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Sample records for paracyclopina nana exposed

  1. Identification and molecular characterization of dorsal and dorsal-like genes in the cyclopoid copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Lee, Min Chul; Lee, Kyun-Woo; Seo, Jung Soo; Park, Heum Gi; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-12-01

    To date, knowledge of the immune system in aquatic invertebrates has been reported in only a few model organisms, even though all metazoans have an innate immune system. In particular, information on the copepod's immunity and the potential role of key genes in the innate immune systems is still unclear. In this study, we identified dorsal and dorsal-like genes in the cyclopoid copepod Paracyclopina nana. In silico analyses for identifying conserved domains and phylogenetic relationships supported their gene annotations. The transcriptional levels of both genes were slightly increased from the nauplius to copepodid stages, suggesting that these genes are putatively involved in copepodid development of P. nana. To examine the involvement of both genes in the innate immune response and under stressful conditions, the copepods were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), different culture densities, salinities, and temperatures. LPS significantly upregulated mRNA expressions of dorsal and dorsal-like genes, suggesting that both genes are transcriptionally sensitive in response to immune modulators. Exposure to unfavorable culture conditions also increased mRNA levels of dorsal and dorsal-like genes. These findings suggest that transcriptional regulation of the dorsal and dorsal-like genes would be associated with environmental changes in P. nana. PMID:26297599

  2. Gamma radiation induces growth retardation, impaired egg production, and oxidative stress in the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun-Ji; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-05-01

    Accidental nuclear radioisotope release into the ocean from nuclear power plants is of concern due to ecological and health risks. In this study, we used the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana to examine the effects of radioisotopes on marine organisms upon gamma radiation, and to measure the effects on growth and fecundity, which affect population and community structure. Upon gamma radiation, mortality (LD50 - 96 h=172 Gy) in P. nana was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner in ovigerous P. nana females. For developmental impairment of gamma-irradiated nauplii, we observed growth retardation; in over 30 Gy-irradiated groups, offspring did not grow to adults. Particularly, over 50 Gy-irradiated ovigerous P. nana females did not have normal bilateral egg sacs, and their offspring did not develop normally to adulthood. Additionally, at over 30 Gy, we found dose-dependent increases in oxidative levels with elevated antioxidant enzyme activities and DNA repair activities. These findings indicate that gamma radiation can induce oxidative stress and DNA damage with growth retardation and impaired reproduction. PMID:24632311

  3. Identification of Hox genes and rearrangements within the single homeobox (Hox) cluster (192.8 kb) of the cyclopoid copepod (Paracyclopina nana).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hui-Su; Kim, Bo-Mi; Lee, Bo-Young; Souissi, Sami; Park, Heum Gi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-03-01

    We report the first identification of the entire complement of the eight typical homeobox (hox) genes (lab, pb, Dfd, scr, antp, ubx, Abd-A, and Abd-B) and the ftz gene in a 192.8 kb region in the cyclopoid copepod Paracyclopina nana. A Hox3 gene ortholog was not present in the P. nana hox gene cluster, while the P. nana Dfd gene was transcribed in the opposite direction to the Daphnia pulex Dfd gene, but in the same direction as the Dfd genes of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. The location of the lab and pb genes was switched in the P. nana hox cluster, while the order of the remaining hox genes was generally conserved with those of other arthropods. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 9999B:XX-XX, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26833546

  4. In vivo effects of UV radiation on multiple endpoints and expression profiles of DNA repair and heat shock protein (Hsp) genes in the cycloid copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun-Ji; Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Yeonjung; Kumar, K Suresh; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Su-Jae; Park, Heum Gi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on energy acquisition and consumption, the copepod Paracyclopina nana was irradiated with several doses (0-3kJ/m(2)) of UV. After UV radiation, we measured the re-brooding success, growth pattern of newly hatched nauplii, ingestion rate, and assimilation of diet. In addition, we checked the modulated patterns of DNA repair and heat shock protein (hsp) chaperoning genes of P. nana. UV-B radiation induced a significant reduction (7-87%) of the re-brooding rate of ovigerous females, indicating that UV-induced egg sac damage is closely correlated with a reduction in the hatching rate of UV-irradiated ovigerous female offspring. Using chlorophyll a and stable carbon isotope incubation experiments, we found a dose-dependent decrease (P<0.05) in food ingestion and the rate of assimilation to the body in response to UV radiation, implying that P. nana has an underlying ability to shift its balanced-energy status from growth and reproduction to DNA repair and adaptation. Also, expression of P. nana base excision repair (BER)-associated genes and hsp chaperoning genes was significantly increased in response to UV radiation in P. nana. These findings indicate that even 1kJ/m(2) of UV radiation induces a reduction in reproduction and growth patterns, alters the physiological balance and inhibits the ability to cope with UV-induced damage in P. nana. PMID:26001085

  5. Survey of Beta nana in Greece

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wild species Beta nana is a crop wild relative of cultivated beets and a potential genetic resource for beet breeding. It is a rare but currently not threatened alpine species endemic to Greece which may be prone to extinction risk from climate warming in future. A plant exploration was conducte...

  6. NANA Wind Resource Assessment Program Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jay Hermanson

    2010-09-23

    NANA Regional Corporation (NRC) of northwest Alaska is located in an area with abundant wind energy resources. In 2007, NRC was awarded grant DE-FG36-07GO17076 by the US Department of Energy's Tribal Energy Program for funding a Wind Resource Assessment Project (WRAP) for the NANA region. The NANA region, including Kotzebue Electric Association (KEA) and Alaska Village Electric Cooperative (AVEC) have been national leaders at developing, designing, building, and operating wind-diesel hybrid systems in Kotzebue (starting in 1996) and Selawik (2002). Promising sites for the development of new wind energy projects in the region have been identified by the WRAP, including Buckland, Deering, and the Kivalina/Red Dog Mine Port Area. Ambler, Shungnak, Kobuk, Kiana, Noorvik & Noatak were determined to have poor wind resources at sites in or very near each community. However, all five of these communities may have better wind resources atop hills or at sites with slightly higher elevations several miles away.

  7. NANA Geothermal Assessment Program Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jay Hermanson

    2010-06-22

    In 2008, NANA Regional Corporation (NRC) assessed geothermal energy potential in the NANA region for both heat and/or electricity production. The Geothermal Assessment Project (GAP) was a systematic process that looked at community resources and the community's capacity and desire to develop these resources. In October 2007, the US Department of Energy's Tribal Energy Program awarded grant DE-FG36-07GO17075 to NRC for the GAP studies. Two moderately remote sites in the NANA region were judged to have the most potential for geothermal development: (1) Granite Mountain, about 40 miles south of Buckland, and (2) the Division Hot Springs area in the Purcell Mountains, about 40 miles south of Shungnak and Kobuk. Data were collected on-site at Granite Mountain Hot Springs in September 2009, and at Division Hot Springs in April 2010. Although both target geothermal areas could be further investigated with a variety of exploration techniques such as a remote sensing study, a soil geochemical study, or ground-based geophysical surveys, it was recommended that on-site or direct heat use development options are more attractive at this time, rather than investigations aimed more at electric power generation.

  8. NANA Strategic Energy Plan & Energy Options Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jay Hermanson; Brian Yanity

    2008-12-31

    NANA Strategic Energy Plan summary NRC, as an Alaska Native Corporation, has committed to addressing the energy needs for its shareholders. The project framework calls for implicit involvement of the IRA Councils in the Steering Committee. Tribal Members, from the NRC to individual communities, will be involved in development of the NANA Energy Plan. NRC, as the lead tribal entity, will serve as the project director of the proposed effort. The NRC team has communicated with various governmental and policy stakeholders via meetings and discussions, including Denali Commission, Alaska Energy Authority, and other governmental stakeholders. Work sessions have been initiated with the Alaska Village Electric Cooperative, the NW Arctic Borough, and Kotzebue Electric Association. The NRC Strategic Energy Plan (SEP) Steering committee met monthly through April and May and weekly starting in June 2008 in preparation of the energy summit that was held from July 29-31, 2008. During preparations for the energy summit and afterwards, there was follow through and development of project concepts for consideration. The NANA regional energy summit was held from July 29-31, 2008, and brought together people from all communities of the Northwest Arctic Borough. The effort was planned in conjunction with the Alaska Energy Authority’s state-wide energy planning efforts. Over $80,000 in cash contributions was collected from various donors to assist with travel from communities and to develop the summit project. Available funding resources have been identified and requirements reviewed, including the Denali Commission, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, and the Alaska Energy Authority. A component of the overall plan will be a discussion of energy funding and financing. There are current project concepts submitted, or are ready for submittal, in the region for the following areas: • Wind-diesel in Deering, Buckland, Noorik, and Kiana areas; potential development around Red Dog mine.

  9. Nana i ke kumu: Returning to Our Ancestral Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurdeman, Katherine K.

    2013-01-01

    Nana i ke kumu refers to the Hawaiian practice of returning to traditional knowledge and resources to understand the underlying cultural roots of everyday words and actions used in contemporary Hawaiian settings. In this strengths-based research project, videotaped lessons in four classrooms at a Native Hawaiian-serving school were viewed and…

  10. Anthelmintic constituents from ginger (Zingiber officinale) against Hymenolepis nana.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Chen, Chung-Yi; Lu, Chin-Mei; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Wang, Jiun-Jye; Lee, June-Der; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the anthelmintic activity of gingerenone A, [6]-dehydrogingerdione, [4]-shogaol, 5-hydroxy-[6]-gingerol, [6]-shogaol, [6]-gingerol, [10]-shogaol, [10]-gingerol, hexahydrocurcumin, 3R,5S-[6]-gingerdiol and 3S,5S-[6]-gingerdiol, a constituent isolate from the roots of ginger, for the parasite Hymenolepis nana. The cestocidal activity or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement (oscillation/peristalsis) in H. nana of above constituents was reached from 24 to 72h in a time- and dose-dependent manner, respectively. The [10]-shogaol and [10]-gingero1 have maximum lethal efficacy and loss of spontaneous movement than the others at 24-72h. In addition, worms treated with 1 and 10μM [10]-gingero1, more than 30% had spontaneous movement of oscillation at 72h but [10]-shogaol at 72h only about 15-20% of oscillation. This showing that [10]-gingero1 had less loss of spontaneous movement efficacy than [10]-shogaol. After exposure to 200μM [10]-shogaol, 100% of H. nana had died at 12h rather than died at 24h for [10]-gingerol, showing that [10]-gingero1 had less lethal efficacy than [10]-shogaol. In addition, these constituents of ginger showed effects against peroxyl radical under cestocidal activity. In order to evaluate the cestocidal activity and cytokine production caused by ginger's extract R0 in the H. nana infected mice, we carried out in vivo examination about H. nana infected mice BALB/c mice were inoculated orally with 500 eggs. After post-inoculation, R0 (1g/kg/day) was administered orally for 10 days. The R0 exhibited cestocidal activity in vivo of significantly reduced worms number and cytokines production by in vitro Con A-stimulated spleen cells showed that INF-γ and IL-2 were significantly increases by R0. IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 were significantly decreases and Murine KC and IL-12 were not significantly changes by R0. Together, these findings first suggest that these constituents of ginger might be used as cestocidal

  11. Malignant Transformation of Hymenolepis nana in a Human Host.

    PubMed

    Muehlenbachs, Atis; Bhatnagar, Julu; Agudelo, Carlos A; Hidron, Alicia; Eberhard, Mark L; Mathison, Blaine A; Frace, Michael A; Ito, Akira; Metcalfe, Maureen G; Rollin, Dominique C; Visvesvara, Govinda S; Pham, Cau D; Jones, Tara L; Greer, Patricia W; Vélez Hoyos, Alejandro; Olson, Peter D; Diazgranados, Lucy R; Zaki, Sherif R

    2015-11-01

    Neoplasms occur naturally in invertebrates but are not known to develop in tapeworms. We observed nests of monomorphic, undifferentiated cells in samples from lymph-node and lung biopsies in a man infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The morphologic features and invasive behavior of the cells were characteristic of cancer, but their small size suggested a nonhuman origin. A polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay targeting eukaryotes identified Hymenolepis nana DNA. Although the cells were unrecognizable as tapeworm tissue, immunohistochemical staining and probe hybridization labeled the cells in situ. Comparative deep sequencing identified H. nana structural genomic variants that are compatible with mutations described in cancer. Invasion of human tissue by abnormal, proliferating, genetically altered tapeworm cells is a novel disease mechanism that links infection and cancer. PMID:26535513

  12. Recombinant sialidase NanA (rNanA) cleaves α2-3 linked sialic acid of host cell surface N-linked glycoprotein to promote Edwardsiella tarda infection.

    PubMed

    Chigwechokha, Petros Kingstone; Tabata, Mutsumi; Shinyoshi, Sayaka; Oishi, Kazuki; Araki, Kyosuke; Komatsu, Masaharu; Itakura, Takao; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-11-01

    Edwardsiella tarda is one of the major pathogenic bacteria affecting both marine and freshwater fish species. Sialidase NanA expressed endogenously in E. tarda is glycosidase removing sialic acids from glycoconjugates. Recently, the relationship of NanA sialidase activity to E. tarda infection has been reported, however, the mechanism with which sialidase NanA aids the pathogenicity of E. tarda remained unclear. Here, we comprehensively determined the biochemical properties of NanA towards various substrates in vitro to provide novel insights on the potential NanA target molecule at the host cell. GAKS cell pretreated with recombinant NanA showed increased susceptibility to E. tarda infection. Moreover, sialidase inhibitor treated E. tarda showed a significantly reduced ability to infect GAKS cells. These results indicate that NanA-induced desialylation of cell surface glycoconjugates is essential for the initial step of E. tarda infection. Among the natural substrates, NanA exhibited the highest activity towards 3-sialyllactose, α2-3 linked sialic acid carrying sialoglycoconjugates. Supporting this finding, intact GAKS cell membrane exposed to recombinant NanA showed changes of glycoconjugates only in α2-3 sialo-linked glycoproteins, but not in glycolipids and α2-6 sialo-linked glycoproteins. Lectin staining of cell surface glycoprotein provided further evidence that α2-3 sialo-linkage of the N-linked glycoproteins was the most plausible target of NanA sialidase. To confirm the significance of α2-3 sialo-linkage desialylation for E. tarda infection, HeLa cells which possessed lower amount of α2-3 sialo-linkage glycoprotein were used for infection experiment along with GAKS cells. As a result, infection of HeLa cells by E. tarda was significantly reduced when compared to GAKS cells. Furthermore, E. tarda infection was significantly inhibited by mannose pretreatment suggesting that the bacterium potentially recognizes and binds to mannose or mannose containing

  13. Neglected zoonotic helminths: Hymenolepis nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R C A

    2015-05-01

    The majority of helminth parasites that are considered by WHO to be the cause of 'neglected diseases' are zoonotic. In terms of their impact on human health, the role of animal reservoirs and polyparasitism are both emerging issues in understanding the epidemiology of a number of these zoonoses. As such, Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum all qualify for consideration. They have been neglected and there is increasing evidence that all three parasite infections deserve more attention in terms of their impact on public health as well as their control. PMID:25743998

  14. Sequence diversity of NanA manifests in distinct enzyme kinetics and inhibitor susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhongli; von Grafenstein, Susanne; Walther, Elisabeth; Fuchs, Julian E.; Liedl, Klaus R.; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading pathogen causing bacterial pneumonia and meningitis. Its surface-associated virulence factor neuraminidase A (NanA) promotes the bacterial colonization by removing the terminal sialyl residues from glycoconjugates on eukaryotic cell surface. The predominant role of NanA in the pathogenesis of pneumococci renders it an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Despite the highly conserved activity of NanA, our alignment of the 11 NanAs revealed the evolutionary diversity of this enzyme. The amino acid substitutions we identified, particularly those in the lectin domain and in the insertion domain next to the catalytic centre triggered our special interest. We synthesised the representative NanAs and the mutagenized derivatives from E. coli for enzyme kinetics study and neuraminidase inhibitor susceptibility test. Via molecular docking we got a deeper insight into the differences between the two major variants of NanA and their influence on the ligand-target interactions. In addition, our molecular dynamics simulations revealed a prominent intrinsic flexibility of the linker between the active site and the insertion domain, which influences the inhibitor binding. Our findings for the first time associated the primary sequence diversity of NanA with the biochemical properties of the enzyme and with the inhibitory efficiency of neuraminidase inhibitors.

  15. Sequence diversity of NanA manifests in distinct enzyme kinetics and inhibitor susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhongli; von Grafenstein, Susanne; Walther, Elisabeth; Fuchs, Julian E.; Liedl, Klaus R.; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading pathogen causing bacterial pneumonia and meningitis. Its surface-associated virulence factor neuraminidase A (NanA) promotes the bacterial colonization by removing the terminal sialyl residues from glycoconjugates on eukaryotic cell surface. The predominant role of NanA in the pathogenesis of pneumococci renders it an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Despite the highly conserved activity of NanA, our alignment of the 11 NanAs revealed the evolutionary diversity of this enzyme. The amino acid substitutions we identified, particularly those in the lectin domain and in the insertion domain next to the catalytic centre triggered our special interest. We synthesised the representative NanAs and the mutagenized derivatives from E. coli for enzyme kinetics study and neuraminidase inhibitor susceptibility test. Via molecular docking we got a deeper insight into the differences between the two major variants of NanA and their influence on the ligand-target interactions. In addition, our molecular dynamics simulations revealed a prominent intrinsic flexibility of the linker between the active site and the insertion domain, which influences the inhibitor binding. Our findings for the first time associated the primary sequence diversity of NanA with the biochemical properties of the enzyme and with the inhibitory efficiency of neuraminidase inhibitors. PMID:27125351

  16. Heavy Hymenolepis nana Infection Possibly Through Organic Foods: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bong Jin; Song, Kyung Seob; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Cha, Hee-Jae

    2014-01-01

    We encountered a patient with heavy Hymenolepis nana infection. The patient was a 44-year-old Korean man who had suffered from chronic hepatitis (type B) for 15 years. A large number of H. nana adult worms were found during colonoscopy that was performed as a part of routine health screening. The parasites were scattered throughout the colon, as well as in the terminal ileum, although the patient was immunocompetent. Based on this study, colonoscopy may be helpful for diagnosis of asymptomatic H. nana infections. PMID:24623888

  17. Molecular analysis of isolates of the cestode Rodentolepis nana from the great gerbil, Rhombomys opimus.

    PubMed

    Mirjalali, H; Kia, E B; Kamranrashani, B; Hajjaran, H; Sharifdini, M

    2016-03-01

    Rodentolepis nana (syn. Hymenolepis nana) is a cyclophyllidean zoonotic enteric parasite with worldwide distribution. In humans, it is more prevalent in children, especially in temperate zones. A morphologically similar species of R. nana occurs in different rodents, including gerbils. In the present study molecular characterization of five isolates of R. nana from Rhombomys opimus in the Golestan Province (n= 2) and Razavi Khorasan Province (n= 3), both in north-eastern Iran, were analysed. After DNA extraction, the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of the R. nana isolates was amplified and sequenced, and genetic variation was analysed. Accordingly, two isolates from the Razavi Khorasan Province showed ITS2 signatures that differed from the isolates from the Golestan Province. The third isolate from Razavi Khorasan did not reveal these specific signatures, but exhibited sparse nucleotide polymorphisms in the ITS2 sequence. The ITS gene is conserved, and variation in this fragment could be an interesting subject for further inspection of existing variation in the genome of R. nana, among different domestic and wildlife host species and from different areas. PMID:25779770

  18. Anthelmintic activities of aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-01-01

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (-)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (9), 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) and cepharadione B (11) were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis). However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana. PMID:24583851

  19. Anthelmintic Activities of Aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-01-01

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (−)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (9), 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) and cepharadione B (11) were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis). However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana. PMID:24583851

  20. Multi-Year Leaf-Level Response to Sub-Ambient and Elevated Experimental CO2 in Betula nana

    PubMed Central

    Broere, Tom; Kürschner, Wolfram M.; Donders, Timme H.; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    The strong link between stomatal frequency and CO2 in woody plants is key for understanding past CO2 dynamics, predicting future change, and evaluating the significant role of vegetation in the hydrological cycle. Experimental validation is required to evaluate the long-term adaptive leaf response of C3 plants to CO2 conditions; however, studies to date have only focused on short-term single-season experiments and may not capture (1) the full ontogeny of leaves to experimental CO2 exposure or (2) the true adjustment of structural stomatal properties to CO2, which we postulate is likely to occur over several growing seasons. We conducted controlled growth chamber experiments at 150 ppmv, 450 ppmv and 800 ppmv CO2 with woody C3 shrub Betula nana (dwarf birch) over two successive annual growing seasons and evaluated the structural stomatal response to atmospheric CO2 conditions. We find that while some adjustment of leaf morphological and stomatal parameters occurred in the first growing season where plants are exposed to experimental CO2 conditions, amplified adjustment of non-plastic stomatal properties such as stomatal conductance occurred in the second year of experimental CO2 exposure. We postulate that the species response limit to CO2 of B. nana may occur around 400–450 ppmv. Our findings strongly support the necessity for multi-annual experiments in C3 perennials in order to evaluate the effects of environmental conditions and provide a likely explanation of the contradictory results between historical and palaeobotanical records and experimental data. PMID:27285314

  1. Multi-Year Leaf-Level Response to Sub-Ambient and Elevated Experimental CO2 in Betula nana.

    PubMed

    Hincke, Alexandra J C; Broere, Tom; Kürschner, Wolfram M; Donders, Timme H; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    The strong link between stomatal frequency and CO2 in woody plants is key for understanding past CO2 dynamics, predicting future change, and evaluating the significant role of vegetation in the hydrological cycle. Experimental validation is required to evaluate the long-term adaptive leaf response of C3 plants to CO2 conditions; however, studies to date have only focused on short-term single-season experiments and may not capture (1) the full ontogeny of leaves to experimental CO2 exposure or (2) the true adjustment of structural stomatal properties to CO2, which we postulate is likely to occur over several growing seasons. We conducted controlled growth chamber experiments at 150 ppmv, 450 ppmv and 800 ppmv CO2 with woody C3 shrub Betula nana (dwarf birch) over two successive annual growing seasons and evaluated the structural stomatal response to atmospheric CO2 conditions. We find that while some adjustment of leaf morphological and stomatal parameters occurred in the first growing season where plants are exposed to experimental CO2 conditions, amplified adjustment of non-plastic stomatal properties such as stomatal conductance occurred in the second year of experimental CO2 exposure. We postulate that the species response limit to CO2 of B. nana may occur around 400-450 ppmv. Our findings strongly support the necessity for multi-annual experiments in C3 perennials in order to evaluate the effects of environmental conditions and provide a likely explanation of the contradictory results between historical and palaeobotanical records and experimental data. PMID:27285314

  2. Systematic review on Endolimax nana: A less well studied intestinal ameba

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Casper Sahl; Stensvold, Christen Rune

    2016-01-01

    Of the so-called nonpathogenic intestinal protozoa, Endolimax nana belongs to the ones least well described. Most data on E. nana have emerged from general surveys of intestinal parasites in selected cohorts and mostly in the absence of any particular focus on Endolimax. Hence, the genus of Endolimax remains largely unexplored in terms of morphology, taxonomy, genetic diversity, host specificity, and epidemiology. In this review, we seek to provide an overview of the work that has been performed on the parasite since the genus Endolimax was described by Kuenen and Swellengrebel in 1917 and suggest activities that may pave the way for a better understanding of E. nana in a clinical and public health context. PMID:26998431

  3. Alaska Native Rural Development: The NANA Experience. Occasional Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Michael J.

    Faced with the need to build new social and economic institutions following the 1971 Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, Alaska Natives formed 12 regional non-profit making corporations. One of these, Northwest Arctic Inupiat (NANA), is bringing a human resources development approach to the area in an effort to develop enduring economic and…

  4. Mode of action of FK-506 on protective immunity to Hymenolepis nana in mice.

    PubMed

    Asano, K; Taki, M; Matsuo, S; Yamada, K

    1996-01-01

    FK-506 (Tacrolimus) has been shown to block T cell proliferation in vitro by inhibiting the generation of several lymphokines, especially interleukin (IL)-2, but little direct evidence is available to support the view that the immunosuppressive effects of FK-506 in vivo are mediated by a similar inhibition of lymphokine cascade. To investigate the mechanisms of FK-506-induced immunosuppression, the effects of FK-506 on cell-mediated immunity to Hymenolepis nana were examined in mice. FK-506 administration into BALB/c mice daily at a dose of 10.0 mg/kg (but not 5.0 mg/kg) for 5 days caused suppression of protective immunity against H. nana challenge infection. During the infection of mice with H. nana, IL-2 and interferon (IFN)-gama were produced by mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells with a time course corresponding to that of MLN T cell proliferation. These responses were completely suppressed by repeated administration of FK-506 for 5 days at a dose of 10.0 mg/kg/day (but not 5.0 mg/kg/day). In contrast to the effects of FK-506 on IL-2 and IFN-gamma productions in MLN, IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the intestinal wall, which were enhanced by H. nana infection, were not completely decreased as a result of 10.0 mg/kg FK-506 treatment. The reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed complete inhibition of IL-2 and IFN-gamma mRNA expression on mesenteric L3T4+ cells that were induced by H. nana infection, when mice were given 10.0 mg/kg/day FK-506 for 5 days. These results strongly suggest that FK-506 affects cell-mediated immunity in vivo with mechanisms similar to those observed in vitro. PMID:8986461

  5. Feeding mechanisms in two treefrogs, Hyla nana and Scinax nasicus (Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Vera Candioti, M F; Lavilla, E O; Echeverría, D D

    2004-08-01

    After the description of the chondrocranium, hyobranchial apparatus, associated musculature, buccal apparatus, buccopharyngeal cavity, digestive tract, and gut contents, it was possible to define the feeding modes of Scinax nasicus and Hyla nana tadpoles (Gosner Stages 31-36). Scinax nasicus larvae are "typical" microphagous tadpoles, with keratodonts and robust rostrodonts appropriate for rasping surfaces and mincing of food particles; the buccopharyngeal cavity is equipped with filtering structures and has a conspicuous glandular zone and a highly developed branchial basket. In contrast, H. nana tadpoles have a modified buccal apparatus; the reduction of the buccopharyngeal and branchial basket structures, together with the high lever-arm ratio and the great development of the depressor muscles of the buccal floor are indicative of macrophagous feeding. PMID:15216525

  6. Hymenolepis nana: a common cause of paediatric diarrhoea in urban slum dwellers in India.

    PubMed

    Mirdha, Bijay Ranjan; Samantray, Jyotish Chandra

    2002-12-01

    The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was studied for a period of 5 years (April 1996-April 2001) among urban slum dwellers. All age groups were represented in the study. Parasitological examinations were performed on 939 faecal specimens collected on a household basis. The total prevalence of pathogenic parasites was 33.6 per cent. No significant age and sex differences in pathogenic parasites were observed. The prevalence of intestinal helminths and pathogenic protozoa was as follows: Hymenolepis nana (9.9 per cent), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.5 per cent), Giardia lamblia (8.4 per cent) and Entamoeba histolyticaldispar (3.7 per cent). Thirty-four E. histolytica/dispar positive samples were cultured and speciation was done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The predominant isolate was E. dispar compared to E. histolytica. The notable finding of the present study was high prevalence of Hymenolepis nana compared with other parasitic infections in slum dwellers. PMID:12521273

  7. The surface-anchored NanA protein promotes pneumococcal brain endothelial cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Satoshi; Carlin, Aaron F; Khosravi, Arya; Weiman, Shannon; Banerjee, Anirban; Quach, Darin; Hightower, George; Mitchell, Tim J; Doran, Kelly S; Nizet, Victor

    2009-08-31

    In humans, Streptococcus pneumoniae (SPN) is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis, a disease with high attributable mortality and frequent permanent neurological sequelae. The molecular mechanisms underlying the central nervous system tropism of SPN are incompletely understood, but include a primary interaction of the pathogen with the blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelium. All SPN strains possess a gene encoding the surface-anchored sialidase (neuraminidase) NanA, which cleaves sialic acid on host cells and proteins. Here, we use an isogenic SPN NanA-deficient mutant and heterologous expression of the protein to show that NanA is both necessary and sufficient to promote SPN adherence to and invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMECs). NanA-mediated hBMEC invasion depends only partially on sialidase activity, whereas the N-terminal lectinlike domain of the protein plays a critical role. NanA promotes SPN-BBB interaction in a murine infection model, identifying the protein as proximal mediator of CNS entry by the pathogen. PMID:19687228

  8. Validation of the NANA (Novel Assessment of Nutrition and Ageing) touch screen system for use at home by older adults.

    PubMed

    Astell, A J; Hwang, F; Brown, L J E; Timon, C; Maclean, L M; Smith, T; Adlam, T; Khadra, H; Williams, E A

    2014-12-01

    Prospective measurement of nutrition, cognition, and physical activity in later life would facilitate early detection of detrimental change and early intervention but is hard to achieve in community settings. Technology can simplify the task and facilitate daily data collection. The Novel Assessment of Nutrition and Ageing (NANA) toolkit was developed to provide a holistic picture of an individual's function including diet, cognition and activity levels. This study aimed to validate the NANA toolkit for data collection in the community. Forty participants aged 65 years and over trialled the NANA toolkit in their homes for three 7-day periods at four-week intervals. Data collected using the NANA toolkit were compared with standard measures of diet (four-day food diary), cognitive ability (processing speed) and physical activity (self-report). Bland-Altman analysis of dietary intake (energy, carbohydrates, protein fat) found a good relationship with the food diary and cognitive processing speed and physical activity (hours) were significantly correlated with their standard counterparts. The NANA toolkit enables daily reporting of data that would otherwise be collected sporadically while reducing demands on participants; older adults can complete the daily reporting at home without a researcher being present; and it enables prospective investigation of several domains at once. PMID:25456843

  9. The antitumor effect of bromophenol derivatives in vitro and Leathesia nana extract in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Dayong; Li, Jing; Guo, Shuju; Su, Hua; Fan, Xiao

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the antitumor effect of bromophenol derivatives in vitro and Leathesia nana extract in vivo, six bromophenol derivatives 6-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl)-2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxy benzyl methyl ether (1), (+)-3-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-4-bromo-5,6-dihydroxy-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran (2), 3-bromo-4-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl)-5-methoxymethyl-pyrocatechol (3), 2,2',3,3'-tetrabromo-4,4',5,5'-tetrahydroxy-diphenylmethane (4), bis(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl) ether (5), 2,2',3-tribromo-3',4,4',5-tetrahydroxy-6'-ethyloxymethyldiphenylmethane (6) were isolated from brown alga Leathesia nana, and their cytotoxicity were tested by MTT assays in human cancer cell lines A549, BGC-823, MCF-7, B16-BL6, HT-1080, A2780, Bel7402 and HCT-8. Their inhibitory activity against protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) with over-expression of c-kit was analyzed also by ELISA. The antitumor activity of ethanolic extraction of Leathesia nana (EELN) was evaluated on S180-bearing mice. All compounds showed very potent cytotoxicity against all of the eight cancer cell lines with IC50 below 10 μg/mL. In PTK inhibition study, all bromophenol derivatives showed moderate inhibitory activity and compounds 2, 5 and 6 showed significant bioactivity with the inhibition ratio of 77.5%, 80.1% and 71.4%, respectively. Pharmacological studies reveal that EELN could inhibit the growth of Sarcoma 180 tumor and increase the indices of thymus and spleen to improve the immune system remarkably in vivo. Results indicated that the bromophenol derivatives and EELN can be used as potent antitumor agents for PTK over-expression of c-kit and considered in a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of cancer.

  10. Behavioral and physiological antipredator responses of the San Marcos salamander, Eurycea nana.

    PubMed

    Davis, Drew R; Gabor, Caitlin R

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to predatory stimuli typically results in the elevation of circulating glucocorticoid levels and a behavioral response of freezing or escape behavior in many prey species. Corticosterone (CORT) is the main glucocorticoid in amphibians and is known to be important in modulating many behaviors and developmental functions. The federally threatened San Marcos salamander, Eurycea nana, decreases activity in response to both native and introduced predatory fish, however, experience may further influence these interactions. To better understand the indirect effects of fish predators on this salamander, we examined both the antipredator behavior and water-borne CORT release rates in response to chemical cues (kairomones) from two fish species that varied in temporal risk of predation: (1) a low encounter frequency predator (largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides), (2) a high encounter frequency predator (redbreast sunfish, Lepomis auritus), and (3) a blank water control. Salamanders reduced activity (antipredator response) after exposure to both predator treatments, but not to the blank water control, and the response to M. salmoides was significantly stronger than that to L. auritus. The CORT response (post-stimulus/pre-stimulus release rates) did not differ between the blank water control and L. auritus treatments, and both were significantly less than the CORT response to M. salmoides. Overall, E. nana showed a decreased antipredator response and no CORT response towards the high encounter frequency L. auritus as compared to the low encounter frequency M. salmoides. Eurycea nana may mute antipredator and CORT responses to high temporal frequency predators. There was, however, no correlation between CORT release rates and antipredator behavior, which suggests that the presence of predators may be affecting CORT response and behavior independently. PMID:25446225

  11. The activity of some phosphatases in tissues of adult Hymenolepis nana Siebold (Csetoda).

    PubMed

    Humiczewska, M

    1989-01-01

    Histochemical methods were used to study the localization and activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases, ATP-ase, 5-nucleotidase, and glucose-6-phosphatase in tissues of the mature form of Hymenolepis nana. Considerable differences in activity and localization of particular enzymes were observed in the organs of the parasite. The results obtained permit the statement that the integument is the most active enzymatically; in connection with the literature data, this gives grounds for the thesis that the integument of the cestodes functions as an absorbent-digestive organ. PMID:2558920

  12. Mebendazole in the treatment of Hymenolepis nana infections in the captive ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), China.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Zhao, Bo; Yang, Guang-You; Wang, Qiang; Niu, Li-Li; Deng, Jia-Bo; Gu, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Shu-Xian

    2012-08-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of mebendazole in the treatment of Hymenolepis nana infection in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Ten (L. catta) from the Chengdu Zoological Garden in China, which were naturally infected with H. nana, were treated with mebendazole (10 mg/kg for 5 days). A posttreatment fecal examination was conducted 10 and 20 days after the start of treatment. All treatments resulted in a decrease in the number of eggs per gram in the posttreatment sample compared with the pretreatment sample. Reduction of mean egg count was 97.6% and 100% on days 10 and 20, respectively. The results indicated that mebendazole has marked efficacy against H. nana infections in L. catta. PMID:22327317

  13. Is Malassezia nana the main species in horses' ear canal microbiome?

    PubMed

    Aldrovandi, Ana Lúcia; Osugui, Lika; Acqua Coutinho, Selene Dall'

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize genotypically Malassezia spp. isolated from the external ear canal of healthy horses. Fifty-five horses, 39 (70.9%) males and 16 (29.1%) females, from different breeds and adults were studied. External ear canals were cleaned and a sterile cotton swab was introduced to collect cerumen. A total of 110 samples were cultured into Dixon medium and were incubated at 32°C for up to 15 days. Macro- and micromorphology and phenotypic identification were performed. DNA was extracted, strains were submitted to polymerase chain reaction technique, and the products obtained were submitted to Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism using the restriction enzymes BstCI and HhaI. Strains were sent off to genetic sequencing of the regions 26S rDNA D1/D2 and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA. Malassezia spp. were isolated from 33/55 (60%) animals and 52/110 (47%) ear canals. No growth on Sabouraud dextrose agar was observed, confirming the lipid dependence of all strains. Polymerase chain reaction-Restriction fragment length polymorphism permitted the molecular identification of Malassezia nana - 42/52 (81%) and Malassezia slooffiae - 10/52 (19%). Sequencing confirmed RFLP identification. It was surprising that M. nana represented over 80% of the strains and no Malassezia equina was isolated in this study, differing from what was expected. PMID:27287335

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of the dwarf tapeworm Hymenolepis nana--a neglected zoonotic helminth.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tian; Liu, Guo-Hua; Song, Hui-Qun; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-03-01

    Hymenolepis nana, commonly known as the dwarf tapeworm, is one of the most common tapeworms of humans and rodents and can cause hymenolepiasis. Although this zoonotic tapeworm is of socio-economic significance in many countries of the world, its genetics, systematics, epidemiology, and biology are poorly understood. In the present study, we sequenced and characterized the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of H. nana. The mt genome is 13,764 bp in size and encodes 36 genes, including 12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA, and 22 transfer RNA genes. All genes are transcribed in the same direction. The gene order and genome content are completely identical with their congener Hymenolepis diminuta. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes by Bayesian inference, Maximum likelihood, and Maximum parsimony showed the division of class Cestoda into two orders, supported the monophylies of both the orders Cyclophyllidea and Pseudophyllidea. Analyses of mt genome sequences also support the monophylies of the three families Taeniidae, Hymenolepididae, and Diphyllobothriidae. This novel mt genome provides a useful genetic marker for studying the molecular epidemiology, systematics, and population genetics of the dwarf tapeworm and should have implications for the diagnosis, prevention, and control of hymenolepiasis in humans. PMID:26666886

  15. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Espeletia nana.

    PubMed

    Peña, Alexis; Rojas, Luis; Aparicio, Rosa; Alarcón, Libia; Baptista, José Gregorio; Velasco, Judith; Carmona, Juan; Usubillaga, Alfredo

    2012-05-01

    The essential oil of the leaves of Espeletia nana Cuatrec., obtained by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by GC-MS, which allowed the identification of 24 components, which made up 99.9% of the oil. The most abundant compounds were a-pinene (38.1%), beta-pinene (17.2%), myrcene (15.0%), spathulenol (4.2%), bicyclogermacrene (4.0%), a-zingiberene (4.0%), and gamma-himachalene (3.7%). Antibacterial activity was tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using the agar disk diffusion method. Activity was observed only against Gram-positive bacteria. MIC values were determined for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 (200 microg/mL) and Enterococcusfaecalis ATCC 29212 (600 microg/mL). PMID:22799102

  16. Agropyrenol and agropyrenal, phytotoxins from Ascochyta agropyrina var. nana, a fungal pathogen of Elitrigia repens.

    PubMed

    Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio; Vurro, Maurizio; Berestetskiy, Alexander; Troise, Ciro; Zonno, Maria Chiara; Motta, Andrea; Evidente, Antonio

    2012-07-01

    A strain of Ascochyta agropyrina var. nana, a fungal pathogen of the perennial weed Elytrigia repens, produced several toxins in a liquid medium, and its primary toxin, named agropyrenol, was characterized as a substituted salicylaldehyde on the basis of its chemical and spectroscopic properties. Its absolute stereochemistry was determined by Mosher's method. Two other minor metabolites were isolated from the same culture and named agropyrenal and agropyrenone, respectively. They were characterized as a trisubstituted naphthalene carbaldehyde and a pentasubstituted 3H-benzofuranone, respectively, using the same techniques. When assayed on leaves of several weed plants, i.e., Mercurialis annua, Chenopodium album and Setaria viridis, agropyrenol proved to be phytotoxic, causing the appearance of necrotic lesions, agropyrenal was less active, while agropyrenone was inactive. None of the compounds showed antibiotic, fungicidal or zootoxic activity. PMID:22525222

  17. Winter warming as an important co-driver for Betula nana growth in western Greenland during the past century

    PubMed Central

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Buchwal, Agata; Rachlewicz, Grzegorz; Hansen, Birger U; Hansen, Marc O; Stecher, Ole; Elberling, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Growing season conditions are widely recognized as the main driver for tundra shrub radial growth, but the effects of winter warming and snow remain an open question. Here, we present a more than 100 years long Betula nana ring-width chronology from Disko Island in western Greenland that demonstrates a highly significant and positive growth response to both summer and winter air temperatures during the past century. The importance of winter temperatures for Betula nana growth is especially pronounced during the periods from 1910–1930 to 1990–2011 that were dominated by significant winter warming. To explain the strong winter importance on growth, we assessed the importance of different environmental factors using site-specific measurements from 1991 to 2011 of soil temperatures, sea ice coverage, precipitation and snow depths. The results show a strong positive growth response to the amount of thawing and growing degree-days as well as to winter and spring soil temperatures. In addition to these direct effects, a strong negative growth response to sea ice extent was identified, indicating a possible link between local sea ice conditions, local climate variations and Betula nana growth rates. Data also reveal a clear shift within the last 20 years from a period with thick snow depths (1991–1996) and a positive effect on Betula nana radial growth, to a period (1997–2011) with generally very shallow snow depths and no significant growth response towards snow. During this period, winter and spring soil temperatures have increased significantly suggesting that the most recent increase in Betula nana radial growth is primarily triggered by warmer winter and spring air temperatures causing earlier snowmelt that allows the soils to drain and warm quicker. The presented results may help to explain the recently observed ‘greening of the Arctic’ which may further accelerate in future years due to both direct and indirect effects of winter warming. PMID:25788025

  18. A high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet method for Eschweilera nana leaves and their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities

    PubMed Central

    Outuki, Priscila M.; Lazzeri, Nides S.; de Francisco, Lizziane M. B.; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar A.; Ferreira, Izabel C. P.; Cardoso, Mara Lane C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eschweilera nana Miers is a tree widely distributed in Cerrado, Brazil. Objective: In this study, we aimed to describe its phytochemical properties and antioxidant and topical anti-inflammatory effects for the first time, as well validate an high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet/visible (HPLC-UV-Vis) method for the separation and quantification of the main components (hyperoside and rutin) in the hydroalcoholic extract of E. nana leaves. Materials and Methods: Structural identification of compounds in E. nana extract was performed by analysis of spectral data by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and/or ESI/EM. The HPLC-UV-Vis method was validated according International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) parameters. The 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method were used for determination of in vitro antioxidant activities and the croton oil-induced inflammation for evaluation of in vivo anti-inflammatory effects. Results: Hyperoside, rutin, α-amirin, β-amirin, β-sitosterol, and stigmasterol were identified in the hydroalcoholic extract of E. nana leaves. HPLC-UV-Vis was validated according to ICH parameters. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo assays demonstrated that the hydroalcoholic extract and methanol fraction showed significant antioxidant and topical anti-inflammatory effects, as they were able to reduce ear edema induced by croton-oil application. Conclusions: This research showed the first phytochemical study of E. nana extract and their biological activities may be associated with the presence of flavonoids in the extracts. PMID:26246741

  19. Effect of ADP on Na+-Na+ Exchange Reaction Kinetics of Na,K-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Peluffo, R. Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The whole-cell voltage-clamp technique was used in rat cardiac myocytes to investigate the kinetics of ADP binding to phosphorylated states of Na,K-ATPase and its effects on presteady-state Na+-dependent charge movements by this enzyme. Ouabain-sensitive transient currents generated by Na,K-ATPase functioning in electroneutral Na+-Na+ exchange mode were measured at 23°C with pipette ADP concentrations ([ADP]) of up to 4.3 mM and extracellular Na+ concentrations ([Na]o) between 36 and 145 mM at membrane potentials (VM) from −160 to +80 mV. Analysis of charge-VM curves showed that the midpoint potential of charge distribution was shifted toward more positive VM both by increasing [ADP] at constant Na+o and by increasing [Na]o at constant ADP. The total quantity of mobile charge, on the other hand, was found to be independent of changes in [ADP] or [Na]o. The presence of ADP increased the apparent rate constant for current relaxation at hyperpolarizing VM but decreased it at depolarizing VM as compared to control (no added ADP), an indication that ADP binding facilitates backward reaction steps during Na+-Na+ exchange while slowing forward reactions. Data analysis using a pseudo three-state model yielded an apparent Kd of ∼6 mM for ADP binding to and release from the Na,K-ATPase phosphoenzyme; a value of 130 s−1 for k2, a rate constant that groups Na+ deocclusion/release and the enzyme conformational transition E1∼P → E2-P; a value of 162 s−1M−1 for k−2, a lumped second-order VM-independent rate constant describing the reverse reactions; and a Hill coefficient of ∼1 for Na+o binding to E2-P. The results are consistent with electroneutral release of ADP before Na+ is deoccluded and released through an ion well. The same approach can be used to study additional charge-moving reactions and associated electrically silent steps of the Na,K-pump and other transporters. PMID:15298896

  20. Development of polymorphic microsatellite markers for Japanese yew, Taxus cuspidata, and T. cuspidata var. nana (Taxaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Taxus cuspidata (Taxaceae), which is well known for the effective anticancer metabolite paclitaxel (e.g., taxol), is an evergreen needle-leaved tree widely distributed in eastern Eurasia including Japan. We developed 15 microsatellite markers from this species and confirmed their utility for the dwarf variety nana, which is common in alpine regions along the Sea of Japan. Methods and Results: Thirteen polymorphic loci were characterized for genetic variation in three populations of T. cuspidata. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 11 to 31, with an average of 18.5; the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.78 to 0.95, with an average of 0.89. All loci were successfully amplified in T. cuspidata var. nana and showed high polymorphism. Conclusions: These markers will be useful for investigating speciation and range formation of T. cuspidata in Japan, and the results will provide crucial information for the conservation of Taxus species. PMID:27437172

  1. Efficacy and security of ivermectin given orally to rats naturally infected with Syphacia spp., Giardia spp. and Hymenolepis nana.

    PubMed

    Foletto, V R S; Vanz, F; Gazarini, L; Stern, C A J; Tonussi, C R

    2015-07-01

    The results of this study show that the oral administration of ivermectin (48 mg/L) repeatedly for 72 h used in accordance with the present protocol is a safe and highly effective treatment for Giardia spp. and Hymenolepis nana in laboratory rat colonies. The drug can be easily and safely administered using drinking water. This simple regimen should control pinworm infection (Syphacia muris), a problem that can be endemic in laboratory colonies. Experiments using healthy animals are likely to generate more consistent results, thereby requiring a reduced number of animals per group. PMID:25480657

  2. Comparative Carbon and Water Relations of Betula nana and Poa pratensis in West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahoon, S. M. P.; Sullivan, P. F.; Welker, J. M.; Post, E.

    2014-12-01

    The expansion of woody shrubs throughout much of the Arctic in recent decades is a common observation in response to climate change. However, we lack a complete understanding of how woody shrubs differ physiologically from neighboring species and how these differences may confer competitive advantages to woody shrubs as the climate continues to change. At a site in West Greenland, we combined detailed leaf physiological measurements with stable isotope analysis of plant leaf material, xylem water and soil water to elucidate the processes governing seasonal carbon (C) gain in the two dominant plant species at our study site: Betula nana and Poa pratensis. We hypothesized that cooler, drier soils beneath the Betula canopy would result in greater drought sensitivity during times of high atmospheric demand (i.e. greater water vapor pressure deficit; VPD), which would manifest in reduced leaf carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C), reduced stomatal conductance (gs) and a negative relationship between leaf Δ13C and Δ18O in accordance with the dual-isotope conceptual model. Data collected over two consecutive growing seasons, however, revealed greater drought sensitivity in Poa, which displayed a dramatic reduction in Amax and gs during periods of high VPD, along with reduced leaf Δ13C. Additionally, leaf Δ13C and Δ18O were negatively correlated in Poa, suggesting strong stomatal influence on Δ13C. Conversely, we found no relationship between leaf Δ13C and Δ18O in Betula, indicating that seasonal variation in Δ13C may have been driven primarily by changes in photosynthesis. Our results suggest that, although Poa maintains greater average leaf-level photosynthesis, this species is more susceptible to drought than Betula. Meanwhile, it may be that Betula employs a strategy to avoid drought stress and maintain steady, yet conservative, C gain. This strategy may enable growth to continue during warm and dry conditions, conferring a competitive advantage for Betula in

  3. Oil persistence in tundra and its impact on the below-ground ecosystem. Final report. [Eriophoium vaginatum (sedges); Betula nana (Birch trees)

    SciTech Connect

    Linkins, A.E.; Atlas, R.M.; Everett, K.R.

    1981-01-01

    Prudhoe Bay crude oil was applied as a 20 1/m/sup 2/ surface spray on Eriophorium vaginatum tussock tundra at Eagle Summit, Ak, in August 1979. Oil caused a significant reduction in mycorrhizal root numbers and root respiration rates in Betula nana, but not E. vaginatum root tips which had grown through the 5 to 15 cm deep oil contaminated soil. Significant changes did occur in leaf scenescent patterns of B. nana and the tillering index of E. vaginatum. Soil cellulase and phosphatase enzyme activities both declined in the oiled soil horizons but were unaffected in horizons immediately below visibly contaminated organic matter.

  4. Interactions of external and internal H+ and Na+ with Na+/Na+ and Na+/H+ exchange of rabbit red cells: evidence for a common pathway.

    PubMed

    Morgan, K; Canessa, M

    1990-12-01

    We have studied the kinetic properties of rabbit red cell (RRBC) Na+/Na+ and Na+/H+ exchanges (EXC) in order to define whether or not both transport functions are conducted by the same molecule. The strategy has been to determine the interactions of Na+ and H+ at the internal (i) and external (o) sites for both exchanges modes. RRBC containing varying Nai and Hi were prepared by nystatin and DIDS treatment of acid-loaded cells. Na+/Na+ EXC was measured as Nao-stimulated Na+ efflux and Na+/H+ EXC as Nao-stimulated H+ efflux and delta pHo-stimulated Na+ influx into acid-loaded cells. The activation of Na+/Na+ EXC by Nao at pHi 7.4 did not follow simple hyperbolic kinetics. Testing of different kinetic models to obtain the best fit for the experimental data indicated the presence of high (Km 2.2 mM) and low affinity (Km 108 mM) sites for a single- or two-carrier system. The activation of Na+/H+ EXC by Nao (pHi 6.6, Nai less than 1 mM) also showed high (Km 11 mM) and low (Km 248 mM) affinity sites. External H+ competitively inhibited Na+/Na+ EXC at the low affinity Nao site (KH 52 nM) while internally H+ were competitive inhibitors (pK 6.7) at low Nai and allosteric activators (pK 7.0) at high Nai. Na+/H+ EXC was also inhibited by acid pHo and allosterically activated by Hi (pK 6.4). We also established the presence of a Nai regulatory site which activates Na+/H+ and Na+/Na+ EXC modifying the affinity for Nao of both pathways. At low Nai, Na+/Na+ EXC was inhibited by acid pHi and Na+/H+ stimulated but at high Nai, Na+/Na+ EXC was stimulated and Na+/H+ inhibited being the sum of both pathways kept constant. Both exchange modes were activated by two classes of Nao sites, cis-inhibited by external Ho, allosterically modified by the binding of H+ to a Hi regulatory site and regulated by Nai. These findings are consistent with Na+/Na+ EXC being a mode of operation of the Na+/H+ exchanger. Na+/H+ EXC was partially inhibited (80-100%) by dimethyl-amiloride (DMA) but basal or

  5. Winter warming as an important co-driver for Betula nana growth in western Greenland during the past century.

    PubMed

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Buchwal, Agata; Rachlewicz, Grzegorz; Hansen, Birger U; Hansen, Marc O; Stecher, Ole; Elberling, Bo

    2015-06-01

    Growing season conditions are widely recognized as the main driver for tundra shrub radial growth, but the effects of winter warming and snow remain an open question. Here, we present a more than 100 years long Betula nana ring-width chronology from Disko Island in western Greenland that demonstrates a highly significant and positive growth response to both summer and winter air temperatures during the past century. The importance of winter temperatures for Betula nana growth is especially pronounced during the periods from 1910-1930 to 1990-2011 that were dominated by significant winter warming. To explain the strong winter importance on growth, we assessed the importance of different environmental factors using site-specific measurements from 1991 to 2011 of soil temperatures, sea ice coverage, precipitation and snow depths. The results show a strong positive growth response to the amount of thawing and growing degree-days as well as to winter and spring soil temperatures. In addition to these direct effects, a strong negative growth response to sea ice extent was identified, indicating a possible link between local sea ice conditions, local climate variations and Betula nana growth rates. Data also reveal a clear shift within the last 20 years from a period with thick snow depths (1991-1996) and a positive effect on Betula nana radial growth, to a period (1997-2011) with generally very shallow snow depths and no significant growth response towards snow. During this period, winter and spring soil temperatures have increased significantly suggesting that the most recent increase in Betula nana radial growth is primarily triggered by warmer winter and spring air temperatures causing earlier snowmelt that allows the soils to drain and warm quicker. The presented results may help to explain the recently observed 'greening of the Arctic' which may further accelerate in future years due to both direct and indirect effects of winter warming. PMID:25788025

  6. Comparative analyses of plastid and AFLP data suggest different colonization history and asymmetric hybridization between Betula pubescens and B. nana.

    PubMed

    Eidesen, Pernille Bronken; Alsos, Inger Greve; Brochmann, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Birches (Betula spp.) hybridize readily, confounding genetic signatures of refugial isolation and postglacial migration. We aimed to distinguish hybridization from range-shift processes in the two widespread and cold-adapted species B. nana and B. pubescens, previously shown to share a similarly east-west-structured variation in plastid DNA (pDNA). We sampled the two species throughout their ranges and included reference samples of five other Betula species and putative hybrids. We analysed 901 individual plants using mainly nuclear high-resolution markers (amplified fragment length polymorphisms; AFLPs); a subset of 64 plants was also sequenced for two pDNA regions. Whereas the pDNA variation as expected was largely shared between B. nana and B. pubescens, the two species were distinctly differentiated at AFLP loci. In B. nana, both the AFLP and pDNA results corroborated the former pDNA-based hypothesis that it expanded from at least two major refugia in Eurasia, one south of and one east of the North European ice sheets. In contrast, B. pubescens showed a striking lack of geographic structuring of its AFLP variation. We identified a weak but significant increase in nuclear (AFLP) gene flow from B. nana into B. pubescens with increasing latitude, suggesting hybridization has been most frequent at the postglacial expansion front of B. pubescens and that hybrids mainly backcrossed to B. pubescens. Incongruence between pDNA and AFLP variation in B. pubescens can be explained by efficient expansion from a single large refugium combined with leading-edge hybridization and plastid capture from B. nana during colonization of new territory already occupied by this more cold-tolerant species. PMID:26113148

  7. Antioxidant, anti-adipocyte differentiation, antitumor activity and anthelmintic activities against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana of yakuchinone A from Alpinia oxyphylla

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alpinia oxyphylla is a common remedy in traditional Chinese medicine. Yakuchinone A is a major constituent of A. oxyphylla and exhibits anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antibacterial, and gastric protective activities. Methods Antioxidant and antitumor characteristics of yakuchinone A in skin cancer cells as well as novel mechanisms for the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, cestocidal activities against Hymenolepis nana adults, and nematocidal activities against Anisakis simplex larvae are investigated. Results Yakuchinone A presents the ability of the removal of DPPH·and ABTS+ free radicals and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Yakuchinone A suppresses intracellular lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation in 3 T3-L1 cells and the expressions of leptin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Yakuchinone A induces apoptosis and inhibits cell proliferation in skin cancer cells. The inhibition of cell growth by yakuchinone A is more significant for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) cells than for melanoma (A375 and B16) and noncancerous (HaCaT and BNLCL2) cells. Treatment BCC cells with yakuchinone A shows down-regulation of Bcl-2, up-regulation of Bax, and an increase in cleavage poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). This suggests that yakuchinone A induces BCC cells apoptosis through the Bcl-2-mediated signaling pathway. The anthelmintic activities of yakuchinone A for A. simplex are better than for H. nana. Conclusions In this work, yakuchinone A exhibits antioxidative properties, anti-adipocyte differentiation, antitumor activity, and anthelmintic activities against A. simplex and H. nana. PMID:24070160

  8. Radionuclides and heavy metals in rainbow trout from Tsichomo, Nana Ka, Wen Povi, and Pin De Lakes in Santa Clara Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1998-04-01

    Radionuclide ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and total uranium) and heavy metal (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and TI) concentrations were determined in rainbow trout collected from Tsichomo, Nana Ka, Wen Povi, and Pin De lakes in Santa Clara Canyon in 1997. Most radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations in fish collected from these four lakes were within or just above upper limit background concentrations (Abiquiu reservoir), and as a group were statistically (p < 0.05) similar in most parameters to background.

  9. Window contamination on Expose-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demets, R.; Bertrand, M.; Bolkhovitinov, A.; Bryson, K.; Colas, C.; Cottin, H.; Dettmann, J.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Elsaesser, A.; Jaramillo, E.; Lebert, M.; van Papendrecht, G.; Pereira, C.; Rohr, T.; Saiagh, K.

    2015-01-01

    Expose is a multi-user instrument for astrobiological and astrochemical experiments in space. Installed at the outer surface of the International Space Station, it enables investigators to study the impact of the open space environment on biological and biochemical test samples. Two Expose missions have been completed so far, designated as Expose-E (Rabbow et al. 2012) and Expose-R (Rabbow et al. this issue). One of the space-unique environmental factors offered by Expose is full-spectrum, ultraviolet (UV)-rich electromagnetic radiation from the Sun. This paper describes and analyses how on Expose-R, access of the test samples to Solar radiation degraded during space exposure in an unpredicted way. Several windows in front of the Sun-exposed test samples acquired a brown shade, resulting in a reduced transparency in visible light, UV and vacuum UV (VUV). Post-flight investigations revealed the discolouration to be caused by a homogenous film of cross-linked organic polymers at the inside of the windows. The chemical signature varied per sample carrier. No such films were found on windows from sealed, pressurized compartments, or on windows that had been kept out of the Sun. This suggests that volatile compounds originating from the interior of the Expose facility were cross-linked and photo-fixed by Solar irradiation at the rear side of the windows. The origin of the volatiles was not fully identified; most probably there was a variety of sources involved including the biological test samples, adhesives, plastics and printed circuit boards. The outer surface of the windows (pointing into space) was chemically impacted as well, with a probable effect on the transparency in VUV. The reported analysis of the window contamination on Expose-R is expected to help the interpretation of the scientific results and offers possibilities to mitigate this problem on future missions - in particular Expose-R2, the direct successor of Expose-R.

  10. Brazilein from Caesalpinia sappan L. Antioxidant Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation and Induces Apoptosis through Caspase-3 Activity and Anthelmintic Activities against Hymenolepis nana and Anisakis simplex

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chia-Hua; Chan, Leong-Perng; Chou, Tzung-Han; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Yen, Chuan-Min; Chen, Pin-Ju; Ding, Hsiou-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Brazilein, a natural, biologically active compound from Caesalpinia sappan L., has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and to inhibit the growth of several cancer cells. This study verifies the antioxidant and antitumor characteristics of brazilein in skin cancer cells and is the first time to elucidate the inhibition mechanism of adipocyte differentiation, cestocidal activities against Hymenolepis nana, and reduction of spontaneous movement in Anisakis simplex. Brazilein exhibits an antioxidant capacity as well as the ability to scavenge DPPH• and ABTS•+ free radicals and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Brazilein inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and suppressed the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), the master regulator of adipogenesis, suggesting that brazilein presents the antiobesity effects. The toxic effects of brazilein were evaluated in terms of cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and the activity of caspase-3 in BCC cells. The inhibition of the growth of skin cancer cells (A431, BCC, and SCC25) by brazilein is greater than that of human skin malignant melanoma (A375) cells, mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage (RAW 264.7 cells), and noncancerous cells (HaCaT and BNLCL2 cells). The anthelmintic activities of brazilein against Hymenolepis nana are better than those of Anisakis simplex. PMID:23554834

  11. Exposure of E. coli to DNA-Methylating Agents Impairs Biofilm Formation and Invasion of Eukaryotic Cells via Down Regulation of the N-Acetylneuraminate Lyase NanA.

    PubMed

    Di Pasquale, Pamela; Caterino, Marianna; Di Somma, Angela; Squillace, Marta; Rossi, Elio; Landini, Paolo; Iebba, Valerio; Schippa, Serena; Papa, Rosanna; Selan, Laura; Artini, Marco; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Palamara, Annateresa; Duilio, Angela

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation damage can be induced by endogenous and exogenous chemical agents, which has led every living organism to develop suitable response strategies. We investigated protein expression profiles of Escherichia coli upon exposure to the alkylating agent methyl-methane sulfonate (MMS) by differential proteomics. Quantitative proteomic data showed a massive downregulation of enzymes belonging to the glycolytic pathway and fatty acids degradation, strongly suggesting a decrease of energy production. A strong reduction in the expression of the N-acetylneuraminate lyases (NanA) involved in the sialic acid metabolism was also observed. Using a null NanA mutant and DANA, a substrate analog acting as competitive inhibitor, we demonstrated that down regulation of NanA affects biofilm formation and adhesion properties of E. coli MV1161. Exposure to alkylating agents also decreased biofilm formation and bacterial adhesion to Caco-2 eukaryotic cell line by the adherent invasive E. coli (AIEC) strain LF82. Our data showed that methylation stress impairs E. coli adhesion properties and suggest a possible role of NanA in biofilm formation and bacteria host interactions. PMID:26904018

  12. Exposure of E. coli to DNA-Methylating Agents Impairs Biofilm Formation and Invasion of Eukaryotic Cells via Down Regulation of the N-Acetylneuraminate Lyase NanA

    PubMed Central

    Di Pasquale, Pamela; Caterino, Marianna; Di Somma, Angela; Squillace, Marta; Rossi, Elio; Landini, Paolo; Iebba, Valerio; Schippa, Serena; Papa, Rosanna; Selan, Laura; Artini, Marco; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Duilio, Angela

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation damage can be induced by endogenous and exogenous chemical agents, which has led every living organism to develop suitable response strategies. We investigated protein expression profiles of Escherichia coli upon exposure to the alkylating agent methyl-methane sulfonate (MMS) by differential proteomics. Quantitative proteomic data showed a massive downregulation of enzymes belonging to the glycolytic pathway and fatty acids degradation, strongly suggesting a decrease of energy production. A strong reduction in the expression of the N-acetylneuraminate lyases (NanA) involved in the sialic acid metabolism was also observed. Using a null NanA mutant and DANA, a substrate analog acting as competitive inhibitor, we demonstrated that down regulation of NanA affects biofilm formation and adhesion properties of E. coli MV1161. Exposure to alkylating agents also decreased biofilm formation and bacterial adhesion to Caco-2 eukaryotic cell line by the adherent invasive E. coli (AIEC) strain LF82. Our data showed that methylation stress impairs E. coli adhesion properties and suggest a possible role of NanA in biofilm formation and bacteria host interactions. PMID:26904018

  13. EXPOSE-R cosmic radiation time profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachev, Tsvetan; Horneck, Gerda; Häder, Donat-Peter; Schuster, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the time profile of cosmic radiation exposure obtained by the radiation risks radiometer-dosimeter (R3DR) during the ESA exposition facility for EXPOSE-R mission (EXPOSE-R) in the EXPOSE-R facility outside the Russian Zvezda module of the International Space Station (ISS). Another aim is to make the obtained results available to other EXPOSE-R teams for use in their data analysis. R3DR is a low mass and small dimensions automated device, which measures solar radiation in four channels and in addition cosmic ionizing radiation. The main results of cosmic ionizing radiation measurements are: three different radiation sources were detected and quantified: galactic cosmic rays (GCR), energetic protons from the inner radiation belt (IRB) in the region of the South Atlantic anomaly and energetic electrons from the outer radiation belt (ORB). The highest daily averaged absorbed dose rate of 506 μGy day-1 came from IRB protons; GCR delivered much smaller daily absorbed dose rates of 81.4 μGy day-1 on average, and ORB source delivered on average a dose rate of 89 μGy day-1. The IRB and ORB daily averaged absorbed dose rates were higher than those observed during the ESA exposition facility for EXPOSE-E mission (EXPOSE-E), whereas the GCR rate was smaller than that measured during the EXPOSE-E mission. The reason for this difference is much less surrounding constructions shielding of the R3DR instrument in comparison with the R3DE instrument.

  14. Unidirectional Flux Balance of Monovalent Ions in Cells with Na/Na and Li/Na Exchange: Experimental and Computational Studies on Lymphoid U937 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vereninov, Igor A.; Yurinskaya, Valentina E.; Model, Michael A.; Vereninov, Alexey A.

    2016-01-01

    Monovalent ion traffic across the cell membrane occurs via various pathways. Evaluation of individual fluxes in whole cell is hampered by their strong interdependence. This difficulty can be overcome by computational analysis of the whole cell flux balance. However, the previous computational studies disregarded ion movement of the self-exchange type. We have taken this exchange into account. The developed software allows determination of unidirectional fluxes of all monovalent ions via the major pathways both under the balanced state and during transient processes. We show how the problem of finding the rate coefficients can be solved by measurement of monovalent ion concentrations and some of the fluxes. Interdependence of fluxes due to the mandatory conditions of electroneutrality and osmotic balance and due to specific effects can be discriminated, enabling one to identify specific changes in ion transfer machinery under varied conditions. To test the effectiveness of the developed approach we made use of the fact that Li/Na exchange is known to be an analogue of the coupled Na/Na exchange. Thus, we compared the predicted and experimental data obtained on U937 cells under varied Li+ concentrations and following inhibition of the sodium pump with ouabain. We found that the coupled Na/Na exchange in U937 cells comprises a significant portion of the entire Na+ turnover. The data showed that the loading of the sodium pump by Li/Na exchange involved in the secondary active Li+ transport at 1–10 mM external Li+ is small. This result may be extrapolated to similar Li+ and Na+ flux relationships in erythrocytes and other cells in patients treated with Li+ in therapeutic doses. The developed computational approach is applicable for studying various cells and can be useful in education for demonstrating the effects of individual transporters and channels on ion gradients, cell water content and membrane potential. PMID:27159324

  15. nana plant2 Encodes a Maize Ortholog of the Arabidopsis Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis Gene DWARF1, Identifying Developmental Interactions between Brassinosteroids and Gibberellins1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Budka, Josh; Fujioka, Shozo; Johal, Gurmukh

    2016-01-01

    A small number of phytohormones dictate the pattern of plant form affecting fitness via reproductive architecture and the plant’s ability to forage for light, water, and nutrients. Individual phytohormone contributions to plant architecture have been studied extensively, often following a single component of plant architecture, such as plant height or branching. Both brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) affect plant height, branching, and sexual organ development in maize (Zea mays). We identified the molecular basis of the nana plant2 (na2) phenotype as a loss-of-function mutation in one of the two maize paralogs of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) BR biosynthetic gene DWARF1 (DWF1). These mutants accumulate the DWF1 substrate 24-methylenecholesterol and exhibit decreased levels of downstream BR metabolites. We utilized this mutant and known GA biosynthetic mutants to investigate the genetic interactions between BR and GA. Double mutants exhibited additivity for some phenotypes and epistasis for others with no unifying pattern, indicating that BR and GA interact to affect development but in a context-dependent manner. Similar results were observed in double mutant analyses using additional BR and GA biosynthetic mutant loci. Thus, the BR and GA interactions were neither locus nor allele specific. Exogenous application of GA3 to na2 and d5, a GA biosynthetic mutant, also resulted in a diverse pattern of growth responses, including BR-dependent GA responses. These findings demonstrate that BR and GA do not interact via a single inclusive pathway in maize but rather suggest that differential signal transduction and downstream responses are affected dependent upon the developmental context. PMID:27288361

  16. nana plant2 Encodes a Maize Ortholog of the Arabidopsis Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis Gene DWARF1, Identifying Developmental Interactions between Brassinosteroids and Gibberellins.

    PubMed

    Best, Norman B; Hartwig, Thomas; Budka, Josh; Fujioka, Shozo; Johal, Gurmukh; Schulz, Burkhard; Dilkes, Brian P

    2016-08-01

    A small number of phytohormones dictate the pattern of plant form affecting fitness via reproductive architecture and the plant's ability to forage for light, water, and nutrients. Individual phytohormone contributions to plant architecture have been studied extensively, often following a single component of plant architecture, such as plant height or branching. Both brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) affect plant height, branching, and sexual organ development in maize (Zea mays). We identified the molecular basis of the nana plant2 (na2) phenotype as a loss-of-function mutation in one of the two maize paralogs of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) BR biosynthetic gene DWARF1 (DWF1). These mutants accumulate the DWF1 substrate 24-methylenecholesterol and exhibit decreased levels of downstream BR metabolites. We utilized this mutant and known GA biosynthetic mutants to investigate the genetic interactions between BR and GA. Double mutants exhibited additivity for some phenotypes and epistasis for others with no unifying pattern, indicating that BR and GA interact to affect development but in a context-dependent manner. Similar results were observed in double mutant analyses using additional BR and GA biosynthetic mutant loci. Thus, the BR and GA interactions were neither locus nor allele specific. Exogenous application of GA3 to na2 and d5, a GA biosynthetic mutant, also resulted in a diverse pattern of growth responses, including BR-dependent GA responses. These findings demonstrate that BR and GA do not interact via a single inclusive pathway in maize but rather suggest that differential signal transduction and downstream responses are affected dependent upon the developmental context. PMID:27288361

  17. [Vaccines and exposed occupations].

    PubMed

    Gendrel, Dominique

    2007-04-01

    The use of safe and efficacious vaccines in occupational settings to protect workers from diseases to which they may be exposed is obvious and has been included in the employment law. Healthcare workers are particular exposed. Immunization has two purposes : protect the worker from contracting a disease, but also prevent him from disseminating the disease to weakened patients. It is important not only to take into account existing recommendations for immunization, but also to envisage their extension to teachers and staff of nurseries and primary schools. Routine vaccination against whooping cough, varicella, measles and hepatitis A is particularly warranted in these categories. Recommendations should also extend to medical students who are too often poorly protected and insufficiently warned against potential occupational exposure to pathogens and dissemination to their patients. PMID:17433233

  18. Social indicators study of Alaskan Coastal Villages I. Key informant summaries. Volume 1. Schedule a regions (North Slope, Nana, Calista, Aleutian-Pribilof). Social and economic studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brelsford, T.; Fienup-Riordan, A.; Jorgensen, J.; McNabb, S.; Petrivelli, P.

    1992-08-01

    The focus of this report is on Alaska Natives--Inupiaq and Yupik Eskimos, Athabascans, and Aleuts--for two important reasons: (1) Alaska Natives are numerically dominant populations in rural areas closest to potential offshore oil development sites and (2) their economic adjustments are most vulnerable to potential impacts from such development. This report is divided into Schedules A, B, and C. Comprising Schedules A and B are the study areas originally identified by Minerals Management Service for this study (North Slope, NANA, Bering Straits, Calista, Bristol Bay, Aleutian-Pribilof Islands, and Kodiak regions). Schedule C is comprised of communities that were added subsequent to the Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989 in the Prince William Sound and Cook Inlet regions. One aim of this study was to document the attitudes and belief systems or ideologies about quality of life and well-being in the coastal, rural portions of Alaska.

  19. EXPOSE-R on Mission on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitz, Corinna; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Kloss, Maria; Reitz, Guenther

    Currently EXPOSE-R is on mission! This astrobiological exposure facility was accommodated at the universal workplace URM-D Zenith payload site, located outside the Russian Svezda Module of the International Space Station (ISS) by extravehicular activity (EVA) on March 10th 2009. It contains 3 trays accommodating 12 sample compartments with sample carriers in three levels either open to space vacuum or kept in a defined gas environment. In its 8 experiments of biological and chemical content, more than 1200 individual samples are exposed to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiations, vacuum, cosmic rays or extreme temperature variations. In their different experiments the involved scientists are studying the question of life's origin on Earth and the results of their experiments are contributing to different aspects of the evolution and distribution of life in the Universe. Additionally integrated into the EXPOSE-R facility are several dosimeters monitoring the ionising and the solar UV-radiation during the mission to deliver useful information to complement the sample analysis. In close cooperation with the DLR and the Technical University Munich (TUM), the Rheinisch -Westfülische Technischen Hochschule Aachen (RWTH Aachen) operates the experiment "Spores". a This is one of the 6 astrobiological experiments of the ROSE-Consortium" (Response of Or-ganisms to Space Environment) of the EXPOSE-R mission. In these experiments spores of bacteria, fungi and ferns are being over layered or mixed with meteorite material. The analysis of the effect of the space parameters on different biological endpoints of the spores of the mi-croorganism Bacillus subtilis will be performed after the retrieval of the experiment scheduled for the end of 2010. Parallel to the space mission an identical set of samples was accommodated into EXPOSE-R trays identical in construction to perform the Mission Ground Reference (MGR) Test. Currently this MGR Test is carried out in the Planetary and Space

  20. Welding tritium exposed stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    Stainless steels that are exposed to tritium become unweldable by conventional methods due to buildup of decay helium within the metal matrix. With longer service lives expected for tritium containment systems, methods for welding on tritium exposed material will become important for repair or modification of the systems. Solid-state resistance welding and low-penetration overlay welding have been shown to mitigate helium embrittlement cracking in tritium exposed 304 stainless steel. These processes can also be used on stainless steel containing helium from neutron irradiation, such as occurs in nuclear reactors.

  1. Crystal structure of new synthetic Ca,Na carbonate-borate Ca2Na(Na x Ca0.5 - x )[B{3/ t }B{2/δ}O8(OH)(O1 - x OH x )](CO3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamnova, N. A.; Borovikova, E. Yu.; Gurbanova, O. A.; Dimitrova, O. V.; Zubkova, N. V.

    2012-05-01

    New Ca,Na carbonate-borate Ca2Na(Na x Ca0.5 - x ) [B{3/ t }B{2/Δ}O8(OH)(O1 - x OH x )](CO3) crystals ( x ˜ 0.4) have been synthesized by the hydrothermal method in the Ca(OH)2-H3BO3-Na2CO3-NaCl-system at t = 250°C and P = 70-80 atm; the structure parameters are found to be a = 11.1848(3) Å, b = 6.4727(2) Å, c = 25.8181(7) Å, β = 96.364(3)°, V = 1857.60(9) Å3, sp. gr. C2/ c, Z = 8, and ρcalcd = 2.801 g/cm3 (Xcalibur S autodiffractometer (CCD), 2663 reflections with I > 2σ ( I), direct solution, refinement by the least-squares method in the anisotropic approximation of thermal atomic vibrations, hydrogen localization, R 1 = 0.0387). The structure is based on boron-oxygen layers of pentaborate radicals 5(2Δ + 3T). Ca and Na polyhedra and CO3 triangles are located between the layers. A crystallochemical analysis of the new Ca,Na carbonate-borate has established its similarity to natural Na,Ca pentaborates (heidornite and tuzlaite) and synthetic Na,Ba-decaborate.

  2. Brucellosis in Occupationally Exposed Groups

    PubMed Central

    Sajjan, Annapurna G.; Mohite, Shivajirao T.; Gajul, Shivali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In India, high incidence of human brucellosis may be expected, as the conditions conducive for human brucellosis exist. Limited studies have been undertaken on human brucellosis especially in occupationally-exposed groups. Aim To estimate prevalence of anti-brucellar antibodies, evaluate the clinical manifestations, risk factors and Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) levels about brucellosis among occupationally exposed groups. Materials and Methods Blood samples were collected from 2337 occupationally exposed individuals. The serum samples were screened for the presence of anti-brucellar antibodies by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) and 2-Mercaptoethanol test (2-ME). Clinical manifestations, risk factors and KAP levels were evaluated by personal interview using a structured questionnaire. Results Seroprevalence of brucellosis by RBPT, SAT and 2-ME test was 9.46%, 4.45% and 3.64 % respectively. Clinical symptoms resembling brucellosis were seen in 91 subjects. The major risk factors were animal exposure in veterinarians and abattoirs, both animal exposure and raw milk ingestion in farmers and shepherds, exposure to raw milk and its ingestion in dairy workers and exposure to Brucella culture in laboratory workers. Except laboratory workers, few veterinarians and dairy workers none had heard about brucellosis. KAP levels regarding brucellosis were too poor in all the groups except laboratory workers. Conclusion Brucellosis most of the times was missed or misdiagnosed. Regular screenings for brucellosis and awareness programmes to increase KAP levels are necessary to control brucellosis in occupationally exposed groups. PMID:27190804

  3. Fluor-ferro-leakeite, NaNa2(FC2+2Fe3+2Li)Si8O22F2, a new alkali amphibole from the Canada Pinabete pluton, Questa, New Mexico, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawthorne, F.C.; Oberti, R.; Ungaretti, L.; Ottolini, L.; Grice, Joel D.; Czamanske, G.K.

    1996-01-01

    Fluor-ferro-leakeite is a new amphibole species from the Canada Pinabete pluton, Questa, New Mexico, U.S.A.; it occurs in association with quartz, alkali feldspar, acmite, ilmenite, and zircon. It forms as anhedral bluish black crystals elongated along c and up to 1 mm long. It is brittle, H = 6, Dmeas = 3.37 g/cm3, Dcalc = 3.34 g/cm3. In plane-polarized light, it is strongly pleochroic, X = very dark indigo blue, Y = gray blue, Z = yellow green; X ??? c = 10?? (in ??obtuse), Y = b, Z ??? a = 4?? (in ?? obtuse), with absorption X > Y > Z. Fluor-ferro-leakeite is biaxial positive, ?? = 1.675(2), ??= 1.683(2), ?? = 1.694(1); 2V = 87(2)??; dispersion is not visible because of the strong absorption. Fluor-ferro-leakeite is monoclinic, space group C2/m, a = 9.792(1), b = 17.938(1), c = 5.3133(4) A??, ??= 103.87(7)??, V = 906.0(1) A??3, Z = 2. The ten strongest X-ray diffraction lines in the powder pattern are [d(I,hkl)]: 2.710(100,151), 2.536(92,202), 3.404(57,131), 4.481(54,040), 8.426(45,110), 2.985(38,241), 2.585(38,061), 3.122(29,310), 2.165(26,261), and 1.586(25,403). Analysis by a combination of electron microprobe, ion microprobe, and crystal-structure refinement (Hawthorne et al. 1993) gives SiO2 51.12, Al2O3 1.13, TiO2 0.68, Fe2O3 16.73, FeO 8.87, MgO 2.02, MnO 4.51, ZnO 0.57, CaO 0.15, Na2O 9.22, K2O 1.19, Li2O 0.99, F 2.87, H2Ocalc 0.60, sum 99.44 wt%. The formula unit, calculated on the basis of 23 O atoms, is (K0.23Na0.76)(Na1.97Ca0.03)(Mg 0.46Fe2+1.4Mn2+0.59Zn0.07Fe3+1.93-Ti 0.08Al0.02Li0.61])(Si7.81Al 0.19)O22(F1.39OH0.61). A previous crystal-structure refinement (Hawthorne et al. 1993) shows Li to be completely ordered at the M3 site. Fluor-ferro-leakeite, ideally NaNa2(Fe2+2Fe3+2Li)Si8O22F2, is related to leakeite, NaNa2(Mg2Fe3+3Li)Si 8O22(OH)2, by the substitutions Fe2+ ??? Mg and F ??? OH.

  4. Advances in treating exposed fractures☆

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira Giglio, Pedro; Fogaça Cristante, Alexandre; Ricardo Pécora, José; Partezani Helito, Camilo; Lei Munhoz Lima, Ana Lucia; dos Santos Silva, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The management of exposed fractures has been discussed since ancient times and remains of great interest to present-day orthopedics and traumatology. These injuries are still a challenge. Infection and nonunion are feared complications. Aspects of the diagnosis, classification and initial management are discussed here. Early administration of antibiotics, surgical cleaning and meticulous debridement are essential. The systemic conditions of patients with multiple trauma and the local conditions of the limb affected need to be taken into consideration. Early skeletal stabilization is necessary. Definitive fixation should be considered when possible and provisional fixation methods should be used when necessary. Early closure should be the aim, and flaps can be used for this purpose. PMID:26229904

  5. [Drug Exposed Infants and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This bulletin issue addresses the theme of drug-exposed infants and the services required by these infants and their families. "Cocaine-Exposed Infants: Myths and Misunderstandings" (Barbara J. Myers and others) comments on the negative accounts of drug-exposed babies presented by mass media and reviews the mix of positive and negative findings…

  6. Silent Victims: Children Exposed to Family Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolar, Kathryn R.; Davey, Debrynda

    2007-01-01

    Annually an estimated 3 million or more children are exposed to acts of domestic violence between adults in their homes. These children are at risk for abuse themselves as well as other immediate and long-term problems, especially if they have been exposed to repeated episodes of domestic violence. Multiple behavioral manifestations, including…

  7. 3 EXPOSE Missions - overview and lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbow, E.; Willnekcer, R.; Reitz, G.; Aman, A.; Bman, B.; Cman, C.

    2011-10-01

    The International Space Station ISS provides a variety of external research platforms for experiments aiming at the utilization of space parameters like vacuum, temperature oscillation and in particular extraterrestrial short wavelength UV and ionizing radiation which cannot be simulated accurately in the laboratory. Three Missions, two past and one upcoming, will be presented. A family of astrobiological experimental ESA facilities called "EXPOSE" were and will be accommodated on these outside exposure platforms: on one of the external balconies of the European Columbus Module (EXPOSE-E) and on the URM-D platform on the Russian Zvezda Module (EXPOSE-R and EXPOSE-R2). Exobiological and radiation experiments, exposing chemical, biological and dosimetric samples to the harsh space environment are - and will be - accommodated on these facilities to increase our knowledge on the origin, evolution and distribution of life, on Earth and possibly beyond. The biological experiments investigate resistance and adaptation of organisms like bacteria, Achaea, fungi, lichens, plant seeds and small animals like mosquito larvae to extreme environmental conditions and underlying mechanisms like DNA repair. The organic chemical experiments analyse chemical reactions triggered by the extraterrestrial environment, especially short wavelength UV radiation, to better understand prebiotic chemistry. The facility is optimized to allow exposure of biological specimen and material samples under a variety of conditions, using optical filter systems. Environmental parameters like temperature and radiation are regularly recorded and down linked by telemetry. Two long term missions named according to their facility - EXPOSE-E and EXPOSE-R - are completed and a third mission is planned and currently prepared. Operations of all three missions including sample accommodation are performed by DLR. An overview of the two completed missions will be given including lessons learned as well as an outlook

  8. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers

  9. TREATMENT OF LEAD EXPOSED CHILDREN TRIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Treatment of Lead-exposed Children (TLC) clinical trial compared the effect of lead chelation with succimer to placebo therapy. Outcomes included IQ, neuropsychological function, behavior, physical growth and blood pressure three years after initiation of treatment. Residenti...

  10. Helping Children Exposed to Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... withdrawal Depression or anxiety Loss of interest in school, friends or other things they enjoyed in the past Children and adolescents exposed to domestic violence should be evaluated by a trained mental health ...

  11. The astrobiological mission EXPOSE-R on board of the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Bohmeier, Maria; Parpart, Andre; Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; Burfeindt, Jürgen; Molter, Ferdinand; Jaramillo, Esther; Pereira, Carlos; Weiß, Peter; Willnecker, Rainer; Demets, René; Dettmann, Jan

    2015-01-01

    EXPOSE-R flew as the second of the European Space Agency (ESA) EXPOSE multi-user facilities on the International Space Station. During the mission on the external URM-D platform of the Zvezda service module, samples of eight international astrobiology experiments selected by ESA and one Russian guest experiment were exposed to low Earth orbit space parameters from March 10th, 2009 to January 21st, 2011. EXPOSE-R accommodated a total of 1220 samples for exposure to selected space conditions and combinations, including space vacuum, temperature cycles through 273 K, cosmic radiation, solar electromagnetic radiation at >110, >170 or >200 nm at various fluences up to GJ m-2. Samples ranged from chemical compounds via unicellular organisms and multicellular mosquito larvae and seeds to passive radiation dosimeters. Additionally, one active radiation measurement instrument was accommodated on EXPOSE-R and commanded from ground in accordance with the facility itself. Data on ultraviolet radiation, cosmic radiation and temperature were measured every 10 s and downlinked by telemetry and data carrier every few months. The EXPOSE-R trays and samples returned to Earth on March 9th, 2011 with Shuttle flight, Space Transportation System (STS)-133/ULF 5, Discovery, after successful total mission duration of 27 months in space. The samples were analysed in the individual investigators laboratories. A parallel Mission Ground Reference experiment was performed on ground with a parallel set of hardware and samples under simulated space conditions following to the data transmitted from the flight mission.

  12. Hormonal Perturbations in Occupationally Exposed Nickel Workers

    PubMed Central

    Beshir, Safia; Ibrahim, Khadiga Salah; Shaheen, Weam; Shahy, Eman M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel exposure is recognized as an endocrine disruptor because of its adverse effects on reproduction. AIM: This study was designed to investigate the possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations on workers occupationally exposed to nickel and to assess its effects on human male sexual function. METHODS: Cross-sectional comparative study, comprising 105 electroplating male non-smoker, non-alcoholic workers exposed to soluble nickel and 60 controls was done. Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone levels and urinary nickel concentrations were determined for the studied groups. RESULTS: Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, urinary nickel and the simultaneous incidence of more than one sexual disorder were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to controls. The occurrence of various types of sexual disorders (decreased libido, impotence and premature ejaculation) in the exposed workers was 9.5, 5.1 and 4.4 folds respectively than the controls. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to nickel produces possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations in those exposed workers. PMID:27335607

  13. Developmental trajectories of cocaine-and-other-drug-exposed and non-cocaine-exposed children.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Linda C; Cicchetti, Domenic; Acharyya, Suddhasatta; Zhang, Heping

    2003-10-01

    Few data are available concerning the trajectories of mental and motor development across time for cocaine-exposed children compared with others. Findings are presented from individual group curve analyses of the mental and motor development measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II) on repeated visits from 3 through 36 months of a group of prenatally cocaine-and-other-drug-exposed children (n = 265) compared with those exposed to no drugs (n = 129) or no-cocaine-but-other-drugs (n = 66), including alcohol and/or tobacco. Across time, there was a general decline in motor performance but cocaine-exposed-infants showed a trend toward a greater decrease than children in the other two comparison groups. For mental performance, there was also a decline across age but only through 24 months and no differences in the trajectory of the cocaine-exposed group compared to the other two. And, across all assessment ages, cocaine-exposed-infants showed lower BSID-II mental performance compared to both non-drug and non-cocaine-exposed children. Results suggest that prenatally cocaine-exposed children show delayed developmental indices, particularly in their mental performance, but their trajectories across time are similar to those from impoverished, non-cocaine-exposed groups. PMID:14578693

  14. Anesthetic gases and occupationally exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Casale, Teodorico; Caciari, Tiziana; Rosati, Maria Valeria; Gioffrè, Pier Agostino; Schifano, Maria Pia; Capozzella, Assunta; Pimpinella, Benedetta; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate whether the occupational exposure to low dose anesthetic gases could cause alterations of blood parameters in health care workers. 119 exposed subjects and 184 not exposed controls were included in the study. Each worker underwent the complete blood count test (CBC), proteinaemia, leukocyte count, serum lipids, liver and kidney blood markers. The liver blood markers show statistically significant differences in health care workers compared with controls (p<0.05), a statistically significant decrease in neutrophils and an increase of lymphocytes in health care workers compared with controls (p<0.05). The prevalence of values outside the range for GPT, GGT, total bilirubin, lymphocytes and neutrophils was statistically significant in health care workers compared with controls (p<0.05). The results suggest that occupational exposure to low dose anesthetic gases could influence some haematochemical hepatic and hematopoietic parameters in exposed health care workers. PMID:24374387

  15. The Expose-R2 mission: astrobiology and astrochemistry in low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demets, René

    EXPOSE is an exposure platform developed by ESA which permits scientists to install test samples for 1 to 2 years at the outer surface of the ISS. In that way, the impact of the open space environment on biological and biochemical sample materials can be explored. This environment, featuring full-spectrum solar light, near-vacuum, cosmic radiation, wide temperature variations and near-weightlessness, is impossible to reproduce in its entirety in the lab. As such, EXPOSE offers astrochemists and astrobiologists a chance to acquire novel scientific data. Astrochemists are interested in Low Earth Orbit conditions due to the fact that photochemistry in space is quite different from photochemistry on Earth, where the high-energy UV compounds of the solar spectrum are filtered away by our atmosphere. As for the astro biologists, EXPOSE offers an attractive opportunity to expand earlier results obtained during short-duration LEO flights, which have shown that particular microbes and, amazingly, even some multi-cellular macroscopic organisms were able to cope with a two-week exposure to space. The open space environment, often described as harsh and hostile, can apparently be tolerated by some robust inhabitants of our Earth - unprotected, in the absence of a space suit! The first mission of EXPOSE, as an external payload on the European Columbus module, happened during 2008-2009 with the test samples provided by five separate research teams. Three additional teams were involved in the monitoring of space environment. The results were published collectively in 2012 in a special issue of the monthly journal Astrobiology. Several organisms survived, having spent 1.5 years in space. The second mission was called EXPOSE-R, the R referring to ‘Russian segment’, the location where the EXPOSE instrument was installed this time. The EXPOSE-R mission took place in 2009-2011, ten science teams were involved. The publication of the results, again as a collection, is currently in

  16. Cosmic radiation exposure of biological test systems during the EXPOSE-R mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas; Hajek, Michael; Bilski, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    In the frame of the EXPOSE-R mission outside the Russian Zvezda Module of the International Space Station (ISS) passive thermoluminescence dosimeters were applied to measure the radiation exposure of biological samples. The detectors were located beneath the sample carriers to determine the dose levels for maximum shielding. The dose measured beneath the sample carriers varied between 317 +/- 10 and 230 +/- 2 mGy, which amount to an average dose rate of 381 +/- 12 and 276 +/- 2 μGy d-1. These values are close to those assessed for the interior of the ISS and reflect the high shielding of the biological experiments within the EXPOSE-R facility. As a consequence of the high shielding (several g cm-2), the biological samples were predominantly exposed to galactic cosmic heavy ions and trapped protons in the Earth's radiation belts, whereas the trapped electrons did not reach the samples.

  17. Exposing the Mathematical Wizard: Approximating Trigonometric Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2011-01-01

    For almost all students, what happens when they push buttons on their calculators is essentially magic, and the techniques used are seemingly pure wizardry. In this article, the author draws back the curtain to expose some of the mathematics behind computational wizardry and introduces some fundamental ideas that are accessible to precalculus…

  18. Interphase cytogenetics of workers exposed to benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Wang, Yunxia; Venkatesh, P.

    1996-12-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful new technique that allows numerical chromosome aberrations (aneuploidy) to be detected in interphase cells. In previous studies, FISH has been used to demonstrate that the benzene metabolites hydroquinone and 1,2,4-benzenetriol induce aneuploidy of chromosomes 7 and 9 in cultures of human cells. In the present study, we used an interphase FISH procedure to perform cytogenetic analyses on the blood cells of 43 workers exposed to benzene (median=31 ppm, 8-hr time-weighted average) and 44 matched controls from Shanghai, China. High benzene exposure (>31 ppm, n=22) increased the hyperdiploid frequency of chromosome 9 (p<0.01), but lower exposure (<31 ppm, n=21) did not. Trisomy 9 was the major form of benzene-induced hyperdiploidy. The level of hyperdiploidy in exposed workers correlated with their urinary phenol level (r= 0.58, p < 0.0001), a measure of internal benzene close. A significant correlation was also found between hyperdiploicly and decreased absolute lymphocyte count, an indicator of benzene hematotoxicity, in the exposed group (r=-0.44, p=0.003) but not in controls (r=-0.09, P=0.58). These results show that high benzene exposure induces aneuploidy of chromosome 9 in nondiseased individuals, with trisomy being the most prevalent form. They further highlight the usefulness of interphase cytogenetics and FISH for the rapid and sensitive detection of aneuploidy in exposed human populations. 35 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Exposing New Academics through Action Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen; Fernie, Scott

    2010-01-01

    While collaborative action research is an empowering approach to developing academic practice, it also presents a number of challenges regarding the purpose, nature and consequences of academic development. This research note raises questions and issues concerning how action research exposes new academics to the conflicts and tensions of the…

  20. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  1. Electroencephalographic findings in workers exposed to benzene.

    PubMed

    Kellerová, V

    1985-01-01

    Preventive EEG examination was carried out in 40 workers significantly exposed to benzene. The EEG findings were compared with those of a control group of 48 healthy persons, a group of 110 workers significantly exposed to toluene and xylene and a group of 236 workers exposed to vinyl chloride. The individuals exposed to benzene exhibited 22.5% of abnormal and 45% threshold findings, the abnormalities being episodic, diffuse or a combination of the two. The effect of benzene entailed a frequent (32.5%) occurrence of a characteristic frequency lability. Sleep phenomena were found in a total of 60% cases (37.5% cases reached stage 1 B3 while 15% reached stage 2 according to Roth [14]). The rapid onset of deeper sleep stages (in 30% cases) is considered typical for benzene exposure. The photic driving response often had an extended frequency range (a total of 61.1%, to beta frequencies only in 30.55%, to both beta and theta frequencies also in 30.55% of cases). The different EEG features characteristic of the neurotoxic action of various types of organic solvents make possible a more efficient diagnostics of the effects of these chemicals on the CNS. PMID:4086812

  2. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSES OF MICE EXPOSED TO DICHLOROMETHANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chromosome damage was studied in female B6C3F1 mice exposed to dichloromethane (DCM) by subcutaneous or inhalation treatments. o increase in either the frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) or chromosome aberrations (CAs) in bone marrow cells was observed after a singl...

  3. Expose Mechanical Engineering Students to Biomechanics Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Hui

    2011-01-01

    To adapt the focus of engineering education to emerging new industries and technologies nationwide and in the local area, a biomechanics module has been developed and incorporated into a mechanical engineering technical elective course to expose mechanical engineering students at ONU (Ohio Northern University) to the biomedical engineering topics.…

  4. Interviews with Children Exposed to Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Maria; Nasman, Elisabet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show how research practices may simultaneously follow principles of children's citizenship rights to participation and principles of protection and support when children exposed to violence are informants. The article focuses upon organisation of interview processes and interactions between adult researchers and child…

  5. Cocaine Babies: Florida's Substance-Exposed Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpring, Jayme

    This report is designed to provide Florida's school personnel with assistance in working with students prenatally exposed to cocaine or other toxic substances. The report offers background data, practical strategies for teaching and learning, and resources for networking. The first chapter outlines statistics on the incidence of the problem of…

  6. Surface contamination on LDEF exposed materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemminger, Carol S.

    1992-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to study the surface composition and chemistry of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) exposed materials including silvered Teflon (Ag/FEP), Kapton, S13GLO paint, quartz crystal monitors (QCM's), carbon fiber/organic matrix composites, and carbon fiber/Al Alloy composites. In each set of samples, silicones were the major contributors to the molecular film accumulated on the LDEF exposed surfaces. All surfaces analyzed have been contaminated with Si, O, and C; most have low levels (less than 1 atom percent) of N, S, and F. Occasionally observed contaminants included Cl, Na, K, P, and various metals. Orange/brown discoloration observed near vent slots in some Ag/FEP blankets were higher in carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen relative to other contamination types. The source of contamination has not been identified, but amine/amide functionalities were detected. It is probable that this same source of contamination account for the low levels of sulfur and nitrogen observed on most LDEF exposed surfaces. XPS, which probes 50 to 100 A in depth, detected the major sample components underneath the contaminant film in every analysis. This probably indicates that the contaminant overlayer is patchy, with significant areas covered by less that 100 A of molecular film. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of LDEF exposed surfaces during secondary electron microscopy (SEM) of the samples confirmed contamination of the surfaces with Si and O. In general, particulates were not observed to develop from the contaminant overlayer on the exposed LDEF material surfaces. However, many SiO2 submicron particles were seen on a masked edge of an Ag/FEP blanket. In some cases such as the carbon fiber/organic matrix composites, interpretation of the contamination data was hindered by the lack of good laboratory controls. Examination of laboratory controls for the carbon fiber/Al alloy composites showed that preflight contamination was

  7. Silent victims: children exposed to family violence.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Kathryn R; Davey, Debrynda

    2007-04-01

    Annually an estimated 3 million or more children are exposed to acts of domestic violence between adults in their homes. These children are at risk for abuse themselves as well as other immediate and long-term problems, especially if they have been exposed to repeated episodes of domestic violence. Multiple behavioral manifestations, including anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder, may be associated with violence exposure, and it is imperative that school nurses recognize these. All children should be screened for domestic violence exposure at regular intervals, and those who are at risk should have a more thorough health assessment. Planning for the safety of the child, nonoffending caregiver, and siblings and the school nurse involved in the situation is of utmost importance. PMID:17394377

  8. Hearing parameters in noise exposed industrial workers.

    PubMed

    Celik, O; Yalçin, S; Oztürk, A

    1998-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a study carried out in a group of noise-exposed workers in a hydro-electric power plant. Thus, the main focus of the study is on 130 industrial workers who were exposed to high level of noise. The control group was consisted of 33 subjects with normal hearing. Hearing and acoustic reflex thresholds were obtained from all subjects and the results from age-matched subgroups were compared. The sensorineural hearing loss which were detected in 71 workers were bilateral, symmetrical and affected mainly frequencies of 4-6 kHz. In essence, the hearing losses were developed within the first 10 years of noise exposure and associated with slight progress in the following years. When acoustic reflex thresholds derived from the study and control groups were compared, statistically significant difference was determined only for the thresholds obtained at 4 kHz (p < 0.0005). PMID:9853659

  9. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    PubMed Central

    Jørs, Erik; Gonzáles, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia; Tirado, Noemi; Takahashi, Catharina; Lafuente, Erika; Dos Santos, Raquel A; Bailon, Natalia; Cervantes, Rafael; O, Huici; Bælum, Jesper; Lander., Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Background Pesticides are of concern in Bolivia because of increasing use. Frequent intoxications have been demonstrated due to use of very toxic pesticides, insufficient control of distribution and sale and little knowledge among farmers of protective measures and hygienic procedures. Method Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated with a mean age of 37.3 years (range 17–76). Data of exposure and possible genetic damage were collected and evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed. Results Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal aberrations increased with the intensity of pesticide exposure. Females had a lower number of chromosomal aberrations than males, and people living at altitudes above 2500 metres seemed to exhibit more DNA damage measured by the comet assay. Conclusions Bolivian farmers showed signs of genotoxic damage, probably related to exposure to pesticides. Due to the potentially negative long term health effects of genetic damage on reproduction and the development of cancer, preventive measures are recommended. Effective control with imports and sales, banning of the most toxic pesticides, education and information are possible measures, which could help preventing the negative effects of pesticides on human health and the environment. PMID:19662224

  10. Biochemical markers in butadiene-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtold, W.E.; Hayes, R.B.; Thornton-Manning, J.R.; Henderson, R.F.

    1994-11-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD) is used to manufacture a wide range of polymers and copolymers including styrene-butadiene rubber, polybutadiene, and acrylonitrile-butadiene-syrene resins. The carcinogenicity of BD has been determined in life-span inhalation studies in both Sprague-Dawley rats and B6C3F{sub 1} mice. Results suggest a marked species difference in the carcinogenic effects of BD. For example, female mice exposed to as low as 6.25 ppm BD exhibited increased alveolar/bronchiolar neoplasms. In contrast, BD was only a weak carcinogen in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were observed to have an increase only in mammary tumors after exposure to 1000 ppm. A biochemical study of highly exposed BD workers and unexposed controls is providing valuable information on BD metabolism in humans, and how this relates to the development of intermediate biologic effects. A group of heavily exposed workers were identified in a BD production facility in China. The purpose of this paper is to report the initial results from the sampling trip in the first quarter of 1994.

  11. Fibrosis biomarkers in workers exposed to MWCNTs.

    PubMed

    Fatkhutdinova, Liliya M; Khaliullin, Timur O; Vasil'yeva, Olga L; Zalyalov, Ramil R; Mustafin, Ilshat G; Kisin, Elena R; Birch, M Eileen; Yanamala, Naveena; Shvedova, Anna A

    2016-05-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with their unique physico-chemical properties offer numerous technological advantages and are projected to drive the next generation of manufacturing growth. As MWCNT have already found utility in different industries including construction, engineering, energy production, space exploration and biomedicine, large quantities of MWCNT may reach the environment and inadvertently lead to human exposure. This necessitates the urgent assessment of their potential health effects in humans. The current study was carried out at NanotechCenter Ltd. Enterprise (Tambov, Russia) where large-scale manufacturing of MWCNT along with relatively high occupational exposure levels was reported. The goal of this small cross-sectional study was to evaluate potential biomarkers during occupational exposure to MWCNT. All air samples were collected at the workplaces from both specific areas and personal breathing zones using filter-based devices to quantitate elemental carbon and perform particle analysis by TEM. Biological fluids of nasal lavage, induced sputum and blood serum were obtained from MWCNT-exposed and non-exposed workers for assessment of inflammatory and fibrotic markers. It was found that exposure to MWCNTs caused significant increase in IL-1β, IL6, TNF-α, inflammatory cytokines and KL-6, a serological biomarker for interstitial lung disease in collected sputum samples. Moreover, the level of TGF-β1 was increased in serum obtained from young exposed workers. Overall, the results from this study revealed accumulation of inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers in biofluids of workers manufacturing MWCNTs. Therefore, the biomarkers analyzed should be considered for the assessment of health effects of occupational exposure to MWCNT in cross-sectional epidemiological studies. PMID:26902652

  12. Physical examinations of workers exposed to trichlorotrifluoroethane.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbus, H. R.; Adkins, C.

    1972-01-01

    A group of 50 workers, exposed for an average of 2.77 years in an environment, samples of which contained from 46 to 4700 ppm of trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon 113), was examined. There were no subjective complaints, other than one case of dryness of the skin, referable to this occupational exposure. At this time, it is our opinion that there is no evidence of adverse effects from exposure to trichlorotrifluoroethane under the conditions encountered by these personnel. We believe that continued, periodic, follow-up examinations of these workers will be helpful in further evaluating any possible long-range effects of this material.

  13. Rescue of fish exposed to a lethal dose of pathogen, by signals from sublethally exposed survivors.

    PubMed

    Mothersill, Carmel; Austin, Dawn; Fernandez-Palomo, Cristian; Seymour, Colin; Auchinachie, Niall; Austin, Brian

    2015-03-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) were challenged intraperitoneally with a sublethal dose of Vibrio anguillarum VIB1 and allowed to recover. Then, after 7 days, naïve fish, (designated as 'bystander' fish) which had never been exposed to the pathogen, were introduced to the same tank. These swam with the adapted (recovered) fish for 7 days before both groups and a control (never exposed directly to the pathogen or to recovered fish) group were exposed to a lethal dose of VIB1. Mortality records were 100% in the control group within 3 days, 47% in the adapted group and 60% in the unchallenged bystander group, which swam with the adapted group. In both the latter groups, the time to death of the non-surviving fish was attenuated. This inter-animal communication of signals has previously been documented for animals exposed to ionizing radiation. Assays of tissues from control, challenged and 'bystander fish exposed to the pathogen showed that a signal as yet unidentified but similar to that seen in bystanders to irradiated fish was being produced. This signal caused a sharp and transient increase in intracellular calcium and a decrease in clonogenicity in a well-characterized reporter assay. PMID:25757731

  14. The PUR Experiment on the EXPOSE-R facility: biological dosimetry of solar extraterrestrial UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérces, A.; Egyeki, M.; Fekete, A.; Horneck, G.; Kovács, G.; Panitz, C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our experiment Phage and Uracil Response was to extend the use of bacteriophage T7 and uracil biological dosimeters for measuring the biologically effective ultraviolet (UV) dose in the harsh extraterrestrial radiation conditions. The biological detectors were exposed in vacuum-tightly cases in the European Space Agency (ESA) astrobiological exposure facility attached to the external platform of Zvezda (EXPOSE-R). EXPOSE-R took off to the International Space Station (ISS) in November 2008 and was installed on the External platform of the Russian module Zvezda of the ISS in March 2009. Our goal was to determine the dose-effect relation for the formation of photoproducts (i.e. damage to phage DNA and uracil, respectively). The extraterrestrial solar UV radiation ranges over the whole spectrum from vacuum-UV (λ<200 nm) to UVA (315 nm<λ<400 nm), which causes photolesions (photoproducts) in the nucleic acids/their components either by photoionization or excitation. However, these wavelengths cause not only photolesions but in a wavelength-dependent efficiency the reversion of some photolesions, too. Our biological detectors measured in situ conditions the resultant of both reactions induced by the extraterrestrial UV radiation. From this aspect the role of the photoreversion in the extension of the biological UV dosimetry are discussed.

  15. Erythrocyte survival in sheep exposed to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.S.; Calabrese, E.J.; Labato, F.J.

    1981-07-01

    Erythrocyte survival studies in the Dorset ewe using chromium 51 were performed. The purpose of the study was to determine if ozone exposure produces decreased cell survival which may be the result of premature erythrocyte aging. This strain of sheep has an erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity that is very low, being comparable to human A-variants with G6PD deficiency. Ozone exposure may produce hemolytic effects in G6PD deficients more readily than in erythrocytes with normal activity. A decrease in hematocrit was observed in the ozone exposed groups. With respect to red cell destruction, ozone does not appear to act immediately, but rather there appears to be a delayed effect. At 0.25 ppM ozone, the group reached the 50% remaining level an average of 1 day sooner than the control group. There was no significant difference between control and exposed groups at the 0.50 ppM and 0.70 ppM levels. Also, the results demonstrate a net decrease in hematocrit which is greater for 0.25 ppM ozone than any other exposure level. (RJC)

  16. Behavioral changes in fish exposed to phytoestrogens.

    PubMed

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; Rodriguez, Alison C

    2006-12-01

    We investigated the behavioral effects of exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens in male fighting fish, Betta splendens. Adult fish were exposed to a range of concentrations of genistein, equol, beta-sitosterol, and the positive control 17beta-estradiol. The following behaviors were measured: spontaneous swimming activity, latency to respond to a perceived intruder (mirror reflection), intensity of aggressive response toward a perceived intruder, probability of constructing a nest in the presence of a female, and the size of the nest constructed. We found few changes in spontaneous swimming activity, the latency to respond to the mirror, and nest size, and modest changes in the probability of constructing a nest. There were significant decreases, however, in the intensity of aggressive behavior toward the mirror following exposure to several concentrations, including environmentally relevant ones, of 17beta-estradiol, genistein, and equol. This suggests that phytoestrogen contamination has the potential to significantly affect the behavior of free-living fishes. PMID:16584819

  17. Axon reflexes in human cold exposed fingers.

    PubMed

    Daanen, H A; Ducharme, M B

    2000-02-01

    Exposure of fingers to severe cold induces cold induced vasodilatation (CIVD). The mechanism of CIVD is still debated. The original theory states that an axon reflex causes CIVD. To test this hypothesis, axon reflexes were evoked by electrical stimulation of the middle fingers of hands immersed in water at either 5 degrees C or 35 degrees C. Axon reflexes were pronounced in the middle finger of the hand in warm water, but absent from the hand in cold water, even though the stimulation was rated as "rather painful" to "painful". These results showed that axon reflexes do not occur in a cold-exposed hand and thus are unlikely to explain the CIVD phenomenon. PMID:10638384

  18. Arousal Modulation in Cocaine-Exposed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Margaret; Lewis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The ability to modulate arousal is a critical skill with wide-ranging implications for development. In this study, the authors examined arousal regulation as a function of levels of prenatal cocaine exposure in 107 infants at 4 months of age using a “still-face” procedure. Facial expressions were coded. A greater percentage of heavily cocaine-exposed infants, compared with those who were unexposed to cocaine, showed less enjoyment during en face play with their mothers and continued to show negative expressions during the resumption of play following a period when the interaction was interrupted. This finding was independent of other substance exposure, neonatal medical condition, environmental risk, maternal contingent responsivity, and concurrent maternal sensitivity and vocalizations. PMID:9597364

  19. Plasma prolactin concentrations in lead exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Govoni, S; Battaini, F; Fernicola, C; Castelletti, L; Trabucchi, M

    1987-01-01

    Plasma Prolactin (Prl) Zinc protoporphyrin (Zpp) and blood lead concentrations (PbB) were measured in 76 exposed male workers. All of them were employed in small (not more than 30 persons) pewter factories and were randomly selected from those regularly controlled by the National Health Service, Occupational Health Unit of Brescia (USSL 41). Although all plasma Prl values were within the normal range, the mean value of the subgroup having Zpp and PbB higher than 40 micrograms/dl was significantly higher (+47%) than that observed in the group of workers having Zpp and PbB less than 40 micrograms/dl. The data indicate the possibility of a lead-induced Prl secretion dysfunction, probably mediated by a decrease in dopaminergic inhibitory control. PMID:3598878

  20. Dust release from surfaces exposed to plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, T. M.; Goree, J.

    2006-12-15

    Micrometer-sized particles adhered to a surface can be released when exposed to plasma. In an experiment with a glass surface coated with lunar-simulant dust, it was found that particle release requires exposure to both plasma and an electron beam. The dust release rate diminishes almost exponentially in time, which is consistent with a random process. As proposed here, charges of particles adhered to the surface fluctuate. These charges experience a fluctuating electric force that occasionally overcomes the adhesive van der Waals force, causing particle release. The release rate increases with plasma density, so that plasma cleaning is feasible at high plasma densities. Applications of this cleaning include controlling particulate contamination in semiconductor manufacturing, dust mitigation in the exploration of the moon and Mars, and dusty plasmas.

  1. Mortality of aerospace workers exposed to trichloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R W; Kelsh, M A; Zhao, K; Heringer, S

    1998-07-01

    We measured mortality rates in a cohort of 20,508 aerospace workers who were followed up over the period 1950-1993. A total of 4,733 workers had occupational exposure to trichloroethylene. In addition, trichloroethylene was present in some of the washing and drinking water used at the work site. We developed a job-exposure matrix to classify all jobs by trichloroethylene exposure levels into four categories ranging from "none" to "high" exposure. We calculated standardized mortality ratios for the entire cohort and the trichloroethylene exposed subcohort. In the standardized mortality ratio analyses, we observed a consistent elevation for nonmalignant respiratory disease, which we attribute primarily to the higher background rates of respiratory disease in this region. We also compared trichloroethylene-exposed workers with workers in the "low" and "none" exposure categories. Mortality rate ratios for nonmalignant respiratory disease were near or less than 1.00 for trichloroethylene exposure groups. We observed elevated rare ratios for ovarian cancer among those with peak exposure at medium and high levels] relative risk (RR) = 2.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.84-8.99] and among women with high cumulative exposure (RR = 7.09; 95% CI = 2.14-23.54). Among those with peak exposures at medium and high levels, we observed slightly elevated rate ratios for cancers of the kidney (RR = 1.89; 95% CI = 0.85-4.23), bladder (RR = 1.41; 95% CI = 0.52-3.81), and prostate (RR = 1.47; 95% CI = 0.85-2.55). Our findings do not indicate an association between trichloroethylene exposure and respiratory cancer, liver cancer, leukemia or lymphoma, or all cancers combined. PMID:9647907

  2. First results of the ORGANIC experiment on EXPOSE-R on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, K. L.; Salama, F.; Elsaesser, A.; Peeters, Z.; Ricco, A. J.; Foing, B. H.

    2015-01-01

    The ORGANIC experiment on EXPOSE-R spent 682 days outside the International Space Station, providing continuous exposure to the cosmic-, solar- and trapped-particle radiation background for fourteen samples: 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and three fullerenes. The thin films of the ORGANIC experiment received, during space exposure, an irradiation dose of the order of 14 000 MJ m-2 over 2900 h of unshadowed solar illumination. Extensive analyses were performed on the returned samples and the results compared to ground control measurements. Analytical studies of the returned samples included spectral measurements from the vacuum ultraviolet to the infrared range and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. Limited spectral changes were observed in most cases pointing to the stability of PAHs and fullerenes under space exposure conditions. Furthermore, the results of these experiments confirm the known trend in the stability of PAH species according to molecular structure: compact PAHs are more stable than non-compact PAHs, which are themselves more stable than PAHs containing heteroatoms, the last category being the most prone to degradation in the space environment. We estimate a depletion rate of the order of 85 +/- 5% over the 17 equivalent weeks of continuous unshadowed solar exposure in the most extreme case tetracene (smallest, non-compact PAH sample). The insignificant spectral changes (below 10%) measured for solid films of large or compact PAHs and fullerenes indicate a high stability under the range of space exposure conditions investigated on EXPOSE-R.

  3. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for...

  4. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for...

  5. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for...

  6. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for...

  7. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for...

  8. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized...

  9. 9 CFR 78.23 - Brucellosis exposed bison.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed bison. 78.23... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.23 Brucellosis exposed bison. Brucellosis exposed bison may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized...

  10. 9 CFR 78.23 - Brucellosis exposed bison.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed bison. 78.23... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.23 Brucellosis exposed bison. Brucellosis exposed bison may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized...

  11. 9 CFR 78.23 - Brucellosis exposed bison.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed bison. 78.23... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.23 Brucellosis exposed bison. Brucellosis exposed bison may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized...

  12. 46 CFR 116.960 - Guards for exposed hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guards for exposed hazards. 116.960 Section 116.960 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 116.960 Guards for exposed hazards. An exposed hazard, such as gears...

  13. 46 CFR 177.960 - Guards for exposed hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guards for exposed hazards. 177.960 Section 177.960... TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.960 Guards for exposed hazards. An exposed hazard, such as gears or rotating machinery, must be properly protected by a cover, guard, or rail....

  14. Thyroid hormones in chronic heat exposed men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertner, A.; Israeli, R.; Lev, A.; Cassuto, Y.

    1983-03-01

    Previous reports have indicated that thyroid gland activity, is depressed in the heat. Total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) serum levels in 17 workers of the metal work shop at a plant near the Dead Sea and 8 workers in Beer Sheva, Israel were examined. The metal workshop of the plant near the Dead Sea is part of a large chemical plant. The one in Beer Sheva is part of a large construction company. Maintenance work, as well as metal work projects are performed in both workshops. During the work shifts, the workers of the Dead Sea plant were exposed to temperatures ranging from 30 36°C (May Oct.) and 14 21°C (Dec. Feb). In Beer Sheva the range was 25 32°C (June Sept.) and 10 17°C (Dec. Feb.). Total T4 was measured by competitive protein binding and total T3 by radioimmunoassay in blood drawn before work (0700) in July and January. In summer. T4 was higher and T3 was lower for both groups than in winter. The observed summer T3 decrease may result from depressed extrathyroidal conversion of T4 to T3. We conclude that the regulation of energy metabolism in hot climates may be related to extrathyroidal conversion of T4 to T3.

  15. Neurotoxicity of Acrylamide in Exposed Workers

    PubMed Central

    Pennisi, Manuela; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Puglisi, Valentina; Vinciguerra, Luisa; Vacante, Marco; Malaguarnera, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    Acrylamide (ACR) is a water-soluble chemical used in different industrial and laboratory processes. ACR monomer is neurotoxic in humans and laboratory animals. Subchronic exposure to this chemical causes neuropathies, hands and feet numbness, gait abnormalities, muscle weakness, ataxia, skin and in some cases, cerebellar alterations. ACR neurotoxicity involves mostly the peripheral but also the central nervous system, because of damage to the nerve terminal through membrane fusion mechanisms and tubulovescicular alterations. Nevertheless, the exact action mechanism is not completely elucidated. In this paper we have reviewed the current literature on its neurotoxicity connected to work-related ACR exposure. We have analyzed not only the different pathogenetic hypotheses focusing on possible neuropathological targets, but also the critical behavior of ACR poisoning. In addition we have evaluated the ACR-exposed workers case studies. Despite all the amount of work which have being carried out on this topic more studies are necessary to fully understand the pathogenetic mechanisms, in order to propose suitable therapies. PMID:23985770

  16. Post-exposed fiber Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Gary A.

    This thesis explains the development and characterization of a novel technique to fabricate weak fiber Bragg gratings for highly specific multi-element sensor arrays. This method, termed the "rescan technique," involves re-exposing a local region of a grating to fringeless ultraviolet light to "trim" unwanted portions of the reflection spectrum. The spectral effects that result from a rescan can only be adequately described by inventing the concept of a three-dimensional index growth surface, where induced index is a function of both the writing intensity and the exposure time. Using this information, it is possible to predict the spectral response of a rescanned grating using a numerical model. For our model, we have modified the piecewise-uniform approach to include coefficients within the coupled-mode formulism that imitate the same scattering properties as the actual grating. By taking high accuracy measurements of the refractive index change in germanosilicate fiber, we have created the necessary 3D map of photoinduced index to accurately model gratings and their post-exposure spectra. We will also demonstrate that optical fiber exhibits what we call "exposure history"; the final index change in a region depends on the previous exposures conditions.

  17. The SPORES experiment of the EXPOSE-R mission: Bacillus subtilis spores in artificial meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Moeller, Ralf; Cadet, Jean; Douki, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    The experiment SPORES `Spores in artificial meteorites' was part of European Space Agency's EXPOSE-R mission, which exposed chemical and biological samples for nearly 2 years (March 10, 2009 to February 21, 2011) to outer space, when attached to the outside of the Russian Zvezda module of the International Space Station. The overall objective of the SPORES experiment was to address the question whether the meteorite material offers enough protection against the harsh environment of space for spores to survive a long-term journey in space by experimentally mimicking the hypothetical scenario of Lithopanspermia, which assumes interplanetary transfer of life via impact-ejected rocks. For this purpose, spores of Bacillus subtilis 168 were exposed to selected parameters of outer space (solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation at λ>110 or >200 nm, space vacuum, galactic cosmic radiation and temperature fluctuations) either as a pure spore monolayer or mixed with different concentrations of artificial meteorite powder. Total fluence of solar UV radiation (100-400 nm) during the mission was 859 MJ m-2. After retrieval the viability of the samples was analysed. A Mission Ground Reference program was performed in parallel to the flight experiment. The results of SPORES demonstrate the high inactivating potential of extraterrestrial UV radiation as one of the most harmful factors of space, especially UV at λ>110 nm. The UV-induced inactivation is mainly caused by photodamaging of the DNA, as documented by the identification of the spore photoproduct 5,6-dihydro-5(α-thyminyl)thymine. The data disclose the limits of Lithopanspermia for spores located in the upper layers of impact-ejected rocks due to access of harmful extraterrestrial solar UV radiation.

  18. Comparative Toxicological Study between Exposed and Non-Exposed Farmers to Organophosphorus Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Taghavian, Fariba; Vaezi, Gholamhassan; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Malekirad, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this work was to compare DNA damage, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, inflammatory markers and clinical symptoms in farmers exposed to organophosphorus pesticides to individuals that had no pesticide exposure. Materials and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey with a total of 134 people. The subject group consisted of 67 farmers who were exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. The control group consisted of 67 people without any contact with pesticides matched with the subject group in terms of age, gender, and didactics. Oxidative DNA damage, the activities of AChE, interleukin-6 (IL6), IL10 and C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum were measured and clinical examinations conducted in order to register all clinical signs. Results Compared with the control group, substantial gains were observed in the farmers’ levels of oxidative DNA damage, IL10 and CRP. There was significantly less AChE activity in farmers exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. The levels of IL6 in both groups did not significantly differ. Conclusion The outcomes show that exposure to organophosphorus pesticides may cause DNA oxidative damage, inhibit AChE activity and increase the serum levels of inflammatory markers. Using biological materials instead of chemical pesticides and encouraging the use of safety equipment by farmers are some solutions to the adverse effects of exposure to organophosphorous pesticides. PMID:27054123

  19. Prolonged grief among traumatically bereaved relatives exposed and not exposed to a tsunami.

    PubMed

    Johannesson, Kerstin Bergh; Lundin, Tom; Hultman, Christina M; Fröjd, Thomas; Michel, Per-Olof

    2011-08-01

    Numerous studies on the mental health consequences of traumatic exposure to a disaster compare those exposed to those not exposed. Relatively few focus on the effect of the death of a close relative caused by the disaster-suffering a traumatic bereavement. This study compared the impact on 345 participants who lost a close relative in the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, but who were themselves not present, to 141 who not only lost a relative, but also were themselves exposed to the tsunami. The focus was on psychological distress assessed during the second year after the sudden bereavement. Findings were that exposure to the tsunami was associated with prolonged grief (B = 3.81) and posttraumatic stress reactions (B = 6.65), and doubled the risk for impaired mental health. Loss of children increased the risk for psychological distress (prolonged grief: B = 6.92; The Impact of Event Scale-Revised: B = 6.10; General Health Questionnaire-12: OR = 2.34). Women had a higher frequency of prolonged grief. For men, loss of children presented a higher risk for prolonged grief in relation to other types of bereavement (B = 6.36 vs. loss of partner). Further long-term follow-up could deepen the understanding of how recovery after traumatic loss is facilitated. PMID:21818785

  20. Comparative genomic hybridization study of arsenic-exposed and non-arsenic-exposed urinary transitional cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, L.-I; Chiu, Allen W.; Pu, Y.-S.; Wang, Y.-H.; Huan, Steven K.; Hsiao, C.-H.; Hsieh, F.-I; Chen, C.-J.

    2008-03-01

    To compare the differences in DNA aberrations between arsenic-exposed and non-arsenic-exposed transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), we analyzed 19 arsenic-exposed and 29 non-arsenic-exposed urinary TCCs from Chi-Mei Hospital using comparative genomic hybridization. DNA aberrations were detected in 42 TCCs including 19 arsenic-exposed and 23 non-arsenic-exposed TCCs. Arsenic-exposed TCCs had more changes than unexposed TCCs (mean {+-} SD, 6.6 {+-} 2.9 vs. 2.9 {+-} 2.2). Arsenic exposure was significantly associated with the number of DNA aberrations after adjustment for tumor stage, tumor grade and cigarette smoking in multiple regression analysis. The most frequent DNA gains, which were strikingly different between arsenic-exposed and non-arsenic-exposed TCCs, included those at 1p, 4p, 4q and 8q. A much higher frequency of DNA losses in arsenic-exposed TCCs compared with non-arsenic-exposed TCCs was observed in 10q, 11p and 17p. Chromosomal loss in 17p13 was associated not only with arsenic exposure, but also with tumor stage and grade. The p53 immunohistochemistry staining showed that chromosome 17p13 loss was associated with either p53 no expression (25%) or p53 overexpression (75%). The findings suggest that long-term arsenic exposure may increase the chromosome abnormality in TCC, and 17p loss plays an important role in arsenic-induced urinary carcinogenesis.

  1. Degradation of HEPA filters exposed to DMSO

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; LeMay, J.

    1994-07-11

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) sprays are being used to remove the high explosive (HE) from nuclear weapons in the process of their dismantlement. A boxed 50 cfm HEPA filter with an integral prefilter was exposed to DMSO vapor and aerosols that were generated by a spray nozzle to simulate conditions expected in the HE dissolution operation. After 198 hours of operation, the pressure drop of the filter had increased from 1.15 inches to 2.85 inches, and the efficiency for 0.3 {mu}m dioctyl sebacate (DOS) aerosols decreased from 99.992% to 98.6%. Most of the DMSO aerosols had collected as a liquid pool inside the boxed HEPA. The liquid was blown out of the filter exit with 100 cfm air flow at the end of the test. Since the filter still met the minimum allowed efficiency of 99.97% after 166 hours of exposure, we recommend replacing the filter every 160 hours of operation or sooner if the pressure drop increases by 50%. Examination of the filter showed that visible cracks appeared at the joints of the wooden frame and a portion of the sealant had pulled away from the frame. Since all of the DMSO will be trapped in the first HEPA filter, the second HEPA filter should not suffer from DMSO degradation. Thus the combined efficiency for the first filter (98.6%) and the second filter (99.97%) is 99.99996% for 0.3{mu}m particles. If the first filter is replaced prior to its degradation, each of the filters will have 99.97% efficiency, and the combined efficiency will be 99.999991%. The collection efficiency for DMSO/HE aerosols will be much higher because the particle size is much greater.

  2. Degradation of HEPA filters exposed to DMSO

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Larsen, G.

    1995-02-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) sprays are being used to remove the high explosive (HE) from nuclear weapons in the process of their dismantlement. A boxed 50 cmf HEPA filter with an integral prefilter was exposed to DMSO vapor and aerosols that were generated by a spray nozzle to simulate conditions expected in the HE dissolution operation. After 198 hours of operation, the pressure drop of the filter had increased form 1.15 inches to 2,85 inches, and the efficiency for 0.3 {mu}m dioctyl sebacate (DOS) aerosols decreased form 99.992% to 98.6%. Most of the DMSO aerosols had collected as a liquid pool inside the boxed HEPA. The liquid was blown out of the filter exit with 100 cmf air flow at the end of the test. Since the filter still met the minimum allowed efficiency of 99.97% after 166 hours of exposure, we recommend replacing the filter every 160 hours of operation or sooner if the pressure drop increases by 50%. Examination of the filter showed that visible cracks appeared at the joints of the wooden frame and a portion of the sealant had pulled away from the frame. Since all of the DMSO will be trapped in the first HEPA filter, the second HEPA filter should not suffer from DMSO degradation. Thus the combined efficiency for the first filter (98.6%) and the second filter (99.97%) is 99.99996% for 0.3 {mu}m particles. If the first filter is replaced prior to its degradation, each of the filters will have 99.97% efficiency, and the combined efficiency will be 99.999991%. The collection efficiency for DMSO/HE aerosols will be much higher because the particle size is much greater.

  3. Assessing the photoaging process at sun exposed and non-exposed skin using fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito Nogueira, Marcelo; Kurachi, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    Photoaging is the skin premature aging due to exposure to ultraviolet light, which damage the collagen, elastin and can induce alterations on the skin cells DNA, and, then, it may evolve to precancerous lesions, which are widely investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and lifetime. The fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetime analysis has been presented as a technique of great potential for biological tissue characterization at optical diagnostics. The main targeted fluorophores are NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), which have free and bound states, each one with different average lifetimes. The average lifetimes for free and bound NADH and FAD change according to tissue metabolic alterations and may contribute to a non-invasive clinical investigation of injuries such as skin lesions. These lesions and the possible areas where they may develop can be interrogated using fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy taking into account the variability of skin phototypes and the changes related to melanin, collagen and elastin, endogenous fluorophores which have emissions that spectrally overlap to the NADH and FAD emission. The objective of this study is to assess the variation on fluorescence lifetimes of normal skin at sun exposed and non-exposed areas and associate this variation to the photoaging process.

  4. Ecophysiological tolerance of duckweeds exposed to copper.

    PubMed

    Kanoun-Boulé, Myriam; Vicente, Joaquim A F; Nabais, Cristina; Prasad, M N V; Freitas, Helena

    2009-01-18

    Although essential for plants, copper can be toxic when present in supra-optimal concentrations. Metal polluted sites, due to their extreme conditions, can harbour tolerant species and/or ecotypes. In this work we aimed to compare the physiological responses to copper exposure and the uptake capacities of two species of duckweed, Lemna minor (Lm(EC1)) and Spirodela polyrrhiza (SP), from an abandoned uranium mine with an ecotype of L. minor (Lm(EC2)) from a non-contaminated pond. From the lowest Cu concentration exposure (25microM) to the highest (100microM), Lm(EC2) accumulated higher amounts of copper than Lm(EC1) and SP. Dose-response curves showed that Cu content accumulated by Lm(EC2) increases linearly with Cu treatment concentrations (r(2)=0.998) whereas quadratic models were more suitable for Lm(EC1) and SP (r(2)=0.999 and r(2)=0.998 for Lm(EC1) and SP, respectively). A significant concentration-dependent decline of chlorophyll a (chl a) and carotenoid occurred as a consequence of Cu exposure. These declines were significant for Lm(EC2) exposed to the lowest Cu concentration (25microM) whereas for Lm(EC1) and SP a significant decrease in chl a and carotenoids was observed only at 50 and 100microM-Cu. Electric conductivity (EC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased after Cu exposure, indicating oxidative stress. Significant increase of EC was observed in Lm(EC2) for all Cu concentrations whereas the increase for Lm(EC1) and SP became significant only after an exposure to 50microM-Cu. On the contrary, for Lm(EC1), SP, and Lm(EC2), MDA content significantly increased even at the lowest concentration. Protein content and catalase (CAT) activity showed a decrease with an increase in Cu concentration. For the species Lm(EC1) and SP, a significant effect of copper on CAT activity was observed only at the highest concentration (100microM-Cu) whereas, for Lm(EC2), this effect started to be significant after an exposure to 50microM-Cu. Superoxide dismutase (SOD

  5. Animal Cruelty by Children Exposed to Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Cheryl L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The first objective of this study was to determine if children exposed to domestic violence were significantly more likely to be cruel to animals than children not exposed to violence. The second was to determine if there were significant age and gender differences between children who were and were not cruel to animals. Method: A…

  6. 31. VIEW OF ROOM 212 LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARDS EXPOSED STUD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW OF ROOM 212 LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARDS EXPOSED STUD WALL THAT SERVES AS DIVIDER TO ROOM 211. EXPOSED TRUSSWORK VISIBLE THROUGH TO NEXT ROOM. WOOD PANELED WALLS ARE PAINTED; FLOORS ARE WOOD. - Presidio of San Francisco, Cavalry Stables, Cowles Street, between Lincoln Boulevard & McDowell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. 9 CFR 78.23 - Brucellosis exposed bison.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed bison. 78.23... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.23 Brucellosis exposed...

  8. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed...

  9. 9 CFR 78.23 - Brucellosis exposed bison.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed bison. 78.23... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.23 Brucellosis exposed...

  10. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed...

  11. CEREBELLAR HISTOGENESIS IN RATS EXPOSED TO 2450 MHZ MICROWAVE RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pregnant rats were either exposed or sham exposed from day 13 of gestation until birth to 2450 MHz linearly polarized microwaves at 10 mW/sq cm. A third matching group served as cage control. After birth, the pups were kept with their mothers for 21 days without any treatment, an...

  12. Reactivity and Regulation in Children Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Tracy; Bendersky, Margaret; Ramsay, Douglas; Lewis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Children prenatally exposed to cocaine may be at elevated risk for adjustment problems in early development because of greater reactivity and reduced regulation during challenging tasks. Few studies have examined whether cocaine-exposed children show such difficulties during the preschool years, a period marked by increased social and cognitive…

  13. The Psychobiology of Children Exposed to Marital Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltzman, Kasey M.; Holden, George W.; Holahan, Charles J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the psychological and physiological functioning of a community sample of children exposed to marital violence, comparing them to a clinical comparison group without marital violence exposure. Results replicated past findings of elevated levels of trauma symptomatology in this population. Further, children exposed to marital violence…

  14. 46 CFR 28.215 - Guards for exposed hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guards for exposed hazards. 28.215 Section 28.215 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL....215 Guards for exposed hazards. (a) Each space on board a vessel must meet the requirements of...

  15. Biogeograhical determinants of population structure in Beta nana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1935, 1936, and 1937, between 37 to 140 sugarbeet researchers met informally as the “Sugar Beet Round Table” to discuss the needs of the industry. At the 1937 meeting, which included California participants for the first time, the formation of a more structured national organization was proposed...

  16. The AMINO experiment: RNA stability under solar radiation studied on the EXPOSE-R facility of the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergne, Jacques; Cottin, Hervé; da Silva, Laura; Brack, André; Chaput, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Careful examination of the present metabolism and in vitro selection of various catalytic RNAs strongly support the RNA world hypothesis as a crucial step of the origins and early life evolution. Small functional RNAs were exposed from 10 March 2009 to 21 January 2011 to space conditions on board the International Space Station in the EXPOSE-R mission. The aim of this study was to investigate the preservation or modification properties such as integrity of RNAs after space exposition. The exposition to the solar radiation has a strong degradation effect on the size distribution of RNA. Moreover, the comparison between the in-flight samples, exposed to the Sun and not exposed, indicates that the solar radiation degrades RNA bases.

  17. Non-disjunction mutations in Drosophila exposed to magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levengood, W. C.

    1987-09-01

    The frequency of XO mutations in Drosophila melanogaster was significantly higher than normal in magnetic field exposed, immature males, than in exposed, mature males. Mutation levels increased with magnetic field strength. Intercellular rings of black magnetic particles were formed in the high magnetic flux region of dorsally exposed, early stage pupae and to a lesser degree in the abdomen of young adult females. Orientation of minute, chromosome associated, magnetic domains within the microenvironment of the developing organism was believed to alter oxidative processes within maturing X+ sperm which during fertilization were incompatible with and destructive to an Xw chromosome in the zygote.

  18. Ventilatory function in workers exposed to tea and wood dust.

    PubMed Central

    Al Zuhair, Y S; Whitaker, C J; Cinkotai, F F

    1981-01-01

    Changes in ventilatory capacity during the work shift were studied in workers exposed to tea dust in tea-packing plants, wood dust in two furniture factories, and virtually no dust in an inoperational power station. The FEV1 and FVC in workers exposed to dust were found to decline during the work shift by a small but significant volume. The MMFR, Vmax 50% and Vmax 75% were to variable to display any trend. No dose-response relationship could be discerned between the fall in workers' ventilatory capacity and the concentrations of airborne dust or microbes to which they were exposed. Bronchodilators could reverse the fall in FEV1. PMID:7317296

  19. Aluminium in the blood and urine of industrially exposed workers.

    PubMed Central

    Sjögren, B; Lundberg, I; Lidums, V

    1983-01-01

    Blood and urine aluminium concentrations were studied in industrially exposed workers using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Welders and workers making aluminium powder and aluminium sulphate had higher concentrations in blood and urine than non-exposed referents. Workers in the electrolytic production of aluminium had higher urine but not blood concentrations than the referents. Thus aluminium was found to be absorbed by all industrially exposed workers. Blood concentrations were lower than those presumably associated with aluminium induced encephalopathy in patients receiving dialysis. PMID:6871119

  20. 98. DETAIL VIEW OF STORM DAMAGE AND EXPOSED SUBSTRUCTURE, NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. DETAIL VIEW OF STORM DAMAGE AND EXPOSED SUBSTRUCTURE, NORTHWEST SIDE OF 4TH TEE, LOOKING WEST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  1. Cancer in People Exposed to Nuclear Weapons Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... payment of $100,000. Onsite participants People (including military personnel) who were present onsite during above-ground nuclear ... be entitled to a payment of $75,000. (Military personnel exposed to radiation at Hiroshima or Nagasaki are ...

  2. 7. FOUNDATIONS OF FLUME NO. 8, EXPOSED. SCE negative no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. FOUNDATIONS OF FLUME NO. 8, EXPOSED. SCE negative no. 3077, January 26, 1916. Photograph by G. Haven Bishop. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Flumes & Tunnels below Sandbox, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. 18. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING EXPOSED STEEL FRAMING OF WATERFRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING EXPOSED STEEL FRAMING OF WATERFRONT ELEVATION - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Jersey City Ferry Terminal, Johnson Avenue at Hudson River, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  4. 3. VAL CAMERA STATION, DETAIL OF ROOF OVERHANG AND EXPOSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VAL CAMERA STATION, DETAIL OF ROOF OVERHANG AND EXPOSED CONCRETE SURFACES. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Stations, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 13. DETAIL SHOWING EXPOSED VERTICAL LOG CONSTRUCTION WITH MEASURING TAPE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL SHOWING EXPOSED VERTICAL LOG CONSTRUCTION WITH MEASURING TAPE, WEST ROOM AT REAR OF HOUSE, FIRST FLOOR - Pierre Delassus DeLuziereHouse, U.S. Route 61, Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

  6. 20. DETAIL OF INTERIOR WALL WITH PLASTER REMOVED TO EXPOSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL OF INTERIOR WALL WITH PLASTER REMOVED TO EXPOSE STUDS AND BRICKWORK A. C. Eschete, photographer, July 7, 1977 - Bagatelle Plantation, East River Road (moved to Iberville Parish), Donaldsonville, Ascension Parish, LA

  7. Detail view of the exposed polychromatic aggregate ceiling designed and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the exposed polychromatic aggregate ceiling designed and cast by John Joseph Earley for the vehicular entrance portals to the courtyard - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. Middle Schoolers Exposed to Alcohol Ads Every Day

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Middle Schoolers Exposed to Alcohol Ads Every Day: Study Researchers say billboards, signs and TV ads ... kids typically saw two to four ads a day. Hispanic and black kids saw more ads, an ...

  9. 6. Interior view of unoccupied space looking up at exposed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior view of unoccupied space looking up at exposed roof structure; showing HVAC duct work and wood structure; near center of building; view to northeast. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Warehouse, 789 Twining Street, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  10. 11. Southwest view interior, grounds room 18 showing exposed concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Southwest view interior, grounds room 18 showing exposed concrete ceiling - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1050, Northwest corner of Doolittle Avenue & D Street; Harrison Township, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  11. Detail of upper portion of southeast corner showing exposed rafters ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of upper portion of southeast corner showing exposed rafters at eaves; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  12. TERATOGENESIS, TOXICITY, AND BIOCONCENTRATION IN FROGS EXPOSED TO DIELDRIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Teratogenesis, acute and chronic toxicity, and bioconcentration were investigated in various like stages of African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis), bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) and leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) exposed to aqueous dieldrin in static-renewal and continuous-flow tests...

  13. Risk and resilience factors of persons exposed to accidents

    PubMed Central

    HERTA, DANA – CRISTINA; BRÎNDAS, PAULA; TRIFU, RALUCA; COZMAN, DOINA

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Resilience encompasses factors promoting effective functioning in the context of adversity. Data regarding resilience in the wake of accidental trauma is still scarce. The aim of the current study is to comparatively assess adaptive, life – promoting factors in persons exposed to motor vehicle accidents (MVA) vs. persons exposed to other types of accidents, and to identify psychological factors of resilience and vulnerability in this context of trauma exposure. Methods We assessed 93 participants exposed to accidents out of 305 eligible patients from the Clinical Rehabilitation Hospital and Cluj County Emergency Hospital. The study used Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL) and Life Events Checklist. Scores were comparatively assessed for RFL items, RFL scale and subscales in participants exposed to motor vehicle accidents (MVA) vs. participants exposed to other life – threatening accidents. Results Participants exposed to MVA and those exposed to other accidents had significantly different scores in 7 RFL items. Scores were high in 4 out of 6 RFL subscales for both samples and in most items comprising these subscales, while in the other 2 subscales and in some items comprising them scores were low. Conclusions Low fear of death, physical suffering and social disapproval emerge as risk factors in persons exposed to life – threatening accidents. Love of life, courage in life and hope for the future are important resilience factors after exposure to various types of life – threatening accidents. Survival and active coping beliefs promote resilience especially after motor vehicle accidents. Coping with uncertainty are more likely to foster resilience after other types of life – threatening accidents. Attachment of the accident victim to family promotes resilience mostly after MVA, while perceived attachment of family members to the victim promotes resilience after other types of accidents. PMID:27152078

  14. Partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystals for boundary layer investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, Devendra S.; Singh, Jag J.

    1992-01-01

    A new configuration termed partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystal in which the liquid crystal microdroplets dispersed in a rigid polymer matrix are partially entrapped on the free surface of the thin film deposited on a glass substrate is reported. Optical transmission characteristics of the partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin film in response to an air flow induced shear stress field reveal its potential as a sensor for gas flow and boundary layer investigations.

  15. Data on the gene expression of cardiomyocyte exposed to hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Xue, Xiaodong; Xu, Yinli; Zhang, Yuji; Li, Zhi; Wang, Huishan

    2016-09-01

    Hypothermia is widely used in neurosurgery and cardiac surgeries. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. We previously reported that the transcriptome responses of cardiomyocyte exposed to hypothermia, "The transcriptome responses of cardiomyocyte exposed to hypothermia" [4]. Herein, we provide the hypothermia inhibited proliferation of cardiomyocyte cells in vitro and the details of transcription factors in regulation of differentially expressed genes. PMID:27274530

  16. The AMINO experiment: methane photolysis under Solar VUV irradiation on the EXPOSE-R facility of the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, Nathalie; Cottin, Hervé; Cloix, Mégane; Jérome, Murielle; Bénilan, Yves; Coll, Patrice; Gazeau, Marie-Claire; Raulin, François; Saiagh, Kafila; Chaput, Didier

    2015-01-01

    The scientific aim of the present campaign is to study the whole chain of methane photo-degradation, as initiated by Solar vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation in Titan's atmosphere. For this purpose, the AMINO experiment on the EXPOSE-R mission has loaded closed cells for gas-phase photochemistry in space conditions. Two different gas mixtures have been exposed, named Titan 1 and Titan 2, involving both N2-CH4 gas mixtures, without and with CO2, respectively. CO2 is added as a source of reactive oxygen in the cells. The cell contents were analysed thanks to infrared absorption spectroscopy, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Methane consumption leads to the formation of saturated hydrocarbons, with no detectable influence of CO2. This successful campaign provides a first benchmark for characterizing the whole methane photochemical system in space conditions. A thin film of tholin-like compounds appears to form on the cell walls of the exposed cells.

  17. Neurodevelopmental outcomes in HIV-exposed-uninfected children versus those not exposed to HIV

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Stephen J.; Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Vibol, Ung; Aurpibul, Linda; Vonthanak, Sophan; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Kanjanavanit, Suparat; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Wongsawat, Jurai; Luesomboon, Wicharn; Ratanadilok, Kattiya; Prasitsuebsai, Wasana; Pruksakaew, Kanchana; van der Lugt, Jasper; Paul, Robert; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Valcour, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative children born to HIV-infected mothers may exhibit differences in neurodevelopment (ND) compared to age- and gender-matched controls whose lives have not been affected by HIV. This could occur due to exposure to HIV and antiretroviral agents in utero and perinatally, or differences in the environment in which they grow up. This study assessed neurodevelopmental outcomes in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) children enrolled as controls in a multicenter ND study from Thailand and Cambodia. One hundred sixty HEU and 167 HUU children completed a neurodevelopmental assessment using the Beery Visual Motor Integration (VMI) test, Color Trails, Perdue Pegboard, and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Thai children (n = 202) also completed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (IQ) and Stanford-Binet II memory tests. In analyses adjusted for caregiver education, parent as caregiver, household income, age, and ethnicity, statistically significant lower scores were seen on verbal IQ (VIQ), full-scale IQ (FSIQ), and Binet Bead Memory among HEU compared to HUU. The mean (95% CI) differences were −6.13 (−10.3 to −1.96), p = 0.004; −4.57 (−8.80 to −0.35), p = 0.03; and −3.72 (−6.57 to −0.88), p = 0.01 for VIQ, FSIQ, and Binet Bead Memory, respectively. We observed no significant differences in performance IQ, other Binet memory domains, Color Trail, Perdue Pegboard, Beery VMI, or CBCL test scores. We conclude that HEU children evidence reductions in some neurodevelopmental outcomes compared to HUU; however, these differences are small and it remains unclear to what extent they have immediate and long-term clinical significance. PMID:24878112

  18. Effects on LDEF exposed copper film and bulk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Palmer N.; Gregory, John C.; Christl, Ligia C.; Raikar, Ganesh N.

    1991-01-01

    Two forms of copper were exposed to the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Mission 1 environment: a copper film, initially 74.2 plus or minus 1.1 nm thick sputter coated on a fused silica flat and a bulk piece of oxygen-free, high conductivity (OFHC) copper. The optical density of the copper film changed from 1.33 to 0.70 where exposed, and the film thickness increased to 106.7 plus or minus 0.5 nm where exposed. The exposed area appears purple by reflection and green by transmission for the thin film and maroon color for the bulk copper piece. The exposed areas increased in thickness, but only increase in the thickness of the thin film sample could be readily measured. The increase in film thickness is consistent with the density changes occurring during conversion of copper to an oxide. However, we have not been able to confirm appreciable conversion to an oxide by x-ray diffraction studies. We have not yet subjected the sample to e-beams or more abusive investigations out of concern that the film might be modified.

  19. Whole DNA methylome profiling in mice exposed to secondhand smoke

    PubMed Central

    Tommasi, Stella; Zheng, Albert; Yoon, Jae-In; Li, Arthur Xuejun; Wu, Xiwei; Besaratinia, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Aberration of DNA methylation is a prime epigenetic mechanism of carcinogenesis. Aberrant DNA methylation occurs frequently in lung cancer, with exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) being an established risk factor. The causal role of SHS in the genesis of lung cancer, however, remains elusive. To investigate whether SHS can cause aberrant DNA methylation in vivo, we have constructed the whole DNA methylome in mice exposed to SHS for a duration of 4 mo, both after the termination of exposure and at ensuing intervals post-exposure (up to 10 mo). Our genome-wide and gene-specific profiling of DNA methylation in the lung of SHS-exposed mice revealed that all groups of SHS-exposed mice and controls share a similar pattern of DNA methylation. Furthermore, the methylation status of major repetitive DNA elements, including long-interspersed nuclear elements (LINE L1), intracisternal A particle long-terminal repeat retrotransposons (IAP-LTR), and short-interspersed nuclear elements (SINE B1), in the lung of all groups of SHS-exposed mice and controls remains comparable. The absence of locus-specific gain of DNA methylation and global loss of DNA methylation in the lung of SHS-exposed mice within a timeframe that precedes neoplastic-lesion formation underscore the challenges of lung cancer biomarker development. Identifying the initiating events that cause aberrant DNA methylation in lung carcinogenesis may help improve future strategies for prevention, early detection and treatment of this highly lethal disease. PMID:23051858

  20. Cardiovascular effects in viscose rayon workers exposed to carbon disulfide.

    PubMed

    Kotseva, K; Braeckman, L; De Bacquer, D; Bulat, P; Vanhoorne, M

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the cardiovascular effects in workers currently exposed to carbon disulfide (CS2) below the threshold limit value (TLV) of 31 mg/m3 and to determine the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) after long-term exposure. 172 men (91 workers exposed to CS2 in a viscose rayon factory and 81 referent workers) were examined using a medical and job history questionnaire, Rose's questionnaire, and electrocardiography at rest, and by measuring blood pressure and serum lipids and lipoproteins. Personal exposures were monitored simultaneously with active sampling and findings were analyzed according to the NIOSH 1600 method. As a result of technical and organizational improvements, personal CS2 exposures were well below the TLV (5.4-13.02 mg/m3). No significant effect of CS2 on blood pressure or lipids (total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoproteins AI and B) was found, even after allowance for confounding factors. The prevalence of CHD (ECG abnormalities and chest pain) was higher in the viscose rayon workers than in the workers with no exposure but reached statistical significance for men with exposure histories often years and more only (cumulative CS9 index > or = 150 mg/m3, the most highly exposed group). The findings suggest that the coronary risk is increased in workers previously exposed to high CS2 concentrations but not in those exposed to CS2 levels below the current TLV. PMID:11210016

  1. A cytogenetic study of papaya workers exposed to ethylene dibromide.

    PubMed

    Steenland, K; Carrano, A; Ratcliffe, J; Clapp, D; Ashworth, L; Meinhardt, T

    1986-06-01

    Ethylene dibromide (EDB) has been shown to be carcinogenic in animal studies and mutagenic in vitro. One cytogenetic study of workers exposed to low levels of EDB for short durations was negative. To test whether exposure to low levels of EDB over long periods caused cytogenetic changes, we have assessed the frequencies of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) and chromosomal aberrations (CA) in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 60 men occupationally exposed to EDB. These men worked in papaya-packing plants where EDB was used to fumigate the fruit after harvest to kill fruit-fly larvae. 42 other men who worked at a nearby sugar mill served as controls. The average duration of exposure of the papaya workers was 5 years. 82 full shift personal breathing-zone air samples indicated that the papaya workers were exposed to a geometric mean of 88 ppb of EDB, as an 8-h time weighted average (TWA). Peaks up to 262 ppb were measured. The proposed OSHA 8-h TWA for EDB is 100 ppb, while NIOSH recommends 45 ppb. No differences in SCE levels were found between exposed and nonexposed workers. No differences were found in the total CA frequency between exposed and nonexposed workers. SCE levels were significantly increased in men who smoked cigarettes (p = 0.0001) and in men who smoked marijuana (p = 0.01). CA levels showed a significant increasing trend with age (p = 0.03). PMID:3520305

  2. Semen quality in workers exposed to 2-ethoxyethanol.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, J M; Schrader, S M; Clapp, D E; Halperin, W E; Turner, T W; Hornung, R W

    1989-06-01

    To evaluate whether long term exposure to 2-ethoxyethanol (2EE) may affect semen quality, a cross sectional study was conducted among men exposed to 2EE used as a binder slurry in a metal castings process. Full shift breathing zone exposures to 2EE ranged from non-detectable to 24 ppm (geometric mean 6.6 ppm). Because of the potential for substantial absorption of 2EE through skin exposure, urine measurements of the metabolite of 2EE, 2-ethoxyacetic acid (2EAA) were conducted, showing levels of 2EAA ranging from non-detectable to 163 mg 2EAA/g creatinine. Only 37 exposed men (50% participation) and 39 non-exposed comparison (26% participation) from elsewhere in the plant provided a sperm sample. A questionnaire to determine personal habits, and medical and work histories, and a physical examination of the urogenital tract were also administered. The average sperm count per ejaculate among the workers exposed to 2EE was significantly lower than that of the unexposed group (113 v 154 million sperm per ejaculate respectively; p = 0.05) after consideration of abstinence, sample age, subjects' age, tobacco, alcohol and caffeine use, urogenital disorders, fever, and other illnesses. The mean sperm concentrations of the exposed and unexposed groups did not significantly differ from each other (44 and 53 million/ml respectively). No effect of exposure to 2EE on semen volume, sperm viability, motility, velocity, and normal morphology or testicular volume was detected, although some differences in the proportion of abnormal sperm shapes were observed. These data suggest that there may be an effect of 2EE on sperm count among these workers, although the possibility that other factors may be affecting the semen quality in both exposed and unexposed men in this population or that the results reflect bias introduced by the low participation rates cannot be excluded. PMID:2818974

  3. Neurodevelopment of adopted children exposed in utero to cocaine.

    PubMed Central

    Nulman, I; Rovet, J; Altmann, D; Bradley, C; Einarson, T; Koren, G

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the neurodevelopment of adopted children who had been exposed in utero to cocaine. DESIGN: A case-control observational study. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-three children aged 14 months to 6.5 years exposed in utero to cocaine and their adoptive mothers, and 23 age-matched control children not exposed to cocaine and their mothers, matched with the adoptive mothers for IQ and socioeconomic status. SETTING: The Motherisk Programme at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, a consultation service for chemical exposure during pregnancy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Height, weight and head circumference at birth and at follow-up, and achievement on standard tests of cognitive and language development. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, children exposed in utero to cocaine had an 8-fold increased risk for microcephaly (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 42.3); they also had a lower mean birth weight (p = 0.005) and a lower gestational age (p = 0.002). In follow-up the cocaine-exposed children caught up with the control subjects in weight and stature but not in head circumference (mean 31st percentile v. 63rd percentile) (p = 0.001). Although there were no significant differences between the two groups in global IQ, the cocaine-exposed children had significantly lower scores than the control subjects on the Reynell language test for both verbal comprehension (p = 0.003) and expressive language (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to document that intrauterine exposure to cocaine is associated with measurable and clinically significant toxic neurologic effects, independent of postnatal home and environmental confounders. Because women who use cocaine during pregnancy almost invariably smoke cigarettes and often use alcohol, it is impossible to attribute the measured toxic effects to cocaine alone. PMID:7954158

  4. Quantifying bank retreat rates with exposed tree roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotts, S. N.; O'Neal, M. A.; Pizzuto, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    In this study we use a biometric approach based on anatomical changes in the wood of exposed tree roots to quantify riverbank erosion along South River, Va, a site where commonly applied techniques for determining bank erosion rates are either not appropriate due to the required spatial scale of analysis (i.e., erosion pins, traditional surveys, LiDAR analysis) or have failed to detect obvious erosion (i.e. photogrammetric techniques). We sampled 78 exposed roots from 24 study reaches and processed them both macroscopically (2 to 20 times magnification) and microscopically (20 to 100 times magnification), comparing the estimated erosion rates between levels of magnification and to those obtained with photogrammetric techniques. We found no statistical differences between the output of macroscopic and microscopic analyses (t-test, alpha =0.01) but encountered difficulty in identifying the year of root exhumation in some samples. Therefore, we suggest analyzing roots at both levels of magnification to increase confidence and obtain erosion rate estimates from every sample. When comparing exposed root analysis to photogrammetric techniques, the results indicate that the exposed root approach is a feasible and effective method for estimating decadal to centennial scale bank erosion. In addition to producing erosion rates statistically indistinguishable from photogrammetric techniques (t-test, alpha = 0.01), exposed root analysis demonstrated more consistent detection of erosion. The results of this study indicate that exposed tree root analysis is a robust tool that provides insights into decadal scale erosion where other commonly applied techniques may not be appropriate or easily applied.

  5. The EXPOSE-E Mission on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Panitz, Corinna; Reitz, Guenther

    The International Space Station ISS provides a variety of external research platforms for ex-periments aiming at the utilization of space parameters like vacuum, temperature oscillation, extraterrestrial UV and ionizing radiation. For 1.5 years the astrobiological experimental ESA facility EXPOSE-E was accommodated on the EuTEF Platform on one of the external balconies of the Columbus Module with 5 exobio-logical and 3 radiation experiments, exposing the chemical, biological and dosimetric samples to the harsh space environment. The main interest of the experiments was to increase our knowledge on the origin, evolution and distribution of life, on Earth and possibly beyond. The biological experiments investigated resistance and adaptation of organisms like bacteria, Achaea, fungi, lichens and plant seeds to extreme environmental conditions and underlying mechanisms like DNA repair. The organic chemical experiments analyse chemical reactions triggered by the extraterrestrial environment, especially short wavelength UV radiation, to better understand prebiotic chemistry. The facility is optimized to allow exposure of biologi-cal specimen and material samples under a variety of conditions, using optical filter systems. Environmental parameters like temperature and radiation were regularly recorded and down linked by telemetry. The exposure facility EXPOSE-E itself and the accommodated experiments and samples are introduced. A complete Mission overview of this recent long term astrobiological experiment is presented: from the sample preparation and launch to the landing and sample retrieval. Mission data and an assessment of the impacting space parameters during the mission are given. After EXPOSE-E, the sister facility EXPOSE-R was launched and still is in space. A short status information and outlook on this second astrobiological Mission will be included.

  6. Survival of Spores of Trichoderma longibrachiatum in Space: data from the Space Experiment SPORES on EXPOSE-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuberger, Katja; Lux-Endrich, Astrid; Panitz, Corinna

    2015-01-01

    In the space experiment `Spores in artificial meteorites' (SPORES), spores of the fungus Trichoderma longibrachiatum were exposed to low-Earth orbit for nearly 2 years on board the EXPOSE-R facility outside of the International Space Station. The environmental conditions tested in space were: space vacuum at 10-7-10-4 Pa or argon atmosphere at 105 Pa as inert gas atmosphere, solar extraterrestrial ultraviolet (UV) radiation at λ > 110 nm or λ > 200 nm with fluences up to 5.8 × 108 J m-2, cosmic radiation of a total dose range from 225 to 320 mGy, and temperature fluctuations from -25 to +50°C, applied isolated or in combination. Comparable control experiments were performed on ground. After retrieval, viability of spores was analysed by two methods: (i) ethidium bromide staining and (ii) test of germination capability. About 30% of the spores in vacuum survived the space travel, if shielded against insolation. However, in most cases no significant decrease was observed for spores exposed in addition to the full spectrum of solar UV irradiation. As the spores were exposed in clusters, the outer layers of spores may have shielded the inner part. The results give some information about the likelihood of lithopanspermia, the natural transfer of micro-organisms between planets. In addition to the parameters of outer space, sojourn time in space seems to be one of the limiting parameters.

  7. Lung cancer in rats exposed to fibrogenic dusts

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, L.M.; Wilson, J.S.; Tillery, M.I.; Smith, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Fischer-344 rats were exposed to quartz dusts and to quartz-bearing oil shale dusts in long-term inhalation studies. Aerosol concentrations of 12 mg/m/sup 3/ and 152-176 mg/m/sup 3/ for quartz and shale dusts, respectively, were used in exposure regimens lasting up to two years. Pulmonary fibrosis was observed in most animals surviving beyond 400 days. Adenocarcinomas and epidermoid carcinomas of the lung were observed in animals from all exposure groups, including those exposed to quartz alone. The pulmonary tumors were a late effect, with the earliest lung tumor being observed after 651 days. 13 references, 10 figures, 4 tables.

  8. Study of indium tin oxide films exposed to atomic axygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Paul G.; De, Bhola N.; Woollam, John A.; Coutts, T. J.; Li, X.

    1989-01-01

    A qualitative simulation of the effects of atomic oxygen has been conducted on indium tin oxide (ITO) films prepared by dc sputtering onto room-temperature substrates, by exposing them to an RF-excited oxygen plasma and characterizing the resulting changes in optical, electrical, and structural properties as functions of exposure time with ellipsometry, spectrophotometry, resistivity, and X-ray measurements. While the films thus exposed exhibit reduced resistivity and optical transmission; both of these effects, as well as partial crystallization of the films, may be due to sample heating by the plasma. Film resistivity is found to stabilize after a period of exposure.

  9. Organic samples produced by ion bombardment of ices for the EXPOSE-R2 mission on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratta, G. A.; Chaput, D.; Cottin, H.; Fernandez Cascales, L.; Palumbo, M. E.; Strazzulla, G.

    2015-12-01

    We describe the preparation and characterization (by UV-vis-IR spectroscopy) of a set of organic samples, stable at room temperature and above, that are part of the experiment "Photochemistry on the Space Station (PSS)" planned to be enclosed in the EXPOSE-R2 mission, which will be conducted on the EXPOSE-R facility. The core facility is placed outside the International Space Station (ISS) on the Universal Platform D (URM-D platform) of the Russian module Zvezda. The organic materials are prepared in the Catania laboratory after 200 keV He+ irradiation of icy mixtures, namely N2:CH4:CO deposited at 16 K on MgF2 windows furnished by the European Space Agency. It is widely accepted that such a kind of materials produced by energetic processing are representative of organic material in some astrophysical environments as comets. Once expelled from comets these materials are exposed to solar radiation during their interplanetary journey before they eventually land on Earth and other planetary objects where they might give a contribution to the chemical and pre-biotical evolution. In particular our residues contain different chemical groups, including triple CN bonds that are considered relevant to pre-biotic chemistry. Therefore the samples will be exposed, for several months, to the solar ultraviolet photons that are a major source of energy to initiate chemical evolution in the solar system. This will allow analysis of their destruction or modification and evaluation of their lifetime in the interplanetary medium. The samples have three different thicknesses that will allow estimation of the depth profile of destruction. This experiment overcomes the limits of ground tests which do not reproduce exactly the space parameters.

  10. Organic samples produced by ion bombardment of ices for the EXPOSE-R2 mission on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratta, G.; Chaput, D.; Cottin, H.; Fernandez Cascales, L.; Palumbo, M.; Strazzulla, G.

    2014-07-01

    We describe the preparation and characterization (by UV-Vis-IR spectroscopy) of a set of organic samples, stable at room temperature and above, that are part of the experiment "Photochemistry on the Space Station (PSS)" planned to be enclosed in the EXPOSE-R2 mission, which will be conducted on the EXPOSE-R facility, outside the International Space Station (ISS). The organic materials are prepared in the Catania laboratory after 200 keV He+ irradiation of icy mixtures, namely N_2:CH_4:CO deposited at 16 K on MgF_2 windows furnished by European Space Agency. It is widely accepted that such kind of materials produced by energetic processing are representative of organic material in astrophysical environments such as, e.g., comets. Once expelled from comets these materials are exposed to solar radiation during their interplanetary journey before they eventually land on the Earth and other planetary objects where they might give a contribution to the chemical and pre-biotical evolution. In particular our residues contain different chemical groups, including triple CN bonds that are considered relevant to pre-biotic chemistry (e.g. Palumbo et al., 2000). Therefore the samples will be exposed, for several months, to the solar ultraviolet photons that are a major source of energy to initiate chemical evolution in the Solar System. This will allow analysis of their destruction and evaluation of their lifetime in the interplanetary medium. The samples have three different thicknesses (about 200, 130, 65 nm) that will allow the estimation of the depth profile of destruction (e.g., Baratta et al., 2002). This experiment overcomes the limits of ground tests which do not reproduce exactly the space parameters.

  11. A Care Coordination Program for Substance-Exposed Newborns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twomey, Jean E.; Caldwell, Donna; Soave, Rosemary; Fontaine, Lynne Andreozzi; Lester, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    The Vulnerable Infants Program of Rhode Island (VIP-RI) was established as a care coordination program to promote permanency for substance-exposed newborns in the child welfare system. Goals of VIP-RI were to optimize parents' opportunities for reunification and increase the efficacy of social service systems involved with families affected by…

  12. A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Abergel, Rebecca

    2013-10-31

    Berkeley Lab's Rebecca Abergel discusses "A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas. Go here to watch the entire event with all 8 speakers:

  13. Testing the flammability of materials exposed to arcs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlett, B. J.; Krupski, A. L.

    1969-01-01

    Apparatus tests flammability and ignition characteristics of materials in close proximity to incandescent metal fragments or spalls ejected from intermittent short circuit arcs in air or oxygen rich atmospheres. It simulates a situation where an exposed live wire makes contact with a grounded member in areas containing organic matter.

  14. CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN NONOCCUPATIONALLY EXPOSED U.S. RESIDENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report reviews the manner in which chemical contaminants found in nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents enter the environment and subsequently human tissue. Approximately 100 contaminants are treated. Sources of literature used in the survey covered a 30-year period, the b...

  15. Behavioral responses of neonatal chicks exposed to low environmental temperature.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, A; Furuse, M

    2009-05-01

    Research has shown that on exposure to low environmental temperature, neonatal chicks (Gallus gallus) show hypothermia and absence of gene transcript enhancement of putative thermogenic proteins, mitochondrial fatty acid transport, and oxidation enzymes. Various behavioral abnormalities may also decrease the thermogenic capacity of low-temperature-exposed neonatal chicks. Therefore, to investigate behavioral irregularities in low-temperature-exposed (20 degrees C) neonatal chicks, we studied behavioral responses when compared with the control kept at thermoneutral temperature (30 degrees C). Two-day-old chicks (n = 5) were exposed to either low or thermoneutral temperature for 3 h and were then immediately placed in an acrylic monitoring cage (40 x 30 x 20 cm). The monitoring cage was fitted with a 3-dimensional mirror (to prevent isolation-induced stress) and maintained either at 20 or 30 degrees C. Behavioral responses were monitored for 10 min. Behavioral observations revealed that low-temperature exposure decreased distress vocalizations and spontaneous activity. Low-temperature exposure induced sleep-like behavior in neonatal chicks; active wakefulness was decreased while standing or sitting motionless with eyes closed or open and sleeping posture was significantly increased. In conclusion, there is evidence that on exposure to low-temperature, neonatal chicks decrease behavioral activity. Increased sleep-like behavior and decreased activity may reduce heat production in low-temperature-exposed neonatal chicks and could potentiate the sensitivity to cold exposure. PMID:19359677

  16. Cardiovascular response of rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, D.I.; Phillips, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    Recently, it has been reported that exposure to high-strength electric fields can influence electrocardiogram (ECG) patterns, heart rates, and blood pressures in various species of animals. Our studies were designed to evaluate these reported effects and to help clarify some of the disagreement present in the literature. Various cardiovascular variables were measured in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed or sham-exposed to 60-Hz electric fields at 80 to 100 kV/m for periods up to four months. No significant differences in heart rates, ECG patterns, blood pressures, or vascular reactivity were observed between exposed and sham-exposed rats after 8 hours, 40 hours, 1 month, or 4 months of exposure. Our studies cannot be directly compared to the work of other investigators because of differences in animal species and electric-field characteristics. However, our failure to detect any cardiovascular changes may have been the result of (1) eliminating secondary field effects such as shocks, audible noise, corona, and ozone; (2) minimizing steady-state microcurrents between the mouth of the animal and watering devices; and (3) minimizing electric-field-induced vibration of the electrodes and animal cages.

  17. VIEW OF STATION LEARY FACING NORTH SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF STATION LEARY FACING NORTH SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT OF THE CONCRETE CONCEALMENT INCLUDING POST 1920 DOORWAY ALTERATIONS, SANDSTONE FLANK-WALLS ARE VISIBLE AT REAR SIDES - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"3, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. VIEW OF STATION LEARY FACING NORTHWEST, SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF STATION LEARY FACING NORTHWEST, SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT AND LEFT SIDE OF THE CONCRETE CONCEALMENT, SANDSTONE FLANKWALL IS VISIBLE AT LEFT REAR - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"3, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 2. VIEW OF STATION FARLEY FACING NORTH SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF STATION FARLEY FACING NORTH SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT OF THE CONCRETE CONCEALMENT, SANDSTONE FLANK-WALLS ARE VISIBLE AT REAR SIDES. - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"6, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. VIEW OF STATION BARLOW FACING NORTH SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF STATION BARLOW FACING NORTH SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT OF THE CONCRETE CONCEALMENT, SANDSTONE FLANK-WALL FRAGMENT VISIBLE AT LEFT REAR - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"1, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 3. VIEW OF STATION PARLEY FACING NORTHWEST, SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF STATION PARLEY FACING NORTHWEST, SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT AND LEFT SIDE OF THE CONCRETE CONCEALMENT, SANDSTONE FLANKWALL IS VISIBLE AT LEFT REAR. - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"6, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. VIEW OF STATION SAXTON FACING NORTH SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF STATION SAXTON FACING NORTH SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT OF THE CONCRETE CONCEALMENT, SANDSTONE FLANK-WALLS ARE VISIBLE AT REAR SIDES - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"2, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. VIEW OF STATION BARLOW SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT AND LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF STATION BARLOW SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT AND LEFT SIDE OF THE CONCRETE CONCEALMENT WITH SANDSTONE FLANK-WALL FRAGMENT, FACING NORTHWEST - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"1, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. EXPOSED BEAM AND VINYL VENTED SOFFIT MATERIAL IN THE CARPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXPOSED BEAM AND VINYL VENTED SOFFIT MATERIAL IN THE CARPORT ON THE SOUTHEAST SIDE OF THE UNIT - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Single-Family Type 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. PAPILLOMAS ON FISH EXPOSED TO CHLORINATED WASTEWATER EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence of carcinogenic and mutagenic chemical(s) in the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant was indicated by papillomas developing on caged black bullheads (Ictaluraus melas), hepatic enzyme induction in exposed fish, and Ames test mutagenicity of organic extracts of t...

  6. Semen study of papaya workers exposed to ethylene dibromide

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, J.M.; Schrader, S.M.; Steenland, K.; Clapp, D.; Turner, T.

    1984-01-01

    A cross sectional semen and cytogenetic study was performed on male workers exposed to ethylene-dibromide (EDB) in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii. Semen analyses were conducted on 46 men in six fumigation facilities with an average length of employment of 5 years and airborne exposures to EDB ranging from 16 to 213 parts per billion. Statistically significant decreases in sperm count per ejaculate and the percentage of viable and motile sperm and increases in the proportion of specific morphological abnormalities were observed among exposed men when compared with controls. Semen volume and sperm concentration were also lower in the exposed group. No effect of exposure to EDB on sperm velocity, the overall proportion of sperm with normal morphology or YFF bodies was noted. The authors conclude that based on the decreases in sperm count, viability and motility and increases in certain types of morphological abnormalities among workers exposed to EDB, EDB may increase the risk of reproductive impairment in workers at exposure levels near the NIOSH recommended limit of 45 parts per billion and far below the current OSHA standard of 20 parts per million.

  7. Youth Exposed to Violence: The Role of Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Budge, Stephanie L.; McKay, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 174 inner-city urban high school students, this study examined the degree to which family and peer support would moderate the negative impact of exposure to violence on academic performance, symptoms of distress, and persistence intentions. Over 94% of the students reported having been exposed to at least one form of community…

  8. How Permanent Is Permanent Placement for Substance-Exposed Infants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twomey, Jean E.; Lester, Barry M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe a study of families in the Family Drug Treatment Court (FTDC), an effort to promote permanent placement for substance-exposed infants within time requirements mandated by the 1997 Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA). The purpose of the study was to evaluate parent functioning after FTDC involvement, infant developmental…

  9. VIEW OF STATION OSGOOD FACING NORTHWEST, SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF STATION OSGOOD FACING NORTHWEST, SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT AND LEFT SIDE OF THE CONCRETE CONCEALMENT, SANDSTONE FLANKWALL IS VISIBLE AT LEFT REAR - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"5, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. VIEW OF STATION OSGOOD FACING NORTH SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF STATION OSGOOD FACING NORTH SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT OF THE CONCRETE CONCEALMENT INCLUDING POST 1920 DOORWAY ALTERATIONS, SANDSTONE FLANK-WALLS ARE VISIBLE AT REAR SIDES - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"5, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. Urologic cancer risks for veterans exposed to Agent Orange.

    PubMed

    Hoenemeyer, Lori A

    2013-01-01

    Agent Orange, an herbicide widely used during the Vietnam War, has been linked to various health risks, including urologic malignancy. Exposed veterans are at risk for prostate cancer and may be entitled to compensation if diagnosed with prostate cancer. Current research studies are aimed at mitigating prostate dysplasia and prostate cancer PMID:23734554

  12. Estimating the Number of Substance-Exposed Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomby, Deanna S.; Shiono, Patricia H.

    1991-01-01

    Estimates the number of infants exposed to legal and illegal substances before birth, drawing on 27 published reports and National Institute on Drug Abuse data. The following are estimated exposure levels: (1) cocaine, 2-3 percent; (2) marijuana, 3-12 percent; (3) cigarettes, 38 percent; and (4) alcohol, 73 percent. (SLD)

  13. 18. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. EXPOSED VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. EXPOSED VIEW OF LOWER PULLEYS OF LEFT-HAND MILL. LOWER LEFT IS BAND SAW PULLEY. UPPER LEFT IS TENSION WHEEL. LARGE PULLEY ON RIGHT IS DRIVE WHEEL FROM POWER SOURCE. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  14. BEHAVIORAL AND AUTONOMIC THERMOREGULATION IN MICE EXPOSED TO MICROWAVE RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preferred ambient temperature (T) and breathing rate were measured in free-moving mice exposed to 2,450-MHz microwaves. A waveguide-exposure system was imposed with a longitudinal temperature gradient that permitted mice to select their preferred T. Breathing rate was determined ...

  15. Criteria for Placement Decisions with Cocaine-Exposed Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wightman, Monica J.

    1991-01-01

    Explored the criteria for placement decisions used by child protection workers in three suburban Chicago counties with regard to infants who have been exposed to cocaine. Content analyses uncovered a complex decision-making process that demonstrated consistency across geographic regions. Several primary factors influenced decisions for in-home or…

  16. Detail, oblique view to northeast atop building 935 showing exposed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, oblique view to northeast atop building 935 showing exposed roof sections of buildings 934 (center) and 933 (left), 90 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Nuclear Weapons Assembly Plant 3, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  17. RESPIRATORY DAMAGE IN CHILDREN EXPOSED TO URBAN POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory


    Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC) children are chronically exposed to complex mixtures of air pollutants. In a cross-sectional arm of our study, we investigated the association between exposure to SWMMC atmosphere and nasal abnormalities, hyperinflation, and intersti...

  18. 46 CFR 108.223 - Guards on exposed equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guards on exposed equipment. 108.223 Section 108.223 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN... contact by personnel. Helicopter Facilities...

  19. Profiles of Reactivity in Cocaine-Exposed Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Pamela; Molnar, Danielle S.; Eiden, Rina D.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the possibility that specific, theoretically consistent profiles of reactivity could be identified in a sample of cocaine-exposed infants and whether these profiles were associated with a range of infant and/or maternal characteristics. Cluster analysis was used to identify distinct groups of infants based on physiological,…

  20. Genetic Predisposition for Dermal Problems in Hexavalent Chromium Exposed Population

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priti; Bihari, Vipin; Agarwal, Sudhir K.; Goel, Sudhir K.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effect of genetic susceptibility on hexavalent chromium induced dermal adversities. The health status of population was examined from the areas of Kanpur (India) having the elevated hexavalent chromium levels in groundwater. Blood samples were collected for DNA isolation to conduct polymorphic determination of genes, namely: NQO1 (C609T), hOGG1 (C1245G), GSTT1, and GSTM1 (deletion). Symptomatic exposed subjects (n = 38) were compared with asymptomatic exposed subjects (n = 108) along with asymptomatic controls (n = 148) from a non contaminated reference community. Exposed symptomatic group consisted of 36.8% subjects who were GSTM1 null genotyped as compared to asymptomatic where only 19.4% subjects were null. The exposed subjects with GSTM1 null genotype were more susceptible to dermal adversities in comparison with wild genotyped subjects (OR = 2.42; 95% CI = 1.071–5.451). Age, smoking, gender or duration of residence were not found to have any confounding effect towards this association. Association with other genes was not statistically significant, nonetheless, possible contribution by these genes cannot be ruled out. In conclusion, variation in the polymorphic status of GSTM1 gene may influence dermal outcomes among residents from Cr(VI) contaminated areas. Further studies are therefore, needed to examine these observations among different population groups. PMID:22919465

  1. 15. A CLOSE UP VIEW OF ONE OF THE EXPOSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. A CLOSE UP VIEW OF ONE OF THE EXPOSED AGGREGATE LAMP STANDARDS, ITS BRONZE DECORATED FERRULE AND BRONZE LENS RECEIVER. - County Line Bridge, Spanning St. Joseph River at State Route 219, 0.6 mile south of U.S. Route 20, Osceola, St. Joseph County, IN

  2. Proteomic Profiling of Bladders from Mice Exposed with Sodium Arsenite

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic, an environmental contaminant, has been linked with cancer of the bladder in humans. To study the mode of action of arsenic, female CH3 mice were exposed to 85 ppm sodium arsenite in their drinking water for 30 days. Following the exposure a comparative proteomic analysis...

  3. 12. A LONG RUN OF EXPOSED TOP SURFACE, NORTH TRAINING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. A LONG RUN OF EXPOSED TOP SURFACE, NORTH TRAINING WALL, ABOUT 1,500 FEET EAST OF THE FEDERAL CHANNEL MOUTH. VIEW TO WEST, TOWARD SAN FRANCISCO. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  4. REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT IN MALE DEER MICE EXPOSED TO AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) were reared in a long photoperiod and housed individually from 3 weeks of age until they were killed 2, 4, or 6 weeks later. Males that were exposed to aggressive females for 2 min, three times per week, were of normal body weight a...

  5. 18. INTERIOR OF ROOM 106 LOOKING SOUTHEAST. EXPOSED BEAM AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR OF ROOM 106 LOOKING SOUTHEAST. EXPOSED BEAM AT CEILING IS PAINTED. FLOOR IS VINYL COMPOSITION TILE. WALLS AND CEILING ARE PAINTED GYPSUM BOARD. - Presidio of San Francisco, Cavalry Stables, Cowles Street, between Lincoln Boulevard & McDowell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. 29. VIEW WEST TOWARDS KALAWAO OF PIPELINE, EXPOSED AT LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW WEST TOWARDS KALAWAO OF PIPELINE, EXPOSED AT LOWER LEFT. CAT TRACKS, MADE BY THE CONSTRUCTION/MAINTENANCE VEHICLES, CAN BE SEEN ALONG BOULDER BEACH - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  7. Charging time for dust grain on surface exposed to plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, T. E.

    2013-04-01

    We consider the charging of a dust grain sitting on a surface exposed to plasma. The stochastic model of Sheridan and Hayes [Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091501 (2011)] is solved analytically for the charging time, which is found to be directly proportional to the square root of the electron temperature and inversely proportional to both the grain radius and plasma density.

  8. Diversity, Value and Technology: Exposing Value Pluralism in Institutional Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark; Smyth, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore ways in which value pluralism in institutional learning-technology strategy can be exposed and managed with the use of learning activities involving stakeholder groups across and between educational institutions. Design/methodology/approach: The case-study of a series of national workshops on…

  9. A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials

    ScienceCinema

    Abergel, Rebecca

    2014-06-24

    Berkeley Lab's Rebecca Abergel discusses "A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas. Go here to watch the entire event with all 8 speakers:

  10. WATER RELATIONS OF DIFFERENTIALLY IRRIGATED COTTON EXPOSED TO OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This field study was conducted to test the hypothesis that plants chronically exposed to be sore susceptible to drought because typically inhibits root growth and increases shoot-root ratios implants. otton was grown in open-top chambers on Hanford coarse sandy loam in Riverside,...

  11. 26. ROOM 210, VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST. EXPOSED TIE BEAMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. ROOM 210, VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST. EXPOSED TIE BEAMS AT CEILING ARE BOXED IN PLYWOOD. WAINSCOTING IS PLYWOOD PANELING. CEILING AND UPPER WALL TREATMENT IS GYPSUM BOARD. CLERESTORY WINDOWS LINE BOTH LONG SIDES OF ROOM. - Presidio of San Francisco, Cavalry Stables, Cowles Street, between Lincoln Boulevard & McDowell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. 24. VIEW OF NORTHWEST WALL IN ROOM 209, RESTROOM. EXPOSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW OF NORTHWEST WALL IN ROOM 209, RESTROOM. EXPOSED BEAM RUNS ALONG NORTHWEST WALL. 3X3 LITE WINDOW IS IN THE NORTHEAST WALL. FLOOR TREATMENT IS WOOD, WALLS ARE GYPSUM BOARD. - Presidio of San Francisco, Cavalry Stables, Cowles Street, between Lincoln Boulevard & McDowell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. Embryo- and fetotoxicity of chromium in pregestationally exposed mice

    SciTech Connect

    Junaid, M.; Murthy, R.C.; Saxena, D.K.

    1996-10-01

    Chromium, an essential element in the human body required for proper carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism, is reported to impair gestational development of offspring of workers chronically exposed to this metal in the work place. Workers in chromium based industries can be exposed to concentrations two orders of magnitude higher than the general population. Among the general population, residents living near chromate production sites may be exposed to high levels of chromium (VI) in air or to elevated levels (40 - 50,000 ppm) of chromium in effluents. Shmitova reported afterbirth and puerperal hemorrhages in women industrially exposed to this metal and observed high chromium levels in blood and urine of pregnant women and in fetal and cord blood. Chromium readily passes the placental barrier and reaches the growing fetus. Exposure of mice to chromium during various gestational periods resulted in embryo and fetotoxic effects. This study looks at the role of body chromium accumulated pregestationally on embryo and fetal development and its subsequent transfer to feto-placental sites. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. CUTICULAR LESIONS INDUCED IN GRASS SHRIMP EXPOSED TO HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult grass shrimp were exposed to four concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 ppm) of hexavalent chromium for 38 days. At the end of the exposure period, over 50% of the surviving shrimp possessed cuticular lesions that had many of the gross characteristics of 'shell disease.' Th...

  15. Elevation, looking SE. Concrete and steel bridge with exposed steel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation, looking SE. Concrete and steel bridge with exposed steel frame is the central of three bridges crossing Brush Street between east Baltimore and Piquette. The bridge links Old Lake Shore and Michigan Central Main Line on the western side to a New York Central siding on the eastern side - Railroad Overpass, East Milwaukee & Hastings Avenues, Detroit, MI

  16. The ROSE experiments on the EXPOSE facility of the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitz, C.; Rettberg, P.; Rabbow, E.; Horneck, G.

    2001-08-01

    EXPOSE is a multi-user facility to be mounted outside of the International Space Station (ISS). The tray-like structure will accomodate among others 6 biological PI-experiments or experiment systems of the ROSE (Responses of Organisms to the Space Environment) consortium. EXPOSE will support long-term in situ studies of microbes in artificial meteorites, as well as of microbial communities from special ecological niches, such as endolithic and evaporitic ecosystems. Each compartment is either vented, i.e. open to space vacuum, or sealed and then provided with a defined gas environment. The experiment pockets will be covered by an optical filter system to control intensity and spectral range of solar UV irradiation. To achieve maximum insolation, EXPOSE is mounted on a coarse pointing device. Control of sun exposure will be achieved by use of shutters. EXPOSE has been selected for the Early Utilisation Period of the ISS and will stay in space for 1.5 years. The results will contribute to our understanding of photobiological processes in simulated radiation climates of planets (e.g. early Earth, early and present Mars, and the role of the ozone layer in protecting the biosphere from harmful UV-B radiation), as well as studies of the probabilities and limitations for life to be distributed beyond its planet of origin.

  17. Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy among American-Indian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jamie; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Hanson, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    Research has determined that the prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur preconceptually, either by reducing alcohol intake in women planning pregnancy or at risk for becoming pregnant, or by preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One such AEP prevention programme with non-pregnant American-Indian (AI) women is…

  18. TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSES OF MOUSE EMBRYO CULTURES EXPOSED TO BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transcriptional responses of mouse embryo cultures exposed to bromochloroacetic acid

    Edward D. Karoly?*, Judith E. Schmid* and E. Sidney Hunter III*
    ?Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina and *Reproductive Tox...

  19. LINER MATERIALS EXPOSED TO TOXIC AND HAZARDOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This exploratory experimental research project was conducted (1975-1983) to assess the relative effectiveness and durability of a wide variety of liner materials when exposed to hazardous wastes under conditions that simulate different aspects of service in on-land waste storage ...

  20. LINER MATERIALS EXPOSED TO HAZARDOUS AND TOXIC WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This exploratory experimental research project was conducted (1975-1983) to assess the relative effectiveness and durability of a wide variety of liner materials when exposed to hazardous wastes under conditions that simulate different aspects of service in on-land waste storage ...

  1. RESPONSE OF BUSH BEAN EXPOSED TO ACID MIST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bush bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Contender) were treated once a week for six weeks with simulated acid mist at five pH ranging from 5.5 to 2.0. Leaf injury developed on plants exposed to acid concentrations below pH 3 and many leaves developed a flecking symptom simila...

  2. Behavioural evaluation of workers exposed to mixtures of organic solvents.

    PubMed Central

    Maizlish, N A; Langolf, G D; Whitehead, L W; Fine, L J; Albers, J W; Goldberg, J; Smith, P

    1985-01-01

    Reports from Scandinavia have suggested behavioural impairment among long term workers exposed to solvents below regulatory standards. A cross sectional study of behavioural performance was conducted among printers and spray painters exposed to mixtures of organic solvents to replicate the Scandinavian studies and to examine dose-response relationships. Eligible subjects consisted of 640 hourly workers from four midwestern United States companies. Of these, 269 responded to requests to participate and 240 were selected for study based on restrictions for age, sex, education, and other potentially confounding variables. The subjects tested had been employed on average for six years. Each subject completed an occupational history, underwent a medical examination, and completed a battery of behavioural tests. These included the Fitts law psychomotor task, the Stroop colour-word test, the Sternberg short term memory scanning test, the short term memory span test, and the continuous recognition memory test. Solvent exposure for each subject was defined as an exposed or non-exposed category based on a plant industrial hygiene walk-through and the concentration of solvents based on an analysis of full shift personal air samples by gas chromatography. The first definition was used to maintain consistency with Scandinavian studies, but the second was considered to be more accurate. The average full shift solvent concentration was 302 ppm for the printing plant workers and 6-13 ppm for the workers at other plants. Isopropanol and hexane were the major components, compared with toluene in Scandinavian studies. Performance on behavioural tests was analysed using multiple linear regression with solvent concentration as an independent variable. Other relevant demographic variables were also considered for inclusion. No significant (p greater than 0.05) relation between solvent concentration and impairment on any of the 10 behavioural variables was observed after controlling for

  3. Obstetric Outcomes of Mothers Previously Exposed to Sexual Violence

    PubMed Central

    Gisladottir, Agnes; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Harlow, Bernard L.; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Jonsdottir, Eyrun; Bjarnadottir, Ragnheidur I.; Hauksdottir, Arna; Aspelund, Thor; Cnattingius, Sven; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a scarcity of data on the association of sexual violence and women's subsequent obstetric outcomes. Our aim was to investigate whether women exposed to sexual violence as teenagers (12–19 years of age) or adults present with different obstetric outcomes than women with no record of such violence. Methods We linked detailed prospectively collected information on women attending a Rape Trauma Service (RTS) to the Icelandic Medical Birth Registry (IBR). Women who attended the RTS in 1993–2010 and delivered (on average 5.8 years later) at least one singleton infant in Iceland through 2012 formed our exposed cohort (n = 1068). For each exposed woman's delivery, nine deliveries by women with no RTS attendance were randomly selected from the IBR (n = 9126) matched on age, parity, and year and season of delivery. Information on smoking and Body mass index (BMI) was available for a sub-sample (n = 792 exposed and n = 1416 non-exposed women). Poisson regression models were used to estimate Relative Risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Compared with non-exposed women, exposed women presented with increased risks of maternal distress during labor and delivery (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.01–2.79), prolonged first stage of labor (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.03–1.88), antepartum bleeding (RR 1.95, 95% CI 1.22–3.07) and emergency instrumental delivery (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00–1.34). Slightly higher risks were seen for women assaulted as teenagers. Overall, we did not observe differences between the groups regarding the risk of elective cesarean section (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61–1.21), except for a reduced risk among those assaulted as teenagers (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.34–0.93). Adjusting for maternal smoking and BMI in a sub-sample did not substantially affect point estimates. Conclusion Our prospective data suggest that women with a history of sexual assault, particularly as teenagers, are at increased risks of some adverse obstetric outcomes. PMID:27007230

  4. Exposed Ice in the Northern Mid-Latitudes of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.

    2007-01-01

    Ice-Rich Layer: Polygonal features with dimensions of approximately 100 meters, bounded by cracks, are commonly observed on the martian northern plains. These features are generally attributed to thermal cracking of ice-rich sediments, in direct analogy to polygons in terrestrial polar regions. We mapped polygons in the northern mid-latitudes (30 to 65 N) using MOC and HiRISE images. Polygons are scattered across the northern plains, with a particular concentration in western Utopia Planitia. This region largely overlaps the Late Amazonian Astapus Colles unit, characterized by polygonal terrain and nested pits consistent with periglacial and thermokarst origins. Bright and Dark Polygonal Cracks: An examination of all MOC images (1997 through 2003) covering the study area demonstrated that, at latitudes of 55 to 65 N, most of the imaged polygons show bright bounding cracks. We interpret these bright cracks as exposed ice. Between 40 and 55 N, most of the imaged polygons show dark bounding cracks. These are interpreted as polygons from which the exposed ice has been removed by sublimation. The long-term stability limit for exposed ice, even in deep cracks, apparently lies near 55 N. Bright and Dark Spots: Many HiRISE and MOC frames showing polygons in the northern plains also show small numbers of bright and dark spots, particularly in western Utopia Planitia. Many of the spots are closely associated with collapse features suggestive of thermokarst. The spots range from tens to approximately 100 meters in diameter. The bright spots are interpreted as exposed ice, due to their prevalence on terrain mapped as ice rich. The dark spots are interpreted as former bright spots, which have darkened as the exposed ice is lost by sublimation. The bright spots may be the martian equivalents of pingos, ice-cored mounds found in periglacial regions on Earth. Terrestrial pingos from which the ice core has melted often collapse to form depressions similar to the martian dark spots

  5. Measurement of DNA repair deficiency in workers exposed to benzene.

    PubMed Central

    Hallberg, L M; el Zein, R; Grossman, L; Au, W W

    1996-01-01

    We hypothesize that chronic exposure to environmental toxicants can induce genetic damage causing DNA repair deficiencies and leading to the postulated mutator phenotype of carcinogenesis. To test our hypothesis, a host cell reactivation (HCR) assay was used in which pCMVcat plasmids were damaged with UV light (175, 350 J/m2 UV light), inactivating the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene, and then transfected into lymphocytes. Transfected lymphocytes were therefore challenged to repair the damaged plasmids, reactivating the reporter gene. Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Gaucher cell lines were used as positive and negative controls for the HCR assay. The Gaucher cell line repaired normally but XP cell lines demonstrated lower repair activity. Additionally, the repair activity of the XP heterozygous cell line showed intermediate repair compared to the homozygous XP and Gaucher cells. We used HCR to measure the effects of benzene exposure on 12 exposed and 8 nonexposed workers from a local benzene plant. Plasmids 175 J/m2 and 350 J/m2 were repaired with a mean frequency of 66% and 58%, respectively, in control workers compared to 71% and 62% in exposed workers. Conversely, more of the exposed workers were grouped into the reduced repair category than controls. These differences in repair capacity between exposed and control workers were, however, not statistically significant. The lack of significant differences between the exposed and control groups may be due to extremely low exposure to benzene (< 0.3 ppm), small population size, or a lack of benzene genotoxicity at these concentrations. These results are consistent with a parallel hprt gene mutation assay. PMID:8781377

  6. Measurement of DNA repair deficiency in workers exposed to benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Hallberg, L.M.; Au, W.W.; El Zein, R.; Grossman, L.

    1996-05-01

    We hypothesize that chronic exposure to environmental toxicants can induce genetic damage causing DNA repair deficiencies and leading to the postulated mutator phenotype of carcinogenesis. To test our hypothesis, a host cell reactivation (HCR) assay was used in which pCMVcat plasmids were damaged with UV light (175, 350 J/m{sup 2} UV light), inactivating the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene, and then transfected into lymphocytes. Transfected lymphocytes were therefore challenged to repair the damaged plasmids, reactivating the reporter gene. Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Gaucher cell lines were used as positive and negative controls for the HCR assay. The Gaucher cell line repaired normally but XP cell lines demonstrated lower repair activity. Additionally, the repair activity of the XP heterozygous cell line showed intermediate repair compared to the homozygous XP and Gaucher cells. We used HCR to measure the effects of benzene exposure on 12 exposed and 8 nonexposed workers from a local benzene plant. Plasmids 175 J/m{sup 2} and 350 J/m{sup 2} were repaired with a mean frequency of 66% and 58%, respectively, in control workers compared to 71% and 62% in exposed workers. Conversely, more of the exposed workers were grouped into the reduced repair category than controls. These differences in repair capacity between exposed and control workers were, however, not statistically significant. The lack of significant differences between the exposed and control groups may be due to extremely low exposure to benzene (<0.3 ppm), small population size, or a lack of benzene genotoxicity at these concentrations. These results are consistent with a parallel hprt gene mutation assay. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Newborn Hearing Screening in Neonates Exposed to Psychoactive Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Bruna Salazar Castro da; Machado, Márcia Salgado; Zanini, Cláudia Fernandes Costa; Paniz, Tatiana de Carvalho; Menegotto, Isabela Hoffmeister

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In pregnancy, the mother and fetus share body structures based on the maternal organism. Exposure to psychoactive drugs in this period may have repercussions on the baby's hearing. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate this association. Aim Analyze the results of newborn hearing screening (NHS), the occurrence of associated risk factors, and the incidence of hearing loss in newborn exposed to psychoactive drugs during pregnancy. Methods This is an observational retrospective study done from a database analysis. From this database, records were selected about the use of psychoactive drugs by mothers during pregnancy, then the neonates were divide into two groups: the study group (146 babies exposed to drugs) and the control group (500 babies not exposed to drugs). The NHS failure rate, the presence of risk factors for hearing loss, and need for audiological diagnosis were analyzed in both groups. From these variables, absolute frequency and prevalence rates were calculated and the results compared between groups. Results There was no statistically significant difference in the comparison of NHS failure rates between the groups (p = 0.267). The occurrence of risk factors for hearing loss was greater in babies exposed to drugs (p < 0.0001). There was only one diagnosis of hearing loss, which occurred in the control group (p = 0.667). Conclusion The use of psychoactive drugs by mothers during pregnancy did not affect the NHS failure rate of this sample. However, the occurrence of significant risk factors in the study group showed a possible sensitivity of babies exposed to psychoactive drugs during pregnancy. PMID:25992062

  8. Exposed tibial bone after burns: Flap reconstruction versus dermal substitute.

    PubMed

    Verbelen, Jozef; Hoeksema, Henk; Pirayesh, Ali; Van Landuyt, Koenraad; Monstrey, Stan

    2016-03-01

    A 44 years old male patient had suffered extensive 3rd degree burns on both legs, undergoing thorough surgical debridement, resulting in both tibias being exposed. Approximately 5 months after the incident he was referred to the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the University Hospital Gent, Belgium, to undergo flap reconstruction. Free flap surgery was performed twice on both lower legs but failed on all four occasions. In between flap surgery, a dermal substitute (Integra(®)) was applied, attempting to cover the exposed tibias with a layer of soft tissue, but also without success. In order to promote the development of granulation tissue over the exposed bone, small holes were drilled in both tibias with removal of the outer layer of the anterior cortex causing the bone to bleed and subsequently negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) was applied. The limited granulation tissue resulting from this procedure was then covered with a dermal substitute (Glyaderm(®)), consisting of acellular human dermis with an average thickness of 0.25mm. This dermal substitute was combined with a NPWT-dressing, and then served as an extracellular matrix (ECM), guiding the distribution of granulation tissue over the remaining areas of exposed tibial bone. Four days after initial application of Glyaderm(®) combined with NPWT both tibias were almost completely covered with a thin coating of soft tissue. In order to increase the thickness of this soft tissue cover two additional layers of Glyaderm(®) were applied at intervals of approximately 1 week. One week after the last Glyaderm(®) application both wounds were autografted. The combination of an acellular dermal substitute (Glyaderm(®)) with negative pressure wound therapy and skin grafting proved to be an efficient technique to cover a wider area of exposed tibial bone in a patient who was not a candidate for free flap surgery. An overview is also provided of newer and simpler techniques for coverage of

  9. Immunoglobulin levels and cellular immune function in lead exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, M L; Perlingeiro, R C; Bincoletto, C; Almeida, M; Cardoso, M P; Dantas, D C

    1994-02-01

    The immunological status of lead acid battery workers with blood lead levels and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-U) concentrations ranging from safe to toxic levels has been examined and compared with those of non-exposed, age and sex matched controls. No differences in the serum concentrations of IgG, IgA and IgM between the populations were observed and there existed no correlation between blood lead level or ALA-U concentrations and serum immunoglobulin levels. In addition assessment was made of the capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to respond to the mitogen phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), a correlate of T cell function. As before, there was no difference between exposed and control populations and no correlation between reactivity and blood lead concentration. Our data suggest that chronic exposure to lead fail to compromise lymphocyte function in man. PMID:8169320

  10. Personality and psychopathological profiles in individuals exposed to mobbing.

    PubMed

    Girardi, Paolo; Monaco, Edoardo; Prestigiacomo, Claudio; Talamo, Alessandra; Ruberto, Amedeo; Tatarelli, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, mental health and medical professionals have been asked to assess claims of psychological harm arising from harassment at the workplace, or "mobbing." This study assessed the personality and psychopathological profiles of 146 individuals exposed to mobbing using validity, clinical, and content scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2. Profiles and factor analyses were obtained. Two major dimensions emerged among those exposed to mobbing: (a) depressed mood, difficulty in making decisions, change-related anguish, and passive-aggressive traits (b) somatic symptoms, and need for attention and affection. This cross-sectional pilot study provides evidence that personality profiles of mobbing victims and psychological damage resulting from mobbing may be evaluated using standardized assessments, though a longitudinal study is needed to delineate cause-and-effect relationships. PMID:17479554

  11. Temperature increase in the fetus exposed to UHF RFID readers.

    PubMed

    Fiocchi, Serena; Parazzini, Marta; Liorni, Ilaria; Samaras, Theodoros; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has prominently increased during the last decades due to the rapid development of new technologies. Among the various devices emitting EMFs, those based on Radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies are used in all aspects of everyday life, and expose people unselectively. This scenario could pose a potential risk for some groups of the general population, such as pregnant women, who are expected to be possibly more sensitive to the thermal effects produced by EMF exposure. This is the first paper that addresses the estimation of temperature rise in two pregnant women models exposed to ultrahigh frequency RFID by computational techniques. Results show that the maximum temperature increase of the fetus and of the pregnancy-related tissues is relatively high (even about 0.7 °C), not too far from the known threshold of biological effects. However, this increase is confined to a small volume in the tissues. PMID:24956619

  12. Skin friction measurement with partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, D. S.; Holmes, H. K.

    1993-01-01

    Partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin film (10-25 microns) deposited on a flat glass substrate has been used for the first time to measure skin friction. Utilizing the shear-stress-induced director reorientation in the partially exposed liquid-crystal droplets, optical transmission under crossed polarization has been measured as a function of the air flow differential pressure. Direct measurement of the skin friction with a skin friction drag balance, under the same aerodynamic conditions, lets us correlate the skin friction with optical transmission. This provides a unique technique for the direct measurement of skin friction from the transmitted light intensity. The results are in excellent agreement with the model suggested in this paper.

  13. Profiles of Reactivity in Cocaine-Exposed Children

    PubMed Central

    Schuetze, Pamela; Molnar, Danielle S.; Eiden, Rina D.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the possibility that specific, theoretically consistent profiles of reactivity could be identified in a sample of cocaine-exposed infants and whether these profiles were associated with a range of infant and/or maternal characteristics. Cluster analysis was used to identify distinct groups of infants based on physiological, behavioral and maternal reported measures of reactivity. Five replicable clusters were identified which corresponded to 1) Dysregulated/High Maternal Report Reactors, 2) Low Behavioral Reactors, 3) High Reactors, 4) Optimal Reactors and 5) Dysregulated/Low Maternal Report Reactors. These clusters were associated with differences in prenatal cocaine exposure status, birthweight, maternal depressive symptoms, and maternal negative affect during mother-infant interactions. These results support the presence of distinct reactivity profiles among high risk infants recruited on the basis of prenatal cocaine exposure and demographically similar control group infants not exposed to cocaine. PMID:23204615

  14. Radiation effects on ETFE polymer exposed to glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamisawa, Renato Amaral; Abidzina, Volha; de Almeida, Adelaide; Budak, Satilmis; Tereshko, I.; Elkin, I.; Ila, Daryush

    2007-08-01

    The polymer ethylenetetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) is composed of alternating ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene segments. Because it has applications in areas such as medical physics and industrial coatings, there is a great interest in surface modification studies of ETFE polymer. When this material is exposed to ionizing radiation it suffers damage that depends on the type, energy and intensity of the irradiation. In order to determine the radiation damage mechanism from exposure to low voltage plasma, ETFE films were exposed to residual gas plasma in glow discharge regime to a fluence of 2 × 1017 ions/cm2. Irradiated films were analyzed with optical absorption photospectrometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy to determine the chemical nature of the structural changes caused by low energy glow discharge.

  15. Laser-induced fluorescence of space-exposed polyurethane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Ralph H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The object of this work was to utilize laser-induced fluorescence technique to characterize several samples of space-exposed polyurethane. These samples were flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), which was in a shuttle-like orbit for nearly 6 years. Because of our present work to develop laser-induced-fluorescence inspection techniques for polymers, space-exposed samples and controls were lent to us for evaluation. These samples had been attached to the outer surface of LDEF; therefore, they were subjected to thermal cycling, solar ultraviolet radiation, vacuum, and atomic oxygen. It is well documented that atomic oxygen and ultraviolet exposure have detrimental effects on many polymers. This was a unique opportunity to make measurements on material that had been naturally degraded by an unusual environment. During our past work, data have come from artificially degraded samples and generally have demonstrated a correlation between laser-induced fluorescence and tensile strength or elasticity.

  16. Mechanisms of gas precipitation in plasma-exposed tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    R. D. Kolasinski; D. F. Cowgill; D. C. Donovan; M. Shimada

    2012-05-01

    Precipitation in subsurface bubbles is a key process that governs how hydrogen isotopes migrate through and become trapped within plasma-exposed tungsten. We describe a continuum-scale model of hydrogen diffusion in plasma-exposed materials that includes the effects of precipitation. The model can account for bubble expansion via dislocation loop punching, using an accurate equation of state to determine the internal pressure. This information is used to predict amount of hydrogen trapped by bubbles, as well as the conditions where the bubbles become saturated. In an effort to validate the underlying assumptions, we compare our results with published positron annihilation and thermal desorption spectroscopy data, as well as our own measurements using the tritium plasma experiment (TPE).

  17. Hierarchical structures of rutile exposing high-index facets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Quang Duc; Kato, Hideki; Kobayashi, Makoto; Kakihana, Masato

    2015-05-01

    Recently, shape-controlled synthesis of crystals exposing high-index facets has attracted much research interest due to their importance for both fundamental studies and technological applications. Herein, crystals of rutile-type TiO2 with hierarchical structures exposing high-index facets have been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method using water-soluble titanium complex as a precursor and picolinic acid as structure-directing and shape-controlling agents. The synthesized particles were composed of several branches of pyramidal crystals with relatively smooth surface. On the basis of investigation results, it was speculated that the mutual π-stacking and selective adsorption of picolinic acid on specific {111} facets resulted in the formation of rutile crystals bound by high-index surfaces such as {331}.

  18. Immunogenicity of Hepatitis B Vaccine in HIV Exposed Uninfected Infants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dharmendra K; Kumar, Rajnish; Rai, Ruchi; Maurya, Manisha; Bhargava, Anudita

    2016-02-01

    There is paucity of knowledge about the immunogenicity of vaccines in infants who have been exposed to HIV in-utero but have remained uninfected. The authors studied the immunogenicity of 3 doses of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine at 6,10,14 wk of age in HIV exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants. After 3 mo of last dose of the vaccine, out of 26 infants, 23 (89.5 %) infants were found to be responders (Anti HBs IgG titres ≥ 10 mIU/ml) and 3 (11.5 %) babies remained non responders (Anti HBs IgG titres < 10 mIU/ml). The proportion of babies who were non responders were higher when compared to similar studies done on unexposed and uninfected infants, suggesting a poorer immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine in these infants. PMID:26452493

  19. Mechanisms of gas precipitation in plasma-exposed tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolasinski, R. D.; Cowgill, D. F.; Donovan, D. C.; Shimada, M.; Wampler, W. R.

    2013-07-01

    Precipitation in subsurface bubbles is a key process that governs how hydrogen isotopes migrate through and become trapped within plasma-exposed tungsten. We describe a continuum-scale model of hydrogen diffusion in plasma-exposed materials that includes the effects of precipitation. The model can account for bubble expansion via dislocation loop punching, using an accurate equation of state to determine the internal pressure. This information is used to predict amount of hydrogen trapped by bubbles, as well as the conditions where the bubbles become saturated. In an effort to validate the underlying assumptions, we compare our results with published positron annihilation and thermal desorption spectroscopy data, as well as our own measurements using the tritium plasma experiment (TPE).

  20. Bile and liver metallothionein behavior in copper-exposed fish.

    PubMed

    Hauser-Davis, Rachel A; Bastos, Frederico F; Tuton, Bernardo; Chávez Rocha, Rafael; Saint' Pierre, Tatiana; Ziolli, Roberta L; Arruda, Marco A Z

    2014-01-01

    The present study analyzed metallothionein (MT) excretion from liver to bile in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to sub-lethal copper concentrations (2mgL(-1)) in a laboratory setting. MTs in liver and bile were quantified by spectrophotometry after thermal incubation and MT metal-binding profiles were characterized by size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography coupled to ICP-MS (SEC-HPLC-ICP-MS). Results show that liver MT is present in approximately 250-fold higher concentrations than bile MT in non-exposed fish. Differences between the MT profiles from the control and exposed group were observed for both matrices, indicating differential metal-binding behavior when comparing liver and bile MT. This is novel data regarding intra-organ MT comparisons, since differences between organs are usually present only with regard to quantification, not metal-binding behavior. Bile MT showed statistically significant differences between the control and exposed group, while the same did not occur with liver MT. This indicates that MTs synthesized in the liver accumulate more slowly than MTs excreted from liver to bile, since the same fish presented significantly higher MT levels in liver when compared to bile. We postulate that bile, although excreted in the intestine and partially reabsorbed by the same returning to the liver, may also release MT-bound metals more rapidly and efficiently, which may indicate an efficient detoxification route. Thus, we propose that the analysis of bile MTs to observe recent metal exposure may be more adequate than the analysis of liver MTs, since organism responses to metals are more quickly observed in bile, although further studies are necessary. PMID:24210855

  1. Occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a smelter exposed to zinc fumes

    SciTech Connect

    Ameille, J.; Brechot, J.M.; Brochard, P.; Capron, F.; Dore, M.F. )

    1992-03-01

    A smelter exposed to zinc fumes reported severe recurrent episodes of cough, dyspnea and fever. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed a marked increase in lymphocytes count with predominance of CD8 T-lymphocytes. Presence of zinc in alveolar macrophages was assessed by analytic transmission electron microscopy. This is the first case of recurrent bronchoalveolitis related to zinc exposure in which the clinical picture and BAL results indicate a probable hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

  2. Potential contribution of exposed resin to ecosystem emissions of monoterpenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eller, Allyson S. D.; Harley, Peter; Monson, Russell K.

    2013-10-01

    Conifers, especially pines, produce and store under pressure monoterpene-laden resin in canals located throughout the plant. When the plants are damaged and resin canals punctured, the resin is exuded and the monoterpenes are released into the atmosphere, a process that has been shown to influence ecosystem-level monoterpene emissions. Less attention has been paid to the small amounts of resin that are exuded from branches, expanding needles, developing pollen cones, and terminal buds in the absence of any damage. The goal of this study was to provide the first estimate of the potential of this naturally-exposed resin to influence emissions of monoterpenes from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) ecosystems. When resin is first exuded as small spherical beads from undamaged tissues it emits monoterpenes to the atmosphere at a rate that is four orders of magnitude greater than needle tissue with an equivalent exposed surface area and the emissions from exuded beads decline exponentially as the resin dries. We made measurements of resin beads on the branches of ponderosa pine trees in the middle of the growing season and found, on average, 0.15 cm2 of exposed resin bead surface area and 1250 cm2 of total needle surface area per branch tip. If the resin emerged over the course of 10 days, resin emissions would make up 10% of the ecosystem emissions each day. Since we only accounted for exposed resin at a single point in time, this is probably an underestimate of how much total resin is exuded from undamaged pine tissues over the course of a growing season. Our observations, however, reveal the importance of this previously unrecognized source of monoterpenes emitted from pine forests and its potential to influence regional atmospheric chemistry dynamics.

  3. Toxicity of lunar dust assessed in inhalation-exposed rats

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Chiu-wing; Scully, Robert R.; Zhang, Ye; Renne, Roger A.; Hunter, Robert L.; McCluskey, Richard A.; Chen, Bean T.; Castranova, Vincent; Driscoll, Kevin E.; Gardner, Donald E.; McClellan, Roger O.; Cooper, Bonnie L.; McKay, David S.; Marshall, Linda; James, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Humans will again set foot on the moon. The moon is covered by a layer of fine dust, which can pose a respiratory hazard. We investigated the pulmonary toxicity of lunar dust in rats exposed to 0, 2.1, 6.8, 20.8 and 60.6 mg/m3 of respirable-size lunar dust for 4 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week); the aerosols in the nose-only exposure chambers were generated from a jet-mill ground preparation of a lunar soil collected during the Apollo 14 mission. After 4 weeks of exposure to air or lunar dust, groups of five rats were euthanized 1 day, 1 week, 4 weeks or 13 weeks after the last exposure for assessment of pulmonary toxicity. Biomarkers of toxicity assessed in bronchoalveolar fluids showed concentration-dependent changes; biomarkers that showed treatment effects were total cell and neutrophil counts, total protein concentrations and cellular enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, glutamyl transferase and aspartate transaminase). No statistically significant differences in these biomarkers were detected between rats exposed to air and those exposed to the two low concentrations of lunar dust. Dose-dependent histopathology, including inflammation, septal thickening, fibrosis and granulomas, in the lung was observed at the two higher exposure concentrations. No lesions were detected in rats exposed to ≤6.8 mg/m3. This 4-week exposure study in rats showed that 6.8 mg/m3 was the highest no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL). These results will be useful for assessing the health risk to humans of exposure to lunar dust, establishing human exposure limits and guiding the design of dust mitigation systems in lunar landers or habitats. PMID:24102467

  4. Pseudohyphal variations of yeasts exposed to specific space flight parameters.

    PubMed

    Volz, P A; Hunter, R L

    1998-01-01

    Phenotypes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Rhodotorula rubra exposed to specific parameters of space flight, which were measured both quantitatively and qualitatively, produced variations in pseudohyphal formation. Both the length of the parent and branch psuedohyphal filaments varied according to specific wavelengths and energy levels of UV light exposures when phenotypic isolates were compared with the parent or ground control isolate of each yeast species. PMID:9881461

  5. Toxicity of lunar dust assessed in inhalation-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Lam, Chiu-wing; Scully, Robert R; Zhang, Ye; Renne, Roger A; Hunter, Robert L; McCluskey, Richard A; Chen, Bean T; Castranova, Vincent; Driscoll, Kevin E; Gardner, Donald E; McClellan, Roger O; Cooper, Bonnie L; McKay, David S; Marshall, Linda; James, John T

    2013-10-01

    Humans will again set foot on the moon. The moon is covered by a layer of fine dust, which can pose a respiratory hazard. We investigated the pulmonary toxicity of lunar dust in rats exposed to 0, 2.1, 6.8, 20.8 and 60.6 mg/m(3) of respirable-size lunar dust for 4 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week); the aerosols in the nose-only exposure chambers were generated from a jet-mill ground preparation of a lunar soil collected during the Apollo 14 mission. After 4 weeks of exposure to air or lunar dust, groups of five rats were euthanized 1 day, 1 week, 4 weeks or 13 weeks after the last exposure for assessment of pulmonary toxicity. Biomarkers of toxicity assessed in bronchoalveolar fluids showed concentration-dependent changes; biomarkers that showed treatment effects were total cell and neutrophil counts, total protein concentrations and cellular enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, glutamyl transferase and aspartate transaminase). No statistically significant differences in these biomarkers were detected between rats exposed to air and those exposed to the two low concentrations of lunar dust. Dose-dependent histopathology, including inflammation, septal thickening, fibrosis and granulomas, in the lung was observed at the two higher exposure concentrations. No lesions were detected in rats exposed to ≤6.8 mg/m(3). This 4-week exposure study in rats showed that 6.8 mg/m(3) was the highest no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL). These results will be useful for assessing the health risk to humans of exposure to lunar dust, establishing human exposure limits and guiding the design of dust mitigation systems in lunar landers or habitats. PMID:24102467

  6. 16. INTERIOR OF ROOM 105 LOOKING TOWARD SOUTHEAST WALL. EXPOSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR OF ROOM 105 LOOKING TOWARD SOUTHEAST WALL. EXPOSED POST EXISTS IN MIDDLE OF ROOM. A SMALL OPENING HAS BEEN CUT INTO THE UPPER PORTION OF THE SOUTHEAST WALL THROUGH TO THE ADJOINING ROOM (106). GYPSUM BOARD ON WALLS WITH WOOD TRIM, FLUORESCENT LIGHTING, AND VINYL COMPOSITION TILE ON FLOORS ARE ALL LATER ADDITIONS. - Presidio of San Francisco, Cavalry Stables, Cowles Street, between Lincoln Boulevard & McDowell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. Maize pollen is an important allergen in occupationally exposed workers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The work- or environmental-related type I sensitization to maize pollen is hardly investigated. We sought to determine the prevalence of sensitization to maize pollen among exposed workers and to identify the eliciting allergens. Methods In July 2010, 8 out of 11 subjects were examined who were repeatedly exposed to maize pollen by pollinating maize during their work in a biological research department. All 8 filled in a questionnaire and underwent skin prick testing (SPT) and immune-specific analyses. Results 5 out of the 8 exposed subjects had repeatedly suffered for at least several weeks from rhinitis, 4 from conjunctivitis, 4 from urticaria, and 2 from shortness of breath upon occupational exposure to maize pollen. All symptomatic workers had specific IgE antibodies against maize pollen (CAP class ≥ 1). Interestingly, 4 of the 5 maize pollen-allergic subjects, but none of the 3 asymptomatic exposed workers had IgE antibodies specific for grass pollen. All but one of the maize pollen-allergic subjects had suffered from allergic grass pollen-related symptoms for 6 to 11 years before job-related exposure to maize pollen. Lung function testing was normal in all cases. In immunoblot analyses, the allergenic components could be identified as Zea m 1 and Zea m 13. The reactivity is mostly caused by cross-reactivity to the homologous allergens in temperate grass pollen. Two sera responded to Zea m 3, but interestingly not to the corresponding timothy allergen indicating maize-specific IgE reactivity. Conclusion The present data suggest that subjects pollinating maize are at high risk of developing an allergy to maize pollen as a so far underestimated source of occupational allergens. For the screening of patients with suspected maize pollen sensitization, the determination of IgE antibodies specific for maize pollen is suitable. PMID:22165847

  8. Erythrocytes from ozone-exposed mice exhibit decreased deformability

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, D.L.; Dorsey, A.F.; Menzel, D.B.

    1985-02-01

    Injury from short-term exposure to ozone (O/sub 3/) was detected by a simple test of red blood cell (RBC) filterability. This test measures changes in the ability of the RBC to deform--as occurs during passage through small capillaries. Male CD-1 mice were exposed to 1.0, 0.7, or 0.3 ppm O/sub 3/ for 4 hr, and blood samples were obtained by heart puncture. RBCs were suspended in Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.4, containing 10 mg/dl glucose. After incubation in air for up to 6 hr, the time required for 2 ml RBC suspension to pass through a 3-micron-pore-size polycarbonate filter was determined. A significant increase in the 6-hr filtration time for O/sub 3/-exposed (1.0 ppm) mice over unexposed mice and a lack of protection by vitamin E were shown. The increases in RBC filtration times for O/sub 3/-exposed mice appeared to be dose related. Ozone exposure (1.0 ppm) caused a significant increase in the hematocrit of both vitamin E-deficient and -supplemented mice. Vitamin E supplementation appeared to partially prevent this increase in hematocrit. Measurement of lipid peroxidation by the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test revealed no detectable levels of TBA-reactive material in RBC from O/sub 3/-exposed mice. These results suggest that measurement of RBC filterability may be feasible as a clinical test for short-term injury from exposure to oxidant gases.

  9. 30 CFR 75.521 - Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.521 Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires. Each ungrounded, exposed power conductor and each ungrounded, exposed telephone wire...

  10. 30 CFR 75.521 - Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.521 Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires. Each ungrounded, exposed power conductor and each ungrounded, exposed telephone wire...