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Sample records for paragonimus infested dogs

  1. Serial CT Findings of Paragonimus Infested Dogs and the Micro-CT Findings of the Worm Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Hyun Ju; Hong, Sung-Tae; Shen, Cheng Hua; Chung, Doo Hyun; Son, Kyu Ri; Chang, Jung Min; Eo, Hong

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the serial CT findings of Paragonimus westermani infected dogs and the microscopic structures of the worm cysts using Micro-CT. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the committee on animal research at our institution. Fifteen dogs infected with P. westermani underwent serial contrast-enhanced CT scans at pre-infection, after 10 days of infection, and monthly thereafter until six months for determining the radiologic-pathologic correlation. Three dogs (one dog each time) were sacrificed at 1, 3 and 6 months, respectively. After fixation of the lungs, both multi-detector CT and Micro-CT were performed for examining the worm cysts. Results The initial findings were pleural effusion and/or subpleural ground-glass opacities or linear opacities at day 10. At day 30, subpleural and peribronchial nodules appeared with hydropneumothorax and abdominal or chest wall air bubbles. Cavitary change and bronchial dilatation began to be seen on CT scan at day 30 and this was mostly seen together with mediastinal lymphadenopathy at day 60. Thereafter, subpleural ground-glass opacities and nodules with or without cavitary changes were persistently observed until day 180. After cavitary change of the nodules, the migratory features of the subpleural or peribronchial nodules were seen on all the serial CT scans. Micro-CT showed that the cyst wall contained dilated interconnected tubular structures, which had communications with the cavity and the adjacent distal bronchus. Conclusion The CT findings of paragonimiasis depend on the migratory stage of the worms. The worm cyst can have numerous interconnected tubular channels within its own wall and these channels have connections with the cavity and the adjacent distal bronchus. PMID:17923779

  2. Ectopic (subcutaneous) Paragonimus miyazakii infection in a dog.

    PubMed

    Madarame, H; Suzuki, H; Saitoh, Y; Tachibana, M; Habe, S; Uchida, A; Sugiyama, H

    2009-09-01

    Ectopic infection with Paragonimus miyazakii was determined to be the cause of a subcutaneous inguinal mass in a 15-month-old, male, boar-hunting dog. On histologic examination, the mass comprised granulomatous panniculitis, intralesional adult trematodes and eggs, and lymphadenitis. Extrapulmonary paragonimosis in animals is rare. This appears to be the first report in a dog of ectopic P. miyazakii infection with mature trematodes and eggs that involved the inguinofemoral lymphocenter and surrounding subcutis. PMID:19429999

  3. [Imported infestations of nasopharyngeal parasites in dogs].

    PubMed

    Gothe, R; Barutzki, D; Schöl, H; Heinen, H

    1991-02-01

    In this paper infestations of the nasal cavity with Myxobdella annandalei in a dog after a sojourn in Nepal and with Linguatula serrata in 2 stray dogs from Turkey, which were imported to Germany, are described. PMID:2048114

  4. Demodex (follicular mite) infesting a boy and his pet dog.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; el Okbi, M M; el-Said, A M; Arafa, M A; Sabry, A H

    1995-08-01

    Intense iritation and dermatitis, somewhat resembling that produced by scabies can result from various mites living as temporary ectoparasites on the skin of man. Demodex folliculorum is a worm-like mite that infests hair follicles above the level of sebaceous glands in various mammals. In this paper, Demodex folliculorum was recovered from a boy and his pet dog. Both the boy and the dog were successfully treated with permethrin. PMID:7665947

  5. The effect of ivomec super on dogs experimentally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei isolated from a patient.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; Abdel-Mawla, M Y; Morsy, A T

    2001-04-01

    Scabies infestation is a community health problem worldwide. This is particularly true in overcrowded and unhygienic areas. Seven dogs were experimentally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei freshly recovered from a patient. The dogs after infestation were treated with a mixture of ivermectin and clorsulon (Ivomec Super). The dose given to a single dog was 1 ml/50 kg body weight. This is equivalent to 200 mcg ivermectin and 2 mg clorsulon per Kg body weight. Five of the dogs (71.43%) were completely cured with 1 ml/50 Kg body weight. The remaining two dogs needed each, another injection of the same dose two weeks later. So, ivomec super is effective against the human strain of Sarcoptes scabiei in experementally infested dogs. A general discussion was given. PMID:12557931

  6. Mixed trichuroid infestation in a dog from Italy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Capillaria aerophila, Capillaria boehmi and Trichuris vulpis are trichuroid nematodes affecting wild and companion animals all over the World. The canine intestinal whipworm, T. vulpis, is the most common and well- known in veterinary practice, whereas the respiratory C. aerophila and C. boehmi have been rarely reported in pets as a likely consequence of overlapping morphometric and morphological features of the eggs, which impair a correct etiological diagnosis. Findings In December 2011, a mixed infestation by T. vulpis, C. aerophila and C. boehmi was diagnosed in an asymptomatic dog living in central Italy. Morphometric and morphological findings and pictures of the eggs found at the copromicroscopic analysis are herein reported. Conclusions The present work demonstrates that when trichuroid eggs are found in a faecal sample from a dog, a careful morphological and morphometric analysis of individual parasite elements is mandatory. Key diagnostic features (i.e., size, wall surface pattern and aspects of plugs) should be carefully examined when eggs with overlapping shape and appearance are detected. In conclusion, given the importance in clinical practice of canine trichuroids and the zoonotic potential of C. aerophila, these nematodes should be included into the differential diagnosis of intestinal and respiratory parasitoses of dogs by a thorough microscopic analysis of all trichuroid ova present in microscopic fields. PMID:22731958

  7. [Factors associated with Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs infested with ticks from Huanuco, Peru].

    PubMed

    Huerto-Medina, Edward; Dámaso-Mata, Bernardo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and associated factors of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs. Blood samples from 150 dogs infested with ticks in 10 veterinary clinics in the city of Huanuco in Peru were collected. The dogs were randomly selected without regard to breed, age or sex. Ehrlichia canis antibodies were detected by chromatographic immunoassay.51.3% of dogs were infected with Ehrlichia canis. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with the presence of Ehrlichia canis were: poor health of the dog (p = 0.049), a higher average of tick infestation (p = 0.018), and adult dogs (p = 0.038). The frequency of Ehrlichia canis in dogs of this city is high. Control of the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) vector of Ehrlichia canis is recommended. PMID:26732926

  8. Hematology and serum biochemistry in debilitated, free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) infested with sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Kido, Nobuhide; Kamegaya, Chihiro; Omiya, Tomoko; Wada, Yuko; Takahashi, Maya; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko

    2011-12-01

    Frequent outbreaks of Sarcoptes scabiei infestation in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) have been reported in Japan. Although many raccoon dogs are brought to Kanazawa Zoological Garden (Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan) because of S. scabiei infestation and debilitation, some of them die of asthenia. The clinical status of severely debilitated raccoon dogs must be determined to save their lives. In this study, we compared hematological and serum biochemical values between severely debilitated and nondebilitated raccoon dogs infested with S. scabiei. The total protein, albumin, glucose, and calcium values of debilitated raccoon dogs were significantly lower than those of nondebilitated raccoon dogs. On the other hand, debilitated raccoon dogs had significantly higher aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, sodium, chloride, and phosphorus values than did nondebilitated raccoon dogs. The increase in the blood urea nitrogen value was particularly dramatic. The present study revealed that debilitated raccoon dogs infested with S. scabiei exhibited abnormal hematological values compared with nondebilitated raccoon dogs infested with S. scabiei. Clinically, the raccoon dogs developed malnutrition and sepsis if the mange infestation was untreated. Moreover, dehydration associated with appetite loss may have resulted in insufficient renal perfusion. These findings suggest that chronic S. scabiei infestations debilitated the raccoon dogs and resulted in physiological changes that were detected with hematological and serum biochemical tests. PMID:21749931

  9. A Survey of Ectoparasite Infestations in Stray Dogs of Gwang-ju City, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Jeong-Hyun; Kwon, Jung-Kee; Cho, Ho-Seong; Cho, Kyoung-Oh; Lee, Yu-Jin; Abd El-Aty, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the incidence of ectoparasite infestation among stray dogs in Gwang-ju City, Republic of Korea. A total of 103 stray dogs collected in the Animal Shelter of Gwang-ju City from November 2003 to August 2005 were investigated in this study. Ectoparasites of one or more genera were detected in 45.6% (47 / 103) of the dogs examined for dermatologic lesions and/or skin scrapings (from 3-5 affected areas). Otodectes cynotis was found to be the most frequent parasite (22.%, 23 / 103), followed by Sarcoptes scabiei var canis (19.4%, 20 / 103), Ctenocephalides canis (6.8%, 7 / 103), Demodex canis (4.9%, 5 / 103), and Trichodectes canis (1.0%, 1 / 103). Monospecific infestation was found in 83.0% (39 / 47) of the affected dogs, whereas concurrent infestations with 2 or more ectoparasites per animal were found in 17.0% (8 / 47) of the affected dogs. Trichodectes canis is reported for the first time in the Republic of Korea. Dogs less than 1 yr old were more heavily infected than other age groups (66.7%), and small-sized dogs of less than 3 kg body weight were more heavily infected than larger dogs (41.7%). PMID:18344673

  10. Ehrlichiosis in anemic, thrombocytopenic, or tick-infested dogs from a hospital population in South Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dagnone, Ana Silvia; de Morais, Helio S Autran; Vidotto, Marilda C; Jojima, Flavio S; Vidotto, Odilon

    2003-11-28

    Ehrlichia canis has a worldwide distribution, but clinical manifestations may vary geographically. We selected 129 dogs to determine prevalence of ehrlichiosis in dogs with anemia, thrombocytopenia, or ticks presented to a Veterinary Teaching Hospital in South Brazil. Of the 129 dogs, 68 carried the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus), 61 had thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150,000/microl), and 19 had anemia (PCV < 22%). Twenty dogs fulfilled more than one inclusion criteria. Ehrlichiosis was diagnosed by positive amplification of ehrlichial DNA by PCR using primers ECC and ECB that amplify a sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Presence of E. canis was confirmed by cleavage of the amplified DNA using endonucleases HaeIII and AvaI. Fourteen of 68 (21%) dogs with ticks had ehrlichiosis, whereas 12 of 61 (20%) dogs presented with thrombocytopenia and 4 of 19 (21%) anemic dogs had ehrlichiosis. Similar results were obtained in dogs with thrombocytopenia and anemia (one of eight positive) and in dogs with thrombocytopenia and ticks (two of seven positive). All four dogs with anemia and ticks, and the dog that fulfilled all inclusion criteria yield no amplification of ehrlichial DNA by PCR. Based on our results, one in each five dogs infested by the brown dog tick, with anemia or thrombocytopenia had ehrlichosis. Contrary to widespread believe, ehrlichiosis was not the main cause for thrombocytopenia in our region. PMID:14637030

  11. Efficacy of afoxolaner in a clinical field study in dogs naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei

    PubMed Central

    Beugnet, Frédéric; de Vos, Christa; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lénaïg; Larsen, Diane; Fourie, Josephus

    2016-01-01

    The acaricidal efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard®, Merial) was evaluated against Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis in a field efficacy study, when administered orally at a minimum dose of 2.5 mg/kg to dogs naturally infested with the mites. Twenty mixed-breed dogs of either sex (6 males and 14 females), aged over 6 months and weighing 4–18 kg, were studied in this randomised controlled field efficacy trial. Dogs, naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis confirmed by skin scrapings collected prior to allocation, were randomly divided into two equal groups. Dogs in Group 1 were not treated. Dogs in Group 2 were treated on Days 0 and 28. On Days 0 (pre-treatment), 28 (pre-treatment) and 56, five skin scrapings of similar size were taken from different sites with lesions suggestive of sarcoptic mange. The extent of lesions was also recorded on Days 0, 28 and 56, and photographs were taken. Dogs treated orally with afoxolaner had significantly (p < 0.001) lower mite counts than untreated control animals at Days 28 and 56 with no mites recovered from treated dogs at these times (100% efficacy based on mite counts). In addition, dogs treated with NexGard had significantly (p < 0.05) better lesion resolution at Day 56 than Day 0; no treated dog showed pruritus compared to 7/10 dogs in the control group, 1/9 treated dogs had crusts compared to 5/10 controls and 8/9 dogs recovered 90% of hairs on lesions compared to 0/10 control dogs. PMID:27317462

  12. Antibody and blood leukocyte response in Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) tick-infested dogs and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Matias P J; Aoki, Vanessa L; Sanches, Françoise P S; Aquino, Lúcia P T C T; Garcia, Marcos V; Machado, Rosângela Z; Bechara, Gervásio H

    2003-07-10

    The dog is considered to be the natural host of Rhipicephalus sanguineus and is unable to develop appreciable resistance even after repeated feedings. The guinea pig develops strong resistance after one infestation with adult ticks. Antibody (IgG) titres against tick salivary gland antigens (SGAs) and blood leukocyte numbers in dogs and guinea pigs undergoing experimental R. sanguineus tick infestations were measured to detect a possible correlation with susceptibility or resistance of hosts. Since infested dogs develop an immediate hypersensitivity reaction to R. sanguineus antigens, total and anti-R. sanguineus SGA IgE levels were also measured in this host species. IgG and IgE antibody levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) along three consecutive infestations of both hosts. Most dogs and guinea pigs displayed low IgG levels against R. sanguineus SGAs, though marked differences in individual response were observed. Although dog's total serum IgE levels increased significantly after infestations, no change in the amount of anti-salivary gland IgE was detected. Total and differential blood cell counts were determined in dogs and guinea pigs during primary and secondary infestation. In dogs, a tertiary infestation and a subsequent higher infestation level were also evaluated. Infested dogs did not display any alteration in blood leukocyte counts throughout the experiment. Guinea pigs, on the other hand, developed a significant basophilia during primary infestation which increased further during secondary infestation. These data reveal similarities and differences in the reactions of resistant and non-resistant hosts to ticks. They contribute for the understanding of such host-parasite relationships and will hopefully aid in the development of immune control of ticks. PMID:12860067

  13. The efficacy of selamectin in the treatment of naturally acquired infestations of sarcoptes scabiei on dogs.

    PubMed

    Shanks, D J; McTier, T L; Behan, S; Pengo, G; Genchi, C; Bowman, D D; Holbert, M S; Smith, D G; Jernigan, A D; Rowan, T G

    2000-08-23

    Selamectin, a novel avermectin, was evaluated for its effect on naturally occurring infestations of Sarcoptes scabiei in 42 dogs. In two controlled and masked laboratory studies conducted in the USA and Italy, infested dogs received treatment with either selamectin (6mgkg(-1); range: 6-12mgkg(-1)) or the vehicle only (negative control). Treatments were administered topically to the skin on each animal's back at the base of the neck in front of the scapulae. Study day 0 was defined as the first day of treatment administration. Dogs were treated on days 0 and 30, and efficacy was assessed by counting viable mites recovered from skin scrapings performed on each dog on days 14, 29 or 30, 44, and 60, and by categorising the clinical signs of canine scabies on the same days. Percentage reductions in geometric mean mite counts for selamectin, compared with vehicle, on days 14, 29 or 30, 44, and 60 were > or =98.1, > or =93.5, 100, and 100%, respectively. Analysis of variance, confirmed by Savage Scores, showed that ln(mite counts+1) values for selamectin-treated dogs were significantly lower (P< or =0.0391) than those for vehicle-treated dogs on all post-treatment assessment days. Clinical signs of scabies were markedly reduced in selamectin-treated dogs, compared with vehicle-treated dogs. Topical administration to the skin in a single spot of a single unit dose of selamectin, or of two unit doses given 1 month apart, each providing at least the recommended minimum dosage of 6mgkg(-1), was highly effective against naturally acquired infestations of S. scabiei in dogs, reducing mite counts by >93% (single dose) and 100% (two doses). PMID:10940528

  14. Efficacy of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (Simparica™) against five common tick species infesting dogs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Six, Robert H; Everett, William R; Young, David R; Carter, Lori; Mahabir, Sean P; Honsberger, Nicole A; Myers, Melanie R; Holzmer, Susan; Chapin, Sara; Rugg, Jady J

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of a single oral treatment with sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), a novel isoxazoline compound, was evaluated against five tick species known to infest dogs in the United States. A total of 10 laboratory studies, two against each species, were conducted using adult purpose-bred mongrels or Beagle dogs. In each study, 16 dogs were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups based on pre-treatment host-suitability tick counts. Dogs were infested with approximately 50 unfed adult Amblyomma americanum, Amblyomma maculatum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis or Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks on Days -2, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33. On Day 0, dogs were treated with a placebo or a sarolaner tablet providing a minimum dose of 2 mg/kg. Tick counts were conducted 48h after treatment and after each subsequent weekly re-infestation. There were no treatment-related adverse reactions during any of the studies. Dogs in the placebo-treated group maintained tick infestations throughout the studies. Geometric mean live tick counts were significantly lower (P≤0.0001) in the sarolaner-treated group compared to the tick counts in the placebo group at all timepoints. Treatment with sarolaner resulted in ≥99.6% efficacy against existing infestations of all five tick species within 48h. The efficacy against weekly post-treatment re-infestations of all tick species was ≥96.9% for at least 35 days after treatment. Thus, a single dose of sarolaner administered orally at the minimum dosage of 2mg/kg, resulted in excellent efficacy within 48h against existing tick infestations, and against weekly re-infestations for 35 days after treatment. These studies confirmed that administration of the minimum dose of sarolaner will provide rapid treatment of existing infestations and give at least one month of control against re-infestation by the common tick species affecting dogs in the US. PMID:26935819

  15. Effect of a herbal compound for treatment of sarcoptic mange infestations on dogs.

    PubMed

    Das, S S

    1996-06-01

    Charmil gel, a herbal product was tried against Sarcoptes scabei var canis on dogs and its efficacy was compared with that of amitraz. Mite scrapings examined at scheduled intervals after the topical application of Charmil gel caused complete recovery after 14 days in severe infestation and 7 to 10 days in mild to moderate infestations with regrowth of hair on Day 28 post-treatment. No adverse reactions were observed except mild irritation and restlessness, which persisted for a few hours soon after application. PMID:8966996

  16. Efficacy of a spot-on formulation of pyriprole on dogs infested with Sarcoptes scabiei.

    PubMed

    Fourie, J J; Horak, I G; de la Puente Redondo, V

    2010-09-18

    To determine the efficacy of a 12.5 per cent spot-on formulation of pyriprole (Prac-Tic; Novartis Animal Health) and that of a combination of 10 per cent imidacloprid and 2.5 per cent moxidectin (Advocate; Bayer Animal Health) against Sarcoptes scabiei on dogs, 20 naturally infested adult dogs were ranked according to their pretreatment mite counts, allocated to one of two groups and housed individually in pens. Two spot-on treatments with each product, 30 days apart, were administered. Mite counts and clinical assessments were performed on each dog two days before treatment, and 28, 60 and 90 days after treatment. Efficacy was measured on the basis of the presence or absence of live mites. Except for day 60 following treatment, on which a single dog in the group treated with pyriprole was positive, no live mites were found on the treated dogs during the assessments on days 28, 60 and 90. Thus, efficacy measured on the basis of this finding (day 90 assessment) was 100 per cent. On final assessment, all dogs treated with pyriprole had 100 per cent resolution of papules, but crusts resembling healing lesions were still present on two dogs. Those treated with imidacloprid and moxidectin had 100 per cent resolution of papules and crusts. Hair regrowth, to greater than 90 per cent of pretreatment hair cover, was observed on all 20 dogs. PMID:20852247

  17. A Survey on Ectoparasite Infestations in Companion Dogs of Ahvaz District, South-west of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mosallanejad, B; Alborzi, AR; Katvandi, N

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective was to determine the prevalence of ectoparasite infestations in referred companion dogs to veterinary hospital of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, from 2009 to 2010. Methods: A total of 126 dogs were sampled for ectoparasites and examined by parasitological methods. The studied animals were grouped based on the age (<1 year, 1–3 years and >3 years), sex, breed and region Results: Thirty six out of 126 referred dogs (28.57%) were positive for external ectoparasites. The most common ectoparasites were Heterodoxus spinigera, which were recorded on 11 dogs (8.73%). Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Sarcoptes scabiei, Otodectes cynotis, Xenopsylla cheopis, Cetenocephalides canis, Cetenocephalides felis, Hippobosca sp. and myiasis (L3 of Lucilia sp.) were identified on 9 (7.14%), 7 (5.56%), 6 (4.76%), 3 (2.38%), 3 (2.38%), 2 (1.59%), 2 (1.59%) and one (0.79%) of the studied dogs respectively. Mixed infestation with two species of ectoparasites was recorded on 8 (6.35%). Prevalence was higher in male dogs (35.82%; 24 out of 67) than females (20.34%; 12 out of 59), age above 3 years (31.81%; 7 out of 22) and in the season of winter (30.95%; 13 out of 42), but the difference was not significant regarding to host gender, age and season (P> 0.05). Conclusion: Apparently this is the first study conducted in companion dogs of Ahvaz District, South-west of Iran. Our results indicated that lice and ticks were the most common ectoparasites in dogs of this area. The zoonotic nature of some ectoparasites can be regard as a public health alert. PMID:23293781

  18. Lack of acquired resistance in dogs to successive infestations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from Brazil and Argentina.

    PubMed

    Évora, Patricia Martinez; Sanches, Gustavo Seron; Jusi, Márcia Mariza Gomes; Alves, Lucas Bocchini Rodrigues; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique

    2015-09-01

    Comparative studies between brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus populations from Brazil (Jaboticabal, São Paulo) and Argentina (Rafaela, Santa Fé) showed significant biological, morphological and genetic differences between them. This work aimed to study, in a comparative way, the acquisition of resistance in domestic dogs to R. sanguineus from Jaboticabal and Rafaela, after successive and controlled infestations. Ticks were kept in a BOD incubator under controlled conditions (27 °C, 80 % relative humidity, 12-h photoperiod). Ten dogs, Dachshund breed, males and females, 6 months old, short- or long-haired, without prior contact with ticks, were used as hosts. They were distributed into two experimental groups composed of five animals each: G1 infested with ten adult couples of R. sanguineus (Jaboticabal) per animal, and G2 infested with ten adult couples of R. sanguineus (Rafaela) per animal. Ticks' biological parameters and titration of antibodies from the dogs' sera by ELISA test were used for comparison between the strains. Results of the biological parameters showed that the dogs did not acquire immunity to either of the R. sanguineus strains after repeated infestations. The ELISA test showed low antibody titers in sera of dogs from G2, in successive infestations, and higher antibody responses post second and third infestations in G1. It also demonstrated cross-reactivity between sera of dogs infested with R. sanguineus (Jaboticabal) and antigens from R. sanguineus (Rafaela) and vice versa. We conclude that Dachshund dogs did not develop resistance against neither Jaboticabal nor Rafaela strains of R. sanguineus. PMID:26063405

  19. Efficacy of oral afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewables against induced infestations with Dermacentor reticulatus in dogs.

    PubMed

    Rehbein, Steffen; Fourie, Josephus J; de Vos, Christa; Anderson, Andrew; Larsen, Diane L; Jeannin, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    The efficacy of afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime (AFX + MO) combination chewables (NexGard Spectra®, Merial) and AFX single-entity chewables (NexGard®, Merial) against induced infestations with Dermacentor reticulatus ticks was evaluated in dogs. Thirty dogs were assigned to blocks of three animals each based on pre-allocation tick counts and were randomly allocated to one of three groups: untreated (control), treated with a combination of AFX + MO chewables to be as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of AFX + MO (2.5 + 0.5 mg per kg body weight), and treated with a combination of NexGard® chewables to be as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of AFX (2.5 mg per kg body weight). Treatments were administered orally once on day 0. Starting 2 days before treatment administration, each dog was infested with approximately 50 ticks weekly for six consecutive weeks. Live ticks were counted at ∼48 h post-treatment (removal count) and at ∼48 h (in situ counts) and ∼72 h (removal counts) following each post-treatment infestation. Treatment with both AFX + MO and NexGard® chewables rapidly eliminated the existing tick infestations (100 % efficacy) within 2 days following treatment administration. Weekly re-infestations were controlled for a minimum of 5 weeks with the efficacy ranging from 92.2 to 99.7 % based on ∼48 h post-treatment in situ counts and between 99.0 and 100 % based on ∼72 h post-treatment removal counts (p < 0.0001 at each occasion). This study demonstrated a high efficacy of both AFX + MO chewable and NexGard® chewable treatments against infestations of dogs with D. reticulatus ticks for at least 5 weeks. In addition, this study indicated no interference between the two compounds with respect to the acaricidal activity provided by AFX. PMID:26815036

  20. Comparative efficacy of two fipronil spot-on formulations against experimental tick infestations (Ixodes ricinus) in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, Stéphane; Gupta, Sandeep; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine

    2010-08-01

    A parallel-group-design, randomized, unicentre and blinded controlled study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of a new fipronil-based spot-on formulation applied once to dogs against experimental Ixodes ricinus infestations. Six dogs served as negative controls (group 1), six dogs served as positive controls (group 2) receiving the original fipronil spot-on (Frontline(R) spot-on Dog, Merial) at a dosage of 0.67 mL for a dog weighing from 2 to 10 kg and 1.34 mL for a dog weighing from 10.1 to 20 kg and six dogs were treated with a 10% w/v fipronil-based spot-on solution (Effipro(R) Spot-on, Virbac SA) at an identical dosage (group 3, 0.67 mL for a dog weighing from 2 to 10 kg and 1.34 mL for a dog weighing from 10.1 to 20 kg). Each dog was sedated and subsequently infested with 50 unfed adult I. ricinus on days -7, -2, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Forty-eight hours after the treatment and 48 h after each challenge (days -5, 2, 9, 16, 23, 30 and 37), the population of the remaining ticks was assessed for each animal. Geometric mean tick counts obtained were reduced by 99% and 94% on day 2 in groups 2 and 3, respectively, compared to the negative control group. Dogs were protected from re-infestations with an efficacy of >90% for 3 weeks in group 2 and for 5 weeks in group 3. Both 10% w/v fipronil-based spot-on solutions, despite different vehicles, were equally able to eradicate tick infestation, to prevent new infestations and were equally well tolerated. PMID:20556429

  1. Natural hybridization between Paragonimus bangkokensis and Paragonimus harinasutai.

    PubMed

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Guo, Zhihong; Nonaka, Nariaki; Horii, Yoichiro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2013-06-01

    Paragonimus bangkokensis and Paragonimus harinasutai, which are morphologically distinguishable species, often co-infect in the same crab intermediate hosts. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that these two species are genetically close to each other and are considered as the sister species. While we have been studying Paragonimus adult worms obtained from the lungs of a cat experimentally infected with Paragonimus metacercariae which were morphologically identified as P. harinasutai collected from central Viet Nam, one out of 6 adult worms has grouped cuticular spines, which is a feature of P. bangkokensis. By molecular analyses, the CO1 sequence of this specimen was identical with that of P. bangkokensis, but the ITS2 and the D2 region of 28S rDNA sequences showed a two peak pattern. Then, PCR products of the ITS2 and the D2 region of 28S rDNA sequences were ligated to TOPO vector and subcloned to determine the heterozygosity. Two types of sequences were obtained from each ITS2 and D2 region of 28S; one was identical with P. harinasutai and the other with P. bangkokensis. Taking all these morphological and molecular data together, we identified this adult worm as a hybrid specimen of P. bangkokensis and P. harinasutai. PMID:23384812

  2. Neem seed extract shampoo, Wash Away Louse, an effective plant agent against Sarcoptes scabiei mites infesting dogs in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Sobhy, Hassan; Semmler, Margit

    2008-12-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of water-free neem seed extract shampoo Wash Away Louse, provided by Alpha-Biocare GmbH, Düsseldorf (Germany), was investigated against Sarcoptes scabiei infesting dogs in Egypt. Ten naturally infested dogs were collected from different areas in the Nile delta. The occurrence of lesions, hair loss, and skin inflammation were regarded as signs of infestation and proved by detection of adult parasites and their developmental stages in scrapings of infested lesions. Adequate amount of the provided shampoo was applied topically and spread on the infested areas daily for 14 successive days. Scraping examinations were used to follow up the healing process. At day 7 of application, four dogs were completely free of mites as was proven by the disappearance of adults and/or any developmental stages of mites. The remaining six dogs showed a clear decrease in mite counts. By the end of the treatment (after 14 days), only a small number of mites were found in two dogs, while eight dogs were completely cured as was proven by mite counts and disappearance of clinical signs. No remarkable signs of side effects or adverse reactions were observed throughout the study. PMID:18769941

  3. Effect of owner-controlled acaricidal treatment on tick infestation and immune response to tick-borne pathogens in naturally infested dogs from Eastern Austria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tick-borne infections resulting from regular tick infestation in dogs are a common veterinary health problem all over the world. The application of repellent and acaricidal agents to prevent transmission of pathogens is a major protection strategy and has been proven to be highly effective in several trials under laboratory and natural conditions in dogs. Despite such promising results, many dog owners still report tick infestation in their dogs although acaricidal agents are used. Information about the current infection status and changes of the infection status regarding tick-borne diseases (TBD) in dogs treated by the owner’s controlled acaricide application is lacking. Methods In this study 30 dogs were each treated with permethrin, fipronil + S-methoprene, or served as untreated controls. Application of the acaricide was performed by the owner who decided when and how often to use the spot on preparation. Over a period of 11 months, dogs were clinically examined and sampled for antibody responses against Babesia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi s. l., and TBE virus before the study started, 6 months later and at the end of the investigation period. Results The permethrin acaricide was applied on average 3.40 times within the examination period, whereas the fipronil + S-methoprene medication was applied 3.03 times. Approximately 2/3 of all dogs, independent of the group, had a positive immune response to one or more pathogens. Three dogs developed clinical symptoms of canine babesiosis, all other dogs remained healthy. Individual number of ticks per dog or number of infections per dog did not correlate with the application rate, and the number of ticks per dog did not influence the number of infections per dog. As owners did not apply the acaricides regularly no influence on the number of infections could be documented although the number of ticks was clearly reduced by the application of the spot-on drugs. Conclusions

  4. The efficacy of an imidacloprid/moxidectin combination against naturally acquired Sarcoptes scabiei infestations on dogs.

    PubMed

    Fourie, L J; Heine, J; Horak, I G

    2006-01-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the efficacy of an imidacloprid (10% w/v)/moxidectin (2.5% w/v) combination (Advocate Bayer HealthCare, Animal Health) with that of selamectin for the treatment of Sarcoptes scabiei on dogs. Thirty naturally infested dogs, of which one was later withdrawn because of distemper, were allocated to two equal groups and individually housed. The dogs in each group were treated twice, four weeks apart, with either the combination product (0.1 mL/kg body weight) or with selamectin (0.05 mL/kg body weight) administered topically. Skin scrapings were made every 14 days over a period of 50 to 64 days after the first treatment to quantify mite numbers. Clinical signs and the extent of sarcoptic lesions were assessed on each dog when skin scrapings were made. Efficacy was based on the presence or absence of mites, supported by clinical signs associated with canine sarcoptic mange. From Day 22 and onwards no Sarcoptes mites were found in the skin scrapings of any of the treated dogs. Treatment with the imidacloprid/moxidectin formulation or with selamectin was highly effective against Sarcoptes scabiei and resulted in an almost complete resolution of clinical signs within 50 to 64 days after the initial treatment. PMID:16498829

  5. Oral infestation with leech Limnatis nilotica in two mixed-breed dogs.

    PubMed

    Rajaei, S M; Khorram, H; Ansari Mood, M; Mashhadi Rafie, S; Williams, D L

    2014-12-01

    Leeches are bloodsucking hermaphroditic parasites that attach to tissues using two muscular suckers, ingest large amounts of blood and may cause severe anaemia in the host. Two four-month-old mixed-breed dogs (one bitch and one male) were referred with anorexia, retching, hypersalivation and bleeding from the oral cavity. On physical examination, two live leeches were detected on the ventral aspect of the tongue of the bitch and one in a similar position in the male. The leeches were gently detached and removed using Adson tissue forceps after applying vinegar over the area. Microcytic hypochromic anaemia was detected in the bitch and mild leukocytosis in the dog. One month after treatment both animals were re-examined and a complete blood count was normal. Given that infestation with leeches as described here is associated with contaminated water, the use of clean and safe drinking water is recommended to avoid such diseases. PMID:24320198

  6. Efficacy of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (Simparica™) against four common tick species infesting dogs in Europe.

    PubMed

    Geurden, Thomas; Becskei, Csilla; Grace, Sarah; Strube, Christina; Doherty, Padraig; Liebenberg, Julian; Mahabir, Sean P; Slootmans, Nathalie; Lloyd, Anne; Six, Robert H

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of single oral treatment of sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), a novel isoxazoline compound, was evaluated against four tick species known to commonly infest dogs in Europe. Eight laboratory studies were conducted using adult purpose-bred Beagle dogs. In each study, 16 animals were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups based on pre-treatment host-suitability tick counts. Dogs were infested with 50 unfed adult Dermacentor reticulatus (two studies), Ixodes hexagonus (three studies), Ixodes ricinus (two studies) or Rhipicephalus sanguineus (one study) ticks on Days -2, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33. On Day 0, dogs were treated orally with placebo or sarolaner tablets providing the minimum dose of 2.0mg/kg bodyweight and tick counts were conducted 48h after treatment and after each subsequent weekly re-infestation. There were no treatment-related adverse reactions in any of the studies. Dogs in the placebo-treated group maintained tick infestations throughout the studies. Geometric mean live tick counts were significantly (P≤0.0001) lower in the sarolaner-treated group compared to the tick counts in the placebo group at all time-points. A single oral administration of sarolaner resulted in 100% efficacy against existing infestations of all tick species except R. sanguineus, for which the efficacy was 99.7%, within 48h. Efficacy against weekly re-infestations was ≥97.5% for all tick species for 35 days. Thus, a single dose of sarolaner administered orally at the minimum dosage of 2 mg/kg, resulted in ≥99.7% efficacy within 48h against existing tick infestations, and in ≥97.5% efficacy against weekly re-infestations, for at least 35 days after treatment. These studies confirmed that administration of the minimum dose of sarolaner will provide treatment of existing infestations and give at least one month of control against re-infestation by the common tick species affecting dogs in Europe. PMID:27068640

  7. Efficacy of sarolaner, a novel oral isoxazoline, against two common mite infestations in dogs: Demodex spp. and Otodectes cynotis.

    PubMed

    Six, Robert H; Becskei, Csilla; Mazaleski, Mark M; Fourie, Josephus J; Mahabir, Sean P; Myers, Melanie R; Slootmans, Nathalie

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis) was evaluated against Demodex spp. in dogs with generalized demodicosis and against Otodectes cynotis (otodectic mange) in dogs with induced infestations. In the first study, 16 dogs with clinical signs of generalized demodicosis and positive for Demodex spp. mites were randomly assigned to treatment with either sarolaner (2mg/kg) orally on Days 0, 30 and 60, or topical imidacloprid (10mg/kg) plus moxidectin (2.5mg/kg) solution every 7 days from Day 0 to Day 81. For sarolaner-treated dogs, pretreatment mite counts were reduced by 97.1% at 14days and 99.8% by 29 days after the first dose, with no live mites detected thereafter. Weekly imidacloprid plus moxidectin resulted in 84.4 and 95.6% reduction at these two time points, respectively, with no mites detected from Day 74 on. All dogs in both groups showed marked improvement in the clinical signs of demodicosis. In the second study, 32 dogs with induced infestations of O. cynotis were randomly assigned (eight per group) to oral sarolaner (2mg/kg) as a single treatment on Day 0 or as a two dose regime (Days 0 and 30), or a placebo group for each of the dose regimes. Sarolaner administered at 2mg/kg as a single oral dose resulted in a 98.2% reduction at Day 30 and two doses of sarolaner, administered one month apart, resulted in a 99.5% reduction in ear mites at Day 60 compared to placebo controls. There were no treatment related adverse events in either study. In these studies, sarolaner at an oral dose of 2mg/kg was highly effective in reducing the live mite counts associated with a natural infestation of Demodex spp. and an induced infestation of O. cynotis. In addition, the Demodex-infested dogs showed a marked improvement in the clinical signs of generalized demodicosis. PMID:26971196

  8. Species diversity of dermal microfilariae of the genus Cercopithifilaria infesting dogs in the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Brianti, Emanuele; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Miró, Guadalupe; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Mutafchiev, Yasen; Bain, Odile

    2013-01-01

    Following the recent description of microfilariae of a Cercopithifilaria sp. in a dog from Sicily, Italy, (herein after referred to as Cercopithifilaria sp. I), numerous skin samples were collected from dogs in the Mediterranean region. In addition to Cercopithifilaria sp. I (185·7 ± 7·2 μm long), microfilariae of 2 other species were identified, namely Cercopithifilaria grassii (651·7 ± 23·6 μm long) and a yet undescribed microfilaria, Cercopithifilaria sp. II (264·4 ± 20·2 μm long, with evident lateral alae). The morphological differentiation among the 3 species of dermal microfilariae was confirmed by differences in cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and ribosomal 12S sequences examined (mean level of interspecific pairwise distance of 11·4%, and 17·7%, respectively). Phylogenetic analyses were concordant in clustering these with other sequences of Cercopithifilaria spp. to the exclusion of Dirofilaria spp., Onchocerca spp. and Acanthocheilonema spp. Dermal microfilariae collected (n = 132) were morphologically identified as Cercopithifilaria sp. I (n = 108, 81·8%), Cercopithifilaria sp. II (n = 17, 12·9%), whereas only 7 (5·3%) were identified as C. grassii. Mixed infestations were detected in all sites examined. The great diversity of these neglected filarioids in dogs is of biological interest, considering the complex interactions occurring among hosts, ticks and Cercopithifilaria spp. in different environments. PMID:22914299

  9. Assessment of the cytokine profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of naturally Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis infested dogs.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shanker K; Dimri, Umesh; Sharma, Bhaskar; Saxena, Meeta; Kumari, Priyambada

    2014-12-15

    The mechanism of cytokine secretion from T lymphocytes plays an important role in the immune response of dogs and parasitic skin infestations. Assessment of the cytokine profile of naturally S. scabiei var. canis infested dogs could augment understanding of the pathobiology of canine sarcoptic mange. Therefore, the present study examined the cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of dogs suffering from sarcoptic mange. Thirteen dogs naturally infected with sarcoptic mange participated in the study. The dogs were found positive for S. scabiei var. canis mites in skin scraping examinations and revealed at least three clinical inclusion criteria. Another five clinically healthy dogs were kept as healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from heparinized blood samples and used for extraction of mRNA. Further, cDNA was synthesized by using 1 mg of mRNA by reverse transcription using oligonucleotide primers. Relative levels of cytokine expression were compared with normalized glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) transcripts. The levels of interleukin-4, interleukin-5 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) mRNA expression in dogs with sarcoptic mange were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.01), whereas the level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was significantly lower (P ≤ 0.01) in comparison with the healthy dogs. No remarkable difference was seen for interleukin-2 mRNA expression between these animals. An overproduction IL-4 and IL-5 might be involved in immuno-pathogenesis of canine sarcoptic mange. S. scabiei var. canis mites possibly induce an overproduction of TGF-β and reduced expression of TNF-α and thus could be conferring the immune suppression of infested dogs. PMID:25468023

  10. Insecticide/acaricide resistance in fleas and ticks infesting dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This review defines insecticide/acaricide resistance and describes the history, evolution, types, mechanisms, and detection of resistance as it applies to chemicals currently used against fleas and ticks of dogs and cats and summarizes resistance reported to date. We introduce the concept of refugia as it applies to flea and tick resistance and discuss strategies to minimize the impact and inevitable onset of resistance to newer classes of insecticides. Our purpose is to provide the veterinary practitioner with information needed to investigate suspected lack of efficacy, respond to lack of efficacy complaints from their clients, and evaluate the relative importance of resistance as they strive to relieve their patients and satisfy their clients when faced with flea and tick infestations that are difficult to resolve. We conclude that causality of suspected lack of insecticide/acaricide efficacy is most likely treatment deficiency, not resistance. PMID:24393426

  11. Seroprevalence of Tick-Borne Pathogens and Tick Infestation in Dogs from Tapirapé and Karajá Indigenous Communities, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Minervino, Antonio Humberto Hamad; Lima, Julia Teresa Ribeiro; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Malheiros, Antonio Francisco; Marcili, Arlei; Krawczak, Felipe da Silva; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Moreira, Thiago Rocha; Ribeiro, Múcio Flávio Barbosa; Labruna, Marcelo B; Gennari, Solange Maria

    2015-07-01

    With the aim of studying some tick-borne diseases, a total of 327 dogs (114 from Tapirapé and 213 from Karajá indigenous ethnicity, Mato Grosso, MT, Brazil) were sampled. Serum samples were submitted to the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) to detect antibodies against Babesia vogeli, Ehrlichia canis, and Rickettsia spp. Possible associations of risk factors and the occurrence of seroreativity to tick-borne agents and tick infestations were analyzed through chi-squared tests. Among 327 dogs, 46 (13.15%) were seropositive for B. vogeli and 47 (14.37%) for E. canis. The B. vogeli seroprevalence was higher for Karajá and for adult dogs (p>0.05). No association was found for E. canis seroprevalence. From 103 serum samples tested with rickettsial antigens, 90 (87%) dogs were seropositive to Rickettsia spp., with highest reactivity to Rickettsia amblyommii. Canine seropositivity to Rickettsia spp. was associated (p<0.05) with ethnicity (higher seroprevalence in Tapirapé dogs), age (higher in adults), and hunting (higher among hunting dogs). From the 327 dogs, 39 (11.9%) were infested by ticks (Amblyomma cajennense sensu stricto, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma oblongoguttatum, Amblyomma tigrinum, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus). Infestations by Amblyomma spp. ticks were higher in dogs from Tapirapé community and in hunting dogs (p<0.05). Regarding R. sanguineus, infestations were higher (p<0.05) among young dogs. PMID:26186512

  12. Evaluation of the speed of kill, effects on reproduction, and effectiveness in a simulated infested-home environment of sarolaner (Simparica™) against fleas on dogs.

    PubMed

    Six, Robert H; Becskei, Csilla; Carter, Lori; Gale, Boyd; Young, David R; Mahabir, Sean P; Chapin, Sara; Myers, Melanie R

    2016-05-30

    Four studies were conducted to evaluate the speed of kill, effect on egg production, and efficacy in a simulated infested-home environment of a novel isoxazoline, sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), against fleas on dogs. Individually identified and housed, purpose-bred Beagles were used in each study and were allocated randomly to groups based on pretreatment parasite counts. In two speed of kill studies, groups of dogs infested with 100 fleas prior to treatment were treated orally with placebo or sarolaner tablets providing the minimum dose of 2mg/kg and then re-infested with fleas weekly for five weeks post-treatment. Comb counts were conducted to determine the numbers of viable fleas at one to three, four, eight and 12h after treatment and each subsequent infestation. In the egg production study, sarolaner- and placebo-treated dogs were similarly challenged with fleas and at 48h after each infestation the dogs were housed for 20h in cages allowing the collection and counting of all flea eggs produced during this period. Collected eggs were incubated to evaluate hatch and development to adults. The last study used dogs housed in a flea-infested simulated-home environment. Dogs were allocated to treatment with either placebo or sarolaner tablets providing a dose of 2mg/kg once a month for three treatments. Flea infestations were assessed by comb counts (fleas were replaced on the dogs) on Days 14, 30, 44, 60, 74 and 90. The speed of kill studies demonstrated that a single 2mg/kg oral dose of sarolaner started killing fleas within three to four hours after treatment or subsequent re-infestations for up to a month, and achieved ≥98% control of fleas by eight hours after treatment or re-infestation for 28 days. In the study to assess effects on flea reproduction, a single oral treatment of sarolaner resulted in the complete cessation of egg-laying for 35 days. This rapid kill of fleas and inhibition of reproduction were confirmed in a simulated-home environment

  13. Identification of Leishmania spp. promastigotes in the intestines, ovaries, and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus actively infesting dogs.

    PubMed

    Viol, Milena Araúz; Guerrero, Felix D; de Oliveira, Bruno César Miranda; de Aquino, Monally Conceição Costa; Loiola, Saulo Hudson; de Melo, Guilherme Dias; de Souza Gomes, Aparecida Helena; Kanamura, Cristina Takami; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Andreotti, Renato; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2016-09-01

    Sand flies are recognized as the major vector of canine visceral leishmaniasis. However, in some areas of Brazil where sand flies do not occur, this disease is found in humans and dogs. There has been speculation that ticks might play a role in transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis and the DNA of Leishmania spp. has been reported in whole ticks. We investigated the presence of Leishmania spp. promastigotes in the intestines, ovaries, and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from tick-infested dogs in two cities of Brazil. We used 66 dogs that tested positive and 33 that tested negative for Leishmania spp. according to direct cytological examination assays. Ten ticks were collected from each dog and dissected to collect the intestines, ovaries, and salivary glands for immunohistochemistry (IHC) and diagnostic real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). IHC results showed Leishmania spp. in 98, 14, and 8 % of the intestines, ovaries, and salivary glands, respectively. Real-time PCR showed that 89, 41, and 33 % of the tick intestine, ovary, and salivary glands, respectively, were positive for Leishmania spp. The verification of promastigotes of Leishmania spp. by two independent techniques in ticks collected from these urban region dogs showed that there is need for clarification of the role of ticks in the transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. PMID:27169724

  14. Efficacy of a Novel Topical Combination of Fipronil 9.8% and (S)-Methoprene 8.8% against Ticks and Fleas in Naturally Infested Dogs.

    PubMed

    Nambi, Ayyanampakkam Pandurangan; Rathi, Badal; S, Kavitha; Dudhatra, Ghanshyam; Yamini, Hamsa S; Ali Bhat, Abid

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil 9.8% (w/v) and (S)-methoprene 8.8% (w/v) (Fiprofort® Plus) was tested against ticks and fleas in naturally infested dogs. A total of fifty dogs were allocated in the study with ticks infestation (n = 35) and fleas infestation (n = 15). On day 0, thirty-five tick and fifteen flea infested dogs received the test formulation, a combination of fipronil 9.8% (w/v) and (S)-methoprene 8.8% (w/v) spot-on solution. Ticks and flea counts were taken on days 0 (pretreatment) and 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 after treatment. Blood samples were collected for evaluation of haematological parameters on days 0 (pretreatment) and 7, 21, and 35 after treatment. All the adult ticks and fleas collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis, respectively. The efficacy of spot-on formulation against ticks was 34.00% (day 3), 53.14% (day 7), 62.71% (day 14), 65.48% (day 21), 59.80% (day 28), and 58.82% (day 35), whereas against fleas it was 38.00% (day 3), 64.34% (day 7), 89.67% (day 14), 95.40% (day 21), 100.00% (day 28), and 100.00% (day 35). Haematological parameters for ticks and fleas infested dogs were statistically nonsignificant as compared to control. The combination of fipronil and (S)-methoprene eliminated the existing ticks and fleas infestation and prevented the dogs from flea and tick infestation for four weeks. PMID:27190688

  15. Efficacy of a Novel Topical Combination of Fipronil 9.8% and (S)-Methoprene 8.8% against Ticks and Fleas in Naturally Infested Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Nambi, Ayyanampakkam Pandurangan; Rathi, Badal; S, Kavitha; Dudhatra, Ghanshyam; Yamini, Hamsa S.; Ali Bhat, Abid

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil 9.8% (w/v) and (S)-methoprene 8.8% (w/v) (Fiprofort® Plus) was tested against ticks and fleas in naturally infested dogs. A total of fifty dogs were allocated in the study with ticks infestation (n = 35) and fleas infestation (n = 15). On day 0, thirty-five tick and fifteen flea infested dogs received the test formulation, a combination of fipronil 9.8% (w/v) and (S)-methoprene 8.8% (w/v) spot-on solution. Ticks and flea counts were taken on days 0 (pretreatment) and 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 after treatment. Blood samples were collected for evaluation of haematological parameters on days 0 (pretreatment) and 7, 21, and 35 after treatment. All the adult ticks and fleas collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis, respectively. The efficacy of spot-on formulation against ticks was 34.00% (day 3), 53.14% (day 7), 62.71% (day 14), 65.48% (day 21), 59.80% (day 28), and 58.82% (day 35), whereas against fleas it was 38.00% (day 3), 64.34% (day 7), 89.67% (day 14), 95.40% (day 21), 100.00% (day 28), and 100.00% (day 35). Haematological parameters for ticks and fleas infested dogs were statistically nonsignificant as compared to control. The combination of fipronil and (S)-methoprene eliminated the existing ticks and fleas infestation and prevented the dogs from flea and tick infestation for four weeks. PMID:27190688

  16. Evaluation of the speed of kill of sarolaner (Simparica™) against induced infestations of three species of ticks (Amblyomma maculatum, Ixodes scapularis, Ixodes ricinus) on dogs.

    PubMed

    Six, Robert H; Geurden, Thomas; Carter, Lori; Everett, William R; McLoughlin, A; Mahabir, Sean P; Myers, Melanie R; Slootmans, Nathalie

    2016-05-30

    The rapid speed of kill of sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), a novel isoxazoline compound, was demonstrated against three tick species known to infest dogs in Europe or the United States. Efficacy was measured against an existing infestation and against subsequent weekly re-infestations for 35 days after treatment. Dogs were randomly allocated to treatment with a single oral dose of either placebo or sarolaner (2mg/kg) based on pre-treatment host-suitability tick counts. Dogs were infested with approximately 50 unfed adult Ixodes scapularis, Ixodes ricinus or Amblyomma maculatum ticks on Days-2, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Tick counts were conducted at 4 (I. scapularis only), 8, 12 and 24h after treatment on Day 0 and after each subsequent re-infestation. No treatment-related adverse reactions occurred during any of these studies. Dogs in the placebo-treated groups maintained adequate tick infestations (recovery of 20-70% of applied ticks) throughout the duration of the studies. Following treatment, live tick counts were significantly reduced relative to placebo at the 8h post treatment counts indicating that sarolaner started killing existing infestations of ticks rapidly after treatment. Efficacy was 90.1% against I. ricinus, 98.8% against I. scapularis, and 99.2% against A. maculatum within 12h, and 100% efficacy was achieved at 24h after treatment against all three tick species. This speed of kill was maintained throughout the month with ≥95.7%, ≥98.7% and ≥89.6% efficacy against I. scapularis, I. ricinus, and A. maculatum, respectively, at 24h after re-infestation at least through Day 28. PMID:26928659

  17. The efficacy of selamectin in the treatment of naturally acquired aural infestations of otodectes cynotis on dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Shanks, D J; McTier, T L; Rowan, T G; Watson, P; Thomas, C A; Bowman, D D; Hair, J A; Pengo, G; Genchi, C; Smothers, C D; Smith, D G; Jernigan, A D

    2000-08-23

    The efficacy of a novel avermectin, selamectin, was evaluated against naturally acquired aural infestations of Otodectes cynotis on dogs and cats. In four controlled and masked studies conducted in the USA and Europe, animals were allocated randomly to treatment with either selamectin at a minimum dosage of 6mgkg(-1) (range, 6-12. 5mgkg(-1)) or the vehicle only from the commercial formulation of selamectin (negative control). Treatments were administered topically in a single spot to the skin of each animal's back at the base of the neck in front of the scapulae. Cats were treated on day 0 only, and dogs were treated either on day 0 only or on days 0 and 30. The ears of dogs were examined otoscopically on day 14 for the presence of viable mites. Mite counts were conducted on day 30 for animals that had received one dose and on day 60 for animals that had received two doses. Percentage reductions in geometric mean mite counts for selamectin treatment compared with the vehicle were 100% for all animals on all count days. Analysis of variance, confirmed by Savage Scores, showed that ln(mite count+1) values were significantly (P< or =0.0015) lower for selamectin than for the vehicle for all animals on all count days. Thus, selamectin administered topically at a minimum dosage of 6mgkg(-1) was safe and 100% effective against naturally acquired aural infestations of O. cynotis in dogs and cats after a single dose or after two doses administered 1 month apart. PMID:10940529

  18. Association between the prevalence of infestation by Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis felis and the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies: A case-control study in dogs from a Brazilian endemic area.

    PubMed

    Paz, Gustavo F; Ribeiro, Múcio F B; de Magalhães, Danielle F; Sathler, Kelly P B; Morais, Maria Helena F; Fiúza, Vanessa O P; Brandão, Silvana T; Werneck, Guilherme L; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Dias, Edelberto S

    2010-11-01

    The association between the prevalence of infestation by Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis felis and the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies has been evaluated in dogs located in a city of Brazil endemic for canine visceral leishmaniasis. Blood samples from 5556 domestic dogs domiciliated in the urban area of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais state) were submitted to enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFAT) assays, and 432 (7.8%) animals tested positive. Seropositive (n=200) and seronegative (n=200) dogs were randomly selected and examined for the presence of ticks and fleas, the results of which were expressed qualitatively as infested or non-infested, irrespective of the intensity of infestation. The prevalence of infestation by R. sanguineus was significantly greater (ρ=0.04) among seropositive dogs (38.5%) compared with their seronegative counterparts (29.0%). Similarly, the prevalence of infestation by C. felis felis was significantly greater (ρ<0.01) within the seropositive group (36.5%) than within the seronegative group (15.0%). Moreover, the probability of seropositivity for Leishmania was 53% higher in tick-infested dogs and 300% higher in flea-infested dogs in comparison with non-infested animals. Our data provide evidence of the vectorial capacity of these ectoparasites in transmitting Leishmania to the canine population, although further studies are needed to confirm or reject this hypothesis. PMID:20869131

  19. Paragonimus paishuihoensis metacercariae in freshwater crabs, Potamon lipkei, in Vientiane Province, Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Habe, Shigehisa; Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Yahiro, Shinichiro; Vannavong, Nanthasane; Barennes, Hubert; Odermatt, Peter; Dreyfuss, Gilles; Horii, Yoichiro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2013-12-01

    Among Paragonimus species, P. paishuihoensis is one of the most mysterious and poorly understood species. Metacercariae are characterized by having a unique dendritically branched excretory bladder. However, the morphology of the adult worm remains unknown. To date, metacercariae of this species have been reported only in China and Thailand. In this study, we first found P. paishuihoensis metacercariae in freshwater crabs, Potamon lipkei, in Hinheub District, Vientiane, Lao PDR, with a prevalence of 77.7% and the average intensity of 10.3 (range 1-28) metacercariae per crab. The molecular data based on ITS2 and CO1 markers indicated that P. paishuihoensis from Laos and Thailand were almost completely identical and were close to members of the Paragonimus bangkokensis/Paragonimus harinasutai complex. Attempts to infect experimental animals (cats, dogs, and rats) with P. paishuihoensis were unsuccessful, suggesting that these animals might be unsuitable definitive hosts for the species. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the taxonomic status and life cycle of P. paishuihoensis. PMID:24516274

  20. A randomized, blinded, controlled and multi-centered field study comparing the efficacy and safety of Bravecto™ (fluralaner) against Frontline™ (fipronil) in flea- and tick-infested dogs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fluralaner, a new molecular entity of the isoxazoline class, has potent insecticidal and acaricidal activity and can be safely administered orally to dogs. Methods A randomized, investigator-blinded, multi-centered field study compared the flea- and tick-control efficacy for dogs over a 12-week period with either a single oral dose of Bravecto™ (fluralaner) formulated as a chewable tablet or with three sequential topical Frontline™ (fipronil) treatments. Individual dogs were the experimental unit for ticks and households were the experimental unit for fleas. A total of 108 tick-infested dogs were treated with Bravecto™ (fluralaner) and 54 tick-infested dogs were treated with Frontline™ (fipronil). Dogs in 115 flea-infested households received Bravecto™ (fluralaner) and dogs in 61 flea-infested households received Frontline™ (fipronil). Flea and tick counts were conducted on all dogs at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12 following initial treatment and efficacy was calculated as the mean percent reduction in tick or flea count at each time point compared with the mean pretreatment initiation count for each treatment group. Additionally, the percentages of tick-free and flea-free households were determined. Results At weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12, Bravecto™ (fluralaner) flea-control efficacy in treated households was 99.2%, 99.8%, 99.8%, and 99.9% respectively, while Frontline™ (fipronil) efficacy was 94.1%, 93.0%, 96.0%, and 97.3%, respectively. Bravecto™ (fluralaner) tick-control efficacy on treated dogs at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12 was 99.9%, 99.9%, 99.7%, and 100%, respectively, and Frontline™ (fipronil) tick efficacy was 97.6%, 93.8%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Of dogs showing clinical flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) signs at the study start, 85.7% in the Bravecto™ (fluralaner)-treated group and 55.6% in the Frontline™ (fipronil)-treated group were evaluated at each time point as showing no clinical signs of FAD until study completion. Conclusions

  1. Efficacy of a combination of 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin (Seresto®) in slow release collars to control ticks and fleas in highly infested dog communities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dog communities living in kennels are at high risk of being infected by ticks and fleas. In spite of the indubitable efficacy of several topical ectoparasiticides registered for the control of ectoparasites in dogs, the short period of action and the price of these products limit their use in dog communities. This paper reports on the efficacy of imidacloprid/flumethrin slow release collars to cure dogs highly infested with ectoparasites and to prevent infestations for 8 months in a refuge with a history of unsuccessful environmental treatments. Methods A total of 82 dogs were collared with slow release collars containing a formulation of imidacloprid 10% / flumethrin 4.5%. Dogs were followed-up for ectoparasite presence after 2, 7 and 14 days and thereafter biweekly up to 90 days. Furthermore, dogs were examined for ectoparasites whilst replacing collars 8 months after their application. Results At the time of treatment 79 (96.3%) out of 82 included dogs were heavily infested by ticks and 53 (68.8%) out of the 77 combed dogs were infested by fleas. Tick infested dogs had an estimated mean intensity of 46.9 (± 65.7), while flea infested animals had a load between 20 and 50 fleas. In addition, some of the flea infested dogs (18.9%) were presenting signs of flea allergic dermatitis (FAD). Two days after treatment, 49 (60.5%) and 9 (11.7%) dogs were still infested by live ticks and fleas, respectively. However, the mean intensity of ticks decreased to 3.5 (± 4.3) with a reduction of 92.5%. Except for sporadic cases, no attached ectoparasites were found on dogs from the day 14 visit until the end of the investigation. Cases of FAD resolved without any other treatment within 30 days. Conclusions Ticks and fleas represent a constant hazard for dog populations. Therefore, in particular settings, such as dog refuges, sustainable and long-term strategies to control ectoparasite infestations are needed. Based on the observed evidence of efficacy, long

  2. [Study of infestation of dogs with Echinococcus granulosus in the province of La Rioja, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Amaya, Juan C; Moreno, Nancy; Salmaso, Nancy; Bazan, Eduardo; Ricoy, Gerardo; Córdoba, Patricia; Santillan, Graciela I

    2016-01-01

    This work was conducted in the province of La Rioja, located in northwestern Argentina. The aim of this study was to estimate the percentage of dog feces showing the presence of antigens of Echinococcus sp. in different regions of the province. A total of 269 samples of dried canine stool were taken, which were analyzed by the copro-ELISA technique. The most affected area was zone IV, which had 30.5% of positive samples. Zone I corresponding to the Capital Department of the province had 12% of positivity. In other areas, the percentages ranged between 11.4% and 14.8%. This is the first study in the province of La Rioja on the existence of this disease in dogs. The lack of control strategies has allowed the spread of echinococcosis. PMID:26774705

  3. Digit loss due to Demodex spp. infestation in a dog: clinical and pathological features.

    PubMed

    Grandi, F; Pasternak, A; Beserra, H E O

    2013-01-01

    Here we describe a rare clinical manifestation of canine pododemodicosis. A dog was presented with pedal erythema, scaling, crusting, severe edema and digit loss. The following diseases were taken into account for the differential diagnosis: pododemodicosis, lethal acrodermatitis, zinc responsive dermatosis and pemphigus foliaceus. Results from skin biopsies revealed the presence of Demodex spp. of mites in the follicular infundibula and a severe inflammatory process (pododemodicosis). Upon the acaricidal treatment, the patient exhibited favorable signs of clinical improvement. PMID:26623312

  4. Digit loss due to Demodex spp. infestation in a dog: clinical and pathological features

    PubMed Central

    Grandi, F.; Pasternak, A.; Beserra, H.E.O.

    2013-01-01

    Here we describe a rare clinical manifestation of canine pododemodicosis. A dog was presented with pedal erythema, scaling, crusting, severe edema and digit loss. The following diseases were taken into account for the differential diagnosis: pododemodicosis, lethal acrodermatitis, zinc responsive dermatosis and pemphigus foliaceus. Results from skin biopsies revealed the presence of Demodex spp. of mites in the follicular infundibula and a severe inflammatory process (pododemodicosis). Upon the acaricidal treatment, the patient exhibited favorable signs of clinical improvement. PMID:26623312

  5. Current trends in the treatment of Sarcoptes, Cheyletiella and Otodectes mite infestations in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Cathy F

    2004-04-01

    For a number of reasons, several of the more 'traditional' ectoparasiticides in the small animal veterinarian's armoury have been withdrawn over the past few years. New, safer products which are long-acting and easier to apply than the conventional dips, rinses and aerosol sprays of the past have replaced them. However, relatively few such novel acaricidal preparations have become commercially available. Consequently, practitioners and researchers frequently experiment with the drugs they have at their disposal to assess their efficacy against a variety of target acarids when used at different dosages and/or via different routes of administration, compared with those recommended by the manufacturer. This paper reviews the anecdotal and peer-reviewed reports describing the use of modern acaricides in dogs and cats that have recently appeared in the veterinary literature. It should be stressed, however, that no medicine should be prescribed for extra-label use without the informed consent of the owner. PMID:15030559

  6. Efficacy and safety of a novel oral isoxazoline, sarolaner (Simparica™) in the treatment of naturally occurring flea and tick infestations in dogs presented as veterinary patients in Europe.

    PubMed

    Becskei, Csilla; De Bock, Filip; Illambas, Joanna; Mahabir, Sean P; Farkas, Robert; Six, Robert H

    2016-05-30

    Two randomised, blinded, multi-centered field studies were conducted in Europe to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of three monthly oral doses of sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis) administered at a minimum dosage of 2.0mg/kg (range 2-4mg/kg) against natural flea or tick infestation of dogs presented as veterinary patients. In the flea study, the improvement in clinical signs associated with flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) was also investigated. The palatability of the sarolaner chewable tablet formulation was evaluated in both studies. Spinosad (Comfortis(®) Chewable Tablets, Elanco) and fipronil (Frontline(®) Spot on, Merial) were used as positive controls in the flea and tick study, respectively. Treatments were administered on Days 0, 30 and 60. Efficacy was calculated based on the mean percent reduction of live parasite counts on post-treatment days 14, 30, 60 and 90 versus the pre-treatment count on Day 0. Non-inferiority of sarolaner to the control products was assessed at each time-point using a margin of 15% at the one-sided 0.025 significance level. Dogs were enrolled in a 2:1 ratio (sarolaner:comparator); 285 flea- and 181 tick-infested dogs were assessed for efficacy and safety, and 137 and 48 dogs were assessed for safety only, in the flea and tick study, respectively. There were no treatment-related adverse events. Efficacy against fleas was 98.8%, 99.4%, >99.9% and >99.9% in the sarolaner-treated group and 98.9%, 93.7%, 96.8% and 95.1% in the spinosad-treated group on Days 14, 30, 60 and 90, respectively. Sarolaner was non-inferior to spinosad at all time-points and was superior on Day 30. For the 42 dogs identified as having FAD at enrolment, the clinical signs of FAD improved in all dogs and the incidence was markedly reduced by the end of the study. Efficacy against ticks was 97.4%, 97.6%, 99.8% and 100% in the sarolaner-treated group and 94.1%, 88.5%, 89.9% and 98.1% in the fipronil-treated group on Days 14, 30, 60 and 90, respectively

  7. Paragonimus kellicotti: A Lung Infection in Our Own Backyard.

    PubMed

    Johannesen, Eric; Nguyen, Van

    2016-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is an infection caused by the lung fluke of the genus Paragonimus. Within the United States, paragonimiasis has been commonly diagnosed in Southeast Asian immigrants infected with the Asian lung fluke Paragonimus westermani. Infections from the North American lung fluke, Paragonimus kellicotti, have been rare, although more infections have been seen in people in the Midwestern United States. A 29-year-old male with a history of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma presented with hemoptysis. A CT scan showed a mass in the left upper lung lobe. A biopsy showed eosinophils and parasite eggs, some with a recognizable operculum. Further investigation revealed that he takes canoe trips on rivers within Missouri and would eat crayfish caught from these rivers. A blood sample was confirmed positive for Paragonimiasis serologically at the Center for Disease Control. Paragonimus kellicotti is found in rivers within the Mississippi basin. Infection occurs by consuming uncooked or undercooked crawfish. Microscopic identification of parasite eggs has been the gold standard. Serologic tests have been developed to aid in the diagnosis. Patients typically present with fever and hemoptysis. Common CT findings include pleural effusion, a mass, and lymphadenopathy. Awareness of P. kellicotti is important to guide appropriate diagnostic testing and ensuring proper treatment. PMID:27213066

  8. Paragonimus kellicotti: A Lung Infection in Our Own Backyard

    PubMed Central

    Johannesen, Eric; Nguyen, Van

    2016-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is an infection caused by the lung fluke of the genus Paragonimus. Within the United States, paragonimiasis has been commonly diagnosed in Southeast Asian immigrants infected with the Asian lung fluke Paragonimus westermani. Infections from the North American lung fluke, Paragonimus kellicotti, have been rare, although more infections have been seen in people in the Midwestern United States. A 29-year-old male with a history of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma presented with hemoptysis. A CT scan showed a mass in the left upper lung lobe. A biopsy showed eosinophils and parasite eggs, some with a recognizable operculum. Further investigation revealed that he takes canoe trips on rivers within Missouri and would eat crayfish caught from these rivers. A blood sample was confirmed positive for Paragonimiasis serologically at the Center for Disease Control. Paragonimus kellicotti is found in rivers within the Mississippi basin. Infection occurs by consuming uncooked or undercooked crawfish. Microscopic identification of parasite eggs has been the gold standard. Serologic tests have been developed to aid in the diagnosis. Patients typically present with fever and hemoptysis. Common CT findings include pleural effusion, a mass, and lymphadenopathy. Awareness of P. kellicotti is important to guide appropriate diagnostic testing and ensuring proper treatment. PMID:27213066

  9. [Evaluation of an intracutaneous test using a Sarcoptes mite extract solution (Acari: Sarcoptidae) as a method for detection of Sarcoptes mite-infested dogs].

    PubMed

    Beck, W; Hiepe, T

    1998-05-01

    Sarcoptes infestation in dogs, caused by Sarcoptes canis, is a relatively common disease in small animal practice. The parasites may induce severe allergic skin reactions. By means of clinical symptoms a presumptive diagnosis should be made. For ensurement detection of mites in skin scrapings is necessary, but it is not easy to find the parasites. Serodiagnostic methods are helpful to confirm the diagnosis. They indicate specific antibody (circulating IgE) titer. Intracutaneous test by using allergen extracts as possible third way of diagnostic methods was tested comparatively with the existing causaldiagnostic procedures in 45 dogs with suspected scabies. Preconditions of own examinations was mite antigen preparation. A mite extract solution of Sarcoptes suis was prepared and 0.1 ml were applicated intracutaneously. In 14 dogs (31.11%) allergic skin changes (Immediate reaction type 1) became apparent. The results were opposed to both other detection methods--skin scraping (4 positive findings/8.89%) and serodiagnosis (13 positive findings/30.77%). PMID:9639954

  10. Field efficacy of moxidectin in dogs and rabbits naturally infested with Sarcoptes spp., Demodex spp. and Psoroptes spp. mites.

    PubMed

    Wagner, R; Wendlberger, U

    2000-11-10

    The efficacy of moxidectin 1% injectable for cattle was evaluated in dogs and rabbits with naturally acquired sarcoptic, demodectic or psoroptic mites. Twenty-two dogs with generalised demodicosis were orally treated with 0.4mg/kg moxidectin daily. Forty-one dogs suffering from sarcoptic mange were treated with 0.2-0.25mg/kg moxidectin either orally or subcutaneously every week for three to six times. Seven rabbits were treated orally with 0.2mg/kg moxidectin twice 10 days apart. Of the 22 dogs with demodicosis, 14% were stopped treatment because of side effects, 14% were lost and of the remaining 72% all were cured (mean therapy duration 2.4 months). Thirty-seven of the sarcoptic mange-infected dogs finished treatment and were cured. In 17% of dogs, side effects were noted. All seven rabbits treated for psoroptic mange were cured and did not show any side effect. Our results indicate that moxidectin is effective and a good alternative for the treatment of demodicosis and scabies in dogs and psoroptic mange in rabbits. Side effects seem to occur more frequently if applied subcutaneously, therefore the oral route should be preferred. PMID:11035233

  11. Field evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a combination of spinosad and milbemycin oxime in the treatment and prevention of naturally acquired flea infestations and treatment of intestinal nematode infections in dogs in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Brad; Schnitzler, Beate; Wiseman, Scott; Snyder, Daniel E

    2015-01-15

    Two separate randomised, blinded, multicentre field trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a combination of spinosad and milbemycin oxime (MO) (Trifexis(®), Elanco Animal Health) in the treatment and prevention of naturally acquired flea infestations and intestinal nematode infections in European dogs. Treatments using Trifexis(®) and each control veterinary product (CVP) were administered once on Day 0 in both field studies. In the flea field trial, 11 veterinary clinics in France participated in the study. On Day 0, whole body flea comb counts were conducted on all dogs being evaluated for enrolment. Dogs with ≥7 fleas on Day 0 were enrolled, treated once on Day 0 with spinosad/MO or the CVP (Stronghold(®); selamectin) and then underwent post-treatment flea counts on Days 14 and 30. There were 150 spinosad/MO treated dogs and 71 CVP treated dogs included in the flea effectiveness population. Effectiveness against fleas (% reduction in geometric means; GM) was 98.97% and 97.37% for the spinosad/MO treated dogs, and 97.43% and 93.96% for the CVP dogs on Days 14 and 30, respectively, compared to the pre-treatment baseline flea counts. Of the spinosad/MO dogs, 89.3% and 80.0% had no live fleas on Days 14 and 30, compared to 77.5% and 70.4% of the CVP dogs, respectively. In the nematode field trial, data from 10 veterinary clinics in France and 19 in Ireland were pooled. Faecal samples from dogs at each clinic were analysed. A positive result at screening (parasite eggs from Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis or Ancylostoma caninum) allowed for enrolment. Dogs were randomised to spinosad/MO or the CVP (Milbemax(®); MO/praziquantel). On Day 8, a post-treatment faecal sample was taken and analysed. Of 2333 dogs screened for nematode eggs, 238 dogs were positive with one or more of these nematodes, and 229 were enrolled in the study. Of the 229 dogs, 151 were treated with a single dose of spinosad/MO, and 77 were treated with

  12. Comparative Efficacy of an Imidacloprid/Flumethrin Collar (Seresto®) and an Oral Fluralaner Chewable Tablet (Bravecto®) against Tick (Dermacentor variabilis and Amblyomma americanum) Infestations on Dogs: a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ohmes, Cameon M; Hostetler, Joe; Davis, Wendell L; Settje, Terry; McMinn, Amy; Everett, William R

    2015-08-01

    This controlled laboratory study demonstrated the residual speed of efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto(®), Bayer) for the control of ticks (Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma americanum) at 6 and 12 hours post-infestation on dogs when compared to oral fluralaner (Bravecto(®), Merck). Dogs were randomised by pre-treatment tick counts: Group 1) imidacloprid 10 % (w/w)/flumethrin 4.5 % (w/w) collar, 2) fluralaner (dosage 25.1 - 49.4 mg/kg), and 3) non-treated controls. Ticks (50/species/dog) were infested on days 3, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56 followed by 50 D. variabilis on days 70 and 84. Live and dead attached ticks were counted 6 and 12 hours later. Efficacy against both species at 6 and 12 hours for Group 1 was 94 - 100 %. Efficacy for Group 2 against both species at 6 hours was 4 - 69 %; efficacy at 12 hours was 8 - 100 %. Live (attached and non-attached) tick counts at 6 hours in Group 1 were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) than counts in Group 2 and 3 on all days. At 12 hours, live counts were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in Group 1 than Group 2 for D. variabilis from days 56 - 84 and for A. americanum from days 28 - 56. There were significantly fewer (p ≤ 0.05) total ticks (total live and dead attached) on dogs in Group 1 compared to Group 2 and 3 at all time points. This study demonstrated that an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar was highly efficacious (94 - 100 %) at repelling and killing ticks on dogs at 6 and 12 hours post-infestation and was more efficacious than fluralaner as early as 6 hours post-infestation on all challenge days. PMID:26152411

  13. Identification of Leishmania spp. promastigotes in the intestines, ovaries and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus actively infesting dogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sand flies are recognized as the major vector of canine visceral leishmaniasis. However, in some areas of Brazil where sand flies do not occur, this disease is found in humans and dogs. There has been speculation that ticks might play a role in transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis and the D...

  14. Experimental infection of Oncomelania quadrasi with Paragonimus ohirai.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, K; Blas, B L; Santos, A T

    1984-06-01

    Two hundred Oncomelania quadrasi collected from Leyte, Philippines were exposed to infection with Paragonimus ohirai, a rodent type lung fluke. In a group, each snail was exposed individually to 10 miracidia hatched from eggs which were brought from Japan to the Philippines. In another group, 100 snails were placed in a Petri dish and P. ohirai miracidia were added to provide 10 per snail. The observations were made each successive week after exposure. All the snails examined were positive for the larvae of P. ohirai. Nine-ten weeks after exposure, many cercariae were recognized. It was proved that O. quadrasi is highly susceptible to P. ohirai. PMID:6505784

  15. Albendazole therapy for experimentally induced Paragonimus kellicotti infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Hoover, E A; Stromberg, P C; Toussant, M J

    1978-06-01

    The effect of albendazole therapy was studied in 6 cats with pulmonary paragonimiasis induced by experimental inoculation of metacercariae (25/cat) of Paragonimus kellicotti. At 76 to 101 days after they were inoculated, 5 cats were administered an oral aqueous suspension of albendazole in 2 divided doses totaling 20 mg (2 cats), 50 mg (1 cat), or 100 mg (2 cats)/kg of body weight each day for 14 to 21 days. The 6th cat (control) was not administered albendazole. Nine days after cats were given the 50- and 100-mg/kg dosages, Paragonimus ova were not seen in the feces of 3 cats. There was marked reduction in ova production in the feces of the 2 cats administered 20 mg/kg of albendazole. Live flukes were not recovered from the lungs of 3 cats necropsied 4 or 5 weeks after dosing with 50 or 100 mg/kg, but the lungs of the 2 cats administered 20 mg of albendazole/kg yielded 9 and 7 apparently viable flukes. Seventeen live flukes were recovered from the control cat not treated with albendazole. In 4 noninoculated normal cats administered 20 mg (1 cat), 100 mg (1 cat), and 200 mg (2 cats) of albendazole/kg of body weight each day for 14 days, there were no gross or microscopic lesions attributable to the drug. PMID:666077

  16. Molecular identification of a case of Paragonimus pseudoheterotremus infection in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Intapan, Pewpan M; Sanpool, Oranuch; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Imtawil, Kanokwan; Pongchaiyakul, Chatlert; Nawa, Yukifumi; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2012-10-01

    Paragonimiasis is an important food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Southeast Asia, Paragonimus heterotremus is the only proven causative pathogen. Recently, a new Paragonimus species, P. pseudoheterotremus, was found in Thailand. This species is genetically similar to P. heterotremus and is considered as a sister species. However, infectivity or pathogenicity of P. pseudoheterotremus to humans remains unclear. We report the first confirmed human pulmonary paragonimiasis case caused by P. pseudoheterotremus infection. After polymerase chain reaction/sequencing of the DNA extracted from Paragonimus eggs in the sputum of the patient, partial internal transcribed spacer 2 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequences were approximately identical (98-100%) with those of P. pseudoheterotremus. For P. heterotremus, the partial internal transcribed spacer 2 sequence was approximately identical (99-100%), but the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequence showed a similarity of 90-95%. PMID:22826489

  17. Molecular Identification of a Case of Paragonimus pseudoheterotremus Infection in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Intapan, Pewpan M.; Sanpool, Oranuch; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Imtawil, Kanokwan; Pongchaiyakul, Chatlert; Nawa, Yukifumi; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2012-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is an important food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Southeast Asia, Paragonimus heterotremus is the only proven causative pathogen. Recently, a new Paragonimus species, P. pseudoheterotremus, was found in Thailand. This species is genetically similar to P. heterotremus and is considered as a sister species. However, infectivity or pathogenicity of P. pseudoheterotremus to humans remains unclear. We report the first confirmed human pulmonary paragonimiasis case caused by P. pseudoheterotremus infection. After polymerase chain reaction/sequencing of the DNA extracted from Paragonimus eggs in the sputum of the patient, partial internal transcribed spacer 2 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequences were approximately identical (98–100%) with those of P. pseudoheterotremus. For P. heterotremus, the partial internal transcribed spacer 2 sequence was approximately identical (99–100%), but the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequence showed a similarity of 90–95%. PMID:22826489

  18. Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... found on the skin of people and animals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the same bacterium that has become resistant to some antibiotics. Dogs and other animals often can carry MRSA ...

  19. Comparative efficacy on dogs of a single topical treatment with fipronil/(S)-methoprene or weekly physiological hygiene shampoos against Ctenocephalides felis in a simulated flea-infested environment

    PubMed Central

    Beugnet, F.; Fourie, J.; Chalvet-Monfray, K.

    2012-01-01

    Flea infestations of pets continue to persist due to the lack of knowledge of flea biology and ecology. It is not unusual that pet owners believe regular hygiene, such as shampooing their dogs can replace regular insecticidal treatment. The objective of this study was to compare in a flea simulated environment, modelling exposure similar to that found in a home, that the use of regular physiological shampoo does not control fleas adequately when compared to a long acting topical formulation. Three groups of six dogs were formed: one untreated control group, one group treated monthly with the topical formulation of fipronil/(S)-methoprene, and a third group treated weekly with a hygiene shampoo. All dogs were infested with adult unfed Ctenocephalides felis fleas (200 ± 5) on Days -28 and -21. Each animal’s sleeping box was fitted with a plastic cup mounted to the inside roof of the box. The sleeping bench of each animal was covered with a carpet to accommodate flea development. The dogs were maintained in their kennels throughout the study. In order to maintain the environmental flea challenge, C. felis pupae (100 ± 5) were placed in the plastic cup in each animal’s sleeping box on Days -14, -7, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. The dogs were combed and fleas counted weekly on Days -1, 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38, 45, and 51. The fleas were placed immediately back on the dogs. On Day 60, fleas were counted and removed. Flea infestations in the untreated control group at each count averaged between 46.2 and 74.2 fleas throughout the study. The average number of fleas infesting dogs was significantly different (p < 0.05) between the untreated and the two treatment groups and between the two treatment groups at all counts throughout the two months study (Days 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38, 45, 51 and 60). The efficacy was never below 99.1% in the fipronil/(S)-methoprene group, and efficacy in the shampoo group was never above 79.2%. Weekly shampooing in treatment group 3 was

  20. Delusional Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Laupland, Kevin B.; Valiquette, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Although the practice of infectious diseases involves a broad range of surgical and medical disciplines, interactions with psychiatry are infrequent. Delusional infestation is a condition where an individual has a firmly fixed false belief that they have an infection. Delusional infestation challenges the infectious diseases specialist who must diligently rule out the presence of a true infection. However, perhaps, more importantly, we may need to initiate therapy with neuroleptic medications for which we may have little specific knowledge and experience. In this note we review the diagnosis and management of patients with delusional infestation. PMID:27366186

  1. Some effects of sarcoptic mange on dogs.

    PubMed

    Arlian, L G; Morgan, M S; Rapp, C M; Vyszenski-Moher, D L

    1995-10-01

    Sequential changes in pathology were examined for scabies-infested dogs to determine the effects of infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis. During 8 wk of infestation with S. scabiei, the progression of the disease was evaluated weekly by skin scrape, clinical examination, and blood analyses. At 8 wk, selected organs were microscopically examined for histopathology. All infested dogs developed an advanced level of scabies infestation by 8 wk. Of the 36 blood parameters evaluated, only values for erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) deviated significantly from the normal ranges for dogs. However, infested dogs had significantly (P < 0.01) lower average hemoglobin and hematocrit concentrations after 8 wk of infestation compared to their values prior to infestation or to the values for the control dogs. Red blood cell levels for infested dogs dropped significantly (P < 0.01) from preinfestation concentrations by week 8. Conversely, by 8 wk total white blood cell and neutrophil concentrations were significantly (P < 0.01) greater than uninfested controls. Also, whereas average eosinophil concentrations were not statistically different for infested dogs compared to controls, some individual infested dogs exhibited eosinophilia at 4-8 wk of infestation. The ESRs for infested dogs were significantly (P < 0.01) greater at week 6 and 8 than for experimental dogs prior to infestation or control dogs. All parameters except neutrophils had returned to preinfestation levels by 2 wk after treatment for scabies. Neutrophil concentrations were no longer significantly different by 4 wk posttreatment. There were no significant differences in serum enzyme, biochemical and electrolyte concentrations between infested and control dogs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7472858

  2. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) second edition: guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of parasiticides for the treatment, prevention and control of flea and tick infestations on dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Marchiondo, A A; Holdsworth, P A; Fourie, L J; Rugg, D; Hellmann, K; Snyder, D E; Dryden, M W

    2013-05-01

    These second edition guidelines, updated from the 2007 version (Marchiondo et al., 2007), are intended to assist the planning and conduct of laboratory and clinical studies to assess the efficacy of ectoparasiticides applied to dogs or cats for the purpose of treating, preventing and controlling flea and tick infestations. Major revisions to this second edition include guidelines on the assessment of systemic flea and tick products, an update of the geographical distribution of the common fleas and ticks species on dogs and cats, determination of flea and tick efficacy based on geometric versus arithmetic means with respect to geographic regulatory agencies, modification of tick categorization in the assessment of efficacy, expanded guidelines on repellency and anti-feeding effects, enhanced practical field study guidance, and considerations on the ranges of flea and ticks for infestations in laboratory studies. The term ectoparasiticide includes insecticidal and acaricidal compounds, as well as insect growth regulators. The range of biological activities from animal treatment that are considered include: repellency and anti-feeding effects, knockdown, speed of kill, immediate and persistent lethal effects, and interference with egg fertility and subsequent development of off-host life cycle stages. Information is provided on the selection of animals, dose determination, dose confirmation and field studies, record keeping, interpretation of results and animal welfare. These guidelines are also intended to assist regulatory authorities involved in the approval and registration of new topical or systemic ectoparasiticides, and to facilitate the worldwide adoption of harmonized procedures. PMID:23741753

  3. Lung fluke (Paragonimus africanus) infects Nigerian red-capped mangabeys and causes respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Friant, Sagan; Brown, Kelsey; Saari, Mason T.; Segel, Nicholas H.; Slezak, Julia; Goldberg, Tony L.

    2015-01-01

    Eggs of the lung fluke genus Paragonimus were detected in red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) in Nigeria. We assess the role of these primates as potential sylvatic hosts and the clinical effects of the parasite on monkeys. DNA sequenced from eggs in feces were 100% identical in the ITS2 region to Paragonimus africanus sequences from humans in Cameroon. Paragonimus-positive monkeys coughed more than uninfected monkeys. Experimental de-worming led to reduction in parasite intensity and a corresponding reduction of coughing to baseline levels in infected monkeys. This report provides the first evidence of Paragonimus sp. in C. torquatus, of P. africanus in Nigerian wildlife, and the first molecular evidence of the parasite in African wildlife. Coughing, sometimes interpreted as a communication behavior in primates, can actually indicate infection with lung parasites. Observations of coughing in primates may, in turn, provide a useful mechanism for surveillance of Paragonimus spp, which are re-emerging human pathogens, in wildlife reservoirs. PMID:26543803

  4. Efficacy of the fipronil 10%+(S)-methoprene 9% combination against Rhipicephalus sanguineus in naturally infested dogs: speed of kill, persistent efficacy on immature and adult stages and effect of water.

    PubMed

    Brianti, Emanuele; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Brucato, Giuseppina; Risitano, Anna Lia; Gaglio, Gabriella; Lombardo, Gabriella; Malara, Daniela; Fogliazza, Alessandro; Giannetto, Salvatore

    2010-05-28

    This field trial was designed to test the efficacy, in terms of treatment and prevention, of the fipronil 10%+(S)-methoprene 9% combination against immature and adult stages of Rhipicephalus sanguineus in naturally infested dogs, and to assess the effect of a single plain water exposure. Twenty-four dogs of various age, sex, weight and coat length were divided into two homogeneous groups, treated (T) and control (C), and housed into twin outdoor kennels. Trial baseline was designed as day 0, when dogs from group T were treated with a commercial spot-on formulation of fipronil 10%+(S)-methoprene 9%, while subjects from group C were left untreated and served as control. After treatment, tick load for each included dog was estimated, for both adult and immature ticks, using the localization and count over the entire body surface at the following time-points: day 2, to evaluate the speed of kill and at days 7, 14, 21 and 28 to assess the persistence of efficacy. The effect of water exposure on the product efficacy was tested at day 14 of the study, when six dogs, homogenously selected from group T, were soaked through with plain water. The overall tick load in dogs from group C was high throughout the entire study period, ranging from 103.2 (day 28) to 161.3 (day 0), and confirmed the high tick pressure. Speed of kill calculated at 48 h post-treatment was slightly higher for adult ticks (96.2%) than for immature stages (91.6%). Compared to the control, dogs treated with the fipronil+(S)-methoprene maintained a significantly lower mean tick load for both adult and immature stages in the four weeks of observation. Persistence of efficacy against immature stages ranged from 97.1% the first week, 99.6% second week, 99.7 third week and 93.1% in the last week. In the same way, efficacy against adult ticks was constantly high, shifting from 94.5% to 92.5%. Overall efficacy (adults+immatures) was the strongest in the first two weeks (i.e., 96.1% and 96.6%) and lowered in the

  5. North American Paragonimiasis (Caused by Paragonimus kellicotti) in the Context of Global Paragonimiasis

    PubMed Central

    Procop, Gary W.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Paragonimus species are highly evolved parasites with a complex life cycle that involves at least three different hosts, i.e., snails, crustaceans, and mammals. The adult forms of Paragonimus species reside and mate in the lungs of a variety of permissive mammalian hosts, including humans. Although human paragonimiasis is uncommonly encountered in North America, both autochthonous and imported disease may be encountered. Paragonimus kellicotti, the species endemic to North America, is a well-known pathogen in wild and domestic animals. Five patients with North American paragonimiasis have been reported in the recent medical literature. The biologic, clinical, radiologic, and laboratory features of paragonimiasis are reviewed, with emphasis on North American paragonimiasis whenever possible. PMID:19597007

  6. Epidemiology of flea infestation of ruminants in Libya.

    PubMed

    Kaal, J F; Baker, K; Torgerson, P R

    2006-11-01

    The results of an epidemiological and clinical study of flea infestations of farm animals in northern Libya is reported. Of 12,130 sheep examined from 124 flocks, 150 sheep were found to be infested with fleas from 50 different flocks. Likewise 23 goats from 2981 examined, and 11 calves from 1124 cattle examined were infested No fleas were recovered from camels or horses. Of 1861 fleas recovered from farm livestock, 1857 were Ctenocephalides felis strongylus and 4 were Pulex irritans. Dogs from farms and local clinics were also examined. Eight farms dogs were found to be infested with P. irritans. Of 79 infested dogs examined in veterinary clinics, 53 were found infested with P. irritans, 11 with Ctenocephalides felis felis, 12 had a mixed infestation of P. irritans and C. felis felis. Single dogs had mixed infestation of P. irritans and C. canis; C. felis felis and C. canis; and P. irritans, C. felis felis and Echidnophaga gallinacia. C. felis felis was also found on 15 infested cats. C. felis felis was never found on large farm animals despite frequently sharing their environment with dogs or cats. Likewise C. felis stongylus was never isolated from dogs or cats. This is consistent with the hypothesis that C. felis strongylus has become adapted to large farm animals, whilst C. felis felis is better adapted to dogs and cats. However, four stockmen were found infested with a total of 176 C. felis strongylus, which suggests that this subspecies is also a potential zoonosis. A significantly higher proportion of intensive farms had animals with flea infestation compared to semi-intensive farms. Fleas were not found in nomadic herds. Infested farm animals often presented with excoriation, alopecia, pruritus and hyperkeratitis particularly on the lower limbs. These signs are consistent with the generation of flea-bite hypersensitivity. PMID:16962246

  7. Molecular and biochemical characterization of Paragonimus westermani tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Bae, Y-A; Kim, S-H; Ahn, C-S; Kim, J-G; Kong, Y

    2015-05-01

    Trematode tyrosinases (TYRs) play a major role in the tanning process during eggshell formation. We investigated the molecular and biochemical features of Paragonimus westermani TYR (PwTYR). The PwTYR cDNA was composed of 1568-bp encompassing a 1422-bp-long open reading frame (474-amino acid polypeptide). A strong phylogenetic relationship with Platyhelminthes and Deuterostomian orthologues was evident. The recombinant PwTYR expressed in prokaryotic cells promptly oxidized diphenol substrates, with a preferential affinity toward ortho-positioned hydroxyl groups. It demonstrated fairly weak activity for monophenol compounds. Diphenol oxidase activity was augmented with an increase of pH from 5.0 to 8.0, while monophenol oxidase activity was highest at an acidic pH and gradually decreased as pH increased. Transcription profile of PwTYR was temporally upregulated along with worm development. PwTYR was specifically localized in vitellocytes and eggs. The results suggested that conversion of tyrosine to L-dihydroxyphenylalanine by PwTYR monophenol oxidase activity might be rate-limiting step during the sclerotization process of P. westermani eggs. The pH-dependent pattern of monophenol and diphenol oxidase activity further proposes that the initial hydroxylation might slowly but steadily progress in acidic secreted vesicles of vitellocytes and the second oxidation process might be rapidly accelerated by neural or weak alkaline pH environments within the ootype. PMID:25621413

  8. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero, Daniel; Castañeda, Byron; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2014-11-01

    A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme. PMID:25410987

  9. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero, Daniel; Castañeda, Byron; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2014-01-01

    A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme. PMID:25410987

  10. Field evaluation of the efficacy and the safety of a combination of oxantel/pyrantel/praziquantel in the treatment of naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematode and/or cestode infestations in dogs in Europe.

    PubMed

    Grandemange, E; Claerebout, E; Genchi, C; Franc, M

    2007-04-10

    In five multicentre field trials, the efficacy and safety of a combination of oxantel/pyrantel/praziquantel (Dolpac), Vetoquinol SA) in the treatment of naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematode and/or cestode infestation in dogs was evaluated in northern and southern Europe. Forty-eight investigators from France, Belgium, Germany, Italy and Spain enrolled 329 dogs to be treated with the tested combination; 235 of these dogs complied with the inclusion criteria of the protocol and had a tested helminth identified on Day 0. A pooled analysis was performed on each of the following helminth species: Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Taenia spp. and Dipylidium caninum, which were isolated on Day 0. The main efficacy criterion was the egg per gram (epg) percent reduction of the nematodes and the absence of proglottids and or eggs for the cestodes. After treatment, dogs were examined on Day 7, Day 14 and Day 21. The efficacy of the combination against Toxocara canis was 99.1%, 98.8% and 98.9% on Day 7, Day 14 and Day 21, respectively. At the same occasions the efficacy was, respectively, 99.2%, 99.2% and 99.3% against Ancylostoma caninum, 97.3%, 97.2% and 98.4% against Trichuris vulpis, 98.4%, 98.8% and 98.8% against Uncinaria stenocephala, 98.9%, 99.5% and 99.9% against Toxascaris leonina, 97.1%, 100% and 100% against Dipylidium caninum and 100% against Taenia spp. PMID:17184919

  11. Morphological and molecular identification of a lung fluke, Paragonimus macrorchis (Trematoda, Paragonimidae), found in central Lao PDR and its molecular phylogenetic status in the genus Paragonimus.

    PubMed

    Sanpool, Oranuch; Intapan, Pewpan Maleewong; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Janwan, Penchom; Laymanivong, Sakhone; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2015-12-01

    Paragonimus macrorchis is rather a rare species with sporadic discovery reports. To date, little is known about morphological features and the molecular phylogenetic status of P. macrorchis. Here we provide such information on P. macrorchis, of which metacercariae were collected from freshwater crabs in Khammouane Province, central Lao PDR. After morphological observation, metacercariae were excysted and were injected intra-peritoneally into Mongolian gerbils. Paragonimus adult worms were collected from the lungs of experimental gerbils 45 days after infection. A small piece of body tissue was cut at the posterior part of each adult worm for genomic DNA extraction. Then, the adult worms were stained and mounted for morphological identification. The second internal transcribed spacer region (ITS2) of rDNA and partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene were amplified using PCR method and sequenced. The results of morphological identification of metacercariae and adult worms together with their DNA sequences of ITS2 and partial cox1 gene clearly show that the specimens we collected in the central Lao PDR were P. macrorchis. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that P. macrorchis forms an independent cluster from other Paragonimus species in Asia. PMID:26170107

  12. Delusional infestation.

    PubMed

    Freudenmann, Roland W; Lepping, Peter

    2009-10-01

    This papers aims at familiarizing psychiatric and nonpsychiatric readers with delusional infestation (DI), also known as delusional parasitosis. It is characterized by the fixed belief of being infested with pathogens against all medical evidence. DI is no single disorder but can occur as a delusional disorder of the somatic type (primary DI) or secondary to numerous other conditions. A set of minimal diagnostic criteria and a classification are provided. Patients with DI pose a truly interdisciplinary problem to the medical system. They avoid psychiatrists and consult dermatologists, microbiologists, or general practitioners but often lose faith in professional medicine. Epidemiology and history suggest that the imaginary pathogens change constantly, while the delusional theme "infestation" is stable and ubiquitous. Patients with self-diagnosed "Morgellons disease" can be seen as a variation of this delusional theme. For clinicians, clinical pathways for efficient diagnostics and etiology-specific treatment are provided. Specialized outpatient clinics in dermatology with a liaison psychiatrist are theoretically best placed to provide care. The most intricate problem is to engage patients in psychiatric therapy. In primary DI, antipsychotics are the treatment of choice, according to limited but sufficient evidence. Pimozide is no longer the treatment of choice for reasons of drug safety. Future research should focus on pathophysiology and the neural basis of DI, as well as on conclusive clinical trials, which are widely lacking. Innovative approaches will be needed, since otherwise patients are unlikely to adhere to any study protocol. PMID:19822895

  13. Dermatologic infestations.

    PubMed

    Shmidt, Eugenia; Levitt, Jacob

    2012-02-01

    Head lice are transmitted by head to head contact. Optimal therapy includes malathion lotion 0.5% repeated in one week left on for 30 minutes to 8 hours. Spinosad topical suspension 0.9% repeated in one week left on for 10 minutes is another option. Scabies is transmitted mainly by direct contact but also via heavily infested fomites due to crusted scabies. Permethrin 5% cream to the body repeated in four days is often sufficient; however, scalp treatment with malathion lotion 0.5% is helpful in crusted scabies and in infested children. Oral ivermectin 200 mcg/kg is another option, repeated in four days. For scabies more than lice, fomites should be placed in a drier at 60 °C for 10 minutes to kill the arthropods. Treatment of close contacts in both cases will control outbreaks and repeated infestations. Both have been associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Bed bugs are a common cause for papular urticaria. Identification of the insect in the mattress or bedding confirms the diagnosis. Prevention involves encasing the mattress in a sealed plastic cover and extermination. Delusions of parasitosis is a diagnosis of exclusion that is best treated with an antipsychotic. PMID:22250620

  14. Delusional Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Freudenmann, Roland W.; Lepping, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Summary: This papers aims at familiarizing psychiatric and nonpsychiatric readers with delusional infestation (DI), also known as delusional parasitosis. It is characterized by the fixed belief of being infested with pathogens against all medical evidence. DI is no single disorder but can occur as a delusional disorder of the somatic type (primary DI) or secondary to numerous other conditions. A set of minimal diagnostic criteria and a classification are provided. Patients with DI pose a truly interdisciplinary problem to the medical system. They avoid psychiatrists and consult dermatologists, microbiologists, or general practitioners but often lose faith in professional medicine. Epidemiology and history suggest that the imaginary pathogens change constantly, while the delusional theme “infestation” is stable and ubiquitous. Patients with self-diagnosed “Morgellons disease” can be seen as a variation of this delusional theme. For clinicians, clinical pathways for efficient diagnostics and etiology-specific treatment are provided. Specialized outpatient clinics in dermatology with a liaison psychiatrist are theoretically best placed to provide care. The most intricate problem is to engage patients in psychiatric therapy. In primary DI, antipsychotics are the treatment of choice, according to limited but sufficient evidence. Pimozide is no longer the treatment of choice for reasons of drug safety. Future research should focus on pathophysiology and the neural basis of DI, as well as on conclusive clinical trials, which are widely lacking. Innovative approaches will be needed, since otherwise patients are unlikely to adhere to any study protocol. PMID:19822895

  15. Discovery of Paragonimus westermani in Vietnam and its molecular phylogenetic status in P. westermani complex.

    PubMed

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Shinohara, Akio; Horii, Yoichiro; Habe, Shigehisa; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2009-04-01

    Paragonimus westermani is the most well-known species among the genus Paragonimus. It is widely distributed in Asia with considerable genetic diversity to form P. westermani species complex. While P. westermani distributed in Japan, Korea, China, and Taiwan are genetically homogeneous to form the East Asia group, those found in other geographic areas are heterogeneous and would be divided into several groups. Recent discoveries of P. westermani in India and Sri Lanka highlighted new insights on molecular phylogenetic relationship of geographic isolates of this species complex. Since Vietnam is located at the east end of Southeast Asia, the intermediate position between South and East Asia, it is of interest to see whether P. westermani is distributed in this country. Here, we report that P. westermani metacercariae were found in mountainous crabs, Potamiscus sp., collected in Quangtri province in the central Vietnam. Adult worms were successfully obtained by experimental infection in cats. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that P. westermani of Vietnamese isolates have high similarities with those of East Asia group. PMID:19083013

  16. Divergent long-terminal-repeat retrotransposon families in the genome of Paragonimus westermani

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-An

    2003-01-01

    To gain information on retrotransposons in the genome of Paragonimus westermani, PCR was carried out with degenerate primers, specific to protease and reverse transcriptase (rt) genes of long-terminal-repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced, after which 12 different retrotransposon-related sequences were isolated from the trematode genome. These showed various degrees of identity to the polyprotein of divergent retrotransposon families. A phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that these sequences could be classified into three different families of LTR retrotransposons, namely, Xena, Bel, and Gypsy families. Of these, two mRNA transcripts were detected by reverse transcriptase-PCR, showing that these two elements preserved their mobile activities. The genomic distributions of these two sequences were found to be highly repetitive. These results suggest that there are diverse retrotransposons including the ancient Xena family in the genome of P. westermani, which may have been involved in the evolution of the host genome. PMID:14699263

  17. Pediatric ocular phthiriasis infestation.

    PubMed

    Kairys, D J; Webster, H J; Terry, J E

    1988-02-01

    Although pubic lice infestation of ocular regions is relatively uncommon, the optometrist needs to be aware of the diagnosis and treatment of louse-infested patients. A case report of ocular phthiriasis is presented along with a discussion of its etiology, clinical diagnosis and management. PMID:3361053

  18. Immunoblot observation of antigenic protein fractions in Paragonimus westermani reacting with human patients sera.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Hwan; Kong, Yoon; Kim, Suk Il; Kang, Shin Yong; Cho, Seung Yull

    1988-12-01

    In order to observe the antigenic fractions in saline extract of adult Paragonimus westermani, proteins in the crude extract were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in reducing conditions. The separated protein fractions were transferred to nitrocellulose paper on which 20 sera from human paragonimiasis were reacted and immunoblotted. Out of 15 stained protein bands in SDS-PAGE, 7 reacted with the sera. Of 14 reacted bands, 30 kilodalton(kDa) band was the most frequently reacted (95%) and was a strong antigen. Protein bands of 23 and 46 kDa were also strong antigens. Bands of over 150 kDa, 120 kDa, 92 kDa, 86 kDa, 74 kDa, 62 kDa, 51 kDa, 32 kDa, 28 kDa, 16.5 kDa and 15.5 kDa were also reactive but their frequencies of the reaction were variable. PMID:12811037

  19. Molecular Variation in the Paragonimus heterotremus Complex in Thailand and Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Sanpool, Oranuch; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Janwan, Penchom; Nawa, Yukifumi; Blair, David; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is an important food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. Of the 7 members of the genus known in Thailand until recently, only P. heterotremus has been confirmed as causing human disease. An 8th species, P. pseudoheterotremus, has recently been proposed from Thailand, and has been found in humans. Molecular data place this species as a sister species to P. heterotremus, and it is likely that P. pseudoheterotremus is not specifically distinct from P. heterotremus. In this study, we collected metacercariae of both nominal species (identification based on metacercarial morphology) from freshwater crabs from Phetchabun Province in northern Thailand, Saraburi Province in central Thailand, and Surat Thani Province in southern Thailand. In addition, we purchased freshwater crabs imported from Myanmar at Myawaddy Province, western Thailand, close to the Myanmar-Thailand border. The DNAs extracted from excysted metacercariae were PCR-amplified and sequenced for ITS2 and cox1 genes. The ITS2 sequences were nearly identical among all samples (99-100%). Phylogenies inferred from all available partial cox1 sequences contained several clusters. Sequences from Indian P. heterotremus formed a sister group to sequences from P. pseudoheterotremus-type metacercariae. Sequences of P. heterotremus from Thailand, Vietnam, and China formed a separate distinct clade. One metacercaria from Phitsanulok Province was distinct from all others. There is clearly considerable genetic variation in the P. heterotremus complex in Thailand and the form referred to as P. pseudoheterotremus is widely distributed in Thailand and the Thai-Myanmar border region. PMID:24516273

  20. Epidemiology of sarcoptic mange in free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Yokohama, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kido, N; Itabashi, M; Takahashi, M; Futami, M

    2013-01-16

    Free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from Nogeyama Zoological Gardens, Kanazawa Zoological Gardens, and Yokohama Zoological Gardens frequently rescued dogs having Sarcoptes scabiei infestation. However, the epidemiology of S. scabiei infestation has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the epidemiology of S. scabiei infestation in raccoon dogs and its influence on the population of masked palm civets in Yokohama, Japan. We examined records of raccoon dog rescue between 1981 and 2010 and classified the dogs into the following 4 categories on the basis of the reason for rescue: dogs with S. scabiei infestation, scabies-infested dogs involved in car accidents, uninfested dogs involved in car accidents, and other reasons for rescue. We found that the number of dogs rescued due to car accidents and other reasons increased from 1989 onwards, and an S. scabiei outbreak was recorded since 1993. The infestation spread from the southern to the northern regions of Yokohama. The total number of raccoon dogs rescued annually peaked in 1995 and declined thereafter. The number of masked palm civets (Paguma larvata) rescued gradually increased with a decline in the number of raccoon dogs rescued. In the present study, we revealed the epidemiology of S. scabiei infestation in the raccoon dog. The outbreak might be induced by the increased population density, and the infestation spread immediately from the southern to the northern regions of Yokohama since 1993. Further, the population of masked palm civets may have increased due to the decrease in the population of the raccoon dog. PMID:22902260

  1. Sarcoptic mange in dogs: Its effect on liver, oxidative stress, trace minerals and vitamins.

    PubMed

    Beigh, S A; Soodan, J S; Bhat, A M

    2016-08-30

    The present study was aimed to determine the effect on liver, associated oxidative stress, trace element and vitamin alteration in dogs with sarcoptic mange. A total of 24 dogs with clinically established diagnosis of sarcoptic mange, divided into two groups, severely infested group (n=9) and mild/moderately infested group (n=15), according to the extent of skin lesions caused by sarcoptic mange and 6 dogs as control group were included in the present study. In comparison to healthy control hemoglobin, PCV, and TEC were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in dogs with sarcoptic mange however, significant increase in TLC along with neutrophilia and lymphopenia was observed only in severely infested dogs. The albumin, glucose and cholesterol were significantly (P<0.05) decreased and globulin, ALT, AST and bilirubin were significantly (P<0.05) increased in severely infested dogs when compared to other two groups. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly (P<0.01) higher in dogs with sarcoptic mange, with levels highest in severely infested groups. Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P<0.05) and catalase were significantly (P<0.01) lower in sarcoptic infested dogs when compared with the healthy control group. Zinc and copper levels in dogs with sarcoptic mange were significantly (P<0.05) lower when compared with healthy control group with the levels lowest in severely infested group. Vitamin A and vitamin C levels were significantly (P<0.05) lower in sarcoptic infested dogs when compared to healthy control. From the present study, it was concluded that sarcoptic mange in dogs affects the liver and the infestation is associated with oxidant/anti-oxidant imbalance, significant alteration in trace elements and vitamins. PMID:27523934

  2. Ixodid tick species attaching to dogs in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Földvári, Gábor; Farkas, Róbert

    2005-04-20

    A survey was carried out to investigate the occurrence of hard tick species (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting domestic dogs in Hungary. Forty veterinary clinics from a wide geographical area were asked to collect hard ticks from dogs and to complete a questionnaire. In total, 25 veterinary clinics submitted 900 ticks from 310 dogs. Intensity of infestation ranged from one to 78 per dog. The most preferred sites of tick attachment in decreasing order were head, neck and legs. The majority of ticks (91.7%) were adults, which were identified to species level, the others were nymphs. Six species were found: Dermacentor reticulatus (48.9%), Ixodes ricinus (43.2%), Ixodes canisuga (5.6%), Haemaphysalis concinna (2%) and there was one specimen of both Dermacentor marginatus and Ixodes hexagonus. Single species infestation with I. ricinus or D. reticulatus was found on 145 (46.8%) and 120 animals (38.7%), respectively. Mixed infestation caused by these two species was detected on 24 dogs (7.7%). I. canisuga and H. concinna were found on seven and five dogs, respectively. D. reticulatus and I. ricinus were collected almost throughout the year, except for a single month. The activity peaks were in spring and in autumn for both species. Based on clinical signs, canine babesiosis was diagnosed by the veterinarians in 66 (21.3%) tick infested dogs. These dogs were more frequently infested with D. reticulatus than the others. Our data contribute to the understanding of geographical and seasonal distribution of ixodid tick species infesting dogs in Hungary. The implication of these data, for the risk of canine tick borne diseases is discussed. PMID:15817212

  3. Cutaneous Infections and Infestations

    PubMed Central

    Tomecki, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Directed and preventive therapies for cutaneous infectious disease and infestation continue to evolve, providing physicians with new options for care. Common infectious diseases (e.g., genital herpes, herpes zoster, and head lice) occur in the outpatient and inpatient setting. This review of the literature highlights new therapies, including those still in development, such as novel drugs and vaccines, all of which should help to decrease the frequency and severity of common infectious diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. PMID:22191004

  4. Stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata) infesting food in various types of packaging.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Volek, Vlado

    2015-02-01

    From 2008 to 2014, stored product mites have been reported from prepackaged dried food on the market in the Czech Republic. The infestation was by Carpoglyphus lactis (L.) in dried fruits and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) in dog feed. The infestation is presumably caused by poor protection of the packages. We compared various packaging methods for their resistance to mites using dried apricots and dog feed in laboratory experiments. The trial packages included nine different plastic films, monofilm, duplex and triplex, and one type of plastic cup (ten replicates per packaging type). All packaging materials are available on the Czech market for dried food products. The samples of dried food were professionally packed in a factory and packaged dried apricots were exposed to C. lactis and dog food to T. putrescentiae. After 3 months of exposure, the infestation and mite density of the prepackaged food was assessed. Mites were found to infest six types of packages. Of the packaging types with mites, 1-5 samples were infested and the maximum abundance was 1,900 mites g(-1) of dried food. Mites entered the prepackaged food by faulty sealing. Inadequate sealing is suggested to be the major cause of the emerged infestation of dried food. PMID:25420687

  5. Determination of oxidative status and apoptosis in peripheral blood of dogs with sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Dimri, U; Sharma, M C; Swarup, D; Sharma, B

    2011-06-10

    The aim of the present study was to determine the erythrocytic oxidant/antioxidant balance and apoptosis of peripheral blood leukocytes of dogs with natural Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis mite infestation. A total of twenty four clinically Sarcoptes-infested dogs were examined and used to execute the study. While another twenty four healthy dogs free of any ecto-parasite were used as controls. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from each infested only once on the day of dermatological examinations. Determination of oxidant/antioxidant balance was conceded by estimating the levels of lipid peroxides and antioxidants in erythrocytes. While, apoptosis of peripheral blood leukocytes was determined by estimating externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) at the cell surface as well as by detection of depolarization mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) by flow cytometry. Sarcoptes-infested dogs had revealed significantly higher (P≤0.001) contents of erythrocytic lipid peroxides in comparison with the healthy controls. Whereas the level of reduced glutathione was found to be significantly lower (P≤0.001) in Sarcoptes-infested dogs as compared to the healthy dogs. The activity of glutathione peroxidase was found to be significantly lower (P≤0.001) in Sarcoptes-infested dogs as compared to the healthy dogs. The activity of glutathione-S-transferase was also found to be significantly lower (P≤0.001) in Sarcoptes-infested dogs as compared to the healthy dogs. The dogs with sarcoptic mange had revealed significantly lower (P≤0.001) activity of superoxide dismutase in coparision with the healthy dogs. The dogs with sarcoptic mange had also revealed significantly lower (P≤0.001) activity of catalase in coparision with the healthy dogs. The percentage of apoptotic leukocytes was found to be significantly higher (P≤0.001) in Sarcoptes-infested dogs as compared to the healthy controls. Sarcoptes-infested dogs had also exhibited significantly (P≤0.001) higher

  6. [Dog bites].

    PubMed

    Horn, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland 10'000 people are bitten by a dog annualy. Dog bites are notifiable incidents. Defensive and offensive aggression of dogs (why does a dog bite?), history, signs, treatment and prevention are discussed. Finally a short psychogram of dog owner and victim emphasizes the role of avoiding any escalation. PMID:25533260

  7. Sarcoptic mange in wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Eo, Kyung-Yeon; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Shin, Nam-Shik; Shin, Taekyun; Kwak, Dongmi

    2008-12-01

    Infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei was diagnosed from four wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) accidentally captured and presented to the Animal Health Center in Seoul Grand Park Zoo, Korea. Diagnosis was done by microscopic and histologic examination from skin lesions. Sarcoptes scabiei was the only species detected from the lesions and characterized by dorsoventrally flattened and round bodies, sucker-like pulvilli borne on long nonjointed pretarsi, triangular scales and spinelike setae on the dorsum, and three epimeres that are chitinous extensions of the coxae of the legs. In addition, infiltration of mast cells in the dermis was associated with infestation of the burrowing mite. This is the first report of sarcoptic mange in raccoon dogs in Korea. Because heavy infestation with S. scabiei was found in all of the captured wild raccoon dogs, further work is necessary to develop prophylactic interventions to prevent the spread of sarcoptic mange in free-living raccoon dogs in Korea. PMID:19110717

  8. Surface fine topography and PCR-based determination of metacercaria of Paragonimus sp. from edible crabs in Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Tandon, V; Prasad, P K; Chatterjee, A; Bhutia, P T

    2007-12-01

    In several mountainous regions of Northeastern India, foci of Paragonimus infection reportedly involving species that are known to prevail in China have been identified. The present study was undertaken to demonstrate the surface fine topography and sequence analysis of the ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA; second internal transcribed spacer, ITS2) of the metacercarial stages of the lung fluke collected from a mountain stream of the area (Miao, Changlang District in Arunachal Pradesh). The encysted metacercariae were oval in shape and had a smooth surface. The newly excysted metacercaria had a ventral sucker larger than the oral; the body surface was covered with numerous single-pointed and thorn-like tegumentary spines, of which those on the anterior part of the body were bigger in size and showed a gradual reduction in length and number towards the posterior end; dome-shaped papillae in variable numbers were seen around the rim of the oral sucker and were sparsely distributed all over the body surface. The polymerase chain reaction-amplified rDNA ITS2 sequences of the metacercariae were aligned with known sequences for the various species of Paragonimus, and the expectation value was found to be most significant with P. westermani, revealing an absolute match. The surface topography including the number and distribution of papillae and spination patterns and the ITS2 sequences of the metacercariae strongly suggest that the Paragonimus species, prevalent in the region of India, is in fact P. westermani. PMID:17786478

  9. Prevalence of ectoparasites in owned dogs in Kerman city, southeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Mohammad; Khovand, Hosein; Akhtardanesh, Baharak

    2016-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the intensity and distribution of natural infestation of ectoparasites in owned dogs during June to November 2011 in Kerman city, southeast of Iran. One hundred two domestic dogs (63 males, 39 females) with age ranged between 45 days to 13 years were examined for ectoparasites infestation including (tick, lice, flea and mite) in Kerman city. Detailed questionnaire about grooming and bathing interval, keeping place (outdoor, indoor) and purpose of keeping were obtained from owners. After complete skin examination, animals hairs were combed and their skin rubbed with a piece of cotton soaked in alcohol to remove the ectoparasites in apparently normal cases, and deep skin scratching were prepared from all type of lesions in symptomatic dogs. A total number of 149 ectoparasites were collected. The most common ectoparasite was Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick, which infested 27 of the 102 dogs (26.47 %). Ctenocephalides canis was identified on two dogs (1.96 %) and 5 dogs infested with Hippobosca spp (4.9 %) that the highest infestation rate was seen in September (14.2 %). Studied samples were routinely checked for clinical symptoms. Itching and scratching lesions were the only reported signs which seen in flea infested dogs (6.4 %) and other infested dogs (93.5 %) had no clinical symptoms. Ectoparasites were significantly higher in outdoor dogs in compare with indoor group and the most tick infested location was ear (61.3 %) (P < 0.05). PMID:27413320

  10. The curative and antioxidative efficiency of ivermectin and ivermectin + vitamin E-selenium treatment on canine Sarcoptes scabiei infestation.

    PubMed

    Behera, Suvendu Kumar; Dimri, Umesh; Singh, Shanker Kumar; Mohanta, Ranjan Kumar

    2011-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the curative and antioxidative efficacy of ivermectin and ivermectin + vitamin E-selenium, and the influence of these agents on oxidative stress parameters in canines infested by Sarcoptes scabiei. Twenty two sarcoptic mites infested dogs and nine healthy dogs of 6 months to 2 years of age were divided into three groups. Group I comprised of healthy dogs (n=9) whereas animals in group II (n=11) and III (n=11) were positive for scabies. Group II animals were treated with only 1% ivermectin @ 0.2 mg/kg SC whereas group III were additionally treated with Vitamin E and selenium (tocopherol 50 mg + Se 1.5 mg/ml) @ 0.5 ml/20 kg IM at weekly intervals for three times. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and 28 post therapy. The values for hemato-biochemical parameters and activities of antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased (P<0.05) whereas level of lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in all the infested dogs in comparison to the healthy dogs on day 0 which approached normalcy by day 28 post therapy. The dogs of group III showed better clinical recovery in comparison to group II at the end of therapy. Thus, administration of vitamin E and selenium in addition to standard therapy can alleviate these alterations hastening the clinical recovery of diseased dogs and can be recommended as an adjunct therapy with miticides for canine sarcoptic mange. PMID:21336571

  11. SUPPLEMENTING NATIVE SUGARCANE BORER INFESTATIONS BY ARTIFICIAL INFESTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When conducting assessments of the response of sugarcane varieties to feeding by the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), we routinely intercrop sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.) rows with a row of corn (Zea mays) and infest these corn plants with laboratory reared, first-instar...

  12. Apparent tick paralysis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in dogs.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Tarallo, Viviana Domenica; Ramos, Rafael Antonio do Nascimento; Stanneck, Dorothee; Baneth, Gad; de Caprariis, Donato

    2012-09-10

    Certain tick species including Ixodes holocyclus can inoculate neurotoxins that induce a rapid, ascending flaccid paralysis in animals. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the most widespread tick of dogs, is recognized as a vector of several pathogens causing diseases in dogs and humans. A single report suggests its role as cause of paralysis in dogs. This study presents the clinical history of 14 young dogs heavily infested by R. sanguineus (intensity of infestation, 63-328) in an endemic area of southern Italy. During May to June of 2011, dogs were presented at the clinical examination with neurological signs of different degrees (e.g., hind limb ataxia, generalized lethargy, and difficulty in movements). All animals were treated with acaricides and by manual tick removal but ten of them died within a day, displaying neurological signs. The other 4 dogs recovered within 3 days with acaricidal and supportive treatment. Twelve dogs were positive by blood smear examination for Hepatozoon canis with a high parasitemia, two also for Babesia vogeli and two were negative for hemoparasites. Low-grade thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, and pancytopenia were the haematological alterations most frequently recorded. Other causes of neurological disease in dogs were excluded and the diagnosis of tick paralysis by R. sanguineus was confirmed (ex juvantibus) by early and complete recovery of 4 dogs following acaricidal treatment and tick removal. PMID:22546547

  13. Prostatitis, Steatitis, and Diarrhea in a Dog following Presumptive Flea-Borne Transmission of Bartonella henselae

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Pritchard, Jessica; Ericson, Marna; Grindem, Carol; Phillips, Kathryn; Jennings, Samuel; Mathews, Kyle; Tran, Huy; Birkenheuer, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella henselae is increasingly associated with a variety of pathological entities, which are often similar in dogs and human patients. Following an acute flea infestation, a dog developed an unusual clinical presentation for canine bartonellosis. Comprehensive medical, microbiological, and surgical interventions were required for diagnosis and to achieve a full recovery. PMID:24920774

  14. Suicide following an infestation of bed bugs

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Stephanie; Perron, Stéphane; Susser, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Male, 62 Final Diagnosis: Bipolar disorder Symptoms: Bordeline personality disorder Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Bed bug infestation Specialty: Psychiatry Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: In the past decade, bed bug infestations have been increasingly common in high income countries. Psychological consequences of these infestations are rarely examined in the scientific literature. Case Report: We present a case, based on a coroner’s investigation report, of a woman with previous psychiatric morbidity who jumped to her death following repeated bed bug infestations in her apartment. Our case report shows that the bed bug infestations were the likely trigger for the onset a negative psychological state that ultimately led to suicide. Conclusions: Given the recent surge in infestations, rapid action needs to be taken not only in an attempt to control and eradicate the bed bugs but also to adequately care for those infested by bed bugs. PMID:23826461

  15. Serum antibody to Sarcoptes scabiei and house dust mite prior to and during infestation with S. scabiei.

    PubMed

    Arlian, L G; Morgan, M S

    2000-07-01

    In this study, serum antibodies to Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis (SS), Dermatophagoides farinae (DF), and D. pteronyssinus (DP) were determined in 19 healthy, random-source dogs prior to infestation with scabies then again during a primary infestation, cure and challenge infestation with scabies. Prior to scabies infestation, serum of 11 dogs contained faintly detectable amounts of IgE and/or IgG to proteins in SS extract, probably resulting from sensitization to dust mites that share cross-reactive antigenic epitopes with SS. After becoming infested with scabies, the response to SS antigens became stronger with antibodies appearing to more antigens as the scabies infestation progressed. Three of the newly recognized proteins were 170, 155 and 142/133kD and could be used in a diagnostic test since antibodies to them appeared during the primary infestation. In addition, during the primary infestation, 14 of 15 dogs developed IgE to 1-11 new SS proteins in addition to an increase in IgE binding to those proteins recognized prior to infestation. Overall, the strongest antibody responses (IgE and IgG) were exhibited during cure of the first infestation, when dead mites were still present in the stratum corneum. As expected, the antibody response was strong and rapid during challenge when the infestation self-cured. The immunogenic SS proteins identified by serum antibody binding during challenge, when the hosts self-cured, are candidates for inclusion in a vaccine. These candidate proteins are 200, 185, 170, 155, 142/133, 112, 97, 74, 57, 45/42, 32 and 22kD. Some of the proteins in SS that exhibited new or increased antibody binding during the experiment also had IgE and IgG binding to proteins with similar molecular weights in DF and DP extracts. These results illustrate the difficulties involved in understanding and interpreting serum antibody for developing a serological test for the diagnosis of scabies, isolating relevant SS antigens that could be included in a

  16. [Babesiosis of dogs in Germany: epidemiologic case analysis].

    PubMed

    Gothe, R; Wegerdt, S

    1991-04-01

    Between January 1987 and February 1990 Babesia infections were detected in 320 dogs in Germany by means of microscopical and/or serological methods. It was found, that 316 dogs were infected with Babesia canis and 4 animals with Babesia gibsoni. Of the Babesia-canis-positive dogs 184 were abroad up to 4 months before diagnosis, mainly in France, Spain and Italy, but also in Hungary, Greece, Jugoslavia, Portugal, Morocco, Togo, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Turkey, Romania, Austria and the Netherlands. For further 36 dogs the possible place of infection for Babesia canis could not be clarified geographically. 5 dogs each were simultaneously infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor reticulatus, respectively. The four dogs infected with Babesia gibsoni were previously in Sri Lanka (2), Brazil (1) or Algeria/Kenya (1). In 88 dogs from the Offenburg/Lahr/Freiburg area, which were not abroad, infections with Babesia canis were diagnosed from January to June as well as from September to December, however, most cases occurring in April and May. Of these dogs approximately 20% were found to be infested with Dermacentor reticulatus. These ticks were also collected on the vegetation in the Offenburg area. Therefore, an endemic focus of Babesia canis can be deduced in the area of Offenburg/Lahr/Freiburg and Dermacentor reticulatus as vector also in Germany. PMID:2068714

  17. Borreliosis in dogs from southern Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Magnarelli, L A; Anderson, J F; Kaufmann, A F; Lieberman, L L; Whitney, G D

    1985-05-01

    Blood samples were obtained from dogs in tick-infested regions of southern Connecticut to assess canine exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease in human beings. An indirect fluorescent antibody test detected immunoglobulin (Ig)M antibodies at titers of 1:64 to 1:512 in 22 of 84 serum samples previously shown to be positive with a polyvalent rabbit anti-dog total Ig conjugate. Analyses of paired serum samples from 20 seropositive dogs revealed temporal differences in titers; changes occurred during brief (1 month) or extended (greater than 4 years) sampling periods. Clinical records for 52 seropositive dogs indicated a history of intermittent lameness in 19 of these. Limb/joint disorders typically developed in dogs without IgM antibodies, suggesting manifestation during later phases of illness. A microscopic-agglutination test was used to assess cross reactivity between B burgdorferi and 20 serovars of Leptospira interrogans and biflexa. Analyses of 63 dog serum specimens with antibodies to B burgdorferi and a series of reference rabbit sera revealed minor antigenic relatedness. There was geographic clustering of dogs with antibodies to B burgdorferi in areas of south-central and southeastern Connecticut, where human Lyme disease also occurs. PMID:3997647

  18. The mitochondrial genome of Paragonimus westermani (Kerbert, 1878), the Indian isolate of the lung fluke representative of the family Paragonimidae (Trematoda).

    PubMed

    Biswal, Devendra K; Chatterjee, Anupam; Bhattacharya, Alok; Tandon, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Among helminth parasites, Paragonimus (zoonotic lung fluke) gains considerable importance from veterinary and medical points of view because of its diversified effect on its host. Nearly fifty species of Paragonimus have been described across the globe. It is estimated that more than 20 million people are infected worldwide and the best known species is Paragonimus westermani, whose type locality is probably India and which infects millions of people in Asia causing disease symptoms that mimic tuberculosis. Human infections occur through eating raw crustaceans containing metacercarie or ingestion of uncooked meat of paratenic hosts such as pigs. Though the fluke is known to parasitize a wide range of mammalian hosts representing as many as eleven families, the status of its prevalence, host range, pathogenic manifestations and its possible survivors in nature from where the human beings contract the infection is not well documented in India. We took advantage of the whole genome sequence data for P. westermani, generated by Next Generation Sequencing, and its comparison with the existing data for the P. westermani for comparative mt DNA phylogenomic analyses. Specific primers were designed for the 12 protein coding genes with the aid of existing P. westermani mtDNA as the reference. The Ion torrent next generation sequencing platform was harnessed to completely sequence the mitochondrial genome, and applied innovative approaches to bioinformatically assemble and annotate it. A strategic PCR primer design utilizing the whole genome sequence data from P. westermani enabled us to design specific primers capable of amplifying all regions of the mitochondrial genome from P. westermani. Assembly of NGS data from libraries enriched in mtDNA sequence by PCR gave rise to a total of 11 contigs spanning the entire 14.7 kb mt DNA sequence of P. westermani available at NCBI. We conducted gap-filling by traditional Sanger sequencing to fill in the gaps. Annotation of non

  19. The mitochondrial genome of Paragonimus westermani (Kerbert, 1878), the Indian isolate of the lung fluke representative of the family Paragonimidae (Trematoda)

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Devendra K.; Chatterjee, Anupam

    2014-01-01

    Among helminth parasites, Paragonimus (zoonotic lung fluke) gains considerable importance from veterinary and medical points of view because of its diversified effect on its host. Nearly fifty species of Paragonimus have been described across the globe. It is estimated that more than 20 million people are infected worldwide and the best known species is Paragonimus westermani, whose type locality is probably India and which infects millions of people in Asia causing disease symptoms that mimic tuberculosis. Human infections occur through eating raw crustaceans containing metacercarie or ingestion of uncooked meat of paratenic hosts such as pigs. Though the fluke is known to parasitize a wide range of mammalian hosts representing as many as eleven families, the status of its prevalence, host range, pathogenic manifestations and its possible survivors in nature from where the human beings contract the infection is not well documented in India. We took advantage of the whole genome sequence data for P. westermani, generated by Next Generation Sequencing, and its comparison with the existing data for the P. westermani for comparative mt DNA phylogenomic analyses. Specific primers were designed for the 12 protein coding genes with the aid of existing P. westermani mtDNA as the reference. The Ion torrent next generation sequencing platform was harnessed to completely sequence the mitochondrial genome, and applied innovative approaches to bioinformatically assemble and annotate it. A strategic PCR primer design utilizing the whole genome sequence data from P. westermani enabled us to design specific primers capable of amplifying all regions of the mitochondrial genome from P. westermani. Assembly of NGS data from libraries enriched in mtDNA sequence by PCR gave rise to a total of 11 contigs spanning the entire 14.7 kb mt DNA sequence of P. westermani available at NCBI. We conducted gap-filling by traditional Sanger sequencing to fill in the gaps. Annotation of non

  20. Sarcoptic mange infestation in pigs: an overview.

    PubMed

    Laha, R

    2015-12-01

    Sarcoptic mange infestation in pigs is caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis. It is the most common mange infestation of pigs. The parasite is distributed worldwide. Pig owners are generally concerned about the internal parasitic infections and ignored the external parasitic infestations. But the external parasitic infestation with S. scabiei var. suis has economic significance as it causes morbidity, mortality, decreased fertility and feed conversion ratio in pigs. Keeping in view of importance of S. scabies var. suis infestation in pigs, this communication discussed about the present and past research works done on S. scabies var. suis infestation in pigs, particularly its prevalence, life cycle, pathological lesions, clinical symptoms, haematobiochemical changes, diagnosis, treatment and control, to have an idea about this infestation at a glance. It has been concluded that the research work done on sarcoptic mange infestation in pigs in India is less in comparison to other countries. It may be due to its consideration as a neglected parasite or due to it's under report. Organization of awareness programs for the farmers by extension personalities or other authorities might be able to save the farmers from economic losses due to this infestation. PMID:26688620

  1. [Clinical course of isolated larval infestation of orbit in children].

    PubMed

    Dubovskaia, L A; Tumol'skaia, N I; Sidorenko, N I; Kotiasheva, G I; Odoshashvili, E D; Gorbunov, A V

    2000-01-01

    Clinical course of an isolated infestation of orbital tissues by larvae of helminths parasitizing in dogs (Toxocara canis) has been followed up in 5 patients aged 6-13 years. The process ran a wave-like course for 3-8 months and was characterized by cyclic inflammatory changes in the orbit, presenting by toxic allergic tenonitis, regional lymphadenitis, optic nerve perineuritis with formation of parasitic granuloma detected by computer-aided rhoentgenotomography of the orbit. No clinical or laboratory signs of common inflammatory and allergic reaction in the presence of Toxocara antigen sensitization were observed in any case, which was confirmed by detection of specific antibodies (IgG and IgE). Specific therapy with anti-nematode drug albendazol was effective. PMID:10918851

  2. [The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Ixodidae), in Germany: an epidemiologic study and control measures].

    PubMed

    Dongus, H; Zahler, M; Gothe, R

    1996-01-01

    Between January and December 1995 infestations with Rhipicephalus sanguineus were established in 22 dogs in Germany. Out of these 22 animals 2 originated from the endemic area of this tick species, Spain and the Dominican Republic and 11 dogs accompanied their owner to the Mediterranean countries, 5 to Italy, 3 to France, 2 to Spain and 1 animal to Greece. Six dogs had never left Germany and with 3 dogs the way of infestation could not be reconstructed. In 16 cases an abundant occurrence of R. sanguineus in homes was reported, whereby in 5 homes also men were infected. An infection with Ehrlichia canis was diagnosed in the dog which originated from Spain and in one animal which had never left Germany. PMID:8765542

  3. Ectoparasites of Stray Dogs in Mazandaran, Gilan and Qazvin Provinces, North and Center of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimzade, Elahe; Fattahi, Roohollah; Ahoo, Mohammad Bagher

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of ectoparasite infestations in stray dogs in Mazandaran, Gilan and Qazvin Provinces in fall and winter in 2013(December to March). Methods: Seventy dogs in 2013, from these Provinces were examined for ectoparasite infestation and diagnosis of them based on parasitological methods and identification keys was done. Results: The rate of infestation in these areas was 100%, 68.5% and 93.3% respectively. Fleas were the most common ectoparasites on dogs in this study followed by lice, ticks, flies and mites respectively. The isolated arthropods were fleas in 77.5%, lice in 50%, ticks in 8.6%, flies in 6.8% and mites in 5.1% of infested dogs. The ectoparasite of the dogs included 4 flea species: Ctenocephalides canis (29.8%), C. felis (19.9%), Pulex iritans (2.9%) and Xenopsiella cheopis (0.7%), 1 louse species: Trichodectes canis (41.3%), 1 tick species: Rhipicephalus sanguinus (0.7%), 1 fly species: Hippobosca sp. (1.1%) and 1 mite species: Sarcoptes scabiei (3.6%). Conclusion: Fleas and lice were the most common ectoparasites in stray dogs of the studied area. Some ectoparasites transmit important human disease, therefore regular monitoring of them is a major concern to control the arthropods and arthropods-borne diseases. PMID:27308294

  4. Disease control through fertility control: Secondary benefits of animal birth control in Indian street dogs.

    PubMed

    Yoak, Andrew J; Reece, John F; Gehrt, Stanley D; Hamilton, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    We sought to (1) survey sexually intact street dogs for a wide range of diseases in three cities in Rajasthan, India and (2) evaluate links between the health of non-treated dogs and both the presence and duration of animal birth control (ABC) programs. ABC regimes sterilize and vaccinate stray dogs in an attempt to control their population and the spread of rabies. They are commonly suggested to improve the health of those dogs they serve, but here we provide evidence that these benefits also extend to untreated dogs in the community. Viral and bacterial disease seroprevalences were assessed in 240 sexually intact street dogs from Jaipur, Jodhpur, and Sawai Madhopur cities in October and September 2011. Those individuals and 50 additional dogs were assessed for the presence of ticks, fleas, fight wounds, and given body condition scores. Dogs in cities with an ABC program had with significantly (p<0.05) higher overall body condition scores, lower prevalence of open wounds likely caused by fighting, flea infestations, infectious canine hepatitis, Ehrlichia canis, Leptospira interrogans serovars, and canine distemper virus antibodies. However, those same dogs in cities with ABC programs had significantly higher prevalence of Brown Dog Tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) infestations. Canine parvovirus and Brucella canis prevalences were not significantly different between cities. This study is the first to demonstrate the health benefits of ABC on non-vaccinated diseases and non-treated individuals. PMID:24239212

  5. Negative Feedbacks on Bark Beetle Outbreaks: Widespread and Severe Spruce Beetle Infestation Restricts Subsequent Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Sarah J.; Veblen, Thomas T.; Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1) how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2) how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height), not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations. PMID:26000906

  6. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    PubMed

    Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T; Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1) how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2) how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height), not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations. PMID:26000906

  7. Efficacy of Cefpodoxime with Clavulanic Acid in the Treatment of Recurrent Pyoderma in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Sudhakara Reddy, B.; Nalini Kumari, K.; Vaikunta Rao, V.; Rayulu, V. C.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study on recurrent pyoderma, dogs with a history of more than three episodes of skin infections in a period of one year were selected. The associated conditions and (or) underlying factors revealed upon thorough investigation were demodicosis, Malassezia dermatitis, flea infestation, hypothyroidism, keratinization disorder (seborrhea), combination of Malassezia dermatitis and tick infestation, and a combination of scabies and tick infestation. Therapy was given with cefpodoxime with clavulanic acid along with appropriate simultaneous medication for the underlying associated conditions. In all the cases response to therapy was excellent. Improvement was noticed by 9 to 19 days and 17 to 21 days in recurrent superficial and deep pyoderma, respectively. In one dog, relapse occurred by 45 days due to the associated condition of hypothyroidism which was confirmed through laboratory findings. Cefpodoxime with clavulanic acid proved to be an effective, safe, and convenient antibiotic for the treatment of recurrent pyoderma in dogs without any side effects. PMID:24977045

  8. Efficacy of cefpodoxime with clavulanic Acid in the treatment of recurrent pyoderma in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sudhakara Reddy, B; Nalini Kumari, K; Vaikunta Rao, V; Rayulu, V C

    2014-01-01

    In the present study on recurrent pyoderma, dogs with a history of more than three episodes of skin infections in a period of one year were selected. The associated conditions and (or) underlying factors revealed upon thorough investigation were demodicosis, Malassezia dermatitis, flea infestation, hypothyroidism, keratinization disorder (seborrhea), combination of Malassezia dermatitis and tick infestation, and a combination of scabies and tick infestation. Therapy was given with cefpodoxime with clavulanic acid along with appropriate simultaneous medication for the underlying associated conditions. In all the cases response to therapy was excellent. Improvement was noticed by 9 to 19 days and 17 to 21 days in recurrent superficial and deep pyoderma, respectively. In one dog, relapse occurred by 45 days due to the associated condition of hypothyroidism which was confirmed through laboratory findings. Cefpodoxime with clavulanic acid proved to be an effective, safe, and convenient antibiotic for the treatment of recurrent pyoderma in dogs without any side effects. PMID:24977045

  9. Efficacy and safety of selamectin against Sarcoptes scabiei on dogs and Otodectes cynotis on dogs and cats presented as veterinary patients.

    PubMed

    Six, R H; Clemence, R G; Thomas, C A; Behan, S; Boy, M G; Watson, P; Benchaoui, H A; Clements, P J; Rowan, T G; Jernigan, A D

    2000-08-23

    A series of randomized, controlled and masked field studies was conducted in veterinary patients to evaluate the efficacy of selamectin, a novel avermectin, in the treatment of naturally occurring Sarcoptes scabiei infestations on dogs and Otodectes cynotis infestations on dogs and cats. A total of 342 dogs and 237 cats participated in these studies, which were conducted at 40 veterinary practices in the USA and Europe. Animals were randomly assigned to treatment with selamectin or a positive-control product (existing approved products). Selamectin was administered as a unit dose providing a minimum of 6mgkg(-1) (range: 6-12mgkg(-1)) in a topical preparation applied to the skin in a single spot on day 0 (O. cynotis in cats, n=144), or on days 0 and 30 (O. cynotis and S. scabiei in dogs, n=83 and n=122, respectively). The presence of parasites was assessed before treatment and at 30 days (for all studies) and 60 days (for O. cynotis and S. scabiei dog studies) after first treatment. The animals were also evaluated clinically at each assessment period. Based on skin scrapings, the efficacy of selamectin against S. scabiei infestations on dogs was >95% by day 30, and 100% by day 60. Against O. cynotis, selamectin eliminated mites in 94-100% of cats by day 30, and in 90% of dogs by day 60. The positive-control products achieved similar results. Thus, selamectin was safe and effective against ear mites in dogs and cats and sarcoptic mange in dogs when used in field (veterinary patient) studies in dogs and cats of a wide variety of ages and breeds. PMID:10940530

  10. Babesiosis in an Egyptian boy aquired from pet dog, and a general review.

    PubMed

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Khalil, Hazem H M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2011-04-01

    Human babesiosis has been documented in many countries. It is a zoonotic protozoan disease of medical, veterinary and economic importance. In this study, a twelve years old boy was referred to the hospital with intermittent fever of unknown origin. On clinical, parasitological and serological bases the case proved to be babesiosis. The boy acquired the infection from his pet dog which was heavily infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus and suffered a mild feature of animal babesiosis. The patient was successfully treated with Atovaquone plus Azithromycin without relapse for one month follow up. The pet dog was sent to Governmental Veterinary Hospital at Abbassia for treatment from babesiosis and tick infestation. PMID:21634246

  11. Persistent Pediatric Gastro-Intestinal Myiasis: A Case Report of Fly Larval Infestation with Musca Domestica with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kandi, Venkataramana; Lal, Sandeep Kumar; Akhila; Shruthi; Sandhya, K.; Simar, Harender; Pranuthi, Mispah; Kumar, Moses Vinay; Anand, Kalaskar; Rao, Sanjeev D.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of dipterous fly larvae in human is termed as human myiasis. Human myiasis can be classified based on clinical condition it causes like cutaneous myiasis, ocular myiasis, urogenital myiasis and intestinal myiasis. Based on the need for a particular host, myiasis can be divided as specific myiasis, semi-specific myiasis. Accidental myiasis results when the fly larvae are deposited/ingested by human resulting in infestation, which is also called as pseudomyiasis. Fly larvae may be present on the dead and decaying organic matter and domestic animals like dog and cats which are naturally infested with fly larvae and can be source for infection in children. Very few cases have been retrieved from literature on the occurrence of intestinal myiasis in children throughout the world. We report a case of two siblings in the same family infested with dipterous fly larvae. PMID:24049366

  12. Dog bites.

    PubMed

    1991-04-01

    Although our canine companions can provide us with many hours of unyielding love and faithfulness, it is important to remember that these same loving creatures inflict 500,000 to one million bites per year, accounting for one percent of all emergency room visits nationwide. Ten percent of these injuries require suturing, one to two percent require hospitalization, and approximately one-third of dog bite injuries cause lost time from work or school. The United States Postal Service spends more than $250,000 annually just for prevention and treatment of dog bite injuries involving letter carriers! Still think that adorable pooch is harmless? Read on. PMID:1857330

  13. No Paragonimus in high-risk groups in Côte d'Ivoire, but considerable prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoon infections

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Paragonimiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by an infection with lung flukes that is transmitted through the consumption of undercooked crabs. The disease is often confused with tuberculosis. Paragonimiasis is thought to be endemic in south-western Côte d'Ivoire. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out in the first half of 2009 in patients attending two tuberculosis centres of Abidjan. A third cross-sectional survey was conducted in May 2010 in children of two primary schools in Dabou, where crabs are frequently consumed. Patients with chronic cough provided three sputum samples plus one stool sample. Sputum samples were examined for tuberculosis with an auramine staining technique and for Paragonimus eggs using a concentration technique. Stool samples were subjected to the Ritchie technique. Schoolchildren provided a single stool sample, and samples were subjected to the Kato-Katz and an ether-concentration technique. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to patients and schoolchildren to investigate food consumption habits. Additionally, between June 2009 and August 2010, shellfish were purchased from markets in Abidjan and Dabou and examined for metacercariae. Results No human case of paragonimiasis was diagnosed. However, trematode infections were seen in 32 of the 272 shellfish examined (11.8%). Questionnaire results revealed that crab and pig meat is well cooked before consumption. Among the 278 patients with complete data records, 62 had tuberculosis, with a higher prevalence in males than females (28.8% vs. 13.9%, χ2 = 8.79, p = 0.003). The prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoa was 4.6% and 16.9%, respectively. In the school survey, among 166 children with complete data records, the prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoa was 22.3% and 48.8%, respectively. Boys had significantly higher prevalences of helminths and intestinal protozoa than girls. Hookworm was the predominant helminth species and

  14. Controlling zebra mussel infestations at hydroelectric plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sblendorio, R.P.; Malinchock, J.C. ); Claudi, R. )

    1991-07-01

    U.S. and Canadian utilities in the great lakes area have adopted techniques to temporarily prevent infestation of the zebra mussel in their hydro facilities, but are still looking for more permanent solutions.

  15. Distribution of phytopathogenic bacteria in infested seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Populations of phytopathogenic bacteria representing five host-pathogen combinations were assessed to determine if there was a mathematical relationship common across seedborne bacterial diseases. Bacterial populations were estimated from naturally-infested seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peppe...

  16. Small bowel Ascaris infestation: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Waqas; Ghauri, Sanniya Khan

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis is a common infestation in developing countries where there is poor hygiene. A majority of the cases are asymptomatic, with a few cases presenting with mild abdominal pain and nutritional deficiencies in the long term. Here we present a case of a young boy who presented as a diagnostic dilemma, with signs of acute intestinal obstruction without any supporting radiological evidence. A barium study revealed the presence of low-burden Ascaris infestation that was managed medically. PMID:27175091

  17. Small bowel Ascaris infestation: a diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Waqas; Ghauri, Sanniya Khan

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis is a common infestation in developing countries where there is poor hygiene. A majority of the cases are asymptomatic, with a few cases presenting with mild abdominal pain and nutritional deficiencies in the long term. Here we present a case of a young boy who presented as a diagnostic dilemma, with signs of acute intestinal obstruction without any supporting radiological evidence. A barium study revealed the presence of low-burden Ascaris infestation that was managed medically. PMID:27175091

  18. Dog Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2010-01-01

    Bringing service animals into schools raises serious questions about how to meet one student's special needs while ensuring the educational well-being of all. This article discusses how schools grapple with the practical and legal questions involved in allowing service dogs on campus. The author cites a case in 2009 called "Kalbfleisch v. Columbia…

  19. Comparative speed of efficacy against Ctenocephalides felis of two oral treatments for dogs containing either afoxolaner or fluralaner.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frederic; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lenaïg

    2015-01-30

    A study was designed to compare the efficacy of NexGard(®) and Bravecto™, 2 recently introduced oral ectoparasiticides containing isoxazolines, against fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) on dogs. Twenty-four healthy dogs, weighing 9.2 kg to 28.6 kg, were included in this parallel group design, randomized, and controlled efficacy study. On Day -1, the 24 dogs were allocated to 3 study groups: untreated control; Nexgard(®) treated and Bravecto™ treated. The treatments were administered on Days 0, 28 and 56 for Nexgard(®) (labelled for monthly administration), and once on Day 0 for Bravecto™ (labelled for a 12 week use). Flea infestations were performed weekly with 100 adult unfed C. felis on each dog from Days 42 to 84. Fleas were counted and re-applied at 6 and 12 h post-infestation and removed and counted 24 h post-infestation. The arithmetic mean flea count for the untreated group ranged from 62.9 to 77.6 at 24 h post-infestation, indicating vigorous flea challenges on all assessment days. Both the Nexgard(®) and Bravecto™ treated groups had statistically significantly (p<0.05) less fleas compared to the untreated group on all assessment time points and days. Significantly fewer fleas were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs at 6 h post-infestation on Day 56, 63, 70, 77 and 84 and at 12 h post-infestation on Days 70 and 84. No statistically significant (p<0.05) differences were recorded between the treated groups at 24 h post-infestation. Efficacies recorded 6 h post-infestation for Nexgard(®) ranged from 62.8% (Day 49) to 97.3% (Day 56), and efficacies ranged from 94.1% (Day 49) to 100% (Days 42, 56, 70 and 84) at 12 h post-infestation. Efficacies recorded for Bravecto™ ranged from 45.1% (Day 84) to 97.8% (Day 42) at 6 h post-infestation, and from 64.7% (Day 84) to 100% (Days 42 and 56) at 12 h post-infestation. Efficacies observed at 24 h were 100% for both products during the study except 99.6% on Day 84 for

  20. Parasites of sheep herding dogs in central Germany.

    PubMed

    Rehbein, Steffen; Kaulfuß, Karl-heinz; Visser, Martin; Sommer, Maria Franziska; Grimm, Felix; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on endoparasite infections diagnosed in 2012 by standard coproscopical techniques and coproantigen Giardia ELISA in 165 dogs used for sheep herding in 36 farms in central Germany. The overall prevalence of dogs with evidence of endoparasite infections was 27.3% (95% CI 20.6-34.7). The most frequently identified faecal forms were those of ascarids (Toxocara, 6.7%; Toxascaris 3.6%), hookworms (5.5%) and taeniid cestodes (4.2%), followed by those of Trichuris whipworms (3.0%), Capillaria aerophila (1.8%), Angiostrongylus and Crenosoma lungworms (1.2% each) and Cystoisospora canis coccidians (0.6%). Molecular identification demonstrated the seven dogs shedding taeniid eggs positive for Taenia (T.) species tapeworms (five, T. hydatigena; one, T. ovis; one Taenia sp.). Screening of the faeces with the coproantigen ELISA revealed Giardia specific antigen in 5.5% of the samples. The majority of the dogs had evidence of single endoparasite infections (22.4%) while evidence for infection with two or three parasites concurrently was found in six (3.6%) and two (1.2%) of the dogs, respectively. Dogs ≤ 1 year (n = 19) were parasitized more frequently (p < 0.05) with overall gastrointestinal parasites (63.2% vs. 20.5%), ascarids (36.8% vs. 6.8%) and Giardia spp. (21.1% vs. 3.4%) than older dogs (n = 146). Dogs which had been wormed within six months of examination tested less frequently positive for gastrointestinal helminths compared to dogs not wormed (11.1% vs. 25.0%; p = 0.0567). In addition, ear swabs taken from 43 sheep dogs in 2012 were examined, and Otodectes cynotis mites were extracted from one dog. Identification of ectoparasites collected by full body search and combing from 113 sheep dogs in the years 2011 to 2013 revealed infestation of fleas and ticks (each up to five specimens per dog) on 13 and 108 dogs, respectively, with nine dogs carrying both fleas and ticks. Archaeopsylla erinacei, Ctenocephalides (C) canis, C. felis and Pulex irritans

  1. Evaluation of blood oxidant/antioxidant balance in dogs with sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Camkerten, Ilker; Sahin, T; Borazan, G; Gokcen, A; Erel, O; Das, A

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate of oxidant/antioxidant balance in dogs with sarcoptic mange. The study materials consisted of totally 30 cross-breed male dogs; 15 with sarcoptic mange (study group) and 15 healthy as control. Blood samples for analyses were taken from control and study group. In study group, microscopic examination of dermal scrapings of 15 dogs revealed S. scabies. Lipid hydroperoxide level, total oxidant status and oxidative stress index in dogs with sarcoptic mange were higher (P<0.01, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively) than the control. Otherwise; sulphydril levels in dogs with sarcoptic mange were lower (P<0.05) than that of control. No significant differences were observed in total antioxidant capacity between groups. Our results suggest a possible relationship between oxidant/antioxidant imbalance and sarcoptic mange infestation in dogs. PMID:19211189

  2. Delusional infestation: are you being bugged?

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Angeli; Ooi, Kenneth Gj; Assaad, Nagi; Coroneo, Minas

    2015-01-01

    This case report documents a 58-year-old male who presented to the clinic with a 12-month history of a burrowing sensation in his eyelids that he attributed to a parasitic infestation. After being extensively investigated and reviewed by relevant specialties, no evidence of parasitic infestation was found. He was diagnosed with and treated for blepharitis. Psychiatric referral for presumed delusional infestation (DI) was recommended. Despite this, he remained insistent in his belief of infestation, and was inevitably lost to follow-up. DI, previously known as delusional parasitosis, is a rare delusional disorder where affected individuals have a fixed, false belief that they have a parasitic infestation. Diagnosis can be challenging. Practitioners need to evaluate between primary and secondary DI carefully, as management differs depending on the etiology. Despite this, patients diagnosed with primary DI tend to be resistant to psychiatric referral. This report aims to optimize management by giving the reader a guideline for appropriate investigations and advice on patient approach. It is important to recognize hallmark features of DI to minimize self-inflicted trauma and associated psychosocial consequences. Effective treatment for DI is available, and devastating consequences, including blindness, can be avoided. PMID:26082608

  3. Domestic dogs and cats as sources of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rural northwestern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    GÜRTLER, R. E.; CECERE, M. C.; LAURICELLA, M. A.; CARDINAL, M. V.; KITRON, U.; COHEN, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The reservoir capacity of domestic cats and dogs for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and the host-feeding patterns of domestic Triatoma infestans were assessed longitudinally in 2 infested rural villages in north-western Argentina. A total of 86 dogs and 38 cats was repeatedly examined for T. cruzi infection by serology and/or xenodiagnosis. The composite prevalence of infection in dogs (60%), but not in cats, increased significantly with age and with the domiciliary density of infected T. infestans. Dogs and cats had similarly high forces of infection, prevalence of infectious hosts (41–42%), and infectiousness to bugs at a wide range of infected bug densities. The infectiousness to bugs of seropositive dogs declined significantly with increasing dog age and was highly aggregated. Individual dog infectiousness to bugs was significantly autocorrelated over time. Domestic T. infestans fed on dogs showed higher infection prevalence (49%) than those fed on cats (39%), humans (38%) or chickens (29%) among 1085 bugs examined. The basic reproduction number of T. cruzi in dogs was at least 8·2. Both cats and dogs are epidemiologically important sources of infection for bugs and householders, dogs nearly 3 times more than cats. PMID:17032467

  4. Evaluation of four bed bug traps for surveillances of brown dog ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The brown dog tick can be a serious residential pest due to its unique ability, among ticks, to complete its lifecycle indoors. A single engorged and fertilized female tick can oviposit around 4,000 eggs, allowing indoor establishment to be rapid and easy to miss in early-stage infestations. Acari...

  5. Responses of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, to semiochemicals in a Y-tube olfactometer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, is a pest that can be found worldwide. This tick poses unique difficulties in management because it can complete its entire life cycle indoors, resulting in infestations in residential areas. Topical and residual acaricide treatments can be costly and ...

  6. On a Cercopithifilaria sp. transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus: a neglected, but widespread filarioid of dogs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was aimed at investigating the distribution of a Cercopithifilaria sp. sensu Otranto et al., 2011 with dermal microfilariae recently identified in a dog from Sicily (Italy). A large epidemiological survey was conducted by examining skin samples (n = 917) and ticks (n = 890) collected from dogs at different time points in Italy, central Spain and eastern Greece. Results The overall prevalence of Cercopithifilaria sp. in the sampled animal populations was 13.9% and 10.5% by microscopy of skin sediments and by PCR on skin samples, respectively. Up to 21.6% and 45.5% of dogs in Spain were positive by microscopical examination and by PCR. Cumulative incidence rates ranging from 7.7% to 13.9% were estimated in dogs from two sites in Italy. A low level of agreement between the two diagnostic tests (microscopical examination and PCR) was recorded in sites where samples were processed in parallel. Infestation rate as determined by tick dissection (from 5.2% to 16.7%) was higher than that detected by PCR (from 0% to 3.9%); tick infestation was significantly associated with Cercopithifilaria sp. infestation in dogs from two out of four sites. Developing larvae found in ticks were morphometrically studied and as many as 1469 larvae were found in a single tick. Conclusions Our data suggest that, in addition to the most common species of filarioids known to infest dogs (i.e., Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens and Acanthocheilonema reconditum), Cercopithifilaria sp. with dermal microfilariae should be considered due to its widespread distribution in southern Europe and high frequency in tick-exposed dogs. PMID:22212459

  7. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Ehrlichia canis Infection among Companion Dogs of Mashhad, North East of Iran, 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Ansari-Mood, Maneli; Khoshnegah, Javad; Mohri, Mehrdad; Rajaei, Seyed Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of canine ehrlichiosis and risk factors of this disease in companion dogs’ population of Mashhad, North East of Iran. Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (CME) is a zoonotic disease transmitted by ticks, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and caused by an obligate intracellular bacterium, Ehrlichia canis. Methods: During September 2009 until November 2010, 250 companion dogs from Mashhad, North-East of Iran, were examined for serum antibody detection against E. canis by means of immunofluorescence assay test (IFAT) and factors associated with a positive antibody response. Results: There was a very low prevalence of anti-E. canis antibodies (0.8%, 2/250) among studied dogs. The antibody titers for two seropositive dogs were 1:80 and 1:160, respectively. One (0.4%) of seropositive dogs was infested with, R. sanguineus. In blood smears from one of infested dogs (0.4%), typical morulae of E. canis was observed in lymphocytes. The results confirm that the lowest occurrence of reactive dogs indoors probably related to low tick infestion. Conclusion: This is the first report that describes serological evidences of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis in North-East of Iran. Results suggested that E. canis infection in owned pet dogs from North of Khorasan was not endemic from 2009 to 2010. Additional molecular studies are necessary to confirm E. canis infection and to identify the local strains of the organism. PMID:26623430

  8. Filarioids infecting dogs in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; de Oliveira do Rêgo, Ana Gabriela; de Farias Firmino, Everton Diogo; do Nascimento Ramos, Carlos Alberto; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2016-08-15

    Species of filarial nematodes belonging to the genera Dirofilaria and Acanthocheilonema are recognised as common parasites of dogs throughout the world. Recently, other filarioids featured by the presence of dermal microfilariae (e.g., Onchocerca lupi and Cercopithifilaria spp.) have been recognised in Europe. In Brazil, reports of filarioids in dogs are limited to Dirofilaria immitis, Acanthocheilonema reconditum and Cercopithifilaria bainae. To investigate the distribution of filarial infections in dogs living in an endemic region from northeastern Brazil, blood and skin samples (n=104) were microscopically (modified Knott's test and skin snip sediment examination) and molecularly evaluated. Twenty-two dogs (21.15%) were positive at microscopic and/or molecular examination for at least one filarioid species, with 21 (20.19%) animals positive for blood microfilariae at molecular and/or at microscopic examination. Microfilariae of D. immitis were detected in 12 (11.54%) animals, with co-infection of D. immitis and A. reconditum observed in four (3.85%) individuals. One animal was positive for C. bainae at both microscopic and molecular examination. Analysis of sequence obtained in the present study showed significant alignment identity with that of C. bainae from Europe. Considering that in the area of study arthropod vectors (mosquitoes, fleas and ticks) are prevalent throughout the year, preventive measures should be disposed in order to avoid the animal infestation and pathogen infection. PMID:27514878

  9. Cat and Dog Bites

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites How should I take care of a bite from a cat or a dog? Whether from a family pet or a neighborhood stray, cat and dog bites are common. Here are some ...

  10. Bartonella henselae infections in an owner and two Papillon dogs exposed to tropical rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti).

    PubMed

    Bradley, Julie M; Mascarelli, Patricia E; Trull, Chelsea L; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2014-10-01

    After raccoons were trapped and removed from under a house in New York, the owner and her two Papillon dogs became infested with numerous rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti). Two weeks later, both dogs developed pruritus, progressively severe vesicular lesions, focal areas of skin exfoliation, swelling of the vulva or prepuce, abdominal pain, and behavioral changes. Two months after the mite infestation, the owner was hospitalized because of lethargy, fatigue, uncontrollable panic attacks, depression, headaches, chills, swollen neck lymph nodes, and vesicular lesions at the mite bite sites. Due to ongoing illness, 3 months after the mite infestation, alcohol-stored mites and blood and serum from both dogs and the owner were submitted for Bartonella serology and Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) enrichment blood culture/PCR. Bartonella henselae DNA was amplified and sequenced from blood or culture specimens derived from both dogs, the owner, and pooled rat mites. Following repeated treatments with doxycycline, both dogs eventually became B. henselae seronegative and blood culture negative and clinical signs resolved. In contrast, the woman was never B. henselae seroreactive, but was again PCR positive for B. henselae 20 months after the mite infestation, despite prior treatment with doxycycline. Clinicians and vector biologists should consider the possibility that rat mites may play a role in Bartonella spp. transmission. PMID:25325313

  11. Parasitoid infestation changes female mating preferences.

    PubMed

    Beckers, Oliver M; Wagner, William E

    2013-04-01

    Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and thus reproductive opportunities of the cricket. Both female G. lineaticeps and flies orient to male song and both prefer male songs with faster chirp rates to songs with slower chirp rates. We tested the effect of parasitic infestation on female responsiveness to male song and female chirp rate preferences. The proportion of individuals responding to male songs did not differ between infested and control females. Control females preferred intermediate chirp rates to slow chirp rates and did not discriminate between fast and intermediate chirp rates. In contrast, infested females showed no preferences in the choice trials, indicating reduced chirp rate selectivity. This plasticity in female preferences may be adaptive; parasitized females may have a higher probability of reproducing before they are killed by the parasitoids if they are less selective (i.e. there will be a larger pool of males considered acceptable). The change in preferences suggests relaxed selection on male chirp rate during times of parasitism. PMID:24347669

  12. Parasitoid infestation changes female mating preferences

    PubMed Central

    Beckers, Oliver M.; Wagner, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and thus reproductive opportunities of the cricket. Both female G. lineaticeps and flies orient to male song and both prefer male songs with faster chirp rates to songs with slower chirp rates. We tested the effect of parasitic infestation on female responsiveness to male song and female chirp rate preferences. The proportion of individuals responding to male songs did not differ between infested and control females. Control females preferred intermediate chirp rates to slow chirp rates and did not discriminate between fast and intermediate chirp rates. In contrast, infested females showed no preferences in the choice trials, indicating reduced chirp rate selectivity. This plasticity in female preferences may be adaptive; parasitized females may have a higher probability of reproducing before they are killed by the parasitoids if they are less selective (i.e. there will be a larger pool of males considered acceptable). The change in preferences suggests relaxed selection on male chirp rate during times of parasitism. PMID:24347669

  13. Signature Chemicals for Detection of Hidden Insect Infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are major pests worldwide, but infestation is difficult to detect since the larval stages are concealed within host fruits. Using grapefruit infested with the Caribbean fruit fly, we evaluated gas chromatography (GC) as a tool for detection of hidden infestation. We found sever...

  14. [IgG antibodies to Borrelia in dogs in the area of Kosice].

    PubMed

    Stefancíková, A; Skardová, I; Pet'ko, B; Janovská, D; Cyprichová, V

    1996-03-01

    An ELISA investigation showed that 26.9% of dogs in Kosice region were positive for anti-borrelia IgG antibodies. A significantly higher seroprevalence was detected only in hunting dogs (40.0%) compared with service dogs (11.8%; p < 0.05). An analysis of seroprevalence by age showed a significant difference only between dogs in the categories 1-3 years (37.8%) and under 1 year of age (8.3%; p < 0.05). In other age groups no significant differences in seroprevalence were observed. No significant difference in seroprevalence was detected between sex either. A high correlation was determined to exist between the seroprevalence and the number of engorged ticks (R = 0.8) and the frequency of the exposure of dogs to the tick-infested wooded areas with the focal occurrence of boreliae (R = 1). The analysis of results suggests that seroprevalence of Lyme borreliosis in dogs of the Kosice region is not negligible. The breed, age and sex do not influence the seroprevalence of the disease. The decisive role is, however, played by the time of the exposure of dogs to the environment infested by Borrelia-contaminated ticks. PMID:8686135

  15. [Vector-borne parasites of dogs on the Islands of Cabo Verde].

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Marlene; Brunner, Adrian; Edelhofer, Renate; Joachim, Anja

    2008-01-01

    During an animal welfare campaign on the Islands of Cape Verde (in the capital Praia on the island of Santiago) a total of 57 dogs were examined for ectoparasites and blood parasites. 84% of the animals were infested with arthropods, mostly ticks. Haemotropic parasites were examined via blood smear, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or serology. 23 dogs had single infections, five multiple infections with haemoparasites. In eight dogs Ehrlichia canis and in one Amaplasma phagocytophilum were detected by PCR, while 43.1% and 36.2% respectively were serologically positive. In 23 blood smears Babesia gibsoni, but no Babesia canis could be detected. In four cases Hepatozoon canis was found in the smears. All animals were negative for Dirofilaria larvae or antibodies against Leishmania. Arthropod-infested animals more frequently harboured babesiae (44%), ehrlichiae (19%) or H. canis (8%) compared to non-infested animals (20%, 0%, 0%). In bitches and dogs aged one year or less babesiae were more frequently detected (48% of the bitches and 13% of the male dogs; 45% of animals less than one year and 26% of the older ones). Due to the high infection rates the import of animals from Cabo Verde to Central Europe must be seen as critical, since an endemisation of (sub-)tropical infectious agents cannot be excluded. PMID:19066773

  16. Prevalence of Helminths in Dogs and Owners' Awareness of Zoonotic Diseases in Mampong, Ashanti, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Amissah-Reynolds, Papa Kofi; Monney, Isaac; Adowah, Lucy Mawusi; Agyemang, Samuel Opoku

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are popular pets that live closely with humans. However, this cohabitation allows for the transmission of zoonotic parasites to humans. In Ghana, very little is known about zoonotic parasites in dogs. We examined excrements of 154 dogs for intestinal helminthes using saturated sodium chloride as a floatation medium and further interviewed 100 dog owners regarding knowledge on zoonosis and pet management practices. Thirteen parasite species were identified, with an overall prevalence of 52.6%. Nematodes were more common than cestodes, with Toxocara canis being the most prevalent helminth (18.8%). Age (p = 0.011; χ (2) = 9.034) and location (p = 0.02; χ (2) = 12.323) of dogs were significant risk factors of helminthic infections, while mode of housing, function, and gender of dogs were not. Knowledge on zoonosis and pet management practices were poor, including irregular deworming and feeding of animals off the bare ground. Dogs may play an active role in the transmission of zoonotic diseases in the area, given the cohabitation of infected dogs with humans; irregular deworming pattern of dogs; and rampant excretion of helminth-infested dog excreta into the environment. PMID:26941994

  17. Prevalence of Helminths in Dogs and Owners' Awareness of Zoonotic Diseases in Mampong, Ashanti, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Amissah-Reynolds, Papa Kofi; Monney, Isaac; Adowah, Lucy Mawusi; Agyemang, Samuel Opoku

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are popular pets that live closely with humans. However, this cohabitation allows for the transmission of zoonotic parasites to humans. In Ghana, very little is known about zoonotic parasites in dogs. We examined excrements of 154 dogs for intestinal helminthes using saturated sodium chloride as a floatation medium and further interviewed 100 dog owners regarding knowledge on zoonosis and pet management practices. Thirteen parasite species were identified, with an overall prevalence of 52.6%. Nematodes were more common than cestodes, with Toxocara canis being the most prevalent helminth (18.8%). Age (p = 0.011; χ2 = 9.034) and location (p = 0.02; χ2 = 12.323) of dogs were significant risk factors of helminthic infections, while mode of housing, function, and gender of dogs were not. Knowledge on zoonosis and pet management practices were poor, including irregular deworming and feeding of animals off the bare ground. Dogs may play an active role in the transmission of zoonotic diseases in the area, given the cohabitation of infected dogs with humans; irregular deworming pattern of dogs; and rampant excretion of helminth-infested dog excreta into the environment. PMID:26941994

  18. Zoonotic enteric parasites transmitted from dogs in Egypt with special concern to Toxocara canis infection

    PubMed Central

    Awadallah, Maysa A. I.; Salem, Lobna M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This work aimed to study the role played by dogs in transmitting zoonotic enteric parasites to humans in Egypt and to analyze the risk factors associated with the occurrence of such infection in dogs. Serodiagnosis of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies among human beings as well as analyzing risk factors predispose to Toxocara canis infection in human beings are another objectives of this study. Materials and Methods: From June to December 2013, a total of 130 fecal samples from 4 dog populations (Military, nomadic and domiciled dogs from rural and high standard districts) and 150 stool samples of 6 occupational groups were examined for the presence of enteric parasitic infection. Moreover, 150 serum samples were collected from humans from whom stool samples were collected and examined for the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies. Results: Enteric parasites were detected in 30% of fecal samples from 4 dog populations in Egypt. High infectivity had been reported in nomadic dogs (63.33%) (Crude odds ratios [COR]=67.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]=8.09-560.8, p<0.000), followed by domiciled dogs from rural areas (40%) (COR=26, 95% CI=3.14-215.54, p=0.003), domiciled dogs from high standard areas (23.33%) (COR=11.87, 95% CI=1.37-102.69, p=0.025) and military dogs (2.5%). Twelve species of enteric parasites were identified, Ancylostomatidae (6.15%), T. canis and Cryptosporidium spp. (5.38%, each), Heterophyes spp. (3.85%), Toxocara leonina and Blastocystis spp. (3.07%), Taenidae eggs (2.31%), Hymenolepis diminuta (1.54%) and Entamoeba canis, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Paragonimus spp. (0.77%, each). Univariate logestic regression revealed significant association of age (COR=4.73, 95% CI=2.13-10.53, p<0.000), gender (COR=2.63, 95% CI=1.22-5.68, p<0.014), housing system (COR=5.10, 95% CI=2.04-12.75), p<0.000) with enteric parasitic infection in dogs. However, breeds (COR=6.91, 95% CI=0.88-54.52, p=0.067) and type of feeding (COR ranged from 3.5 to 7

  19. Salivary gland necrosis in dogs: a retrospective study of 19 cases.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, H; Berry, W L

    1998-03-01

    Salivary gland necrosis has been described in dogs and is characterised by enlarged, hard, painful salivary glands, retching and vomiting or regurgitation. The cause has yet to be determined. A retrospective study of 19 dogs with the same clinical signs was undertaken for breed, age, gender, history and presenting signs, diagnostic evaluations and findings, treatment and outcome. An underlying association was identified in 16 of the 19 dogs. This included Spirocerca lupi infestation (seven dogs), megaoesophagus (three dogs) and oesophagitis, oesophageal diverticulum, giardiasis and suspected autoimmune sialadenitis. Almost all associated lesions involved the oesophagus. Where the associated disease was successfully treated, the salivary glands returned to normal and all clinical signs resolved. It is hypothesised that an afferent vagal reflex may be involved, and that the mechanism of disease is similar to the neural pathogenesis suggested for hypertrophic osteopathy; in this instance, the efferent targets are the salivary glands rather than the limbs. PMID:9551379

  20. Oral hirudiniasis in a stray dog, first report in Italy

    PubMed Central

    RAELE, Donato Antonio; GALANTE, Domenico; CAFIERO, Maria Assunta

    2015-01-01

    In June 2014, a male stray dog was recovered at Ente Nazionale di Protezione Animali (ENPA) kennel of Manfredonia, Apulia region, showing oral bleeding and physical prostration. The dog fell in a water canal and was trapped. During the clinical examination, a specimen of leech was revealed into its oral cavity. The parasite, probably entered by drinking unfiltered and contaminated water, has been identified as an adult of aquatic leech Limnatis nilotica. Leeches could overrun wide variety of animals, and few reports about blood sucking leech infestations in mammals are available in literature. This paper describes here the first oral hirudiniasis in a dog in Italy and highlights the possibility of human nasopharyngeal leech-related infection in Apulia region. PMID:26004432

  1. Application of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in Early Detection of Red Palm Weevil: (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) Infestation in Date Palm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A. Farooq, W.; G. Rasool, K.; Walid, Tawfik; S. Aldawood, A.

    2015-11-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the leading date producing countries. Unfortunately, this important fruit crop is under great threat from the red palm weevil (RPW) (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), which is a highly invasive pest. Several techniques, including visual inspection, acoustic sensors, sniffer dogs, and pheromone traps have been tried to detect the early stages of a RPW infestation; however, each method has suffered certain logistical and implementation issues. We have applied laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the early detection of RPW infestation. Through the analysis of the observed LIBS spectra of different infested and healthy samples, we have found presence of Ca, Mg, Na, C, K elements and OH, CN molecules. The spectra also reveal that with the population growth of the pest, the intensity of Mg and Ca atomic lines in LIBS spectra increases rapidly. Similar behavior is observed in the molecular lines of LIBS spectra. The obtained results indicate that the LIBS technique can be used for the early detection of RPW infestation without damaging the date palms.

  2. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the serological diagnosis of sarcoptic mange in dogs.

    PubMed

    Lower, K S; Medleau, L M; Hnilica, K; Bigler, B

    2001-12-01

    Canine scabies is a challenging disease to diagnose because sarcoptic mites are hard to find on skin scrapings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a serologic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as an aid in the diagnosis of canine scabies. In addition, serum samples were obtained post treatment to determine the duration and persistence of circulating scabies antibodies after resolution of natural infection. Nineteen dogs diagnosed with sarcoptic mange and 38 control dogs were tested. Sixteen scabies-infested dogs showed positive pretreatment ELISA results (84.2% sensitivity). Thirty-four control dogs showed negative ELISA results (89.5% specificity). In the 11 scabies dogs from which multiple post treatment serum samples were obtained, detectable antibodies were not present 1 month after treatment in four cases, but were present for 1-4.5 months post treatment in seven dogs. Our results suggest that this scabies ELISA test is useful in the diagnosis of canine scabies. PMID:11844220

  3. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks and tick-borne pathogens in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tick-borne diseases comprise a group of maladies that are of substantial medical and veterinary significance. A range of tick-borne pathogens, including diverse species of bacteria and protozoa, can infect both dogs and humans. Hence, the control of tick infestations is pivotal to decrease or prevent tick-borne pathogen transmission. Therefore, different commercial products with insecticidal, repellent or both properties have been developed for use on dogs. Recently, a collar containing a combination of imidacloprid 10% and flumethrin 4.5% has proven effective to prevent tick and flea infestations in dogs under field conditions and the infection by some vector-borne pathogens they transmit under laboratory-controlled conditions. Methods From March 2011 to April 2012, a field study was conducted in a private shelter in southern Italy to assess the efficacy of the imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against tick and flea infestations and to determine if this strategy would decrease tick-borne pathogen transmission in young dogs. A total of 122 animals were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to group A (n = 64; collared) or group B (n = 58; untreated controls). Dogs were examined monthly for ticks and fleas and systematically tested for selected tick-borne pathogens. Results Compared to controls, the collar provided overall efficacies of 99.7% and 100% against tick and flea infestation, respectively. The overall efficacy for the prevention of tick-borne pathogens (i.e., Anaplasma platys and Babesia vogeli) was 91.6%. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the imidacloprid/flumethrin collar is efficacious against flea and tick infestation as well as tick-borne pathogen transmission to dogs under field conditions. PMID:23972013

  4. Nasal leech infestation causing persistent epistaxis

    PubMed Central

    Sarathi, Kalra

    2011-01-01

    Foreign bodies in the nasal cavity are commonly encountered as a cause of epistaxis; however, nasal leech infestation as a cause of unilateral persistent epistaxis is very rare. Examination of nasal cavity revealed fleshy material in the left nostril, which was identified as leech. The leech was removed with the help of an artery forceps following irrigation of the left nostril with normal saline and adopting wait-and-watch policy. In developing countries, leech infestation as a cause of epistaxis should be suspected in patients with lower socioeconomic status or in those living in rural areas who give history of drinking polluted water from, or bathing in, stagnant ponds and puddles. PMID:21887037

  5. Botfly infestation (myiasis) masquerading as furunculosis.

    PubMed

    Gewirtzman, A; Rabinovitz, H

    1999-02-01

    With air travel so prevalent, diseases endemic to certain regions may appear anywhere. The botfly (Dermatobia hominis) is not native to North America. We describe a case of a young boy and his father who presented with furunculosis secondary to infestation with the botfly. The infected patients live in South Florida and had been vacationing in Central America. Standard surgical treatment as well as multiple native remedies are described. PMID:10071732

  6. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (Simparica™) for the treatment and control of fleas on dogs.

    PubMed

    Six, Robert H; Geurden, Thomas; Packianathan, Raj; Colgan, Sally; Everett, William R; Grace, Sarah; Hodge, Andrew; Mahabir, Sean P; Myers, Melanie R; Slootmans, Nathalie; Davis, Kylie

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of a single oral dose of a novel isoxazoline, sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), for the treatment and control of flea infestations on dogs was confirmed in five laboratory studies. The studies were conducted using adult purpose-bred Beagles and/or mixed breed dogs. All animals were individually identified and housed, and were allocated randomly to treatment with either placebo or sarolaner (eight to 10 per group) based on pretreatment parasite counts. Three studies used cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis felis) strains recently isolated from the field from the US, EU, or Australia; in the fourth study a laboratory strain (KS1) with documented tolerance to a number of insecticides such as fipronil, imidacloprid, and permethrin was used. In the fifth study, dogs were infested with dog fleas, Ctenocephalides canis. Dogs were treated orally on Day 0 with a placebo or a sarolaner tablet providing a minimum dose of 2mg/kg. Dogs were infested with approximately 100 unfed, adult fleas prior to treatment and at weekly intervals post-treatment. Comb counts were conducted to determine the numbers of viable fleas at 24h after treatment and after each subsequent infestation. Efficacy against C. felis and C. canis was 99.8-100% from treatment through Day 35. In all five studies, elimination of existing infestations was achieved within 24h after dosing, with only a single live C. felis found on one dog on Day 1. Similarly, control of flea challenges was achieved within 24h after infestation throughout the 35day study periods, with only single live C. felis found on two dogs on Day 28 in one study, and on a single dog on Day 35 in another study. There were no adverse reactions to treatment with sarolaner. These studies confirmed that a single oral dose of sarolaner at 2mg/kg provided highly effective treatment of existing C. felis infestations and persistent control of C. felis on dogs for 35days after treatment. Efficacy equivalent to that seen with C. felis was

  7. Proliferation of protease-enriched mast cells in sarcoptic skin lesions of raccoon dogs.

    PubMed

    Noviana, D; W Harjanti, D; Otsuka, Y; Horii, Y

    2004-07-01

    Skin sites, tongue, lung, liver, jejunum and rectum from two raccoon dogs with Sarcoptes scabiei infestation and five normal (control) raccoon dogs were examined in terms of the distribution, proteoglycan properties and protease activity of mast cells. Infestation with S. scabiei caused a significant increase in the number of dermal mast cells. While the number of mast cells (average +/- standard deviation) in specimens of skin from the dorsum, dorsal neck, dorsal hind foot and dorsal fore foot was 40.0 +/- 19.8/mm2 in control animals, it was 236.1 +/- 58.9/mm2 in the skin of mange-infested animals. Histochemical analysis revealed the glycosaminoglycan, heparin, within the mast cells of all organs examined in both control and affected animals. Enzyme-histochemical detection of serine proteases demonstrated an increase in mast-cell-specific protease activity (i.e., chymase and tryptase) in the skin of infested animals. The percentage of mast cells demonstrating chymase activity was 53.0 +/- 27.4% in control animals and 73.8 +/- 19.4% in mite-infested animals. The corresponding results for tryptase activity were 53.5 +/- 25.2% and 89.4 +/- 9.8%. Increases in mast cell chymase or tryptase activity, or both, were also observed within other organs of the infected animals, but the total number of mast cells found at such sites (with the exception of liver and ventrolateral pinna) did not differ from those of control animals. PMID:15144797

  8. Demodex musculi Infestation in Genetically Immunomodulated Mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter C; Zeiss, Caroline J; Beck, Amanda P; Scholz, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    Demodex musculi, a prostigmatid mite that has been reported infrequently in laboratory mice, has been identified with increasing frequency in contemporary colonies of immunodeficient mice. Here we describe 2 episodes of D. musculi infestation with associated clinical signs in various genetically engineered mouse strains, as well as treatment strategies and an investigation into transmissibility and host susceptibility. The first case involved D. musculi associated with clinical signs and pathologic lesions in BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice, which have a defect in type 2 helper T cell (Th2) immunity. Subsequent investigation revealed mite transmission to both parental strains (BALB/c-Tg[DO11.10] and BALB/c-Il13(tm)), BALB/c-Il13/Il4(tm), and wild-type BALB/c. All Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice remained infested throughout the investigation, and D. musculi were recovered from all strains when they were cohoused with BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) index mice. However, only Il13(tm) and Il13/Il4(tm) mice demonstrated persistent infestation after index mice were removed. Only BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) showed clinical signs, suggesting that the phenotypic dysfunction of Th2 immunity is sufficient for persistent infestation, whereas clinical disease associated with D. musculi appears to be genotype-specific. This pattern was further exemplified in the second case, which involved NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid)Il2r(tm1Wjl)/SzJ (NSG) and C;129S4 Rag2(tm1.1Flv) Il2rg(tm1.1Flv)/J mice with varying degrees of blepharitis, conjunctivitis, and facial pruritis. Topical amitraz decreased mite burden but did not eliminate infestation or markedly ameliorate clinical signs. Furthermore, mite burden began to increase by 1 mo posttreatment, suggesting that topical amitraz is an ineffective treatment for D. musculi. These experiences illustrate the need for vigilance regarding opportunistic and uncommon pathogens in rodent colonies, especially among mice with immunologic deficits. PMID:27538858

  9. Parenteral nutrition in the management of a dog with lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis and severe protein-losing enteropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, I F; Miller, E; Twedt, D C

    1999-01-01

    Management of lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis in a dog with whipworm infestation, hypoproteinemia, and ascites is described. Short-term parenteral nutrition hastened normalization of serum proteins, resolution of diarrhea, and weight gain. A description of the potential benefits, limitations, and possible complications of parenteral nutrition in refractory inflammatory bowel disease is given. PMID:10572669

  10. Comparative efficacy of two oral treatments for dogs containing either afoxolaner or fluralaner against Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Dermacentor reticulatus.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frederic; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lenaïg

    2015-04-15

    The present study compares the efficacy of two recent oral ectoparasiticides containing isoxazolines (NexGard(®), containing afoxolaner and administered at a monthly regimen, and Bravecto™ containing fluralaner and administered at a tri-monthly regimen) against Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks on dogs. 24 dogs were randomly allocated to untreated control, NexGard(®) treated, and Bravecto™ treated groups. The treatments were administered on Days 0, 28 and 56 for afoxolaner and on Day 0 for fluralaner. Tick infestations were performed weekly with 50 unfed adult ticks per each species on each dog from Days 30 to 84 (with the exception of R. sanguineus on Day 63). Ticks were counted at 24h post-infestation. The dogs from both treated groups had statistically significantly (p<0.05) less R. sanguineus and D. reticulatus ticks compared to the untreated dogs on all assessment days. Percent efficacy against R. sanguineus ranged from 86.4% to 99.5% at 24h post-infestation for NexGard(®) and from 65.7% to 100% for Bravecto™. Statistically significantly (p<0.05) less R. sanguineus ticks were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs on Day 78. Percent efficacy against D. reticulatus ranged from 85.2% to 99.6% at 24h post-infestation for NexGard(®) and from 63.4% to 99.1% for Bravecto™. Statistically significantly (p<0.05) less D. reticulatus ticks were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs on Days 71, 78 and 85. PMID:25716658

  11. Comparative efficacy on dogs of a single topical treatment with the pioneer fipronil/(S)-methoprene and an oral treatment with spinosad against Ctenocephalides felis

    PubMed Central

    Beugnet, F.; Doyle, V.; Murray, M.; Chalvet-Monfray, K.

    2011-01-01

    In the study reported here, the pioneer fipronil/(S)-methoprene topical product (FRONTLINE® PLUS, Merial Limited, Duluth, GA) was compared to the oral spinosad product (COMFORTIS® Elanco, Greenfield, IN) for efficacy against adult fleas and preventing egg production. The product presentations, doses and labelling were the one applicable in the USA. Using a standard protocol, 200 cat fleas of mixed sex were applied to dogs on Days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. Dogs were combed to remove fleas 24 hours post-infestation, the fleas were counted, collected, and then reapplied to each dog following completion of their respective count. At 48 hours post-infestation, comb counts were performed and fleas were removed. No fleas were collected from any dog in the fipronil/(S)-methoprene group at any 24 or 48 hours post-infestation assessment throughout the six weeks study, yielding a preventive efficacy of 100%. For the spinosad treatment, efficacy was 100% at 24 hours and 48 hours through Day 16, and thereafter declined. The results observed in the spinosad-treated dogs were highly variable between animals. At the 24 and 48 hours counts following the Day 21 infestation, only five of eight spinosad-treated dogs (62.5%) were flea-free. Following the Day 28 infestation, spinosad efficacy fell to 85% and 89%, for the 24 hours and 48 hours counts, and only two dogs (25%) were flea free, compared to 100% flea-free dogs in the fipronil/(S)-methoprene group. No fleas were collected from the fipronil/(S)- methoprene treated dogs throughout the entire study, therefore, no eggs were collected at any time from any dog in the group. However, in the spinosad group adult fleas were found on dogs starting on Day 21 and by Day 30, 42 eggs were collected from one dog that had 107 adult fleas counted at 48 hours. At Day 37 and Day 49, more than 100 eggs were collected from each dog in the spinosad-treated and control groups. PMID:22091463

  12. Prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Haiti.

    PubMed

    Starkey, Lindsay A; Newton, Kassie; Brunker, Jill; Crowdis, Kelly; Edourad, Emile Jean Pierre; Meneus, Pedro; Little, Susan E

    2016-07-15

    Canine vector-borne pathogens are common on some Caribbean islands, but survey data in Haiti are lacking. To determine the prevalence of selected vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Haiti, we tested blood samples collected from 210 owned dogs, 28 (13.3%) of which were infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks at the time of blood collection. No other tick species were identified on these dogs. A commercially available ELISA identified antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. in 69 (32.9%), antibodies to Anaplasma spp. in 37 (17.6%), and antigen of Dirofilaria immitis in 55 (26.2%); antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi were not detected in any sample. Molecular assays of whole blood from 207 of the dogs confirmed infection with Ehrlichia canis (15; 7.2%), Anaplasma platys (13; 6.3%), D. immitis (46; 22.2%), Wolbachia spp. (45; 21.7%), Babesia vogeli (16; 7.7%), and Hepatozoon canis (40; 19.3%), but Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia canis, Babesia rossi, Babesia gibsoni, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, or Hepatozoon americanum were not detected. Co-infection with two or more vector-borne pathogens was detected by serology in 42 (20.0%) dogs and by molecular assays in 22 (10.6%) dogs; one dog was co-infected with B. vogeli and E. canis as detected by PCR with D. immitis detected by serology (antigen). Overall, evidence of past or current infection with at least one vector-borne pathogen was identified in 142/210 (67.6%) dogs in this study, underscoring the common nature of these pathogens, some of which are zoonotic, in Haiti. PMID:27270383

  13. Vector-borne helminths of dogs and humans in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Presently, 45% of the total human population of Europe, as well as their domestic and companion animals, are exposed to the risk of vector-borne helminths (VBH) causing diseases. A plethora of intrinsic biological and extrinsic factors affect the relationship among helminths, vectors and animal hosts, in a constantly changing environment. Although canine dirofilarioses by Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are key examples of the success of VBH spreading into non-endemic areas, another example is represented by Thelazia callipaeda eyeworm, an emergent pathogen of dogs, cats and humans in several regions of Europe. The recent finding of Onchocerca lupi causing canine and human infestation in Europe and overseas renders the picture of VBH even more complicated. Similarly, tick-transmitted filarioids of the genus Cercopithifilaria infesting the skin of dogs were recently shown to be widespread in Europe. Although for most of the VBH above there is an increasing accumulation of research data on their distribution at national level, the overall impact of the diseases they cause in dogs and humans is not fully recognised in many aspects. This review investigates the reasons underlying the increasing trend in distribution of VBH in Europe and discusses the diagnostic and control strategies currently available. In addition, this article provides the authors’ opinion on some topics related to VBH that would deserve further scientific investigation. PMID:23324440

  14. First Case of Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation Complicated with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Bayhan, Gülsüm İclal; Çenesiz, Funda; Tanır, Gönül; Taylan Özkan, Ayşegül; Çınar, Gökçe

    2015-06-01

    Ascariasis is a common soil-transmitted helminth infestation worldwide. Ascaris lumbricoides infestation is generally asymptomatic or cause nonspecific signs and symptoms. We report a 5-year-old male with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with A. lumbricoides infestation. The presented patient recovered completely after defecating an A. lumbricoides following intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and mebendazole treatment. We wanted to emphasize that because helminth infestation is easily overlooked, the diagnosis of ascariasis should be considered in patients who live in endemic areas and treated timely to prevent severe complications. PMID:26081893

  15. Hookworm infestation as unexpected cause of recurrent pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Li-Ming; Sun, Cheuk-Kay; Wang, Tzong-Luen; Lin, Aming Chor-Ming

    2014-11-01

    Parasite infestation is still associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Hookworm infestation is a very rare cause of pancreatitis. This parasitic infestation might be asymptomatic. Acute pancreatitis as a result of the hookworms migrating into the ampulla of Vater with chronic inflammation was a very rare complication. Were port a case of hookworm infestation that was associated with significant complication of recurrent pancreatitis. The patient was treated with mebendazole. He was asymptomatic and had gained weight at the 3-month follow-up. Our case demonstrates that pancreatitis secondary to hookworm infection can occur and may resolve after anthelmintic treatment. PMID:24768664

  16. Response of Grape Leaf Spectra to Phylloxera Infestation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Lee F.

    1999-01-01

    During the 1993 growing season, leaf reflectance and chlorophyll concentrations were monitored with respect to phylloxera (root-louse) infestation in a Napa Valley (California) vineyard. Study plots were established in areas of severely infested, mildly infested, and uninfested sections of the vineyard. A handheld chlorophyll meter, measuring leaf transmittance of near-infrared and red light, confirmed that reduced foliar chlorophyll concentrations were symptomatic of phylloxera stress in the sample vines. Bidirectional reflectance measurements of green and near-infrared light, taken on fresh leaves with a laboratory spectrophotometer, were related to chlorophyll concentration but did not allow discrimination of mildly infested from uninfested vines.

  17. Diagnosis of Hepatozoon canis in young dogs by cytology and PCR

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatozoon canis is a widespread tick-borne protozoan affecting dogs. The diagnosis of H. canis infection is usually performed by cytology of blood or buffy coat smears, but this method may not be sensitive. Our study aimed to evaluate the best method to achieve a parasitological diagnosis of H. canis infection in a population of receptive young dogs, previously negative by cytology and exposed to tick infestation for one summer season. Results A total of 73 mongrel dogs and ten beagles younger than 18 months of age, living in an animal shelter in southern Italy where dogs are highly infested by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, were included in this study. In March-April 2009 and in October 2009, blood and bone marrow were sampled from each dog. Blood, buffy coat and bone marrow were examined by cytology only (at the first sampling) and also by PCR for H. canis (second sampling). In March-April 2009, only one dog was positive for H. canis by cytological examination, whereas in October 2009 (after the summer season), the overall incidence of H. canis infection by cytological examinations was 43.9%. Molecular tests carried out on samples taken in October 2009 showed a considerably higher number of dogs positive by PCR (from 27.7% up to 51.2% on skin and buffy coat tissues, respectively), with an overall positivity of 57.8%. All animals, but one, which were positive by cytology were also PCR-positive. PCR on blood or buffy coat detected the highest number of H. canis-positive dogs displaying a sensitivity of 85.7% for both tissues that increased up to 98% when used in parallel. Twenty-six (74.8%) out of the 28 H. canis-positive dogs presented hematological abnormalities, eosinophilia being the commonest alteration observed. Conclusions The results suggest that PCR on buffy coat and blood is the best diagnostic assay for detecting H. canis infection in dogs, although when PCR is not available, cytology on buffy coat should be preferred to blood smear evaluation

  18. Parasitic Infestation and Choice of Reproductive Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, A. O.; de Oliveira, S. Moss; Sá Martins, J. S.

    The Penna model is used to simulate the competition between an asexual parthenogenetic and asexual population inhabiting the same environment represented by a square lattice. With a small probability, a newborn from the sexual population mutates into an asexual one and vice versa. Then, the asexual population rapidly dominates the sexual one, which all but disappears. However, when an infestation by mutating genetically coupled parasites, that mimic trematodes that feed on gonads, is introduced, the outcome may be one in which both populations coevolve or one in which one of the populations overcomes the other, depending on the density of parasites on the lattice.

  19. [Management of lice infestations, recommendations for 2012].

    PubMed

    Maillard, Alexia; Trellu, Laurence Toutous; Eicher, Nicole; Michaud, Mélanie; Laffitte, Emmanuel

    2012-04-01

    Pediculosis is the most frequent and contagious ectoparasitic infestation in human, particularly in children from 3 to 8 years of age. Epidemics are observed from time to time, in schools or in adults in prisons. Even though benign, these infections remain unpleasant and can have an important psyco-social impact. Since a few years, caregivers have to face increasing problems while treating lice: appearance of insecticide resistances, lindane's withdrawal from the market and the marketing of new products which are not always well evaluated. This article offers first recalls about pediculoses and then a sum up of the different available treatments with an evidence based management strategy. PMID:22545493

  20. Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed. PMID:27135846

  1. Epidemiological survey of anti-flea IgE in dogs in Japan by using an antigen-specific IgE quantitative measurement method

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Y.; Beugnet, F.

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, an epidemiological survey was performed in dogs from October to December 2008 by using a quantitative measurement method for antigen-specific IgE towards specific Ctenocephalides felis antigens. 214 dogs from 22 veterinary clinics were included. These clinics were located as follows, from North to South: Hokkaido, Aomori, Fukushima, Tochigi, Saitama, Chiba, Tokyo (Tama-City and Ota-ku), Kanagawa, Gifu, Niigata, Kyoto, Nara, Osaka, Hyogo, Kagawa, Ehime, Hiroshima, Yamaguchi, Fukuoka, Kumamoto and Kagoshima. 110 dogs (51.4%) were seropositive for flea-specific IgE. No differences were associated with gender or breed. This survey confirms that flea infestation in dogs is a common problem in Japan. It especially shows that the infestation also occurs in Northern Japan where fleas are considered uncommon by the vet. PMID:22550629

  2. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs. PMID:26763220

  3. Effects of weather and plague-induced die-offs of prairie dogs on the fleas of northern grasshopper mice.

    PubMed

    Salkeld, Daniel J; Stapp, Paul

    2009-05-01

    Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus Ord). Other mammal hosts living on prairie dog colonies may be important in the transmission and maintenance of plague. We examined the flea populations of northern grasshopper mice (Onychomys leucogaster Wied) before, during, and after plague epizootics in northern Colorado and studied the influence of host and environmental factors on flea abundance patterns. Grasshopper mice were frequently infested with high numbers of fleas, most commonly Pleochaetis exilis Jordan and Thrassis fotus Jordan. Flea loads changed in response to both environmental temperature and rainfall. After plague-induced prairie dog die-offs, flea loads and likelihood of infestation were unchanged for P. exilis, but T. fotus loads declined. PMID:19496431

  4. Persistence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs of New York and Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Magnarelli, L A; Anderson, J F; Schreier, A B

    1990-04-01

    Multiple blood samples were obtained from privately owned dogs living in tick-infested areas of New York (Westchester County) and Connecticut, where Lyme disease in human beings has been reported. Of the 175 dogs examined, 127 (72.6%) had limb/joint disorder, whereas the remaining 48 dogs were considered healthy. Results of analysis of 419 serum samples revealed IgM antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi in healthy and lame dogs during all seasons. Prevalence of seropositivity was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater, using a polyvalent ELISA (89.5%) than using a class-specific ELISA for IGM antibody (57.8%). Mean antibody titers obtained by use of polyvalent ELISA were likewise higher than IgM titers. Analysis of paired serum samples from dogs with limb/joint disorder indicated that 118 (92.9%) remained positive for IgM or IgG antibodies when retested weeks or months after initial testing. In 48 dogs without history of joint involvement or other signs of disease, 43 (89.6%) had antibody to B burgdorferi 2 or more times. Serotest results also revealed little or no change in antibody titer for lame dogs given antibiotics or for healthy dogs 2 or more months after initial sample collection. PMID:2329074

  5. An evaluation of ivermectin in the treatment of sarcoptic mange in dogs.

    PubMed

    Scheidt, V J; Medleau, L; Seward, R L; Schwartzman, R M

    1984-06-01

    A colony of mixed-breed dogs (n = 298) naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei was treated, twice, with 200 micrograms of ivermectin/kg of body weight subcutaneously at 14-day intervals. After the initial injection, positive skin scrapings from 20 treated dogs decreased from 7 to 1 and the degree of pruritus decreased. In contrast, positive skin scrapings from 22 nontreated dogs increased from 10 to 14, and there was an additional deterioration in the condition of the skin and an increase in the degree of pruritus. Complete control was noticed in all treated dogs by posttreatment day 28 (14 days after a 2nd injection) based on negative skin scrapings. PMID:6377991

  6. A Focus of Dogs and Rickettsia massiliae–Infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus in California

    PubMed Central

    Beeler, Emily; Abramowicz, Kyle F.; Zambrano, Maria L.; Sturgeon, Michele M.; Khalaf, Nada; Hu, Renjie; Dasch, Gregory A.; Eremeeva, Marina E.

    2011-01-01

    A recurrent focus of Rhipicephalus sanguineus infestation was investigated in a suburban area of southern California after reports of suspected Rocky Mountain spotted fever in two dogs on the same property. Abundant quantities of Rh. sanguineus were collected on the property and repeatedly from each dog, and Rickettsia massiliae DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Whole blood and serum samples from four dogs were tested by using PCR and microimmunofluorescent assay for antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsiae. Serum samples from all four dogs contained antibodies reactive with R. massiliae, R. rhipicephali, R. rickettsii, and 364D Rickettsia but no rickettsial DNA was detected by PCR of blood samples. Serum cross-absorption and Western blot assays implicated R. massiliae as the most likely spotted fever group rickettsiae responsible for seropositivity. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of R. massiliae in ticks in California. PMID:21292893

  7. Epidemiological and molecular study of Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F S; Wenceslau, A A; Carlos, R S A; Albuquerque, G R

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present article was an epidemiological and molecular study of Ehrlichia canis in dogs of Ilhéus and Itabuna in Bahia, as well as an evaluation of associated risk factors. Blood samples were collected from 153 dogs and DNA was extracted and analyzed by the nested-polymerase chain reaction, using one pair of primers to detect Ehrlichia bacteria and another pair to detect the presence of E. canis. Of the 153 animals, 12 (7.8%) were polymerase chain reaction-positive for E. canis, indicating the presence of the parasite in dogs of the Ilhéus-Itabuna microregion. The associated risk factors were exposure to tick-infested habitats and the fact that the dogs lived in the countryside. PMID:18752193

  8. Impregnated Netting Slows Infestation by Triatoma infestans

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Michael Z.; Quíspe-Machaca, Victor R.; Ylla-Velasquez, Jose L.; Waller, Lance A.; Richards, Jean M.; Rath, Bruno; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; del Carpio, Juan G. Cornejo; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; McKenzie, F. Ellis; Wirtz, Robert A.; Maguire, James H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn

    2008-01-01

    We used sentinel animal enclosures to measure the rate of infestation by the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, in an urban community of Arequipa, Peru, and to evaluate the effect of deltamethrin-impregnated netting on that rate. Impregnated netting decreased the rate of infestation of sentinel enclosures (rate ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13–0.38; P < 0.001), controlling for the density of surrounding vector populations and the distance of these to the sentinel enclosures. Most migrant insects were early-stage nymphs, which are less likely to carry the parasitic agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi. Spread of the vector in the city therefore likely precedes spread of the parasite. Netting was particularly effective against adult insects and late-stage nymphs; taking into account population structure, netting decreased the reproductive value of migrant populations from 443.6 to 40.5. Impregnated netting can slow the spread of T. infestans and is a potentially valuable tool in the control of Chagas disease. PMID:18840739

  9. Impregnated netting slows infestation by Triatoma infestans.

    PubMed

    Levy, Michael Z; Quíspe-Machaca, Victor R; Ylla-Velasquez, Jose L; Waller, Lance A; Richards, Jean M; Rath, Bruno; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; del Carpio, Juan G Cornejo; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; McKenzie, F Ellis; Wirtz, Robert A; Maguire, James H; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn

    2008-10-01

    We used sentinel animal enclosures to measure the rate of infestation by the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, in an urban community of Arequipa, Peru, and to evaluate the effect of deltamethrin-impregnated netting on that rate. Impregnated netting decreased the rate of infestation of sentinel enclosures (rate ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.38; P < 0.001), controlling for the density of surrounding vector populations and the distance of these to the sentinel enclosures. Most migrant insects were early-stage nymphs, which are less likely to carry the parasitic agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi. Spread of the vector in the city therefore likely precedes spread of the parasite. Netting was particularly effective against adult insects and late-stage nymphs; taking into account population structure, netting decreased the reproductive value of migrant populations from 443.6 to 40.5. Impregnated netting can slow the spread of T. infestans and is a potentially valuable tool in the control of Chagas disease. PMID:18840739

  10. Postharvest quarantine treatments for Diaphorina citri on infested curry leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate treatments that reduce survival and attachment of Diaphorina citri nymphs on infested curry leaves (Bergera koenigii). Decontamination of curry leaves infested with D. citri in relation to disinfectant (none or Pro-San), temperature (0, 40, and 50°C), and treatment...

  11. Delusional infestation: an Australian multicentre study of 23 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Tran, M M A; Iredell, J R; Packham, D R; O'Sullivan, M V N; Hudson, B J

    2015-04-01

    Delusional infestation remains a debilitating condition that is therapeutically challenging for clinicians. This case series identifies 23 patients with delusional infestation in an Australian setting. The majority of patients are women and unlikely to have a psychiatric comorbid background. The use of unnecessary anti-parasitic medication is prevalent. PMID:25827513

  12. Aboveground insect infestation attenuates belowground Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Song, Geun Cheol; Lee, Soohyun; Hong, Jaehwa; Choi, Hye Kyung; Hong, Gun Hyong; Bae, Dong-Won; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-07-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease. Although Agrobacterium can be popularly used for genetic engineering, the influence of aboveground insect infestation on Agrobacterium induced gall formation has not been investigated. Nicotiana benthamiana leaves were exposed to a sucking insect (whitefly) infestation and benzothiadiazole (BTH) for 7 d, and these exposed plants were inoculated with a tumorigenic Agrobacterium strain. We evaluated, both in planta and in vitro, how whitefly infestation affects crown gall disease. Whitefly-infested plants exhibited at least a two-fold reduction in gall formation on both stem and crown root. Silencing of isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1), required for salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, compromised gall formation indicating an involvement of SA in whitefly-derived plant defence against Agrobacterium. Endogenous SA content was augmented in whitefly-infested plants upon Agrobacterium inoculation. In addition, SA concentration was three times higher in root exudates from whitefly-infested plants. As a consequence, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of roots of whitefly-infested plants was clearly inhibited when compared to control plants. These results suggest that aboveground whitefly infestation elicits systemic defence responses throughout the plant. Our findings provide new insights into insect-mediated leaf-root intra-communication and a framework to understand interactions between three organisms: whitefly, N. benthamiana and Agrobacterium. PMID:25676198

  13. Ehrlichiosis in Household Dogs and Parasitized Ticks in Kerman-Iran: Preliminary Zoonotic Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Motaghipisheh, Shahrzad; Akhtardanesh, Baharak; Ghanbarpour, Reza; Aflatoonian, Mohammad Reza; Khalili, Mohammad; Nourollahifard, Saeed Reza; Mokhtari, Saghar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ehrlichiosis is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by the family of Anaplasmatacea. Recently, outbreak of human monocytic ehrlichiosis was reported in northern part of Iran. Besides, serological evidence of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia canis was reported from southeastern of Iran but the epidemiology of this disease is almost undetermined in Iran. The present study was designed to use PCR for detection of Ehrlichia spp. in tick infested household dogs and determination of risks of disease transmission to dog’s owners. Method: Blood samples were prepared from 100 tick infested household dogs after complete clinical examination. Complete cell blood count was done for each sample. DNA extraction was done and PCR was carried out by a commercial kit afterwards. Regarding to PCR results, blood samples were collected from owners and family members who were exposed to infected and non-infected dogs. A similar method was utilized for DNA extraction and PCR in human samples. Result: Ehrlichial DNA was detected by PCR in six percent of Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick pools and 9% of the examined dogs. No positive sample was detected among the 67 examined human bloods. Conclusion: Ehrlichiosis could be considered as an emerging canine disease but owning a dog should not be considered a major risk factor for ehrlichiosis in humans. Further serological and molecular studies in different parts of Iran are required to clarify the epidemiology of ehrlichiosis in canine, ticks, and human population. PMID:27308282

  14. Fleas and Flea-Associated Bartonella Species in Dogs and Cats from Peru.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, M F; Billeter, S A; Osikowicz, L; Luna-Caipo, D V; Cáceres, A G; Kosoy, M

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated 238 fleas collected from cats and dogs in three regions of Peru (Ancash, Cajamarca, and Lima) for the presence of Bartonella DNA. Bartonella spp. were detected by amplification of the citrate synthase gene (16.4%) and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region (20.6%). Bartonella rochalimae was the most common species detected followed by Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae. Our results demonstrate that dogs and cats in Peru are infested with fleas harboring zoonotic Bartonella spp. and these infected fleas could pose a disease risk for humans. PMID:26363063

  15. The peri-urban interface and house infestation with Triatoma infestans in the Argentine Chaco: an underreported process?

    PubMed

    Provecho, Yael M; Gaspe, M Sol; del Pilar Fernández, M; Enriquez, Gustavo F; Weinberg, Diego; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2014-11-01

    Peri-urban infestations with triatomine bugs, their sources and their dynamics have rarely been investigated. Here, we corroborated the reported occurrence of Triatoma infestans in a peri-urban area and in neighbouring rural houses in Pampa del Indio, in the Argentine Chaco, and identified its putative sources using spatial analysis and demographic questionnaires. Peri-urban householders reported that 10% of their premises had triatomines, whereas T. infestans was collected by timed manual searches or community-based surveillance in only nine (3%) houses. Trypanosoma cruzi-infected T. infestans and Triatoma sordida were collected indoors only in peri-urban houses and were infected with TcV and TcI, respectively. The triatomines fed on chickens, cats and humans. Peri-urban infestations were most frequent in a squatter settlement and particularly within the recently built mud houses of rural immigrants, with large-sized households, more dogs and cats and more crowding. Several of the observed infestations were most likely associated with passive bug transport from other sources and with active bug dispersal from neighbouring foci. Thus, the households in the squatter settlement were at a greater risk of bug invasion and colonisation. In sum, the incipient process of domestic colonisation and transmission, along with persistent rural-to-urban migratory flows and unplanned urbanisation, indicate the need for active vector surveillance and control actions at the peri-urban interface of the Gran Chaco. PMID:25410997

  16. The peri-urban interface and house infestation with Triatoma infestans in the Argentine Chaco: an underreported process?

    PubMed Central

    Provecho, Yael M; Gaspe, M Sol; del Pilar Fernández, M; Enriquez, Gustavo F; Weinberg, Diego; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2014-01-01

    Peri-urban infestations with triatomine bugs, their sources and their dynamics have rarely been investigated. Here, we corroborated the reported occurrence of Triatoma infestans in a peri-urban area and in neighbouring rural houses in Pampa del Indio, in the Argentine Chaco, and identified its putative sources using spatial analysis and demographic questionnaires. Peri-urban householders reported that 10% of their premises had triatomines, whereas T. infestans was collected by timed manual searches or community-based surveillance in only nine (3%) houses. Trypanosoma cruzi-infected T. infestans and Triatoma sordida were collected indoors only in peri-urban houses and were infected with TcV and TcI, respectively. The triatomines fed on chickens, cats and humans. Peri-urban infestations were most frequent in a squatter settlement and particularly within the recently built mud houses of rural immigrants, with large-sized households, more dogs and cats and more crowding. Several of the observed infestations were most likely associated with passive bug transport from other sources and with active bug dispersal from neighbouring foci. Thus, the households in the squatter settlement were at a greater risk of bug invasion and colonisation. In sum, the incipient process of domestic colonisation and transmission, along with persistent rural-to-urban migratory flows and unplanned urbanisation, indicate the need for active vector surveillance and control actions at the peri-urban interface of the Gran Chaco. PMID:25410997

  17. Tularaemia in Norwegian dogs.

    PubMed

    Nordstoga, Anne; Handeland, Kjell; Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Iversen, Lena; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Mattsson, Roland; Wik-Larssen, Kjersti; Afset, Jan Egil; Næverdal, Rune; Lund, Arve

    2014-10-10

    We describe tularaemia in a Norwegian dog caused by Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica. A Hamilton Hound and his owner developed tulaeremia after hunting an infected mountain hare (Lepus timidus). The dog showed signs of lethargy, anorexia and fever during a period two to four days after hunting and thereafter fully recovered. Its antibody titers increased 32-fold from one to three weeks post exposure. Thereafter, the titer declined and leveled off at moderate positive values up to one year after exposure (end of study). This is believed to be the first case report of clinical F. tularensis subspecies holarctica infection in a European dog. In 2011, enormous numbers of Norway lemmings (Lemmus lemmus) occurred in Finnmark, the northernmost county of Norway and many dogs caught and swallowed lemmings. Some of these dogs developed non-specific signs of disease and the owners consulted a veterinary surgeon, who suspected tularaemia. In order to investigate this hypothesis, serum samples from 33 dogs were examined for antibodies to F. tularensis. The dogs were allocated into three groups: Dogs from Finnmark that became sick (Group 1) or remained healthy following contact with lemmings (Group 2), and healthy control dogs from Oslo without known contact with lemmings (Group 3). All the serum samples were analyzed with a tube agglutination assay. Among dogs exposed to lemmings, 10/11 and 3/12 were antibody positive in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, whereas none of the control dogs (n=10) were positive for antibodies against F. tularensis. These results strongly indicate that the non-specific disease seen in the dogs in Finnmark was linked to F. tularensis infection acquired through contact with lemmings. PMID:25150161

  18. Service dogs. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations concerning veterans in need of service dogs. Under this final rule, VA will provide to veterans with visual, hearing, or mobility impairments benefits to support the use of a service dog as part of the management of such impairments. The benefits include assistance with veterinary care, travel benefits associated with obtaining and training a dog, and the provision, maintenance, and replacement of hardware required for the dog to perform the tasks necessary to assist such veterans. PMID:22950145

  19. [Sarcoptic mange of dogs: biology of the organism, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical aspect, diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Kraiss, A; Kraft, W; Gothe, R

    1987-01-01

    A review is presented on the biology of the causative agent, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and therapy of canine Sarcoptes scabiei infestation. This survey includes also clinical data of the period 1978-1986 in the Small Animal Hospital, Munich Veterinary Faculty. Several skin scrapings are usually necessary for diagnosis. For therapy application of acaricides once a week, altogether at least three times is sufficient. Simultaneously a decontamination of the dog's surroundings should be carried out. PMID:3122363

  20. Insects and Spiders: Infestations and Bites

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, E.W.T.

    1987-01-01

    Despite successful eradication techniques and specific effective therapies, insect bites and infestations remain a source of great human misery. The current scabies pandemic shows no signs of abating. Bed bugs, which through the ages have been second only to the malarial mosquito as an insect vector of fatal infection, have now been implicated in the transmission of Hepatitis B and possibly African acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The incidence of head- and pubic lice is on the rise, the latter paralleling, and often co-existing with, other sexually transmitted diseases. Black widow spiders are native to many populous areas in southern Canada, and the brown recluse spider's range now encompasses Canada, thanks to moving vans and central heating. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21263961

  1. The prevention of attachment and the detachment effects of a novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene for Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor variabilis on dogs.

    PubMed

    Prullage, Joseph B; Hair, Jakie A; Everett, William R; Yoon, Stephen S; Cramer, Luiz G; Franke, Shawn; Cornelison, Katie; Hunter, James S

    2011-07-15

    A novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene (CERTIFECT™, Merial Limited, GA, USA) was evaluated for the prevention of attachment of ticks and its ability to cause detachment of ticks. For the two prevention of attachment studies, 20 purpose-bred beagles were allocated each to two equal groups based on pretreatment tick counts (treated and untreated). Each dog was exposed to 50 adult Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor variabilis weekly starting 24h after treatment. In study 1 infestations with R. sanguineus were discontinued after Day 7 but continued to Day 28 for D. variabilis in both studies. Counts of ticks by species were made 2, 4 and 24h after exposure to ticks. Ticks not attaching to dogs were evaluated for viability. For the evaluation of detachment study, 16 purpose-bred beagles were allocated each to two equal groups based on pretreatment tick counts (treated and untreated). Each dog was infested with 50 unfed R. sanguineus and D. variabilis adults on Day -2. Ticks were thumb counted without removal on all dogs on Day -1, and at 4, 12, and 24h after treatment. Ticks were counted and removed at 48 h after treatment. Dogs treated with the novel combination had significantly (p<0.05) lower total numbers of attached R. sanguineus and D. variabilis than untreated controls at 4h through Day 7. For R. sanguineus, percent reduction of attachment at 24h after infestation through Day 29 ranged from 94.5% to 100%. For D. variabilis, the percent reduction of attachment at 24h through Day 22 was above 98.0%. These studies demonstrate that novel combination can disrupt attachment of R. sanguineus and D. variabilis for up to 28 days following treatment. Of those ticks that are exposed to the treatment, even if they do not attach to the dog and remain in the environment, greater than 90% (p<0.05) die within 24h for 2-3 weeks following treatment. Also, for those dogs infested with ticks at the time of treatment, the novel combination causes

  2. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2 %) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal. PMID:26912332

  3. Risk factors associated with Trypanosoma cruzi exposure in domestic dogs from a rural community in Panama.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, Azael; Calzada, José E; Pineda, Vanessa; Perea, Milixa; Rigg, Chystrie; González, Kadir; Santamaria, Ana Maria; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Chaves, Luis F

    2015-11-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is a zoonosis of humans, wild and domestic mammals, including dogs. In Panama, the main T. cruzi vector is Rhodnius pallescens, a triatomine bug whose main natural habitat is the royal palm, Attalea butyracea. In this paper, we present results from three T. cruzi serological tests (immunochromatographic dipstick, indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA) performed in 51 dogs from 24 houses in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama. We found that nine dogs were seropositive (17.6% prevalence). Dogs were 1.6 times more likely to become T. cruzi seropositive with each year of age and 11.6 times if royal palms where present in the peridomiciliary area of the dog's household or its two nearest neighbours. Mouse-baited-adhesive traps were employed to evaluate 12 peridomestic royal palms. All palms were found infested with R. pallescens with an average of 25.50 triatomines captured per palm. Of 35 adult bugs analysed, 88.6% showed protozoa flagellates in their intestinal contents. In addition, dogs were five times more likely to be infected by the presence of an additional domestic animal species in the dog's peridomiciliary environment. Our results suggest that interventions focused on royal palms might reduce the exposure to T. cruzi infection. PMID:26560985

  4. Risk factors associated with Trypanosoma cruzi exposure in domestic dogs from a rural community in Panama

    PubMed Central

    Saldaña, Azael; Calzada, José E; Pineda, Vanessa; Perea, Milixa; Rigg, Chystrie; González, Kadir; Santamaria, Ana Maria; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Chaves, Luis F

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is a zoonosis of humans, wild and domestic mammals, including dogs. In Panama, the main T. cruzi vector is hodnius pallescens, a triatomine bug whose main natural habitat is the royal palm, Attalea butyracea. In this paper, we present results from three T. cruzi serological tests (immunochromatographic dipstick, indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA) performed in 51 dogs from 24 houses in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama. We found that nine dogs were seropositive (17.6% prevalence). Dogs were 1.6 times more likely to become T. cruzi seropositive with each year of age and 11.6 times if royal palms where present in the peridomiciliary area of the dog's household or its two nearest neighbours. Mouse-baited-adhesive traps were employed to evaluate 12 peridomestic royal palms. All palms were found infested with R. pallescens with an average of 25.50 triatomines captured per palm. Of 35 adult bugs analysed, 88.6% showed protozoa flagellates in their intestinal contents. In addition, dogs were five times more likely to be infected by the presence of an additional domestic animal species in the dog's peridomiciliary environment. Our results suggest that interventions focused on royal palms might reduce the exposure to T. cruzi infection. PMID:26560985

  5. Zebra mussel infestation of unionid bivalves (Unionidae) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Mackie, Gerald L.

    1996-01-01

    In 1989, zebra mussels received national attention in North America when they reached densities exceeding 750,000/m2 in a water withdrawal facility along the shore of western Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Although water withdrawal problems caused by zebra mussels have been of immediate concern, ecological impacts attributed to mussels are likely to be the more important long-term issue for surface waters in North America. To date, the epizoic colonization (i.e., infestation) of unionid bivalve mollusks by zebra mussels has caused the most direct and severe ecological impact. Infestation of and resulting impacts caused by zebra mussels on unionids in the Great Lakes began in 1988. By 1990, mortality of unionids was occurring at some locations; by 1991, extant populations of unionids in western Lake Erie were nearly extirpated; by 1992, unionid populations in the southern half of Lake St. Clair were extirpated; by 1993, unionids in widely separated geographic areas of the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River showed high mortality due to mussel infestation. All infested unionid species in the Great Lakes (23) have become infested and exhibited mortality within two to four years after heavy infestation began. Data indicate that mean zebra mussel densities >5,000–6,000/m2 and infestation intensities >100-200/unionid in the presence of heavy zebra mussel recruitment results in near total mortality of unionids. At present, all unionid species in rivers, streams, and akes that sympatrically occur with zebra mussels have been infested and, in many locations, negatively impacted by zebra mussels. We do not know the potential consequences of infestation on the 297 unionid species found in North America, but believe zebra mussels pose an immediate threat to the abundance and diversity of unionids.

  6. Do Dogs Know Bifurcations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minton, Roland; Pennings, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    When a dog (in this case, Tim Pennings' dog Elvis) is in the water and a ball is thrown downshore, it must choose to swim directly to the ball or first swim to shore. The mathematical analysis of this problem leads to the computation of bifurcation points at which the optimal strategy changes.

  7. A review of the off-label use of selamectin (Stronghold®/Revolution®) in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Maggie A; Shanks, David J

    2008-01-01

    Since its introduction approximately seven years ago, selamectin (Stronghold®/Revolution®, Pfizer Inc.) has been used off-label to treat a number of ecto- and endoparasite conditions in dogs and cats. It has been used as a successful prophylactic against Dirofilaria repens and as a treatment for Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in cats. It has also been used to treat notoedric mange, infestation with the nasal mite Pneumonyssoides caninum, Cheyletiella spp. and Neotrombicula autumnalis infestations and larval Cordylobia anthropophaga infection. However, to date attempts to treat generalised canine demodicosis have not been successful. In all cases, treatment was apparently well tolerated by the host. PMID:19032763

  8. Leech (Hirudinea) infestations among waterfowl near Yellowknife, Northwest Territories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartonek, J.C.; Trauger, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    Fourteen species of aquatic birds, including 11 species of ducks, were infested with leeches Theromyzon rude and Placobdella ornata near Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. Leeches infested 88% of 41 American Wigeon (Anas americana) and 31% of 86 Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) examined after death. Lesser Scaup captured by drive-trapping contained significantly more leeches than undisturbed ducks. Leeches were attached to the host within the mucosa of the nasal chamber, to the conjunctiva of the eye and on the skin of the body. Although only two deaths of ducklings were directly attributed to leech infestations, other birds probably died as a result of parasitism by leeches.

  9. The dog genome.

    PubMed

    Galibert, F; André, C

    2006-01-01

    Over the last few centuries, several hundred dog breeds have been artificially selected through intense breeding, resulting in the modern dog population having the widest polymorphism spectrum in terms of body shape, behavior and aptitude among mammals. Unfortunately, this diversification has predisposed most breeds to specific diseases of genetic origin. The highly fragmented nature of the dog population offers a great opportunity to track the genes and alleles responsible for these diseases as well as for the various phenotypic traits. This has led to a thorough analysis of the dog genome. Here, we report the main results obtained during the last ten years, culminating in the recent publication of a complete dog genome sequence. PMID:18753768

  10. Efficacy of sarolaner in the prevention of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum transmission from infected Ixodes scapularis to dogs.

    PubMed

    Honsberger, Nicole A; Six, Robert H; Heinz, Thomas J; Weber, Angela; Mahabir, Sean P; Berg, Thomas C

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis) to prevent transmission primarily of Borrelia burgdorferi and secondarily of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from infected wild-caught Ixodes scapularis to dogs was evaluated in a placebo-controlled laboratory study. Twenty-four purpose-bred laboratory Beagles seronegative for B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum antibodies were allocated randomly to one of three treatment groups: placebo administered orally on Days 0 and 7, or sarolaner at 2mg/kg administered orally on Day 0 (28 days prior to tick infestation) or on Day 7 (21 days prior to tick infestation). On Day 28, each dog was infested with approximately 25 female and 25 male wild caught adult I. scapularis that were determined to have prevalence of 57% for B. burgdorferi and 6.7% for A. phagocytophilum by PCR. In situ tick counts were conducted on Days 29 and 30. On Day 33, all ticks were counted and removed. Acaricidal efficacy was calculated based on the reduction of geometric mean live tick counts in the sarolaner-treated groups compared to the placebo-treated group for each tick count. Blood samples collected from each dog on Days 27, 49, 63, 77, 91 and 104 were tested for the presence of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum antibodies using the SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) Plus Test, and quantitatively assayed for B. burgdorferi antibodies using an ELISA test. Skin biopsies collected on Day 104 were tested for the presence of B. burgdorferi by bacterial culture and PCR. Geometric mean live tick counts for placebo-treated dogs were 14.8, 12.8, and 19.1 on Days 29, 30, and 33, respectively. The percent reductions in mean live tick counts at 1, 2, and 5 days after infestation were 86.3%, 100%, and 100% for the group treated with sarolaner 21 days prior to infestation, and 90.9%, 97.1%, and 100% for the group treated with sarolaner 28 days prior to infestation. Geometric mean live tick counts for both sarolaner-treated groups were significantly lower than those for the

  11. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks, mites and lice on dogs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The studies reported here were conducted to ascertain the efficacy of imidacloprid/flumethrin incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against infestations of dogs by fleas, ticks, mites and lice. Efficacy was evaluated against the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis, the ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes scapularis, Dermacentor reticulatus and Dermacentor variabilis, the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and the biting louse Trichodectes canis. Methods Groups of collar-treated dogs (n = 7–10) were infested with fleas and/or ticks at monthly intervals at least, over a period of up to 8 months. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 to 48 h after treatment and 24 h after each re-infestation. Efficacy against ticks was evaluated at 48 h (acaricidal), 6 h (repellent) and 48 h (sustained) after infestation. The effect of regular shampooing or immersion in water on the efficacy of the collars was also tested. Efficacy against flea larvae was assessed by incubating blanket samples after dog contact with viable flea eggs. Effectiveness against lice and mites was evaluated after treatment of naturally infested animals. With the exception of the mites, efficacy was calculated by comparison with untreated negative control groups. Results Efficacy against fleas (24 h) generally exceeded 95%, and against flea larvae it exceeded 99% for 8 months. Sustained acaricidal (48 h) efficacy, covering a period of 8 months was 100% against I. ricinus, starting 2 days after treatment (in vivo), and 100% against I. scapularis (in vitro), above 97% against R. sanguineus, generally above 97% against D. reticulatus and above 90% for D. variabilis. Repellent (6 h) efficacy 2 days after treatment and continuing for 8 months was consistently 100% against I. ricinus, and above 90% against R. sanguineus. Regular shampooing affected efficacy against fleas and ticks to a lesser extent than regular immersion in water. The collars eliminated

  12. Distribution of ixodid ticks on dogs in Nuevo León, Mexico, and their association with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Galaviz-Silva, Lucio; Pérez-Treviño, Karla Carmelita; Molina-Garza, Zinnia J

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to document the geographic distribution of Ixodes tick species in dogs and the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in adult ticks and blood samples by amplification of the ospA region of the B. burgdorferi genome. The study area included nine localities in Nuevo León state. DNA amplification was performed on pools of ticks to calculate the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), and the community composition (prevalence, abundance, and intensity of infestation) was recorded. A total of 2,543 adult ticks, representing four species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor variabilis, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, and Amblyomma cajennense, were recorded from 338 infested dogs. Statistically significant correlations were observed between female dogs and infestation (P = 0.0003) and between R. sanguineus and locality (P = 0.0001). Dogs sampled in Guadalupe and Estanzuela were positive by PCR (0.9 %) for B. burgdorferi. Rhipicephalus sanguineus had the highest abundance, intensity, and prevalence (10.57, 7.12 and 94.6, respectively). PCR results from 256 pools showed that four pools were positive for D. variabilis (1.6 %), with an MLE of 9.2 %; nevertheless, it is important to consider that in the area under examination probably other reservoir hosts for D. variabilis and B. burgdorferi are present that, very likely, play a much more important role in the ecology of Lyme borreliosis than dogs, which could be considered in future studies. PMID:23749032

  13. BigDog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Playter, R.; Buehler, M.; Raibert, M.

    2006-05-01

    BigDog's goal is to be the world's most advanced quadruped robot for outdoor applications. BigDog is aimed at the mission of a mechanical mule - a category with few competitors to date: power autonomous quadrupeds capable of carrying significant payloads, operating outdoors, with static and dynamic mobility, and fully integrated sensing. BigDog is about 1 m tall, 1 m long and 0.3 m wide, and weighs about 90 kg. BigDog has demonstrated walking and trotting gaits, as well as standing up and sitting down. Since its creation in the fall of 2004, BigDog has logged tens of hours of walking, climbing and running time. It has walked up and down 25 & 35 degree inclines and trotted at speeds up to 1.8 m/s. BigDog has walked at 0.7 m/s over loose rock beds and carried over 50 kg of payload. We are currently working to expand BigDog's rough terrain mobility through the creation of robust locomotion strategies and terrain sensing capabilities.

  14. Intestinal Infestations in Under-Five Children in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mwale, Kamukwamba; Siziya, Seter

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intestinal infestations are of considerable public health importance in Zambia and elsewhere in Africa. Children aged less than 5 years are at the highest risk of infection. Interventions for prevention and control of these infestations require identification of their determinants. This study investigates the determinants of intestinal infestations in children below 5 years of age admitted to a children’s hospital and assesses the most prevalent of the helminthes. Methods: This was a hospital based cross-sectional study conducted at Arthur Davison Children’s Hospital, Ndola, Zambia. Socio-demographic data of study participants and possible determinants for occurrence of intestinal infestations were collected using structured questionnaires. Stool samples were collected and examined for presence of parasites using direct techniques. The Pearson’s Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used to establish associations. Results: Present study had 148 participants out of the expected 165, making a respondent rate of 89.7%. Over half of the participants were male (50.6%), and 68.9% were above the age of 2 years. Prevalence of intestinal infestations was 19.6%, and the most prevalent parasite was Ascaris lumbricoides. Factors independently associated with worm infestation were father’s employment (AOR = 0.41; 95 % CI [0.19, 0.90]) and history of prior worm infestation (AOR = 6.54; 95 % CI [3.28, 13.03]). Conclusion: Intestinal infestations particularly Ascaris lumbricoides were more prevalent in this study. There should be policy towards countrywide deworming programs and enhanced hygiene.

  15. Cat Flea Infestation in a Hospital: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Norhayati, Moktar; Lee, Yin Yin

    2012-01-01

    Cat flea bite in humans results in extremely pruritic skin lesions. It has been reported to occur among those living in domiciliary accommodation. However, nosocomial infestation with cat flea has not been reported. We hereby report a case of nosocomial infestation of cat flea in a hospital facility. Identification of the parasite, its appropriate eradication, and adequate medical management of the patients resulted in a satisfactory outcome. PMID:22451739

  16. Dogs discriminate identical twins.

    PubMed

    Pinc, Ludvík; Bartoš, Luděk; Reslová, Alice; Kotrba, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown variation among experimental attempts to establish whether human monozygotic twins that are genetically identical also have identical individual scents. In none of the cases were the dogs able to distinguish all the individual scents of monozygotic twins living in the same environment if the scents were presented to them separately. Ten specially trained police German Shepherd dogs of three Czech Republic Police Regional Headquarters were used for scent identification in our study. The dogs were supposed to match scents of two monozygotic pairs (5 and 7 years old) and two dizygotic twin pairs (8 and 13 years old). Scents were collected on cotton squares stored in glass jars. Dog handlers were blind to the experiment details. In each trial (line-up), one scent was used as a starting scent and the dog was then sent to determine if any of the 7 presented glass jars contained a matching scent. Scents of children of similar ages were used as distractors. In the matching procedure, the dogs matched correctly the scent of one twin with the other, as well as two scents collected from every single identical and non-identical twin to prove their efficacy and likewise, the presence of the matching twin scent in any given glass jar. All dogs in all trials distinguished correctly the scents of identical as well as non-identical twins. All dogs similarly matched positively two scents collected from the same individuals. Our findings indicated that specially trained German Shepherd dogs are able to distinguish individual scents of identical twins despite the fact that they live in the same environment, eat the same food and even if the scents are not presented to them simultaneously. PMID:21698282

  17. Dogs Discriminate Identical Twins

    PubMed Central

    Pinc, Ludvík; Bartoš, Luděk; Reslová, Alice; Kotrba, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown variation among experimental attempts to establish whether human monozygotic twins that are genetically identical also have identical individual scents. In none of the cases were the dogs able to distinguish all the individual scents of monozygotic twins living in the same environment if the scents were presented to them separately. Ten specially trained police German Shepherd dogs of three Czech Republic Police Regional Headquarters were used for scent identification in our study. The dogs were supposed to match scents of two monozygotic pairs (5 and 7 years old) and two dizygotic twin pairs (8 and 13 years old). Scents were collected on cotton squares stored in glass jars. Dog handlers were blind to the experiment details. In each trial (line-up), one scent was used as a starting scent and the dog was then sent to determine if any of the 7 presented glass jars contained a matching scent. Scents of children of similar ages were used as distractors. In the matching procedure, the dogs matched correctly the scent of one twin with the other, as well as two scents collected from every single identical and non-identical twin to prove their efficacy and likewise, the presence of the matching twin scent in any given glass jar. All dogs in all trials distinguished correctly the scents of identical as well as non-identical twins. All dogs similarly matched positively two scents collected from the same individuals. Our findings indicated that specially trained German Shepherd dogs are able to distinguish individual scents of identical twins despite the fact that they live in the same environment, eat the same food and even if the scents are not presented to them simultaneously. PMID:21698282

  18. Evaluation of Four Bed Bug Traps for Surveillance of the Brown Dog Tick (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Carnohan, Lucas P; Kaufman, Phillip E; Allan, Sandra A; Gezan, Salvador A; Weeks, Emma N I

    2015-03-01

    The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latrielle), can be a serious residential pest due to its unique ability, among ticks, to complete its lifecycle indoors. A single engorged and fertilized female tick can oviposit around 4,000 eggs, allowing indoor establishment to be rapid and easy to miss in early-stage infestations. Acaricide treatment is currently the primary method of control, but can be costly and can lead to the development of acaricide resistance in tick populations. Traps of various designs can be used to help monitor and manage populations of indoor pests, such as cockroaches and bed bugs, but there are currently no commercially available traps for use with brown dog tick infestations. This study included a comparison of four commercially available bed bug traps (NightWatch [BioSensory Inc., Putnam, CT], Bed Bug Beacon [PackTite, Fort Collins, CO], ClimbUp [Susan McKnight Inc., Memphis, TN], and Verify [FMC Corporation, Philadelphia, PA]) with regard to their efficacy in capturing brown dog ticks, and also compared tick attraction to ClimbUp traps baited with several stimuli including CO2. Significantly more ticks were captured and attracted to the NightWatch and CO2-baited ClimbUp traps than the other two trap models. The results suggest that bed bug traps may be useful in brown dog tick monitoring, and CO2 will likely be an important component of a trapping system employed in the future. PMID:26336310

  19. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Costa Rica: first molecular description of Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections with a high prevalence of monocytic ehrlichiosis and the manifestations of co-infection.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Alicia; Rojas, Diana; Montenegro, Víctor; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Baneth, Gad

    2014-01-31

    Infection with canine vector-borne pathogens was evaluated in dogs from four different regions of Costa Rica by PCR. Demographic data, clinical signs, packed cell volume values, and the presence of tick infestation were recorded for each dog. Forty seven percent (69/146) of the dogs were infected with at least one pathogen and 12% were co-infected with two pathogens. Ehrlichia canis was detected in 34%, Anaplasma platys in 10%, Babesia vogeli in 8%, and Hepatozoon canis in 7.5% of the blood samples. No infection was detected with Leishmania spp. in blood, skin scrapings or conjunctival swabs. Thirty percent of the dogs presented at least one clinical sign compatible with vector-borne disease, and of those, 66% were infected with a pathogen. Subclinical infections were determined in 58% of the infected dogs including 82% (9/11), 58% (29/50), 42% (5/12) and 36% (5/14) of the dogs with H. canis, E. canis, B. vogeli and A. platys infections, respectively. A distinct relationship was found between infection and anemia. The mean PCV values were 34.4% in dogs with no infection, 31.5% in those who had a single infection and 23% in those with co-infection. Co-infected dogs had significantly lower PCV values compared to non-infected and single-infected dogs (p<0.0001). Thirty five percent (51/146) of the dogs were infested with ticks, 82% of them were infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and 18% with Amblyomma ovale. Dogs infected with A. platys, B. vogeli, or E. canis were significantly associated with R. sanguineus s.l. infestation (p<0.029). This is the first description of infections with B. vogeli and H. canis in Costa Rica as well as in Central America. The results of this study indicate that multiple vector-borne pathogens responsible for severe diseases infect dogs in Costa Rica and therefore, increased owner and veterinarian awareness are needed. Moreover, prevention of tick infestation is recommended to decrease the threat of these diseases to the

  20. [Fatal dog bite injuries].

    PubMed

    Pollak, S; Mortinger, H

    1989-01-01

    In the absence of her parents, a girl of 4 months was killed by a 2-year old male Rottweiler dog belonging to the same family. The dog's front teeth left marks of individual, circular or scratch-like abrasions as well as slit-like severances of the skin, arranged in curved lines. The pattern of the skin-lesions largely correspond to the anatomy of the dog's set of teeth. No tissue defects (effects of devour) could be detected. Multiple traumatization of the trunk had led to serial rib fractures and ruptures of several organs. PMID:2818522

  1. Cholangiohepatitis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Forrester, S D; Rogers, K S; Relford, R L

    1992-06-01

    Cholangiohepatitis was diagnosed in a dog with a 4-day history of anorexia, vomiting, fever, and icterus. Additional findings included signs of depression, dehydration, hepatosplenomegaly, and abdominal discomfort. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, and specimens of liver, spleen, and bile were obtained. Histologic evaluation of liver and spleen revealed acute, suppurative cholangio-hepatitis and splenitis, respectively. Cultures of liver and bile yielded Klebsiella sp. The dog responded to rehydration and intravenous administration of chloramphenicol. Although uncommon, cholangiohepatitis should be suspected in dogs with anorexia, fever, vomiting, icterus, and signs of abdominal discomfort. Definitive diagnosis requires bacterial cultures of liver and bile. Administration of an appropriate antibiotic should resolve clinical signs. PMID:1624352

  2. Stray dog population health in Jodhpur, India in the wake of an animal birth control (ABC) program.

    PubMed

    Totton, Sarah C; Wandeler, Alex I; Ribble, Carl S; Rosatte, Rick C; McEwen, Scott A

    2011-02-01

    Our objectives were to (1) estimate the prevalence of various health indices in the stray dog population in Jodhpur, India and (2) determine if there was an association between an animal birth control (ABC) program and the prevalence of these health indices in this population. A prevalence survey of 323 sexually intact stray dogs >3 months caught from the streets of Jodhpur from September to November, 2005 indicated that low body condition score (70%), skin conditions (69%) and tick infestation (68%) were the most common health problems in this population. An observational study of 888 stray dogs on the streets of Jodhpur from March to April, 2006 revealed that sterilized dogs were more likely to have a higher body condition score (BCS) than sexually intact dogs when controlling for age, based on a multinomial regression model. However, sterilized dogs were more likely to have a skin condition than sexually intact dogs, based on a logistic regression model. Our observations of the surgical/kennel facility indicated that an effective tick control program was needed. Additionally, the current parasite control protocol at the kennel/shelter facility was inadequate to treat mange, a contact-transmitted skin disease. This is the first study to evaluate the associations between an ABC program and stray dog health, apart from rabies. PMID:21144606

  3. Discrete typing units of Trypanosoma cruzi identified in rural dogs and cats in the humid Argentinean Chaco

    PubMed Central

    ENRIQUEZ, G.F.; CARDINAL, M.V.; OROZCO, M.M.; LANATI, L.; SCHIJMAN, A.G.; GÜRTLER, R.E.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The discrete typing units (DTUs) of Trypanosoma cruzi that infect domestic dogs and cats have rarely been studied. With this purpose we conducted a cross-sectional xenodiagnostic survey of dog and cat populations residing in two infested rural villages in Pampa del Indio, in the humid Argentine Chaco. Parasites were isolated by culture from 44 dogs and 12 cats with a positive xenodiagnosis. DTUs were identified from parasite culture samples using a strategy based on multiple polymerase-chain reactions. TcVI was identified in 37 of 44 dogs and in 10 of 12 cats, whereas TcV was identified in five dogs and in two cats –a new finding for cats. No mixed infections were detected. The occurrence of two dogs infected with TcIII –classically found in armadillos– suggests a probable link with the local sylvatic transmission cycle involving Dasypus novemcinctus armadillos and a potential risk of human infection with TcIII. Our study reinforces the importance of dogs and cats as domestic reservoir hosts and sources of various DTUs infecting humans, and suggests a link between dogs and the sylvatic transmission cycle of TcIII. PMID:23058180

  4. Comparison of selected canine vector-borne diseases between urban animal shelter and rural hunting dogs in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A serological survey for Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi infections in rural hunting and urban shelter dogs mainly from southwestern regions of the Republic of Korea (South Korea) was conducted. From a total of 229 wild boar or pheasant hunting dogs, the number of serologically positive dogs for any of the four pathogens was 93 (40.6%). The highest prevalence observed was D. immitis (22.3%), followed by A. phagocytophilum (18.8%), E. canis (6.1%) and the lowest prevalence was B. burgdorferi (2.2%). In contrast, stray dogs found within the city limits of Gwangju showed seropositivity only to D. immitis (14.6%), and none of the 692 dogs responded positive for A. phagocytophilum, E. canis or B. burgdorferi antibodies. This study indicates that the risk of exposure to vector-borne diseases in rural hunting dogs can be quite high in Korea, while the urban environment may not be suitable for tick infestation on dogs, as evidenced by the low infection status of tick-borne pathogens in stray dogs. PMID:20377869

  5. Discrete typing units of Trypanosoma cruzi identified in rural dogs and cats in the humid Argentinean Chaco.

    PubMed

    Enriquez, G F; Cardinal, M V; Orozco, M M; Lanati, L; Schijman, A G; Gürtler, R E

    2013-03-01

    The discrete typing units (DTUs) of Trypanosoma cruzi that infect domestic dogs and cats have rarely been studied. With this purpose we conducted a cross-sectional xenodiagnostic survey of dog and cat populations residing in 2 infested rural villages in Pampa del Indio, in the humid Argentine Chaco. Parasites were isolated by culture from 44 dogs and 12 cats with a positive xenodiagnosis. DTUs were identified from parasite culture samples using a strategy based on multiple polymerase-chain reactions. TcVI was identified in 37 of 44 dogs and in 10 of 12 cats, whereas TcV was identified in 5 dogs and in 2 cats -a new finding for cats. No mixed infections were detected. The occurrence of 2 dogs infected with TcIII -classically found in armadillos- suggests a probable link with the local sylvatic transmission cycle involving Dasypus novemcinctus armadillos and a potential risk of human infection with TcIII. Our study reinforces the importance of dogs and cats as domestic reservoir hosts and sources of various DTUs infecting humans, and suggests a link between dogs and the sylvatic transmission cycle of TcIII. PMID:23058180

  6. Genetically distinct dog-derived and human-derived Sarcoptes scabiei in scabies-endemic communities in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Walton, S F; Choy, J L; Bonson, A; Valle, A; McBroom, J; Taplin, D; Arlian, L; Mathews, J D; Currie, B; Kemp, D J

    1999-10-01

    Overcrowding is a significant factor contributing to endemic infection with Sarcoptes scabiei in human and animal populations. However, since scabies mites from different host species are indistinguishable morphologically, it is unclear whether people can be infected from scabies-infested animals. Molecular fingerprinting was done using three S. scabiei-specific single locus hypervariable microsatellite markers, with a combined total of 70 known alleles. Multilocus analysis of 712 scabies mites from human and dog hosts in Ohio, Panama and Aboriginal communities in northern Australia now shows that genotypes of dog-derived and human-derived scabies cluster by host species rather than by geographic location. Because of the apparent genetic separation between human scabies and dog scabies, control programs for human scabies in endemic areas do not require resources directed against zoonotic infection from dogs. PMID:10548286

  7. Cutaneous Distribution and Circadian Rhythm of Onchocerca lupi Microfilariae in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Giannelli, Alessio; Abramo, Francesca; Ignjatović Ćupina, Aleksandra; Petrić, Dušan; Cardoso, Luís; Mutafchiev, Yasen; Cortes, Helder

    2013-01-01

    Background Among the arthropod-borne nematodes infesting dogs, Onchocerca lupi (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) is of increasing zoonotic concern, with new human cases of infection diagnosed in Turkey, Tunisia, Iran and the USA. Knowledge of the biology of this nematode is meagre. This study aimed at assessing the distribution and periodicity of O. lupi microfilariae from different body regions in naturally infested dogs. Methodology/Principal Findings Skin samples were collected from six dogs infested with O. lupi but without apparent clinical signs. Two skin samples were collected from 18 anatomical regions of dog 1 at necropsy. In addition, single skin biopsies were performed from the forehead, inter-scapular and lumbar regions of dogs 2–6, in the morning, afternoon, and at night. Two aliquots of the sediment of each sample were microscopically observed, microfilariae counted and morphologically and molecularly identified. Most of the 1,667 microfilariae retrieved from dog 1 were in the right ear (59.6%), nose (26.5%), left ear (6.7%), forehead (3.0%), and inter-scapular (2.9%) regions. In dogs 2–6, the overall mean number of microfilariae was larger on the head (n = 122.8), followed by the inter-scapular (n = 119.0) and lumbar (n = 12.8) regions. The overall mean number of microfilariae was larger in the afternoon (153.4), followed by night (75.4) and morning (25.8). Conclusions Onchocerca lupi microfilariae were more common in the head (i.e., ears and nose) than in the remaining part of the dog's body, indicating they tend to aggregate in specific body regions, which are the best sites to collect skin samples for diagnostic purposes. The periodicity pattern of microfilariae of O. lupi and their concentration in specific body regions is most likely a result of the co-evolution with their as-yet-unknown vector. The detection of skin microfilariae in asymptomatic animals, suggests the potential role of these animals as carriers and reservoirs of O. lupi

  8. Jealousy in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Christine R.; Prouvost, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that jealousy is unique to humans, partially because of the complex cognitions often involved in this emotion. However, from a functional perspective, one might expect that an emotion that evolved to protect social bonds from interlopers might exist in other social species, particularly one as cognitively sophisticated as the dog. The current experiment adapted a paradigm from human infant studies to examine jealousy in domestic dogs. We found that dogs exhibited significantly more jealous behaviors (e.g., snapping, getting between the owner and object, pushing/touching the object/owner) when their owners displayed affectionate behaviors towards what appeared to be another dog as compared to nonsocial objects. These results lend support to the hypothesis that jealousy has some “primordial” form that exists in human infants and in at least one other social species besides humans. PMID:25054800

  9. How dogs drink water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  10. Hybrid vigour in dogs?

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Frank W; Arnott, Elizabeth R; McGreevy, Paul D

    2016-08-01

    Evidence from other species justifies the hypotheses that useful hybrid vigour occurs in dogs and that it can be exploited for improved health, welfare and fitness for purpose. Unfortunately, most of the relevant published canine studies do not provide estimates of actual hybrid vigour because of inadequate specification of the parentage of mixed-bred dogs. To our knowledge, only three published studies have shed any light on actual hybrid vigour in dogs. There are two reports of actual hybrid vigour between Labrador and Golden retrievers, the first ranging from +2.5% to -6.0% for components of a standardised applied-stimulus behavioural test, and the second being at least +12.4% for chance of graduating as a guide dog. The third study provides a minimum estimate of negative actual hybrid vigour: crossbreds between Labrador retrievers and poodles had a higher prevalence of multifocal retinal dysplasia than the average prevalence in their purebred parent breeds. The lack of estimates of actual hybrid vigour can be overcome by including the exact nature of the cross (e.g. F1, F2 or backcross) and their purebred parental breeds in the specification of mixed-bred dogs. Even if only F1 crossbreds can be categorised, this change would enable researchers to conduct substantial investigations to determine whether hybrid vigour has any utility for dog breeding. PMID:27387730

  11. Efficacy and safety of sarolaner (Simparica™) against fleas on dogs presented as veterinary patients in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cherni, Judith A; Mahabir, Sean P; Six, Robert H

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy and safety of a novel isoxazoline parasiticide, sarolaner (Simparica™), for the control of fleas on dogs was evaluated in a randomized, controlled clinical study conducted in 19 general veterinary practices throughout the United States. Four hundred and seventy nine (479) dogs from 293 households were enrolled. Each household was randomly assigned to treatment with either sarolaner oral tablets (Simparica™, Zoetis) at the proposed label dose or an approved comparator product at the label dose (spinosad, Comfortis(®), Elanco). Dogs were dosed by their owners at home on Day 0 and on approximately Days 30 and 60. Dogs were examined at the clinics for general health, flea and tick infestation, and clinical signs of flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) at the initial visit and Days 14, 30, 60 and 90. Blood was collected for clinical pathology at screening and Day 90. Sarolaner was well-accepted by dogs with the majority of flavored chewable tablets (91.5%) accepted free choice, by hand or in food. Geometric mean live flea counts were reduced by >99% at the first time measured (14 days) after initiation of treatment and continued to reduce through the study. Treatment success (proportion of dogs with ≥90% reduction in fleas) for the sarolaner-treated dogs was superior to that for spinosad-treated dogs at Days 14 and 30 and non-inferior on Days 60 and 90 (P≤0.025) The rapid reduction in flea infestations resulted in a similar rapid resolution of the clinical signs associated with FAD. Sarolaner chewable tablets were well tolerated with no treatment related adverse reactions. Most of the clinical signs reported were consistent with allergies and dermatitis or sporadic occurrences of conditions commonly observed in the general dog population. A wide variety of concomitant medications, including many commercially available heartworm preventatives and other anthelmintic drugs, were administered to study dogs and all were well tolerated. Sarolaner administered

  12. Control of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infesting power poles.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Martin A; Westlake, Terry; Kathuria, Amrit

    2010-12-01

    A trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of termiticidal dusts (arsenic trioxide, triflumuron, and Metarhizium anisopliae), a timber fumigant (dazomet) and liquid termiticides (bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, and imidacloprid) for controlling subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infesting in-service power poles in New South Wales, Australia. Dusts were applied to parts of the pole where termites were present. Fumigant was inserted into holes drilled into the base of the pole. Liquid termiticides were mixed with soil around the base of the pole and injected into internal voids if present. Poles were inspected for up to 5 yr, and the time taken for reinfestation to occur was recorded. Before the start of the trial, the major Australian pole owners were surveyed to obtain an estimate of the annual national cost of termite infestation to the power supply industry. The annual costs of termite treatment and replacing damaged poles were estimated at AU$2 million and AU$13 million, respectively. Infestation rates were lower for all treatments compared with controls within the first 12 mo of the study. Dazomet, arsenic trioxide, fipronil, and chlorpyrifos were the most efficacious treatments. Efficacy was positively related to the amount of termiticide applied and negatively related to the infestation severity but was unaffected by geographical location. Survival curves were calculated of the time elapsed before the recurrence of termite infestations (survival absence of reinfestation). Survival was highest for poles treated with liquid termiticides. PMID:21309237

  13. Parasitic Infestation in Pediatric and Adolescent Appendicitis: A Local Experience

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Ossama M.; Zakaria, Hazem M.; Daoud, Mohamed Yasser; Al Wadaani, Hamed; Al Buali, Waleed; Al-Mohammed, Hamdan; Al Mulhim, Abdulrahman S.; Zaki, Wafaa

    2013-01-01

    Objective The relationship between parasites and pediatric appendicitis is a highly debatable issue. This study aims to investigate the role of parasitic infestation in the etiology of acute pediatric appendicitis. Methods A retrospective study including 1600 pediatric and adolescent patients who had undergone surgical therapy for a diagnosis of acute appendicitis over a period of ten years from Jan 2001 to Dec 2010. Demographic data were retrieved including the patient's age, sex, clinical data, clinical presentations, laboratory investigations, operative data and pathological findings to identify the presence and type of parasites. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of parasites in the appendix lumen. In group I (n: 88), parasitic infestation was observed, whereas in group II (n: 1502), no parasitic infestation was present. Results Parasites were present in 5.5% (88 patients), and of those 88 parasitic infestations, 45 (51.1%) were Enterobaisis, 8 (9.1%) were Schistosomiasis, 23 (26.1%) were Ascariasis, 7 (8%) Trichuriasis, and 5 (5.7%) were Teania Saginata. The percentage of patients with suppurative, gangrenous or perforated appendicitis was similar in both groups with no statistical significance, irrespective of the presence or absence of parasitic infestation. Conclusion The low prevalence of parasites among the appendectomy specimens did not support the notion that parasites were a major cause of appendicitis in pediatric patients. PMID:23599875

  14. Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…

  15. Treating Cushing's Disease in Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... on top of the kidneys. Dogs, cats, and horses, as well as humans, can get Cushing's disease. ... commonly found in dogs than in cats or horses. "Cortisol is one of the body's natural steroids," ...

  16. Efficacy and safety of a novel oral isoxazoline, sarolaner (Simparica™), for the treatment of sarcoptic mange in dogs.

    PubMed

    Becskei, Csilla; De Bock, Filip; Illambas, Joanna; Cherni, Judith A; Fourie, Josephus J; Lane, Melanie; Mahabir, Sean P; Six, Robert H

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of the novel isoxazoline, sarolaner (Simparica™) was investigated in dogs with clinical signs consistent with sarcoptic mange and harbouring natural infestations of Sarcoptes scabiei. One placebo-controlled laboratory study and one multi-centred field study with a commercial comparator containing imidacloprid/moxidectin (Advocate(®) spot-on) were conducted. Oral or topical treatments were administered on Days 0 and 30. Up to 10 skin scrapings were taken for the assessment of S. scabiei infestations from each dog before treatment and on Days 14, 30, 44 and 60 in the laboratory study, and on Days 30 and 60 in the field study. In the laboratory study, efficacy was calculated based on the percent reduction of mean live mite counts compared to the placebo group. In the field study parasitological cure rate (% dogs free of mites) was determined and non-inferiority of sarolaner to the control product was assessed. In the laboratory study 44 mixed breed dogs were enrolled in four batches. Due to decreasing mite counts in the placebo treated dogs, immunosuppression with dexamethasone (0.4mg/kg three times per week for two weeks) was initiated in all dogs on study at that time (n=6) and those subsequently enrolled (n=14). In the field study, dogs were enrolled in a 2:1 ratio (sarolaner:comparator); 79 dogs were assessed for efficacy and safety, and an additional 45 dogs were assessed for safety only. There were no treatment related adverse events in either study. In the laboratory study, no mites were found on any sarolaner-treated dogs 14 days after the first treatment except for one dog that had a single mite on Day 44. In the field study, the parasitological cure rate was 88.7% and 100% in the sarolaner group and 84.6% and 96.0% in the imidacloprid/moxidectin group, on Days 30 and 60, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that sarolaner was non-inferior to imidacloprid/moxidectin at both time points. The clinical signs of sarcoptic mange, including

  17. [Imported arthropod-borne parasites and parasitic arthropods in dogs. Species spectrum and epidemiologic analysis of the cases diagnosed in 1995/96].

    PubMed

    Glaser, B; Gothe, R

    1998-02-01

    Between January 1995 and December 1996 nonendemic or only regionally occurring arthropodborne parasites including ehrlichiae and parasitic arthropods in Germany were detected in 484 dogs, whereby at least 15 species were involved. Listed in decreasing order, Leishmania infections occurred most frequently, followed by infections/infestations with Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dirofilaria immitis and Dermacentor reticulatus. The other species, namely Babesia gibsoni, Trypanosoma congolense, Hepatozoon canis, Ehrlichia platys, Dirofilaria repens, Dipetalonema reconditum, Dermacentor marginatus, Boophilus microplus and Cordylobia anthropophaga were demonstrated in a few or single dogs. Irrespective of the pathogen-species, most of the dogs had travelled with their owners to Mediterranean countries or to Portugal or had been imported from there. Infections with B. canis were diagnosed very frequently in dogs returning from Hungary. Of the 28 dogs with previous residence in Germany only, twelve and four animals were infected with B. canis and E. canis, respectively, and seven and five dogs were infested with R. sanguineus and D. marginatus, respectively. PMID:9531673

  18. Confirmation of the efficacy of a novel fipronil spot-on for the treatment and control of fleas, ticks and chewing lice on dogs.

    PubMed

    Kužner, Jernej; Turk, Sandra; Grace, Sarah; Soni-Gupta, Jyoti; Fourie, Josephus J; Marchiondo, Alan A; Rugg, Douglas

    2013-03-31

    A novel spot-on formulation containing fipronil (Eliminall(®)/Exproline vet™) Spot-on Solution for Dogs, Pfizer Animal Health, registered and manufactured by Krka, d.d, Novo mesto) was evaluated in three laboratory studies to confirm efficacy against fleas, ticks and chewing lice on dogs for at least one month. Control of two laboratory strains of cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis), two tick species (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor reticulatus) and the chewing louse (Trichodectes canis) was evaluated. In all studies, dogs were randomly allocated to treatment groups and compared with untreated dogs. The studies also included a commercial, comparator product containing fipronil (Frontline(®) spot-on, Merial Limited). All treatments were applied to the skin at one spot between the scapulae on Day 0. In the studies, dogs were infested with fleas and/or ticks prior to treatment and then reinfested at weekly intervals for up to 8 weeks after treatment and evaluated for efficacy at 2 days (48 h) after treatment and each reinfestation. These studies confirmed that treatment with the novel fipronil spot-on at the proposed commercial dose rate rapidly reduced existing infestations of fleas, ticks and chewing lice on dogs. Treatment provided control of reinfesting fleas for up to 8 weeks, up to 4 weeks control of ticks, and control of chewing lice. PMID:23290278

  19. Upper Airway Injury in Dogs Secondary to Trauma: 10 Dogs (2000-2011).

    PubMed

    Basdani, Eleni; Papazoglou, Lysimachos G; Patsikas, Michail N; Kazakos, Georgios M; Adamama-Moraitou, Katerina K; Tsokataridis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Ten dogs that presented with trauma-induced upper airway rupture or stenosis were reviewed. Tracheal rupture was seen in seven dogs, tracheal stenosis in one dog, and laryngeal rupture in two dogs. Clinical abnormalities included respiratory distress in five dogs, subcutaneous emphysema in eight, air leakage through the cervical wound in seven, stridor in three dogs, pneumomediastinum in four and pneumothorax in one dog. Reconstruction with simple interrupted sutures was performed in four dogs, tracheal resection and end-to-end anastomosis in five dogs, and one dog was euthanized intraoperatively. Complications were seen in three dogs including aspiration pneumonia in one and vocalization alterations in two dogs. PMID:27487354

  20. Factors Affecting Infestation by Triatoma infestans in a Rural Area of the Humid Chaco in Argentina: A Multi-Model Inference Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gurevitz, Juan M.; Ceballos, Leonardo A.; Gaspe, María Sol; Alvarado-Otegui, Julián A.; Enríquez, Gustavo F.; Kitron, Uriel; Gürtler, Ricardo E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi by Triatoma infestans remains a major public health problem in the Gran Chaco ecoregion, where understanding of the determinants of house infestation is limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study to model factors affecting bug presence and abundance at sites within house compounds in a well-defined rural area in the humid Argentine Chaco. Methodology/Principal Findings Triatoma infestans bugs were found in 45.9% of 327 inhabited house compounds but only in 7.4% of the 2,584 sites inspected systematically on these compounds, even though the last insecticide spraying campaign was conducted 12 years before. Infested sites were significantly aggregated at distances of 0.8–2.5 km. The most frequently infested ecotopes were domiciles, kitchens, storerooms, chicken coops and nests; corrals were rarely infested. Domiciles with mud walls and roofs of thatch or corrugated tarred cardboard were more often infested (32.2%) than domiciles with brick-and-cement walls and corrugated metal-sheet roofs (15.1%). A multi-model inference approach using Akaike's information criterion was applied to assess the relative importance of each variable by running all possible (17,406) models resulting from all combinations of variables. Availability of refuges for bugs, construction with tarred cardboard, and host abundance (humans, dogs, cats, and poultry) per site were positively associated with infestation and abundance, whereas reported insecticide use showed a negative association. Ethnic background (Creole or Toba) adjusted for other factors showed little or no association. Conclusions/Significance Promotion and effective implementation of housing improvement (including key peridomestic structures) combined with appropriate insecticide use and host management practices are needed to eliminate infestations. Fewer refuges are likely to result in fewer residual foci after insecticide spraying, and will facilitate community-based vector

  1. Community-Based Control of the Brown Dog Tick in a Region with High Rates of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Drexler, Naomi; Miller, Mark; Gerding, Justin; Todd, Suzanne; Adams, Laura; Dahlgren, F. Scott; Bryant, Nelva; Weis, Erica; Herrick, Kristen; Francies, Jessica; Komatsu, Kenneth; Piontkowski, Stephen; Velascosoltero, Jose; Shelhamer, Timothy; Hamilton, Brian; Eribes, Carmen; Brock, Anita; Sneezy, Patsy; Goseyun, Cye; Bendle, Harty; Hovet, Regina; Williams, Velda; Massung, Robert; McQuiston, Jennifer H.

    2014-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) transmitted by the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) has emerged as a significant public health risk on American Indian reservations in eastern Arizona. During 2003–2012, more than 250 RMSF cases and 19 deaths were documented among Arizona's American Indian population. The high case fatality rate makes community-level interventions aimed at rapid and sustained reduction of ticks urgent. Beginning in 2012, a two year pilot integrated tick prevention campaign called the RMSF Rodeo was launched in a ∼600-home tribal community with high rates of RMSF. During year one, long-acting tick collars were placed on all dogs in the community, environmental acaricides were applied to yards monthly, and animal care practices such as spay and neuter and proper tethering procedures were encouraged. Tick levels, indicated by visible inspection of dogs, tick traps and homeowner reports were used to monitor tick presence and evaluate the efficacy of interventions throughout the project. By the end of year one, <1% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community had visible tick infestations five months after the project was started, compared to 64% of dogs in Non-Rodeo communities, and environmental tick levels were reduced below detectable levels. The second year of the project focused on use of the long-acting collar alone and achieved sustained tick control with fewer than 3% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community with visible tick infestations by the end of the second year. Homeowner reports of tick activity in the domestic and peridomestic setting showed similar decreases in tick activity compared to the non-project communities. Expansion of this successful project to other areas with Rhipicephalus-transmitted RMSF has the potential to reduce brown dog tick infestations and save human lives. PMID:25479289

  2. Preventing aggressive behaviour in dogs.

    PubMed

    Orritt, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    Delegates from around the world met at the University of Lincoln on June 11 and 12 for the third annual UK Dog Bite Prevention and Behaviour conference. The conference, hosted by dog trainer Victoria Stilwell, brings together dog behaviour experts to discuss possible solutions to this public health issue. Rachel Orritt, who has been examining the perceptions, assessment and management of human-directed aggressive behaviour in dogs for her PhD, reports. PMID:27389748

  3. Dog saliva – an important source of dog allergens

    PubMed Central

    Polovic, N; Wadén, K; Binnmyr, J; Hamsten, C; Grönneberg, R; Palmberg, C; Milcic-Matic, N; Bergman, T; Grönlund, H; van Hage, M; Crameri, Reto

    2013-01-01

    Background Allergy to dog (Canis familiaris) is a worldwide common cause of asthma and allergic rhinitis. However, dander extract in routine diagnostics is not an optimal predictor of IgE-mediated dog allergy. Our objective was to evaluate saliva as an allergen source for improved diagnostics of allergy to dog. Methods IgE-binding proteins in dog saliva and dander extract were analysed by immunoblot and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using pooled or individual sera from dog-allergic patients (n = 13). Sera from 59 patients IgE positive to dander and 55 patients IgE negative to dander but with symptoms to dog were analysed for IgE against saliva and dander by ELISA. Basophil stimulation with dog saliva and dander extract was measured by flow cytometry among three dog-allergic patients. Additionally, IgE-binding protein profiles of saliva from different breeds were investigated by immunoblot. Results Greater number and diversity of IgE-binding proteins was found in saliva compared to dander extract and varied among dog breeds. In saliva, Can f 1, 2, 3 and 6 were identified but also four new saliva allergen candidates. The majority of the 59 dog dander–positive sera (n = 44) were IgE positive to dog saliva. Among patients IgE negative to dander, but with symptoms to dog, 20% were IgE positive to saliva. The biological activity of saliva was confirmed by basophil degranulation. Conclusions Dog saliva is an allergen source for improved diagnostics of dog allergy. The IgE-binding protein profile of saliva from different dogs varies. PMID:23464525

  4. Serological survey of Borrelia infection of dogs in Sapporo, Japan, where Borrelia garinii infection was previously detected

    PubMed Central

    UESAKA, Karin; MAEZAWA, Masaki; INOKUMA, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    A serological survey of Borrelia infection of dogs was performed in Sapporo, Japan, where Borrelia garinii infection in dogs was detected in 2011. A total of 314 serum samples were collected from dogs that visited three animal hospitals in Sapporo from 2012 to 2014. The two-step evaluation method, involving screening ELISA followed by Western blot analysis, was used to detect antibodies against Borrelia species. A total of 34 samples were positive by ELISA. Among those 34 samples, 32 were positive for Borrelia spp. by Western blot. These findings suggest that the 32 dogs (10.2%) generated antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, such as B. garinii or B. afzelii. Antibody positivity was 7.6% and 13.3% for dogs living in urban and rural areas, respectively. Dogs with a history of tick infestation showed a positive rate of 16.7%, which was higher, although not significantly, than the 6.7% among dogs without a history. PMID:26522809

  5. Serological survey of Borrelia infection of dogs in Sapporo, Japan, where Borrelia garinii infection was previously detected.

    PubMed

    Uesaka, Karin; Maezawa, Masaki; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2016-04-01

    A serological survey of Borrelia infection of dogs was performed in Sapporo, Japan, where Borrelia garinii infection in dogs was detected in 2011. A total of 314 serum samples were collected from dogs that visited three animal hospitals in Sapporo from 2012 to 2014. The two-step evaluation method, involving screening ELISA followed by Western blot analysis, was used to detect antibodies against Borrelia species. A total of 34 samples were positive by ELISA. Among those 34 samples, 32 were positive for Borrelia spp. by Western blot. These findings suggest that the 32 dogs (10.2%) generated antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, such as B. garinii or B. afzelii. Antibody positivity was 7.6% and 13.3% for dogs living in urban and rural areas, respectively. Dogs with a history of tick infestation showed a positive rate of 16.7%, which was higher, although not significantly, than the 6.7% among dogs without a history. PMID:26522809

  6. Detecting Weed Infestations in Soybean Using Remote Sensing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, S. A.; Chang, J.; Clay, D. E.; Dalsted, K.; Reese, C.

    2007-12-01

    Can weed distribution maps be developed from remote sensed reflectance data? When are the appropriate times to collect these data during the season? What wavebands can be used to distinguish weedy from weed- free areas? This research examined if and when reflectance could be used to distinguish between weed-free and weed-infested (mixed species) areas in soybean and to determine the most useful wavebands to separate crop, weed, and soil reflectance differences. Treatments in the two-year study included no vegetation (bare soil), weed-free soybean, and weed-infested soybean and, in one year, 80% corn residue cover. Reflectance was measured at several sampling times from May through September in 2001 and 2002 using a hand-held multispectral radiometer equipped with band-limited optical interference filters (460 - 1650 nm). Pixel resolution was 0.8-m. Reflectance in the visible spectral range (460 to 700 nm) generally was similar among treatments. In the near-infrared (NIR) range (>700 to 1650 nm), differences among treatments were observed from soybean growth stage V-3 (about 4 weeks after planting) until mid-July to early August depending on crop vigor and canopy closure (76 cm row spacing in 2001 and 19 cm row spacing in 2002). Reflectance rankings in the NIR range when treatments could be differentiated were consistent between years and, from lowest to highest reflectance, were soil < weed-free < weed-infested areas. Increased reflectance from weed-infested areas was most likely due to increased biomass and canopy cover. Residue masked differences between weed-free and weed- infested areas during the early stages of growth due to high reflectance from the residue and reduced weed numbers in these areas. These results suggest that NIR spectral reflectance collected prior to canopy closure can be used to distinguish weed-infested from weed-free areas.

  7. 76 FR 35162 - Service Dogs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN51 Service Dogs AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Proposed... veterans in need of service dogs. Under current regulations, VA provides benefits to veterans with guide dogs, and this rulemaking would broaden and clarify those benefits. This rulemaking would...

  8. Enterobius vermicularis infestation masquerading as cervical carcinoma: A cytological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Raju, Kalyani; Verappa, Seema; Venkataramappa, Srinivas Murthy

    2015-01-01

    Although prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis (EV) infestation in Intestines ranges from 35% to 70%, its prevalence in female genital tract is not known despite several incidental findings. Acute inflammatory cells in the background of cervical Pap smear indicate infestation and should not be neglected as contamination. A 40-year-woman presented with white vaginal discharge persistent for past 1 year. Local examination showed hypertrophied cervix with eversion of both lips and hard consistency of the anterior lip of cervix. A clinical diagnosis of cervical carcinoma was made. However, cervical Pap smear indicated EV eggs in an inflammatory background, treatment to which resulted in completely recovery. PMID:26283859

  9. Colonic obstruction and perforation related to heavy Trichuris trichiura infestation.

    PubMed Central

    Bahon, J; Poirriez, J; Creusy, C; Edriss, A N; Laget, J P; Dei Cas, E

    1997-01-01

    Heavy Trichuris trichiura infestation is rare in developed countries, and complications requiring surgical intervention have been described rarely in human trichuriasis. A case of colonic obstruction and perforation related to heavy whip-worm infection is described in an 84 year old woman. The woman was admitted to hospital because of a chest infection. Two days after admission she suffered nausea and vomiting followed a day later by bowel stoppage. Laparotomy indicated intestinal obstruction by a tumour. A partial right sided ileocolectomy was performed. Pathological examination of the resected bowel revealed heavy infestation with T trichiura causing a pseudotumour following a proliferative inflammatory response. Images PMID:9306948

  10. Enterobius vermicularis infestation masquerading as cervical carcinoma: A cytological diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Kalyani; Verappa, Seema; Venkataramappa, Srinivas Murthy

    2015-01-01

    Although prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis (EV) infestation in Intestines ranges from 35% to 70%, its prevalence in female genital tract is not known despite several incidental findings. Acute inflammatory cells in the background of cervical Pap smear indicate infestation and should not be neglected as contamination. A 40-year-woman presented with white vaginal discharge persistent for past 1 year. Local examination showed hypertrophied cervix with eversion of both lips and hard consistency of the anterior lip of cervix. A clinical diagnosis of cervical carcinoma was made. However, cervical Pap smear indicated EV eggs in an inflammatory background, treatment to which resulted in completely recovery. PMID:26283859

  11. Facial dog attack injuries.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei; Patil, Pavan Manohar

    2015-02-01

    The exposed position of the face makes it vulnerable to dog bite injuries. This fact combined with the short stature of children makes them a high-risk group for such attacks. In contrast to wounds inflicted by assaults and accidents, dog bite wounds are deep puncture type wounds compounded by the presence of pathologic bacteria from the saliva of the attacking dog. This, combined with the presence of crushed, devitalized tissue makes these wounds highly susceptible to infection. Key to successful management of such wounds are meticulous cleansing of the wound, careful debridement, primary repair, appropriate antibiotic therapy, and rabies and tetanus immunization where indicated. This review presents an overview of the epidemiology, presentation, management of such emergencies, and the recent advances in the care of such patients. PMID:25829713

  12. Multiple antigen target approach using the Accuplex4 BioCD system to detect Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in experimentally infected and vaccinated dogs.

    PubMed

    Moroff, Scott; Woodruff, Colby; Woodring, Todd; Sokolchik, Irene; Lappin, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    The primary objective of our study was to optimize detection of serum antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi using a new commercial automated fluorescence system (Accuplex4 BioCD system, Antech Diagnostics, Lake Success, New York). The system used multiple natural and artificial peptides-outer surface proteins (OspA, OspC, OspF), an outer membrane protein (P39), and a proprietary synthetic peptide (small Lyme peptide [SLP])-and the results were compared with a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that uses a proprietary peptide (C6). Sera from 4 groups were evaluated: dogs vaccinated with 1 of 3 commercially available vaccines (n = 18); dogs infested with adult Ixodes scapularis (black-legged tick; n = 18); dogs previously vaccinated and then infested with I. scapularis (n = 18); and dogs with B. burgdorferi infection that were then vaccinated (n = 14). All of the vaccines evaluated induced OspA responses. However, antibodies against OspF or C6 were not induced in any of the vaccinated dogs. Additionally, the OspF antibodies had 100% sensitivity and specificity when compared to antibodies against C6 peptide. In B. burgdorferi-infected dogs, antibodies against OspC and SLP were detected in serum sooner than antibodies against the other targets. Low levels of antibodies against OspA developed in 6 of 14 B. burgdorferi-infected, unvaccinated dogs and had the shortest duration compared to the other antibodies. Detection of antibody responses to multiple B. burgdorferi targets with this system can be used to help differentiate vaccinated dogs from exposed dogs as well as acute infection from chronic infection. PMID:26289718

  13. Efficacy and safety of imidacloprid 10% plus moxidectin 2.5% spot-on in the treatment of sarcoptic mange and otoacariosis in dogs: results af a European field study.

    PubMed

    Krieger, K; Heine, J; Dumont, P; Hellmann, K

    2005-10-01

    Efficacy and safety of treatment with imidacloprid 10%+moiddectin 2.5% spot-on (Advocate, Advantage multi; Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany) were tested in dogs naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei or Otodectes cynotis in a multi-centre, controlled, randomized, blinded field study conducted in France, Germany, Albania and the UK. The study was performed according to a non-inferiority design to demonstrate that the efficacy of imidacloprid/moxidectin spot-on was not inferior to that of a control product containing selamectin (Stronghold spot-on; Pfizer). All Sarcoptes-infested dogs were topically treated twice (days 0 and 28) with the dosage recommended by the respective manufacturer (27 dogs with imidacloprid/moxidectin, 26 with selamectin). All Otodectes-infested dogs were treated on day 0 (35 dogs with imidacloprid/moxidectin, 34 with selamectin), and only those still positive on day 28 received a second treatment. Parasitological cure rate in Sarcoptes-infested dogs was 100% for both treatments, while parasitological cures rates in the Otodectes-infested dogs at day 28 and day 56 were 68.6 and 85.7% with imidacloprid/moxidectin, and 64.7 and 88.2% with Stronghold. Non-inferiority of Advocate was confirmed statistically. Clinical assessment of skin lesion scores at day 56 showed that with either product >96% of the dogs treated against sarcoptic mange were improved or cured, the difference between the groups being non-significant. On the basis of a final clinical assessment of lesion scores, 80% of the dogs treated with imidacloprid/moxidectin against otoacariosis and 85.3% of those treated with selamectin were rated cured or improved. Only three mild, possibly drug-related adverse reactions were observed among alI treated animals (two in the imidacloprid/moxidectin group, one in the selamectin group). It is concluded that imidacloprid/moxidectin spot-on is an effective and safe treatment for sarcoptic mange and otoacariosis in the dog. PMID:16228280

  14. Vanishing native American dog lineages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dogs were an important element in many native American cultures at the time Europeans arrived. Although previous ancient DNA studies revealed the existence of unique native American mitochondrial sequences, these have not been found in modern dogs, mainly purebred, studied so far. Results We identified many previously undescribed mitochondrial control region sequences in 400 dogs from rural and isolated areas as well as street dogs from across the Americas. However, sequences of native American origin proved to be exceedingly rare, and we estimate that the native population contributed only a minor fraction of the gene pool that constitutes the modern population. Conclusions The high number of previously unidentified haplotypes in our sample suggests that a lot of unsampled genetic variation exists in non-breed dogs. Our results also suggest that the arrival of European colonists to the Americas may have led to an extensive replacement of the native American dog population by the dogs of the invaders. PMID:21418639

  15. Postharvest tillage reduces Downy Brome infestations in winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Pacific Northwest, downy brome continues to infest winter wheat producing regions especially in low-rainfall areas where the winter wheat-summer fallow rotation is the dominate production system. In Washington, a study was conducted for 2 years at each of two locations in the winter wheat -su...

  16. Susceptibility of pear to European pear sawfly fruit infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European pear sawfly, Hoplocampa brevis (Klug), is a relatively new pest in the Mid-Atlantic fruit production region. A plot containing twelve Pyrus communis pear cultivars and one breeder’s selection in a randomized block design was surveyed for fruit damage. Infestation frequency ranged from...

  17. Natural trematode infestation in feral Nebrodi Black pigs: pathological investigations.

    PubMed

    Capucchio, Maria Teresa; Catalano, Deborah; Di Marco, Vincenzo; Russo, Miriam; Aronica, Vincenzo; Tomaselli, Amedeo; Lazzara, Alessandro; Amedeo, Stefano; Scaglione, Frine Eleonora; Dore, Bruno; Guarda, Franco

    2009-01-22

    Few studies describe the parasites of pigs bred in the wild state, although pigs are a known reservoir of trematode infestation. This article reports the results of a retrospective study carried out from January 2003 to June 2007 on 3021 Nebrodi Black male and female pigs, regularly slaughtered, aged between 8 months and 4 years. Fasciola hepatica and Dicrocoelium dendriticum flukes were detected in 143 (4.37%) of 3021 livers. The predominant histological features were multifocal to diffuse chronic hepatitis, with fibrosis and severely thickened walls of the bile ducts and chronic parietal, sometimes nodular inflammation. F. hepatica infestation was frequently associated with marked hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the submucosal glands. The study results confirm the important role swine play in the transmission of trematode infestations, indicate the prevalence of these parasites in the Nebrodi Park area, and draw attention to the need for a prophylaxis plan to prevent the spread of infestation to ruminants and humans living in the area. PMID:19038498

  18. Does the removal of mite-infested brood facilitate grooming?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between the removal of mite-infested brood and mite drop was compared using Russian (RHB, n = 9) and Italian (IHB, n = 9) honey bee colonies. A cloake board was used to isolate test brood frame on the top hive body and the metal sheet served as a varroa trap. Inoculum mites were col...

  19. Parasitic infestation of lung: An unusual cause of interstitial pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Parth; Kate, Arvind H; Nester, Nora; Patole, Kamlakar; Leuppi, Joerg D; Chhajed, Prashant N

    2016-01-01

    Parasite infections are increasing worldwide due to increasing migration and traveling. Parasitic infections can affect lungs and present as a focal or diffuse lung diseases. High index of suspicion and detailed history are most important. We present a case of interstitial pneumonitis caused by parasite infestation, which was diagnosed on transbronchial lung biopsy. PMID:27051117

  20. Remote sensing for detecting and mapping whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) infestations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing technology has long been used for detecting insect infestations on agricultural crops. With recent advances in remote sensing sensors and other spatial information technologies such as Global Position Systems (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing is finding mo...

  1. Reducing costly zebra mussel infestations at power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Smythe, G.

    1994-10-01

    The fast-spreading-zebra mussel has significant potential to foul intakes and other water systems at North American hydro projects. Chemical controls can be effective in reducing infestations, but most have environmental and other drawbacks. Several non-chemical methods promise to help project operators reduce problems associated with the mussels.

  2. FUSARIUM SPECIES SYNTHESIZE ALKALINE PROTEINASES IN INFESTED BARLEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) that is infested with Fusarium head blight (FHB, `scab') is unsuitable for malting and brewing because it may contain mycotoxins and has unacceptable malting quality. Fungal proteinases are apparently involved in plant-microbe interactions, because they degrade the storag...

  3. Infestation of grasses by eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the economic importance of eriophyoid mites as agricultural pests, especially of cereal crops, knowledge of the eriophyoid fauna in Turkey remains incomplete. This paper presents the results of a 3-year study on grass-infesting eriophyoid mites in Turkey. The aim of this study was to collect...

  4. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BOVINE BABESIOSIS § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation after treatment...

  5. Determination of degree of infestation of triticale seed using NIR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect infestation of seeds of the triticale hybrid, Triticosecale, causes extraordinary storage losses as a consequence of vulnerability of triticale seed to insect infestation and its soft coat. Rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), is a common insect that causes infestation in Florida, which was t...

  6. 78 FR 24665 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin AGENCY: Animal... are amending the gypsy moth regulations by adding areas in Wisconsin to the list of generally infested areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. As a result of this...

  7. Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor: prevalence and reproduction in concurrently infested Apis mellifera colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor in concurrently infested A. mellifera colonies in Thailand was monitored. We also assessed the reproductive ability of T. mercedesae and V. destructor in naturally infested brood and in brood cells deliberately infested with both mite g...

  8. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tick-infested areas. 95.28 Section 95.28 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... THE UNITED STATES § 95.28 Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas. Hay or straw, grass, or similar material from tick-infested pastures, ranges, or premises may disseminate...

  9. Russian Honey Bees and Their Response Toward Brood Infested with Small Hive Beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African bees are known to preferentially remove brood that is infested with small hive beetles (SHB). European honey bees (EHB) also remove infested brood but at a lower frequency. The response of different stocks of EHB to brood infested with SHB has not been studied. Therefore, this study was cond...

  10. Russian Honey Bees And Their Response Toward Brood Infested With Small Hive Beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African bees are known to preferentially remove brood that is infested with small hive beetles (SHB). European honey bees (EHB) also remove infested brood but at a lower frequency. The response of different stocks of EHB to brood infested with SHB has not been studied. Therefore, this study was cond...

  11. Antibodies to selected canine pathogens and infestation with intestinal helminths in golden jackals (Canis aureus) in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shamir, M; Yakobson, B; Baneth, G; King, R; Dar-Verker, S; Markovics, A; Aroch, I

    2001-07-01

    Blood and fecal samples, collected from 46 healthy adult free-ranging golden jackals captured in two different locations in Israel, were examined. A serological Study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of circulating antibodies reacting with four common canine pathogens: canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), Ehrlichia canis and Leishmania infantum. Faecal flotation and haematological tests were also performed. The seroprevalence of CPV, E. canis, CDV, and L. infantum were 72.3% (34/47), 54.3% (25/46), 52.2% (24/46), and 6.5% (3/46) respectively. Faecal flotation tests revealed a high prevalence of Ancylostoma caninum (13/17, 76%) and a low prevalence of Dipilidium caninum infestation. Examination of blood smears revealed Hepatazoon canis gamonts in one jackal. Golden jackals are among the most common free-ranging carnivores in Israel and neighboring countries. Their habitats are in proximity to densely populated areas and they bear close phylogenic relation to the domestic dog. These facts, combined with the high prevalence of the jackals' exposure to the major canine pathogens demonstrated in this study, suggest that they may serve as a reservoir for the transmission of certain diseases to domestic dogs. PMID:11409931

  12. Automatic imitation in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    After preliminary training to open a sliding door using their head and their paw, dogs were given a discrimination task in which they were rewarded with food for opening the door using the same method (head or paw) as demonstrated by their owner (compatible group), or for opening the door using the alternative method (incompatible group). The incompatible group, which had to counterimitate to receive food reward, required more trials to reach a fixed criterion of discrimination performance (85% correct) than the compatible group. This suggests that, like humans, dogs are subject to ‘automatic imitation’; they cannot inhibit online the tendency to imitate head use and/or paw use. In a subsequent transfer test, where all dogs were required to imitate their owners' head and paw use for food reward, the incompatible group made a greater proportion of incorrect, counterimitative responses than the compatible group. These results are consistent with the associative sequence learning model, which suggests that the development of imitation depends on sensorimotor experience and phylogenetically general mechanisms of associative learning. More specifically, they suggest that the imitative behaviour of dogs is shaped more by their developmental interactions with humans than by their evolutionary history of domestication. PMID:20667875

  13. Zen Hot Dog Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Substituted cycloalkanes with one branch illustrating each topic in an instructional unit can serve as summaries or reviews in courses of organic chemistry. The hungry Zen master told the hot dog vendor to make him one with everything. You can do the same for your students.

  14. Zen Hot Dog Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Dennis

    2009-04-01

    Substituted cycloalkanes with one branch illustrating each topic in an instructional unit can serve as summaries or reviews in courses of organic chemistry. The hungry Zen master told the hot dog vendor to make him one with everything. You can do the same for your students.

  15. Neosporosis in dogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals. Until 1988, it was misdiagnosed as Toxoplasma gondii. Since its first recognition in 1984 and the description of a new genus and species Neospora caninum in 1988, neosporosis has emerged as a serious disease of dogs and cattle worldwide. Additiona...

  16. Survey of dermatological conditions in a population of domestic dogs in Mashhad, northeast of Iran (2007-2011).

    PubMed

    Khoshnegah, Javad; Movassaghi, Ahmad Reza; Rad, Mehrnaz

    2013-01-01

    university small animal clinic, 1299 Iranian domestic dogs presented from September 2007 through March 2011 to the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Veterinary Teaching Hospital, were examined. Dermatological disorders were noted in 17.00% (221/1299) of all the dogs examined. Pruritus was the most common presenting sign, accounting for 25.35% of the dermatological consultations. It was followed by erythema, maculo-papular-pustular eruptions (16.97%), erosive or ulcerative lesions (16.74%), scaling or crusting (13.02%), alopecia (8.84%) and visible ectoparasites (7.44%). The most common primary final diagnoses were superficial pyoderma, cutaneous manifestations of canine leishmaniasis, flea infestation and allergy, tick infestation, atopic dermatitis, scabies, unspecified dermatoses, otitis, furunculosis and food allergy. There were no apparent age or sex predilections for dermatological disease as a whole. Spitz (odds ratio = 3.38; p = 0.001), Terriers (odds ratio = 2.52; p < 0.001) and German Shepherds (odds ratio = 1.90; p = 0.001) appeared to be at increased risk for dermatological disease. In addition, Khorasani large cross breed dogs (odds ratio = 0.36; p = 0.003) and mixed breed dogs (odds ratio = 0.33; p < 0.001) showed decreased risk for dermatological conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first survey study on canine dermatological conditions carried out in Iran. PMID:25653779

  17. Survey of dermatological conditions in a population of domestic dogs in Mashhad, northeast of Iran (2007-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Khoshnegah, Javad; Movassaghi, Ahmad Reza; Rad, Mehrnaz

    2013-01-01

    university small animal clinic, 1299 Iranian domestic dogs presented from September 2007 through March 2011 to the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Veterinary Teaching Hospital, were examined. Dermatological disorders were noted in 17.00% (221/1299) of all the dogs examined. Pruritus was the most common presenting sign, accounting for 25.35% of the dermatological consultations. It was followed by erythema, maculo-papular-pustular eruptions (16.97%), erosive or ulcerative lesions (16.74%), scaling or crusting (13.02%), alopecia (8.84%) and visible ectoparasites (7.44%). The most common primary final diagnoses were superficial pyoderma, cutaneous manifestations of canine leishmaniasis, flea infestation and allergy, tick infestation, atopic dermatitis, scabies, unspecified dermatoses, otitis, furunculosis and food allergy. There were no apparent age or sex predilections for dermatological disease as a whole. Spitz (odds ratio = 3.38; p = 0.001), Terriers (odds ratio = 2.52; p < 0.001) and German Shepherds (odds ratio = 1.90; p = 0.001) appeared to be at increased risk for dermatological disease. In addition, Khorasani large cross breed dogs (odds ratio = 0.36; p = 0.003) and mixed breed dogs (odds ratio = 0.33; p < 0.001) showed decreased risk for dermatological conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first survey study on canine dermatological conditions carried out in Iran. PMID:25653779

  18. Field evaluation of imidacloprid as a systemic approach to flea control in black-tailed prairie dogs, Cynomys ludovicianus.

    PubMed

    Jachowski, David S; Skipper, Sherry; Gompper, Matthew E

    2011-06-01

    Epizootic outbreaks of sylvatic plague have dramatically influenced prairie dog (Cynomys sp.) populations across North America. While a great deal of debate surrounds the cause and persistence of plague, flea control can stop the spread of plague epizootic outbreaks and even increase prairie dog survival under non-epizootic conditions. We investigated a newly-developed imidacloprid-treated grain bait that could potentially reduce flea infestations and mitigate the effects of plague on black-tailed prairie dogs (C. ludovicianus). We used a study design involving randomly assigned experimental and control study plots to assess the effectiveness of the systemic flea control product. We observed a significant difference in flea prevalence and abundance between experimental and control sites on three of the four sites treated with a single application of imidacloprid-treated grain bait for up to 90 days post-treatment. We observed an even greater reduction in flea infestations following the double application of treatment bait on two of three additional experimental sites. While we were unable to reduce flea infestations to the extent reported for more commonly used topical insecticides containing deltamethrin, imidacloprid might still be effective at reducing the risk of plague and halting epizootics. In addition, this systemic product can be more rapidly applied than topical insecticides, providing managers with a tool to quickly reduce flea infestations. Future research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of different application timing and rates, the utility of the product in limiting plague, and the potential effects on non-target species that might also consume the treated bait. PMID:21635647

  19. Radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs versus other dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jihye; Keh, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Junyoung; Yoon, Junghee

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for canine liver disease are commonly based on radiographic estimates of liver size, however little has been published on breed variations. Aims of this study were to describe normal radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs and to compare normal measurements for this breed with other dog breeds and Pekingese dogs with liver disease. Liver measurements were compared for clinically normal Pekingese (n = 61), normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic (n = 45), normal nonbrachycephalic (n = 71), and Pekingese breed dogs with liver disease (n = 22). For each dog, body weight, liver length, T11 vertebral length, thoracic depth, and thoracic width were measured on right lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs. Liver volume was calculated using a formula and ratios of liver length/T11 vertebral length and liver volume/body weight ratio were determined. Normal Pekingese dogs had a significantly smaller liver volume/body weight ratio (16.73 ± 5.67, P < 0.05) than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (19.54 ± 5.03) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (18.72 ± 6.52). The liver length/T11 vertebral length ratio in normal Pekingese (4.64 ± 0.65) was significantly smaller than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (5.16 ± 0.74) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (5.40 ± 0.74). Ratios of liver volume/body weight and liver length/T11 vertebral length in normal Pekingese were significantly different from Pekingese with liver diseases (P < 0.05). Findings supported our hypothesis that Pekingese dogs have a smaller normal radiographic liver size than other breeds. We recommend using 4.64× the length of the T11 vertebra as a radiographic criterion for normal liver length in Pekingese dogs. PMID:23094756

  20. Assessment of the prophylactic speed of kill of Frontline Tri-Act(®) against ticks (Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus) on dogs.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frédéric; Halos, Lénaïg; Liebenberg, Julian; Fourie, Josephus

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the speed of kill of a single topical treatment with a combination of fipronil and permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act(®)/Frontect(®)) against experimental infestations of Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks on dogs. In this parallel group designed, randomised, single centre, controlled efficacy study, 16 healthy adult dogs were allocated to two groups: 8 dogs were treated with the topical combination on Day 0 and the other 8 dogs served as untreated controls. Each dog was exposed in a crate to 100 I. ricinus (50 females, 50 males) and 50 R. sanguineus (25 males, 25 females) on Days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Ticks were counted in situ at 6 and 12 h after exposure and removed at 24 h after exposure. Frontline Tri-Act(®) was effective (≥90%) against both R. sanguineus and I. ricinus tick infestations at 6, 12 and 24 h after exposure, from 2 to 28 days after treatment. This is the first time that a topical ectoparasiticide has demonstrated a preventive killing effect against these two tick species in 6 h for a full month. PMID:26795064

  1. Assessment of the prophylactic speed of kill of Frontline Tri-Act® against ticks (Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus) on dogs

    PubMed Central

    Beugnet, Frédéric; Halos, Lénaïg; Liebenberg, Julian; Fourie, Josephus

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the speed of kill of a single topical treatment with a combination of fipronil and permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect®) against experimental infestations of Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks on dogs. In this parallel group designed, randomised, single centre, controlled efficacy study, 16 healthy adult dogs were allocated to two groups: 8 dogs were treated with the topical combination on Day 0 and the other 8 dogs served as untreated controls. Each dog was exposed in a crate to 100 I. ricinus (50 females, 50 males) and 50 R. sanguineus (25 males, 25 females) on Days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Ticks were counted in situ at 6 and 12 h after exposure and removed at 24 h after exposure. Frontline Tri-Act® was effective (≥90%) against both R. sanguineus and I. ricinus tick infestations at 6, 12 and 24 h after exposure, from 2 to 28 days after treatment. This is the first time that a topical ectoparasiticide has demonstrated a preventive killing effect against these two tick species in 6 h for a full month. PMID:26795064

  2. Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... back to top Why is Xylitol Dangerous to Dogs, but Not People? In both people and dogs, ...

  3. Efficacy of a novel formulation of metaflumizone plus amitraz for the treatment of sarcoptic mange in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fourie, L J; Kok, D J; du Plessis, A; Rugg, D

    2007-12-15

    A novel spot-on formulation containing metaflumizone plus amitraz (ProMeris/ProMeris Duo for Dogs, Fort Dodge Animal Health, Overland Park, KS) was evaluated for efficacy against sarcoptic mange mites in naturally infested dogs. Sixteen dogs were allocated to two equal groups and were housed individually. Eight of the dogs were treated topically with metaflumizone plus amitraz at the proposed minimum dose rate (20mg/kg of each of metaflumizone and amitraz, at a dose volume of 0.133ml/kg) on Days 0 and 28. The other eight were treated with metaflumizone plus amitraz at the proposed minimum dose rate on Days 0, 14, 28 and 42. To enumerate Sarcoptes scabiei mites, skin scrapings were taken on each of Days 2, 14, 28, 42 and 56. Clinical signs of mange and the extent of sarcoptic lesions were evaluated on each dog when scrapings were made. Evaluation of the efficacy of the treatment was based on the absence of mites supported by the absence of clinical signs associated with canine sarcoptic mange. Treatment with metaflumizone plus amitraz at the minimum proposed dose rate at monthly (two treatments) or two-weekly (four treatments) intervals resulted in a rapid reduction of mites and improved clinical signs. The overall cure rates at Day 56, based on zero mite counts and/or resolution of clinical signs were 75% and 83% of dogs for the monthly and two-weekly regimens, respectively. PMID:17931787

  4. Aphid infestation affecting the biogeochemistry of European beech saplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalzik, B.; Levia, D. F., Jr.; Bischoff, S.; Näthe, K.

    2014-12-01

    Mass outbreaks of herbivore insects are known to perturb the functional properties of forests. However, it is less clear how endemic to moderate aboveground herbivory affects the vertical flow of nutrients from tree canopies to the soil. Here, we report on the effects of low to moderate infestation levels of the woolly beech aphid (Phyllaphis fagi L.) on the nutrient dynamics and hydrology of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). In a potted sapling experiment, we followed the vertical dynamics of nutrients via throughfall (TF), stemflow (SF) and litter leachates (LL) collected over ten weeks underneath infested and uninfested control trees. Aphid infestation amplifies the fluxes of K+, Mn2+ and particulate nitrogen (0.45μm < PN < 500 μm) in TF solution by 42% for K+, 59% for Mn2+ and 13% for PN relative to the control. In contrast, fluxes of NH4-N and SO4-S diminished during peaking aphid abundance by 26 and 16%, respectively. Differences in canopy-derived dissolved nitrogen and carbon compounds, sulfur (S), Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ were < 10%. The effect of aphid abundance on nutrient dynamics was most notable in TF and SF and diminished in LL.Aphid infestation greatly altered the SF fluxes of DOC, K+, Mn2+, DON and sulfur-species, which were significantly concentrated at the tree base by "funneling" the rainfall through the canopy biomass to the trunk. Normalized to one square meter, water and nutrient fluxes were amplified by a factor of up to 200 compared to TF.Imaging of leaf surfaces by scanning electron microscopy exhibited notable differences of the surface morphology and microbiology of control, lightly infested, and heavily infested leaves. This observation might point to an aphid-mediated alteration of the phyllosphere ecology triggering the microbial uptake of NH4-N and SO4-S and its transformation to particulate N by magnified biomass growth of the phyllosphere microflora, consequently changing the chemical partitioning and temporal availability of nitrogen.

  5. Geographical characterization of the triatomine infestations in north-central Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, J; Juárez, J; Nakatsuji, K; Akiyama, T; Hernandez, G; Macal, R; Flores, C; Ortiz, M; Marroquín, L; Bamba, T; Wakai, S

    2005-04-01

    In an entomological study in 2002, the degree of domestic and peridomestic infestation with triatomine bugs and the geographical distribution of such infestations were investigated in north-central Guatemala. The survey team searched for triatomines in houses constructed with mud walls or thatched roofs, in villages suspected of being infested. The level of infestation observed was lower than that seen in the same area and in eastern Guatemala, in a preliminary survey, 3 years earlier. Most of the infestations detected were of Triatoma dimidiata but even this species was found in <7% of the houses investigated. Infestations with Rhodnius prolixus or other potential vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi were much rarer. The generally low levels of infestation make the elimination of R. prolixus and the reduction of the domestic population of Tri. dimidiata feasible in the study area. The southern part of the study area had higher levels of domestic infestation and colonization than the north, and peridomestic infestation was highest in the south-west. Given such geographical variation in the pattern of infestation, it would seem wise to stratify the study region into areas of high, moderate and low-risk of human-triatomine contact, so that appropriate vector-control strategies can be targeted at the worst-affected areas. Regular entomological surveillance, ideally with community participation, is recommended. Analysis of the relationship between the geographical patterns of infestation and factors such as vegetation, altitude and vector migration would be useful. PMID:15829138

  6. Biophoton Emission from Kidney Bean Leaf Infested with Tetranychus Kanzawai Kishida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Ryuzou; Uefune, Masayoshi; Miike, Tohru; Okabe, Hirotaka; Takabayashi, Junji; Takagi, Masami; Kai, Shoichi

    2004-08-01

    We studied spontaneous photon emission from kidney bean leaves infested with spider mites. Strong photon radiation was observed from the leaf veins where spider mites were crowding. Photon emission intensity increased with the decreases in chlorophyll content and photosynthesis yield; these decreases represented the degree of damage caused by the pest. When both infested and un-infested leaves were put on the same wet cotton, photon emission from the un-infested leaf increased, too. Photon emission from the un-infested leaf might be induced by an aqueous elicitor released from the infested leaf. Such an elicitor activates the plant defense response. Therefore, it is suggested that photon emission from an infested leaf conveys information on the direct injury (physical stresses) and physiological (biochemical) actions associated with the defensive response.

  7. Infestation of the clam Chione fluctifraga by the burrowing worm Polydora sp. nov. in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Tinoco-Orta, Gissel Dalila; Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge

    2003-07-01

    Burrowing worms that belong to Polydora spp. infest marine mollusks cultured worldwide, causing problems for production and marketing. The clam Chione fluctifraga is semi-cultured in Bahía Falsa, Baja California, NW Mexico, and some clams harbor burrowing worms. The present study was carried out to determine the identity of the worm species infesting the clam, the infesting process by cohabitation of infested and non-infested clams in aquaria with a variety of substrates (fine sand, gross sand, plastic bag used for clam culture, and aquarium without substrate) and turbulence conditions, and the occurrence of architomy phenomena in connection with infestation of the clam. The burrowing worm was considered as a nova species due to its singular limbate neurosetae and notosetae in the setiger 5, hooks in the setiger 6, eyes not present, and general pigmentation, among other characteristics. Infestation was similar in all substrates and turbulence conditions, but it was more abundant on clams previously infested than on those free of worms, showing a preferential settlement of worm infesting stages on pre-infested clams. Regeneration was observed in all segments of the worm: anterior (metastomium), medium, and posterior (prostomium); the complete regeneration time occurred in 40 days. This is the first record of architomy in a species of Polydora and this phenomenon could account for the increase of infestation intensity in pre-infested clams at the end of the study period. Infestation of clams by settling polichaete in the conditions studied, and the architomy process in this worm species, shows its great infesting capacity. PMID:12877826

  8. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    PubMed Central

    Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs’ abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human’s goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs’ behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs’ behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs’ neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human’s vocal communication and the presence

  9. Using dogs for tiger conservation and research.

    PubMed

    Kerley, Linda L

    2010-12-01

    This paper is a review of the history, development and efficacy of using dogs in wildlife studies and considers the use of dogs in the research and conservation of wild tigers (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758). Using scat detection dogs, scent-matching dogs, law enforcement detection dogs and protection dogs are proven methods that can be effectively used on tigers. These methods all take advantage of the dog's extremely evolved sense of smell that allows them to detect animals or animal byproducts (often the focus of tiger studies). Dogs can be trained to communicate this information to their handlers. PMID:21392356

  10. Spinosad for the treatment of head lice infestations.

    PubMed

    Villegas, S C

    2012-09-01

    Head lice infestations continue to be an issue in today's society, with an increase in economic cost and resistance. Spinosad 0.9% topical suspension was recently introduced in the U.S. market as a novel agent with both pediculicidal and ovicidal activity, approved in children 4 years of age and older for the treatment of head lice infestations. In clinical trials, it has demonstrated effectiveness against head lice with permethrin resistance. In two clinical trials comparing spinosad to permethrin, efficacy was observed in the spinosad-treated groups at 84.6% and 86.7%, respectively, when compared to the permethrin-treated groups (respective values of 44.9% and 42.9%; P < 0.001). Overall, spinosad was well tolerated in clinical trials. PMID:23032800

  11. Distribution pattern of phthirapterans infesting certain common Indian birds.

    PubMed

    Saxena, A K; Kumar, Sandeep; Gupta, Nidhi; Mitra, J D; Ali, S A; Srivastava, Roshni

    2007-08-01

    The prevalence and frequency distribution patterns of 10 phthirapteran species infesting house sparrows, Indian parakeets, common mynas, and white breasted kingfishers were recorded in the district of Rampur, India, during 2004-05. The sample mean abundances, mean intensities, range of infestations, variance to mean ratios, values of the exponent of the negative binomial distribution, and the indices of discrepancy were also computed. Frequency distribution patterns of all phthirapteran species were skewed, but the observed frequencies did not correspond to the negative binomial distribution. Thus, adult-nymph ratios varied in different species from 1:0.53 to 1:1.25. Sex ratios of different phthirapteran species ranged from 1:1.10 to 1:1.65 and were female biased. PMID:17918388

  12. Efficient detection of internal infestation in wheat based on biophotonics.

    PubMed

    Shi, Weiya; Jiao, Keke; Liang, Yitao; Wang, Feng

    2016-02-01

    In the process of grain storage, there are many losses of grain quantity and quality for the sake of insects. As a result, it is necessary to find a rapid and economical method for detecting insects in the grain. The paper innovatively proposes a model of detecting internal infestation in wheat by combining pattern recognition and BioPhoton Analytical Technology (BPAT). In this model, the spontaneous ultraweak photons emitted from normal and insect-contaminated wheat are firstly measured respectively. Then, position, distribution and morphological characteristics can be extracted from the measuring data to construct wheat feature vector. Backpropagation (BP) neural network based on genetic algorithm is employed to take decision on whether wheat kernel has contaminated by insects. The experimental results show that the proposed model can differentiate the normal wheat from the insect-contaminated one at an average accuracy of 95%. The model can also offer a novel thought for detecting internal infestation in the wheat. PMID:26774558

  13. Delusional infestation with unusual pathogens: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Dewan, P; Miller, J; Musters, C; Taylor, R E; Bewley, A P

    2011-10-01

    Delusional infestation (DI) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a fixed, false belief that the patient is infested with extracorporeal agents. It is known by several names, including the more commonly used term 'delusional parasitosis'. The psychiatric disease is responsible for the cutaneous pathology. About 90% of patients with DI seek help from dermatologists, and most reject psychiatric referral. Thus, effective management requires incorporation of psychiatric principles. We report three cases of DI with inanimate materials, and examine 'Morgellons' disease. We believe that patients with unusual presentations of DI are likely to be seen more commonly in the future. These patients appear to be a subgroup of DI, and may be even more difficult to treat than other patients with DI. PMID:21933231

  14. First report of an unclassified Demodex mite causing demodicosis in a Venezuelan dog.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, L; Medina, O C; García, M-E; García, H

    2007-09-01

    For the first time in Venezuela, a case of canine demodicosis apparently caused by a simultaneous infection with an unclassified Demodex and Demodex canis has been observed. The most severely affected area of the dog involved, a 3-month-old male Doberman Pinscher, was the head, particularly the peri-orbital skin. Skin samples of the affected areas were taken and evaluated by both light and scanning electron microscopy. The mites of the unclassified Demodex were smaller than those of D. canis and appeared relatively stout. In the skin scrapings, D. canis outnumbered the unclassified Demodex by a ratio of 30:1, making it unclear if the unclassified Demodex is pathogenic to dogs. A combination of superficial and deep skin scrapings, from a suspected case of demodicosis, may help to reveal other infestations of the unclassified Demodex that would otherwise be masked by concurrent infections with D. canis. PMID:17716436

  15. Characterization of ferritin 2 for the control of tick infestations.

    PubMed

    Hajdusek, Ondrej; Almazán, Consuelo; Loosova, Gabriela; Villar, Margarita; Canales, Mario; Grubhoffer, Libor; Kopacek, Petr; de la Fuente, José

    2010-04-01

    Ixodes ricinus is one the most abundant tick species in Europe and these ticks transmit pathogens causing human and animal diseases. The cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Development of vaccines directed against tick proteins may reduce tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne pathogens. However, a limiting step in tick vaccine development has been the identification of tick protective antigens. Herein, the tick iron metabolism pathway was targeted in an effort to identify new tick protective antigens. Recombinant I. ricinus (IrFER2) and Rhipicephalus microplus (RmFER2) ferritin 2 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and used to immunize rabbits and cattle, respectively. Vaccination with IrFER2 reduced I. ricinus tick numbers, weight and fertility in rabbits with an overall vaccine efficacy (E) of 98%. Control of cattle tick, R. microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus infestations was obtained in vaccinated cattle with overall E of 64% and 72%, respectively. Notably, the efficacy of the RmFER2 vaccine was similar to that obtained with Bm86 against R. microplus. These collective results demonstrated the feasibility of using ferritin 2 to develop vaccines for the control of tick infestations. PMID:20171306

  16. Effects of leafy spurge infestation on grassland birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheiman, D.M.; Bollinger, E.K.; Johnson, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    Grassland bird populations are declining. Invasive plant species may be contributing to these declines by altering habitat quality. However, the effects of invasive plants on grassland birds are largely unknown. Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an exotic, invasive weed in the northern Great Plains. We examined the effects of leafy spurge infestation on densities of breeding birds, nest-site selection, and nest success in grasslands on the Sheyenne National Grassland (SNG), North Dakota, USA, 1999-2000. We categorized spurge-infested grasslands into 3 groups (low, medium, high), based on the area covered by spurge patches. We surveyed 75 100-m-radius circular points (25 in each group), and searched for nests in 6 16-ha plots (2 in each group). Grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) and savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) densities were lower on high-spurge points than on low- and medium-spurge points. Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) and western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta) densities were not significantly different among spurge cover groups. Spurge cover did not appear to be an important factor in nest-site selection. However, western meadowlark nest success was positively associated with spurge cover. Vegetation structure is an important indicator of habitat quality and resource availability for grassland birds. Changes in vegetation structure caused by introduced plant species, such as spurge, can alter resource availability and hence affect bird community composition. Managers of spurge-infested grasslands should continue current spurge control measures to help prevent further declines in grassland habitat quality and grassland bird populations.

  17. Infestation and Hydraulic Consequences of Induced Carbon Starvation1

    PubMed Central

    Anderegg, William R.L.; Callaway, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Drought impacts on forests, including widespread die-off, are likely to increase with future climate change, although the physiological responses of trees to lethal drought are poorly understood. In particular, in situ examinations of carbon starvation and its interactions with and effects on infestation and hydraulic vulnerability are largely lacking. In this study, we conducted a controlled, in situ, repeated defoliation experiment to induce carbon stress in isolated trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) ramets. We monitored leaf morphology, leaves per branch, and multitissue carbohydrate concentrations during canopy defoliation. We examined the subsequent effects of defoliation and defoliation-induced carbon stress on vulnerability to insect/fungus infestation and hydraulic vulnerability the following year. Defoliated ramets flushed multiple canopies, which coincided with moderate drawdown of nonstructural carbohydrate reserves. Infestation frequency greatly increased and hydraulic conductivity decreased 1 year after defoliation. Despite incomplete carbohydrate drawdown from defoliation and relatively rapid carbohydrate recovery, suggesting considerable carbohydrate reserves in aspen, defoliation-induced carbon stress held significant consequences for vulnerability to mortality agents and hydraulic performance. Our results indicate that multiyear consequences of drought via feedbacks are likely important for understanding forests’ responses to drought and climate change over the coming decades. PMID:22665446

  18. Ascarid infestation in captive Siberian tigers in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhiwei; Liu, Shijie; Hou, Zhijun; Xing, Mingwei

    2016-08-15

    The Siberian tiger is endangered and is listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature; the captive environment is utilized to maintain Siberian tiger numbers. Little information regarding the prevalence of parasites in Siberian tigers is available. A total of 277 fecal samples of Siberian tigers were analyzed in this study. The microscopic analysis indicated the presence of ascarid eggs of Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara cati. The ascarid infection rate was 67.5% in Siberian tigers. The internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) phylogenetic analysis indicated that T. leonina belonged to Toxascaris and that Toxo. cati belonged to Toxocara. The infestation rate and intensity of T. leonina were higher than those of Toxo. cati. One-way analysis of variance showed that the presence of T. leonina was significantly associated with age (P<0.05). Temperature changes also influenced T. leonina and Toxo. cati infestation, and a rise in temperature caused an increase in the number of T. leonina and Toxo. cati eggs. This study provides a better understanding of ascarid infestation among the captive Siberian tigers and is helpful for the prevention of the spread of infectious parasitic diseases among other tigers in the zoo. PMID:27514888

  19. Collection Development "Dog Care & Training": The Well-Behaved Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpi, Kristine M.; Sherman, Barbara L.

    2008-01-01

    Dogs are indeed people's best friends. A majority of owners report that their dog is a "member of the family," and that acceptable canine behavior and optimal care are high priorities for them. The human-animal bond, the close connection between people and their pets, is forged by positive interactions, but unacceptable canine behaviors that…

  20. [Fighting dogs--dangerous dogs: legal situation in Bavaria].

    PubMed

    Breitsamer, F

    2001-03-01

    A report is given on eight years of experience with the Bavarian legal regulation for the protection against dangerous dogs of 10.7.1992. The implementation of the regulation was a success. Since then only two cases of biting accidents are reported. In one case the dogs were euthanatized, in the other case they were taken away and given to other owners. The advantages of the regulation are seen in the increased responsibility of the dog owner who has to give proof of the peaceful character of his dog in form of an expert testimony. This lowers the administration costs and has revealed a preventive effect, the dog owners are looking more carefully after their animals to avoid any security problems. PMID:11314462

  1. Study of the sustained speed of kill of the combination of fipronil/amitraz/(S)-methoprene and the combination of imidacloprid/permethrin against Dermacentor reticulatus, the European dog tick

    PubMed Central

    Fourie, J.J.; Beugnet, F.; Ollagnier, C.; Pollmeier, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    The sustained speed of kill against Dermacentor reticulatus of two topical combinations, one containing fipronil/amitraz/(S)-methoprene and the other, imidacloprid/permethrin, was evaluated in dogs. Two treated groups and one untreated control group of eight adult Beagle dogs each were randomly formed based on pre-infestation rates and bodyweight. Each treatment was administered topically once on Day 0, according to the recommended label dose and instructions for use. All dogs were infested with 50 adult unfed D. reticulatus starting on Day 1, then weekly, for a total of five weeks. While most studies determine tick efficacy at 48 hours (h), in this study, all remaining ticks were counted and categorized 24 h following each infestation. The numbers of ticks (living or dead) that remained attached on treated dogs were compared to those on the control animals. The percent reduction of attached ticks (disruption of attachment) at 24 h on dogs treated with fipronil/amitraz/(S)-methoprene remained above 92% for four weeks. The reduction of attached ticks at 24 h on dogs treated with imidacloprid/permethrin did not reach 80% during the entire study. The number of ticks attached at 24 h was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the fipronil/ amitraz/(S)-methoprene group than in the imidacloprid/permethrin group in assessments on Days 2, 15, 22, 29 and 36. When assessing efficacy based upon live ticks on treated versus control dogs, fipronil/amitraz/(S)-methoprene 24 h efficacy was above 95% for four weeks, decreasing to 77.8% at Day 36. The 24 h efficacy of imidacloprid/permethrin ranged from 56.2% to 86.7% through Day 29, never achieving 90% throughout the study. The 24-hour efficacy of fipronil/amitraz/(S)-methoprene was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than imidacloprid/permethrin at all time points, including Day 36. PMID:22091462

  2. Immune adaptive response induced by Bicotylophora trachinoti (Monogenea: Diclidophoridae) infestation in pompano Trachinotus marginatus (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Chaves, I S; Luvizzotto-Santos, R; Sampaio, L A N; Bianchini, A; Martínez, P E

    2006-09-01

    Fish have developed protective strategies against monogeneans through immunological responses. In this study, immune adaptive response to parasites was analysed in the pompano Trachinotus marginatus infested by Bicotylophora trachinoti. Hosts were pre-treated with formalin and after 10 days assigned to one of the following experimental treatments: (1) fish infested with remaining eggs of B. trachinoti; (2) fish infested with remaining eggs of B. trachinoti and experimentally re-infested by exposure to T. marginatus heavily infested with B. trachinoti. Samples were collected at 0, 15, and 30 days. Gills were dissected to check the presence of B. trachinoti. Blood was collected for haematological and biochemical assays. Spleen and head-kidney were dissected for phagocytosis assay. The spleen-somatic index was also calculated. Re-infested fish showed a faster and higher parasite infestation than infested ones. The parasite mean abundance at 15 days was 24.86+/-13.32 and 11.67+/-8.57 for re-infested and infested fish, respectively. In both groups, hosts showed an immune adaptive response to parasite infestation that was marked by an increased number of leukocytes. Also, phagocytosis (%) in spleen and head-kidney cells was stimulated after parasite infestation (92.50+/-3.73 and 66.00+/-9.54, respectively), becoming later depressed (77.39+/-6.69 and 53.23+/-9.14, respectively). These results support the hypothesis that monogenean infestation induces a biphasic response of the non-specific defence mechanisms in the pompano T. marginatus. This response is marked by an initial stimulation followed by a later depression of the non-specific defence mechanisms. PMID:16483796

  3. A serological and molecular survey of Babesia vogeli, Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia spp. among dogs in the state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Andréa Pereira; Costa, Francisco Borges; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Silveira, Iara; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Soares, João Fábio; Spolidorio, Mariana Granziera; Guerra, Rita de Maria Seabra Nogueira de Candanedo

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated exposure and infection by tick-borne agents (Babesia vogeli, Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia spp.) in 172 dogs in rural areas and 150 dogs in urban areas of the municipality of Chapadinha, state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil, using molecular and serological methods. Overall, 16.1% of the sampled dogs (52/322) were seroreactive to B. vogeli, with endpoint titers ranging from 40 to 640. For E. canis, 14.6% of the dogs (47/322) were seroreactive, with endpoint titers from 80 to 163,840. Antibodies reactive to at least one of the five species of Rickettsia were detected in 18.9% of the dogs (61/322), with endpoint titers ranging from 64 to 4,096. High endpoint titers were observed for Rickettsia amblyommii. Three (0.9%) and nine (2.8%) canine blood samples were PCR-positive for Babesia spp. and E. canis. The ticks collected from urban dogs were all Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, whereas the rural dogs were infested by R. sanguineus s.l, Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato and Amblyomma ovale. One A. ovale tick was found to be infected by Rickettsia bellii. This study provides an epidemiological background for controlling and preventing canine tick-borne diseases in a neglected region of Brazil. PMID:25909250

  4. Botulism in 2 urban dogs

    PubMed Central

    Uriarte, Ane; Thibaud, Jean-Laurent; Blot, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    Two dogs from the same owner were referred for ascending weakness and paresis of 2 to 3 days duration. Electromyography and electroneurography determined that there were normal F-waves, decreased compound action potential, and decreased activity on repetitive nerve stimulation. These findings were valuable in diagnosing botulism in the dogs. PMID:21197207

  5. Neuromuscular disease in a dog.

    PubMed

    Bors, M; Valentine, B A; de Lahunta, A

    1988-10-01

    Diffuse neuromuscular disease occurs sporadically in dogs. The most commonly reported diffuse neuromuscular diseases are polyradiculoneuritis (coonhound paralysis), tick paralysis, botulism, and myasthenia gravis (1,2,12). This clinical report describes an atypical presentation of a diffuse neuromuscular disease in a dog. PMID:3168469

  6. Nodular panniculitis in the dog.

    PubMed

    Baker, B B; Stannard, A A

    1975-10-15

    Nodular panniculitis, a granulomatous inflammatory disease of the subcutaneous fat, was diagnosed in 11 dogs. Clinically, the disease was characterized by development of subcutaneous nodules and intermittent fever and anorexia. Short-term corticosteroid therapy was effective in 10 of the 11 dogs. PMID:1237484

  7. Ureteral fibropapilloma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Hattel, A L; Diters, R W; Snavely, D A

    1986-04-15

    A fibropapilloma was found to involve the left ureter in a 7-year-old castrated male Doberman Pinscher dog. Severe unilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureter were associated with the ureteral mass. Treatment consisted of unilateral nephrectomy and ureterectomy. This case represents an additional type of primary ureteral neoplasm found in the dog. PMID:3710881

  8. Parasites in the Fossil Record: A Cretaceous Fauna with Isopod-Infested Decapod Crustaceans, Infestation Patterns through Time, and a New Ichnotaxon

    PubMed Central

    Klompmaker, Adiël A.; Artal, Pedro; van Bakel, Barry W. M.; Fraaije, René H. B.; Jagt, John W. M.

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are common in modern ecosystems and are also known from the fossil record. One of the best preserved and easily recognisable examples of parasitism in the fossil record concerns isopod-induced swellings in the branchial chamber of marine decapod crustaceans. However, very limited quantitative data on the variability of infestation percentages at the species, genus, and family levels are available. Here we provide this type of data for a mid-Cretaceous (upper Lower Cretaceous, upper Albian) reef setting at Koskobilo, northern Spain, on the basis of 874 specimens of anomurans and brachyurans. Thirty-seven specimens (4.2%), arranged in ten species, are infested. Anomurans are more heavily infested than brachyurans, variability can be high within genera, and a relationship may exist between the number of specimens and infestation percentage per taxon, possibly suggesting host-specificity. We have also investigated quantitative patterns of infestation through geological time based on 88 infested species (25 anomurans, 55 brachyurans, seven lobsters, and one shrimp), to show that the highest number of infested species can be found in the Late Jurassic, also when corrected for the unequal duration of epochs. The same Late Jurassic peak is observed for the percentage of infested decapod species per epoch. This acme is caused entirely by infested anomurans and brachyurans. Biases (taphonomic and otherwise) and causes of variability with regard to the Koskobilo assemblage and infestation patterns through time are discussed. Finally, a new ichnogenus and -species, Kanthyloma crusta, are erected to accommodate such swellings or embedment structures (bioclaustrations). PMID:24667587

  9. Retrobulbar chondrosarcoma in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Ralić, M.; Vasić, J.; Jovanović, M.; Cameron, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a review of a dog, with a retrobulbar chondrosarcoma, which was admitted for surgery for visible changes in his eye during inspection. Orbital neoplasia in dogs may be primary and secondary. Sixty percent of orbital neoplasia in dogs are primary, ninety percent of which are malignant. Retrobulbar neoplasms are rare and in their early stage represent a diagnostic challenge. Chondrosarcoma of the skull is a slow-progressing malignant disease which occurs locally, aggressive with invasion into the surrounding tissues. Dogs with chondrosarcoma of the skull have life expectancy between 210 and 580 days - in our case it was 180 days - after the first alterations on the eye of the dog occurred. PMID:26623338

  10. Ticks and associated pathogens collected from dogs and cats in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although Ixodes spp. are the most common ticks in North-Western Europe, recent reports indicated an expanding geographical distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus in Western Europe. Recently, the establishment of a D. reticulatus population in Belgium was described. D. reticulatus is an important vector of canine and equine babesiosis and can transmit several Rickettsia species, Coxiella burnetii and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), whilst Ixodes spp. are vectors of pathogens causing babesiosis, borreliosis, anaplasmosis, rickettsiosis and TBEV. Methods A survey was conducted in 2008-2009 to investigate the presence of different tick species and associated pathogens on dogs and cats in Belgium. Ticks were collected from dogs and cats in 75 veterinary practices, selected by stratified randomization. All collected ticks were morphologically determined and analysed for the presence of Babesia spp., Borrelia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia DNA. Results In total 2373 ticks were collected from 647 dogs and 506 cats. Ixodes ricinus (76.4%) and I. hexagonus (22.6%) were the predominant species. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.3%) and D. reticulatus (0.8%) were found in low numbers on dogs only. All dogs infested with R. sanguineus had a recent travel history, but D. reticulatus were collected from a dog without a history of travelling abroad. Of the collected Ixodes ticks, 19.5% were positive for A. phagocytophilum and 10.1% for Borrelia spp. (B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. burgdorferi s.s., B. lusitaniae, B. valaisiana and B. spielmanii). Rickettsia helvetica was found in 14.1% of Ixodes ticks. All Dermacentor ticks were negative for all the investigated pathogens, but one R. sanguineus tick was positive for Rickettsia massiliae. Conclusion D. reticulatus was confirmed to be present as an indigenous parasite in Belgium. B. lusitaniae and R. helvetica were detected in ticks in Belgium for the first time. PMID:23777784

  11. Rotary slot dog

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Smauley, David A.

    1987-01-01

    A clamp or dog is disclosed which preferably comprises a slotted stepped cylindrical body which is inserted into a hole in a workpiece and then fastened to a base or fixture using a screw which is inserted through the slot. The stepped configuration provides an annular clamping surface which securely clamps the workpiece against the base or fixture. The slotted cylindrical configuration permits adjustment of the workpiece and retaining clamp in any direction, i.e., over 360.degree., relative to the mounting position of the screw in the base or fixture.

  12. When You Meet a Dog Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrey, Pauline

    1994-01-01

    Tips are offered for use in an encounter with a dog guide and its blind owner. Tips include approaching the person from the right side, not taking hold of the dog guide's harness, not offering food to the dog guide, and not petting the dog guide without the owner's permission. (JDD)

  13. [Questionnaire on the incidence and control of fleas in dogs and cats presented to German small animal practices].

    PubMed

    Beck, Wieland; Pfister, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    2590 small animal practitioners in Germany have been asked by a questionnaire from which 1694 (65.4%) replied. 1186 of these veterinarians (70%) often see ectoparasite infestation. Fleas are predominant and occur on cats (1016/60%), followed by dogs (424/25%), small mammals and birds (254/15%). Flea infestations on dogs and cats are observed throughout the year, but the prevalences are generally higher during the summer season. The results reveal that topically administered spot-on formulations is the most popular method used for flea control. The most common applied antiparasitic substances both in dogs and in cats were fipronil (535/31.6%; 690/40.7%), imidacloprid (290/17.1%; 417/24.6%) and selamectin (267/15.8%; 319/18.8%). Due to 771 (45.5%) of the answering veterinarians the animal owner himself, and according 694 (41%) respectively 229 (13.5%) of the replies the veterinarian or the veterinary technician applies the antiparasiticide onto the skin. 1457 veterinarians (86%) administer compounds against adult fleas and their developmental stages also in the animal's environment. PMID:17009722

  14. Relationships between beak condition, preening behavior and ectoparasite infestation levels in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Vezzoli, Giuseppe; Mullens, Bradley A; Mench, Joy A

    2015-09-01

    The effects of beak condition on ectoparasite populations and preening in laying hens were investigated. Beak-trimmed and beak-intact caged Hy-Line W-36 hens were infested with either chicken body lice or northern fowl mites using a 2×2 factorial design with 4 replicate cages (each containing 2 hens)/treatment: 1) BTL: (beak-trimmed lice-infested); 2) BTM: (beak-trimmed mite-infested); 3) BIL: (beak-intact lice-infested); and 4) BIM: (beak-intact mite-infested). Mite scores and lice numbers were estimated weekly. Hens were video recorded the wk before infestation and at wk 6 and 9 post-infestation. Time spent preening on 6 body areas and in total were analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA. There was a wk×beak condition interaction for lice loads, with BTL harboring approximately 17 times more lice than BIL from wk 7 to 10 post-infestation (P<0.0001). Beak condition affected mite loads (P<0.0001), with BTM having a higher mite score (3.8±0.26) than BIM (1.4±0.26). At peak infestation, BTL spent more total time preening (P=0.02, s±SE: 232.1±37.6) than prior to infestation (33.9±37.6) and directed their preening behavior towards the vent. In contrast, BIL (73.9±37.6), BTM (9.4±1.6), and BIM (8.6±1.6) did not increase total time spent preening over pre-infestation levels (103.6±37.6, 5.8±1.6, 6.7±1.6 respectively), although BTM did redirect their preening behavior toward the vent. This study confirmed previous studies showing that an intact beak is important for reducing ectoparasite infestations. Preening behavior increased in response to lice infestation, but only in beak-trimmed hens; preening behavior and louse load were correlated at peak infestation. In contrast, mite infestation did not lead to increased preening, and there was no correlation between preening and mite load. However, both lice- and mite-infested hens directed preening behavior predominantly towards the vent where these parasites are typically found. PMID:26155987

  15. Pathogenesis-related proteins protect extrafloral nectar from microbial infestation.

    PubMed

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Eilmus, Sascha; Muck, Alexander; Svatos, Ales; Heil, Martin

    2009-05-01

    Plants in more than 300 genera produce extrafloral nectar (EFN) to attract carnivores as a means of indirect defence against herbivores. As EFN is secreted at nectaries that are not physically protected from the environment, and contains carbohydrates and amino acids, EFN must be protected from infestation by micro-organisms. We investigated the proteins and anti-microbial activity in the EFN of two Central American Acacia myrmecophytes (A. cornigera and A. hindsii) and two related non-myrmecophytes (A. farnesiana and Prosopis juliflora). Acacia myrmecophytes secrete EFN constitutively at high rates to nourish the ants inhabiting these plants as symbiotic mutualists, while non-myrmecophytes secrete EFN only in response to herbivore damage to attract non-symbiotic ants. Thus, the quality and anti-microbial protection of the EFN secreted by these two types of plants were likely to differ. Indeed, myrmecophyte EFN contained significantly more proteins than the EFN of non-myrmecophytes, and was protected effectively from microbial infestation. We found activity for three classes of pathogenesis-related (PR) enzymes: chitinase, beta-1,3-glucanase and peroxidase. Chitinases and beta-1,3-glucanases were significantly more active in myrmecophyte EFN, and chitinase at the concentrations found in myrmecophyte EFN significantly inhibited yeast growth. Of the 52 proteins found in A. cornigera EFN, 28 were annotated using nanoLC-MS/MS data, indicating that chitinases and glucanases contribute more than 50% of the total protein content in the EFN of this myrmecophyte. Our study demonstrates that PR enzymes play an important role in protecting EFN from microbial infestation. PMID:19143997

  16. Detecting insect infestation with poly3-hexylthiophenethin thin film sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerakoon, Kanchana; Li, Suiquing; Shu, Hungjen J.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2009-05-01

    The financial losses and destruction of crops due to insect infestation in the United States are estimated by the USDA to exceed 20 billion dollars annually. Much of these losses could be avoided by having a sensor that could effectively identify the early stages of insect infestation. However, traditional detection methods are time consuming, require trained personnel, and are not sufficient for early detection. Several previous research studies showed that emitting organic volatile compounds is a defensive mechanism activated by some plant species after being attacked by herbivores and parasites. Corn, cotton, pine, Brussels sprouts when attacked by Beet army worm, spider mites, bark beetles and caterpillars respectively, emits different blends of plant volatiles including γ-terpinene, α-pinene, p-cymene, farnesene, limonene and cis-hexenyl acetate, with a concentration of about 50 ppm. Therefore, monitoring for these volatile compounds may enable on-site early detection of insect infestations. In this study, a chemical resistor sensor to detect plant volatiles was designed and fabricated. The sensor platform consists of micro electronically fabricated interdigitated electrodes. On to this platform, a poly3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) thin film was deposited, using a spin coater at 8000 rpm for 30 seconds. The sensor was tested and found to be sensitive to a variety of plant volatiles, including γ-terpinene, α-pinene, p-cymene, farnesene, limonene and cis-hexenyl acetate at room temperature. These vapors interacted with the P3HT film causing an increase in the resistance of the sensor by more than one order of magnitude

  17. A survey of intestinal helminths of well-cared-for dogs in Jamaica, and their potential public health significance.

    PubMed

    Robinson, R D; Thompson, D L; Lindo, J F

    1989-03-01

    This study investigates the level of helminthic infestation in better-cared-for dogs in a middle-class community in suburban Kingston. A canine zoographic study was conducted, and fresh faecal deposits were collected and analysed for helminth life-cycle stages. The survey indicated that 73% (n = 93) of households in the study area owned one dog or more (mean = 1.4). Resident's attitudes towards canine management suggested that the dog population was, in general, restricted to the residential estate, and most owners claimed to have dewormed their dogs at least as young animals. Of 141 faecal specimens, 58% contained eggs or larvae of one or more of eight helminths: Uncinaria stenocephala (26%), Ancylostoma sp. (23%), Trichuris vulpis (9%), Toxocara canis (8%), Spirocerca lupi (6%), Strongyloides sp. (6%), Apophallus sp. (4%) and taeniids (1%). There was a high level of multiple infection in the host animals, with approximately one fifth of the infected samples containing three or more helminth types. Infection intensity was apparently low, but some dogs harboured heavy worm loads. PMID:2723384

  18. Phthriasis palpebrarum can resemble tick larva infestation in an eyelid.

    PubMed

    Dağdelen, Serkan; Aykan, Umit; Cetinkaya, Kubilay

    2013-08-01

    The similarities of the larval and nymph stages of the tick and louse (Pthirus pubis) may lead to misdiagnosis in rare cases of infestation of the eyelashes. The most frequent manifestations of tick in the eye are conjunctivitis, uveitis, keratitis, and vasculitis. Tick inoculation of the skin can locally lead to formation of granuloma and abscess. More concerning is the potential systemic sequelae that can result from transmission of zoonoses such as Lyme disease. P. pubis can cause pruritic eyelid margins or unusual blepharoconjunctivitis. We present a case of phthiriasis palpebrarum in a 4-year-old boy. PMID:23993722

  19. Unilateral cacosmia: a presentation of maxillary fungal infestation.

    PubMed

    Erskine, Sally E; Schelenz, Silke; Philpott, Carl M

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of long-standing unilateral cacosmia in a healthy 67-year-old man due to maxillary fungal infestation. Treatment with septoplasty had been attempted 10 years prior but no further investigation or management undertaken and symptoms continued. Subsequent MRI scan revealed significant opacification of the left maxillary sinus. This was readily amenable to treatment by balloon sinuplasty. This yielded viscous grey mucus which grew Scedosporium apiospermum. The case highlights the need for careful investigation of olfactory symptoms, including blood tests to exclude systemic causes, endoscopy and imaging where indicated. PMID:23563684

  20. Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F; Soares, Fábio Angelo M; Souza, Bruno O F; Valença, Raul Baltazar P; Sá, Fabrício B

    2008-01-01

    Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in the State of Pernambuco are reviewed, based on the current literature and new collections recently carried out by the authors. To date, three tick species have been found on amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco. Amblyomma fuscum appears to be exclusively associated with Boa constrictor, its type host. Amblyomma rotundatum has a relatively low host-specificity, being found on toads, snakes, and iguana. Amblyomma dissimile has been found on a lizard and also small mammals (i.e., rodents and marsupials). New tick-host associations and locality records are given. PMID:19265581

  1. Detection of greenbug infestation on wheat using ground-based radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhiming

    Scope of methods of study. The purpose of this greenhouse study was to characterize stress in wheat caused by greenbugs using ground-based radiometry. Experiments were conducted to (a) identify spectral bands and vegetation indices sensitive to greenbug infestation; (b) differentiate stress caused due to greenbugs from water stress; (c) examine the impacts of plant growth stage on detection of greenbug infestation; and (d) compare infestations due to greenbug and Russian wheat aphid. Wheat (variety-TAM 107) was planted (seed spacing 1 in. x 3 in.) in plastic flats with dimension 24 in. x 16 in. x 8.75 in. Fifteen days after sowing, wheat seedlings were infested with greenbugs (biotype-E). Nadir measurement of canopy reflectance started the day after infestation and lasted until most infested plants were dead. Using a 16-band Cropscan radiometer, spectral reflectance data were collected daily (between 13:00--14:00 hours) and 128 vegetation indices were derived in addition to greenbug counts per tiller. Using SAS PROC MIXED, sensitivity of band and vegetation indices was identified based on Threshold Day. Subsequent to Threshold Day there was a consistent significant spectral difference between control and infested plants. Sensitivity of band and vegetation indices was further examined using correlation and relative sensitivity analyses. Findings and conclusions. Results show that it is possible to detect greenbug-induced stress on wheat using hand-held radiometers, such as Cropscan. Band 694 nm and the ratio-based vegetation index (RVI) derived from the band 694 nm and 800 nm were identified as most sensitive to greenbug infestation. Landsat TM bands and their derived vegetation indices also show potential for detecting wheat stress caused by greenbug infestation. Also, RVIs particularly derived using spectral band 694 nm and 800 nm were found useful in differentiating greenbug infestation from water stress. Furthermore, vegetation indices such as Normalized total

  2. Scabies infestation: the effect of intervention by public health education.

    PubMed Central

    Reid, H. F.; Thorne, C. D.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of scabies in an infested village; to educate the residents on self-treatment and prevention by the use of 5% monosulfiram soap; to evaluate the short term effectiveness of this intervention by determining, 2 weeks later, the compliance to self-treatment and prevention; and to determine the prevalence rate on the second visit. In 59 households (96.7% of the village) containing 313 persons, an educational session was held and a leaflet distributed on the use and availability of the soap. Thirteen persons (4.2%) from eight households (13.6%) had scabies. After 2 weeks, 7 persons (2.2%) (2 persisting and 5 new cases) from 5 households (8.5%) were infested. Thus a cure rate of 85% was obtained though the prevalence rate showed no statistically significant difference. Among the under 15 year olds, the numbers infected decreased from 10 to 3 while among the over 15 years olds, the numbers infected increased from 3 to 4, neither reading significance at the 5% level. PMID:2249723

  3. Multiple parasitic crustacean infestation on belonid fish Strongylura strongylura

    PubMed Central

    Aneesh, Panakkool-Thamban; Sudha, Kappalli; Helna, Ameri Kottarathil; Anilkumar, Gopinathan; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Simultaneous multiple infestation of parasitic crustacean species involving a cymothoid isopod, Cymothoa frontalis Milne Edward, 1840 and four species of copepods such as Lernanthropus tylosuri Richiardi, 1880, Caligodes lacinatus Kroyer, 1863, Bomolochus bellones Burmeister, 1833 and Dermoergasilus coleus Cressey & Collette, 1970 was frequently noticed on spot-tail needlefish, Strongylura strongylura (Belonidae) captured from the Malabar coast (Kerala, India) during the period from April 2011 to March 2012. All the 43 fishes (Strongylura strongylura) collected, were under the hyper-infection with parasitic crustaceans; a total of 388 parasitic crustaceans including 57 Cymothoa frontalis, 252 Lernanthropus tylosuri, 31 Caligodes lacinatus, 24 Bomolochus bellones and 32 Dermoergasilus coleus were recovered from the host fish. 4 members (9.30%) of host fish were under quadruple parasitism, in two different combinations. Seventeen (39.53%) host fishes showed triple parasitism and 20 (46.51%) members exhibited double parasitism, with four and five parasitic combinations respectively. Remaining two (4.65%) fishes were parasitized only by the copepod, Lernanthropus tylosuri. The infestations by all recovered parasitic crustaceans were highly site specific. The damage caused by the parasitic crustaceans was also discussed. PMID:25561846

  4. Associations of wheat with pea can reduce aphid infestations.

    PubMed

    Lopes, T; Bodson, B; Francis, F

    2015-06-01

    Increasing plant diversity within crops can be beneficial for pest control. In this field study, the effects of two wheat and pea associations (mixed cropping and strip cropping) on aphid populations were compared with pure stands of both crops by observations on tillers and plants. Pea was more susceptible to infestations than wheat. As expected, the density of aphid colonies was significantly higher in pure stands during the main occurrence periods, compared with associations. Additionally, flying beneficials, such as not only aphidophagous adult ladybirds but also parasitoid, hoverfly and lacewing species that feed on aphids at the larval stage, were monitored using yellow pan traps. At specific times of the sampling season, ladybirds and hoverflies were significantly more abundant in the pure stand of pea and wheat, respectively, compared with associations. Few parasitoids and lacewings were trapped. This study showed that increasing plant diversity within crops by associating cultivated species can reduce aphid infestations, since host plants are more difficult to locate. However, additional methods are needed to attract more efficiently adult beneficials into wheat and pea associations. PMID:26013274

  5. Epidemiology of Pediculus humanus capitis infestation in Malaysian school children.

    PubMed

    Sinniah, B; Sinniah, D; Rajeswari, B

    1981-05-01

    A survey of 308,101 primary school children in Peninsular Malaysia conducted in 1979 by the School Health Services, Ministry of Health, Malaysia, revealed that 10.7% of children were infested with Pediculus humanus capitis. The prevalence rate was higher in the economically less advanced states of Terenganu (34%), Kelantan (23%), and Perlis (21%) than in the other states (4-13%). Of 14,233 school children examined in the State of Melaka, 26% of Indians, 18.7% of Malays, 6.1% of Europeans, and 0.7% of Chinese had pediculosis. The prevalence rate, which has remained unchanged over the past 5 years, does not appear to vary with age but is higher in children with long hair and those from the lower socioeconomic groups. Boys have a lower infestation rate than do girls. The higher incidence in Indians and Malays correlates well with their lower socioeconomic status in the community, and their cultural habit of maintaining longer hair than do the Chinese. The difference become less apparent in the higher socioeconomic groups. PMID:7258487

  6. Current Status of Mimosa pigra L. Infestation in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Mansor, Asyraf; Crawley, Micheal J.

    2011-01-01

    The status and distribution of Mimosa pigra L., a semi-aquatic invasive species in Peninsular Malaysia, were continuously assessed between 2004 and 2007. This assessment investigated its population stand density and related weed management activities. In total, 106 sites of 6 main habitat types i.e., construction site (CS), dam/ reservoir (DM), forest reserve (FR), plantation (PL), river bank/waterway (RB) and roadside (RD) were assessed, and 55 sites were recorded with M. pigra populations. A CS is the most likely habitat to be infested with M. pigra (16 out of 18 assessed sites have this weed), whereas none of the FR visited were found to harbour M. pigra. In terms of population stand density, 41 populations were in the low range of stand density (individual plant of ≤5 m−2), compared to only 9 populations in the high range of stand density (individual plant of >10 m−2). In general, the current impact of M. pigra infestation on natural habitats is relatively low, as its distribution is only confined to disturbed areas. However, continuous monitoring of this weed species is highly recommended, especially in the riparian zone and wetland habitats. PMID:24575208

  7. Infertility in the male dog.

    PubMed

    Wallace, M S

    1992-09-01

    The diagnosis and characterization of infertility in the male dog depends largely on the initial history and semen evaluation and on following the course of infertility over time. The diagnostic testing described here is helpful for guiding therapy, but the prognosis in serious cases of infertility is usually poor. Cases of subfertility that are not progressive have a better prognosis with optimal breeding management. Finally, the clinician should remember that some insults to the testes are reversible with time so it is important not to administer therapy that will interfere with the dog's ability to recover. Client education is an important part of the management of male dog infertility because it is not uncommon for various drugs to be administered by the breeder, or at the breeder's request, without a sufficient diagnostic work-up. In addition, errors of breeding management may play a role in male dog infertility or limit the success of treatment. PMID:1421819

  8. Pseudoketogenesis in hepatectomized dogs.

    PubMed

    Des Rosiers, C; Montgomery, J A; Garneau, M; David, F; Mamer, O A; Daloze, P; Toffolo, G; Cobelli, C; Landau, B R; Brunengraber, H

    1990-03-01

    Overestimation of ketone body turnover in vivo, measured by tracer kinetics, could occur if specific activity or molar percent enrichment is diluted in extrahepatic tissues by label exchange via reversal of 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase, a process we call pseudoketogenesis. To test this hypothesis, euglycemic hepatectomized dogs were injected with a bolus of acetoacetate (0.8 mmol/kg), 32% enriched in [3,4-13C2]acetoacetate. Concentrations and labeling patterns of blood acetoacetate and R-3-hydroxybutyrate were measured by selected ion-monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. During the 60 min after bolus injection of [3,4-13C2]acetoacetate, the molar percent enrichment of blood [3,4-13C2]acetoacetate decreased to 73 +/- 3% (n = 5) in controls and to 11.5 +/- 0.8% (n = 3) during infusion of dichloroacetate, an activator of pyruvate dehydrogenase. The enrichment of R-3-hydroxy-[3,4-13C2]butyrate followed closely that of [3,4-13C2]acetoacetate. These dilutions occurred despite a net uptake of ketone bodies. Concomitantly, 10.6 +/- 2.2 (n = 5) and 6.0 +/- 2.9% (n = 3) of [13C]acetoacetate molecules were labeled on all four carbons in control and dichloroacetate-treated dogs, respectively. This uniformly labeled acetoacetate arises from partial equilibration between [3,4-13C2]acetoacetate and [1,2-13C2]acetyl-CoA via the reactions catalyzed by 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase and acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase. Our data demonstrate the reversibility of the 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase in intact extrahepatic tissues and support the concept of pseudoketogenesis. This phenomenon has been quantitated by kinetic analysis of the data. PMID:2316645

  9. Cranial mediastinal carcinomas in nine dogs.

    PubMed

    Liptak, J M; Kamstock, D A; Dernell, W S; Ehrhart, E J; Rizzo, S A; Withrow, S J

    2008-03-01

    Nine dogs were diagnosed with cranial mediastinal carcinomas. Based on histological and immunohistochemical analysis, four dogs were diagnosed with ectopic follicular cell thyroid carcinomas, one dog with ectopic medullary cell thyroid carcinoma, two dogs with neuroendocrine carcinomas and two dogs with anaplastic carcinomas. Clinical signs and physical examination findings were associated with a space-occupying mass, although one dog was diagnosed with functional hyperthyroidism. Surgical resection was attempted in eight dogs. The cranial mediastinal mass was invasive either into the heart or into the cranial vena cava in three dogs. Resection was complete in six dogs and unresectable in two dogs. All dogs survived surgery, but four dogs developed pulmonary thromboembolism and two dogs died of respiratory complications postoperatively. Adjunctive therapies included pre-operative radiation therapy (n=1) and postoperative chemotherapy (n=3). Three dogs had metastasis at the time of diagnosis, but none developed metastasis following surgery. The overall median survival time was 243 days. Local invasion, pleural effusion and metastasis did not have a negative impact on survival time in this small case series. PMID:19178660

  10. Are dogs just like us?

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2015-08-31

    Dogs have evolved to become the animal species most integrated with human society. Surprisingly, the origins and mechanisms of the remarkable co-evolution are still obscure and provide fuel for debates. Brain imaging studies showing up similarities and recent results implicating the hormone oxytocin also suggest that it makes sense to compare the social mind of dogs to our own. Michael Gross reports. PMID:26561653

  11. Why do adult dogs 'play'?

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, John W S; Pullen, Anne J; Rooney, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Among the Carnivora, play behaviour is usually made up of motor patterns characteristic of predatory, agonistic and courtship behaviour. Domestic dogs are unusual in that play is routinely performed by adults, both socially, with conspecifics and with humans, and also asocially, with objects. This enhanced playfulness is commonly thought to be a side effect of paedomorphosis, the perpetuation of juvenile traits into adulthood, but here we suggest that the functions of the different types of play are sufficiently distinct that they are unlikely to have arisen through a single evolutionary mechanism. Solitary play with objects appears to be derived from predatory behaviour: preferred toys are those that can be dismembered, and a complex habituation-like feedback system inhibits play with objects that are resistant to alteration. Intraspecific social play is structurally different from interspecific play and may therefore be motivationally distinct and serve different goals; for example, dogs often compete over objects when playing with other dogs, but are usually more cooperative when the play partner is human. The majority of dogs do not seem to regard competitive games played with a human partner as "dominance" contests: rather, winning possession of objects during games appears to be simply rewarding. Play may be an important factor in sociality, since dogs are capable of extracting social information not only from games in which they participate, but also from games that they observe between third parties. We suggest that the domestic dog's characteristic playfulness in social contexts is an adaptive trait, selected during domestication to facilitate both training for specific purposes, and the formation of emotionally-based bonds between dog and owner. Play frequency and form may therefore be an indicator of the quality of dog-owner relationships. PMID:25251020

  12. Infestation of wild and ornamental non-crop fruits by Drosophila suzukii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii is a pest of small fruits and cherries, and has also been noted to infest a variety of wild, ornamental, and uncultivated hosts. Identifying alternative hosts is critical for pest management. Research objectives were to: 1) survey fruits in fields for natural infestation of D. ...

  13. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick...

  14. 76 FR 21613 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio...: Interim rule and request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the gypsy moth regulations by adding areas... areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. As a result of this...

  15. Detection of Mango Infested with Fruit Fly Eggs and Larvae by Infrared Imaging and Discriminant Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly infestation causes significant loss of perishable products around the world and is an economic threat to growers, processors, and exporters. A rapid, economical, and non-destructive technique for detection of fruit fly infestation is reported based on hyperspectral imaging and discriminant...

  16. Phytosanitary cold treatment for oranges infested with Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), attacks a wide range of tree fruits in countries from Egypt to Vietnam and is occasionally trapped in the US. Phytosanitary treatments are required to export fruit hosts of this insect from infested countries to non-infested countries where it might...

  17. Evaluating airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping saltcedar infestations in west Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rio Grande of west Texas contains by far the largest infestation of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in Texas. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different classification techniques for mapping saltcedar infestations. Hyperspectral imagery with 102 usable band...

  18. Using airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping saltcedar infestations in west Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rio Grande of west Texas contains, by far, the largest infestation of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in Texas. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different classification techniques for mapping saltcedar infestations. Hyperspectral imagery with 102 usable ba...

  19. Gas chromatography for detection of citrus infestation by fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are serious economic pests worldwide. As larvae, they feed and develop within the pulp of host fruits, making infestation difficult to detect by visual inspection. At U.S. ports of entry, incoming produce shipments are checked for infestation by manually cutting open a small ...

  20. Signature chemicals for detection of citrus infestation by fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are serious economic pests worldwide. As larvae, they feed and develop within the pulp of host fruits, making infestation difficult to detect by visual inspection. At U.S. Ports of entry, incoming produce shipments are checked for infestation by manually cutting open a small sa...

  1. Head lice predictors and infestation dynamics among primary school children in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Birkemoe, Tone; Lindstedt, Heidi Heggen; Ottesen, Preben; Soleng, Arnulf; Næss, Øyvind; Rukke, Bjørn Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background. Health providers need to know which measures to take and children to prioritize in order to decrease costs associated with head lice infestations. Objective. Our aim was to determine the most important predictors for head lice and identify the major drivers of an infestation outbreak in a low-prevalence area. Methods. The study was based on three datasets of head lice prevalence (retrospective, point prevalence and prospective approach) from primary school children (ages 6–12) at 12 schools in Oslo, Norway. The tested predictors were siblings with lice, individual and household characteristics as well as class and school affiliation. Self-reported monthly incidences (prospective approach) of head lice were used to evaluate infestation dynamics. Results. Infested siblings strongly increased the odds of head lice infestation of school children (odds ratio 36, 26 and 7 in the three datasets) whereas having short hair halved the odds. Household characteristics were of minor importance, and class affiliation proved more important than school affiliation. Having head lice in one school term increased the odds of an infestation in the next, but this effect diminished over time. About 97% of all self-reported infestations were noted in two consecutive months or less. Conclusions. With the exception of hair length, we have found that individual and household characteristics are of minor importance to predict head lice infestations in a low-prevalence country and that unnoticed transmissions in school classes and families are likely to be the major driver upon outbreaks. PMID:26511728

  2. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using a hyperspectral reflectance/transmittance imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled cucumber products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, whic...

  3. Effects of Intensive Forest Management Practices on Insect Infestation Levels and Loblolly Pine Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, J.T.; Berisford, C.W.

    2000-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between intensive management practices and insect infestation, maximum growth potential studies of loblolly pine over four years using different levels of cultural treatments. Results indicate tree fertilization can increase coneworm infestation and demonstrated that tip moth management can improve initial tree growth.

  4. Detection of Fruit Fly Infestation in Pickling Cucumbers using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labo...

  5. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick...

  6. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick...

  7. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick...

  8. Effects of azadirachtin on Ctenocephalides felis in the dog and the cat.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, V H; Kriticos, C M

    1998-01-31

    Azadirachtin-containing neem seed extract is a powerful insect growth regulator, a feeding deterrent and repellent with low toxicity. Unfortunately, azadirachtin degrades rapidly in light, excessive heat or alkalinity. Evaluations of azadirachtin on ectoparasites on animals have been scarce. The purpose of this work was to describe the effects of normal and potentiated azadirachtin on Ctenocephalides felis in the dog or cat. Groups of kennelled greyhounds and domestic cats infested with C. felis were sprayed once with azadirachtin containing neem seed extract with or without diethyltoluamide (Deet) and/or citronella. Methanolic extracts with 200, 1000 or 2400 ppm azadirachtin reduced fleas in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with fleas counted on treated dogs just before treatment and untreated infested dogs, 1000-2400 ppm azadirachtin reduced fleas 93-53% for 19 days. However, combined with 500 ppm Deet and 33% w/v citronella, only 500 ppm azadirachtin reduced fleas 95-62% for 20 days. On cats inoculated with 50 fleas 2 days before treatment, the combination reduced fleas and eggs 100% to day 6 and 83-51% from day 7 to 9. On petri dishes, the combination achieved 100% egg mortality up to day 7 and 80% to day 14 and 48-52% to days 21-28. Deet, with or without neem seed extract or citronella, and citronella, with or without neem, did not reduce fleas significantly. The results show that azadirachtin reduced fleas in a dose-dependent manner in flea-contaminated environments. In cats, the combination killed most fleas within 24 h, providing effective flea control for 7 days. The results suggest that Deet with citronella potentiated the effect of azadirachtin on C. felis. PMID:9561713

  9. Hydrated nucleus pulposus herniation in seven dogs.

    PubMed

    Manunta, M L; Evangelisti, M A; Bergknut, N; Grinwis, G C M; Ballocco, I; Meij, B P

    2015-03-01

    The clinical signs, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, treatment and follow-up in seven dogs with hydrated nucleus pulposus extrusion (HNPE) are reported. All dogs had tetraparesis or tetraplegia. T2-weighted MRI revealed extradural hyperintense homogeneous material compressing the cervical spinal cord. After conservative treatment (five dogs) or surgical decompression (two dogs), all dogs returned to ambulatory function within 1 month. Follow-up MRI in conservatively treated dogs revealed complete disappearance of the extruded material. Histopathological examination of surgical specimens confirmed that the retrieved material was extruded nucleus pulposus with evidence of early degeneration. PMID:25599897

  10. Molecular detection and characterization of Anaplasma platys in dogs and ticks in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Silva, Claudia Bezerra da; Santos, Huarrisson Azevedo; Navarrete, Maylín González; Ribeiro, Carla Carolina Dias Uzedo; Gonzalez, Belkis Corona; Zaldivar, Maykelin Fuentes; Pires, Marcus Sandes; Peckle, Maristela; Costa, Renata Lins da; Vitari, Gabriela Lopes Vivas; Massard, Carlos Luiz

    2016-07-01

    Canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, an infectious disease caused by Anaplasma platys is a worldwide dog health problem. This study aimed to detect and characterize A. platys deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in dogs and ticks from Cuba using molecular methods. The study was conducted in four cities of Cuba (Habana del Este, Boyeros, Cotorro and San José de las Lajas). Blood samples were collected from 100 dogs in these cities. The animals were inspected for the detection of tick infestation and specimens were collected. Genomic DNA was extracted from dog blood and ticks using a commercial kit. Genomic DNA samples from blood and ticks were tested by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) to amplify 678 base pairs (bp) from the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of A. platys. Positive samples in nPCR were also subjected to PCR to amplify a fragment of 580bp from the citrate synthase (gltA) gene and the products were sequenced. Only Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) was found on dogs, and 10.20% (n=5/49) of these ticks plus sixteen percent (16.0%, n=16/100) of dogs were considered positive for A. platys by nPCR targeting the 16S rDNA gene. All analyzed gltA and 16S rDNA sequences showed a 99-100% identity with sequences of A. platys reported in around the world. Phylogenetic analysis showed two defined clusters for the 16S rDNA gene and three defined clusters for the gltA gene. Based on the gltA gene, the deduced amino acid sequence showed two mutations at positions 88 and 168 compared with the sequence DQ525687 (GenBank ID from Italian sample), used as a reference in the alignment. A preliminary study on the epidemiological aspects associated with infection by A. platys showed no statistical association with the variables studied (p>0.05). This is the first evidence of the presence of A. platys in dogs and ticks in Cuba. Further studies are needed to evaluate the epidemiological aspects of A. platys infection in Cuban dogs. PMID:27132516

  11. Neural correlates of delusional infestation responding to aripiprazole monotherapy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ponson, Laura; Andersson, Frédéric; El-Hage, Wissam

    2015-01-01

    Background The pathophysiology and appropriate pharmacological interventions for delusional infestation remain unknown. Case presentation Here, we report a case of primary delusional infestation successfully treated with aripiprazole. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain structures and functional modifications. Before antipsychotic treatment, pre- versus post-treatment fMRI images revealed a marked increase in brain activation in the supplementary motor area (SMA). Conclusion Our results highlight the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of delusional infestation and the possible role of SMA dysfunction in delusional infestation. Indeed, our results suggest that psychiatric improvement of delusional infestation is associated with normalization of brain activity, particularly in the SMA. PMID:25673993

  12. Effects of the Briarosaccus callosus infestation on the commercial golden king crab Lithodes aequispina.

    PubMed

    Shukalyuk, Andrey I; Isaeva, Valeria V; Pushchin, Igor I; Dolganov, Sergey M

    2005-12-01

    Commercial crab populations off the Kamchatka coasts are infested to a considerable degree by the rhizocephalan parasite Briarosaccus callosus: of 769 Lithodes aequispina males examined, 43 (5.7%) were parasitized. Infestations result in the feminization of the crabs, a significant decrease in the cheliped length, and a significant decrease in the carapace length and width. We suggest that commercial selection of healthy males, and the returning of unsuitable crabs, including infested ones, back into the sea, results in an increase of the proportion of infested crabs in the population, their elimination from reproduction, and, eventually, the gradual degradation of a whole population. To minimize as far as possible the negative effects of commercial crab harvesting, all infested crab specimens caught must be destroyed, either aboard or elsewhere, instead of throwing them back into the sea. PMID:16539043

  13. Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore

    FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.

  14. A Molecular Survey of Rickettsia felis in Fleas from Cats and Dogs in Sicily (Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Giudice, Elisabetta; Di Pietro, Simona; Alaimo, Antonio; Blanda, Valeria; Lelli, Rossella; Francaviglia, Francesco; Caracappa, Santo; Torina, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Rickettsia felis, the agent of flea-borne spotted fever, has a cosmopolitan distribution. Its pathogenic role in humans has been demonstrated through molecular and serologic tests in several cases. The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is considered the main reservoir and the biological vector. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and occurrence of R. felis in fleas collected from dogs and cats in various sites of Palermo (Sicily). Between August and October 2012, 134 fleas were collected from 42 animals: 37 fleas from 13 dogs and 97 fleas from 29 cats. Two species of fleas were identified: 132 Ctenocephalides felis (98.51%) collected on all animals and only two C. canis (1.49%) on one dog. Out of 132 C. felis, 34 (25.76%), 12 from dogs (32.43%) and 22 (22.68%) from cats, were positive for R. felis DNA by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), confirmed by sequencing. The only two C. canis fleas were negative. About half of examined animals (47.62%, 20/42) were infested with at least one infected flea; in particular 46.15% of dogs (6/13) and 48.28% of cats (14/29). It seems that in the Palermo district there is a peri-domestic cycle, with a relatively high prevalence of R. felis infection in the cat flea, an insect widely diffused in home environments and which can frequently bite humans. The results also suggest that R. felis should be considered in the human differential diagnosis of any spotted-like fever or febrile illness without a clear source of infection in Sicily, especially if the patient is known to have been exposed to flea bites. PMID:25203839

  15. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from any region of...) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a full-time salaried veterinary official of...

  16. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola... applicable requirements of this part: (1) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a...

  17. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola... applicable requirements of this part: (1) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a...

  18. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from any region of...) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a full-time salaried veterinary official of...

  19. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola... applicable requirements of this part: (1) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a...

  20. Sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor analysis of Demodex infestation (Acari: Demodicidae)*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ya-e; Guo, Na; Xun, Meng; Xu, Ji-ru; Wang, Mei; Wang, Duo-lao

    2011-01-01

    To identify sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor of Demodex infestation, 756 students aged 13–22 years in Xi’an, China were sampled for the school-based cross-sectional study. Demodex was examined using the cellophane tape method (CTP). The results showed that the total detection rate of Demodex was 67.6%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that five variables (gender, residence, sharing sanitary ware, frequency of face-wash per day, and use of facial cleanser) were found to be uncorrelated with Demodex infestation, whereas three variables (age, skin type, and skin disease) were found to be independent correlates. Students aged over 18 years had 22.1 times higher odds of Demodex infestation compared to those under 16 years and students aged 16–18 years also had 2.1 times higher odds compared to those aged 13–15 years. Odds of having a Demodex infestation for oily or mixed skin were 2.1 times those for dry or neutral skin. Students with a facial skin disease had 3.0 times higher odds of being infested with Demodex compared to those without. The inception rate of students with facial dermatoses increased in parallel with increasing mite count. The inception rates were 21.3%, 40.7%, 59.2%, and 67.7% in the negative, mild, moderate, and severe infestation groups, respectively (χ 2=60.6, P<0.001). Specifically, the amount of infested mites and inception rate of acne vulgaris were positively correlated (R 2=0.57, moderate infestation odds ratio (OR)=7.1, severe infestation OR=10.3). It was concluded that Demodex prevalence increases with age, and Demodex presents in nearly all adult human. Sebaceous hyperplasia with oily or mixed skin seems to favour Demodex proliferation. Demodex infestation could be associated with acne vulgaris. The CTP is a good sampling method for studies of Demodex prevalence. PMID:22135149

  1. Bark beetle and wood borer infestation in the greater Yellowstone area during four postfire years. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, L.A.; Amman, G.D.; Vandygriff, J.C.; Oakes, R.D.; Munson, A.S.

    1996-03-01

    Surveys of bark beetle and wood borer infestation in the Greater Yellowstone Area were conducted from 1991 through 1993 to determine the effect of delayed tree mortality on mosaics of fire-killed and green tree stands, the relationship between fire injury and infestation, but both types of mortality greatly altered the mosaics immediately apparent after the 1988 fires. The high level of infestation suggests that insects built up in fire-injured trees and then caused increased infestation of uninjured trees.

  2. Stress response of Salmo salar (Linnaeus 1758) when heavily infested by Caligus rogercresseyi (Boxshall & Bravo 2000) copepodids.

    PubMed

    González, Margarita P; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Marín, Sandra L

    2016-02-01

    The year-round presence of ovigerous females of the parasite Caligus rogercresseyi in the fish farms of southern Chile results in a continuous source of the copepodid (infestive) stage of this louse. The short generation time in spring-summer could lead to high abundances of this copepodid, potentially leading to high infestation levels for fish. Knowing how heavy lice infestations affect Salmo salar can help determine how to time antiparasitic treatments so as to both minimize the treatment impact and reduce lice infestation levels for fish. This study aimed to describe the effects of high infestations of the copepodid stage of C. rogercresseyi on the physiology of S. salar. Two groups of S. salar were used: an infested group (75 copepodids per fish) and a control group (not infested). Sixty-five days after the first infestation, the infested fish group was re-infested at an infestation pressure of 200 copepodids per fish. Sampling was done prior to and following the second infestation, at 56 and 67 days (the latter 2 days following the second infestation). Several physiological variables were measured: cortisol (primary stress response) and glucose, proteins, amino acids, triglycerides, lactate, osmolality levels, and number and diameter of skin mucous cells (secondary stress responses). The plasma cortisol, glucose, and triglyceride levels were altered in the heavily infested fish, as was the diameter of skin mucous cells. These results suggest that heavy infestations of C. rogercresseyi lead to an acute stress response, metabolic reorganization, and increased mucus production in S. salar under heavy infestation conditions. PMID:26394864

  3. [Dangerous dogs in Berlin in comparison to the dog population--ways to reduce the dangerousness of dogs].

    PubMed

    Kuhne, Franziska; Struwe, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The law for handling and control of dogs in Berlin of September 29, 2004 was enacted to prevent the risks for humans and animals when ever they have contact with dogs. "Dangerous dogs" are defined by this law. There are 10 breeds of dogs supposed to be dangerous due to specific characteristics of their breed ("listed breeds"). The dangerousness of a dog's breed is not identical with the dangerousness of an individual dog. The subject of this study is to examine the potential dangerousness of dog breeds and not the individual dangerousness of a dog. This study refers to statistics of incidents between dogs and humans in Berlin for the years 1998 to 2004. The population density of a breed is based on the dogs assessed for tax purposes in Berlin of January 1, 2005 and on the dog registrations maintained at veterinary hospitals. The fourfold-table-test was used to compare the quantity of the recorded incidents of two statistically independent dog breeds. Of the total population of 107,804 tax assessed dogs in Berlin in 2004, 0.9% was documented as dogs involved in incidents with humans. The incidents per year decreased in the "listed breeds"about 68% and in the "unlisted breeds" about 41% during the last 7 years in Berlin. Therefore, the probability (the odds ratio) of a breed to be conspicuous was analysed. The values for the calculation of this probability were the number of dogs of a breed having been involved in incidents compared to the population of this breed based on tax records. The comparison of the probability of a breed with another to be conspicuous was used to compile a cluster of breeds which had the same probability to be conspicuous in 2004. A cluster was assessed for dogs of the following breeds: Sheep dogs, Rottweiler, Doberman, Pitbull Terrier and American Staffordshire Terrier. A listing of breeds is not the right way to reduce the potential dangerousness of a dog, especially in the private domain of their owners. Most incidents with dogs occur in

  4. External Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by a Rare Infesting Larva, Sarcophaga argyrostoma

    PubMed Central

    Graffi, Shmuel; Peretz, Avi; Wilamowski, Amos; Schnur, Heather; Akad, Fouad; Naftali, Modi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. External ophthalmomyiasis (EO) is caused by infesting larvae belonging to various species of flies. Most documented cases result from sheep (Oestrus ovis) and Russian (Rhinoestrus purpureus) botfly larvae, but we recently discovered a rare case of EO caused by flesh fly (Sarcophaga argyrostoma) larvae. Here, we report the case of a patient with EO who had been hospitalized and sedated for 1 week because of unrelated pneumonia. Methods. Case report. Results. A total of 32 larvae were removed from the adnexae of both eyes. Larvae identification was confirmed through DNA analysis. Treatment with topical tobramycin resulted in complete resolution of EO. Conclusion. EO can be caused by S. argyrostoma, and the elderly and debilitated may require extra ocular protection against flies during sedation. PMID:24455366

  5. Optimum survival strategies against zombie infestations - a population dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota, Bruno

    2014-03-01

    We model a zombie infestation by three coupled ODEs that jointly describe the time evolution of three populations: regular humans, zombies, and survivors (humans that have survived at least one zombie encounter). This can be generalized to take into account more levels of expertise and/or skill degradation. We compute the fixed points, and stability thereof, that correspond to one of three possible outcomes: human extinction, zombie extermination or, if one allows for a human non-zero birth-rate, co-habitation. We obtain analytically the optimum strategy for humans in terms of the model's parameters (essentially, whether to flee and hide, or fight). Zombies notwithstanding, this can also be seen as a toy model for infections of immune system cells, such as CD4+ T cells in AIDS, and macrophages in tuberculosis, whereby cells are both the target of infection, and mediate the acquired immunity response against the same infection. I thank FAPERJ for financial support.

  6. Tick Infestation of the Eyelid With Histopathologic Characterization.

    PubMed

    Rai, Ruju; Yoon, Michael K; Stacy, Rebecca C

    2016-01-01

    Ocular tick infestation is a rare occurrence. The authors report a case that is unique for being the first published example from New England, for its chronic presentation, and for the inclusion of histopathologic analysis in its diagnostic workup. A 75-year-old man was evaluated for a persistent eyelid growth secondary to an incompletely removed tick that had attached 6 months earlier. The lesion was completely excised, and a partially destroyed arthropod was observed embedded within the tissue. Light microscopy demonstrated a mixed granulomatous reaction. Given the disruption of the tick's anatomy, speciation could not be performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery. A corresponding review of tick bites to the eye is provided. PMID:25025390

  7. Reflectance confocal microscopy for cutaneous infections and infestations.

    PubMed

    Cinotti, E; Perrot, J L; Labeille, B; Cambazard, F

    2016-05-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a high-resolution emerging imaging technique that allows non-invasive diagnosis of several cutaneous disorders. A systematic review of the literature on the use of RCM for the study of infections and infestations has been performed to evaluate the current use of this technique and its possible future applications in this field. RCM is particularly suitable for the identification of Sarcoptes scabies, Demodex folliculorum, Ixodes, Dermatophytes and Candida species in the clinical practice and for the follow-up after treatment. The cytopathic effect of herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus and molluscipoxvirus is also detectable by this imaging technique even in a pre-vesicular stage. In addition, thanks to its non-invasiveness, RCM allows pathophysiological studies. PMID:26387660

  8. Assisting Handlers Following Attacks on Dog Guides: Implications for Dog Guide Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godley, Cheryl A.; Gillard, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    Attacks by dogs on dog guides are traumatic for dog guide teams. One variable that affects a team's recovery is how handlers cope with emotional responses to the attack. This article presents a three-stage model for assisting handlers that is useful for handlers and dog guide instructors.

  9. Detection of fruit-fly infestation in olives using X-ray imaging: Algorithm development and prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An algorithm using a Bayesian classifier was developed to automatically detect olive fruit fly infestations in x-ray images of olives. The data set consisted of 249 olives with various degrees of infestation and 161 non-infested olives. Each olive was x-rayed on film and digital images were acquired...

  10. 9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. 72.23 Section 72.23 Animals... vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. Cars or others vehicles which have carried cattle exposed to or infested with ticks within the...

  11. Plasma Creatinine Clearance in the Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Loy W.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and methods for an experiment that demonstrates the concept of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using anesthesized dogs. In the dog, GFR is equivalent to the renal plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine. (CS)

  12. Extradural spinal synovial cysts in nine dogs.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, P J; Sturges, B K; Berry, W L; Vernau, K M; Koblik, P D; Lecouteur, R A

    2001-10-01

    Nine dogs presenting for investigation of cervical or thoracolumbar myelopathies were diagnosed with extradural spinal synovial cysts. Degenerative disease affecting the articular facets or intervertebral discs was present on plain spinal radiographs in all cases. Myelography was consistent with dorsolateral, extradural spinal cord compression. Two groups of dogs were identified: (1) young, giant breed dogs with multiple cysts involving one or more levels of the cervical spinal cord; and (2) older, large breed dogs with solitary cysts involving the thoracolumbar spinal cord. The synovial cysts constituted the major compressive lesions in four of the dogs. Analysis of lumbar cerebrospinal fluid demonstrated albuminocytological dissociation, consistent with chronic compressive myelopathy, in six dogs. All dogs underwent decompressive surgery and the diagnosis of synovial cysts was confirmed histologically. The mean follow-up period was 17 months (range four to 36 months). At the time of follow-up, all dogs were fully ambulatory with improved neurological function compared with that at initial presentation. PMID:11688527

  13. Military Dog Training for Law Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwell, Lou E.

    1977-01-01

    Describes five courses involved in the intensive training that dogs and their handlers go through in the Military Dog Studies Branch at Lackland Air Force Base (San Antonio, Texas) in preparation for duties in law enforcement. (HD)

  14. Dog allergen levels in homes with hypoallergenic compared with nonhypoallergenic dogs

    PubMed Central

    Wegienka, Ganesa R.; Havstad, Suzanne L.; Zoratti, Edward M.; Ownby, Dennis R.; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite the public interest in hypoallergenic dogs, few scientific, including epidemiological studies have attempted to evaluate claims of hypoallergenicity. This study was designed to determine whether dog breeds reported as hypoallergenic correspond to lower dog allergen in the home versus nonhypoallergenic dogs. Methods: A web search was conducted to identify breeds cited as hypoallergenic. Four separate classification schemes using combinations of purebred and mixed breed dogs were used to compare the levels of Canis familiaris 1 in dust samples collected from homes with hypoallergenic versus nonhypoallergenic dogs from an established birth cohort. Results: No classification scheme showed that the level of dog allergen in homes with hypoallergenic dogs differed from other homes. Conclusion: Dog-allergic individuals should have access to scientifically valid information on the level of allergen shedding of different breeds of dogs. PMID:21819763

  15. DNA testing and domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Mellersh, Cathryn

    2012-02-01

    There are currently about 80 different DNA tests available for mutations that are associated with inherited disease in the domestic dog, and as the tools available with which to dissect the canine genome become increasingly sophisticated, this number can be expected to rise dramatically over the next few years. With unrelenting media pressure focused firmly on the health of the purebred domestic dog, veterinarians and dog breeders are turning increasingly to DNA tests to ensure the health of their dogs. It is ultimately the responsibility of the scientists who identify disease-associated genetic variants to make sensible choices about which discoveries are appropriate to develop into commercially available DNA tests for the lay dog breeder, who needs to balance the need to improve the genetic health of their breed with the need to maintain genetic diversity. This review discusses some of the factors that should be considered along the route from mutation discovery to DNA test and some representative examples of DNA tests currently available. PMID:22071879

  16. Studies on host resistance to tick infestations among trypanotolerant Bos indicus cattle breeds in east Africa.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, E K; Stevenson, P; Ndung'U, J M; Stear, M J; Reid, S W; Gettinby, G; Murray, M

    1998-06-29

    Recent epidemiological studies carried out in East Africa have indicated that some Bos indicus cattle breeds such as the Orma Boran and Maasai Zebu have a degree of trypanotolerance worth exploitation by their introduction into trypanosomosis endemic areas where other cattle breeds cannot survive. However, in most areas of East Africa, trypanosomosis, ticks, and tick-borne diseases occur together. It is therefore important to obtain information on the susceptibility of these breeds to tick infestation and tick-borne diseases. This study was therefore designed to determine the susceptibility of these cattle breeds to tick infestations. They were compared with the Galana Boran (trypanosusceptible) and the Friesian (susceptible to tick infestations, tick-borne diseases, and trypanosomosis). The four breeds of cattle were exposed to natural tick challenge for a period of seven months and whole body weekly tick counts were done on each animal. Significant differences to tick infestations among the four breeds were observed. For both Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Boophilus decoloratus, susceptibility to infestation increased in the order, Maasai Zebu, Orma Boran, Galana Boran and Friesian. The results generated by this pilot study so far suggest that variation in susceptibility to tick infestations exists among the four breeds. The Orma Boran and Maasai Zebu showed greater resistance to tick-infestations than the Galana Boran and Friesian. This suggests that utilization of these trypanotolerant cattle breeds could be feasible even in the face of tick challenge and should therefore be considered when planning integrated trypanosomosis and tick control strategies. PMID:9668465

  17. Acute impacts of the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) infestation on reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kynkäänniemi, Sanna-Mari; Kettu, Maria; Kortet, Raine; Härkönen, Laura; Kaitala, Arja; Paakkonen, Tommi; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Nieminen, Petteri; Härkönen, Sauli; Ylönen, Hannu; Laaksonen, Sauli

    2014-04-01

    Blood-sucking ectoparasites have often a strong impact on the behaviour of their hosts. The annual insect harassment of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) has increased in the southern part of the Finnish reindeer herding area because of the recent invasion of a blood-feeding ectoparasitic louse-fly, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi). We studied the impact of the deer ked on the behaviour of reindeer. Twelve reindeer were infested with a total of 300 keds/reindeer on six occasions in a 5-week period during the deer ked flight season in autumn, while six non-infested reindeer were used as controls. Behavioural patterns indicating potential stress were monitored by visual observation from August to December. The infested reindeer displayed more incidences of restless behaviour than the controls. Shaking and scratching were the most common forms of restless behaviour after infestation of deer keds. Increased grooming was also observed after the transplantation and also later, 1 month after the infestation. Based on the results, the deer ked infestation can cause acute behavioural disturbance in reindeer and, thus, could pose a potential threat to reindeer welfare. Antiparasitic treatment with, e.g. ivermectin, may increase the welfare of parasitized reindeer by reducing deer keds. If the deer ked infestation intensity on the reindeer herding area increases and restless behaviour of reindeer becomes more common, the present results can help in further evaluation of the duration and magnitude of behavioural changes. PMID:24562815

  18. Oviposition behavior of the wheat stem sawfly when encountering plants infested with cryptic conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Buteler, Micaela; Weaver, David K; Peterson, Robert K D

    2009-12-01

    Insect herbivores typically oviposit on the most suitable hosts, but choices can be modulated by detection of potential competition among conspecifics, especially when eggs are deposited cryptically. Larvae of the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton, developing within an already infested stem, experience elevated risk when only one will survive because of cannibalism. To increase our understanding of host selection when the choices made by females can lead to severe intraspecific competition, females were presented with either uninfested wheat plants or with plants previously exposed to other females in laboratory choice tests. The oviposition behavior of this insect was described by recording the behavioral sequences that lead to and follow the insertion of the ovipositor in both previously infested and uninfested stems. No significant differences were found in frequencies of specific behaviors or behavioral transitions associated with oviposition. In choice tests, there was no difference in the numbers of eggs laid in infested and uninfested plants. Taller plants received more eggs, irrespective of infestation. Females neither preferred nor avoided previously infested hosts. Other characteristics of the host, such as stem height, may be more important in determining suitability for oviposition. These findings support the use of management tactics relying on the manipulation of oviposition behavior, such as trap cropping. Given that there is no evidence for response to previously infested hosts, the infested plants in a trap crop would remain as suitable as they were when uninfested, which could also lead to an increase in mortality caused by intraspecific competition. PMID:20021767

  19. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  20. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  1. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  2. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  3. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  4. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  5. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  6. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  7. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  8. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  9. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  10. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Peter D; Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M; Read, Andrew J; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog's kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses. PMID:26583697

  11. Prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsia conorii in human beings and dogs from Catalonia: a 20-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Espejo, E; Andrés, M; Pérez, J; Prat, J; Guerrero, C; Muñoz, M T; Alegre, M D; Lite, J; Bella, F

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) in Catalonia (Spain) has decreased in the last two decades. The prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsia conorii in human beings and dogs in the region of Vallès Occidental (Catalonia) was assessed by indirect immunofluorescence, and the results compared with those obtained in a similar study from 1987. Nineteen (5·0%) out of 383 human serum samples had antibodies to R. conorii. This seroprevalence was significantly lower (11·5%) (P = 0·003) than that recorded in the 1987 survey. Forty-two out (42·0%) of 100 canine serum samples had antibodies to R. conorii. A high proportion of the studied dogs (91·0%) were receiving anti-tick treatment, mainly with permethrin-imidacloprid spot-on (Advantix, Bayer, Germany). The current canine seroprevalence was not significantly different from that recorded in the 1987 survey (36.9%). In conclusion, this study shows a significant decrease in the prevalence of antibodies to R. conorii in the human population of Catalonia in the last 20 years, which corresponds with a decrease in the number of cases of MSF. We suggest that the widespread use of anti-tick treatment in dogs could limit the introduction of ticks to humans due to a reduction of infestation duration in dogs, thus contributing to the decrease in MSF incidence. PMID:26899636

  12. Human Infestation with Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae) in a Family Referred with Pruritus and Skin Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Abdigoudarzi, Mohammad; Mirafzali, Mahmoud S; Belgheiszadeh, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the most economically important ectoparasites in hens and some species of mammals worldwide. Cases of human infestation have been reported worldwide. In this study we report infestation in three members of a family referred with pruritus and allergic dermatitis rash. They have collected very small animals and carried them to the laboratory which later was confirmed as D. gallinae. They claimed that they had been bitten with this ectoparasite. This is the first case report of human infestation owing to D. gallinae from Iran. PMID:25629073

  13. Trombiculidae larvae (Neotrombicula autumnalis) infestation in a Little Bittern (Ixobrychus minutus) in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cakiroglu, Duygu; Pekmezci, Didem; Meral, Yücel; Gokalp, Güvenç; Acici, Mustafa

    2008-04-01

    With this case report, we describe Trombiculidae larvae (Neotrombicula autumnalis) infestation in a Little Bittern (Ixobrychus minutus) which was brought to our clinics by the Directorship of Environmental and Forestry authorities of Samsun, Turkey in April, 2007. The male Little Bittern (I. minutus), with a black back and crown, and black wings with a large white patch on each wing, had thick Trombiculidae larvae infestation both on its legs. There were neither dermatological nor general conditional changes observed, except its superficial larval attachments to the skin. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Trombiculidae larvae (N. autumnalis) infestation in a Little Bittern (I. minutus) in Turkey. PMID:18266010

  14. Annoying vacation souvenir: Fish tapeworm (Diphyllobothrium sp.) infestation in an Austrian fisherman.

    PubMed

    Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Haberl, Renate; Langner, Cord; Krejs, Günter J; Eherer, Andreas

    2005-11-01

    Diphyllobothriosis is infestation with the fish tapeworm. Although the worldwide incidence has decreased in recent decades, increased travel and the new popularity of dishes involving raw fish (e.g. sushi) may provide a higher risk of infestation in formerly low-risk areas. We report an Austrian fisherman who passed a 75 cm tapeworm segment in his stool. Infestation presumably occurred 14 months earlier during a fishing tour in Alaska. At presentation, the patient was asymptomatic, reported no weight loss and showed neither anaemia nor eosinophilia. He was cured with a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight praziquantel. PMID:16416360

  15. Reactivity of dog sera to whole-cell or recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi by ELISA and immunoblot analysis.

    PubMed

    Magnarelli, L A; Levy, S A; Ijdo, J W; Wu, C; Padula, S J; Fikrig, E

    2001-10-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) with separate preparations of 10 purified recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto were used to test sera from 36 dogs not vaccinated with whole cells of this agent and from five dogs vaccinated with whole-cell B. burgdorferi bacteria. All dogs lived in tick-infested areas of Connecticut and south-eastern New York state, USA. The non-vaccinated dogs had limb or joint disorder, lameness and fever during the period 1984-1991 and had antibodies to B. burgdorferi, as determined by a polyvalent ELISA with whole-cell antigen. In re-analyses of sera for total immunoglobulins in ELISAs with recombinant antigens, reactions were most frequently recorded when outer-surface protein (Osp) F, protein (p)35, p37, p39 and p-41G (a flagellin component) were tested separately. Western immunoblots of a subset of 16 sera, positive by ELISA with whole-cell antigen and representing a range of antibody titres (640-40960), verified immune responses to these or other lysed whole-cell antigens. Sera from vaccinated dogs contained antibodies to OspA, OspB, p22, p37 and p41-G. Therefore, serological reactions to OspF, p35 and p39 were the most important indicators of natural exposure to B. burgdorferi. Serum reactivities to these recombinant antigens in ELISAs can be used to help identify possible natural infections of canine borreliosis in dogs not vaccinated with whole-cell B. burgdorferi and to provide information on the geographic distribution of this bacterium. PMID:11599738

  16. Prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium species in dog park attending dogs compared to non-dog park attending dogs in one region of Colorado.

    PubMed

    Wang, Andrea; Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca; Scorza, Valeria; Lin, Philip; Lappin, Michael R

    2012-03-23

    Dog parks are very popular in urban areas, but there are no current studies attempting to correlate visits to dog parks and risk of colonization by enteric parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dog park visitation is associated with an increased prevalence of enteric parasites or an increase in prevalence of gastrointestinal signs in dogs in northern Colorado. Feces from dogs owned by veterinary students or Veterinary Teaching Hospital staff members were submitted with a completed survey form detailing dog park attendance rates, fecal character scores, and other clinical information. Feces were examined microscopically for parasites after sugar centrifugation, for Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by a commercially available immunofluorescence assay (FA) and the FA positive samples were genotyped after PCR amplification. The Giardia assemblages were determined using the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) β-giardin and triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) genes and the Cryptosporidium species were determined using the heat shock protein-70 gene. A total of 129 fecal samples were assayed; 66 were from dog park attending dogs and 63 were from non-dog park-attending dogs. The overall parasite prevalence rate was 7.0% (9 of 129 samples). Dog park attending dogs were more likely to be positive for Giardia or Cryptosporidium than non-dog park-attending dogs (p=0.0279), but there was no association of gastrointestinal signs with dog park attendance or with fecal flotation or FA results. The five Giardia isolates were assemblage C and/or D and the one Cryptosporidium isolate was Ctenocephalides canis. PMID:21890275

  17. Olfactory response of predatory mites to vegetative and reproductive parts of coconut palm infested by Aceria guerreronis.

    PubMed

    Melo, José Wagner S; Lima, Debora B; Pallini, Angelo; Oliveira, José Eudes M; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2011-10-01

    The phytophagous mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer is an important pest of coconut worldwide. A promising method of control for this pest is the use of predatory mites. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Proctolaelaps bickleyi Bram are predatory mites found in association with A. guerreronis in the field. To understand how these predators respond to olfactory cues from A. guerreronis and its host plant, the foraging behavior of the predatory mites was investigated in a Y-tube olfactometer and on T-shaped arenas. The predators were subjected to choose in an olfactometer: (1) isolated parts (leaflet, spikelet or fruit) of infested coconut plant or clean air stream; (2) isolated parts of non-infested or infested coconut plant; and (3) two different plant parts previously shown to be attractive. Using T-shaped arenas the predators were offered all possible binary combinations of discs of coconut fruit epidermis infested with A. guerreronis, non-infested discs or coconut pollen. The results showed that both predators were preferred (the volatile cues from) the infested plant parts over clean air. When subjected to odours from different infested or non-infested plant parts, predators preferred the infested parts. Among the infested plant parts, the spikelets induced the greatest attraction to predators. On the arenas, both predators preferred discs of coconut fruits infested with A. guerreronis over every other alternative. The results show that both predators are able to locate A. guerreronis by olfactory stimuli. Foraging strategies and implications for biological control are discussed. PMID:21499777

  18. HISTOPATHOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH NEOTROMBICULA MICROTI INFESTATION IN THE ENDANGERED AMARGOSA VOLE (MICROTUS CALIFORNICUS SCIRPENSIS).

    PubMed

    Ott-Conn, Caitlin N; Woods, Leslie W; Clifford, Deana L; Branston, Tammy; Foley, Janet

    2015-07-01

    The Amargosa vole (Microtus californicus scirpensis) is a profoundly endangered rodent found only in the Central Mojave Desert, Inyo County, California, US. In 2010, severe cases of trombiculiasis, caused by larval Neotrombicula microti mites, were discovered among voles and sympatric small mammals. We evaluated Amargosa voles and sympatric rodents for infestation with N. microti December 2011-November 2012 and evaluated histopathology of ear tissue from 13 actively N. microti-infested Amargosa voles and 10 Amargosa voles with no gross evidence of current or past infestation. Rodents with current infestation had mites visible on tissue, typically ear pinnae, whereas mites were not seen on rodents with presumptive past infestation, but some of these animals had gross tissue scarring and loss consistent with healing from infestation. Ears from infested voles had severe granulocytic and necrotizing dermatitis, most associated with stylostome fragments, whereas few lesions were present in grossly uninfested voles. There was no association between body condition and infestation or severity of lesions. Significantly more voles were infested (37%) with N. microti than sympatric rodents (3%), suggesting that sympatric rodents do not serve as an important source of N. microti exposure to voles. Although this chigger infestation was common and induced severe localized pathology, we did not detect a fitness cost to infestation and recommend further evaluation of the disease to discern its significance in this conservation context. PMID:25919470

  19. A Door-to-Door Survey of Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius) Infestations in Row Homes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yage; Tracy, Dylan M.; Barbarin, Alexis M.; Barbu, Corentin M.; Levy, Michael Z.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a door-to-door survey in a residential census tract of Philadelphia to estimate the prevalence and spatial patterns of recent bed bug infestations. We interviewed 596 residents, of whom 66 (11.1%) reported recent bed bug infestations. We confirmed current infestations in a subset of 15 (68.2%) of 22 inspected households. Most residents reported that their infestation began within the past year (2012–2013). We found no correlation between property value and infestation status. Spatial analyses showed significant clustering of bed bug infestations only at fine scales, suggesting limited active dispersal of the insects. Residents used a large variety of treatment methods to eliminate bed bugs, but only 48.1% reported success. Our results provide a prevalence estimate of recent bed bug infestations and highlight the importance of passive rather than active dispersal of bed bugs even among dense urban row homes. PMID:24799372

  20. A door-to-door survey of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) infestations in row homes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yage; Tracy, Dylan M; Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbu, Corentin M; Levy, Michael Z

    2014-07-01

    We conducted a door-to-door survey in a residential census tract of Philadelphia to estimate the prevalence and spatial patterns of recent bed bug infestations. We interviewed 596 residents, of whom 66 (11.1%) reported recent bed bug infestations. We confirmed current infestations in a subset of 15 (68.2%) of 22 inspected households. Most residents reported that their infestation began within the past year (2012-2013). We found no correlation between property value and infestation status. Spatial analyses showed significant clustering of bed bug infestations only at fine scales, suggesting limited active dispersal of the insects. Residents used a large variety of treatment methods to eliminate bed bugs, but only 48.1% reported success. Our results provide a prevalence estimate of recent bed bug infestations and highlight the importance of passive rather than active dispersal of bed bugs even among dense urban row homes. PMID:24799372

  1. History of guide dog use by veterans.

    PubMed

    Ostermeier, Mark

    2010-08-01

    The first guide dog school was established in Germany during World War I to care for German soldiers blinded in that war. Other schools in Germany followed. Observation by an American at one of the schools led to the creation of the first guide dog school in the United States in 1929, "The Seeing Eye." Additional U.S. schools were opened during and after World War II. This article discusses the history of guide dog use by veterans, including the formation of the first guide dog schools in response to aiding blinded servicemen, and the involvement of federal agencies and guide dog schools in providing assistance to blinded veterans. PMID:20731263

  2. Serum haptoglobin concentrations in dogs with liver disease.

    PubMed

    Crawford, K; Warman, S M; Marques, A I; Yool, D A; Eckersall, P D; McCulloch, E; Lynn, K; Mellanby, R J; Gow, A G

    2013-12-14

    Dogs with liver disease have been shown to have increased serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. However, it is unclear whether dogs with liver disease also have increased serum haptoglobin concentrations. The aim of the study was to measure serum haptoglobin concentrations in healthy dogs, hospitalised dogs and dogs with liver diseases. Haptoglobin concentrations were measured in 30 healthy dogs, 47 hospitalised dogs with non-hepatic illness, 46 dogs with congenital portosystemic shunt (cPSS) and 11 dogs with primary hepatopathy. Haptoglobin concentrations were not significantly different between cPSS dogs with and without hepatic encephalopathy (HE), thus all cPSS dogs were considered as one group. Haptoglobin concentrations were significantly different between the remaining groups (P<0.0001). Hospitalised ill dogs had significantly higher haptoglobin concentrations than healthy dogs (P<0.001), dogs with cPSS (P<0.001) and dogs with primary hepatopathy (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between haptoglobin concentrations in healthy dogs, dogs with cPSS and dogs with primary hepatopathy. Haptoglobin concentrations were not significantly increased in dogs with liver diseases or in dogs with cPSS and HE. This is in contrast with the previously reported CRP results. This study demonstrates that liver function should be considered when interpreting haptoglobin concentrations in dogs. PMID:24158322

  3. Pathological features of polyneuropathy in three dogs.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Masaya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Ide, Tetsuya; Ogawa, Mizue; Inagaki, Takehiko; Tamura, Shinji; Saito, Miyoko; Chambers, James K; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Canine polyneuropathy is a neurological disorder characterized by a dysfunction of multiple peripheral nerves. The etiology of the disease is diverse; it may occur in cases of infectious, immune-mediated, or hereditary conditions or in association with endocrinopathy, neoplasm, or chemical intoxication. It is often difficult to determine the etiology through clinical symptoms. The aim of this study is to investigate pathological differences among three canine polyneuropathy cases with each presumably having a different etiology. Cases included a 13-month-old female border collie (Dog No.1), a 21-month-old male chihuahua (Dog No.2) and an 11-year-old male beagle (Dog No.3). Clinical examinations revealed hindlimb ataxia and sensory loss in Dog No.1, forelimb paralysis and vertebral pain in Dog No.2, and paddling-gait and hypothyroidism in Dog No.3. Histopathologically, axonal swelling and pale myelin were observed in Dog No.1. Giant axons mimicking giant axonal neuropathy were obvious in Dog No.2. Dog No.3 showed atrophic axons and severe interstitial edema. Distributions of peripheral nerve lesions coincided with respective clinical symptoms. According to their clinical and pathological features, Dogs No.1 and No.2 were suspected of hereditary polyneuropathy, while Dog No.3 seemed to have hypothyroidism-associated polyneuropathy. As each case demonstrated unique pathological features, different pathogeneses of peripheral nerve dysfunction were suggested. PMID:23123885

  4. Efficacy of albendazole against giardiasis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Barr, S C; Bowman, D D; Heller, R L; Erb, H N

    1993-06-01

    Efficacy of albendazole for treating giardiasis in dogs was assessed in 3 experiments. In experiment 1, Giardia cysts were cleared from feces of 5 of 7 dogs (as determined by the zinc-sulfate concentration technique) after the dogs received a single dose of albendazole (25 mg/kg of body weight, PO), whereas feces of 3 of 7 dogs became clear of cysts without treatment. In experiment 2, feces of 5 of 5 dogs became clear of cysts after albendazole treatment (25 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 4 doses); feces of 1 of 5 untreated control dogs became clear. In experiment 3, feces of 18 of 20 dogs became clear of cysts after albendazole (25 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 4 doses) was given; none of the 20 control dogs had feces clear of cysts. Signs of toxicosis were not observed in any dog. These results indicate that a single dose of albendazole (25 mg/kg, PO) is not effective for treating giardiasis in dogs. However, 4 doses of albendazole (25 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) are highly effective and non-toxic for treatment of giardiasis in dogs. PMID:8323064

  5. Incidence and impact of dog attacks on guide dogs in the UK: an update.

    PubMed

    Moxon, R; Whiteside, H; England, G C W

    2016-04-01

    Data on dog attacks on Guide Dogs' stock were reviewed to investigate the characteristics of the attacks. An average of 11.2 attacks occurred each month. Nearly all of the attacks occurred in public areas, 68.4 per cent of victim dogs were qualified guide dogs and 55.5 per cent of victim dogs were working in harness when they were attacked. Guide Dogs' stock were injured in 43.2 per cent of attacks and veterinary costs for attacks were estimated at £34,514.30. Over 40 per cent of qualified guide dogs' working ability was affected and >20 per cent of qualified guide dogs required some time off from working after a dog attack. Twenty dogs were permanently withdrawn from the Guide Dogs' programme as a result of dog attacks, 13 of which were qualified and working with guide dog owners at the time of the withdrawal; this resulted in a financial cost of >£600,000 to the charity. More importantly perhaps, temporary and permanent withdrawals have a significant impact upon the mobility and independence of guide dog owners and in many cases significantly impacted their emotional well-being. PMID:26924739

  6. Continued distress among abandoned dogs in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2012-01-01

    In Fukushima, Japan, a prolonged refugee situation caused by a major nuclear incident after the earthquake of March 11, 2011 has led to the unintentional abandonment of many pets. We received stray or abandoned dogs from rescue centers in Fukushima Prefecture. During re-socialization training and health care, we accessed the behavioral characteristics and the urine cortisol level of each dog and compared them with those of other abandoned dogs not involved in this earthquake. The dogs from Fukushima showed significantly lower aggression toward unfamiliar people, trainability, and attachment to their caretakers; also, urine cortisol levels in the dogs from Fukushima were 5-10-fold higher than those in abandoned dogs from another area of Japan. These results suggested that the dogs from Fukushima suffered through an extremely stressful crisis. PMID:23061007

  7. Diel infestation dynamics of gnathiid isopod larvae parasitic on Caribbean reef fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikkel, Paul C.; Schaumburg, Collin S.; Mathenia, Jeremy K.

    2006-11-01

    Infestation dynamics of parasitic gnathiid isopods on Caribbean reefs were studied throughout the 24-h diel cycle. Gnathiid infestation on caged longfin damselfish ( Stegastes diencaeus) peaked strongly at dawn, remained low during the remainder of the day, and increased again at night until about midnight. Gnathiids were less abundant during the pre-dawn period. Peak loads on fish retrieved at dawn were the highest reported in any study thus far. The dawn peak consisted almost exclusively of individuals from the smallest size class, whereas nocturnal activity consisted almost exclusively of individuals of the largest size class. Because of the high rates of infestation at night and dawn, and the high variation in parasite loads on fish collected during that time, reduction of parasite infestation may play an important role in the selection of nocturnal and crepuscular shelter holes and settlement sites by reef fishes.

  8. Remote detection of hemlock woolly adelgid infestations in southern New Hampshire and Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Justin P.

    The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) is an invasive pest damaging Eastern and Carolina hemlock on the east coast of the United States. Maine and New Hampshire are currently the northernmost front of HWA spread. Developing methods to remotely detect infested stands is paramount in monitoring the spread of this pest. The effect of HWA on hemlock needle reflectance was evaluated using laboratory spectroscopy, pigment extractions and fluorescence measurements. Hemlock habitat suitability was modeled using MaxEnt software and thirteen environmental predictor variables; overall accuracy was 68.2%. Partition modeling of multi-year (1995-2013) Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery was used to develop classification rules that detect and predict HWA infested areas (R 2 = 0.782). Overall agreement with known HWA infestations was 86.7% in conifer forests, 44.3% in mixed forests and 31.6% in deciduous forests. Targeted field surveys of fourteen stands predicted to be infested resulted in eleven new HWA detections.

  9. REVEGETATION SUCCESS OF MEDUSAHEAD-INFESTED RANGELANDS WITH PLATEAU® AND PRESCRIBED BURNING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae (L.) Nevski) is an invasive annual grass that is rapidly invading rangelands. Medusahead invasion reduces the productivity and biodiversity of rangelands. Efforts to control medusahead and revegetation infested rangelands are often unsuccessful. We evaluated...

  10. 9 CFR 72.1 - Interstate movement of infested or exposed animals prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... No animals infested with ticks [Boophilus annulatus or Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, Margaropus annulatus, Boophilus microplus or Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, or Babesiasis (Babesiosis) species vectors of Margaropus, Rhipicephalus, Amblyomma, Demacentor, or Ixodes] or exposed to...

  11. [Nitrogen-containing mycotoxins of fungi of Aspergillus and Penicillium species infesting grain and its products].

    PubMed

    Reshetilova, T A; Vinokurova, N G; L'vova, L S

    1993-01-01

    The review summarizes the literature data on distribution of nitrogen-containing mycotoxins (alkaloids) among Penicillium and Aspergillus fungi infesting grain and products of grain processing. Particular attention in given to clavins (ergotalkaloids) and tremorgens (roquefortine, verruculogen, penitrems). PMID:8295871

  12. Applying image transformation and classification techniques to airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping Ashe juniper infestations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei Buchholz), in excessive coverage, reduces forage production, interferes with livestock management, and degrades watersheds and wildlife habitat in infested rangelands. The objective of this study was to apply minimum noise fraction (MNF) transformation and different cla...

  13. Developing food-grade coatings for dry-cured hams to protect against ham mite infestation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Abbar, S; Phillips, T W; Williams, J B; Smith, B S; Schilling, M W

    2016-03-01

    Dry-cured hams may become infested with ham mites, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, during the aging process. Methyl bromide is the only known available fumigant pesticide that is effective at controlling ham mite infestations in dry cured ham plants. However, methyl bromide will be phased out of all industries as early as 2015 due to its status as an ozone-depleting substance. Research was conducted to develop and evaluate the potential of using food-grade film coatings to control mite infestations, without affecting the aging process and sensory properties of the dry-cured hams. Cubes coated with xanthan gum+20% propylene glycol and carrageenan/propylene glycol alginate+10% propylene glycol were effective at controlling mite infestations under laboratory conditions. Water vapor permeability was measured to estimate the impact of coatings during the aging process. It was evident that carrageenan/propylene glycol alginate coatings were permeable to moisture, which potentially makes them usable during aging. PMID:26624793

  14. Specific Cues Associated With Honey Bee Social Defence against Varroa destructor Infested Brood

    PubMed Central

    Mondet, Fanny; Kim, Seo Hyun; de Miranda, Joachim R.; Beslay, Dominique; Le Conte, Yves; Mercer, Alison R.

    2016-01-01

    Social immunity forms an essential part of the defence repertoire of social insects. In response to infestation by the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its associated viruses, honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) have developed a specific behaviour (varroa-sensitive hygiene, or VSH) that helps protect the colony from this parasite. Brood cells heavily infested with mites are uncapped, the brood killed, and the cell contents removed. For this extreme sacrifice to be beneficial to the colony, the targeting of parasitized brood for removal must be accurate and selective. Here we show that varroa-infested brood produce uniquely identifiable cues that could be used by VSH-performing bees to identify with high specificity which brood cells to sacrifice. This selective elimination of mite-infested brood is a disease resistance strategy analogous to programmed cell death, where young bees likely to be highly dysfunctional as adults are sacrificed for the greater good of the colony. PMID:27140530

  15. [Diagnostic problems of Ornithonyssus bacoti (Acarida: Gamasida: Macronyssidae) infestation in humans].

    PubMed

    Betke, P; Ribbeck, R; Schultka, H

    1987-05-01

    We established an infestation with the tropical rat mite in a baby. At the beginning, the infestation was not recognized. Later it was found that it had already existed for several months, since the baby's third week. The main symptoms of the infestation were nocturnal restlessness and urticaria-like dermatitis, especially in the joint bends of the extremities. The focus of infestation were house rats (Rattus rattus) living in the garret. The Ornithonyssus bacoti mites had got into the living-room through a hole in the ceiling. Control measures against Ornithonyssus bacoti, which were successful within a short time, included eradication of the rats, closing of the hole in the ceiling, acaricide application in the garret and intensive cleaning of the living-room, the baby's nursery table, pram and bassinet. PMID:3619112

  16. Spatial stratification of house infestation by Triatoma infestans in La Rioja, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gorla, David E; Porcasi, Ximena; Hrellac, Hugo; Catalá, Silvia S

    2009-03-01

    Vectorial transmission of Chagas disease has been decreasing over the past few decades because of effective vector control programs in the southern cone of South America. However, the disease is still actively transmitted within the Gran Chaco region. In this area, vector populations are abundant and highly prevalent in poor rural houses. This study analyses the spatial pattern of rural house infestation by Triatoma infestans in a 56,000 km(2) area in the province of La Rioja, Argentina, before the re-initiation of systematic activity on vector control intervention. Data on 5,045 rural houses show that infestation has high spatial heterogeneity, with highly infested localities concentrated in a few areas. House infestation has a negative significant relationship with locality size. Rural houses in the region are highly dispersed and this feature has been and will remain a challenge for any vigilance system to be installed in the region. PMID:19270290

  17. Specific Cues Associated With Honey Bee Social Defence against Varroa destructor Infested Brood.

    PubMed

    Mondet, Fanny; Kim, Seo Hyun; de Miranda, Joachim R; Beslay, Dominique; Le Conte, Yves; Mercer, Alison R

    2016-01-01

    Social immunity forms an essential part of the defence repertoire of social insects. In response to infestation by the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its associated viruses, honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) have developed a specific behaviour (varroa-sensitive hygiene, or VSH) that helps protect the colony from this parasite. Brood cells heavily infested with mites are uncapped, the brood killed, and the cell contents removed. For this extreme sacrifice to be beneficial to the colony, the targeting of parasitized brood for removal must be accurate and selective. Here we show that varroa-infested brood produce uniquely identifiable cues that could be used by VSH-performing bees to identify with high specificity which brood cells to sacrifice. This selective elimination of mite-infested brood is a disease resistance strategy analogous to programmed cell death, where young bees likely to be highly dysfunctional as adults are sacrificed for the greater good of the colony. PMID:27140530

  18. 77 FR 54368 - Service Dogs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... published in the Federal Register (76 FR 35162) a proposed rule to amend VA regulations to broaden and... quality of care that the VA-system can provide. 76 FR 35163. One commenter additionally noted that the... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN51 Service Dogs AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION:...

  19. [Glomerulonephritis in dogs and cats].

    PubMed

    Reinacher, M; Frese, K

    1991-04-01

    Immunohistology and special staining of plastic sections allow diagnosis and differentiation of subtypes of glomerulonephritis in dogs. Frequency and clinical importance of these forms of glomerulonephritis vary significantly. In cats, glomerulonephritis occurs frequently in FIV-positive cats but is rare in animals suffering from persistent FeLV infection or FIP. PMID:2068715

  20. Natural infestation of Pimeliaphilus joshuae on scorpion species from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed A

    2011-09-01

    The main goal of this study was to study the acarine parasite, Pimeliaphilus joshuae (Prostigmata: Pterygosomatidae) on various scorpion species from Egypt to determine its prevalence, abundance and intensity in relation to host species, size and sex. A total of 95 Leiurus quinquestriatus, 98 Androctonus australis, 40 A. amoreuxi, 30 Scorpio maurus palmatus and 46 Orthochirus scrobicuosus were examined during August 2009. Prevalence and mean abundance of P. joshuae varied significantly in relation to host species, host size and sex. In L. quinquestriatus, A. australis, and A. amoreuxi, the prevalence was 76.8, 13.3, and 50.0%, whereas the mean abundance was 47.6, 6.7 and 14.3%, respectively. Prevalence and mean abundance of P. joshuae were both positively correlated with host size in L. quinquestriatus and A. australis. We conclude that P. joshuae is found in a wide range of scorpion species exhibiting a low degree of host specificity. Controlled laboratory infection experiments are required to explain why S. m. palmatus and O. scrobicuosus are not susceptible to infestation by P. joshuae. PMID:21465333

  1. Stress response of brown pelican nestlings to ectoparasite infestation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggert, L.M.F.; Jodice, P.G.R.; O'Reilly, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of corticosterone has become a useful tool for assessing the response of individuals to ecological stressors of interest. Enhanced corticosterone levels can promote survival of stressful events; however, in situations where a stressor persists and corticosterone levels remain elevated, the adrenocortical response can be detrimental. A potential ecological stressor for wild birds is parasitism by ectoparasites. We studied the stress response of 11-23-day-old brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) nestlings by measuring plasma corticosterone levels in relation to the presence of the soft tick Carios capensis at two colonies in South Carolina in 2005. We expected to see higher baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone for parasitized chicks compared to those nestlings with no ticks. Although nestlings mounted a response to capture stress, tick category was not associated with corticosterone levels at either colony. Our results appear to contrast those of previous studies and indicate that the adrenocortical response of the host is likely dependent on the type of ectoparasite and the degree of infestation. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  2. An outbreak of bed bug infestation in an office building.

    PubMed

    Baumblatt, Jane A Gwira; Dunn, John R; Schaffner, William; Moncayo, Abelardo C; Stull-Lane, Annica; Jones, Timothy F

    2014-04-01

    Since 2000, resurgence in bed bugs has occurred in the U.S. Reports of infestations of homes, hospitals, hotels, and offices have been described. On September 1, 2011, complaints of itching and bites among workers in an office were reported to the Tennessee Department of Health. A retrospective cohort study and environmental assessments were performed in response to the complaints. Canines certified to detect live bed bugs were used to inspect the office and arthropod samples were collected. Of 76 office workers, 61 (80%) were interviewed; 39 (64%) met the case definition. Pruritic maculopapular lesions were consistent with arthropod bites. One collected arthropod sample was identified as a bed bug by three entomologists. Exposures associated with symptoms included working in a cubicle in which a canine identified bed bugs (risk ratio [RR]: 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-3.6), and self-reported seasonal allergies (RR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0-2.4). Bed bugs represent a reemerging and challenging environmental problem with clinical, psychological, and financial impacts. PMID:24749221

  3. Dermanyssus gallinae (chicken mite): an underdiagnosed environmental infestation.

    PubMed

    Collgros, H; Iglesias-Sancho, M; Aldunce, M J; Expósito-Serrano, V; Fischer, C; Lamas, N; Umbert-Millet, P

    2013-06-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae is a mite that normally parasitizes small birds but may occasionally bite humans. We report an unusual case of an 82-year-old woman who presented with pruritus and bite-like lesions over her trunk. Other members of the household were also affected. On physical examination, mites < 1 mm in size were found on the patient's body. The family were residing in the city centre and had no pets, but there were pigeon nests in close proximity to the house. Most dermatologists have difficulties identifying ectoparasitosis. In the case of D. gallinae, the small size of the mites and the fact that they leave the host after feeding means that they may not be seen at presentation, thus such infestations are likely to be underdiagnosed. Physicians should be aware that infection with this mite is possible even in patients from urban areas, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of conditions causing recurrent pruritus unresponsive to standard treatments. PMID:23530520

  4. Stress response of brown pelican nestlings to ectoparasite infestation.

    PubMed

    Eggert, Lisa M F; Jodice, Patrick G R; O'Reilly, Kathleen M

    2010-03-01

    Measurement of corticosterone has become a useful tool for assessing the response of individuals to ecological stressors of interest. Enhanced corticosterone levels can promote survival of stressful events; however, in situations where a stressor persists and corticosterone levels remain elevated, the adrenocortical response can be detrimental. A potential ecological stressor for wild birds is parasitism by ectoparasites. We studied the stress response of 11-23-day-old brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) nestlings by measuring plasma corticosterone levels in relation to the presence of the soft tick Carios capensis at two colonies in South Carolina in 2005. We expected to see higher baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone for parasitized chicks compared to those nestlings with no ticks. Although nestlings mounted a response to capture stress, tick category was not associated with corticosterone levels at either colony. Our results appear to contrast those of previous studies and indicate that the adrenocortical response of the host is likely dependent on the type of ectoparasite and the degree of infestation. PMID:19716827

  5. Ornithonyssus bacoti infestation and elimination from a mouse colony.

    PubMed

    Cole, Joan S; Sabol-Jones, Michelle; Karolewski, Brian; Byford, Tracylea

    2005-09-01

    Skin lesions, consisting of nonspecific bites with intense pruritus and excoriation of the skin, were found on personnel working in an animal colony primarily housing mice. The tropical rat mite, Ornithonyssus bacoti, was diagnosed from mites trapped on insect-monitoring sticky traps and collected from mouse cages in the colony. Because these mites do not live on mice but only come to feed when the animals are in their nest, an initial attempt was made to eliminate the mites with a thorough cleaning of the facility. Clidox foam was applied to the entire room with a foaming machine. Then the mice were transferred into the sanitized cages in the cleaned room. The numbers of mites were reduced to the point that they were no longer noticed in the colony, but the mites returned within 2 weeks. The mites were successfully eliminated with the use of permethrin-impregnated cotton balls in the mouse cages for 8 weeks and treatment of the premises. Treatment of the premises included spraying floors and walls of all rooms housing mice and adjacent hallways in the colony with pyrethrin spray by a commercial pest control company. To prevent one room of rabbits from maintaining the infestation, they were treated weekly with an organic pyrethrin dust. Insect sticky traps have remained negative for mites for more than 3 years after treatment. PMID:16138778

  6. Severe infestation of blow flies in a raccoon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilham, L.; Herman, C.M.

    1955-01-01

    A raccoon. (Procyon lotor) was observed in a weakened condition for several days at a farm a few miles east of Salisbury, Maryland. It was then caught and held in captivity for a few days. It continued to become weaker and on May 3, 1954, B. Mixon of the Maryland Department of Game and Inland Fish submitted it to us for study. There was no evidence of trauma, either internal or external. The fur was matted over the right hind leg, the inguinal region, and over much of the left hind leg. Inspection revealed the presence of thousands of larvae of the green-bottle fly, Phaenicia sericata, (Meigen}1 actively tunneling in and out of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Muscle under lying infested skin appeared healthy and untraumatized. A few larvae were in comers of the eyes but none were found in other orifices. Gross and microscopic examination of tissue from the raccoon gave no indication of any acute process which might have led to its moribund condition. James (1947. The flies that cause myiasis in man. U. S. Govt. Print. Off.) and Hall (1948: The blowflies of North America.. Thom. Say Foundation) indicate that P. sericata may vary in virulence, some strains becoming parasitic with an ability to invade healthy tissue. In all probability, the larvae described above hatched from eggs originally laid in a skin wound although no evidence for this was found.

  7. Public street lights increase house infestation by the Chagas disease vector Triatoma dimidiata.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Tucuch, Freddy Santiago; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria Jesus; Gourbière, Sébastien; Dumonteil, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Triatoma dimidiata is one of the primary vectors of Chagas disease. We previously documented the spatio-temporal infestation of houses by this species in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico, and found that non-domiciliated triatomines were specifically attracted to houses. However, the factors mediating this attraction remained unclear. Artificial light has been known for a long time to attract many insect species, and therefore may contribute to the spread of different vector-borne diseases. Also, based on the collection of different species of triatomines with light traps, several authors have suggested that light might attract triatomines to houses, but the role of artificial light in house infestation has never been clearly demonstrated and quantified. Here we performed a spatial analysis of house infestation pattern by T. dimidiata in relation to the distribution of artificial light sources in three different villages from the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. In all three villages, infested houses were significantly closer to public street light sources than non-infested houses (18.0 ± 0.6 vs 22.6 ± 0.4 m), and street lights rather than domestic lights were associated with house infestation. Accordingly, houses closer to a public street lights were 1.64 times more likely to be infested than houses further away (OR, CI95% 1.23-2.18). Behavioral experiments using a dual-choice chamber further confirmed that adult male and females were attracted to white light during their nocturnal activity. Attraction was also dependent on light color and decreased with increasing wavelength. While public lighting is usually associated with increased development, these data clearly show that it also directly contributes to house infestation by non-domiciliated T. dimidiata. PMID:22558384

  8. Factors promoting infestation of newly planted, nonbearing apple orchards by dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    PubMed

    Leskey, Tracy C; Bergh, J Christopher

    2005-12-01

    The initiation and level of infestation by dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), was tracked over three consecutive years in two nonbearing apple (Malus spp.) orchards in West Virginia and Virginia. The orchards were planted on a number of rootstock-variety (approximately cultivar) combinations and grown using different cultural practices. Infestations were detected during the first season after planting and continued to increase annually. The amount of burr knot tissue had the greatest impact on dogwood borer populations, because increasing amounts of burr knot tissue resulted in higher infestation rates. The use of plastic spiral wrap tree guards seemed to increase the development of burr knot tissue, resulting in significantly greater infestation compared with trees without tree guards in the West Virginia orchard. Variety also had a significant effect, because 'Idared' trees on M.26 had significantly greater levels of infestation compared with 'Buckeye Gala' on M.26, with or without tree guards, in the Virginia orchard. Mounding soil around the rootstock to a height just above the graft union prevented or tremendously curtailed infestation by dogwood borer, but it led to scion rooting that seemed to have an impact on size-controlling features of dwarfing rootstocks. Removal of the mounds at the beginning of the third growing season resulted in infestation of the rooted tissue during the same season. As long as apple cultivars continue to be planted on size-controlling rootstocks, dogwood borer will likely remain a serious pest, requiring either chemical treatments or a behavioral control strategy, such as mating disruption, to protect trees from infestation and damage. PMID:16539141

  9. Yield response of dual-toxin Bt cotton to Helicoverpa zea infestations.

    PubMed

    Gore, J; Adamczyk, J J; Catchot, A; Jackson, R

    2008-10-01

    Field cage experiments were conducted to determine the impact of bollworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), on yields of Bollgard II and Widestrike cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. One-day-old bollworm larvae were infested in white flowers of Bollgard II and in white flowers and terminals of Widestrike cotton. The infestation levels included 0, 50, and 100% of white flowers for each type of cotton. Terminal infestations included one or two larvae per terminal on Widestrike cotton. Larvae were placed in flowers of Bollgard II cotton each day for 1 to 4 wk during the first 4 wk of flowering during 2003, 2004, and 2005 seasons and in the flowers or terminals of Widestrike cotton each day for 1 to 3 wk. Averaged across years and durations of infestation, yields of Bollgard II cotton were significantly reduced compared with noninfested Bollgard II cotton when 100% of white flowers were infested. For Widestrike cotton, there was a reduction in yield when 100% of white flowers were infested in 2005, but not in 2006. There was a significant relationship for cumulative numbers of white flowers infested on seedcotton yield of Bollgard II during one of the 3 yr of the experiment. The regression equation during that year had a slope of -0.77. No significant relationships were observed for cumulative numbers of white flowers infested on yields of Widestrike cotton. Results of the current experiment suggest bollworms will rarely cause yield losses of Bollgard II and Widestrike cotton. Future research will need to focus on developing specific thresholds for bollworms on Bollgard II and Widestrike cotton. PMID:18950041

  10. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs, shall not be brought into the GAO Building or on its grounds for other than...

  11. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs, shall not be brought into the GAO Building or on its grounds for other than...

  12. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs, shall not be brought into the GAO Building or on its grounds for other than...

  13. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs, shall not be brought into the GAO Building or on its grounds for other than...

  14. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs, shall not be brought into the GAO Building or on its grounds for other than...

  15. Retrospective analysis of spinal arachnoid cysts in 14 dogs.

    PubMed

    Rylander, Helena; Lipsitz, David; Berry, Wayne L; Sturges, Beverly K; Vernau, Karen M; Dickinson, Peter J; Añor, Sonia A; Higgins, Robert J; LeCouteur, Richard A

    2002-01-01

    Spinal cord dysfunction secondary to spinal arachnoid cysts (SACs) has been reported previously in dogs. This retrospective study reviews the clinical signs, radiographic findings, and outcome after surgical resection of SACs in 14 dogs. Plain vertebral column radiographs and myelography were done in all dogs. Computed tomography (CT) was done in 7 dogs and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in 3 dogs. Affected dogs were between 1 and 12 years of age, and 8 of 14 were Rottweilers. Abnormalities detected on neurological examination depended on the location of the SAC. Five dogs had bilobed or multiple SACs. SACs were located in the cervical vertebral column in 11 dogs and in the thoracic vertebral column in 4 dogs. All dogs had dorsally or dorsolaterally located SACs. Two dogs also had additional ventrally located SACs. Spinal cord compression secondary to intervertebral disc extrusion or protrusion was demonstrated at the site of the SACs in 2 dogs. Surgical resection of the SACs was completed in all dogs. Eleven dogs were available for follow-up. Five weeks postoperatively, 7 dogs improved in neurological function, with some residual ataxia and paresis in 6 of these dogs. Neurological function had deteriorated in 4 dogs. It was concluded from this study that Rottweilers have a higher incidence of SACs than other breeds of dog. Furthermore, bilobed or multiple SACs can occur commonly, and myelography effectively localized SACs in dogs. Surgical resection of SACs resulted in improvement in neurological function in the majority of treated dogs. PMID:12465766

  16. Reduced productivity among confined laying hens infested by Allopsoroptoides galli (Mironov, 2013).

    PubMed

    Soares, N M; Tucci, E C; Freitas, E R; Fernandes, D P B

    2016-04-01

    The mite Allopsoroptoides galli has recently been identified parasitizing commercial chickens, São Paulo State/Brasil, causing severe dermatitis on all parts of the animal's body and a significant decline in productivity, particularly in egg production. The aim of the present study in A. galli infestation was to investigate the impact on laying hens' performance and egg quality. A total of 100 56-week-old Hy-line white laying hens were used. The birds were divided into 2 groups, with 10 replicates of 5 birds in each group. The experimental groups consisted of a non-infested group (hens free of theA. galli) and an infested group (hens presenting A. galli). The infestation with A. galli did not significantly influence feed intake but caused a significant reduction in the body weight of the hens and caused a decrease in egg production, therefore promoting worse feed conversion. The egg weight was reduced; however, the infestation did not significantly affect the internal quality of the eggs, which was measured according to the yolk color, albumen height, and Haugh units, or the quality of the shell, based on its percentage, thickness, and strength. It can be concluded that anA. galli infestation promotes a reduction in body weight, egg production, and egg weight in laying hens, therefore worsening feed conversion. PMID:26787920

  17. Volatiles from apple trees infested with light brown apple moth larvae attract the parasitoid Dolichogenidia tasmanica.

    PubMed

    Suckling, D M; Twidle, A M; Gibb, A R; Manning, L M; Mitchell, V J; Sullivan, T E S; Wee, S L; El-Sayed, A M

    2012-09-26

    The volatile compounds emitted from uninfested apple seedlings, cv. Royal Gala, and apple seedlings infested with generalist herbivore Epiphyas postvittana larvae were sampled using headspace collection and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nine additional compounds were only detected in infested apple seedlings [including benzyl alcohol, (E)-β-ocimene, benzyl cyanide, indole, (E)-nerolidol, and four unidentified compounds]. Infested apple seedlings produced larger amounts of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, linalool, 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, (E,E)-α-farnesene, and (Z)-3-hexenyl benzoate than uninfested plants. Female parasitoids flew exclusively upwind to infested and not to uninfested apple seedlings in wind tunnel choice tests and preferred infested leaflets in still air, even after the removal of larvae. The attraction of a parasitoid to infested apple seedlings in the laboratory and in the field to apple and many other plants in at least six families supports considerable generality of the tritrophic signaling process. PMID:22950817

  18. Physiological and Molecular Alterations Promoted by Schizotetranychus oryzae Mite Infestation in Rice Leaves.

    PubMed

    Buffon, Giseli; Blasi, Édina A R; Adamski, Janete M; Ferla, Noeli J; Berger, Markus; Santi, Lucélia; Lavallée-Adam, Mathieu; Yates, John R; Beys-da-Silva, Walter O; Sperotto, Raul A

    2016-02-01

    Infestation of phytophagous mite Schizotetranychus oryzae in rice causes critical yield losses. To better understand this interaction, we employed Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) approach to identify differentially expressed proteins. We detected 18 and 872 unique proteins in control and infested leaves, respectively, along with 32 proteins more abundant in control leaves. S. oryzae infestation caused decreased abundance of proteins related to photosynthesis (mostly photosystem II-related), carbon assimilation and energy production, chloroplast detoxification, defense, and fatty acid and gibberellin synthesis. On the contrary, infestation caused increased abundance of proteins involved in protein modification and degradation, gene expression at the translation level, protein partitioning to different organelles, lipid metabolism, actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and synthesis of jasmonate, amino acid, and molecular chaperones. Our results also suggest that S. oryzae infestation promotes cell-wall remodeling and interferes with ethylene biosynthesis in rice leaves. Proteomic data were positively correlated with enzymatic assays and RT-qPCR analysis. Our findings describe the protein expression patterns of infested rice leaves and suggest that the acceptor side of PSII is probably the major damaged target in the photosynthetic apparatus. These data will be useful in future biotechnological approaches aiming to induce phytophagous mite resistance in rice. PMID:26667653

  19. Infestation of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in sweet corn as predicted by time of oviposition.

    PubMed

    Spangler, Steve M; Calvin, Dennis D; Nemeth, Margaret A

    2003-04-01

    Oviposition by European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübn, was examined in relation to sweet corn development from 1994 to 1996, and related to harvest infestation levels. Stepwise multiple regression and linear regression showed that 79-87% of the variability of larvae per ear or proportion of ears infested at harvest was explained by the number of egg masses laid from about anthesis to brown silk stages. The analyses indicated three periods of oviposition with differing implications to harvest infestation level: (1) eggs laid from 784-337 degree-days (DD) before harvest (before green tassel) had very low correlation to harvest infestation; (2) eggs laid from 336-169 DD before harvest (green tassel to green silk) were highly correlated with harvest infestation; and (3) eggs laid during the last 168 DD of sweet corn development (green silk to harvest) had low to moderate correlation with harvest infestation. The 336-169 DD period corresponded to the anthesis to brown silk growth stages, which was approximately 14-21 d long, and would be the likely period for optimum chemical control. The results of this study are compared with existing recommendations from the midwestern and northeastern U.S., and potential explanations for the patterns observed are discussed. PMID:14994809

  20. Ectoparasites infestation of free-ranging hedgehog (Etelerix algirus) in north western Libya.

    PubMed

    Hosni, M M; Maghrbi, A A El

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ectoparasites in hedgehogs (Etelerix algirus) in north western region of Libya. Seventy hedgehogs were sampled, and 39 (55.7%) were infested with external parasites. A total of 44 ticks, 491 fleas were collected from the infested hedgehogs and four species of ectoparasites were identified, one mite (Sarcoptes scabiei), one tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) and two fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenocephalides canis). For ectoparasites, 10/39 (25.6%) were infested by S. scabiei, 8/39 (20.5%) by Rh. appendiculatus and 11/39 (28.2%) by fleas. The prevalence of mixed infestation with S. scabiei and C. canis was 3(7.7%), Rh. appendiculatus and C. canis was 2 (5.1%) and infestation by two species of fleas was 5 (12.8%). The overall mixed infestation was 10 (25.6%). We concluded that the hedgehogs may play an important role in spreading external parasites and transmission of diseases from one region to another and from wildlife animals to domestic animals and human. PMID:26623333

  1. Ectoparasites infestation of free-ranging hedgehog (Etelerix algirus) in north western Libya

    PubMed Central

    Hosni, M.M.; Maghrbi, A.A. El

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ectoparasites in hedgehogs (Etelerix algirus) in north western region of Libya. Seventy hedgehogs were sampled, and 39 (55.7%) were infested with external parasites. A total of 44 ticks, 491 fleas were collected from the infested hedgehogs and four species of ectoparasites were identified, one mite (Sarcoptes scabiei), one tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) and two fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenocephalides canis). For ectoparasites, 10/39 (25.6%) were infested by S. scabiei, 8/39 (20.5%) by Rh. appendiculatus and 11/39 (28.2%) by fleas. The prevalence of mixed infestation with S. scabiei and C. canis was 3(7.7%), Rh. appendiculatus and C. canis was 2 (5.1%) and infestation by two species of fleas was 5 (12.8%). The overall mixed infestation was 10 (25.6%). We concluded that the hedgehogs may play an important role in spreading external parasites and transmission of diseases from one region to another and from wildlife animals to domestic animals and human. PMID:26623333

  2. Exotic plant infestation is associated with decreased modularity and increased numbers of connectors in mixed-grass prairie pollination networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.; Rabie, Paul A.; Droege, Sam; Larson, Jennifer L.; Haar, Milton

    2016-01-01

    The majority of pollinating insects are generalists whose lifetimes overlap flowering periods of many potentially suitable plant species. Such generality is instrumental in allowing exotic plant species to invade pollination networks. The particulars of how existing networks change in response to an invasive plant over the course of its phenology are not well characterized, but may shed light on the probability of long-term effects on plant-pollinator interactions and the stability of network structure. Here we describe changes in network topology and modular structure of infested and non-infested networks during the flowering season of the generalist non-native flowering plant, Cirsium arvense in mixed-grass prairie at Badlands National Park, South Dakota, USA. Objectives were to compare network-level effects of infestation as they propagate over the season in infested and non-infested (with respect to C. arvense) networks. We characterized plant-pollinator networks on 5 non-infested and 7 infested 1-ha plots during 4 sample periods that collectively covered the length of C. arvense flowering period. Two other abundantly-flowering invasive plants were present during this time: Melilotus officinalis had highly variable floral abundance in both C. arvense-infested and non-infested plots andConvolvulus arvensis, which occurred almost exclusively in infested plots and peaked early in the season. Modularity, including roles of individual species, and network topology were assessed for each sample period as well as in pooled infested and non-infested networks. Differences in modularity and network metrics between infested and non-infested networks were limited to the third and fourth sample periods, during flower senescence of C. arvenseand the other invasive species; generality of pollinators rose concurrently, suggesting rewiring of the network and a lag effect of earlier floral abundance. Modularity was lower and number of connectors higher in infested

  3. Exotic Plant Infestation Is Associated with Decreased Modularity and Increased Numbers of Connectors in Mixed-Grass Prairie Pollination Networks

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Diane L.; Rabie, Paul A.; Droege, Sam; Larson, Jennifer L.; Haar, Milton

    2016-01-01

    The majority of pollinating insects are generalists whose lifetimes overlap flowering periods of many potentially suitable plant species. Such generality is instrumental in allowing exotic plant species to invade pollination networks. The particulars of how existing networks change in response to an invasive plant over the course of its phenology are not well characterized, but may shed light on the probability of long-term effects on plant-pollinator interactions and the stability of network structure. Here we describe changes in network topology and modular structure of infested and non-infested networks during the flowering season of the generalist non-native flowering plant, Cirsium arvense in mixed-grass prairie at Badlands National Park, South Dakota, USA. Objectives were to compare network-level effects of infestation as they propagate over the season in infested and non-infested (with respect to C. arvense) networks. We characterized plant-pollinator networks on 5 non-infested and 7 infested 1-ha plots during 4 sample periods that collectively covered the length of C. arvense flowering period. Two other abundantly-flowering invasive plants were present during this time: Melilotus officinalis had highly variable floral abundance in both C. arvense-infested and non-infested plots and Convolvulus arvensis, which occurred almost exclusively in infested plots and peaked early in the season. Modularity, including roles of individual species, and network topology were assessed for each sample period as well as in pooled infested and non-infested networks. Differences in modularity and network metrics between infested and non-infested networks were limited to the third and fourth sample periods, during flower senescence of C. arvense and the other invasive species; generality of pollinators rose concurrently, suggesting rewiring of the network and a lag effect of earlier floral abundance. Modularity was lower and number of connectors higher in infested networks

  4. Exotic Plant Infestation Is Associated with Decreased Modularity and Increased Numbers of Connectors in Mixed-Grass Prairie Pollination Networks.

    PubMed

    Larson, Diane L; Rabie, Paul A; Droege, Sam; Larson, Jennifer L; Haar, Milton

    2016-01-01

    The majority of pollinating insects are generalists whose lifetimes overlap flowering periods of many potentially suitable plant species. Such generality is instrumental in allowing exotic plant species to invade pollination networks. The particulars of how existing networks change in response to an invasive plant over the course of its phenology are not well characterized, but may shed light on the probability of long-term effects on plant-pollinator interactions and the stability of network structure. Here we describe changes in network topology and modular structure of infested and non-infested networks during the flowering season of the generalist non-native flowering plant, Cirsium arvense in mixed-grass prairie at Badlands National Park, South Dakota, USA. Objectives were to compare network-level effects of infestation as they propagate over the season in infested and non-infested (with respect to C. arvense) networks. We characterized plant-pollinator networks on 5 non-infested and 7 infested 1-ha plots during 4 sample periods that collectively covered the length of C. arvense flowering period. Two other abundantly-flowering invasive plants were present during this time: Melilotus officinalis had highly variable floral abundance in both C. arvense-infested and non-infested plots and Convolvulus arvensis, which occurred almost exclusively in infested plots and peaked early in the season. Modularity, including roles of individual species, and network topology were assessed for each sample period as well as in pooled infested and non-infested networks. Differences in modularity and network metrics between infested and non-infested networks were limited to the third and fourth sample periods, during flower senescence of C. arvense and the other invasive species; generality of pollinators rose concurrently, suggesting rewiring of the network and a lag effect of earlier floral abundance. Modularity was lower and number of connectors higher in infested networks

  5. [Lens luxation in dogs: a retrospective study of 134 dogs (2000-2011)].

    PubMed

    Betschart; Hässig; Spiess

    2014-03-01

    This retrospective study evaluated cases of lens luxation in dogs that were documented at the University of Zurich Veterinary Teaching Hospital between 2000 and 2011. A total 134 dogs were included in the study. This population of dogs with lens luxation represents 0.41 % of all dogs presented to the Zurich Veterinary Teaching Hospital (32'523) and 3.02 % of all dogs presented to the ophthalmology service during the same time period. The 134 dogs represented over 40 different breeds, including mixed breeds. 63 of the dogs were male, 71 were female. The 134 dogs were divided in primary lens luxation (86 of the 134 dogs, 64 %) and secondary lens luxation (48 dogs, 36 %). The most frequent causes for secondary lens luxation were glaucoma (58 %), cataract (19 %) and trauma (17 %). This study shows the predisposition for primary lens luxations in terrier breeds, Chinese Crested dogs, Pinscher and Spitz. In contrast, Siberian Huskies, Basset Hounds, Bearded Collies, Cairn Terriers, mixed breed dogs, Bolonka Zwetna, Boston Terriers, Borzoi, Doberman, Eurasian, Leonberg, Luzerner Niederlaufhund and Weimaraner suffered significantly more often from secondary lens luxation. There was no sex predilection for primary or secondary lens luxation. Dogs with primary lens luxation were on average 7.39 ± 3.02 years old, which is significantly younger than the dogs with secondary lens luxation (9.12 ± 3.38 years). Dogs with primary lens luxation showed a significantly higher rate of a bilateral development than those with secondary lens luxation (85.5 % of the dogs with primary lens luxation and only 14.5 % of the dogs with secondary lens luxation showed it in both their eyes). PMID:24568806

  6. VARIABILITY IN THE ULTRASONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF THE PANCREAS IN HEALTHY DOGS COMPARED TO DOGS WITH HYPERADRENOCORTICISM.

    PubMed

    Granger, L Abbigail; Hilferty, Michael; Francis, Taylor; Steiner, Jörg M; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotally, an unusually hyperechoic pancreas can be found in seemingly healthy dogs on ultrasound examination and the prevalence and clinical significance of this finding is unknown. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in healthy dogs and correlate these findings to weight, age, and body condition score (BCS). An additional objective was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and compare this to the healthy dogs. Pancreata of 74 healthy dogs were evaluated prospectively and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were graded. Each dog's age, BCS, and weight were recorded. Dogs were screened for health by physical examination, serum chemistry panel, urine specific gravity, and a canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity assay. Pancreatic images for 92 dogs having hyperadrenocorticism were also reviewed and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were recorded. The prevalence of pancreatic hyperechogenicity in normal dogs was 7% (5 of 74) and heterogeneity was 40% (30 of 74). No correlation existed between pancreatic echogenicity and weight, age, or BCS (P > 0.1 for all sets). A statistically significant increase in the proportion of dogs having a hyperechoic pancreas was found in the hyperadrenocorticism sample of dogs (40%, 37 of 92, P < 0.0001). The underlying cause of pancreatic variability in the few healthy dogs and in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism is unknown and the varying appearance of the pancreas in these samples confounds interpretation of diseases such as chronic pancreatitis. PMID:25850824

  7. Urinary tract manifestations of protothecosis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pressler, Barrak M; Gookin, Jody L; Sykes, Jane E; Wolf, Alice M; Vaden, Shelly L

    2005-01-01

    Records of 13 dogs with systemic infection with Prototheca sp. from 3 veterinary teaching hospitals were reviewed. Acute renal failure secondary to disseminated infection with Prototheca zopfii was diagnosed in 2 dogs. In 1 dog, acute renal failure developed during administration of immunosuppressive drugs for treatment of anterior uveitis. During diagnostic evaluation of this dog, Prototheca sp. organisms were noted in urine sediment and renal biopsy specimens. In the 2nd dog, acute renal failure was diagnosed after treatment for bacterial cystitis. After diagnosis of protothecosis, organisms were successfully isolated by aerobic urine culture. Both dogs with acute renal failure did not respond to conventional medical therapy. In total, Prototheca sp. was noted in urine sediment in 4 of 8 dogs and successfully cultured from urine in 5 of 7 dogs. Four of 5 dogs had organisms noted in the kidneys on histopathologic examination. In all dogs, the species identified was P zopfii. Sensitivity testing of 3 isolates revealed wide differences in in vitro drug resistance. Examination and culture of urine is recommended as a practical method for diagnosis of systemic infection with Prototheca sp. PMID:15715059

  8. Efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae in the control of infestation by stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), under natural infestation conditions.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Vazquez, C; Carvajal Márquez, J; Lezama-Gutiérrez, R; Vitela-Mendoza, I; Ramos-Parra, M

    2015-09-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an isolate of Metarhizium anisopliae applied by aspersion to control of Stomoxys calcitrans flies in dairy cattle naturally infested. Was applied by aspersion an aqueous formulation of M. anisopliae sensu lato (Ma134), at a concentration of 1×10(8)conidia/ml, four times with seven day intervals, on a group of eight Holstein cows; a control group of eight Holstein cows, received a water solution with Tween 80 (0.1%). The average number of flies per animal was estimated one day before each application, and then daily counts were done in both groups. The effectiveness of the formulation was calculated using the Abbott's formula. At the same time, defensive behaviors of stamp/kicks and tail movements were evaluated daily, estimating relative frequency per hour. The Ma134 formulation had an infestation control efficacy of 73%, taking into consideration the four study weeks. The population reduction effect was observed since the first week post-application (p<0.05), and the effect increased with the subsequent applications. Defensive behaviors were reduced beginning from the first application, reaching a reduction of 66% and 70%, respectively, during the four weeks of study. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of the formulation to control infestation by S. calcitrans, as well as reduce defensive behaviors which involves the infestation. PMID:26209932

  9. Going to the Dogs: The Dog and I, LLC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Priscilla

    2008-01-01

    How do you go from being a successful mechanical engineer or the manager of an optical store to giving up the security of those positions and caring for man's best friend? Just ask the mother and daughter team of Diane Holstein and Lisa Ferrerio, co-owners of The Dog and I. Everyone has the dream of doing a job they love, but not everyone can make…

  10. Behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Notari, Lorella; Burman, Oliver; Mills, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    In human medicine, psychiatric side effects among patients on corticosteroid therapy are widely reported, but this appears to have been largely overlooked in the animal literature despite glucocorticoids being widely used in veterinary medicine. Therefore the aim of the current study was to identify possible psycho-behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids. Two different methodologies were used. Firstly, dog owners were asked to fill a 12 item questionnaire aimed at further validating the initial results of a previous survey relating to changes seen when their dog was receiving corticosteroid treatment. In a second study, a population of dogs undertook behavioural tests aimed at objectively identifying changes when receiving corticosteroid therapy. In the first study, a sample of owners whose dogs were receiving treatment for dermatological, orthopaedic or other conditions evaluated their dogs' behaviour on and off therapy, using a seven point scale. The survey was completed by 44 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with a range of corticosteroid preparations (mainly prednisolone and methylprednisolone) and 54 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with other drugs, mainly antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Dogs under corticosteroid treatment were reported to be significantly less playful, more nervous/restless, more fearful/less confident, more aggressive in the presence of food, more prone to barking, more prone to startle, more prone to reacting aggressively when disturbed, and more prone to avoiding people or unusual situations. In the second study, eleven “treatment” dogs were tested both before and during corticosteroid treatment with either methyl-prednisolone or prednisolone to assess their sensitivity to a potentially aversive sound stimulus. Eleven control dogs were also tested at the same time intervals in the same environment. Dogs were exposed to a brief dog growl while they explored bowls containing food

  11. Welcoming max: Increasing pediatric provider knowledge of service dogs.

    PubMed

    Stace, Laura Britton

    2016-08-01

    Service dogs have been used in the adult population for decades. Recently, there has been a diversification in types of service dogs, specifically for the pediatric population. Although guide dogs and mobility dogs are accepted in society, autism assistance dogs, seizure alert and response dogs and diabetic alert dogs are relatively new. As pediatric service dogs attract more attention, pediatric providers need to be prepared to answer parental inquires regarding service dog use. The pediatric provider is well equipped to identify children who could benefit from a service dog intervention and should be able to make a referral to a reputable service dog provider. This article presents guidance on appropriate patient selection, making a service dog referral, and risks and benefits involved. Pediatric providers are ideally positioned to be leaders in implementing this evolving new assistive technology that can help to alleviate pediatric disabilities for both the patient and family. PMID:27502802

  12. Degenerative myelopathy in two Boxer dogs.

    PubMed

    Miller, A D; Barber, R; Porter, B F; Peters, R M; Kent, M; Platt, S R; Schatzberg, S J

    2009-07-01

    Degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a common, slowly progressive, debilitating disease reported in several dog breeds, including the German Shepherd Dog and Pembroke Welsh Corgi. Boxer dogs present occasionally for a thoracolumbar myelopathy for which no cause is identified on MRI or cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Despite a lack of a histologic description of DM in the Boxer in the veterinary literature, such dogs are presumed to have DM. Here we report 2 histologically confirmed cases of DM in the Boxer breed in which histologic studies disclosed marked degenerative changes in the spinal cord that were most prominent in the thoracic and cranial lumbar segments. Lesions consisted of myelin vacuolation and degeneration, myelophagocytosis, reactive astrocytosis, and ellipsoid formation most prominent in the lateral and ventral funiculi. We present a detailed histologic description of DM in the Boxer dog and compare it to DM in other purebred dogs. PMID:19276068

  13. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Renfu; Ariana, Diwan P.

    2011-06-01

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labor intensive and also prone to error due to human fatigue and the difficulty of visually detecting infestation that is hidden inside the fruit. In this research, a laboratory hyperspectral imaging system was used to detect fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers. Hyperspectral reflectance (450-740 nm) and transmittance (740-1,000 nm) images were acquired simultaneously for 329 normal (infestation free) and fruit flyinfested pickling cucumbers of three size classes with the mean diameters of 16.8, 22.1, and 27.6 mm, respectively. Mean spectra were extracted from the hyperspectral image of each cucumber, and they were then corrected for the fruit size effect using a diameter correction equation. Partial least squares discriminant analyses for the reflectance, transmittance and their combined data were performed for differentiating normal and infested pickling cucumbers. With reflectance mode, the overall classification accuracies for the three size classes and mixed class were between 82% and 88%, whereas transmittance achieved better classification results with the overall accuracies of 88%-93%. Integration of reflectance and transmittance did not result in noticeable improvements, compared to transmittance mode. Overall, the hyperspectral imaging system performed better than manual inspection, which had an overall accuracy of 75% and decreased significantly for smaller size cucumbers. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is potentially useful for detecting fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers.

  14. Spatial Heterogeneity and Risk Maps of Community Infestation by Triatoma infestans in Rural Northwestern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M.; Spillmann, Cynthia; Zaidenberg, Mario; Gürtler, Ricardo E.; Kitron, Uriel

    2012-01-01

    Background Fifty years of residual insecticide spraying to control Triatoma infestans in the Gran Chaco region of northern Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia shows that vertically coordinated interventions aiming at full coverage have limited effects and are unsustainable. We quantified the spatial distribution of T. infestans domestic infestation at the district level, identified environmental factors associated with high infestation and then explored the usefulness of risk maps for the spatial stratification of interventions. Methods and Findings We performed spatial analyses of house infestation data collected by the National Chagas Service in Moreno Department, northern Argentina (1999–2002). Clusters of high domestic infestation occurred in the southwestern extreme of the district. A multi-model selection approach showed that domestic infestation clustered in areas of low elevation, with few farmlands, high density of rural houses, high mean maximum land surface temperature, large NDVI, and high percentage of degraded and deforested lands. The best model classified 98.4% of the communities in the training dataset (sensitivity, 93.3%; specificity, 95.4%). The risk map evidenced that the high-risk area only encompassed 16% of the district. By building a network-based transportation model we assessed the operational costs of spatially contiguous and spatially targeted interventions. Targeting clusters of high infestation would have reached ∼80% of all communities slated for full-coverage insecticide spraying, reducing in half the total time and economic cost incurred by a spatially contiguous strategy. Conclusions and Significance In disperse rural areas where control programs can accomplish limited coverage, consideration of infestation hot spots can contribute to the design and execution of cost-effective interventions against Chagas disease vectors. If field validated, targeted vertical control in high risk areas and horizontal control in medium to low risk

  15. Acceptance of Dog Guides and Daily Stress Levels of Dog Guide Users and Nonusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsunaka, Kumiko; Koda, Naoko

    2008-01-01

    The degree of acceptance of dog guides at public facilities, which is required by law in Japan, was investigated, and evidence of rejection was found. Japanese people with visual impairments who used dog guides reported higher daily stress levels than did those who did not use dog guides. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  16. "What Are All These Dogs Doing at School?" Using Therapy Dogs to Promote Children's Reading Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses how registered therapy dogs can motivate and support children as they practice reading aloud in the company of the dog and with the support of the dog's handler. It also offers practical advice to educators, librarians, administrators, and community members seeking to implement such a program in their communities.

  17. Diagnosis and Management of Cholesteatomas in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Risselada, Marije

    2016-07-01

    Surgical intervention of aural cholesteatomas in dogs can be curative. Imaging findings include a soft tissue density in the middle ear and destruction of the bone of the bulla with characteristics of an aggressive lesion. Dogs with early stage disease have a better outcome than those with chronic disease, temporal bone involvement and neurologic signs. Dogs with recurrent disease can be reoperated or managed medically with long-term resolution or palliation of clinical signs. PMID:26972889

  18. Congenital anorectal abnormalities in six dogs.

    PubMed

    Prassinos, N N; Papazoglou, L G; Adamama-Moraitou, K K; Galatos, A D; Gouletsou, P; Rallis, T S

    2003-07-19

    Congenital anorectal abnormalities were diagnosed in three male and three female dogs. One dog had anal stenosis, three had a persistent anal membrane, and the other two had an imperforate anus associated with a rectovaginal fistula. Five of the dogs were treated surgically, and four of them which were followed up for periods ranging from one to five years continued to pass faeces normally. PMID:12892267

  19. Humanity's Dual Response to Dogs and Wolves.

    PubMed

    Treves, Adrian; Bonacic, Cristian

    2016-07-01

    Dogs were first domesticated 31 000-41 000 years ago. Humanity has experienced ecological costs and benefits from interactions with dogs and wolves. We propose that humans inherited a dual response of attraction or aversion that expresses itself independently to domestic and wild canids. The dual response has had far-reaching consequences for the ecology and evolution of all three taxa, including today's global 'ecological paw print' of 1 billion dogs and recent eradications of wolves. PMID:27185394

  20. Dirofilaria infections in working dogs in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Miterpáková, M; Antolová, D; Hurníková, Z; Dubinský, P; Pavlacka, A; Németh, J

    2010-06-01

    A monitoring programme aimed at the diagnosis of subcutaneous dirofilariasis and heartworm disease in working (police and military) dogs in Slovakia has been performed during the period of September 2007 to February 2008. In co-operation with the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of Defence, in total, 710 dogs (591 police dogs and 119 military dogs) were investigated for the presence of microfilariae in blood. All police and military dogs in active service held on the territory of Slovakia were included. Microfilariae were detected in 118 (20.0%) police dogs and 10 (8.4%) military dogs. The most infected individuals originated from southern parts of Slovakia (Trnava region 53.6% and Nitra region 39.6%); the prevalence was low in northern regions (Zilina 3.1% and Presov 6.6%). In several districts of southern Slovakia, the prevalence of subcutaneous dirofilariasis in working dogs exceeded 40%. In all infected animals, the autochthonous origin of the disease was confirmed; however, due to the frequent movement of working dogs, it was not possible to identify the exact locality of infection. At present, a dog living in Nemsová village in Trencín district (north-western part of the country) is regarded as the northernmost localized autochthonous case of subcutaneous dirofilariasis in Slovakia. In three dogs, co-infection of Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis was detected. High prevalence rates in working dogs and the zoonotic characteristic of the disease represent an undoubtedly important veterinary and medical problem that requires the urgent introduction of prophylactic and control measures. PMID:19728899

  1. Malicious paraquat poisoning in Oklahoma dogs.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, K; Brizzee-Buxton, B; Gatto, N; Edwards, W C; Stair, E L; Logan, C

    1998-06-01

    Paraquat is a restricted use herbicide which is extremely toxic to companion animals when ingested. This report details one incident of malicious poisoning involving 6 dogs. All dogs were from the same geographic area, and 5 had pulmonary and renal lesions consistent with paraquat toxicosis. Diagnosis was initiated by a modified dithionite spot test on vomitus from 1 dog. Subsequent tissue paraquat levels ranged from non-detectable to 1 ppm. PMID:9610494

  2. Gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis in a dog

    PubMed Central

    OKADA, Kazuki; AMANO, Shinjiro; KAWAMURA, Yoshio; KAGAWA, Yumiko

    2015-01-01

    An 8-year-old, spayed, female Shiba dog was presented to a referring veterinarian with a complaint of chronic diarrhea and anorexia. Ultrasound and radiographs revealed an irregular mass in the pelvic cavity. The mass and the affected section of colon were surgically removed. Histopathological examination revealed multifocal coalescing granulomas and effaced intestinal structures. Central necrotic debris surrounded by multinucleated giant cells, lymphocytes, plasma cells and neutrophils was observed. Numerous, irregularly branched hyphae with pale basophilic, thin walls and occasional bulbous enlargements at the tips were present. Polymerase chain reaction identified Basidiobolus ranarum, successfully confirming a definitive diagnosis of basidiobolomycosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of intestinal basidiobolomycosis in a dog. PMID:25960121

  3. Coccygeal chordoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Munday, John S; Brown, Cathy A; Weiss, Raul

    2003-05-01

    A 4-cm diameter spherical mass was removed from the region of the second coccygeal vertebra of a 6-year-old female Doberman Pinscher dog. The mass had been present for 7 months and was described as multilobular and smooth. Histologically, the neoplasm consisted of small spindle-shaped cells surrounding lobules of large vacuolated polygonal cells. Mucin was present within most lobules. The large polygonal cells stained positively with antibodies against vimentin, cytokeratin, and S-100 protein. Although the spindle-shaped cells stained positively with antibodies against vimentin, they only occasionally contained cytokeratin. The histology and immunohistochemistry are consistent with that reported for chordoma. Although 4 chordomas have previously been reported in dogs, this is the first case in which immunohistochemistry has been used to support the histological diagnosis. Neither recurrence nor metastasis was reported 10 months after surgical excision. PMID:12735353

  4. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  5. El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effects on Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) infestation in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Woli, P; Ortiz, B V; Buntin, D; Flanders, K

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability is expected to have an influence on the population of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a serious insect pest of winter wheat in the southeastern United States. This study had two objectives: 1) to examine the effects of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on Hessian fly infestation and 2) to develop a weather-based Hessian fly infestation model for wheat yield loss prediction. At least 20 years of Hessian fly infestation and wheat yield records from two locations in South Georgia were used for this study. The yearly values of infestation were separated by ENSO phase and tested to assess the infestation differences across ENSO phases. Each year, yield losses from infestation were calculated by subtracting the yields of resistant varieties from those of susceptible ones. The yield losses were then separated by ENSO phase and tested. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify the contribution of monthly weather variables and changes in wheat acreage to Hessian fly infestation. Results showed that Hessian fly infestation and yield losses were greatest during the La Niña and least during the El Niño phase. The weather conditions that significantly increased the risk for infestation were those of the August-February period. The risk of infestation was higher during August-September under wetter, cooler conditions and during October-February under drier, warmer conditions. These findings could help wheat growers reduce the risk of infestation in the years that are expected to have more infestation through the adoption of necessary mitigation measures before the crop season. PMID:25290163

  6. The effect of northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) infestation on hen physiology, physical condition, and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Vezzoli, Giuseppe; King, Annie J; Mench, Joy A

    2016-05-01

    The northern fowl mite (NFM),Ornithonyssus sylviarum, is the most common ectoparasite of laying hens in North America. Infestation can cause a reduction in egg production, egg weights, and feed conversion efficiency. However, there is a lack of information on the effects of NFM on hen physiology, physical condition, and egg quality. Singly caged beak-trimmed White Leghorn hens (N=32) were infested with mites at 25 wk of age. The condition of each hen was assessed at wk 0 (infestation) and wk 5 and 7 post-infestation to determine comb temperatures and feather, skin, and comb condition. Heterophil-lymphocyte (H/L) ratios and body weight (BW) were evaluated at wk 0 and wk 1, 3, 5, and 7 post-infestation. Egg weight, egg specific gravity, yolk color, Haugh unit (HU), and eggshell thickness were determined prior to infestation (wk -1) and at 1, 3, 5, and 7 wk post-infestation. The H/L ratio (P<0.0001), HU (P<0.0001), and egg specific gravity (P=0.001) were lowest, and the egg yolk color was lightest (P=0.087) at wk 5, the peak of infestation. At wk 5 and 7, more than 65% of the hens had red skin and more than 75% had scabs on the vent; in addition more than 84% had grey-black vent feathers. There were no effects of infestation on comb color, comb temperature, feather cover, BW, or eggshell thickness. It was concluded that infestation with NFM has negative effects on interior egg quality and hen integument. A decrease in H/L ratio was also observed at the peak of infestation. However, the effects of NFM on the immune system are unclear, and H/L ratio might not be a good stress measure in hens highly infested with NFM. PMID:26944982

  7. Essential thrombocythemia in a dog.

    PubMed

    Mizukoshi, Takeshi; Fujino, Yasuhito; Yasukawa, Kuniyoshi; Matumoto, Hidefumi; Matsumura, Shingo; Nagasaki, Teppei; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Shimoda, Tetsuya

    2006-11-01

    A two-year old male Welsh Corgi was referred for persistent thrombocytosis and occasional seizure. Hematological findings indicated marked thrombocytosis, eosinophilia, basophilia and moderate anemia. Bone marrow examination revealed marked megakaryocytic hyperplasia with morphologic abnormality. A diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia was made and the treatment was initiated with combination chemotherapy and maintained by prednisolone and busulfan. The dog successfully achieved complete remission on 100 days after initial presentation and has been good in health without chemotherapy since then. PMID:17146180

  8. Pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol in dogs.

    PubMed

    Samara, E; Bialer, M; Mechoulam, R

    1988-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the major nonpsychoactive cannabinoids produced by Cannabis sativa L. Recent studies have shown that CBD has a high protective index, comparable to that of phenobarbital and phenytoin. Because CBD has been reported to possess both anticonvulsant and antiepileptic activity, its pharmacokinetics were studied in dogs after the administration of two iv doses (45 and 90 mg) and one oral dose (180 mg) to dogs. After iv administration, CBD was rapidly distributed, followed by a prolonged elimination. It has a terminal half-life of 9 hr. CBD plasma levels declined in a triphasic fashion. The total body clearance of CBD was 17 liters/hr (after the 45-mg dose) and 16 liters/hr (after the 90-mg dose). This clearance value, after its normalization to blood clearance using mathematical equations, approaches the value of the hepatic blood flow; the extraction ratio in the liver is 0.74. CBD was observed to have a large volume of distribution, approximately 100 liters. In the dose range of 45 to 90 mg, the increase in the AUC was proportional to the dose, a fact that indicates that the pharmacokinetic profile of CBD in this dose range was not dose dependent. In three of the six dogs studied, CBD could not be detected in the plasma after oral administration. In the other three, the oral bioavailability ranged from 13 to 19%. The results of this study show that CBD is barely absorbed after oral administration to dogs. This low bioavailability may be due to a first pass effect. PMID:2900742

  9. [Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in dogs].

    PubMed

    van Noort, R

    1990-07-01

    Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is the most common cause of maldigestion in dogs. This is usually caused by irreversible atrophy of the pancreas which subsequently requires life-long substitution therapy. The pathophysiology, symptoms and diagnosis are briefly reviewed in the present paper. The Trypsin-like-immunoreactivity test is recommended for establishing the diagnosis. Finally, treatment and possible causes of the failure of therapy are discussed. PMID:2196714

  10. Blastomycosis in a postpartum dog.

    PubMed

    Panciera, David L; Troy, Gregory C; Purswell, Beverly J

    2014-10-01

    Transplacental infection with Blastomyces dermatitidis is rare in humans and unknown in the dog. A Doberman pinscher bitch was diagnosed with blastomycosis 25 days after whelping. Clinical signs were noted after whelping and were progressive. All 9 pups were free of clinical signs and had negative urine Blastomyces antigen tests at 6 weeks of age and remained free of signs of illness through 11 months of age. The bitch responded to treatment with itraconazole. PMID:25379395

  11. Pneumatosis coli in a dog.

    PubMed

    Russell, Nicholas J; Tyrrell, Dayle; Irwin, Peter J; Beck, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    A 17-year-old, castrated male Maltese was presented with chronic polyphagia and a 2-week history of tenesmus, diarrhea, hematochezia, weight loss, and ribbon-like feces. Pneumatosis coli was diagnosed by abdominal radiography. Concurrent hyperadrenocorticism was suspected. The clinical signs of colorectal disease resolved within 2 days of initiating a lowresidue diet and oral metronidazole. Pneumatosis coli should be considered as a differential diagnosis for colorectal disease in dogs. PMID:18175797

  12. Blastomycosis in a postpartum dog

    PubMed Central

    Panciera, David L.; Troy, Gregory C.; Purswell, Beverly J.

    2014-01-01

    Transplacental infection with Blastomyces dermatitidis is rare in humans and unknown in the dog. A Doberman pinscher bitch was diagnosed with blastomycosis 25 days after whelping. Clinical signs were noted after whelping and were progressive. All 9 pups were free of clinical signs and had negative urine Blastomyces antigen tests at 6 weeks of age and remained free of signs of illness through 11 months of age. The bitch responded to treatment with itraconazole. PMID:25379395

  13. Dogs' social referencing towards owners and strangers.

    PubMed

    Merola, Isabella; Prato-Previde, Emanuela; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Social referencing is a process whereby an individual uses the emotional information provided by an informant about a novel object/stimulus to guide his/her own future behaviour towards it. In this study adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving a potentially scary object with either their owner or a stranger acting as the informant and delivering either a positive or negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate the influence of the informant's identity on the dogs' referential looking behaviour and behavioural regulation when the message was delivered using only vocal and facial emotional expressions. Results show that most dogs looked referentially at the informant, regardless of his/her identity. Furthermore, when the owner acted as the informant dogs that received a positive emotional message changed their behaviour, looking at him/her more often and spending more time approaching the object and close to it; conversely, dogs that were given a negative message took longer to approach the object and to interact with it. Fewer differences in the dog's behaviour emerged when the informant was the stranger, suggesting that the dog-informant relationship may influence the dog's behavioural regulation. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment, mood modification and joint attention. PMID:23071828

  14. Diagnosis of food allergy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Rosser, E J

    1993-07-15

    The diagnosis of food allergy was confirmed in 51 dogs while the responsiveness to a 60-day home-cooked restricted dietary trial (elimination-diet trial) was evaluated. The primary clinical sign of allergy detected and evaluated in all dogs was persistent and nonseasonally pruritic skin disease. The duration of time between starting the elimination-diet trial and remission of clinical signs was recorded. Dogs were then reexposed to diets that had been fed before testing, and the duration of time before pruritus recurred was recorded. The elapsed time during which dogs were being fed an elimination diet before remission of clinical signs was 1 to 3 weeks in 13 dogs, 4 to 6 weeks in 25 dogs, 7 to 8 weeks in 10 dogs, and 9 to 10 weeks in 3 dogs. Findings indicated that the recommendation of a 3-week elimination-diet trial for diagnosis of food allergy was adequate for only 25% of the dogs. It is recommended that test diets be fed for at least 10 weeks before a food allergy is ruled out. PMID:8407485

  15. Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal in Dogs with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gesell, Felix Kaspar; Hoppe, Sonja; Löscher, Wolfgang; Tipold, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs and is treated by chronic administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In human beings with epilepsy, it is common clinical practice to consider drug withdrawal after a patient has been in remission (seizure free) for three or more years, but withdrawal is associated with the risk of relapse. In the present study, the consequences of AED withdrawal were studied in dogs with epilepsy. Therefore, 200 owners of dogs with idiopathic or presumed idiopathic epilepsy were contacted by telephone interview, 138 cases could be enrolled. In 11 cases, the therapy had been stopped after the dogs had become seizure free for a median time of 1 year. Reasons for AED withdrawal were appearance or fear of adverse side effects, financial aspects, and the idea that the medication could be unnecessary. Following AED withdrawal, four of these dogs remained seizure free, seven dogs suffered from seizure recurrence, of which only three dogs could regain seizure freedom after resuming AED therapy. Due to the restricted case number, an exact percentage of dogs with seizure recurrence after AED withdrawal cannot be given. However, the present study gives a hint that similar numbers as in human patients are found, and the data can help owners of epileptic dogs and the responsible clinician to decide when and why to stop antiepileptic medication. PMID:26664952

  16. [Keeping dogs indoor aggravates infantile atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Endo, K; Hizawa, T; Fukuzumi, T; Kataoka, Y

    1999-12-01

    We had a two-month-old girl with severe dermatitis since birth. Her serum RAST to HD, Df and Dp were 1.06, 0.03 and 0.01 Ua/ml respectively. A Yorkshire terrier were kept at her mother's parents' home where the patient had lived for a month since birth. Her eczema, which became markedly aggravated whenever she visited there, improved after the elimination of the dog. We investigated the relationship between keeping dogs and infantile atopic dermatitis. We studied 368 patients under the age of two years (211 boys and 157 girls). Skin symptoms were graded globally mild, moderate or severe. Total serum IgE and specific antibody titer to dog dander were measured. We asked them whether they kept dogs and specifically, where they kept dogs, outdoor, indoor, in their own house, or in their grandparents' house. 197 patients had no contact with dogs, 90 patients kept dogs outdoor and 81 patients did indoor. The positive rate of RAST (> or = 0.7 Ua/ml) to dog dander was 6.1%, 17.8% and 46.9% respectively in these three groups. There were strong statistical differences between three groups. On the other hand, among the 81 patients who kept indoor, the RAST positive rates were almost same regarding where the dogs were kept, in their own house or their grandparents' house. Interestingly this difference happens only with patients under the age of 3 months. Patients older than 4 months showed no significant differences in the positive RAST rates, whether they kept dogs indoor or outdoor. This suggests the sensitization occurs before the age of 3 months. Speaking of symptoms, patients who kept dogs indoor showed significantly more severe symptoms than patients who had no contact with dogs and patients who kept dogs outdoor. There was no significant difference between the symptoms of patients who had no contact with dogs and those of patients who kept dogs outdoor. This implies the patient's symptom will improve only by moving the dog out of the house. PMID:10666918

  17. [Recognizing and assessing aggressive behaviour in dogs].

    PubMed

    Schalke, E; Hackbarth, H

    2006-03-01

    Within the population the sensitivity to aggressive behaviour in dogs has increased. The authorities are confronted with a problem: if any incident occurs it is their task to decide whether the dogs involved constitute a threat to other people or whether the charge is only the result of a quarrel between neighbours. For this reason, an examination of the dogs with regard to their aggressive behaviour is necessary. Seen from the biological point of view, aggressive behaviour is one of four possibilities a dog can chose from to solve a conflict. The dog's intention in showing aggressive behaviour is to eliminate disturbances and to maintain a distance in space and time. Aggressive behaviour might also be necessary to acquire or defend resources essential to the dog's life. This is to secure its survival and its success in reproduction. One can see from this that aggressive behaviour is a very important and biologically necessary adjustment factor. However, when living together with man aggressive behaviour might become a problem. For the assessment and the therapy of the problem it is necessary to exa-mine the behaviour shown by the dog with regard to its cause. To be able to do this an exact anamnesis, a medical check, and an examination of the dog on the basis of its display in special situations are necessary. For this reason, exclusively veterinarians with a special further education in the field of behaviour should carry out the examination of dogs. PMID:16669189

  18. Pea aphid infestation induces changes in flavonoids, antioxidative defence, soluble sugars and sugar transporter expression in leaves of pea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Morkunas, Iwona; Woźniak, Agnieszka; Formela, Magda; Mai, Van Chung; Marczak, Łukasz; Narożna, Dorota; Borowiak-Sobkowiak, Beata; Kühn, Christina; Grimm, Bernhard

    2016-07-01

    The perception of aphid infestation induces highly coordinated and sequential defensive reactions in plants at the cellular and molecular levels. The aim of the study was to explore kinetics of induced antioxidative defence responses in leaf cells of Pisum sativum L.cv. Cysterski upon infestation of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum at varying population sizes, including accumulation of flavonoids, changes of carbon metabolism, and expression of nuclear genes involved in sugar transport. Within the first 96 h, after A. pisum infestation, flavonoid accumulation and increased peroxidase activity were observed in leaves. The level of pisatin increased after 48 h of infestation and reached a maximum at 96 h. At this time point, a higher concentration of flavonols was observed in the infested tissue than in the control. Additionally, strong post-infestation accumulation of chalcone synthase (CHS) and isoflavone synthase (IFS) transcription products was also found. The levels of sucrose and fructose in 24-h leaves infested by 10, 20, and 30 aphids were significantly lower than in the control. Moreover, in leaves infested by 30 aphids, the reduced sucrose level observed up to 48 h was accompanied by a considerable increase in the expression level of the PsSUT1 gene encoding the sucrose transporter. In conclusion, A. pisum infestation on pea leads to stimulation of metabolic pathways associated with defence. PMID:26239447

  19. Wide Ranging Insect Infestation of the Pioneer Mangrove Sonneratia alba by Two Insect Species along the Kenyan Coast.

    PubMed

    Jenoh, Elisha Mrabu; Robert, Elisabeth M R; Lehmann, Ingo; Kioko, Esther; Bosire, Jared O; Ngisiange, Noah; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Insect infestation of mangroves currently threatens mangrove forest health and management. In the Western Indian Ocean region, little is known about insect damage to mangroves despite the fact that numerous infestations have occurred. In Kenya, infestations of Sonneratia alba have persisted for almost two decades, yet the taxonomic identity of the infesting pest(s), the extent of infestation, the pests' biology, the impacts of infestation on host and the ecosystem, the host's defensive strategies to the infestation are poorly understood. S. alba is a ubiquitous, pioneer mangrove species of the Indo-Pacific, occurring along the waterfront in a variety of mangrove ecosystem settings. Our main objectives were to identify the pest(s) responsible for the current dieback of S. alba in Kenya, and to determine the extent of infestation. To identify the pests responsible for infestation, we trapped emergent insects and reared larvae in the laboratory. To determine the overall extent of infestation within the S. alba zone, we assessed nine sites along the entire Kenyan coastline for the presence or absence of infested mangroves. Insect infestation in two mangrove embayments (Gazi and Mida) was quantified in depth. Two wood-boring insects were identified: a metarbelid moth (Lepidoptera, Cossoidea) of undescribed genus and the beetle Bottegia rubra (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae).The metarbelid moth infests mangroves in both northern (from Ngomeni to Kiunga) and southern regions (from Vanga to Mtwapa) of the Kenyan coast. B. rubra appeared in low density in Gazi, and in high density in Mida, Kilifi, and Ngomeni, with densities gradually decreasing northward. Insect infestation levels reached 18% in Gazi and 25% of S. alba stands in Mida. Our results indicate that B. rubra has the ability to infest young mangrove trees and expand its range, posing a danger to rehabilitation efforts where plantations have been established. Thus, there is great need for forest managers to address the

  20. Wide Ranging Insect Infestation of the Pioneer Mangrove Sonneratia alba by Two Insect Species along the Kenyan Coast

    PubMed Central

    Jenoh, Elisha Mrabu; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Lehmann, Ingo; Kioko, Esther; Bosire, Jared O.; Ngisiange, Noah; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Insect infestation of mangroves currently threatens mangrove forest health and management. In the Western Indian Ocean region, little is known about insect damage to mangroves despite the fact that numerous infestations have occurred. In Kenya, infestations of Sonneratia alba have persisted for almost two decades, yet the taxonomic identity of the infesting pest(s), the extent of infestation, the pests’ biology, the impacts of infestation on host and the ecosystem, the host’s defensive strategies to the infestation are poorly understood. S. alba is a ubiquitous, pioneer mangrove species of the Indo-Pacific, occurring along the waterfront in a variety of mangrove ecosystem settings. Our main objectives were to identify the pest(s) responsible for the current dieback of S. alba in Kenya, and to determine the extent of infestation. To identify the pests responsible for infestation, we trapped emergent insects and reared larvae in the laboratory. To determine the overall extent of infestation within the S. alba zone, we assessed nine sites along the entire Kenyan coastline for the presence or absence of infested mangroves. Insect infestation in two mangrove embayments (Gazi and Mida) was quantified in depth. Two wood-boring insects were identified: a metarbelid moth (Lepidoptera, Cossoidea) of undescribed genus and the beetle Bottegia rubra (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae).The metarbelid moth infests mangroves in both northern (from Ngomeni to Kiunga) and southern regions (from Vanga to Mtwapa) of the Kenyan coast. B. rubra appeared in low density in Gazi, and in high density in Mida, Kilifi, and Ngomeni, with densities gradually decreasing northward. Insect infestation levels reached 18% in Gazi and 25% of S. alba stands in Mida. Our results indicate that B. rubra has the ability to infest young mangrove trees and expand its range, posing a danger to rehabilitation efforts where plantations have been established. Thus, there is great need for forest managers to address

  1. Skin infections and infestations in Aboriginal communities in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Currie, B J; Carapetis, J R

    2000-08-01

    The most important skin infections in Aboriginal communities in central and northern Australia are scabies and streptococcal pyoderma. Scabies is endemic in many remote Aboriginal communities, with prevalences in children up to 50%. The cycles of scabies transmission underlie much of the pyoderma. Up to 70% of children have skin sores, with group A streptococcus (GAS) the major pathogen. Group A streptococcus is responsible for the continuing outbreaks of post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis and acute rheumatic fever (ARF). The cycles of scabies transmission in dogs and humans do not appear to significantly overlap. Guidelines have been developed for community control of scabies and skin sores and successful community initiated coordinated programmes have occurred. The anthropophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum is ubiquitous in many communities, again reflecting living conditions. Other skin infections related to the tropical environment include melioidosis, nocardiosis, Chromobacterium violaceum and chromoblastomycosis. Sustainable and long-term improvements in scabies, skin sores and GAS-related disease and tinea require fundamental changes that address social and economic inequities and, in particular, living conditions and overcrowding. PMID:10954983

  2. Influence of Household Rat Infestation on Leptospira Transmission in the Urban Slum Environment

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Federico; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Felzemburgh, Ridalva D. M.; Santos, Norlan; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Santos, Andreia C.; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothe; Araujo, Wildo N.; Santana, Carlos; Childs, James E.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the principal reservoir for leptospirosis in many urban settings. Few studies have identified markers for rat infestation in slum environments while none have evaluated the association between household rat infestation and Leptospira infection in humans or the use of infestation markers as a predictive model to stratify risk for leptospirosis. Methodology/Principal Findings We enrolled a cohort of 2,003 urban slum residents from Salvador, Brazil in 2004, and followed the cohort during four annual serosurveys to identify serologic evidence for Leptospira infection. In 2007, we performed rodent infestation and environmental surveys of 80 case households, in which resided at least one individual with Leptospira infection, and 109 control households. In the case-control study, signs of rodent infestation were identified in 78% and 42% of the households, respectively. Regression modeling identified the presence of R. norvegicus feces (OR, 4.95; 95% CI, 2.13–11.47), rodent burrows (2.80; 1.06–7.36), access to water (2.79; 1.28–6.09), and un-plastered walls (2.71; 1.21–6.04) as independent risk factors associated with Leptospira infection in a household. We developed a predictive model for infection, based on assigning scores to each of the rodent infestation risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found that the prediction score produced a good/excellent fit based on an area under the curve of 0.78 (0.71–0.84). Conclusions/Significance Our study found that a high proportion of slum households were infested with R. norvegicus and that rat infestation was significantly associated with the risk of Leptospira infection, indicating that high level transmission occurs among slum households. We developed an easily applicable prediction score based on rat infestation markers, which identified households with highest infection risk. The use of the prediction score in community-based screening may

  3. Targeted versus standard bait station placement affects subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infestation rates.

    PubMed

    Jones, Susan C

    2003-10-01

    A major challenge to termite baiting in soil habitats is the prolonged time that it may take for subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) to infest stations. The objective of this research study was to determine whether the location of food sources (Sentricon in-ground monitoring stations and wooden monitors) influences the likelihood of infestation by termites. In field trials conducted at 15 structures in central Ohio, standard placement of stations at 3-4.5 m intervals was compared with targeted placements based on evidence of termite activity indoors and outdoors as well as conducive moisture conditions. Termites infested significantly more targeted placements (70/374) than standard placements (35/372) around structures. At the targeted placement sites, termites infested more wooden monitors than Sentricon stations, but this was not statistically significant. This implies that placement, rather than cellulose composition, was the more important factor. Termites first infested stations/monitors an average of 38 d sooner at targeted sites than standard placement sites. This research indicates that evidence of termite activity indoors and outdoors should be a prime consideration when placing in-ground stations. PMID:14650527

  4. Insect stings to change gear for healthy plant: Improving maize drought tolerance by whitefly infestation.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-05-01

    Since plants first appeared about 1.1 billion years ago, they have been faced with biotic and abiotic stresses in their environment. To overcome these stresses, plants developed defense strategies. Accumulating evidence suggests that the whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Genn.)] affects the regulation of plant defenses and physiology. A recent study demonstrates that aboveground whitefly infestation positively modulates root biomass and anthocyanin pigmentation on brace roots of maize plants (Zea mays L.). In agreement with these observations, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonic acid (JA) contents and the expression of IAA- and JA-related genes are higher in whitefly-infested maize plants than in non-infected control plants. Interestingly, the fresh weight of whitefly-infested maize plants is approximately 20% higher than in non-infected control plants under water stress conditions. Further investigation has revealed that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulates in whitefly-infested maize plants after water stoppage. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of phytohormones- (i.e., IAA and JA) and H2O2-mediated maize signaling pathways triggered by aboveground whitefly infestation promotes drought resistance. They also provide an insight into how inter-kingdom interactions can improve drought tolerance in plants. PMID:27164447

  5. Spectral Analysis of Ultraweak Chemiluminescence from Kidney Bean Leaf Infested with Tetranychus Kanzawai Kishida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Ryuzou; Miike, Tohru; Okabe, Hirotaka; Uefune, Masayoshi; Takabayashi, Junji; Takagi, Masami; Kai, Shoichi

    2005-02-01

    We performed the spectral analysis of ultraweak-photon emissions from kidney bean leaves infested by the kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae). We also measured the spectrum of photon emissions from artificially wounded leaves, and compared the result with spectral data obtained from the mite-infested leaves. Photon emissions from both the mite-infested and wounded leaves primarily consisted of wavelengths ranging from 500 to 700 nm, and photon intensity at these wavelengths increased steadily after perturbation. In contrast, photon intensity of the mite-infested leaves at 300-400 nm exhibited only differential changes; it began increasing at 20 h, and showed two peaks at 72 and 120 h. We previously reported that photon emissions from infested leaves might be the result of both insect damage and plant self-protection. Plant defensive responses, such as herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV), are induced by insect elicitors via insect damage. Therefore, photon intensity at 500-700 nm might be related to direct injury (physiological stress), while photon intensity at 300-400 nm may signify a physiological (biochemical)-action-related defensive response.

  6. A meta-analysis of association between acne ulgaris and Demodex infestation*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ya-e; Hu, Li; Wu, Li-ping; Ma, Jun-xian

    2012-01-01

    Until now, etiology of acne vulgaris is still uncertain. Although clinicians usually deny the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris, it has been proved in some clinical practices. To confirm the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris, a meta-analysis was conducted. Predefined selection criteria were applied to search all published papers that analyzed the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris (January 1950 to August 2011) in ISI Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on fixed effects models or random effects models. We enrolled the 60 Chinese and 3 English papers in this meta-analysis, which covered Turkey and 25 different provinces/municipalities in China and 42 130 participants including students and residents, aged from 1 to 78 years. The pooled OR in random effects models is 2.80 (95% CI, 2.34–3.36). Stability is robust according to sensitivity analysis. The fail-safe number is 18 477, suggesting that at least 18 477 articles with negative conclusions would be needed to reverse the conclusion that acne vulgaris was related to Demodex infestation. So the effect of publication bias was insignificant and could be ignored. It was concluded that acne vulgaris is associated with Demodex infestation. This indicates that when regular treatments for acne vulgaris are ineffective, examination of Demodex mites and necessary acaricidal therapies should be considered. PMID:22374611

  7. Differential Induction of Flavonoids in Groundnut in Response to Helicoverpa armigera and Aphis craccivora Infestation.

    PubMed

    War, Abdul Rashid; Sharma, Suraj Prasad; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are important plant secondary metabolites, which protect plants from various stresses, including herbivory. Plants differentially respond to insects with different modes of action. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting of phenols of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plants with differential levels of resistance was carried out in response to Helicoverpa armigera (chewing insect) and Aphis craccivora (sucking pest) infestation. The genotypes used were ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271 (NCAc 343), ICG 1697 (NCAc 17090), and JL 24. Most of the identified compounds were present in H. armigera- and A. craccivora-infested plants of ICGV 86699. Syringic acid was observed in all the genotypes across the treatments, except in the uninfested control plants of ICG 2271 and aphid-infested plants of ICG 1697. Caffeic acid and umbelliferone were observed only in the H. armigera-infested plants of ICGV 86699. Similarly, dihydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid were observed in H. armigera- and aphid-infested plants of ICG 2271 and JL 24, respectively. The peak areas were transformed into the amounts of compounds by using internal standard peak areas and were expressed in nanograms. Quantities of the identified compounds varied across genotypes and treatments. The common compounds observed were chlorogenic, syringic, quercetin, and ferulic acids. These results suggest that depending on the mode of feeding, flavonoids are induced differentially in groundnut plants. PMID:27398031

  8. Virulence of recurrent infestations with Borrelia-infected ticks in a Borrelia-amplifying bird

    PubMed Central

    Heylen, Dieter J. A.; Müller, Wendt; Vermeulen, Anke; Sprong, Hein; Matthysen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease cases caused by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. bacteria is increasing steadily in Europe, in part due to the expansion of the vector, Ixodes ricinus. Wild reservoir hosts are typically recurrently infested. Understanding the impact of these cumulative parasite exposures on the host’s health is, therefore, central to predict the distribution of tick populations and their pathogens. Here, we have experimentally investigated the symptoms of disease caused by recurrent infestations in a common songbird (Parus major). Birds were exposed three times in succession to ticks collected in a Borrelia endemic area. Health and immune measures were analyzed in order to investigate changes in response to tick infestation and Borrelia infection rate. Nitric oxide levels increased with the Borrelia infection rate, but this effect was increasingly counteracted by mounting tick infestation rates. Tick infestations equally reduced haematocrit during each cycle. But birds overcompensated in their response to tick feeding, having higher haematocrit values during tick-free periods depending on the number of ticks they had been previously exposed to. Body condition showed a similar overshooting response in function of the severity of the Borrelia infection. The observed overcompensation increases the bird’s energetic needs, which may result in an increase in transmission events. PMID:26553505

  9. Virulence of recurrent infestations with Borrelia-infected ticks in a Borrelia-amplifying bird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heylen, Dieter J. A.; Müller, Wendt; Vermeulen, Anke; Sprong, Hein; Matthysen, Erik

    2015-11-01

    Lyme disease cases caused by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. bacteria is increasing steadily in Europe, in part due to the expansion of the vector, Ixodes ricinus. Wild reservoir hosts are typically recurrently infested. Understanding the impact of these cumulative parasite exposures on the host’s health is, therefore, central to predict the distribution of tick populations and their pathogens. Here, we have experimentally investigated the symptoms of disease caused by recurrent infestations in a common songbird (Parus major). Birds were exposed three times in succession to ticks collected in a Borrelia endemic area. Health and immune measures were analyzed in order to investigate changes in response to tick infestation and Borrelia infection rate. Nitric oxide levels increased with the Borrelia infection rate, but this effect was increasingly counteracted by mounting tick infestation rates. Tick infestations equally reduced haematocrit during each cycle. But birds overcompensated in their response to tick feeding, having higher haematocrit values during tick-free periods depending on the number of ticks they had been previously exposed to. Body condition showed a similar overshooting response in function of the severity of the Borrelia infection. The observed overcompensation increases the bird’s energetic needs, which may result in an increase in transmission events.

  10. Impact of Oebalus pugnax (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Infestation Timing on Rice Yields and Quality.

    PubMed

    Awuni, G A; Gore, J; Cook, D; Musser, F; Catchot, A; Dobbins, C

    2015-08-01

    Sleeve and large field cage experiments were conducted in Stoneville, MS, in 2010 and 2011 to assess adult rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax (F.), injury in rice. 'Cocodrie' and 'Wells' were infested at bloom, milk, and soft dough stages of panicle development. Twenty rice panicles were infested individually in the sleeve cage experiment as replicates with 0, 1, or 2 O. pugnax in a split-plot, completely randomized design. The large cage experiment had four replications infested with 9 or 18 O. pugnax per square meter over multiple rice panicles in a split-plot, randomized complete block design per cultivar. Caged uninfested controls were included in each experiment. Rough rice yield and percentage of clean, damaged, and blank kernels were evaluated. In both experiments, stage of panicle development impacted grain yield and quality. Yield loss was greatest during the bloom stage, while kernel damage was greatest during the milk and soft dough stages. Rice yield decreased with increased infestation density. Kernel damage increased with increased infestation density. Blank kernels affect yield, while kernel damage affects grain quality. While grain yield is the bottom line, grain quality affects marketability, which directly affects yield profitability. Based on these results, this study considers O. pugnax injury significant in all three stages of panicle development and concludes that a more aggressive threshold is recommended from panicle emergence through soft dough. More research is needed to determine the specific threshold, but it appears to be lower than the current threshold of 5 per 10 sweeps. PMID:26470315

  11. Differential Induction of Flavonoids in Groundnut in Response to Helicoverpa armigera and Aphis craccivora Infestation

    PubMed Central

    War, Abdul Rashid; Sharma, Suraj Prasad; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are important plant secondary metabolites, which protect plants from various stresses, including herbivory. Plants differentially respond to insects with different modes of action. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting of phenols of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plants with differential levels of resistance was carried out in response to Helicoverpa armigera (chewing insect) and Aphis craccivora (sucking pest) infestation. The genotypes used were ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271 (NCAc 343), ICG 1697 (NCAc 17090), and JL 24. Most of the identified compounds were present in H. armigera- and A. craccivora-infested plants of ICGV 86699. Syringic acid was observed in all the genotypes across the treatments, except in the uninfested control plants of ICG 2271 and aphid-infested plants of ICG 1697. Caffeic acid and umbelliferone were observed only in the H. armigera-infested plants of ICGV 86699. Similarly, dihydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid were observed in H. armigera- and aphid-infested plants of ICG 2271 and JL 24, respectively. The peak areas were transformed into the amounts of compounds by using internal standard peak areas and were expressed in nanograms. Quantities of the identified compounds varied across genotypes and treatments. The common compounds observed were chlorogenic, syringic, quercetin, and ferulic acids. These results suggest that depending on the mode of feeding, flavonoids are induced differentially in groundnut plants. PMID:27398031

  12. A study on Maruca vitrata infestation of Yard-long beans (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis).

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, R C; Premachandra, W T S Dammini; Neilson, Roy

    2015-09-01

    Globally, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) is a serious yield constraint on food legumes including Yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis). However, there is a dearth of information on its damage potential, distribution and population dynamics in Yard-long beans. In the present study, the level of M. vitrata larval infestation on flowers and pods of Yard-long beans in Sri Lanka was determined with respect to three consecutive cropping seasons, Yala, Off and Maha. Results indicated that larval infestation and abundance varied with developmental stage of flowers and pods, cropping season and their combined interactive effects. Flowers of Yard-long beans were more prone to M. vitrata larval attack compared to pods. Abundance and level of infestation of M. vitrata varied with plant parts, having a ranking of flower buds (highest) > open flowers > mature pods > immature pods (lowest). Peak infestation was observed six and eight weeks after planting on flowers and pods, respectively. Among the three cropping seasons, M. vitrata infestation was found to be higher during Maha and Off seasons compared to Yala. The findings of this study contribute to the identified knowledge gap regarding the field biology of an acknowledged important pest, M. vitrata, in a previously understudied crop in Sri Lanka. PMID:27441212

  13. Effect of seasonal variations on jackfruit trunk borer (Batocera rufomaculata De Geer) infestation.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Alam, M Z; Hossain, M M; Miah, M G

    2013-04-01

    The study of seasonal influence on incidence of trunk borer infestation was undertaken during 2010 at Kapasia upazila under district of Gazipur, Bangladesh. The borer was found in orchard from June to September with a peak emergence in mid July. The larval population of Jackfruit trunk borer is the destructive pest stage, which evokes concern in jackfruit growing areas of Bangladesh. The highest percentage of infestation was in July (7.33%) followed by June and August (6.00%). The cumulative infestation over the year in the study area was 35.33% in October. The lowest infestation was observed in February (0.67%) whereas no activity was found during November to January. The incidence of infestation of trunk borer was influenced by temperature, rainfall and relative humidity due to seasonal variations and their contribution of the regression (R2) were 63, 65 and 31%, respectively. Five independent weather factors in stepwise regression equation pooled responsible for 67.4% of the total variance. Stepwise regression showed that maximum temperature was the most important to influence 35.3% and the influence was lowest (2.1%) in case of average rainfall. PMID:24498801

  14. Defense Responses in Rice Induced by Silicon Amendment against Infestation by the Leaf Folder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yongqiang; Li, Pei; Gong, Shaolong; Yang, Lang; Wen, Lizhang; Hou, Maolin

    2016-01-01

    Silicon (Si) amendment to plants can confer enhanced resistance to herbivores. In the present study, the physiological and cytological mechanisms underlying the enhanced resistance of plants with Si addition were investigated for one of the most destructive rice pests in Asian countries, the rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée). Activities of defense-related enzymes, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and polyphenol oxidase, and concentrations of malondialdehyde and soluble protein in leaves were measured in rice plants with or without leaf folder infestation and with or without Si amendment at 0.32 g Si/kg soil. Silicon amendment significantly reduced leaf folder larval survival. Silicon addition alone did not change activities of defense-related enzymes and malondialdehyde concentration in rice leaves. With leaf folder infestation, activities of the defense-related enzymes increased and malondialdehyde concentration decreased in plants amended with Si. Soluble protein content increased with Si addition when the plants were not infested, but was reduced more in the infested plants with Si amendment than in those without Si addition. Regardless of leaf folder infestation, Si amendment significantly increased leaf Si content through increases in the number and width of silica cells. Our results show that Si addition enhances rice resistance to the leaf folder through priming the feeding stress defense system, reduction in soluble protein content and cell silicification of rice leaves. PMID:27124300

  15. Alterations in the nitrogen dynamics of European beech trees infested by the woolly beech aphid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levia, D. F.; Michalzik, B.

    2012-12-01

    Insects are a major stressor in wooded ecosystems, triggering profound changes in the hydrology, biogeochemistry, and net primary productivity of infested forests. The influence of woolly beech aphids (Phyllaphis fagi L.) on nitrogen cycling via throughfall, stemflow, and litter leachates is not well understood. Employing a combination of field sampling, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, we examined and compared the alterations and partitioning of nitrogen (particulate, dissolved, organic, inorganic) between control (uninfested) and infested trees. Preliminary results suggest that the amount of nitrogen routed to the soil is much lower in throughfall and stemflow of infested trees than control trees. Preliminary X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy measurements on the abaxial surface of sample leaves have demonstrated that the surface microbiology and nitrogen chemistry of control, lightly infested, and heavily infested leaves are notably different. These observations suggest that the aphids alter the phyllosphere ecology to such an extent that they trigger nitrogen uptake by microbes on the leaf surface in the presence of easily available carbon from aphid excretions (i.e., honeydew). A better understanding of nitrogen cycling in stressed forests would advance theories of nitrogen cycling.

  16. Integrated morphological and molecular identification of cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis) vectoring Rickettsia felis in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Andrea L; Hii, Sze-Fui; Jirsová, Dagmar; Panáková, Lucia; Ionică, Angela M; Gilchrist, Katrina; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei D; Webb, Cameron E; Traub, Rebecca J; Šlapeta, Jan

    2015-06-15

    Fleas of the genus Ctenocephalides are the most common ectoparasites infesting dogs and cats world-wide. The species Ctenocephalides felis and Ctenocephalides canis are competent vectors for zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia felis and Bartonella spp. Improved knowledge on the diversity and phylogenetics of fleas is important for understanding flea-borne pathogen transmission cycles. Fleas infesting privately owned dogs and cats from the Czech Republic (n=97) and Romania (n=66) were subjected to morphological and molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis. There were a total of 59 (60.82%) cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis felis), 30 (30.93%) dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis), 7 (7.22%) European chicken fleas (Ceratophyllus gallinae) and 1 (1.03%) northern rat flea (Nosopsyllus fasciatus) collected in the Czech Republic. Both C. canis and C. felis felis were identified in Romania. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing at the cox1 gene on a cohort of 40 fleas revealed the cosmopolitan C. felis felis clade represented by cox1 haplotype 1 is present in the Czech Republic. A new C. felis felis clade from both the Czech Republic and Romania is also reported. A high proportion of C. canis was observed from dogs and cats in the current study and phylogeny revealed that C. canis forms a sister clade to the oriental cat flea Ctenocephalides orientis (syn. C. felis orientis). Out of 33 fleas tested, representing C. felis felis, C. canis and Ce. gallinae, 7 (21.2%) were positive for R. felis using diagnostic real-time PCR targeting the gltA gene and a conventional PCR targeting the ompB gene. No samples tested positive for Bartonella spp. using a diagnostic real-time PCR assay targeting ssrA gene. This study confirms high genetic diversity of C. felis felis globally and serves as a foundation to understand the implication for zoonotic disease carriage and transmission by the flea genus Ctenocephalides. PMID:25899079

  17. A cross-sectional study of the impact of regular use of insecticides in dogs on Canine Leishmaniosis seroprevalence in southeast Spain.

    PubMed

    Goyena, E; Pérez-Cutillas, P; Chitimia, L; Risueño, J; García-Martínez, J D; Bernal, L J; Berriatua, E

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between Canine Leishmaniosis (CanL) seroprevalence and regular use of topical insecticides was investigated in 800 pet dogs with no visible signs of CanL in Murcia, southeast Spain in 2011. Dogs were clients to 17 veterinary practices and were analyzed for Leishmania infantum antibodies in blood plasma using two commercial ELISAs (Ingezim, Ingenasa®, Spain; Leishcan, Hipra®, Spain). Owners were interviewed to gather data on dog related variables. They included date of birth, home address and frequency, duration and timing of insecticide treatments used to prevent ectoparasite infestations. The dog's residence was georeferenced and environmental data potentially associated with the dog's risk of L. infantum infection was obtained. A mixed logistic regression model was then developed to analyze the relationship between the dog's serological status and insecticidal treatment adjusted for demographic and environmental variables. Overall, CanL seroprevalence (95% confidence limits) was 18% (16-21%) including 11% in dogs not using insecticide treatments (n=60) and 19% in those using them (n=740) (p>0.05). At least 16 different insecticide products were used and 73%, 26% and 1% of dogs received 1, 2 and 3 products a year. The most frequent commercial brands used and the only ones in the market claiming anti-sandfly activity, were Scalibor collars (deltametrin 40mg/g; MSD®), Advantix pipettes (permethrin 500mg/ml and imidacloprid 100mg/ml; Bayer®) and Exspot spot-on pipettes (permethrin 715mg/ml; MSD®). Seroprevalence was 9%, 16%, 20%, 22% and 25% for dogs with Scalibor collars plus Advantix pipettes, Scalibor collars plus ExSpot pipettes, Advantix pipettes alone, Scalibor collars alone and Exspot pipettes alone, respectively. The multivariable model confirmed a significant reduction in the risk of Leishmania spp. seropositivity in dogs using the Scalibor and Advantix combination compared to those using either product alone and provided evidence of

  18. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Australian dogs.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, A J; Norris, J M; Heller, J; Brown, G; Malik, R; Bosward, K L

    2016-09-01

    The role of dogs in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans is uncertain, and extensive seroprevalence studies of dogs have not been previously conducted in Australia. This study determined C. burnetii exposure in four diverse canine subpopulations by adapting, verifying and comparing an indirect immunofluoresence assay (IFA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used to detect anti-C. burnetii antibodies in humans. Canine serum samples (n = 1223) were tested with IFA from four subpopulations [breeding establishments; household pets; free-roaming dogs in Aboriginal communities; shelter dogs]. The proportions of seropositive dogs were as follows: breeding (7/309, 2.3%), household pets (10/328, 3%), Aboriginal communities (21/321, 6.5%) and shelters (5/265, 1.9%). Dogs from Aboriginal communities were 2.8 times (CI 1.5-5.1; P < 0.001) more likely to be seropositive than dogs from other populations. The ELISA was used on 86 of 1223 sera tested with IFA, and a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.60 (CI 0.43-0.78) indicated good agreement between the two assays. This study has established that Australian dogs within all four subpopulations have been exposed to C. burnetii and that a higher seroprevalence was observed amongst free-roaming dogs associated with Aboriginal communities. As C. burnetii recrudesces during pregnancy and birth products contain the highest concentration of organism, individuals assisting at the time of parturition, those handling pups shortly after birth as well as those residing in the vicinity of whelping dogs are potentially at risk of developing Q fever. However, the identification of active antigen shed in excreta from seropositive dogs is required in order to accurately define and quantify the public health risk. PMID:26729351

  19. An ELISA to Detect Serum Antibodies to the Salivary Gland Toxin of Ixodes holocyclus Neumann in Dogs and Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Hall-Mendelin, S.; O'Donoghue, P.; Atwell, R. B.; Lee, R.; Hall, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Ixodes holocyclus tick causes paralysis in up to 10,000 companion and domestic animals each year in Australia. Treatment requires the removal of the parasite and the administration of a commercial tick antiserum that is prepared from hyperimmune dogs. Each batch of this serum is initially tested for toxin-neutralising potency in a mouse bioassay that is expensive, time consuming, and subjective. With the aim of developing a rapid in vitro assay to replace the bioassay, we used a partially purified antigen prepared from I. holocyclus salivary glands to develop an ELISA to detect toxin-reactive antibodies in hyperimmune dog sera. The optimised ELISA reliably detected antibodies reactive to I. holocyclus salivary gland antigens. Parallel testing of sera with a negative control antigen prepared from the salivary glands of the nontoxic tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus provided further evidence that we were detecting toxin-specific antibodies in the assay. Using the ELISA, we could also detect antibodies induced in rats after experimental infestation with I. holocyclus. This assay shows promise as an alternative means of assessing the potency of batches of hyperimmune dog serum and to screen for toxin-reactive monoclonal antibodies produced from immunised rodents. PMID:21687655

  20. Sarcoptic mange in free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Hiroyoshi; Ogata, Munetsugu

    2005-06-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei infestation was diagnosed in three freshly dead free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. The dogs presented with an alopecic pruritic skin disease, with signs of alopecia on the ears, muzzle, around the eyes, elbow, thigh and the neck, and hyperpigmented and crusted skin lesions, which had a severe malodour. Skin scrapings revealed the presence of the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. Histopathology of lesions demonstrated marked acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis and fungal elements, which were subsequently identified as Acremonium sp., Alternaria sp. and an unknown fungus. Mite segments were located mainly in the stratum corneum and also in the stratum granulosum. Tunnels could be observed in the hyperkeratotic stratum corneum. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the tortoise-like Sarcoptes scabiei with four long bristles, suckers and blade-like claws on legs 1 and 2, cuticular spines, prominent body striations and a terminal anus. SEM also revealed an adult female mite digging a tunnel with the head wedged into the very end of the closed burrow. Tunnels filled with eggshells, corneocyte debris and faecal pellets were also observed. PMID:15960631

  1. A case of an apparent infestation by Proisotoma spp. springtails (Collembola: Isotomidae) in a cat.

    PubMed

    Beccati, Massimo; Gallo, Maria G; Chiavassa, Elisa; Peano, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    This case report is presumed to be the first case of infestation of a cat by springtails which are small arthropods closely related to insects. The organisms, found by skin scrapings, were identified as Proisotoma spp. (Collembola: Isotomidae). The cat presented with dermatological lesions (itchy, furfuraceous dermatitis), and we speculate that they were due to this infestation. The pathogenic role of the Collembola was hypothesized because of the large number of organisms, the presence of eggs indicating an active reproduction cycle, the lack of other pathogens (fleas, mites or lice) and the clinical recovery accompanied by the disappearance of Collembola following treatment. The owner seemed to be affected by the infestation, because a few days after having purchased the cat, she developed a pruriginous papular dermatitis on the neck and the arms, which disappeared shortly after treatment of the kitten and a careful washing of all of its toys and other accoutrements. PMID:22049948

  2. Infestations of the bont tick Amblyomma hebraeum (Acari: Ixodidae) on different breeds of cattle in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Norval, R A; Sutherst, R W; Kerr, J D

    1996-10-01

    Infestations of adults and nymphs of Amblyomma hebraeum were counted on Brahman (Br), Brahman x Simmental (BS), Sanga (Sa) and Hereford (He) steers exposed to infested pastures at Mbizi in southern Zimbabwe in 1986-1987. Herefords were always the most heavily infested, while the Sanga tended to carry the fewest ticks with the Brahman and Brahman x Simmental groups being in between. The ratios of the engorged females on the four breeds were 2.3:1.4:1.4:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The ratios of the standard nymphs were 2.2:1.4:1.7:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The results confirm earlier observations in Africa and support the view that there are genetic differences between breeds in the expression of resistance to this tick species. PMID:8952073

  3. Prehistorical Pediculus humanus capitis infestation: quantitative data and low vacuum scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Juliana M F; Alves, Arthur Daniel; Pessanha, Thaila; Rachid, Rachel; Souza, Wanderley de; Linardi, Pedro Marcos; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Souza, Sheila Mendonça de; Araujo, Adauto

    2014-01-01

    A pre-Columbian Peruvian scalp was examined decades ago by a researcher from the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. Professor Olympio da Fonseca Filho described nits and adult lice attached to hair shafts and commented about the origin of head lice infestations on mankind. This same scalp was sent to our laboratory and is the subject of the present paper. Analysis showed a massive infestation with nine eggs/cm2 and an impressive number of very well preserved adult lice. The infestation age was roughly estimated as nine months before death based on the distance of nits from the hair root and the medium rate of hair growth. A small traditional textile was associated with the scalp, possibly part of the funerary belongings. Other morphological aspects visualized by low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy are also presented here for adults and nits. PMID:24626412

  4. PREHISTORICAL Pediculus humanus capitis INFESTATION: QUANTITATIVE DATA AND LOW VACUUM SCANNING MICROSCOPY

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Juliana M.F.; Alves, Arthur Daniel; Pessanha, Thaila; Rachid, Rachel; de Souza, Wanderley; Linardi, Pedro Marcos; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; de Souza, Sheila Mendonça; Araujo, Adauto

    2014-01-01

    A pre-Columbian Peruvian scalp was examined decades ago by a researcher from the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. Professor Olympio da Fonseca Filho described nits and adult lice attached to hair shafts and commented about the origin of head lice infestations on mankind. This same scalp was sent to our laboratory and is the subject of the present paper. Analysis showed a massive infestation with nine eggs/cm2 and an impressive number of very well preserved adult lice. The infestation age was roughly estimated as nine months before death based on the distance of nits from the hair root and the medium rate of hair growth. A small traditional textile was associated with the scalp, possibly part of the funerary belongings. Other morphological aspects visualized by low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy are also presented here for adults and nits. PMID:24626412

  5. A country bug in the city: urban infestation by the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans in Arequipa, Peru

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interruption of vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi remains an unrealized objective in many Latin American countries. The task of vector control is complicated by the emergence of vector insects in urban areas. Methods Utilizing data from a large-scale vector control program in Arequipa, Peru, we explored the spatial patterns of infestation by Triatoma infestans in an urban and peri-urban landscape. Multilevel logistic regression was utilized to assess the associations between household infestation and household- and locality-level socio-environmental measures. Results Of 37,229 households inspected for infestation, 6,982 (18.8%; 95% CI: 18.4 – 19.2%) were infested by T. infestans. Eighty clusters of infestation were identified, ranging in area from 0.1 to 68.7 hectares and containing as few as one and as many as 1,139 infested households. Spatial dependence between infested households was significant at distances up to 2,000 meters. Household T. infestans infestation was associated with household- and locality-level factors, including housing density, elevation, land surface temperature, and locality type. Conclusions High levels of T. infestans infestation, characterized by spatial heterogeneity, were found across extensive urban and peri-urban areas prior to vector control. Several environmental and social factors, which may directly or indirectly influence the biology and behavior of T. infestans, were associated with infestation. Spatial clustering of infestation in the urban context may both challenge and inform surveillance and control of vector reemergence after insecticide intervention. PMID:24171704

  6. Ecological and Sociodemographic Determinants of House Infestation by Triatoma infestans in Indigenous Communities of the Argentine Chaco

    PubMed Central

    Gaspe, M. Sol; Provecho, Yael M.; Cardinal, M. Victoria; del Pilar Fernández, M.; Gürtler, Ricardo E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Gran Chaco ecoregion, a hotspot for Chagas and other neglected tropical diseases, is home to >20 indigenous peoples. Our objective was to identify the main ecological and sociodemographic determinants of house infestation and abundance of Triatoma infestans in traditional Qom populations including a Creole minority in Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina. Methods A cross-sectional survey determined house infestation by timed-manual searches with a dislodging aerosol in 386 inhabited houses and administered questionnaires on selected variables before full-coverage insecticide spraying and annual vector surveillance. We fitted generalized linear models to two global models of domestic infestation and bug abundance, and estimated coefficients via multimodel inference with model averaging. Principal Findings Most Qom households were larger and lived in small-sized, recently-built, precarious houses with fewer peridomestic structures, and fewer livestock and poultry than Creoles’. Qom households had lower educational level and unexpectedly high residential mobility. House infestation (31.9%) was much lower than expected from lack of recent insecticide spraying campaigns and was spatially aggregated. Nearly half of the infested houses examined had infected vectors. Qom households had higher prevalence of domestic infestation (29.2%) than Creoles’ (10.0%), although there is large uncertainty around the adjusted OR. Factors with high relative importance for domestic infestation and/or bug abundance were refuge availability, distance to the nearest infested house, domestic insecticide use, indoor presence of poultry, residential overcrowding, and household educational level. Conclusions and Significance Our study highlights the importance of sociodemographic determinants of domestic infestation such as overcrowding, education and proximity to the nearest infested house, and corroborates the role of refuge availability, domestic use of insecticides and

  7. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius necrotizing fasciitis in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Weese, J. Scott; Poma, Roberta; James, Fiona; Buenviaje, Gilbert; Foster, Robert; Slavic, Durda

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was implicated as the cause of rapidly progressive and fatal necrotizing fasciitis in a dog. The isolate was methicillin-susceptible and did not contain genes encoding the Panton-Valentine leukocidin. While Streptococcus canis is typically considered to be the main cause of necrotizing fasciitis in dogs, staphylococci should also be considered. PMID:19721787

  8. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S.; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M.; Read, Andrew J.; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog’s kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses. PMID:26583697

  9. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog....

  10. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog....

  11. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog....

  12. Interactions of wolves and dogs in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fritts, S.H.; Paul, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    This article reports on the nature and extent of wolf-dog interactions in Minnesota, based on investigations of complaints received by personnel of the federal government dealing with wolf-depredation control. Findings may indicate the wolf-dog interactions that can be expected in other recovery areas.

  13. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog....

  14. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog....

  15. Training Shelter Volunteers to Teach Dog Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Veronica J.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which training procedures influenced the integrity of behaviorally based dog training implemented by volunteers of an animal shelter. Volunteers were taught to implement discrete-trial obedience training to teach 2 skills (sit and wait) to dogs. Procedural integrity during the baseline and written instructions…

  16. "The Dog Project:" Implications for Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Joanne Marie

    2004-01-01

    In this photo essay, I examine the social contexts of literacy development through an exploration of a unique organization called "The Dog Project." In this descriptive narrative, I document the ways children's interactions with their peers, the instructors, and the dogs in the project fostered their sense of self-efficacy, their…

  17. A technique for saliva collection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Phillips, P A; Newcomer, C E; Shultz, D S

    1983-10-01

    A plastic two-chambered vacuum-collection device was developed to collect saliva produced by the parotid gland in dogs. Repeated application of the device on the parotid gland papilla was atraumatic. Dogs were restrained during the collection period with a continuous intravenous infusion of ketamine hydrochloride and diazepam in lactated Ringer's solution. The anesthetic regime did not interfere with salivation. PMID:6645392

  18. Flavobacterium breve meningitis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Haburjak, J J; Schubert, T A

    1997-01-01

    An unusual, gram-negative rod was isolated in significant numbers (4+) from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a dog. This isolate, Flavobacterium breve, has not been identified previously as a pathogen in the dog. The case and the characteristics of the organism are described. PMID:9358418

  19. Context specificity of inhibitory control in dogs

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, Evan L.; Hare, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Across three experiments, we explored whether a dog's capacity for inhibitory control is stable or variable across decision-making contexts. In the social task, dogs were first exposed to the reputations of a stingy experimenter that never shared food and a generous experimenter who always shared food. In subsequent test trials, dogs were required to avoid approaching the stingy experimenter when this individual offered (but withheld) a higher-value reward than the generous experimenter did. In the A-not-B task, dogs were required to inhibit searching for food in a previously rewarded location after witnessing the food being moved from this location to a novel hiding place. In the cylinder task, dogs were required to resist approaching visible food directly (because it was behind a transparent barrier), in favor of a detour reaching response. Overall, dogs exhibited inhibitory control in all three tasks. However, individual scores were not correlated between tasks, suggesting that context has a large effect on dogs' behavior. This result mirrors studies of humans, which have highlighted intra-individual variation in inhibitory control as a function of the decision-making context. Lastly, we observed a correlation between a subject's age and performance on the cylinder task, corroborating previous observations of age-related decline in dogs' executive function. PMID:23584618

  20. Going to the 'Dogs' to Test Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramm, Kenneth R.

    1982-01-01

    Describes an alternative method for using live animals in the classroom. A toy dog, the "Trail Tracker Hound Dog" (manufactured by CPG Products Corporation, Cincinnati, Ohio), is used to encourage development of such skills as observation, hypothesis testing, and collection and analysis of scientific data. (Author/JN)