus, we present a framework called 'ParaMEDIC: Parallel Metadata Environment for Distributed I/O and Computing' which uses application-specific semantic information to convert the generated data to orders-of-magnitude smaller metadata at the compute site, transfer the metadata to the storage site, and re-process the metadata at the storage site to regenerate the output. Specifically, ParaMEDIC trades a small amount of additional computation (in the form of data post-processing) for a potentially significant reduction in data that needs to be transferred in distributed environments.

  15. Nitrogen hydrides and the H2 ortho-to-para ratio in dark clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dislaire, V.; Hily-Blant, P.; Faure, A.; Maret, S.; Bacmann, A.; Pineau Des Forêts, G.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen-bearing species are common tracers of the physical conditions in a wide variety of objects, and most remarkably, in dark clouds. The reservoir of gaseous nitrogen is expected to be atomic or molecular, but none of the two species are observable in the dark gas. Their abundances therefore derive indirectly from those of N-bearing species through chemical modelling. The recent years have accumulated data that stress our incomplete understanding of the nitrogen chemistry in dark cloud conditions. To tackle this problem of the nitrogen chemistry in cold gas, we have revised the formation of nitrogen hydrides, which is initiated by the key reaction N+ + H2 → NH+ + H. We propose a new rate for this reaction that depends on the ortho-to-para ratio of H2. This new rate allows reproduction of the abundance ratios of the three nitrogen hydrides, NH, NH2, and NH3, which are observed towards IRAS 16293-2422, provided that the channel leading to NH from the dissociative recombination of N2H+ is not closed at low temperature. The ortho-to-para ratio of H2 is constrained to O/P = 10-3 by the abundance ratio NH:NH2, which provides a new method of measuring O/P. This work stresses the need for reaction rates at the low temperatures of dark clouds, and for branching ratios of critical dissociative recombination reactions.

  16. A non-equilibrium ortho-to-para ratio of water in the Orion PDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Bergin, E. A.; Plume, R.

    2014-12-01

    Context. The ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of H2O is thought to be sensitive to the temperature of water formation. The OPR of H2O is thus useful for studying the formation mechanism of water. Aims: We investigate the OPR of water in the Orion PDR (photon-dominated region), at the Orion Bar and Orion S positions, using data from Herschel/HIFI. Methods: We detect the ground-state lines of ortho- and para-H218O in the Orion Bar and Orion S and estimate the column densities using local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE methods. Results: Based on our calculations, the OPR in the Orion Bar is 0.1-0.5, which is unexpectedly low given the gas temperature of ~85 K, and also lower than the values measured for other interstellar clouds and protoplanetary disks. Toward Orion S, our OPR estimate is below 2. Conclusions: This low OPR at 2 positions in the Orion PDR is inconsistent with gas phase formation and with thermal evaporation from dust grains, but it may be explained by photodesorption. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Modelizacion, control e implementacion de un procesador energetico paralelo para aplicacion en sistemas multisalida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreres Sabater, Agustin

    Cualquier sistema electronico que incluya un procesado o tratamiento de la senal, y ademas, algun tipo de actuador mecanico generalmente necesita, como minimo, dos tensiones diferentes de alimentacion. Excluyendo los sistemas de alimentacion distribuida, la solucion tecnica mas utilizada para proporcionar dos o mas tensiones consiste en las fuentes de alimentacion multisalida. En una fuente de alimentacion multisalida los diferentes circuitos que conforman cada salida comparten un mismo transformador de potencia optimizando coste, masa, y volumen. Las ventajas obtenidas con este procedimiento tienen en su contra el efecto que sobre cada salida individual provocan las demas en su conjunto debido, principalmente, a los efectos de los elementos parasitos de los componentes. Un cambio de carga en una de las salidas produce un transitorio que es visto por todas las demas como un efecto de impedancia cruzada, y al final del transitorio, la tension de cada salida es diferente respecto a la que tenian antes del transitorio. Este ultimo resultado se conoce como regulacion cruzada. La disminucion de los efectos de la regulacion cruzada ha sido objeto de estudio durante los ultimos anos. El objetivo ha sido el desarrollo de distintas estrategias que permiten, desde disminuir los efectos de la regulacion cruzada hasta los niveles deseables, a eliminarla completamente. El resultado final suele suponer una penalizacion sobre el diseno del sistema directamente proporcional al grado de regulacion a conseguir en las distintas salidas. Entre las soluciones propuestas para eliminar la regulacion cruzada las tecnicas de post-regulacion se han consolidado como la opcion mas aceptada ya que, pueden aplicarse a cualquier convertidor y no suponen ninguna complejidad adicional a la hora de plantear el diseno. En esta Tesis Doctoral se abordara el estudio de la tecnica conocida como postregulacion mediante transformador controlado, que si bien se ha empleado en convertidores resonantes, su modelizacion, y aplicacion en convertidores PWM, esta aun por estudiar y valorar. El primer Capitulo consiste en una breve introduccion al problema de la regulacion cruzada y la impedancia cruzada para posteriormente describir las tecnicas de post-regulacion actualmente mas empleadas, con especial atencion al post-regulador con transformador controlado. El Capitulo segundo trata del estudio de las caracteristicas estaticas del postregulador con transformador controlado. Partiendo de los estudios disponibles sobre el postregulador se plantean mejoras en su modo de actuacion y se discuten tres alternativas diferentes para controlar el transformador. Las dos primeras consisten en emplear un convertidor auxiliar Boost en sus dos modos de funcionamiento, continuo y discontinuo. La tercera consiste en controlar el transformador con una tension PWM directamente, sin filtrado. Finalmente se comprueba experimentalmente, para el estado estacionario, el funcionamiento del post-regulador para cada uno de los tres metodos de control. El Capitulo tercero trata de la dinamica de la salida controlada con el post-regulador cuando este emplea un convertidor auxiliar tipo Boost. Mediante la tecnica de promediado de variables de estado se propone el modelo de pequena senal, tanto para el modo continuo como para el modo discontinuo de funcionamiento del convertidor auxiliar. Los resultados mas significativos de esta seccion son las expresiones analiticas de las impedancias cruzadas y de la impedancia de la salida post-regulada. Como complemento al modelo de pequena senal se plantea un modelo de gran senal implementado sobre el simulador Pspice. Con este nuevo modelo se reproducen los resultados obtenidos con el modelo de pequena senal y ademas es posible simular los transitorios en las tensiones de salida ante cambios de carga. La modelizacion del convertidor cuando el transformador se controla con una tension PWM sin filtrar es el objetivo del Capitulo 4. En las secciones siguientes del Capitulo se plantea el correspondiente modelo de gran senal aplicado a un nuevo prototipo experimental, de mayor tension de entrada y mayores corrientes de salida. El final del Capitulo contrasta los resultados experimentales con los teoricos confirmando la utilidad del modelo de gran senal como una herramienta basica de diseno. Finalmente, en el Capitulo 5, se presentan las conclusiones y la valoracion de los diferentes estudios plateados a lo largo de la Tesis Doctoral.

  18. Effects of acoustic feedback training in elite-standard Para-Rowing.

    PubMed

    Schaffert, Nina; Mattes, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and feedback devices have been regularly used in technique training in high-performance sports. Biomechanical analysis is mainly visually based and so can exclude athletes with visual impairments. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of auditory feedback on mean boat speed during on-water training of visually impaired athletes. The German National Para-Rowing team (six athletes, mean ± s, age 34.8 ± 10.6 years, body mass 76.5 ± 13.5 kg, stature 179.3 ± 8.6 cm) participated in the study. Kinematics included boat acceleration and distance travelled, collected with Sofirow at two intensities of training. The boat acceleration-time traces were converted online into acoustic feedback and presented via speakers during rowing (sections with and without alternately). Repeated-measures within-participant factorial ANOVA showed greater boat speed with acoustic feedback than baseline (0.08 ± 0.01 m·s(-1)). The time structure of rowing cycles was improved (extended time of positive acceleration). Questioning of athletes showed acoustic feedback to be a supportive training aid as it provided important functional information about the boat motion independent of vision. It gave access for visually impaired athletes to biomechanical analysis via auditory information. The concept for adaptive athletes has been successfully integrated into the preparation for the Para-Rowing World Championships and Paralympics. PMID:25105858

  19. Molecularly imprinted polyaniline-polyvinyl sulphonic acid composite based sensor for para-nitrophenol detection.

    PubMed

    Roy, Abhijit Chandra; Nisha, V S; Dhand, Chetna; Ali, Md Azahar; Malhotra, B D

    2013-05-13

    We report results of the studies relating to the fabrication and characterization of a conducting polymer based molecularly imprinted para-nitrophenol (PNP) sensor. A water pollutant, para-nitrophenol is electrochemically imprinted with polyvinyl sulphonic acid (PVSA) doped polyaniline onto indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate. This PNP imprinted electrode (PNPI-PANI-PVSA/ITO) prepared via chronopotentiometric polymerization and over-oxidation is characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, contact angle (CA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) studies. The response studies of PNPI-PANI-PVSA/ITO electrode carried out using DPV reveal a lower detection limit of 1×10(-3) mM, improved sensitivity as 1.5×10(-3) A mM(-1) and stability of 45 days. The PNPI-PANI-PVSA/ITO electrode shows good precision with relative standard deviation of 2.1% and good reproducibility with standard deviation of 3.78%. PMID:23622966

  20. Rotational relaxation of CS by collision with ortho- and para-H{sub 2} molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Departamento de Física, Universidad de Matanzas, Matanzas 40100 ; Stoecklin, Thierry Halvick, Philippe; Dubernet, Marie-Lise

    2013-11-28

    Quantum mechanical investigation of the rotationally inelastic collisions of CS with ortho- and para-H{sub 2} molecules is reported. The new global four-dimensional potential energy surface presented in our recent work is used. Close coupling scattering calculations are performed in the rigid rotor approximation for ortho- and para-H{sub 2} colliding with CS in the j = 0–15 rotational levels and for collision energies ranging from 10{sup −2} to 10{sup 3} cm{sup −1}. The cross sections and rate coefficients for selected rotational transitions of CS are compared with the ones previously reported for the collision of CS with He. The largest discrepancies are observed at low collision energy, below 1 cm{sup −1}. Above 10 cm{sup −1}, the approximation using the square root of the relative mass of the colliders to calculate the cross sections between a molecule and H{sub 2} from the data available with {sup 4}He is found to be a good qualitative approximation. The rate coefficients calculated with the electron gas model for the He-CS system show more discrepancy with our accurate results. However, scaling up these rates by a factor of 2 gives a qualitative agreement.

  1. Um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, G. B.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Há uma enorme carência de materiais didático-pedagógicos em astronomia para professores do ensino médio, sobretudo materiais que explorem também aspectos humanísticos. A origem do Universo é um bom exemplo desta constatação central. Embora tal origem teve explicações culturais diversas, os professores não têm informações sobre isso e muito menos material que trabalhe diferentes visões de mundo e treinamento que os capacite a abordá-las devidamente. Conseqüentemente o ensino de astronomia costuma ser tecnicista e dissociado do aspecto humano que alimenta o grande interesse e curiosidade que esses temas despertam. Aqui apresentamos propostas visando contribuir para reverter esse quadro e trabalhamos distintas visões de Universo: espontâneas, autóctones e científicas. Desenvolvemos práticas, materiais instrucionais e textos para viabilizar a adoção de um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio, no qual as culturas humanística e científica sejam integradas de uma maneira contextualizada e eficaz para aquele ensino. Estas propostas foram aplicadas em um curso de treinamento para professores da rede pública de diferentes disciplinas. A receptividade dos professores à abordagem proposta e os resultados alcançados foram muito estimulantes. Destes, destacamos: produção de roteiros de atividades; desenvolvimento de práticas didático-pedagógicas específicas (e.g., encenação de mitos; dança primordial guarani; "criação" de constelações e interpretações pluriculturais; etc.); e sugestões concretas para a efetiva realização de um ensino interdisciplinar contextualizado, onde questões cosmogônicas servem de mote para iniciar tal ensino. Discutimos estes resultados e como o enfoque adotado pode instrumentalizar os professores para leituras de mundo que incluem naturalmente aspectos culturais, sociais e históricos associados aos temas estudados. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  2. Instrumentation for Astronomy Teaching: Projecting the Sun Image. (Spanish Title: Instrumentación Para la Enseñanza de Astronomía: Proyectando la Imagen del Sol.) Instrumentação Para O Ensino de Astronomia: Projetando a Imagem do Sol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catelli, Francisco; Giovan, Odilon; Balen, Osvaldo; Siqueira da Silva, Fernando

    2009-07-01

    In this work we describe a simple optical device to project the Sun image which is useful for solar eclipses observing and for sunspots' size estimating.

    Se describe un dispositivo óptico simple para proyectar la imagen del Sol, lo cual es apropiado para las observaciones de eclipses solares y para estimar las dimensiones de las manchas solares.

    É descrito um dispositivo ótico simples para projetar a imagem do Sol, adequado para observações de eclipses solares e à estimativa do tamanho das manchas solares.

  3. Metabolism of Doubly para-Substituted Hydroxychlorobiphenyls by Bacterial Biphenyl Dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Thi Thanh My; Sondossi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we examined the profile of metabolites produced from the doubly para-substituted biphenyl analogs 4,4′-dihydroxybiphenyl, 4-hydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl, 3-hydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl, and 3,3′-dihydroxy-4,4′-chlorobiphenyl by biphenyl-induced Pandoraea pnomenusa B356 and by its biphenyl dioxygenase (BPDO). 4-Hydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl was hydroxylated principally through a 2,3-dioxygenation of the hydroxylated ring to generate 2,3-dihydro-2,3,4-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl and 3,4-dihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl after the removal of water. The former was further oxidized by the biphenyl dioxygenase to produce ultimately 3,4,5-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl, a dead-end metabolite. 3-Hydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl was oxygenated on both rings. Hydroxylation of the nonhydroxylated ring generated 2,3,3′-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl with concomitant dechlorination, and 2,3,3′-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl was ultimately metabolized to 2-hydroxy-4-chlorobenzoate, but hydroxylation of the hydroxylated ring generated dead-end metabolites. 3,3′-Dihydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl was principally metabolized through a 2,3-dioxygenation to generate 2,3-dihydro-2,3,3′-trihydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl, which was ultimately converted to 3-hydroxy-4-chlorobenzoate. Similar metabolites were produced when the biphenyl dioxygenase of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 was used to catalyze the reactions, except that for the three substrates used, the BPDO of LB400 was less efficient than that of B356, and unlike that of B356, it was unable to further oxidize the initial reaction products. Together the data show that BPDO oxidation of doubly para-substituted hydroxychlorobiphenyls may generate nonnegligible amounts of dead-end metabolites. Therefore, biphenyl dioxygenase could produce metabolites other than those expected, corresponding to dihydrodihydroxy metabolites from initial doubly para-substituted substrates. This finding shows that a clear picture of the fate of polychlorinated biphenyls in contaminated sites will require more insights into the bacterial metabolism of hydroxychlorobiphenyls and the chemistry of the dihydrodihydroxylated metabolites derived from them. PMID:25956777

  4. ORTHO-TO-PARA ABUNDANCE RATIO OF WATER ION IN COMET C/2001 Q4 (NEAT): IMPLICATION FOR ORTHO-TO-PARA ABUNDANCE RATIO OF WATER

    SciTech Connect

    Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Kawakita, Hideyo; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Boice, Daniel C.; Martinez, Susan E.

    2012-04-20

    The ortho-to-para abundance ratio (OPR) of cometary molecules is considered to be one of the primordial characteristics of cometary ices, and contains information concerning their formation. Water is the most abundant species in cometary ices, and OPRs of water in comets have been determined from infrared spectroscopic observations of H{sub 2}O rovibrational transitions so far. In this paper, we present a new method to derive OPR of water in comets from the high-dispersion spectrum of the rovibronic emission of H{sub 2}O{sup +} in the optical wavelength region. The rovibronic emission lines of H{sub 2}O{sup +} are sometimes contaminated by other molecular emission lines but they are not affected seriously by telluric absorption compared with near-infrared observations. Since H{sub 2}O{sup +} ions are mainly produced from H{sub 2}O by photoionization in the coma, the OPR of H{sub 2}O{sup +} is considered to be equal to that of water based on the nuclear spin conservation through the reaction. We have developed a fluorescence excitation model of H{sub 2}O{sup +} and applied it to the spectrum of comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT). The derived OPR of water is 2.54{sup +0.32}{sub -0.25}, which corresponds to a nuclear spin temperature (T{sub spin}) of 30{sup +10}{sub -4} K. This is consistent with the previous value determined in the near-infrared for the same comet (OPR = 2.6 {+-} 0.3, T{sub spin} = 31{sup +11}{sub -5} K).

  5. Monomers that form conducting polymers as structure-directing agents: synthesis of microporous molecular sieves encapsulating poly-para-phenylenevinylene.

    PubMed

    Atienzar, Pedro; Díaz-Cabañas, María J; Moliner, Manuel; Peris, Encarna; Corma, Avelino; García, Hermenegildo

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a novel concept that uses monomers required for making conducting polymers as organic structure-directing agents, for the synthesis of microporous molecular sieves. We show that these monomers facilitate the formation of crystalline and amorphous molecular sieves depending on the synthesis procedure. The monomers filling the pores of the silicates can be polymerized under certain conditions, resulting in a polymer immobilized and protected inside the matrix. The concept was exemplified with para-phenylenemethylene-bis(1-tetrahydrothiophenium) and para-phenylenemethylene-bis(trimethylammonium) that were used to template microporous molecular sieves and subsequently to obtain poly-para-phenylenevinylene (PPV) inside the matrix. The organic self-assembled organic-inorganic material was extensively characterized and the implication on electrical conductivity is presented. PMID:17665376

  6. Molecular hydrogen in the vicinity of NGC 7538 IRS 1 and IRS 2 - Temperature and ortho-to-para ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoban, Susan; Reuter, Dennis C.; Mumma, Michael J.; Storrs, Alex D.

    1991-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the active star-forming region near NGC 7538 IRS 1 and IRS 2 were made. The relative intensities of the v = 1-0 Q(1), Q(3), and Q(5) lines of molecular hydrogen are used to calculate a rotational excitation temperature. Comparison of the measured intensity of the Q(2) transition relative to the intensity of Q(1) and Q(3) permitted the retrieval of the ratio of ortho-to-para hydrogen. It is found that an ortho-to-para ratio of between 1.6 and 2.35 is needed to explain the Q-branch line intensity ratios, depending on the excitation model used. This range in ortho-to-para ratios implies a range of molecular hydrogen formation temperature of approximately 105 K to 140 K.

  7. Computational studies of the regioselectivities of COMT-catalyzed meta-/para-O methylations of luteolin and quercetin.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yang; Chen, Zhong-Jian; Jiang, Hui-Di; Chen, Jian-Zhong

    2014-01-16

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, EC 2.1.1.6) plays a central role in the inactivation of neurotransmitters sharing a catecholic motif by transferring a methyl group from AdoMet. Methylation of the meta-hydroxyl is much more common than that of the para-hydroxyl in many COMT substrates, such as dopamine and norepinephrine. Our experimental data showed that quercetin preferred meta-methylation but luteolin favored a para-methylation. To elucidate the mechanism for different preferences of methylations of quercetin and luteolin, we performed a theoretical investigation on the different regioseletivities of COMT-catalyzed methylations for quercetin and luteolin by a combined approach of MD simulations, ab initio calculations, and QM/MM computations. The ab initio calculation results showed that both quercetin and luteolin have more negative charge distributions on the meta-O atom than the para-O atom, which indicated that meta-O preferred SN2 reaction for their methylation. Our QM/MM computations also confirmed that these two flavonoids have lower reaction energetic barriers for COMT-catalyzed meta-O-methylation than para-O-methylation. On the other hand, our binding free energy computation results indicated that quercetin has a more stable binding mode for meta-O-methylation than para-O-methylation but luteolin has a more stable binding mode for para-O-methylation than meta-O-methylation. We gave a comprehensive explanation considering both thermodynamics and reaction kinetics aspects and discussed the protein-inhibitor interactions as well as the O-methylation mechanism in our present work. PMID:24354565

  8. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer for investigation of the interaction of Para Red with serum albumins.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Zeng, Xiaodan; Zhang, Fusheng

    2016-03-01

    Para Red (PR) has been isolated from food additives, and shown to be toxic to humans. To facilitate examination of its toxicity, the interaction between PR and serum albumins (SA) was studied using fluorescence quenching and circular dichroism (CD) spectrophotometry. The experiments showed that the fluorescence intensity of serum albumins decreased with increasing concentrations of PR, which resulted from the binding of PR and SA. The binding constant, number of binding sites and thermodynamic parameters were calculated and hydrogen bond and van der Waals interactions were shown to play a key role in the binding process. Competition experiments indicated that PR mainly binds to Trp residues of SA within the site I. As the CD and three-dimensional spectra revealed, the addition of PR induced a conformational change in SA. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26178918

  9. Analysis of the thermal reaction products of para polyphenylene by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of the volatiles and sublimate produced when para-polyphenylene is pyrolyzed to constant weight under vacuum in the temperature range from 380 to 1000 C indicates that the polymer undergoes thermal degradation in two stages. The first stage involved dehydrohalogenation, which is essentially a curing reaction that produces crosslinking between polyphenylene chains resulting from the loss of chlorine from the polymer in the form of hydrogen chloride. The second stage of the thermal degradation is dehydrogenation because hydrogen is the major volatile species. Increasing amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene and 9, 10 benzphenanthrene) in the sublimate, concomitant with increasing C/H ratios of the polymeric residue with pyrolysis temperature, is consistent with the buildup of polynuclear structures in the polymer matrix.

  10. Cholecystocutaneous fistula: an unusual complication of a para-umbilical hernia repair

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Steven; Sharma, Mitesh; Holtham, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This case describes a 94-year-old woman who presented 2 years postsutured para-umbilical hernia repair with a painful black lump protruding through her scar with blood stained discharge. This was initially thought to be either ischaemic bowel secondary to strangulated incisional hernia or a large organised haematoma. An urgent CT scan was performed following which the patient passed two large calculi and bile-stained fluid spontaneously through the wound, making the diagnosis somewhat clearer. The scan revealed an incisional hernia containing the gallbladder and two large calculi at the skin surface and an incidental large caecal cancer with surrounding lymphadenopathy. Frail health and the incidental finding of a colon cancer rendered invasive surgical management inappropriate. Therefore, she was managed conservatively with antibiotics. A catheter was inserted into the fistula tract to allow free drainage and alleviate pressure-related symptoms. The patient was discharged following a multidisciplinary team discussion. PMID:24862413

  11. Applicability of the ParaDNA(®) Screening System to Seminal Samples.

    PubMed

    Tribble, Nicholas D; Miller, Jamie A D; Dawnay, Nick; Duxbury, Nicola J

    2015-05-01

    Seminal fluid represents a common biological material recovered from sexual assault crime scenes. Such samples can be prescreened using different techniques to determine cell type and relative amount before submitting for full STR profiling. The ParaDNA(®) Screening System is a novel forensic test which identifies the presence of DNA through amplification and detection of two common STR loci (D16S539 and TH01) and the Amelogenin marker. The detection of the Y allele in samples could provide a useful tool in the triage and submission of sexual assault samples by enforcement authorities. Male template material was detected on a range of common sexual assault evidence items including cotton pillow cases, condoms, swab heads and glass surfaces and shows a detection limit of 1 in 1000 dilution of neat semen. These data indicate this technology has the potential to be a useful tool for the detection of male donor DNA in sexual assault casework. PMID:25739746

  12. Proyecto para la medición sistemática de seeing en CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Lajus, E.; Forte, J. C.

    La calidad del seeing astronómico es ciertamente uno de los parámetros mas importantes que caracterizan el sitio de un observatorio. Por tanto se desea determinar si el alto valor de seeing observado con el telescopio de 2.15 m se debe a efectos internos y/o del entorno a la cupula o si se debe simplemente al seeing propio del lugar. El actual mecanismo de refrigeración del espejo primario del 2.15, parece haber mejorado notablemente la calidad del seeing. Sin embargo se hace necesario saber hasta que punto el valor del seeing puede ser mejorado. La primera etapa del proyecto consistió en la puesta a punto del telescopio emplazado para este propósito y la adquisición de las primeras medidas tentativas de seeing.

  13. The barrier to internal rotation and electronic effects in para-halogenophenols: theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zierkiewicz, Wiktor; Michalska, Danuta; Hobza, Pavel

    2004-03-01

    The OH rotational barrier height in phenol and para-halogenophenols systematically decreases in the series Br, Cl and F, while the changes in the CO bond length and CO bond strength do not follow this order. On the basis of the NBO analysis it is suggested that lowering of the barrier height in p-halogenophenols is caused by the decrease of electron density in the sigma antibonding orbital, σ *(CO), and a weak occupancy of this orbital is due to the electron delocalization from the σ(CC) ring orbitals. This effect can be either reinforced or reduced, depending on the extent of conjugation between the p z-type lone electron pair on the oxygen atom and the π *(CC) acceptor orbitals in the aromatic ring.

  14. Searching for Auxetics with DYNA3D and ParaDyn

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, W G; Hoover, C G

    2004-09-11

    We sought to simulate auxetic behavior by carrying out dynamic analyses of mesoscopic model structures. We began by generating nearly periodic cellular structures. Four-node 'Shell' elements and eight-node 'Brick' elements are the basic building blocks for each cell. The shells and bricks obey standard elastic-plastic continuum mechanics. The dynamical response of the structures was next determined for a three-stage loading process: (1) homogeneous compression; (2) viscous relaxation; (3) uniaxial compression. The simulations were carried out with both serial and parallel computer codes--DYNA3D and ParaDyn--which describe the deformation of the shells and bricks with a robust contact algorithm. We summarize the results found here.

  15. Surface treatment of para-aramid fiber by argon dielectric barrier discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ruxi; Yu, Junrong; Hu, Chengcheng; Chen, Lei; Zhu, Jing; Hu, Zuming

    2012-10-01

    This paper is focused on influence of argon dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma on the adhesive performance and wettability of para-aramid fibers and three parameters including treated power, exposure time and argon flux were detected. The interfacial shear strength (IFSS) was greatly increased by 28% with 300 W, 60 s, 2 L min-1 argon flux plasma treatment. The content of oxygen atom and oxygen-containing polar functional groups were enhanced after the argon plasma treated, so as the surface roughness, which contributed to the improvement of surface wettability and the decrease of contact angle with water. However, long-time exposure, exorbitant power or overlarge argon flux could partly destroy the prior effects of the treatment and damage the mechanical properties of fibers to some degree.

  16. A method to obtain a well-defined fraction of respirable para-aramid fibers.

    PubMed

    Schins, R P; Gaudichet, A; Jaurand, M C

    1993-10-01

    We developed a preparation method to obtain respirable-sized fractions of para-aramid fibers. The procedure, based on floatability, consists of stirring and subsequent settling of p-aramid pulp in distilled water. Two distinct phases are obtained, with small fibers in the upper part of the suspension, which represents about 33% of the total volume. Optimal results were obtained when 2.0 g pulp was stirred for 15 hr in 800 ml distilled water containing 0.125% ethanol and settled for 5 hr. The mass yield ranged between 0.4 and 0.6%, more than 90% of the particles had an aspect ratio > or = 3:1. The mean fiber length was about 6 microns, and the mean fiber diameter was about 0.4 microns as determined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The number of fibers obtained was 4 x 10(6) fibers/micrograms under our standard conditions. PMID:8119251

  17. Perspectivas Futuras para o Observatório do Pico dos Dias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruch, Albert

    2004-02-01

    Com o Observatório Gemini plenamente operacional e o telescópio SOAR iniciando suas operações em breve, a astronomia observacional brasileira encontra-se no auge de uma transformação profunda que terá um impacto grave no Observatório do Pico dos Dias - OPD. Refletimos aqui sobre a natureza desse impacto e estratégias para manter a competitividade do OPD. Não queremos apresentar receitas prontas, mas idéias que poderão servir como base de discussão sobre o uso inteligente dos telescópios do OPD como parte do conjunto de instrumentos disponíveis à comunidade astronômica brasileira.

  18. Study and manufacture of a para-/ortho-hydrogen catalytic converter for a space cryostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baston, A. H.; Bradshaw, T. W.; Butler, G.; Clark, N. S.; Chadwick, A. T.; Harris, D. H. C.; Leach, F.; Norris, J. O. W.; Price, D.

    1986-01-01

    The design and optimization of a para-/ortho-hydrogen converter to increase the efficiency and lifetime of the hydrogen cryogenic system of the ISO project are described. Catalyst technology and associated heat transfer technology is evaluated. Four catalyst systems were characterized. Their catalytic activity under the orbital conditions anticipated for the three radiation shields of ISO are reported. Results from experiments on in situ deactivation and reactivation are given, indicating that this is a key parameter. Iron oxide gel is the most promising catalyst system. A full scale prototype converter was designed to ESTEC specifications, and three converters were manufactured and tested. Performance, except for two small details, meets or exceeds specification. Plans for the development and testing of flight unit converters are proposed.

  19. ACT-asthma control y tratamiento para niños: a progress report.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M A; de la Sota, A; Rachelefsky, G; Lewis, C E; Quinones, H; Richards, W

    1987-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial is in progress to evaluate an asthma educational program for Latino children and their parents. The intervention, "ACT-Asma Control y Tratamiento Para Niños," was adapted from ACT for Kids, an asthma self-management program for English-speaking families. Results of a pilot study indicated that socioeconomic status was a critical variable to be considered in the design of such programs. Latino children and parents encounter significant barriers to access and continuity of medical care. Therefore, the intervention was redesigned to include "linkages" using a nurse to reduce barriers and to coordinate care. The lesson plans emphasize concrete, experimental learning experiences, with repetition of key points in each session. PMID:3654235

  20. El Proyecto Sismico "LARSE" - Trabajando Hacia un Futuro con Mas Seguridad para Los Angeles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henyey, Thomas L.; Fuis, Gary S.; Benthien, Mark L.; Burdette, Thomas R.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Criley, Edward E.; Davis, Paul M.; Hendley, James W., II; Kohler, Monica D.; Lutter, William J.; McRaney, John K.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Ryberg, Trond; Simila, Gerald W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    La region de Los Angeles contiene una red de fallas activas, incluyendo muchas fallas por empuje que son profundas y no rompen la superficie de la tierra. Estas fallas ocultas incluyen la falla anteriormente desconocida que fue responsable por la devastacion que ocurrio durante el terremoto de Northridge en enero de 1994, el terremoto mas costoso en la historia de los Estados Unidos. El Experimento Sismico en la Region de Los Angeles (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, LARSE), esta localizando los peligros ocultos de los terremotos debajo de la region de Los Angeles para mejorar la construccion de las estructuras que pueden apoyar terremotos que son inevitables en el futuro, y que ayudaran a los cientificos determinar donde occurira el sacudimento mas fuerte y poderoso.

  1. Long-range excitons in conjugated polymers with ring torsions: poly( para-phenylene) and polyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigaya, Kikuo

    1998-08-01

    Ring torsion effects on the optical excitation properties of poly( para-phenylene) (PPP) and polyaniline (PAN) are investigated by extending the Shimoi-Abe model (Shimoi Y and Abe S 1996 Synth. Met. 78 219). The model is solved using the intermediate-exciton formalism. Long-range excitons are characterized, and the long-range component of the oscillator strengths is calculated. We find that ring torsions affect the long-range excitons in PAN more readily than those in PPP, due to the larger torsion angle of PAN and the large number of bonds whose hopping integrals are modulated by torsions. Next, ring torsional disorder effects simulated by the Gaussian distribution function are analysed. The long-range component of the total oscillator strengths after sample averaging is nearly independent of the disorder strength in the PPP case, while that in the PAN case decreases readily as the disorder becomes stronger.

  2. Photocarcinogenesis is retarded by a partly photodegraded solution of para-aminobenzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Flindt-Hansen, H; Thune, P; Nielsen, C J

    1989-12-01

    A solution of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) was exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation emitted from a Philips TL 40 W/12 sunlamp and the degree of photodegradation following an exposure of 27 J/cm2 was estimated to be approximately 40%. The formation of the photoproducts was confirmed by mass spectroscopy and UV spectroscopy. The solution was painted on the backs of hairless light-pigmented mice prior to daily UV irradiation by the above sunlamp, and this procedure was continued for 30 weeks. The preirradiated solution of PABA significantly retarded the tumor induction time and reduced significantly the number of squamous cell carcinomas compared with nonprotected controls. This tumor-retarding ability did not differ significantly from the effect achieved when using nonirradiated PABA. PMID:2636981

  3. Ortho/para ratio of H2O+ toward Sagittarius B2(M) revisited.

    PubMed

    Schilke, Peter; Lis, Dariusz C; Bergin, Edwin A; Higgins, Ronan; Comito, Claudia

    2013-10-01

    The HIFI instrument aboard the Herschel satellite has allowed the observation and characterization of light hydrides, the building blocks of interstellar chemistry. In this article, we revisit the ortho/para ratio for H2O(+) toward the Sgr B2(M) cloud core. The line of sight toward this star forming region passes through several spiral arms and the gas in the Bar potential in the inner Galaxy. In contrast to earlier findings, which used fewer lines to constrain the ratio, we find a ratio of 3, which is uniformly consistent with high-temperature formation of the species. In view of the reactivity of this ion, this matches the expectations. PMID:23713712

  4. [Neurocience in the Junta para Ampliación de Estudios].

    PubMed

    Díaz, Alfredo Baratas

    2007-01-01

    The development of the Neurociencias in the Spain at the first third of the 20th century had a strong histological and pathological component. The work of Santiago Ramon and Cajal and Luis Simarro was continued by some excellent disciples: Nicolas Achúcarro, Gonzalo Rodriguez Lafora, Fernando de Castro, etc. Some of them had to make compatible diverse occupations, even the professional exercise of psychiatry, before obtaining a modest - but stable - position of investigation. In spite of some misalignments in the institutional development of the centers and the personal biographical ups and downs, the Junta para Ampliación de Estudios was the great institution that fomented the international formation of the investigators and equipped to them with the means to develop its work. PMID:19845048

  5. Statistical ortho-to-para ratio of water desorbed from ice at 10 kelvin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hama, Tetsuya; Kouchi, Akira; Watanabe, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The anomalously low ortho-to-para ratios (OPRs) exhibited by gaseous water in space have been used to determine the formation temperature (<50 kelvin) of ice on cold interstellar dust. This approach assumes that the OPR of water desorbed from ice is related to the ice formation temperature on the dust. However, we report that water desorbed from ice at 10 kelvin shows a statistical high-temperature OPR of 3, even when the ice is produced in situ by hydrogenation of O2, a known formation process of interstellar water. This invalidates the assumed relation between OPR and temperature. The necessary reinterpretation of the low OPRs will help elucidate the chemical history of interstellar water from molecular clouds and processes in the early solar system, including comet formation.

  6. Sensitization to para-amino compounds in swim fins in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Seyfarth, Florian; Krautheim, Andrea; Schliemann, Sibylle; Elsner, Peter

    2009-09-01

    A ten-year-old boy presented with recurrent eczema on the dorsal of both feet and the thighs. His symptoms became worse when he used racing swim fins. Patch testing included the standard, ointments, preservatives, leather, textile dyes, rubber component, and corticosteroid series of the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG) as well as the patient's own materials (fin material). At 72 hours positive reactions were observed to blue flipper material, Acid Yellow 36, Bismarck Brown R, and DPPD. DPPD is widely used as an antioxidant in the rubber industries. Therefore, the dermatitis was most probably attributable to DPPD in the blue flipper material, although we were not able to prove this due to lack of cooperation of the manufacturer. Sensitization to Acid Yellow 36 and Bismarck Brown R are interpreted as cross sensitizations, since all substances are para-amino compounds. PMID:19386021

  7. Coordination nano-space as stage of hydrogen ortho–para conversion

    PubMed Central

    Kosone, Takashi; Hori, Akihiro; Nishibori, Eiji; Kubota, Yoshiki; Mishima, Akio; Ohba, Masaaki; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kato, Kenichi; Kim, Jungeun; Real, José Antonio; Kitagawa, Susumu; Takata, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    The ability to design and control properties of nano-sized space in porous coordination polymers (PCPs) would provide us with an ideal stage for fascinating physical and chemical phenomena. We found an interconversion of nuclear-spin isomers for hydrogen molecule H2 adsorbed in a Hofmann-type PCP, {Fe(pz)[Pd(CN)4]} (pz=pyrazine), by the temperature dependence of Raman spectra. The ortho (o)–para (p) conversion process of H2 is forbidden for an isolated molecule. The charge density study using synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction reveals the electric field generated in coordination nano-space. The present results corroborate similar findings observed on different systems and confirm that o–p conversion can occur on non-magnetic solids and that electric field can induce the catalytic hydrogen o–p conversion. PMID:26587262

  8. Genomic organization of Hox and ParaHox clusters in the echinoderm, Acanthaster planci.

    PubMed

    Baughman, Kenneth W; McDougall, Carmel; Cummins, Scott F; Hall, Mike; Degnan, Bernard M; Satoh, Nori; Shoguchi, Eiichi

    2014-12-01

    The organization of echinoderm Hox clusters is of interest due to the role that Hox genes play in deuterostome development and body plan organization, and the unique gene order of the Hox complex in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, which has been linked to the unique development of the axial region. Here, it has been reported that the Hox and ParaHox clusters of Acanthaster planci, a corallivorous starfish found in the Pacific and Indian oceans, generally resembles the chordate and hemichordate clusters. The A. planci Hox cluster shared with sea urchins the loss of one of the medial Hox genes, even-skipped (Evx) at the anterior of the cluster, as well as organization of the posterior Hox genes. PMID:25394327

  9. Theoretical and Experimental Studies on the Nonlinear Optical Chromophore para Bromoacetanilide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jothy, V. Bena; Vijayakumar, T.; Jayakumar, V. S.; Udayalekshmi, K.; Ramamurthy, K.; Joe, I. Hubert

    2008-11-01

    Vibrational spectral analysis of the hydrogen bonded non-linear optical (NLO) material para Bromo Acetanilide (PBA) is carried out using NIR FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy. Ab initio molecular orbital computations have been performed at HF/6-31G(d) level to derive equilibrium geometry, vibrational wavenumbers, intensities and first hyperpolarizability. The lowering of the imino stretching wavenumbers suggests the existence of strong intermolecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding substantiated by the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Blue shifting CH stretching wavenumbers, simultaneous activation of carbonyl stretching mode and the strong activation of low wavenumber H-bond stretching vibrations shows the presence of intramolecular charge transfer in the molecule.

  10. High-pressure dissociation of crystalline para-diiodobenzene: optical experiments and Car-Parrinello calculations.

    PubMed

    Brillante, Aldo; Della Valle, Raffaele G; Farina, Luca; Venuti, Elisabetta; Cavazzoni, Carlo; Emerson, Andrew P J; Syassen, Karl

    2005-03-01

    We have investigated the high-pressure properties of the molecular crystal para-diiodobenzene, by combining optical absorption, reflectance, and Raman experiments with Car-Parrinello simulations. The optical absorption edge exhibits a large red shift from 4 eV at ambient conditions to about 2 eV near 30 GPa. Reflectance measurements up to 80 GPa indicate a redistribution of oscillator strength toward the near-infrared. The calculations, which describe correctly the two known molecular crystal phases at ambient pressure, predict a nonmolecular metallic phase, stable at high pressure. This high-density phase is characterized by an extended three-dimensional network, in which chemically bound iodine atoms form layers connected by hydrocarbon bridges. Experimentally, Raman spectra of samples recovered after compression show vibrational modes of elemental solid iodine. This result points to a pressure-induced molecular dissociation process which leads to the formation of domains of iodine and disordered carbon. PMID:15740142

  11. Practical in-situ determination of ortho-para hydrogen ratios via fiber-optic based Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Liese-Marie; Knudson, James N.; Mocko, Michal; Renneke, Richard M.

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was designed and developed to prototype a fiber-optic-based laser system, which measures the ratio of ortho-hydrogen to para-hydrogen in an operating neutron moderator system at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) spallation neutron source. Preliminary measurements resulted in an ortho to para ratio of 3.06:1, which is within acceptable agreement with the previously published ratio. The successful demonstration of Raman Spectroscopy for this measurement is expected to lead to a practical method that can be applied for similar in-situ measurements at operating neutron spallation sources.

  12. Experimental verification of equilibrium para-hydrogen levels in hydrogen moderators irradiated by spallation neutrons at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teshigawara, M.; Harada, M.; Tatsumoto, H.; Aso, T.; Ohtsu, K.; Takada, H.; Futakawa, M.; Ikeda, Y.

    2016-02-01

    By sampling gaseous hydrogen from a circulating liquid hydrogen loop for Laser Raman spectroscopy, we measured the para-/ortho-hydrogen fractions in liquid hydrogen under neutron irradiation for the first time to identify whether irradiated hydrogen has an elevated ortho-hydrogen fraction. This measurement indicates that para-hydrogen equilibrium persists at 300 kW proton power in the presence of an iron(III) oxide hydroxide [Fe(OH)3] catalyst. The measurements will be repeated as the power at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) increases to the MW level.

  13. Practical in-situ determination of ortho-para hydrogen ratios via fiber-optic based Raman spectroscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sutherland, Liese -Marie; Knudson, James N.; Mocko, Michal; Renneke, Richard M.

    2015-12-17

    An experiment was designed and developed to prototype a fiber-optic-based laser system, which measures the ratio of ortho-hydrogen to para-hydrogen in an operating neutron moderator system at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) spallation neutron source. Preliminary measurements resulted in an ortho to para ratio of 3.06:1, which is within acceptable agreement with the previously published ratio. As a result, the successful demonstration of Raman Spectroscopy for this measurement is expected to lead to a practical method that can be applied for similar in-situ measurements at operating neutron spallation sources.

  14. Uma grade de perfis teóricos para estrelas massivas em transição

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, C. M. P.; Machado, M. A.

    2003-08-01

    Na XXVIII Reunião Anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (2002) apresentamos uma grade de perfis calculados de acordo com os pontos da trajetória evolutiva de metalicidade solar, Z = 0.02 e taxa de perda de massa () padrão, para estrelas com massa inicial de 25, 40, 60, 85 e 120 massas solares. Estes perfis foram calculados com o auxílio de um código numérico adequado para descrever os ventos de objetos massivos, supondo simetria esférica, estacionaridade e homogeneidade. No presente trabalho, apresentamos a complementação da grade com os perfis teóricos relativos às trajetórias de Z = 0.02 com taxa de perda de massa dobrada em relação a padrão (2´), e de metalicidade Z = 0.008. Para cada ponto das três trajetórias obtemos os perfis teóricos de Ha, Hb, Hg e Hd, e como esperado eles se apresentam em pura emissão, pura absorção ou em P-Cygni. Para valores de taxa de perda de massa muito baixos (~10-7) não há formação de linhas, o que é visto nos primeiros pontos em todas as trajetórias. Em geral, para um mesmo ponto a componente de emissão diminui e a absorção aumenta de Ha para Hd. É verificado que as trajetórias com Z = 0.02 e padrão possuem menos circuitos (loops) do que as com metalicidade Z = 0.02 e 2´ padrão, e seus perfis são, em geral, menos intensos. Em relação a trajetória de Z = 0.008, verifica-se menos circuitos e maior variação em luminosidade, e seus perfis mostram-se em, algumas trajetórias, mais intensos. Verificamos também que, pontos distintos em uma mesma trajetória, apresentam perfis diferentes para valores similares de luminosidade e temperatura efetiva. Sendo assim, uma grade de perfis teóricos parece ser útil para fornecer uma informação preliminar sobre o estágio evolutivo de uma estrela massiva.

  15. Extraperitoneal Robotic-Assisted Para-Aortic Lymphadenectomy in Gynecologic Cancer Staging: Current Evidence.

    PubMed

    Bogani, Giorgio; Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Signorelli, Mauro; Chiappa, Valentina; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Scaffa, Cono; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the current evidence on the safety, effectiveness, and applicability of extraperitoneal robotic-assisted para-aortic lymphadenectomy (ExtRA-PAL) as the staging procedure of gynecologic malignancies. PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus, Web of Science databases, and ClinicalTrails.gov were searched for original studies reporting outcomes of ExtRA-PAL. Quality of the included studies and their level of recommendation were assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines, respectively. Overall, 62 studies were identified; after a process of evidence acquisition 5 original investigations were available for this review that included 98 patients undergoing ExtRA-PAL. The main surgical indication was staging for cervical cancer (n = 71, 72%). The mean (SD) number of para-aortic node yielded was 15.4 (±4.7) nodes. Blood transfusion and intraoperative complication rates were 2% and 6%, respectively. ExtRA-PAL was completed in 88 patients (90%). Six (6%) and 4 (4%) patients had conversion to other minimally invasive procedures and open surgery, respectively. Success rate was 99% among patients undergoing ExtRA-PAL without concomitant procedures. Overall, mean (SD) length of hospital stay was 2.8 (±0.5) days. Twenty-four patients (24%) developed postoperative events. According to the Clavien-Dindo grading system, grades IIIa and IIIb morbidity rates were 12% and 2%, respectively. No grades IV and V morbidity occurred. ExtRA-PAL is associated with a high success rate and a relative low morbidity rate. However, because of the limited data on this issue, further studies are warranted to assess the long-term effectiveness of this procedure. PMID:26802906

  16. Controlling electronic product branching at conical intersections in the UV photolysis of para-substituted thiophenols.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Thomas A A; King, Graeme A; Tew, David P; Dixon, Richard N; Ashfold, Michael N R

    2012-12-27

    H (Rydberg) atom photofragment translation spectroscopy and high-level ab initio electronic structure calculations are used to explore the photodissociation dynamics of three para-substituted thiophenols (p-YPhSH; Y = CH(3), F, and MeO). UV excitation in the wavelength range 305 > λ(phot) > 240 nm results in S-H bond fission and formation of p-YPhS radicals in their ground (X̃(2)B(1)) and first excited (Ã(2)B(2)) electronic states; the X̃/Ã state product branching ratio, Γ, varies with para-Y substituent and excitation wavelength. Excitation at λ(phot) < 265 nm results in direct population of the dissociative 1(1)πσ* potential energy surface (PES). Γ falls across the series p-CH(3)PhSH > p-FPhSH > p-MeOPhSH. Branching is ultimately determined at the conical intersection (CI) formed by the 1(1)πσ* and ground (S(0)) PESs at extended R(S-H) bond length but is sensitively dependent on the orientation of the S-H bond (relative to the ring plane) in the S(0) molecules prior to photoexcitation. Excitation at λ(phot) > 265 nm populates quasi-bound levels of the respective 1(1)ππ* states, which predissociate rapidly by tunneling under the lower diabats of the 1(1)ππ*/1(1)πσ* CI at short R(S-H). Less extreme X̃/Ã product branching ratios are measured, implicating intramolecular vibrational redistribution within the photoexcited 1(1)ππ* molecules prior to their sampling the region of the 1(1)πσ*/S(0) CI. PMID:23110379

  17. Cost-effectiveness of para-aortic lymphadenectomy before chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Yun; Kim, Younhee; Lee, Tae-Jin; Jeon, Yong Woo; Kim, Kidong; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Park, Sang Min; Kim, Jae-Weon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of nodal staging surgery before chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced cervical cancer in the era of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Methods A modified Markov model was constructed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of para-aortic staging surgery before definite CRT when no uptake is recorded in the para-aortic lymph nodes (PALN) on PET/CT. Survival and complication rates were estimated based on the published literature. Cost data were obtained from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Strategies were compared using an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Sensitivity analyses were performed, including estimates for the performance of PET/CT, postoperative complication rate, and varying survival rates according to the radiation field. Results We compared two strategies: strategy 1, pelvic CRT for all patients; and strategy 2, nodal staging surgery followed by extended-field CRT when PALN metastasis was found and pelvic CRT otherwise. The ICER for strategy 2 compared to strategy 1 was $19,505 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Under deterministic sensitivity analyses, the model was relatively sensitive to survival reduction in patients who undergo pelvic CRT alone despite having occult PALN metastasis. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis demonstrated the robustness of the case results, with a 91% probability of cost-effectiveness at the willingness-to-pay thresholds of $60,000/QALY. Conclusion Nodal staging surgery before definite CRT may be cost-effective when PET/CT imaging shows no evidence of PALN metastasis. Prospective trials are warranted to transfer these results to guidelines. PMID:25925292

  18. The analysis of para-cresol production and tolerance in Clostridium difficile 027 and 012 strains

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Clostridium difficile is the major cause of antibiotic associated diarrhoea and in recent years its increased prevalence has been linked to the emergence of hypervirulent clones such as the PCR-ribotype 027. Characteristically, C. difficile infection (CDI) occurs after treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics, which disrupt the normal gut microflora and allow C. difficile to flourish. One of the relatively unique features of C. difficile is its ability to ferment tyrosine to para-cresol via the intermediate para-hydroxyphenylacetate (p-HPA). P-cresol is a phenolic compound with bacteriostatic properties which C. difficile can tolerate and may provide the organism with a competitive advantage over other gut microflora, enabling it to proliferate and cause CDI. It has been proposed that the hpdBCA operon, rarely found in other gut microflora, encodes the enzymes responsible for the conversion of p-HPA to p-cresol. Results We show that the PCR-ribotype 027 strain R20291 quantitatively produced more p-cresol in-vitro and was significantly more tolerant to p-cresol than the sequenced strain 630 (PCR-ribotype 012). Tyrosine conversion to p-HPA was only observed under certain conditions. We constructed gene inactivation mutants in the hpdBCA operon in strains R20291 and 630Δerm which curtails their ability to produce p-cresol, confirming the role of these genes in p-cresol production. The mutants were equally able to tolerate p-cresol compared to the respective parent strains, suggesting that tolerance to p-cresol is not linked to its production. Conclusions C. difficile converts tyrosine to p-cresol, utilising the hpdBCA operon in C. difficile strains 630 and R20291. The hypervirulent strain R20291 exhibits increased production of and tolerance to p-cresol, which may be a contributory factor to the virulence of this strain and other hypervirulent PCR-ribotype 027 strains. PMID:21527013

  19. On Ensino de Astronomia: Desafios para Implantação

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. Z.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    Em 2002 o ensino de Astronomia foi proposto como um dos temas estruturadores pelos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e sugerido como facilitador para que o aluno compreendesse a Física como construção humana e parte do seu mundo vivencial, mas raramente seus conceitos foram ensinados. A presente pesquisa discute dois aspectos relacionados à abordagem de Astronomia. O primeiro aspecto é se ela está sendo abordada pelos professores do Ensino Médio e o segundo, aborda a maneira como ela está sendo ensinada. Optou-se pela aplicação de um questionário a partir do 2° semestre de 2006 e durante o ano de 2007 com professores que ministram a disciplina de Física, os quais trabalham em escolas estaduais em Rio Grande da Serra, Ribeirão Pires e Mauá no estado São Paulo. Dos 66,2% dos professores que responderam ao questionário nos municípios de Rio Grande da Serra, Ribeirão Pires e Mauá, 57,4% não aplicaram nenhum tópico de astronomia, 70,2% não utilizaram laboratório, 89,4% não utilizaram qualquer tipo de programa computacional, 83,0% nunca fizeram visitas com alunos a museus e planetários e 38,3% não indicaram qualquer tipo de livro ou revista referente à astronomia aos seus alunos. Mesmo considerando a Astronomia um conteúdo potencialmente significativo, esta não fez parte dos planejamentos escolares. Portanto são necessárias propostas que visem estratégias para a educação continuada dos professores como, por exemplo, cursos específicos sobre o ensino em Astronomia.

  20. The Role Of Women In Popular Education In Bolivia: A Case Study Of The "Oficina Juridica Para La Mujer"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollins, Judith M.; Hansman, Catherine A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines how the Education Office of the "Oficina Juridica Para la Mujer" [Women's Legal Office] , a community-based popular education organization in Cochabamba, Bolivia, works with women to address personal, legal, and policy issues through local leadership training and popular education methodology. We investigate the marginalization…

  1. Theoretical Study of the Mechanism Behind the para-Selective Nitration of Toluene in Zeolite H-Beta

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Amity; Govind, Niranjan; Subramanian, Lalitha

    2011-11-28

    Periodic density functional theory calculations were performed to investigate the origin of the favorable para-selective nitration of toluene exhibited by zeolite H-beta with acetyl nitrate nitration agent. Energy calculations were performed for each of the 32 crystallographically unique Bronsted acid sites of a beta polymorph B zeolite unit cell with multiple Bronsted acid sites of comparable stability. However, one particular aluminum T-site with three favorable Bronsted site oxygens embedded in a straight 12-T channel wall provides multiple favorable proton transfer sites. Transition state searches around this aluminum site were performed to determine the barrier to reaction for both para and ortho nitration of toluene. A three-step process was assumed for the nitration of toluene with two organic intermediates: the pi- and sigma-complexes. The rate limiting step is the proton transfer from the sigma-complex to a zeolite Bronsted site. The barrier for this step in ortho nitration is shown to be nearly 2.5 times that in para nitration. This discrepancy appears to be due to steric constraints imposed by the curvature of the large 12-T pore channels of beta and the toluene methyl group in the ortho approach that are not present in the para approach.

  2. Familiares a cargo de pacientes de cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desafíos que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con cáncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones típicas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones útiles para esas personas.

  3. PLASMA CLEARANCE OF VITELLOGENIN IN SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS AFTER CESSATION OF EXPOSURE TO 17BETA-ESTRADIOL AND PARA-NONYLPHENOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two experiments were performed to determine the rate of vitellogenin plasma accumulation and clearance in male sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) during and after exposure to either 17b-estradiol (E2) or para-nonylphenol (p-NP). Adult fish were continuously exposed to aqu...

  4. Millimeter-wave spectroscopy of S2Cl2: a candidate molecule for measuring ortho-para transition.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Zeinab Tafti; Ota, Shinji; Mizoguchi, Asao; Kanamori, Hideto

    2013-10-01

    S2Cl2 is a candidate for the observation of ortho-para transition. To estimate the ortho-para mixing in a hyperfine-resolved rotational state, pure rotational transitions were measured by millimeter-wave (mm-wave) spectroscopy using two different experimental set-ups. The transitions from the term value around 20 K was measured with a supersonic jet and those around 200 K were measured with a dry ice cooled gas cell. Several hundred peaks were assigned for the naturally abundant S2(35)Cl2 and S2(35)Cl(37)Cl isotopic species and the rotational molecular parameters including the fourth-order and sixth-order centrifugal distortion constants were determined. The hyperfine structures were partly resolved in some Q-branch transitions, which were well described with the hyperfine constants determined by FTMW spectroscopy in the centimeter-wave region. With the new rotational constants determined in our study and the previous hyperfine constants, it will be possible to obtain a more reliable ortho-para mixing ratio and to narrow down the possible candidate transitions in the mm-wave region for the observation of ortho-para transition. PMID:23634992

  5. Factor Analysis of the Spanish Version of the WAIS: The Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Francisco C., Jr.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The standardization of the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA) and the original Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) were subjected to principal components analysis to examine their comparability for 616 EIWA subjects and 800 WAIS subjects. Similarity of factor structures of both scales is supported. (SLD)

  6. Contribuições para o projeto da câmara infravermelha Spartan do telescópio SOAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, R.; Jablonski, F.; Loh, E.

    2003-08-01

    Como parte de uma colaboração entre a Divisão de Astrofísica do INPE, IAG-USP, Instituto do Milênio MEGALIT e a Michigan State University, trabalhamos durante um ano junto ao grupo do Dr. Edwin Loh (MSU) no projeto e detalhamento de diversos subsistemas para a câmara infravermelho Spartan do telescópio SOAR. Trata-se de um imageador para as bandas J, H e K que explora todo o potencial, em termos de qualidade de imagem e campo de visada, fornecido pelo sistema de óptica adaptativa de primeira ordem do telescópio SOAR. Projetamos soluções detalhadas para os subsistemas de rodas de filtros/grismas/máscaras de Lyot; subsistema de compactação do mosaico de detectores em duas versões distintas; subsistema de alimentação de Nitrogênio líquido. Mantivemos sempre uma supervisão geral sobre todas as partes restantes e os respectivos envelopes volumétricos produzindo soluções para a integração de todos os componentes. Neste trabalho, ilustramos as principais contribuições e fornecemos um resumo do estado atual do instrumento.

  7. A Conceptual Model for Supporting Para-Teacher Learning in an Indian Non-Governmental Organization (NGO)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raval, Harini; McKenney, Susan; Pieters, Jules

    2010-01-01

    Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are being recognized globally for their influential role in realizing the UN Millennium Development Goal of education for all in developing countries. NGOs mostly employ untrained para-educators for grassroots activities. The professional development of these teachers is critical for NGO effectiveness, yet…

  8. Cáncer de hígado y de conducto biliar—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del NCI para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de hígado y de conducto biliar, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas.

  9. Enfermedad trofoblástica de la gestación—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de la enfermedad trofoblástica de la gestación, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  10. ParaStream: A parallel streaming Delaunay triangulation algorithm for LiDAR points on multicore architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huayi; Guan, Xuefeng; Gong, Jianya

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a robust parallel Delaunay triangulation algorithm called ParaStream for processing billions of points from nonoverlapped block LiDAR files. The algorithm targets ubiquitous multicore architectures. ParaStream integrates streaming computation with a traditional divide-and-conquer scheme, in which additional erase steps are implemented to reduce the runtime memory footprint. Furthermore, a kd-tree-based dynamic schedule strategy is also proposed to distribute triangulation and merging work onto the processor cores for improved load balance. ParaStream exploits most of the computing power of multicore platforms through parallel computing, demonstrating qualities of high data throughput as well as a low memory footprint. Experiments on a 2-Way-Quad-Core Intel Xeon platform show that ParaStream can triangulate approximately one billion LiDAR points (16.4 GB) in about 16 min with only 600 MB physical memory. The total speedup (including I/O time) is about 6.62 with 8 concurrent threads.

  11. Cáncer de vesícula biliar—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de vesícula biliar, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  12. Violencia de Pareja en Mujeres Hispanas: Implicaciones para la Investigación y la Práctica

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Becerra, Maria Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    Las investigaciones sobre la violencia entre parejas sugieren que las mujeres hispanas están siendo afectadas desproporcionadamente por la ocurrencia y consecuencias de este problema de salud pública. El objetivo del presente artículo es dar a conocer el estado del arte en relación a la epidemiologia, consecuencias y factores de riesgo para VP entre mujeres Hispanas, discutiendo las implicaciones para la investigación y la práctica. Investigaciones han demostrado una fuerte asociación del status socioeconómico, abuso de droga y el alcohol, la salud mental, aculturación, inmigración, comportamientos sexuales riesgosos e historia de abuso con la violencia entre parejas. Sin embargo, más estudios se deben llevar a cabo para identificar otros factores de riesgos y de protección a poblaciones hispanas no clínicas. Mientras que el conocimiento sobre la etiología de la VP entre mujeres Hispanas se expanda, enfermeras y otros profesionales de la salud deben desarrollar, implementar y evaluar estrategias culturalmente adecuadas para la prevención primaria y secundaria de la violencia entre pareja. PMID:26166938

  13. Efficient Synthesis of Molecular Precursors for Para-Hydrogen-Induced Polarization of Ethyl Acetate-1-(13) C and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Shchepin, Roman V; Barskiy, Danila A; Coffey, Aaron M; Manzanera Esteve, Isaac V; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2016-05-10

    A scalable and versatile methodology for production of vinylated carboxylic compounds with (13) C isotopic label in C1 position is described. It allowed synthesis of vinyl acetate-1-(13) C, which is a precursor for preparation of (13) C hyperpolarized ethyl acetate-1-(13) C, which provides a convenient vehicle for potential in vivo delivery of hyperpolarized acetate to probe metabolism in living organisms. Kinetics of vinyl acetate molecular hydrogenation and polarization transfer from para-hydrogen to (13) C via magnetic field cycling were investigated. Nascent proton nuclear spin polarization (%PH ) of ca. 3.3 % and carbon-13 polarization (%P13C ) of ca. 1.8 % were achieved in ethyl acetate utilizing 50 % para-hydrogen corresponding to ca. 50 % polarization transfer efficiency. The use of nearly 100% para-hydrogen and the improvements of %PH of para-hydrogen-nascent protons may enable production of (13) C hyperpolarized contrast agents with %P13C of 20-50 % in seconds using this chemistry. PMID:27061815

  14. [Application of hair analysis of selected psychoactive substances for medico-legal purposes. Part II. Cases of complex fatal poisonings: interactions of heroine - cocaine - amphetamines].

    PubMed

    Rojek, Sebastian; Kłys, Małgorzata; Rzepecka-Woźniak, Ewa; Konopka, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    The study represents an attempt at employing segmental hair analysis in complex poisonings with xenobiotic mixtures of heroine - cocaine - amphetamines in the context of the cause of death as a consequence of complex interaction mechanisms which occurred prior to death. Two cases of complex poisonings: heroine - cocaine and heroine - cocaine - amphetamines were analyzed and documented with macro- and microscopic examinations and complex toxicological examinations, including the analysis of classic biological material, i.e. samples of selective blood, and alternative material, i.e. hair samples. Determinations of opioids, cocaine and its metabolite and amphetamines in the hair biological matrix were performed using high performance liquid chromatography--atmospheric pressure chemical ionization--tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI-MS-MS). Segmental hair analysis of the investigated cases indicated a prolonged intake of similar psychoactive substances and a developed adaptation of the addicted to interaction mechanisms, which, however, led gradually to multiorgan anatomopathological changes, and in consequence to death. PMID:21180103

  15. [Cost of a renal transplant: medico-economic analysis of the amount reimbursed by the French national health program to finance renal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Sainsaulieu, Yoël; Sambuc, Cléa; Logerot, Hélène; Bongiovanni, Isabelle; Couchoud, Cécile

    2014-07-01

    Successful organ transplantation relies on several ancillary activities such as the identification of a compatible donor, organ allocation and procurement and the coordination of the transplant process. No existing study of the overall costs, in France, of these additional transplantation activities could be identified. This study determines the total additional costs of ancillary transplantation activities by comparing the costs of kidney transplantations with living donors against those using deceased donors. The data used are drawn from the 2013 public healthcare tariff calculations, PMSI recorded activity and transplant activity in 2012 as assessed and reported by the Agence de la biomédecine. The results show that, in 2012, additional transplant costs varied from 13835.44 € to 20050.67 € for a deceased donor and were 13601.66 € for a living donor. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that all the costs covered by National Health Insurance need to be taken into account in the economic impact evaluation of renal transplantation and during the development of this national priority activity. PMID:24985351

  16. [Off-label drug use of the misoprostol in gynecology & obstetrics: From a medico-economics benefit to a potential legal risk].

    PubMed

    Decamps-Mini, D; Pelofi, J; Treisser, A

    2015-06-01

    The scandal of the Mediator® case led the legislature to take measures in order to regulate off-label drugs prescriptions. Indeed the law issued in December 29th, 2011 on strengthening the safety of drugs and all derivative health products came to pave the way for an "over-cautious" practice of medicine in line with the precautionary principle erected as a constitutional principle. The supervision of off-label prescribing has had a direct impact on the exercise of the medical profession and has resurrected the issues related to the freedom of prescription, the obligation to provide information to patients and in general their whole responsibility. It is important to mention that the prescribing act is part of the freedom and the strict prerogative of those skilled in the art: the physician in this case. The off-label prescription is commonly accepted in certain specialties, such as anesthesia and intensive care, oncology or pediatrics where it is even subject of a memorandum of use because of concerns regarding the availability of forms adapted to children. However, the physician must ensure that no appropriate therapeutic alternative is available and inform the patient, fundamental principle of the right to respect for the will of the person. Off-label use of the prostaglandin-E1 analogue misoprostol in obstetrics and gynecology is a good example. In fact, this drug obtained a marketing authorization for the treatment or prevention of peptic ulcers and other stomach disorders, is commonly used off-label when inducing labour or intrauterine device insertion. These are the issues that need to be clarify and carefully assessed in order to help physicians to understand the impact of the law and the state of the jurisprudence on the exercise of their profession. PMID:26032707

  17. Uterine inversion after an unskilled delivery - still a concern for maternal mortality: A case report and discussion of the related medico-legal issues.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Monisha; Barwa, Jyoti; Baraw, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Uterine inversion is a life-threatening medical emergency, which can result in fatal shock and sudden unexpected death during and after delivery. Most cases of uterine inversion occur due to mismanagement of the third stage of labour. We report a case of sudden death occurring post full-term vaginal delivery conducted by a traditional birth attendant (TBA) popularly known as dai. Autopsy revealed signs of haemorrhage and shock due to an inverted uterus. This emergency medical condition, though frequently fatal, can be treated if prompt action is taken by a trained and skilled obstetrician, preventing morbidity and mortality. We discuss the incidence, aetiology, symptomatology, complications and the management of uterine inversion. We also review the capability and eligibility of TBAs in handling such obstetrical emergencies, along with their culpability, if any, in such cases of negligence as per the applicable statutes. PMID:26232213

  18. [The impact of the data collection method on the medico-economic classification of admissions for myocardial infarction at the public hospitals in Lyon].

    PubMed

    Rabilloud, M; Ecochard, R; Myard, A F; Delahaye, F; Colin, C; Matillon, Y

    1998-06-01

    The aim of the PMSI (Programme de Mdicalisation du Systme d'Information) is to describe the activity of hospitals for budget allocation. To control the quality of this information, the authors carried out a study comparing the classification in homogenous disease groups (HDG) obtained from the PMSI with that obtained from the epidemiological data base of the PRIMA trial for patients admitted to the Civil Hospitals of Lyon for myocardial infarction between September 1st 1993 and January 31st 1995. Six hundred and fifty standardised hospital summaries were reconstituted form PRIMA data and grouped using the GENRSA 3 software. Five hundred and forty-one of these hospital stays were found in the PMSI data base and grouped. The concordance not due to chance between the two classifications was then assessed by the global kappa coefficient. It was less than the 40% threshold under which concordance not due to chance is considered to be unlikely. The discordances were essentially due to the presence of an associated diagnosis classifying the hospital stay in the HDG corresponding to complicated myocardial infarction. The presence of a classifying associated diagnosis was observed significantly more often in the PRIMA than in the PMSI data base. This results in an underestimation of the hospital activity and could have important repercussions in terms of budget allocation. PMID:9749186

  19. Investigation of medico-biological action of intravasular irradiation of blood on the immune system of an organism at some pathological state of the peripheral nervous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapina, Victoria A.; Tanina, Raisa M.

    1994-02-01

    We investigated the influence of intravenous laser irradiation of blood (ILIB) on the immune system of the organism at vertebrogenic disorders of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) with a prominent pain syndrome. It has been found that ILIB produces a positive effect on the immunity T-link increasing the proliferative activity of T-lymphocytes, has positive dynamics in clinics, doesn't cause any side or negative effects.

  20. Mental Boundaries and Medico-Pedagogical Selection: Girls and Boys in the Dutch "School for Idiots", the Hague 1857-1873

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Drenth, Annemieke

    2007-01-01

    In the wake of developments in France and the United States where early psychiatrists such as Pinel, Esquirol, Belhomme and Seguin advocated "moral treatment" of the insane and classified"idiots" and "imbeciles" as incurable though educable, the Revd C. E. Van Koetsveld initiated his "School for Idiots" in The Hague in 1855. Within two years, he…

  1. "Legal highs"--toxicity in the clinical and medico-legal aspect as exemplified by suicide with bk-MBDB administration.

    PubMed

    Rojek, Sebastian; Kłys, Małgorzata; Strona, Marcin; Maciów, Martyna; Kula, Karol

    2012-10-10

    The easily available "legal highs", which are products containing psychoactive substances, such as cathinones, piperazines and synthetic cannabinoids, are abused by adolescents in Poland and in the world as alternatives to classic drugs, such as amphetamines or marijuana. The majority of these potentially dangerous substances are still legal and they are associated with a risk of severe poisoning or even death, and provide new challenges in clinical and forensic toxicological practice. Investigations in the field of "designer drugs" may be well illustrated by the case of a suicide of a 21-year old male who ingested a specified dose of a preparation called "Amphi-bi-a" that contains bk-MBDB, chemically 2-methylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl) butan-1-one, which belongs to the cathinone group, as a synthetic euphoric empathogen and psychoactive stimulant that is chemically similar to MDMA. It is one of more common components of "legal highs" examined in Poland and other countries. The documentation of the case includes a clinical assessment of the patient's health status performed during his almost 4-h hospitalization before death, autopsy and histological examinations supported by toxicological findings revealing bk-MBDB at extremely high concentrations (at 20 mg/l in the blood and 33 mg/kg in the liver); hence, this body of evidence contributes to knowledge in the field of "designer drugs". Inventions of designers of new psychoactive xenobiotics, which are much in demand, especially in view of the dynamic Internet marketing, which drums up narcobusiness, must be balanced by a national strategy developed by medical, legal and educational circles in the modern civilized world in order to prevent the spreading of the phenomenon. PMID:22648055

  2. PFI-ZEKE (Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy) para el estudio de iones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaño, F.; Fernández, J. A.; Basterretxea, A. Longarte. F.; Sánchez Rayo, M. N.; Martínez, R.

    Entre las áreas hacia donde ha evolucionado la Química en los últimos años están los estudios de sistemas con especies reactivas de alta energía y los dominados por fuerzas intermoleculares débiles, con energías de unas pocas kcal/mol. En efecto, el estudio de las propiedades de los iones, comenzando por su relación con la molécula neutra de la que procede, la energía de ionización, los estados vibracionales y rotacionales, energías de enlace de Van der Waals entre el ión y una amplia variedad de otras moléculas, sus confórmeros o isómeros y sus reacciones o semi-reacciones químicas están en la raíz de la necesidad de la espectroscopía conocida como PFI-ZEKE, Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy. Entre las aplicaciones que requieren estos conocimientos se encuentran la generación de plasmas para la fabricación de semiconductores, memorias magnéticas, etc, así como los sistemas astrofísicos, la ionosfera terrestre, etc. La espectroscopía ZEKE es una evolución de las de fluorescencia inducida por láser, LIF, ionización multifotónica acrecentada por resonancia, REMPI, con uno y dos colores y acoplada a un sistema de tiempo de vuelo, REMPI-TOF-MS, y las espectroscopías de doble resonancia IR-UV y UV-UV. Sus espectros y la ayuda de cálculos ab inicio permite determinar las energías de enlace de complejos de van der Waals en estados fundamental y excitados, identificar confórmeros e isómeros, obtener energías de ionización experimentales aproximadas (100 cm-1) y otras variables de interés. Al igual que con LIF, REMPI y dobles resonancias, es posible utilizar muestras gaseosas, pero los espectros están muy saturados de bandas y su interpretación es difícil o imposible. Se evitan estas dificultades estudiando las moléculas o complejos en expansiones supersónicas, donde la T de los grados de libertad solo alcanzan unos pocos K. Para realizar experimentos de ZEKE hay que utilizar una propiedad recientemente descubierta, que va en contra de lo esperado en otros sistemas físicos y que consiste en que los altos estados Rydberg de átomos, moléculas y sus complejos de van der Waals (o de los iones) tienen tiempos de vida de centenas de μ s. En resumen, el experimento y la espectroscopía ZEKE consiste en excitar un átomo, molécula o cluster sucesivamente a dos estados excitados selectivos de manera que el final sea un estado Rydberg. A continuación se aplica un campo eléctrico variable que lo ioniza y después de un cierto retraso se aplica un campo eléctrico de extracción, tanto para el electrón como para el ión. El espectro de los iones, es un espectro ZEKE. Hay varias alternativas para hacer este último proceso. El estudio de la espectroscopía y propiedades de iones y sus clusters requiere el conocimiento detallado de la espectroscopía de la molécula neutra, los estados Rydberg, de los confórmeros y sus complejos. Todo ello implica el haber estudiado los sistemas por LIF, REMPI y doble resonancia (hole burning IR-UV, UV-UV). Además solo es posible interpretar los resultados y obtener la información contenida en los espectros con ayuda de cálculos cuánticos ab initio. Hasta el momento hemos aplicado tanto el ZEKE como el conjunto de técnicas mencionadas anteriormente, a varias molécula de interés químico general como anilina y sus derivados, así como sus complejos con agua y amoniaco. Sin embargo, el método es muy versátil y puede aplicarse a iones de átomos, iones múltiples, moléculas sencillas y sus clusters así como a sus semi-reacciones. Como ejemplo de uno de estos espectros PFI-ZEKE se presenta aquí el caso del amonibenzonitrilo, ABN y solamente en su estado fundamental. En la conferencia se presentarán espectros ZEKE del ABN y moléculas similares en estados vibracionales intermedios (islas de estabilidad), así como la determinación de potenciales de ionización precisos, energías de enlace de compuestos del ión con varios disolventes y otras propiedades de interés, discutiendo sus resultados.

  3. Conservation of ParaHox genes' function in patterning of the digestive tract of the marine gastropod Gibbula varia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Presence of all three ParaHox genes has been described in deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans, but to date one of these three genes, Xlox has not been reported from any ecdysozoan taxa and both Xlox and Gsx are absent in nematodes. There is evidence that the ParaHox genes were ancestrally a single chromosomal cluster. Colinear expression of the ParaHox genes in anterior, middle, and posterior tissues of several species studied so far suggest that these genes may be responsible for axial patterning of the digestive tract. So far, there are no data on expression of these genes in molluscs. Results We isolated the complete coding sequences of the three Gibbula varia ParaHox genes, and then tested their expression in larval and postlarval development. In Gibbula varia, the ParaHox genes participate in patterning of the digestive tract and are expressed in some cells of the neuroectoderm. The expression of these genes coincides with the gradual formation of the gut in the larva. Gva-Gsx patterns potential neural precursors of cerebral ganglia as well as of the apical sensory organ. During larval development this gene is involved in the formation of the mouth and during postlarval development it is expressed in the precursor cells involved in secretion of the radula, the odontoblasts. Gva-Xolx and Gva-Cdx are involved in gut patterning in the middle and posterior parts of digestive tract, respectively. Both genes are expressed in some ventral neuroectodermal cells; however the expression of Gva-Cdx fades in later larval stages while the expression of Gva-Xolx in these cells persists. Conclusions In Gibbula varia the ParaHox genes are expressed during anterior-posterior patterning of the digestive system. This colinearity is not easy to spot during early larval stages because the differentiated endothelial cells within the yolk permanently migrate to their destinations in the gut. After torsion, Gsx patterns the mouth and foregut, Xlox the midgut gland or digestive gland, and Cdx the hindgut. ParaHox genes of Gibbula are also expressed during specification of cerebral and ventral neuroectodermal cells. Our results provide additional support for the ancestral complexity of Gsx expression and its ancestral role in mouth patterning in protostomes, which was secondarily lost or simplified in some species. PMID:20624311

  4. Monoamine transporter and receptor interaction profiles of novel psychoactive substances: para-halogenated amphetamines and pyrovalerone cathinones.

    PubMed

    Rickli, Anna; Hoener, Marius C; Liechti, Matthias E

    2015-03-01

    The pharmacology of novel psychoactive substances is mostly unknown. We evaluated the transporter and receptor interaction profiles of a series of para-(4)-substituted amphetamines and pyrovalerone cathinones. We tested the potency of these compounds to inhibit the norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT) transporters (NET, DAT, and SERT, respectively) using human embryonic kidney 293 cells that express the respective human transporters. We also tested the substance-induced efflux of NE, DA, and 5-HT from monoamine-loaded cells, binding affinities to monoamine receptors, and 5-HT2B receptor activation. Para-(4)-substituted amphetamines, including 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), 4-ethylmethcathinone, 4-fluoroamphetamine, 4-fluoromethamphetamine, 4-fluoromethcatinone (flephedrone), and 4-bromomethcathinone, were relatively more serotonergic (lower DAT:SERT ratio) compared with their analogs amphetamine, methamphetamine, and methcathinone. The 4-methyl, 4-ethyl, and 4-bromo groups resulted in enhanced serotonergic properties compared with the 4-fluoro group. The para-substituted amphetamines released NE and DA. 4-Fluoramphetamine, 4-flouromethamphetamine, 4-methylmethcathinone, and 4-ethylmethcathinone also released 5-HT similarly to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. The pyrovalerone cathinones 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone, pyrovalerone, α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone, 3,4-methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone potently inhibited the NET and DAT but not the SERT. Naphyrone was the only pyrovalerone that also inhibited the SERT. The pyrovalerone cathinones did not release monoamines. Most of the para-substituted amphetamines exhibited affinity for the 5-HT2A receptor but no relevant activation of the 5-HT2B receptor. All the cathinones exhibited reduced trace amine-associated receptor 1 binding compared with the non-β-keto-amphetamines. In conclusion, para-substituted amphetamines exhibited enhanced direct and indirect serotonergic agonist properties and are likely associated with more MDMA-like effects. The pharmacological profile of the pyrovalerone cathinones predicts pronounced stimulant effects and high abuse liability. PMID:25624004

  5. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Squamous Cell Anal Cancer With Para-aortic Nodal Involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, Joseph C.; Das, Prajnan; Eng, Cathy; Reish, Andrew G.; Beddar, A. Sam; Delclos, Marc E.; Krishnan, Sunil; Crane, Christopher H.

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the rates of toxicity, locoregional control, distant control, and survival in anal cancer patients with para-aortic nodal involvement, treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy at a single institution. Methods and Materials: Between 2001 and 2007, 6 patients with squamous cell anal cancer and para-aortic nodal involvement were treated with IMRT and concurrent infusional 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin. The primary tumor was treated with a median dose of 57.5 Gy (range, 54-60 Gy), involved para-aortic, pelvic, and inguinal lymph nodes were treated with a median dose of 55 Gy (range, 50.5-55 Gy), and noninvolved nodal regions were treated with a median dose of 45 Gy (range, 43.5-45 Gy). Results: After a median follow-up of 25 months, none of the patients had a recurrence at the primary tumor, pelvic/inguinal nodes, or para-aortic nodes, whereas 2 patients developed distant metastases to the liver. Four of the 6 patients are alive. The 3-year actuarial locoregional control, distant control, and overall survival rates were 100%, 56%, and 63%, respectively. Four of the 6 patients developed Grade 3 acute gastrointestinal toxicity during chemoradiation. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy could potentially serve as definitive therapy in anal cancer patients with para-aortic nodal involvement. Adjuvant chemotherapy may be indicated in these patients, as demonstrated by the distant failure rates. These patients need to be followed carefully because of the potential for treatment-related toxicities.

  6. The Ortho-to-Para Ratio and the Chemical Properties of C3 H2 in Dark Cloud Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Kawaguchi, Kentarou; Mikami, Hitomi; Saito, Masao

    2001-04-01

    We have observed cyclic C3H2 (JKaKc = 212-101, 202 - 111, 312 - 303) lines at the 3 mm wavelength region toward the starless TMC-1C cloud and the protostellar core of L 1527 with the 45 m telescope at Nobeyama Radio Observatory. In both clouds, the 212-101 and 202 - 111 lines are strongly detected, while the 312 - 303 line is only detected toward the center of the protostellar core L 1527. From our statistical equilibrium analyses of the ortho-C3H2(212-101) and the para-C3H2(202-111)lines, the ortho-to-para ratios of C3H2 are determined to be 2.4 +/- 0.1 and 2.5 +/- 0.5 in TMC-1C and L 1527, respectively. These values are lower than the statistical value of 3, although the error of the ratio in L 1527 is large. Since thermal equilibrium with a dust temperature of 10 K still gives a ratio of 3 in c-C3H2, this result should suggest the lower ortho-to-para ratio of the precursor molecule, c-C3H+3, which is thought to be mainly produced by C3H++H2. Thus, we conclude that the lower ortho-to-para ratio of c-C3H2 is due to a lower ortho-to-para ratio of H2 than the statistical value.

  7. Uso de exámenes de detección como oportunidad para ayudar a fumadores a dejar el tabaco

    Cancer.gov

    El NCI ha publicado un anuncio de financiamiento para ayudar a estimular la investigación sobre métodos óptimos para dejar de fumar cigarrillos que se entreguen junto con los exámenes de detección.

  8. Desarrollo curricular, conciencia ambiental y tecnologia para estudiantes de intermedia: Una investigacion en accion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Ramos, Teresita

    Se llevó a cabo una investigación en acción con los propósitos de 1) documentar las relaciones de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación en las clases de ciencias de escuela intermedia como elemento de apoyo cuando se aborda el tema ambiental y sus conceptos pertinentes, a partir de las observaciones de la investigadora, así como las entrevistas y diarios reflexivos de los estudiantes de una escuela intermedia en la zona metropolitana, y luego 2) diseñar una unidad instruccional sobre el tema ambiental que integre actividades tecnologías para el curso de ciencias de la escuela intermedia según el modelo PROCIC y las observaciones que hayan iniciado los estudiantes participantes. Finalmente, se plantearon las implicaciones educativas para el currículo del Programa de Ciencias al instrumentar este modelo de unidad mediante PROCIC, e integrado la tecnología y el tema ambiental. Los hallazgos se analizaron y se categorizaron de acuerdo con las preguntas de investigación. El hallazgo principal de la investigación aborda las cuatro relaciones centrales en las que se articula la utilización de las tecnologías y sus aplicaciones en la clase de ciencias. Estas cuatro relaciones que recogen la posición de los estudiantes son: 1) Perspectiva de los estudiantes hacia la tecnología. 2) Participación de los estudiantes en los aspectos docentes. 3) Aprendizaje estudiantil sobre el ambiente, y 4) Conciencia ambiental en relación con la vida diaria. Estas relaciones ponen de manifiesto,cómo se plantea en las implicaciones, la necesidad de más investigación en acción en la sala de clases, la importancia—como tema transversal—de la conciencia ambiental mediante la tecnología al construir conocimientos significativos dentro y fuera de la escuela, asó como, valorar la investigación y la dialogicidad en la sala de clases como actividades que obligan al reexamen de la práctica didáctica en su formas curriculares de objetivos, recursos, actividades, evaluación, entre otros. Estos planteamientos definen la unidad curricular que se propone en el cuatro capítulo.

  9. Cosmoeducação: uma proposta para o ensino de astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, L. A. L.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Entende-se por cosmoeducação o desenvolvimento vivencial da unidade homem-cosmo. Este conceito é norteado pela psicologia transpessoal, que estuda o ser humano em sua totalidade, onde suas relações ecológicas e cósmicas são de grande importância. Constata-se uma necessidade latente no ser humano moderno em resgatar uma relação holística com o Universo. Neste trabalho exploramos meios de cultivar a consciência de que o ser humano constitui parte integrante do cosmo e se relaciona com este com o objetivo de promover em si uma percepção ambiental mais ampla. Nossa hipótese de trabalho inicial foi que o ensino de conteúdos básicos em astronomia realizado através de uma abordagem holística, que incorpore práticas vivenciais correlacionadas àqueles conteúdos, pode despertar no indivíduo sua identidade cósmica. O método que utilizamos é o fenomenológico e o universo desta pesquisa é um grupo de estudantes da disciplina de Astronomia (Curso de Licenciatura em Geografia/UFRN), onde realizamos observação participante, entrevistas, depoimentos e as práticas vivenciais mencionadas. Neste caso estamos desenvolvendo e adaptando exercícios de algumas técnicas terapêuticas de psicologia transpessoal, que um de nós (LALM) tem aplicado no contexto clínico, para trabalhar aspectos cognitivos envolvidos naquele processo de conscientização cósmica. Resultados parciais claramente referendam a hipótese inicial. Um resultado a destacar é fruto de uma dinâmica de representação corporal interiorizada do eclipse lunar, envolvendo um pequeno grupo daqueles estudantes, na qual conteúdos míticos afloraram de maneira espontânea e contundente para todos, sugerindo ressonância, ou pelo menos isomorfismo, entre o macro e o microcosmo. Este e outros resultados são discutidos em detalhe neste trabalho. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP).

  10. Community Preferences for the Allocation &Donation of Organs - The PAraDOx Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Transplantation is the treatment of choice for people with severe organ failure. However, demand substantially exceeds supply of suitable organs; consequently many people wait months, or years to receive an organ. Reasons for the chronic shortage of deceased organ donations are unclear; there appears to be no lack of 'in principle' public support for organ donation. Methods/Design The PAraDOx Study examines community preferences for organ donation policy in Australia. The aims are to 1) determine which factors influence decisions by individuals to offer their organs for donation and 2) determine the criteria by which the community deems the allocation of donor organs to be fair and equitable. Qualitative and quantitative methods will be used to assess community preferences for organ donation and allocation. Focus group participants from the general community, aged between 18-80, will be purposively sampled to ensure a variety of cultural backgrounds and views on organ donation. Each focus group will include a ranking exercise using a modified nominal group technique. Focus groups of organ recipients, their families, and individuals on a transplant waiting list will also be conducted. Using the qualitative work, a discrete choice study will be designed to quantitatively assess community preferences. Discrete choice methods are based on the premise that goods and services can be described in terms of a number of separate attributes. Respondents are presented with a series of choices where levels of attributes are varied, and a mathematical function is estimated to describe numerically the value respondents attach to different options. Two community surveys will be conducted in approximately 1000 respondents each to assess community preferences for organ donation and allocation. A mixed logit model will be used; model results will be expressed as parameter estimates (β) and the odds of choosing one option over an alternative. Trade-offs between attributes will also be calculated. Discussion By providing a better understanding of current community preferences in relation to organ donation and allocation, the PAraDOx study will highlight options for firstly, increasing the rate of organ donation and secondly, allow for more transparent and equitable policies in relation to organ allocation. PMID:21612584

  11. Toluene 3-Monooxygenase of Ralstonia pickettii PKO1 Is a para-Hydroxylating Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Ayelet; Tao, Ying; Wood, Thomas K.

    2004-01-01

    Oxygenases are promising biocatalysts for performing selective hydroxylations not accessible by chemical methods. Whereas toluene 4-monooxygenase (T4MO) of Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 hydroxylates monosubstituted benzenes at the para position and toluene ortho-monooxygenase (TOM) of Burkholderia cepacia G4 hydroxylates at the ortho position, toluene 3-monooxygenase (T3MO) of Ralstonia pickettii PKO1 was reported previously to hydroxylate toluene at the meta position, producing primarily m-cresol (R. H. Olsen, J. J. Kukor, and B. Kaphammer, J. Bacteriol. 176:3749-3756, 1994). Using gas chromatography, we have discovered that T3MO hydroxylates monosubstituted benzenes predominantly at the para position. TG1/pBS(Kan)T3MO cells expressing T3MO oxidized toluene at a maximal rate of 11.5 0.33 nmol/min/mg of protein with an apparent Km value of 250 ?M and produced 90% p-cresol and 10% m-cresol. This product mixture was successively transformed to 4-methylcatechol. T4MO, in comparison, produces 97% p-cresol and 3% m-cresol. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 harboring pRO1966 (the original T3MO-bearing plasmid) also exhibited the same product distribution as that of TG1/pBS(Kan)T3MO. TG1/pBS(Kan)T3MO produced 66% p-nitrophenol and 34% m-nitrophenol from nitrobenzene and 100% p-methoxyphenol from methoxybenzene, as well as 62% 1-naphthol and 38% 2-naphthol from naphthalene; similar results were found with TG1/pBS(Kan)T4MO. Sequencing of the tbu locus from pBS(Kan)T3MO and pRO1966 revealed complete identity between the two, thus eliminating any possible cloning errors. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analysis confirmed the structural identity of p-cresol in samples containing the product of hydroxylation of toluene by pBS(Kan)T3MO. PMID:15126473

  12. PREVENCION DE VIH PARA MUJERES HISPANAS DE 50 AÑOS Y MÁS

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, N.; Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L.; Kaelber, L.; Peragallo, N.; Yaya, Alexandra O.

    2012-01-01

    Introducción Las mujeres Hispanas de 50 años y más (MHC) son una minoría en Estados Unidos que está a elevado riesgo de adquirir VIH y son el grupo menos estudiado en lo que respecta a salud, características sociales y de comportamiento sexual. Objetivo Investigar los factores que incrementan el riesgo de VIH en las MHC con el propósito de desarrollar o adaptar una intervención apropiada para la “edad y la cultura "de este grupo de mujeres. Metodología Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal con una muestra de 50 MHC, sexualmente activas y que residían en Miami, Florida, Estados Unidos. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado administrado por entrevistadores entrenados y bilingües (inglés/español). Las participantes fueron reclutadas en diferentes lugares en el Sur de Florida. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó estadística descriptiva, tanto medidas de tendencia central como medidas de dispersión. Resultados La edad promedio de las MHC fue de 55,7 ± 6 años (rango 50–76 años). Todas las MHC estaban en la menopausia. Prevención del VIH Las MHC reportaron niveles medios de conocimientos sobre VIH y comunicación con la pareja. En la muestra se reportó la presencia de síntomas depresivos, violencia en la pareja, actitudes negativas hacia las personas viviendo con VIH y baja percepción de riesgo de adquirir VIH. Las MHC mencionaron necesidades de aprendizaje en tópicos relacionados con prevención de VIH y cambios de la edad. Conclusión Las MHC están a riesgo de adquirir VIH y tienen necesidades especiales en términos de educación sobre prevención de VIH. PMID:25242862

  13. Long-Range Ruthenium-Amine Electronic Communication through the para-Oligophenylene Wire

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jun-Jian; Zhong, Yu-Wu

    2015-01-01

    The studies of long-range electronic communication are hampered by solubility and potential-splitting issues. A “hybridized redox-asymmetry” method using a combination of organic and inorganic redox species is proposed and exemplified to overcome these two issues. Complexes 1(PF6)–6(PF6) (from short to long in length) with the organic redox-active amine and inorganic cyclometalated ruthenium termini bridged by the para-oligophenylene wire have been prepared. Complex 6 has the longest Ru-amine geometrical distance of 27.85 Å. Complexes 3(PF6) and 4(PF6) show lamellar crystal packing on the basis of a head-to-tail anti-parallelly aligned dimeric structure. Two redox waves are observed for all complexes in the potential region between +0.2 and +0.9 V vs Ag/AgCl. The electrochemical potential splitting is 410, 220, 143, 112, 107, and 105 mV for 1(PF6) through 6(PF6), respectively. Ruthenium (+2) to aminium (N•+) charge transfer transitions have been identified for the odd-electron compounds 12+–62+ by spectroelectrochemical measurements. The electronic communication between amine and ruthenium decreases exponentially with a decay slope of −0.137 Å−1. DFT calculations have been performed to complement these experimental results. PMID:26344929

  14. Transformacion Para Salud: a patient navigation model for chronic disease self-management.

    PubMed

    Esperat, M Christina; Flores, Debra; McMurry, Linda; Feng, Du; Song, Huaxin; Billings, Lynda; Masten, Yondell

    2012-05-01

    Increased cost of chronic illnesses in United States is an urgent call to develop a cost effective approach to improve chronic disease self-management, especially among vulnerable populations. An emerging role for professionals and paraprofessionals is the patient navigator. We present an example of a conceptual framework, Transformation for Health, developed to underpin the training of certified community health workers (CHW) to deliver health care, preventive services, and health education for underserved populations to promote chronic disease self-management. Transformacion Para Salud (TPS), a patient navigation model for chronic disease self-management, was a two year demonstration program to develop a culturally sensitive intervention to facilitate patient behavior changes. Patients involved in the TPS intervention showed improvements in clinical and behavioral outcomes after twelve months of intervention. This article describes the conceptual basis and implementation of the TPS and discusses program evaluation, specific intervention outcomes, and implications for practice. Use of CHWs in the patient navigator role demonstrated a cost effective method to improve access to quality, cost-effective, primary health care services as well as to facilitate chronic disease self-management. PMID:22686110

  15. From clusters to fibers: Parameters for discontinuous para-hexaphenylene thin film growth

    SciTech Connect

    Kankate, Laxman; Balzer, Frank; Niehus, Horst; Rubahn, Horst-Guenter

    2008-02-28

    All relevant steps of discontinuous thin film growth of para-hexaphenylene on muscovite mica (0 0 1) from wetting layer over small and large clusters to nanofibers are observed and investigated in detail by a combined polarized fluorescence and atomic force microscopy study. From a variation of film thickness and surface temperature, we determine effective activation energies for cluster growth of 0.17 eV, for nanofiber length growth of 0.46 eV, for width growth of 0.19 eV, and for height growth of 0.07 eV. The corresponding exponential prefactors for the nanofiber growth are 1x10{sup 9}, 6x10{sup 4}, and 3x10{sup 2} nm. Polarized fluorescence studies reveal that nanofibers grow along the grooves of the mica surface and that they do not change direction if they cross an even number of mica surface steps, while they change direction by 120 deg. for an odd number of steps. These results are taken as an input for a model of the unidirectional growth process on mica. Absolute parameters allowing one to grow nanofibers of predetermined morphology via organic molecular beam epitaxy are also given.

  16. ParaText : scalable solutions for processing and searching very large document collections : final LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect

    Crossno, Patricia Joyce; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-09-01

    This report is a summary of the accomplishments of the 'Scalable Solutions for Processing and Searching Very Large Document Collections' LDRD, which ran from FY08 through FY10. Our goal was to investigate scalable text analysis; specifically, methods for information retrieval and visualization that could scale to extremely large document collections. Towards that end, we designed, implemented, and demonstrated a scalable framework for text analysis - ParaText - as a major project deliverable. Further, we demonstrated the benefits of using visual analysis in text analysis algorithm development, improved performance of heterogeneous ensemble models in data classification problems, and the advantages of information theoretic methods in user analysis and interpretation in cross language information retrieval. The project involved 5 members of the technical staff and 3 summer interns (including one who worked two summers). It resulted in a total of 14 publications, 3 new software libraries (2 open source and 1 internal to Sandia), several new end-user software applications, and over 20 presentations. Several follow-on projects have already begun or will start in FY11, with additional projects currently in proposal.

  17. Conformation of ionizable poly Para phenylene ethynylene in dilute solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesinghe, Sidath; Maskey, Sabina; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2015-11-03

    The conformation of dinonyl poly para phenylene ethynylenes (PPEs) with carboxylate side chains, equilibrated in solvents of different quality is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. PPEs are of interest because of their tunable electro-optical properties, chemical diversity, and functionality which are essential in wide range of applications. The polymer conformation determines the conjugation length and their assembly mode and affects electro-optical properties which are critical in their current and potential uses. The current study investigates the effect of carboxylate fraction on PPEs side chains on the conformation of chains in the dilute limit, in solvents of different quality. The dinonyl PPE chains are modeled atomistically, where the solvents are modeled both implicitly and explicitly. Dinonyl PPEs maintained a stretched out conformation up to a carboxylate fraction f of 0.7 in all solvents studied. The nonyl side chains are extended and oriented away from the PPE backbone in toluene and in implicit good solvent whereas in water and implicit poor solvent, the nonyl side chains are collapsed towards the PPE backbone. Thus, rotation around the aromatic ring is fast and no long range correlations are seen within the backbone.

  18. Development and Validation of the Escala de Actitudes Emprendedoras para Estudiantes (EAEE).

    PubMed

    Oliver, Amparo; Galiana, Laura

    2015-01-01

    During the last few years, entrepreneurship has gained an important role in many economic and social policies, with the consequent growth of entrepreneurial research in many social areas. However, in the Spanish psychometric context, there is not an updated scale including recent contributions to entrepreneurship attitudes literature. The aim of this study is to present and validate a new scale named Escala de Actitudes Emprendedoras para Estudiantes-EAEE, (Entrepreneurial Attitudes Scale for Students, EASS), in two samples of high school and university Spanish students. Data comes from a cross-sectional survey of 524 high school and undergraduate students, from Valencia (Spain). Two confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were estimated, together with reliability and validity evidence of the scale. Results offered evidence of the adequate psychometric properties of the EASS. The CFAs showed overall and analytical adequate fit indexes (χ 2 (120) = 163.19 (p < .01), GFI = .906, CFI = .959, SRMR = .044, RMSEA = .040 [CI .022-.054]); reliability indices of the entrepreneurial attitudes were appropriate for most of the entrepreneurial attitudes (α were between .63 and .87 for the different dimensions); and external evidence relating entrepreneurial dimensions to personality traits was similar to in previous studies. The scale could be a useful instrument both for previous diagnosis and effectiveness assessment of programs on entrepreneurship promotion. PMID:26055696

  19. Long-Range Ruthenium-Amine Electronic Communication through the para-Oligophenylene Wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jun-Jian; Zhong, Yu-Wu

    2015-09-01

    The studies of long-range electronic communication are hampered by solubility and potential-splitting issues. A “hybridized redox-asymmetry” method using a combination of organic and inorganic redox species is proposed and exemplified to overcome these two issues. Complexes 1(PF6)-6(PF6) (from short to long in length) with the organic redox-active amine and inorganic cyclometalated ruthenium termini bridged by the para-oligophenylene wire have been prepared. Complex 6 has the longest Ru-amine geometrical distance of 27.85 Å. Complexes 3(PF6) and 4(PF6) show lamellar crystal packing on the basis of a head-to-tail anti-parallelly aligned dimeric structure. Two redox waves are observed for all complexes in the potential region between +0.2 and +0.9 V vs Ag/AgCl. The electrochemical potential splitting is 410, 220, 143, 112, 107, and 105 mV for 1(PF6) through 6(PF6), respectively. Ruthenium (+2) to aminium (N•+) charge transfer transitions have been identified for the odd-electron compounds 12+-62+ by spectroelectrochemical measurements. The electronic communication between amine and ruthenium decreases exponentially with a decay slope of -0.137 Å-1. DFT calculations have been performed to complement these experimental results.

  20. Contact allergy to para-phenylenediamine in a permanent eyelash dye.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Marta; de Wachter, Liesbet; Ronsyn, Elke; Goossens, An

    2006-08-01

    We present the case of a 30-year-old atopic lady with a known history of intolerance to several materials, including dark stockings, who developed a severe dermatitis on the eyelids and peri-orbital regions, as well as a conjunctivitis after having her eyelashes tinted by a beautician with a permanent black eyelash and eyebrow dye (Combinal, Dr Temt Laboratories, Austria). Patch tests revealed positive reactions to para-phenylenediamine (PPD), both diluted 0.01% and 1% in pet., to the eyelash dye (tested semiopen as is) and to some of the azo-dyes tested. The permanent eyelash dye did contain PPD, the use of which is illegal but seems to be a common practice. The patient had most probably been sensitized through nylon stockings containing azo-dyes, with PPD itself cross-reacting to them. With the growth in popularity of tattooing and permanent make-up, doctors should be aware of the new uses of this old allergen. Moreover, although many manufacturers have made great efforts to improve cosmetics concerning their safety, some of them remain uninformed about cosmetic legislation or do not respect it at all. Because many of these products are acquired via internet, lack of legislation about this shopping modality is also a serious problem. PMID:16930233

  1. High performance hybrid supercapacitors by using para-Benzoquinone ionic liquid redox electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navalpotro, Paula; Palma, Jesús; Anderson, Marc; Marcilla, Rebeca

    2016-02-01

    A solution of 0.4M para-Benzoquinone (p-BQ) in the ionic liquid N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (PYR14TFSI) was used as a redox electrolyte in hybrid supercapacitors. Two carbons with very different textural properties, Pica carbon and Vulcan carbon, were used as electrode material. Electrochemical performance of these energy storage systems was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (CD). Unlike SCs with pure IL electrolyte, new battery-like features appeared in the CV curves and CD profiles. This electrochemical performance, associated with the faradaic contribution of the redox electrolyte, results in a significant improvement of the electrochemical performance of the hybrid system. For Vulcan carbon with low specific surface area (SBET = 240 m2 g-1), specific capacitance (Cs) and specific real energy (Ereal) values as high as 70 Fg-1 and 10.3 WhKg-1 were obtained at 5 mAcm-2 with hybrid SC operating at 3 V. This represents an increment of 300% in Cs and Ereal with respect to the SC based on pure PYR14TFSI. For high surface area carbon such as Pica (SBET = 2410 m2g-1), the addition of the redox quinone molecule resulted in a moderate enhancement reaching values of 156 Fg-1 and 30 WhKg-1 under the same experimental conditions (36% and 10% increment, respectively).

  2. Determination of para-Phenylenediamine (PPD) in Henna in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Al-Suwaidi, Ayesha; Ahmed, Hafiz

    2010-01-01

    Henna is very popular in the United Arab Emirates (UAE); it is part of the culture and traditions. Allergy to natural henna is not usual; however the addition of para-phenylenediamine (PPD) to the natural henna increases the risk of allergic contact dermatitis. The objectives of the study were to identify the presence and concentration of PPD in henna available in UAE. Fifteen henna salons were selected randomly from three cities in UAE. Twenty five henna samples were acquired from these selected salons. The presence of PPD in henna samples was determined qualitatively and quantitatively using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The study showed that PPD was present in all of the black henna samples at concentrations ranging between 0.4% and 29.5% and higher than that recommended for hair dyes in most of the black henna samples. The presence of PPD in the black henna increases the risk of allergic contact dermatitis among users of black henna and a number of cases have already been reported in UAE. PMID:20617053

  3. [Psychometric properties of the Escala de Autoeficacia para el Afrontamiento del Estrés (EAEAE)].

    PubMed

    Godoy Izquierdo, Débora; Godoy García, Juan F; López-Chicheri García, Isabel; Martínez Delgado, Antonio; Gutiérrez Jiménez, Susana; Vázquez Vázquez, Luisa

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents the theoretical construct of and an instrument for its assessment, the Escala de Autoeficacia para el Afrontamiento del Estrés (EAEAE; in English, Coping with Stress Self-Efficacy Scale), as well as the results obtained concerning its psychometric properties from an adult population. 812 individuals, aged 18 to 64 years old ( M = 26.46, SD = 9.93, 62.6% females and 37.4% males), recruited from various contexts, participated in this study. Participants completed the EAEAE along with other measures of constructs theoretically related to this specific self-efficacy. The EAEAE shows appropriate reliability in its complete form as well as in its two subscales of Efficacy Expectations and Outcome Expectations, and adequate factorial construct validity (which reveals the bi-dimensionality of the instrument), and convergent validity with the remaining measures. The characteristics of brevity and ease of application of the scale, in addition to its adequate psychometric properties, indicate that the EAEAE is an appropriate tool to assess and investigate coping with stress self-efficacy in research as well as clinical settings. PMID:18206079

  4. A method to obtain a well-defined fraction of respirable para-aramid fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Schins, R P; Gaudichet, A; Jaurand, M C

    1993-01-01

    We developed a preparation method to obtain respirable-sized fractions of para-aramid fibers. The procedure, based on floatability, consists of stirring and subsequent settling of p-aramid pulp in distilled water. Two distinct phases are obtained, with small fibers in the upper part of the suspension, which represents about 33% of the total volume. Optimal results were obtained when 2.0 g pulp was stirred for 15 hr in 800 ml distilled water containing 0.125% ethanol and settled for 5 hr. The mass yield ranged between 0.4 and 0.6%, more than 90% of the particles had an aspect ratio > or = 3:1. The mean fiber length was about 6 microns, and the mean fiber diameter was about 0.4 microns as determined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The number of fibers obtained was 4 x 10(6) fibers/micrograms under our standard conditions. Images p414-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8119251

  5. Dynamics and lithium binding energies of polyelectrolytes based on functionalized poly(para-phenylene terephthalamide).

    PubMed

    Grozema, F C; Best, A S; van Eijck, L; Stride, J; Kearley, G J; de Leeuw, S W; Picken, S J

    2005-04-28

    Polyelectrolyte materials are an interesting class of electrolytes for use in fuel cell and battery applications. Poly(para-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA, Kevlar) is a liquid crystalline polymer that, when sulfonated, is a polyelectrolyte that exhibits moderate ion conductivity at elevated temperatures. In this work, quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) experiments were performed to gain insight into the effect of the presence of lithium counterions on the chain dynamics in the material. It was found that the addition of lithium ions decreases the dynamics of the chains. Additionally, the binding of lithium ions to the sulfonic acids groups was investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It was found that the local surroundings of the sulfonic acid group have very little effect on the lithium-ion binding energy. Binding energies for a variety of different systems were all calculated to be around 150 kcal/mol. The DFT calculations also show the existence of a structure in which a single lithium ion interacts with two sulfonic acid moieties on different chains. The formation of such "electrostatic cross-links" is believed to be the source of the increased tendency to aggregate and the reduced dynamics in the presence of lithium ions. PMID:16851895

  6. LabVIEW-based control software for para-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Agraz, Jose; Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn

    2014-04-01

    The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. Para-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10,000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 ((13)C) based substances using a process requiring control of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (Bo), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually control the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise control of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely controls the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated control over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of (13)C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging. PMID:24784636

  7. Acute allergic contact dermatitis due to para-phenylenediamine after temporary henna painting.

    PubMed

    Nawaf, Al-Mutairi; Joshi, Arun; Nour-Eldin, Osama

    2003-11-01

    The use of temporary natural henna painting for body adornment and hair dyeing is very common in several countries of the Indian subcontinent, Middle East, and North Africa, and the fad is spreading in other parts of the world. Several cases of para-phenylenediamine (PPD) contaminated, temporary traditional/natural henna induced sensitization and acute allergic reaction have been reported, along with occasional serious long term and rare fatal consequences. We report here a 17-year-old girl with blisters over her hands of five-days duration that appeared within 72 hours of applying a temporary henna paint to her hands during a social occasion. Similar lesions were noted on her face. She had previously applied black henna only once, a year earlier without developing any lesions. Clinical diagnosis of acute allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) was made. After a short course of oral corticosteroids, topical mometasone furaote 1.0% cream, and oral antihistamines, the lesions healed completely over the next four weeks leaving post-inflammatory hypopigmentation. Patch testing done with standard European battery, PPD 1% in petrolatum, and commercially available natural henna powder revealed a 3+ reaction to PPD at 48 hours. No reaction was seen at the natural henna site. Awareness of the condition among physicians and the public and regulation regarding warnings of the risks of using such products is urgently warranted. PMID:14684936

  8. Origin of the low-energy emission band in epitaxially grown para-sexiphenyl nanocrystallites

    SciTech Connect

    Kadashchuk, A.; Schols, S.; Heremans, P.; Skryshevski, Yu.; Piryatinski, Yu.; Beinik, I.; Teichert, C.; Hernandez-Sosa, G.; Sitter, H.; Andreev, A.; Frank, P.; Winkler, A.

    2009-02-28

    A comparative study of steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence of para-sexiphenyl (PSP) films grown by organic molecular beam epitaxy (OMBE) and hot wall epitaxy (HWE) under comparable conditions is presented. Using different template substrates [mica(001) and KCl(001) surfaces] as well as different OMBE growth conditions has enabled us to vary greatly the morphology of the PSP crystallites while keeping their chemical structure virtually untouched. We prove that the broad redshifted emission band has a structure-related origin rather than being due to monomolecular oxidative defects. We conclude that the growth conditions and type of template substrate impacts substantially on the film morphology (measured by atomic force microscopy) and emission properties of the PSP films. The relative intensity of the defect emission band observed in the delayed spectra was found to correlate with the structural quality of PSP crystallites. In particular, the defect emission has been found to be drastically suppressed when (i) a KCl template substrate was used instead of mica in HWE-grown films, and (ii) in the OMBE-grown films dominated by growth mounds composed of upright standing molecules as opposed to the films consisting of crystallites formed by molecules lying parallel to the substrate.

  9. Uso de Sustancias en Mujeres con Desventaja Social: Riesgo para el Contagio de VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L; Bernales, M.; Miner, S.; Irarrázabal, L.; Molina, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Antecedentes La caracterización epidemiológica en Chile apunta a feminización, pauperización y heterosexualización de la epidemia del VIH, lo que implica un mayor riesgo para las mujeres en desventaja social. Si a esto se suma la utilización de sustancias, la vulnerabilidad de este grupo frente al VIH/SIDA aumenta. Objetivo Describir el uso de sustancias en mujeres con desventaja social e identificar factores de riesgo de contagio de VIH, asociados a este consumo. Material y Método 52 mujeres fueron entrevistadas como parte del proyecto “Testeando una intervención en prevención de VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas” GRANT # RO1 TW 006977. Se describen variables sociodemográficas y de consumo de sustancias a través de estadísticas descriptivas y se analiza la relación entre variables a través de pruebas de correlación. Resultados Los resultados indican un perfil sociodemográfico que sitúa a las mujeres en situación de vulnerabilidad frente al contagio de VIH/SIDA, con alto índice de uso de sustancias que acentúa el riesgo. Conclusiones Los hallazgos apuntan a la necesidad de considerar intervenciones que se enfoquen en la prevención de VIH en mujeres, abordando los riesgos asociados al consumo de sustancias. PMID:21197380

  10. Selective para hydroxylation of phenol and aniline by singlet molecular oxygen.

    PubMed

    Briviba, K; Devasagayam, T P; Sies, H; Steenken, S

    1993-01-01

    Phenol reacts with singlet oxygen (1O2) generated in aqueous solution (H2O or D2O) by (a) the exposure of methylene blue to light or (b) the thermal dissociation of the endoperoxide of 3,3'-(1,4-naphthylidene)dipropionate to lead selectively to hydroquinone as the primary product. The other isomers of phenol hydroxylation, catechol and resorcinol, were not observed. In agreement with the involvement of 1O2 as the reactive species in the hydroxylation, in D2O the yield of hydroquinone is 7 times that in H2O, and the 1O2 quenchers azide and the thiols, glutathione and dithiothreitol, suppress the production of hydroquinone. In contrast, the hydroxyl radical scavengers, tert-butyl alcohol, propanol, or sodium formate, are without effect. In a follow-up reaction, hydroquinone is converted into benzoquinone. Reaction of 1O2 with aniline leads to the selective formation of 4-hydroxyaniline as the initial product. This is further converted to hydroquinone with formation of ammonia (deamination), and then to benzoquinone. On the basis of these results, the selective para hydroxylation of phenol or aniline may be used as an indicator for the involvement of singlet oxygen as compared to .OH radical- or cytochrome P450-mediated reactions. PMID:8374055

  11. Epidemiology of bee stings in Campina Grande, Paraíba state, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study aims to investigate the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of bee sting cases recorded between 2007 and 2012 in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba state, Brazil. Data were collected from the database of the Injury Notification Information System of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Results A total of 459 bee sting cases were retrospectively analyzed. The average annual incidence was 19 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Cases were distributed in all months of the year, with higher prevalence in September and February. Most victims were men aged between 20 and 29 years. The highest incidence of cases was recorded in urban areas. Victims were stung mainly on the head and torso and received medical assistance predominantly 1 to 3 hours after being stung. The most frequent clinical manifestations were pain, edema and itching. Most cases were classified as mild, and three deaths were reported. Conclusions The high incidence of envenomations provoked by bees in Campina Grande suggests that it may be an important risk area for accidents. Since several medical records lacked information, clinical-epidemiological profile of bee sting cases in the studied region could not be accurately determined. The current study provides relevant data for the development of strategies to promote control and prevention of bee stings in this area. Further training for health professionals seems to be necessary to improve their skills in recording clinical-epidemiological information as well as in treating bee sting victims. PMID:24694193

  12. Para-dichlorobenzene toxicity – a review of potential neurotoxic manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Divyanshu; Sharma, Vibhash D.; Pass, Steven E.; Sawhney, Anshudha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Para-dichlorobenzene (PDCB) is an active ingredient of mothballs, deodorizers and fumigants. Due to the easy availability of this chemical, there is a considerable risk for accidental or intentional toxic exposure. Recently, multiple cases of PDCB toxicity due to mothball ingestion were reported. PDCB toxicity can affect multiple organ systems including liver, kidneys, skin, lung and the central nervous system (CNS). CNS toxicity often results in leukoencephalopathy and heterogeneous neurological manifestations. Objectives: The objective of this study was to illustrate the clinical presentation, imaging findings, diagnosis and management of PDCB toxicity. Methods: We carried out a literature review of the pharmacological and toxicological properties of PDCB. Conclusions: PDCB and other aromatic hydrocarbons are capable of CNS tissue damage and in promoting functional neurological decline. While very little is currently known about prevalence of PDCB addiction, it cannot be ruled out that its illicit use among young people is under-recognized. The number of cases of PDCB toxicity might also rise due to the increasing industrial and domestic use of this chemical. PMID:24790648

  13. [La Junta para Ampliación de Estudios and the development of Spanish psychology].

    PubMed

    Carpintero, Helio; Herrero, Fania

    2007-01-01

    During the last decades of the XIXth century, there was an awakening of consciousness for the need of a Spanish cultural renovation, of which one of the aims was to create and develop a Spanish science, resembling the scientific models already established in more advanced countries. There was a desire of Europeanization. Since it was a global social objective, it was necessary to start from the educator's training. In this climate the Junta para Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas, appeared. The role that the Junta played in Spanish research and in the innovation in the Psychopedagogical field through the first third of the XXth century was extremely important. The Junta's policy of scholarship was one of its most substantial achievements, for it made possible that the country reached in a few decades (1907-1936) the European scientific and psychological level. The relations among Spanish teachers and the Institute J.J. Rousseau is to highlighted, as "Geneva School" was to influence deeply the further development of psychology in Spain. PMID:19845072

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Folate Metabolism and the Mechanistic Basis for para-Aminosalicylic Acid Susceptibility and Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Minato, Yusuke; Thiede, Joshua M.; Kordus, Shannon Lynn; McKlveen, Edward J.; Turman, Breanna J.

    2015-01-01

    para-Aminosalicylic acid (PAS) entered clinical use in 1946 as the second exclusive drug for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). While PAS was initially a first-line TB drug, the introduction of more potent antitubercular agents relegated PAS to the second-line tier of agents used for the treatment of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. Despite the long history of PAS usage, an understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms governing the susceptibility and resistance of M. tuberculosis to this drug has lagged behind that of most other TB drugs. Herein, we discuss previous studies that demonstrate PAS-mediated disruption of iron acquisition, as well as recent genetic, biochemical, and metabolomic studies that have revealed that PAS is a prodrug that ultimately corrupts one-carbon metabolism through inhibition of the formation of reduced folate species. We also discuss findings from laboratory and clinical isolates that link alterations in folate metabolism to PAS resistance. These advancements in our understanding of the basis of the susceptibility and resistance of M. tuberculosis to PAS will enable the development of novel strategies to revitalize this and other antimicrobial agents for use in the global effort to eradicate TB. PMID:26033719

  15. Para-toluenesulfonamide induces tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell death through disturbing lysosomal stability

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhe; Liang, Chenyuan; Zhang, Zhuoyuan; Pan, Jian; Xia, Hui; Zhong, Nanshan

    2015-01-01

    Para-toluenesulfonamide (PTS) has been implicated with anticancer effects against a variety of tumors. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of PTS on tongue squamous cell carcinoma (Tca-8113) and explored the lysosomal and mitochondrial changes after PTS treatment in vitro. High-performance liquid chromatography showed that PTS selectively accumulated in Tca-8113 cells with a relatively low concentration in normal fibroblasts. Next, the effects of PTS on cell viability, invasion, and cell death were determined. PTS significantly inhibited Tca-8113 cells’ viability and invasive ability with increased cancer cell death. Flow cytometric analysis and the lactate dehydrogenase release assay showed that PTS induced cancer cell death by activating apoptosis and necrosis simultaneously. Morphological changes, such as cellular shrinkage, nuclear condensation as well as formation of apoptotic body and secondary lysosomes, were observed, indicating that PTS might induce cell death through disturbing lysosomal stability. Lysosomal integrity assay and western blot showed that PTS increased lysosomal membrane permeabilization associated with activation of lysosomal cathepsin B. Finally, PTS was shown to inhibit ATP biosynthesis and induce the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. Therefore, our findings provide a novel insight into the use of PTS in cancer therapy. PMID:26302210

  16. Foco Nasmyth para el telescopio 2,15mts. de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, A. R.

    En principio, este proyecto intenta lograr el mayor aprovechamiento posible del instrumental que se dispone, buscando la manera de optimizar y hacer más eficiente el servicio que brinda el CASLEO a la comunidad astronómica. El mismo consiste en utilizar dispositivos ya existentes en el telescopio, y darle una utilidad. Tal es el caso del camino óptico destinado al foco Coude. Si tenemos en cuenta que disponemos de un tercer espejo Coude, con todos sus mecanismos automatizados, (actualmente sin uso), una distancia apropiada del plano focal, el espacio y el lugar físico necesario para instalar un periférico, es posible la habilitación de un foco Nasmyth en el telescopio 2,15mts. El hecho de contar con este nuevo foco, redundará en importantes beneficios. En primer lugar, posibilitará la observación, casi simultánea, con dos instrumentos. Otro aspecto a tener en cuenta, es que disminuirá el frecuente cambio del instrumental periférico, motivo este que degrada su ideal puesta a punto. Por último, también de interés, es de destacar su escaso costo de ejecución.

  17. Determination of para-phenylenediamine (PPD) in henna in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Al-Suwaidi, Ayesha; Ahmed, Hafiz

    2010-04-01

    Henna is very popular in the United Arab Emirates (UAE); it is part of the culture and traditions. Allergy to natural henna is not usual; however the addition of para-phenylenediamine (PPD) to the natural henna increases the risk of allergic contact dermatitis. The objectives of the study were to identify the presence and concentration of PPD in henna available in UAE. Fifteen henna salons were selected randomly from three cities in UAE. Twenty five henna samples were acquired from these selected salons. The presence of PPD in henna samples was determined qualitatively and quantitatively using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The study showed that PPD was present in all of the black henna samples at concentrations ranging between 0.4% and 29.5% and higher than that recommended for hair dyes in most of the black henna samples. The presence of PPD in the black henna increases the risk of allergic contact dermatitis among users of black henna and a number of cases have already been reported in UAE. PMID:20617053

  18. Robotic Transperitoneal Infrarenal Para-Aortic Lymphadenectomy With Double Docking: Technique, Learning Curve, and Perioperative Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Jordi; Barahona, Marc; Pla, Maria Jesus; Rovira, Jordi; Garcia-Tejedor, Amparo; Gil-Ibanez, Blanca; Gaspar, Hugo Manuel; Sabria, Enric; Bartolomé, Carlos; Marti, Lola

    2016-01-01

    Para-aortic lymphadenectomy (PAL) is a challenging procedure performed by minimally invasive surgery in very few centers, owing to its intrinsic technical complexity. We describe and assess the feasibility and learning curve of robotic double-docking transperitoneal infrarenal PAL combined with oncological pelvic surgery. Fifty patients who underwent this procedure using the Da Vinci S surgical system between March 2010 and May 2013 were included. The mean operating time for PAL surgery was 76 minutes (range, 32-150 minutes), and the mean number of lymph nodes per patient was 11.8 (range, 1-44). There were no conversions to laparotomy or laparoscopy. The mean length of hospital stay was 2 days (range, 1-25 days). Statistically significant decreases were noted for mean table rotation time (17 ± 6.8 minutes vs 13 ± 3.6 minutes; p = .02) and mean PAL operating time (85.4 ± 25.8 minutes vs 69.8 ± 24.6 minutes; p = .04) when comparing the first 20 patients and the last 30 patients. The number of nodes was similar in the first 20 patients and last 30 patients. The double-docking transperitoneal infrarenal PAL technique combined with oncological pelvic surgery is feasible, with minimal morbidity and a short learning curve. PMID:26898894

  19. Interface Properties of Organic para-Hexaphenyl/α-Sexithiophene Heterostructures Deposited on Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    It was recently reported, that heterostructures of para-hexaphenyl (p-6P) and α-sexithiophene (6T) deposited on muscovite mica exhibit the intriguing possibility to prepare lasing nanofibers of tunable emission wavelength. For p-6P/6T heterostructures, two different types of 6T emission have been observed, namely, the well-known red emission of bulk 6T crystals and additionally a green emission connected to the interface between p-6P and 6T. In this study, the origin of the green fluorescence is investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). As a prerequisite, it is necessary to prepare structurally similar organic crystals on a conductive surface, which leads to the choice of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) as a substrate. The similarity between p-6P/6T heterostructures on muscovite mica and on HOPG is evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning force microscopy (SFM), and optical spectroscopy. PES measurements show that the interface between p-6P and 6T crystals is sharp on a molecular level without any sign of interface dipole formation or chemical interaction between the molecules. We therefore conclude that the different emission colors of the two 6T phases are caused by different types of molecular aggregation. PMID:24156627

  20. Selective plasmon-driven catalysis for para-nitroaniline in aqueous environments

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lin; Wang, Peijie; Li, Yuanzuo; Sun, Mengtao

    2016-01-01

    The plasmon-driven oxidation of amine (−NH2) groups and the reduction of nitro (−NO2) groups on a nanostructured metal surface in an aqueous environment have been reported experimentally and theoretically. The question of which process occurs first in the aqueous environment is an interesting question in the field of plasmon-related photochemistry. Para-nitroaniline (PNA), with both nitro (−NO2) and amine (−NH2) groups, is the best candidate for studying the priority of the plasmon-driven oxidation and the reduction reactions in an aqueous environment. Using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy, our experimental results and theoretical simulations reveal that PNA is selectively catalyzed to 4,4′-diaminoazobenzene (DAAB) through the plasmon-assisted dimerization of the nitro (−NO2) group into an azo group in an aqueous environment. This indicates that the plasmon-driven reduction of the nitro (−NO2) group clearly occurs before the oxidation of the amine (−NH2) group in an aqueous environment. The plasmon-driven reduction of PNA to DAAB is a selective surface catalytic reduced reaction in aqueous environment. PMID:26857259

  1. Selective plasmon-driven catalysis for para-nitroaniline in aqueous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Lin; Wang, Peijie; Li, Yuanzuo; Sun, Mengtao

    2016-02-01

    The plasmon-driven oxidation of amine (-NH2) groups and the reduction of nitro (-NO2) groups on a nanostructured metal surface in an aqueous environment have been reported experimentally and theoretically. The question of which process occurs first in the aqueous environment is an interesting question in the field of plasmon-related photochemistry. Para-nitroaniline (PNA), with both nitro (-NO2) and amine (-NH2) groups, is the best candidate for studying the priority of the plasmon-driven oxidation and the reduction reactions in an aqueous environment. Using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy, our experimental results and theoretical simulations reveal that PNA is selectively catalyzed to 4,4‧-diaminoazobenzene (DAAB) through the plasmon-assisted dimerization of the nitro (-NO2) group into an azo group in an aqueous environment. This indicates that the plasmon-driven reduction of the nitro (-NO2) group clearly occurs before the oxidation of the amine (-NH2) group in an aqueous environment. The plasmon-driven reduction of PNA to DAAB is a selective surface catalytic reduced reaction in aqueous environment.

  2. Para-iliac actinomycetoma presenting as sarcoma, a late complication of appendicitis: A case report☆

    PubMed Central

    Navarre, Pierre; Cantin, Marie-Andrée; Isler, Marc H.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Actinomycosis is known to mimic several types of neoplasms, leading to morbid surgical interventions. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report the particular case of an extensive right para-iliac actinomycetoma presenting as a sarcoma, which to our knowledge has not yet been described in the literature, in a patient with previous ruptured appendicitis. Thanks to the collaborative work between the orthopedic and general surgeons, pathologist and microbiologist, the diagnosis of actinomycosis was made pre-operatively, saving this 15-year-old patient from a tumor resection protocol. DISCUSSION Actinomycetomas have often been reported to present in the same way as several abdominal and gynecological neoplasms, and on rare occasions been described as mimicking other soft-tissue sarcomas, leading to unnecessary morbid tumor resection protocols. The most common cause of abdominal actinomycosis is perforated appendicitis, and may present several years later. CONCLUSION While faced with a soft tissue mass transgressing tissue planes and possibly extending to the region of the right lower quadrant, especially with a history of previous perforated appendicitis, one should consider the possibility of an abscess caused by pathogens of intestinal origin, including the gram positive anaerobe Actinomycosis israelii. Failure to actively search for this pathogen, which is not detectable with routine staining techniques and may take up to 1–2 weeks to isolate, may lead to unnecessary morbid surgical procedures. PMID:24434727

  3. Coarse-grain model of the benzene ring with para-substituents in the molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neverov, Vladimir S.; Komolkin, Andrei V.

    2012-03-01

    A new two-site coarse-grain model of the benzene ring with substituents in the para-position is proposed for use with multiscale simulations. The model uses a modified Lennard-Jones potential and introduces an additional shifting parameter to the description of the atom-atom interactions. Furthermore, the model separates sets of parameters of Van-der-Waals interactions into inter- and intramolecular. The shifting parameter is specified separately for each pair of atom types for both inter- and intramolecular interactions. The model itself consists of two superatoms. It allows for high speed calculations, "remembers" the benzene ring orientation in multiscale simulations, and can be used together with well-known sets of "united atoms" potentials. This model was tested on p-xylene, 1-ethyl-4-methylbenzene, and 1-methyl-4-propylbenzene. Structural properties for all three substances in the full-atomic model, the "united atoms" model, and the suggested coarse-grained model are discussed. The results demonstrate that the local structure derived from the coarse-grained model is very similar to that derived from the "united atoms" model.

  4. Coarse-grain model of the benzene ring with para-substituents in the molecule.

    PubMed

    Neverov, Vladimir S; Komolkin, Andrei V

    2012-03-01

    A new two-site coarse-grain model of the benzene ring with substituents in the para-position is proposed for use with multiscale simulations. The model uses a modified Lennard-Jones potential and introduces an additional shifting parameter to the description of the atom-atom interactions. Furthermore, the model separates sets of parameters of Van-der-Waals interactions into inter- and intramolecular. The shifting parameter is specified separately for each pair of atom types for both inter- and intramolecular interactions. The model itself consists of two superatoms. It allows for high speed calculations, "remembers" the benzene ring orientation in multiscale simulations, and can be used together with well-known sets of "united atoms" potentials. This model was tested on p-xylene, 1-ethyl-4-methylbenzene, and 1-methyl-4-propylbenzene. Structural properties for all three substances in the full-atomic model, the "united atoms" model, and the suggested coarse-grained model are discussed. The results demonstrate that the local structure derived from the coarse-grained model is very similar to that derived from the "united atoms" model. PMID:22401424

  5. LabVIEW-based control software for para-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Agraz, Jose Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; BIRI, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, West Hollywood, California 90048 ; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn

    2014-04-15

    The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. Para-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10 000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 ({sup 13}C) based substances using a process requiring control of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (B{sub o}), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually control the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise control of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely controls the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated control over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of {sup 13}C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging.

  6. Polycrystalline para-terphenyl scintillator adopted in a β- detecting probe for radio-guided surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Bellini, F.; Bocci, V.; Collamati, F.; De Lucia, E.; Faccini, R.; Marafini, M.; Mattei, I.; Morganti, S.; Paramatti, R.; Patera, V.; Pinci, D.; Recchia, L.; Russomando, A.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Senzacqua, M.; Voena, C.

    2015-06-01

    A radio-guided surgery technique exploiting β- emitters is under development. It aims at a higher target-to-background activity ratio implying both a smaller radiopharmaceutical activity and the possibility of extending the technique to cases with a large uptake of surrounding healthy organs. Such technique requires a dedicated intraoperative probe detecting β- radiation. A first prototype has been developed relying on the low density and high light yield of the diphenylbutadiene doped para-therphenyl organic scintillator. The scintillation light produced in a cylindrical crystal, 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height, is guided to a photo-multiplier tube by optical fibres. The custom readout electronics is designed to optimize its usage in terms of feedback to the surgeon, portability and remote monitoring of the signal. Tests show that with a radiotracer activity comparable to those administered for diagnostic purposes the developed probe can detect a 0.1 ml cancerous residual of meningioma in a few seconds.

  7. Para-cresyl sulfate acutely impairs vascular reactivity and induces vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Gross, Priscilla; Massy, Ziad A; Henaut, Lucie; Boudot, Cédric; Cagnard, Joanna; March, Cécilia; Kamel, Saïd; Drueke, Tilman B; Six, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by vascular remodeling and the retention of uremic toxins, several of which are independently associated with the high cardiovascular mortality rate in CKD patients. Whether the association between these uremic toxins and cardiovascular mortality is due to induction of vascular dysfunction and resulting vascular remodeling remains to be determined. This study evaluates the effects of para-cresyl sulfate (PCS), a newly identified uremic toxin, on vascular function and remodeling. PCS acutely induced oxidative stress in both endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, with a maximal effect at 0.15 mM, corresponding to the mean "uremic" concentration found in dialysis patients. PCS significantly increased within 30 min phenylephrine-induced contraction of mouse thoracic aorta, through direct activation of rho-kinase, independently of oxidative stress induction, as demonstrated by the capacity of rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 to abolish this effect. After exposure of the aorta to PCS for 48 h, we observed inward eutrophic remodeling, a hallmark of uremic vasculopathy characterized by a reduction of the area of both lumen and media, with unchanged media/lumen ratio. In conclusion, elevated PCS concentrations such as those observed in CKD patients, by promoting both vascular dysfunction and vascular remodeling, may contribute to the development of hypertension and to cardiovascular mortality in CKD. PMID:25899466

  8. The Protonation Site of para-Dimethylaminobenzoic Acid Using Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Yunfeng; Weng, Guofeng; Shen, Shanshan; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2015-04-01

    The protonation site of para-dimethylaminobenzoic acid ( p-DMABA) was investigated using atmospheric pressure ionization methods (ESI and APCI) coupled with collision-induced dissociation (CID), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and computational chemistry. Theoretical calculations and NMR experiments indicate that the dimethyl amino group is the preferred site of protonation both in the gas phase and aqueous solution. Protonation of p-DMABA occurs at the nitrogen atom by ESI independent of the solvents and other operation conditions under typical thermodynamic control. However, APCI produces a mixture of the nitrogen- and carbonyl oxygen-protonated p-DMABA when aprotic organic solvents (acetonitrile, acetone, and tetrahydrofuran) are used, exhibiting evident kinetic characteristics of protonation. But using protic organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol) in APCI still leads to the formation of thermodynamically stable N-protonated p-DMABA. These structural assignments were based on the different CID behavior of the N- and O-protonated p-DMABA. The losses of methyl radical and water are the diagnostic fragmentations of the N- and O-protonated p-DMABA, respectively. In addition, the N-protonated p-DMABA is more stable than the O-protonated p-DMABA in CID revealed by energy resolved experiments and theoretical calculations.

  9. The protonation site of para-dimethylaminobenzoic acid using atmospheric pressure ionization methods.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yunfeng; Weng, Guofeng; Shen, Shanshan; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2015-04-01

    The protonation site of para-dimethylaminobenzoic acid (p-DMABA) was investigated using atmospheric pressure ionization methods (ESI and APCI) coupled with collision-induced dissociation (CID), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and computational chemistry. Theoretical calculations and NMR experiments indicate that the dimethyl amino group is the preferred site of protonation both in the gas phase and aqueous solution. Protonation of p-DMABA occurs at the nitrogen atom by ESI independent of the solvents and other operation conditions under typical thermodynamic control. However, APCI produces a mixture of the nitrogen- and carbonyl oxygen-protonated p-DMABA when aprotic organic solvents (acetonitrile, acetone, and tetrahydrofuran) are used, exhibiting evident kinetic characteristics of protonation. But using protic organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol) in APCI still leads to the formation of thermodynamically stable N-protonated p-DMABA. These structural assignments were based on the different CID behavior of the N- and O-protonated p-DMABA. The losses of methyl radical and water are the diagnostic fragmentations of the N- and O-protonated p-DMABA, respectively. In addition, the N-protonated p-DMABA is more stable than the O-protonated p-DMABA in CID revealed by energy resolved experiments and theoretical calculations. PMID:25627246

  10. From clusters to fibers: Parameters for discontinuous para-hexaphenylene thin film growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankate, Laxman; Balzer, Frank; Niehus, Horst; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2008-02-01

    All relevant steps of discontinuous thin film growth of para-hexaphenylene on muscovite mica (0 0 1) from wetting layer over small and large clusters to nanofibers are observed and investigated in detail by a combined polarized fluorescence and atomic force microscopy study. From a variation of film thickness and surface temperature, we determine effective activation energies for cluster growth of 0.17eV, for nanofiber length growth of 0.46eV, for width growth of 0.19eV, and for height growth of 0.07eV. The corresponding exponential prefactors for the nanofiber growth are 1×109, 6×104, and 3×102nm. Polarized fluorescence studies reveal that nanofibers grow along the grooves of the mica surface and that they do not change direction if they cross an even number of mica surface steps, while they change direction by 120° for an odd number of steps. These results are taken as an input for a model of the unidirectional growth process on mica. Absolute parameters allowing one to grow nanofibers of predetermined morphology via organic molecular beam epitaxy are also given.

  11. Positive Pacing Strategies Are Utilized by Elite Male and Female Para-cyclists in Short Time Trials in the Velodrome.

    PubMed

    Wright, Rachel L

    2015-01-01

    In para-cycling, competitors are classed based on functional impairment resulting in cyclists with neurological and locomotor impairments competing against each other. In Paralympic competition, classes are combined by using a factoring adjustment to race times to produce the overall medallists. Pacing in short-duration track cycling events is proposed to utilize an "all-out" strategy in able-bodied competition. However, pacing in para-cycling may vary depending on the level of impairment. Analysis of the pacing strategies employed by different classification groups may offer scope for optimal performance; therefore, this study investigated the pacing strategy adopted during the 1-km time trial (TT) and 500-m TT in elite C1 to C3 para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists. Total times and intermediate split times (125-m intervals; measured to 0.001 s) were obtained from the C1-C3 men's 1-km TT (n = 28) and women's 500-m TT (n = 9) from the 2012 Paralympic Games and the men's 1-km TT (n = 19) and women's 500-m TT (n = 12) from the 2013 UCI World Track Championships from publically available video. Split times were expressed as actual time, factored time (for the para-cyclists) and as a percentage of total time. A two-way analysis of variance was used to investigate differences in split times between the different classifications and the able-bodied cyclists in the men's 1-km TT and between the para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists in the women's 500-m TT. The importance of position at the first split was investigated with Kendall's Tau-b correlation. The first 125-m split time was the slowest for all cyclists, representing the acceleration phase from a standing start. C2 cyclists were slowest at this 125-m split, probably due to a combination of remaining seated in this acceleration phase and a high proportion of cyclists in this group being trans-femoral amputees. Not all cyclists used aero-bars, preferring to use drop, flat or bullhorn handlebars. Split times increased in the later stages of the race, demonstrating a positive pacing strategy. In the shorter women's 500-m TT, rank at the first split was more strongly correlated with final position than in the longer men's 1-km TT. In conclusion, a positive pacing strategy was adopted by the different para-cycling classes. PMID:26834643

  12. Usina de ciências: um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, V. A. F.; Poppe, P. C. R.; Orrico, A. C. P.; Pereira, M. G.

    2003-08-01

    Entendemos que o Ensino de Astronomia é especialmente apropriado para motivar os alunos e aprofundar conteúdos em diversas áreas do conhecimento, pois envolve temas ligados à Física, Matemática, Química, Computação, Tratamento de Imagens e Instrumentação de Alta Precisão, além daqueles pertinentes as áreas de Geografia, História e Antropologia. Contudo, apesar do caráter interdisciplinar que esta ciência possui, a realidade atual é que a maioria dos professores em sala de aula não foram devidamente capacitados, durante o período de formação acadêmica, para ministrar conteúdos de Astronomia nos atuais Ensinos Fundamental e Médio. Neste trabalho, discutiremos de maneira ampla, num primeiro momento, a realidade do atual ensino de ciências praticado no Estado da Bahia, apontando por dependência administrativa, o crescimento e a redução do número de escolas, da taxa de analfabetismo por faixa etária, da escolarização, do atendimento, da aprovação, reprovação e abandono, de equipamentos e laboratórios e o grau de formação dos nossos atuais professores em pleno exercício de atividade docente. Num segundo momento, discutiremos o papel do Observatório Astronômico Antares/UEFS dentro desse contexto, ou seja, suas ações implementadas ao longo dos últimos anos e em particular, o recente projeto de extensão Ensino e Difusão de Astronomia, financiado pela Fundação Vitae, que procura traduzir no lúdico, no brincar de ciências, um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas. Neste, o papel do professor multiplicador associado ao laboratório de kits didáticos, de fácil construção e manipulação (alguns dos quais serão mostrados), perfazem os principais veículos para o desenvolvimento de conhecimentos, atitudes, habilidades e valores que preparam os nossos alunos para a carreira técnico-científica e para sua participação crítica e criativa na Sociedade.

  13. Positive Pacing Strategies Are Utilized by Elite Male and Female Para-cyclists in Short Time Trials in the Velodrome

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Rachel L.

    2016-01-01

    In para-cycling, competitors are classed based on functional impairment resulting in cyclists with neurological and locomotor impairments competing against each other. In Paralympic competition, classes are combined by using a factoring adjustment to race times to produce the overall medallists. Pacing in short-duration track cycling events is proposed to utilize an “all-out” strategy in able-bodied competition. However, pacing in para-cycling may vary depending on the level of impairment. Analysis of the pacing strategies employed by different classification groups may offer scope for optimal performance; therefore, this study investigated the pacing strategy adopted during the 1-km time trial (TT) and 500-m TT in elite C1 to C3 para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists. Total times and intermediate split times (125-m intervals; measured to 0.001 s) were obtained from the C1-C3 men's 1-km TT (n = 28) and women's 500-m TT (n = 9) from the 2012 Paralympic Games and the men's 1-km TT (n = 19) and women's 500-m TT (n = 12) from the 2013 UCI World Track Championships from publically available video. Split times were expressed as actual time, factored time (for the para-cyclists) and as a percentage of total time. A two-way analysis of variance was used to investigate differences in split times between the different classifications and the able-bodied cyclists in the men's 1-km TT and between the para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists in the women's 500-m TT. The importance of position at the first split was investigated with Kendall's Tau-b correlation. The first 125-m split time was the slowest for all cyclists, representing the acceleration phase from a standing start. C2 cyclists were slowest at this 125-m split, probably due to a combination of remaining seated in this acceleration phase and a high proportion of cyclists in this group being trans-femoral amputees. Not all cyclists used aero-bars, preferring to use drop, flat or bullhorn handlebars. Split times increased in the later stages of the race, demonstrating a positive pacing strategy. In the shorter women's 500-m TT, rank at the first split was more strongly correlated with final position than in the longer men's 1-km TT. In conclusion, a positive pacing strategy was adopted by the different para-cycling classes. PMID:26834643

  14. Adapting a Common Photographic Camera to Take Pictures of the Sky. (Spanish Title: Adaptando Una Camara Fotografica Comun Para Obtener Fotografias del Cielo.) Adaptando Uma Câmera Fotográfica Manual Simples Para Fotografar o Céu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danhoni Neves, Marcos Cesar; Pereira, Ricardo Francisco

    2007-12-01

    In this paper will be introduced a method of astrophotography using a non-reflex photographic camera (a low-cost method). It will be revised some photographic processes commonly used nowadays for comparison with the aims of this paper. En este trabajo será introducido un método de astrofotografia que utiliza una cámara fotográfica non-reflex (un método de bajo costo). Serán revisados algunos procesos fotográficos comúnmente utilizados actualmente para comparación con los objetivos de este trabajo. O presente artigo procura introduzir um método de astrofotografia utilizando uma câmera fotográfica não reflex, de baixo custo. É feita uma revisão do processo fotográfico comumente empregado para fins de comparação com os objetivos pretendidos no presente trabalho.

  15. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of para-substituted benzoic acids chemisorbed to aluminum oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kreil, Justin; Ellingsworth, Edward; Szulczewski, Greg

    2013-11-15

    A series of para-substituted, halogenated (F, Cl, Br, and I) benzoic acid monolayers were prepared on the native oxide of aluminum surfaces by solution self-assembly and spin-coating techniques. The monolayers were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angles. Several general trends are apparent. First, the polarity of the solvent is critical to monolayer formation. Protic polar solvents produced low coverage monolayers; in contrast, nonpolar solvents produced higher coverage monolayers. Second, solution deposition yields a higher surface coverage than spin coating. Third, the thickness of the monolayers determined from XPS suggests the plane of the aromatic ring is perpendicular to the surface with the carboxylate functional group most likely binding in a bidentate chelating geometry. Fourth, the saturation coverage (∼2.7 × 10{sup 14} molecules cm{sup −2}) is independent of the para-substituent.

  16. Breaking the Barrier to Slow Water Exchange Rates for Optimal Magnetic Resonance Detection of paraCEST Agents.

    PubMed

    Fernando, W Shirangi; Martins, André F; Zhao, Piyu; Wu, Yunkou; Kiefer, Garry E; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Sherry, A Dean

    2016-03-21

    EuDOTA-tetraamide complexes as paraCEST agents offer an attractive platform for designing biological sensors and responsive agents. The early versions of these agents showed low sensitivity at temperature and power levels suitable for in vivo applications partly due to non-optimal water exchange rates. Here we report two new EuDOTA derivatives having glutamyl-phosphonate side arms that display the slowest water exchange rates of any other paraCEST agent reported so far. The advantages of such systems are demonstrated experimentally both in vitro and in vivo and DFT calculations were performed to help understand the physical-chemical reasons for this interesting behavior. PMID:26937683

  17. A case of nearly mistaken AB para-Bombay blood group donor transplanted to a group 'O' recipient.

    PubMed

    Townamchai, Natavudh; Watanaboonyongcharoen, Phandee; Chancharoenthana, Wiwat; Avihingsanon, Yingyos

    2014-01-01

    Unintentional ABO mismatch kidney transplantation can cause detrimental hyperacute rejection. We report the first successful ABO incompatible kidney transplantation from an AB para-Bombay donor to O recipient. At the initial evaluation, the donor's ABO type was discordance on the cell typing and serum typing, which typed to be 'O' as cell typing and 'AB' as serum typing. At the second investigation, it was confirmed that the donor had a unique, rare but not uncommon blood type AB para-Bombay which was incompatible with the recipient's blood group. The kidney transplantation was successfully performed by an ABO incompatible preconditioning, double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) and rituximab. The serum creatinine at 12 months post-transplantation was 1.3 mg/dL. The pathology of the kidney biopsy showed no signs of rejection. PMID:25362187

  18. Trends in electron-ion dissociative recombination of benzene analogs with functional group substitutions: Negative Hammett σpara values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, David; Lawson, Patrick Andrew; Adams, Nigel; Dotan, Itzhak

    2014-06-01

    An in-depth study of the effects of functional group substitution on benzene's electron-ion dissociative recombination (e-IDR) rate constant has been conducted. The e-IDR rate constants for benzene, biphenyl, toluene, ethylbenzene, anisole, phenol, and aniline have been measured using a Flowing Afterglow equipped with an electrostatic Langmuir probe (FALP). These measurements have been made over a series of temperatures from 300 to 550 K. A relationship between the Hammett σpara values for each compound and rate constant has indicated a trend in the e-IDR rate constants and possibly in their temperature dependence data. The Hammett σpara value is a method to describe the effect a functional group substituted to a benzene ring has upon the reaction rate constant.

  19. Significado de los cambios en el cuello uterino: Guía para la salud de la mujer

    Cancer.gov

    Explica qué es la infección por el VPH; los exámenes de detección del cáncer de cuello uterino, entre ellos la prueba de Pap, la prueba del VPH y la prueba conjunta de Pap y del VPH; las pautas para los exámenes de detección; los posibles resultados de la

  20. Vanadium-catalyzed oxidative Strecker reaction: α-C–H cyanation of para-methoxyphenyl (PMP)-protected primary amines

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chen; Xia, Ji-Bao; Chen, Chuo

    2013-01-01

    We describe an oxidative Strecker reaction that allows for direct cyanation of para-methoxyphenyl (PMP)-protected primary amines. A vanadium(V) complex was used as the catalyst and TBHP as the oxidant. The cyanation occurs at the α-C position bearing either an alkyl or an aromatic group. This method provides a direct access to α-aminonitrile from amines with one-carbon extension. PMID:24415804

  1. Luminescent properties of europium(III) and terbium(III) complexes with para- and ortho-ethoxybenzoic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panyushkin, V. T.; Mutuzova, M. Kh.; Shamsutdinova, M. Kh.

    2016-02-01

    The luminescent properties of europium(III) and terbium(III) complexes with para- and ortho-ethoxybenzoic acids are studied. The excitation energies of the triplet states of ligands are determined, a hypothesis is made about the efficient luminescence of europium(III) and terbium(III) complexes, the geometry of the coordination polyhedron of a europium complex is established, and the luminescence quantum yields of the complexes in solution are determined.

  2. Para-Aminobenzoic Acid (PABA) Synthase Enhances Thermotolerance of Mushroom Agaricus bisporus

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhonglei; Kong, Xiangxiang; Lu, Zhaoming; Xiao, Meixiang; Chen, Meiyuan; Zhu, Liang; Shen, Yuemao; Hu, Xiangyang; Song, Siyang

    2014-01-01

    Most mushrooms are thermo-sensitive to temperatures over 23°C, which greatly restricts their agricultural cultivation. Understanding mushroom’s innate heat-tolerance mechanisms may facilitate genetic improvements of their thermotolerance. Agaricus bisporus strain 02 is a relatively thermotolerant mushroom strain, while strain 8213 is quite thermo-sensitive. Here, we compared their responses at proteomic level to heat treatment at 33°C. We identified 73 proteins that are differentially expressed between 02 and 8213 or induced upon heat stress in strain 02 itself, 48 of which with a known identity. Among them, 4 proteins are constitutively more highly expressed in 02 than 8213; and they can be further upregulated in response to heat stress in 02, but not in 8213. One protein is encoded by the para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) synthase gene Pabs, which has been shown to scavenge the reactive oxygen species in vitro. Pabs mRNA and its chemical product PABA show similar heat stress induction pattern as PABA synthase protein and are more abundant in 02, indicating transcriptional level upregulation of Pabs upon heat stress. A specific inhibitor of PABA synthesis impaired thermotolerance of 02, while exogenous PABA or transgenic overexpression of 02 derived PABA synthase enhanced thermotolerance of 8213. Furthermore, compared to 8213, 02 accumulated less H2O2 but more defense-related proteins (e.g., HSPs and Chitinase) under heat stress. Together, these results demonstrate a role of PABA in enhancing mushroom thermotolerance by removing H2O2 and elevating defense-related proteins. PMID:24614118

  3. High-strength poly(para-phenylene) as an orthopedic biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Frick, Carl P; DiRienzo, Amy L; Hoyt, Anthony J; Safranski, David L; Saed, Mohand; Losty, Eric J; Yakacki, Christopher M

    2014-09-01

    Poly(para-phenylene) (PPP) exhibits exceptional mechanical strength, stiffness, toughness, and chemical inertness, although it is not currently used in any biomedical applications. The purpose of this study is to serve as a preliminary investigation into the potential of PPP as a biomaterial in orthopedic load-bearing applications. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis confirmed a polymer structure composed of an aromatic backbone and side groups. Tensile PPP specimens along with samples from several other polymers often used for orthopedic applications were elongated to failure after being soaked in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for 1 h, 1 day, 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, and more than 1 year. Results showed that PBS absorption of the PPP plateaued at 1 week at values of ∼0.7 wt % and remained within one standard deviation when soaked for over 1 year. PBS absorption did not affect elastic modulus (5.0 GPa), yield strength (141 MPa), fracture strength (120 MPa) and strain-to-failure (17%) more than one standard deviation. Zero-to-tension fatigue testing established an endurance limit of approximately 35 MPa, which was relatively insensitive to frequency (1-10 Hz). Eagle's minimum essential medium (MEM) elution assay with fibroblasts confirmed that the PPP was noncytotoxic. Relative to other polymers used for load-bearing biomedical applications, PPP displays promising mechanical properties that remain stable in aqueous solution. Lastly, prototype PPP and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) bone plates were manufactured and tested, with the PPP plate showing a 38% higher maximum tensile load before failure. PMID:24123879

  4. A review of inhalation toxicology studies with para-aramid fibrils.

    PubMed

    Warheit, D B

    1995-10-01

    The paper summarizes the results of inhalation toxicology studies associated with para-aramid (p-aramid) fibrils. The review is subdivided into two categories: the results of inhalation toxicity studies and mechanistic inhalation studies. Keratin-associated lesions were observed in the lungs of female rats following chronic exposure to high concentrations of p-aramid. These lesions were originally interpreted as cystic keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas (CKSCC). In recent years, this keratinizing lesion has been observed in the lungs of rats with greater regularity in numerous chronic inhalation studies following exposures to a variety of dusts. In an attempt to reach a consensus on an appropriate diagnosis for this lesion, an international panel of pathologists was convened to evaluate the morphological aspects of this lesion. The panel considered that the most appropriate diagnosis for this lesion was 'proliferative keratin cyst' (PKC), the biological potential of the PKC remains controversial, but it appears to be unique to the rat species and has little relevance for humans. Mechanistic studies with p-aramid have demonstrated that acute inhalation of high concentrations of fibrils produces a potent but transient pulmonary inflammatory and cell labelling response. The inhaled fibrils have low durability in the lungs of rats as evidenced by a progressive decrease in median fibre lengths with increasing residence time in the lung. In contrast, in a comparative study, size-separated chrysotile asbestos produced a sustained increase over controls in cellular proliferation responses of terminal airways, parenchyma, subpleural and mesothelial regions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8526399

  5. Liquid chromatographic determination of para-toluenesulfonamide in edible fillet tissues from three species of fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinertz, J.R.; Schmidt, L.J.; Stehly, G.R.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    Chloramine-T (N-sodium-N-chloro-p-toluene-sulfonamide) is a candidate therapeutic drug for treating bacterial gill disease, a predominant disease of a variety of fish species. Research has been initiated to obtain the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) approval for the use of chloramine-T on a variety of fish species. An attribute of a therapeutic aquaculture drug that must be characterized before the FDA approves its use is depletion of the drug's marker residue (the drug's parent compound or metabolite of highest concentration in an edible tissue). Para-Toluenesulfonamide (p-TSA) is the primary degradation product and marker residue for chloramine-T in rainbow trout. To conduct residue depletion studies for chloramine-T in fish, a robust analytical method sensitive and specific for p-TSA residues in edible fillet tissue from a variety of fish was required. Homogenized fillet tissues from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were fortified at nominal p-TSA concentrations of 17, 67, 200, 333, and 1000 ng/g. Samples were analyzed by isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) with absorbance detection at 226 nm. Mean recoveries of p-TSA ranged from 77 to 93.17%; relative standard deviations ranged from 1.5 to 14%; method quantitation limits ranged from 13 to 18 ng/g; and method detection limits ranged from 3.8 to 5.2 ng/g. The LC parameters produced p-TSA peaks without coelution of endogenous compounds and excluded chromatographic interference from at least 20 chemicals and drugs of potential use in aquaculture.

  6. Resveratrol and para-coumarate serve as ring precursors for coenzyme Q biosynthesis[S

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Letian X.; Williams, Kevin J.; He, Cuiwen H.; Weng, Emily; Khong, San; Rose, Tristan E.; Kwon, Ohyun; Bensinger, Steven J.; Marbois, Beth N.; Clarke, Catherine F.

    2015-01-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q or ubiquinone) is a redox-active polyisoprenylated benzoquinone lipid essential for electron and proton transport in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The aromatic ring 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4HB) is commonly depicted as the sole aromatic ring precursor in Q biosynthesis despite the recent finding that para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) also serves as a ring precursor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Q biosynthesis. In this study, we employed aromatic 13C6-ring-labeled compounds including 13C6-4HB, 13C6-pABA, 13C6-resveratrol, and 13C6-coumarate to investigate the role of these small molecules as aromatic ring precursors in Q biosynthesis in Escherichia coli, S. cerevisiae, and human and mouse cells. In contrast to S. cerevisiae, neither E. coli nor the mammalian cells tested were able to form 13C6-Q when cultured in the presence of 13C6-pABA. However, E. coli cells treated with 13C6-pABA generated 13C6-ring-labeled forms of 3-octaprenyl-4-aminobenzoic acid, 2-octaprenyl-aniline, and 3-octaprenyl-2-aminophenol, suggesting UbiA, UbiD, UbiX, and UbiI are capable of using pABA or pABA-derived intermediates as substrates. E. coli, S. cerevisiae, and human and mouse cells cultured in the presence of 13C6-resveratrol or 13C6-coumarate were able to synthesize 13C6-Q. Future evaluation of the physiological and pharmacological responses to dietary polyphenols should consider their metabolism to Q. PMID:25681964

  7. OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

  8. The transverse compression of poly(para-phenyleneterephthalamide) and other, highly oriented fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singletary, James Neal

    The transverse compression of poly (para-phenyleneterephthalamide) (PPTA) and other, highly-oriented fibers is characterized by mechanical testing and microscopic observation. A review of the literature on the transverse mechanical response of highly-oriented fibers is presented, with special attention to PPTA fibers. Experimental methods to directly measure transverse elastic and failure constants are reviewed. Analyses of these tests are rederived, and their predictions for PPTA compared. Other methods for characterizing the transverse mechanical response of highly-oriented fibers are discussed. Investigations of the structure of PPTA fibers are reviewed, with emphasis placed on what observations affect the transverse mechanical response. The literature supports two possible paradigms for the transverse compressive failure of PPTA fibers: microscopically homogeneous, plastic deformation, and fibrillation, a process of dense microcracking, with cracks predominantly parallel to the fiber axis. Experimental characterization is presented from the single fiber transverse compression test, using a novel test device. The effects of fiber diameter, processing continuous filaments into staple yarns, testing fibers at various aspect ratios, heat treatment, skin thickness, and the orientation of hydrogen bonding are investigated. Test results are simulated by finite element modeling. Hypothesis about the failure process of PPTA fibers in transverse compression are supported by reflected light, confocal and interference microscopy. This thesis concludes that PPTA fibers fail in transverse compression by fibrillation, in which the fiber cracks into several smaller fibrils, which move past each other to allow the fiber to comply with increasing transverse load. During fibrillation, a significant amount of work is I absorbed. The influence of several of the above parameters on the tendency to fibrillate is discussed.

  9. Genes, Enzymes, and Regulation of para-Cresol Metabolism in Geobacter metallireducens▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Franziska; Heintz, Dimitri; Johannes, Jörg; van Dorsselaer, Alain; Boll, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    In aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria, the degradation of para-cresol (p-cresol) involves the initial hydroxylation to p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol by water catalyzed by the soluble, periplasmatic flavocytochrome p-cresol methylhydroxylase (PCMH; α2β2 composition). In denitrifying bacteria the further metabolism proceeds via oxidation to p-hydroxybenzoate, the formation of p-hydroxybenzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA), and the subsequent dehydroxylation of the latter to benzoyl-CoA by reduction. In contrast, the strictly anaerobic Desulfobacterium cetonicum degrades p-cresol by addition to fumarate, yielding p-hydroxybenzylsuccinate. In this work, in vitro enzyme activity measurements revealed that the obligately anaerobic Geobacter metallireducens uses the p-cresol degradation pathway of denitrifying bacteria. Surprisingly, PCMH, which is supposed to catalyze both p-cresol hydroxylation and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol oxidation to the corresponding aldehyde, was located in the membrane fraction. The α subunit of the enzyme was present in two isoforms, suggesting an αα′β2 composition. We propose that the unusual asymmetric architecture and the membrane association of PCMH might be important for alternative electron transfer routes to either cytochrome c (in the case of p-cresol oxidation) or to menaquinone (in the case of p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol oxidation). Unusual properties of further enzymes of p-cresol metabolism, p-hydroxybenzoate-CoA ligase, and p-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA reductase were identified and are discussed. A proteomic approach identified a gene cluster comprising most of the putative structural genes for enzymes involved in p-cresol metabolism (pcm genes). Reverse transcription-PCR studies revealed a different regulation of transcription of pcm genes and the corresponding enzyme activities, suggesting the presence of posttranscriptional regulatory elements. PMID:17449613

  10. Introduccion a la hidraulica de aguas subterraneas : un texto programado para auto-ensenanza

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Gordon D.

    1987-01-01

    Este ' texto programado esta diseflado para ayudarle a comprender la teoria de la hidniulica de aguas subterraneas por medio de la auto-enseflanza. La instrucci6n programada es un enfoque a una materia, un metodo de aprender;que no elimina el esfuerzo mental del proceso de aprendizaje. Algunas secciones de este programa necesitan solamente ser leidas; otras tendrian que ser elaboradas con lapiz y papel. Algunas preguntas pueden ser contestadas directamente; otras requieren calculos. A medida que se avanza en el texto, tendra que consultar frecuentemente textos o referencias sobre matematicas, mecanica de fluidos e hidrologia. En cada una de las ocho partes del texto, inicie el programa de instrucci6n leyendo la Secci6n 1. Elija una respuesta a la pregunta al final de la secci6n y dirijase a la nueva secci6n indicada al lado de la respuesta escogida. Si su respuesta fue correcta, pase a la secci6n que contiene materia nueva y otra pregunta, y proceda tal como en la Secci6n 1. Si su respuesta no fue correcta, dirijase a la secci6n que contiene explicaciones adicionales sobre el tema anterior y que le indica volver a la pregunta inicial e intentar de nuevo. En este caso, valdra Ia pena repasar el material de la secci6n anterior. Continue de esta man era en el programa hasta que llegue a Ia secci6n que indica el final de la parte. Observe que aunque las secciones estan en orden numerico en cada una de las ocho partes, por lo general, usted no procedeni en secuencia numerica (Secci6n 1 ala Secci6n 2, etc.) de principia a fin.

  11. Excretion of para-aminohippurate in the isolated perfused rat kidney: net secretion and net reabsorption.

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, M L; Wiegmann, T B

    1988-01-01

    1. The excretion of para-aminohippurate (PAH) in the isolated perfused rat kidney was examined over a wide range of perfusate PAH concentrations (15 microM to 6 mM). PAH excretion increased steadily over the range of perfusate concentrations, reaching a maximal excretion rate of 3.28 mumol/min at a free-PAH concentration of 6 mM. 2. Tubular transport of PAH was evaluated from the difference between ultrafiltered PAH and excreted PAH. Net PAH secretion was observed at low perfusate free PAH concentrations. Net PAH transport was zero at a perfusate free PAH concentration of 2.1 mM. Above this level there was progressive net reabsorption. 3. Probenecid (2.5 mM) decreased PAH secretion to 18% of the initial value at 129 microM-free PAH (P less than 0.05). Probenecid had no effect on net reabsorption of PAH at high perfusate levels of the anion. 4. Alanine (5 mM) decreased net PAH secretion by 50% at low free PAH concentrations (P less than 0.05) and decreased net PAH reabsorption by 50% at at a free PAH concentration of 6 mM (P less than 0.05). These effects could not be related to effects of PAH, probenecid or alanine on glomerular filtration rate (GFR), vascular resistance or electrolyte excretion. 5. The results confirm the existence and integrity of the proximal tubular organic anion secretory system in the isolated kidney. In addition, net PAH reabsorption occurs at high perfusate levels. PMID:3411514

  12. Taxas de eventos para as fontes astrofísicas do detector Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, C. S.; Araujo, J. C. N.; Miranda, O. D.; Aguiar, O. D.

    2003-08-01

    O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg será sensível a sinais que cheguem à Terra com amplitude h~10-21 e dentro da faixa em frequências que varia de 3,0 a 3,4 kHz. As principais fontes astrofísicas em condições de gerar um sinal detectável pela antena Schenberg são: colapsos estelares que produzam eventos do tipo supernova; instabilidades hidrodinâmicas em estrelas de nêutrons; excitação dos modos fluído (modos f) de estrelas de nêutrons; excitação dos primeiros modos quadrupolares de buracos negros com massa ~ 3,8 M¤; coalescências de estrelas de nêutrons e buracos negros em sistemas binários e, ainda, espiralações de mini-buracos negros. Neste trabalho nós determinamos as taxas de eventos para o Schenberg associadas a dois tipos de fontes: através da de-excitação dos modos f de estrelas de nêutrons e através da coalescência de mini-buracos negros de 0,5 M¤ (que atualmente têm sido colocados como possíveis candidatos a objetos massivos do halo Galáctico). Nós mostramos que esses tipos de fontes poderão produzir sinais em ondas gravitacionais com uma taxa em torno de um evento por ano dentro da banda do Schenberg.

  13. Polymer electrophosphorescent devices utilizing a ladder-type poly(para-phenylene) host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. H.; Neher, D.; Scherf, U.; Bagnich, S. A.; Bässler, H.

    2003-04-01

    The properties of light-emitting diodes based on the electrophorescent platinum-porphyrin dye PtOEP blended into a ladder-type poly(para-phenylene) (LPPP) polymer host are presented. Due to the small difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) levels of the guest and the host, the operating voltage of single layer devices is almost independent of the dopant concentration in clear contrast to what has been observed in the case of wide-band gap host polymers. However, the efficiency and the color purity of these single-layer devices is quite poor, which can be attributed to the weak trapping of carriers on the phosphorescent dye. Incorporating an electron-transporting/hole-blocking layer greatly increases the efficiency of the devices but at the same time emission from the host becomes more significant. Adding a hole-transporting/electron-blocking layer further increases the efficiency of the devices. Pure red emission is, however, only obtained if the HOMO of the hole-transporting layer is well above that of the LPPP host. This effect is interpreted in terms of a direct injection of holes from the hole-transporting layer into the HOMO level of the dopant. Further, prompt fluorescence and phosphorescence studies indicate that energy transfer from LPPP singlet excitons contributes to the emission from the dopant, but that the efficiency of singlet exciton transfer is too small to explain the almost complete absence of host emission in the electroluminescence spectra of single- and three-layer devices.

  14. Drosophila as a model for intractable epilepsy: gilgamesh suppresses seizures in para(bss1) heterozygote flies.

    PubMed

    Howlett, Iris C; Rusan, Zeid M; Parker, Louise; Tanouye, Mark A

    2013-08-01

    Intractable epilepsies, that is, seizure disorders that do not respond to currently available therapies, are difficult, often tragic, neurological disorders. Na(+) channelopathies have been implicated in some intractable epilepsies, including Dravet syndrome (Dravet 1978), but little progress has been forthcoming in therapeutics. Here we examine a Drosophila model for intractable epilepsy, the Na(+) channel gain-of-function mutant para(bss1) that resembles Dravet syndrome in some aspects (parker et al. 2011a). In particular, we identify second-site mutations that interact with para(bss1), seizure enhancers, and seizure suppressors. We describe one seizure-enhancer mutation named charlatan (chn). The chn gene normally encodes an Neuron-Restrictive Silencer Factor/RE1-Silencing Transcription factor transcriptional repressor of neuronal-specific genes. We identify a second-site seizure-suppressor mutation, gilgamesh (gish), that reduces the severity of several seizure-like phenotypes of para(bss1)/+ heterozygotes. The gish gene normally encodes the Drosophila ortholog of casein kinase CK1g3, a member of the CK1 family of serine-threonine kinases. We suggest that CK1g3 is an unexpected but promising new target for seizure therapeutics. PMID:23797108

  15. Transoral, retromolar, para-tonsillar approach to the styloid process in 6 patients with Eagle’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Alexander W.; Scheller, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Eagle’s syndrome is caused by an elongated or mineralised styloid process and characterised by facial and pharyngeal pain, odynophagia and dysphagia. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings. However radiologic imaging, like panoramic radiograph, helps to confirm the diagnosis. There are different treatments of the Eagle’s syndrome. Anti-inflammatory medication (carbamazepime, corticosteroids) and/or surgical interventions are established. The aim of the different surgical techniques is to resect the elongated styloid process near the skull base. Study Design: A transoral, retromolar, para-tonsillar approach was performed to expose and resect the elongated calcified styloid process in a consecutive series of six patients. The use of different angled ring curettes, generally used in hypophysis surgery, facilitated the preparation of the styloid process through the surrounding tissue to the skull base, without a compromise to the surrounding tissue. Clinical examinations were performed pre- and postoperatively (3 month and after 1 year after surgery) in all patients. Results: No intra- or postoperative complications were observed. The hypophysis ring curettes facilitated the preparation of the styloid process to the skull base. Conclusions: The transoral, retromolar, para-tonsillar approach is a secure and fast method to resect an elongated symptomatic styloid process. Side effects of the classical transoral trans-tonsillar approach did not occur. Key words:Retromolar, para-tonsillar approach, Eagle syndrome, clinical features. PMID:24121903

  16. Antibacterial activity of sulfamethoxazole transformation products (TPs): general relevance for sulfonamide TPs modified at the para position.

    PubMed

    Majewsky, Marius; Wagner, Danny; Delay, Markus; Bräse, Stefan; Yargeau, Viviane; Horn, Harald

    2014-10-20

    Sulfonamide antibiotics undergo transformation in the aquatic environment through biodegradation, photolysis, or hydrolysis. In this study, the residual antibacterial activity of 11 transformation products (TPs) of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) was investigated with regard to their in vitro growth and luminescence inhibition on Vibrio fischeri (30 min and 24 h exposure). Two transformation products, 4-hydroxy-SMX and N(4)-hydroxy-acetyl-SMX, were synthesized in-house and confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Results of individual compound experiments showed that TPs modified at the para amino group still exhibit clear antibacterial effects, whereas TPs resulting from breakdown of the SMX structure lost this mechanism of action. 4-NO2- and 4-OH-SMX were found to inhibit growth to a clearly greater extent than the parent compound, SMX. In contrast, the N(4)-acetyl- and N(4)-hydroxy-acetyl-derivatives retain less than 10 and 5% of the effect of SMX on growth and luminescence inhibition, respectively. The effect of a mixture of para-modified TPs was observed to be additive. Considering the homologous series of sulfa drugs widely prescribed and their common mechanism of action, the potential environmental impact must consider the total amount of sulfonamide antibiotics and their derivative TPs, which might end up in a water body. Extrapolating the results obtained here for the para TPs of SMX to other sulfa drugs and determining the persistence and occurrence of these compounds in the aquatic environment is required for improved risk assessment. PMID:25211553

  17. The vitamin-like dietary supplement para-aminobenzoic acid enhances the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, Sandhya; MacDonald, Shannon; Roth, Jennifer; Caunt, Maresa; Akalu, Abebe; Morais, Danielle; Buckley, Michael T.; Liebes, Leonard; Formenti, Silvia C.; Brooks, Peter C. . E-mail: peter.brooks@med.nyu.edu

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) alters the sensitivity of tumor cells to ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: Cellular proliferation was assessed by WST-1 assays. The effects of PABA and radiation on tumor growth were examined with chick embryo and murine models. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to quantify p21{sup CIP1} and CDC25A levels. Results: Para-aminobenzoic acid enhanced (by 50%) the growth inhibitory activity of radiation on B16F10 cells, whereas it had no effect on melanocytes. Para-aminobenzoic acid enhanced (50-80%) the antitumor activity of radiation on B16F10 and 4T1 tumors in vivo. The combination of PABA and radiation therapy increased tumor apoptosis. Treatment of tumor cells with PABA increased expression of CDC25A and decreased levels of p21{sup CIP1}. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that PABA might represent a compound capable of enhancing the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation by a mechanism involving altered expression of proteins known to regulate cell cycle arrest.

  18. Comparison of photoinduced reorientation of ortho-, meta-, and para-methyl red-doped nematic liquid crystals on rubbed polyimide.

    PubMed

    Statman, David; Statman, Ariel T; Wozniak, Kaitlin; Brennan, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    We compare the photoinduced reorientation of the easy axis on rubbed polyimide surfaces for the nematic E7 doped with three isomers of methyl red; ortho, meta, and para. Using optical techniques, the angle and the pitch of the director at the polymer surface were measured before, during, and after photoexcitation of the dye. Optical absorbances were also measured before and after photoexcitation. Extrapolation lengths, hence anchoring energies, were determined with the on/off application of a magnetic field for meta- and para-methyl red-doped nematics. Because of an elastic reorientation of the easy axis in the presence of the magnetic field, we could not determine the extrapolation length of the ortho-methyl red-doped nematic. Our results confirm that photoinduced reorientation is facilitated by desorption of all dyes from the polymer surface. While there is little evidence of weak photoinduced adsorption of meta- and para-methyl red to the surface during photoexcitation, there is strong evidence of photoinduced adsorption of ortho-methyl red, which is long lasting. PMID:26382419

  19. Comparison of photoinduced reorientation of ortho-, meta-, and para-methyl red-doped nematic liquid crystals on rubbed polyimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statman, David; Statman, Ariel T.; Wozniak, Kaitlin; Brennan, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    We compare the photoinduced reorientation of the easy axis on rubbed polyimide surfaces for the nematic E7 doped with three isomers of methyl red; ortho, meta, and para. Using optical techniques, the angle and the pitch of the director at the polymer surface were measured before, during, and after photoexcitation of the dye. Optical absorbances were also measured before and after photoexcitation. Extrapolation lengths, hence anchoring energies, were determined with the on/off application of a magnetic field for meta- and para-methyl red-doped nematics. Because of an elastic reorientation of the easy axis in the presence of the magnetic field, we could not determine the extrapolation length of the ortho-methyl red-doped nematic. Our results confirm that photoinduced reorientation is facilitated by desorption of all dyes from the polymer surface. While there is little evidence of weak photoinduced adsorption of meta- and para-methyl red to the surface during photoexcitation, there is strong evidence of photoinduced adsorption of ortho-methyl red, which is long lasting.

  20. Developmental validation of the ParaDNA(®) Intelligence System-A novel approach to DNA profiling.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Stephen; Dawnay, Nick; Ball, Glyn; Stafford-Allen, Beccy; Tribble, Nicholas; Rendell, Paul; Neary, Kelsey; Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack; Kallifatidis, Beatrice; Mendel, Julian; Mills, DeEtta K; Wells, Simon

    2015-07-01

    DNA profiling through the analysis of STRs remains one of the most widely used tools in human identification across the world. Current laboratory STR analysis is slow, costly and requires expert users and interpretation which can lead to instances of delayed investigations or non-testing of evidence on budget grounds. The ParaDNA(®) Intelligence System has been designed to provide a simple, fast and robust way to profile DNA samples in a lab or field-deployable manner. The system analyses 5-STRs plus amelogenin to deliver a DNA profile that enables users to gain rapid investigative leads and intelligent prioritisation of samples in human identity testing applications. Utilising an innovative sample collector, minimal training is required to enable both DNA analysts and nonspecialist personnel to analyse biological samples directly, without prior processing, in approximately 75min. The test uses direct PCR with fluorescent HyBeacon(®) detection of STR allele lengths to provide a DNA profile. The developmental validation study described here followed the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) guidelines and tested the sensitivity, reproducibility, accuracy, inhibitor tolerance, and performance of the ParaDNA Intelligence System on a range of mock evidence items. The data collected demonstrate that the ParaDNA Intelligence System displays useful DNA profiles when sampling a variety of evidence items including blood, saliva, semen and touch DNA items indicating the potential to benefit a number of applications in fields such as forensic, military and disaster victim identification (DVI). PMID:25980941